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Sample records for enhanced social memory

  1. Social relevance enhances memory for impressions in older adults.

    PubMed

    Cassidy, Brittany S; Gutchess, Angela H

    2012-01-01

    Previous research has demonstrated that older adults have difficulty retrieving contextual material over items alone. Recent research suggests this deficit can be reduced by adding emotional context, allowing for the possibility that memory for social impressions may show less age-related decline than memory for other types of contextual information. Two studies investigated how orienting to social or self-relevant aspects of information contributed to the learning and retrieval of impressions in young and older adults. Participants encoded impressions of others in conditions varying in the use of self-reference (Experiment 1) and interpersonal meaningfulness (Experiment 2), and completed memory tasks requiring the retrieval of specific traits. For both experiments, age groups remembered similar numbers of impressions. In Experiment 1 using more self-relevant encoding contexts increased memory for impressions over orienting to stimuli in a non-social way, regardless of age. In Experiment 2 older adults had enhanced memory for impressions presented in an interpersonally meaningful relative to a personally irrelevant way, whereas young adults were unaffected by this manipulation. The results provide evidence that increasing social relevance ameliorates age differences in memory for impressions, and enhances older adults' ability to successfully retrieve contextual information.

  2. Targeted activation of the hippocampal CA2 area strongly enhances social memory

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Adam S.; Williams Avram, Sarah K.; Cymerblit-Sabba, Adi; Song, June; Young, W. Scott

    2015-01-01

    Social cognition enables individuals to understand others’ intentions. Social memory is a necessary component of this process, for without it, subsequent encounters are devoid of any historical information. The CA2 area of the hippocampus, particularly the vasopressin 1b receptor (Avpr1b) expressed there, is necessary for memory formation. We used optogenetics to excite vasopressin terminals, originating from the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus, in the CA2 of mice. This markedly enhanced their social memory if the stimulation occurred during memory acquisition, but not retrieval. This effect was blocked by a Avpr1b antagonist. Finally, this enhanced memory is resistant to the social distraction of an introduced second mouse, important for socially navigating populations of individuals. Our results indicate the CA2 can increase the salience of social signals. Targeted pharmacotherapy with Avpr1b agonists or deep brain stimulation of the CA2 are potential avenues of treatment for those with declining social memory as in various dementias. PMID:26728562

  3. Influenza Virus-Specific Immunological Memory Is Enhanced by Repeated Social Defeat

    PubMed Central

    Mays, Jacqueline W.; Bailey, Michael T.; Hunzeker, John T.; Powell, Nicole D.; Papenfuss, Tracey; Karlsson, Erik A; Padgett, David A.; Sheridan, John F.

    2011-01-01

    Immunological memory (MEM) development is affected by stress-induced neuroendocrine mediators. Current knowledge about how a behavioral interaction, such as social defeat, alters the development of adaptive immunity, and MEM is incomplete. In this study, the experience of social disruption stress (SDR) prior to a primary influenza viral infection enhanced the frequency and function of the T cell memory pool. Socially stressed mice had a significantly enlarged population of CD8+ T cells specific for the immunodominant NP366–74 epitope of A/PR/8/34 virus in lung and spleen tissues at 6–12 wk after primary infection (resting memory). Moreover, during resting memory, SDR-MEM mice responded with an enhanced footpad delayed-type hypersensitivity response, and more IFN-γ–producing CD4+ T cells were detected after ex vivo stimulation. When mice were rechallenged with A/PR/8/34 virus, SDR-MEM mice terminated viral gene expression significantly earlier than MEM mice and generated a greater DbNP366–74CD8+ T cell response in the lung parenchyma and airways. This enhancement was specific to the T cell response. SDR-MEM mice had significantly attenuated anti-influenza IgG titers during resting memory. Similar experiments in which mice were primed with X-31 influenza and challenged with A/PR/8/34 virus elicited similar enhancements in the splenic and lung airway Db NP366–74CD8+ T cell populations in SDR-MEM mice. This study demonstrates that the experience of repeated social defeat prior to a primary viral infection significantly enhances virus-specific memory via augmentation of memory T cell populations and suggests that social stressors should be carefully considered in the design and analysis of future studies on antiviral immunity. PMID:20083672

  4. Importance of the GluN2B Carboxy-Terminal Domain for Enhancement of Social Memories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobs, Stephanie; Wei, Wei; Wang, Deheng; Tsien, Joe Z.

    2015-01-01

    The N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor is known to be necessary for many forms of learning and memory, including social recognition memory. Additionally, the GluN2 subunits are known to modulate multiple forms of memory, with a high GluN2A:GluN2B ratio leading to impairments in long-term memory, while a low GluN2A:GluN2B ratio enhances some…

  5. Importance of the GluN2B carboxy-terminal domain for enhancement of social memories

    PubMed Central

    Jacobs, Stephanie; Wei, Wei; Wang, Deheng

    2015-01-01

    The N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor is known to be necessary for many forms of learning and memory, including social recognition memory. Additionally, the GluN2 subunits are known to modulate multiple forms of memory, with a high GluN2A:GluN2B ratio leading to impairments in long-term memory, while a low GluN2A:GluN2B ratio enhances some forms of long-term memory. Here, we investigate the molecular motif responsible for the differences in social recognition memory and olfactory memory in the forebrain-specific transgenic GluN2A overexpression mice and the forebrain-specific transgenic GluN2B overexpression mice by using two transgenic mouse lines that overexpress chimeric GluN2 subunits. The transgenic chimeric GluN2 subunit mice were tested for their ability to learn and remember fruit scents, male juveniles of the same strain, females of the same strain, male juveniles of another strain, and rodents of another species. The data presented here demonstrate that the GluN2B carboxy-terminal domain is necessary for enhanced social recognition memory in GluN2B transgenic overexpression mice. Furthermore, the GluN2A carboxy-terminal domain is responsible for the impaired long-term olfactory and social memory observed in the GluN2A overexpression mice. PMID:26179233

  6. Modulation of glycine sites enhances social memory in rats using PQQ combined with d-serine.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xingqin; Liu, Dong; Zhang, Rongjun; Peng, Ying; Qin, Xiaofeng; Mao, Shishi

    2016-07-15

    The aim of study was to investigate the effects of pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ) combined with d-serine on the modulation of glycine sites in the brain of rats using social recognition test. Rats were divided into seven groups (n=10) and given repeated intraperitoneal (ip) injections of saline, MK-801 (0.5mg/kg), clozapine (1mg/kg), haloperidol (0.1mg/kg), d-serine (0.8g/kg), PQQ (2.0μg/kg), or d-serine (0.4g/kg) combined with PQQ (1.0μg/kg) for seven days. A social recognition test, including assessment of time-dependent memory impairment, was performed. A non-competitive NMDA receptor antagonist, MK-801, significantly impaired social memory, and this impairment was significantly repaired with an atypical antipsychotic (clozapine) but not with a typical antipsychotic (haloperidol). Likewise, d-serine combined with PQQ significantly improved MK-801-disrupted cognition in naïve rats, whereas haloperidol was ineffective. The present results show that the co-agonist NMDA receptor treated with PQQ and d-serine enhances social memory and may be an effective approach for treating the cognitive dysfunction observed in schizophrenic patients. PQQ stimulates glycine modulatory sites by which it may antagonize indirectly by removing glycine from the synaptic cleft or by binding the unsaturated site with d-serine in the brain, providing the insights into future research of central nervous system and drug discovery.

  7. Enhanced Old-New Recognition and Source Memory for Faces of Cooperators and Defectors in a Social-Dilemma Game

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Raoul; Buchner, Axel; Musch, Jochen

    2010-01-01

    A popular assumption in evolutionary psychology is that the human mind comprises specialized cognitive modules for social exchange, including a module that serves to enhance memory for faces of cheaters. In the present study, participants played a trust game with computerized opponents, who either defected or cooperated. In a control condition, no…

  8. Enhanced old-new recognition and source memory for faces of cooperators and defectors in a social-dilemma game.

    PubMed

    Bell, Raoul; Buchner, Axel; Musch, Jochen

    2010-12-01

    A popular assumption in evolutionary psychology is that the human mind comprises specialized cognitive modules for social exchange, including a module that serves to enhance memory for faces of cheaters. In the present study, participants played a trust game with computerized opponents, who either defected or cooperated. In a control condition, no interaction took place. In a surprise memory test, old-new recognition for faces and source memory for the associated cooperative or non-cooperative behavior were assessed. A multinomial model was used to measure old-new discrimination, source memory, and guessing biases separately. Inconsistent with the assumption of a memory mechanism that focuses exclusively on cheating, the present study showed enhanced old-new discrimination and source memory for both cooperators and defectors. Rarity of the behavior strategies within the experiment modulated source memory, but only when the differences in base rates were extreme. The findings can be attributed to a mechanism that focuses on exchange-relevant information and flexibly adapts to take into account the relative significance of this information in the encoding context, which may be more beneficial than focusing exclusively on cheaters.

  9. Mechanisms of memory enhancement.

    PubMed

    Stern, Sarah A; Alberini, Cristina M

    2013-01-01

    The ongoing quest for memory enhancement is one that grows necessary as the global population increasingly ages. The extraordinary progress that has been made in the past few decades elucidating the underlying mechanisms of how long-term memories are formed has provided insight into how memories might also be enhanced. Capitalizing on this knowledge, it has been postulated that targeting many of the same mechanisms, including CREB activation, AMPA/NMDA receptor trafficking, neuromodulation (e.g., via dopamine, adrenaline, cortisol, or acetylcholine) and metabolic processes (e.g., via glucose and insulin) may all lead to the enhancement of memory. These and other mechanisms and/or approaches have been tested via genetic or pharmacological methods in animal models, and several have been investigated in humans as well. In addition, a number of behavioral methods, including exercise and reconsolidation, may also serve to strengthen and enhance memories. By utilizing this information and continuing to investigate these promising avenues, memory enhancement may indeed be achieved in the future.

  10. The neural transfer effect of working memory training to enhance hedonic processing in individuals with social anhedonia

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xu; Li, Zhi; Li, Ke; Zeng, Ya-wei; Shi, Hai-song; Xie, Wen-lan; Yang, Zhuo-ya; Lui, Simon S. Y.; Cheung, Eric F. C.; Leung, Ada W. S.; Chan, Raymond C. K.

    2016-01-01

    Anhedonia, the diminished ability to experience pleasure, is a challenging negative symptom in patients with schizophrenia and can be observed in at-risk individuals with schizotypy. Deficits in hedonic processing have been postulated to be related to decreased motivation to engage in potentially rewarding events. It remains unclear whether non-pharmacological interventions, such as cognitive training, could improve anhedonia. The present study aimed to examine the neural mechanism for alleviating hedonic deficits with working memory (WM) training in individuals with social anhedonia. Fifteen individuals with social anhedonia were recruited and received 20 sessions of training on a dual n-back task, five sessions a week. Functional imaging paradigms of the Monetary Incentive Delay (MID) and the Affective Incentive Delay (AID) tasks were administered both before and after the training to evaluate the neural transfer effects on hedonic processing ability. Enhanced brain activations related to anticipation were observed at the anterior cingulate cortex, the left dorsal striatum and the left precuneus with the AID task, and at the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and the supramarginal gyrus with the MID task. The present findings support that WM training may improve monetary-based and affective-based hedonic processing in individuals with social anhedonia. PMID:27752140

  11. Sleep Enhances Explicit Recollection in Recognition Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drosopoulos, Spyridon; Wagner, Ullrich; Born, Jan

    2005-01-01

    Recognition memory is considered to be supported by two different memory processes, i.e., the explicit recollection of information about a previous event and an implicit process of recognition based on a contextual sense of familiarity. Both types of memory supposedly rely on distinct memory systems. Sleep is known to enhance the consolidation of…

  12. Autobiographical memory bias in social anxiety.

    PubMed

    Krans, Julie; de Bree, June; Bryant, Richard A

    2014-01-01

    In social anxiety the psychological self is closely related to the feared stimulus. Socially anxious individuals are, by definition, concerned about how the self is perceived and evaluated by others. As autobiographical memory is strongly related to views of the self it follows that biases in autobiographical memory play an important role in social anxiety. In the present study high (n = 19) and low (n = 29) socially anxious individuals were compared on autobiographical memory bias, current goals, and self-discrepancy. Individuals high in social anxiety showed a bias towards recalling more negative and more social anxiety-related autobiographical memories, reported more current goals related to overcoming social anxiety, and showed larger self-discrepancies. The pattern of results is largely in line with earlier research in individuals with PTSD and complicated grief. This suggests that the relation between autobiographical memory bias and the self is a potentially valuable trans-diagnostic factor.

  13. Distributed learning enhances relational memory consolidation.

    PubMed

    Litman, Leib; Davachi, Lila

    2008-09-01

    It has long been known that distributed learning (DL) provides a mnemonic advantage over massed learning (ML). However, the underlying mechanisms that drive this robust mnemonic effect remain largely unknown. In two experiments, we show that DL across a 24 hr interval does not enhance immediate memory performance but instead slows the rate of forgetting relative to ML. Furthermore, we demonstrate that this savings in forgetting is specific to relational, but not item, memory. In the context of extant theories and knowledge of memory consolidation, these results suggest that an important mechanism underlying the mnemonic benefit of DL is enhanced memory consolidation. We speculate that synaptic strengthening mechanisms supporting long-term memory consolidation may be differentially mediated by the spacing of memory reactivation. These findings have broad implications for the scientific study of episodic memory consolidation and, more generally, for educational curriculum development and policy.

  14. Anomalous diffusion induced by enhancement of memory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Hyun-Joo

    2014-07-01

    We introduced simple microscopic non-Markovian walk models which describe the underlying mechanism of anomalous diffusions. In the models, we considered the competitions between randomness and memory effects of previous history by introducing the probability parameters. The memory effects were considered in two aspects: one is the perfect memory of whole history and the other is the latest memory enhanced with time. In the perfect memory model superdiffusion was induced with the relation of the Hurst exponent H to the controlling parameter p as H =p for p >1/2, while in the latest memory enhancement models, anomalous diffusions involving both superdiffusion and subdiffusion were induced with the relations H =(1+α)/2 and H =(1-α)/2 for 0≤α≤1, where α is the parameter controlling the degree of the latest memory enhancement. Also we found that, although the latest memory was only considered, the memory improved with time results in the long-range correlations between steps and the correlations increase as time goes on. Thus we suggest the memory enhancement as a key origin describing anomalous diffusions.

  15. Anomalous diffusion induced by enhancement of memory.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyun-Joo

    2014-07-01

    We introduced simple microscopic non-Markovian walk models which describe the underlying mechanism of anomalous diffusions. In the models, we considered the competitions between randomness and memory effects of previous history by introducing the probability parameters. The memory effects were considered in two aspects: one is the perfect memory of whole history and the other is the latest memory enhanced with time. In the perfect memory model superdiffusion was induced with the relation of the Hurst exponent H to the controlling parameter p as H = p for p>1/2, while in the latest memory enhancement models, anomalous diffusions involving both superdiffusion and subdiffusion were induced with the relations H = (1+α)/2 and H = (1-α)/2 for 0 ≤ α ≤ 1, where α is the parameter controlling the degree of the latest memory enhancement. Also we found that, although the latest memory was only considered, the memory improved with time results in the long-range correlations between steps and the correlations increase as time goes on. Thus we suggest the memory enhancement as a key origin describing anomalous diffusions.

