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Sample records for enhanced social memory

  1. Social Relevance Enhances Memory for Impressions in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Cassidy, Brittany S.; Gutchess, Angela H.

    2012-01-01

    Previous research has demonstrated that older adults have difficulty retrieving contextual material over items alone. Recent research suggests this deficit can be reduced by adding emotional context, allowing for the possibility that memory for social impressions may show less age-related decline than memory for other types of contextual information. Two studies investigated how orienting to social or self-relevant aspects of information contributed to the learning and retrieval of impressions in young and older adults. Participants encoded impressions of others in conditions varying in the use of self-reference (Experiment 1) and interpersonal meaningfulness (Experiment 2), and completed memory tasks requiring the retrieval of specific traits. For both experiments, age groups remembered similar numbers of impressions. In Experiment 1, using more self-relevant encoding contexts increased memory for impressions over orienting to stimuli in a non-social way, regardless of age. In Experiment 2, older adults had enhanced memory for impressions presented in an interpersonally meaningful relative to a personally irrelevant way, whereas young adults were unaffected by this manipulation. The results provide evidence that increasing social relevance ameliorates age differences in memory for impressions, and enhances older adults’ ability to successfully retrieve contextual information. PMID:22364168

  2. Social relevance enhances memory for impressions in older adults.

    PubMed

    Cassidy, Brittany S; Gutchess, Angela H

    2012-01-01

    Previous research has demonstrated that older adults have difficulty retrieving contextual material over items alone. Recent research suggests this deficit can be reduced by adding emotional context, allowing for the possibility that memory for social impressions may show less age-related decline than memory for other types of contextual information. Two studies investigated how orienting to social or self-relevant aspects of information contributed to the learning and retrieval of impressions in young and older adults. Participants encoded impressions of others in conditions varying in the use of self-reference (Experiment 1) and interpersonal meaningfulness (Experiment 2), and completed memory tasks requiring the retrieval of specific traits. For both experiments, age groups remembered similar numbers of impressions. In Experiment 1 using more self-relevant encoding contexts increased memory for impressions over orienting to stimuli in a non-social way, regardless of age. In Experiment 2 older adults had enhanced memory for impressions presented in an interpersonally meaningful relative to a personally irrelevant way, whereas young adults were unaffected by this manipulation. The results provide evidence that increasing social relevance ameliorates age differences in memory for impressions, and enhances older adults' ability to successfully retrieve contextual information.

  3. Social Models Enhance Apes’ Memory for Novel Events

    PubMed Central

    Howard, Lauren H.; Wagner, Katherine E.; Woodward, Amanda L.; Ross, Stephen R.; Hopper, Lydia M.

    2017-01-01

    Nonhuman primates are more likely to learn from the actions of a social model than a non-social “ghost display”, however the mechanism underlying this effect is still unknown. One possibility is that live models are more engaging, drawing increased attention to social stimuli. However, recent research with humans has suggested that live models fundamentally alter memory, not low-level attention. In the current study, we developed a novel eye-tracking paradigm to disentangle the influence of social context on attention and memory in apes. Tested in two conditions, zoo-housed apes (2 gorillas, 5 chimpanzees) were familiarized to videos of a human hand (social condition) and mechanical claw (non-social condition) constructing a three-block tower. During the memory test, subjects viewed side-by-side pictures of the previously-constructed block tower and a novel block tower. In accordance with looking-time paradigms, increased looking time to the novel block tower was used to measure event memory. Apes evidenced memory for the event featuring a social model, though not for the non-social condition. This effect was not dependent on attention differences to the videos. These findings provide the first evidence that, like humans, social stimuli increase nonhuman primates’ event memory, which may aid in information transmission via social learning. PMID:28106098

  4. Targeted activation of the hippocampal CA2 area strongly enhances social memory

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Adam S.; Williams Avram, Sarah K.; Cymerblit-Sabba, Adi; Song, June; Young, W. Scott

    2015-01-01

    Social cognition enables individuals to understand others’ intentions. Social memory is a necessary component of this process, for without it, subsequent encounters are devoid of any historical information. The CA2 area of the hippocampus, particularly the vasopressin 1b receptor (Avpr1b) expressed there, is necessary for memory formation. We used optogenetics to excite vasopressin terminals, originating from the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus, in the CA2 of mice. This markedly enhanced their social memory if the stimulation occurred during memory acquisition, but not retrieval. This effect was blocked by a Avpr1b antagonist. Finally, this enhanced memory is resistant to the social distraction of an introduced second mouse, important for socially navigating populations of individuals. Our results indicate the CA2 can increase the salience of social signals. Targeted pharmacotherapy with Avpr1b agonists or deep brain stimulation of the CA2 are potential avenues of treatment for those with declining social memory as in various dementias. PMID:26728562

  5. Social importance enhances prospective memory: evidence from an event-based task.

    PubMed

    Walter, Stefan; Meier, Beat

    2017-07-01

    Prospective memory performance can be enhanced by task importance, for example by promising a reward. Typically, this comes at costs in the ongoing task. However, previous research has suggested that social importance (e.g., providing a social motive) can enhance prospective memory performance without additional monitoring costs in activity-based and time-based tasks. The aim of the present study was to investigate the influence of social importance in an event-based task. We compared four conditions: social importance, promising a reward, both social importance and promising a reward, and standard prospective memory instructions (control condition). The results showed enhanced prospective memory performance for all importance conditions compared to the control condition. Although ongoing task performance was slowed in all conditions with a prospective memory task when compared to a baseline condition with no prospective memory task, additional costs occurred only when both the social importance and reward were present simultaneously. Alone, neither social importance nor promising a reward produced an additional slowing when compared to the cost in the standard (control) condition. Thus, social importance and reward can enhance event-based prospective memory at no additional cost.

  6. Oxytocin and enhancement of the positive valence of social affiliation memories: an autobiographical memory study.

    PubMed

    Cardoso, Christopher; Orlando, Mark Anthony; Brown, Christopher A; Ellenbogen, Mark A

    2014-01-01

    Intranasal oxytocin has been shown to alter self-perceptions of personality (e.g., more trusting, increased extraversion). To follow up these findings, we examined the acute effects of two doses of intranasal oxytocin (24 IU and 48 IU) on another form of self-referential cognition: autobiographical memory. Changes in autobiographical memory (personal memories for the past) could conceivably effect change in self-perception and consequently alter social behaviors. We predicted that oxytocin would increase the number of specific personal memories recalled, and promote the recall of positive social affiliation memories. Seventeen male participants self-administered a placebo or oxytocin (24 IU, 48 IU) using a nasal spray on three separate occasions in a placebo-controlled, double-blind, and within-subject experiment. Participants completed the Autobiographical Memory Test (AMT) 110 minutes later. Analyses revealed a quadratic dose-response curve for the effects of intranasal oxytocin on autobiographical memory recall. The 24 IU dose, relative to the 48 IU dose and placebo, increased the number of specific personal memories recalled and promoted the recall of social affiliation memories that were rated more positively. The lack of effect with the 48 IU dose could be due to saturation of the oxytocin receptors at higher doses. Changes in autobiographical memory may be one mechanism by which oxytocin alters prosocial worldviews.

  7. Importance of the GluN2B Carboxy-Terminal Domain for Enhancement of Social Memories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobs, Stephanie; Wei, Wei; Wang, Deheng; Tsien, Joe Z.

    2015-01-01

    The N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor is known to be necessary for many forms of learning and memory, including social recognition memory. Additionally, the GluN2 subunits are known to modulate multiple forms of memory, with a high GluN2A:GluN2B ratio leading to impairments in long-term memory, while a low GluN2A:GluN2B ratio enhances some…

  8. Importance of the GluN2B Carboxy-Terminal Domain for Enhancement of Social Memories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobs, Stephanie; Wei, Wei; Wang, Deheng; Tsien, Joe Z.

    2015-01-01

    The N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor is known to be necessary for many forms of learning and memory, including social recognition memory. Additionally, the GluN2 subunits are known to modulate multiple forms of memory, with a high GluN2A:GluN2B ratio leading to impairments in long-term memory, while a low GluN2A:GluN2B ratio enhances some…

  9. Importance of the GluN2B carboxy-terminal domain for enhancement of social memories

    PubMed Central

    Jacobs, Stephanie; Wei, Wei; Wang, Deheng

    2015-01-01

    The N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor is known to be necessary for many forms of learning and memory, including social recognition memory. Additionally, the GluN2 subunits are known to modulate multiple forms of memory, with a high GluN2A:GluN2B ratio leading to impairments in long-term memory, while a low GluN2A:GluN2B ratio enhances some forms of long-term memory. Here, we investigate the molecular motif responsible for the differences in social recognition memory and olfactory memory in the forebrain-specific transgenic GluN2A overexpression mice and the forebrain-specific transgenic GluN2B overexpression mice by using two transgenic mouse lines that overexpress chimeric GluN2 subunits. The transgenic chimeric GluN2 subunit mice were tested for their ability to learn and remember fruit scents, male juveniles of the same strain, females of the same strain, male juveniles of another strain, and rodents of another species. The data presented here demonstrate that the GluN2B carboxy-terminal domain is necessary for enhanced social recognition memory in GluN2B transgenic overexpression mice. Furthermore, the GluN2A carboxy-terminal domain is responsible for the impaired long-term olfactory and social memory observed in the GluN2A overexpression mice. PMID:26179233

  10. Modulation of glycine sites enhances social memory in rats using PQQ combined with d-serine.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xingqin; Liu, Dong; Zhang, Rongjun; Peng, Ying; Qin, Xiaofeng; Mao, Shishi

    2016-07-15

    The aim of study was to investigate the effects of pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ) combined with d-serine on the modulation of glycine sites in the brain of rats using social recognition test. Rats were divided into seven groups (n=10) and given repeated intraperitoneal (ip) injections of saline, MK-801 (0.5mg/kg), clozapine (1mg/kg), haloperidol (0.1mg/kg), d-serine (0.8g/kg), PQQ (2.0μg/kg), or d-serine (0.4g/kg) combined with PQQ (1.0μg/kg) for seven days. A social recognition test, including assessment of time-dependent memory impairment, was performed. A non-competitive NMDA receptor antagonist, MK-801, significantly impaired social memory, and this impairment was significantly repaired with an atypical antipsychotic (clozapine) but not with a typical antipsychotic (haloperidol). Likewise, d-serine combined with PQQ significantly improved MK-801-disrupted cognition in naïve rats, whereas haloperidol was ineffective. The present results show that the co-agonist NMDA receptor treated with PQQ and d-serine enhances social memory and may be an effective approach for treating the cognitive dysfunction observed in schizophrenic patients. PQQ stimulates glycine modulatory sites by which it may antagonize indirectly by removing glycine from the synaptic cleft or by binding the unsaturated site with d-serine in the brain, providing the insights into future research of central nervous system and drug discovery. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Enhanced Old-New Recognition and Source Memory for Faces of Cooperators and Defectors in a Social-Dilemma Game

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Raoul; Buchner, Axel; Musch, Jochen

    2010-01-01

    A popular assumption in evolutionary psychology is that the human mind comprises specialized cognitive modules for social exchange, including a module that serves to enhance memory for faces of cheaters. In the present study, participants played a trust game with computerized opponents, who either defected or cooperated. In a control condition, no…

  12. Enhanced Old-New Recognition and Source Memory for Faces of Cooperators and Defectors in a Social-Dilemma Game

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Raoul; Buchner, Axel; Musch, Jochen

    2010-01-01

    A popular assumption in evolutionary psychology is that the human mind comprises specialized cognitive modules for social exchange, including a module that serves to enhance memory for faces of cheaters. In the present study, participants played a trust game with computerized opponents, who either defected or cooperated. In a control condition, no…

  13. Enhanced old-new recognition and source memory for faces of cooperators and defectors in a social-dilemma game.

    PubMed

    Bell, Raoul; Buchner, Axel; Musch, Jochen

    2010-12-01

    A popular assumption in evolutionary psychology is that the human mind comprises specialized cognitive modules for social exchange, including a module that serves to enhance memory for faces of cheaters. In the present study, participants played a trust game with computerized opponents, who either defected or cooperated. In a control condition, no interaction took place. In a surprise memory test, old-new recognition for faces and source memory for the associated cooperative or non-cooperative behavior were assessed. A multinomial model was used to measure old-new discrimination, source memory, and guessing biases separately. Inconsistent with the assumption of a memory mechanism that focuses exclusively on cheating, the present study showed enhanced old-new discrimination and source memory for both cooperators and defectors. Rarity of the behavior strategies within the experiment modulated source memory, but only when the differences in base rates were extreme. The findings can be attributed to a mechanism that focuses on exchange-relevant information and flexibly adapts to take into account the relative significance of this information in the encoding context, which may be more beneficial than focusing exclusively on cheaters. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Mechanisms of Memory Enhancement

    PubMed Central

    Stern, Sarah A.

    2012-01-01

    The ongoing quest for memory enhancement is one that grows necessary as the global population increasingly ages. The extraordinary progress that has been made in the past few decades elucidating the underlying mechanisms of how long-term memories are formed has provided insight into how memories might also be enhanced. Capitalizing on this knowledge, it has been postulated that targeting many of the same mechanisms, including CREB activation, AMPA/NMDA receptor trafficking, neuromodulation (e.g. via dopamine, adrenaline, cortisol or acetylcholine) and metabolic processes (e.g. via glucose and insulin) may all lead to the enhancement of memory. These and other mechanisms and/or approaches have been tested via genetic or pharmacological methods in animal models, and several have been investigated in humans as well. In addition, a number of behavioral methods, including exercise and reconsolidation, may also serve to strengthen and enhance memories. By capitalizing on this knowledge and continuing to investigate these promising avenues, memory enhancement may indeed be achieved in the future. PMID:23151999

  15. The neural transfer effect of working memory training to enhance hedonic processing in individuals with social anhedonia

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xu; Li, Zhi; Li, Ke; Zeng, Ya-wei; Shi, Hai-song; Xie, Wen-lan; Yang, Zhuo-ya; Lui, Simon S. Y.; Cheung, Eric F. C.; Leung, Ada W. S.; Chan, Raymond C. K.

    2016-01-01

    Anhedonia, the diminished ability to experience pleasure, is a challenging negative symptom in patients with schizophrenia and can be observed in at-risk individuals with schizotypy. Deficits in hedonic processing have been postulated to be related to decreased motivation to engage in potentially rewarding events. It remains unclear whether non-pharmacological interventions, such as cognitive training, could improve anhedonia. The present study aimed to examine the neural mechanism for alleviating hedonic deficits with working memory (WM) training in individuals with social anhedonia. Fifteen individuals with social anhedonia were recruited and received 20 sessions of training on a dual n-back task, five sessions a week. Functional imaging paradigms of the Monetary Incentive Delay (MID) and the Affective Incentive Delay (AID) tasks were administered both before and after the training to evaluate the neural transfer effects on hedonic processing ability. Enhanced brain activations related to anticipation were observed at the anterior cingulate cortex, the left dorsal striatum and the left precuneus with the AID task, and at the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and the supramarginal gyrus with the MID task. The present findings support that WM training may improve monetary-based and affective-based hedonic processing in individuals with social anhedonia. PMID:27752140

  16. Working memory capacity in generalized social phobia.

    PubMed

    Amir, Nader; Bomyea, Jessica

    2011-05-01

    Research suggests that understanding complex social cues depends on the availability of cognitive resources (e.g., Phillips, Channon, Tunstall, Hedenstrom, & Lyons, 2008). In spite of evidence suggesting that executive control functioning may impact anxiety (e.g., Eysenck, Derakshan, Santos, & Calvo, 2007), relatively few studies have examined working memory in individuals with generalized social phobia. Moreover, few studies have examined the role of threat-relevant content in working memory performance in clinically anxious populations. To this end, the present study assessed working memory capacity (WMC) in individuals with generalized social phobia and nonanxious controls using an operation span task with threat-relevant and neutral stimuli. Results revealed that nonanxious individuals demonstrated better WMC than individuals with generalized social phobia for neutral words but not for social threat words. Individuals with generalized social phobia demonstrated better WMC performance for threat words relative to neutral words. These results suggest that individuals with generalized social phobia may have relatively enhanced working memory performance for salient, socially relevant information. This enhanced working memory capacity for threat-relevant information may be the result of practice with this information in generalized social phobia.

  17. Oscillatory Reinstatement Enhances Declarative Memory.

    PubMed

    Javadi, Amir-Homayoun; Glen, James C; Halkiopoulos, Sara; Schulz, Mei; Spiers, Hugo J

    2017-10-11

    Declarative memory recall is thought to involve the reinstatement of neural activity patterns that occurred previously during encoding. Consistent with this view, greater similarity between patterns of activity recorded during encoding and retrieval has been found to predict better memory performance in a number of studies. Recent models have argued that neural oscillations may be crucial to reinstatement for successful memory retrieval. However, to date, no causal evidence has been provided to support this theory, nor has the impact of oscillatory electrical brain stimulation during encoding and retrieval been assessed. To explore this we used transcranial alternating current stimulation over the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex of human participants [n = 70, 45 females; age mean (SD) = 22.12 (2.16)] during a declarative memory task. Participants received either the same frequency during encoding and retrieval (60-60 or 90-90 Hz) or different frequencies (60-90 or 90-60 Hz). When frequencies matched there was a significant memory improvement (at both 60 and 90 Hz) relative to sham stimulation. No improvement occurred when frequencies mismatched. Our results provide support for the role of oscillatory reinstatement in memory retrieval.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Recent neurobiological models of memory have argued that large-scale neural oscillations are reinstated to support successful memory retrieval. Here we used transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS) to test these models. tACS has recently been shown to induce neural oscillations at the frequency stimulated. We stimulated over the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex during a declarative memory task involving learning a set of words. We found that tACS applied at the same frequency during encoding and retrieval enhances memory. We also find no difference between the two applied frequencies. Thus our results are consistent with the proposal that reinstatement of neural oscillations during retrieval

  18. Living memorials project: year 1 social and site assessment

    Treesearch

    Erika S. Svendsen; Lindsay K. Campbell

    2005-01-01

    The Living Memorials Project (LMP) social and site assessment identified more than 200 public open spaces created, used, or enhanced in memory of the tragic events of September 11, 2001 (9-11). A national registry of these sites is available for viewing and updating online. Researchers interviewed 100 community groups using social ecology methods of observation,...

  19. Sleep Enhances Explicit Recollection in Recognition Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drosopoulos, Spyridon; Wagner, Ullrich; Born, Jan

    2005-01-01

    Recognition memory is considered to be supported by two different memory processes, i.e., the explicit recollection of information about a previous event and an implicit process of recognition based on a contextual sense of familiarity. Both types of memory supposedly rely on distinct memory systems. Sleep is known to enhance the consolidation of…

  20. Sleep Enhances Explicit Recollection in Recognition Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drosopoulos, Spyridon; Wagner, Ullrich; Born, Jan

    2005-01-01

    Recognition memory is considered to be supported by two different memory processes, i.e., the explicit recollection of information about a previous event and an implicit process of recognition based on a contextual sense of familiarity. Both types of memory supposedly rely on distinct memory systems. Sleep is known to enhance the consolidation of…

  1. Stochastic memory: memory enhancement due to noise.

    PubMed

    Stotland, Alexander; Di Ventra, Massimiliano

    2012-01-01

    There are certain classes of resistors, capacitors, and inductors that, when subject to a periodic input of appropriate frequency, develop hysteresis loops in their characteristic response. Here we show that the hysteresis of such memory elements can also be induced by white noise of appropriate intensity even at very low frequencies of the external driving field. We illustrate this phenomenon using a physical model of memory resistor realized by TiO(2) thin films sandwiched between metallic electrodes and discuss under which conditions this effect can be observed experimentally. We also discuss its implications on existing memory systems described in the literature and the role of colored noise.

  2. Stochastic memory: Memory enhancement due to noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stotland, Alexander; di Ventra, Massimiliano

    2012-01-01

    There are certain classes of resistors, capacitors, and inductors that, when subject to a periodic input of appropriate frequency, develop hysteresis loops in their characteristic response. Here we show that the hysteresis of such memory elements can also be induced by white noise of appropriate intensity even at very low frequencies of the external driving field. We illustrate this phenomenon using a physical model of memory resistor realized by TiO2 thin films sandwiched between metallic electrodes and discuss under which conditions this effect can be observed experimentally. We also discuss its implications on existing memory systems described in the literature and the role of colored noise.

  3. Autobiographical memory bias in social anxiety.

    PubMed

    Krans, Julie; de Bree, June; Bryant, Richard A

    2014-01-01

    In social anxiety the psychological self is closely related to the feared stimulus. Socially anxious individuals are, by definition, concerned about how the self is perceived and evaluated by others. As autobiographical memory is strongly related to views of the self it follows that biases in autobiographical memory play an important role in social anxiety. In the present study high (n = 19) and low (n = 29) socially anxious individuals were compared on autobiographical memory bias, current goals, and self-discrepancy. Individuals high in social anxiety showed a bias towards recalling more negative and more social anxiety-related autobiographical memories, reported more current goals related to overcoming social anxiety, and showed larger self-discrepancies. The pattern of results is largely in line with earlier research in individuals with PTSD and complicated grief. This suggests that the relation between autobiographical memory bias and the self is a potentially valuable trans-diagnostic factor.

  4. Enhancing Memory in Your Students: COMPOSE Yourself!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rotter, Kathleen M.

    2009-01-01

    The essence of teaching is, in fact, creating new memories for your students. The teacher's role is to help students store the correct information (memories) in ways that make recall and future access and use likely. Therefore, choosing techniques to enhance memory is possibly the most critical aspect of instructional design. COMPOSE is an acronym…

  5. The relationship between trait empathy and memory formation for social vs. non-social information.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Ullrich; Handke, Lisa; Walter, Henrik

    2015-01-01

    To navigate successfully through their complex social environment, humans need both empathic and mnemonic skills. Little is known on how these two types of psychological abilities relate to each other in humans. Although initial clinical findings suggest a positive association, systematic investigations in healthy subject samples have not yet been performed. Differentiating cognitive and affective aspects of empathy, we assumed that cognitive empathy would be positively associated with general memory performance, while affective empathy, due to enhanced other-related emotional reactions, would be related to a relative memory advantage for information of social as compared to non-social relevance. We investigated in young healthy participants the relationship between dispositional cognitive and affective empathy, as measured by Davis' Interpersonal Reactivity Index (Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 44, 113-126, 1983), and memory formation for stimuli (numbers presented in a lottery choice task) that could be encoded in either a social (other-related) or a non-social (self-related) way within the task. Cognitive empathy, specifically perspective taking, correlated with overall memory performance (regardless of encoding condition), while affective empathy, specifically empathic personal distress, predicted differential memory for socially vs. non-socially encoded information. Both cognitive and affective empathy are associated with memory formation, but in different ways, depending on the social nature of the memory content. These results open new and so far widely neglected avenues of psychological research on the relationship between social and cognitive skills.

  6. Distributed learning enhances relational memory consolidation.

    PubMed

    Litman, Leib; Davachi, Lila

    2008-09-01

    It has long been known that distributed learning (DL) provides a mnemonic advantage over massed learning (ML). However, the underlying mechanisms that drive this robust mnemonic effect remain largely unknown. In two experiments, we show that DL across a 24 hr interval does not enhance immediate memory performance but instead slows the rate of forgetting relative to ML. Furthermore, we demonstrate that this savings in forgetting is specific to relational, but not item, memory. In the context of extant theories and knowledge of memory consolidation, these results suggest that an important mechanism underlying the mnemonic benefit of DL is enhanced memory consolidation. We speculate that synaptic strengthening mechanisms supporting long-term memory consolidation may be differentially mediated by the spacing of memory reactivation. These findings have broad implications for the scientific study of episodic memory consolidation and, more generally, for educational curriculum development and policy.

  7. Sleep enhances false memories depending on general memory performance.

    PubMed

    Diekelmann, Susanne; Born, Jan; Wagner, Ullrich

    2010-04-02

    Memory is subject to dynamic changes, sometimes giving rise to the formation of false memories due to biased processes of consolidation or retrieval. Sleep is known to benefit memory consolidation through an active reorganization of representations whereas acute sleep deprivation impairs retrieval functions. Here, we investigated whether sleep after learning and sleep deprivation at retrieval enhance the generation of false memories in a free recall test. According to the Deese, Roediger, McDermott (DRM) false memory paradigm, subjects learned lists of semantically associated words (e.g., "night", "dark", "coal", etc.), lacking the strongest common associate or theme word (here: "black"). Free recall was tested after 9h following a night of sleep, a night of wakefulness (sleep deprivation) or daytime wakefulness. Compared with memory performance after a retention period of daytime wakefulness, both post-learning nocturnal sleep as well as acute sleep deprivation at retrieval significantly enhanced false recall of theme words. However, these effects were only observed in subjects with low general memory performance. These data point to two different ways in which sleep affects false memory generation through semantic generalization: one acts during consolidation on the memory trace per se, presumably by active reorganization of the trace in the post-learning sleep period. The other is related to the recovery function of sleep and affects cognitive control processes of retrieval. Both effects are unmasked when the material is relatively weakly encoded.

  8. Sleep enhances explicit recollection in recognition memory.

    PubMed

    Drosopoulos, Spyridon; Wagner, Ullrich; Born, Jan

    2005-01-01

    Recognition memory is considered to be supported by two different memory processes, i.e., the explicit recollection of information about a previous event and an implicit process of recognition based on an acontextual sense of familiarity. Both types of memory supposedly rely on distinct memory systems. Sleep is known to enhance the consolidation of memories, with the different sleep stages affecting different types of memory. In the present study, we used the process-dissociation procedure to compare the effects of sleep on estimates of explicit (recollection) and implicit (familiarity) memory formation on a word-list discrimination task. Subjects studied two lists of words before a 3-h retention interval of sleep or wakefulness, and recognition was tested afterward. The retention intervals were positioned either in the early night when sleep is dominated by slow-wave sleep (SWS), or in the late night, when sleep is dominated by REM sleep. Sleep enhanced explicit recognition memory, as compared with wakefulness (P < 0.05), whereas familiarity was not affected by sleep. Moreover, explicit recognition was particularly enhanced after sleep in the early-night retention interval, and especially when the words were presented with the same contextual features as during learning, i.e., in the same font (P < 0.05). The data indicate that in a task that allows separating the contribution of explicit and implicit memory, sleep particularly supports explicit memory formation. The mechanism of this effect appears to be linked to SWS.

  9. Social facilitation of long-lasting memory retrieval in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Chabaud, Marie-Ange; Isabel, Guillaume; Kaiser, Laure; Preat, Thomas

    2009-10-13

    Recent studies demonstrate that social interactions can have a profound influence on Drosophila melanogaster behavior and cuticular pheromone patterns. Olfactory memory performance has mostly been investigated in groups, and previous studies have reported that grouped flies do not interact with each other and behave in the same way as individual flies during short-term memory retrieval. However, the influence of social effects on the two known forms of Drosophila long-lasting associative memory, anesthesia-resistant memory (ARM) and long-term memory (LTM), has never been reported. We show here that ARM is displayed by individual flies but is socially facilitated; flies trained for ARM interact within a group to improve their conditioned performance. In contrast, testing shows LTM improvement in individual flies rather than in a group. We show that the social facilitation of ARM during group testing is independent of the social context of training and does not involve nonspecific aggregation. Furthermore, we demonstrate that social interactions facilitate ARM retrieval. We also show that social interactions necessary for this facilitation are specifically generated by trained flies: when single flies trained for ARM are mixed with groups of naive flies, they display poor retrieval, whereas mixing with groups trained either for ARM or LTM enhances performance.

  10. Working Memory Load Attenuates Emotional Enhancement in Recognition Memory

    PubMed Central

    Miendlarzewska, Ewa A.; van Elswijk, Gijs; Cannistraci, Carlo V.; van Ee, Raymond

    2013-01-01

    Emotionally arousing stimuli are perceived and remembered better than neutral stimuli. Under threat, this negativity bias is further increased. We investigated whether working memory (WM) load can attenuate incidental memory for emotional images. Two groups of participants performed the N-back task with two WM load levels. In one group, we induced anxiety using a threat of shock paradigm to increase attentional processing of negative information. During task performance we incidentally and briefly flashed emotional distracter images which prolonged response times in both load conditions. A subsequent unannounced immediate recognition memory test revealed that when load at exposure had been low, recognition was better for negative items in both participant groups. This enhancement, however, was attenuated under high load, leaving performance on neutral items unchanged regardless of the threat of shock manipulation. We conclude that both in threat and in normal states WM load at exposure can attenuate immediate emotional memory enhancement. PMID:23515565

  11. The lasting memory enhancements of retrospective attention.

    PubMed

    Reaves, Sarah; Strunk, Jonathan; Phillips, Shekinah; Verhaeghen, Paul; Duarte, Audrey

    2016-07-01

    Behavioral research has shown that spatial cues that orient attention toward task relevant items being maintained in visual short-term memory (VSTM) enhance item memory accuracy. However, it is unknown if these retrospective attentional cues ("retro-cues") enhance memory beyond typical short-term memory delays. It is also unknown whether retro-cues affect the spatial information associated with VSTM representations. Emerging evidence suggests that processes that affect short-term memory maintenance may also affect long-term memory (LTM) but little work has investigated the role of attention in LTM. In the current event-related potential (ERP) study, we investigated the duration of retrospective attention effects and the impact of retrospective attention manipulations on VSTM representations. Results revealed that retro-cueing improved both VSTM and LTM memory accuracy and that posterior maximal ERPs observed during VSTM maintenance predicted subsequent LTM performance. N2pc ERPs associated with attentional selection were attenuated by retro-cueing suggesting that retrospective attention may disrupt maintenance of spatial configural information in VSTM. Collectively, these findings suggest that retrospective attention can alter the structure of memory representations, which impacts memory performance beyond short-term memory delays. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Accounting for Immediate Emotional Memory Enhancement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Talmi, Deborah; McGarry, Lucy M.

    2012-01-01

    Memory for emotional events is usually very good even when tested shortly after study, before it is altered by the influence of emotional arousal on consolidation. Immediate emotion-enhanced memory may stem from the influence of emotion on cognitive processes at encoding and retrieval. Our goal was to test which cognitive factors are necessary and…

  13. Accounting for Immediate Emotional Memory Enhancement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Talmi, Deborah; McGarry, Lucy M.

    2012-01-01

    Memory for emotional events is usually very good even when tested shortly after study, before it is altered by the influence of emotional arousal on consolidation. Immediate emotion-enhanced memory may stem from the influence of emotion on cognitive processes at encoding and retrieval. Our goal was to test which cognitive factors are necessary and…

  14. Ageing and memory medication: social rationales and consumption practices.

    PubMed

    Lopes, Noémia; Pegado, Elsa; Zózimo, Joana R

    2017-09-01

    This article focuses on the social rationales underlying the consumption or rejection of medication for memory by the elderly. Our analysis is set within the wider frame of the current use of psychopharmaceuticals for the enhancement of everyday performance, discussing its relationship to new cultures of ageing. Our results, from a recently concluded study, point to different patterns of investment in memory in old age. On the one hand, we found a willingness to consume medication for memory - a heterogeneous disposition split between the imaginary of disease and that of performance enhancement. On the other hand, we found a cultural resistance and scepticism towards the use of psychopharmaceuticals for performance purposes. This suggests that a new frame of psychopharmaceuticalization of old age - represented by memory medication - is prompting different rationales, ranging from consumption to resistance. © 2017 Foundation for the Sociology of Health & Illness.

  15. Emotionally negative pictures enhance gist memory.

    PubMed

    Bookbinder, S H; Brainerd, C J

    2017-02-01

    In prior work on how true and false memory are influenced by emotion, valence and arousal have often been conflated. Thus, it is difficult to say which specific effects are caused by valence and which are caused by arousal. In the present research, we used a picture-memory paradigm that allowed emotional valence to be manipulated with arousal held constant. Negatively valenced pictures elevated both true and false memory, relative to positive and neutral pictures. Conjoint recognition modeling revealed that negative valence (a) reduced erroneous suppression of true memories and (b) increased the familiarity of the semantic content of both true and false memories. Overall, negative valence impaired the verbatim side of episodic memory but enhanced the gist side, and these effects persisted even after a week-long delay. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  16. Enhancement of declarative memory by emotional arousal and visual memory function in Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Kazui, Hiroaki; Mori, Etsuro; Hashimoto, Mamoru; Hirono, Nobutsugu

    2003-01-01

    The specific effects of visual and verbal memory on the ability of emotional arousal to enhance declarative memory were examined by using multiple linear regression analysis on data from a sample of 56 patients with probable Alzheimer's disease (AD). The enhancing effect of emotion on memory was evaluated by an illustrated story paradigm, and the visual and verbal memory by a standard memory test. In AD, memory enhancement by emotion was significantly correlated with visual memory but not with verbal memory, regardless of age, sex, educational attainment, and severity of dementia, suggesting a close association between memory enhancement by emotion and visual memory.

  17. Adult forebrain NMDA receptors gate social motivation and social memory.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, Stephanie; Tsien, Joe Z

    2017-02-01

    Motivation to engage in social interaction is critical to ensure normal social behaviors, whereas dysregulation in social motivation can contribute to psychiatric diseases such as schizophrenia, autism, social anxiety disorders and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). While dopamine is well known to regulate motivation, its downstream targets are poorly understood. Given the fact that the dopamine 1 (D1) receptors are often physically coupled with the NMDA receptors, we hypothesize that the NMDA receptor activity in the adult forebrain principal neurons are crucial not only for learning and memory, but also for the proper gating of social motivation. Here, we tested this hypothesis by examining sociability and social memory in inducible forebrain-specific NR1 knockout mice. These mice are ideal for exploring the role of the NR1 subunit in social behavior because the NR1 subunit can be selectively knocked out after the critical developmental period, in which NR1 is required for normal development. We found that the inducible deletion of the NMDA receptors prior to behavioral assays impaired, not only object and social recognition memory tests, but also resulted in profound deficits in social motivation. Mice with ablated NR1 subunits in the forebrain demonstrated significant decreases in sociability compared to their wild type counterparts. These results suggest that in addition to its crucial role in learning and memory, the NMDA receptors in the adult forebrain principal neurons gate social motivation, independent of neuronal development.

  18. Arousal-Enhanced Location Memory for Pictures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mather, Mara; Nesmith, Kathryn

    2008-01-01

    Four experiments revealed arousal-enhanced location memory for pictures. After an incidental encoding task, participants were more likely to remember the locations of positive and negative arousing pictures than the locations of non-arousing pictures, indicating better binding of location to picture. This arousal-enhanced binding effect did not…

  19. Bryostatin enhancement of memory in Hermissenda.

    PubMed

    Kuzirian, A M; Epstein, H T; Gagliardi, C J; Nelson, T J; Sakakibara, M; Taylor, C; Scioletti, A B; Alkon, D L

    2006-06-01

    Bryostatin, a potent agonist of protein kinase C (PKC), when administered to Hermissenda was found to affect acquisition of an associative learning paradigm. Low bryostatin concentrations (0.1 to 0.5 ng/ml) enhanced memory acquisition, while concentrations higher than 1.0 ng/ml down-regulated the pathway and no recall of the associative training was exhibited. The extent of enhancement depended upon the conditioning regime used and the memory stage normally fostered by that regime. The effects of two training events (TEs) with paired conditioned and unconditioned stimuli, which standardly evoked only short-term memory (STM) lasting 7 min, were--when bryostatin was added concurrently--enhanced to a long-term memory (LTM) that lasted about 20 h. The effects of both 4- and 6-paired TEs (which by themselves did not generate LTM), were also enhanced by bryostatin to induce a consolidated memory (CM) that lasted at least 5 days. The standard positive 9-TE regime typically produced a CM lasting at least 6 days. Low concentrations of bryostatin (<0.5 ng/ml) elicited no demonstrable enhancement of CM from 9-TEs. However, animals exposed to bryostatin concentrations higher than 1.0 ng/ml exhibited no behavioral learning. Sharp-electrode intracellular recordings of type-B photoreceptors in the eyes from animals conditioned in vivo with bryostatin revealed changes in input resistance and an enhanced long-lasting depolarization (LLD) in response to light. Likewise, quantitative immunocytochemical measurements using an antibody specific for the PKC-activated Ca2+/GTP-binding protein calexcitin showed enhanced antibody labeling with bryostatin. Animals exposed to the PKC inhibitor bisindolylmaleimide-XI (Ro-32-0432) administered by immersion prior to 9-TE conditioning showed no training-induced changes with or without bryostatin exposure. However, if animals received bryostatin before Ro-32, the enhanced acquisition and demonstrated recall still occurred. Therefore, pathways

  20. Cortisol broadens memory of a non-stressful social interaction.

    PubMed

    Wiemers, Uta S; Wolf, Oliver T

    2015-05-01

    Stress and its associated hormonal cascade are known to enhance long-term memory consolidation. Recently we have shown that central details of a stressful situation (Trier Social Stress Test; TSST) are remembered better than central details of a similar but non-stressful control condition (friendly Trier Social Stress Test; fTSST). We reasoned that since cortisol concentrations increase during stress (TSST) but remain low during the control condition (fTSST), a pharmacological increase in cortisol during the fTSST might be able to mimic the stress effects observed previously. The objective of the study was to assess the impact of a pharmacologically induced cortisol increase during the non-stressful friendly TSST on long-term memory for details presented during this event. In a double-blind between-group design, participants (final sample: 20 men and 13 women) either received hydrocortisone (20 mg) or a placebo and were then exposed to a non-stressful social interaction (fTSST). Affect, salivary cortisol, and salivary alpha-amylase (sAA) were assessed before and after the fTSST. Recognition memory for objects presented during this situation was assessed 1 day later. Positive affect and sAA increased in response to the friendly TSST in both groups. Hydrocortisone enhanced memory for peripheral objects of the situation in men but not in women. Memory for central objects was not affected by the hormone. The results suggest that in a non-stressful positive social environment, cortisol induces a broadening rather than a narrowing of memory. In addition, the findings provide preliminary evidence that this effect might be more prominent in men.

  1. Collaboration enhances later individual memory for emotional material.

    PubMed

    Bärthel, Gwennis A; Wessel, Ineke; Huntjens, Rafaële J C; Verwoerd, Johan

    2017-05-01

    Research on collaborative remembering suggests that collaboration hampers group memory (i.e., collaborative inhibition), yet enhances later individual memory. Studies examining collaborative effects on memory for emotional stimuli are scarce, especially concerning later individual memory. In the present study, female undergraduates watched an emotional movie and recalled it either collaboratively (n = 60) or individually (n = 60), followed by an individual free recall test and a recognition test. We replicated the standard collaborative inhibition effect. Further, in line with the literature, the collaborative condition displayed better post-collaborative individual memory. More importantly, in post-collaborative free recall, the centrality of the information to the movie plot did not play an important role. Recognition rendered slightly different results. Although collaboration rendered more correct recognition for more central details, it did not enhance recognition of background details. Secondly, the collaborative and individual conditions did not differ with respect to overlap of unique correct items in free recall. Yet, during recognition former collaborators more unanimously endorsed correct answers, as well as errors. Finally, extraversion, neuroticism, social anxiety, and depressive symptoms did not moderate the influence of collaboration on memory. Implications for the fields of forensic and clinical psychology are discussed.

  2. Deconstructing the silences: gay social memory.

    PubMed

    Loong, Lionel Loh Han

    2012-01-01

    Adopting a Foucaultian perceptive, this article deconstructs the silences in the Singaporean gay community. The collective absences in homosexuals' social memory is not simply reflective of a fragmented community, but must be comprehended in relation to the role of the state and media in shaping particular discourses.

  3. Dynamics of social contagions with memory of nonredundant information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Wei; Tang, Ming; Zhang, Hai-Feng; Lai, Ying-Cheng

    2015-07-01

    A key ingredient in social contagion dynamics is reinforcement, as adopting a certain social behavior requires verification of its credibility and legitimacy. Memory of nonredundant information plays an important role in reinforcement, which so far has eluded theoretical analysis. We first propose a general social contagion model with reinforcement derived from nonredundant information memory. Then, we develop a unified edge-based compartmental theory to analyze this model, and a remarkable agreement with numerics is obtained on some specific models. We use a spreading threshold model as a specific example to understand the memory effect, in which each individual adopts a social behavior only when the cumulative pieces of information that the individual received from his or her neighbors exceeds an adoption threshold. Through analysis and numerical simulations, we find that the memory characteristic markedly affects the dynamics as quantified by the final adoption size. Strikingly, we uncover a transition phenomenon in which the dependence of the final adoption size on some key parameters, such as the transmission probability, can change from being discontinuous to being continuous. The transition can be triggered by proper parameters and structural perturbations to the system, such as decreasing individuals' adoption threshold, increasing initial seed size, or enhancing the network heterogeneity.

  4. Distributed Learning Enhances Relational Memory Consolidation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Litman, Leib; Davachi, Lila

    2008-01-01

    It has long been known that distributed learning (DL) provides a mnemonic advantage over massed learning (ML). However, the underlying mechanisms that drive this robust mnemonic effect remain largely unknown. In two experiments, we show that DL across a 24 hr interval does not enhance immediate memory performance but instead slows the rate of…

  5. Distributed Learning Enhances Relational Memory Consolidation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Litman, Leib; Davachi, Lila

    2008-01-01

    It has long been known that distributed learning (DL) provides a mnemonic advantage over massed learning (ML). However, the underlying mechanisms that drive this robust mnemonic effect remain largely unknown. In two experiments, we show that DL across a 24 hr interval does not enhance immediate memory performance but instead slows the rate of…

  6. Strategies To Enhance Memory Based on Brain-Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banikowski, Alison K.; Mehring, Teresa A.

    1999-01-01

    This article reviews the literature on three aspects of memory: (1) an information processing model of memory (including the sensory register, attention, short-term memory, and long-term memory); (2) instructional strategies designed to enhance memory (which stress gaining students' attention and active involvement); and (3) reasons why…

  7. Stress Amplifies Memory for Social Hierarchy

    PubMed Central

    Cordero, María Isabel; Sandi, Carmen

    2007-01-01

    Individuals differ in their social status and societies in the extent of social status differences among their members. There is great interest in understanding the key factors that contribute to the establishment of social dominance structures. Given that stress can affect behavior and cognition, we hypothesized that, given equal opportunities to become either dominant or submissive, stress experienced by one of the individuals during their first encounter would determine the long-term establishment of a social hierarchy by acting as a two-stage rocket: (1) by influencing the rank achieved after a social encounter and (2) by facilitating and/or promoting a long-term memory for the specific hierarchy. Using a novel model for the assessment of long-term dominance hierarchies in rats, we present here the first evidence supporting such hypothesis. In control conditions, the social rank established through a first interaction and food competition test between two male rats is not maintained when animals are confronted 1 week later. However, if one of the rats is stressed just before their first encounter, the dominance hierarchy developed on day 1 is still clearly observed 1 week later, with the stressed animal becoming submissive (i.e., looser in competition tests) in both social interactions. Our findings also allow us to propose that stress potentiates a hierarchy-linked recognition memory between “specific” individuals through mechanisms that involve de novo protein synthesis. These results implicate stress among the key mechanisms contributing to create social imbalance and highlight memory mechanisms as key mediators of stress-induced long-term establishment of social rank. PMID:18982127

  8. Stress enhances reconsolidation of declarative memory.

    PubMed

    Bos, Marieke G N; Schuijer, Jantien; Lodestijn, Fleur; Beckers, Tom; Kindt, Merel

    2014-08-01

    Retrieval of negative emotional memories is often accompanied by the experience of stress. Upon retrieval, a memory trace can temporarily return into a labile state, where it is vulnerable to change. An unresolved question is whether post-retrieval stress may affect the strength of declarative memory in humans by modulating the reconsolidation process. Here, we tested in two experiments whether post-reactivation stress may affect the strength of declarative memory in humans. In both experiments, participants were instructed to learn neutral, positive and negative words. Approximately 24h later, participants received a reminder of the word list followed by exposure to the social evaluative cold pressor task (reactivation/stress group, nexp1=20; nexp2=18) or control task (reactivation/no-stress group, nexp1=23; nexp2=18). An additional control group was solely exposed to the stress task, without memory reactivation (no-reactivation/stress group, nexp1=23; nexp2=21). The next day, memory performance was tested using a free recall and a recognition task. In the first experiment we showed that participants in the reactivation/stress group recalled more words than participants in the reactivation/no-stress and no-reactivation/stress group, irrespective of valence of the word stimuli. Furthermore, participants in the reactivation/stress group made more false recognition errors. In the second experiment we replicated our observations on the free recall task for a new set of word stimuli, but we did not find any differences in false recognition. The current findings indicate that post-reactivation stress can improve declarative memory performance by modulating the process of reconsolidation. This finding contributes to our understanding why some memories are more persistent than others.

  9. Sleep Enhances Recognition Memory for Conspecifics as Bound into Spatial Context.

    PubMed

    Sawangjit, Anuck; Kelemen, Eduard; Born, Jan; Inostroza, Marion

    2017-01-01

    Social memory refers to the fundamental ability of social species to recognize their conspecifics in quite different contexts. Sleep has been shown to benefit consolidation, especially of hippocampus-dependent episodic memory whereas effects of sleep on social memory are less well studied. Here, we examined the effect of sleep on memory for conspecifics in rats. To discriminate interactions between the consolidation of social memory and of spatial context during sleep, adult Long Evans rats performed on a social discrimination task in a radial arm maze. The Learning phase comprised three 10-min sampling sessions in which the rats explored a juvenile rat presented at a different arm of the maze in each session. Then the rats were allowed to sleep (n = 18) or stayed awake (n = 18) for 120 min. During the following 10-min Test phase, the familiar juvenile rat (of the Learning phase) was presented along with a novel juvenile rat, each rat at an opposite arm of the maze. Significant social recognition memory, as indicated by preferential exploration of the novel over the familiar conspecific, occurred only after post-learning sleep, but not after wakefulness. Sleep, compared with wakefulness, significantly enhanced social recognition during the first minute of the Test phase. However, memory expression depended on the spatial configuration: Significant social recognition memory emerged only after sleep when the rat encountered the novel conspecific at a place different from that of the familiar juvenile in the last sampling session before sleep. Though unspecific retrieval-related effects cannot entirely be excluded, our findings suggest that sleep, rather than independently enhancing social and spatial aspects of memory, consolidates social memory by acting on an episodic representation that binds the memory of the conspecific together with the spatial context in which it was recently encountered.

  10. Sleep Enhances Recognition Memory for Conspecifics as Bound into Spatial Context

    PubMed Central

    Sawangjit, Anuck; Kelemen, Eduard; Born, Jan; Inostroza, Marion

    2017-01-01

    Social memory refers to the fundamental ability of social species to recognize their conspecifics in quite different contexts. Sleep has been shown to benefit consolidation, especially of hippocampus-dependent episodic memory whereas effects of sleep on social memory are less well studied. Here, we examined the effect of sleep on memory for conspecifics in rats. To discriminate interactions between the consolidation of social memory and of spatial context during sleep, adult Long Evans rats performed on a social discrimination task in a radial arm maze. The Learning phase comprised three 10-min sampling sessions in which the rats explored a juvenile rat presented at a different arm of the maze in each session. Then the rats were allowed to sleep (n = 18) or stayed awake (n = 18) for 120 min. During the following 10-min Test phase, the familiar juvenile rat (of the Learning phase) was presented along with a novel juvenile rat, each rat at an opposite arm of the maze. Significant social recognition memory, as indicated by preferential exploration of the novel over the familiar conspecific, occurred only after post-learning sleep, but not after wakefulness. Sleep, compared with wakefulness, significantly enhanced social recognition during the first minute of the Test phase. However, memory expression depended on the spatial configuration: Significant social recognition memory emerged only after sleep when the rat encountered the novel conspecific at a place different from that of the familiar juvenile in the last sampling session before sleep. Though unspecific retrieval-related effects cannot entirely be excluded, our findings suggest that sleep, rather than independently enhancing social and spatial aspects of memory, consolidates social memory by acting on an episodic representation that binds the memory of the conspecific together with the spatial context in which it was recently encountered. PMID:28270755

  11. Sleep enhances memory consolidation in children.

    PubMed

    Ashworth, Anna; Hill, Catherine M; Karmiloff-Smith, Annette; Dimitriou, Dagmara

    2014-06-01

    Sleep is an active state that plays an important role in the consolidation of memory. It has been found to enhance explicit memories in both adults and children. However, in contrast to adults, children do not always show a sleep-related improvement in implicit learning. The majority of research on sleep-dependent memory consolidation focuses on adults; hence, the current study examined sleep-related effects on two tasks in children. Thirty-three typically developing children aged 6-12 years took part in the study. Actigraphy was used to monitor sleep. Sleep-dependent memory consolidation was assessed using a novel non-word learning task and the Tower of Hanoi cognitive puzzle, which involves discovering an underlying rule to aid completion. Children were trained on the two tasks and retested following approximately equal retention intervals of both wake and sleep. After sleep, children showed significant improvements in performance of 14% on the non-word learning task and 25% on the Tower of Hanoi task, but no significant change in score following the wake retention interval. Improved performance on the Tower of Hanoi may have been due to children consolidating explicit aspects of the task, for example rule-learning or memory of previous sequences; thus, we propose that sleep is necessary for consolidation of explicit memory in children. Sleep quality and duration were not related to children's task performance. If such experimental sleep-related learning enhancement is generalizable to everyday life, then it is clear that sleep plays a vital role in children's educational attainment. © 2013 European Sleep Research Society.

  12. Enhancement of Memories by Systemic Administration of Insulin-Like Growth Factor II

    PubMed Central

    Stern, Sarah A; Kohtz, Amy S; Pollonini, Gabriella; Alberini, Cristina M

    2014-01-01

    To treat cognitive disorders in humans, new effective therapies that can be easily delivered systemically are needed. Previous studies showed that a bilateral injection of insulin-like growth factor II (IGF-II) into the dorsal hippocampus of rats or mice enhances fear memories and facilitates fear extinction. Here, we report that, in mice, systemic treatments with IGF-II given before training significantly enhance the retention and persistence of several types of working, short-term and long-term memories, including fear conditioning, object recognition, object placement, social recognition, and spatial reference memory. IGF-II-mediated memory enhancement does not alter memory flexibility or the ability for new learning and also occurs when IGF-II treatment is given in concert with memory retrieval. Thus IGF-II may represent a potentially important and effective treatment for enhancing human cognitive and executive functions. PMID:24642597

  13. Neural correlates of recognition memory of social information in people with schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Harvey, Philippe-Olivier; Lepage, Martin

    2014-03-01

    Social dysfunction is a hallmark characteristic of schizophrenia. Part of it may stem from an inability to efficiently encode social information into memory and retrieve it later. This study focused on whether patients with schizophrenia show a memory boost for socially relevant information and engage the same neural network as controls when processing social stimuli that were previously encoded into memory. Patients with schizophrenia and healthy controls performed a social and nonsocial picture recognition memory task while being scanned. We calculated memory performance using d'. Our main analysis focused on brain activity associated with recognition memory of social and nonsocial pictures. Our study included 28 patients with schizophrenia and 26 controls. Healthy controls demonstrated a memory boost for socially relevant information. In contrast, patients with schizophrenia failed to show enhanced recognition sensitivity for social pictures. At the neural level, patients did not engage the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex (DMPFC) as much as controls while recognizing social pictures. Our study did not include direct measures of self-referential processing. All but 3 patients were taking antipsychotic medications, which may have altered both the behavioural performance during the picture recognition memory task and brain activity. Impaired social memory in patients with schizophrenia may be associated with altered DMPFC activity. A reduction of DMPFC activity may reflect less involvement of self-referential processes during memory retrieval. Our functional MRI results contribute to a better mapping of the neural disturbances associated with social memory impairment in patients with schizophrenia and may facilitate the development of innovative treatments, such as transcranial magnetic stimulation.

  14. Neural correlates of recognition memory of social information in people with schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Harvey, Philippe-Olivier; Lepage, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Background Social dysfunction is a hallmark characteristic of schizophrenia. Part of it may stem from an inability to efficiently encode social information into memory and retrieve it later. This study focused on whether patients with schizophrenia show a memory boost for socially relevant information and engage the same neural network as controls when processing social stimuli that were previously encoded into memory. Methods Patients with schizophrenia and healthy controls performed a social and nonsocial picture recognition memory task while being scanned. We calculated memory performance using d′. Our main analysis focused on brain activity associated with recognition memory of social and nonsocial pictures. Results Our study included 28 patients with schizophrenia and 26 controls. Healthy controls demonstrated a memory boost for socially relevant information. In contrast, patients with schizophrenia failed to show enhanced recognition sensitivity for social pictures. At the neural level, patients did not engage the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex (DMPFC) as much as controls while recognizing social pictures. Limitations Our study did not include direct measures of self-referential processing. All but 3 patients were taking antipsychotic medications, which may have altered both the behavioural performance during the picture recognition memory task and brain activity. Conclusion Impaired social memory in patients with schizophrenia may be associated with altered DMPFC activity. A reduction of DMPFC activity may reflect less involvement of self-referential processes during memory retrieval. Our functional MRI results contribute to a better mapping of the neural disturbances associated with social memory impairment in patients with schizophrenia and may facilitate the development of innovative treatments, such as transcranial magnetic stimulation. PMID:24119792

  15. Memory for Pro-Social Intentions: When Competing Motives Collide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brandimonte, Maria A.; Ferrante, Donatella; Bianco, Carmela; Villani, Maria Grazia

    2010-01-01

    Memory for future actions, or "prospective memory" (PM), often involves remembering to do things "for others". The present article explores the motivational mechanisms underlying memory for pro-social intentions through the manipulation of the social relevance of goals and presence of material rewards during an activity-based PM task. Results…

  16. Emotional Arousal Does Not Enhance Association-Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madan, Christopher R.; Caplan, Jeremy B.; Lau, Christine S. M.; Fujiwara, Esther

    2012-01-01

    Emotionally arousing information is remembered better than neutral information. This enhancement effect has been shown for memory for items. In contrast, studies of association-memory have found both impairments and enhancements of association-memory by arousal. We aimed to resolve these conflicting results by using a cued-recall paradigm combined…

  17. Emotional Arousal Does Not Enhance Association-Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madan, Christopher R.; Caplan, Jeremy B.; Lau, Christine S. M.; Fujiwara, Esther

    2012-01-01

    Emotionally arousing information is remembered better than neutral information. This enhancement effect has been shown for memory for items. In contrast, studies of association-memory have found both impairments and enhancements of association-memory by arousal. We aimed to resolve these conflicting results by using a cued-recall paradigm combined…

  18. Self and social functions: individual autobiographical memory and collective narrative.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Katherine

    2003-03-01

    The personal functions of autobiographical memory build on the basic biological functions of memory common to most mammals that, however, do not have the kind of episodic memories that compose human autobiographical memory according to present theory. The thesis here is that personal autobiographical memory is functionally and structurally related to the use of cultural myths and social narratives, and that the relative emphasis put on the self in different cultural and social contexts influences the form and function of autobiographical memory and the need for developing a uniquely personal life narrative in those contexts. Historical and cross-cultural trends revealed in psychological and literary research are invoked to support this thesis.

  19. Security enhanced memory for quantum state.

    PubMed

    Mukai, Tetsuya

    2017-07-27

    Security enhancement is important in terms of both classical and quantum information. The recent development of a quantum storage device is noteworthy, and a coherence time of one second or longer has been demonstrated. On the other hand, although the encryption of a quantum bit or quantum memory has been proposed theoretically, no experiment has yet been carried out. Here we report the demonstration of a quantum memory with an encryption function that is realized by scrambling and retrieving the recorded quantum phase. We developed two independent Ramsey interferometers on an atomic ensemble trapped below a persistent supercurrent atom chip. By operating the two interferometers with random phases, the quantum phase recorded by a pulse of the first interferometer was modulated by the second interferometer pulse. The scrambled quantum phase was restored by employing another pulse of the second interferometer with a specific time delay. This technique paves way for improving the security of quantum information technology.

  20. Enhancement of fear memory by retrieval through reconsolidation

    PubMed Central

    Fukushima, Hotaka; Zhang, Yue; Archbold, Georgia; Ishikawa, Rie; Nader, Karim; Kida, Satoshi

    2014-01-01

    Memory retrieval is considered to have roles in memory enhancement. Recently, memory reconsolidation was suggested to reinforce or integrate new information into reactivated memory. Here, we show that reactivated inhibitory avoidance (IA) memory is enhanced through reconsolidation under conditions in which memory extinction is not induced. This memory enhancement is mediated by neurons in the amygdala, hippocampus, and medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) through the simultaneous activation of calcineurin-induced proteasome-dependent protein degradation and cAMP responsive element binding protein-mediated gene expression. Interestingly, the amygdala is required for memory reconsolidation and enhancement, whereas the hippocampus and mPFC are required for only memory enhancement. Furthermore, memory enhancement triggered by retrieval utilizes distinct mechanisms to strengthen IA memory by additional learning that depends only on the amygdala. Our findings indicate that reconsolidation functions to strengthen the original memory and show the dynamic nature of reactivated memory through protein degradation and gene expression in multiple brain regions. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.02736.001 PMID:24963141

  1. Facilitation of glutamate receptors enhances memory.

    PubMed Central

    Staubli, U; Rogers, G; Lynch, G

    1994-01-01

    A benzamide drug that crosses the blood-brain barrier and facilitates DL-alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) receptor-mediated synaptic responses was tested for its effects on memory in three behavioral tasks. The compound reversibly increased the amplitude and prolonged the duration of field excitatory postsynaptic potentials in hippocampal slices and produced comparable effects in the dentgate gyrus in situ after intraperitoneal injections. Rats injected with the drug 30 min prior to being given a suboptimal number of training trials in a two-odor discrimination task were more likely than controls to select the correct odor in a retention test carried out 96 hr later. Evidence for improved memory was also obtained in a water maze task in which rats were given only four trials to find a submerged platform in the presence of spatial cues; animals injected with the drug 30 min before the training session were significantly faster than vehicle-injected controls in returning to the platform location when tested 24 hr after training. Finally, the drug produced positive effects in a radial maze test of short-term memory. Well trained rats were allowed to retrieve rewards from four arms of an eight-arm maze and then tested for reentry errors 8 hr later. The number of such errors was substantially reduced on days in which the animals were injected with the drug before initial learning. These results indicate that a drug that facilitates glutamatergic transmission enhances the encoding of memory across tasks involving different sensory cues and performance requirements. This may reflect an action on the cellular mechanisms responsible for producing synaptic changes since facilitation of AMPA receptors promotes the induction of the long-term potentiation effect. PMID:8290599

  2. Impaired memory for faces and social scenes in autism: clinical implications of memory dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Williams, Diane L; Goldstein, Gerald; Minshew, Nancy J

    2005-01-01

    A clinical memory test, the Wechsler Memory Scale-III (WMS-III), was used to study the auditory and visual memory of 29 high-functioning adults with autism and 34 group-matched normal controls. The individuals with autism performed as well as the controls on immediate and delayed memory for word pairs and stories and on a verbal working memory task. The autism group was impaired on immediate and delayed recall of faces and of family scenes and had impaired spatial working memory. The integrity of verbal working memory and impaired spatial working memory is consistent with the findings of other studies and may reflect the greater computational demands of the spatial task. Most importantly, the deficits in memory for faces and common social scenes, complex visual/spatial stimuli, demonstrate the contribution of memory dysfunction in autism to deficits in real life function.

  3. Reward Retroactively Enhances Memory Consolidation for Related Items

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patil, Anuya; Murty, Vishnu P.; Dunsmoor, Joseph E.; Phelps, Elizabeth A.; Davachi, Lila

    2017-01-01

    Reward motivation has been shown to modulate episodic memory processes in order to support future adaptive behavior. However, for a memory system to be truly adaptive, it should enhance memory for rewarded events as well as for neutral events that may seem inconsequential at the time of encoding but can gain importance later. Here, we investigated…

  4. Reward Retroactively Enhances Memory Consolidation for Related Items

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patil, Anuya; Murty, Vishnu P.; Dunsmoor, Joseph E.; Phelps, Elizabeth A.; Davachi, Lila

    2017-01-01

    Reward motivation has been shown to modulate episodic memory processes in order to support future adaptive behavior. However, for a memory system to be truly adaptive, it should enhance memory for rewarded events as well as for neutral events that may seem inconsequential at the time of encoding but can gain importance later. Here, we investigated…

  5. Imagery Rescripting of Early Traumatic Memories in Social Phobia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wild, Jennifer; Clark, David M.

    2011-01-01

    Negative self-images appear to play a role in the maintenance of social phobia and research suggests they are often linked to earlier memories of socially traumatic events. Imagery rescripting is a clinical intervention that aims to update such unpleasant or traumatic memories, and is increasingly being incorporated in cognitive behavioral therapy…

  6. Imagery Rescripting of Early Traumatic Memories in Social Phobia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wild, Jennifer; Clark, David M.

    2011-01-01

    Negative self-images appear to play a role in the maintenance of social phobia and research suggests they are often linked to earlier memories of socially traumatic events. Imagery rescripting is a clinical intervention that aims to update such unpleasant or traumatic memories, and is increasingly being incorporated in cognitive behavioral therapy…

  7. Children show heightened memory for threatening social actions.

    PubMed

    Baltazar, Nicole C; Shutts, Kristin; Kinzler, Katherine D

    2012-05-01

    Three experiments investigated whether a negativity bias in social perception extends to preschool-aged children's memory for the details of others' social actions and experiences. After learning about individuals who committed nice or mean social actions, children in Experiment 1 were more accurate at remembering who was mean compared with who was nice. In Experiment 2, children showed a memory advantage for the specific details of actions committed by mean individuals compared with nice individuals. In Experiment 3, children exhibited better memory for the details of mean actions compared with nice actions when the vignettes were presented from the perspective of the recipients instead of the perpetrators of these actions. Taken together, these findings suggest that children show heightened memory for the details of negative social actions over positive social actions. Such a memory bias may be advantageous in helping children to predict potentially threatening situations in the future. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Memory Transformation Enhances Reinforcement Learning in Dynamic Environments.

    PubMed

    Santoro, Adam; Frankland, Paul W; Richards, Blake A

    2016-11-30

    Over the course of systems consolidation, there is a switch from a reliance on detailed episodic memories to generalized schematic memories. This switch is sometimes referred to as "memory transformation." Here we demonstrate a previously unappreciated benefit of memory transformation, namely, its ability to enhance reinforcement learning in a dynamic environment. We developed a neural network that is trained to find rewards in a foraging task where reward locations are continuously changing. The network can use memories for specific locations (episodic memories) and statistical patterns of locations (schematic memories) to guide its search. We find that switching from an episodic to a schematic strategy over time leads to enhanced performance due to the tendency for the reward location to be highly correlated with itself in the short-term, but regress to a stable distribution in the long-term. We also show that the statistics of the environment determine the optimal utilization of both types of memory. Our work recasts the theoretical question of why memory transformation occurs, shifting the focus from the avoidance of memory interference toward the enhancement of reinforcement learning across multiple timescales. As time passes, memories transform from a highly detailed state to a more gist-like state, in a process called "memory transformation." Theories of memory transformation speak to its advantages in terms of reducing memory interference, increasing memory robustness, and building models of the environment. However, the role of memory transformation from the perspective of an agent that continuously acts and receives reward in its environment is not well explored. In this work, we demonstrate a view of memory transformation that defines it as a way of optimizing behavior across multiple timescales. Copyright © 2016 the authors 0270-6474/16/3612228-15$15.00/0.

  9. Should I trust you? Learning and memory of social interactions in dementia.

    PubMed

    Wong, Stephanie; Irish, Muireann; O'Callaghan, Claire; Kumfor, Fiona; Savage, Greg; Hodges, John R; Piguet, Olivier; Hornberger, Michael

    2017-08-12

    Social relevance has an enhancing effect on learning and subsequent memory retrieval. The ability to learn from and remember social interactions may impact on susceptibility to financial exploitation, which is elevated in individuals with dementia. The current study aimed to investigate learning and memory of social interactions, the relationship between performance and financial vulnerability and the neural substrates underpinning performance in 14 Alzheimer's disease (AD) and 20 behavioural-variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD) patients and 20 age-matched healthy controls. On a "trust game" task, participants invested virtual money with counterparts who acted either in a trustworthy or untrustworthy manner over repeated interactions. A non-social "lottery" condition was also included. Participants' learning of trust/distrust responses and subsequent memory for the counterparts and nature of the interactions was assessed. Carer-rated profiles of financial vulnerability were also collected. Relative to controls, both patient groups showed attenuated learning of trust/distrust responses, and lower overall memory for social interactions. Despite poor learning performance, both AD and bvFTD patients showed better memory of social compared to non-social interactions. Importantly, better memory for social interactions was associated with lower financial vulnerability in AD, but not bvFTD. Learning and memory of social interactions was associated with medial temporal and temporoparietal atrophy in AD, whereas a wider network of frontostriatal, insular, fusiform and medial temporal regions was implicated in bvFTD. Our findings suggest that although social relevance influences memory to an extent in both AD and bvFTD, this is associated with vulnerability to financial exploitation in AD only, and is underpinned by changes to different neural substrates. Theoretically, these findings provide novel insights into potential mechanisms that give rise to vulnerability in

  10. Arousal Enhanced Memory Retention Is Eliminated Following Temporal Lobe Resection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahs, Fredrik; Kumlien, Eva; Fredrikson, Mats

    2010-01-01

    The amygdala, situated in the anterior medial temporal lobe (MTL), is involved in the emotional enhancement of memory. The present study evaluated whether anterior MTL-resections attenuated arousal induced memory enhancement for pictures. Also, the effect of MTL-resections on response latencies at retrieval was assessed. Thirty-one patients with…

  11. Modifying Memory: Selectively Enhancing and Updating Personal Memories for a Museum Tour by Reactivating Them

    PubMed Central

    St. Jacques, Peggy L.; Schacter, Daniel L.

    2013-01-01

    Memory can be modified when reactivated, but little is known about how the properties and extent of reactivation can selectively affect subsequent memory. We developed a novel museum paradigm to directly investigate reactivation-induced plasticity for personal memories. Participants reactivated memories triggered by photos taken from a camera they wore during a museum tour and made relatedness judgments on novel photos taken from a different tour of the same museum. Subsequent recognition memory for events at the museum was better for memories that were highly reactivated (i.e., the retrieval cues during reactivation matched the encoding experience) than for memories that were reactivated at a lower level (i.e., the retrieval cues during reactivation mismatched the encoding experience), but reactivation also increased false recognition of photographs depicting stops that were not experienced during the museum tour. Reactivation thus enables memories to be selectively enhanced and distorted via updating, thereby supporting the dynamic and flexible nature of memory. PMID:23406611

  12. Acute physical exercise in humans enhances reconsolidation of emotional memories.

    PubMed

    Keyan, Dharani; Bryant, Richard A

    2017-09-22

    Increasing evidence suggests that when a memory is reactivated through retrieval, it becomes temporarily vulnerable to environmental or pharmacological manipulation, which can consequently update or strengthen the memory. Physical exercise has been shown to modulate the maintenance of fear memories in animals following memory reactivation. This study investigated the effect of intense exercise in modulating the reconsolidation of trauma memories. Fifty-four undergraduate students watched a trauma film depicting the aftermath of a highway car crash. Two days later, participants engaged in either (a) 20-25min of incremental cycling following a memory reactivation induction (Reactivation/Exercise), (b) 20-25min of mild cycling (Reactivation/No Exercise) following memory reactivation, or (c) 20-25min of incremental cycling but no memory reactivation (No Reactivation/Exercise). Saliva samples were collected to index salivary amylase and cortisol at baseline and post activity. Participants completed memory questionnaires relating to declarative and intrusive memory recall two days after memory reactivation. Reactivation/Exercise participants recalled more central details of the trauma film relative to other participants. Increased cortisol predicted better total memory recall in the Reactivation/Exercise, but not in the other conditions. These findings suggest that intense exercise during the period of memory reactivation enhances subsequent trauma memory, and provides human evidence consistent with recent findings of exercise-induced fear reconsolidation in animals. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Sex, cheating, and disgust: enhanced source memory for trait information that violates gender stereotypes.

    PubMed

    Kroneisen, Meike; Bell, Raoul

    2013-01-01

    The present study examines memory for social-exchange-relevant information. In Experiment 1 male and female faces were shown together with behaviour descriptions of cheating, altruistic, and neutral behaviour. Previous results have led to the hypothesis that people preferentially remember schema-atypical information. Given the common gender stereotype that women are kinder and less egoistic than men, this atypicality account would predict that source memory (that is, memory for the type of context to which a face was associated) should be enhanced for female cheaters in comparison to male cheaters. The results of Experiment 1 confirmed this hypothesis. Experiment 2 reveals that source memory for female faces associated with disgusting behaviours is enhanced in comparison to male faces associated with disgusting behaviours. Thus the atypicality effect generalises beyond social-exchange-relevant information, a result which is inconsistent with the assumption that the findings can be ascribed to a highly specific cheater detection module.

  14. Repetition enhancement and memory effects for duration.

    PubMed

    Wiener, Martin; Thompson, James C

    2015-06-01

    A remarkable aspect of conscious perception is that moments carryover from one to the next, also known as temporal continuity. This ability is thus crucial for detecting regularities, such as in speech and music, and may rely on an accurate perception of time. Investigations of human time perception have detailed two electroencephalographic (EEG) components associated with timing, the contingent negative variation (CNV) and late positive component of timing (LPCt); however, the precise roles of these components in timing remain elusive. Recently, we demonstrated that the perception of duration is influenced by durations presented on prior trials, which we explained by the creation of an implicit memory standard that adapts to local changes in sequence presentation. Here, we turn to the neural basis of this effect. Human participants performed a temporal bisection task in which they were required to classify the duration of auditory stimuli into short and long duration categories; crucially, the presentation order was first-order counterbalanced, allowing us to measure the effect of each presented duration on the next. EEG recordings revealed that the CNV and LPCt signals both covaried with the duration presented on the current trial, with CNV predicting reaction time and LPCt predicting choice. Additionally, both signals covaried with the duration presented in the prior trial but in different ways, with the CNV amplitude reflecting the change in the memory standard and the LPCt reflecting decision uncertainty. Furthermore, we observed a repetition enhancement effect of duration only for the CNV, suggesting that this signal additionally indexes the similarity of successive durations. These findings demonstrate dissociable roles for the CNV and LPCt, and demonstrate that both signals are continuously updated on a trial-by-trial basis that reflects shifts in temporal decisions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Enhance, delete, incept: manipulating hippocampus-dependent memories.

    PubMed

    Spiers, Hugo J; Bendor, Daniel

    2014-06-01

    Here we provide a brief overview of recent research on memory manipulation. We focus primarily on memories for which the hippocampus is thought to be required due to its central importance in the study of memory. The repertoire of methods employed is expanding and includes optogenetics, transcranial stimulation, deep brain stimulation, cued reactivation during sleep and the use of pharmacological agents. In addition, the possible mechanisms underlying these memory changes have been investigated using techniques such as single unit recording and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'Memory enhancement'.

  16. Positive memory enhancement training for individuals with major depressive disorder.

    PubMed

    Arditte Hall, Kimberly A; De Raedt, Rudi; Timpano, Kiara R; Joormann, Jutta

    2017-08-22

    When in a negative mood state, individuals with major depressive disorder (MDD) may have difficulties recalling positive autobiographical memories in a manner that repairs that negative mood. Using cognitive bias modification techniques, investigators have successfully altered different aspects of cognition among individuals with MDD. However, little has been done to investigate the modification of positive autobiographical memory recall. This study examined the impact of a novel positive memory enhancement training (PMET) on the memories and subjective affective experiences of individuals with MDD (N = 27). Across a series of trials, participants first recalled a sad memory to elicit a negative mood state. They then recalled a happy memory and completed procedures to elicit a vivid, here-and-now quality of the memory. PMET procedures were hypothesized to promote mood repair via the recall of increasingly vivid and specific positive memories. PMET participants demonstrated improved memory specificity and greater perceived ability to "relive" positive memories. The procedures also repaired mood; PMET participants' affect following recall of positive memories did not differ from control participants' affect following recall of neutral memories. Results provide preliminary support for PMET as a method to improve the quality of positive memories and facilitate emotion regulation in MDD.

  17. Children Show Heightened Memory for Threatening Social Actions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baltazar, Nicole C.; Shutts, Kristin; Kinzler, Katherine D.

    2012-01-01

    Three experiments investigated whether a negativity bias in social perception extends to preschool-aged children's memory for the details of others' social actions and experiences. After learning about individuals who committed nice or mean social actions, children in Experiment 1 were more accurate at remembering who was mean compared with who…

  18. Children Show Heightened Memory for Threatening Social Actions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baltazar, Nicole C.; Shutts, Kristin; Kinzler, Katherine D.

    2012-01-01

    Three experiments investigated whether a negativity bias in social perception extends to preschool-aged children's memory for the details of others' social actions and experiences. After learning about individuals who committed nice or mean social actions, children in Experiment 1 were more accurate at remembering who was mean compared with who…

  19. Optogenetic Stimulation of Prefrontal Glutamatergic Neurons Enhances Recognition Memory

    PubMed Central

    Barker, Gareth R. I.; Stuart, Sarah A.; Roloff, Eva v. L.; Teschemacher, Anja G.; Warburton, E. Clea

    2016-01-01

    Finding effective cognitive enhancers is a major health challenge; however, modulating glutamatergic neurotransmission has the potential to enhance performance in recognition memory tasks. Previous studies using glutamate receptor antagonists have revealed that the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) plays a central role in associative recognition memory. The present study investigates short-term recognition memory using optogenetics to target glutamatergic neurons within the rodent mPFC specifically. Selective stimulation of glutamatergic neurons during the online maintenance of information enhanced associative recognition memory in normal animals. This cognitive enhancing effect was replicated by local infusions of the AMPAkine CX516, but not CX546, which differ in their effects on EPSPs. This suggests that enhancing the amplitude, but not the duration, of excitatory synaptic currents improves memory performance. Increasing glutamate release through infusions of the mGluR7 presynaptic receptor antagonist MMPIP had no effect on performance. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT These results provide new mechanistic information that could guide the targeting of future cognitive enhancers. Our work suggests that improved associative-recognition memory can be achieved by enhancing endogenous glutamatergic neuronal activity selectively using an optogenetic approach. We build on these observations to recapitulate this effect using drug treatments that enhance the amplitude of EPSPs; however, drugs that alter the duration of the EPSP or increase glutamate release lack efficacy. This suggests that both neural and temporal specificity are needed to achieve cognitive enhancement. PMID:27147648

  20. Decades-long social memory in bottlenose dolphins.

    PubMed

    Bruck, Jason N

    2013-10-07

    Long-term social memory is important, because it is an ecologically relevant test of cognitive capacity, it helps us understand which social relationships are remembered and it relates two seemingly disparate disciplines: cognition and sociality. For dolphins, long-term memory for conspecifics could help assess social threats as well as potential social or hunting alliances in a very fluid and complex fission-fusion social system, yet we have no idea how long dolphins can remember each other. Through a playback study conducted within a multi-institution dolphin breeding consortium (where animals are moved between different facilities), recognition of unfamiliar versus familiar signature whistles of former tank mates was assessed. This research shows that dolphins have the potential for lifelong memory for each other regardless of relatedness, sex or duration of association. This is, to my knowledge, the first study to show that social recognition can last for at least 20 years in a non-human species and the first large-scale study to address long-term memory in a cetacean. These results, paired with evidence from elephants and humans, provide suggestive evidence that sociality and cognition could be related, as a good memory is necessary in a fluid social system.

  1. Decades-long social memory in bottlenose dolphins

    PubMed Central

    Bruck, Jason N.

    2013-01-01

    Long-term social memory is important, because it is an ecologically relevant test of cognitive capacity, it helps us understand which social relationships are remembered and it relates two seemingly disparate disciplines: cognition and sociality. For dolphins, long-term memory for conspecifics could help assess social threats as well as potential social or hunting alliances in a very fluid and complex fission–fusion social system, yet we have no idea how long dolphins can remember each other. Through a playback study conducted within a multi-institution dolphin breeding consortium (where animals are moved between different facilities), recognition of unfamiliar versus familiar signature whistles of former tank mates was assessed. This research shows that dolphins have the potential for lifelong memory for each other regardless of relatedness, sex or duration of association. This is, to my knowledge, the first study to show that social recognition can last for at least 20 years in a non-human species and the first large-scale study to address long-term memory in a cetacean. These results, paired with evidence from elephants and humans, provide suggestive evidence that sociality and cognition could be related, as a good memory is necessary in a fluid social system. PMID:23926160

  2. Epicatechin, a component of dark chocolate, enhances memory formation if applied during the memory consolidation period.

    PubMed

    Fernell, Maria; Swinton, Cayley; Lukowiak, Ken

    2016-01-01

    Epicatechin (Epi), a flavanol found in foods such as dark chocolate has previously been shown to enhance memory formation in our model system, operant conditioning of aerial respiration in Lymnaea. In those experiments snails were trained in Epi. Here we ask whether snails exposed to Epi before training, during the consolidation period immediately following training, or 1 h after training would enhance memory formation. We report here that Epi is only able to enhance memory if snails are placed in Epi-containing pond water immediately after training. That is, Epi enhances memory formation if it is applied during the memory consolidation period as well as if snails are trained in Epi-containing pond water.

  3. Epicatechin, a component of dark chocolate, enhances memory formation if applied during the memory consolidation period

    PubMed Central

    Fernell, Maria; Swinton, Cayley; Lukowiak, Ken

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Epicatechin (Epi), a flavanol found in foods such as dark chocolate has previously been shown to enhance memory formation in our model system, operant conditioning of aerial respiration in Lymnaea. In those experiments snails were trained in Epi. Here we ask whether snails exposed to Epi before training, during the consolidation period immediately following training, or 1 h after training would enhance memory formation. We report here that Epi is only able to enhance memory if snails are placed in Epi-containing pond water immediately after training. That is, Epi enhances memory formation if it is applied during the memory consolidation period as well as if snails are trained in Epi-containing pond water. PMID:27574544

  4. Exploring the use of memory colors for image enhancement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue, Su; Tan, Minghui; McNamara, Ann; Dorsey, Julie; Rushmeier, Holly

    2014-02-01

    Memory colors refer to those colors recalled in association with familiar objects. While some previous work introduces this concept to assist digital image enhancement, their basis, i.e., on-screen memory colors, are not appropriately investigated. In addition, the resulting adjustment methods developed are not evaluated from a perceptual view of point. In this paper, we first perform a context-free perceptual experiment to establish the overall distributions of screen memory colors for three pervasive objects. Then, we use a context-based experiment to locate the most representative memory colors; at the same time, we investigate the interactions of memory colors between different objects. Finally, we show a simple yet effective application using representative memory colors to enhance digital images. A user study is performed to evaluate the performance of our technique.

  5. Money enhances memory consolidation--but only for boring material.

    PubMed

    Murayama, Kou; Kuhbandner, Christof

    2011-04-01

    Money's ability to enhance memory has received increased attention in recent research. However, previous studies have not directly addressed the time-dependent nature of monetary effects on memory, which are suggested to exist by research in cognitive neuroscience, and the possible detrimental effects of monetary rewards on learning interesting material, as indicated by studies in motivational psychology. By utilizing a trivia question paradigm, the current study incorporated these perspectives and examined the effect of monetary rewards on immediate and delayed memory performance for answers to uninteresting and interesting questions. Results showed that monetary rewards promote memory performance only after a delay. In addition, the memory enhancement effect of monetary rewards was only observed for uninteresting questions. These results are consistent with both the hippocampus-dependent memory consolidation model of reward learning and previous findings documenting the ineffectiveness of monetary rewards on tasks that have intrinsic value.

  6. Physiological Reactivity, Social Support, and Memory in Early Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quas, Jodi A.; Bauer, Amy; Boyce, W. Thomas

    2004-01-01

    The interactive effects of physiological reactivity and social support on children's memory were examined. Four- to 6-year-olds completed a laboratory protocol during which autonomic responses and salivary cortisol were measured. Memory was assessed shortly afterward and 2 weeks later. During the second interview, children were questioned by a…

  7. Dynamic Search and Working Memory in Social Recall

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hills, Thomas T.; Pachur, Thorsten

    2012-01-01

    What are the mechanisms underlying search in social memory (e.g., remembering the people one knows)? Do the search mechanisms involve dynamic local-to-global transitions similar to semantic search, and are these transitions governed by the general control of attention, associated with working memory span? To find out, we asked participants to…

  8. High Visual Working Memory Capacity in Trait Social Anxiety

    PubMed Central

    Moriya, Jun; Sugiura, Yoshinori

    2012-01-01

    Working memory capacity is one of the most important cognitive functions influencing individual traits, such as attentional control, fluid intelligence, and also psychopathological traits. Previous research suggests that anxiety is associated with impaired cognitive function, and studies have shown low verbal working memory capacity in individuals with high trait anxiety. However, the relationship between trait anxiety and visual working memory capacity is still unclear. Considering that people allocate visual attention more widely to detect danger under threat, visual working memory capacity might be higher in anxious people. In the present study, we show that visual working memory capacity increases as trait social anxiety increases by using a change detection task. When the demand to inhibit distractors increased, however, high visual working memory capacity diminished in individuals with social anxiety, and instead, impaired filtering of distractors was predicted by trait social anxiety. State anxiety was not correlated with visual working memory capacity. These results indicate that socially anxious people could potentially hold a large amount of information in working memory. However, because of an impaired cognitive function, they could not inhibit goal-irrelevant distractors and their performance decreased under highly demanding conditions. PMID:22496783

  9. Dynamic Search and Working Memory in Social Recall

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hills, Thomas T.; Pachur, Thorsten

    2012-01-01

    What are the mechanisms underlying search in social memory (e.g., remembering the people one knows)? Do the search mechanisms involve dynamic local-to-global transitions similar to semantic search, and are these transitions governed by the general control of attention, associated with working memory span? To find out, we asked participants to…

  10. Sleep selectively enhances hippocampus-dependent memory in mice.

    PubMed

    Cai, Denise J; Shuman, Tristan; Gorman, Michael R; Sage, Jennifer R; Anagnostaras, Stephan G

    2009-08-01

    Sleep has been implicated as playing a critical role in memory consolidation. Emerging evidence suggests that reactivation of memories during sleep may facilitate the transfer of declarative memories from the hippocampus to the neocortex. Previous rodent studies have utilized sleep-deprivation to examine the role of sleep in memory consolidation. The present study uses a novel, naturalistic paradigm to study the effect of a sleep phase on rodent Pavlovian fear conditioning, a task with both hippocampus-dependent and -independent components (contextual vs. cued memories). Mice were trained 1 hour before their sleep/rest phase or awake/active phase and then tested for contextual and cued fear 12 or 24 hr later. The authors found that hippocampus-dependent contextual memory was enhanced if tested after a sleep phase within 24 hr of training. This enhancement was specific to context, not cued, memory. These findings provide direct evidence of a role for sleep in enhancing hippocampus-dependent memory consolidation in rodents and detail a novel paradigm for examining sleep-induced memory effects. 2009 APA, all rights reserved

  11. Hypocretin/orexin neurons contribute to hippocampus-dependent social memory and synaptic plasticity in mice

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Liya; Zou, Bende; Xiong, Xiaoxing; Pascual, Conrado; Xie, James; Malik, Adam; Xie, Julian; Sakurai, Takeshi; Xie, Xinmin (Simon)

    2013-01-01

    Hypocretin/orexin (Hcrt) neurons in the lateral hypothalamus project throughout the brain, including to the hippocampus, where Hcrt receptors are widely expressed. Hcrt neurons activate these targets to orchestrate global arousal state, wake-sleep architecture, energy homeostasis, stress adaptation, and reward behaviors. Hcrt has recently been implicated in cognitive functions and social interaction. Here, we tested the hypothesis that Hcrt neurons are critical to social interaction, particularly social memory, using neurobehavioral assessment and electrophysiological approaches. The validated “two-enclosure homecage test” devices and procedure were used to test sociability, preference for social novelty (social novelty), and recognition memory. A conventional direct contact social test was conducted to corroborate the findings. We found that adult orexin/ataxin-3 transgenic mice (AT, in which Hcrt neurons degenerate by 3 months of age) displayed normal sociability and social novelty with respect to wildtype (WT) littermates. However, AT mice displayed deficits in long-term social memory. Nasal administration of exogenous Hcrt-1 restored social memory to an extent in AT mice. Hippocampal slices taken from AT mice exhibited decreases in degree of paired-pulse facilitation (PPF) and magnitude of long-term potentiation (LTP), despite displaying normal basal synaptic neurotransmission in the CA1 area compared to WT hippocampal slices. AT hippocampi had lower levels of phosphorylated cyclic AMP-response element binding protein (pCREB), an activity-dependent transcription factor important for synaptic plasticity and long-term memory storage. Our studies demonstrate that Hcrt neurons play an important role in the consolidation of social recognition memory, at least in part through enhancements of hippocampal synaptic plasticity and CREB phosphorylation. PMID:23516292

  12. Hypocretin/orexin neurons contribute to hippocampus-dependent social memory and synaptic plasticity in mice.

    PubMed

    Yang, Liya; Zou, Bende; Xiong, Xiaoxing; Pascual, Conrado; Xie, James; Malik, Adam; Xie, Julian; Sakurai, Takeshi; Xie, Xinmin Simon

    2013-03-20

    Hypocretin/orexin (Hcrt)-producing neurons in the lateral hypothalamus project throughout the brain, including to the hippocampus, where Hcrt receptors are widely expressed. Hcrt neurons activate these targets to orchestrate global arousal state, wake-sleep architecture, energy homeostasis, stress adaptation, and reward behaviors. Recently, Hcrt has been implicated in cognitive functions and social interaction. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that Hcrt neurons are critical to social interaction, particularly social memory, using neurobehavioral assessment and electrophysiological approaches. The validated "two-enclosure homecage test" devices and procedure were used to test sociability, preference for social novelty (social novelty), and recognition memory. A conventional direct contact social test was conducted to corroborate the findings. We found that adult orexin/ataxin-3-transgenic (AT) mice, in which Hcrt neurons degenerate by 3 months of age, displayed normal sociability and social novelty with respect to their wild-type littermates. However, AT mice displayed deficits in long-term social memory. Nasal administration of exogenous Hcrt-1 restored social memory to an extent in AT mice. Hippocampal slices taken from AT mice exhibited decreases in degree of paired-pulse facilitation and magnitude of long-term potentiation, despite displaying normal basal synaptic neurotransmission in the CA1 area compared to wild-type hippocampal slices. AT hippocampi had lower levels of phosphorylated cAMP response element-binding protein (pCREB), an activity-dependent transcription factor important for synaptic plasticity and long-term memory storage. Our studies demonstrate that Hcrt neurons play an important role in the consolidation of social recognition memory, at least in part through enhancements of hippocampal synaptic plasticity and cAMP response element-binding protein phosphorylation.

  13. Money Enhances Memory Consolidation--But Only for Boring Material

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murayama, Kou; Kuhbandner, Christof

    2011-01-01

    Money's ability to enhance memory has received increased attention in recent research. However, previous studies have not directly addressed the time-dependent nature of monetary effects on memory, which are suggested to exist by research in cognitive neuroscience, and the possible detrimental effects of monetary rewards on learning interesting…

  14. How To Create and Conduct a Memory Enhancement Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyer, Genevieve R.; Ober-Reynolds, Sharman

    This report describes Memory Enhancement Group workshops which have been conducted at the Senior Health and Peer Counseling Center in Santa Monica, California and gives basic data regarding outcomes of the workshops. It provides a model of memory as a three-step process of registration or becoming aware, consolidation, and retrieval. It presents…

  15. Repetitive peptide boosting progressively enhances functional memory CTLs

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Induction of functional memory CTLs holds promise for fighting critical infectious diseases through vaccination, but so far, no effective regime has been identified. We show here that memory CTLs can be enhanced progressively to high levels by repetitive intravenous boosting with peptide and adjuvan...

  16. Money Enhances Memory Consolidation--But Only for Boring Material

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murayama, Kou; Kuhbandner, Christof

    2011-01-01

    Money's ability to enhance memory has received increased attention in recent research. However, previous studies have not directly addressed the time-dependent nature of monetary effects on memory, which are suggested to exist by research in cognitive neuroscience, and the possible detrimental effects of monetary rewards on learning interesting…

  17. How To Create and Conduct a Memory Enhancement Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyer, Genevieve R.; Ober-Reynolds, Sharman

    This report describes Memory Enhancement Group workshops which have been conducted at the Senior Health and Peer Counseling Center in Santa Monica, California and gives basic data regarding outcomes of the workshops. It provides a model of memory as a three-step process of registration or becoming aware, consolidation, and retrieval. It presents…

  18. dCREB2-Mediated Enhancement of Memory Formation

    PubMed Central

    Tubon, Thomas C.; Zhang, Jiabin; Friedman, Eugenia L.; Jin, Haining; Gonzales, Erin D.; Zhou, Hong; Drier, Diana; Gerstner, Jason R.; Paulson, Emily A.; Fropf, Robin; Yin, Jerry C. P.

    2013-01-01

    CREB-responsive transcription has an important role in adaptive responses in all cells and tissue. In the nervous system, it has an essential and well established role in long-term memory formation throughout a diverse set of organisms. Activation of this transcription factor correlates with long-term memory formation and disruption of its activity interferes with this process. Most convincingly, aug-menting CREB activity in a number of different systems enhances memory formation. In Drosophila, a sequence rearrangement in the original transgene used to enhance memory formation has been a source of confusion. This rearrangement prematurely terminates translation of the full-length protein, leaving the identity of the “enhancing molecule” unclear. In this report, we show that a naturally occurring, downstream, in-frame initiation codon is used to make a dCREB2 protein off of both transgenic and chromosomal substrates. This protein is a transcriptional activator and is responsible for memory enhancement. A number of parameters can affect enhancement, including the short-lived activity of the activator protein, and the time-of-day when induction and behavioral training occur. Our results reaffirm that overexpression of a dCREB2 activator can enhance memory formation and illustrate the complexity of this behavioral enhancement. PMID:23616553

  19. Brief, pre-learning stress reduces false memory production and enhances true memory selectively in females.

    PubMed

    Zoladz, Phillip R; Peters, David M; Kalchik, Andrea E; Hoffman, Mackenzie M; Aufdenkampe, Rachael L; Woelke, Sarah A; Wolters, Nicholas E; Talbot, Jeffery N

    2014-04-10

    Some of the previous research on stress-memory interactions has suggested that stress increases the production of false memories. However, as accumulating work has shown that the effects of stress on learning and memory depend critically on the timing of the stressor, we hypothesized that brief stress administered immediately before learning would reduce, rather than increase, false memory production. In the present study, participants submerged their dominant hand in a bath of ice cold water (stress) or sat quietly (no stress) for 3 min. Then, participants completed a short-term memory task, the Deese-Roediger-McDermott paradigm, in which they were presented with 10 different lists of semantically related words (e.g., candy, sour, sugar) and, after each list, were tested for their memory of presented words (e.g., candy), non-presented unrelated "distractor" words (e.g., hat), and non-presented semantically related "critical lure" words (e.g., sweet). Stress, overall, significantly reduced the number of critical lures recalled (i.e., false memory) by participants. In addition, stress enhanced memory for the presented words (i.e., true memory) in female, but not male, participants. These findings reveal that stress does not unequivocally enhance false memory production and that the timing of the stressor is an important variable that could mediate such effects. Such results could have important implications for understanding the dependability of eyewitness accounts of events that are observed following stress.

  20. Expectancy bias mediates the link between social anxiety and memory bias for social evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Caouette, Justin D.; Ruiz, Sarah K.; Lee, Clinton C.; Anbari, Zainab; Schriber, Roberta A.; Guyer, Amanda E.

    2014-01-01

    Social anxiety (SA) involves a multitude of cognitive symptoms related to fear of evaluation, including expectancy and memory biases. We examined whether memory biases are influenced by expectancy biases for social feedback in SA. We hypothesized that, faced with a socially evaluative event, people with higher SA would show a negative expectancy bias for future feedback. Furthermore, we predicted that memory bias for feedback in SA would be mediated by expectancy bias. Ninety-four undergraduate students (55 women, mean age = 19.76 years) underwent a two-visit task that measured expectations about (Visit 1) and memory of (Visit 2) feedback from unknown peers. Results showed that higher levels of SA were associated with negative expectancy bias. An indirect relationship was found between SA and memory bias that was mediated by expectancy bias. The results suggest that expectancy biases are in the causal path from SA to negative memory biases for social evaluation. PMID:25252925

  1. Consistency of Handedness, Regardless of Direction, Predicts Baseline Memory Accuracy and Potential for Memory Enhancement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyle, Keith B.; Hanaver-Torrez, Shelley D.; Hacklander, Ryan P.; Edlin, James M.

    2012-01-01

    Research has shown that consistently right-handed individuals have poorer memory than do inconsistently right- or left-handed individuals under baseline conditions but more reliably exhibit enhanced memory retrieval after making a series of saccadic eye movements. From this it could be that consistent versus inconsistent handedness, regardless of…

  2. Consistency of Handedness, Regardless of Direction, Predicts Baseline Memory Accuracy and Potential for Memory Enhancement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyle, Keith B.; Hanaver-Torrez, Shelley D.; Hacklander, Ryan P.; Edlin, James M.

    2012-01-01

    Research has shown that consistently right-handed individuals have poorer memory than do inconsistently right- or left-handed individuals under baseline conditions but more reliably exhibit enhanced memory retrieval after making a series of saccadic eye movements. From this it could be that consistent versus inconsistent handedness, regardless of…

  3. Working memory dysfunctions predict social problem solving skills in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jia; Tan, Shu-ping; Walsh, Sarah C; Spriggens, Lauren K; Neumann, David L; Shum, David H K; Chan, Raymond C K

    2014-12-15

    The current study aimed to examine the contribution of neurocognition and social cognition to components of social problem solving. Sixty-seven inpatients with schizophrenia and 31 healthy controls were administrated batteries of neurocognitive tests, emotion perception tests, and the Chinese Assessment of Interpersonal Problem Solving Skills (CAIPSS). MANOVAs were conducted to investigate the domains in which patients with schizophrenia showed impairments. Correlations were used to determine which impaired domains were associated with social problem solving, and multiple regression analyses were conducted to compare the relative contribution of neurocognitive and social cognitive functioning to components of social problem solving. Compared with healthy controls, patients with schizophrenia performed significantly worse in sustained attention, working memory, negative emotion, intention identification and all components of the CAIPSS. Specifically, sustained attention, working memory and negative emotion identification were found to correlate with social problem solving and 1-back accuracy significantly predicted the poor performance in social problem solving. Among the dysfunctions in schizophrenia, working memory contributed most to deficits in social problem solving in patients with schizophrenia. This finding provides support for targeting working memory in the development of future social problem solving rehabilitation interventions.

  4. Acute social stress before the planning phase improves memory performance in a complex real life-related prospective memory task.

    PubMed

    Glienke, Katharina; Piefke, Martina

    2016-09-01

    Successful execution of intentions, but also the failure to recall are common phenomena in everyday life. The planning, retention, and realization of intentions are often framed as the scientific concept of prospective memory. The current study aimed to examine the influence of acute stress on key dimensions of complex "real life" prospective memory. To this end, we applied a prospective memory task that involved the planning, retention, and performance of intentions during a fictional holiday week. Forty healthy males participated in the study. Half of the subjects were stressed with the Socially Evaluated Cold Pressor Test (SECPT) before the planning of intentions, and the other half of the participants underwent a control procedure at the same time. Salivary cortisol was used to measure the effectiveness of the SECPT stress induction. Stressed participants did not differ from controls in planning accuracy. However, when we compared stressed participants with controls during prospective memory retrieval, we found statistically significant differences in PM across the performance phase. Participants treated with the SECPT procedure before the planning phase showed improved prospective memory retrieval over time, while performance of controls declined. Particularly, there was a significant difference between the stress and control group for the last two days of the holiday week. Interestingly, control participants showed significantly better performance for early than later learned items, which could be an indicator of a primacy effect. This differential effect of stress on performance was also found in time- and event-dependent prospective memory. Our results demonstrate for the first time, that acute stress induced before the planning phase may improve prospective memory over the time course of the performance phase in time- and event-dependent prospective memory. Our data thus indicate that prospective memory can be enhanced by acute stress. Copyright © 2016

  5. Test Expectation Enhances Memory Consolidation across Both Sleep and Wake.

    PubMed

    Wamsley, Erin J; Hamilton, Kelly; Graveline, Yvette; Manceor, Stephanie; Parr, Elaine

    2016-01-01

    Memory consolidation benefits from post-training sleep. However, recent studies suggest that sleep does not uniformly benefit all memory, but instead prioritizes information that is important to the individual. Here, we examined the effect of test expectation on memory consolidation across sleep and wakefulness. Following reports that information with strong "future relevance" is preferentially consolidated during sleep, we hypothesized that test expectation would enhance memory consolidation across a period of sleep, but not across wakefulness. To the contrary, we found that expectation of a future test enhanced memory for both spatial and motor learning, but that this effect was equivalent across both wake and sleep retention intervals. These observations differ from those of least two prior studies, and fail to support the hypothesis that the "future relevance" of learned material moderates its consolidation selectively during sleep.

  6. Test Expectation Enhances Memory Consolidation across Both Sleep and Wake

    PubMed Central

    Wamsley, Erin J.; Hamilton, Kelly; Graveline, Yvette; Manceor, Stephanie; Parr, Elaine

    2016-01-01

    Memory consolidation benefits from post-training sleep. However, recent studies suggest that sleep does not uniformly benefit all memory, but instead prioritizes information that is important to the individual. Here, we examined the effect of test expectation on memory consolidation across sleep and wakefulness. Following reports that information with strong “future relevance” is preferentially consolidated during sleep, we hypothesized that test expectation would enhance memory consolidation across a period of sleep, but not across wakefulness. To the contrary, we found that expectation of a future test enhanced memory for both spatial and motor learning, but that this effect was equivalent across both wake and sleep retention intervals. These observations differ from those of least two prior studies, and fail to support the hypothesis that the “future relevance” of learned material moderates its consolidation selectively during sleep. PMID:27760193

  7. Enhancing quantum sensing sensitivity by a quantum memory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaiser, Sebastian; Rendler, Torsten; Jakobi, Ingmar; Wolf, Thomas; Lee, Sang-Yun; Wagner, Samuel; Bergholm, Ville; Schulte-Herbrüggen, Thomas; Neumann, Philipp; Wrachtrup, Jörg

    2016-08-01

    In quantum sensing, precision is typically limited by the maximum time interval over which phase can be accumulated. Memories have been used to enhance this time interval beyond the coherence lifetime and thus gain precision. Here, we demonstrate that by using a quantum memory an increased sensitivity can also be achieved. To this end, we use entanglement in a hybrid spin system comprising a sensing and a memory qubit associated with a single nitrogen-vacancy centre in diamond. With the memory we retain the full quantum state even after coherence decay of the sensor, which enables coherent interaction with distinct weakly coupled nuclear spin qubits. We benchmark the performance of our hybrid quantum system against use of the sensing qubit alone by gradually increasing the entanglement of sensor and memory. We further apply this quantum sensor-memory pair for high-resolution NMR spectroscopy of single 13C nuclear spins.

  8. Enhancing quantum sensing sensitivity by a quantum memory.

    PubMed

    Zaiser, Sebastian; Rendler, Torsten; Jakobi, Ingmar; Wolf, Thomas; Lee, Sang-Yun; Wagner, Samuel; Bergholm, Ville; Schulte-Herbrüggen, Thomas; Neumann, Philipp; Wrachtrup, Jörg

    2016-08-10

    In quantum sensing, precision is typically limited by the maximum time interval over which phase can be accumulated. Memories have been used to enhance this time interval beyond the coherence lifetime and thus gain precision. Here, we demonstrate that by using a quantum memory an increased sensitivity can also be achieved. To this end, we use entanglement in a hybrid spin system comprising a sensing and a memory qubit associated with a single nitrogen-vacancy centre in diamond. With the memory we retain the full quantum state even after coherence decay of the sensor, which enables coherent interaction with distinct weakly coupled nuclear spin qubits. We benchmark the performance of our hybrid quantum system against use of the sensing qubit alone by gradually increasing the entanglement of sensor and memory. We further apply this quantum sensor-memory pair for high-resolution NMR spectroscopy of single (13)C nuclear spins.

  9. Enhancing quantum sensing sensitivity by a quantum memory

    PubMed Central

    Zaiser, Sebastian; Rendler, Torsten; Jakobi, Ingmar; Wolf, Thomas; Lee, Sang-Yun; Wagner, Samuel; Bergholm, Ville; Schulte-Herbrüggen, Thomas; Neumann, Philipp; Wrachtrup, Jörg

    2016-01-01

    In quantum sensing, precision is typically limited by the maximum time interval over which phase can be accumulated. Memories have been used to enhance this time interval beyond the coherence lifetime and thus gain precision. Here, we demonstrate that by using a quantum memory an increased sensitivity can also be achieved. To this end, we use entanglement in a hybrid spin system comprising a sensing and a memory qubit associated with a single nitrogen-vacancy centre in diamond. With the memory we retain the full quantum state even after coherence decay of the sensor, which enables coherent interaction with distinct weakly coupled nuclear spin qubits. We benchmark the performance of our hybrid quantum system against use of the sensing qubit alone by gradually increasing the entanglement of sensor and memory. We further apply this quantum sensor-memory pair for high-resolution NMR spectroscopy of single 13C nuclear spins. PMID:27506596

  10. Attentional networks and visuospatial working memory capacity in social anxiety.

    PubMed

    Moriya, Jun

    2016-12-02

    Social anxiety is associated with attentional bias and working memory for emotional stimuli; however, the ways in which social anxiety affects cognitive functions involving non-emotional stimuli remains unclear. The present study focused on the role of attentional networks (i.e. alerting, orienting, and executive control networks) and visuospatial working memory capacity (WMC) for non-emotional stimuli in the context of social anxiety. One hundred and seventeen undergraduates completed questionnaires on social anxiety. They then performed an attentional network test and a change detection task to measure visuospatial WMC. Orienting network and visuospatial WMC were positively correlated with social anxiety. A multiple regression analysis showed significant positive associations of alerting, orienting, and visuospatial WMC with social anxiety. Alerting, orienting networks, and high visuospatial WMC for non-emotional stimuli may predict degree of social anxiety.

  11. Memory, metamemory, and social cues: Between conformity and resistance.

    PubMed

    Zawadzka, Katarzyna; Krogulska, Aleksandra; Button, Roberta; Higham, Philip A; Hanczakowski, Maciej

    2016-02-01

    When presented with responses of another person, people incorporate these responses into memory reports: a finding termed memory conformity. Research on memory conformity in recognition reveals that people rely on external social cues to guide their memory responses when their own ability to respond is at chance. In this way, conforming to a reliable source boosts recognition performance but conforming to a random source does not impair it. In the present study we assessed whether people would conform indiscriminately to reliable and unreliable (random) sources when they are given the opportunity to exercise metamemory control over their responding by withholding answers in a recognition test. In Experiments 1 and 2, we found the pattern of memory conformity to reliable and unreliable sources in 2 variants of a free-report recognition test, yet at the same time the provision of external cues did not affect the rate of response withholding. In Experiment 3, we provided participants with initial feedback on their recognition decisions, facilitating the discrimination between the reliable and unreliable source. This led to the reduction of memory conformity to the unreliable source, and at the same time modulated metamemory decisions concerning response withholding: participants displayed metamemory conformity to the reliable source, volunteering more responses in their memory report, and metamemory resistance to the random source, withholding more responses from the memory report. Together, the results show how metamemory decisions dissociate various types of memory conformity and that memory and metamemory decisions can be independent of each other.

  12. Inhibition and enhancement of contextual fear memory destabilization

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jonathan L. C.; Flavell, Charlotte R.

    2014-01-01

    The reactivation of a memory can result in its destabilization, necessitating a process of memory reconsolidation to maintain its persistence. Here we show that the destabilization of a contextual fear memory is potentiated by the cannabinoid CB1 receptor agonist Arachidonyl-2-chloroethylamide (ACEA). Co-infusion of ACEA and the IkappaB kinase (IKK) inhibitor sulfasalazine (Sulf) into the dorsal hippocampus impaired contextual fear memory reconsolidation. This observation was achieved under behavioral conditions that, by themselves, did not result in a reconsolidation impairment by Sulf alone. Moreover, we show that the destabilization of a contextual fear memory is dependent upon neuronal activity in the dorsal hippocampus, but not memory expression per se. The effect on contextual fear memory destabilization of intra-hippocampal ACEA was replicated by systemic injections, allowing an amnestic effect of MK-801. These results indicate that memory expression and destabilization, while being independent from one another, are both dependent upon memory reactivation. Moreover, memory destabilization can be enhanced pharmacologically, which may be of therapeutic potential. PMID:24808841

  13. Enhanced contextual fear memory in central serotonin-deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Dai, Jin-Xia; Han, Hui-Li; Tian, Meng; Cao, Jun; Xiu, Jian-Bo; Song, Ning-Ning; Huang, Ying; Xu, Tian-Le; Ding, Yu-Qiang; Xu, Lin

    2008-08-19

    Central serotonin (5-HT) dysregulation contributes to the susceptibility for mental disorders, including depression, anxiety, and posttraumatic stress disorder, and learning and memory deficits. We report that the formation of hippocampus-dependent spatial memory is compromised, but the acquisition and retrieval of contextual fear memory are enhanced, in central 5-HT-deficient mice. Genetic deletion of serotonin in the brain was achieved by inactivating Lmx1b selectively in the raphe nuclei of the brainstem, resulting in a near-complete loss of 5-HT throughout the brain. These 5-HT-deficient mice exhibited no gross abnormality in brain structures and had normal locomotor activity. Spatial learning in the Morris water maze was unaffected, but the retrieval of spatial memory was impaired. In contrast, contextual fear learning and memory induced by foot-shock conditioning was markedly enhanced, but this enhancement could be prevented by intracerebroventricular administration of 5-HT. Foot shock impaired long-term potentiation and facilitated long-term depression in hippocampal slices in WT mice but had no effect in 5-HT-deficient mice. Furthermore, bath application of 5-HT in 5-HT-deficient mice restored foot shock-induced alterations of hippocampal synaptic plasticity. Thus, central 5-HT regulates hippocampus-dependent contextual fear memory, and 5-HT modulation of hippocampal synaptic plasticity may be the underlying mechanism. The enhanced fear memory in 5-HT-deficient mice supports the notion that 5-HT deficiency confers susceptibility to posttraumatic stress disorder in humans.

  14. Mental Time Travel, Memory and the Social Learning Strategies Tournament

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fogarty, L.; Rendell, L.; Laland, K. N.

    2012-01-01

    The social learning strategies tournament was an open computer-based tournament investigating the best way to learn in a changing environment. Here we present an analysis of the impact of memory on the ability of strategies entered into the social learning strategies tournament (Rendell, Boyd, et al., 2010) to modify their own behavior to suit a…

  15. Mental Time Travel, Memory and the Social Learning Strategies Tournament

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fogarty, L.; Rendell, L.; Laland, K. N.

    2012-01-01

    The social learning strategies tournament was an open computer-based tournament investigating the best way to learn in a changing environment. Here we present an analysis of the impact of memory on the ability of strategies entered into the social learning strategies tournament (Rendell, Boyd, et al., 2010) to modify their own behavior to suit a…

  16. Upregulation of CREB-mediated transcription enhances both short- and long-term memory.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Akinobu; Fukushima, Hotaka; Mukawa, Takuya; Toyoda, Hiroki; Wu, Long-Jun; Zhao, Ming-Gao; Xu, Hui; Shang, Yuze; Endoh, Kengo; Iwamoto, Taku; Mamiya, Nori; Okano, Emiko; Hasegawa, Shunsuke; Mercaldo, Valentina; Zhang, Yue; Maeda, Ryouta; Ohta, Miho; Josselyn, Sheena A; Zhuo, Min; Kida, Satoshi

    2011-06-15

    Unraveling the mechanisms by which the molecular manipulation of genes of interest enhances cognitive function is important to establish genetic therapies for cognitive disorders. Although CREB is thought to positively regulate formation of long-term memory (LTM), gain-of-function effects of CREB remain poorly understood, especially at the behavioral level. To address this, we generated four lines of transgenic mice expressing dominant active CREB mutants (CREB-Y134F or CREB-DIEDML) in the forebrain that exhibited moderate upregulation of CREB activity. These transgenic lines improved not only LTM but also long-lasting long-term potentiation in the CA1 area in the hippocampus. However, we also observed enhanced short-term memory (STM) in contextual fear-conditioning and social recognition tasks. Enhanced LTM and STM could be dissociated behaviorally in these four lines of transgenic mice, suggesting that the underlying mechanism for enhanced STM and LTM are distinct. LTM enhancement seems to be attributable to the improvement of memory consolidation by the upregulation of CREB transcriptional activity, whereas higher basal levels of BDNF, a CREB target gene, predicted enhanced shorter-term memory. The importance of BDNF in STM was verified by microinfusing BDNF or BDNF inhibitors into the hippocampus of wild-type or transgenic mice. Additionally, increasing BDNF further enhanced LTM in one of the lines of transgenic mice that displayed a normal BDNF level but enhanced LTM, suggesting that upregulation of BDNF and CREB activity cooperatively enhances LTM formation. Our findings suggest that CREB positively regulates memory consolidation and affects memory performance by regulating BDNF expression.

  17. Mnemonic transmission, social contagion, and emergence of collective memory: Influence of emotional valence, group structure, and information distribution.

    PubMed

    Choi, Hae-Yoon; Kensinger, Elizabeth A; Rajaram, Suparna

    2017-09-01

    Social transmission of memory and its consequence on collective memory have generated enduring interdisciplinary interest because of their widespread significance in interpersonal, sociocultural, and political arenas. We tested the influence of 3 key factors-emotional salience of information, group structure, and information distribution-on mnemonic transmission, social contagion, and collective memory. Participants individually studied emotionally salient (negative or positive) and nonemotional (neutral) picture-word pairs that were completely shared, partially shared, or unshared within participant triads, and then completed 3 consecutive recalls in 1 of 3 conditions: individual-individual-individual (control), collaborative-collaborative (identical group; insular structure)-individual, and collaborative-collaborative (reconfigured group; diverse structure)-individual. Collaboration enhanced negative memories especially in insular group structure and especially for shared information, and promoted collective forgetting of positive memories. Diverse group structure reduced this negativity effect. Unequally distributed information led to social contagion that creates false memories; diverse structure propagated a greater variety of false memories whereas insular structure promoted confidence in false recognition and false collective memory. A simultaneous assessment of network structure, information distribution, and emotional valence breaks new ground to specify how network structure shapes the spread of negative memories and false memories, and the emergence of collective memory. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  18. Emotional memories are not all created equal: Evidence for selective memory enhancement

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Adam K.; Yamaguchi, Yuki; Grabski, Wojtek; Lacka, Dominika

    2006-01-01

    Human brain imaging studies have shown that greater amygdala activation to emotional relative to neutral events leads to enhanced episodic memory. Other studies have shown that fearful faces also elicit greater amygdala activation relative to neutral faces. To the extent that amygdala recruitment is sufficient to enhance recollection, these separate lines of evidence predict that recognition memory should be greater for fearful relative to neutral faces. Experiment 1 demonstrated enhanced memory for emotionally negative relative to neutral scenes; however, fearful faces were not subject to enhanced recognition across a variety of delays (15 min to 2 wk). Experiment 2 demonstrated that enhanced delayed recognition for emotional scenes was associated with increased sympathetic autonomic arousal, indexed by the galvanic skin response, relative to fearful faces. These results suggest that while amygdala activation may be necessary, it alone is insufficient to enhance episodic memory formation. It is proposed that a sufficient level of systemic arousal is required to alter memory consolidation resulting in enhanced recollection of emotional events. PMID:17101871

  19. Enriched environment increases neurogenesis and improves social memory persistence in socially isolated adult mice.

    PubMed

    Monteiro, Brisa M M; Moreira, Fabrício A; Massensini, André R; Moraes, Márcio F D; Pereira, Grace S

    2014-02-01

    Social memory consists of the information necessary to identify and recognize cospecifics and is essential to many forms of social interaction. Social memory persistence is strongly modulated by the animal's experiences. We have shown in previous studies that social isolation (SI) in adulthood impairs social memory persistence and that an enriched environment (EE) prevents this impairment. However, the mechanisms involved in the effects of SI and EE on social memory persistence remain unknown. We hypothesized that the mechanism by which SI and EE affect social memory persistence is through their modulation of neurogenesis. To investigate this hypothesis, adult mice were submitted to 7 days of one of the following conditions: group-housing in a standard (GH) or enriched environment (GH+EE); social isolation in standard (SI) or enriched environment (SI+EE). We observed an increase in the number of newborn neurons in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus (DG) and glomerular layer of the olfactory bulb (OB) in both GH+EE and SI+EE mice. However, this increase of newborn neurons in the granule cell layer of the OB was restricted to the GH+EE group. Furthermore, both SI and SI+EE groups showed less neurogenesis in the mitral layer of the OB. Interestingly, the performance of the SI mice in the buried food-finding task was inferior to that of the GH mice. To further analyze whether increased neurogenesis is in fact the mechanism by which the EE improves social memory persistence in SI mice, we administered the mitotic inhibitor AraC or saline directly into the lateral ventricles of the SI+EE mice. We found that the AraC treatment decreased cell proliferation in both the DG and OB, and impaired social memory persistence in the SI+EE mice. Taken together, our results strongly suggest that neurogenesis is what supports social memory persistence in socially isolated mice.

  20. Enhancing Memory Access for Less Skilled Readers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Emily R.; O'Brien, Edward J.

    2016-01-01

    Less skilled readers' comprehension often suffers because they have an impoverished representation of text in long-term memory; this, in turn, increases the difficulty of gaining access to backgrounded information necessary for maintaining coherence. The results of four experiments demonstrated that providing less skilled readers with additional…

  1. Adaptive Memory: Survival Processing Enhances Retention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nairne, James S.; Thompson, Sarah R.; Pandeirada, Josefa N. S.

    2007-01-01

    The authors investigated the idea that memory systems might have evolved to help us remember fitness-relevant information--specifically, information relevant to survival. In 4 incidental learning experiments, people were asked to rate common nouns for their survival relevance (e.g., in securing food, water, or protection from predators); in…

  2. Enhancing the production effect in memory.

    PubMed

    Quinlan, Chelsea K; Taylor, Tracy L

    2013-01-01

    The production effect is the finding that subsequent memory is better for words that are produced than for words that are not produced. Whereas the current literature demonstrates that reading aloud is the most effective form of production, the distinctiveness account used to explain the production effect predicts that there is nothing special about reading aloud per se: Other forms of vocal production that include an additional distinct element should produce even greater subsequent memory benefits than reading aloud. To test this, we presented participants with study words that they were instructed to read aloud loudly, read aloud, or read silently (Experiment 1); sing, read aloud, or read silently (Experiment 2); and sing, read aloud loudly, read aloud, or read silently (Experiment 3). We observed that both reading items aloud loudly (Experiments 1 and 3) and singing items (Experiments 2 and 3) at study resulted in greater subsequent recognition than reading items aloud in a normal voice; singing had a larger memory benefit than reading aloud loudly (Experiment 3). Our findings support the distinctiveness hypothesis by demonstrating that there are other forms of production, such as singing and reading aloud loudly that have a more pronounced effect on memory than reading aloud.

  3. Joint Attention Enhances Visual Working Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gregory, Samantha E. A.; Jackson, Margaret C.

    2017-01-01

    Joint attention--the mutual focus of 2 individuals on an item--speeds detection and discrimination of target information. However, what happens to that information beyond the initial perceptual episode? To fully comprehend and engage with our immediate environment also requires working memory (WM), which integrates information from second to…

  4. Joint Attention Enhances Visual Working Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gregory, Samantha E. A.; Jackson, Margaret C.

    2017-01-01

    Joint attention--the mutual focus of 2 individuals on an item--speeds detection and discrimination of target information. However, what happens to that information beyond the initial perceptual episode? To fully comprehend and engage with our immediate environment also requires working memory (WM), which integrates information from second to…

  5. Adaptive Memory: Survival Processing Enhances Retention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nairne, James S.; Thompson, Sarah R.; Pandeirada, Josefa N. S.

    2007-01-01

    The authors investigated the idea that memory systems might have evolved to help us remember fitness-relevant information--specifically, information relevant to survival. In 4 incidental learning experiments, people were asked to rate common nouns for their survival relevance (e.g., in securing food, water, or protection from predators); in…

  6. Familiarity Enhances Visual Working Memory for Faces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Margaret C.; Raymond, Jane E.

    2008-01-01

    Although it is intuitive that familiarity with complex visual objects should aid their preservation in visual working memory (WM), empirical evidence for this is lacking. This study used a conventional change-detection procedure to assess visual WM for unfamiliar and famous faces in healthy adults. Across experiments, faces were upright or…

  7. Familiarity Enhances Visual Working Memory for Faces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Margaret C.; Raymond, Jane E.

    2008-01-01

    Although it is intuitive that familiarity with complex visual objects should aid their preservation in visual working memory (WM), empirical evidence for this is lacking. This study used a conventional change-detection procedure to assess visual WM for unfamiliar and famous faces in healthy adults. Across experiments, faces were upright or…

  8. Enhancing Memory Access for Less Skilled Readers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Emily R.; O'Brien, Edward J.

    2016-01-01

    Less skilled readers' comprehension often suffers because they have an impoverished representation of text in long-term memory; this, in turn, increases the difficulty of gaining access to backgrounded information necessary for maintaining coherence. The results of four experiments demonstrated that providing less skilled readers with additional…

  9. Cavity-Enhanced Room-Temperature Broadband Raman Memory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saunders, D. J.; Munns, J. H. D.; Champion, T. F. M.; Qiu, C.; Kaczmarek, K. T.; Poem, E.; Ledingham, P. M.; Walmsley, I. A.; Nunn, J.

    2016-03-01

    Broadband quantum memories hold great promise as multiplexing elements in future photonic quantum information protocols. Alkali-vapor Raman memories combine high-bandwidth storage, on-demand readout, and operation at room temperature without collisional fluorescence noise. However, previous implementations have required large control pulse energies and have suffered from four-wave-mixing noise. Here, we present a Raman memory where the storage interaction is enhanced by a low-finesse birefringent cavity tuned into simultaneous resonance with the signal and control fields, dramatically reducing the energy required to drive the memory. By engineering antiresonance for the anti-Stokes field, we also suppress the four-wave-mixing noise and report the lowest unconditional noise floor yet achieved in a Raman-type warm vapor memory, (15 ±2 )×10-3 photons per pulse, with a total efficiency of (9.5 ±0.5 )%.

  10. Neurometabolic mechanisms for memory enhancement and neuroprotection of methylene blue

    PubMed Central

    Rojas, Julio C.; Bruchey, Aleksandra K.; Gonzalez-Lima, F.

    2011-01-01

    This paper provides the first review of the memory-enhancing and neuroprotective metabolic mechanisms of action of methylene blue in vivo. These mechanisms have important implications as a new neurobiological approach to improve normal memory and to treat memory impairment and neurodegeneration associated with mitochondrial dysfunction. Methylene blue’s action is unique because its neurobiological effects are not determined by regular drug-receptor interactions or drug-response paradigms. Methylene blue shows a hormetic dose-response, with opposite effects at low and high doses. At low doses, methylene blue is an electron cycler in the mitochondrial electron transport chain, with unparalleled antioxidant and cell respiration-enhancing properties that affect the function of the nervous system in a versatile manner. A major role of the respiratory enzyme cytochrome oxidase on the memory-enhancing effects of methylene blue is supported by available data. The memory-enhancing effects have been associated with improvement of memory consolidation in a network-specific and use-dependent fashion. In addition, low doses of methylene blue have also been used for neuroprotection against mitochondrial dysfunction in humans and experimental models of disease. The unique auto-oxidizing property of methylene blue and its pleiotropic effects on a number of tissue oxidases explain its potent neuroprotective effects at low doses. The evidence reviewed supports a mechanistic role of low-dose methylene blue as a promising and safe intervention for improving memory and for the treatment of acute and chronic conditions characterized by increased oxidative stress, neurodegeneration and memory impairment. PMID:22067440

  11. Emotional Memories Are Not All Created Equal: Evidence for Selective Memory Enhancement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Adam K.; Grabski, Wojtek; Lacka, Dominika; Yamaguchi, Yuki

    2006-01-01

    Human brain imaging studies have shown that greater amygdala activation to emotional relative to neutral events leads to enhanced episodic memory. Other studies have shown that fearful faces also elicit greater amygdala activation relative to neutral faces. To the extent that amygdala recruitment is sufficient to enhance recollection, these…

  12. Mindfulness Enhances Episodic Memory Performance: Evidence from a Multimethod Investigation

    PubMed Central

    Goodman, Robert J.; Ryan, Richard M.; Anālayo, Bhikkhu

    2016-01-01

    Training in mindfulness, classically described as a receptive attentiveness to present events and experiences, has been shown to improve attention and working memory. Both are key to long-term memory formation, and the present three-study series used multiple methods to examine whether mindfulness would enhance episodic memory, a key form of long-term memory. In Study 1 (N = 143), a self-reported state of mindful attention predicted better recognition performance in the Remember-Know (R-K) paradigm. In Study 2 (N = 93), very brief training in a focused attention form of mindfulness also produced better recognition memory performance on the R-K task relative to a randomized, well-matched active control condition. Study 3 (N = 57) extended these findings by showing that relative to randomized active and inactive control conditions the effect of very brief mindfulness training generalized to free-recall memory performance. This study also found evidence for mediation of the mindfulness training—episodic memory relation by intrinsic motivation. These findings indicate that mindful attention can beneficially impact motivation and episodic memory, with potential implications for educational and occupational performance. PMID:27115491

  13. Mindfulness Enhances Episodic Memory Performance: Evidence from a Multimethod Investigation.

    PubMed

    Brown, Kirk Warren; Goodman, Robert J; Ryan, Richard M; Anālayo, Bhikkhu

    2016-01-01

    Training in mindfulness, classically described as a receptive attentiveness to present events and experiences, has been shown to improve attention and working memory. Both are key to long-term memory formation, and the present three-study series used multiple methods to examine whether mindfulness would enhance episodic memory, a key form of long-term memory. In Study 1 (N = 143), a self-reported state of mindful attention predicted better recognition performance in the Remember-Know (R-K) paradigm. In Study 2 (N = 93), very brief training in a focused attention form of mindfulness also produced better recognition memory performance on the R-K task relative to a randomized, well-matched active control condition. Study 3 (N = 57) extended these findings by showing that relative to randomized active and inactive control conditions the effect of very brief mindfulness training generalized to free-recall memory performance. This study also found evidence for mediation of the mindfulness training-episodic memory relation by intrinsic motivation. These findings indicate that mindful attention can beneficially impact motivation and episodic memory, with potential implications for educational and occupational performance.

  14. Context odor presentation during sleep enhances memory in honeybees.

    PubMed

    Zwaka, Hanna; Bartels, Ruth; Gora, Jacob; Franck, Vivien; Culo, Ana; Götsch, Moritz; Menzel, Randolf

    2015-11-02

    Sleep plays an important role in stabilizing new memory traces after learning [1-3]. Here we investigate whether sleep's role in memory processing is similar in evolutionarily distant species and demonstrate that a context trigger during deep-sleep phases improves memory in invertebrates, as it does in humans. We show that in honeybees (Apis mellifera), exposure to an odor during deep sleep that has been present during learning improves memory performance the following day. Presentation of the context odor during wake phases or novel odors during sleep does not enhance memory. In humans, memory consolidation can be triggered by presentation of a context odor during slow-wave sleep that had been present during learning [3-5]. Our results reveal that deep-sleep phases in honeybees have the potential to prompt memory consolidation, just as they do in humans. This study provides strong evidence for a conserved role of sleep-and how it affects memory processes-from insects to mammals. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Brain computer interface to enhance episodic memory in human participants

    PubMed Central

    Burke, John F.; Merkow, Maxwell B.; Jacobs, Joshua; Kahana, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    Recent research has revealed that neural oscillations in the theta (4–8 Hz) and alpha (9–14 Hz) bands are predictive of future success in memory encoding. Because these signals occur before the presentation of an upcoming stimulus, they are considered stimulus-independent in that they correlate with enhanced memory encoding independent of the item being encoded. Thus, such stimulus-independent activity has important implications for the neural mechanisms underlying episodic memory as well as the development of cognitive neural prosthetics. Here, we developed a brain computer interface (BCI) to test the ability of such pre-stimulus activity to modulate subsequent memory encoding. We recorded intracranial electroencephalography (iEEG) in neurosurgical patients as they performed a free recall memory task, and detected iEEG theta and alpha oscillations that correlated with optimal memory encoding. We then used these detected oscillatory changes to trigger the presentation of items in the free recall task. We found that item presentation contingent upon the presence of pre-stimulus theta and alpha oscillations modulated memory performance in more sessions than expected by chance. Our results suggest that an electrophysiological signal may be causally linked to a specific behavioral condition, and contingent stimulus presentation has the potential to modulate human memory encoding. PMID:25653605

  16. Nicotine enhances contextual fear memory reconsolidation in rats.

    PubMed

    Tian, Shaowen; Huang, Fulian; Li, Peng; Li, Zhenbang; Zhou, Shouhong; Deng, Haifeng; Yang, Yufeng

    2011-01-10

    There is increasing evidence that nicotine is involved in learning and memory. However, there remains no study that has explored the relationship between nicotine and memory reconsolidation. At present study, we tested the effects of nicotine on the reconsolidation of contextual fear memory in rats. Behavior procedure involved four training phases: habituation (Day 0), fear conditioning (Day 1), reactivation (Day 2) and test (Day 3). Rats were injected saline or nicotine (0.25, 0.5 and 1.0mg/kg) immediately after reactivation. Percent of time spent freezing was used to measure conditioned fear response. Results showed that compared with saline rats, rats with nicotine at 1.0mg/kg presented a significant increase of freezing response on Day 3. Nicotine at 1.0mg/kg was ineffective when injected 6h after reactivation. Further results showed that the enhancement of freezing response induced by nicotine at 1.0mg/kg was dependent on fear memory reconsolidation, and was not attributed to an enhancement of the nonspecific freezing response 24h after nicotine administration. The results suggest that nicotine administration immediately after reactivation enhances contextual fear memory reconsolidation. Our present finding extends previous research on the nicotinic effects on learning and memory.

  17. The influences of partner accuracy and partner memory ability on social false memories.

    PubMed

    Numbers, Katya T; Meade, Michelle L; Perga, Vladimir A

    2014-11-01

    In this study, we examined whether increasing the proportion of false information suggested by a confederate would influence the magnitude of socially introduced false memories in the social contagion paradigm Roediger, Meade, & Bergman (Psychonomic Bulletin & Review 8:365-371, 2001). One participant and one confederate collaboratively recalled items from previously studied household scenes. During collaboration, the confederate interjected 0 %, 33 %, 66 %, or 100 % false items. On subsequent individual-recall tests across three experiments, participants were just as likely to incorporate misleading suggestions from a partner who was mostly accurate (33 % incorrect) as they were from a partner who was not at all accurate (100 % incorrect). Even when participants witnessed firsthand that their partner had a very poor memory on a related memory task, they were still as likely to incorporate the confederate's entirely misleading suggestions on subsequent recall and recognition tests (Exp. 2). Only when participants witnessed firsthand that their partner had a very poor memory on a practice test of the experimental task itself were they able to reduce false memory, and this reduction occurred selectively on a subsequent individual recognition test (Exp. 3). These data demonstrate that participants do not always consider their partners' memory ability when working on collaborative memory tasks.