  16. Social facilitation of long-lasting memory retrieval in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Chabaud, Marie-Ange; Isabel, Guillaume; Kaiser, Laure; Preat, Thomas

    2009-10-13

    Recent studies demonstrate that social interactions can have a profound influence on Drosophila melanogaster behavior and cuticular pheromone patterns. Olfactory memory performance has mostly been investigated in groups, and previous studies have reported that grouped flies do not interact with each other and behave in the same way as individual flies during short-term memory retrieval. However, the influence of social effects on the two known forms of Drosophila long-lasting associative memory, anesthesia-resistant memory (ARM) and long-term memory (LTM), has never been reported. We show here that ARM is displayed by individual flies but is socially facilitated; flies trained for ARM interact within a group to improve their conditioned performance. In contrast, testing shows LTM improvement in individual flies rather than in a group. We show that the social facilitation of ARM during group testing is independent of the social context of training and does not involve nonspecific aggregation. Furthermore, we demonstrate that social interactions facilitate ARM retrieval. We also show that social interactions necessary for this facilitation are specifically generated by trained flies: when single flies trained for ARM are mixed with groups of naive flies, they display poor retrieval, whereas mixing with groups trained either for ARM or LTM enhances performance. PMID:19781943

  17. Working Memory Load Attenuates Emotional Enhancement in Recognition Memory

    PubMed Central

    Miendlarzewska, Ewa A.; van Elswijk, Gijs; Cannistraci, Carlo V.; van Ee, Raymond

    2013-01-01

    Emotionally arousing stimuli are perceived and remembered better than neutral stimuli. Under threat, this negativity bias is further increased. We investigated whether working memory (WM) load can attenuate incidental memory for emotional images. Two groups of participants performed the N-back task with two WM load levels. In one group, we induced anxiety using a threat of shock paradigm to increase attentional processing of negative information. During task performance we incidentally and briefly flashed emotional distracter images which prolonged response times in both load conditions. A subsequent unannounced immediate recognition memory test revealed that when load at exposure had been low, recognition was better for negative items in both participant groups. This enhancement, however, was attenuated under high load, leaving performance on neutral items unchanged regardless of the threat of shock manipulation. We conclude that both in threat and in normal states WM load at exposure can attenuate immediate emotional memory enhancement. PMID:23515565

  18. The lasting memory enhancements of retrospective attention.

    PubMed

    Reaves, Sarah; Strunk, Jonathan; Phillips, Shekinah; Verhaeghen, Paul; Duarte, Audrey

    2016-07-01

    Behavioral research has shown that spatial cues that orient attention toward task relevant items being maintained in visual short-term memory (VSTM) enhance item memory accuracy. However, it is unknown if these retrospective attentional cues ("retro-cues") enhance memory beyond typical short-term memory delays. It is also unknown whether retro-cues affect the spatial information associated with VSTM representations. Emerging evidence suggests that processes that affect short-term memory maintenance may also affect long-term memory (LTM) but little work has investigated the role of attention in LTM. In the current event-related potential (ERP) study, we investigated the duration of retrospective attention effects and the impact of retrospective attention manipulations on VSTM representations. Results revealed that retro-cueing improved both VSTM and LTM memory accuracy and that posterior maximal ERPs observed during VSTM maintenance predicted subsequent LTM performance. N2pc ERPs associated with attentional selection were attenuated by retro-cueing suggesting that retrospective attention may disrupt maintenance of spatial configural information in VSTM. Collectively, these findings suggest that retrospective attention can alter the structure of memory representations, which impacts memory performance beyond short-term memory delays. PMID:27038756

  19. Accounting for Immediate Emotional Memory Enhancement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Talmi, Deborah; McGarry, Lucy M.

    2012-01-01

    Memory for emotional events is usually very good even when tested shortly after study, before it is altered by the influence of emotional arousal on consolidation. Immediate emotion-enhanced memory may stem from the influence of emotion on cognitive processes at encoding and retrieval. Our goal was to test which cognitive factors are necessary and…

  20. Genetic differences in emotionally enhanced memory.

    PubMed

    Todd, Rebecca M; Palombo, Daniela J; Levine, Brian; Anderson, Adam K

    2011-03-01

    Understanding genetic contributions to individual differences in the capacity for emotional memory has tremendous implications for understanding normal human memory as well as pathological reactions to traumatic stress. Research in the last decade has identified genetic polymorphisms thought to influence cognitive/affective processes that may contribute to emotional memory capacity. In this paper, we review key polymorphisms linked to emotional and mnemonic processing and their influence on neuromodulator activity in the amygdala and other emotion-related structures. We discuss their potential roles in specific cognitive processes involved in memory formation, and review links between these genetic variants, brain activation, and specific patterns of attention, perception, and memory consolidation that may be linked to individual differences in memory vividness. Finally we propose a model predicting an influence of noradrenergic, serotonergic, and dopaminergic processes on emotional perception, as well as on memory consolidation and self-regulation. Outside of the laboratory, it is likely that real-life effects of arousal operate along a continuum that incorporates other "non-emotional" aspects of memory. For this reason we further discuss additional literature on genetic variations that influence general episodic memory processes, rather than being specific to emotional enhancement of memory. We conclude that specific neuromodulators contribute to an amygdala-driven memory system that is relatively involuntary, embodied, and sensorily vivid. PMID:21094178

  1. Does Stress Enhance or Impair Memory Consolidation?

    PubMed Central

    Trammell, Janet P.; Clore, Gerald L.

    2014-01-01

    Three experiments examined the hypothesis that stress-induced arousal enhances long term memory for experiences associated with an arousing events. Contrary to expectations, in each experiment exposure to a stressor (arm immersion in ice water) interfered with, rather than enhanced, long term memory for associated material. Despite varying the stimuli (words, pictures), their emotional value (positive, negative, neutral), the time between learning and stress inductions (0 to 1 minute), and opportunities for post-learning rehearsal, each experiment produced a significant reversal of the hypothesized effect. That is, in each experiment, exposure to a stressor interfered with, rather than enhanced, long term memory for associated material. We conclude that the relationship between stress and memory consolidation is more bounded than previously believed. PMID:23895111

  2. Arousal-Enhanced Location Memory for Pictures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mather, Mara; Nesmith, Kathryn

    2008-01-01

    Four experiments revealed arousal-enhanced location memory for pictures. After an incidental encoding task, participants were more likely to remember the locations of positive and negative arousing pictures than the locations of non-arousing pictures, indicating better binding of location to picture. This arousal-enhanced binding effect did not…

  3. Dynamics of social contagions with memory of nonredundant information.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei; Tang, Ming; Zhang, Hai-Feng; Lai, Ying-Cheng

    2015-07-01

    A key ingredient in social contagion dynamics is reinforcement, as adopting a certain social behavior requires verification of its credibility and legitimacy. Memory of nonredundant information plays an important role in reinforcement, which so far has eluded theoretical analysis. We first propose a general social contagion model with reinforcement derived from nonredundant information memory. Then, we develop a unified edge-based compartmental theory to analyze this model, and a remarkable agreement with numerics is obtained on some specific models. We use a spreading threshold model as a specific example to understand the memory effect, in which each individual adopts a social behavior only when the cumulative pieces of information that the individual received from his or her neighbors exceeds an adoption threshold. Through analysis and numerical simulations, we find that the memory characteristic markedly affects the dynamics as quantified by the final adoption size. Strikingly, we uncover a transition phenomenon in which the dependence of the final adoption size on some key parameters, such as the transmission probability, can change from being discontinuous to being continuous. The transition can be triggered by proper parameters and structural perturbations to the system, such as decreasing individuals' adoption threshold, increasing initial seed size, or enhancing the network heterogeneity. PMID:26274238

  4. Dynamics of social contagions with memory of nonredundant information.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei; Tang, Ming; Zhang, Hai-Feng; Lai, Ying-Cheng

    2015-07-01

    A key ingredient in social contagion dynamics is reinforcement, as adopting a certain social behavior requires verification of its credibility and legitimacy. Memory of nonredundant information plays an important role in reinforcement, which so far has eluded theoretical analysis. We first propose a general social contagion model with reinforcement derived from nonredundant information memory. Then, we develop a unified edge-based compartmental theory to analyze this model, and a remarkable agreement with numerics is obtained on some specific models. We use a spreading threshold model as a specific example to understand the memory effect, in which each individual adopts a social behavior only when the cumulative pieces of information that the individual received from his or her neighbors exceeds an adoption threshold. Through analysis and numerical simulations, we find that the memory characteristic markedly affects the dynamics as quantified by the final adoption size. Strikingly, we uncover a transition phenomenon in which the dependence of the final adoption size on some key parameters, such as the transmission probability, can change from being discontinuous to being continuous. The transition can be triggered by proper parameters and structural perturbations to the system, such as decreasing individuals' adoption threshold, increasing initial seed size, or enhancing the network heterogeneity.

  5. Dynamics of social contagions with memory of nonredundant information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Wei; Tang, Ming; Zhang, Hai-Feng; Lai, Ying-Cheng

    2015-07-01

    A key ingredient in social contagion dynamics is reinforcement, as adopting a certain social behavior requires verification of its credibility and legitimacy. Memory of nonredundant information plays an important role in reinforcement, which so far has eluded theoretical analysis. We first propose a general social contagion model with reinforcement derived from nonredundant information memory. Then, we develop a unified edge-based compartmental theory to analyze this model, and a remarkable agreement with numerics is obtained on some specific models. We use a spreading threshold model as a specific example to understand the memory effect, in which each individual adopts a social behavior only when the cumulative pieces of information that the individual received from his or her neighbors exceeds an adoption threshold. Through analysis and numerical simulations, we find that the memory characteristic markedly affects the dynamics as quantified by the final adoption size. Strikingly, we uncover a transition phenomenon in which the dependence of the final adoption size on some key parameters, such as the transmission probability, can change from being discontinuous to being continuous. The transition can be triggered by proper parameters and structural perturbations to the system, such as decreasing individuals' adoption threshold, increasing initial seed size, or enhancing the network heterogeneity.

  6. Stress Amplifies Memory for Social Hierarchy

    PubMed Central

    Cordero, María Isabel; Sandi, Carmen

    2007-01-01

    Individuals differ in their social status and societies in the extent of social status differences among their members. There is great interest in understanding the key factors that contribute to the establishment of social dominance structures. Given that stress can affect behavior and cognition, we hypothesized that, given equal opportunities to become either dominant or submissive, stress experienced by one of the individuals during their first encounter would determine the long-term establishment of a social hierarchy by acting as a two-stage rocket: (1) by influencing the rank achieved after a social encounter and (2) by facilitating and/or promoting a long-term memory for the specific hierarchy. Using a novel model for the assessment of long-term dominance hierarchies in rats, we present here the first evidence supporting such hypothesis. In control conditions, the social rank established through a first interaction and food competition test between two male rats is not maintained when animals are confronted 1 week later. However, if one of the rats is stressed just before their first encounter, the dominance hierarchy developed on day 1 is still clearly observed 1 week later, with the stressed animal becoming submissive (i.e., looser in competition tests) in both social interactions. Our findings also allow us to propose that stress potentiates a hierarchy-linked recognition memory between “specific” individuals through mechanisms that involve de novo protein synthesis. These results implicate stress among the key mechanisms contributing to create social imbalance and highlight memory mechanisms as key mediators of stress-induced long-term establishment of social rank. PMID:18982127

  7. Distributed Learning Enhances Relational Memory Consolidation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Litman, Leib; Davachi, Lila

    2008-01-01

    It has long been known that distributed learning (DL) provides a mnemonic advantage over massed learning (ML). However, the underlying mechanisms that drive this robust mnemonic effect remain largely unknown. In two experiments, we show that DL across a 24 hr interval does not enhance immediate memory performance but instead slows the rate of…

  8. Strategies To Enhance Memory Based on Brain-Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banikowski, Alison K.; Mehring, Teresa A.

    1999-01-01

    This article reviews the literature on three aspects of memory: (1) an information processing model of memory (including the sensory register, attention, short-term memory, and long-term memory); (2) instructional strategies designed to enhance memory (which stress gaining students' attention and active involvement); and (3) reasons why…

  9. Sleep enhances memory consolidation in children.

    PubMed

    Ashworth, Anna; Hill, Catherine M; Karmiloff-Smith, Annette; Dimitriou, Dagmara

    2014-06-01

    Sleep is an active state that plays an important role in the consolidation of memory. It has been found to enhance explicit memories in both adults and children. However, in contrast to adults, children do not always show a sleep-related improvement in implicit learning. The majority of research on sleep-dependent memory consolidation focuses on adults; hence, the current study examined sleep-related effects on two tasks in children. Thirty-three typically developing children aged 6-12 years took part in the study. Actigraphy was used to monitor sleep. Sleep-dependent memory consolidation was assessed using a novel non-word learning task and the Tower of Hanoi cognitive puzzle, which involves discovering an underlying rule to aid completion. Children were trained on the two tasks and retested following approximately equal retention intervals of both wake and sleep. After sleep, children showed significant improvements in performance of 14% on the non-word learning task and 25% on the Tower of Hanoi task, but no significant change in score following the wake retention interval. Improved performance on the Tower of Hanoi may have been due to children consolidating explicit aspects of the task, for example rule-learning or memory of previous sequences; thus, we propose that sleep is necessary for consolidation of explicit memory in children. Sleep quality and duration were not related to children's task performance. If such experimental sleep-related learning enhancement is generalizable to everyday life, then it is clear that sleep plays a vital role in children's educational attainment. PMID:24329882

  10. Higher social intelligence can impair source memory.

    PubMed

    Barber, Sarah J; Franklin, Nancy; Naka, Makiko; Yoshimura, Hiroki

    2010-03-01

    Source monitoring is made difficult when the similarity between candidate sources increases. The current work examines how individual differences in social intelligence and perspective-taking abilities serve to increase source similarity and thus negatively impact source memory. Strangers first engaged in a cooperative storytelling task. On each trial, a single word was shown to both participants, but only 1 participant was designated to add a story sentence, using this assigned word. As predicted, social intelligence negatively predicted performance in a subsequent source-monitoring task. In a 2nd study, preventing participants from being able to anticipate their partner's next contribution to the story eliminated the effect. PMID:20192549

  11. Methylphenidate enhances acquisition and retention of spatial memory.

    PubMed

    Carmack, Stephanie A; Block, Carina L; Howell, Kristin K; Anagnostaras, Stephan G

    2014-05-01

    Psychostimulants containing methylphenidate (MPH) are increasingly being used both on and off-label to enhance learning and memory. Still, almost no studies have investigated MPH's ability to specifically improve spatial or long-term memory. Here we examined the effect of training with 1 or 10mg/kg MPH on hidden platform learning in the Morris water maze. 10mg/kg MPH improved memory acquisition and retention, while 1mg/kg MPH improved memory retention. Taken together with prior evidence that low, clinically relevant, doses of MPH (0.01-1mg/kg MPH) enhance fear memory we conclude that MPH broadly enhances memory.

  12. Emotional Arousal Does Not Enhance Association-Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madan, Christopher R.; Caplan, Jeremy B.; Lau, Christine S. M.; Fujiwara, Esther

    2012-01-01

    Emotionally arousing information is remembered better than neutral information. This enhancement effect has been shown for memory for items. In contrast, studies of association-memory have found both impairments and enhancements of association-memory by arousal. We aimed to resolve these conflicting results by using a cued-recall paradigm combined…

  13. Mood, memory, and social judgments in children.

    PubMed

    Forgas, J P; Burnham, D K; Trimboli, C

    1988-04-01

    The influence of positive and negative moods on children's recall and recognition memory and impression-formation judgments was investigated in a two-list experimental design. A total of 161 schoolchildren, 8 to 10 years old, were presented with audiovisual information containing positive and negative details about 2 target children. Each presentation was preceded by happy or sad mood manipulations. One day later, the children were again placed in a happy or sad mood, and their recall and recognition memory and impression-formation judgments were assessed. Results showed that memory was better when (a) the children felt happy during encoding, retrieval, or both; (b) the material was incongruent with learning mood; (c) the 2 target characters were encountered in contrasting rather than in matching mood states; and (d) recall mood matched encoding mood. A happy mood increased the extremity of both positive and negative impression-formation judgments. Results are contrasted with experimental data obtained with normal or depressed adults, and implications are considered for contemporary theories of mood effects on cognition and for social-developmental research. PMID:3367286

  14. Facilitation of glutamate receptors enhances memory.

    PubMed Central

    Staubli, U; Rogers, G; Lynch, G

    1994-01-01

    A benzamide drug that crosses the blood-brain barrier and facilitates DL-alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) receptor-mediated synaptic responses was tested for its effects on memory in three behavioral tasks. The compound reversibly increased the amplitude and prolonged the duration of field excitatory postsynaptic potentials in hippocampal slices and produced comparable effects in the dentgate gyrus in situ after intraperitoneal injections. Rats injected with the drug 30 min prior to being given a suboptimal number of training trials in a two-odor discrimination task were more likely than controls to select the correct odor in a retention test carried out 96 hr later. Evidence for improved memory was also obtained in a water maze task in which rats were given only four trials to find a submerged platform in the presence of spatial cues; animals injected with the drug 30 min before the training session were significantly faster than vehicle-injected controls in returning to the platform location when tested 24 hr after training. Finally, the drug produced positive effects in a radial maze test of short-term memory. Well trained rats were allowed to retrieve rewards from four arms of an eight-arm maze and then tested for reentry errors 8 hr later. The number of such errors was substantially reduced on days in which the animals were injected with the drug before initial learning. These results indicate that a drug that facilitates glutamatergic transmission enhances the encoding of memory across tasks involving different sensory cues and performance requirements. This may reflect an action on the cellular mechanisms responsible for producing synaptic changes since facilitation of AMPA receptors promotes the induction of the long-term potentiation effect. PMID:8290599

  15. Imagery Rescripting of Early Traumatic Memories in Social Phobia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wild, Jennifer; Clark, David M.