  18. Self-Imagining Enhances Recognition Memory in Memory-Impaired Individuals with Neurological Damage

    PubMed Central

    Grilli, Matthew D.; Glisky, Elizabeth L.

    2010-01-01

    Objective The ability to imagine an elaborative event from a personal perspective relies on a number of cognitive processes that may potentially enhance subsequent memory for the event, including visual imagery, semantic elaboration, emotional processing, and self-referential processing. In an effort to find a novel strategy for enhancing memory in memory-impaired individuals with neurological damage, the present study investigated the mnemonic benefit of a method we refer to as “self-imagining” – or the imagining of an event from a realistic, personal perspective. Method Fourteen individuals with neurologically-based memory deficits and fourteen healthy control participants intentionally encoded neutral and emotional sentences under three instructions: structural-baseline processing, semantic processing, and self-imagining. Results Findings revealed a robust “self-imagination effect” as self-imagination enhanced recognition memory relative to deep semantic elaboration in both memory-impaired individuals, F (1, 13) = 32.11, p < .001, η2 = .71, and healthy controls, F (1, 13) = 5.57, p < .05, η2 = .30. In addition, results indicated that mnemonic benefits of self-imagination were not limited by severity of the memory disorder nor were they related to self-reported vividness of visual imagery, semantic processing, or emotional content of the materials. Conclusions The findings suggest that the self-imagination effect may depend on unique mnemonic mechanisms possibly related to self-referential processing, and that imagining an event from a personal perspective makes that event particularly memorable even for those individuals with severe memory deficits. Self-imagining may thus provide an effective rehabilitation strategy for individuals with memory impairment. PMID:20873930

  19. Are older adults more social than younger adults? Social importance increases older adults' prospective memory performance.

    PubMed

    Altgassen, Mareike; Kliegel, Matthias; Brandimonte, Maria; Filippello, Pina

    2010-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the influence of social importance on prospective remembering in younger and older adults as a possible factor contributing to the age-prospective memory paradox. Using a between-subjects design, 40 younger and 40 older adults worked on a time-based prospective memory task in which social importance was varied. Overall, younger adults outperformed older adults in the prospective memory task. Importantly, in contrast to younger adults, older adults' prospective memory performance was significantly better in the social importance condition than in the standard condition. This interaction was not reflected in participants' time-monitoring behaviour. Findings are discussed in the context of recent prospective memory theories.

  20. Repetition enhancement of amygdala and visual cortex functional connectivity reflects nonconscious memory for negative visual stimuli

    PubMed Central

    Kark, Sarah M.; Slotnick, Scott D.; Kensinger, Elizabeth A.

    2017-01-01

    Most studies using a recognition memory paradigm examine the neural processes that support the ability to consciously recognize past events. However, there can also be nonconscious influences from the prior study episode that reflect repetition suppression effects—a reduction in the magnitude of activity for repeated presentations of stimuli—that are revealed by comparing neural activity associated with forgotten items to correctly rejected novel items. The present fMRI study examined the effect of emotional valence (positive vs. negative) on repetition suppression effects. Using a standard recognition memory task, 24 participants viewed line drawings of previously studied negative, positive, and neutral photos intermixed with novel line drawings. For each item, participants made an old–new recognition judgment and a sure–unsure confidence rating. Collapsed across valence, repetition suppression effects were found in ventral occipital-temporal cortex and frontal regions. Activity levels in the majority of these regions were not modulated by valence. However, repetition enhancement of the amygdala and ventral occipital-temporal cortex functional connectivity reflected nonconscious memory for negative items. In this study, valence had little effect on activation patterns but had a larger effect on functional connectivity patterns that were markers of nonconscious memory. Beyond memory and emotion, these findings are relevant to other cognitive and social neuroscientists that utilize fMRI repetition effects to investigate perception, attention, social cognition, and other forms of learning and memory. PMID:27676616

  1. Enhancing Students' Socialization: Key Elements. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brophy, Jere

    Coping with students who display social adjustment problems can be frustrating. However, teachers can take actions toward minimizing classroom conflicts by socializing students into a classroom environment conducive to learning. Modeling prosocial behavior is the most basic element for enhancing student socialization. In situations in which…

  2. Psychosocial stress enhances non-drug-related positive memory retrieval in male abstinent heroin addicts.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Li-Yan; Shi, Jie; Zhang, Xiao-Li; Lu, Lin

    2010-11-12

    Stress exposure in addicted individuals is known to provoke drug craving, presumably through a memory-like process, but less is known about the effects of stress on non-drug-related affective memory retrieval per se in such individuals, which is likely to provide important insights into therapy for relapse. In present study, we explored the effect of stress on retrieval of neutral and emotionally valenced (positive and negative) words in abstinent heroin addicts. In present study, 28 male inpatient abstinent heroin addicts and 20 sex-, age-, education- and economic status-matched healthy control participants were assessed for 24h delayed recall of valenced and neutral word lists on two occasions 4 weeks apart-once in a nonstress control condition, once after exposure to the Trier Social Stress Test in a counterbalanced design. In addition, attention, working memory, blood pressure, heart rate and salivary cortisol were assessed. We found acute stress at the time of word list recall enhanced retrieval of positively valenced words, but no effect on negative and neutral word retrieval in abstinent heroin addicts was observed. No changes were detected for attention and working memory. The stressor induced a significant increase in salivary free cortisol, blood pressure and heart rate. Stress can enhance non-drug-related positive memory in abstinent heroin addicts. Our findings will provide richer information in understanding dysregulation of their emotional memory processing under stress and hopefully provide insight into designing improved treatments for drug addiction.

  3. Nasal application of neuropeptide S reduces anxiety and prolongs memory in rats: social versus non-social effects.

    PubMed

    Lukas, Michael; Neumann, Inga D

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies demonstrated potent behavioral effects of centrally applied neuropeptide S (NPS) in mice and rats. These include increased arousal and wakefulness, facilitation of fear extinction and object memory consolidation and anxiolysis. Here, we compared the effects of NPS on both social and non-social memory, in male rats, and on social preference/social anxiety versus non-social anxiety after either intracerebroventricular (icv) or nasal application. Intranasal application of neuropeptides has been successfully employed to alter behavioral parameters in humans and rodents, but studies concerning nasal application of NPS are lacking so far. First, we confirmed the facilitatory effect of icv NPS (1 nmol) on object discrimination after an inter-exposure interval (IEI) of 240 min. These effects were context-dependent, as icv NPS (1 nmol) did not prolong social memory in a social discrimination paradigm. Second, we confirmed the anxiolytic effect of icv NPS (1 nmol) on the elevated plus-maze, whereas neither icv NPS (1 nmol) nor NPS receptor antagonist (10 nmol) altered social preference/social avoidance behavior. Third, nasal NPS (4-40 nmol applied topically on the rhinarium) facilitated object discrimination in a dose-dependent manner. Also, the anxiolytic effect of NPS on the elevated plus-maze could be confirmed after nasal administration (40 nmol). In contrast, identical doses of subcutaneously injected NPS failed to produce corresponding behavioral effects in both tests. Our findings provide evidence for memory-enhancing and anxiolytic effects of icv NPS in a non-social context. We could further show that these effects are context-specific, as social memory and social preference behavior remained unchanged after icv NPS. The effects of icv NPS were replicated by nasal application of the neuropeptide. Thus, nasal application of NPS seems to be a useful method in rodents for screening for behavioral or physiological effects before more specific and time

  4. Physiological reactivity, social support, and memory in early childhood.

    PubMed

    Quas, Jodi A; Bauer, Amy; Boyce, W Thomas

    2004-01-01

    The interactive effects of physiological reactivity and social support on children's memory were examined. Four- to 6-year-olds completed a laboratory protocol during which autonomic responses and salivary cortisol were measured. Memory was assessed shortly afterward and 2 weeks later. During the second interview, children were questioned by a supportive or nonsupportive interviewer. Few significant relations emerged between reactivity and children's short-term memory. Following a 2-week delay, cortisol reactivity was associated with poorer memory and autonomic reactivity was associated with increased accuracy among children questioned in a supportive manner but decreased accuracy among children questioned in a nonsupportive manner. Results question traditional conceptualizations of reactivity as a risk factor and instead suggest that reactivity may only confer risk in certain environmental contexts.

  5. Physiological Reactivity, Social Support, and Memory in Early Childhood

    PubMed Central

    Quas, Jodi A.; Bauer, Amy; Boyce, W. Thomas

    2010-01-01

    The interactive effects of physiological reactivity and social support on children's memory were examined. Four- to 6-year-olds completed a laboratory protocol during which autonomic responses and salivary cortisol were measured. Memory was assessed shortly afterward and 2 weeks later. During the second interview, children were questioned by a supportive or nonsupportive interviewer. Few significant relations emerged between reactivity and children's short-term memory. Following a 2-week delay, cortisol reactivity was associated with poorer memory and autonomic reactivity was associated with increased accuracy among children questioned in a supportive manner but decreased accuracy among children questioned in a nonsupportive manner. Results question traditional conceptualizations of reactivity as a risk factor and instead suggest that reactivity may only confer risk in certain environmental contexts. PMID:15144487

  6. Attenuating social affective learning effects with Memory Suppression manipulations.

    PubMed

    Molet, Mikael; Kosinski, Thierry; Craddock, Paul; Miguez, Gonzalo; Mash, Lisa E; Miller, Ralph R

    2016-02-01

    People can form opinions of other individuals based on information about their good or bad behavior. The present study investigated whether this affective learning might depend on memory links formed between initially neutral people and valenced information. First, participants viewed neutral faces paired with sentences describing prosocial or antisocial behaviors. Second, memory suppression manipulations with the potential to aid in the forgetting of valenced information were administered. Using the Think/No think paradigm, the effectiveness of four different suppression instructions was compared: Unguided Suppression, Guided Suppression, Distraction, and Thought Substitution. Overall, all the tasks appreciably reduced affective learning based on prosocial information, but only the Guided Suppression and Thought Substitution tasks reduced affective learning based on antisocial information. These results suggest that weakening the putative memory link between initially neutral people and valenced information can decrease the effect of learned associations on the evaluation of other people. We interpreted this as indicative that social affective learning may rely on declarative memories.

  7. Avicenna's pharmacological approach to memory enhancement.

    PubMed

    Rahimi, Roja; Irannejad, Shahrzad; Noroozian, Maryam

    2017-07-01

    In recent decades, the number of patients with dementia has significantly risen. Current treatments for dementia are not curative and there still is place for development of medications. Throughout the ages, several medical disciplines have systematized and codified medical knowledge acquired throughout centuries of trial and error. Revisiting these disciplines might help in gaining insight for development of medications and other therapeutic strategies. The present study aims to show the possible benefits of an immanent understanding of the approach towards memory and dementias taken by humoral medical discourse in the Islamicate world. This study presents how brain function was theorized in the medieval Islamicate world. Afterwards, a brief history of the theory of the inner senses and of humoral medicine is briefly presented. Then the definition of memory and its localization within the brain as theorized in the framework of humoral medicine is closely studied. To demonstrate the possible advantages of the study of the inner logic of humoral medicine, ten medicinal plants are chosen and discussed.

  8. Co-learning facilitates memory in mice: a new avenue in social neuroscience.

    PubMed

    Lipina, Tatiana V; Roder, John C

    2013-01-01

    Social context affects brain function but our understanding of its neurobiology is at an early stage. The mere presence of one individual can alter the cognitive capacities of another and social learning has been demonstrated in many species, including the mouse. We asked several questions: 1. How can active engagement of two familiar mice in the same learning activity (co-learning) alter their memory? 2. Under which environmental conditions (aversive vs non-aversive) can we expect the memory to be enhanced, impaired, or not affected? 3. Can a genetic factor modify the co-learning effect on memory? More specifically, can co-learning correct memory deficits in autistic-like BTBR inbred mice with deficient sociability? We demonstrated that pairs of familiar inbred mice of the same or different genotypes (C57BL/6J and BTBR) that were habituated to new objects and their spatial location, had enhanced episodic memory in the spatial object recognition test, whereas individually-trained animals failed to solve this task. Notably, the co-learning effect was genotype-dependent. BTBR mice paired with BTBR cage-mates in the habituation session modestly ameliorated their performance in the object recognition test but co-learning with a familiar C57BL/6J mouse completely normalized episodic memory deficit. Next, we explored the co-learning effect on fear memory in these inbred strains. Interestingly, mice of both genotypes displayed significantly enhanced contextual fear memory once they had been conditioned together with BTBR animals. The same influence of BTBR presence was observed on cued fear memory in C57BL/6J mice, whereas a modest co-learning effect was found on cued fear conditioning in the BTBR strain. Taken together, we demonstrated for the first time the co-learning effect on cognitive capacities in mice, which can be modified by genetic background and environmental conditions. The possible implications of this methodological approach in social neuroscience are

  9. Self-Referencing Enhances Memory Specificity with Age

    PubMed Central

    Hamami, Ayala; Serbun, Sarah J.; Gutchess, Angela H.

    2011-01-01

    Self-referencing has been identified as an advantageous mnemonic strategy for young and older adults. However, little research has investigated the ways in which self-referencing may influence older adults’ memory for details, which is typically impaired with age, beyond memory for the item itself. Experiment 1 assessed the effects of self- and other-referencing on memory for visually detailed pictures of objects in thirty-two young and thirty-two older adults. Results indicate that self- and close other-referencing similarly enhance general (item) and specific (detail) recognition for both young and older adults relative to the distant other condition. Experiment 2 extended these findings to source memory, with young and older adults encoding verbal information in self-referent, semantic, and structural conditions. Findings suggest that self-referencing provides an age-equivalent boost in general memory and specific memory for specific source details. We conclude that the mnemonic benefits of referencing the self extend to specific memory for visual and verbal information across the lifespan. PMID:21480719

  10. Circadian phase and intertrial interval interfere with social recognition memory.

    PubMed

    Moura, Paula J; Gimenes-Júnior, João A; Valentinuzzi, Verónica S; Xavier, Gilberto F

    2009-01-08

    A modified version of the social habituation/dis-habituation paradigm was employed to examine social recognition memory in Wistar rats during two opposing (active and inactive) circadian phases, using different intertrial intervals (30 and 60 min). Wheel-running activity was monitored continuously to identify circadian phase. To avoid possible masking effects of the light-dark cycle, the rats were synchronized to a skeleton photoperiod, which allowed testing during different circadian phases under identical lighting conditions. In each trial, an infantile intruder was introduced into an adult's home-cage for a 5-minute interaction session, and social behaviors were registered. Rats were exposed to 5 trials per day for 4 consecutive days: on days 1 and 2, each resident was exposed to the same intruder; on days 3 and 4, each resident was exposed to a different intruder in each trial. The resident's social investigatory behavior was more intense when different intruders were presented compared to repeated presentation of the same intruder, suggesting social recognition memory. This effect was stronger when the rats were tested during the inactive phase and when the intertrial interval was 60 min. These findings suggest that social recognition memory, as evaluated in this modified habituation/dis-habituation paradigm, is influenced by the circadian rhythm phase during which testing is performed, and by intertrial interval.

  11. Gender Identification Moderates Social Identity Threat Effects on Working Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaiser, Cheryl R.; Hagiwara, Nao

    2011-01-01

    This investigation examined whether gender identification moderates women's working memory following exposure to situations that threaten the integrity of their gender group. Young adults read sentences that either threatened women's gender identity (in the social identity threat condition) or did not threaten this identity (in the control…

  12. Hippocampal Processing of Ambiguity Enhances Fear Memory.

    PubMed

    Amadi, Ugwechi; Lim, Seh Hong; Liu, Elizabeth; Baratta, Michael V; Goosens, Ki A

    2017-02-01

    Despite the ubiquitous use of Pavlovian fear conditioning as a model for fear learning, the highly predictable conditions used in the laboratory do not resemble real-world conditions, in which dangerous situations can lead to unpleasant outcomes in unpredictable ways. In the current experiments, we varied the timing of aversive events after predictive cues in rodents and discovered that temporal ambiguity of aversive events greatly enhances fear. During fear conditioning with unpredictably timed aversive events, pharmacological inactivation of the dorsal hippocampus or optogenetic silencing of cornu ammonis 1 cells during aversive negative prediction errors prevented this enhancement of fear without affecting fear learning for predictable events. Dorsal hippocampal inactivation also prevented ambiguity-related enhancement of fear during auditory fear conditioning under a partial-reinforcement schedule. These results reveal that information about the timing and occurrence of aversive events is rapidly acquired and that unexpectedly timed or omitted aversive events generate hippocampal signals to enhance fear learning.

  13. Selective Attention to Auditory Memory Neurally Enhances Perceptual Precision.

    PubMed

    Lim, Sung-Joo; Wöstmann, Malte; Obleser, Jonas

    2015-12-09

    Selective attention to a task-relevant stimulus facilitates encoding of that stimulus into a working memory representation. It is less clear whether selective attention also improves the precision of a stimulus already represented in memory. Here, we investigate the behavioral and neural dynamics of selective attention to representations in auditory working memory (i.e., auditory objects) using psychophysical modeling and model-based analysis of electroencephalographic signals. Human listeners performed a syllable pitch discrimination task where two syllables served as to-be-encoded auditory objects. Valid (vs neutral) retroactive cues were presented during retention to allow listeners to selectively attend to the to-be-probed auditory object in memory. Behaviorally, listeners represented auditory objects in memory more precisely (expressed by steeper slopes of a psychometric curve) and made faster perceptual decisions when valid compared to neutral retrocues were presented. Neurally, valid compared to neutral retrocues elicited a larger frontocentral sustained negativity in the evoked potential as well as enhanced parietal alpha/low-beta oscillatory power (9-18 Hz) during memory retention. Critically, individual magnitudes of alpha oscillatory power (7-11 Hz) modulation predicted the degree to which valid retrocues benefitted individuals' behavior. Our results indicate that selective attention to a specific object in auditory memory does benefit human performance not by simply reducing memory load, but by actively engaging complementary neural resources to sharpen the precision of the task-relevant object in memory. Can selective attention improve the representational precision with which objects are held in memory? And if so, what are the neural mechanisms that support such improvement? These issues have been rarely examined within the auditory modality, in which acoustic signals change and vanish on a milliseconds time scale. Introducing a new auditory memory

  14. Utility of Nutraceutical Products Marketed for Cognitive and Memory Enhancement

    PubMed Central

    McDougall, Graham J.; Austin-Wells, Vonnette; Zimmerman, Teena

    2008-01-01

    This article identifies a convenience sample of 14 memory-enhancing herbal products that were found to be available commercially, examines their active ingredients, states their claims, and evaluates the available evidence to determine their efficacy. The analyses identified four problematic areas. First, a majority of the products use cognitive terminology, which leads consumers to anticipate an intended cognitive benefit. Second, some ingredients are completely homeopathic and contain components not known outside of the homeopathic field. Third, the evidence of treatment efficacy is often contradictory, because products are recommended for purposes other than cognitive or memory loss. Finally, the manufacturers of the product have usually conducted the research on individual products. Until more research is available, it is suggested that holistic nursing professionals exercise caution in recommending nutraceuticals to their patients/clients for the use of cognitive improvement or memory enhancement. PMID:16251490

  15. Caffeine in floral nectar enhances a pollinator's memory of reward.

    PubMed

    Wright, G A; Baker, D D; Palmer, M J; Stabler, D; Mustard, J A; Power, E F; Borland, A M; Stevenson, P C

    2013-03-08

    Plant defense compounds occur in floral nectar, but their ecological role is not well understood. We provide evidence that plant compounds pharmacologically alter pollinator behavior by enhancing their memory of reward. Honeybees rewarded with caffeine, which occurs naturally in nectar of Coffea and Citrus species, were three times as likely to remember a learned floral scent as were honeybees rewarded with sucrose alone. Caffeine potentiated responses of mushroom body neurons involved in olfactory learning and memory by acting as an adenosine receptor antagonist. Caffeine concentrations in nectar did not exceed the bees' bitter taste threshold, implying that pollinators impose selection for nectar that is pharmacologically active but not repellent. By using a drug to enhance memories of reward, plants secure pollinator fidelity and improve reproductive success.

  16. Memory for time and place contributes to enhanced confidence in memories for emotional events.

    PubMed

    Rimmele, Ulrike; Davachi, Lila; Phelps, Elizabeth A

    2012-08-01

    Emotion strengthens the subjective sense of remembering. However, these confidently remembered emotional memories have not been found be more accurate for some types of contextual details. We investigated whether the subjective sense of recollecting negative stimuli is coupled with enhanced memory accuracy for three specific types of central contextual details using the remember/know paradigm and confidence ratings. Our results indicate that the subjective sense of remembering is indeed coupled with better recollection of spatial location and temporal context, but not higher memory accuracy for colored dots placed in the conceptual center of negative and neutral scenes. These findings show that the enhanced subjective recollective experience for negative stimuli reliably indicates objective recollection for spatial location and temporal context, but not for other types of details, whereas for neutral stimuli, the subjective sense of remembering is coupled with all the types of details assessed. Translating this finding to flashbulb memories, we found that, over time, more participants correctly remembered the location where they learned about the terrorist attacks on 9/11 than any other canonical feature. Likewise, participants' confidence was higher in their memory for location versus other canonical features. These findings indicate that the strong recollective experience of a negative event corresponds to an accurate memory for some kinds of contextual details but not for other kinds. This discrepancy provides further evidence that the subjective sense of remembering negative events is driven by a different mechanism than the subjective sense of remembering neutral events.

  17. Cognitive Control in Auditory Working Memory Is Enhanced in Musicians

    PubMed Central

    Pallesen, Karen Johanne; Brattico, Elvira; Bailey, Christopher J.; Korvenoja, Antti; Koivisto, Juha; Gjedde, Albert; Carlson, Synnöve

    2010-01-01

    Musical competence may confer cognitive advantages that extend beyond processing of familiar musical sounds. Behavioural evidence indicates a general enhancement of both working memory and attention in musicians. It is possible that musicians, due to their training, are better able to maintain focus on task-relevant stimuli, a skill which is crucial to working memory. We measured the blood oxygenation-level dependent (BOLD) activation signal in musicians and non-musicians during working memory of musical sounds to determine the relation among performance, musical competence and generally enhanced cognition. All participants easily distinguished the stimuli. We tested the hypothesis that musicians nonetheless would perform better, and that differential brain activity would mainly be present in cortical areas involved in cognitive control such as the lateral prefrontal cortex. The musicians performed better as reflected in reaction times and error rates. Musicians also had larger BOLD responses than non-musicians in neuronal networks that sustain attention and cognitive control, including regions of the lateral prefrontal cortex, lateral parietal cortex, insula, and putamen in the right hemisphere, and bilaterally in the posterior dorsal prefrontal cortex and anterior cingulate gyrus. The relationship between the task performance and the magnitude of the BOLD response was more positive in musicians than in non-musicians, particularly during the most difficult working memory task. The results confirm previous findings that neural activity increases during enhanced working memory performance. The results also suggest that superior working memory task performance in musicians rely on an enhanced ability to exert sustained cognitive control. This cognitive benefit in musicians may be a consequence of focused musical training. PMID:20559545

  18. Cognitive control in auditory working memory is enhanced in musicians.

    PubMed

    Pallesen, Karen Johanne; Brattico, Elvira; Bailey, Christopher J; Korvenoja, Antti; Koivisto, Juha; Gjedde, Albert; Carlson, Synnöve

    2010-06-15

    Musical competence may confer cognitive advantages that extend beyond processing of familiar musical sounds. Behavioural evidence indicates a general enhancement of both working memory and attention in musicians. It is possible that musicians, due to their training, are better able to maintain focus on task-relevant stimuli, a skill which is crucial to working memory. We measured the blood oxygenation-level dependent (BOLD) activation signal in musicians and non-musicians during working memory of musical sounds to determine the relation among performance, musical competence and generally enhanced cognition. All participants easily distinguished the stimuli. We tested the hypothesis that musicians nonetheless would perform better, and that differential brain activity would mainly be present in cortical areas involved in cognitive control such as the lateral prefrontal cortex. The musicians performed better as reflected in reaction times and error rates. Musicians also had larger BOLD responses than non-musicians in neuronal networks that sustain attention and cognitive control, including regions of the lateral prefrontal cortex, lateral parietal cortex, insula, and putamen in the right hemisphere, and bilaterally in the posterior dorsal prefrontal cortex and anterior cingulate gyrus. The relationship between the task performance and the magnitude of the BOLD response was more positive in musicians than in non-musicians, particularly during the most difficult working memory task. The results confirm previous findings that neural activity increases during enhanced working memory performance. The results also suggest that superior working memory task performance in musicians rely on an enhanced ability to exert sustained cognitive control. This cognitive benefit in musicians may be a consequence of focused musical training.

  19. Enhanced memory for emotional material following stress-level cortisol treatment in humans.

    PubMed

    Buchanan, T W; Lovallo, W R

    2001-04-01

    Memory tends to be better for emotionally arousing information than for neutral information. Evidence from animal studies indicates that corticosteroids may be necessary for this memory enhancement to occur. We extend these findings to human memory performance. Following administration of cortisol (20 mg) or placebo, participants were exposed to pictures varying in emotional arousal. Incidental memory for the pictures was assessed one week later. We show that elevated cortisol levels during memory encoding enhances the long-term recall performance of emotionally arousing pictures relative to neutral pictures. These results extend previous work on corticosteroid enhancement of memory and suggest that high cortisol levels during arousing events result in enhanced memory in humans.

  20. Enhancing Mobile Working Memory Training by Using Affective Feedback

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaaff, Kristina

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to propose a novel approach to enhance working memory (WM) training for mobile devices by using information about the arousal level of a person. By the example of an adaptive n-back task, we combine methodologies from different disciplines to tackle this challenge: mobile learning, affective computing and cognitive…

  1. Knowledge of Normal and Pathological Memory Aging in College Students, Social Workers, and Health Care Professionals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cherry, Katie E.; Allen, Priscilla D.; Jackson, Erin M.; Hawley, Karri S.; Brigman, Susan

    2010-01-01

    The Knowledge of Memory Aging Questionnaire (KMAQ) measures laypersons' knowledge of normal memory changes and pathological memory deficits in adulthood. In Experiment 1, undergraduate and graduate social work students and social work practitioners completed the KMAQ. Social workers and graduate students were more accurate on the pathological than…

  2. Sleep in Children Enhances Preferentially Emotional Declarative But Not Procedural Memories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prehn-Kristensen, Alexander; Goder, Robert; Chirobeja, Stefania; Bressman, Inka; Ferstl, Roman; Baving, Lioba

    2009-01-01

    Although the consolidation of several memory systems is enhanced by sleep in adults, recent studies suggest that sleep supports declarative memory but not procedural memory in children. In the current study, the influence of sleep on emotional declarative memory (recognition task) and procedural memory (mirror tracing task) in 20 healthy children…

  3. Everyday memory: towards a translationally effective method of modelling the encoding, forgetting and enhancement of memory.

    PubMed

    Nonaka, Mio; Fitzpatrick, Richard; Lapira, Jennifer; Wheeler, Damian; Spooner, Patrick A; Corcoles-Parada, Marta; Muñoz-López, Mónica; Tully, Tim; Peters, Marco; Morris, Richard G M

    2017-08-01

    The testing of cognitive enhancers could benefit from the development of novel behavioural tasks that display better translational relevance for daily memory and permit the examination of potential targets in a within-subjects manner with less variability. We here outline an optimized spatial 'everyday memory' task. We calibrate it systematically by interrogating certain well-established determinants of memory and consider its potential for revealing novel features of encoding-related gene activation. Rats were trained in an event arena in which food was hidden in sandwells in a different location everyday. They found the food during an initial memory-encoding trial and were then required to remember the location in six alternative choice or probe trials at various time-points later. Training continued daily over a period of 4 months, realizing a stable high level of performance and characterized by delay-dependent forgetting over 24 h. Spaced but not massed access to multiple rewards enhanced the persistence of memory, as did post-encoding administration of the PDE4 inhibitor Rolipram. Quantitative PCR and then genome-wide analysis of gene expression led to a new observation - stronger gene-activation in hippocampus and retrosplenial cortex following spaced than massed training. In a subsidiary study, a separate group of animals replicated aspects of this training profile, going on to show enhanced memory when training was subject to post-encoding environmental novelty. Distinctive features of this protocol include its potential validity as a model of memory encoding used routinely by human subjects everyday, and the possibility of multiple within-subject comparisons to speed up assays of novel compounds. © 2017 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Brain polarization enhances the formation and retention of motor memories.

    PubMed

    Galea, Joseph M; Celnik, Pablo

    2009-07-01

    One of the first steps in the acquisition of a new motor skill is the formation of motor memories. Here we tested the capacity of transcranial DC stimulation (tDCS) applied over the motor cortex during motor practice to increase motor memory formation and retention. Nine healthy individuals underwent a crossover transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) study designed to test motor memory formation resulting from training. Anodal tDCS elicited an increase in the magnitude and duration of motor memories in a polarity-specific manner, as reflected by changes in the kinematic characteristics of TMS-evoked movements after anodal, but not cathodal or sham stimulation. This effect was present only when training and stimulation were associated and mediated by a differential modulation of corticomotor excitability of the involved muscles. These results indicate that anodal brain polarization can enhance the initial formation and retention of a new motor memory resulting from training. These processes may be the underlying mechanisms by which tDCS enhances motor learning.

  5. Emotional brain states carry over and enhance future memory formation.

    PubMed

    Tambini, Arielle; Rimmele, Ulrike; Phelps, Elizabeth A; Davachi, Lila

    2017-02-01

    Emotional arousal can produce lasting, vivid memories for emotional experiences, but little is known about whether emotion can prospectively enhance memory formation for temporally distant information. One mechanism that may support prospective memory enhancements is the carry-over of emotional brain states that influence subsequent neutral experiences. Here we found that neutral stimuli encountered by human subjects 9-33 min after exposure to emotionally arousing stimuli had greater levels of recollection during delayed memory testing compared to those studied before emotional and after neutral stimulus exposure. Moreover, multiple measures of emotion-related brain activity showed evidence of reinstatement during subsequent periods of neutral stimulus encoding. Both slow neural fluctuations (low-frequency connectivity) and transient, stimulus-evoked activity predictive of trial-by-trial memory formation present during emotional encoding were reinstated during subsequent neutral encoding. These results indicate that neural measures of an emotional experience can persist in time and bias how new, unrelated information is encoded and recollected.

  6. Ascorbic Acid: a promising memory-enhancer in mice.

    PubMed

    Parle, Milind; Dhingra, Dinesh

    2003-10-01

    Alzheimer's disease is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder characterized by a gradual decline in memory. The occurrence of Alzheimer's disease is commonplace among the Asian population, particularly among senior citizens. The present study was undertaken to assess the potential of ascorbic acid as a memory-enhancer. Swiss mice of either sex were employed in the present investigation. Elevated plus-maze and passive-avoidance apparatus served as the exteroceptive behavioral models, and diazepam-, scopolamine-, and aging-induced amnesia served as the interoceptive behavioral models. Ascorbic acid (60, 120 mg/kg) injected for 3 and 8 consecutive days improved learning and memory of aged mice as indicated by decreased transfer-latency and increased step-down latency. Furthermore, ascorbic acid provided protection to the young animals from scopolamine- and diazepam-induced impairment of memory. Ascorbic acid was found to be more potent than piracetam as reflected by the smaller dose, more pronounced effect, and quicker onset of action. Ascorbic acid has shown promise as a powerful memory-improving agent particularly effective in aged animals. Hence, ascorbic acid might prove to be a useful memory-restorative agent in the treatment of dementia seen in elderly individuals. The underlying mechanism of action of ascorbic acid may be attributed to its antioxidant property.

  7. Biases in interpretation and memory in generalized social phobia.

    PubMed

    Hertel, Paula T; Brozovich, Faith; Joormann, Jutta; Gotlib, Ian H

    2008-05-01

    Two experiments examined the link between interpretation and memory in individuals diagnosed with Generalized Social Phobia (GSP). In Experiment 1, GSP and control participants generated continuations for nonsocial and ambiguous social scenarios. GSP participants produced more socially anxious and negative continuations for the social scenarios than did the controls. On the subsequent test of recalling the social scenarios, intrusion errors that shared meaning with the original continuations were made more frequently by the GSP group, producing false recall with emotionally negative features. To examine whether nonanxious individuals would also produce such errors if given emotional interpretations, in Experiment 2 the authors asked university students to read the scenarios plus endings produced by GSP participants in Experiment 1. The students either constructed vivid mental images of themselves as the main characters or thought about whether the endings provided closure. Low-anxious students in the closure condition produced fewer ending-based intrusions in recalling the social scenarios than did students in the other 3 conditions. Results illustrate the importance of examining the nature of source-monitoring errors in investigations of memory biases in social anxiety.

  8. Can Survival Processing Enhance Story Memory? Testing the Generalizability of the Adaptive Memory Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seamon, John G.; Bohn, Justin M.; Coddington, Inslee E.; Ebling, Maritza C.; Grund, Ethan M.; Haring, Catherine T.; Jang, Sue-Jung; Kim, Daniel; Liong, Christopher; Paley, Frances M.; Pang, Luke K.; Siddique, Ashik H.

    2012-01-01

    Research from the adaptive memory framework shows that thinking about words in terms of their survival value in an incidental learning task enhances their free recall relative to other semantic encoding strategies and intentional learning (Nairne, Pandeirada, & Thompson, 2008). We found similar results. When participants used incidental…

  9. Can Survival Processing Enhance Story Memory? Testing the Generalizability of the Adaptive Memory Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seamon, John G.; Bohn, Justin M.; Coddington, Inslee E.; Ebling, Maritza C.; Grund, Ethan M.; Haring, Catherine T.; Jang, Sue-Jung; Kim, Daniel; Liong, Christopher; Paley, Frances M.; Pang, Luke K.; Siddique, Ashik H.

    2012-01-01

    Research from the adaptive memory framework shows that thinking about words in terms of their survival value in an incidental learning task enhances their free recall relative to other semantic encoding strategies and intentional learning (Nairne, Pandeirada, & Thompson, 2008). We found similar results. When participants used incidental…

  10. Categorizing Others and the Self: How Social Memory Structures Guide Social Perception and Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quinn, Kimberly A.; Rosenthal, Harriet E. S.

    2012-01-01

    In keeping with the special issue theme of "Remembering the Future," this article provides a selective review of research on how memory for social information (i.e., social category representation) influences future processing and behavior. Specifically, the authors focus on how categorization and stereotyping affect how we perceive others and…

  11. Categorizing Others and the Self: How Social Memory Structures Guide Social Perception and Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quinn, Kimberly A.; Rosenthal, Harriet E. S.

    2012-01-01

    In keeping with the special issue theme of "Remembering the Future," this article provides a selective review of research on how memory for social information (i.e., social category representation) influences future processing and behavior. Specifically, the authors focus on how categorization and stereotyping affect how we perceive others and…

  12. Fat-induced satiety factor oleoylethanolamide enhances memory consolidation

    PubMed Central

    Campolongo, Patrizia; Roozendaal, Benno; Trezza, Viviana; Cuomo, Vincenzo; Astarita, Giuseppe; Fu, Jin; McGaugh, James L.; Piomelli, Daniele

    2009-01-01

    The ability to remember contexts associated with aversive and rewarding experiences provides a clear adaptive advantage to animals foraging in the wild. The present experiments investigated whether hormonal signals released during feeding might enhance memory of recently experienced contextual information. Oleoylethanolamide (OEA) is an endogenous lipid mediator that is released when dietary fat enters the small intestine. OEA mediates fat-induced satiety by engaging type-α peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPAR-α) in the gut and recruiting local afferents of the vagus nerve. Here we show that post-training administration of OEA in rats improves retention in the inhibitory avoidance and Morris water maze tasks. These effects are blocked by infusions of lidocaine into the nucleus tractus solitarii (NTS) and by propranolol infused into the basolateral complex of the amygdala (BLA). These findings suggest that the memory-enhancing signal generated by OEA activates the brain via afferent autonomic fibers and stimulates noradrenergic transmission in the BLA. The actions of OEA are mimicked by PPAR-α agonists and abolished in mutant mice lacking PPAR-α. The results indicate that OEA, acting as a PPAR-α agonist, facilitates memory consolidation through noradrenergic activation of the BLA, a mechanism that is also critically involved in memory enhancement induced by emotional arousal. PMID:19416833

  13. Pharmacological Enhancement of Memory and Executive Functioning in Laboratory Animals

    PubMed Central

    Floresco, Stan B; Jentsch, James D

    2011-01-01

    Investigating how different pharmacological compounds may enhance learning, memory, and higher-order cognitive functions in laboratory animals is the first critical step toward the development of cognitive enhancers that may be used to ameliorate impairments in these functions in patients suffering from neuropsychiatric disorders. Rather than focus on one aspect of cognition, or class of drug, in this review we provide a broad overview of how distinct classes of pharmacological compounds may enhance different types of memory and executive functioning, particularly those mediated by the prefrontal cortex. These include recognition memory, attention, working memory, and different components of behavioral flexibility. A key emphasis is placed on comparing and contrasting the effects of certain drugs on different cognitive and mnemonic functions, highlighting methodological issues associated with this type of research, tasks used to investigate these functions, and avenues for future research. Viewed collectively, studies of the neuropharmacological basis of cognition in rodents and non-human primates have identified targets that will hopefully open new avenues for the treatment of cognitive disabilities in persons affected by mental disorders. PMID:20844477

  14. Juvenile obesity enhances emotional memory and amygdala plasticity through glucocorticoids.

    PubMed

    Boitard, Chloé; Maroun, Mouna; Tantot, Frédéric; Cavaroc, Amandine; Sauvant, Julie; Marchand, Alain; Layé, Sophie; Capuron, Lucile; Darnaudery, Muriel; Castanon, Nathalie; Coutureau, Etienne; Vouimba, Rose-Marie; Ferreira, Guillaume

    2015-03-04

    In addition to metabolic and cardiovascular disorders, obesity is associated with adverse cognitive and emotional outcomes. Its growing prevalence during adolescence is particularly alarming since recent evidence indicates that obesity can affect hippocampal function during this developmental period. Adolescence is a decisive period for maturation of the amygdala and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) stress axis, both required for lifelong cognitive and emotional processing. However, little data are available on the impact of obesity during adolescence on amygdala function. Herein, we therefore evaluate in rats whether juvenile high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity alters amygdala-dependent emotional memory and whether it depends on HPA axis deregulation. Exposure to HFD from weaning to adulthood, i.e., covering adolescence, enhances long-term emotional memories as assessed by odor-malaise and tone-shock associations. Juvenile HFD also enhances emotion-induced neuronal activation of the basolateral complex of the amygdala (BLA), which correlates with protracted plasma corticosterone release. HFD exposure restricted to adulthood does not modify all these parameters, indicating adolescence is a vulnerable period to the effects of HFD-induced obesity. Finally, exaggerated emotional memory and BLA synaptic plasticity after juvenile HFD are alleviated by a glucocorticoid receptor antagonist. Altogether, our results demonstrate that juvenile HFD alters HPA axis reactivity leading to an enhancement of amygdala-dependent synaptic and memory processes. Adolescence represents a period of increased susceptibility to the effects of diet-induced obesity on amygdala function.

  15. The infamous among us: Enhanced reputational memory for uncooperative ingroup members.

    PubMed

    Hechler, Stefanie; Neyer, Franz J; Kessler, Thomas

    2016-12-01

    People remember uncooperative individuals better than cooperative ones. We hypothesize that this is particularly true when uncooperative individuals belong to one's ingroup, as their behavior violates positive expectations. Two studies examined the effect of minimal group categorization on reputational memory of the social behavior of particular ingroup and outgroup members. We manipulated uncooperative behavior as the unfair sharing of resources with ingroup members (Study 1), or as descriptions of cheating (Study 2). Participants evaluated several uncooperative and cooperative (and neutral) ingroup and outgroup members. In a surprise memory test, they had to recognize target faces and recall their behavior. We disentangled face recognition, reputational memory, and guessing biases with multinomial models of source monitoring. The results show enhanced reputational memory for uncooperative ingroup members, but not uncooperative outgroup members. In contrast, guessing behavior indicated that participants assumed more ingroup cooperation than outgroup cooperation. Our findings integrate prior research on memory for uncooperative person behavior and person memory in group contexts. We suggest that the ability to remember the uncooperative amidst the supposedly cooperative ingroup could stabilize intragroup cooperation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Enhancing Research Capacity in Gerontological Social Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mehrotra, Chandra M.; Townsend, Aloen; Berkman, Barbara

    2009-01-01

    There is an untapped potential of social work faculty to conduct aging research aimed at enhancing the well-being of older adults. To better exploit this resource, we have designed, implemented, and evaluated a postgraduate training program in aging research. The goal of the program is to build and sustain a community of social work faculty…

  17. Enhancing Students' Social and Psychological Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartz, David; Mathews, Gary

    2001-01-01

    Social and psychological development shapes a child's character and personality as well as academic achievement. This article examines five factors that are critical to this development: self-esteem, achievement motivation, social skills, coping skills, and aspirations. Self-esteem should be a desired result in and of itself, enhancing the quality…

  18. Glucocorticoids in the prefrontal cortex enhance memory consolidation and impair working memory by a common neural mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Barsegyan, Areg; Mackenzie, Scott M.; Kurose, Brian D.; McGaugh, James L.; Roozendaal, Benno

    2010-01-01

    It is well established that acute administration of adrenocortical hormones enhances the consolidation of memories of emotional experiences and, concurrently, impairs working memory. These different glucocorticoid effects on these two memory functions have generally been considered to be independently regulated processes. Here we report that a glucocorticoid receptor agonist administered into the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) of male Sprague-Dawley rats both enhances memory consolidation and impairs working memory. Both memory effects are mediated by activation of a membrane-bound steroid receptor and depend on noradrenergic activity within the mPFC to increase levels of cAMP-dependent protein kinase. These findings provide direct evidence that glucocorticoid effects on both memory consolidation and working memory share a common neural influence within the mPFC. PMID:20810923

  19. Memory enhancement program for community-based older adults: development and evaluation.

    PubMed

    Caprio-Prevette, M D; Fry, P S

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to develop a multifactorial memory enhancement program for community-dwelling older adults aimed at encouraging positive beliefs and behaviors about memory function and abilities in later life. The study evaluated the effectiveness of cognitive restructuring techniques (56 subjects) as compared to traditional memory training techniques (61 subjects) for purposes of enhancing memory performance. Posttest assessments were conducted after 10 weeks of memory training. Follow-up assessments were conducted 9 weeks later to assess maintenance of memory performance and memory beliefs. Three 2 x 3 (Treatment x Time) repeated measures multivariate analyses of variance were conducted to evaluate the effects of two types of intervention on memory performance, memory perception, and affective symptomatology over time. Results suggest that cognitive restructuring techniques may help community-dwelling older adults gain control over their beliefs about memory and thereby enhance their memory performance.

  20. The hippocampal CA2 region is essential for social memory

    PubMed Central

    Hitti, Frederick L.; Siegelbaum, Steven A.

    2014-01-01

    Summary The hippocampus is critical for encoding declarative memory, our repository of knowledge of who, what, where, and when1. Mnemonic information is processed in the hippocampus through several parallel routes involving distinct subregions. In the classic trisynaptic pathway, information proceeds from entorhinal cortex (EC) to dentate gyrus (DG) to CA3 and then to CA1, the main hippocampal output2. Genetic lesions of EC3 and hippocampal DG4, CA35, and CA16 regions have revealed their distinct functions in learning and memory. In contrast, little is known about the role of CA2, a relatively small area interposed between CA3 and CA1 that forms the nexus of a powerful disynaptic circuit linking EC input with CA1 output7. Here, we report a novel transgenic mouse line that enabled us to selectively examine the synaptic connections and behavioral role of the CA2 region in adult mice. Genetically targeted inactivation of CA2 pyramidal neurons caused a pronounced loss of social memory, the ability of an animal to remember a conspecific, with no change in sociability or several other hippocampal-dependent behaviors, including spatial and contextual memory. These behavioral and anatomical results thus reveal CA2 as a critical hub of sociocognitive memory processing. PMID:24572357

  1. The hippocampal CA2 region is essential for social memory.

    PubMed

    Hitti, Frederick L; Siegelbaum, Steven A

    2014-04-03

    The hippocampus is critical for encoding declarative memory, our repository of knowledge of who, what, where and when. Mnemonic information is processed in the hippocampus through several parallel routes involving distinct subregions. In the classic trisynaptic pathway, information proceeds from entorhinal cortex (EC) to dentate gyrus to CA3 and then to CA1, the main hippocampal output. Genetic lesions of EC (ref. 3) and hippocampal dentate gyrus (ref. 4), CA3 (ref. 5) and CA1 (ref. 6) regions have revealed their distinct functions in learning and memory. In contrast, little is known about the role of CA2, a relatively small area interposed between CA3 and CA1 that forms the nexus of a powerful disynaptic circuit linking EC input with CA1 output. Here we report a novel transgenic mouse line that enabled us to selectively examine the synaptic connections and behavioural role of the CA2 region in adult mice. Genetically targeted inactivation of CA2 pyramidal neurons caused a pronounced loss of social memory--the ability of an animal to remember a conspecific--with no change in sociability or several other hippocampus-dependent behaviours, including spatial and contextual memory. These behavioural and anatomical results thus reveal CA2 as a critical hub of sociocognitive memory processing.

  2. Memory for incidentally perceived social cues: Effects on person judgment.

    PubMed

    Pawling, Ralph; Kirkham, Alexander J; Tipper, Steven P; Over, Harriet

    2017-02-01

    Dynamic face cues can be very salient, as when observing sudden shifts of gaze to a new location, or a change of expression from happy to angry. These highly salient social cues influence judgments of another person during the course of an interaction. However, other dynamic cues, such as pupil dilation, are much more subtle, affecting judgments of another person even without awareness. We asked whether such subtle, incidentally perceived, dynamic cues could be encoded in to memory and retrieved at a later time. The current study demonstrates that in some circumstances changes in pupil size in another person are indeed encoded into memory and influence judgments of that individual at a later time. Furthermore, these judgments interact with the perceived trustworthiness of the individual and the nature of the social context. The effect is somewhat variable, however, possibly reflecting individual differences and the inherent ambiguity of pupil dilation/constriction. © 2016 The British Psychological Society.

  3. Instrumental learning: an animal model for sleep dependent memory enhancement.

    PubMed

    Leenaars, Cathalijn H C; Girardi, Carlos E N; Joosten, Ruud N J M A; Lako, Irene M; Ruimschotel, Emma; Hanegraaf, Maaike A J; Dematteis, Maurice; Feenstra, Matthijs G P; Van Someren, Eus J W

    2013-07-15

    The relationship between learning and sleep is multifaceted; learning influences subsequent sleep characteristics, which may in turn influence subsequent memory. Studies in humans indicate that sleep may not only prevent degradation of acquired memories, but even enhance performance without further practice. In a rodent instrumental learning task, individual differences occur in how fast rats learn to associate lever pressing with food reward. Rats habitually sleep between learning sessions, and may differ in this respect. The current study assessed if the instrumental leaning paradigm could serve as a model to study sleep-dependent memory enhancement. Male Wistar rats performed 2 sessions of instrumental learning per day for 1-3 days. Electroencephalography was recorded both before and after the sessions. Sleep deprivation (3 h) was applied between the first and second session in a subgroup of rats. Measurements comprised the number of lever presses in each session, slow wave sleep (SWS) duration, Rapid Eye Movement Sleep (REMS) duration and sleep spindles. Baseline sleep parameters were similar for fast and slow learning rats. Task-exposure increased REMS-duration. The increase in REMS-duration was observed specifically after sessions in which learning occurred, but not after a later session. Sleep deprivation during the 3h period between the initial two sessions interfered with performance enhancement, but did not prevent this in all rats. Our considered movement control protocol induced partial sleep deprivation and also interfered with performance enhancement. The classic instrumental learning task provides a practical model for animal studies on sleep-dependent memory enhancement.

  4. Failure of Working Memory Training to Enhance Cognition or Intelligence

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Todd W.; Waskom, Michael L.; Garel, Keri-Lee A.; Cardenas-Iniguez, Carlos; Reynolds, Gretchen O.; Winter, Rebecca; Chang, Patricia; Pollard, Kiersten; Lala, Nupur; Alvarez, George A.; Gabrieli, John D. E.

    2013-01-01

    Fluid intelligence is important for successful functioning in the modern world, but much evidence suggests that fluid intelligence is largely immutable after childhood. Recently, however, researchers have reported gains in fluid intelligence after multiple sessions of adaptive working memory training in adults. The current study attempted to replicate and expand those results by administering a broad assessment of cognitive abilities and personality traits to young adults who underwent 20 sessions of an adaptive dual n-back working memory training program and comparing their post-training performance on those tests to a matched set of young adults who underwent 20 sessions of an adaptive attentional tracking program. Pre- and post-training measurements of fluid intelligence, standardized intelligence tests, speed of processing, reading skills, and other tests of working memory were assessed. Both training groups exhibited substantial and specific improvements on the trained tasks that persisted for at least 6 months post-training, but no transfer of improvement was observed to any of the non-trained measurements when compared to a third untrained group serving as a passive control. These findings fail to support the idea that adaptive working memory training in healthy young adults enhances working memory capacity in non-trained tasks, fluid intelligence, or other measures of cognitive abilities. PMID:23717453

  5. Adaptive memory: Animacy enhances free recall but impairs cued recall.

    PubMed

    Popp, Earl Y; Serra, Michael J

    2016-02-01

    Recent research suggests that human memory systems evolved to remember animate things better than inanimate things. In the present experiments, we examined whether these effects occur for both free recall and cued recall. In Experiment 1, we directly compared the effect of animacy on free recall and cued recall. Participants studied lists of objects and lists of animals for free-recall tests, and studied sets of animal-animal pairs and object-object pairs for cued-recall tests. In Experiment 2, we compared participants' cued recall for English-English, Swahili-English, and English-Swahili word pairs involving either animal or object English words. In Experiment 3, we compared participants' cued recall for animal-animal, object-object, animal-object, and object-animal pairs. Although we were able to replicate past effects of animacy aiding free recall, animacy typically impaired cued recall in the present experiments. More importantly, given the interactions found in the present experiments, we conclude that some factor associated with animacy (e.g., attention capture or mental arousal) is responsible for the present patterns of results. This factor seems to moderate the relationship between animacy and memory, producing a memory advantage for animate stimuli in scenarios where the moderator leads to enhanced target retrievability but a memory disadvantage for animate stimuli in scenarios where the moderator leads to impaired association memory. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  6. Failure of working memory training to enhance cognition or intelligence.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Todd W; Waskom, Michael L; Garel, Keri-Lee A; Cardenas-Iniguez, Carlos; Reynolds, Gretchen O; Winter, Rebecca; Chang, Patricia; Pollard, Kiersten; Lala, Nupur; Alvarez, George A; Gabrieli, John D E

    2013-01-01

    Fluid intelligence is important for successful functioning in the modern world, but much evidence suggests that fluid intelligence is largely immutable after childhood. Recently, however, researchers have reported gains in fluid intelligence after multiple sessions of adaptive working memory training in adults. The current study attempted to replicate and expand those results by administering a broad assessment of cognitive abilities and personality traits to young adults who underwent 20 sessions of an adaptive dual n-back working memory training program and comparing their post-training performance on those tests to a matched set of young adults who underwent 20 sessions of an adaptive attentional tracking program. Pre- and post-training measurements of fluid intelligence, standardized intelligence tests, speed of processing, reading skills, and other tests of working memory were assessed. Both training groups exhibited substantial and specific improvements on the trained tasks that persisted for at least 6 months post-training, but no transfer of improvement was observed to any of the non-trained measurements when compared to a third untrained group serving as a passive control. These findings fail to support the idea that adaptive working memory training in healthy young adults enhances working memory capacity in non-trained tasks, fluid intelligence, or other measures of cognitive abilities.

  7. Dietary ketosis enhances memory in mild cognitive impairment

    PubMed Central

    Krikorian, Robert; Shidler, Marcelle D; Dangelo, Krista; Couch, Sarah C; Benoit, Stephen C; Clegg, Deborah J

    2010-01-01

    We randomly assigned 23 older adults with Mild Cognitive Impairment to either a high carbohydrate or very low carbohydrate diet. Following the six-week intervention period, we observed improved verbal memory performance for the low carbohydrate subjects (p = 0.01) as well as reductions in weight (p < 0.0001), waist circumference (p < 0.0001), fasting glucose (p = 0.009), and fasting insulin (p = 0.005). Level of depressive symptoms was not affected. Change in calorie intake, insulin level, and weight were not correlated with memory performance for the entire sample, although a trend toward a moderate relationship between insulin and memory was observed within the low carbohydrate group. Ketone levels were positively correlated with memory performance (p = 0.04). These findings indicate that very low carbohydrate consumption, even in the short-term, can improve memory function in older adults with increased risk for Alzheimer’s disease. While this effect may be attributable in part to correction of hyperinsulinemia, other mechanisms associated with ketosis such as reduced inflammation and enhanced energy metabolism also may have contributed to improved neurocognitive function. Further investigation of this intervention is warranted to evaluate its preventive potential and mechanisms of action in the context of early neurodegeneration. PMID:21130529

  8. The uniqueness of social attention revisited: working memory load interferes with endogenous but not social orienting.

    PubMed

    Hayward, Dana A; Ristic, Jelena

    2013-12-01

    It is well known that perceived eye gaze direction influences attentional orienting. However, it still remains unclear whether social orienting involves exogenous or endogenous attentional control. To address this issue, we examined if social orienting and endogenous orienting were differentially modulated by working memory load, which is known to interfere with endogenous but not exogenous attention. To do so, we manipulated eye direction as either spatially counterpredictive in Experiment 1 or spatially predictive in Experiment 2 while participants performed a cueing task either in isolation or under working memory load. We found that when social attention and endogenous attention diverged spatially in Experiment 1, social orienting elicited by gaze direction remained intact while endogenous orienting elicited by the cue's predictive meaning was suppressed under working memory load, suggesting independence between social orienting and endogenous orienting. Indeed, a comparison between the sum of isolated social orienting and endogenous orienting magnitudes from Experiment 1 relative to their combined measure from Experiment 2 confirmed that social attention and endogenous attention operated in parallel. Together, our data show that social orienting is independent from endogenous orienting and further suggest that paying attention to social information might involve either exogenous or unique attentional mechanisms.

  9. Deep brain stimulation for enhancement of learning and memory.

    PubMed

    Suthana, Nanthia; Fried, Itzhak

    2014-01-15

    Deep brain stimulation (DBS) has emerged as a powerful technique to treat a host of neurological and neuropsychiatric disorders from Parkinson's disease and dystonia, to depression, and obsessive compulsive disorder (Benabid et al., 1987; Lang and Lozano, 1998; Davis et al., 1997; Vidailhet et al., 2005; Mayberg et al., 2005; Nuttin et al., 1999). More recently, results suggest that DBS can enhance memory for facts and events that are dependent on the medial temporal lobe (MTL), thus raising the possibility for DBS to be used as a treatment for MTL- related neurological disorders (e.g. Alzheimer's disease, temporal lobe epilepsy, and MTL injuries). In the following review, we summarize key results that show the ability of DBS or cortical surface stimulation to enhance memory. We also discuss current knowledge regarding the temporal specificity, underlying neurophysiological mechanisms of action, and generalization of stimulation's effects on memory. Throughout our discussion, we also propose several future directions that will provide the necessary insight into if and how DBS could be used as a therapeutic treatment for memory disorders.

  10. Prefrontocortical dopamine loss in rats delays long-term extinction of contextual conditioned fear, and reduces social interaction without affecting short-term social interaction memory.

    PubMed

    Fernandez Espejo, Emilio

    2003-03-01

    Prefrontal dopamine loss delays extinction of cued fear conditioning responses, but its role in contextual fear conditioning has not been explored. Medial prefrontal lesions also enhance social interaction in rats, but the role of prefrontal dopamine loss on social interaction memory is not known. Besides, a role for subcortical accumbal dopamine on mnesic changes after prefrontal dopamine manipulation has been proposed but not explored. The objective was to study the involvement of dopaminergic neurotransmission in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and nucleus accumbens in two mnesic tasks: contextual fear conditioning and social interaction memory. For contextual fear conditioning, short- and long-term freezing responses after an electric shock were studied, as well as extinction retention. Regarding social interaction memory, the recognition of a juvenile, a very sensitive short-term memory test, was used. Dopamine loss was carried out by injection of 6-hydroxydopamine, and postmortem catecholamine levels were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography. Prefrontocortical dopamine loss (>76%) led to a reactive enhancement of accumbal dopamine content (p<0.01), supporting the hypothesis that a hyperdopaminergic tone emerges in the nucleus accumbens after prefrontocortical dopamine loss. In lesioned rats, long-term extinction of contextual fear conditioning was significantly delayed and extinction retention was impaired without changes in acquisition and short-term contextual fear conditioning and, on the other hand, acquisition and short-term social interaction memory were not affected, although time spent on social interaction was significantly reduced. Added dopamine loss in the nucleus accumbens (>76%) did not alter these behavioral changes. In summary, the results of the present study indicate that the dopaminergic network in the mPFC (but not in the nucleus accumbens) coordinates the normal long-term extinction of contextual fear conditioning

  11. Divided attention can enhance memory encoding: the attentional boost effect in implicit memory.

    PubMed

    Spataro, Pietro; Mulligan, Neil W; Rossi-Arnaud, Clelia

    2013-07-01

    Distraction during encoding has long been known to disrupt later memory performance. Contrary to this long-standing result, we show that detecting an infrequent target in a dual-task paradigm actually improves memory encoding for a concurrently presented word, above and beyond the performance reached in the full-attention condition. This absolute facilitation was obtained in 2 perceptual implicit tasks (lexical decision and word fragment completion) but not in a conceptual implicit task (semantic classification). In the case of recognition memory, the facilitation was relative, bringing accuracy in the divided attention condition up to the level of accuracy in the full attention condition. The findings follow from the hypothesis that the attentional boost effect reflects enhanced visual encoding of the study stimulus consequent to the transient orienting response to the dual-task target. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  12. Increased hippocampal cell density and enhanced spatial memory in the valproic acid rat model of autism.

    PubMed

    Edalatmanesh, Mohammad Amin; Nikfarjam, Haniyeh; Vafaee, Farzaneh; Moghadas, Marzieh

    2013-08-14

    Autism is characterized by behavioral impairments in three main domains: social interaction; language, communication and imaginative play; and the range of interests and activities. However, neuronal processing studies have suggested that hyper-perception, hyper-attention, and enhanced memory, which may lie at the heart of most autistic symptoms. Pregnant Wistar rats were administered by either Valproic Acid (VPA, 500mg/kg) or Phosphate Buffer Saline (PBS) during fetal neural tube development on embryonic day 12.5. All offspring were subjected to various tests. The present study examined social interaction, repetitive behaviors, nociception and tactile threshold, anxiety as well as spatial memory. Histological analyses of cells in five regions of the hippocampus were done to determine neuronal density in both groups. A single intra-peritoneal injection of VPA to pregnant rats produced severe autistic-like symptoms in the offspring. The results showed significant behavioral impairments such as a lower tendency to initiate social interactions, enhanced stereotyped, repetitive behaviors, increased nociception threshold and anxiety at postnatal day (PND) 30 and PND 60. The Morris water maze learning paradigm revealed enhanced spatial memory at PND 60. Furthermore, histological analysis showed that the neuronal density in five separate regions of hippocampus (CA1, CA2, CA3, Dentate gyrus and Subiculum) were increased at PND 67. This work suggests that early embryonic exposure to VPA in rats provides a good model for several specific aspects of autism and should help to continue to explore pathophysiological and neuroanatomical hypotheses. This study provides further evidence to support the notion that spatial memory and hippocampal cell density are increased in this animal model of autism. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. Emotional arousal enhances declarative memory in patients with Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Satler, C; Garrido, L M; Sarmiento, E P; Leme, S; Conde, C; Tomaz, C

    2007-12-01

    To verify whether the long-term retention of an emotionally arousing story is stronger than the retention of a neutral story, and the enhancing effects of emotional arousal on declarative memory in Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients. Twenty subjects (10 with AD and 10 controls matched for age and educational level) were studied. After the audiovisual presentation (neutral story), the subjects rated the narrative's emotionality. Later, they answered a multiple-choice questionnaire about the stories. Two weeks later, they watched the emotionally arousing story. Subjects who watched the emotionally arousing story assigned a score of emotionality higher than the subjects in the neutral group (P = 0.023). In addition, the participants remembered more details of the arousing story, and had a higher score in the questionnaire (P < 0.001). We demonstrated that an emotionally arousing content enhances long-term declarative memory in AD. Furthermore, present finding supports the use of this instrument for clinical and research purposes.

  14. Memory for time and place contributes to enhanced confidence in memories for emotional events

    PubMed Central

    Rimmele, Ulrike; Davachi, Lila; Phelps, Elizabeth A.

    2012-01-01

    Emotion strengthens the subjective sense of remembering. However, these confidently remembered emotional memories have not been found be more accurate for some types of contextual details. We investigated whether the subjective sense of recollecting negative stimuli is coupled with enhanced memory accuracy for three specific types of central contextual details using the remember/know paradigm and confidence ratings. Our results indicate that the subjective sense of remembering is indeed coupled with better recollection of spatial location and temporal context. In contrast, we found a double-dissociation between the subjective sense of remembering and memory accuracy for colored dots placed in the conceptual center of negative and neutral scenes. These findings show that the enhanced subjective recollective experience for negative stimuli reliably indicates objective recollection for spatial location and temporal context, but not for other types of details, whereas for neutral stimuli, the subjective sense of remembering is coupled with all the types of details assessed. Translating this finding to flashbulb memories, we found that, over time, more participants correctly remembered the location where they learned about the terrorist attacks on 9/11 than any other canonical feature. Likewise participants’ confidence was higher in their memory for location vs. other canonical features. These findings indicate that the strong recollective experience of a negative event corresponds to an accurate memory for some kinds of contextual details, but not other kinds. This discrepancy provides further evidence that the subjective sense of remembering negative events is driven by a different mechanism than the subjective sense of remembering neutral events. PMID:22642353

  15. Memory for objects and startle responsivity in the immediate aftermath of exposure to the Trier Social Stress Test.

    PubMed

    Herten, Nadja; Pomrehn, Dennis; Wolf, Oliver T

    2017-03-14

    Previously, we observed enhanced long-term memory for objects used (central objects) by committee members in the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) on the next day. In addition, startle responsivity was increased. However, response specificity to an odour involved in the stressful episode was lacking and recognition memory for the odour was poor. In the current experiments, immediate effects of the stressor on memory and startle responsivity were investigated. We hypothesised memory for central objects of the stressful episode and startle response specificity to an odour ambient during the TSST to be enhanced shortly after it, in contrast to the control condition (friendly TSST). Further, memory for this odour was also assumed to be increased in the stress group. We tested 70 male (35) and female participants using the TSST involving objects and an ambient odour. After stress induction, a startle paradigm including olfactory and visual stimuli was conducted. Indeed, memory for central objects was significantly enhanced in immediate aftermath of the stressor. Startle responsivity increased at a trend level, particularly with regard to the odour involved in the stressful episode. Moreover, the stress group descriptively tended towards a better recognition of the odour involved. The study shows that stress enhances memory for central aspects of a stressful situation before consolidation processes come into play. In addition, results preliminarily suggest that the impact of stress on startle responsivity increases in strength but decreases in specificity during the first 24h after stress exposure.

  16. Pharmacological enhancement of memory or cognition in normal subjects

    PubMed Central

    Lynch, Gary; Cox, Conor D.; Gall, Christine M.