    2011-01-01

    Negative self-images appear to play a role in the maintenance of social phobia and research suggests they are often linked to earlier memories of socially traumatic events. Imagery rescripting is a clinical intervention that aims to update such unpleasant or traumatic memories, and is increasingly being incorporated in cognitive behavioral therapy…

  16. DNA memories of early social life.

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, A; Spengler, D

    2014-04-01

    The foundations of brain architecture are established early in life through a continuous series of dynamic interactions in which environmental conditions and personal experiences have a significant impact on how genetic predispositions are expressed. New scientific research shows that early social experiences can actually influence how genes are expressed. Thus, the old-school concepts that genes are "chiseled in stone" or that they alone determine development have been disproven. The discovery of the epigenome provides an explanation, at the molecular level, for why and how early positive and negative social experiences give rise to a biological memory that can have lifelong impacts. Signatures associated with the epigenome can be temporary or permanent, affect multiple organ systems, and increase the risk not only for poor physical and mental health outcomes but also for impairments in future learning capacity and behavior. Here, we focus on recent evidence for a role of epigenetic DNA modifications as a potential mechanism that explains how early social life experiences become embedded in the circuitry of the developing brain and are associated with lifelong consequences.

  17. Memory Enhancement for Educators. Fastback 365.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Evelyn B.

    This Fastback contends that educators are in the memory business, that memory is probably our most maligned faculty, that forgetting is a fact of life, and that overall memory skills can be learned. The booklet addresses the following questions: How justified are people's complaints about memory? How much is myth and how much is fact? What memory…

  18. Modifying memory: selectively enhancing and updating personal memories for a museum tour by reactivating them.

    PubMed

    St Jacques, Peggy L; Schacter, Daniel L

    2013-04-01

    Memory can be modified when reactivated, but little is known about how the properties and extent of reactivation can selectively affect subsequent memory. We developed a novel museum paradigm to directly investigate reactivation-induced plasticity for personal memories. Participants reactivated memories triggered by photos taken from a camera they wore during a museum tour and made relatedness judgments on novel photos taken from a different tour of the same museum. Subsequent recognition memory for events at the museum was better for memories that were highly reactivated (i.e., the retrieval cues during reactivation matched the encoding experience) than for memories that were reactivated at a lower level (i.e., the retrieval cues during reactivation mismatched the encoding experience), but reactivation also increased false recognition of photographs depicting stops that were not experienced during the museum tour. Reactivation thus enables memories to be selectively enhanced and distorted via updating, thereby supporting the dynamic and flexible nature of memory.

  19. Arousal Enhanced Memory Retention Is Eliminated Following Temporal Lobe Resection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahs, Fredrik; Kumlien, Eva; Fredrikson, Mats

    2010-01-01

    The amygdala, situated in the anterior medial temporal lobe (MTL), is involved in the emotional enhancement of memory. The present study evaluated whether anterior MTL-resections attenuated arousal induced memory enhancement for pictures. Also, the effect of MTL-resections on response latencies at retrieval was assessed. Thirty-one patients with…

  20. Sex, cheating, and disgust: enhanced source memory for trait information that violates gender stereotypes.

    PubMed

    Kroneisen, Meike; Bell, Raoul

    2013-01-01

    The present study examines memory for social-exchange-relevant information. In Experiment 1 male and female faces were shown together with behaviour descriptions of cheating, altruistic, and neutral behaviour. Previous results have led to the hypothesis that people preferentially remember schema-atypical information. Given the common gender stereotype that women are kinder and less egoistic than men, this atypicality account would predict that source memory (that is, memory for the type of context to which a face was associated) should be enhanced for female cheaters in comparison to male cheaters. The results of Experiment 1 confirmed this hypothesis. Experiment 2 reveals that source memory for female faces associated with disgusting behaviours is enhanced in comparison to male faces associated with disgusting behaviours. Thus the atypicality effect generalises beyond social-exchange-relevant information, a result which is inconsistent with the assumption that the findings can be ascribed to a highly specific cheater detection module.

  1. Repetition enhancement and memory effects for duration.

    PubMed

    Wiener, Martin; Thompson, James C

    2015-06-01

    A remarkable aspect of conscious perception is that moments carryover from one to the next, also known as temporal continuity. This ability is thus crucial for detecting regularities, such as in speech and music, and may rely on an accurate perception of time. Investigations of human time perception have detailed two electroencephalographic (EEG) components associated with timing, the contingent negative variation (CNV) and late positive component of timing (LPCt); however, the precise roles of these components in timing remain elusive. Recently, we demonstrated that the perception of duration is influenced by durations presented on prior trials, which we explained by the creation of an implicit memory standard that adapts to local changes in sequence presentation. Here, we turn to the neural basis of this effect. Human participants performed a temporal bisection task in which they were required to classify the duration of auditory stimuli into short and long duration categories; crucially, the presentation order was first-order counterbalanced, allowing us to measure the effect of each presented duration on the next. EEG recordings revealed that the CNV and LPCt signals both covaried with the duration presented on the current trial, with CNV predicting reaction time and LPCt predicting choice. Additionally, both signals covaried with the duration presented in the prior trial but in different ways, with the CNV amplitude reflecting the change in the memory standard and the LPCt reflecting decision uncertainty. Furthermore, we observed a repetition enhancement effect of duration only for the CNV, suggesting that this signal additionally indexes the similarity of successive durations. These findings demonstrate dissociable roles for the CNV and LPCt, and demonstrate that both signals are continuously updated on a trial-by-trial basis that reflects shifts in temporal decisions. PMID:25818689

  2. Repetition enhancement and memory effects for duration.

    PubMed

    Wiener, Martin; Thompson, James C

    2015-06-01

    A remarkable aspect of conscious perception is that moments carryover from one to the next, also known as temporal continuity. This ability is thus crucial for detecting regularities, such as in speech and music, and may rely on an accurate perception of time. Investigations of human time perception have detailed two electroencephalographic (EEG) components associated with timing, the contingent negative variation (CNV) and late positive component of timing (LPCt); however, the precise roles of these components in timing remain elusive. Recently, we demonstrated that the perception of duration is influenced by durations presented on prior trials, which we explained by the creation of an implicit memory standard that adapts to local changes in sequence presentation. Here, we turn to the neural basis of this effect. Human participants performed a temporal bisection task in which they were required to classify the duration of auditory stimuli into short and long duration categories; crucially, the presentation order was first-order counterbalanced, allowing us to measure the effect of each presented duration on the next. EEG recordings revealed that the CNV and LPCt signals both covaried with the duration presented on the current trial, with CNV predicting reaction time and LPCt predicting choice. Additionally, both signals covaried with the duration presented in the prior trial but in different ways, with the CNV amplitude reflecting the change in the memory standard and the LPCt reflecting decision uncertainty. Furthermore, we observed a repetition enhancement effect of duration only for the CNV, suggesting that this signal additionally indexes the similarity of successive durations. These findings demonstrate dissociable roles for the CNV and LPCt, and demonstrate that both signals are continuously updated on a trial-by-trial basis that reflects shifts in temporal decisions.

  3. Social Working Memory: Neurocognitive Networks and Directions for Future Research

    PubMed Central

    Meyer, Meghan L.; Lieberman, Matthew D.

    2012-01-01

    Navigating the social world requires the ability to maintain and manipulate information about people’s beliefs, traits, and mental states. We characterize this capacity as social working memory (SWM). To date, very little research has explored this phenomenon, in part because of the assumption that general working memory systems would support working memory for social information. Various lines of research, however, suggest that social cognitive processing relies on a neurocognitive network (i.e., the “mentalizing network”) that is functionally distinct from, and considered antagonistic with, the canonical working memory network. Here, we review evidence suggesting that demanding social cognition requires SWM and that both the mentalizing and canonical working memory neurocognitive networks support SWM. The neural data run counter to the common finding of parametric decreases in mentalizing regions as a function of working memory demand and suggest that the mentalizing network can support demanding cognition, when it is demanding social cognition. Implications for individual differences in social cognition and pathologies of social cognition are discussed. PMID:23267340

  4. Enhance, delete, incept: manipulating hippocampus-dependent memories.

    PubMed

    Spiers, Hugo J; Bendor, Daniel

    2014-06-01

    Here we provide a brief overview of recent research on memory manipulation. We focus primarily on memories for which the hippocampus is thought to be required due to its central importance in the study of memory. The repertoire of methods employed is expanding and includes optogenetics, transcranial stimulation, deep brain stimulation, cued reactivation during sleep and the use of pharmacological agents. In addition, the possible mechanisms underlying these memory changes have been investigated using techniques such as single unit recording and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'Memory enhancement'. PMID:24397964

  5. Self and social functions: individual autobiographical memory and collective narrative.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Katherine

    2003-03-01

    The personal functions of autobiographical memory build on the basic biological functions of memory common to most mammals that, however, do not have the kind of episodic memories that compose human autobiographical memory according to present theory. The thesis here is that personal autobiographical memory is functionally and structurally related to the use of cultural myths and social narratives, and that the relative emphasis put on the self in different cultural and social contexts influences the form and function of autobiographical memory and the need for developing a uniquely personal life narrative in those contexts. Historical and cross-cultural trends revealed in psychological and literary research are invoked to support this thesis. PMID:12820826

  6. Children Show Heightened Memory for Threatening Social Actions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baltazar, Nicole C.; Shutts, Kristin; Kinzler, Katherine D.

    2012-01-01

    Three experiments investigated whether a negativity bias in social perception extends to preschool-aged children's memory for the details of others' social actions and experiences. After learning about individuals who committed nice or mean social actions, children in Experiment 1 were more accurate at remembering who was mean compared with who…

  7. Decades-long social memory in bottlenose dolphins

    PubMed Central

    Bruck, Jason N.

    2013-01-01

    Long-term social memory is important, because it is an ecologically relevant test of cognitive capacity, it helps us understand which social relationships are remembered and it relates two seemingly disparate disciplines: cognition and sociality. For dolphins, long-term memory for conspecifics could help assess social threats as well as potential social or hunting alliances in a very fluid and complex fission–fusion social system, yet we have no idea how long dolphins can remember each other. Through a playback study conducted within a multi-institution dolphin breeding consortium (where animals are moved between different facilities), recognition of unfamiliar versus familiar signature whistles of former tank mates was assessed. This research shows that dolphins have the potential for lifelong memory for each other regardless of relatedness, sex or duration of association. This is, to my knowledge, the first study to show that social recognition can last for at least 20 years in a non-human species and the first large-scale study to address long-term memory in a cetacean. These results, paired with evidence from elephants and humans, provide suggestive evidence that sociality and cognition could be related, as a good memory is necessary in a fluid social system. PMID:23926160

  8. Dynamic Search and Working Memory in Social Recall

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hills, Thomas T.; Pachur, Thorsten

    2012-01-01

    What are the mechanisms underlying search in social memory (e.g., remembering the people one knows)? Do the search mechanisms involve dynamic local-to-global transitions similar to semantic search, and are these transitions governed by the general control of attention, associated with working memory span? To find out, we asked participants to…

  9. Optogenetic Stimulation of Prefrontal Glutamatergic Neurons Enhances Recognition Memory

    PubMed Central

    Barker, Gareth R. I.; Stuart, Sarah A.; Roloff, Eva v. L.; Teschemacher, Anja G.; Warburton, E. Clea

    2016-01-01

    Finding effective cognitive enhancers is a major health challenge; however, modulating glutamatergic neurotransmission has the potential to enhance performance in recognition memory tasks. Previous studies using glutamate receptor antagonists have revealed that the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) plays a central role in associative recognition memory. The present study investigates short-term recognition memory using optogenetics to target glutamatergic neurons within the rodent mPFC specifically. Selective stimulation of glutamatergic neurons during the online maintenance of information enhanced associative recognition memory in normal animals. This cognitive enhancing effect was replicated by local infusions of the AMPAkine CX516, but not CX546, which differ in their effects on EPSPs. This suggests that enhancing the amplitude, but not the duration, of excitatory synaptic currents improves memory performance. Increasing glutamate release through infusions of the mGluR7 presynaptic receptor antagonist MMPIP had no effect on performance. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT These results provide new mechanistic information that could guide the targeting of future cognitive enhancers. Our work suggests that improved associative-recognition memory can be achieved by enhancing endogenous glutamatergic neuronal activity selectively using an optogenetic approach. We build on these observations to recapitulate this effect using drug treatments that enhance the amplitude of EPSPs; however, drugs that alter the duration of the EPSP or increase glutamate release lack efficacy. This suggests that both neural and temporal specificity are needed to achieve cognitive enhancement. PMID:27147648

  10. Epicatechin, a component of dark chocolate, enhances memory formation if applied during the memory consolidation period

    PubMed Central

    Fernell, Maria; Swinton, Cayley; Lukowiak, Ken

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Epicatechin (Epi), a flavanol found in foods such as dark chocolate has previously been shown to enhance memory formation in our model system, operant conditioning of aerial respiration in Lymnaea. In those experiments snails were trained in Epi. Here we ask whether snails exposed to Epi before training, during the consolidation period immediately following training, or 1 h after training would enhance memory formation. We report here that Epi is only able to enhance memory if snails are placed in Epi-containing pond water immediately after training. That is, Epi enhances memory formation if it is applied during the memory consolidation period as well as if snails are trained in Epi-containing pond water. PMID:27574544

  11. Epicatechin, a component of dark chocolate, enhances memory formation if applied during the memory consolidation period.

    PubMed

    Fernell, Maria; Swinton, Cayley; Lukowiak, Ken

    2016-01-01

    Epicatechin (Epi), a flavanol found in foods such as dark chocolate has previously been shown to enhance memory formation in our model system, operant conditioning of aerial respiration in Lymnaea. In those experiments snails were trained in Epi. Here we ask whether snails exposed to Epi before training, during the consolidation period immediately following training, or 1 h after training would enhance memory formation. We report here that Epi is only able to enhance memory if snails are placed in Epi-containing pond water immediately after training. That is, Epi enhances memory formation if it is applied during the memory consolidation period as well as if snails are trained in Epi-containing pond water. PMID:27574544

  12. Money enhances memory consolidation--but only for boring material.

    PubMed

    Murayama, Kou; Kuhbandner, Christof

    2011-04-01

    Money's ability to enhance memory has received increased attention in recent research. However, previous studies have not directly addressed the time-dependent nature of monetary effects on memory, which are suggested to exist by research in cognitive neuroscience, and the possible detrimental effects of monetary rewards on learning interesting material, as indicated by studies in motivational psychology. By utilizing a trivia question paradigm, the current study incorporated these perspectives and examined the effect of monetary rewards on immediate and delayed memory performance for answers to uninteresting and interesting questions. Results showed that monetary rewards promote memory performance only after a delay. In addition, the memory enhancement effect of monetary rewards was only observed for uninteresting questions. These results are consistent with both the hippocampus-dependent memory consolidation model of reward learning and previous findings documenting the ineffectiveness of monetary rewards on tasks that have intrinsic value.

  13. Exploring the use of memory colors for image enhancement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue, Su; Tan, Minghui; McNamara, Ann; Dorsey, Julie; Rushmeier, Holly

    2014-02-01

    Memory colors refer to those colors recalled in association with familiar objects. While some previous work introduces this concept to assist digital image enhancement, their basis, i.e., on-screen memory colors, are not appropriately investigated. In addition, the resulting adjustment methods developed are not evaluated from a perceptual view of point. In this paper, we first perform a context-free perceptual experiment to establish the overall distributions of screen memory colors for three pervasive objects. Then, we use a context-based experiment to locate the most representative memory colors; at the same time, we investigate the interactions of memory colors between different objects. Finally, we show a simple yet effective application using representative memory colors to enhance digital images. A user study is performed to evaluate the performance of our technique.

  14. Diagnosing criterion-level effects on memory: what aspects of memory are enhanced by repeated retrieval?

    PubMed

    Vaughn, Kalif E; Rawson, Katherine A

    2011-09-01

    Previous research has shown that increasing the criterion level (i.e., the number of times an item must be correctly retrieved during practice) improves subsequent memory, but which specific components of memory does increased criterion level enhance? In two experiments, we examined the extent to which the criterion level affects associative memory, target memory, and cue memory. Participants studied Lithuanian-English word pairs via cued recall with restudy until items were correctly recalled one to five times. In Experiment 1, participants took one of four recall tests and one of three recognition tests after a 2-day delay. In Experiment 2, participants took only recognition tests after a 1-week delay. In both experiments, increasing the criterion level enhanced associative memory, as indicated by enhanced performance on forward and backward cued-recall tests and on tests of associative recognition. An increased criterion level also improved target memory, as indicated by enhanced free recall and recognition of targets, and improved cue memory, as indicated by enhanced free recall and recognition of cues. PMID:21813798

  15. Money Enhances Memory Consolidation--But Only for Boring Material

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murayama, Kou; Kuhbandner, Christof

    2011-01-01

    Money's ability to enhance memory has received increased attention in recent research. However, previous studies have not directly addressed the time-dependent nature of monetary effects on memory, which are suggested to exist by research in cognitive neuroscience, and the possible detrimental effects of monetary rewards on learning interesting…

  16. How To Create and Conduct a Memory Enhancement Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyer, Genevieve R.; Ober-Reynolds, Sharman

    This report describes Memory Enhancement Group workshops which have been conducted at the Senior Health and Peer Counseling Center in Santa Monica, California and gives basic data regarding outcomes of the workshops. It provides a model of memory as a three-step process of registration or becoming aware, consolidation, and retrieval. It presents…

  17. Brain catalase mediates potentiation of social recognition memory produced by ethanol in mice.

    PubMed

    Manrique, Héctor M; Miquel, Marta; Aragon, Carlos M G

    2005-09-01

    The involvement of catalase in ethanol-induced locomotion has been clearly proven. However, studies addressing the role of this enzyme in the effects that ethanol exerts on memory are lacking. In the present study, the social recognition test (SRT) was used to evaluate ethanol effects on memory. In this test, the reduction in investigation time of a juvenile conspecific, when this social stimulus is presented for the second time, is considered a reliable index of memory. Exploration ratios (ER) were calculated to evaluate the recognition capacity of mice. Ethanol (0.0, 0.5, 1.0 or 1.5g/kg, i.p.) was administered immediately after the first juvenile presentation, and 2h later the juvenile was re-exposed to the adult. Additionally, adult mice received aminotriazole (AT) or sodium azide (two catalase inhibitors) 5h or 30 min before juvenile presentation, respectively. Ethanol (1.0 and 1.5g/kg) was able to reduce ER, indicating an improving effect on memory. This improvement was prevented by either AT or sodium azide pre-treatment. However, neither AT nor sodium azide attenuated the memory-enhancing capacity of NMDA or nicotine, suggesting a specific interaction between catalase inhibitors and ethanol in their effects on memory. The present results suggest that brain catalase activity could mediate the memory-enhancing capacity of ethanol and add further support to the idea that this enzyme mediates some of the psychopharmacological effects produced by ethanol. PMID:16102377

  18. Working memory dysfunctions predict social problem solving skills in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jia; Tan, Shu-ping; Walsh, Sarah C; Spriggens, Lauren K; Neumann, David L; Shum, David H K; Chan, Raymond C K

    2014-12-15

    The current study aimed to examine the contribution of neurocognition and social cognition to components of social problem solving. Sixty-seven inpatients with schizophrenia and 31 healthy controls were administrated batteries of neurocognitive tests, emotion perception tests, and the Chinese Assessment of Interpersonal Problem Solving Skills (CAIPSS). MANOVAs were conducted to investigate the domains in which patients with schizophrenia showed impairments. Correlations were used to determine which impaired domains were associated with social problem solving, and multiple regression analyses were conducted to compare the relative contribution of neurocognitive and social cognitive functioning to components of social problem solving. Compared with healthy controls, patients with schizophrenia performed significantly worse in sustained attention, working memory, negative emotion, intention identification and all components of the CAIPSS. Specifically, sustained attention, working memory and negative emotion identification were found to correlate with social problem solving and 1-back accuracy significantly predicted the poor performance in social problem solving. Among the dysfunctions in schizophrenia, working memory contributed most to deficits in social problem solving in patients with schizophrenia. This finding provides support for targeting working memory in the development of future social problem solving rehabilitation interventions.

  19. Acute social stress before the planning phase improves memory performance in a complex real life-related prospective memory task.

    PubMed

    Glienke, Katharina; Piefke, Martina

    2016-09-01

    Successful execution of intentions, but also the failure to recall are common phenomena in everyday life. The planning, retention, and realization of intentions are often framed as the scientific concept of prospective memory. The current study aimed to examine the influence of acute stress on key dimensions of complex "real life" prospective memory. To this end, we applied a prospective memory task that involved the planning, retention, and performance of intentions during a fictional holiday week. Forty healthy males participated in the study. Half of the subjects were stressed with the Socially Evaluated Cold Pressor Test (SECPT) before the planning of intentions, and the other half of the participants underwent a control procedure at the same time. Salivary cortisol was used to measure the effectiveness of the SECPT stress induction. Stressed participants did not differ from controls in planning accuracy. However, when we compared stressed participants with controls during prospective memory retrieval, we found statistically significant differences in PM across the performance phase. Participants treated with the SECPT procedure before the planning phase showed improved prospective memory retrieval over time, while performance of controls declined. Particularly, there was a significant difference between the stress and control group for the last two days of the holiday week. Interestingly, control participants showed significantly better performance for early than later learned items, which could be an indicator of a primacy effect. This differential effect of stress on performance was also found in time- and event-dependent prospective memory. Our results demonstrate for the first time, that acute stress induced before the planning phase may improve prospective memory over the time course of the performance phase in time- and event-dependent prospective memory. Our data thus indicate that prospective memory can be enhanced by acute stress. PMID:27370532

  20. Acute social stress before the planning phase improves memory performance in a complex real life-related prospective memory task.

    PubMed

    Glienke, Katharina; Piefke, Martina

    2016-09-01

    Successful execution of intentions, but also the failure to recall are common phenomena in everyday life. The planning, retention, and realization of intentions are often framed as the scientific concept of prospective memory. The current study aimed to examine the influence of acute stress on key dimensions of complex "real life" prospective memory. To this end, we applied a prospective memory task that involved the planning, retention, and performance of intentions during a fictional holiday week. Forty healthy males participated in the study. Half of the subjects were stressed with the Socially Evaluated Cold Pressor Test (SECPT) before the planning of intentions, and the other half of the participants underwent a control procedure at the same time. Salivary cortisol was used to measure the effectiveness of the SECPT stress induction. Stressed participants did not differ from controls in planning accuracy. However, when we compared stressed participants with controls during prospective memory retrieval, we found statistically significant differences in PM across the performance phase. Participants treated with the SECPT procedure before the planning phase showed improved prospective memory retrieval over time, while performance of controls declined. Particularly, there was a significant difference between the stress and control group for the last two days of the holiday week. Interestingly, control participants showed significantly better performance for early than later learned items, which could be an indicator of a primacy effect. This differential effect of stress on performance was also found in time- and event-dependent prospective memory. Our results demonstrate for the first time, that acute stress induced before the planning phase may improve prospective memory over the time course of the performance phase in time- and event-dependent prospective memory. Our data thus indicate that prospective memory can be enhanced by acute stress.

  1. Consistency of Handedness, Regardless of Direction, Predicts Baseline Memory Accuracy and Potential for Memory Enhancement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyle, Keith B.; Hanaver-Torrez, Shelley D.; Hacklander, Ryan P.; Edlin, James M.

    2012-01-01

    Research has shown that consistently right-handed individuals have poorer memory than do inconsistently right- or left-handed individuals under baseline conditions but more reliably exhibit enhanced memory retrieval after making a series of saccadic eye movements. From this it could be that consistent versus inconsistent handedness, regardless of…

  2. Memory, metamemory, and social cues: Between conformity and resistance.

    PubMed

    Zawadzka, Katarzyna; Krogulska, Aleksandra; Button, Roberta; Higham, Philip A; Hanczakowski, Maciej

    2016-02-01

    When presented with responses of another person, people incorporate these responses into memory reports: a finding termed memory conformity. Research on memory conformity in recognition reveals that people rely on external social cues to guide their memory responses when their own ability to respond is at chance. In this way, conforming to a reliable source boosts recognition performance but conforming to a random source does not impair it. In the present study we assessed whether people would conform indiscriminately to reliable and unreliable (random) sources when they are given the opportunity to exercise metamemory control over their responding by withholding answers in a recognition test. In Experiments 1 and 2, we found the pattern of memory conformity to reliable and unreliable sources in 2 variants of a free-report recognition test, yet at the same time the provision of external cues did not affect the rate of response withholding. In Experiment 3, we provided participants with initial feedback on their recognition decisions, facilitating the discrimination between the reliable and unreliable source. This led to the reduction of memory conformity to the unreliable source, and at the same time modulated metamemory decisions concerning response withholding: participants displayed metamemory conformity to the reliable source, volunteering more responses in their memory report, and metamemory resistance to the random source, withholding more responses from the memory report. Together, the results show how metamemory decisions dissociate various types of memory conformity and that memory and metamemory decisions can be independent of each other.

  3. Enhancing quantum sensing sensitivity by a quantum memory

    PubMed Central

    Zaiser, Sebastian; Rendler, Torsten; Jakobi, Ingmar; Wolf, Thomas; Lee, Sang-Yun; Wagner, Samuel; Bergholm, Ville; Schulte-Herbrüggen, Thomas; Neumann, Philipp; Wrachtrup, Jörg

    2016-01-01

    In quantum sensing, precision is typically limited by the maximum time interval over which phase can be accumulated. Memories have been used to enhance this time interval beyond the coherence lifetime and thus gain precision. Here, we demonstrate that by using a quantum memory an increased sensitivity can also be achieved. To this end, we use entanglement in a hybrid spin system comprising a sensing and a memory qubit associated with a single nitrogen-vacancy centre in diamond. With the memory we retain the full quantum state even after coherence decay of the sensor, which enables coherent interaction with distinct weakly coupled nuclear spin qubits. We benchmark the performance of our hybrid quantum system against use of the sensing qubit alone by gradually increasing the entanglement of sensor and memory. We further apply this quantum sensor-memory pair for high-resolution NMR spectroscopy of single 13C nuclear spins. PMID:27506596

  4. Enhancing quantum sensing sensitivity by a quantum memory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaiser, Sebastian; Rendler, Torsten; Jakobi, Ingmar; Wolf, Thomas; Lee, Sang-Yun; Wagner, Samuel; Bergholm, Ville; Schulte-Herbrüggen, Thomas; Neumann, Philipp; Wrachtrup, Jörg

    2016-08-01

    In quantum sensing, precision is typically limited by the maximum time interval over which phase can be accumulated. Memories have been used to enhance this time interval beyond the coherence lifetime and thus gain precision. Here, we demonstrate that by using a quantum memory an increased sensitivity can also be achieved. To this end, we use entanglement in a hybrid spin system comprising a sensing and a memory qubit associated with a single nitrogen-vacancy centre in diamond. With the memory we retain the full quantum state even after coherence decay of the sensor, which enables coherent interaction with distinct weakly coupled nuclear spin qubits. We benchmark the performance of our hybrid quantum system against use of the sensing qubit alone by gradually increasing the entanglement of sensor and memory. We further apply this quantum sensor-memory pair for high-resolution NMR spectroscopy of single 13C nuclear spins.

  5. Mental Time Travel, Memory and the Social Learning Strategies Tournament

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fogarty, L.; Rendell, L.; Laland, K. N.

    2012-01-01

    The social learning strategies tournament was an open computer-based tournament investigating the best way to learn in a changing environment. Here we present an analysis of the impact of memory on the ability of strategies entered into the social learning strategies tournament (Rendell, Boyd, et al., 2010) to modify their own behavior to suit a…

  6. Working Memory Deficits and Social Problems in Children with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kofler, Michael J.; Rapport, Mark D.; Bolden, Jennifer; Sarver, Dustin E.; Raiker, Joseph S.; Alderson, R. Matt

    2011-01-01

    Social problems are a prevalent feature of ADHD and reflect a major source of functional impairment for these children. The current study examined the impact of working memory deficits on parent- and teacher-reported social problems in a sample of children with ADHD and typically developing boys (N = 39). Bootstrapped, bias-corrected mediation…

  7. Test Expectation Enhances Memory Consolidation across Both Sleep and Wake

    PubMed Central

    Wamsley, Erin J.; Hamilton, Kelly; Graveline, Yvette; Manceor, Stephanie; Parr, Elaine

    2016-01-01

    Memory consolidation benefits from post-training sleep. However, recent studies suggest that sleep does not uniformly benefit all memory, but instead prioritizes information that is important to the individual. Here, we examined the effect of test expectation on memory consolidation across sleep and wakefulness. Following reports that information with strong “future relevance” is preferentially consolidated during sleep, we hypothesized that test expectation would enhance memory consolidation across a period of sleep, but not across wakefulness. To the contrary, we found that expectation of a future test enhanced memory for both spatial and motor learning, but that this effect was equivalent across both wake and sleep retention intervals. These observations differ from those of least two prior studies, and fail to support the hypothesis that the “future relevance” of learned material moderates its consolidation selectively during sleep. PMID:27760193

  8. Low luteinizing hormone enhances spatial memory and has protective effects on memory loss in rats.

    PubMed

    Ziegler, Shira G; Thornton, Janice E

    2010-11-01

    Though several studies have suggested that estradiol improves hippocampal-dependent spatial memory, the effects of other hormones in the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis on memory have largely been ignored. Estradiol and luteinizing hormone (LH) are generally inversely related and LH may significantly affect spatial memory. Ovariectomized (ovx) rats treated with Antide (a gonadotropin releasing hormone receptor antagonist) had low LH levels and showed enhanced spatial memory, comparable to treatment with estradiol. Antide-treated ovx females retained spatial memory longer than estradiol-treated ovx females. Deficits in spatial memory are a primary symptom of neurodegenerative disorders including Alzheimer's disease (AD). Treatment with Antide prevented spatial memory deficits in a neurotoxin-induced model typical of early AD. These data suggest that memory impairments seen in female rats after ovariectomy or women after menopause may be due to high LH levels and that a reduction in LH enhances memory. These results also implicate an LH lowering agent as a potential preventative therapy for AD.

  9. The effects of acute social isolation on long-term social recognition memory.

    PubMed

    Leser, Noam; Wagner, Shlomo

    2015-10-01

    The abilities to recognize individual animals of the same species and to distinguish them from other individuals are the basis for all mammalian social organizations and relationships. These abilities, termed social recognition memory, can be explored in mice and rats using their innate tendency to investigate novel social stimuli more persistently than familiar ones. Using this methodology it was found that social recognition memory is mediated by a specific neural network in the brain, the activity of which is modulated by several molecules, such the neuropeptides oxytocin and vasopressin. During the last 15 years several independent studies have revealed that social recognition memory of mice and rats depends upon their housing conditions. Specifically, long-term social recognition memory cannot be formed as shortly as few days following social isolation of the animal. This rapid and reversible impairment caused by acute social isolation seems to be specific to social memory and has not been observed in other types of memory. Here we review these studies and suggest that this unique system may serve for exploring of the mechanisms underlying the well-known negative effects of partial or perceived social isolation on human mental health.