    2014-01-01

    The possibility of expanding memory or cognitive capabilities above the levels in high functioning individuals is a topic of intense discussion among scientists and in society at large. The majority of animal studies use behavioral endpoint measures; this has produced valuable information but limited predictability for human outcomes. Accordingly, several groups are pursuing a complementary strategy with treatments targeting synaptic events associated with memory encoding or forebrain network operations. Transcription and translation figure prominently in substrate work directed at enhancement. Notably, the question of why new proteins would be needed for a now-forming memory given that learning-driven synthesis presumably occurred throughout the immediate past has been largely ignored. Despite this conceptual problem, and some controversy, recent studies have reinvigorated the idea that selective gene manipulation is a plausible route to enhancement. Efforts to improve memory by facilitating synaptic encoding of information have also progressed, in part due of breakthroughs on mechanisms that stabilize learning-related, long-term potentiation (LTP). These advances point to a reductionistic hypothesis for a diversity of experimental results on enhancement, and identify under-explored possibilities. Cognitive enhancement remains an elusive goal, in part due to the difficulty of defining the target. The popular view of cognition as a collection of definable computations seems to miss the fluid, integrative process experienced by high functioning individuals. The neurobiological approach obviates these psychological issues to directly test the consequences of improving throughput in networks underlying higher order behaviors. The few relevant studies testing drugs that selectively promote excitatory transmission indicate that it is possible to expand cortical networks engaged by complex tasks and that this is accompanied by capabilities not found in normal animals

  17. Video Game Training Enhances Visuospatial Working Memory and Episodic Memory in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Toril, Pilar; Reales, José M.; Mayas, Julia; Ballesteros, Soledad

    2016-01-01

    In this longitudinal intervention study with experimental and control groups, we investigated the effects of video game training on the visuospatial working memory (WM) and episodic memory of healthy older adults. Participants were 19 volunteer older adults, who received 15 1-h video game training sessions with a series of video games selected from a commercial package (Lumosity), and a control group of 20 healthy older adults. The results showed that the performance of the trainees improved significantly in all the practiced video games. Most importantly, we found significant enhancements after training in the trained group and no change in the control group in two computerized tasks designed to assess visuospatial WM, namely the Corsi blocks task and the Jigsaw puzzle task. The episodic memory and short-term memory of the trainees also improved. Gains in some WM and episodic memory tasks were maintained during a 3-month follow-up period. These results suggest that the aging brain still retains some degree of plasticity, and that video game training might be an effective intervention tool to improve WM and other cognitive functions in older adults. PMID:27199723

  18. Video Game Training Enhances Visuospatial Working Memory and Episodic Memory in Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Toril, Pilar; Reales, José M; Mayas, Julia; Ballesteros, Soledad

    2016-01-01

    In this longitudinal intervention study with experimental and control groups, we investigated the effects of video game training on the visuospatial working memory (WM) and episodic memory of healthy older adults. Participants were 19 volunteer older adults, who received 15 1-h video game training sessions with a series of video games selected from a commercial package (Lumosity), and a control group of 20 healthy older adults. The results showed that the performance of the trainees improved significantly in all the practiced video games. Most importantly, we found significant enhancements after training in the trained group and no change in the control group in two computerized tasks designed to assess visuospatial WM, namely the Corsi blocks task and the Jigsaw puzzle task. The episodic memory and short-term memory of the trainees also improved. Gains in some WM and episodic memory tasks were maintained during a 3-month follow-up period. These results suggest that the aging brain still retains some degree of plasticity, and that video game training might be an effective intervention tool to improve WM and other cognitive functions in older adults.

  19. Enhancing effects of acute psychosocial stress on priming of non-declarative memory in healthy young adults.

    PubMed

    Hidalgo, Vanesa; Villada, Carolina; Almela, Mercedes; Espín, Laura; Gómez-Amor, Jesús; Salvador, Alicia

    2012-05-01

    Social stress affects cognitive processes in general, and memory performance in particular. However, the direction of these effects has not been clearly established, as it depends on several factors. Our aim was to determine the impact of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and sympathetic nervous system (SNS) reactivity to psychosocial stress on short-term non-declarative memory and declarative memory performance. Fifty-two young participants (18 men, 34 women) were subjected to the Trier Social Stress Task (TSST) and a control condition in a crossover design. Implicit memory was assessed by a priming test, and explicit memory was assessed by the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test (RAVLT). The TSST provoked greater salivary cortisol and salivary alpha-amylase (sAA) responses than the control task. Men had a higher cortisol response to stress than women, but no sex differences were found for sAA release. Stress was associated with an enhancement of priming but did not affect declarative memory. Additionally, the enhancement on the priming test was higher in those whose sAA levels increased more in response to stress (r(48) = 0.339, p = 0.018). Our results confirm an effect of acute stress on priming, and that this effect is related to SNS activity. In addition, they suggest a different relationship between stress biomarkers and the different memory systems.

  20. Sleep in children enhances preferentially emotional declarative but not procedural memories.

    PubMed

    Prehn-Kristensen, Alexander; Göder, Robert; Chirobeja, Stefania; Bressmann, Inka; Ferstl, Roman; Baving, Lioba

    2009-09-01

    Although the consolidation of several memory systems is enhanced by sleep in adults, recent studies suggest that sleep supports declarative memory but not procedural memory in children. In the current study, the influence of sleep on emotional declarative memory (recognition task) and procedural memory (mirror tracing task) in 20 healthy children (10-13 years of age) was examined. After sleep, children showed an improvement in declarative memory. Separate analysis with respect to the emotional stimulus content revealed that sleep enhances the recognition of emotional stimuli (p>.001) rather than neutral stimuli (p=.084). In the procedural task, however, no sleep-enhanced memory improvement was observed. The results indicate that sleep in children, comparable to adults, enhances predominantly emotional declarative memory; however, in contrast to adults, it has no effect on the consolidation of procedural memory.

  1. Memory as Social Glue: Close Interpersonal Relationships in Amnesic Patients

    PubMed Central

    Davidson, Patrick S. R.; Drouin, Héloïse; Kwan, Donna; Moscovitch, Morris; Rosenbaum, R. Shayna

    2012-01-01

    Memory may be crucial for establishing and/or maintaining social bonds. Using the National Social life, Health, and Aging Project questionnaire, we examined close interpersonal relationships in three amnesic people: K.C. and D.A. (who are adult-onset cases) and H.C. (who has developmental amnesia). All three patients were less involved than demographically matched controls with neighbors and religious and community groups. A higher-than-normal percentage of the adult-onset (K.C. and D.A.) cases’ close relationships were with family members, and they had made few new close friends in the decades since the onset of their amnesia. On the other hand, the patient with developmental amnesia (H.C.) had forged a couple of close relationships, including one with her fiancé. Social networks appear to be winnowed, but not obliterated, by amnesia. The obvious explanation for the patients’ reduced social functioning stems from their memory impairment, but we discuss other potentially important factors for future study. PMID:23316176

  2. Socially shared mourning: construction and consumption of collective memory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harju, Anu

    2015-04-01

    Social media, such as YouTube, is increasingly a site of collective remembering where personal tributes to celebrity figures become sites of public mourning. YouTube, especially, is rife with celebrity commemorations. Examining fans' online mourning practices on YouTube, this paper examines video tributes dedicated to the late Steve Jobs, with a focus on collective remembering and collective construction of memory. Combining netnography with critical discourse analysis, the analysis focuses on the user comments where the past unfolds in interaction and meanings are negotiated and contested. The paper argues that celebrity death may, for avid fans, be a source of disenfranchised grief, a type of grief characterised by inadequate social support, usually arising from lack of empathy for the loss. The paper sheds light on the functions digital memorials have for mourning fans (and fandom) and argues that social media sites have come to function as spaces of negotiation, legitimisation and alleviation of disenfranchised grief. It is also suggested that when it comes to disenfranchised grief, and grief work generally, the concept of community be widened to include communities of weak ties, a typical form of communal belonging on social media.

  3. How social interactions affect emotional memory accuracy: Evidence from collaborative retrieval and social contagion paradigms.

    PubMed

    Kensinger, Elizabeth A; Choi, Hae-Yoon; Murray, Brendan D; Rajaram, Suparna

    2016-07-01

    In daily life, emotional events are often discussed with others. The influence of these social interactions on the veracity of emotional memories has rarely been investigated. The authors (Choi, Kensinger, & Rajaram Memory and Cognition, 41, 403-415, 2013) previously demonstrated that when the categorical relatedness of information is controlled, emotional items are more accurately remembered than neutral items. The present study examined whether emotion would continue to improve the accuracy of memory when individuals discussed the emotional and neutral events with others. Two different paradigms involving social influences were used to investigate this question and compare evidence. In both paradigms, participants studied stimuli that were grouped into conceptual categories of positive (e.g., celebration), negative (e.g., funeral), or neutral (e.g., astronomy) valence. After a 48-hour delay, recognition memory was tested for studied items and categorically related lures. In the first paradigm, recognition accuracy was compared when memory was tested individually or in a collaborative triad. In the second paradigm, recognition accuracy was compared when a prior retrieval session had occurred individually or with a confederate who supplied categorically related lures. In both of these paradigms, emotional stimuli were remembered more accurately than were neutral stimuli, and this pattern was preserved when social interaction occurred. In fact, in the first paradigm, there was a trend for collaboration to increase the beneficial effect of emotion on memory accuracy, and in the second paradigm, emotional lures were significantly less susceptible to the "social contagion" effect. Together, these results demonstrate that emotional memories can be more accurate than nonemotional ones even when events are discussed with others (Experiment 1) and even when that discussion introduces misinformation (Experiment 2).

  4. Oxytocin Enhances Social Persuasion during Hypnosis

    PubMed Central

    Bryant, Richard A.; Hung, Lynette

    2013-01-01

    It has long been argued that hypnosis cannot promote behaviors that people will not otherwise engage in. Oxytocin can enhance trust in others, and may promote the extent to which a hypnotized person complies with the suggestion of a hypnotist. This double-blind placebo study administered oxytocin or placebo to high hypnotizable participants (N = 28), who were then administered hypnotic suggestions for socially unorthodox behaviors, including swearing during the experiment, singing out loud, and dancing in response to a posthypnotic cue. Participants who received oxytocin were significantly more likely to swear and dance than those who received the placebo. This finding may be interpreted in terms of oxytocin increasing social compliance in response as a function of (a) increased trust in the hypnotist, (b) reduced social anxiety, or (c) enhanced sensitivity to cues to respond to experimental expectations. These results point to the potential role of oxytocin in social persuasion. PMID:23577153

  5. Oxytocin enhances social persuasion during hypnosis.

    PubMed

    Bryant, Richard A; Hung, Lynette

    2013-01-01

    It has long been argued that hypnosis cannot promote behaviors that people will not otherwise engage in. Oxytocin can enhance trust in others, and may promote the extent to which a hypnotized person complies with the suggestion of a hypnotist. This double-blind placebo study administered oxytocin or placebo to high hypnotizable participants (N = 28), who were then administered hypnotic suggestions for socially unorthodox behaviors, including swearing during the experiment, singing out loud, and dancing in response to a posthypnotic cue. Participants who received oxytocin were significantly more likely to swear and dance than those who received the placebo. This finding may be interpreted in terms of oxytocin increasing social compliance in response as a function of (a) increased trust in the hypnotist, (b) reduced social anxiety, or (c) enhanced sensitivity to cues to respond to experimental expectations. These results point to the potential role of oxytocin in social persuasion.

  6. Social networks: Evolving graphs with memory dependent edges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grindrod, Peter; Parsons, Mark

    2011-10-01

    The plethora of digital communication technologies, and their mass take up, has resulted in a wealth of interest in social network data collection and analysis in recent years. Within many such networks the interactions are transient: thus those networks evolve over time. In this paper we introduce a class of models for such networks using evolving graphs with memory dependent edges, which may appear and disappear according to their recent history. We consider time discrete and time continuous variants of the model. We consider the long term asymptotic behaviour as a function of parameters controlling the memory dependence. In particular we show that such networks may continue evolving forever, or else may quench and become static (containing immortal and/or extinct edges). This depends on the existence or otherwise of certain infinite products and series involving age dependent model parameters. We show how to differentiate between the alternatives based on a finite set of observations. To test these ideas we show how model parameters may be calibrated based on limited samples of time dependent data, and we apply these concepts to three real networks: summary data on mobile phone use from a developing region; online social-business network data from China; and disaggregated mobile phone communications data from a reality mining experiment in the US. In each case we show that there is evidence for memory dependent dynamics, such as that embodied within the class of models proposed here.

  7. The substrates of memory: defects, treatments, and enhancement.

    PubMed

    Lynch, Gary; Rex, Christopher S; Chen, Lulu Y; Gall, Christine M

    2008-05-06

    Recent work has added strong support to the long-standing hypothesis that the stabilization of both long-term potentiation and memory requires rapid reorganization of the spine actin cytoskeleton. This development has led to new insights into the origins of cognitive disorders, and raised the possibility that a diverse array of memory problems, including those associated with diabetes, reflect disturbances to various components of the same mechanism. In accord with this argument, impairments to long-term potentiation in mouse models of Huntington's disease and in middle-aged rats have both been linked to problems with modulatory factors that control actin polymerization in spine heads. Complementary to the common mechanism hypothesis is the idea of a single treatment for addressing seemingly unrelated memory diseases. First tests of the point were positive: Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF), a potent activator of actin signaling cascades in adult spines, rescued potentiation in Huntington's disease mutant mice, middle-aged rats, and a mouse model of Fragile-X syndrome. A similar reversal of impairments to long-term potentiation was obtained in middle-aged rats by up-regulating BDNF production with brief exposures to ampakines, a class of drugs that positively modulate AMPA-type glutamate receptors. Work now in progress will test if chronic elevation of BDNF enhances memory in normal animals.

  8. Selective Memories: Infants’ Encoding is Enhanced in Selection Via Suppression

    PubMed Central

    Markant, Julie; Amso, Dima

    2013-01-01

    The present study examined the hypothesis that inhibitory visual selection mechanisms play a vital role in memory by limiting distractor interference during item encoding. In Experiment 1a we used a modified spatial cueing task in which 9-month-old infants encoded multiple category exemplars in the contexts of an attention orienting mechanism involving suppression (i.e., inhibition of return, IOR) versus one that does not (i.e., facilitation). At test, infants in the IOR condition showed both item specific learning as well as abstraction of broader category information. In contrast, infants in the facilitation condition did not discriminate across novel and familiar test items. Experiment 1b confirmed that the learning observed in the IOR condition was specific to spatial cueing of attention and was not due to timing differences across the IOR and facilitation conditions. In Experiment 2, we replicated the results of Experiment 1, using a within-subjects design to explicitly examine learning and memory encoding in the context of concurrent suppression. These data show that developing inhibitory selective attention enhances efficacy of memory encoding for subsequent retrieval. Furthermore, these results highlight the importance of considering interactions between developing attention and memory systems. PMID:24118717

  9. Selective memories: infants' encoding is enhanced in selection via suppression.

    PubMed

    Markant, Julie; Amso, Dima

    2013-11-01

    The present study examined the hypothesis that inhibitory visual selection mechanisms play a vital role in memory by limiting distractor interference during item encoding. In Experiment 1a we used a modified spatial cueing task in which 9-month-old infants encoded multiple category exemplars in the contexts of an attention orienting mechanism involving suppression (i.e. inhibition of return, IOR) versus one that does not (i.e. facilitation). At test, infants in the IOR condition showed both item-specific learning and abstraction of broader category information. In contrast, infants in the facilitation condition did not discriminate across novel and familiar test items. Experiment 1b confirmed that the learning observed in the IOR condition was specific to spatial cueing of attention and was not due to timing differences across the IOR and facilitation conditions. In Experiment 2, we replicated the results of Experiment 1, using a within-subjects design to explicitly examine learning and memory encoding in the context of concurrent suppression. These data show that developing inhibitory selective attention enhances efficacy of memory encoding for subsequent retrieval. Furthermore, these results highlight the importance of considering interactions between developing attention and memory systems.

  10. The substrates of memory: defects, treatments, and enhancement

    PubMed Central

    Lynch, Gary; Rex, Christopher S.; Chen, Lulu Y.; Gall, Christine M.

    2008-01-01

    Recent work has added strong support to the long-standing hypothesis that stabilization of both long-term potentiation and memory require rapid reorganization of the spine actin cytoskeleton. This development has led to new insights into the origins of cognitive disorders, and raised the possibility that a diverse array of memory problems, including those associated with diabetes, reflect disturbances to various components of the same mechanism. In accord with this argument, impairments to long-term potentiation in mouse models of Huntington's disease and in middle-aged rats have both been linked to problems with modulatory factors that control actin polymerization in spine heads. Complementary to the common mechanism hypothesis is the idea of a single treatment for addressing seemingly unrelated memory diseases. First tests of the point were positive: Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF), a potent activator of actin signaling cascades in adult spines, rescued potentiation in Huntington's disease mutant mice, middle-aged rats, and a mouse model of Fragile-X syndrome. A similar reversal impairments to long-term potentiation was obtained in the middle-aged animals by up-regulating BDNF production with brief exposures to ampakines, a class of drugs that positively modulate AMPA-type glutamate receptors. Work now in progress will test if chronic elevation of BDNF enhances memory in normal animals. PMID:18374328

  11. Self-referenced memory, social cognition, and symptom presentation in autism.

    PubMed

    Henderson, Heather A; Zahka, Nicole E; Kojkowski, Nicole M; Inge, Anne P; Schwartz, Caley B; Hileman, Camilla M; Coman, Drew C; Mundy, Peter C

    2009-07-01

    We examined performance on a self-referenced memory (SRM) task for higher-functioning children with autism (HFA) and a matched comparison group. SRM performance was examined in relation to symptom severity and social cognitive tests of mentalizing. Sixty-two children (31 HFA, 31 comparison; 8-16 years) completed a SRM task in which they read a list of words and decided whether the word described something about them, something about Harry Potter, or contained a certain number of letters. They then identified words that were familiar from a longer list. Dependent measures were memory performance (d') in each of the three encoding conditions as well as a self-memory bias score (d' self-d' other). Children completed The Strange Stories Task and The Children's Eyes Test as measures of social cognition. Parents completed the SCQ and ASSQ as measures of symptom severity. Children in the comparison sample showed the standard SRM effect in which they recognized significantly more self-referenced words relative to words in the other-referenced and letter conditions. In contrast, HFA children showed comparable rates of recognition for self- and other-referenced words. For all children, SRM performance improved with age and enhanced SRM performance was related to lower levels of social problems. These associations were not accounted for by performance on the mentalizing tasks. Children with HFA did not show the standard enhanced processing of self- vs. other-relevant information. Individual differences in the tendency to preferentially process self-relevant information may be associated with social cognitive processes that serve to modify the expression of social symptoms in children with autism.

  12. Erythropoietin enhances hippocampal long-term potentiation and memory.

    PubMed

    Adamcio, Bartosz; Sargin, Derya; Stradomska, Alicja; Medrihan, Lucian; Gertler, Christoph; Theis, Fabian; Zhang, Mingyue; Müller, Michael; Hassouna, Imam; Hannke, Kathrin; Sperling, Swetlana; Radyushkin, Konstantin; El-Kordi, Ahmed; Schulze, Lizzy; Ronnenberg, Anja; Wolf, Fred; Brose, Nils; Rhee, Jeong-Seop; Zhang, Weiqi; Ehrenreich, Hannelore

    2008-09-09

    Erythropoietin (EPO) improves cognition of human subjects in the clinical setting by as yet unknown mechanisms. We developed a mouse model of robust cognitive improvement by EPO to obtain the first clues of how EPO influences cognition, and how it may act on hippocampal neurons to modulate plasticity. We show here that a 3-week treatment of young mice with EPO enhances long-term potentiation (LTP), a cellular correlate of learning processes in the CA1 region of the hippocampus. This treatment concomitantly alters short-term synaptic plasticity and synaptic transmission, shifting the balance of excitatory and inhibitory activity. These effects are accompanied by an improvement of hippocampus dependent memory, persisting for 3 weeks after termination of EPO injections, and are independent of changes in hematocrit. Networks of EPO-treated primary hippocampal neurons develop lower overall spiking activity but enhanced bursting in discrete neuronal assemblies. At the level of developing single neurons, EPO treatment reduces the typical increase in excitatory synaptic transmission without changing the number of synaptic boutons, consistent with prolonged functional silencing of synapses. We conclude that EPO improves hippocampus dependent memory by modulating plasticity, synaptic connectivity and activity of memory-related neuronal networks. These mechanisms of action of EPO have to be further exploited for treating neuropsychiatric diseases.

  13. Spatial working memory is enhanced in children by differential outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Esteban, Laura; Vivas, Ana B.; Fuentes, Luis J.; Estévez, Angeles F.

    2015-01-01

    Working memory (WM) is essential to academic achievement. Any enhancement of WM abilities may improve children’s school performance. We tested the usefulness of the differential outcomes procedure (DOP) to enhance typically developing children’s performance on a spatial WM task. The DOP involves a conditional discriminative learning task in which a correct choice response to a specific stimulus-stimulus association is reinforced with a particular reinforcer (outcome). We adapted a spatial memory task to be used with the DOP. Participants had to learn and retain in their WM four target locations of eight possible locations where a shape could be presented. Two groups of 5- and 7-year-old children performed the low-attentional version of the spatial task, and an additional group of 7-year-old children performed the high-attentional version. The results showed that compared with the standard non-differential outcomes procedure (NOP), the DOP produced better memory-based performance in 5-year-old children with the low-attentional task and in 7-year-old children with the high-attentional task. Additionally, delay intervals impaired performance in the NOP but not in the DOP. These findings suggest that the DOP may be a useful complement to other WM intervention programs targeted to improve children´s academic performance at school. PMID:26596777

  14. Erythropoietin enhances hippocampal long-term potentiation and memory

    PubMed Central

    Adamcio, Bartosz; Sargin, Derya; Stradomska, Alicja; Medrihan, Lucian; Gertler, Christoph; Theis, Fabian; Zhang, Mingyue; Müller, Michael; Hassouna, Imam; Hannke, Kathrin; Sperling, Swetlana; Radyushkin, Konstantin; El-Kordi, Ahmed; Schulze, Lizzy; Ronnenberg, Anja; Wolf, Fred; Brose, Nils; Rhee, Jeong-Seop; Zhang, Weiqi; Ehrenreich, Hannelore

    2008-01-01

    Background Erythropoietin (EPO) improves cognition of human subjects in the clinical setting by as yet unknown mechanisms. We developed a mouse model of robust cognitive improvement by EPO to obtain the first clues of how EPO influences cognition, and how it may act on hippocampal neurons to modulate plasticity. Results We show here that a 3-week treatment of young mice with EPO enhances long-term potentiation (LTP), a cellular correlate of learning processes in the CA1 region of the hippocampus. This treatment concomitantly alters short-term synaptic plasticity and synaptic transmission, shifting the balance of excitatory and inhibitory activity. These effects are accompanied by an improvement of hippocampus dependent memory, persisting for 3 weeks after termination of EPO injections, and are independent of changes in hematocrit. Networks of EPO-treated primary hippocampal neurons develop lower overall spiking activity but enhanced bursting in discrete neuronal assemblies. At the level of developing single neurons, EPO treatment reduces the typical increase in excitatory synaptic transmission without changing the number of synaptic boutons, consistent with prolonged functional silencing of synapses. Conclusion We conclude that EPO improves hippocampus dependent memory by modulating plasticity, synaptic connectivity and activity of memory-related neuronal networks. These mechanisms of action of EPO have to be further exploited for treating neuropsychiatric diseases. PMID:18782446

  15. Stress Enhances Retrieval of Drug-Related Memories in Abstinent Heroin Addicts

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Li-Yan; Shi, Jie; Zhang, Xiao-Li; Epstein, David H; Zhang, Xiang-Yang; Liu, Yu; Kosten, Thomas R; Lu, Lin

    2010-01-01

    Stress is associated with relapse to drugs after abstinence, but the mechanisms for this association are unclear. One mechanism may be that stress enhances abstinent addicts' recall of memories of drugs as stress relievers. This study assessed the effects of stress on free recall and cued recall of 10 heroin-related and 10 neutral words learned 24 h earlier by 102 abstinent heroin addicts. These participants were randomly assigned to three experiments that also assessed attention and working memory. Experiment 1 used a psychosocial stressor (Trier social stress test (TSST)) before testing for recall of heroin-related words. Experiment 2 added administration of the β-adrenoceptor antagonist propranolol 1 h before the psychosocial stressor. Experiment 3 added administration of either cortisol with propranolol, cortisol alone, or propranolol alone 1 h before word recall to determine whether stress enhancement of heroin-related word recall required noradrenergic-glucocorticoid interactions. We found that free recall of heroin-related words in abstinent addicts was enhanced after stress or cortisol administration when compared with a non-stress condition or placebo, respectively, whereas these interventions had no effect on neutral word recall. β-adrenergic blockade blocked the enhancing effect of stress or cortisol on free recall of heroin-related words. Neither stress nor cortisol affected cued recall, attention, or working memory. The potential of β-adrenergic blockade to reduce or block stress-induced enhancement of drug-related memory retrieval may be relevant to preventing stress-induced relapse in abstinent heroin addicts. PMID:19890257

  16. Brain Mechanisms of Social Threat Effects on Working Memory

    PubMed Central

    van Ast, V. A.; Spicer, J.; Smith, E. E.; Schmer-Galunder, S.; Liberzon, I.; Abelson, J. L.; Wager, T. D.

    2016-01-01

    Social threat can have adverse effects on cognitive performance, but the brain mechanisms underlying its effects are poorly understood. We investigated the effects of social evaluative threat on working memory (WM), a core component of many important cognitive capabilities. Social threat impaired WM performance during an N-back task and produced widespread reductions in activation in lateral prefrontal cortex and intraparietal sulcus (IPS), among other regions. In addition, activity in frontal and parietal regions predicted WM performance, and mediation analyses identified regions in the bilateral IPS that mediated the performance-impairing effects of social threat. Social threat also decreased connectivity between the IPS and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, while increasing connectivity between the IPS and the ventromedial prefrontal cortex, a region strongly implicated in the generation of autonomic and emotional responses. Finally, cortisol response to the stressor did not mediate WM impairment but was rather associated with protective effects. These results provide a basis for understanding interactions between social and cognitive processes at a neural systems level. PMID:25249408

  17. Delayed effects of cortisol enhance fear memory of trace conditioning.

    PubMed

    Cornelisse, Sandra; van Ast, Vanessa A; Joëls, Marian; Kindt, Merel

    2014-02-01

    Corticosteroids induce rapid non-genomic effects followed by slower genomic effects that are thought to modulate cognitive function in opposite and complementary ways. It is presently unknown how these time-dependent effects of cortisol affect fear memory of delay and trace conditioning. This distinction is of special interest because the neural substrates underlying these types of conditioning may be differently affected by time-dependent cortisol effects. Delay conditioning is predominantly amygdala-dependent, while trace conditioning additionally requires the hippocampus. Here, we manipulated the timing of cortisol action during acquisition of delay and trace fear conditioning, by randomly assigning 63 men to one of three possible groups: (1) receiving 10mg hydrocortisone 240 min (slow cort) or (2) 60 min (rapid cort) before delay and trace acquisition, or (3) placebo at both times, in a double-blind design. The next day, we tested memory for trace and delay conditioning. Fear potentiated startle responses, skin conductance responses and unconditioned stimulus expectancy scores were measured throughout the experiment. The fear potentiated startle data show that cortisol intake 240 min before actual fear acquisition (slow cort) uniquely strengthened subsequent trace conditioned memory. No effects of cortisol delivery 60 min prior to fear acquisition were found on any measure of fear memory. Our findings emphasize that slow, presumably genomic, but not more rapid effects of corticosteroids enhance hippocampal-dependent fear memories. On a broader level, our findings underline that basic experimental research and clinically relevant pharmacological treatments employing corticosteroids should acknowledge the timing of corticosteroid administration relative to the learning phase, or therapeutic intervention.

  18. Rescripting Early Memories Linked to Negative Images in Social Phobia: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wild, Jennifer; Hackmann, Ann; Clark, David M.

    2008-01-01

    Negative self-images are a maintaining factor in social phobia. A retrospective study (Hackmann, A., Clark, D.M., McManus, F. (2000). Recurrent images and early memories in social phobia. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 38, 601-610) suggested that the images may be linked to early memories of unpleasant social experiences. This preliminary study…

  19. Rescripting Early Memories Linked to Negative Images in Social Phobia: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wild, Jennifer; Hackmann, Ann; Clark, David M.

    2008-01-01

    Negative self-images are a maintaining factor in social phobia. A retrospective study (Hackmann, A., Clark, D.M., McManus, F. (2000). Recurrent images and early memories in social phobia. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 38, 601-610) suggested that the images may be linked to early memories of unpleasant social experiences. This preliminary study…

  20. Learning to Attend to Threat Accelerates and Enhances Memory Consolidation

    PubMed Central

    Abend, Rany; Karni, Avi; Sadeh, Avi; Fox, Nathan A.; Pine, Daniel S.; Bar-Haim, Yair

    2013-01-01

    Practice on a procedural task involves within-session learning and between-session consolidation of learning, with the latter requiring a minimum of about four hours to evolve due to involvement of slower cellular processes. Learning to attend to threats is vital for survival and thus may involve faster memory consolidation than simple procedural learning. Here, we tested whether attention to threat modulates the time-course and magnitude of learning and memory consolidation effects associated with skill practice. All participants (N = 90) practiced in two sessions on a dot-probe task featuring pairs of neutral and angry faces followed by target probes which were to be discriminated as rapidly as possible. In the attend-threat training condition, targets always appeared at the angry face location, forming an association between threat and target location; target location was unrelated to valence in a control training condition. Within each attention training condition, duration of the between-session rest interval was varied to establish the time-course for emergence of consolidation effects. During the first practice session, we observed robust improvement in task performance (online, within-session gains), followed by saturation of learning. Both training conditions exhibited similar overall learning capacities, but performance in the attend-threat condition was characterized by a faster learning rate relative to control. Consistent with the memory consolidation hypothesis, between-session performance gains (delayed gains) were observed only following a rest interval. However, rest intervals of 1 and 24 hours yielded similar delayed gains, suggesting accelerated consolidation processes. Moreover, attend-threat training resulted in greater delayed gains compared to the control condition. Auxiliary analyses revealed that enhanced performance was retained over several months, and that training to attend to neutral faces resulted in effects similar to control

  1. β-adrenergic blockade during memory retrieval in humans evokes a sustained reduction of declarative emotional memory enhancement

    PubMed Central

    Kroes, M. C. W.; Strange, B. A.; Dolan, R. J.

    2010-01-01

    Memory enhancement for emotional events is dependent on amygdala activation and noradrenergic modulation during learning. A potential role for noradrenaline (NE) during retrieval of emotional memory is less well understood. Here we report that administration of the β-adrenergic receptor antagonist propranolol at retrieval abolishes a declarative memory enhancement for emotional items. Critically, this effect persists at a subsequent 24 hours memory test, in the absence of propranolol. Thus, these findings extend our current understanding of the role of NE in emotional memory to encompass effects at retrieval, and provide face validity to clinical interventions using β-adrenergic antagonists in conjunction with reactivation of unwanted memories in anxiety-related disorders. PMID:20237266

  2. Effects of Sun ginseng on memory enhancement and hippocampal neurogenesis.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chang Hwan; Kim, Jong Min; Kim, Dong Hyun; Park, Se Jin; Liu, Xiaotong; Cai, Mudan; Hong, Jin Gyu; Park, Jeong Hill; Ryu, Jong Hoon

    2013-09-01

    Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer has been used in traditional herb prescriptions for thousands of years. A heat-processing method has been used to increase the efficacy of ginseng, yielding what is known as red ginseng. In addition, recently, a slightly modified heat-processing method was applied to ginseng, to obtain a new type of processed ginseng with increased biological activity; this new form of ginseng is referred to as Sun ginseng (SG). The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of SG on memory enhancement and neurogenesis in the hippocampal dentate gyrus (DG) region. The subchronic administration of SG (for 14 days) significantly increased the latency time in the passive avoidance task relative to the administration of the vehicle control (P < 0.05). Western blotting revealed that the levels of phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinase (pERK) and phosphorylated protein kinase B (pAkt) were significantly increased in hippocampal tissue after 14 days of SG administration (P < 0.05). Doublecortin and 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine immunostaining revealed that SG significantly enhanced the neuronal cell proliferation and the survival of immature neurons in the subgranular zone of the hippocampal DG region. These results suggest that SG has memory-enhancing activities and that these effects are mediated, in part, by the increase in the levels of pERK and pAkt and by the increases in cell proliferation and cell survival.

  3. Joint Attention, Social-Cognition, and Recognition Memory in Adults

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Kwanguk; Mundy, Peter

    2012-01-01

    The early emerging capacity for Joint Attention (JA), or socially coordinated visual attention, is thought to be integral to the development of social-cognition in childhood. Recent studies have also begun to suggest that JA affects adult cognition as well, but methodological limitations hamper research on this topic. To address this issue we developed a novel virtual reality paradigm that integrates eye-tracking and virtual avatar technology to measure two types of JA in adults, Initiating Joint Attention (IJA) and Responding to Joint Attention (RJA). Distinguishing these types of JA in research is important because they are thought to reflect unique, as well as common constellations of processes involved in human social-cognition and social learning. We tested the validity of the differentiation of IJA and RJA in our paradigm in two studies of picture recognition memory in undergraduate students. Study 1 indicated that young adults correctly identified more pictures they had previously viewed in an IJA condition (67%) than in a RJA (58%) condition, η2 = 0.57. Study 2 controlled for IJA and RJA stimulus viewing time differences, and replicated the findings of Study 1. The implications of these results for the validity of the paradigm and research on the affects of JA on adult social-cognition are discussed. PMID:22712011

  4. Enhancing Placebo Effects: Insights From Social Psychology

    PubMed Central

    SLIWINSKI, JIM; ELKINS, GARY R.

    2012-01-01

    Placebo effects are widely recognized as having a potent impact upon treatment outcomes in both medical and psychological interventions, including hypnosis. In research utilizing randomized clinical trials, there is usually an effort to minimize or control placebo effects. However, in clinical practice there may be significant benefits in enhancing placebo effects. Prior research from the field of social psychology has identified three factors that may enhance placebo effects, namely: priming, client perceptions, and the theory of planned behavior. These factors are reviewed and illustrated via a case example. The consideration of social-psychological factors to enhance positive expectancies and beliefs has implications for clinical practice as well as future research into hypnotic interventions. PMID:23488251

  5. Individual recognition of social rank and social memory performance depends on a functional circadian system.

    PubMed

    Müller, L; Weinert, D

    2016-11-01

    In a natural environment, social abilities of an animal are important for its survival. Particularly, it must recognize its own social rank and the social rank of a conspecific and have a good social memory. While the role of the circadian system for object and spatial recognition and memory is well known, the impact of the social rank and circadian disruptions on social recognition and memory were not investigated so far. In the present study, individual recognition of social rank and social memory performance of Djungarian hamsters revealing different circadian phenotypes were investigated. Wild type (WT) animals show a clear and well-synchronized daily activity rhythm, whereas in arrhythmic (AR) hamsters, the suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN) do not generate a circadian signal. The aim of the study was to investigate putative consequences of these deteriorations in the circadian system for animalś cognitive abilities. Hamsters were bred and kept under standardized housing conditions with food and water ad libitum and a 14l/10 D lighting regimen. Experimental animals were assigned to different groups (WT and AR) according to their activity pattern obtained by means of infrared motion sensors. Before the experiments, the animals were given to develop a dominant-subordinate relationship in a dyadic encounter. Experiment 1 dealt with individual recognition of social rank. Subordinate and dominant hamsters were tested in an open arena for their behavioral responses towards a familiar (known from the agonistic encounters) or an unfamiliar hamster (from another agonistic encounter) which had the same or an opposite social rank. The investigation time depended on the social rank of the WT subject hamster and its familiarity with the stimulus animal. Both subordinate and dominant WT hamsters preferred an unfamiliar subordinate stimulus animal. In contrast, neither subordinate nor dominant AR hamsters preferred any of the stimulus animals. Thus, disruptions in circadian

  6. Glucocorticoid receptor antagonism disrupts the reconsolidation of social reward-related memories in rats.

    PubMed

    Achterberg, E J Marijke; Trezza, Viviana; Vanderschuren, Louk J M J

    2014-06-01

    Reconsolidation is the process whereby consolidated memories are destabilized upon retrieval and restabilized to persist for later use. Although the neurobiology of the reconsolidation of both appetitive and aversive memories has been intensively investigated, reconsolidation of memories of physiologically relevant social rewards has received little attention. Social play, the most characteristic social behaviour displayed by young mammals, is highly rewarding, illustrated by the fact that it can induce conditioned place preference (CPP). Here, we investigated the role of signalling mechanisms implicated in memory processes, including reconsolidation, namely glucocorticoid, mineralocorticoid, NMDA glutamatergic and CB1 cannabinoid receptors, in the reconsolidation of social play-induced CPP in rats. Systemic treatment with the glucocorticoid receptor antagonist mifepristone before, but not immediately after, retrieval disrupted the reconsolidation of social play-induced CPP. Mifepristone did not affect social play-induced CPP in the absence of memory retrieval. Treatment with the NMDA receptor antagonist MK-801 modestly affected the reconsolidation of social play-induced CPP. However, the reconsolidation of social play-induced CPP was not affected by treatment with the mineralocorticoid and CB1 cannabinoid receptor antagonists spironolactone and rimonabant, respectively. We conclude that glucocorticoid neurotransmission mediates the reconsolidation of social reward-related memories in rats. These data indicate that the neural mechanisms of the reconsolidation of social reward-related memories only partially overlap with those underlying the reconsolidation of other reward-related memories.

  7. Glucocorticoid receptor antagonism disrupts reconsolidation of social reward-related memories in rats

    PubMed Central

    Achterberg, E.J. Marijke; Trezza, Viviana; Vanderschuren, Louk J.M.J.

    2014-01-01

    Reconsolidation is the process whereby consolidated memories are destabilized upon retrieval and restabilized to persist for later use. Although the neurobiology of reconsolidation of both appetitive and aversive memories has been intensively investigated, reconsolidation of memories of physiologically relevant social rewards has received little attention. Social play, the most characteristic social behaviour displayed by young mammals, is highly rewarding, illustrated by the fact that it can induce conditioned place preference (CPP). Here, we investigated the role of signaling mechanisms implicated in memory processes including reconsolidation, i.e. glucocorticoid, mineralocorticoid, NMDA glutamatergic and CB1 cannabinoid receptors, in the reconsolidation of social play-induced CPP in rats. Systemic treatment with the glucocorticoid receptor antagonist mifepristone before, but not immediately after retrieval, disrupted the reconsolidation of social play-induced CPP. Mifepristone did not affect social play-induced CPP in the absence of memory retrieval. Treatment with the NMDA receptor antagonist MK-801 modestly affected reconsolidation of social play-induced CPP. However, reconsolidation of social play-induced CPP was not affected by treatment with the mineralocorticoid and CB1 cannabinoid receptor antagonists spironolactone and rimonabant, respectively. We conclude that glucocorticoid neurotransmission mediates the reconsolidation of social reward-related memories in rats. These data indicate that the neural mechanisms of the reconsolidation of social reward-related memories only partially overlap with those underlying reconsolidation of other reward-related memories. PMID:24776489

  8. Functional Connectivity of Multiple Brain Regions Required for the Consolidation of Social Recognition Memory.

    PubMed

    Tanimizu, Toshiyuki; Kenney, Justin W; Okano, Emiko; Kadoma, Kazune; Frankland, Paul W; Kida, Satoshi

    2017-04-12

    Social recognition memory is an essential and basic component of social behavior that is used to discriminate familiar and novel animals/humans. Previous studies have shown the importance of several brain regions for social recognition memories; however, the mechanisms underlying the consolidation of social recognition memory at the molecular and anatomic levels remain unknown. Here, we show a brain network necessary for the generation of social recognition memory in mice. A mouse genetic study showed that cAMP-responsive element-binding protein (CREB)-mediated transcription is required for the formation of social recognition memory. Importantly, significant inductions of the CREB target immediate-early genes c-fos and Arc were observed in the hippocampus (CA1 and CA3 regions), medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), and amygdala (basolateral region) when social recognition memory was generated. Pharmacological experiments using a microinfusion of the protein synthesis inhibitor anisomycin showed that protein synthesis in these brain regions is required for the consolidation of social recognition memory. These findings suggested that social recognition memory is consolidated through the activation of CREB-mediated gene expression in the hippocampus/mPFC/ACC/amygdala. Network analyses suggested that these four brain regions show functional connectivity with other brain regions and, more importantly, that the hippocampus functions as a hub to integrate brain networks and generate social recognition memory, whereas the ACC and amygdala are important for coordinating brain activity when social interaction is initiated by connecting with other brain regions. We have found that a brain network composed of the hippocampus/mPFC/ACC/amygdala is required for the consolidation of social recognition memory.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Here, we identify brain networks composed of multiple brain regions for the consolidation of social recognition memory. We

  9. Oxytocin and social context moderate social support seeking in women during negative memory recall.

    PubMed

    Cardoso, Christopher; Valkanas, Helen; Serravalle, Lisa; Ellenbogen, Mark A

    2016-08-01

    Oxytocin is theorized to promote social support seeking under stress- an alternate biobehavioural response to challenge known as the tend-and-befriend response. These effects may be context dependent, however, and no study has evaluated this effect in the presence and absence of social support. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of oxytocin on the experience of recalling emotional autobiographical memories in two contexts-with and without social contact with an experimenter. Sixty-three individuals (32 female) participated in this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, and within-subject study. During recall of negative memories in the absence of social contact, oxytocin decreased perceived emotional support relative to placebo F(1,62)=10.75, p=0.002. In this same context, women who were motivated to affiliate with the experimenter following oxytocin administration showed this effect in greater magnitude t(57)=-2.04, p=0.047, but showed the reverse effect (i.e. increased perceived support in response to oxytocin) when social contact with the experimenter was available t(57)=2.78, p=0.007. Male participants did not evidence this pattern. These findings support the role of oxytocin in social support seeking in distressed women, and highlight the negative consequences of increasing oxytocin bioavailability in the absence of social support. Supportive relationships may be necessary to elicit the prosocial effects oxytocin. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Post-encoding emotional arousal enhances consolidation of item memory, but not reality-monitoring source memory.

    PubMed

    Wang, Bo; Sun, Bukuan

    2017-03-01

    The current study examined whether the effect of post-encoding emotional arousal on item memory extends to reality-monitoring source memory and, if so, whether the effect depends on emotionality of learning stimuli and testing format. In Experiment 1, participants encoded neutral words and imagined or viewed their corresponding object pictures. Then they watched a neutral, positive, or negative video. The 24-hour delayed test showed that emotional arousal had little effect on both item memory and reality-monitoring source memory. Experiment 2 was similar except that participants encoded neutral, positive, and negative words and imagined or viewed their corresponding object pictures. The results showed that positive and negative emotional arousal induced after encoding enhanced consolidation of item memory, but not reality-monitoring source memory, regardless of emotionality of learning stimuli. Experiment 3, identical to Experiment 2 except that participants were tested only on source memory for all the encoded items, still showed that post-encoding emotional arousal had little effect on consolidation of reality-monitoring source memory. Taken together, regardless of emotionality of learning stimuli and regardless of testing format of source memory (conjunction test vs. independent test), the facilitatory effect of post-encoding emotional arousal on item memory does not generalize to reality-monitoring source memory.

  11. Enhanced memory persistence is blocked by a DNA methyltransferase inhibitor in the snail Lymnaea stagnalis.

    PubMed

    Lukowiak, Ken; Heckler, Benjamin; Bennett, Thomas E; Schriner, Ellen K; Wyrick, Kathryn; Jewett, Cynthia; Todd, Ryan P; Sorg, Barbara A

    2014-08-15

    Lymnaea stagnalis provides an excellent model system for studying memory because these snails have a well-described set of neurons, a single one of which controls expression of long-term memory of operantly conditioned respiratory behavior. We have shown that several different manipulations, including pre-training exposure to serotonin (5-HT) or methamphetamine, submersion of snails after training to prevent memory interference, and exposure to effluent from predatory crayfish (CE), enhance memory persistence. Changes in DNA methylation underlie formation of strong memories in mammals and 5-HT-enhanced long-term facilitation in Aplysia. Here we determined the impact of the DNA methyltransferase inhibitor, 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine (5-AZA; 87 μmol l(-1)), on enhanced memory persistence by all four manipulations. We found that 5-HT (100 μmol l(-1)) enhanced memory persistence, which was blocked by 5-AZA pretreatment. Snails pre-exposed to 3.3 μmol l(-1) Meth 4 h prior to training demonstrated memory 72 h later, which was not present in controls. This memory-enhancing effect was blocked by pre-treatment with 87 μmol l(-1) 5-AZA. Similarly, submersion to prevent interference learning as well as training in CE produced memory that was not present in controls, and these effects were blocked by pre-treatment with 87 μmol l(-1) 5-AZA. In contrast, 5-AZA injection did not alter expression of normal (non-enhanced) memory, suggesting that these four stimuli enhance memory persistence by increasing DNA methyltransferase activity, which, in turn, increases expression of memory-enhancing genes and/or inhibits memory suppressor genes. These studies lay important groundwork for delineating gene methylation changes that are common to persistent memory produced by different stimuli.

  12. tDCS for Memory Enhancement: Analysis of the Speculative Aspects of Ethical Issues

    PubMed Central

    Voarino, Nathalie; Dubljević, Veljko; Racine, Eric

    2017-01-01

    Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a promising technology to enhance cognitive and physical performance. One of the major areas of interest is the enhancement of memory function in healthy individuals. The early arrival of tDCS on the market for lifestyle uses and cognitive enhancement purposes lead to the voicing of some important ethical concerns, especially because, to date, there are no official guidelines or evaluation procedures to tackle these issues. The aim of this article is to review ethical issues related to uses of tDCS for memory enhancement found in the ethics and neuroscience literature and to evaluate how realistic and scientifically well-founded these concerns are? In order to evaluate how plausible or speculative each issue is, we applied the methodological framework described by Racine et al. (2014) for “informed and reflective” speculation in bioethics. This framework could be succinctly presented as requiring: (1) the explicit acknowledgment of factual assumptions and identification of the value attributed to them; (2) the validation of these assumptions with interdisciplinary literature; and (3) the adoption of a broad perspective to support more comprehensive reflection on normative issues. We identified four major considerations associated with the development of tDCS for memory enhancement: safety, autonomy, justice and authenticity. In order to assess the seriousness and likelihood of harm related to each of these concerns, we analyzed the assumptions underlying the ethical issues, and the level of evidence for each of them. We identified seven distinct assumptions: prevalence, social acceptance, efficacy, ideological stance (bioconservative vs. libertarian), potential for misuse, long term side effects, and the delivery of complete and clear information. We conclude that ethical discussion about memory enhancement via tDCS sometimes involves undue speculation, and closer attention to scientific and social facts would

  13. Extinction Memory Improvement by the Metabolic Enhancer Methylene Blue

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez-Lima, F.; Bruchey, Aleksandra K.

    2004-01-01

    We investigated whether postextinction administration of methylene blue (MB) could enhance retention of an extinguished conditioned response. MB is a redox compound that at low doses elevates cytochrome oxidase activity, thereby improving brain energy production. Saline or MB (4 mg/kg intraperitoneally) were administered to rats for 5 d following extinction training of tone-footshock conditioning. Postextinction freezing was lower in rats receiving MB compared with saline, suggesting that MB improved retention of the extinction memory. The MB effect was specific to tone-evoked freezing because there were no differences in pretone freezing. Control subjects similarly injected with MB showed no evidence of nonspecific effects on measures of motor activity and fearfulness. MB-treated rats exhibited both greater retention of extinction and greater overall brain metabolic activity. Rats with higher retention of extinction also showed a relative increase in cytochrome oxidase activity in prefrontal cortical regions, especially anterior infralimbic cortex, dorsal and medial frontal cortex, and lateral orbital cortex. These regional metabolic increases were also correlated to the behavioral freezing index used to assess retention of extinction. It was concluded that MB administered postextinction could enhance retention of extinction memory through an increase in brain cytochrome oxidase activity. PMID:15466319

  14. Social representations of memory and gender in later medieval England.

    PubMed

    Kane, Bronach

    2012-12-01

    Social representations in later medieval culture have attracted little attention amongst psychologists, pre-dating the development of the so-called 'public sphere' in the eighteenth century. In addition, the association of pre-modern societies with 'traditional' modes of communication in social psychology places implicit limits on areas that may be studied through the lens of social representation theory. This article analyses the way in which knowledge circulated in late medieval society, noting initially the plural nature of representations of events and marginal groups, and the myriad channels through which beliefs were consolidated. In later medieval England perceptions of the past depended on collective and group memory, with customary rights and local histories forged through 'common knowledge', hearsay and the opinions of 'trustworthy men' of the village. The final section of this commentary provides an analysis of testimony from the late medieval church courts, in which witnesses articulated gender ideologies that reflected perceptions drawn from everyday life. Social representations of women were thus deployed in ecclesiastical suits, on the one hand supporting evidence of female witnesses and on the other justifying misogynistic stereotypes of women's behaviour.

  15. Post-trial administration of vasopressin in humans does not enhance memory formation (vasopressin and memory consolidation).

    PubMed

    Gais, Steffen; Sommer, Marcel; Fischer, Stefan; Perras, Boris; Born, Jan

    2002-03-01

    Many animal studies show an enhancing effect of vasopressin (VP) on memory, but not all human studies could confirm this finding. This study examined the influence of post-learning administration of VP (40 IU, intranasally) on the consolidation of declarative memories in healthy humans during different intervals of sleep and waking. We could not find any effect of VP on memory consolidation, but EEG activity indicated a significant arousing influence of VP. Results suggest that if VP affects memory function it might do so primarily at the stage of encoding of the materials to be learned but it leaves unaffected processes of consolidation.

  16. Genes and signaling pathways involved in memory enhancement in mutant mice.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yong-Seok

    2014-06-04

    Mutant mice have been used successfully as a tool for investigating the mechanisms of memory at multiple levels, from genes to behavior. In most cases, manipulating a gene expressed in the brain impairs cognitive functions such as memory and their underlying cellular mechanisms, including synaptic plasticity. However, a remarkable number of mutations have been shown to enhance memory in mice. Understanding how to improve a system provides valuable insights into how the system works under normal conditions, because this involves understanding what the crucial components are. Therefore, more can be learned about the basic mechanisms of memory by studying mutant mice with enhanced memory. This review will summarize the genes and signaling pathways that are altered in the mutants with enhanced memory, as well as their roles in synaptic plasticity. Finally, I will discuss how knowledge of memory-enhancing mechanisms could be used to develop treatments for cognitive disorders associated with impaired plasticity.

  17. Genes and signaling pathways involved in memory enhancement in mutant mice

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Mutant mice have been used successfully as a tool for investigating the mechanisms of memory at multiple levels, from genes to behavior. In most cases, manipulating a gene expressed in the brain impairs cognitive functions such as memory and their underlying cellular mechanisms, including synaptic plasticity. However, a remarkable number of mutations have been shown to enhance memory in mice. Understanding how to improve a system provides valuable insights into how the system works under normal conditions, because this involves understanding what the crucial components are. Therefore, more can be learned about the basic mechanisms of memory by studying mutant mice with enhanced memory. This review will summarize the genes and signaling pathways that are altered in the mutants with enhanced memory, as well as their roles in synaptic plasticity. Finally, I will discuss how knowledge of memory-enhancing mechanisms could be used to develop treatments for cognitive disorders associated with impaired plasticity. PMID:24894914

  18. Effects of 17 b-estradiol and extremely low-frequency electromagnetic fields on social recognition memory in female rats: a possible interaction?

    PubMed

    Reyes-Guerrero, Gloria; Vázquez-García, Mario; Elias-Viñas, David; Donatti-Albarrán, Olga A; Guevara-Guzmán, Rosalinda

    2006-06-20

    We have investigated a potential memory-enhancing effect of exposure to extremely low-frequency electromagnetic fields (ELF EMF) in female rats and its dependence on estrogen, using a social recognition task. A juvenile social recognition paradigm was used and memory retention tested at 30 and 300 min after an adult was exposed to a juvenile during two 4-min trials. Results showed that an intact social recognition memory was present at 30 min in both gonadally intact and ovariectomized rats with, or without, ELF-EMF. However, whereas gonadally intact control females failed to show retention of the recognition memory at 300 min, those additionally exposed to ELF EMF did. This shows that the enhanced duration effect of ELF EMF on social recognition memory occurs in gonadally intact females as well as in males. In addition, results showed that the ELF EMF facilitation of memory retention was prevented by ovariectomy but restored by exogenous treatment with estrogen. This suggests that this ELF EMF effect on social recognition memory is estrogen-dependent.

  19. The temporal dynamics of enhancing a human declarative memory during reconsolidation.

    PubMed

    Coccoz, V; Sandoval, A V; Stehberg, J; Delorenzi, A

    2013-08-29

    When a consolidated memory is reactivated, it can become labile and prone to enhancement or disruption, a process known as reconsolidation. The reconsolidation hypothesis has challenged the traditional view that memories after consolidation are fixed and unchangeable. Recent studies suggest that the mechanisms mediating memory retrieval and the mechanisms that underlie the behavioral expression of memory can be dissociated, offering a new promise for the understanding of human memory persistence. Although reconsolidation studies typically use amnesic agents, it has also been shown that memory can be enhanced by pharmacological agents and real-life events during reconsolidation. Recently, we demonstrated that a mild stressor, cold pressor stress (CPS), can enhance human declarative memory during reconsolidation in a cued-recall test. Here we evaluate whether the recollection of 7- or 20-day-old long-term memories can be improved by exposure to two different neuromodulators: a mild stressor and glucose during reconsolidation. As expected, poor and very poor memory performance was found at the time of memory reactivation (days 6 and 20 after training). CPS during reconsolidation improved the long-term expression of a declarative memory 6 -but not 20-days after training. However, the administration of an oral source of glucose (juice), but not a diet juice, can enhance memory during reconsolidation even 20 days after training. Interestingly, when a recognition test was applied instead of a cued-recall test, memory performance was still robust at both 1 and 3 weeks after training. Here we show that the period in which this memory can be reactivated and become labile largely exceeds the period in which that memory is recalled, proving evidence that conscious access is not needed for reconsolidation. Present results are consistent with dissociation between the mechanisms mediating memory labilization and the mechanisms that underlie the behavioral expression of memory

  20. Social motivation in prospective memory: higher importance ratings and reported performance rates for social tasks.

    PubMed

    Penningroth, Suzanna L; Scott, Walter D; Freuen, Margaret

    2011-03-01

    Few studies have addressed social motivation in prospective memory (PM). In a pilot study and two main studies, we examined whether social PM tasks possess a motivational advantage over nonsocial PM tasks. In the pilot study and Study 1, participants listed their real-life important and less important PM tasks. Independent raters categorized the PM tasks as social or nonsocial. Results from both studies showed a higher proportion of tasks rated as social when important tasks were requested than when less important tasks were requested. In Study 1, participants also reported whether they had remembered to perform each PM task. Reported performance rates were higher for tasks rated as social than for those rated as nonsocial. Finally, in Study 2, participants rated the importance of two hypothetical PM tasks, one social and one nonsocial. The social PM task was rated higher in importance. Overall, these findings suggest that social PM tasks are viewed as more important than nonsocial PM tasks and they are more likely to be performed. We propose that consideration of the social relevance of PM will lead to a more complete and ecologically valid theoretical description of PM performance. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2011 APA, all rights reserved).

  1. The plasticity of early memory reports: social pressure, hypnotizability, compliance, and interrogative suggestibility.

    PubMed

    Malinoski, P T; Lynn, S J

    1999-10-01

    Early autobiographical memory reports by adults were very sensitive to social influence in a leading interview. The mean age of initial earliest memory report was 3.7 years. When participants were instructed to close their eyes, visualize, and focus on their 2nd birthday, 59% reported a birthday memory. After repeated probes for earlier memories, 78% of subjects reported memories at or prior to 24 months of age, and 33% reported memories within the first 12 months of age. The mean age of the final earliest memory reported was 1.6 years. Participants rated their memory reports as accurate and did not recant them when given an opportunity. The age of earliest memory reports in the suggestive interview correlated negatively with measures of compliance, hypnotizability, and interrogative suggestibility.

  2. Enhancement of memory consolidation by the histone deacetylase inhibitor sodium butyrate in aged rats.

    PubMed

    Blank, Martina; Werenicz, Aline; Velho, Luciana Azevedo; Pinto, Diana F; Fedi, Ana Cláudia; Lopes, Mark William; Peres, Tanara Vieira; Leal, Rodrigo Bainy; Dornelles, Arethuza S; Roesler, Rafael

    2015-05-06

    Here we show that a systemic injection of the histone deacetylase inhibitor (HDACi) sodium butyrate (NaB) immediately after training in a step-down inhibitory avoidance task produced an enhancement of memory consolidation that persisted across consecutive retention tests during 14 days in aged rats, while it did not significantly affect memory in young adults. Control aged and young adult rats showed comparable basal levels of memory retention. Our results suggest that HDACis can display memory-enhancing effects specific for aged animals, even in the absence of age-related memory impairment.

  3. Graded Effects of Social Conformity on Recognition Memory

    PubMed Central

    Axmacher, Nikolai; Gossen, Anna; Elger, Christian E.; Fell, Juergen

    2010-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that the opinion of confederates in a group influences recognition memory, but inconsistent results have been obtained concerning the question of whether recognition of items as old and new are affected similarly, possibly because only one or two confederates are present during the recognition phase. Here, we present data from a study where recognition of novel faces was tested in the presence of four confederates. In a long version of this experiment, recognition of items as old and new was similarly affected by group responses. However, in the short version, recognition of old items depended proportionally on the number of correct group responses, while rejection of new items only decreased significantly when all confederates gave an incorrect response. These findings indicate that differential effects of social conformity on recognition of items as old and new occur in situations with an intermediate level of group pressure. PMID:20174641

  4. Graded effects of social conformity on recognition memory.

    PubMed

    Axmacher, Nikolai; Gossen, Anna; Elger, Christian E; Fell, Juergen

    2010-02-17

    Previous studies have shown that the opinion of confederates in a group influences recognition memory, but inconsistent results have been obtained concerning the question of whether recognition of items as old and new are affected similarly, possibly because only one or two confederates are present during the recognition phase. Here, we present data from a study where recognition of novel faces was tested in the presence of four confederates. In a long version of this experiment, recognition of items as old and new was similarly affected by group responses. However, in the short version, recognition of old items depended proportionally on the number of correct group responses, while rejection of new items only decreased significantly when all confederates gave an incorrect response. These findings indicate that differential effects of social conformity on recognition of items as old and new occur in situations with an intermediate level of group pressure.

  5. Face likeability mediates the memory-enhancing effect of face attractiveness in young but not older adults.

    PubMed

    Lin, Tian; Lendry, Reesa; Ebner, Natalie C

    2016-11-01

    Evidence of effects of face attractiveness on memory is mixed and little is known about the underlying mechanisms of this relationship. Previous work suggests a possible mediating role of affective responding to faces (i.e., face likeability) on the relationship between face attractiveness and memory. Age-related change in social motivation may reduce the relevance of face attractiveness in older adults, with downstream effects on memory. In the present study, 50 young and 51 older participants were presented with face-trait pairs. Faces varied in attractiveness. Participants then completed a face-trait associative recognition memory task and provided likeability ratings for each face. There was a memory-enhancing effect of face attractiveness in young (but not older) participants, which was partially mediated by face likeability. In addition, more attractive and less attractive (compared to moderately attractive) faces were more likely remembered by both young and older participants. This quadratic effect of face attractiveness on memory was not mediated by face likeability. Findings are discussed in the context of motivational influences on memory that vary with age.

  6. Revisiting propranolol and PTSD: Memory erasure or extinction enhancement?

    PubMed

    Giustino, Thomas F; Fitzgerald, Paul J; Maren, Stephen

    2016-04-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) has been described as the only neuropsychiatric disorder with a known cause, yet effective behavioral and pharmacotherapies remain elusive for many afflicted individuals. PTSD is characterized by heightened noradrenergic signaling, as well as a resistance to extinction learning. Research aimed at promoting more effective treatment of PTSD has focused on memory erasure (disrupting reconsolidation) and/or enhancing extinction retention through pharmacological manipulations. Propranolol, a β-adrenoceptor antagonist, has received considerable attention for its therapeutic potential in PTSD, although its impact on patients is not always effective. In this review, we briefly examine the consequences of β-noradrenergic manipulations on both reconsolidation and extinction learning in rodents and in humans. We suggest that propranolol is effective as a fear-reducing agent when paired with behavioral therapy soon after trauma when psychological stress is high, possibly preventing or dampening the later development of PTSD. In individuals who have already suffered from PTSD for a significant period of time, propranolol may be less effective at disrupting reconsolidation of strong fear memories. Also, when PTSD has already developed, chronic treatment with propranolol may be more effective than acute intervention, given that individuals with PTSD tend to experience long-term, elevated noradrenergic hyperarousal.

  7. A cortical neural prosthesis for restoring and enhancing memory

    PubMed Central

    Berger, Theodore W; Hampson, Robert E; Song, Dong; Goonawardena, Anushka; Marmarelis, Vasilis Z; Deadwyler, Sam A

    2011-01-01

    A primary objective in developing a neural prosthesis is to replace neural circuitry in the brain that no longer functions appropriately. Such a goal requires artificial reconstruction of neuron-to-neuron connections in a way that can be recognized by the remaining normal circuitry, and that promotes appropriate interaction. In this study, the application of a specially designed neural prosthesis using a multi-input/multi-output (MIMO) nonlinear model is demonstrated by using trains of electrical stimulation pulses to substitute for MIMO model derived ensemble firing patterns. Ensembles of CA3 and CA1 hippocampal neurons, recorded from rats performing a delayed-nonmatch-to-sample (DNMS) memory task, exhibited successful encoding of trial-specific sample lever information in the form of different spatiotemporal firing patterns. MIMO patterns, identified online and in real-time, were employed within a closed-loop behavioral paradigm. Results showed that the model was able to predict successful performance on the same trial. Also, MIMO model-derived patterns, delivered as electrical stimulation to the same electrodes, improved performance under normal testing conditions and, more importantly, were capable of recovering performance when delivered to animals with ensemble hippocampal activity compromised by pharmacologic blockade of synaptic transmission. These integrated experimental-modeling studies show for the first time that, with sufficient information about the neural coding of memories, a neural prosthesis capable of real-time diagnosis and manipulation of the encoding process can restore and even enhance cognitive, mnemonic processes. PMID:21677369

  8. Revisiting propranolol and PTSD: Memory erasure or extinction enhancement?

    PubMed Central

    Giustino, Thomas F.; Fitzgerald, Paul J.; Maren, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) has been described as the only neuropsychiatric disorder with a known cause, yet effective behavioral and pharmacotherapies remain elusive for many afflicted individuals. PTSD is characterized by heightened noradrenergic signaling, as well as a resistance to extinction learning. Research aimed at promoting more effective treatment of PTSD has focused on memory erasure (disrupting reconsolidation) and/or enhancing extinction retention through pharmacological manipulations. Propranolol, a β-adrenoceptor antagonist, has received considerable attention for its therapeutic potential in PTSD, although its impact on patients is not always effective. In this review, we briefly examine the consequences of β-noradrenergic manipulations on both reconsolidation and extinction learning in rodents and in humans. We suggest that propranolol is effective as a fear-reducing agent when paired with behavioral therapy soon after trauma when psychological stress is high, possibly preventing or dampening the later development of PTSD. In individuals who have already suffered from PTSD for a significant period of time, propranolol may be less effective at disrupting reconsolidation of strong fear memories. Also, when PTSD has already developed, chronic treatment with propranolol may be more effective than acute intervention, given that individuals with PTSD tend to experience long-term, elevated noradrenergic hyperarousal. PMID:26808441

  9. A cortical neural prosthesis for restoring and enhancing memory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berger, Theodore W.; Hampson, Robert E.; Song, Dong; Goonawardena, Anushka; Marmarelis, Vasilis Z.; Deadwyler, Sam A.

    2011-08-01

    A primary objective in developing a neural prosthesis is to replace neural circuitry in the brain that no longer functions appropriately. Such a goal requires artificial reconstruction of neuron-to-neuron connections in a way that can be recognized by the remaining normal circuitry, and that promotes appropriate interaction. In this study, the application of a specially designed neural prosthesis using a multi-input/multi-output (MIMO) nonlinear model is demonstrated by using trains of electrical stimulation pulses to substitute for MIMO model derived ensemble firing patterns. Ensembles of CA3 and CA1 hippocampal neurons, recorded from rats performing a delayed-nonmatch-to-sample (DNMS) memory task, exhibited successful encoding of trial-specific sample lever information in the form of different spatiotemporal firing patterns. MIMO patterns, identified online and in real-time, were employed within a closed-loop behavioral paradigm. Results showed that the model was able to predict successful performance on the same trial. Also, MIMO model-derived patterns, delivered as electrical stimulation to the same electrodes, improved performance under normal testing conditions and, more importantly, were capable of recovering performance when delivered to animals with ensemble hippocampal activity compromised by pharmacologic blockade of synaptic transmission. These integrated experimental-modeling studies show for the first time that, with sufficient information about the neural coding of memories, a neural prosthesis capable of real-time diagnosis and manipulation of the encoding process can restore and even enhance cognitive, mnemonic processes.

  10. The representation of social interaction in episodic memory: a functional MRI study.

    PubMed

    Mano, Yoko; Sugiura, Motoaki; Tsukiura, Takashi; Chiao, Joan Y; Yomogida, Yukihito; Jeong, Hyeonjeong; Sekiguchi, Atsushi; Kawashima, Ryuta

    2011-08-01

    The representation of social interaction in episodic memory is a critical factor for the successful navigation of social relationships. In general, it is important to separate episodic memory during social interaction from episodic memory during the self-generation of action events. Different cortical representations have been associated with social interaction vs. self-generated episodic memory. Here we clarified the cortical representation of the effect of context (social vs. solitary) on episodic memory by comparing it with the generation effect (self vs. other) on episodic memory. Each participant learned words while engaged in a sentence generation and a reading task, and subsequently each participant was scanned with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) while they performed a recognition task using the words that had been learned. The experiment was comprised of four conditions and we looked at two situations that involved a social context and non-social (solitary) context task. In the learning session before entering the MRI, two participants collaborated in a social context either generating (social-contextual self-generation condition: SS) or reading (social-contextual other-generation condition: SO) a sequence of sentences alternately to construct a meaningful story narrative. In the non-social context, the participants generated (non-social-contextual self-generation condition: NS) or read (non-social-contextual other-generation condition: NO) a sequence of sentences individually. The stimuli for the recognition session consisted of learned words and novel words. Activation for social context retrieval was identified in the right medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), and activation for self-generated retrieval was identified in the left mPFC and the left middle cingulate cortex. These results indicate that dissociable regions within the medial prefrontal cortices contribute to the processes involved in the representation of social interaction

  11. Are Autobiographical Memories Inherently Social? Evidence from an fMRI Study

    PubMed Central

    Wilbers, Linda; Deuker, Lorena; Fell, Juergen; Axmacher, Nikolai

    2012-01-01

    The story of our lifetime – our narrative self – is constructed from our autobiographical memories. A central claim of social psychology is that this narrative self is inherently social: When we construct our lives, we do so in a real or imagined interaction. This predicts that self-referential processes which are involved in recall of autobiographical memories overlap with processes involved in social interactions. Indeed, previous functional MRI studies indicate that regions in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) are activated during autobiographical memory recall and virtual communication. However, no fMRI study has investigated recall of autobiographical memories in a real-life interaction. We developed a novel paradigm in which participants overtly reported self-related and other-related memories to an experimenter, whose non-verbal reactions were being filmed and online displayed to the participants in the scanner. We found that recall of autobiographical vs. non-autobiographical memories was associated with activation of the mPFC, as was recall in the social as compared to a non-social control condition; however, both contrasts involved different non-overlapping regions within the mPFC. These results indicate that self-referential processes involved in autobiographical memory recall are different from processes supporting social interactions, and argue against the hypothesis that autobiographical memories are inherently social. PMID:23028774

  12. Enhanced memory performance thanks to neural network assortativity

    SciTech Connect

    Franciscis, S. de; Johnson, S.; Torres, J. J.

    2011-03-24

    The behaviour of many complex dynamical systems has been found to depend crucially on the structure of the underlying networks of interactions. An intriguing feature of empirical networks is their assortativity--i.e., the extent to which the degrees of neighbouring nodes are correlated. However, until very recently it was difficult to take this property into account analytically, most work being exclusively numerical. We get round this problem by considering ensembles of equally correlated graphs and apply this novel technique to the case of attractor neural networks. Assortativity turns out to be a key feature for memory performance in these systems - so much so that for sufficiently correlated topologies the critical temperature diverges. We predict that artificial and biological neural systems could significantly enhance their robustness to noise by developing positive correlations.

  13. Narrative, memory and social representations: a conversation between history and social psychology.

    PubMed

    Jovchelovitch, Sandra

    2012-12-01

    This paper explores relations between narrative, memory and social representations by examining how social representations express the ways in which communities deal with the historical past. Drawing on a case study of social representations of the Brazilian public sphere, it shows how a specific narrative of origins re-invents history as a useful mythological resource for defending identity, building inter-group solidarity and maintaining social cohesion. Produced by a time-travelling dialogue between multiple sources, this historical narrative is functional both to transform, to stabilise and give resilience to specific social representations of public life. The Brazilian case shows that historical narratives, which tend to be considered as part of the stable core of representational fields, are neither homogenous nor consensual but open polyphasic platforms for the construction of alternative, often contradictory, representations. These representations do not go away because they are ever changing and situated, recruit multiple ways of thinking and fulfil functions of identity, inter-group solidarity and social cohesion. In the disjunction between historiography and the past as social representation are the challenges and opportunities for the dialogue between historians and social psychologists.

  14. Acetylcholine and memory-enhancing activity of Ficus racemosa bark

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Faiyaz; Chandra, J. N. Narendra Sharath; Manjunath, S.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder resulting in dementia and enhancement of acetylcholine (Ach) levels in brain using acetylcholinesterase inhibitors is one of the most important approaches for the treatment of AD. Methods: In this study, aqueous extract of Ficus racemosa Linn. (Moraceae) bark having anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and anticholinesterase activity was evaluated for its ability to enhance Ach levels, and to ascertain its antidementia activity in rats. This work was carried out under the assumption that the F. racemosa extract may show combination of actions which could be beneficial in the treatment of AD, such as neuroprotection, attributed to antioxidant and anti-infl ammatory property and may elevate levels of Ach like Ficus hispida extract reported earlier. Results: Administration of the extract at two levels viz., 250 and 500 mg/kg signifi cantly raised (P ≤ 0.05) Ach levels in hippocampi of rats compared to control. The percentage enhancement in Ach levels was found to be 22% and 38%, respectively. Further, the extract at both dosage levels elicited signifi cant reduction (P ≤ 0.05) in transfer latency on elevated plus-maze, which was used as an exteroceptive behavioral model to evaluate memory in rats. Conclusion: It is inferred that it would be worthwhile to explore the potential of F. racemosa in the management of Alzheimer disease. PMID:22224047

  15. Enhancing Working Memory Training with Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation.

    PubMed

    Au, Jacky; Katz, Benjamin; Buschkuehl, Martin; Bunarjo, Kimberly; Senger, Thea; Zabel, Chelsea; Jaeggi, Susanne M; Jonides, John

    2016-09-01

    Working memory (WM) is a fundamental cognitive ability that supports complex thought but is limited in capacity. Thus, WM training interventions have become very popular as a means of potentially improving WM-related skills. Another promising intervention that has gained increasing traction in recent years is transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), a noninvasive form of brain stimulation that can modulate cortical excitability and temporarily increase brain plasticity. As such, it has the potential to boost learning and enhance performance on cognitive tasks. This study assessed the efficacy of tDCS to supplement WM training. Sixty-two participants were randomized to receive either right prefrontal, left prefrontal, or sham stimulation with concurrent visuospatial WM training over the course of seven training sessions. Results showed that tDCS enhanced training performance, which was strikingly preserved several months after training completion. Furthermore, we observed stronger effects when tDCS was spaced over a weekend break relative to consecutive daily training, and we also demonstrated selective transfer in the right prefrontal group to nontrained tasks of visual and spatial WM. These findings shed light on how tDCS may be leveraged as a tool to enhance performance on WM-intensive learning tasks.

  16. Amygdala-Mediated Enhancement of Memory for Specific Events Depends on the Hippocampus

    PubMed Central

    Bass, David I.; Nizam, Zainab G.; Partain, Kristin N.; Wang, Arick; Manns, Joseph R.

    2013-01-01

    Emotional events are often remembered better than neutral events, a type of memory prioritization by affective salience that depends on the amygdala. Studies with rats have indicated that direct activation of the basolateral complex of the amygdala (BLA) can enhance memory for neutral events, and if the activation is brief and temporally targeted, can do so in way that benefits memories for specific events. The essential targets of BLA activation in the case of event-specific memory enhancement were unknown, but the hippocampus was known to receive direct projections from the BLA and to support memory for events. In the present study, rats received counterbalanced infusions of either muscimol, a GABAA receptor agonist, or saline into the hippocampus prior to performing a novel object recognition memory task during which initial encounters with some of the objects were immediately followed by brief electrical stimulation to the BLA. When memory was tested 1 day later in the saline condition, rats remembered these objects well but showed no memory for objects for which the initial encounter had not been followed by BLA stimulation. In contrast, no benefit to memory of BLA stimulation was observed in the muscimol condition. The results indicated that brief activation of the BLA can prioritize memories for events by enhancing memory for some object encounters but not others and that this benefit to memory depends on interactions between the amygdala and the hippocampus. PMID:24211699

  17. Living Memorials: Understanding the Social Meanings of Community-Based Memorials to September 11, 2001

    Treesearch

    Erika S. Svendsen; Lindsay K. Campbell

    2010-01-01

    Living memorials are landscaped spaces created by people to memorialize individuals, places, and events. Hundreds of stewardship groups across the United States of America created living memorials in response to the September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks. This study sought to understand how stewards value, use, and talk about their living, community-based memorials....

  18. Social and Psycho-Political Impacts in the Social Construction of Political Memory of the Brazilian Military Dictatorship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ansara, Soraia

    2015-01-01

    This article refers to a research on the political memory of the military dictatorship in Brazil, held in three Brazilian cities (Belo Horizonte, Curitiba and São Paulo) in which we analyzed the social and psychopolitical impacts caused by the dictatorship as well as the redemocratization process in building the political memory of community and…

  19. Hippocampal neurogenesis enhancers promote forgetting of remote fear memory after hippocampal reactivation by retrieval.

    PubMed

    Ishikawa, Rie; Fukushima, Hotaka; Frankland, Paul W; Kida, Satoshi

    2016-09-26

    Forgetting of recent fear memory is promoted by treatment with memantine (MEM), which increases hippocampal neurogenesis. The approaches for treatment of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) using rodent models have focused on the extinction and reconsolidation of recent, but not remote, memories. Here we show that, following prolonged re-exposure to the conditioning context, enhancers of hippocampal neurogenesis, including MEM, promote forgetting of remote contextual fear memory. However, these interventions are ineffective following shorter re-exposures. Importantly, we find that long, but not short re-exposures activate gene expression in the hippocampus and induce hippocampus-dependent reconsolidation of remote contextual fear memory. Furthermore, remote memory retrieval becomes hippocampus-dependent after the long-time recall, suggesting that remote fear memory returns to a hippocampus dependent state after the long-time recall, thereby allowing enhanced forgetting by increased hippocampal neurogenesis. Forgetting of traumatic memory may contribute to the development of PTSD treatment.

  20. Improving Outcome for Mental Disorders by Enhancing Memory for Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Harvey, Allison G.; Lee, Jason; Smith, Rita L.; Gumport, Nicole B.; Hollon, Steven D.; Rabe-Hesketh, Sophia; Hein, Kerrie; Dolsen, Michael R.; Hamen, Kristen; Kanady, Jennifer C.; Thompson, Monique A.; Abrons, Deidre

    2017-01-01

    Summary Patients exhibit poor memory for treatment. A novel Memory Support Intervention, derived from basic science in cognitive psychology and education, is tested with the goal of improving patient memory for treatment and treatment outcome. Adults with major depressive disorder (MDD) were randomized to 14 sessions of cognitive therapy (CT)+Memory Support (n = 25) or CT-as-usual (CTMS; n = 23). Outcomes were assessed at baseline, post-treatment and 6 months later. Memory support was greater in CT+Memory Support compared to the CT-as-usual. Compared to CT-as-usual, small to medium effect sizes were observed for recall of treatment points at post-treatment. There was no difference between the treatment arms on depression severity (primary outcome). However, the odds of meeting criteria for ‘response’ and ‘remission’ were higher in CT+Memory Support compared with CT-as-usual. CT+Memory Support also showed an advantage on functional impairment. While some decline was observed, the advantage of CT+Memory Support was evident through 6-month follow-up. Patients with less than 16 years of education experience greater benefits from memory support than those with 16 or more years of education. Memory support can be manipulated, may improve patient memory for treatment and may be associated with an improved outcome. PMID:27089159

  1. Remembering the snake in the grass: Threat enhances recognition but not source memory.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Miriam Magdalena; Bell, Raoul; Buchner, Axel

    2015-12-01

    Research on the influence of emotion on source memory has yielded inconsistent findings. The object-based framework (Mather, 2007) predicts that negatively arousing stimuli attract attention, resulting in enhanced within-object binding, and, thereby, enhanced source memory for intrinsic context features of emotional stimuli. To test this prediction, we presented pictures of threatening and harmless animals, the color of which had been experimentally manipulated. In a memory test, old-new recognition for the animals and source memory for their color was assessed. In all 3 experiments, old-new recognition was better for the more threatening material, which supports previous reports of an emotional memory enhancement. This recognition advantage was due to the emotional properties of the stimulus material, and not specific for snake stimuli. However, inconsistent with the prediction of the object-based framework, intrinsic source memory was not affected by emotion.

  2. The memory enhancement effect of emotion is absent in conceptual implicit memory.

    PubMed

    Ramponi, Cristina; Handelsman, Gemma; Barnard, Philip J

    2010-04-01

    Memory for emotional stimuli is superior to memory for neutral stimuli. This study investigated whether this memory advantage is present in implicit memory. Memory was tested with a test of explicit memory (associate cued recall) and a test of conceptual implicit memory (free association) identical in all respects apart from the retrieval instructions. After studying emotional and neutral paired associates, participants saw the first member of the pair, the cue; in the test of explicit memory participants were instructed to recall the associate; in the test of implicit memory participants were instructed to generate the first word coming to mind associated to the word. Depth of study processing dissociated performance in the tests, confirming that the free-association test was not contaminated by an intentional retrieval strategy. Emotional pairs were better recalled than neutral pairs in the test of explicit memory but not in the equivalent test of implicit memory. The absence of an emotion effect in implicit memory implies that emotional material does not have a privileged global mnemonic status; intentional retrieval is necessary for observing the emotion-related memory advantage. Copyright 2010 APA, all rights reserved.

  3. The molecules of social recognition memory: implications for social cognition, extended mind, and neuroethics.

    PubMed

    Bickle, John

    2008-06-01

    Social cognition, cognitive neuroscience, and neuroethics have reached a synthesis of late, but some troubling features are present. The neuroscience that currently dominates the study of social cognition is exclusively cognitive neuroscience, as contrasted with the cellular and increasingly molecular emphasis that has gripped mainstream neuroscience over the past three decades. Furthermore, the recent field of molecular and cellular cognition has begun to unravel some molecular mechanisms involved in social cognition, especially pertaining to the consolidation of memories of particular conspecific organisms. Some new experimental techniques for positive interventions into these hypothesized mechanisms offer opportunities for establishing direct causal linkages between intra-neuronal molecular events and the behaviors used to measure social cognitive phenomena. Predicted results from an experiment described below also cast doubt on the application of the "extended mind" approach from recent cognitive science to ground the neuroscience of social cognition. Since neuroethics relies heavily on our best neuroscience of social cognition, that field may soon need to extend its attention beyond cognitive neuroscience, and into neuroscience's cellular and molecular mainstream.

  4. The Emergence of Autobiographical Memory: A Social Cultural Developmental Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Katherine; Fivush, Robyn

    2004-01-01

    The authors present a multicomponent dynamic developmental theory of human autobiographical memory that emerges gradually across the preschool years. The components that contribute to the process of emergence include basic memory abilities, language and narrative, adult memory talk, temporal understanding, and understanding of self and others. The…

  5. The Emergence of Autobiographical Memory: A Social Cultural Developmental Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Katherine; Fivush, Robyn

    2004-01-01

    The authors present a multicomponent dynamic developmental theory of human autobiographical memory that emerges gradually across the preschool years. The components that contribute to the process of emergence include basic memory abilities, language and narrative, adult memory talk, temporal understanding, and understanding of self and others. The…

  6. Evaluation and memory of social events in borderline personality disorder: Effects of valence and self-referential context.

    PubMed

    Winter, Dorina; Koplin, Katrin; Schmahl, Christian; Bohus, Martin; Lis, Stefanie

    2016-06-30

    People's memory of past social encounters influences current social interactions. Social rejection has been shown to increase people's memory for social events particularly when referring to others rather than themselves. Social rejection and neglect often characterize biographies of individuals with borderline personality disorder (BPD). Using a social memory task, we investigated whether the evaluation and memory of social events is altered in BPD and whether this depends on reference to the self or others. 30 patients with BPD and 30 healthy controls evaluated the valence of positive, neutral, and negative standardized events, which were either social or nonsocial. Subsequently, participants had to recall these events. BPD patients evaluated social events of negative and neutral valence as more negative than healthy controls. Further, only BPD patients tended to preferentially recall self-referential social events. These findings suggest altered self-referential processing of social events that affects both the evaluation and the memory for social events.

  7. When the present visits the past: Updating traumatic memories in social phobia

    PubMed Central

    Wild, Jennifer; Hackmann, Ann; Clark, David M.

    2007-01-01

    Research suggests that distorted images of the self are common in social phobia and play a role in maintaining the disorder. The images are often linked in thematic and sensory detail to distressing memories that are clustered around the onset or worsening of the disorder. This has led to speculation about the likely benefit of working directly with these memories to improve symptoms of social phobia. In this exploratory study, we describe a process of cognitive restructuring followed by imagery rescripting to update the meanings of distressing memories and images in social phobia. We first present illustrative clinical examples and then data of 14 patients with social phobia, on whom we developed this approach. Patients attended an imagery rescripting session in which a semi-structured interview was used to identify their recurrent images, the associated memories and their meanings. Next the identified memory was evoked and elaborated. We updated the meaning of the memory by first using cognitive restructuring to arrive at new perspectives and then linking these perspectives with the memory using imagery techniques. The procedure resulted in significant within session change in beliefs, and in image and memory distress and vividness. One week later significant change was seen in social phobia cognitions and a self-report measure of social anxiety. Rescripting distressing memories in social phobia appears to be an effective way of modifying maladaptive beliefs linked to recurrent negative imagery. This paper presents our exploratory investigation of how to work with the memories and encourages more rigorous investigation in this area. PMID:17765865

  8. Social influence and mental routes to the production of authentic false memories and inauthentic false memories.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Michael F; Skowronski, John J

    2017-03-09

    Two studies assessed the extent to which people incorporated false facts provided by bogus others into their own recognition memory reports, and how these false memory reports were affected by: (a) truth of the information in others' summaries supporting the false facts, (b) motivation to process stories and summaries, (c) source credibility, and (d) ease of remembering original facts. False memory report frequency increased when false facts in a summary were supported by true information and varied inversely with the ease with which original facts could be remembered. Results from a measure probing participants' memory perceptions suggest that some false memories are authentic: People sometimes lack awareness of both the incorporation of false facts into their memory reports and where the false facts came from. However, many false memories are inauthentic: Despite reporting a false memory, people sometimes retain knowledge of the original stimulus and/or the origin of false facts.

  9. Playing nice: a multi-methodological study on the effects of social conformity on memory.

    PubMed

    Deuker, Lorena; Müller, Anna R; Montag, Christian; Markett, Sebastian; Reuter, Martin; Fell, Juergen; Trautner, Peter; Axmacher, Nikolai

    2013-01-01

    Conformity is an important aspect of social behavior. Two main motives have been identified: people may adapt their behavior to "play nice" despite knowing better (normative conformity) or they may accept the others' opinion as a valid source of information (informative conformity). Neuroimaging studies can help to distinguish between these two possibilities. Here, we present a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study on memory conformity in a real group situation. We investigated the effects of group pressure on activity in hippocampus and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) which likely support informative and normative memory conformity, respectively. Furthermore, we related the single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs4680 [called Catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) Val158Met] on the gene coding for COMT to both behavior and fMRI activation. Homozygous Met-allele carriers (Val-) behaved more conformist than carriers of at least one Val-allele (Val+). In the neuroimaging data, we compared trials in which subjects were confronted with a majority of incorrect group responses to trials in which they were confronted with a majority of correct group responses. We found increased hippocampal activity when the majority of the group was correct, possibly indicating retrieval processes. Moreover, we observed enhanced activity in the ACC when the majority of the group was incorrect, suggesting that conformity was mostly normative. Most interestingly, this latter effect was more pronounced for Val- as compared to Val+ participants. This offers a speculative explanation for the higher behavioral levels of social conformity in Val- allele carriers, because their subjectively perceived conflict in the presence of an incorrect group majority may have been higher. Overall, this study demonstrates how the mechanisms leading to complex social behavior such as conformity can be studied by combining genetic analyses and fMRI in social neuroscience paradigms.

  10. Playing nice: a multi-methodological study on the effects of social conformity on memory

    PubMed Central

    Deuker, Lorena; Müller, Anna R.; Montag, Christian; Markett, Sebastian; Reuter, Martin; Fell, Juergen; Trautner, Peter; Axmacher, Nikolai

    2013-01-01

    Conformity is an important aspect of social behavior. Two main motives have been identified: people may adapt their behavior to “play nice” despite knowing better (normative conformity) or they may accept the others' opinion as a valid source of information (informative conformity). Neuroimaging studies can help to distinguish between these two possibilities. Here, we present a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study on memory conformity in a real group situation. We investigated the effects of group pressure on activity in hippocampus and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) which likely support informative and normative memory conformity, respectively. Furthermore, we related the single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs4680 [called Catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) Val158Met] on the gene coding for COMT to both behavior and fMRI activation. Homozygous Met-allele carriers (Val−) behaved more conformist than carriers of at least one Val-allele (Val+). In the neuroimaging data, we compared trials in which subjects were confronted with a majority of incorrect group responses to trials in which they were confronted with a majority of correct group responses. We found increased hippocampal activity when the majority of the group was correct, possibly indicating retrieval processes. Moreover, we observed enhanced activity in the ACC when the majority of the group was incorrect, suggesting that conformity was mostly normative. Most interestingly, this latter effect was more pronounced for Val− as compared to Val+ participants. This offers a speculative explanation for the higher behavioral levels of social conformity in Val− allele carriers, because their subjectively perceived conflict in the presence of an incorrect group majority may have been higher. Overall, this study demonstrates how the mechanisms leading to complex social behavior such as conformity can be studied by combining genetic analyses and fMRI in social neuroscience paradigms. PMID

  11. Enhanced dimension-specific visual working memory in grapheme-color synesthesia.

    PubMed

    Terhune, Devin Blair; Wudarczyk, Olga Anna; Kochuparampil, Priya; Cohen Kadosh, Roi

    2013-10-01

    There is emerging evidence that the encoding of visual information and the maintenance of this information in a temporarily accessible state in working memory rely on the same neural mechanisms. A consequence of this overlap is that atypical forms of perception should influence working memory. We examined this by investigating whether having grapheme-color synesthesia, a condition characterized by the involuntary experience of color photisms when reading or representing graphemes, would confer benefits on working memory. Two competing hypotheses propose that superior memory in synesthesia results from information being coded in two information channels (dual-coding) or from superior dimension-specific visual processing (enhanced processing). We discriminated between these hypotheses in three n-back experiments in which controls and synesthetes viewed inducer and non-inducer graphemes and maintained color or grapheme information in working memory. Synesthetes displayed superior color working memory than controls for both grapheme types, whereas the two groups did not differ in grapheme working memory. Further analyses excluded the possibilities of enhanced working memory among synesthetes being due to greater color discrimination, stimulus color familiarity, or bidirectionality. These results reveal enhanced dimension-specific visual working memory in this population and supply further evidence for a close relationship between sensory processing and the maintenance of sensory information in working memory. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Enhanced dimension-specific visual working memory in grapheme–color synesthesia☆

    PubMed Central

    Terhune, Devin Blair; Wudarczyk, Olga Anna; Kochuparampil, Priya; Cohen Kadosh, Roi

    2013-01-01

    There is emerging evidence that the encoding of visual information and the maintenance of this information in a temporarily accessible state in working memory rely on the same neural mechanisms. A consequence of this overlap is that atypical forms of perception should influence working memory. We examined this by investigating whether having grapheme–color synesthesia, a condition characterized by the involuntary experience of color photisms when reading or representing graphemes, would confer benefits on working memory. Two competing hypotheses propose that superior memory in synesthesia results from information being coded in two information channels (dual-coding) or from superior dimension-specific visual processing (enhanced processing). We discriminated between these hypotheses in three n-back experiments in which controls and synesthetes viewed inducer and non-inducer graphemes and maintained color or grapheme information in working memory. Synesthetes displayed superior color working memory than controls for both grapheme types, whereas the two groups did not differ in grapheme working memory. Further analyses excluded the possibilities of enhanced working memory among synesthetes being due to greater color discrimination, stimulus color familiarity, or bidirectionality. These results reveal enhanced dimension-specific visual working memory in this population and supply further evidence for a close relationship between sensory processing and the maintenance of sensory information in working memory. PMID:23892185

  13. Adult-Onset Hypothyroidism Enhances Fear Memory and Upregulates Mineralocorticoid and Glucocorticoid Receptors in the Amygdala

    PubMed Central

    Montero-Pedrazuela, Ana; Fernández-Lamo, Iván; Alieva, María; Pereda-Pérez, Inmaculada; Venero, César; Guadaño-Ferraz, Ana

    2011-01-01

    Hypothyroidism is the most common hormonal disease in adults, which is frequently accompanied by learning and memory impairments and emotional disorders. However, the deleterious effects of thyroid hormones deficiency on emotional memory are poorly understood and often underestimated. To evaluate the consequences of hypothyroidism on emotional learning and memory, we have performed a classical Pavlovian fear conditioning paradigm in euthyroid and adult-thyroidectomized Wistar rats. In this experimental model, learning acquisition was not impaired, fear memory was enhanced, memory extinction was delayed and spontaneous recovery of fear memory was exacerbated in hypothyroid rats. The potentiation of emotional memory under hypothyroidism was associated with an increase of corticosterone release after fear conditioning and with higher expression of glucocorticoid and mineralocorticoid receptors in the lateral and basolateral nuclei of the amygdala, nuclei that are critically involved in the circuitry of fear memory. Our results demonstrate for the first time that adult-onset hypothyroidism potentiates fear memory and also increases vulnerability to develop emotional memories. Furthermore, our findings suggest that enhanced corticosterone signaling in the amygdala is involved in the pathophysiological mechanisms of fear memory potentiation. Therefore, we recommend evaluating whether inappropriate regulation of fear in patients with post-traumatic stress and other mental disorders is associated with abnormal levels of thyroid hormones, especially those patients refractory to treatment. PMID:22039511

  14. NR4A nuclear receptors support memory enhancement by histone deacetylase inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Hawk, Joshua D.; Bookout, Angie L.; Poplawski, Shane G.; Bridi, Morgan; Rao, Allison J.; Sulewski, Michael E.; Kroener, Brian T.; Manglesdorf, David J.; Abel, Ted

    2012-01-01

    The formation of a long-lasting memory requires a transcription-dependent consolidation period that converts a short-term memory into a long-term memory. Nuclear receptors compose a class of transcription factors that regulate diverse biological processes, and several nuclear receptors have been implicated in memory formation. Here, we examined the potential contribution of nuclear receptors to memory consolidation by measuring the expression of all 49 murine nuclear receptors after learning. We identified 13 nuclear receptors with increased expression after learning, including all 3 members of the Nr4a subfamily. These CREB-regulated Nr4a genes encode ligand-independent “orphan” nuclear receptors. We found that blocking NR4A activity in memory-supporting brain regions impaired long-term memory but did not impact short-term memory in mice. Further, expression of Nr4a genes increased following the memory-enhancing effects of histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors. Blocking NR4A signaling interfered with the ability of HDAC inhibitors to enhance memory. These results demonstrate that the Nr4a gene family contributes to memory formation and is a promising target for improving cognitive function. PMID:22996661

  15. Oxytocin can impair memory for social and non-social visual objects: a within-subject investigation of oxytocin's effects on human memory.

    PubMed

    Herzmann, Grit; Young, Brent; Bird, Christopher W; Curran, Tim

    2012-04-27

    Oxytocin is important to social behavior and emotion regulation in humans. Oxytocin's role derives in part from its effect on memory performance. More specifically, previous research suggests that oxytocin facilitates recognition of social (e.g., faces), but not of non-social stimuli (e.g., words, visual objects). We conducted the first within-subject study to this hypothesis in a double-blind, placebo-controlled design. We administered oxytocin (24IU) and placebo (saline) in two separate sessions and in randomized order to healthy men. To obtain a baseline measure for session-dependent memory effects, which are caused by proactive interference, an additional group of male subjects in each session received placebo unbeknownst to them and the experimenter. After administration, participants studied faces and houses. Exactly one day after each study session, participants were asked to make memory judgments of new and old items. In the first study-test session, participants administered with oxytocin showed reduced recollection of previously studied faces and houses. Oxytocin also interacted with proactive-interference effects. By impeding memory in the first session, it reduced proactive interference in the second. But oxytocin contributed additionally to the memory-reducing effect of proactive interference when administered in the second session. These results demonstrate that oxytocin can have a memory-impairing effect on both social and non-social visual objects. The present study also emphasizes the necessity of including a non-treated, baseline group in within-subject designs when investigating oxytocin's effects on human memory. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. STRIATAL-ENRICHED PROTEIN TYROSINE PHOSPHATASE (STEP) KNOCKOUT MICE HAVE ENHANCED HIPPOCAMPAL MEMORY

    PubMed Central

    Venkitaramani, Deepa V.; Moura, Paula J.; Picciotto, Marina R.; Lombroso, Paul J.

    2011-01-01

    STEP is a brain-specific phosphatase that opposes synaptic strengthening by the regulation of key synaptic signaling proteins. Previous studies suggest a possible role for STriatal-Enriched protein tyrosine Phosphatase (STEP) in learning and memory. To demonstrate the functional importance of STEP in learning and memory, we generated STEP knockout (KO) mice and examined the effect of deletion of STEP on behavioral performance, as well as the phosphorylation and expression of its substrates. Here we report that loss of STEP leads to significantly enhanced performance in hippocampal-dependent learning and memory tasks. In addition, STEP KO mice displayed greater dominance behavior, although they were normal in their motivation, motor coordination, visual acuity and social interactions. STEP KO mice displayed enhanced tyrosine phosphorylation of extracellular-signal regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2), the NR2B subunit of the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR), Proline-rich tyrosine kinase (Pyk2), as well as an increased phosphorylation of ERK1/2 substrates. Concomitant to the increased phosphorylation of NR2B, synaptosomal expression of NR1/NR2B NMDARs was increased in STEP KO mice, as was the GluR1/GluR2 containing α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole-propionic acid receptors (AMPAR), providing a potential molecular mechanism for the improved cognitive performance. The data support a role for STEP in the regulation of synaptic strengthening. The absence of STEP improves cognitive performance, and may do so by the regulation of downstream effectors necessary for synaptic transmission. PMID:21501258

  17. Gift from statistical learning: Visual statistical learning enhances memory for sequence elements and impairs memory for items that disrupt regularities.

    PubMed

    Otsuka, Sachio; Saiki, Jun

    2016-02-01

    Prior studies have shown that visual statistical learning (VSL) enhances familiarity (a type of memory) of sequences. How do statistical regularities influence the processing of each triplet element and inserted distractors that disrupt the regularity? Given that increased attention to triplets induced by VSL and inhibition of unattended triplets, we predicted that VSL would promote memory for each triplet constituent, and degrade memory for inserted stimuli. Across the first two experiments, we found that objects from structured sequences were more likely to be remembered than objects from random sequences, and that letters (Experiment 1) or objects (Experiment 2) inserted into structured sequences were less likely to be remembered than those inserted into random sequences. In the subsequent two experiments, we examined an alternative account for our results, whereby the difference in memory for inserted items between structured and random conditions is due to individuation of items within random sequences. Our findings replicated even when control letters (Experiment 3A) or objects (Experiment 3B) were presented before or after, rather than inserted into, random sequences. Our findings suggest that statistical learning enhances memory for each item in a regular set and impairs memory for items that disrupt the regularity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Changing Behavior by Memory Aids: A Social Psychological Model of Prospective Memory and Habit Development Tested with Dynamic Field Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tobias, Robert

    2009-01-01

    This article presents a social psychological model of prospective memory and habit development. The model is based on relevant research literature, and its dynamics were investigated by computer simulations. Time-series data from a behavior-change campaign in Cuba were used for calibration and validation of the model. The model scored well in…

  19. Changing Behavior by Memory Aids: A Social Psychological Model of Prospective Memory and Habit Development Tested with Dynamic Field Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tobias, Robert

    2009-01-01

    This article presents a social psychological model of prospective memory and habit development. The model is based on relevant research literature, and its dynamics were investigated by computer simulations. Time-series data from a behavior-change campaign in Cuba were used for calibration and validation of the model. The model scored well in…

  20. Visual recognition memory enhancement in children through differential outcomes.

    PubMed

    Esteban, Laura; Vivas, Ana B; Estévez, Angeles F

    2014-07-01

    The use of differential outcomes has been shown to enhance discriminative learning and face recognition in children and adults. In this study, we further investigated whether the differential outcome procedure (DOP) would also be effective in improving recognition memory for a wide range of stimuli with varying visual complexity (familiar objects, abstract stimuli, and complex scenes) in 5- and 7-year-old children. Participants viewed a sample stimulus and, after a short (5s) or a long (15s) delay, they had to identify the previously seen stimulus among four choice alternatives. In the differential outcomes condition, each sample stimulus was paired with a specific outcome; whereas in the non-differential conditions outcomes were administered randomly. In Experiment 2, we replicated Experiment 1 but in addition we asked participants to perform an articulatory suppression task to prevent verbal rehearsal. Children showed a greater overall visual delayed recognition when differential outcomes were arranged in both experiments. The type of stimulus being used modulated this effect; a beneficial effect of the differential outcomes training was evident with abstract objects in Experiment 1 and with both, abstract objects and scenes in Experiment 2. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. The Quality of Self, Social, and Directive Memories: Are There Adult Age Group Differences?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alea, Nicole; Arneaud, Mary Jane; Ali, Sideeka

    2013-01-01

    The quality of functional autobiographical memories was examined in young, middle-aged, and older adult Trinidadians ("N" = 245). Participants wrote about an event that served a self, social, and directive function, and reported on the memory's quality (e.g., significance, vividness, valence, etc.). Across age groups, directive memories…

  2. Social Recognition Memory Requires Two Stages of Protein Synthesis in Mice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolf, Gerald; Engelmann, Mario; Richter, Karin

    2005-01-01

    Olfactory recognition memory was tested in adult male mice using a social discrimination task. The testing was conducted to begin to characterize the role of protein synthesis and the specific brain regions associated with activity in this task. Long-term olfactory recognition memory was blocked when the protein synthesis inhibitor anisomycin was…

  3. Memory, Reality, and Ethnography in a Colombian War Zone: Towards a Social Phenomenology of Collective Remembrance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haymes, Stephen Nathan

    2012-01-01

    This paper considers phenomenology as a philosophical framework from which to understand the moral experience of collective memory. As a philosophical approach to human reality, phenomenology contributes insight into the connection between the experiential grounding of collective memory and the reality of the social world. The inspiration for…

  4. The Quality of Self, Social, and Directive Memories: Are There Adult Age Group Differences?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alea, Nicole; Arneaud, Mary Jane; Ali, Sideeka

    2013-01-01

    The quality of functional autobiographical memories was examined in young, middle-aged, and older adult Trinidadians ("N" = 245). Participants wrote about an event that served a self, social, and directive function, and reported on the memory's quality (e.g., significance, vividness, valence, etc.). Across age groups, directive memories…

  5. Social Recognition Memory Requires Two Stages of Protein Synthesis in Mice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolf, Gerald; Engelmann, Mario; Richter, Karin

    2005-01-01

    Olfactory recognition memory was tested in adult male mice using a social discrimination task. The testing was conducted to begin to characterize the role of protein synthesis and the specific brain regions associated with activity in this task. Long-term olfactory recognition memory was blocked when the protein synthesis inhibitor anisomycin was…

  6. Event-related nociceptive arousal enhances memory consolidation for neutral scenes.

    PubMed

    Schwarze, Ulrike; Bingel, Ulrike; Sommer, Tobias

    2012-01-25

    The superior memory for emotional events has been attributed to the beneficial effects of noradrenaline released into the amygdala attributable to arousal. Noradrenaline mediates the effects of different hormones and neurotransmitters, including adrenal stress hormones on consolidation (McGaugh, 2004; Roozendaal et al., 2009). The majority of human fMRI studies of the enhancement of emotional memories contrasted successful encoding of emotionally arousing and neutral stimuli (LaBar and Cabeza, 2006; Murty et al., 2010). Recently, it was highlighted that emotional stimuli elicit not only arousal but also intensify cognitive processes that contribute to the enhanced memory. In particular, the enhanced use of selective attention as well as the greater distinctiveness and semantic relatedness of emotional stimuli influence memory formation (Talmi et al., 2007a). The present study aimed to explore the effects of arousal on memory formation independent of these cognitive factors in an event-related manner. Arousal was induced by the application of a nociceptive stimulus briefly after the presentation of neutral scenes. The results show a purely arousal-driven memory enhancement for the neutral scenes that differs in critical aspects from the superior memory for emotional stimuli. In particular, the enhancement was only evident after consolidation and exclusively based on an increase in item familiarity but not recollection. Moreover, successful memory formation for stimuli followed by arousal was correlated with activity in the parahippocampal cortex but not the amygdala, as is the case for emotional stimuli.

  7. Exercise enhances memory consolidation in the aging brain.

    PubMed

    Snigdha, Shikha; de Rivera, Christina; Milgram, Norton W; Cotman, Carl W

    2014-01-01

    Exercise has been shown to reduce age-related losses in cognitive function including learning and memory, but the mechanisms underlying this effect remain poorly understood. Memory formation occurs in stages that include an initial acquisition phase, an intermediate labile phase, and then a process of consolidation which leads to long-term memory formation. An effective way to examine the mechanism by which exercise improves memory is to introduce the intervention (exercise), post-acquisition, making it possible to selectively examine memory storage and consolidation. Accordingly we evaluated the effects of post-trial exercise (10 min on a treadmill) on memory consolidation in aged canines both right after, an hour after, and 24 h after acute exercise training in concurrent discrimination, object location memory (OLM), and novel object recognition tasks. Our study shows that post-trial exercise facilitates memory function by improving memory consolidation in aged animals in a time-dependent manner. The improvements were significant at 24 h post-exercise and not right after or 1 h after exercise. Aged animals were also tested following chronic exercise (10 min/day for 14 consecutive days) on OLM or till criterion were reached (for reversal learning task). We found improvements from a chronic exercise design in both the object location and reversal learning tasks. Our studies suggest that mechanisms to improve overall consolidation and cognitive function remain accessible even with progressing age and can be re-engaged by both acute and chronic exercise.

  8. Perceptual expertise enhances the resolution but not the number of representations in working memory.

    PubMed

    Scolari, Miranda; Vogel, Edward K; Awh, Edward

    2008-02-01

    Despite its central role in cognition, capacity in visual working memory is restricted to about three or four items. Curby and Gauthier (2007) examined whether perceptual expertise can help to overcome this limit by enabling more efficient coding of visual information. In line with this, they observed higher capacity estimates for upright than for inverted faces, suggesting that perceptual expertise enhances visual working memory. In the present work, we examined whether the improved capacity estimates for upright faces indicates an increased number of "slots" in working memory, or improved resolution within the existing slots. Our results suggest that perceptual expertise enhances the resolution but not the number of representations that can be held in working memory. These results clarify the effects of perceptual expertise in working memory and support recent suggestions that number and resolution represent distinct facets of working memory ability.

  9. Social enhancement can create adaptive, arbitrary and maladaptive cultural traditions

    PubMed Central

    Franz, Mathias; Matthews, Luke J.

    2010-01-01

    Many animals are known to learn socially, i.e. they are able to acquire new behaviours by using information from other individuals. Researchers distinguish between a number of different social-learning mechanisms such as imitation and social enhancement. Social enhancement is a simple form of social learning that is among the most widespread in animals. However, unlike imitation, it is debated whether social enhancement can create cultural traditions. Based on a recent study on capuchin monkeys, we developed an agent-based model to test the hypotheses that (i) social enhancement can create and maintain stable traditions and (ii) social enhancement can create cultural conformity. Our results supported both hypotheses. A key factor that led to the creation of cultural conformity and traditions was the repeated interaction of individual reinforcement and social enhancement learning. This result emphasizes that the emergence of cultural conformity does not necessarily require cognitively complex mechanisms such as ‘copying the majority’ or group norms. In addition, we observed that social enhancement can create learning dynamics similar to a ‘copy when uncertain’ learning strategy. Results from additional analyses also point to situations that should favour the evolution of learning mechanisms more sophisticated than social enhancement. PMID:20547762

  10. Social enhancement can create adaptive, arbitrary and maladaptive cultural traditions.

    PubMed

    Franz, Mathias; Matthews, Luke J

    2010-11-07

    Many animals are known to learn socially, i.e. they are able to acquire new behaviours by using information from other individuals. Researchers distinguish between a number of different social-learning mechanisms such as imitation and social enhancement. Social enhancement is a simple form of social learning that is among the most widespread in animals. However, unlike imitation, it is debated whether social enhancement can create cultural traditions. Based on a recent study on capuchin monkeys, we developed an agent-based model to test the hypotheses that (i) social enhancement can create and maintain stable traditions and (ii) social enhancement can create cultural conformity. Our results supported both hypotheses. A key factor that led to the creation of cultural conformity and traditions was the repeated interaction of individual reinforcement and social enhancement learning. This result emphasizes that the emergence of cultural conformity does not necessarily require cognitively complex mechanisms such as 'copying the majority' or group norms. In addition, we observed that social enhancement can create learning dynamics similar to a 'copy when uncertain' learning strategy. Results from additional analyses also point to situations that should favour the evolution of learning mechanisms more sophisticated than social enhancement.

  11. Intrinsic Default Mode Network Connectivity Predicts Spontaneous Verbal Descriptions of Autobiographical Memories during Social Processing

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Xiao-Fei; Bossmann, Julia; Schiffhauer, Birte; Jordan, Matthew; Immordino-Yang, Mary Helen

    2013-01-01

    Neural systems activated in a coordinated way during rest, known as the default mode network (DMN), also support autobiographical memory (AM) retrieval and social processing/mentalizing. However, little is known about how individual variability in reliance on personal memories during social processing relates to individual differences in DMN functioning during rest (intrinsic functional connectivity). Here we examined 18 participants’ spontaneous descriptions of autobiographical memories during a 2 h, private, open-ended interview in which they reacted to a series of true stories about real people’s social situations and responded to the prompt, “how does this person’s story make you feel?” We classified these descriptions as either containing factual information (“semantic” AMs) or more elaborate descriptions of emotionally meaningful events (“episodic” AMs). We also collected resting state fMRI scans from the participants and related individual differences in frequency of described AMs to participants’ intrinsic functional connectivity within regions of the DMN. We found that producing more descriptions of either memory type correlated with stronger intrinsic connectivity in the parahippocampal and middle temporal gyri. Additionally, episodic AM descriptions correlated with connectivity in the bilateral hippocampi and medial prefrontal cortex, and semantic memory descriptions correlated with connectivity in right inferior lateral parietal cortex. These findings suggest that in individuals who naturally invoke more memories during social processing, brain regions involved in memory retrieval and self/social processing are more strongly coupled to the DMN during rest. PMID:23316178

  12. Nicotine enhances the reconsolidation of novel object recognition memory in rats.

    PubMed

    Tian, Shaowen; Pan, Si; You, Yong

    2015-02-01

    There is increasing evidence that nicotine is involved in learning and memory. However, there are only few studies that have evaluated the relationship between nicotine and memory reconsolidation. In this study, we investigated the effects of nicotine on the reconsolidation of novel object recognition memory in rats. Behavior procedure involved four training phases: habituation (Days 1 and 2), sample (Day 3), reactivation (Day 4) and test (Day 6). Rats were injected with saline or nicotine (0.1, 0.2 and 0.4 mg/kg) immediately or 6h after reactivation. The discrimination index was used to assess memory performance and calculated as the difference in time exploring on the novel and familiar objects. Results showed that nicotine administration immediately but not 6 h after reactivation significantly enhanced memory performance of rats. Further results showed that the enhancing effect of nicotine on memory performance was dependent on memory reactivation, and was not attributed to the changes of the nonspecific responses (locomotor activity and anxiety level) 48 h after nicotine administration. The results suggest that post-reactivation nicotine administration enhances the reconsolidation of novel object recognition memory. Our present finding extends previous research on the nicotinic effects on learning and memory.

  13. Revisiting the Novelty Effect: When Familiarity, Not Novelty, Enhances Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poppenk, J.; Kohler, S.; Moscovitch, M.

    2010-01-01

    Reports of superior memory for novel relative to familiar material have figured prominently in recent theories of memory. However, such "novelty effects" are incongruous with long-standing observations that familiar items are remembered better. In 2 experiments, we explored whether this discrepancy was explained by differences in the…

  14. Improving Outcome of Psychosocial Treatments by Enhancing Memory and Learning

    PubMed Central

    Harvey, Allison G.; Lee, Jason; Williams, Joseph; Hollon, Steven D.; Walker, Matthew P.; Thompson, Monique A.; Smith, Rita

    2014-01-01

    Mental disorders are prevalent and lead to significant impairment. Progress toward establishing treatments has been good. However, effect sizes are small to moderate, gains may not persist, and many patients derive no benefit. Our goal is to highlight the potential for empirically-supported psychosocial treatments to be improved by incorporating insights from cognitive psychology and research on education. Our central question is: If it were possible to improve memory for content of sessions of psychosocial treatments, would outcome substantially improve? This question arises from five lines of evidence: (a) mental illness is often characterized by memory impairment, (b) memory impairment is modifiable, (c) psychosocial treatments often involve the activation of emotion, (d) emotion can bias memory and (e) memory for psychosocial treatment sessions is poor. Insights from scientific knowledge on learning and memory are leveraged to derive strategies for a transdiagnostic and transtreatment cognitive support intervention. These strategies can be applied within and between sessions and to interventions delivered via computer, the internet and text message. Additional novel pathways to improving memory include improving sleep, engaging in exercise and imagery. Given that memory processes change across the lifespan, services to children and older adults may benefit from cognitive support. PMID:25544856

  15. Revisiting the Novelty Effect: When Familiarity, Not Novelty, Enhances Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poppenk, J.; Kohler, S.; Moscovitch, M.

    2010-01-01

    Reports of superior memory for novel relative to familiar material have figured prominently in recent theories of memory. However, such "novelty effects" are incongruous with long-standing observations that familiar items are remembered better. In 2 experiments, we explored whether this discrepancy was explained by differences in the…

  16. Transient acidosis while retrieving a fear-related memory enhances its lability

    PubMed Central

    Du, Jianyang; Price, Margaret P; Taugher, Rebecca J; Grigsby, Daniel; Ash, Jamison J; Stark, Austin C; Hossain Saad, Md Zubayer; Singh, Kritika; Mandal, Juthika; Wemmie, John A; Welsh, Michael J

    2017-01-01

    Attenuating the strength of fearful memories could benefit people disabled by memories of past trauma. Pavlovian conditioning experiments indicate that a retrieval cue can return a conditioned aversive memory to a labile state. However, means to enhance retrieval and render a memory more labile are unknown. We hypothesized that augmenting synaptic signaling during retrieval would increase memory lability. To enhance synaptic transmission, mice inhaled CO2 to induce an acidosis and activate acid sensing ion channels. Transient acidification increased the retrieval-induced lability of an aversive memory. The labile memory could then be weakened by an extinction protocol or strengthened by reconditioning. Coupling CO2 inhalation to retrieval increased activation of amygdala neurons bearing the memory trace and increased the synaptic exchange from Ca2+-impermeable to Ca2+-permeable AMPA receptors. The results suggest that transient acidosis during retrieval renders the memory of an aversive event more labile and suggest a strategy to modify debilitating memories. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.22564.001 PMID:28650315

  17. Impaired Social Processing in Autism and Its Reflections in Memory: A Deeper View of Encoding and Retrieval Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brezis, Rachel S.; Galili, Tal; Wong, Tiffany; Piggot, Judith I.

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies of memory in autism spectrum conditions (ASC) have consistently shown that persons with ASC have reduced memories for social information, relative to a spared memory for non-social facts. The current study aims to reproduce these findings, while examining the possible causes leading to this difference. Participants' memory…

  18. Impaired Social Processing in Autism and Its Reflections in Memory: A Deeper View of Encoding and Retrieval Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brezis, Rachel S.; Galili, Tal; Wong, Tiffany; Piggot, Judith I.

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies of memory in autism spectrum conditions (ASC) have consistently shown that persons with ASC have reduced memories for social information, relative to a spared memory for non-social facts. The current study aims to reproduce these findings, while examining the possible causes leading to this difference. Participants' memory…

  19. Does working memory training work? The promise and challenges of enhancing cognition by training working memory.

    PubMed

    Morrison, Alexandra B; Chein, Jason M

    2011-02-01

    A growing body of literature shows that one's working memory (WM) capacity can be expanded through targeted training. Given the established relationship between WM and higher cognition, these successful training studies have led to speculation that WM training may yield broad cognitive benefits. This review considers the current state of the emerging WM training literature, and details both its successes and limitations. We identify two distinct approaches to WM training, strategy training and core training, and highlight both the theoretical and practical motivations that guide each approach. Training-related increases in WM capacity have been successfully demonstrated across a wide range of subject populations, but different training techniques seem to produce differential impacts upon the broader landscape of cognitive abilities. In particular, core WM training studies seem to produce more far-reaching transfer effects, likely because they target domain-general mechanisms of WM. The results of individual studies encourage optimism regarding the value of WM training as a tool for general cognitive enhancement. However, we discuss several limitations that should be addressed before the field endorses the value of this approach.

  20. Entanglement enhanced bit rate over multiple uses of a lossy bosonic channel with memory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lupo, C.; Mancini, S.

    2010-03-01

    We present a study of the achievable rates for classical information transmission via a lossy bosonic channel with memory, using homodyne detection. A comparison with the memoryless case shows that the presence of memory enhances the bit rate if information is encoded in collective states, i.e., states which are entangled over different uses of the channel.

  1. Memory enhancement training for older adults with mild cognitive impairment: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Rapp, S; Brenes, G; Marsh, A P

    2002-02-01

    'Mild cognitive impairment' (MCI) in older adults refers to a significant decline in memory function but not other cognitive functions. Pharmacological and non-pharmacological treatments for MCI are needed. The present randomized clinical trial tests the efficacy of a cognitive and behavioral treatment to improve memory performance and participants' attitudes about their memory. A multi-faceted intervention that included education about memory loss, relaxation training, memory skills training, and cognitive restructuring for memory-related beliefs was compared to a no-treatment control condition. Outcomes included memory performance and appraisals of memory function and control. Results indicate that the treated group had significantly better memory appraisals than controls at the end of treatment and at a six-month follow-up. There were no differences between groups on memory performance at post-test but at follow-up the trained individuals showed a trend toward better word list recall than controls. Findings suggest that individuals with MCI can benefit from multi-component memory enhancement training. Further development of such training programs and tests of their efficacy alone and in combination with medications are needed.

  2. Is Memory in the Brain? Remembering as Social Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manier, David

    2004-01-01

    As many experimental psychologists and neuroscientists conceive of it, memory can be thought of as having a "home, even if still a hidden one, in the brain" (Tulving, 2002, p. 20). Such a way of conceiving of memory has led to valuable research (see Gazzaniga, 1995), but also to the neglect of important aspects of remembering as it takes place in…

  3. Both young and older adults discount suggestions from older adults on a social memory test.

    PubMed

    Davis, Sara D; Meade, Michelle L

    2013-08-01

    In the present study, we examined the impacts of participant age and confederate age on social memory processes. During a collaborative recall phase, young and older adult participants were exposed to the erroneous memory reports of a young or an older adult confederate. On a subsequent individual recall test, young and older adult participants were equally likely to incorporate the confederates' erroneous suggestions into their memory reports, suggesting that participant age had a minimal effect on social memory processes. However, confederate age did have a marked effect: Young adult participants were less likely to incorporate misleading suggestions from older adult confederates and less likely to report "remembering" items suggested by older adult confederates. Critically, older adult participants were also less likely to incorporate misleading information from fellow older adult confederates. Both young and older adult participants discounted older adult confederates' contributions to a memory test.

  4. Post-learning arousal enhances veridical memory and reduces false memory in the Deese-Roediger-McDermott paradigm.

    PubMed

    Nielson, Kristy A; Correro, Anthony N

    2017-10-01

    The Deese-Roediger-McDermott (DRM) paradigm examines false memory by introducing words associated with a non-presented 'critical lure' as memoranda, which typically causes the lures to be remembered as frequently as studied words. Our prior work has shown enhanced veridical memory and reduced misinformation effects when arousal is induced after learning (i.e., during memory consolidation). These effects have not been examined in the DRM task, or with signal detection analysis, which can elucidate the mechanisms underlying memory alterations. Thus, 130 subjects studied and then immediately recalled six DRM lists, one after another, and then watched a 3-min arousing (n=61) or neutral (n=69) video. Recognition tested 70min later showed that arousal induced after learning led to better delayed discrimination of studied words from (a) critical lures, and (b) other non-presented 'weak associates.' Furthermore, arousal reduced liberal response bias (i.e., the tendency toward accepting dubious information) for studied words relative to all foils, including critical lures and 'weak associates.' Thus, arousal induced after learning effectively increased the distinction between signal and noise by enhancing access to verbatim information and reducing endorsement of dubious information. These findings provide important insights into the cognitive mechanisms by which arousal modulates early memory consolidation processes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Divided Attention Can Enhance Memory Encoding: The Attentional Boost Effect in Implicit Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spataro, Pietro; Mulligan, Neil W.; Rossi-Arnaud, Clelia

    2013-01-01

    Distraction during encoding has long been known to disrupt later memory performance. Contrary to this long-standing result, we show that detecting an infrequent target in a dual-task paradigm actually improves memory encoding for a concurrently presented word, above and beyond the performance reached in the full-attention condition. This absolute…

  6. Divided Attention Can Enhance Memory Encoding: The Attentional Boost Effect in Implicit Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spataro, Pietro; Mulligan, Neil W.; Rossi-Arnaud, Clelia

    2013-01-01

    Distraction during encoding has long been known to disrupt later memory performance. Contrary to this long-standing result, we show that detecting an infrequent target in a dual-task paradigm actually improves memory encoding for a concurrently presented word, above and beyond the performance reached in the full-attention condition. This absolute…

  7. (-)Epigallocatechin-3-gallate prevents the reserpine-induced impairment of short-term social memory in rats.

    PubMed

    Tseng, Hsiang-Chien; Wang, Mao-Hsien; Soung, Hung-Sheng; Chang, Yi; Chang, Kuo-Chi

    2015-12-01

    Reserpine has been confirmed to induce cognitive dysfunction and increase brain neural oxidative stress. Green tea catechins, particularly (-)epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), have strong antioxidative properties and can protect against numerous oxidative damages. In this study, we examined the possible protective effects of EGCG on reserpine-induced impairment of short-term memory in rats. Reserpine (1 mg/kg, intraperitoneal)-induced memory impairment was assessed using the social recognition task method; locomotor activity and the olfactory discrimination ability were not altered as measured by an open-field test and an olfactory discrimination test, respectively. EGCG treatment (100 and 300 mg/kg, intraperitoneal, for 7 days, starting 6 days before the reserpine injection) could improve the worsened social memory of reserpine-treated rats. Also, EGCG treatment reduced reserpine-induced lipid peroxidation and enhanced the antioxidation power in the hippocampi of reserpine-treated rats. These results suggest a protective effect of EGCG in treating reserpine-induced impairment of memory, most probably through its powerful antioxidative activities. Accordingly, EGCG may hold a clinically relevant value in preventing reserpine-induced cognitive dysfunction.

  8. Oxytocin is implicated in social memory deficits induced by early sensory deprivation in mice.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jin-Bao; Chen, Ling; Lv, Zhu-Man; Niu, Xue-Yuan; Shao, Can-Can; Zhang, Chan; Pruski, Michal; Huang, Ying; Qi, Cong-Cong; Song, Ning-Ning; Lang, Bing; Ding, Yu-Qiang

    2016-12-13

    Early-life sensory input plays a crucial role in brain development. Although deprivation of orofacial sensory input at perinatal stages disrupts the establishment of the barrel cortex and relevant callosal connections, its long-term effect on adult behavior remains elusive. In this study, we investigated the behavioral phenotypes in adult mice with unilateral transection of the infraorbital nerve (ION) at postnatal day 3 (P3). Although ION-transected mice had normal locomotor activity, motor coordination, olfaction, anxiety-like behaviors, novel object memory, preference for social novelty and sociability, they presented deficits in social memory and spatial memory compared with control mice. In addition, the social memory deficit was associated with reduced oxytocin (OXT) levels in the hypothalamus and could be partially restored by intranasal administration of OXT. Thus, early sensory deprivation does result in behavioral alterations in mice, some of which may be associated with the disruption of oxytocin signaling.

  9. Memory for reputational trait information: is social-emotional information processing less flexible in old age?

    PubMed

    Bell, Raoul; Giang, Trang; Mund, Iris; Buchner, Axel

    2013-12-01

    How do younger and older adults remember reputational trait information about other people? In the present study, trustworthy-looking and untrustworthy-looking faces were paired with cooperation or cheating in a cooperation game. In a surprise source-memory test, participants were asked to rate the likability of the faces, and were required to remember whether the faces were associated with negative or positive outcomes. The social expectations of younger and older adults were clearly affected by a priori facial trustworthiness. Facial trustworthiness was associated with high cooperation-game investments, high likability ratings, and a tendency toward guessing that a face belonged to a cooperator instead of a cheater in both age groups. Consistent with previous results showing that emotional memory is spared from age-related decline, memory for the association between faces and emotional reputational information was well preserved in older adults. However, younger adults used a flexible encoding strategy to remember the social interaction partners. Source-memory was best for information that violated their (positive) expectations. Older adults, in contrast, showed a uniform memory bias for negative social information; their memory performance was not modulated by their expectations. This finding suggests that older adults are less likely to adjust their encoding strategies to their social expectations than younger adults. This may be in line with older adults' motivational goals to avoid risks in social interactions. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  10. Consequences of temporary inhibition of the medial amygdala on social recognition memory performance in mice

    PubMed Central

    Noack, Julia; Murau, Rita; Engelmann, Mario

    2015-01-01

    Different lines of investigation suggest that the medial amygdala is causally involved in the processing of information linked to social behavior in rodents. Here we investigated the consequences of temporary inhibition of the medial amygdala by bilateral injections of lidocaine on long-term social recognition memory as tested in the social discrimination task. Lidocaine or control NaCl solution was infused immediately before learning or before retrieval. Our data show that lidocaine infusion immediately before learning did not affect long-term memory retrieval. However, intra-amygdalar lidocaine infusions immediately before choice interfered with correct memory retrieval. Analysis of the aggressive behavior measured simultaneously during all sessions in the social recognition memory task support the impression that the lidocaine dosage used here was effective as it—at least partially—reduced the aggressive behavior shown by the experimental subjects toward the juveniles. Surprisingly, also infusions of NaCl solution blocked recognition memory at both injection time points. The results are interpreted in the context of the importance of the medial amygdala for the processing of non-volatile odors as a major contributor to the olfactory signature for social recognition memory. PMID:25972782

  11. Intrinsic functional connectivity between amygdala and hippocampus during rest predicts enhanced memory under stress.

    PubMed

    de Voogd, Lycia D; Klumpers, Floris; Fernández, Guillén; Hermans, Erno J

    2017-01-01

    Declarative memories of stressful events are less prone to forgetting than mundane events. Animal research has demonstrated that such stress effects on consolidation of hippocampal-dependent memories require the amygdala. In humans, it has been shown that during learning, increased amygdala-hippocampal interactions are related to more efficient memory encoding. Animal models predict that following learning, amygdala-hippocampal interactions are instrumental to strengthening the consolidation of such declarative memories. Whether this is the case in humans is unknown and remains to be empirically verified. To test this, we analyzed data from a sample of 120 healthy male participants who performed an incidental encoding task and subsequently underwent resting-state functional MRI in a stressful and a neutral context. Stress was assessed by measures of salivary cortisol, blood pressure, heart rate, and subjective ratings. Memory was tested afterwards outside of the scanner. Our data show that memory was stronger in the stress context compared to the neutral context and that stress-induced cortisol responses were associated with this memory enhancement. Interestingly, amygdala-hippocampal connectivity during post-encoding awake rest regardless of context (stress or neutral) was associated with the enhanced memory performance under stress. Thus, our findings are in line with a role for intrinsic functional connectivity during rest between the amygdala and the hippocampus in the state effects of stress on strengthening memory.

  12. Script knowledge enhances the development of children's false memories.

    PubMed

    Otgaar, Henry; Candel, Ingrid; Scoboria, Alan; Merckelbach, Harald

    2010-01-01

    We examined whether script knowledge contributes to the development of children's false memories. Sixty 7-year-old and 60 11-year-old children listened to false narratives describing either a high-knowledge event (i.e., fingers being caught in a mousetrap) or a low-knowledge event (i.e., receiving a rectal enema) that were similar in terms of plausibility and pleasantness. Moreover, half of the children in each condition received additional suggestive details about the false events. Across two interviews, children had to report everything they remembered about the events. Script knowledge affected children's false memories in that both younger and older children developed more false memories for the high-knowledge event than for the low-knowledge event. Moreover, at the first interview, additional suggestive details inhibited the development of children's images into false memories.

  13. Depletion of perineuronal nets enhances recognition memory and long-term depression in the perirhinal cortex

    PubMed Central

    Romberg, Carola; Yang, Sujeong; Melani, Riccardo; Andrews, Melissa R.; Horner, Alexa E.; Spillantini, Maria G.; Bussey, Timothy J.; Fawcett, James W.; Pizzorusso, Tommaso; Saksida, Lisa M.