  10. Intact enhancement of declarative memory for emotional material in amnesia.

    PubMed

    Hamann, S B; Cahill, L; McGaugh, J L; Squire, L R

    1997-01-01

    Emotional arousal has been demonstrated to enhance declarative memory (conscious recollection) in humans in both naturalistic and experimental studies. Here, we examined this effect in amnesia. Amnesic patients and controls viewed a slide presentation while listening to an accompanying emotionally arousing story. In both groups, recognition memory was enhanced for the emotionally arousing story elements. The magnitude of the enhancement was proportional for both amnesic patients and controls. Emotional reactions to the story were also equivalent. The results suggest that the enhancement of declarative memory associated with emotional arousal is intact in amnesia. Together with findings from patients with bilateral amygdala lesions, the results indicate that the amygdala is responsible for the enhancement effect.

  11. Role of autobiographical memory in social problem solving and depression.

    PubMed

    Goddard, L; Dritschel, B; Burton, A

    1996-11-01

    Depressed patients frequently exhibit deficiencies in social problem solving (SPS). A possible cause of this deficit is an impairment in patients' ability to retrieve specific autobiographical memories. A clinically depressed group and a hospital control group performed the Means-End Problem-Solving (MEPS; J. J. Platt & G. Spivack, 1975a) task, during which they were required to attend to the memories retrieved during solution generation. Memories were categorized according to whether they were specific, categoric, or extended and whether the valence of the memories was positive or negative. Results support the general hypothesis that SPS skill is a function of autobiographical memory retrieval as measured by a cuing task and by the types of memories retrieved during the MEPS. However, the dysfunctional nature of categoric memories in SPS, rather than the importance of specific memories, was highlighted in the depressed group. Valence proved to be an unimportant variable in SPS ability. The cyclical links among autobiographical memory retrieval, SPS skills, and depression are discussed.

  12. Adaptive Memory: Survival Processing Enhances Retention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nairne, James S.; Thompson, Sarah R.; Pandeirada, Josefa N. S.

    2007-01-01

    The authors investigated the idea that memory systems might have evolved to help us remember fitness-relevant information--specifically, information relevant to survival. In 4 incidental learning experiments, people were asked to rate common nouns for their survival relevance (e.g., in securing food, water, or protection from predators); in…

  13. Familiarity Enhances Visual Working Memory for Faces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Margaret C.; Raymond, Jane E.

    2008-01-01

    Although it is intuitive that familiarity with complex visual objects should aid their preservation in visual working memory (WM), empirical evidence for this is lacking. This study used a conventional change-detection procedure to assess visual WM for unfamiliar and famous faces in healthy adults. Across experiments, faces were upright or…

  14. Word Imageability Enhances Association-memory by Increasing Hippocampal Engagement.

    PubMed

    Caplan, Jeremy B; Madan, Christopher R

    2016-10-01

    The hippocampus is thought to support association-memory, particularly when tested with cued recall. One of the most well-known and studied factors that influences accuracy of verbal association-memory is imageability; participants remember pairs of high-imageability words better than pairs of low-imageability words. High-imageability words are also remembered better in tests of item-memory. However, we previously found that item-memory effects could not explain the enhancement in cued recall, suggesting that imageability enhances association-memory strength. Here we report an fMRI study designed to ask, what is the role of the hippocampus in the memory advantage for associations due to imageability? We tested two alternative hypotheses: (1) Recruitment Hypothesis: High-imageability pairs are remembered better because they recruit the underlying hippocampal association-memory function more effectively. Alternatively, (2) Bypassing Hypothesis: Imageability functions by making the association-forming process easier, enhancing memory in a way that bypasses the hippocampus, as has been found, for example, with explicit unitization imagery strategies. Results found, first, hippocampal BOLD signal was greater during study and recall of high- than low-imageability word pairs. Second, the difference in activity between recalled and forgotten pairs showed a main effect, but no significant interaction with imageability, challenging the bypassing hypothesis, but consistent with the predictions derived from the recruitment hypothesis. Our findings suggest that certain stimulus properties, like imageability, may leverage, rather than avoid, the associative function of the hippocampus to support superior association-memory. PMID:27315268

  15. Word Imageability Enhances Association-memory by Increasing Hippocampal Engagement.

    PubMed

    Caplan, Jeremy B; Madan, Christopher R

    2016-10-01

    The hippocampus is thought to support association-memory, particularly when tested with cued recall. One of the most well-known and studied factors that influences accuracy of verbal association-memory is imageability; participants remember pairs of high-imageability words better than pairs of low-imageability words. High-imageability words are also remembered better in tests of item-memory. However, we previously found that item-memory effects could not explain the enhancement in cued recall, suggesting that imageability enhances association-memory strength. Here we report an fMRI study designed to ask, what is the role of the hippocampus in the memory advantage for associations due to imageability? We tested two alternative hypotheses: (1) Recruitment Hypothesis: High-imageability pairs are remembered better because they recruit the underlying hippocampal association-memory function more effectively. Alternatively, (2) Bypassing Hypothesis: Imageability functions by making the association-forming process easier, enhancing memory in a way that bypasses the hippocampus, as has been found, for example, with explicit unitization imagery strategies. Results found, first, hippocampal BOLD signal was greater during study and recall of high- than low-imageability word pairs. Second, the difference in activity between recalled and forgotten pairs showed a main effect, but no significant interaction with imageability, challenging the bypassing hypothesis, but consistent with the predictions derived from the recruitment hypothesis. Our findings suggest that certain stimulus properties, like imageability, may leverage, rather than avoid, the associative function of the hippocampus to support superior association-memory.

  16. Neurometabolic mechanisms for memory enhancement and neuroprotection of methylene blue

    PubMed Central

    Rojas, Julio C.; Bruchey, Aleksandra K.; Gonzalez-Lima, F.

    2011-01-01

    This paper provides the first review of the memory-enhancing and neuroprotective metabolic mechanisms of action of methylene blue in vivo. These mechanisms have important implications as a new neurobiological approach to improve normal memory and to treat memory impairment and neurodegeneration associated with mitochondrial dysfunction. Methylene blue’s action is unique because its neurobiological effects are not determined by regular drug-receptor interactions or drug-response paradigms. Methylene blue shows a hormetic dose-response, with opposite effects at low and high doses. At low doses, methylene blue is an electron cycler in the mitochondrial electron transport chain, with unparalleled antioxidant and cell respiration-enhancing properties that affect the function of the nervous system in a versatile manner. A major role of the respiratory enzyme cytochrome oxidase on the memory-enhancing effects of methylene blue is supported by available data. The memory-enhancing effects have been associated with improvement of memory consolidation in a network-specific and use-dependent fashion. In addition, low doses of methylene blue have also been used for neuroprotection against mitochondrial dysfunction in humans and experimental models of disease. The unique auto-oxidizing property of methylene blue and its pleiotropic effects on a number of tissue oxidases explain its potent neuroprotective effects at low doses. The evidence reviewed supports a mechanistic role of low-dose methylene blue as a promising and safe intervention for improving memory and for the treatment of acute and chronic conditions characterized by increased oxidative stress, neurodegeneration and memory impairment. PMID:22067440

  17. Context odor presentation during sleep enhances memory in honeybees.

    PubMed

    Zwaka, Hanna; Bartels, Ruth; Gora, Jacob; Franck, Vivien; Culo, Ana; Götsch, Moritz; Menzel, Randolf

    2015-11-01

    Sleep plays an important role in stabilizing new memory traces after learning [1-3]. Here we investigate whether sleep's role in memory processing is similar in evolutionarily distant species and demonstrate that a context trigger during deep-sleep phases improves memory in invertebrates, as it does in humans. We show that in honeybees (Apis mellifera), exposure to an odor during deep sleep that has been present during learning improves memory performance the following day. Presentation of the context odor during wake phases or novel odors during sleep does not enhance memory. In humans, memory consolidation can be triggered by presentation of a context odor during slow-wave sleep that had been present during learning [3-5]. Our results reveal that deep-sleep phases in honeybees have the potential to prompt memory consolidation, just as they do in humans. This study provides strong evidence for a conserved role of sleep-and how it affects memory processes-from insects to mammals.

  18. Context odor presentation during sleep enhances memory in honeybees.

    PubMed

    Zwaka, Hanna; Bartels, Ruth; Gora, Jacob; Franck, Vivien; Culo, Ana; Götsch, Moritz; Menzel, Randolf

    2015-11-01

    Sleep plays an important role in stabilizing new memory traces after learning [1-3]. Here we investigate whether sleep's role in memory processing is similar in evolutionarily distant species and demonstrate that a context trigger during deep-sleep phases improves memory in invertebrates, as it does in humans. We show that in honeybees (Apis mellifera), exposure to an odor during deep sleep that has been present during learning improves memory performance the following day. Presentation of the context odor during wake phases or novel odors during sleep does not enhance memory. In humans, memory consolidation can be triggered by presentation of a context odor during slow-wave sleep that had been present during learning [3-5]. Our results reveal that deep-sleep phases in honeybees have the potential to prompt memory consolidation, just as they do in humans. This study provides strong evidence for a conserved role of sleep-and how it affects memory processes-from insects to mammals. PMID:26592345

  19. Mindfulness Enhances Episodic Memory Performance: Evidence from a Multimethod Investigation

    PubMed Central

    Goodman, Robert J.; Ryan, Richard M.; Anālayo, Bhikkhu

    2016-01-01

    Training in mindfulness, classically described as a receptive attentiveness to present events and experiences, has been shown to improve attention and working memory. Both are key to long-term memory formation, and the present three-study series used multiple methods to examine whether mindfulness would enhance episodic memory, a key form of long-term memory. In Study 1 (N = 143), a self-reported state of mindful attention predicted better recognition performance in the Remember-Know (R-K) paradigm. In Study 2 (N = 93), very brief training in a focused attention form of mindfulness also produced better recognition memory performance on the R-K task relative to a randomized, well-matched active control condition. Study 3 (N = 57) extended these findings by showing that relative to randomized active and inactive control conditions the effect of very brief mindfulness training generalized to free-recall memory performance. This study also found evidence for mediation of the mindfulness training—episodic memory relation by intrinsic motivation. These findings indicate that mindful attention can beneficially impact motivation and episodic memory, with potential implications for educational and occupational performance. PMID:27115491

  20. Brain computer interface to enhance episodic memory in human participants

    PubMed Central

    Burke, John F.; Merkow, Maxwell B.; Jacobs, Joshua; Kahana, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    Recent research has revealed that neural oscillations in the theta (4–8 Hz) and alpha (9–14 Hz) bands are predictive of future success in memory encoding. Because these signals occur before the presentation of an upcoming stimulus, they are considered stimulus-independent in that they correlate with enhanced memory encoding independent of the item being encoded. Thus, such stimulus-independent activity has important implications for the neural mechanisms underlying episodic memory as well as the development of cognitive neural prosthetics. Here, we developed a brain computer interface (BCI) to test the ability of such pre-stimulus activity to modulate subsequent memory encoding. We recorded intracranial electroencephalography (iEEG) in neurosurgical patients as they performed a free recall memory task, and detected iEEG theta and alpha oscillations that correlated with optimal memory encoding. We then used these detected oscillatory changes to trigger the presentation of items in the free recall task. We found that item presentation contingent upon the presence of pre-stimulus theta and alpha oscillations modulated memory performance in more sessions than expected by chance. Our results suggest that an electrophysiological signal may be causally linked to a specific behavioral condition, and contingent stimulus presentation has the potential to modulate human memory encoding. PMID:25653605

  1. Early deprivation reduced anxiety and enhanced memory in adult male rats.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xuliang; Wang, Bo; Jin, Jing; An, Shuming; Zeng, Qingwen; Duan, Yanhong; Yang, Liguo; Ma, Jing; Cao, Xiaohua

    2014-09-01

    The effects of early deprivation (ED, which involves both dam and littermate deprivation) on anxiety and memory are less investigated in comparison with maternal separation (MS), and it is not yet clear how ED affects long-term potentiation (LTP) in the hippocampal Schaffer collateral pathway. By using a series of behavioral tests, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and field potential recording, we explored the effect of pre-weaning daily 3-h ED on anxiety, memory and potential mechanisms in adult male rats. Compared with control, ED rats spent longer time in open arms of elevated plus maze and in light compartment of light-dark transition box. Consistently, stress-induced blood plasma corticosterone level was also lower in ED rats. Moreover, ED rats showed better performance in social recognition and Morris water maze test. In accordance with results in memory tests, the threshold of LTP induction in hippocampal CA3-CA1 pathway of ED rats was also reduced. Our results indicate ED reduced anxiety, but enhanced social recognition and spatial reference memory. We suggest the diminished hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis response and facilitated hippocampal LTP may contribute to the anxiety-reducing and memory-enhancing effects of ED, respectively.

  2. Gender Identification Moderates Social Identity Threat Effects on Working Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaiser, Cheryl R.; Hagiwara, Nao

    2011-01-01

    This investigation examined whether gender identification moderates women's working memory following exposure to situations that threaten the integrity of their gender group. Young adults read sentences that either threatened women's gender identity (in the social identity threat condition) or did not threaten this identity (in the control…

  3. Psychosocial stress enhances non-drug-related positive memory retrieval in male abstinent heroin addicts.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Li-Yan; Shi, Jie; Zhang, Xiao-Li; Lu, Lin

    2010-11-12

    Stress exposure in addicted individuals is known to provoke drug craving, presumably through a memory-like process, but less is known about the effects of stress on non-drug-related affective memory retrieval per se in such individuals, which is likely to provide important insights into therapy for relapse. In present study, we explored the effect of stress on retrieval of neutral and emotionally valenced (positive and negative) words in abstinent heroin addicts. In present study, 28 male inpatient abstinent heroin addicts and 20 sex-, age-, education- and economic status-matched healthy control participants were assessed for 24h delayed recall of valenced and neutral word lists on two occasions 4 weeks apart-once in a nonstress control condition, once after exposure to the Trier Social Stress Test in a counterbalanced design. In addition, attention, working memory, blood pressure, heart rate and salivary cortisol were assessed. We found acute stress at the time of word list recall enhanced retrieval of positively valenced words, but no effect on negative and neutral word retrieval in abstinent heroin addicts was observed. No changes were detected for attention and working memory. The stressor induced a significant increase in salivary free cortisol, blood pressure and heart rate. Stress can enhance non-drug-related positive memory in abstinent heroin addicts. Our findings will provide richer information in understanding dysregulation of their emotional memory processing under stress and hopefully provide insight into designing improved treatments for drug addiction.

  4. Memory enhancement after drinking ethanol: consolidation, interference, or response bias?

    PubMed

    Tyson, P D; Schirmuly, M

    1994-11-01

    One explanation for memory facilitation is that alcohol has a short-term neurochemical stimulating effect on consolidating neural networks when material is learned before drinking. Contrary to the consolidation hypothesis, when the consolidation interval was manipulated the results showed that the effects of alcohol were not time dependent. Compared to placebo subjects, alcohol significantly facilitated the recall of 25 words whether administered immediately or 40 min after learning. In addition, alcohol significantly increased the memory of words associated with pictures when incidentally learned before drinking and significantly decreased incidental learning after drinking. Another explanation for memory facilitation is that alcohol's depressive physiological effect impairs the acquisition of new information, like sleeping after learning, and enhances memory by reducing subsequent interference. Consistent with the retroactive interference hypothesis, the effects of alcohol reduced interpolated interference, were greater on recall than recognition, and were immune to time delays. Contemporary theories view memory enhancement attributed to alcohol as indirectly influencing response biases and contextual cues associated with retrieval from episodic memory.