    2013-01-01

    Perineuronal nets are extracellular matrix structures surrounding cortical neuronal cell bodies and proximal dendrites, and are involved in the control of brain plasticity and the closure of critical periods. Expression of the link protein Crtl1/Hapln1 in neurons has recently been identified as the key event triggering the formation of perineuronal nets. Here we show that the genetic attenuation of perineuronal nets in adult brain Crtl1 knockout mice enhances long term object recognition memory and facilitates long-term depression in the perirhinal cortex, a neural correlate of object recognition memory. Identical prolongation of memory follows localised digestion of perineuronal nets with chondroitinase ABC, an enzyme that degrades the chondroitin sulphate proteoglycans (CSPGs) components of PNNs. The memory-enhancing effect of chondroitinase ABC treatment attenuated over time, suggesting that regeneration of PNNs gradually restored control plasticity levels. Our findings indicate that perineuronal nets regulate both memory and experience-driven synaptic plasticity in adulthood. PMID:23595763

  14. Memory

    MedlinePlus

    ... it has to decide what is worth remembering. Memory is the process of storing and then remembering this information. There are different types of memory. Short-term memory stores information for a few ...

  15. Cortisol has enhancing, rather than impairing effects on memory retrieval in PTSD.

    PubMed

    Wingenfeld, Katja; Driessen, Martin; Terfehr, Kirsten; Schlosser, Nicole; Fernando, Silvia Carvalho; Otte, Christian; Beblo, Thomas; Spitzer, Carsten; Löwe, Bernd; Wolf, Oliver Tobias

    2012-07-01

    In the present study, we aimed to compare the effect of exogenous cortisol on memory retrieval in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) with the effects in healthy controls. In healthy participants, administration of cortisol impairs declarative memory retrieval. Only a few studies have investigated these effects in PTSD yielding mixed results. In a placebo-controlled crossover study, 44 patients with PTSD and 65 healthy controls received either placebo or 10mg of hydrocortisone orally before memory testing. In addition to declarative memory retrieval (word list learning), we also tested autobiographical memory retrieval specificity. In both tasks opposing effects of cortisol on memory were observed when comparing patients with controls. In controls, cortisol had impairing effects on memory retrieval, while in PTSD patients cortisol had enhancing effects on memory retrieval in both memory domains. The present results suggest beneficial effects of acute cortisol elevations on hippocampal mediated memory processes in PTSD. Possible neurobiological mechanisms underlying these findings are discussed. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Methylphenidate produces selective enhancement of declarative memory consolidation in healthy volunteers.

    PubMed

    Linssen, A M W; Vuurman, E F P M; Sambeth, A; Riedel, W J

    2012-06-01

    Methylphenidate inhibits the reuptake of dopamine and noradrenaline and is used to treat children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Besides reducing behavioral symptoms, it improves their cognitive function. There are also observations of methylphenidate-induced cognition enhancement in healthy adults, although studies in this area are relatively sparse. We assessed the possible memory-enhancing properties of methylphenidate. In the current study, the possible enhancing effects of three doses of methylphenidate on declarative and working memory, attention, response inhibition and planning were investigated in healthy volunteers. In a double blind placebo-controlled crossover study, 19 healthy young male volunteers were tested after a single dose of placebo or 10, 20 or 40 mg of methylphenidate. Cognitive performance testing included a word learning test as a measure of declarative memory, a spatial working memory test, a set-shifting test, a stop signal test and a computerized version of the Tower of London planning test. Declarative memory consolidation was significantly improved relative to placebo after 20 and 40 mg of methylphenidate. Methylphenidate also improved set shifting and stopped signal task performance but did not affect spatial working memory or planning. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study reporting enhanced declarative memory consolidation after methylphenidate in a dose-related fashion over a dose range that is presumed to reflect a wide range of dopamine reuptake inhibition.

  17. Context-dependent enhancement of declarative memory performance following acute psychosocial stress.

    PubMed

    Smeets, T; Giesbrecht, T; Jelicic, M; Merckelbach, H

    2007-09-01

    Studies on how acute stress affects learning and memory have yielded inconsistent findings, with some studies reporting enhancing effects while others report impairing effects. Recently, Joëls et al. [Joëls, M., Pu, Z., Wiegert, O., Oitzl, M.S., Krugers, H.J., 2006. Learning under stress: how does it work? Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 10, 152-158] argued that stress will enhance memory only when the memory acquisition phase and stressor share the same spatiotemporal context (i.e., context-congruency). The current study tested this hypothesis by looking at whether context-congruent stress enhances declarative memory performance. Undergraduates were assigned to a personality stress group (n=16), a memory stress group (n=18), or a no-stress control group (n=18). While being exposed to the acute stressor or a control task, participants encoded personality- and memory-related words and were tested for free recall 24h later. Relative to controls, stress significantly enhanced recall of context-congruent words, but only for personality words. This suggests that acute stress may strengthen the consolidation of memory material when the stressor matches the to-be-remembered information in place and time.

  18. Performance-based empathy mediates the influence of working memory on social competence in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Smith, Matthew J; Horan, William P; Cobia, Derin J; Karpouzian, Tatiana M; Fox, Jaclyn M; Reilly, James L; Breiter, Hans C

    2014-07-01

    Empathic deficits have been linked to poor functioning in schizophrenia, but this work is mostly limited to self-report data. This study examined whether performance-based empathy measures account for incremental variance in social competence and social attainment above and beyond self-reported empathy, neurocognition, and clinical symptoms. Given the importance of working memory in theoretical models of empathy and in the prediction of functioning in schizophrenia, we also examined whether empathy mediates the relationship between working memory and functioning. Sixty outpatients and 45 healthy controls were compared on performance-based measures of 3 key components of empathic responding, including facial affect perception, emotional empathy (affective responsiveness), and cognitive empathy (emotional perspective-taking). Participants also completed measures of self-reported empathy, neurocognition, clinical symptoms, and social competence and attainment. Patients demonstrated lower accuracy than controls across the 3 performance-based empathy measures. Among patients, these measures showed minimal relations to self-reported empathy but significantly correlated with working memory and other neurocognitive functions as well as symptom levels. Furthermore, cognitive empathy explained significant incremental variance in social competence (∆R (2) = .07, P < .05) and was found to mediate the relation between working memory and social competence. Performance-based measures of empathy were sensitive to functionally relevant disturbances in schizophrenia. Working memory deficits appear to have an important effect on these disruptions in empathy. Empathy is emerging as a promising new area for social cognitive research and for novel recovery-oriented treatment development.

  19. Social Processes Affecting the Mnemonic Consequences of Rumors on Children's Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Principe, Gabrielle F.; Daley, Lauren; Kauth, Kyli

    2010-01-01

    This research examined whether the impact of overheard rumors on children's memory for their experiences varies as a function of social processes. The results of two experiments revealed that the very same errant rumor had different consequences for children's recollections depending on the degree and type of social interactions they had with…

  20. Social Processes Affecting the Mnemonic Consequences of Rumors on Children's Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Principe, Gabrielle F.; Daley, Lauren; Kauth, Kyli

    2010-01-01

    This research examined whether the impact of overheard rumors on children's memory for their experiences varies as a function of social processes. The results of two experiments revealed that the very same errant rumor had different consequences for children's recollections depending on the degree and type of social interactions they had with…

  1. Forgotten Memories of a Social Justice Education: Difficult Knowledge and the Impossibilities of School and Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sonu, Debbie

    2016-01-01

    This paper is about memory, the elusive process of remembering and of an encounter between a researcher and a participant who after five years reunited to remember. The object under study is a high school social justice curriculum with a central focus on the development of social action projects. Grounded in Pitt and Britzman's work on difficult…

  2. Social Media Tips to Enhance Medical Education.

    PubMed

    Shah, Vikas; Kotsenas, Amy L

    2017-02-20

    In this article, we describe how social media can supplement traditional education, articulate the advantages and disadvantages of various social media platforms for both teachers and learners, discuss best practices to maintain confidentiality of protected health information, and provide tips for implementing social media-based teaching into the training curriculum.

  3. Enhancing Social Competence in the Music Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gooding, Lori

    2009-01-01

    Strong social skills are vital for successful functioning in life. Social skills can affect academic success, peer relationships, family relationships, employment, and extracurricular and leisure activities. Children and adolescents who display academic, social, and behavioral deficits are at risk for both short-term and long-term negative social…

  4. Enhancing Social Competence in the Music Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gooding, Lori

    2009-01-01

    Strong social skills are vital for successful functioning in life. Social skills can affect academic success, peer relationships, family relationships, employment, and extracurricular and leisure activities. Children and adolescents who display academic, social, and behavioral deficits are at risk for both short-term and long-term negative social…

  5. Oxytocin selectively facilitates learning with social feedback and increases activity and functional connectivity in emotional memory and reward processing regions.

    PubMed

    Hu, Jiehui; Qi, Song; Becker, Benjamin; Luo, Lizhu; Gao, Shan; Gong, Qiyong; Hurlemann, René; Kendrick, Keith M

    2015-06-01

    In male Caucasian subjects, learning is facilitated by receipt of social compared with non-social feedback, and the neuropeptide oxytocin (OXT) facilitates this effect. In this study, we have first shown a cultural difference in that male Chinese subjects actually perform significantly worse in the same reinforcement associated learning task with social (emotional faces) compared with non-social feedback. Nevertheless, in two independent double-blind placebo (PLC) controlled between-subject design experiments we found OXT still selectively facilitated learning with social feedback. Similar to Caucasian subjects this OXT effect was strongest with feedback using female rather than male faces. One experiment performed in conjunction with functional magnetic resonance imaging showed that during the response, but not feedback phase of the task, OXT selectively increased activity in the amygdala, hippocampus, parahippocampal gyrus and putamen during the social feedback condition, and functional connectivity between the amygdala and insula and caudate. Therefore, OXT may be increasing the salience and reward value of anticipated social feedback. In the PLC group, response times and state anxiety scores during social feedback were associated with signal changes in these same regions but not in the OXT group. OXT may therefore have also facilitated learning by reducing anxiety in the social feedback condition. Overall our results provide the first evidence for cultural differences in social facilitation of learning per se, but a similar selective enhancement of learning with social feedback under OXT. This effect of OXT may be associated with enhanced responses and functional connectivity in emotional memory and reward processing regions.

  6. Pharmacological enhancement of mGluR5 facilitates contextual fear memory extinction.

    PubMed

    Sethna, Ferzin; Wang, Hongbing

    2014-12-01

    Behavioral exposure therapy, which involves extinction of the previously acquired fear, has been used to treat anxiety-related symptoms such as post-traumatic stress disorder. It has been hypothesized that proextinction pharmacotherapeutics may enhance the efficacy of exposure therapy. Systemic administration of the metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 (mGluR5)-positive allosteric modulator 3-cyano-N-(1,3-diphenyl-1H-pyrazol-5-yl)benzamide (CDPPB) facilitated the extinction of contextual fear memory. Notably, CDPPB also enhanced the initial fear memory formation, and had no effect on memory retrieval. Our data suggest that positive regulation of mGluR5 may offer a new method to enhance exposure therapy through facilitating extinction without adversely affecting other aspects of memory process.

  7. Consolidation power of extrinsic rewards: reward cues enhance long-term memory for irrelevant past events.

    PubMed

    Murayama, Kou; Kitagami, Shinji

    2014-02-01

    Recent research suggests that extrinsic rewards promote memory consolidation through dopaminergic modulation processes. However, no conclusive behavioral evidence exists given that the influence of extrinsic reward on attention and motivation during encoding and consolidation processes are inherently confounded. The present study provides behavioral evidence that extrinsic rewards (i.e., monetary incentives) enhance human memory consolidation independently of attention and motivation. Participants saw neutral pictures, followed by a reward or control cue in an unrelated context. Our results (and a direct replication study) demonstrated that the reward cue predicted a retrograde enhancement of memory for the preceding neutral pictures. This retrograde effect was observed only after a delay, not immediately upon testing. An additional experiment showed that emotional arousal or unconscious resource mobilization cannot explain the retrograde enhancement effect. These results provide support for the notion that the dopaminergic memory consolidation effect can result from extrinsic reward.

  8. Associative Learning during Early Adulthood Enhances Later Memory Retention in Honeybees

    PubMed Central

    Arenas, Andrés; Fernández, Vanesa M.; Farina, Walter M.

    2009-01-01

    Background Cognitive experiences during the early stages of life play an important role in shaping the future behavior in mammals but also in insects, in which precocious learning can directly modify behaviors later in life depending on both the timing and the rearing environment. However, whether olfactory associative learning acquired early in the adult stage of insects affect memorizing of new learning events has not been studied yet. Methodology Groups of adult honeybee workers that experienced an odor paired with a sucrose solution 5 to 8 days or 9 to 12 days after emergence were previously exposed to (i) a rewarded experience through the offering of scented food, or (ii) a non-rewarded experience with a pure volatile compound in the rearing environment. Principal Findings Early rewarded experiences (either at 1–4 or 5–8 days of adult age) enhanced retention performance in 9–12-day-conditioned bees when they were tested at 17 days of age. The highest retention levels at this age, which could not be improved with prior rewarded experiences, were found for memories established at 5–8 days of adult age. Associative memories acquired at 9–12 days of age showed a weak effect on retention for some pure pre-exposed volatile compounds; whereas the sole exposure of an odor at any younger age did not promote long-term effects on learning performance. Conclusions The associative learning events that occurred a few days after adult emergence improved memorizing in middle-aged bees. In addition, both the timing and the nature of early sensory inputs interact to enhance retention of new learning events acquired later in life, an important matter in the social life of honeybees. PMID:19956575

  9. Reflections of the social environment in chimpanzee memory: applying rational analysis beyond humans

    PubMed Central

    Marewski, Julian N.; Schooler, Lael J.; Gilby, Ian C.

    2016-01-01

    In cognitive science, the rational analysis framework allows modelling of how physical and social environments impose information-processing demands onto cognitive systems. In humans, for example, past social contact among individuals predicts their future contact with linear and power functions. These features of the human environment constrain the optimal way to remember information and probably shape how memory records are retained and retrieved. We offer a primer on how biologists can apply rational analysis to study animal behaviour. Using chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) as a case study, we modelled 19 years of observational data on their social contact patterns. Much like humans, the frequency of past encounters in chimpanzees linearly predicted future encounters, and the recency of past encounters predicted future encounters with a power function. Consistent with the rational analyses carried out for human memory, these findings suggest that chimpanzee memory performance should reflect those environmental regularities. In re-analysing existing chimpanzee memory data, we found that chimpanzee memory patterns mirrored their social contact patterns. Our findings hint that human and chimpanzee memory systems may have evolved to solve similar information-processing problems. Overall, rational analysis offers novel theoretical and methodological avenues for the comparative study of cognition. PMID:27853606

  10. Reflections of the social environment in chimpanzee memory: applying rational analysis beyond humans.

    PubMed

    Stevens, Jeffrey R; Marewski, Julian N; Schooler, Lael J; Gilby, Ian C

    2016-08-01

    In cognitive science, the rational analysis framework allows modelling of how physical and social environments impose information-processing demands onto cognitive systems. In humans, for example, past social contact among individuals predicts their future contact with linear and power functions. These features of the human environment constrain the optimal way to remember information and probably shape how memory records are retained and retrieved. We offer a primer on how biologists can apply rational analysis to study animal behaviour. Using chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) as a case study, we modelled 19 years of observational data on their social contact patterns. Much like humans, the frequency of past encounters in chimpanzees linearly predicted future encounters, and the recency of past encounters predicted future encounters with a power function. Consistent with the rational analyses carried out for human memory, these findings suggest that chimpanzee memory performance should reflect those environmental regularities. In re-analysing existing chimpanzee memory data, we found that chimpanzee memory patterns mirrored their social contact patterns. Our findings hint that human and chimpanzee memory systems may have evolved to solve similar information-processing problems. Overall, rational analysis offers novel theoretical and methodological avenues for the comparative study of cognition.

  11. Encoding social interactions: the neural correlates of true and false memories.

    PubMed

    Straube, Benjamin; Green, Antonia; Chatterjee, Anjan; Kircher, Tilo

    2011-02-01

    In social situations, we encounter information transferred in firsthand (egocentric) and secondhand (allocentric) communication contexts. However, the mechanism by which an individual distinguishes whether a past interaction occurred in an egocentric versus allocentric situation is poorly understood. This study examined the neural bases for encoding memories of social interactions through experimentally manipulating the communication context. During fMRI data acquisition, participants watched video clips of an actor speaking and gesturing directly toward them (egocentric context) or toward an unseen third person (allocentric context). After scanning, a recognition task gauged participants' ability to recognize the sentences they had just seen and to recall the context in which the sentences had been spoken. We found no differences between the recognition of sentences spoken in egocentric and allocentric contexts. However, when asked about the communication context ("Had the actor directly spoken to you?"), participants tended to believe falsely that the actor had directly spoken to them during allocentric conditions. Greater activity in the hippocampus was related to correct context memory, whereas the ventral ACC was activated for subsequent inaccurate context memory. For the interaction between encoding context and context memory, we observed increased activation for egocentric remembered items in the bilateral and medial frontal cortex, the BG, and the left parietal and temporal lobe. Our data indicate that memories of social interactions are biased to be remembered egocentrically. Self-referential encoding processes reflected in increased frontal activation and decreased hippocampal activation might be the basis of correct item but false context memory of social interactions.

  12. Is procedural memory enhanced in Tourette syndrome? Evidence from a sequence learning task.

    PubMed

    Takács, Ádám; Kóbor, Andrea; Chezan, Júlia; Éltető, Noémi; Tárnok, Zsanett; Nemeth, Dezso; Ullman, Michael T; Janacsek, Karolina

    2017-09-09

    Procedural memory, which is rooted in the basal ganglia, underlies the learning and processing of numerous automatized motor and cognitive skills, including in language. Not surprisingly, disorders with basal ganglia abnormalities have been found to show impairments of procedural memory. However, brain abnormalities could also lead to atypically enhanced function. Tourette syndrome (TS) is a candidate for enhanced procedural memory, given previous findings of enhanced TS processing of grammar, which likely depends on procedural memory. We comprehensively examined procedural learning, from memory formation to retention, in children with TS and typically developing (TD) children, who performed an implicit sequence learning task over two days. The children with TS showed sequence learning advantages on both days, despite a regression of sequence knowledge overnight to the level of the TD children. This is the first demonstration of procedural learning advantages in any disorder. The findings may further our understanding of procedural memory and its enhancement. The evidence presented here, together with previous findings suggesting enhanced grammar processing in TS, underscore the dependence of language on a system that also subserves visuomotor sequencing. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Delayed emergence of effects of memory-enhancing drugs: implications for the dynamics of long-term memory.

    PubMed Central

    Mondadori, C; Hengerer, B; Ducret, T; Borkowski, J

    1994-01-01

    Many theories of memory postulate that processing of information outlasts the learning situation and involves several different physiological substrates. If such physiologically distinct mechanisms or stages of memory do in fact exist, they should be differentially affected by particular experimental manipulations. Accordingly, a selective improvement of the processes underlying short-term memory should be detectable only while the information is encoded in the short-term mode, and a selective influence on long-term memory should be detectable only from the moment when memory is based on the long-term trace. Our comparative study of the time course of the effects of the cholinergic agonist arecoline, the gamma-aminobutyric acid type B receptor antagonist CGP 36742, the angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor captopril, and the nootropic oxiracetam, four substances with completely different primary sites of action, show that the memory-enhancing effects consistently come into evidence no sooner than 16-24 h after the learning trial. On the one hand, this finding suggests that all these substances act by way of the same type of mechanism; on the other hand, it demonstrates that the substrate modulated by the compounds forms the basis of memory only after 16-24 h. From the observation that animals also show clear signs of retention during the first 16 h--i.e., before the effects of the substances are measurable--it can be inferred that retention during this time is mediated by other mechanisms that are not influenced by any of the substances. Images PMID:8134347

  14. Stereotype threat can both enhance and impair older adults' memory.

    PubMed

    Barber, Sarah J; Mather, Mara

    2013-12-01

    Negative stereotypes about aging can impair older adults' memory via stereotype threat; however, the mechanisms underlying this phenomenon are unclear. In two experiments, we tested competing predictions derived from two theoretical accounts of stereotype threat: executive-control interference and regulatory fit. Older adults completed a working memory test either under stereotype threat about age-related memory declines or not under such threat. Monetary incentives were manipulated such that recall led to gains or forgetting led to losses. The executive-control-interference account predicts that stereotype threat decreases the availability of executive-control resources and hence should impair working memory performance. The regulatory-fit account predicts that threat induces a prevention focus, which should impair performance when gains are emphasized but improve performance when losses are emphasized. Results were consistent only with the regulatory-fit account. Although stereotype threat significantly impaired older adults' working memory performance when remembering led to gains, it significantly improved performance when forgetting led to losses.

  15. Lesions to the CA2 region of the hippocampus impair social memory in mice

    PubMed Central

    Stevenson, Erica L.; Caldwell, Heather K.

    2014-01-01

    The function of the CA2 region of the hippocampus is poorly understood. While the CA1 and CA3 regions have been extensively studied, for years the CA2 region has primarily been viewed as a linking area between the two. However, the CA2 region is known to have distinct neurochemical and structural features that are different from the other parts of hippocampus and in recent years it has been suggested that the CA2 region may play a role in the formation and or recall of olfactory-based memories needed for normal social behavior. While this hypothesis has been supported by hippocampal lesion studies that have included the CA2 region, no studies have attempted to specifically lesion the CA2 region of the hippocampus in mice to determine the effects on social recognition memory and olfaction. To fill this knowledge gap, we sought to perform excitotoxic N-methyl-D aspartate (NMDA) lesions of the CA2 region in mice and determine the effects on social recognition memory. We predicted that lesions of the CA2 region would impair social recognition memory. We then went on to test olfaction in CA2 lesioned mice since social memory requires a functional olfactory system. Consistent with our prediction, we found that CA2 lesioned animals have impaired social recognition. These findings are significant because they confirm that the CA2 region of the hippocampus is a part of the neural circuitry that regulates social recognition memory, which may have implications for our understanding of the neural regulation of social behavior across species. PMID:25131412

  16. Mechanisms underlying the social enhancement of vocal learning in songbirds

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yining; Matheson, Laura E.; Sakata, Jon T.

    2016-01-01

    Social processes profoundly influence speech and language acquisition. Despite the importance of social influences, little is known about how social interactions modulate vocal learning. Like humans, songbirds learn their vocalizations during development, and they provide an excellent opportunity to reveal mechanisms of social influences on vocal learning. Using yoked experimental designs, we demonstrate that social interactions with adult tutors for as little as 1 d significantly enhanced vocal learning. Social influences on attention to song seemed central to the social enhancement of learning because socially tutored birds were more attentive to the tutor’s songs than passively tutored birds, and because variation in attentiveness and in the social modulation of attention significantly predicted variation in vocal learning. Attention to song was influenced by both the nature and amount of tutor song: Pupils paid more attention to songs that tutors directed at them and to tutors that produced fewer songs. Tutors altered their song structure when directing songs at pupils in a manner that resembled how humans alter their vocalizations when speaking to infants, that was distinct from how tutors changed their songs when singing to females, and that could influence attention and learning. Furthermore, social interactions that rapidly enhanced learning increased the activity of noradrenergic and dopaminergic midbrain neurons. These data highlight striking parallels between humans and songbirds in the social modulation of vocal learning and suggest that social influences on attention and midbrain circuitry could represent shared mechanisms underlying the social modulation of vocal learning. PMID:27247385

  17. Mechanisms underlying the social enhancement of vocal learning in songbirds.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yining; Matheson, Laura E; Sakata, Jon T

    2016-06-14

    Social processes profoundly influence speech and language acquisition. Despite the importance of social influences, little is known about how social interactions modulate vocal learning. Like humans, songbirds learn their vocalizations during development, and they provide an excellent opportunity to reveal mechanisms of social influences on vocal learning. Using yoked experimental designs, we demonstrate that social interactions with adult tutors for as little as 1 d significantly enhanced vocal learning. Social influences on attention to song seemed central to the social enhancement of learning because socially tutored birds were more attentive to the tutor's songs than passively tutored birds, and because variation in attentiveness and in the social modulation of attention significantly predicted variation in vocal learning. Attention to song was influenced by both the nature and amount of tutor song: Pupils paid more attention to songs that tutors directed at them and to tutors that produced fewer songs. Tutors altered their song structure when directing songs at pupils in a manner that resembled how humans alter their vocalizations when speaking to infants, that was distinct from how tutors changed their songs when singing to females, and that could influence attention and learning. Furthermore, social interactions that rapidly enhanced learning increased the activity of noradrenergic and dopaminergic midbrain neurons. These data highlight striking parallels between humans and songbirds in the social modulation of vocal learning and suggest that social influences on attention and midbrain circuitry could represent shared mechanisms underlying the social modulation of vocal learning.

  18. Enhancing Young Children's Social Competence: Enhance!/Social Competence Program (ESCP): A Field Developed Program for Children, Teachers and Parents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshall, H. M.; And Others

    This poster session report describes the Enhance!/Social Competence Program (ESCP), a program for preschoolers and kindergartners delayed in social competency and problem solving skills. ESCP is part of the Rochester Early Enhancement Program (REEP), a collaboration of agencies serving young children through prenatal education and services, home…

  19. Fatty-Acid Binding Proteins Modulate Sleep and Enhance Long-Term Memory Consolidation in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Gerstner, Jason R.; Vanderheyden, William M.; Shaw, Paul J.; Landry, Charles F.; Yin, Jerry C. P.

    2011-01-01

    Sleep is thought to be important for memory consolidation, since sleep deprivation has been shown to interfere with memory processing. However, the effects of augmenting sleep on memory formation are not well known, and testing the role of sleep in memory enhancement has been limited to pharmacological and behavioral approaches. Here we test the effect of overexpressing the brain-type fatty acid binding protein (Fabp7) on sleep and long-term memory (LTM) formation in Drosophila melanogaster. Transgenic flies carrying the murine Fabp7 or the Drosophila homologue dFabp had reduced baseline sleep but normal LTM, while Fabp induction produced increases in both net sleep and LTM. We also define a post-training consolidation “window” that is sufficient for the observed Fabp-mediated memory enhancement. Since Fabp overexpression increases consolidated daytime sleep bouts, these data support a role for longer naps in improving memory and provide a novel role for lipid-binding proteins in regulating memory consolidation concurrently with changes in behavioral state. PMID:21298037

  20. A single bout of resistance exercise can enhance episodic memory performance.

    PubMed

    Weinberg, Lisa; Hasni, Anita; Shinohara, Minoru; Duarte, Audrey

    2014-11-01

    Acute aerobic exercise can be beneficial to episodic memory. This benefit may occur because exercise produces a similar physiological response as physical stressors. When administered during consolidation, acute stress, both physical and psychological, consistently enhances episodic memory, particularly memory for emotional materials. Here we investigated whether a single bout of resistance exercise performed during consolidation can produce episodic memory benefits 48 h later. We used a one-leg knee extension/flexion task for the resistance exercise. To assess the physiological response to the exercise, we measured salivary alpha amylase (a biomarker of central norepinephrine), heart rate, and blood pressure. To test emotional episodic memory, we used a remember-know recognition memory paradigm with equal numbers of positive, negative, and neutral IAPS images as stimuli. The group that performed the exercise, the active group, had higher overall recognition accuracy than the group that did not exercise, the passive group. We found a robust effect of valence across groups, with better performance on emotional items as compared to neutral items and no difference between positive and negative items. This effect changed based on the physiological response to the exercise. Within the active group, participants with a high physiological response to the exercise were impaired for neutral items as compared to participants with a low physiological response to the exercise. Our results demonstrate that a single bout of resistance exercise performed during consolidation can enhance episodic memory and that the effect of valence on memory depends on the physiological response to the exercise.

  1. A single bout of resistance exercise can enhance episodic memory performance

    PubMed Central

    Weinberg, Lisa; Hasni, Anita; Shinohara, Minoru; Duarte, Audrey

    2014-01-01

    Acute aerobic exercise can be beneficial to episodic memory. This benefit may occur because exercise produces a similar physiological response as physical stressors. When administered during consolidation, acute stress, both physical and psychological, consistently enhances episodic memory, particularly memory for emotional materials. Here we investigated whether a single bout of resistance exercise performed during consolidation can produce episodic memory benefits 48 hours later. We used a one-leg knee extension/flexion task for the resistance exercise. To assess the physiological response to the exercise, we measured salivary alpha amylase (a biomarker of central norepinephrine), heart rate, and blood pressure. To test emotional episodic memory, we used a remember-know recognition memory paradigm with equal numbers of positive, negative, and neutral IAPS images as stimuli. The group that performed the exercise, the active group, had higher overall recognition accuracy than the group that did not exercise, the passive group. We found a robust effect of valence across groups, with better performance on emotional items as compared to neutral items and no difference between positive and negative items. This effect changed based on the physiological response to the exercise. Within the active group, participants with a high physiological response to the exercise were impaired for neutral items as compared to participants with a low physiological response to the exercise. Our results demonstrate that a single bout of resistance exercise performed during consolidation can enhance episodic memory and that the effect of valence on memory depends on the physiological response to the exercise. PMID:25262058

  2. Social Support and Social Anxiety in Use and Perceptions of Online Mental Health Resources: Exploring Social Compensation and Enhancement.

    PubMed

    Ruppel, Erin K; McKinley, Christopher J

    2015-08-01

    This study used the frameworks of social compensation and social enhancement to examine how social anxiety and social support were related to college students' (N=443) use and perceptions of online mental health resources (Web sites and online support groups). Potential interactions between social support and social anxiety were also examined. Consistent with the social compensation hypothesis, perceived usefulness of Web sites was positively associated with social support. Perceived usefulness of online support groups was positively associated with social support when participants reported average or high, but not low, social anxiety. In contrast, previous use of Web sites was consistent with the social compensation hypothesis. Participants who reported less social support were more likely to have used a Web site for a mental or emotional problem. These findings suggest that college students' use and perceptions of online mental health resources vary as a function of social support and social anxiety, and that patterns suggestive of social compensation and social enhancement depend on whether perceptions or actual use of resources are examined. Combined with the significant interaction between social support and social anxiety on perceived usefulness of online support groups, these findings highlight the potential complexity of social compensation and enhancement phenomena.

  3. Targeted Reactivation during Sleep Differentially Affects Negative Memories in Socially Anxious and Healthy Children and Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Groch, Sabine; Preiss, Andrea; McMakin, Dana L; Rasch, Björn; Walitza, Susanne; Huber, Reto; Wilhelm, Ines

    2017-03-01

    Cognitive models propose a negative memory bias as one key factor contributing to the emergence and maintenance of social anxiety disorder (SAD). The long-term consolidation of memories relies on memory reactivations during sleep. We investigated in SAD patients and healthy controls the role of memory reactivations during sleep in the long-term consolidation of positive and negative information. Socially anxious and healthy children and adolescents learnt associations between pictures showing ambiguous situations and positive or negative words defining the situations' outcome. Half of the words were re-presented during postlearning sleep (i.e., they were cued). Recall of picture-word associations and subjective ratings of pleasantness and arousal in response to the pictures was tested for cued and uncued stimuli. In the morning after cueing, cueing facilitated retention of positive and negative memories equally well in SAD patients and healthy controls. One week later, cueing led to reduced ratings of pleasantness of negative information in SAD but not in healthy controls. Coincidental to these findings was more pronounced EEG theta activity over frontal, temporal and parietal regions in response to negative stimuli in SAD patients. Our findings suggest that the preferential abstraction of negative emotional information during sleep might represent one factor underlying the negative memory bias in SAD.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT We aim to uncover mechanisms underlying the characteristic negative memory bias in social anxiety disorder (SAD). The formation of long-lasting memories-a process referred to as memory consolidation-depends on the reactivation of newly acquired memories during sleep. We demonstrated that experimentally induced memory reactivation during sleep renders long-term memories of negative experiences more negative in SAD patients but not in healthy controls. We also found in SAD patients that the reactivation of negative experiences coincided with more

  4. Memory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKean, Kevin

    1983-01-01

    Discusses current research (including that involving amnesiacs and snails) into the nature of the memory process, differentiating between and providing examples of "fact" memory and "skill" memory. Suggests that three brain parts (thalamus, fornix, mammilary body) are involved in the memory process. (JN)

  5. Memory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKean, Kevin

    1983-01-01

    Discusses current research (including that involving amnesiacs and snails) into the nature of the memory process, differentiating between and providing examples of "fact" memory and "skill" memory. Suggests that three brain parts (thalamus, fornix, mammilary body) are involved in the memory process. (JN)

  6. Children's memory distortions following social contact with a co-witness: disentangling social and cognitive mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Bright-Paul, Alexandra; Jarrold, Christopher; Wright, Daniel B; Guillaume, Stephanie

    2012-01-01

    This study examined whether recalling an event with a co-witness influences children's recall. Individual 3-5-year-olds (n = 48) watched a film with a co-witness. Unbeknown to participants, the co-witness was watching an alternative version of the film. Afterwards both the co-witness and the participant answered questions about the film together (public recall), and the degree to which children conformed to the co-witness's alternative version of events was measured. Subsequently participants were questioned again individually (private recall). Children also completed false belief and inhibitory control tasks. By separating errors made in public and private, the results indicated that both social conformity (32% of errors) and memory distortion (68% of errors) played a role in co-witness influence. Inhibitory control predicted the likelihood of retracting errors in private, but only for children who failed (r = .66) rather than passed false belief tasks (r = -.10). The results suggest that children with a theory of mind conform in the company of the co-witness to avoid social embarrassment, while those a poor theory of mind conform on the basis of an inability to inhibit the co-witness's response. The findings contribute to our understanding of the motivations responsible for co-witness conformity across early childhood.

  7. No evidence for enhanced extinction memory consolidation through noradrenergic reuptake inhibition-delayed memory test and reinstatement in human fMRI.

    PubMed

    Lonsdorf, Tina B; Haaker, Jan; Fadai, Tahmine; Kalisch, Raffael

    2014-05-01

    One promising approach in the current ambition to maximise treatment benefit for anxiety disorders is the pharmacological enhancement of cognitive-behavioural treatment efficacy, which can be experimentally modelled by pharmacological enhancement of extinction learning/consolidation. Noradrenaline (NA) is involved in memory consolidation, and NAergic innervations are found in brain areas implicated in fear conditioning and extinction. Thus, to enhance extinction memory consolidation through boosted NAergic signalling, we administered 4 mg reboxetine (RBX) immediately after extinction learning (day 2, 24 h after conditioning on day 1) in a randomised, placebo (PLC)-controlled design. At a delayed memory test (day 8), we probed cued and contextual fear and extinction memories before and after a reinstatement manipulation. After reinstatement, we find significantly enhanced amygdala and posterior hippocampus activation in the RBX group, areas implicated in fear memory expression, while the PLC group exhibited enhanced activation in areas associated with extinction memory expression (vmPFC, anterior hippocampus). No group differences were found in skin conductance responses. Thus, our data do not support our hypothesis that enhancement of NA signalling may facilitate extinction memory consolidation and provide preliminary evidence that this might rather enhance fear memories on a neural but not physiological (skin conductance responses) level.

  8. Estradiol enhances retention but not organization of hippocampus-dependent memory in intact male mice.

    PubMed

    Al Abed, Alice Shaam; Sellami, Azza; Brayda-Bruno, Laurent; Lamothe, Valérie; Noguès, Xavier; Potier, Mylène; Bennetau-Pelissero, Catherine; Marighetto, Aline

    2016-07-01

    Because estrogens have mostly been studied in gonadectomized females, effects of chronic exposure to environmental estrogens in the general population are underestimated. Estrogens can enhance hippocampus-dependent memory through the modulation of information storage. However, declarative memory, the hippocampus-dependent memory of facts and events, demands more than abilities to retain information. Specifically, memory of repetitive events of everyday life such as "where I parked" requires abilities to organize/update memories to prevent proactive interference from similar memories of previous "parking events". Whether such organizational processes are estrogen-sensitive is unknown. We here studied, in intact young and aged adult mice, drinking-water (1μM) estradiol effects on both retention and organizational components of hippocampus-dependent memory, using a radial-maze task of everyday-like memory. Demand on retention vs organization was manipulated by varying the time-interval separating repetitions of similar events. Estradiol increased performance in young and aged mice under minimized organizational demand, but failed to improve the age-associated memory impairment and diminished performance in young mice under high organizational demand. In fact, estradiol prolonged mnemonic retention of successive events without improving organization abilities, hence resulted in more proactive interference from irrelevant memories. c-Fos imaging of testing-induced brain activations showed that the deterioration of young memory was associated with dentate gyrus dysconnectivity, reminiscent of that seen in aged mice. Our findings support the view that estradiol is promnesic but also reveal that such property can paradoxically impair memory. These findings have important outcomes regarding health issues relative to the impact of environmental estrogens in the general population. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Ventromedial prefrontal cortex stimulation enhances memory and hippocampal neurogenesis in the middle-aged rats

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Albert; Jain, Neeraj; Vyas, Ajai; Lim, Lee Wei

    2015-01-01

    Memory dysfunction is a key symptom of age-related dementia. Although recent studies have suggested positive effects of electrical stimulation for memory enhancement, its potential targets remain largely unknown. In this study, we hypothesized that spatially targeted deep brain stimulation of ventromedial prefrontal cortex enhanced memory functions in a middle-aged rat model. Our results show that acute stimulation enhanced the short-, but not the long-term memory in the novel-object recognition task. Interestingly, after chronic high-frequency stimulation, both the short- and long-term memories were robustly improved in the novel-object recognition test and Morris water-maze spatial task compared to sham. Our results also demonstrated that chronic ventromedial prefrontal cortex high-frequency stimulation upregulated neurogenesis-associated genes along with enhanced hippocampal cell proliferation. Importantly, these memory behaviors were strongly correlated with the hippocampal neurogenesis. Overall, these findings suggest that chronic ventromedial prefrontal cortex high-frequency stimulation may serve as a novel effective therapeutic target for dementia-related disorders. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.04803.001 PMID:25768425

  10. Training Working Memory in Childhood Enhances Coupling between Frontoparietal Control Network and Task-Related Regions.

    PubMed

    Barnes, Jessica J; Nobre, Anna Christina; Woolrich, Mark W; Baker, Kate; Astle, Duncan E

    2016-08-24

    Working memory is a capacity upon which many everyday tasks depend and which constrains a child's educational progress. We show that a child's working memory can be significantly enhanced by intensive computer-based training, relative to a placebo control intervention, in terms of both standardized assessments of working memory and performance on a working memory task performed in a magnetoencephalography scanner. Neurophysiologically, we identified significantly increased cross-frequency phase amplitude coupling in children who completed training. Following training, the coupling between the upper alpha rhythm (at 16 Hz), recorded in superior frontal and parietal cortex, became significantly coupled with high gamma activity (at ∼90 Hz) in inferior temporal cortex. This altered neural network activity associated with cognitive skill enhancement is consistent with a framework in which slower cortical rhythms enable the dynamic regulation of higher-frequency oscillatory activity related to task-related cognitive processes. Whether we can enhance cognitive abilities through intensive training is one of the most controversial topics of cognitive psychology in recent years. This is particularly controversial in childhood, where aspects of cognition, such as working memory, are closely related to school success and are implicated in numerous developmental disorders. We provide the first neurophysiological account of how working memory training may enhance ability in childhood, using a brain recording technique called magnetoencephalography. We borrowed an analysis approach previously used with intracranial recordings in adults, or more typically in other animal models, called "phase amplitude coupling." Copyright © 2016 Barnes et al.

  11. Training Working Memory in Childhood Enhances Coupling between Frontoparietal Control Network and Task-Related Regions

    PubMed Central

    Barnes, Jessica J.; Nobre, Anna Christina; Woolrich, Mark W.; Baker, Kate

    2016-01-01

    Working memory is a capacity upon which many everyday tasks depend and which constrains a child's educational progress. We show that a child's working memory can be significantly enhanced by intensive computer-based training, relative to a placebo control intervention, in terms of both standardized assessments of working memory and performance on a working memory task performed in a magnetoencephalography scanner. Neurophysiologically, we identified significantly increased cross-frequency phase amplitude coupling in children who completed training. Following training, the coupling between the upper alpha rhythm (at 16 Hz), recorded in superior frontal and parietal cortex, became significantly coupled with high gamma activity (at ∼90 Hz) in inferior temporal cortex. This altered neural network activity associated with cognitive skill enhancement is consistent with a framework in which slower cortical rhythms enable the dynamic regulation of higher-frequency oscillatory activity related to task-related cognitive processes. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Whether we can enhance cognitive abilities through intensive training is one of the most controversial topics of cognitive psychology in recent years. This is particularly controversial in childhood, where aspects of cognition, such as working memory, are closely related to school success and are implicated in numerous developmental disorders. We provide the first neurophysiological account of how working memory training may enhance ability in childhood, using a brain recording technique called magnetoencephalography. We borrowed an analysis approach previously used with intracranial recordings in adults, or more typically in other animal models, called “phase amplitude coupling.” PMID:27559180

  12. Intersensory Redundancy Enhances Memory in Bobwhite Quail Embryos

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lickliter, Robert; Bahrick, Lorraine E.; Honeycutt, Hunter

    2004-01-01

    Information presented concurrently and redundantly to 2 or more senses (intersensory redundancy) has been shown to recruit attention and promote perceptual learning of amodal stimulus properties in animal embryos and human infants. This study examined whether the facilitative effect of intersensory redundancy also extends to the domain of memory.…

  13. Spatial partitions systematize visual search and enhance target memory.

    PubMed

    Solman, Grayden J F; Kingstone, Alan

    2017-02-01

    Humans are remarkably capable of finding desired objects in the world, despite the scale and complexity of naturalistic environments. Broadly, this ability is supported by an interplay between exploratory search and guidance from episodic memory for previously observed target locations. Here we examined how the environment itself may influence this interplay. In particular, we examined how partitions in the environment-like buildings, rooms, and furniture-can impact memory during repeated search. We report that the presence of partitions in a display, independent of item configuration, reliably improves episodic memory for item locations. Repeated search through partitioned displays was faster overall and was characterized by more rapid ballistic orienting in later repetitions. Explicit recall was also both faster and more accurate when displays were partitioned. Finally, we found that search paths were more regular and systematic when displays were partitioned. Given the ubiquity of partitions in real-world environments, these results provide important insights into the mechanisms of naturalistic search and its relation to memory.

  14. Working Memory Enhances Visual Perception: Evidence from Signal Detection Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soto, David; Wriglesworth, Alice; Bahrami-Balani, Alex; Humphreys, Glyn W.

    2010-01-01

    We show that perceptual sensitivity to visual stimuli can be modulated by matches between the contents of working memory (WM) and stimuli in the visual field. Observers were presented with an object cue (to hold in WM or to merely attend) and subsequently had to identify a brief target presented within a colored shape. The cue could be…

  15. Adaptive Memory: Animacy Enhances Free Recall but Impairs Cued Recall

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Popp, Earl Y.; Serra, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    Recent research suggests that human memory systems evolved to remember animate things better than inanimate things. In the present experiments, we examined whether these effects occur for both free recall and cued recall. In Experiment 1, we directly compared the effect of animacy on free recall and cued recall. Participants studied lists of…

  16. Adaptive Memory: Animacy Enhances Free Recall but Impairs Cued Recall

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Popp, Earl Y.; Serra, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    Recent research suggests that human memory systems evolved to remember animate things better than inanimate things. In the present experiments, we examined whether these effects occur for both free recall and cued recall. In Experiment 1, we directly compared the effect of animacy on free recall and cued recall. Participants studied lists of…

  17. Working Memory Enhances Visual Perception: Evidence from Signal Detection Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soto, David; Wriglesworth, Alice; Bahrami-Balani, Alex; Humphreys, Glyn W.

    2010-01-01

    We show that perceptual sensitivity to visual stimuli can be modulated by matches between the contents of working memory (WM) and stimuli in the visual field. Observers were presented with an object cue (to hold in WM or to merely attend) and subsequently had to identify a brief target presented within a colored shape. The cue could be…

  18. Intersensory Redundancy Enhances Memory in Bobwhite Quail Embryos

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lickliter, Robert; Bahrick, Lorraine E.; Honeycutt, Hunter

    2004-01-01

    Information presented concurrently and redundantly to 2 or more senses (intersensory redundancy) has been shown to recruit attention and promote perceptual learning of amodal stimulus properties in animal embryos and human infants. This study examined whether the facilitative effect of intersensory redundancy also extends to the domain of memory.…

  19. Enhanced Visual Short-Term Memory for Angry Faces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Margaret C.; Wu, Chia-Yun; Linden, David E. J.; Raymond, Jane E.

    2009-01-01

    Although some views of face perception posit independent processing of face identity and expression, recent studies suggest interactive processing of these 2 domains. The authors examined expression-identity interactions in visual short-term memory (VSTM) by assessing recognition performance in a VSTM task in which face identity was relevant and…

  20. Autobiographical Memory and Social Problem-Solving in Asperger Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goddard, Lorna; Howlin, Patricia; Dritschel, Barbara; Patel, Trishna

    2007-01-01

    Difficulties in social interaction are a central feature of Asperger syndrome. Effective social interaction involves the ability to solve interpersonal problems as and when they occur. Here we examined social problem-solving in a group of adults with Asperger syndrome and control group matched for age, gender and IQ. We also assessed…

  1. Autobiographical Memory and Social Problem-Solving in Asperger Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goddard, Lorna; Howlin, Patricia; Dritschel, Barbara; Patel, Trishna

    2007-01-01

    Difficulties in social interaction are a central feature of Asperger syndrome. Effective social interaction involves the ability to solve interpersonal problems as and when they occur. Here we examined social problem-solving in a group of adults with Asperger syndrome and control group matched for age, gender and IQ. We also assessed…

  2. The effect of the social regulation of emotion on emotional long-term memory.

    PubMed

    Flores, Luis E; Berenbaum, Howard

    2017-04-01

    Memories for emotional events tend to be stronger than for neutral events, and weakening negative memories can be helpful to promote well-being. The present study examined whether the social regulation of emotion (in the form of handholding) altered the strength of emotional long-term memory. A sample of 219 undergraduate students viewed sets of negative, neutral, and positive images. Each participant held a stress ball while viewing half of the images and held someone's hand while viewing the other half. Participants returned 1 week later to complete a recognition task. Performance on the recognition task demonstrated that participants had lower memory accuracy for negative but not for positive pictures that were shown while they were holding someone's hand compared with when they were holding a stress ball. Although handholding altered the strength of negative emotional long-term memory, it did not down-regulate negative affective response as measured by self-report or facial expressivity. The present findings provide evidence that the social regulation of emotion can help weaken memory for negative information. Given the role of strong negative memories in different forms of psychopathology (e.g., depression, posttraumatic stress disorder), these findings may help better understand how close relationships protect against psychopathology. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  3. Improving specific autobiographical memory in older adults: impacts on mood, social problem solving, and functional limitations.

    PubMed

    Leahy, Fiona; Ridout, Nathan; Mushtaq, Faizah; Holland, Carol

    2017-08-21

    Older adults have difficulty recalling specific autobiographical events. This over-general memory style is a vulnerability factor for depression. Two groups receiving interventions that have previously been successful at reducing over-general memory in depressed populations were compared to a control group. Participants were healthy older adults aged ≥70 years: memory specificity training (MEST; n = 22), life review (n = 22), and control group (n = 22). There were significant improvements in autobiographical memory specificity in the MEST and life review groups at post-training, relative to the control group, suggesting that over-general memory can be reduced in older adults. Change in social problem solving ability and functional limitations were related to change in autobiographical memory specificity, supporting the suggested role of specific retrieval in generating solutions to social problems and maintaining independence. Qualitative analysis of participants' feedback revealed that life review may be more appropriate for older adults, possibly because it involves integrating specific memories into a positive narrative.

  4. A Lattice-Trapped and Cavity-Enhanced High-Quality Quantum Memory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Sheng-Jun; Wang, Xu-Jie; Bao, Xiao-Hui; Pan, Jian-Wei

    2015-05-01

    Quantum memory plays an increasing essential part in many applications of quantum information science. Currently, the intense research and crucial challenge is that integration of a full functional quantum memory with various high-performance properties in a single system. Storage lifetime and retrieval efficiency are the two most important qualities of quantum memory, especially indispensable for quantum repeater and long-distance quantum communication. Here based on techniques of magic optical lattice trap and ring cavity enhancement, we experimentally achieved a high-quality cold atom quantum memory. The initial intrinsic retrieval efficiency is up to 77(5)%, with an e-1-storage lifetime about 0.25 sec for the first time. Such high effective and long-lived quantum memory should be significantly important for quantum communication and cryptography, and would truly stimulate a first practical demonstration of long distance quantum repeaters in the near future.

  5. Enhancing Classroom Effectiveness through Social Networking Tools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kurthakoti, Raghu; Boostrom, Robert E., Jr.; Summey, John H.; Campbell, David A.

    2013-01-01

    To determine the usefulness of social networking Web sites such as Ning.com as a communication tool in marketing courses, a study was designed with special concern for social network use in comparison to Blackboard. Students from multiple marketing courses were surveyed. Assessments of Ning.com and Blackboard were performed both to understand how…

  6. Enhancing Students Emotional Intelligence and Social Adeptness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gore, Scott W.

    This action research project implemented and evaluated a curriculum designed to help students with varying degrees of emotional intelligence improve their social adeptness. The targeted population consisted of sixth-grade students in a large urban setting in central Illinois. The students' levels of social ineptness were determined and documented…

  7. Enhancing Classroom Effectiveness through Social Networking Tools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kurthakoti, Raghu; Boostrom, Robert E., Jr.; Summey, John H.; Campbell, David A.

    2013-01-01

    To determine the usefulness of social networking Web sites such as Ning.com as a communication tool in marketing courses, a study was designed with special concern for social network use in comparison to Blackboard. Students from multiple marketing courses were surveyed. Assessments of Ning.com and Blackboard were performed both to understand how…

  8. Factor structure of overall autobiographical memory usage: the directive, self and social functions revisited.

    PubMed

    Rasmussen, Anne S; Habermas, Tilmann

    2011-08-01

    According to theory, autobiographical memory serves three broad functions of overall usage: directive, self, and social. However, there is evidence to suggest that the tripartite model may be better conceptualised in terms of a four-factor model with two social functions. In the present study we examined the two models in Danish and German samples, using the Thinking About Life Experiences Questionnaire (TALE; Bluck, Alea, Habermas, & Rubin, 2005), which measures the overall usage of the three functions generalised across concrete memories. Confirmatory factor analysis supported the four-factor model and rejected the theoretical three-factor model in both samples. The results are discussed in relation to cultural differences in overall autobiographical memory usage as well as sharing versus non-sharing aspects of social remembering.

  9. Enhanced human memory consolidation with post-learning stress: interaction with the degree of arousal at encoding.

    PubMed

    Cahill, Larry; Gorski, Lukasz; Le, Kathryn

    2003-01-01

    Abundant evidence indicates that endogenous stress hormones such as epinephrine and corticosterone modulate memory consolidation in animals. We recently provided the first demonstration that an endogenous stress hormone (epinephrine) can enhance human memory consolidation. However, these findings also suggested that post-learning stress hormone activation does not uniformly enhance memory for all recently acquired information; rather, that it interacts with the degree of arousal at initial encoding of material in modulating memory for the material. Here we tested this hypothesis by administering cold pressor stress (CPS) or a control procedure to subjects after they viewed slides of varying emotional content, and assessing memory for the slides 1 wk later. CPS, which significantly elevated salivary cortisol levels, enhanced memory for emotionally arousing slides compared with the controls, but did not affect memory for relatively neutral slides. These findings further support the view that post-learning stress hormone-related activity interacts with arousal at initial encoding to modulate memory consolidation.

  10. Disrupted social development enhances the motivation for cocaine in rats.

    PubMed

    Baarendse, Petra J J; Limpens, Jules H W; Vanderschuren, Louk J M J

    2014-04-01

    Early social experiences are of major importance for behavioural development. In particular, social play behaviour during post-weaning development is thought to facilitate the attainment of social, emotional and cognitive capacities. Conversely, social insults during development can cause long-lasting behavioural impairments and increase the vulnerability for psychiatric disorders, such as drug addiction. The aim of this study was to investigate whether a lack of social experiences during the juvenile and early adolescent stage, when social play behaviour is highly abundant, alters cocaine self-administration in rats. Rats were socially isolated from postnatal days 21 to 42 followed by re-socialization until adulthood. Cocaine self-administration was then assessed under a fixed ratio and progressive ratio schedule of reinforcement. Next, cue, cocaine and stress-induced reinstatement of cocaine seeking was determined following extinction of self-administration. Early social isolation resulted in an enhanced acquisition of self-administration of a low dose (0.083 mg/infusion) of cocaine, but the sensitivity to cocaine reinforcement, assessed using a dose-response analysis, was not altered in isolated rats. Moreover, isolated rats displayed an increased motivation for cocaine under a progressive ratio schedule of reinforcement. Extinction and reinstatement of cocaine seeking was not affected by early social isolation. Early social isolation causes a long-lasting increase in the motivation to self-administer cocaine. Thus, aberrations in post-weaning social development, such as the absence of social play, enhance the vulnerability for drug addiction later in life.

  11. Four-Month-Old Infants’ Long-Term Memory for a Stressful Social Event

    PubMed Central

    Montirosso, Rosario; Tronick, Ed; Morandi, Francesco; Ciceri, Francesca; Borgatti, Renato

    2013-01-01

    Infants clearly show an early capacity for memory for inanimate emotionally neutral events. However, their memory for social stress events has received far less attention. The aim of the study was to investigate infants’ memory for a stressful social event (i.e., maternal unresponsiveness during the Still-Face paradigm) after a 15-day recall interval using changes in behavioral responses and salivary post-stress cortisol reactivity as measures of memory. Thirty-seven infants were exposed to social stress two times (experimental condition); the first time when they were 4 months of age and second exposure after a 2 week interval. Infants in the control condition (N = 37) were exposed to social stress just one time, at the age corresponding to the second exposure for infants in the experimental condition (4 months plus 2 weeks). Given individual differences in infants’ reactivity to social stress events, we categorized infants as increasers or decreasers based on their cortisol reactivity after their initial exposure to the stress of the maternal still-face. Infants in the experimental condition, both increasers and decreasers, showed a significant change in cortisol response after the second exposure to the maternal still-face, though change was different for each reactivity group. In contrast, age-matched infants with no prior exposure to the maternal still-face showed similar post-stress cortisol reactivity to the reactivity of the experimental infants at their first exposure. There were no behavioral differences between increasers and decreasers during the Still-Face paradigm and exposures to the social stress. Thus differences between the experimental and control groups’ post-stress cortisol reactivity was associated with the experimental group having previous experience with the social stress. These findings indicate long-term memory for social stress in infants as young as 4 months of age. PMID:24349244

  12. Four-month-old infants' long-term memory for a stressful social event.

    PubMed

    Montirosso, Rosario; Tronick, Ed; Morandi, Francesco; Ciceri, Francesca; Borgatti, Renato

    2013-01-01

    Infants clearly show an early capacity for memory for inanimate emotionally neutral events. However, their memory for social stress events has received far less attention. The aim of the study was to investigate infants' memory for a stressful social event (i.e., maternal unresponsiveness during the Still-Face paradigm) after a 15-day recall interval using changes in behavioral responses and salivary post-stress cortisol reactivity as measures of memory. Thirty-seven infants were exposed to social stress two times (experimental condition); the first time when they were 4 months of age and second exposure after a 2 week interval. Infants in the control condition (N = 37) were exposed to social stress just one time, at the age corresponding to the second exposure for infants in the experimental condition (4 months plus 2 weeks). Given individual differences in infants' reactivity to social stress events, we categorized infants as increasers or decreasers based on their cortisol reactivity after their initial exposure to the stress of the maternal still-face. Infants in the experimental condition, both increasers and decreasers, showed a significant change in cortisol response after the second exposure to the maternal still-face, though change was different for each reactivity group. In contrast, age-matched infants with no prior exposure to the maternal still-face showed similar post-stress cortisol reactivity to the reactivity of the experimental infants at their first exposure. There were no behavioral differences between increasers and decreasers during the Still-Face paradigm and exposures to the social stress. Thus differences between the experimental and control groups' post-stress cortisol reactivity was associated with the experimental group having previous experience with the social stress. These findings indicate long-term memory for social stress in infants as young as 4 months of age.

  13. Oxytocin mediates rodent social memory within the lateral septum and the medial amygdala depending on the relevance of the social stimulus: male juvenile versus female adult conspecifics.

    PubMed

    Lukas, Michael; Toth, Iulia; Veenema, Alexa H; Neumann, Inga D

    2013-06-01

    Brain oxytocin (OXT) plays an important role in short-term social memory in laboratory rodents. Here we monitored local release of OXT and its functional involvement in the maintenance and retrieval of social memory during the social discrimination test. We further assessed, if the local effects of OXT within the medial amygdala (MeA) and lateral septum (LS) on social discrimination abilities were dependent on the biological relevance of the social stimulus, thus comparing male juvenile versus adult female conspecifics. OXT release was increased in the LS of male rats during the retrieval, but not during the acquisition or maintenance, of social memory for male juvenile stimuli. Blockade of OXT activity by intracerebroventricular (ICV) administration of a specific OXT receptor antagonist (OXTR-A, rats: 0.75 μg/5 μl, mice: 2 μg/2 μl) immediately after acquisition of social memory impaired the maintenance of social memory, and consequently discrimination abilities during retrieval of social memory. In contrast, ICV OXTR-A was without effect when administered 20 min prior to retrieval of social memory in both species. Non-social memory measured in the object discrimination test was not affected by ICV OXTR-A in male mice, indicating that brain OXT is mainly required for memory formation in a social context. The biological relevance of the social stimulus seems to importantly determine social memory abilities, as male rats recognized a previously encountered female adult stimulus for at least 2h (versus 60 min for male juveniles), with a region-dependent contribution of endogenous OXT; while bilateral administration of OXTR-A into the MeA (0.1 μg/1 μl) impaired social memory for adult females only, administration of OXTR-A into the LS via retrodialysis (10 μg/ml, 1.0 μl/min) impaired social memory for both male juveniles and female adults. Overall, these results indicate that brain OXT is a critical mediator of social memory in male rodents and that, depending

  14. The Drosophila DmGluRA is required for social interaction and memory

    PubMed Central

    Schoenfeld, Brian P.; Choi, Richard J.; Choi, Catherine H.; Terlizzi, Allison M.; Hinchey, Paul; Kollaros, Maria; Ferrick, Neal J.; Koenigsberg, Eric; Ferreiro, David; Leibelt, David A.; Siegel, Steven J.; Bell, Aaron J.; McDonald, Thomas V.; Jongens, Thomas A.; McBride, Sean M. J.

    2013-01-01

    Metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs) have well-established roles in cognition and social behavior in mammals. Whether or not these roles have been conserved throughout evolution from invertebrate species is less clear. Mammals have eight mGluRs whereas Drosophila has a single DmGluRA, which has both Gi and Gq coupled signaling activity. We have utilized Drosophila to examine the role of DmGluRA in social behavior and various phases of memory. We have found that flies that are homozygous or heterozygous for loss of function mutations of DmGluRA have impaired social behavior in male Drosophila. Futhermore, flies that are heterozygous for loss of function mutations of DmGluRA have impaired learning during training, immediate-recall memory, short-term memory, and long-term memory as young adults. This work demonstrates a role for mGluR activity in both social behavior and memory in Drosophila. PMID:23720628

  15. Enhanced associative memory for colour (but not shape or location) in synaesthesia.

    PubMed

    Pritchard, Jamie; Rothen, Nicolas; Coolbear, Daniel; Ward, Jamie

    2013-05-01

    People with grapheme-colour synaesthesia have been shown to have enhanced memory on a range of tasks using both stimuli that induce synaesthesia (e.g. words) and, more surprisingly, stimuli that do not (e.g. certain abstract visual stimuli). This study examines the latter by using multi-featured stimuli consisting of shape, colour and location conjunctions (e.g. shape A+colour A+location A; shape B+colour B+location B) presented in a recognition memory paradigm. This enables distractor items to be created in which one of these features is 'unbound' with respect to the others (e.g. shape A+colour B+location A; shape A+colour A+location C). Synaesthetes had higher recognition rates suggesting an enhanced ability to bind certain visual features together into memory. Importantly, synaesthetes' false alarm rates were lower only when colour was the unbound feature, not shape or location. We suggest that synaesthetes are "colour experts" and that enhanced perception can lead to enhanced memory in very specific ways; but, not for instance, an enhanced ability to form associations per se. The results support contemporary models that propose a continuum between perception and memory.

  16. Glucose Administration Enhances fMRI Brain Activation and Connectivity Related to Episodic Memory Encoding for Neutral and Emotional Stimuli

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parent, Marise B.; Krebs-Kraft, Desiree L.; Ryan, John P.; Wilson, Jennifer S.; Harenski, Carla; Hamann, Stephan

    2011-01-01

    Glucose enhances memory in a variety of species. In humans, glucose administration enhances episodic memory encoding, although little is known regarding the neural mechanisms underlying these effects. Here we examined whether elevating blood glucose would enhance functional MRI (fMRI) activation and connectivity in brain regions associated with…

  17. Glucose Administration Enhances fMRI Brain Activation and Connectivity Related to Episodic Memory Encoding for Neutral and Emotional Stimuli

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parent, Marise B.; Krebs-Kraft, Desiree L.; Ryan, John P.; Wilson, Jennifer S.; Harenski, Carla; Hamann, Stephan

    2011-01-01

    Glucose enhances memory in a variety of species. In humans, glucose administration enhances episodic memory encoding, although little is known regarding the neural mechanisms underlying these effects. Here we examined whether elevating blood glucose would enhance functional MRI (fMRI) activation and connectivity in brain regions associated with…

  18. Evidence for social working memory from a parametric functional MRI study

    PubMed Central

    Meyer, Meghan L.; Spunt, Robert P.; Berkman, Elliot T.; Taylor, Shelley E.; Lieberman, Matthew D.

    2012-01-01

    Keeping track of various amounts of social cognitive information, including people's mental states, traits, and relationships, is fundamental to navigating social interactions. However, to date, no research has examined which brain regions support variable amounts of social information processing (“social load”). We developed a social working memory paradigm to examine the brain networks sensitive to social load. Two networks showed linear increases in activation as a function of increasing social load: the medial frontoparietal regions implicated in social cognition and the lateral frontoparietal system implicated in nonsocial forms of working memory. Of these networks, only load-dependent medial frontoparietal activity was associated with individual differences in social cognitive ability (trait perspective-taking). Although past studies of nonsocial load have uniformly found medial frontoparietal activity decreases with increasing task demands, the current study demonstrates these regions do support increasing mental effort when such effort engages social cognition. Implications for the etiology of clinical disorders that implicate social functioning and potential interventions are discussed. PMID:22308468

  19. Three-Dimensional Cellular Structures Enhanced By Shape Memory Alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nathal, Michael V.; Krause, David L.; Wilmoth, Nathan G.; Bednarcyk, Brett A.; Baker, Eric H.

    2014-01-01

    This research effort explored lightweight structural concepts married with advanced smart materials to achieve a wide variety of benefits in airframe and engine components. Lattice block structures were cast from an aerospace structural titanium alloy Ti-6Al-4V and a NiTi shape memory alloy (SMA), and preliminary properties have been measured. A finite element-based modeling approach that can rapidly and accurately capture the deformation response of lattice architectures was developed. The Ti-6-4 and SMA material behavior was calibrated via experimental tests of ligaments machined from the lattice. Benchmark testing of complete lattice structures verified the main aspects of the model as well as demonstrated the advantages of the lattice structure. Shape memory behavior of a sample machined from a lattice block was also demonstrated.

  20. A quantum spectrum analyzer enhanced by a nuclear spin memory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosskopf, Tobias; Zopes, Jonathan; Boss, Jens M.; Degen, Christian L.

    2017-08-01

    We realize a two-qubit sensor designed for achieving high-spectral resolution in quantum sensing experiments. Our sensor consists of an active "sensing qubit" and a long-lived "memory qubit", implemented by the electronic and the nitrogen-15 nuclear spins of a nitrogen-vacancy center in diamond, respectively. Using state storage times of up to 45 ms, we demonstrate spectroscopy of external ac signals with a line width of 19 Hz (˜2.9 ppm) and of carbon-13 nuclear magnetic resonance signals with a line width of 190 Hz (˜74 ppm). This represents an up to 100-fold improvement in spectral resolution compared to measurements without nuclear memory.

  1. Controller Memory Enhancement: Field Facility Concepts and Techniques

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-02-01

    Training ATCSs ........................ 31 3.4.1 At the Academy ................................. 31 3.4.2 In Facility Classrooms ...training at various sites: at the FAA Academy, in facility classrooms , in facility radar simulation, and on- the-job training to become position...Reaching Memory Limitations Responses* When there is too much work to do and not enough time to do it 32 Fidgeting in a nervous manner 31 Sitting closer

  2. When a thought equals a look: refreshing enhances perceptual memory.

    PubMed

    Yi, Do-Joon; Turk-Browne, Nicholas B; Chun, Marvin M; Johnson, Marcia K

    2008-08-01

    Cognition constantly involves retrieving and maintaining information that is not perceptually available in the current environment. Studies on visual imagery and working memory suggest that such high-level cognition might, in part, be mediated by the revival of perceptual representations in the inferior temporal cortex. Here, we provide new support for this hypothesis, showing that reflectively accessed information can have similar consequences for subsequent perception as actual perceptual input. Participants were presented with pairs of frames in which a scene could appear, and were required to make a category judgment on the second frame. In the critical condition, a scene was presented in the first frame, but the second frame was blank. Thus, it was necessary to refresh the scene from the first frame in order to make the category judgment. Scenes were then repeated in subsequent trials to measure the effect of refreshing on functional magnetic resonance imaging repetition attenuation -- a neural index of memory -- in a scene-selective region of the visual cortex. Surprisingly, the refreshed scenes produced equal attenuation as scenes that had been presented twice during encoding, and more attenuation than scenes that had been presented once during encoding, but that were not refreshed. Thus, the top-down revival of a percept had a similar effect on memory as actually seeing the stimulus again. These findings indicate that high-level cognition can activate stimulus-specific representations in the ventral visual cortex, and that such top-down activation, like that from sensory stimulation, produces memorial changes that affect perceptual processing during a later encounter with the stimulus.

  3. Retrieval practice enhances the accessibility but not the quality of memory.

    PubMed

    Sutterer, David W; Awh, Edward

    2016-06-01

    Numerous studies have demonstrated that retrieval from long-term memory (LTM) can enhance subsequent memory performance, a phenomenon labeled the retrieval practice effect. However, the almost exclusive reliance on categorical stimuli in this literature leaves open a basic question about the nature of this improvement in memory performance. It has not yet been determined whether retrieval practice improves the probability of successful memory retrieval or the quality of the retrieved representation. To answer this question, we conducted three experiments using a mixture modeling approach (Zhang & Luck, 2008) that provides a measure of both the probability of recall and the quality of the recalled memories. Subjects attempted to memorize the color of 400 unique shapes. After every 10 images were presented, subjects either recalled the last 10 colors (the retrieval practice condition) by clicking on a color wheel with each shape as a retrieval cue or they participated in a control condition that involved no further presentations (Experiment 1) or restudy of the 10 shape/color associations (Experiments 2 and 3). Performance in a subsequent delayed recall test revealed a robust retrieval practice effect. Subjects recalled a significantly higher proportion of items that they had previously retrieved relative to items that were untested or that they had restudied. Interestingly, retrieval practice did not elicit any improvement in the precision of the retrieved memories. The same empirical pattern also was observed following delays of greater than 24 hours. Thus, retrieval practice increases the probability of successful memory retrieval but does not improve memory quality.

  4. Delaying Interference Enhances Memory Consolidation in Amnesic Patients

    PubMed Central

    Dewar, Michaela; Garcia, Yuriem Fernandez; Cowan, Nelson; Sala, Sergio Della

    2009-01-01

    Some patients with amnesia are able to retain new information for much longer than expected when the time that follows new learning is devoid of further stimuli. Animal work shows that the absence or delaying of interference improves long-term memory consolidation. Our study suggests that this is also true for at least some patients with amnesia. Retention of new verbal material was significantly higher in a sample of patients with amnesia (N = 12) when interference occurred at the end of a 9-min delay interval than when it occurred in the middle or at the beginning of the interval. Such findings cannot be accounted for by the mere use of explicit short-term memory rehearsal. Any such rehearsal should have been blocked by the interference, irrespective of interference onset, thus leading to poor retention in all three conditions. The current findings suggest that at least some of the severe forgetting observed in amnesia is the product of a disruption of memory consolidation by immediate postlearning interference. PMID:19702416

  5. Enhanced theta synchronization correlates with the successful retrieval of trace fear memory.

    PubMed

    Han, Yujin; An, Bobae; Choi, Sukwoo

    2016-11-25

    Mechanisms underlying delay fear conditioning in which conditioned stimuli (CS) are paired and co-terminated with unconditioned stimuli (US), have been extensively characterized, thus expanding knowledge concerning learning and memory. However, trace fear conditioning in which CS and US are separated by trace interval periods, has received much less attention though it involves cognitive processes including timing and working memories. Various brain regions including the hippocampus are known to play an important role in memory acquisition and/or retrieval of trace fear conditioning. However, neural correlates, which are specific for the discrete steps in trace fear conditioning, have not been characterized thoroughly. Here, we investigated the network activities between the dorsal and ventral hippocampi at different stages of memory processing after trace fear conditioning. When fear memory was retrieved successfully, theta synchronization between the two regions was enhanced relative to preconditioning levels. The enhancement in theta synchronization was observed only during the trace interval period but not during CS presentation or after the trace interval period. Thus, the enhanced theta synchronization between the dorsal and ventral hippocampi may underlie a cognitive process associated with the trace interval period when fear memory is retrieved successfully. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Prior perceptual processing enhances the effect of emotional arousal on the neural correlates of memory retrieval

    PubMed Central

    Dew, Ilana T. Z.; Ritchey, Maureen; LaBar, Kevin S.; Cabeza, Roberto

    2014-01-01

    A fundamental idea in memory research is that items are more likely to be remembered if encoded with a semantic, rather than perceptual, processing strategy. Interestingly, this effect has been shown to reverse for emotionally arousing materials, such that perceptual processing enhances memory for emotional information or events. The current fMRI study investigated the neural mechanisms of this effect by testing how neural activations during emotional memory retrieval are influenced by the prior encoding strategy. Participants incidentally encoded emotional and neutral pictures under instructions to attend to either semantic or perceptual properties of each picture. Recognition memory was tested two days later. fMRI analyses yielded three main findings. First, right amygdalar activity associated with emotional memory strength was enhanced by prior perceptual processing. Second, prior perceptual processing of emotional pictures produced a stronger effect on recollection- than familiarity-related activations in the right amygdala and left hippocampus. Finally, prior perceptual processing enhanced amygdalar connectivity with regions strongly associated with retrieval success, including hippocampal/parahippocampal regions, visual cortex, and ventral parietal cortex. Taken together, the results specify how encoding orientations yield alterations in brain systems that retrieve emotional memories. PMID:24380867

  7. Prior perceptual processing enhances the effect of emotional arousal on the neural correlates of memory retrieval.

    PubMed

    Dew, Ilana T Z; Ritchey, Maureen; LaBar, Kevin S; Cabeza, Roberto

    2014-07-01

    A fundamental idea in memory research is that items are more likely to be remembered if encoded with a semantic, rather than perceptual, processing strategy. Interestingly, this effect has been shown to reverse for emotionally arousing materials, such that perceptual processing enhances memory for emotional information or events. The current fMRI study investigated the neural mechanisms of this effect by testing how neural activations during emotional memory retrieval are influenced by the prior encoding strategy. Participants incidentally encoded emotional and neutral pictures under instructions to attend to either semantic or perceptual properties of each picture. Recognition memory was tested 2 days later. fMRI analyses yielded three main findings. First, right amygdalar activity associated with emotional memory strength was enhanced by prior perceptual processing. Second, prior perceptual processing of emotional pictures produced a stronger effect on recollection- than familiarity-related activations in the right amygdala and left hippocampus. Finally, prior perceptual processing enhanced amygdalar connectivity with regions strongly associated with retrieval success, including hippocampal/parahippocampal regions, visual cortex, and ventral parietal cortex. Taken together, the results specify how encoding orientations yield alterations in brain systems that retrieve emotional memories.

  8. Navigating Monogamy: Nonapeptide Sensitivity in a Memory Neural Circuit May Shape Social Behavior and Mating Decisions.

    PubMed

    Ophir, Alexander G

    2017-01-01

    The role of memory in mating systems is often neglected despite the fact that most mating systems are defined in part by how animals use space. Monogamy, for example, is usually characterized by affiliative (e.g., pairbonding) and defensive (e.g., mate guarding) behaviors, but a high degree of spatial overlap in home range use is the easiest defining feature of monogamous animals in the wild. The nonapeptides vasopressin and oxytocin have been the focus of much attention for their importance in modulating social behavior, however this work has largely overshadowed their roles in learning and memory. To date, the understanding of memory systems and mechanisms governing social behavior have progressed relatively independently. Bridging these two areas will provide a deeper appreciation for understanding behavior, and in particular the mechanisms that mediate reproductive decision-making. Here, I argue that the ability to mate effectively as monogamous individuals is linked to the ability to track conspecifics in space. I discuss the connectivity across some well-known social and spatial memory nuclei, and propose that the nonapeptide receptors within these structures form a putative "socio-spatial memory neural circuit." This purported circuit may function to integrate social and spatial information to shape mating decisions in a context-dependent fashion. The lateral septum and/or the nucleus accumbens, and neuromodulation therein, may act as an intermediary to relate socio-spatial information with social behavior. Identifying mechanisms responsible for relating information about the social world with mechanisms mediating mating tactics is crucial to fully appreciate the suite of factors driving reproductive decisions and social decision-making.

  9. Memory functioning and negative symptoms as differential predictors of social problem solving skills in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Ventura, Joseph; Tom, Shelley R; Jetton, Chris; Kern, Robert S

    2013-02-01

    Neurocognition in general, and memory functioning in particular, as well as symptoms have all been shown to be related to social problem solving (SPS) in schizophrenia. However, few studies have directly compared the relative contribution of neurocognition vs. psychiatric symptoms to the components of SPS. Sixty outpatients (aged 21-65) who met DSM-IV criteria for schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder were administered a broad battery of memory tests and assessed for severity of positive and negative symptoms as part of a baseline assessment of a study of psychiatric rehabilitation. Multiple regression analyses were used to examine the contribution of memory functioning vs. symptoms on receiving, processing, and sending skill areas of social problem solving ability. An index of verbal learning was the strongest predictor of processing skills whereas negative symptoms were the strongest predictor of sending skills. Positive symptoms were not related to any of the three skill areas of social problem solving. Memory functioning and psychiatric symptoms differentially predict selected areas of social problem solving ability in persons with schizophrenia. Consistent with other reports, positive symptoms were not related to social problem solving. Consideration of both neurocognition and negative symptoms may be important to the development of rehabilitation interventions in this area of functioning. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Memory Functioning and Negative Symptoms as Differential Predictors of Social Problem Solving Skills in Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Ventura, Joseph; Tom, Shelley R.; Jetton, Chris; Kern, Robert S.

    2014-01-01

    Background Neurocognition in general, and memory functioning in particular, as well as symptoms have all been shown to be related to social problem solving (SPS) in schizophrenia. However, few studies have directly compared the relative contribution of neurocognition vs. psychiatric symptoms to the components of SPS. Method Sixty outpatients (aged 21 – 65) who met DSM-IV criteria for schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder were administered a broad battery of memory tests and assessed for severity of positive and negative symptoms as part of a baseline assessment of a study of psychiatric rehabilitation. Multiple regression analyses were used to examine the contribution of memory functioning vs. symptoms on receiving, processing, and sending skill areas of social problem solving ability. Results An index of verbal learning was the strongest predictor of processing skills whereas negative symptoms were the strongest predictor of sending skills. Positive symptoms were not related to any of the three skill areas of social problem solving. Conclusions Memory functioning and psychiatric symptoms differentially predict selected areas of social problem solving ability in persons with schizophrenia. Consistent with other reports, positive symptoms were not related to social problem solving. Consideration of both neurocognition and negative symptoms may be important to the development of rehabilitation interventions in this area of functioning. PMID:23235142

  11. Post-learning stress enhances long-term memory and differentially influences memory in females depending on menstrual stage.

    PubMed

    Zoladz, Phillip R; Peters, David M; Cadle, Chelsea E; Kalchik, Andrea E; Aufdenkampe, Rachael L; Dailey, Alison M; Brown, Callie M; Scharf, Amanda R; Earley, McKenna B; Knippen, Courtney L; Rorabaugh, Boyd R

    2015-09-01

    Most work has shown that post-learning stress enhances long-term memory; however, there have been recent inconsistencies in this literature. The purpose of the present study was to examine further the effects of post-learning stress on long-term memory and to explore any sex differences that may exist. Male and female participants learned a list of 42 words that varied in emotional valence and arousal level. Following encoding, participants completed a free recall assessment and then submerged their hand into a bath of ice cold (stress) or lukewarm (no stress) water for 3 min. The next day, participants were given free recall and recognition tests. Stressed participants recalled more words than non-stressed participants 24h after learning. Stress also enhanced female participants' recall of arousing words when they were in the follicular, but not luteal, phase. These findings replicate previous work examining post-learning stress effects on memory and implicate the involvement of sex-related hormones in such effects.

  12. Time-dependent enhancement of hippocampus-dependent memory after treatment with memantine: Implications for enhanced hippocampal adult neurogenesis.

    PubMed

    Ishikawa, Rie; Kim, Ryang; Namba, Takashi; Kohsaka, Shinichi; Uchino, Shigeo; Kida, Satoshi

    2014-07-01

    Adult hippocampal neurogenesis has been suggested to play modulatory roles in learning and memory. Importantly, previous studies have shown that newborn neurons in the adult hippocampus are integrated into the dentate gyrus circuit and are recruited more efficiently into the hippocampal memory trace of mice when they become 3 weeks old. Interestingly, a single high-dose treatment with the N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor antagonist memantine (MEM) has been shown to increase hippocampal neurogenesis dramatically by promoting cell proliferation. In the present study, to understand the impact of increased adult neurogenesis on memory performance, we examined the effects of a single treatment of MEM on hippocampus-dependent memory in mice. Interestingly, mice treated with MEM showed an improvement of hippocampus-dependent spatial and social recognition memories when they were trained and tested at 3-6 weeks, but not at 3 days or 4 months, after treatment with MEM. Importantly, we observed a significant positive correlation between the scores for spatial memory (probe trial in the Morris water maze task) and the number of young mature neurons (3 weeks old) in MEM-treated mice, but not saline-treated mice. We also observed that the young mature neurons generated by treatment with MEM were recruited into the trace of spatial memory similarly to those generated through endogenous neurogenesis. Taken together, our observations suggest that treatment with MEM temporally improves hippocampus-dependent memory formation and that the newborn neurons increased by treatment with MEM contribute to this improvement when they become 3 weeks old. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Deletion of glutamate delta-1 receptor in mouse leads to enhanced working memory and deficit in fear conditioning.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Roopali; Hillman, Brandon G; Gupta, Subhash C; Suryavanshi, Pratyush; Bhatt, Jay M; Pavuluri, Ratnamala; Stairs, Dustin J; Dravid, Shashank M

    2013-01-01

    Glutamate delta-1 (GluD1) receptors are expressed throughout the forebrain during development with high levels in the hippocampus during adulthood. We have recently shown that deletion of GluD1 receptor results in aberrant emotional and social behaviors such as hyperaggression and depression-like behaviors and social interaction deficits. Additionally, abnormal expression of synaptic proteins was observed in amygdala and prefrontal cortex of GluD1 knockout mice (GluD1 KO). However the role of GluD1 in learning and memory paradigms remains unknown. In the present study we evaluated GluD1 KO in learning and memory tests. In the eight-arm radial maze GluD1 KO mice committed fewer working memory errors compared to wildtype mice but had normal reference memory. Enhanced working memory in GluD1 KO was also evident by greater percent alternation in the spontaneous Y-maze test. No difference was observed in object recognition memory in the GluD1 KO mice. In the Morris water maze test GluD1 KO mice showed no difference in acquisition but had longer latency to find the platform in the reversal learning task. GluD1 KO mice showed a deficit in contextual and cue fear conditioning but had normal latent inhibition. The deficit in contextual fear conditioning was reversed by D-Cycloserine (DCS) treatment. GluD1 KO mice were also found to be more sensitive to foot-shock compared to wildtype. We further studied molecular changes in the hippocampus, where we found lower levels of GluA1, GluA2 and GluK2 subunits while a contrasting higher level of GluN2B in GluD1 KO. Additionally, we found higher postsynaptic density protein 95 (PSD95) and lower glutamate decarboxylase 67 (GAD67) expression in GluD1 KO. We propose that GluD1 is crucial for normal functioning of synapses and absence of GluD1 leads to specific abnormalities in learning and memory. These findings provide novel insights into the role of GluD1 receptors in the central nervous system.

  14. Deletion of Glutamate Delta-1 Receptor in Mouse Leads to Enhanced Working Memory and Deficit in Fear Conditioning

    PubMed Central

    Yadav, Roopali; Hillman, Brandon G.; Gupta, Subhash C.; Suryavanshi, Pratyush; Bhatt, Jay M.; Pavuluri, Ratnamala; Stairs, Dustin J.; Dravid, Shashank M.

    2013-01-01

    Glutamate delta-1 (GluD1) receptors are expressed throughout the forebrain during development with high levels in the hippocampus during adulthood. We have recently shown that deletion of GluD1 receptor results in aberrant emotional and social behaviors such as hyperaggression and depression-like behaviors and social interaction deficits. Additionally, abnormal expression of synaptic proteins was observed in amygdala and prefrontal cortex of GluD1 knockout mice (GluD1 KO). However the role of GluD1 in learning and memory paradigms remains unknown. In the present study we evaluated GluD1 KO in learning and memory tests. In the eight-arm radial maze GluD1 KO mice committed fewer working memory errors compared to wildtype mice but had normal reference memory. Enhanced working memory in GluD1 KO was also evident by greater percent alternation in the spontaneous Y-maze test. No difference was observed in object recognition memory in the GluD1 KO mice. In the Morris water maze test GluD1 KO mice showed no difference in acquisition but had longer latency to find the platform in the reversal learning task. GluD1 KO mice showed a deficit in contextual and cue fear conditioning but had normal latent inhibition. The deficit in contextual fear conditioning was reversed by D-Cycloserine (DCS) treatment. GluD1 KO mice were also found to be more sensitive to foot-shock compared to wildtype. We further studied molecular changes in the hippocampus, where we found lower levels of GluA1, GluA2 and GluK2 subunits while a contrasting higher level of GluN2B in GluD1 KO. Additionally, we found higher postsynaptic density protein 95 (PSD95) and lower glutamate decarboxylase 67 (GAD67) expression in GluD1 KO. We propose that GluD1 is crucial for normal functioning of synapses and absence of GluD1 leads to specific abnormalities in learning and memory. These findings provide novel insights into the role of GluD1 receptors in the central nervous system. PMID:23560106

  15. Role of Acid Sphingomyelinase in the Regulation of Social Behavior and Memory

    PubMed Central

    Zoicas, Iulia; Reichel, Martin; Gulbins, Erich; Kornhuber, Johannes

    2016-01-01

    Major depressive disorder is often associated with deficits in social and cognitive functioning. Mice transgenic for acid sphingomyelinase (t-ASM) were previously shown to have a depressive-like phenotype, which could be normalized by antidepressant treatment. Here, we investigated whether t-ASM mice show deficits in social behavior and memory performance, and whether these possible deficits might be normalized by amitriptyline treatment. Our results revealed that ASM overexpression altered the behavior of mice in a sex-dependent manner. As such, t-ASM female, but not male, mice showed an impaired social preference and a depressive- and anxiogenic-like phenotype, which could be normalized by amitriptyline treatment. Both male and female t-ASM mice showed unaltered preference for social novelty, novel object recognition, and social and object discrimination abilities. Amitriptyline treatment impaired novel object recognition and object discrimination abilities in female, but not in male, wild-type mice, while female t-ASM mice showed unaltered novel object recognition and object discrimination abilities. This study suggests that female t-ASM mice represent a model of depression with comorbid anxiety and social deficits, without memory impairments. It further suggests that ASM overexpression has a protective role against the detrimental effects of amitriptyline on female, but not on male, non-social (object) memory. PMID:27598773

  16. Enhancing influence of intranasal interleukin-6 on slow-wave activity and memory consolidation during sleep.

    PubMed

    Benedict, Christian; Scheller, Jürgen; Rose-John, Stefan; Born, Jan; Marshall, Lisa

    2009-10-01

    The cytokine IL-6 has been considered to exert neuromodulating influences on the brain, with promoting influences on sleep. Sleep enhances the consolidation of memories, and, in particular, late nocturnal sleep also represents a period of enhanced IL-6 signaling, due to a distinctly enhanced availability of soluble IL-6 receptors during this period, enabling trans-signaling of IL-6 to neurons. Thus, a contribution of IL-6 to sleep-dependent memory consolidation is hypothesized. To test this hypothesis, we compared effects of intranasally administered IL-6 (vs. placebo) on sleep-dependent consolidation of declarative (neutral and emotional texts, 2-dimensional object location) and procedural (finger sequence tapping) memories in 17 healthy young men. IL-6 distinctly improved the sleep-related consolidation of emotional text material (P<0.03), which benefits mostly from sleep in the second night-half, in which rapid eye movement sleep (REM) dominates the non-REM-REM sleep cycle. During this second night-half, the amount of electroencephalogram slow-wave activity (0.5-4 Hz) distinctly increased after IL-6 (P<0.01). Other types of memory were not affected. The ability of IL-6 to enhance sleep-associated emotional memory consolidation highlights an example of a functional interaction between the central nervous and immune system.

  17. Memory-enhancing corticosterone treatment increases amygdala norepinephrine and Arc protein expression in hippocampal synaptic fractions.

    PubMed

    McReynolds, Jayme R; Donowho, Kyle; Abdi, Amin; McGaugh, James L; Roozendaal, Benno; McIntyre, Christa K

    2010-03-01

    Considerable evidence indicates that glucocorticoid hormones enhance the consolidation of memory for emotionally arousing events through interactions with the noradrenergic system of the basolateral complex of the amygdala (BLA). We previously reported that intra-BLA administration of a beta-adrenoceptor agonist immediately after inhibitory avoidance training enhanced memory consolidation and increased hippocampal expression of the protein product of the immediate early gene activity-regulated cytoskeletal-associated protein (Arc). In the present experiments corticosterone (3 mg/kg, i.p.) was administered to male Sprague-Dawley rats immediately after inhibitory avoidance training to examine effects on long-term memory, amygdala norepinephrine levels, and hippocampal Arc expression. Corticosterone increased amygdala norepinephrine levels 15 min after inhibitory avoidance training, as assessed by in vivo microdialysis, and enhanced memory tested at 48 h. Corticosterone treatment also increased expression of Arc protein in hippocampal synaptic tissue. The elevation in BLA norepinephrine appears to participate in corticosterone-influenced modulation of hippocampal Arc expression as intra-BLA blockade of beta-adrenoceptors with propranolol (0.5 microg/0.2 microL) attenuated the corticosterone-induced synaptic Arc expression in the hippocampus. These findings indicate that noradrenergic activity at BLA beta-adrenoceptors is involved in corticosterone-induced enhancement of memory consolidation and expression of the synaptic-plasticity-related protein Arc in the hippocampus.

  18. Dehydroepiandosterone and its sulphate enhance memory retention in day-old chicks.

    PubMed

    Migues, P V; Johnston, A N B; Rose, S P R

    2002-01-01

    We report the presence of dehydroepiandosterone (DHEA) and DHEA sulphate (DHEA-S) in the day-old-chick brain, and their possible role in memory formation. DHEA and DHEA-S were present in the brain at higher concentrations than in the plasma. Radioimmunoassay examination of the intermediate medial hyperstriatum ventrale 5 or 30 min after training or the lobus parolfactorius 60 or 120 min after training on the passive avoidance task did not show learning-related differences in absolute levels of DHEA or DHEA-S. However, bilateral intracerebral injections of DHEA or DHEA-S before or after training on the weak passive avoidance task enhanced recall 24 h after training. Memory retention was enhanced by administration of DHEA and DHEA-S 15 min before training or 30 and 60 but not 180 min after training. Neurosteroids are present in high concentrations in regions of the chick brain known to be associated with learning and memory for an aversive one-trial task. Our study demonstrates that memory retention for this task is enhanced by administration of the neurosteroids DHEA-S and DHEA. These findings provide additional evidence that these neurosteroids have memory-enhancing properties and, thus, if common to other tasks and species, that DHEA-S and DHEA may constitute potential therapeutic tools for the treatment of cognitive deficits.

  19. Post-Training Intrahippocampal Inhibition of Class I Histone Deacetylases Enhances Long-Term Object-Location Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawk, Joshua D.; Florian, Cedrick; Abel, Ted

    2011-01-01

    Long-term memory formation involves covalent modification of the histone proteins that package DNA. Reducing histone acetylation by mutating histone acetyltransferases impairs long-term memory, and enhancing histone acetylation by inhibiting histone deacetylases (HDACs) improves long-term memory. Previous studies using HDAC inhibitors to enhance…

  20. Post-Training Intrahippocampal Inhibition of Class I Histone Deacetylases Enhances Long-Term Object-Location Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawk, Joshua D.; Florian, Cedrick; Abel, Ted

    2011-01-01

    Long-term memory formation involves covalent modification of the histone proteins that package DNA. Reducing histone acetylation by mutating histone acetyltransferases impairs long-term memory, and enhancing histone acetylation by inhibiting histone deacetylases (HDACs) improves long-term memory. Previous studies using HDAC inhibitors to enhance…

  1. Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) enhances reconsolidation of long-term memory.

    PubMed

    Javadi, Amir Homayoun; Cheng, Paul

    2013-07-01

    A new and weak memory trace undergoes consolidation to gain resistance against interfering stimuli. When an encoded memory is recalled, it becomes labile and another round of consolidation, or reconsolidation, is required to restore its stability. Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a non-invasive method of altering cortical excitability. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of tDCS on the reconsolidation of long-term verbal memory. Participants (n = 15) memorized words in the encoding session, then reactivated the memory of the words 3 h later using an old-new recognition task under anodal, cathodal and sham stimulation to the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC). Finally, after another 5 h, they performed another round of the old-new recognition task and rated their confidence. Anodal tDCS during the second session resulted in significantly more words recognized in the third session as compared to cathodal and sham stimulation. Cathodal tDCS did not affect the recognition performance compared to sham stimulation. These results cannot be attributed to differences in response times and confidence ratings, as they were comparable in all conditions. In order to study whether the activation of a memory was crucial for the enhancing effects of anodal tDCS, a group of controls (n = 15) did not perform the recognition task in the second session but still underwent stimulation. Contrary to the main group, anodal stimulation did not enhance the memory performance for the control group. This result suggests that anodal tDCS over the left DLPFC can enhance the reconsolidation of long-term memory only when the memory has been reactivated. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Positive modulation of a neutral declarative memory by a threatening social event.

    PubMed

    Fernández, Rodrigo S; Bavassi, Luz; Campos, Jorge; Allegri, Ricardo F; Molina, Victor A; Forcato, Cecilia; Pedreira, María E

    2015-12-01

    Memories can be altered by negative or arousing experiences due to the activation of the stress-responsive sympatho-adrenal-medullary axis (SYM). Here, we used a neutral declarative memory that was acquired during multi-trial training to determine the effect of a threatening event on memory without emotional valence. To this end, participants received a new threatening social protocol before learning pairs of meaningless syllables and were tested either 15 min, 2 days or 8 days after acquisition. We first demonstrated that this threatening social situation activates not only the SYM axis (Experiment 1) and the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA; Experiment 2), but also, it improves the acquisition or early consolidation of the syllable pairs (Experiment 3). This improvement is not a transient effect; it can be observed after the memory is consolidated. Furthermore, this modulation increases the persistence of memory (Experiment 4). Thus, it is possible to affect memories with specific events that contain unrelated content and a different valence. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Any effects of social orientation priming on object-location memory are smaller than initially reported.

    PubMed

    Drouin, Héloïse; Davidson, Patrick S R

    2015-12-01

    It has previously been reported that priming a collectivistic social orientation (compared with an individualistic one) boosts object-location memory (Kühnen & Oyserman, 2002; Oyserman, Sorensen, Reber, & Chen, 2009). We conducted 4 experiments to replicate this reported effect, using the same methods as in those initial reports. In Experiment 1 (n = 145), we found a hint of a priming effect on object-location memory, but also an unanticipated interaction between priming and gender. In Experiment 2 (n = 90), we included gender as a formal factor and doubled the "dosage" of the priming, yet did not see any priming effects on memory. In Experiment 3 (n = 101), we octupled the priming "dosage" and again saw no significant effects on memory. Finally, in Experiment 4 (n = 102), we performed an exact replication of the methods of the original reports and again found no priming effects on memory. Any effects of this type of social orientation priming on object-location memory appear to be smaller and/or less robust than initially thought.

  4. Enhancing Formal E-Learning with Edutainment on Social Networks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Labus, A.; Despotovic-Zrakic, M.; Radenkovic, B.; Bogdanovic, Z.; Radenkovic, M.

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports on the investigation of the possibilities of enhancing the formal e-learning process by harnessing the potential of informal game-based learning on social networks. The goal of the research is to improve the outcomes of the formal learning process through the design and implementation of an educational game on a social network…

  5. Enhancing Formal E-Learning with Edutainment on Social Networks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Labus, A.; Despotovic-Zrakic, M.; Radenkovic, B.; Bogdanovic, Z.; Radenkovic, M.

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports on the investigation of the possibilities of enhancing the formal e-learning process by harnessing the potential of informal game-based learning on social networks. The goal of the research is to improve the outcomes of the formal learning process through the design and implementation of an educational game on a social network…

  6. The influence of eating psychopathology on autobiographical memory specificity and social problem-solving.

    PubMed

    Ridout, Nathan; Matharu, Munveen; Sanders, Elizabeth; Wallis, Deborah J

    2015-08-30

    The primary aim was to examine the influence of subclinical disordered eating on autobiographical memory specificity (AMS) and social problem solving (SPS). A further aim was to establish if AMS mediated the relationship between eating psychopathology and SPS. A non-clinical sample of 52 females completed the autobiographical memory test (AMT), where they were asked to retrieve specific memories of events from their past in response to cue words, and the means-end problem-solving task (MEPS), where they were asked to generate means of solving a series of social problems. Participants also completed the Eating Disorders Inventory (EDI) and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. After controlling for mood, high scores on the EDI subscales, particularly Drive-for-Thinness, were associated with the retrieval of fewer specific and a greater proportion of categorical memories on the AMT and with the generation of fewer and less effective means on the MEPS. Memory specificity fully mediated the relationship between eating psychopathology and SPS. These findings have implications for individuals exhibiting high levels of disordered eating, as poor AMS and SPS are likely to impact negatively on their psychological wellbeing and everyday social functioning and could represent a risk factor for the development of clinically significant eating disorders. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Enhancement of transmission rates in quantum memory channels with damping.

    PubMed

    Benenti, Giuliano; D'Arrigo, Antonio; Falci, Giuseppe

    2009-07-10

    We consider the transfer of quantum information down a single-mode quantum transmission line. Such a quantum channel is modeled as a damped harmonic oscillator, the interaction between the information carriers -a train of N qubits- and the oscillator being of the Jaynes-Cummings kind. Memory effects appear if the state of the oscillator is not reset after each channel use. We show that the setup without resetting is convenient in order to increase the transmission rates, both for the transfer of quantum and classical private information. Our results can be applied to the micromaser.

  8. Enhancing a declarative memory in humans: the effect of clonazepam on reconsolidation.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, M L C; Campos, J; Forcato, C; Leiguarda, R; Maldonado, H; Molina, V A; Pedreira, M E

    2013-01-01

    A consolidated memory recalled by a specific reminder can become unstable (labile) and susceptible to facilitation or impairment for a discrete period of time. This labilization phase is followed by a process of stabilization called reconsolidation. The phenomenon has been shown in diverse types of memory, and different pharmacological agents have been used to disclose its presence. Several studies have revealed the relevance of the GABAergic system to this process. Consequently, our hypothesis is that the system is involved in the reconsolidation of declarative memory in humans. Thus, using our verbal learning task, we analyzed the effect of benzodiazepines on the re-stabilization of the declarative memory. On Day 1, volunteers learned an association between five cue- response-syllables. On Day 2, the verbal memory was labilized by a reminder presentation, and then a placebo capsule or 0.25 mg or 0.03 mg of clonazepam was administered to the subjects. The verbal memory was evaluated on Day 3. The volunteers who had received the 0.25 mg clonazepam along with the specific reminder on Day 2, exhibited memory improvement. In contrast, there was no effect when the drug was given without retrieval, when the memory was simply retrieved instead of being reactivated or when short-term memory testing was performed 4 h after reactivation. We discuss the GABAergic role in reconsolidation, which shows a collateral effect on other memories when the treatment is aimed at treating anxiety disorders. Further studies might elucidate the role of GABA in the reconsolidation process associated with dissimilar scenarios. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'Cognitive Enhancers'. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Animal model of methylphenidate's long-term memory-enhancing effects.

    PubMed

    Carmack, Stephanie A; Howell, Kristin K; Rasaei, Kleou; Reas, Emilie T; Anagnostaras, Stephan G

    2014-01-16

    Methylphenidate (MPH), introduced more than 60 years ago, accounts for two-thirds of current prescriptions for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Although many studies have modeled MPH's effect on executive function, almost none have directly modeled its effect on long-term memory (LTM), even though improvement in LTM is a critical target of therapeutic intervention in ADHD. We examined the effects of a wide range of doses of MPH (0.01-10 mg/kg, i.p.) on Pavlovian fear learning, a leading model of memory. MPH's effects were then compared to those of atomoxetine (0.1-10 mg/kg, i.p.), bupropion (0.5-20 mg/kg, i.p.), and citalopram (0.01-10 mg/kg, i.p.). At low, clinically relevant doses, MPH enhanced fear memory; at high doses it impaired memory. MPH's memory-enhancing effects were not confounded by its effects on locomotion or anxiety. Further, MPH-induced memory enhancement seemed to require both dopamine and norepinephrine transporter inhibition. Finally, the addictive potential of MPH (1 mg/kg and 10 mg/kg) was compared to those of two other psychostimulants, amphetamine (0.005 mg/kg and 1.5 mg/kg) and cocaine (0.15 mg/kg and 15 mg/kg), using a conditioned place preference and behavioral sensitization paradigm. We found that memory-enhancing effects of psychostimulants observed at low doses are readily dissociable from their reinforcing and locomotor activating effects at high doses. Together, our data suggest that fear conditioning will be an especially fruitful platform for modeling the effects of psychostimulants on LTM in drug development.

  10. Animal model of methylphenidate's long-term memory-enhancing effects

    PubMed Central

    Carmack, Stephanie A.; Howell, Kristin K.; Rasaei, Kleou; Reas, Emilie T.; Anagnostaras, Stephan G.

    2014-01-01

    Methylphenidate (MPH), introduced more than 60 years ago, accounts for two-thirds of current prescriptions for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Although many studies have modeled MPH's effect on executive function, almost none have directly modeled its effect on long-term memory (LTM), even though improvement in LTM is a critical target of therapeutic intervention in ADHD. We examined the effects of a wide range of doses of MPH (0.01–10 mg/kg, i.p.) on Pavlovian fear learning, a leading model of memory. MPH's effects were then compared to those of atomoxetine (0.1–10 mg/kg, i.p.), bupropion (0.5–20 mg/kg, i.p.), and citalopram (0.01–10 mg/kg, i.p.). At low, clinically relevant doses, MPH enhanced fear memory; at high doses it impaired memory. MPH's memory-enhancing effects were not confounded by its effects on locomotion or anxiety. Further, MPH-induced memory enhancement seemed to require both dopamine and norepinephrine transporter inhibition. Finally, the addictive potential of MPH (1 mg/kg and 10 mg/kg) was compared to those of two other psychostimulants, amphetamine (0.005 mg/kg and 1.5 mg/kg) and cocaine (0.15 mg/kg and 15 mg/kg), using a conditioned place preference and behavioral sensitization paradigm. We found that memory-enhancing effects of psychostimulants observed at low doses are readily dissociable from their reinforcing and locomotor activating effects at high doses. Together, our data suggest that fear conditioning will be an especially fruitful platform for modeling the effects of psychostimulants on LTM in drug development. PMID:24434869

  11. Loss of Transient Receptor Potential Ankyrin 1 Channel Deregulates Emotion, Learning and Memory, Cognition, and Social Behavior in Mice.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kuan-I; Lin, Hui-Ching; Lee, Hsueh-Te; Tsai, Feng-Chuan; Lee, Tzong-Shyuan

    2017-07-01

    The transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 (TRPA1) channel is a non-selective cation channel that helps regulate inflammatory pain sensation and nociception and the development of inflammatory diseases. However, the potential role of the TRPA1 channel and the underlying mechanism in brain functions are not fully resolved. In this study, we demonstrated that genetic deletion of the TRPA1 channel in mice or pharmacological inhibition of its activity increased neurite outgrowth. In vivo study in mice provided evidence of the TRPA1 channel as a negative regulator in hippocampal functions; functional ablation of the TRPA1 channel in mice enhanced hippocampal functions, as evidenced by less anxiety-like behavior, and enhanced fear-related or spatial learning and memory, and novel location recognition as well as social interactions. However, the TRPA1 channel appears to be a prerequisite for motor function; functional loss of the TRPA1 channel in mice led to axonal bundle fragmentation, downregulation of myelin basic protein, and decreased mature oligodendrocyte population in the brain, for impaired motor function. The TRPA1 channel may play a crucial role in neuronal development and oligodendrocyte maturation and be a potential regulator in emotion, cognition, learning and memory, and social behavior.

  12. A comparison of attentional biases and memory biases in women with social phobia and major depression.

    PubMed

    Rinck, Mike; Becker, Eni S

    2005-02-01

    Cognitive processes play an important role in the etiology and maintenance of anxiety and depression. Current theories differ, however, in their predictions regarding the occurrence of attentional biases and memory biases in depression and anxiety. To allow for a systematic comparison of disorders and cognitive processes, 117 women (35 with generalized social phobia, 27 with major depression, and 55 healthy controls) participated in a test of visual attention (visual search), an explicit memory test (free recall), and an implicit memory test (anagram solving). Both clinical groups exhibited attentional biases for disorder-related words, whereas only depressed participants showed clear evidence of explicit and implicit memory biases. The implications of these results for competing theories are discussed. Copyright (c) 2005 APA, all rights reserved.

  13. Social working memory: Memory for another rat's spatial choices can increase or decrease choice tendencies.

    PubMed

    Brown, Michael F; Knight-Green, Mary Beth; Lorek, Edward J; Packard, Caroline; Shallcross, Wendy L; Wifall, Timothy; Price, Tom; Schumann, Erik

    2008-11-01

    In two experiments using a radial-arm maze, pairs of rats made choices among eight maze locations, each containing a large quantity of one of two food types. The choices made by 1 rat affected the choices made by the other rat. Under most conditions, visits by 1 rat increased the tendency of the other rat to subsequently choose that maze location. However, the effect depended on the quality of the food available in a particular location. When it was possible for the rats to observe each other on the maze arms and a rat had experienced that a location contained the less preferred food type, a previous visit to that location by the foraging partner decreased the tendency to visit that location. These effects are attributed to working memory for the spatial choices of another rat, and they indicate that memory produced by a rat's own visit to a maze location is integrated with memory for the behavior of another rat to determine spatial choice.

  14. Enhancing Social Studies Instruction through Consumer Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rader, William D.

    The document contains theoretical and practical information to aid social studies classroom teachers as they develop and implement consumer education programs. The monograph is presented in three major sections. Section I illustrates the kinds of theoretical content the author believes are appropriate for a school consumer education program.…

  15. Enhancing memory and imagination improves problem solving among individuals with depression.

    PubMed

    McFarland, Craig P; Primosch, Mark; Maxson, Chelsey M; Stewart, Brandon T

    2017-08-01

    Recent work has revealed links between memory, imagination, and problem solving, and suggests that increasing access to detailed memories can lead to improved imagination and problem-solving performance. Depression is often associated with overgeneral memory and imagination, along with problem-solving deficits. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that an interview designed to elicit detailed recollections would enhance imagination and problem solving among both depressed and nondepressed participants. In a within-subjects design, participants completed a control interview or an episodic specificity induction prior to completing memory, imagination, and problem-solving tasks. Results revealed that compared to the control interview, the episodic specificity induction fostered increased detail generation in memory and imagination and more relevant steps on the problem-solving task among depressed and nondepressed participants. This study builds on previous work by demonstrating that a brief interview can enhance problem solving among individuals with depression and supports the notion that episodic memory plays a key role in problem solving. It should be noted, however, that the results of the interview are relatively short-lived.

  16. Effect of Evolvulus alsinoides Linn. on learning behavior and memory enhancement activity in rodents.

    PubMed

    Nahata, Alok; Patil, U K; Dixit, V K

    2010-04-01

    In the Ayurvedic system of medicine, the whole herb of 'Shankhpushpi' has been employed clinically for centuries for its memory potentiating, anxiolytic and tranquilizing properties. The present study was undertaken to investigate the effects of Evolvulus alsinoides (EA), considered as Shankhpushpi on learning and memory in rodents. Nootropic activity using Cook and Weidley's pole climbing apparatus, passive avoidance paradigms and active avoidance tests were used to test learning and memory. The ethanol extract of EA and its ethyl acetate and aqueous fractions were evaluated for their memory enhancing properties. Two doses (100 and 200 mg/kg p.o.) of the ethanol extract and ethyl acetate and aqueous fractions were administered in separate groups of animals. Both doses of all the extracts of EA significantly improved learning and memory in rats. Furthermore, these doses significantly reversed the amnesia induced by scopolamine (0.3 mg/kg i.p.). Nootropic activity was compared using piracetam as the standard. EA also exhibited potent memory enhancing effects in the step-down and shuttle-box avoidance paradigms.

  17. Transcranial slow oscillation stimulation during sleep enhances memory consolidation in rats.

    PubMed

    Binder, Sonja; Berg, Karolin; Gasca, Fernando; Lafon, Belen; Parra, Lucas C; Born, Jan; Marshall, Lisa

    2014-01-01

    The importance of slow-wave sleep (SWS), hallmarked by the occurrence of sleep slow oscillations (SO), for the consolidation of hippocampus-dependent memories has been shown in numerous studies. Previously, the application of transcranial direct current stimulation, oscillating at the frequency of endogenous slow oscillations, during SWS enhanced memory consolidation for a hippocampus dependent task in humans suggesting a causal role of slowly oscillating electric fields for sleep dependent memory consolidation. Here, we aimed to replicate and extend these findings to a rodent model. Slow oscillatory direct transcranial current stimulation (SO-tDCS) was applied over the frontal cortex of rats during non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep and its effects on memory consolidation in the one-trial object-place recognition task were examined. A retention interval of 24 h was used to investigate the effects of SO-tDCS on long-term memory. Animals' preference for the displaced object was significantly greater than chance only when animals received SO-tDCS. EEG spectral power indicated a trend toward a transient enhancement of endogenous SO activity in the SO-tDCS condition. These results support the hypothesis that slowly oscillating electric fields causal affect sleep dependent memory consolidation, and demonstrate that oscillatory tDCS can be a valuable tool to investigate the function of endogenous cortical network activity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Lack of DREAM protein enhances learning and memory and slows brain aging.

    PubMed

    Fontán-Lozano, Angela; Romero-Granados, Rocío; del-Pozo-Martín, Yaiza; Suárez-Pereira, Irene; Delgado-García, José María; Penninger, Josef M; Carrión, Angel Manuel

    2009-01-13

    Memory deficits in aging affect millions of people and are often disturbing to those concerned. Dissection of the molecular control of learning and memory is paramount to understand and possibly enhance cognitive functions. Old-age memory loss also has been recently linked to altered Ca(2+) homeostasis. We have previously identified DREAM (downstream regulatory element antagonistic modulator), a member of the neuronal Ca(2+) sensor superfamily of EF-hand proteins, with specific roles in different cell compartments. In the nucleus, DREAM is a Ca(2+)-dependent transcriptional repressor, binding to specific DNA signatures, or interacting with nucleoproteins regulating their transcriptional properties. Also, we and others have shown that dream mutant (dream(-/-)) mice exhibit marked analgesia. Here we report that dream(-/-) mice exhibit markedly enhanced learning and synaptic plasticity related to improved cognition. Mechanistically, DREAM functions as a negative regulator of the key memory factor CREB in a Ca(2+)-dependent manner, and loss of DREAM facilitates CREB-dependent transcription during learning. Intriguingly, 18-month-old dream(-/-) mice display learning and memory capacities similar to young mice. Moreover, loss of DREAM protects from brain degeneration in aging. These data identify the Ca(2+)-regulated "pain gene" DREAM as a novel key regulator of memory and brain aging.

  19. Trustworthy Tricksters: Violating a Negative Social Expectation Affects Source Memory and Person Perception When Fear of Exploitation Is High

    PubMed Central

    Süssenbach, Philipp; Gollwitzer, Mario; Mieth, Laura; Buchner, Axel; Bell, Raoul

    2016-01-01

    People who are high in victim-sensitivity—a personality trait characterized by a strong fear of being exploited by others—are more likely to attend to social cues associated with untrustworthiness rather than to cues associated with trustworthiness compared with people who are low in victim-sensitivity. But how do these people react when an initial expectation regarding a target’s trustworthiness turns out to be false? Results from two studies show that victim-sensitive compared with victim-insensitive individuals show enhanced source memory and greater change in person perception for negatively labeled targets that violated rather than confirmed negative expectations (the “trustworthy trickster”). These findings are in line with recent theorizing on schema inconsistency and expectancy violation effects in social cognition and with research on the different facets of justice sensitivity in personality psychology. PMID:28082945

  20. Role of Glia in Stress-Induced Enhancement and Impairment of Memory

    PubMed Central

    Pearson-Leary, Jiah; Osborne, Danielle Maria; McNay, Ewan C.

    2016-01-01

    Both acute and chronic stress profoundly affect hippocampally-dependent learning and memory: moderate stress generally enhances, while chronic or extreme stress can impair, neural and cognitive processes. Within the brain, stress elevates both norepinephrine and glucocorticoids, and both affect several genomic and signaling cascades responsible for modulating memory strength. Memories formed at times of stress can be extremely strong, yet stress can also impair memory to the point of amnesia. Often overlooked in consideration of the impact of stress on cognitive processes, and specifically memory, is the important contribution of glia as a target for stress-induced changes. Astrocytes, microglia, and oligodendrocytes all have unique contributions to learning and memory. Furthermore, these three types of glia express receptors for both norepinephrine and glucocorticoids and are hence immediate targets of stress hormone actions. It is becoming increasingly clear that inflammatory cytokines and immunomodulatory molecules released by glia during stress may promote many of the behavioral effects of acute and chronic stress. In this review, the role of traditional genomic and rapid hormonal mechanisms working in concert with glia to affect stress-induced learning and memory will be emphasized. PMID:26793072

  1. State of the art on targeted memory reactivation: Sleep your way to enhanced cognition.

    PubMed

    Schouten, Daphne I; Pereira, Sofia I R; Tops, Mattie; Louzada, Fernando M

    2017-04-01

    Targeted memory reactivation is a fairly simple technique that has the potential to influence the course of memory formation through application of cues during sleep. Studies have shown that cueing memory during sleep can lead to either an enhanced or decreased representation of the information encoded in the targeted networks, depending on experimental variations. The effects have been associated with sleep parameters and accompanied by activation of memory related brain areas. The findings suggest a causal role of neuronal replay in memory consolidation and provide evidence for the active system consolidation hypothesis. However, the observed inconsistencies across studies suggest that further research is warranted regarding the underlying neural mechanisms and optimal conditions for the application of targeted memory reactivation. The goal of the present review is to integrate the currently available experimental data and to provide an overview of this technique's limitations and pitfalls, as well as its potential applications in everyday use and clinical treatment. Exploring the open questions herein identified should lead to insight into safer and more effective ways of adjusting memory representations to better suit individual needs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Dreaming of a Learning Task is Associated with Enhanced Sleep-Dependent Memory Consolidation

    PubMed Central

    Wamsley, Erin J.; Tucker, Matthew; Payne, Jessica D.; Benavides, Joseph; Stickgold, Robert

    2010-01-01

    Summary It is now well established that post-learning sleep is beneficial for human memory performance [1–5]. Meanwhile, human and animal studies demonstrate that learning-related neural activity is re-expressed during post-training non-rapid eye movement sleep (NREM) [6–9]. NREM sleep processes appear to be particularly beneficial for hippocampus-dependent forms of memory [1–3, 10]. These observations suggest that learning triggers the reactivation and reorganization of memory traces during sleep, a systems-level process that in turn enhances behavioral performance. Here, we hypothesized that dreaming about a learning experience during NREM sleep would be associated with improved performance on a hippocampus-dependent spatial memory task. Subjects (n=99) were trained on a virtual navigation task, and then retested on the same task 5 hours after initial training. Improved performance at retest was strongly associated with task-related dream imagery during an intervening afternoon nap. Task-related thoughts during wakefulness, in contrast, did not predict improved performance. These observations suggest that sleep-dependent memory consolidation in humans is facilitated by the offline reactivation of recently formed memories, and furthermore, that dream experiences reflect this memory processing. That similar effects were not seen during wakefulness suggests that these mnemonic processes are specific to the sleep state. PMID:20417102

  3. Enhanced memory effect with embedded graphene nanoplatelets in ZnO charge trapping layer

    SciTech Connect

    El-Atab, Nazek; Nayfeh, Ammar; Cimen, Furkan; Alkis, Sabri; Okyay, Ali K.

    2014-07-21

    A charge trapping memory with graphene nanoplatelets embedded in atomic layer deposited ZnO (GNIZ) is demonstrated. The memory shows a large threshold voltage V{sub t} shift (4 V) at low operating voltage (6/−6 V), good retention (>10 yr), and good endurance characteristic (>10{sup 4} cycles). This memory performance is compared to control devices with graphene nanoplatelets (or ZnO) and a thicker tunnel oxide. These structures showed a reduced V{sub t} shift and retention characteristic. The GNIZ structure allows for scaling down the tunnel oxide thickness along with improving the memory window and retention of data. The larger V{sub t} shift indicates that the ZnO adds available trap states and enhances the emission and retention of charges. The charge emission mechanism in the memory structures with graphene nanoplatelets at an electric field E ≥ 5.57 MV/cm is found to be based on Fowler-Nordheim tunneling. The fabrication of this memory device is compatible with current semiconductor processing, therefore, has great potential in low-cost nano-memory applications.

  4. Role of Glia in Stress-Induced Enhancement and Impairment of Memory.

    PubMed

    Pearson-Leary, Jiah; Osborne, Danielle Maria; McNay, Ewan C

    2015-01-01

    Both acute and chronic stress profoundly affect hippocampally-dependent learning and memory: moderate stress generally enhances, while chronic or extreme stress can impair, neural and cognitive processes. Within the brain, stress elevates both norepinephrine and glucocorticoids, and both affect several genomic and signaling cascades responsible for modulating memory strength. Memories formed at times of stress can be extremely strong, yet stress can also impair memory to the point of amnesia. Often overlooked in consideration of the impact of stress on cognitive processes, and specifically memory, is the important contribution of glia as a target for stress-induced changes. Astrocytes, microglia, and oligodendrocytes all have unique contributions to learning and memory. Furthermore, these three types of glia express receptors for both norepinephrine and glucocorticoids and are hence immediate targets of stress hormone actions. It is becoming increasingly clear that inflammatory cytokines and immunomodulatory molecules released by glia during stress may promote many of the behavioral effects of acute and chronic stress. In this review, the role of traditional genomic and rapid hormonal mechanisms working in concert with glia to affect stress-induced learning and memory will be emphasized.

  5. Self-Referenced Memory, Social Cognition, and Symptom Presentation in Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henderson, Heather A.; Zahka, Nicole E.; Kojkowski, Nicole M.; Inge, Anne P.; Schwartz, Caley B.; Hileman, Camilla M.; Coman, Drew C.; Mundy, Peter C.

    2009-01-01

    Background: We examined performance on a self-referenced memory (SRM) task for higher-functioning children with autism (HFA) and a matched comparison group. SRM performance was examined in relation to symptom severity and social cognitive tests of mentalizing. Method: Sixty-two children (31 HFA, 31 comparison; 8-16 years) completed a SRM task in…

  6. Age Differences in Children's Memory of Information about Aggressive, Socially Withdrawn, and Prosociable Boys and Girls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bukowski, William M.

    1990-01-01

    In two studies, second and sixth graders heard descriptions of hypothetical boys and girls who were either aggressive, socially withdrawn, or prosociable. Subjects' memories of items in the descriptions were assessed. Results indicated that school-age and early adolescent children's recall of information about a peer is affected by the peer's…

  7. Age Differences in Children's Memory of Information about Aggressive, Socially Withdrawn, and Prosociable Boys and Girls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bukowski, William M.

    1990-01-01

    In two studies, second and sixth graders heard descriptions of hypothetical boys and girls who were either aggressive, socially withdrawn, or prosociable. Subjects' memories of items in the descriptions were assessed. Results indicated that school-age and early adolescent children's recall of information about a peer is affected by the peer's…

  8. Self-Referenced Memory, Social Cognition, and Symptom Presentation in Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henderson, Heather A.; Zahka, Nicole E.; Kojkowski, Nicole M.; Inge, Anne P.; Schwartz, Caley B.; Hileman, Camilla M.; Coman, Drew C.; Mundy, Peter C.

    2009-01-01

    Background: We examined performance on a self-referenced memory (SRM) task for higher-functioning children with autism (HFA) and a matched comparison group. SRM performance was examined in relation to symptom severity and social cognitive tests of mentalizing. Method: Sixty-two children (31 HFA, 31 comparison; 8-16 years) completed a SRM task in…

  9. Chronic food restriction enhances memory in mice--analysis with matched drive levels.

    PubMed

    Hashimoto, Teruo; Watanabe, Shigeru

    2005-07-13

    We compared the effects of chronic and acute food deprivation on learning and memory using a dry-type water maze, active avoidance and passive avoidance in C57BL/6L mice. The drive level of the animals--under acute and chronic food deprivation--was matched by a progressive ratio schedule. Both deprivations led to a high degree of activity in the animals; however, the animals on an acute dietary restriction did not exhibit a significantly better performance than those on ad libitum feeding, while those on a chronic food deprivation exhibited memory enhancement. These effects were subtle and were found at a later stage of learning. These findings suggest that chronic food restriction induces memory consolidation or resistance to memory reduction in addition to increased activity.

  10. Emotional enhancement of memory via amygdala-driven facilitation of rhinal interactions.

    PubMed

    Paz, Rony; Pelletier, Joe Guillaume; Bauer, Elizabeth P; Paré, Denis

    2006-10-01

    Emotions generally facilitate memory, an effect mediated by the basolateral amygdala (BLA). To study the underlying mechanisms, we recorded BLA, perirhinal and entorhinal neurons during an appetitive trace-conditioning task. We focused on the rhinal cortices because they constitute the interface between the hippocampus, a mediator of memory consolidation, and the neocortex, the storage site of declarative memories. We found that, after unexpected rewards, BLA activity increased impulse transmission from perirhinal to entorhinal neurons and that this effect decayed as the association between conditioned stimuli and rewards was learned. At this late phase of learning, the BLA effect occurred when the animals were anticipating the reward. By enhancing the processing of sensory cues, the BLA-mediated facilitation of rhinal interactions may explain how the amygdala promotes memory formation in emotional conditions.

  11. Emotion regulation strategies that promote learning: reappraisal enhances children's memory for educational information.

    PubMed

    Davis, Elizabeth L; Levine, Linda J

    2013-01-01

    The link between emotion regulation and academic achievement is well documented. Less is known about specific emotion regulation strategies that promote learning. Six- to 13-year-olds (N = 126) viewed a sad film and were instructed to reappraise the importance, reappraise the outcome, or ruminate about the sad events; another group received no regulation instructions. Children viewed an educational film, and memory for this was later assessed. As predicted, reappraisal strategies more effectively attenuated children's self-reported emotional processing. Reappraisal enhanced memory for educational details relative to no instructions. Rumination did not lead to differences in memory from the other instructions. Memory benefits of effective instructions were pronounced for children with poorer emotion regulation skill, suggesting the utility of reappraisal in learning contexts.

  12. Enhanced Recognition Memory after Incidental Encoding in Children with Developmental Dyslexia

    PubMed Central

    Hedenius, Martina; Alm, Per; Persson, Jonas

    2013-01-01

    Developmental dyslexia (DD) has previously been associated with a number of cognitive deficits. Little attention has been directed to cognitive functions that remain intact in the disorder, though the investigation and identification of such strengths might be useful for developing new, and improving current, therapeutical interventions. In this study, an old/new recognition memory paradigm was used to examine previously untested aspects of declarative memory in children with DD and typically developing control children. The DD group was not only not impaired at the task, but actually showed superior recognition memory, as compared to the control children. These findings complement previous reports of enhanced cognition in other domains (e.g., visuo-spatial processing) in DD. Possible underlying mechanisms for the observed DD advantage in declarative memory, and the possibility of compensation by this system for reading deficits in dyslexia, are discussed. PMID:23717524

  13. Huperzine-A capsules enhance memory and learning performance in 34 pairs of matched adolescent students.

    PubMed

    Sun, Q Q; Xu, S S; Pan, J L; Guo, H M; Cao, W Q

    1999-07-01

    To study the efficacy of huperzine-A capsules (Hup) on memory and learning performance of adolescent students. Using double-blind and matched pair method, 34 pairs of junior middle school students complaining of memory inadequacy were divided into two groups by normal psychological health inventory (PHI), similar memory quotient (MQ), same sex and class. The Hup group was administrated orally 2 capsules of Hup (each contains Hup 50 micrograms) b.i.d., and the placebo group was given 2 capsules of placebo (starch and lactose inside) b.i.d. for 4 wk. At the end of trial, the Hup group's MQ (115 +/- 6) was more than that of the placebo group (104 +/- 9, P < 0.01), and the scores of Chinese language lesson in the Hup group were elevated markedly too. The Hup capsules enhance the memory and learning performance of adolescent students.

  14. Anodal-tDCS over the human right occipital cortex enhances the perception and memory of both faces and objects.

    PubMed

    Barbieri, Marica; Negrini, Marcello; Nitsche, Michael A; Rivolta, Davide

    2016-01-29

    Accurate face processing skills are pivotal for typical social cognition, and impairments in this ability characterise various clinical conditions (e.g., prosopagnosia). No study to date has investigated whether transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) can causally enhance face processing. In addition, the category- and the process-specificity of tDCS effects, as well as the role of the timing of neuromodulation with respect to the execution of cognitive tasks are still unknown. In this single-blind, sham-controlled study, we examined whether the administration of anodal-tDCS (a-tDCS) over the right occipital cortex of healthy volunteers (N=64) enhances performance on perceptual and memory tasks involving both face and object stimuli. Neuromodulation was delivered in two conditions: online (a-tDCS during task execution) and offline (a-tDCS before task execution). The results demonstrate that offline a-tDCS enhances the perception and memory performance of both faces and objects. There was no effect of online a-tDCS on behaviour. Furthermore, the offline effect was site-specific since a-tDCS over the sensory-motor cortex did not lead to behavioural changes. Our results add relevant information about the breadth of cognitive processes and visual stimuli that can be modulated by tDCS, and about the design of effective neuromodulation protocols, which have implications for advancing theories in cognitive neuroscience and clinical applications. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Microglial activation enhances associative taste memory through purinergic modulation of glutamatergic neurotransmission.

    PubMed

    Delpech, Jean-Christophe; Saucisse, Nicolas; Parkes, Shauna L; Lacabanne, Chloe; Aubert, Agnes; Casenave, Fabrice; Coutureau, Etienne; Sans, Nathalie; Layé, Sophie; Ferreira, Guillaume; Nadjar, Agnes

    2015-02-18

    The cerebral innate immune system is able to modulate brain functioning and cognitive processes. During activation of the cerebral innate immune system, inflammatory factors produced by microglia, such as cytokines and adenosine triphosphate (ATP), have been directly linked to modulation of glutamatergic system on one hand and learning and memory functions on the other hand. However, the cellular mechanisms by which microglial activation modulates cognitive processes are still unclear. Here, we used taste memory tasks, highly dependent on glutamatergic transmission in the insular cortex, to investigate the behavioral and cellular impacts of an inflammation restricted to this cortical area in rats. We first show that intrainsular infusion of the endotoxin lipopolysaccharide induces a local inflammation and increases glutamatergic AMPA, but not NMDA, receptor expression at the synaptic level. This cortical inflammation also enhances associative, but not incidental, taste memory through increase of glutamatergic AMPA receptor trafficking. Moreover, we demonstrate that ATP, but not proinflammatory cytokines, is responsible for inflammation-induced enhancement of both associative taste memory and AMPA receptor expression in insular cortex. In conclusion, we propose that inflammation restricted to the insular cortex enhances associative taste memory through a purinergic-dependent increase of glutamatergic AMPA receptor expression at the synapse. Copyright © 2015 the authors 0270-6474/15/353022-12$15.00/0.

  16. Motor Skills Enhance Procedural Memory Formation and Protect against Age-Related Decline.

    PubMed

    Müller, Nils C J; Genzel, Lisa; Konrad, Boris N; Pawlowski, Marcel; Neville, David; Fernández, Guillén; Steiger, Axel; Dresler, Martin

    2016-01-01

    The ability to consolidate procedural memories declines with increasing age. Prior knowledge enhances learning and memory consolidation of novel but related information in various domains. Here, we present evidence that prior motor experience-in our case piano skills-increases procedural learning and has a protective effect against age-related decline for the consolidation of novel but related manual movements. In our main experiment, we tested 128 participants with a sequential finger-tapping motor task during two sessions 24 hours apart. We observed enhanced online learning speed and offline memory consolidation for piano players. Enhanced memory consolidation was driven by a strong effect in older participants, whereas younger participants did not benefit significantly from prior piano experience. In a follow up independent control experiment, this compensatory effect of piano experience was not visible after a brief offline period of 30 minutes, hence requiring an extended consolidation window potentially involving sleep. Through a further control experiment, we rejected the possibility that the decreased effect in younger participants was caused by training saturation. We discuss our results in the context of the neurobiological schema approach and suggest that prior experience has the potential to rescue memory consolidation from age-related cognitive decline.