  5. Knowledge of Normal and Pathological Memory Aging in College Students, Social Workers, and Health Care Professionals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cherry, Katie E.; Allen, Priscilla D.; Jackson, Erin M.; Hawley, Karri S.; Brigman, Susan

    2010-01-01

    The Knowledge of Memory Aging Questionnaire (KMAQ) measures laypersons' knowledge of normal memory changes and pathological memory deficits in adulthood. In Experiment 1, undergraduate and graduate social work students and social work practitioners completed the KMAQ. Social workers and graduate students were more accurate on the pathological than…

  6. Utility of Nutraceutical Products Marketed for Cognitive and Memory Enhancement

    PubMed Central

    McDougall, Graham J.; Austin-Wells, Vonnette; Zimmerman, Teena

    2008-01-01

    This article identifies a convenience sample of 14 memory-enhancing herbal products that were found to be available commercially, examines their active ingredients, states their claims, and evaluates the available evidence to determine their efficacy. The analyses identified four problematic areas. First, a majority of the products use cognitive terminology, which leads consumers to anticipate an intended cognitive benefit. Second, some ingredients are completely homeopathic and contain components not known outside of the homeopathic field. Third, the evidence of treatment efficacy is often contradictory, because products are recommended for purposes other than cognitive or memory loss. Finally, the manufacturers of the product have usually conducted the research on individual products. Until more research is available, it is suggested that holistic nursing professionals exercise caution in recommending nutraceuticals to their patients/clients for the use of cognitive improvement or memory enhancement. PMID:16251490

  7. Caffeine in floral nectar enhances a pollinator's memory of reward.

    PubMed

    Wright, G A; Baker, D D; Palmer, M J; Stabler, D; Mustard, J A; Power, E F; Borland, A M; Stevenson, P C

    2013-03-01

    Plant defense compounds occur in floral nectar, but their ecological role is not well understood. We provide evidence that plant compounds pharmacologically alter pollinator behavior by enhancing their memory of reward. Honeybees rewarded with caffeine, which occurs naturally in nectar of Coffea and Citrus species, were three times as likely to remember a learned floral scent as were honeybees rewarded with sucrose alone. Caffeine potentiated responses of mushroom body neurons involved in olfactory learning and memory by acting as an adenosine receptor antagonist. Caffeine concentrations in nectar did not exceed the bees' bitter taste threshold, implying that pollinators impose selection for nectar that is pharmacologically active but not repellent. By using a drug to enhance memories of reward, plants secure pollinator fidelity and improve reproductive success.

  8. Enhancing Mobile Working Memory Training by Using Affective Feedback

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaaff, Kristina

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to propose a novel approach to enhance working memory (WM) training for mobile devices by using information about the arousal level of a person. By the example of an adaptive n-back task, we combine methodologies from different disciplines to tackle this challenge: mobile learning, affective computing and cognitive…

  9. Sleep in Children Enhances Preferentially Emotional Declarative But Not Procedural Memories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prehn-Kristensen, Alexander; Goder, Robert; Chirobeja, Stefania; Bressman, Inka; Ferstl, Roman; Baving, Lioba

    2009-01-01

    Although the consolidation of several memory systems is enhanced by sleep in adults, recent studies suggest that sleep supports declarative memory but not procedural memory in children. In the current study, the influence of sleep on emotional declarative memory (recognition task) and procedural memory (mirror tracing task) in 20 healthy children…

  10. A flavonol present in cocoa [(-)epicatechin] enhances snail memory.

    PubMed

    Fruson, Lee; Dalesman, Sarah; Lukowiak, Ken

    2012-10-15

    Dietary consumption of flavonoids (plant phytochemicals) may improve memory and neuro-cognitive performance, though the mechanism is poorly understood. Previous work has assessed cognitive effects in vertebrates; here we assess the suitability of Lymnaea stagnalis as an invertebrate model to elucidate the effects of flavonoids on cognition. (-)Epicatechin (epi) is a flavonoid present in cocoa, green tea and red wine. We studied its effects on basic snail behaviours (aerial respiration and locomotion), long-term memory (LTM) formation and memory extinction of operantly conditioned aerial respiratory behaviour. We found no significant effect of epi exposure (15 mg l(-1)) on either locomotion or aerial respiration. However, when snails were operantly conditioned in epi for a single 0.5 h training session, which typically results in memory lasting ~3 h, they formed LTM lasting at least 24 h. Snails exposed to epi also showed significantly increased resistance to extinction, consistent with the hypothesis that epi induces a more persistent LTM. Thus training in epi facilitates LTM formation and results in a more persistent and stronger memory. Previous work has indicated that memory-enhancing stressors (predator kairomones and KCl) act via sensory input from the osphradium and are dependent on a serotonergic (5-HT) signalling pathway. Here we found that the effects of epi on LTM were independent of osphradial input and 5-HT, demonstrating that an alternative mechanism of memory enhancement exists in L. stagnalis. Our data are consistent with the notion that dietary sources of epi can improve cognitive abilities, and that L. stagnalis is a suitable model with which to elucidate neuronal mechanisms.

  11. Categorizing Others and the Self: How Social Memory Structures Guide Social Perception and Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quinn, Kimberly A.; Rosenthal, Harriet E. S.

    2012-01-01

    In keeping with the special issue theme of "Remembering the Future," this article provides a selective review of research on how memory for social information (i.e., social category representation) influences future processing and behavior. Specifically, the authors focus on how categorization and stereotyping affect how we perceive others and…

  12. Can Survival Processing Enhance Story Memory? Testing the Generalizability of the Adaptive Memory Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seamon, John G.; Bohn, Justin M.; Coddington, Inslee E.; Ebling, Maritza C.; Grund, Ethan M.; Haring, Catherine T.; Jang, Sue-Jung; Kim, Daniel; Liong, Christopher; Paley, Frances M.; Pang, Luke K.; Siddique, Ashik H.

    2012-01-01

    Research from the adaptive memory framework shows that thinking about words in terms of their survival value in an incidental learning task enhances their free recall relative to other semantic encoding strategies and intentional learning (Nairne, Pandeirada, & Thompson, 2008). We found similar results. When participants used incidental survival…

  13. Pharmacological enhancement of memory and executive functioning in laboratory animals.

    PubMed

    Floresco, Stan B; Jentsch, James D

    2011-01-01

    Investigating how different pharmacological compounds may enhance learning, memory, and higher-order cognitive functions in laboratory animals is the first critical step toward the development of cognitive enhancers that may be used to ameliorate impairments in these functions in patients suffering from neuropsychiatric disorders. Rather than focus on one aspect of cognition, or class of drug, in this review we provide a broad overview of how distinct classes of pharmacological compounds may enhance different types of memory and executive functioning, particularly those mediated by the prefrontal cortex. These include recognition memory, attention, working memory, and different components of behavioral flexibility. A key emphasis is placed on comparing and contrasting the effects of certain drugs on different cognitive and mnemonic functions, highlighting methodological issues associated with this type of research, tasks used to investigate these functions, and avenues for future research. Viewed collectively, studies of the neuropharmacological basis of cognition in rodents and non-human primates have identified targets that will hopefully open new avenues for the treatment of cognitive disabilities in persons affected by mental disorders.

  14. Juvenile obesity enhances emotional memory and amygdala plasticity through glucocorticoids.

    PubMed

    Boitard, Chloé; Maroun, Mouna; Tantot, Frédéric; Cavaroc, Amandine; Sauvant, Julie; Marchand, Alain; Layé, Sophie; Capuron, Lucile; Darnaudery, Muriel; Castanon, Nathalie; Coutureau, Etienne; Vouimba, Rose-Marie; Ferreira, Guillaume

    2015-03-01

    In addition to metabolic and cardiovascular disorders, obesity is associated with adverse cognitive and emotional outcomes. Its growing prevalence during adolescence is particularly alarming since recent evidence indicates that obesity can affect hippocampal function during this developmental period. Adolescence is a decisive period for maturation of the amygdala and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) stress axis, both required for lifelong cognitive and emotional processing. However, little data are available on the impact of obesity during adolescence on amygdala function. Herein, we therefore evaluate in rats whether juvenile high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity alters amygdala-dependent emotional memory and whether it depends on HPA axis deregulation. Exposure to HFD from weaning to adulthood, i.e., covering adolescence, enhances long-term emotional memories as assessed by odor-malaise and tone-shock associations. Juvenile HFD also enhances emotion-induced neuronal activation of the basolateral complex of the amygdala (BLA), which correlates with protracted plasma corticosterone release. HFD exposure restricted to adulthood does not modify all these parameters, indicating adolescence is a vulnerable period to the effects of HFD-induced obesity. Finally, exaggerated emotional memory and BLA synaptic plasticity after juvenile HFD are alleviated by a glucocorticoid receptor antagonist. Altogether, our results demonstrate that juvenile HFD alters HPA axis reactivity leading to an enhancement of amygdala-dependent synaptic and memory processes. Adolescence represents a period of increased susceptibility to the effects of diet-induced obesity on amygdala function. PMID:25740536

  15. Pharmacological Enhancement of Memory and Executive Functioning in Laboratory Animals

    PubMed Central

    Floresco, Stan B; Jentsch, James D

    2011-01-01

    Investigating how different pharmacological compounds may enhance learning, memory, and higher-order cognitive functions in laboratory animals is the first critical step toward the development of cognitive enhancers that may be used to ameliorate impairments in these functions in patients suffering from neuropsychiatric disorders. Rather than focus on one aspect of cognition, or class of drug, in this review we provide a broad overview of how distinct classes of pharmacological compounds may enhance different types of memory and executive functioning, particularly those mediated by the prefrontal cortex. These include recognition memory, attention, working memory, and different components of behavioral flexibility. A key emphasis is placed on comparing and contrasting the effects of certain drugs on different cognitive and mnemonic functions, highlighting methodological issues associated with this type of research, tasks used to investigate these functions, and avenues for future research. Viewed collectively, studies of the neuropharmacological basis of cognition in rodents and non-human primates have identified targets that will hopefully open new avenues for the treatment of cognitive disabilities in persons affected by mental disorders. PMID:20844477

  16. Juvenile obesity enhances emotional memory and amygdala plasticity through glucocorticoids.

    PubMed

    Boitard, Chloé; Maroun, Mouna; Tantot, Frédéric; Cavaroc, Amandine; Sauvant, Julie; Marchand, Alain; Layé, Sophie; Capuron, Lucile; Darnaudery, Muriel; Castanon, Nathalie; Coutureau, Etienne; Vouimba, Rose-Marie; Ferreira, Guillaume

    2015-03-01

    In addition to metabolic and cardiovascular disorders, obesity is associated with adverse cognitive and emotional outcomes. Its growing prevalence during adolescence is particularly alarming since recent evidence indicates that obesity can affect hippocampal function during this developmental period. Adolescence is a decisive period for maturation of the amygdala and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) stress axis, both required for lifelong cognitive and emotional processing. However, little data are available on the impact of obesity during adolescence on amygdala function. Herein, we therefore evaluate in rats whether juvenile high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity alters amygdala-dependent emotional memory and whether it depends on HPA axis deregulation. Exposure to HFD from weaning to adulthood, i.e., covering adolescence, enhances long-term emotional memories as assessed by odor-malaise and tone-shock associations. Juvenile HFD also enhances emotion-induced neuronal activation of the basolateral complex of the amygdala (BLA), which correlates with protracted plasma corticosterone release. HFD exposure restricted to adulthood does not modify all these parameters, indicating adolescence is a vulnerable period to the effects of HFD-induced obesity. Finally, exaggerated emotional memory and BLA synaptic plasticity after juvenile HFD are alleviated by a glucocorticoid receptor antagonist. Altogether, our results demonstrate that juvenile HFD alters HPA axis reactivity leading to an enhancement of amygdala-dependent synaptic and memory processes. Adolescence represents a period of increased susceptibility to the effects of diet-induced obesity on amygdala function.

  17. Enhancing Students' Social and Psychological Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartz, David; Mathews, Gary

    2001-01-01

    Social and psychological development shapes a child's character and personality as well as academic achievement. This article examines five factors that are critical to this development: self-esteem, achievement motivation, social skills, coping skills, and aspirations. Self-esteem should be a desired result in and of itself, enhancing the quality…

  18. Enhancing Research Capacity in Gerontological Social Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mehrotra, Chandra M.; Townsend, Aloen; Berkman, Barbara

    2009-01-01

    There is an untapped potential of social work faculty to conduct aging research aimed at enhancing the well-being of older adults. To better exploit this resource, we have designed, implemented, and evaluated a postgraduate training program in aging research. The goal of the program is to build and sustain a community of social work faculty…

  19. Instrumental learning: an animal model for sleep dependent memory enhancement.

    PubMed

    Leenaars, Cathalijn H C; Girardi, Carlos E N; Joosten, Ruud N J M A; Lako, Irene M; Ruimschotel, Emma; Hanegraaf, Maaike A J; Dematteis, Maurice; Feenstra, Matthijs G P; Van Someren, Eus J W

    2013-07-15

    The relationship between learning and sleep is multifaceted; learning influences subsequent sleep characteristics, which may in turn influence subsequent memory. Studies in humans indicate that sleep may not only prevent degradation of acquired memories, but even enhance performance without further practice. In a rodent instrumental learning task, individual differences occur in how fast rats learn to associate lever pressing with food reward. Rats habitually sleep between learning sessions, and may differ in this respect. The current study assessed if the instrumental leaning paradigm could serve as a model to study sleep-dependent memory enhancement. Male Wistar rats performed 2 sessions of instrumental learning per day for 1-3 days. Electroencephalography was recorded both before and after the sessions. Sleep deprivation (3 h) was applied between the first and second session in a subgroup of rats. Measurements comprised the number of lever presses in each session, slow wave sleep (SWS) duration, Rapid Eye Movement Sleep (REMS) duration and sleep spindles. Baseline sleep parameters were similar for fast and slow learning rats. Task-exposure increased REMS-duration. The increase in REMS-duration was observed specifically after sessions in which learning occurred, but not after a later session. Sleep deprivation during the 3h period between the initial two sessions interfered with performance enhancement, but did not prevent this in all rats. Our considered movement control protocol induced partial sleep deprivation and also interfered with performance enhancement. The classic instrumental learning task provides a practical model for animal studies on sleep-dependent memory enhancement.

  20. Failure of working memory training to enhance cognition or intelligence.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Todd W; Waskom, Michael L; Garel, Keri-Lee A; Cardenas-Iniguez, Carlos; Reynolds, Gretchen O; Winter, Rebecca; Chang, Patricia; Pollard, Kiersten; Lala, Nupur; Alvarez, George A; Gabrieli, John D E

    2013-01-01

    Fluid intelligence is important for successful functioning in the modern world, but much evidence suggests that fluid intelligence is largely immutable after childhood. Recently, however, researchers have reported gains in fluid intelligence after multiple sessions of adaptive working memory training in adults. The current study attempted to replicate and expand those results by administering a broad assessment of cognitive abilities and personality traits to young adults who underwent 20 sessions of an adaptive dual n-back working memory training program and comparing their post-training performance on those tests to a matched set of young adults who underwent 20 sessions of an adaptive attentional tracking program. Pre- and post-training measurements of fluid intelligence, standardized intelligence tests, speed of processing, reading skills, and other tests of working memory were assessed. Both training groups exhibited substantial and specific improvements on the trained tasks that persisted for at least 6 months post-training, but no transfer of improvement was observed to any of the non-trained measurements when compared to a third untrained group serving as a passive control. These findings fail to support the idea that adaptive working memory training in healthy young adults enhances working memory capacity in non-trained tasks, fluid intelligence, or other measures of cognitive abilities.