  17. Integrin-linked Kinase is Essential for Environmental Enrichment Enhanced Hippocampal Neurogenesis and Memory

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Xu-Feng; Li, Ting; Wang, Dong-Dong; Chen, Bing; Wang, Yue; Chen, Zhe-Yu

    2015-01-01

    Environment enrichment (EE) has a variety of effects on brain structure and function. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is essential for EE-induced hippocampal neurogenesis and memory enhancement. However, the intracellular pathway downstream of BDNF to modulate EE effects is poorly understood. Here we show that integrin-linked kinase (ILK) levels are elevated upon EE stimuli in a BDNF-dependent manner. Using ILK-shRNA (siILK) lentivirus, we demonstrate that knockdown of ILK impairs EE-promoted hippocampal neurogenesis and memory by increasing glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK3β) activity. Finally, overexpressing ILK in the hippocampus could rescue the neurogenesis and memory deficits in BDNF+/− mice. These results indicate that ILK is indispensable for BDNF-mediated hippocampal neurogenesis and memory enhancement upon EE stimuli via regulating GSK3β activity. This is a new insight of the precise mechanism in EE-enhanced memory processes and ILK is a potentially important therapeutic target that merits further study. PMID:26095336

  18. Motor Skills Enhance Procedural Memory Formation and Protect against Age-Related Decline

    PubMed Central

    Müller, Nils C. J.; Genzel, Lisa; Konrad, Boris N.; Pawlowski, Marcel; Neville, David; Fernández, Guillén; Steiger, Axel

    2016-01-01

    The ability to consolidate procedural memories declines with increasing age. Prior knowledge enhances learning and memory consolidation of novel but related information in various domains. Here, we present evidence that prior motor experience–in our case piano skills–increases procedural learning and has a protective effect against age-related decline for the consolidation of novel but related manual movements. In our main experiment, we tested 128 participants with a sequential finger-tapping motor task during two sessions 24 hours apart. We observed enhanced online learning speed and offline memory consolidation for piano players. Enhanced memory consolidation was driven by a strong effect in older participants, whereas younger participants did not benefit significantly from prior piano experience. In a follow up independent control experiment, this compensatory effect of piano experience was not visible after a brief offline period of 30 minutes, hence requiring an extended consolidation window potentially involving sleep. Through a further control experiment, we rejected the possibility that the decreased effect in younger participants was caused by training saturation. We discuss our results in the context of the neurobiological schema approach and suggest that prior experience has the potential to rescue memory consolidation from age-related cognitive decline. PMID:27333186

  19. Trade-offs in visual attention and the enhancement of memory specificity for positive and negative emotional stimuli.

    PubMed

    Chipchase, Susan Y; Chapman, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Emotional influences on memory can lead to trade-offs in memory for gist or detail and trade-offs in memory for central or peripheral aspects of an event. Attentional narrowing has often been proposed as a theoretical explanation for this pattern of findings with negative emotion. These trade-offs have been less extensively investigated with positive emotion. In three experiments, we investigate memory for specific visual details of positive and negative stimuli, examine central-peripheral trade-offs in memory, and assess the hypothesis that attentional narrowing contributes to emotional enhancement of memory specificity. We found that memory for details was enhanced by negative and positive emotion. Central-peripheral trade-offs were found in memory for negative emotional stimuli but not in memory for positive emotional stimuli. These trade-offs with negative emotion were associated with attentional narrowing at the time of encoding, as measured by eye movements. There were no attentional effects at the time of encoding found with positive emotional stimuli. Evidence was found for the attentional narrowing hypothesis of memory specificity and central-peripheral trade-offs in memory for negative emotional events. Alternative explanations for the positive emotional enhancement of memory specificity are required.

  20. Social contagion of correct and incorrect information in memory.

    PubMed

    Rush, Ryan A; Clark, Steven E

    2014-01-01

    The present study examines how discussion between individuals regarding a shared memory affects their subsequent individual memory reports. In three experiments pairs of participants recalled items from photographs of common household scenes, discussed their recall with each other, and then recalled the items again individually. Results showed that after the discussion. individuals recalled more correct items and more incorrect items, with very small non-significant increases, or no change, in recall accuracy. The information people were exposed to during the discussion was generally accurate, although not as accurate as individuals' initial recall. Individuals incorporated correct exposure items into their subsequent recall at a higher rate than incorrect exposure items. Participants who were initially more accurate became less accurate, and initially less-accurate participants became more accurate as a result of their discussion. Comparisons to no-discussion control groups suggest that the effects were not simply the product of repeated recall opportunities or self-cueing, but rather reflect the transmission of information between individuals.

  1. Music-based memory enhancement in Alzheimer's disease: promise and limitations.

    PubMed

    Simmons-Stern, Nicholas R; Deason, Rebecca G; Brandler, Brian J; Frustace, Bruno S; O'Connor, Maureen K; Ally, Brandon A; Budson, Andrew E

    2012-12-01

    In a previous study (Simmons-Stern, Budson & Ally, 2010), we found that patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) better recognized visually presented lyrics when the lyrics were also sung rather than spoken at encoding. The present study sought to further investigate the effects of music on memory in patients with AD by making the content of the song lyrics relevant for the daily life of an older adult and by examining how musical encoding alters several different aspects of episodic memory. Patients with AD and healthy older adults studied visually presented novel song lyrics related to instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) that were accompanied by either a sung or a spoken recording. Overall, participants performed better on a memory test of general lyric content for lyrics that were studied sung as compared to spoken. However, on a memory test of specific lyric content, participants performed equally well for sung and spoken lyrics. We interpret these results in terms of a dual-process model of recognition memory such that the general content questions represent a familiarity-based representation that is preferentially sensitive to enhancement via music, while the specific content questions represent a recollection-based representation unaided by musical encoding. Additionally, in a test of basic recognition memory for the audio stimuli, patients with AD demonstrated equal discrimination for sung and spoken stimuli. We propose that the perceptual distinctiveness of musical stimuli enhanced metamemorial awareness in AD patients via a non-selective distinctiveness heuristic, thereby reducing false recognition while at the same time reducing true recognition and eliminating the mnemonic benefit of music. These results are discussed in the context of potential music-based memory enhancement interventions for the care of patients with AD.

  2. Music-Based Memory Enhancement in Alzheimer’s Disease: Promise and Limitations

    PubMed Central

    Simmons-Stern, Nicholas R.; Deason, Rebecca G.; Brandler, Brian J.; Frustace, Bruno S.; O’Connor, Maureen K.; Ally, Brandon A.; Budson, Andrew E.

    2012-01-01

    In a previous study (Simmons-Stern, Budson, & Ally 2010), we found that patients with Alzheimer’s disease (AD) better recognized visually presented lyrics when the lyrics were also sung rather than spoken at encoding. The present study sought to further investigate the effects of music on memory in patients with AD by making the content of the song lyrics relevant for the daily life of an older adult and by examining how musical encoding alters several different aspects of episodic memory. Patients with AD and healthy older adults studied visually presented novel song lyrics related to instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) that were accompanied by either a sung or a spoken recording. Overall, participants performed better on a memory test of general lyric content for lyrics that were studied sung as compared to spoken. However, on a memory test of specific lyric content, participants performed equally well for sung and spoken lyrics. We interpret these results in terms of a dual-process model of recognition memory such that the general content questions represent a familiarity-based representation that is preferentially sensitive to enhancement via music, while the specific content questions represent a recollection-based representation unaided by musical encoding. Additionally, in a test of basic recognition memory for the audio stimuli, patients with AD demonstrated equal discrimination for sung and spoken stimuli. We propose that the perceptual distinctiveness of musical stimuli enhanced metamemorial awareness in AD patients via a non-selective distinctiveness heuristic, thereby reducing false recognition while at the same time reducing true recognition and eliminating the mnemonic benefit of music. These results are discussed in the context of potential music-based memory enhancement interventions for the care of patients with AD. PMID:23000133

  3. Unfamiliar faces in recognition memory: spaced learning enhances subsequent recognition memory by reducing repetition priming.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yanpei; Xu, Qinfang; Liao, Shuirong; Jia, Demei

    2017-09-27

    Although the spacing effect is one of most robust effects in learning, its cognitive and neural mechanisms are still under investigation. Whether the spacing effect is achieved by reducing neural repetition priming or depends on learning experience is still unclear. In this event-related potential study, participants were asked to memorize 140 novel faces, half under the massed learning condition and the other half under the spaced learning condition. The afterwards recognition tests indicated that participants recognized more items under the spaced learning condition than under the massed learning condition. The electroencephalography data suggested that spaced learning was associated with a reduced familiarity effect in frontal N400. Remembered faces showed smaller repetition priming than forgotten faces under both learning conditions and spaced learning significantly reduced repetition suppression. Although no direct association was found between repetition priming and episodic memory, the difference in quantity between spaced learning and massed learning in the repetition priming can predict the different quantities in the recognition memory. These results suggest that the neural mechanism of the spacing effect is influenced by experience; however, the impact is mainly repetition priming and the spacing effect is still very robust.

  4. The wick in the candle of learning: epistemic curiosity activates reward circuitry and enhances memory.

    PubMed

    Kang, Min Jeong; Hsu, Ming; Krajbich, Ian M; Loewenstein, George; McClure, Samuel M; Wang, Joseph Tao-yi; Camerer, Colin F

    2009-08-01

    Curiosity has been described as a desire for learning and knowledge, but its underlying mechanisms are not well understood. We scanned subjects with functional magnetic resonance imaging while they read trivia questions. The level of curiosity when reading questions was correlated with activity in caudate regions previously suggested to be involved in anticipated reward. This finding led to a behavioral study, which showed that subjects spent more scarce resources (either limited tokens or waiting time) to find out answers when they were more curious. The functional imaging also showed that curiosity increased activity in memory areas when subjects guessed incorrectly, which suggests that curiosity may enhance memory for surprising new information. This prediction about memory enhancement was confirmed in a behavioral study: Higher curiosity in an initial session was correlated with better recall of surprising answers 1 to 2 weeks later.

  5. Caffeine in floral nectar enhances a pollinator’s memory of reward

    PubMed Central

    Wright, G. A.; Baker, D. D.; Palmer, M. J.; Stabler, D.; Mustard, J. A.; Power, E. F.; Borland, A. M.; Stevenson, P. C.

    2015-01-01

    Plant defence compounds occur in floral nectar, but their ecological role is not well-understood. We provide the first evidence that plant compounds pharmacologically alter pollinator behaviour by enhancing their memory of reward. Honeybees rewarded with caffeine, which occurs naturally in nectar of Coffea and Citrus species, were three times more likely to remember a learned floral scent than those rewarded with sucrose alone. Caffeine potentiated responses of mushroom body neurons involved in olfactory learning and memory by acting as an adenosine receptor antagonist. Caffeine concentrations in nectar never exceeded the bees’ bitter taste threshold, implying that pollinators impose selection for nectar that is pharmacologically active but not repellent. By using a drug to enhance memories of reward, plants secure pollinator fidelity and improve reproductive success. PMID:23471406

  6. Elaborative encoding through self-generation enhances outcomes with errorless learning: Findings from the Skypekids memory study.

    PubMed

    Haslam, Catherine; Wagner, Joseph; Wegener, Signy; Malouf, Tania

    2017-01-01

    Errorless learning has demonstrated efficacy in the treatment of memory impairment in adults and older adults with acquired brain injury. In the same population, use of elaborative encoding through supported self-generation in errorless paradigms has been shown to further enhance memory performance. However, the evidence base relevant to application of both standard and self-generation forms of errorless learning in children is far weaker. We address this limitation in the present study to examine recall performance in children with brain injury (n = 16) who were taught novel age-appropriate science and social science facts through the medium of Skype. All participants were taught these facts under conditions of standard errorless learning, errorless learning with self-generation, and trial-and-error learning after which memory was tested at 5-minute, 30-minute, 1-hour and 24-hour delays. Analysis revealed no main effect of time, with participants retaining most information acquired over the 24-hour testing period, but a significant effect of condition. Notably, self-generation proved more effective than both standard errorless and trial-and-error learning. Further analysis of the data revealed that severity of attentional impairment was less detrimental to recall performance under errorless conditions. This study extends the literature to provide further evidence of the value of errorless learning methods in children with ABI and the first demonstration of the effectiveness of self-generation when delivered via the Internet.

  7. Epobis is a Nonerythropoietic and Neuroprotective Agonist of the Erythropoietin Receptor with Anti-Inflammatory and Memory Enhancing Effects.

    PubMed

    Dmytriyeva, Oksana; Pankratova, Stanislava; Korshunova, Irina; Walmod, Peter S

    2016-01-01

    The cytokine erythropoietin (EPO) stimulates proliferation and differentiation of erythroid progenitor cells. Moreover, EPO has neuroprotective, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidative effects, but the use of EPO as a neuroprotective agent is hampered by its erythropoietic activity. We have recently designed the synthetic, dendrimeric peptide, Epobis, derived from the sequence of human EPO. This peptide binds the EPO receptor and promotes neuritogenesis and neuronal cell survival. Here we demonstrate that Epobis in vitro promotes neuritogenesis in primary motoneurons and has anti-inflammatory effects as demonstrated by its ability to decrease TNF release from activated AMJ2-C8 macrophages and rat primary microglia. When administered systemically Epobis is detectable in both plasma and cerebrospinal fluid, demonstrating that the peptide crosses the blood-brain barrier. Importantly, Epobis is not erythropoietic, but systemic administration of Epobis in rats delays the clinical signs of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, an animal model of multiple sclerosis, and the peptide has long-term, but not short-term, effects on working memory, detected as an improved social memory 3 days after administration. These data reveal Epobis to be a nonerythropoietic and neuroprotective EPO receptor agonist with anti-inflammatory and memory enhancing properties.

  8. Epobis is a Nonerythropoietic and Neuroprotective Agonist of the Erythropoietin Receptor with Anti-Inflammatory and Memory Enhancing Effects

    PubMed Central

    Korshunova, Irina

    2016-01-01

    The cytokine erythropoietin (EPO) stimulates proliferation and differentiation of erythroid progenitor cells. Moreover, EPO has neuroprotective, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidative effects, but the use of EPO as a neuroprotective agent is hampered by its erythropoietic activity. We have recently designed the synthetic, dendrimeric peptide, Epobis, derived from the sequence of human EPO. This peptide binds the EPO receptor and promotes neuritogenesis and neuronal cell survival. Here we demonstrate that Epobis in vitro promotes neuritogenesis in primary motoneurons and has anti-inflammatory effects as demonstrated by its ability to decrease TNF release from activated AMJ2-C8 macrophages and rat primary microglia. When administered systemically Epobis is detectable in both plasma and cerebrospinal fluid, demonstrating that the peptide crosses the blood-brain barrier. Importantly, Epobis is not erythropoietic, but systemic administration of Epobis in rats delays the clinical signs of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, an animal model of multiple sclerosis, and the peptide has long-term, but not short-term, effects on working memory, detected as an improved social memory 3 days after administration. These data reveal Epobis to be a nonerythropoietic and neuroprotective EPO receptor agonist with anti-inflammatory and memory enhancing properties. PMID:27990061

  9. Fingolimod (FTY720) attenuates social deficits, learning and memory impairments, neuronal loss and neuroinflammation in the rat model of autism.

    PubMed

    Wu, Hongmei; Wang, Xuelai; Gao, Jingquan; Liang, Shuang; Hao, Yanqiu; Sun, Caihong; Xia, Wei; Cao, Yonggang; Wu, Lijie

    2017-03-15

    To investigate the effect of FTY720 on the valproic acid (VPA) rat model of autism. As an animal model of autism, we used intraperitoneal injection of VPA on embryonic day 12.5 in Wistar rats. The pups were given FTY720 orally at doses of 0.25, 0.5 and 1mg/kg daily from postnatal day 15 to 35. Social behavior, spatial learning and memory were assessed at the end of FTY720 treatment. The histological change, oxidative stress, neuroinflammatory responses, and apoptosis-related proteins in the hippocampus were evaluated. FTY720 (1mg/kg) administration to VPA-exposed rats (1) improved social behavior, spatial learning and memory impairment; (2) resulted in a reduction in neuronal loss and apoptosis of pyramidal cells in hippocampal CA1 regions; (3) inhibited activation of microglial cells, in turn lowering the level of pro-inflammatory cytokines interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and IL-6 in the hippocampus; (4) changed Malondialdehyde (MDA) levels, Glutathione (GSH) levels, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and Glutathione Peroxidase (GSH-Px) activity in the hippocampus; (6) inhibited the elevated Bax and caspase-3 protein levels and enhanced the relative expression level of Bcl-2 in the hippocampus; and (7) increased phospho-Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (p-CaMKII), phospho-cAMP-response element binding protein (p-CREB) and Brain Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) protein expression in the hippocampus. FTY720 rescues social deficit, spatial learning and memory impairment in VPA-exposed rats. FTY720 exerts both a direct protection for neurons and an indirect modulation of inflammation-mediated neuron loss as a possible mechanism of neuroprotection. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  10. Social cognition and prefrontal hemodynamic responses during a working memory task in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Pu, Shenghong; Nakagome, Kazuyuki; Yamada, Takeshi; Itakura, Masashi; Yamanashi, Takehiko; Yamada, Sayaka; Masai, Mieko; Miura, Akihiko; Yamauchi, Takahira; Satake, Takahiro; Iwata, Masaaki; Nagata, Izumi; Roberts, David L; Kaneko, Koichi

    2016-03-01

    Social cognition is an important determinant of functional impairment in schizophrenia, but its relationship with the prefrontal functional abnormalities associated with the condition is still unclear. The present study aimed to explore the relationship between social cognition and prefrontal function in patients with schizophrenia using 52-channel near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS). Twenty-six patients with schizophrenia and 26 age-, gender-, and intelligence quotient-matched healthy controls (HCs) participated in the study. Hemodynamic responses in the prefrontal and superior temporal cortical regions were assessed during a working memory task using NIRS. Social cognition was assessed using the Social Cognition Screening Questionnaire (SCSQ). The observed hemodynamic responses were significantly reduced in the lateral prefrontal cortex (PFC), the frontopolar cortex, and temporal regions in subjects with schizophrenia compared to HCs. Additionally, lateral PFC hemodynamic responses assessed during the working memory task demonstrated a strong positive correlation with the SCSQ theory of mind (ToM) subscale score even after controlling for working memory performance. These results suggest that ToM integrity is closely related to lateral PFC functional abnormalities found in patients with schizophrenia. In addition, this study provides evidence to suggest that NIRS could be used to identify biomarkers of social cognition function in subjects with schizophrenia.

  11. Enhanced Associative Memory for Colour (but Not Shape or Location) in Synaesthesia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pritchard, Jamie; Rothen, Nicolas; Coolbear, Daniel; Ward, Jamie

    2013-01-01

    People with grapheme-colour synaesthesia have been shown to have enhanced memory on a range of tasks using both stimuli that induce synaesthesia (e.g. words) and, more surprisingly, stimuli that do not (e.g. certain abstract visual stimuli). This study examines the latter by using multi-featured stimuli consisting of shape, colour and location…

  12. The Dark Side of Testing Memory: Repeated Retrieval Can Enhance Eyewitness Suggestibility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chan, Jason C. K.; LaPaglia, Jessica A.

    2011-01-01

    Eyewitnesses typically recount their experiences many times before trial. Such repeated retrieval can enhance memory retention of the witnessed event. However, recent studies (e.g., Chan, Thomas, & Bulevich, 2009) have found that initial retrieval can exacerbate eyewitness suggestibility to later misleading information--a finding termed…

  13. Emotional Enhancement Effect of Memory: Removing the Influence of Cognitive Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sommer, Tobias; Glascher, Jan; Moritz, Steffen; Buchel, Christian

    2008-01-01

    According to the modulation hypothesis, arousal is the crucial factor in the emotional enhancement of memory (EEM). However, the multifactor theory of the EEM recently proposed that cognitive characteristics of emotional stimuli, e.g., relatedness and distinctiveness, also play an important role. The current study aimed to investigate the…

  14. Test-Enhanced Learning of Natural Concepts: Effects on Recognition Memory, Classification, and Metacognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacoby, Larry L.; Wahlheim, Christopher N.; Coane, Jennifer H.

    2010-01-01

    Three experiments examined testing effects on learning of natural concepts and metacognitive assessments of such learning. Results revealed that testing enhanced recognition memory and classification accuracy for studied and novel exemplars of bird families on immediate and delayed tests. These effects depended on the balance of study and test…

  15. Test-Enhanced Learning of Natural Concepts: Effects on Recognition Memory, Classification, and Metacognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacoby, Larry L.; Wahlheim, Christopher N.; Coane, Jennifer H.

    2010-01-01

    Three experiments examined testing effects on learning of natural concepts and metacognitive assessments of such learning. Results revealed that testing enhanced recognition memory and classification accuracy for studied and novel exemplars of bird families on immediate and delayed tests. These effects depended on the balance of study and test…

  16. Emotional Enhancement Effect of Memory: Removing the Influence of Cognitive Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sommer, Tobias; Glascher, Jan; Moritz, Steffen; Buchel, Christian

    2008-01-01

    According to the modulation hypothesis, arousal is the crucial factor in the emotional enhancement of memory (EEM). However, the multifactor theory of the EEM recently proposed that cognitive characteristics of emotional stimuli, e.g., relatedness and distinctiveness, also play an important role. The current study aimed to investigate the…

  17. Estradiol enhances object recognition memory in Swiss female mice by activating hippocampal estrogen receptor α.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Luciana M; Bastos, Cristiane P; de Souza, Jéssica M; Ribeiro, Fabíola M; Pereira, Grace S

    2014-10-01

    In rodents, 17β-estradiol (E2) enhances hippocampal function and improves performance in several memory tasks. Regarding the object recognition paradigm, E2 commonly act as a cognitive enhancer. However, the types of estrogen receptor (ER) involved, as well as the underlying molecular mechanisms are still under investigation. In the present study, we asked whether E2 enhances object recognition memory by activating ERα and/or ERβ in the hippocampus of Swiss female mice. First, we showed that immediately post-training intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of E2 (0.2 mg/kg) allowed object recognition memory to persist 48 h in ovariectomized (OVX) Swiss female mice. This result indicates that Swiss female mice are sensitive to the promnesic effects of E2 and is in accordance with other studies, which used C57/BL6 female mice. To verify if the activation of hippocampal ERα or ERβ would be sufficient to improve object memory, we used PPT and DPN, which are selective ERα and ERβ agonists, respectively. We found that PPT, but not DPN, improved object memory in Swiss female mice. However, DPN was able to improve memory in C57/BL6 female mice, which is in accordance with other studies. Next, we tested if the E2 effect on improving object memory depends on ER activation in the hippocampus. Thus, we tested if the infusion of intra-hippocampal TPBM and PHTPP, selective antagonists of ERα and ERβ, respectively, would block the memory enhancement effect of E2. Our results showed that TPBM, but not PHTPP, blunted the promnesic effect of E2, strongly suggesting that in Swiss female mice, the ERα and not the ERβ is the receptor involved in the promnesic effect of E2. It was already demonstrated that E2, as well as PPT and DPN, increase the phospho-ERK2 level in the dorsal hippocampus of C57/BL6 mice. Here we observed that PPT increased phospho-ERK1, while DPN decreased phospho-ERK2 in the dorsal hippocampus of Swiss female mice subjected to the object recognition sample phase

  18. Forgetting our personal past: socially shared retrieval-induced forgetting of autobiographical memories.

    PubMed

    Stone, Charles B; Barnier, Amanda J; Sutton, John; Hirst, William

    2013-11-01

    People often talk to others about their personal past. These discussions are inherently selective. Selective retrieval of memories in the course of a conversation may induce forgetting of unmentioned but related memories for both speakers and listeners (Cuc, Koppel, & Hirst, 2007). Cuc et al. (2007) defined the forgetting on the part of the speaker as within-individual retrieval-induced forgetting (WI-RIF) and the forgetting on the part of the listener as socially shared retrieval-induced forgetting (SS-RIF). However, if the forgetting associated with WI-RIF and SS-RIF is to be taken seriously as a mechanism that shapes both individual and shared memories, this mechanism must be demonstrated with meaningful material and in ecologically valid groups. In our first 2 experiments we extended SS-RIF from unemotional, experimenter-contrived material to the emotional and unemotional autobiographical memories of strangers (Experiment 1) and intimate couples (Experiment 2) when merely overhearing the speaker selectively practice memories. We then extended these results to the context of a free-flowing conversation (Experiments 3 and 4). In all 4 experiments we found WI-RIF and SS-RIF regardless of the emotional valence or individual ownership of the memories. We discuss our findings in terms of the role of conversational silence in shaping both our personal and shared pasts.

  19. Changes in blood glucose and salivary cortisol are not necessary for arousal to enhance memory in young or older adults.

    PubMed

    Gore, Jane B; Krebs, Desiree L; Parent, Marise B

    2006-06-01

    Emotional arousal enhances memory, and this memory-enhancing effect may involve neurochemicals released by arousal, such as glucose and cortisol. Physiological consequences of arousal change with age, and these changes may contribute to age-related memory decline. The present study examined whether emotionally arousing pictures would affect glucose and cortisol levels and enhance memory in young and older adults. Blood glucose and salivary cortisol were measured once before and six times after young and old adults viewed either 60 highly arousing or 60 relatively neutral pictures. Recall for the stimuli was measured 75 min later. The results indicated that recall was impaired in older adults. Arousal as measured by self-report enhanced recall in both young and older adults. However, arousal did not affect glucose or cortisol levels in either group. These findings demonstrate that changes in blood glucose or salivary cortisol levels are not necessary for arousal to enhance memory.

  20. Communism and the meaning of social memory: towards a critical-interpretive approach.

    PubMed

    Tileagă, Cristian

    2012-12-01

    Using a case study of representations of communism in Romania, the paper offers a sketch of a critical-interpretive approach for exploring and engaging with the social memory of communism. When one considers the various contemporary appraisals, responses to and positions towards the communist period one identifies and one is obliged to deal with a series of personal and collective moral/political quandaries. In their attempt to bring about historical justice, political elites create a world that conforms more to their needs and desires than to the diversity of meanings of communism, experiences and dilemmas of lay people. This paper argues that one needs to study formal aspects of social memory as well as "lived", often conflicting, attitudinal and mnemonic stances and interpretive frameworks. One needs to strive to find the meaning of the social memory of communism in the sometimes contradictory, paradoxical attitudes and meanings that members of society communicate, endorse and debate. Many of the ethical quandaries and dilemmas of collective memory and recent history can be better understood by describing the discursive and sociocultural processes of meaning-making and meaning-interpretation carried out by members of a polity.

  1. Music Enhances Autobiographical Memory in Mild Alzheimer's Disease

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    El Haj, Mohamad; Postal, Virginie; Allain, Philippe

    2012-01-01

    Studies have shown that the "Four Seasons" music may enhance the autobiographical performance of Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients. We used a repeated measures design in which autobiographical recall of 12 mild AD patients was assessed using a free narrative method under three conditions: (a) in "Silence," (b) after being exposed to the opus "Four…

  2. Using Background Music To Enhance Memory and Improve Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Scheree; Henke, Jeanette; McLaughlin, Maureen; Ripp, Mary; Tuffs, Patricia

    This report describes a program to enhance spelling word retention through the use of background music. The targeted population consisted of elementary students in three middle class communities located in the southwestern suburbs of Chicago. The problems for poor spelling retention were documented through data revealing the number of students…

  3. Music Enhances Autobiographical Memory in Mild Alzheimer's Disease

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    El Haj, Mohamad; Postal, Virginie; Allain, Philippe

    2012-01-01

    Studies have shown that the "Four Seasons" music may enhance the autobiographical performance of Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients. We used a repeated measures design in which autobiographical recall of 12 mild AD patients was assessed using a free narrative method under three conditions: (a) in "Silence," (b) after being exposed to the opus "Four…

  4. Extinction Memory Improvement by the Metabolic Enhancer Methylene Blue

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzalez-Lima, F.; Bruchey, Aleksandra K.

    2004-01-01

    We investigated whether postextinction administration of methylene blue (MB) could enhance retention of an extinguished conditioned response. MB is a redox compound that at low doses elevates cytochrome oxidase activity, thereby improving brain energy production. Saline or MB (4 mg/kg intraperitoneally) were administered to rats for 5 d following…

  5. Extinction Memory Improvement by the Metabolic Enhancer Methylene Blue

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzalez-Lima, F.; Bruchey, Aleksandra K.

    2004-01-01

    We investigated whether postextinction administration of methylene blue (MB) could enhance retention of an extinguished conditioned response. MB is a redox compound that at low doses elevates cytochrome oxidase activity, thereby improving brain energy production. Saline or MB (4 mg/kg intraperitoneally) were administered to rats for 5 d following…

  6. Enhancing treatment effectiveness through social modelling: A pilot study.

    PubMed

    Faasse, Kate; Perera, Anna; Loveys, Kate; Grey, Andrew; Petrie, Keith J

    2017-05-01

    Medical treatments take place in social contexts; however, little research has investigated how social modelling might influence treatment outcomes. This experimental pilot study investigated social modelling of treatment effectiveness and placebo treatment outcomes. Fifty-nine participants took part in the study, ostensibly examining the use of beta-blockers (actually placebos) for examination anxiety. Participants were randomly assigned to observe a female confederate report positive treatment effects (reduced heart rate, relaxed, calm) or feeling no different. Heart rate, anxiety and blood pressure were assessed, as were symptoms and attributed side effects. Heart rate decreased significantly more in the social modelling compared to control condition, p = .027 (d = .63), and there were trends towards effects in the same direction for both anxiety, p = .097 (d = .46), and systolic blood pressure, p = .077 (d = .51). Significant pre-post placebo differences in heart rate, anxiety and diastolic blood pressure were found in the social modelling group, ps < .007 (ds = .77-1.37), but not the control condition, ps > .28 (ds = .09-.59). Social observation of medication effectiveness enhanced placebo effectiveness in heart rate, and showed a trend towards enhancing treatment effectiveness in both anxiety and systolic blood pressure. Social modelling may have utility in enhancing the effectiveness of many active medical treatments.

  7. Repeated social defeat stress enhances glutamatergic synaptic plasticity in the VTA and cocaine place conditioning

    PubMed Central

    Stelly, Claire E; Pomrenze, Matthew B; Cook, Jason B; Morikawa, Hitoshi

    2016-01-01

    Enduring memories of sensory cues associated with drug intake drive addiction. It is well known that stressful experiences increase addiction vulnerability. However, it is not clear how repeated stress promotes learning of cue-drug associations, as repeated stress generally impairs learning and memory processes unrelated to stressful experiences. Here, we show that repeated social defeat stress in rats causes persistent enhancement of long-term potentiation (LTP) of NMDA receptor-mediated glutamatergic transmission in the ventral tegmental area (VTA). Protein kinase A-dependent increase in the potency of inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate-induced Ca2+ signaling underlies LTP facilitation. Notably, defeated rats display enhanced learning of contextual cues paired with cocaine experience assessed using a conditioned place preference (CPP) paradigm. Enhancement of LTP in the VTA and cocaine CPP in behaving rats both require glucocorticoid receptor activation during defeat episodes. These findings suggest that enhanced glutamatergic plasticity in the VTA may contribute, at least partially, to increased addiction vulnerability following repeated stressful experiences. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.15448.001 PMID:27374604

  8. Chronic Corticosterone Exposure Persistently Elevates the Expression of Memory-Related Genes in the Lateral Amygdala and Enhances the Consolidation of a Pavlovian Fear Memory

    PubMed Central

    Monsey, Melissa S.; Boyle, Lara M.; Zhang, Melinda L.; Nguyen, Caroline P.; Kronman, Hope G.; Ota, Kristie T.; Duman, Ronald S.; Taylor, Jane R.; Schafe, Glenn E.

    2014-01-01

    Chronic exposure to stress has been widely implicated in the development of anxiety disorders, yet relatively little is known about the long-term effects of chronic stress on amygdala-dependent memory formation. Here, we examined the effects of a history of chronic exposure to the stress-associated adrenal steroid corticosterone (CORT) on the consolidation of a fear memory and the expression of memory-related immediate early genes (IEGs) in the lateral nucleus of the amygdala (LA). Rats received chronic exposure to CORT (50 μg/ml) in their drinking water for 2 weeks and were then titrated off the CORT for an additional 6 days followed by a 2 week ‘wash-out’ period consisting of access to plain water. Rats were then either sacrificed to examine the expression of memory-related IEG expression in the LA or given auditory Pavlovian fear conditioning. We show that chronic exposure to CORT leads to a persistent elevation in the expression of the IEGs Arc/Arg3.1 and Egr-1 in the LA. Further, we show that rats with a history of chronic CORT exposure exhibit enhanced consolidation of a fear memory; short-term memory (STM) is not affected, while long-term memory (LTM) is significantly enhanced. Treatment with the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) fluoxetine following the chronic CORT exposure period was observed to effectively reverse both the persistent CORT-related increases in memory-related IEG expression in the LA and the CORT-related enhancement in fear memory consolidation. Our findings suggest that chronic exposure to CORT can regulate memory-related IEG expression and fear memory consolidation processes in the LA in a long-lasting manner and that treatment with fluoxetine can reverse these effects. PMID:24618807

  9. Music as a memory enhancer in patients with Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Simmons-Stern, Nicholas R; Budson, Andrew E; Ally, Brandon A

    2010-08-01

    Musical mnemonics have a long and diverse history of popular use. In addition, music processing in general is often considered spared by the neurodegenerative effects of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Research examining these two phenomena is limited, and no work to our knowledge has explored the effectiveness of musical mnemonics in AD. The present study sought to investigate the effect of music at encoding on the subsequent recognition of associated verbal information. Lyrics of unfamiliar children's songs were presented bimodally at encoding, and visual stimuli were accompanied by either a sung or a spoken recording. Patients with AD demonstrated better recognition accuracy for the sung lyrics than the spoken lyrics, while healthy older adults showed no significant difference between the two conditions. We propose two possible explanations for these findings: first, that the brain areas subserving music processing may be preferentially spared by AD, allowing a more holistic encoding that facilitates recognition, and second, that music heightens arousal in patients with AD, allowing better attention and improved memory. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. Temporal cortex direct current stimulation enhances performance on a visual recognition memory task in Alzheimer disease.

    PubMed

    Boggio, P S; Khoury, L P; Martins, D C S; Martins, O E M S; de Macedo, E C; Fregni, F

    2009-04-01

    Several studies have reported that transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), a non-invasive method of neuromodulation, enhances some aspects of working memory in healthy and Parkinson disease subjects. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of anodal tDCS on recognition memory, working memory and selective attention in Alzheimer disease (AD). Ten patients with diagnosis of AD received three sessions of anodal tDCS (left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, left temporal cortex and sham stimulation) with an intensity of 2 mA for 30 min. Sessions were performed in different days in a randomised order. The following tests were assessed during stimulation: Stroop, Digit Span and a Visual Recognition Memory task (VRM). The results showed a significant effect of stimulation condition on VRM (p = 0.0085), and post hoc analysis showed an improvement after temporal (p = 0.01) and prefrontal (p = 0.01) tDCS as compared with sham stimulation. There were no significant changes in attention as indexed by Stroop task performance. As far as is known, this is the first trial showing that tDCS can enhance a component of recognition memory. The potential mechanisms of action and the implications of these results are discussed.

  11. Stimulation of the Posterior Cortical-Hippocampal Network Enhances Precision of Memory Recollection.

    PubMed

    Nilakantan, Aneesha S; Bridge, Donna J; Gagnon, Elise P; VanHaerents, Stephen A; Voss, Joel L

    2017-02-06

    Episodic memory is thought to critically depend on interaction of the hippocampus with distributed brain regions [1-3]. Specific contributions of distinct networks have been hypothesized, with the hippocampal posterior-medial (HPM) network implicated in the recollection of highly precise contextual and spatial information [3-6]. Current evidence for HPM specialization is mostly indirect, derived from correlative measures such as neural activity recordings. Here we tested the causal role of the HPM network in recollection using network-targeted noninvasive brain stimulation in humans, which has previously been shown to increase functional connectivity within the HPM network [7]. Effects of multiple-day electromagnetic stimulation were assessed using an object-location memory task that segregated recollection precision from general recollection success. HPM network-targeted stimulation produced lasting (∼24 hr) enhancement of recollection precision, without effects on general success. Canonical neural correlates of recollection [8-10] were also modulated by stimulation. Late-positive evoked potential amplitude and theta-alpha oscillatory power were reduced, suggesting that stimulation can improve memory through enhanced reactivation of detailed visuospatial information at retrieval. The HPM network was thus specifically implicated in the processing of fine-grained memory detail, supporting functional specialization of hippocampal-cortical networks. These findings demonstrate that brain networks can be causally linked to distinct and specific neurocognitive functions and suggest mechanisms for long-lasting changes in memory due to network-targeted stimulation.

  12. Effect of Convulvulus pluricaulis Choisy. on learning behaviour and memory enhancement activity in rodents.

    PubMed

    Nahata, Alok; Patil, U K; Dixit, V K

    2008-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to investigate the effects of Convulvulus pluricaulis (CP), considered as Shankhpushpi on learning and memory in rodents. Nootropic activity using Cook and Weidley's Pole Climbing Apparatus, passive avoidance paradigms and active avoidance tests were used to test learning and memory. The ethanolic extract of CP and its ethyl acetate and aqueous fractions were evaluated for their memory enhancing properties. Two doses (100 and 200 mg kg(-1) p.o.) of the ethanolic extract and ethyl acetate and aqueous fractions were administered in separate groups of animals. Both the doses of all the extracts of CP significantly improved learning and memory in rats. Furthermore, these doses significantly reversed the amnesia induced by scopolamine (0.3 mg kg(-1) i.p.). Nootropic activity was compared using piracetam as the standard. Moreover, CP has exhibited potent memory-enhancing effects in the step-down and shuttle-box avoidance paradigms. Further studies are necessitated to identify the exact mechanism of action.

  13. Focusing on food during lunch enhances lunch memory and decreases later snack intake.

    PubMed

    Higgs, Suzanne; Donohoe, Jessica E

    2011-08-01

    We investigated whether eating lunch mindfully, in contrast to eating with distractions or no particular focus, reduces later snack intake and if this is related to a measure of meal memory. The design was between-subjects with three conditions. Twenty-nine female undergraduate students either ate a fixed lunch while (1) focusing on the sensory characteristics of the food as they ate (food focus group), (2) reading a newspaper article about food (food thoughts control group) or (3) in the absence of any secondary task (neutral control group). Cookie intake later that afternoon was measured as well as rated vividness of memory of the lunch. Participants ate significantly fewer cookies in the food focus group than in both the food thoughts control group or the neutral control group. Rated appetite before the snack session was lower in the food focus group than in the other two groups and rated vividness of lunch memory was higher. Rated vividness of lunch memory was negatively correlated with snack intake. These results suggest that enhancing meal memory by paying attention to food while eating can reduce later intake and are consistent with the suggestion that memory plays an important role in appetite control.

  14. (16)Oxygen irradiation enhances cued fear memory in B6D2F1 mice.

    PubMed

    Raber, Jacob; Marzulla, Tessa; Kronenberg, Amy; Turker, Mitchell S

    2015-11-01

    The space radiation environment includes energetic charged particles that may impact cognitive performance. We assessed the effects of (16)O ion irradiation on cognitive performance of C57BL/6J × DBA/2J F1 (B6D2F1) mice at OHSU (Portland, OR) one month following irradiation at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL, Upton, NY). Hippocampus-dependent contextual fear memory and hippocampus-independent cued fear memory of B6D2F1 mice were tested. (16)O ion exposure enhanced cued fear memory. This effect showed a bell-shaped dose response curve. Cued fear memory was significantly stronger in mice irradiated with (16)O ions at a dose of 0.4 or 0.8 Gy than in sham-irradiated mice or following irradiation at 1.6 Gy. In contrast to cued fear memory, contextual fear memory was not affected following (16)O ion irradiation at the doses used in this study. These data indicate that the amygdala might be particularly susceptible to effects of (16)O ion exposure. Copyright © 2015 The Committee on Space Research (COSPAR). Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. 16Oxygen irradiation enhances cued fear memory in B6D2F1 mice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raber, Jacob; Marzulla, Tessa; Kronenberg, Amy; Turker, Mitchell S.

    2015-11-01

    The space radiation environment includes energetic charged particles that may impact cognitive performance. We assessed the effects of 16O ion irradiation on cognitive performance of C57BL/6J × DBA/2J F1 (B6D2F1) mice at OHSU (Portland, OR) one month following irradiation at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL, Upton, NY). Hippocampus-dependent contextual fear memory and hippocampus-independent cued fear memory of B6D2F1 mice were tested. 16O ion exposure enhanced cued fear memory. This effect showed a bell-shaped dose response curve. Cued fear memory was significantly stronger in mice irradiated with 16O ions at a dose of 0.4 or 0.8 Gy than in sham-irradiated mice or following irradiation at 1.6 Gy. In contrast to cued fear memory, contextual fear memory was not affected following 16O ion irradiation at the doses used in this study. These data indicate that the amygdala might be particularly susceptible to effects of 16O ion exposure.

  16. Aging promotes acquisition of naive-like CD8+ memory T cell traits and enhanced functionalities

    PubMed Central

    Davenport, Bennett; Nguyen, Tom; Victorino, Francisco; Haist, Kelsey; Jhun, Kevin; Karimpour-Fard, Anis; Hunter, Lawrence; Kedl, Ross; Clambey, Eric T.

    2016-01-01

    Protective T cell memory is an acquired trait that is contingent upon the preservation of its constituents and therefore vulnerable to the potentially deleterious effects of organismal aging. Here, however, we have found that long-term T cell memory in a natural murine host-pathogen system can substantially improve over time. Comprehensive molecular, phenotypic, and functional profiling of aging antiviral CD8+ memory T cells (CD8+ TM) revealed a pervasive remodeling process that promotes the gradual acquisition of distinct molecular signatures, of increasingly homogeneous phenotypes, and of diversified functionalities that combine to confer a CD8+ TM–autonomous capacity for enhanced recall responses and immune protection. Notably, the process of CD8+ TM aging is characterized by a progressive harmonization of memory and naive T cell traits, is broadly amenable to experimental acceleration or retardation, and serves as a constitutional component for the “rebound model” of memory T cell maturation. By casting CD8+ TM populations within the temporal framework of their slowly evolving properties, this model establishes a simple ontogenetic perspective on the principal organization of CD8+ T cell memory that may directly inform the development of improved diagnostic, prophylactic, and therapeutic modalities. PMID:27617858

  17. 2-Phenylethynyl-butyltellurium enhances learning and memory impaired by scopolamine in mice.

    PubMed

    Souza, Ana Cristina G; Bruning, César A; Acker, Carmine I; Neto, José S S; Nogueira, Cristina W

    2013-08-01

    Taking into account the memory-enhancing properties of 2-phenylethynyl-butyltellurium (PEBT) and the constant search for drugs that improve cognitive performance, the present study was designed to investigate the effect of PEBT on cognitive impairment induced by scopolamine in mice. PEBT (10 mg/kg, gavage) was administered to mice 1 h before the probe trial in the Morris water maze task. Memory impairment was induced by scopolamine (1 mg/kg, intraperitoneally) 30 min before the probe trial. PEBT significantly ameliorated the scopolamine-induced impairment of long-term memory, as indicated by a decrease in escape latency and an increase in the number of crossings of the platform location when compared with the amnesic mice. To evaluate the effect of PEBT on different phases of memory (acquisition, consolidation, and retrieval) impaired by scopolamine, the step-down inhibitory avoidance task was used. Scopolamine was administered 30 min before training (acquisition), test (retrieval), or immediately after training (consolidation). PEBT, administered 30 min before scopolamine, increased step-down latency in memory-impaired mice, improving the consolidation and retrieval stages, but not acquisition. No significant alterations in locomotor or exploratory behaviors were found in animals treated with PEBT and/or scopolamine. PEBT improved memory deficits during consolidation and retrieval induced by scopolamine.

  18. High energy diets prevent the enhancing effects of emotional arousal on memory.

    PubMed

    Ross, Amy P; Darling, Jenna N; Parent, Marise B

    2013-10-01

    Over the past five decades, per capita caloric intake has increased by approximately 28% in the United States. Excessive intake of calories from fats and sugars (high energy diets; HEDs) negatively impacts hippocampal-dependent memory. These deleterious effects of HEDs on hippocampal function involve HED-induced decreases in neuronal growth factors, neurogenesis, and synaptic plasticity. Given that HEDs also alter responses to emotional arousal, the present experiment determined whether the effects of HEDs on memory depend on the emotional arousal produced by the memory task during encoding. Rats were fed a high fat/sugar cafeteria-style diet for 4 weeks and then tested in a low or high emotional arousal version of a spatial object place recognition task. The results demonstrated that the HED prevented the memory-enhancing effects of emotional arousal. Thus, altered responses to emotional arousal likely contribute to HED-induced memory impairments, particularly in stressful memory tasks such as the spatial water maze. 2013 APA, all rights reserved

  19. Aging promotes acquisition of naive-like CD8+ memory T cell traits and enhanced functionalities.

    PubMed

    Eberlein, Jens; Davenport, Bennett; Nguyen, Tom; Victorino, Francisco; Haist, Kelsey; Jhun, Kevin; Karimpour-Fard, Anis; Hunter, Lawrence; Kedl, Ross; Clambey, Eric T; Homann, Dirk

    2016-10-03

    Protective T cell memory is an acquired trait that is contingent upon the preservation of its constituents and therefore vulnerable to the potentially deleterious effects of organismal aging. Here, however, we have found that long-term T cell memory in a natural murine host-pathogen system can substantially improve over time. Comprehensive molecular, phenotypic, and functional profiling of aging antiviral CD8+ memory T cells (CD8+ TM) revealed a pervasive remodeling process that promotes the gradual acquisition of distinct molecular signatures, of increasingly homogeneous phenotypes, and of diversified functionalities that combine to confer a CD8+ TM-autonomous capacity for enhanced recall responses and immune protection. Notably, the process of CD8+ TM aging is characterized by a progressive harmonization of memory and naive T cell traits, is broadly amenable to experimental acceleration or retardation, and serves as a constitutional component for the "rebound model" of memory T cell maturation. By casting CD8+ TM populations within the temporal framework of their slowly evolving properties, this model establishes a simple ontogenetic perspective on the principal organization of CD8+ T cell memory that may directly inform the development of improved diagnostic, prophylactic, and therapeutic modalities.

  20. Getting more from visual working memory: Retro-cues enhance retrieval and protect from visual interference.

    PubMed

    Souza, Alessandra S; Rerko, Laura; Oberauer, Klaus

    2016-06-01

    Visual working memory (VWM) has a limited capacity. This limitation can be mitigated by the use of focused attention: if attention is drawn to the relevant working memory content before test, performance improves (the so-called retro-cue benefit). This study tests 2 explanations of the retro-cue benefit: (a) Focused attention protects memory representations from interference by visual input at test, and (b) focusing attention enhances retrieval. Across 6 experiments using color recognition and color reproduction tasks, we varied the amount of color interference at test, and the delay between a retrieval cue (i.e., the retro-cue) and the memory test. Retro-cue benefits were larger when the memory test introduced interfering visual stimuli, showing that the retro-cue effect is in part because of protection from visual interference. However, when visual interference was held constant, retro-cue benefits were still obtained whenever the retro-cue enabled retrieval of an object from VWM but delayed response selection. Our results show that accessible information in VWM might be lost in the processes of testing memory because of visual interference and incomplete retrieval. This is not an inevitable state of affairs, though: Focused attention can be used to get the most out of VWM. (PsycINFO Database Record

  1. Vortioxetine (Lu AA21004), a novel multimodal antidepressant, enhances memory in rats.

    PubMed

    Mørk, Arne; Montezinho, Liliana P; Miller, Silke; Trippodi-Murphy, Crista; Plath, Niels; Li, Yan; Gulinello, Maria; Sanchez, Connie

    2013-04-01

    The serotonergic system plays an important role in cognitive functions via various 5-HT receptors. Vortioxetine (Lu AA21004) in development as a novel multimodal antidepressant is a 5-HT3, 5-HT7 and 5-HT1D receptor antagonist, a 5-HT1B receptor partial agonist, a 5-HT1A receptor agonist and a 5-HT transporter (5-HTT) inhibitor in vitro. Preclinical studies suggest that 5-HT3 and 5-HT7 receptor antagonism as well as 5-HT1A receptor agonism may have a positive impact on cognitive functions including memory. Thus vortioxetine may potentially enhance memory. We investigated preclinical effects of vortioxetine (1-10mg/kg administered subcutaneously [s.c.]) on memory in behavioral tests, and on cortical neurotransmitter levels considered important in rat memory function. Contextual fear conditioning and novel object recognition tests were applied to assess memory in rats. Microdialysis studies were conducted to measure extracellular neurotransmitter levels in the rat medial prefrontal cortex. Vortioxetine administered 1h before or immediately after acquisition of contextual fear conditioning led to an increase in freezing time during the retention test. This mnemonic effect was not related to changes in pain sensitivity as measured in the hotplate test. Rats treated with vortioxetine 1h before training spent more time exploring the novel object in the novel object recognition test. In microdialysis studies of the rat medial prefrontal cortex, vortioxetine increased extracellular levels of acetylcholine and histamine. In conclusion, vortioxetine enhanced contextual and episodic memory in rat behavioral models. Further demonstration of its potential effect on memory functions in clinical settings is warranted. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Don't Break the Memory Line: Social Memory, Digital Storytelling and Local Communities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferri, Paolo; Mangiatordi, Andrea; Pozzali, Andrea

    In this paper we present and analyze some of the main results obtained by the empirical research carried out within the scope of the Socrates Grundtvig Project "Memory Line", that aimed at developing instruments and methodologies in order to help overcoming the intergenerational divide. The project aimed at training groups of elderly and young citizens, resident in the project partner countries, to collect records (stories, songs, poems, experiences, etc.) and to save them in a digital form, mainly by using the methodology of digital storytelling. Focus groups and interviews with people involved in the intergenerational ateliers have been carried out in order to gather a series of first hand evidences directly from the voices of people who were actively involved in the project, and to enable an ongoing monitoring and self evaluation of the project itself.

  3. 17β-estradiol enhances memory duration in the main olfactory bulb in CD-1 mice.

    PubMed

    Dillon, T Samuel; Fox, Laura C; Han, Crystal; Linster, Christiane

    2013-12-01

    Rodents rely heavily on odor detection, discrimination, and memory to locate food, find mates, care for pups, and avoid predators. Estrogens have been shown to increase memory retention in rodents performing spatial memory and object placement tasks. Here we evaluate the extent to which 17β-estradiol modulates memory formation and duration in the olfactory system. Adult CD-1 mice were gonadectomized and given either systemic 17β-estradiol replacement, local 17β-estradiol in the main olfactory bulb, or no replacement. Before performing the behavioral task the mice were given saline or PHTPP (an estrogen receptor β [ER-β] antagonist) via bilateral infusion into the main olfactory bulb. As the beta-type estrogen receptor (ER-β) is more abundant than the alpha-type estrogen receptor in the murine main olfactory bulb, the current study focuses on 17β-estradiol and its interactions with ERβ. Habituation, a simple, nonassociative learning task in which an animal is exposed to the same odor over successive presentations, was used to evaluate the animals' ability to detect odors and form an olfactory memory. To evaluate memory duration, we added a final trial of intertrial interval time (30 or 60 min) in which we presented the habituated odor. Neither surgical nor drug manipulation affected the ability of mice to detect or habituate to an odor. After habituation, gonadectomized 17β-estradiol-treated mice retained memory of an odor for 30 min, whereas non-estradiol-treated, 17β-estradiol+ERβ antagonist (PHTPP), and untreated male mice did not remember an odor 30 min after habituation. The results show that both systemic and local bulbar infusions of 17β-estradiol enhance odor memory duration in mice.

  4. Glucocorticoids enhance taste aversion memory via actions in the insular cortex and basolateral amygdala.

    PubMed

    Miranda, Maria Isabel; Quirarte, Gina L; Rodriguez-Garcia, Gabriela; McGaugh, James L; Roozendaal, Benno

    2008-07-01

    It is well established that glucocorticoid hormones strengthen the consolidation of hippocampus-dependent spatial and contextual memory. The present experiments investigated glucocorticoid effects on the long-term formation of conditioned taste aversion (CTA), an associative learning task that does not depend critically on hippocampal function. Corticosterone (1.0 or 3.0 mg/kg) administered subcutaneously to male Sprague-Dawley rats immediately after the pairing of saccharin consumption with the visceral malaise-inducing agent lithium chloride (LiCl) dose-dependently increased aversion to the saccharin taste on a 96-h retention test trial. In a second experiment, rats received corticosterone either immediately after saccharin consumption or after the LiCl injection, when both stimuli were separated by a 3-h time interval, to investigate whether corticosterone enhances memory of the gustatory or visceral stimulus presentation. Consistent with the finding that the LiCl injection, but not saccharin consumption, increases endogenous corticosterone levels, corticosterone selectively enhanced CTA memory when administered after the LiCl injection. Suppression of this training-induced release of corticosterone with the synthesis-inhibitor metyrapone (35 mg/kg) impaired CTA memory, and was dose-dependently reversed by post-training supplementation of corticosterone. Moreover, direct post-training infusions of corticosterone into the insular cortex or basolateral complex of the amygdala, two brain regions that are critically involved in the acquisition and consolidation of CTA, also enhanced CTA retention, whereas post-training infusions into the dorsal hippocampus were ineffective. These findings provide evidence that glucocorticoid effects on memory consolidation are not limited to hippocampus-dependent spatial/contextual information, but that these hormones also modulate memory consolidation of discrete-cue associative learning via actions in other brain regions.

  5. Gaming is related to enhanced working memory performance and task-related cortical activity.

    PubMed

    Moisala, M; Salmela, V; Hietajärvi, L; Carlson, S; Vuontela, V; Lonka, K; Hakkarainen, K; Salmela-Aro, K; Alho, K

    2017-01-15

    Gaming experience has been suggested to lead to performance enhancements in a wide variety of working memory tasks. Previous studies have, however, mostly focused on adult expert gamers and have not included measurements of both behavioral performance and brain activity. In the current study, 167 adolescents and young adults (aged 13-24 years) with different amounts of gaming experience performed an n-back working memory task with vowels, with the sensory modality of the vowel stream switching between audition and vision at random intervals. We studied the relationship between self-reported daily gaming activity, working memory (n-back) task performance and related brain activity measured using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). The results revealed that the extent of daily gaming activity was related to enhancements in both performance accuracy and speed during the most demanding (2-back) level of the working memory task. This improved working memory performance was accompanied by enhanced recruitment of a fronto-parietal cortical network, especially the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. In contrast, during the less demanding (1-back) level of the task, gaming was associated with decreased activity in the same cortical regions. Our results suggest that a greater degree of daily gaming experience is associated with better working memory functioning and task difficulty-dependent modulation in fronto-parietal brain activity already in adolescence and even when non-expert gamers are studied. The direction of causality within this association cannot be inferred with certainty due to the correlational nature of the current study.

  6. Relevance of donepezil in enhancing learning and memory in special populations: a review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Yoo, J Helen; Valdovinos, Maria G; Williams, Dean C

    2007-11-01

    This review discusses the laboratory and clinical research supporting the rationale for the efficacy of donepezil (Aricept USA) in enhancing cognition in autism, Alzheimer disease, Down syndrome, traumatic brain injury, Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), and schizophrenia. While preliminary animal models have shown effective, human studies exclusive of Alzheimer disease are sparse. Although attention and memory are unlikely a sole operation of the cholinergic system, evidence indicates a promising direction for further examination of this hypothesis in autism. Studies that examine changes in operationally defined behaviors and reliable and valid measure of changes in attention and memory are needed.

  7. Method for training honeybees to respond to olfactory stimuli and enhancement of memory retention therein

    DOEpatents

    McCade, Kirsten J.; Wingo, Robert M.; Haarmann, Timothy K.; Sutherland, Andrew; Gubler, Walter D.

    2015-12-15

    A specialized conditioning protocol for honeybees that is designed for use within a complex agricultural ecosystem. This method ensures that the conditioned bees will be less likely to exhibit a conditioned response to uninfected plants, a false positive response that would render such a biological sensor unreliable for agricultural decision support. Also described is a superboosting training regime that allows training without the aid of expensive equipment and protocols for training in out in the field. Also described is a memory enhancing cocktail that aids in long term memory retention of a vapor signature. This allows the bees to be used in the field for longer durations and with fewer bees trained overall.

  8. Memory Enhancement by Targeting Cdk5 Regulation of NR2B

    PubMed Central

    Plattner, Florian; Hernandéz, Adan; Kistler, Tara M.; Pozo, Karine; Zhong, Ping; Yuen, Eunice Y.; Tan, Chunfeng; Hawasli, Ammar H.; Cooke, Sam F.; Nishi, Akinori; Guo, Ailan; Wiederhold, Thorsten; Yan, Zhen; Bibb, James A.

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Many psychiatric and neurological disorders are characterized by learning and memory deficits, for which cognitive enhancement is considered a valid treatment strategy. The N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) is a prime target for the development of cognitive enhancers due to its fundamental role in learning and memory. In particular, the NMDAR subunit NR2B improves synaptic plasticity and memory when over-expressed in neurons. However, NR2B regulation is not well understood and no therapies potentiating NMDAR function have been developed. Here, we show that serine 1116 of NR2B is phosphorylated by cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (Cdk5). Cdk5-dependent NR2B phosphorylation is regulated by neuronal activity and controls the receptor’s cell surface expression. Disrupting NR2B-Cdk5 interaction using a small interfering peptide (siP) increases NR2B surface levels, facilitates synaptic transmission, and improves memory formation in vivo. Our results reveal a novel regulatory mechanism critical to NR2B function that can be targeted for the development of cognitive enhancers. PMID:24607229

  9. Memory-enhancing effect of Mori Fructus via induction of nerve growth factor.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyo Geun; Oh, Myung Sook

    2013-07-14

    Fruits rich in phytochemicals have been shown to improve memory by protecting or enhancing neuronal functions mediated by neurotrophic factors, such as nerve growth factor (NGF), in the hippocampus. Mori Fructus (Morus alba L., Moraceae), also called mulberry, is used as a food, dietary supplement and an anti-ageing agent in traditional Oriental medicine. It is also known to contain abundant flavonoid compounds and to exhibit various pharmacological effects. The present study was performed to evaluate the memory-enhancing effect of Mori Fructus extract (ME) in mice, with a focus on NGF regulation. ME (20, 100 and 500 mg/kg per d for 7 d, per os) dose-dependently promoted NGF release in the mouse hippocampus, leading to phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinases and cyclic AMP response element-binding protein. ME significantly increased pre- and post-synapse formation, acetylcholine synthesisation, neuronal cell differentiation, neurite outgrowth and neuronal cell proliferation in the mouse hippocampus. Furthermore, ME significantly increased latency time in the passive avoidance task (P< 0·001) and recognition time of novel objects in the object recognition test (P< 0·05), indicating improvements in learning and memory. Taken together, these data suggest that ME exhibits a memory-enhancing effect via up-regulation of NGF.

  10. Gonadal Hormones Rapidly Enhance Spatial Memory and Increase Hippocampal Spine Density in Male Rats

    PubMed Central

    Jacome, Luis F.; Barateli, Ketti; Buitrago, Dina; Lema, Franklin; Frankfurt, Maya

    2016-01-01

    17β-estradiol (E2) rapidly, within minutes, activates behaviors and cognition by binding to membrane estrogen receptors, activating cell signaling cascades and increasing dendritic spines. In female rodents, E2 enhances spatial memory within 2–4 hours, and spine density is increased in the CA1 area of the hippocampus within 30–60 minutes. Although chronic gonadal hormone treatments in male rats alter cognition and spines/spine synapses and acute hormone effects occur in hippocampal slices, effects of acute, in vivo hormone administration in males are unknown. Therefore, we assessed rapid effects of E2 (20 μg/kg) and testosterone (T) (750 μg/kg) on spatial memory using the object placement task and on hippocampal spine density using Golgi impregnation. Orchidectomized rats received hormones immediately after the training trial and were tested for retention 2 hours later. Vehicle-injected orchidectomized males spent equal time exploring objects in the old and new locations, but E2- or T-treated subjects spent more time exploring objects at the new location, suggesting enhanced memory. Both hormones also increased spine density in CA1, but not the dentate gyrus, by 20%–40% at 30 minutes and 2 hours after injections. This report is the first, to our knowledge, to show E2 and T enhancements of memory and spine density within such a short time frame in male rats. PMID:26844375

  11. Association between polymorphisms in NOS3 and KCNH2 and social memory

    PubMed Central

    Henningsson, Susanne; Zettergren, Anna; Hovey, Daniel; Jonsson, Lina; Svärd, Joakim; Cortes, Diana S.; Melke, Jonas; Ebner, Natalie C.; Laukka, Petri; Fischer, Håkan; Westberg, Lars

    2015-01-01

    Social memory, including the ability to recognize faces and voices, is essential for social relationships. It has a large heritable component, but the knowledge about the contributing genes is sparse. The genetic variation underlying inter-individual differences in social memory was investigated in an exploratory sample (n = 55), genotyped with a chip comprising approximately 200,000 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), and in a validation sample (n = 582), where 30 SNPs were targeted. In the exploratory study face identity recognition was measured. The validation study also measured vocal sound recognition, as well as recognition of faces and vocal sounds combined (multimodal condition). In the exploratory study, the 30 SNPs that were associated with face recognition at puncorrected < 0.001 and located in genes, were chosen for further study. In the validation study two of these SNPs showed significant associations with recognition of faces, vocal sounds, and multimodal stimuli: rs1800779 in the gene encoding nitric oxide synthase 3 (NOS3) and rs3807370 in the gene encoding the voltage-gated channel, subfamily H, member 2 (KCNH2), in strong linkage disequilibrium with each other. The uncommon alleles were associated with superior performance, and the effects were present for men only (p < 0.0002). The exploratory study also showed a weaker but significant association with (non-emotional) word recognition, an effect that was independent of the effect on face recognition. This study demonstrates evidence for an association between NOS3 and KCNH2 SNPs and social memory. PMID:26539080

  12. Association between polymorphisms in NOS3 and KCNH2 and social memory.

    PubMed

    Henningsson, Susanne; Zettergren, Anna; Hovey, Daniel; Jonsson, Lina; Svärd, Joakim; Cortes, Diana S; Melke, Jonas; Ebner, Natalie C; Laukka, Petri; Fischer, Håkan; Westberg, Lars

    2015-01-01

    Social memory, including the ability to recognize faces and voices, is essential for social relationships. It has a large heritable component, but the knowledge about the contributing genes is sparse. The genetic variation underlying inter-individual differences in social memory was investigated in an exploratory sample (n = 55), genotyped with a chip comprising approximately 200,000 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), and in a validation sample (n = 582), where 30 SNPs were targeted. In the exploratory study face identity recognition was measured. The validation study also measured vocal sound recognition, as well as recognition of faces and vocal sounds combined (multimodal condition). In the exploratory study, the 30 SNPs that were associated with face recognition at p uncorrected < 0.001 and located in genes, were chosen for further study. In the validation study two of these SNPs showed significant associations with recognition of faces, vocal sounds, and multimodal stimuli: rs1800779 in the gene encoding nitric oxide synthase 3 (NOS3) and rs3807370 in the gene encoding the voltage-gated channel, subfamily H, member 2 (KCNH2), in strong linkage disequilibrium with each other. The uncommon alleles were associated with superior performance, and the effects were present for men only (p < 0.0002). The exploratory study also showed a weaker but significant association with (non-emotional) word recognition, an effect that was independent of the effect on face recognition. This study demonstrates evidence for an association between NOS3 and KCNH2 SNPs and social memory.

  13. A Familiar Pattern? Semantic Memory Contributes to the Enhancement of Visuo-Spatial Memories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riby, Leigh M.; Orme, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    In this study we quantify for the first time electrophysiological components associated with incorporating long-term semantic knowledge with visuo-spatial information using two variants of a traditional matrix patterns task. Results indicated that the matrix task with greater semantic content was associated with enhanced accuracy and RTs in a…

  14. A Familiar Pattern? Semantic Memory Contributes to the Enhancement of Visuo-Spatial Memories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riby, Leigh M.; Orme, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    In this study we quantify for the first time electrophysiological components associated with incorporating long-term semantic knowledge with visuo-spatial information using two variants of a traditional matrix patterns task. Results indicated that the matrix task with greater semantic content was associated with enhanced accuracy and RTs in a…

  15. Transcranial direct current stimulation enhances verbal working memory training performance over time and near transfer outcomes.

    PubMed

    Richmond, Lauren L; Wolk, David; Chein, Jason; Olson, Ingrid R

    2014-11-01

    Studies attempting to increase working memory (WM) capacity show promise in enhancing rel