  1. Dietary ketosis enhances memory in mild cognitive impairment

    PubMed Central

    Krikorian, Robert; Shidler, Marcelle D; Dangelo, Krista; Couch, Sarah C; Benoit, Stephen C; Clegg, Deborah J

    2010-01-01

    We randomly assigned 23 older adults with Mild Cognitive Impairment to either a high carbohydrate or very low carbohydrate diet. Following the six-week intervention period, we observed improved verbal memory performance for the low carbohydrate subjects (p = 0.01) as well as reductions in weight (p < 0.0001), waist circumference (p < 0.0001), fasting glucose (p = 0.009), and fasting insulin (p = 0.005). Level of depressive symptoms was not affected. Change in calorie intake, insulin level, and weight were not correlated with memory performance for the entire sample, although a trend toward a moderate relationship between insulin and memory was observed within the low carbohydrate group. Ketone levels were positively correlated with memory performance (p = 0.04). These findings indicate that very low carbohydrate consumption, even in the short-term, can improve memory function in older adults with increased risk for Alzheimer’s disease. While this effect may be attributable in part to correction of hyperinsulinemia, other mechanisms associated with ketosis such as reduced inflammation and enhanced energy metabolism also may have contributed to improved neurocognitive function. Further investigation of this intervention is warranted to evaluate its preventive potential and mechanisms of action in the context of early neurodegeneration. PMID:21130529

  2. Adaptive memory: Animacy enhances free recall but impairs cued recall.

    PubMed

    Popp, Earl Y; Serra, Michael J

    2016-02-01

    Recent research suggests that human memory systems evolved to remember animate things better than inanimate things. In the present experiments, we examined whether these effects occur for both free recall and cued recall. In Experiment 1, we directly compared the effect of animacy on free recall and cued recall. Participants studied lists of objects and lists of animals for free-recall tests, and studied sets of animal-animal pairs and object-object pairs for cued-recall tests. In Experiment 2, we compared participants' cued recall for English-English, Swahili-English, and English-Swahili word pairs involving either animal or object English words. In Experiment 3, we compared participants' cued recall for animal-animal, object-object, animal-object, and object-animal pairs. Although we were able to replicate past effects of animacy aiding free recall, animacy typically impaired cued recall in the present experiments. More importantly, given the interactions found in the present experiments, we conclude that some factor associated with animacy (e.g., attention capture or mental arousal) is responsible for the present patterns of results. This factor seems to moderate the relationship between animacy and memory, producing a memory advantage for animate stimuli in scenarios where the moderator leads to enhanced target retrievability but a memory disadvantage for animate stimuli in scenarios where the moderator leads to impaired association memory. PMID:26375781

  3. Memory enhancement by Tamoxifen on amyloidosis mouse model.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Deepika; Banerjee, Sugato; Basu, Mahua; Mishra, Nibha

    2016-03-01

    Tamoxifen (TMX) is a selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERM) used in the treatment of breast cancer. Earlier studies show its neuroprotection via regulating apoptosis, microglial functions, and synaptic plasticity. TMX also showed memory enhancement in ovariectomized mice, and protection from amyloid induced damage in hippocampal cell line. These reports encouraged us to explore the role of TMX in relevance to Alzheimer's disease (AD). We report here, the effect of TMX treatment a) on memory, and b) levels of neurotransmitters (acetylcholine (ACh) and dopamine (DA)) in breeding-retired-female mice injected with beta amyloid1-42 (Aβ1-42). Mice were treated with TMX (10mg/kg, i.p.) for 15 days. In Morris water maze test, the TMX treated mice escape latency decreased during training trials. They also spent longer time in the platform quadrant on probe trial, compared to controls. In Passive avoidance test, TMX treated mice avoided stepping on the shock chamber. This suggests that TMX protects memory from Aβ induced toxicity. In frontal cortex, ACh was moderately increased, with TMX treatment. In striatum, dopamine was significantly increased, 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC) level and DOPAC/DA ratio was decreased post TMX treatment. Therefore, TMX enhances spatial and contextual memory by reducing dopamine metabolism and increasing ACh level in Aβ1-42 injected-breeding-retired-female mice.

  4. Deep brain stimulation for enhancement of learning and memory.

    PubMed

    Suthana, Nanthia; Fried, Itzhak

    2014-01-15

    Deep brain stimulation (DBS) has emerged as a powerful technique to treat a host of neurological and neuropsychiatric disorders from Parkinson's disease and dystonia, to depression, and obsessive compulsive disorder (Benabid et al., 1987; Lang and Lozano, 1998; Davis et al., 1997; Vidailhet et al., 2005; Mayberg et al., 2005; Nuttin et al., 1999). More recently, results suggest that DBS can enhance memory for facts and events that are dependent on the medial temporal lobe (MTL), thus raising the possibility for DBS to be used as a treatment for MTL- related neurological disorders (e.g. Alzheimer's disease, temporal lobe epilepsy, and MTL injuries). In the following review, we summarize key results that show the ability of DBS or cortical surface stimulation to enhance memory. We also discuss current knowledge regarding the temporal specificity, underlying neurophysiological mechanisms of action, and generalization of stimulation's effects on memory. Throughout our discussion, we also propose several future directions that will provide the necessary insight into if and how DBS could be used as a therapeutic treatment for memory disorders. PMID:23921099

  5. Memory enhancement by Tamoxifen on amyloidosis mouse model.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Deepika; Banerjee, Sugato; Basu, Mahua; Mishra, Nibha

    2016-03-01

    Tamoxifen (TMX) is a selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERM) used in the treatment of breast cancer. Earlier studies show its neuroprotection via regulating apoptosis, microglial functions, and synaptic plasticity. TMX also showed memory enhancement in ovariectomized mice, and protection from amyloid induced damage in hippocampal cell line. These reports encouraged us to explore the role of TMX in relevance to Alzheimer's disease (AD). We report here, the effect of TMX treatment a) on memory, and b) levels of neurotransmitters (acetylcholine (ACh) and dopamine (DA)) in breeding-retired-female mice injected with beta amyloid1-42 (Aβ1-42). Mice were treated with TMX (10mg/kg, i.p.) for 15 days. In Morris water maze test, the TMX treated mice escape latency decreased during training trials. They also spent longer time in the platform quadrant on probe trial, compared to controls. In Passive avoidance test, TMX treated mice avoided stepping on the shock chamber. This suggests that TMX protects memory from Aβ induced toxicity. In frontal cortex, ACh was moderately increased, with TMX treatment. In striatum, dopamine was significantly increased, 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC) level and DOPAC/DA ratio was decreased post TMX treatment. Therefore, TMX enhances spatial and contextual memory by reducing dopamine metabolism and increasing ACh level in Aβ1-42 injected-breeding-retired-female mice. PMID:26435474

  6. Video Game Training Enhances Visuospatial Working Memory and Episodic Memory in Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Toril, Pilar; Reales, José M; Mayas, Julia; Ballesteros, Soledad

    2016-01-01

    In this longitudinal intervention study with experimental and control groups, we investigated the effects of video game training on the visuospatial working memory (WM) and episodic memory of healthy older adults. Participants were 19 volunteer older adults, who received 15 1-h video game training sessions with a series of video games selected from a commercial package (Lumosity), and a control group of 20 healthy older adults. The results showed that the performance of the trainees improved significantly in all the practiced video games. Most importantly, we found significant enhancements after training in the trained group and no change in the control group in two computerized tasks designed to assess visuospatial WM, namely the Corsi blocks task and the Jigsaw puzzle task. The episodic memory and short-term memory of the trainees also improved. Gains in some WM and episodic memory tasks were maintained during a 3-month follow-up period. These results suggest that the aging brain still retains some degree of plasticity, and that video game training might be an effective intervention tool to improve WM and other cognitive functions in older adults. PMID:27199723

  7. Video Game Training Enhances Visuospatial Working Memory and Episodic Memory in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Toril, Pilar; Reales, José M.; Mayas, Julia; Ballesteros, Soledad

    2016-01-01

    In this longitudinal intervention study with experimental and control groups, we investigated the effects of video game training on the visuospatial working memory (WM) and episodic memory of healthy older adults. Participants were 19 volunteer older adults, who received 15 1-h video game training sessions with a series of video games selected from a commercial package (Lumosity), and a control group of 20 healthy older adults. The results showed that the performance of the trainees improved significantly in all the practiced video games. Most importantly, we found significant enhancements after training in the trained group and no change in the control group in two computerized tasks designed to assess visuospatial WM, namely the Corsi blocks task and the Jigsaw puzzle task. The episodic memory and short-term memory of the trainees also improved. Gains in some WM and episodic memory tasks were maintained during a 3-month follow-up period. These results suggest that the aging brain still retains some degree of plasticity, and that video game training might be an effective intervention tool to improve WM and other cognitive functions in older adults. PMID:27199723

  8. Video Game Training Enhances Visuospatial Working Memory and Episodic Memory in Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Toril, Pilar; Reales, José M; Mayas, Julia; Ballesteros, Soledad

    2016-01-01

    In this longitudinal intervention study with experimental and control groups, we investigated the effects of video game training on the visuospatial working memory (WM) and episodic memory of healthy older adults. Participants were 19 volunteer older adults, who received 15 1-h video game training sessions with a series of video games selected from a commercial package (Lumosity), and a control group of 20 healthy older adults. The results showed that the performance of the trainees improved significantly in all the practiced video games. Most importantly, we found significant enhancements after training in the trained group and no change in the control group in two computerized tasks designed to assess visuospatial WM, namely the Corsi blocks task and the Jigsaw puzzle task. The episodic memory and short-term memory of the trainees also improved. Gains in some WM and episodic memory tasks were maintained during a 3-month follow-up period. These results suggest that the aging brain still retains some degree of plasticity, and that video game training might be an effective intervention tool to improve WM and other cognitive functions in older adults.

  9. Socially shared mourning: construction and consumption of collective memory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harju, Anu

    2015-04-01

    Social media, such as YouTube, is increasingly a site of collective remembering where personal tributes to celebrity figures become sites of public mourning. YouTube, especially, is rife with celebrity commemorations. Examining fans' online mourning practices on YouTube, this paper examines video tributes dedicated to the late Steve Jobs, with a focus on collective remembering and collective construction of memory. Combining netnography with critical discourse analysis, the analysis focuses on the user comments where the past unfolds in interaction and meanings are negotiated and contested. The paper argues that celebrity death may, for avid fans, be a source of disenfranchised grief, a type of grief characterised by inadequate social support, usually arising from lack of empathy for the loss. The paper sheds light on the functions digital memorials have for mourning fans (and fandom) and argues that social media sites have come to function as spaces of negotiation, legitimisation and alleviation of disenfranchised grief. It is also suggested that when it comes to disenfranchised grief, and grief work generally, the concept of community be widened to include communities of weak ties, a typical form of communal belonging on social media.

  10. Quantum entanglement enhances the capacity of bosonic channels with memory

    SciTech Connect

    Cerf, Nicolas J.; Clavareau, Julien; Roland, Jeremie

    2005-10-15

    The bosonic quantum channels have recently attracted a growing interest, motivated by the hope that they open a tractable approach to the generally hard problem of evaluating quantum channel capacities. These studies, however, have always been restricted to memoryless channels. Here, it is shown that the classical capacity of a bosonic Gaussian channel with memory can be significantly enhanced if entangled symbols are used instead of product symbols. For example, the capacity of a photonic channel with 70%-correlated thermal noise of one-third the shot noise is enhanced by about 11% when using 3.8-dB entangled light with a modulation variance equal to the shot noise.

  11. Social networks: Evolving graphs with memory dependent edges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grindrod, Peter; Parsons, Mark

    2011-10-01

    The plethora of digital communication technologies, and their mass take up, has resulted in a wealth of interest in social network data collection and analysis in recent years. Within many such networks the interactions are transient: thus those networks evolve over time. In this paper we introduce a class of models for such networks using evolving graphs with memory dependent edges, which may appear and disappear according to their recent history. We consider time discrete and time continuous variants of the model. We consider the long term asymptotic behaviour as a function of parameters controlling the memory dependence. In particular we show that such networks may continue evolving forever, or else may quench and become static (containing immortal and/or extinct edges). This depends on the existence or otherwise of certain infinite products and series involving age dependent model parameters. We show how to differentiate between the alternatives based on a finite set of observations. To test these ideas we show how model parameters may be calibrated based on limited samples of time dependent data, and we apply these concepts to three real networks: summary data on mobile phone use from a developing region; online social-business network data from China; and disaggregated mobile phone communications data from a reality mining experiment in the US. In each case we show that there is evidence for memory dependent dynamics, such as that embodied within the class of models proposed here.

  12. Spatial working memory is enhanced in children by differential outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Esteban, Laura; Vivas, Ana B.; Fuentes, Luis J.; Estévez, Angeles F.

    2015-01-01

    Working memory (WM) is essential to academic achievement. Any enhancement of WM abilities may improve children’s school performance. We tested the usefulness of the differential outcomes procedure (DOP) to enhance typically developing children’s performance on a spatial WM task. The DOP involves a conditional discriminative learning task in which a correct choice response to a specific stimulus-stimulus association is reinforced with a particular reinforcer (outcome). We adapted a spatial memory task to be used with the DOP. Participants had to learn and retain in their WM four target locations of eight possible locations where a shape could be presented. Two groups of 5- and 7-year-old children performed the low-attentional version of the spatial task, and an additional group of 7-year-old children performed the high-attentional version. The results showed that compared with the standard non-differential outcomes procedure (NOP), the DOP produced better memory-based performance in 5-year-old children with the low-attentional task and in 7-year-old children with the high-attentional task. Additionally, delay intervals impaired performance in the NOP but not in the DOP. These findings suggest that the DOP may be a useful complement to other WM intervention programs targeted to improve children´s academic performance at school. PMID:26596777

  13. Spatial working memory is enhanced in children by differential outcomes.

    PubMed

    Esteban, Laura; Vivas, Ana B; Fuentes, Luis J; Estévez, Angeles F

    2015-01-01

    Working memory (WM) is essential to academic achievement. Any enhancement of WM abilities may improve children's school performance. We tested the usefulness of the differential outcomes procedure (DOP) to enhance typically developing children's performance on a spatial WM task. The DOP involves a conditional discriminative learning task in which a correct choice response to a specific stimulus-stimulus association is reinforced with a particular reinforcer (outcome). We adapted a spatial memory task to be used with the DOP. Participants had to learn and retain in their WM four target locations of eight possible locations where a shape could be presented. Two groups of 5- and 7-year-old children performed the low-attentional version of the spatial task, and an additional group of 7-year-old children performed the high-attentional version. The results showed that compared with the standard non-differential outcomes procedure (NOP), the DOP produced better memory-based performance in 5-year-old children with the low-attentional task and in 7-year-old children with the high-attentional task. Additionally, delay intervals impaired performance in the NOP but not in the DOP. These findings suggest that the DOP may be a useful complement to other WM intervention programs targeted to improve children's academic performance at school.

  14. Stress enhances retrieval of drug-related memories in abstinent heroin addicts.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Li-Yan; Shi, Jie; Zhang, Xiao-Li; Epstein, David H; Zhang, Xiang-Yang; Liu, Yu; Kosten, Thomas R; Lu, Lin

    2010-02-01

    Stress is associated with relapse to drugs after abstinence, but the mechanisms for this association are unclear. One mechanism may be that stress enhances abstinent addicts' recall of memories of drugs as stress relievers. This study assessed the effects of stress on free recall and cued recall of 10 heroin-related and 10 neutral words learned 24 h earlier by 102 abstinent heroin addicts. These participants were randomly assigned to three experiments that also assessed attention and working memory. Experiment 1 used a psychosocial stressor (Trier social stress test (TSST)) before testing for recall of heroin-related words. Experiment 2 added administration of the beta-adrenoceptor antagonist propranolol 1 h before the psychosocial stressor. Experiment 3 added administration of either cortisol with propranolol, cortisol alone, or propranolol alone 1 h before word recall to determine whether stress enhancement of heroin-related word recall required noradrenergic-glucocorticoid interactions. We found that free recall of heroin-related words in abstinent addicts was enhanced after stress or cortisol administration when compared with a non-stress condition or placebo, respectively, whereas these interventions had no effect on neutral word recall. beta-adrenergic blockade blocked the enhancing effect of stress or cortisol on free recall of heroin-related words. Neither stress nor cortisol affected cued recall, attention, or working memory. The potential of beta-adrenergic blockade to reduce or block stress-induced enhancement of drug-related memory retrieval may be relevant to preventing stress-induced relapse in abstinent heroin addicts. PMID:19890257

  15. Rescripting Early Memories Linked to Negative Images in Social Phobia: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wild, Jennifer; Hackmann, Ann; Clark, David M.

    2008-01-01

    Negative self-images are a maintaining factor in social phobia. A retrospective study (Hackmann, A., Clark, D.M., McManus, F. (2000). Recurrent images and early memories in social phobia. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 38, 601-610) suggested that the images may be linked to early memories of unpleasant social experiences. This preliminary study…

  16. Perceived responsiveness during an initial social interaction with a stranger predicts a positive memory bias one week later.

    PubMed

    Kleiman, Evan M; Kashdan, Todd B; Monfort, Samuel S; Machell, Kyla A; Goodman, Fallon R

    2015-01-01

    Prior research has found that perceiving positive responses from others following self-disclosures enhances social bonds and plays a role in the maintenance of romantic relationships. We sought to extend this effect by exploring perceived responsiveness to good news in the context of initial social interactions with a stranger. In this study, unacquainted college students (n = 106) participated in a 45-minute semi-structured social interaction, and information on their emotions and behaviours was collected immediately after and one week later. We found that the receipt of supportive reactions to self-disclosure attempts during the social interaction was associated with immediate positivity and a more positive memory of the event (remembered enjoyment and positive emotions) one week later. This effect could not be attributed to how positively the event was experienced immediately afterwards, suggesting that perceived responsiveness during an initial social interaction facilitates a positive memory bias. These results offer new insights into how friendships might develop and be maintained.

  17. Enhanced memory for the wolf in sheep's clothing: facial trustworthiness modulates face-trait associative memory.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Atsunobu; Suga, Sayaka

    2010-11-01

    Our decision about whether to trust and cooperate with someone is influenced by the individual's facial appearance despite its limited predictive power. Thus, remembering trustworthy-looking cheaters is more important than remembering untrustworthy-looking cheaters because we are more likely to trust and cooperate with the former, resulting in a higher risk of unreciprocated cooperation. The present study investigated whether our mind adaptively copes with this problem by enhancing memory for trustworthy-looking cheaters. Participants played a debt game, wherein they learned to discriminate among good, neutral, and bad lenders, who respectively charged no, moderate, and high interest on the debt. Each lender had either a trustworthy- or untrustworthy-looking face. A subsequent memory test revealed that participants remembered the bad traits of trustworthy-looking lenders more accurately than those of untrustworthy-looking lenders. The results demonstrate enhanced memory for trustworthy-looking cheaters, or wolves in sheep's clothing, implying that humans are equipped with protective mechanisms against disguised, unfaithful signs of trustworthiness. PMID:20804978

  18. Can survival processing enhance story memory? Testing the generalizability of the adaptive memory framework.

    PubMed

    Seamon, John G; Bohn, Justin M; Coddington, Inslee E; Ebling, Maritza C; Grund, Ethan M; Haring, Catherine T; Jang, Sue-Jung; Kim, Daniel; Liong, Christopher; Paley, Frances M; Pang, Luke K; Siddique, Ashik H

    2012-07-01

    Research from the adaptive memory framework shows that thinking about words in terms of their survival value in an incidental learning task enhances their free recall relative to other semantic encoding strategies and intentional learning (Nairne, Pandeirada, & Thompson, 2008). We found similar results. When participants used incidental survival encoding for a list of words (e.g., "Will this object enhance my survival if I were stranded in the grasslands of a foreign land?"), they produced better free recall on a surprise test than did participants who intentionally tried to remember those words (Experiment 1). We also found this survival processing advantage when the words were presented within the context of a survival or neutral story (Experiment 2). However, this advantage did not extent to memory for a story's factual content, regardless of whether the participants were tested by cued recall (Experiment 3) or free recall (Experiments 4-5). Listening to a story for understanding under intentional or incidental learning conditions was just as good as survival processing for remembering story content. The functionalist approach to thinking about memory as an evolutionary adaptation designed to solve reproductive fitness problems provides a different theoretical framework for research, but it is not yet clear if survival processing has general applicability or is effective only for processing discrete stimuli in terms of fitness-relevant scenarios from our past. PMID:22288816

  19. Enhancing placebo effects: insights from social psychology.

    PubMed

    Sliwinski, Jim; Elkins, Gary R

    2013-01-01

    Placebo effects are widely recognized as having a potent impact upon treatment outcomes in both medical and psychological interventions, including hypnosis. In research utilizing randomized clinical trials, there is usually an effort to minimize or control placebo effects. However, in clinical practice there may be significant benefits in enhancing placebo effects. Prior research from the field of social psychology has identified three factors that may enhance placebo effects, namely: priming, client perceptions, and the theory of planned behavior. These factors are reviewed and illustrated via a case example. The consideration of social-psychological factors to enhance positive expectancies and beliefs has implications for clinical practice as well as future research into hypnotic interventions.

  20. Enhancing Placebo Effects: Insights From Social Psychology

    PubMed Central

    SLIWINSKI, JIM; ELKINS, GARY R.

    2012-01-01

    Placebo effects are widely recognized as having a potent impact upon treatment outcomes in both medical and psychological interventions, including hypnosis. In research utilizing randomized clinical trials, there is usually an effort to minimize or control placebo effects. However, in clinical practice there may be significant benefits in enhancing placebo effects. Prior research from the field of social psychology has identified three factors that may enhance placebo effects, namely: priming, client perceptions, and the theory of planned behavior. These factors are reviewed and illustrated via a case example. The consideration of social-psychological factors to enhance positive expectancies and beliefs has implications for clinical practice as well as future research into hypnotic interventions. PMID:23488251

  1. Social representations of memory and gender in later medieval England.

    PubMed

    Kane, Bronach

    2012-12-01

    Social representations in later medieval culture have attracted little attention amongst psychologists, pre-dating the development of the so-called 'public sphere' in the eighteenth century. In addition, the association of pre-modern societies with 'traditional' modes of communication in social psychology places implicit limits on areas that may be studied through the lens of social representation theory. This article analyses the way in which knowledge circulated in late medieval society, noting initially the plural nature of representations of events and marginal groups, and the myriad channels through which beliefs were consolidated. In later medieval England perceptions of the past depended on collective and group memory, with customary rights and local histories forged through 'common knowledge', hearsay and the opinions of 'trustworthy men' of the village. The final section of this commentary provides an analysis of testimony from the late medieval church courts, in which witnesses articulated gender ideologies that reflected perceptions drawn from everyday life. Social representations of women were thus deployed in ecclesiastical suits, on the one hand supporting evidence of female witnesses and on the other justifying misogynistic stereotypes of women's behaviour.

  2. Social representations of memory and gender in later medieval England.

    PubMed

    Kane, Bronach

    2012-12-01

    Social representations in later medieval culture have attracted little attention amongst psychologists, pre-dating the development of the so-called 'public sphere' in the eighteenth century. In addition, the association of pre-modern societies with 'traditional' modes of communication in social psychology places implicit limits on areas that may be studied through the lens of social representation theory. This article analyses the way in which knowledge circulated in late medieval society, noting initially the plural nature of representations of events and marginal groups, and the myriad channels through which beliefs were consolidated. In later medieval England perceptions of the past depended on collective and group memory, with customary rights and local histories forged through 'common knowledge', hearsay and the opinions of 'trustworthy men' of the village. The final section of this commentary provides an analysis of testimony from the late medieval church courts, in which witnesses articulated gender ideologies that reflected perceptions drawn from everyday life. Social representations of women were thus deployed in ecclesiastical suits, on the one hand supporting evidence of female witnesses and on the other justifying misogynistic stereotypes of women's behaviour. PMID:23135801

  3. Neuroinflammatory Dynamics Underlie Memory Impairments after Repeated Social Defeat

    PubMed Central

    McKim, Daniel B.; Niraula, Anzela; Tarr, Andrew J.; Wohleb, Eric S.

    2016-01-01

    Repeated social defeat (RSD) is a murine stressor that recapitulates key physiological, immunological, and behavioral alterations observed in humans exposed to chronic psychosocial stress. Psychosocial stress promotes prolonged behavioral adaptations that are associated with neuroinflammatory signaling and impaired neuroplasticity. Here, we show that RSD promoted hippocampal neuroinflammatory activation that was characterized by proinflammatory gene expression and by microglia activation and monocyte trafficking that was particularly pronounced within the caudal extent of the hippocampus. Because the hippocampus is a key area involved in neuroplasticity, behavior, and cognition, we hypothesize that stress-induced neuroinflammation impairs hippocampal neurogenesis and promotes cognitive and affective behavioral deficits. We show here that RSD caused transient impairments in spatial memory recall that resolved within 28 d. In assessment of neurogenesis, the number of proliferating neural progenitor cells (NPCs) and the number of young, developing neurons were not affected initially after RSD. Nonetheless, the neuronal differentiation of NPCs that proliferated during RSD was significantly impaired when examined 10 and 28 d later. In addition, social avoidance, a measure of depressive-like behavior associated with caudal hippocampal circuitry, persisted 28 d after RSD. Treatment with minocycline during RSD prevented both microglia activation and monocyte recruitment. Inhibition of this neuroinflammatory activation in turn prevented impairments in spatial memory after RSD but did not prevent deficits in neurogenesis nor did it prevent the persistence of social avoidance behavior. These findings show that neuroinflammatory activation after psychosocial stress impairs spatial memory performance independent of deficits in neurogenesis and social avoidance. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Repeated exposure to stress alters the homeostatic environment of the brain, giving rise to

  4. Enhanced memory persistence is blocked by a DNA methyltransferase inhibitor in the snail Lymnaea stagnalis.

    PubMed

    Lukowiak, Ken; Heckler, Benjamin; Bennett, Thomas E; Schriner, Ellen K; Wyrick, Kathryn; Jewett, Cynthia; Todd, Ryan P; Sorg, Barbara A

    2014-08-15

    Lymnaea stagnalis provides an excellent model system for studying memory because these snails have a well-described set of neurons, a single one of which controls expression of long-term memory of operantly conditioned respiratory behavior. We have shown that several different manipulations, including pre-training exposure to serotonin (5-HT) or methamphetamine, submersion of snails after training to prevent memory interference, and exposure to effluent from predatory crayfish (CE), enhance memory persistence. Changes in DNA methylation underlie formation of strong memories in mammals and 5-HT-enhanced long-term facilitation in Aplysia. Here we determined the impact of the DNA methyltransferase inhibitor, 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine (5-AZA; 87 μmol l(-1)), on enhanced memory persistence by all four manipulations. We found that 5-HT (100 μmol l(-1)) enhanced memory persistence, which was blocked by 5-AZA pretreatment. Snails pre-exposed to 3.3 μmol l(-1) Meth 4 h prior to training demonstrated memory 72 h later, which was not present in controls. This memory-enhancing effect was blocked by pre-treatment with 87 μmol l(-1) 5-AZA. Similarly, submersion to prevent interference learning as well as training in CE produced memory that was not present in controls, and these effects were blocked by pre-treatment with 87 μmol l(-1) 5-AZA. In contrast, 5-AZA injection did not alter expression of normal (non-enhanced) memory, suggesting that these four stimuli enhance memory persistence by increasing DNA methyltransferase activity, which, in turn, increases expression of memory-enhancing genes and/or inhibits memory suppressor genes. These studies lay important groundwork for delineating gene methylation changes that are common to persistent memory produced by different stimuli.

  5. Phoenixin-14 enhances memory and mitigates memory impairment induced by Aβ1-42 and scopolamine in mice.

    PubMed

    Jiang, J H; He, Z; Peng, Y L; Jin, W D; Wang, Z; Mu, L Y; Chang, M; Wang, R

    2015-12-10

    Phoenixin (PNX) is a recently discovered neuropeptide shown to be involved in regulating the reproductive system, anxiety-related behaviors and pain though its receptor is still unknown. PNX-14, one of the endogenous active isoforms, is reported to regulate gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) receptor expression and GnRH secretion. Because GnRH system is thought to be involved in the regulation of learning and memory processes, we hypothesized that PNX-14 might be mediate learning and memory. Here, we investigated the effects of PNX-14 in memory processes, using novel object recognition (NOR) and object location recognition (OLR) tasks. Our results revealed that intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) injection of PNX-14 (25nmol) immediately after training not only facilitated memory formation, but also prolonged memory retention in both tasks. The memory-enhancing effects of PNX-14 were also seen when it was infused into the hippocampus. Moreover, these memory-improving effects of PNX-14 could be blocked by a GnRH receptor antagonist (Cetrorelix). The memory-improving effects of PNX-14 were not related to any effects on locomotor activity. Additionally, the results suggested that i.c.v. injection of PNX-14 mitigate the memory impairment induced by the amyloid-β1-42 (Aβ1-42) peptide and scopolamine. The present results indicate that PNX-14 facilitates memory formation and prolongs memory retention through activation of the GnRH receptor, and mitigates the memory-impairing effects of Aβ1-42 and scopolamine, suggesting that PNX-14 may be effective as a drug for enhancing memory and treating Alzheimer׳s disease.

  6. Glucose enhancement of memory is not state-dependent.

    PubMed

    Kopf, S R; Opezzo, J W; Baratti, C M

    1993-11-01

    Immediate post-training intraperitoneal administration of alpha-D[+]-glucose (10-300 mg/kg) significantly enhanced retention of male Swiss mice tested 24 h after training in an inhibitory avoidance task. The dose-response curve was an inverted U in this range of dose. However, of the doses tested, only 30 mg/kg was effective. Glucose did not affect response latencies in mice not given the footshock on the training trial, suggesting that the actions of glucose on retention performance were not due to nonspecific effects on response latencies. The influence of glucose (30 mg/kg) was time-dependent, which suggests that glucose facilitated memory consolidation processes. Administration of glucose (30 mg/kg) 2 or 10 min prior to the retention test did not affect the retention performance of mice given post-training injections of either saline or glucose (30 mg/kg). These findings indicate that the memory-enhancing effects of post-training administration of glucose are not state-dependent and are consistent with the view that the behavioral effects of glucose are mediated through an interaction with the neural or neurohumoral processes underlying the storage of acquired information. PMID:8297314

  7. Glucose enhancement of memory is not state-dependent.

    PubMed

    Kopf, S R; Opezzo, J W; Baratti, C M

    1993-11-01

    Immediate post-training intraperitoneal administration of alpha-D[+]-glucose (10-300 mg/kg) significantly enhanced retention of male Swiss mice tested 24 h after training in an inhibitory avoidance task. The dose-response curve was an inverted U in this range of dose. However, of the doses tested, only 30 mg/kg was effective. Glucose did not affect response latencies in mice not given the footshock on the training trial, suggesting that the actions of glucose on retention performance were not due to nonspecific effects on response latencies. The influence of glucose (30 mg/kg) was time-dependent, which suggests that glucose facilitated memory consolidation processes. Administration of glucose (30 mg/kg) 2 or 10 min prior to the retention test did not affect the retention performance of mice given post-training injections of either saline or glucose (30 mg/kg). These findings indicate that the memory-enhancing effects of post-training administration of glucose are not state-dependent and are consistent with the view that the behavioral effects of glucose are mediated through an interaction with the neural or neurohumoral processes underlying the storage of acquired information.

  8. The temporal dynamics of enhancing a human declarative memory during reconsolidation.

    PubMed

    Coccoz, V; Sandoval, A V; Stehberg, J; Delorenzi, A

    2013-08-29

    When a consolidated memory is reactivated, it can become labile and prone to enhancement or disruption, a process known as reconsolidation. The reconsolidation hypothesis has challenged the traditional view that memories after consolidation are fixed and unchangeable. Recent studies suggest that the mechanisms mediating memory retrieval and the mechanisms that underlie the behavioral expression of memory can be dissociated, offering a new promise for the understanding of human memory persistence. Although reconsolidation studies typically use amnesic agents, it has also been shown that memory can be enhanced by pharmacological agents and real-life events during reconsolidation. Recently, we demonstrated that a mild stressor, cold pressor stress (CPS), can enhance human declarative memory during reconsolidation in a cued-recall test. Here we evaluate whether the recollection of 7- or 20-day-old long-term memories can be improved by exposure to two different neuromodulators: a mild stressor and glucose during reconsolidation. As expected, poor and very poor memory performance was found at the time of memory reactivation (days 6 and 20 after training). CPS during reconsolidation improved the long-term expression of a declarative memory 6 -but not 20-days after training. However, the administration of an oral source of glucose (juice), but not a diet juice, can enhance memory during reconsolidation even 20 days after training. Interestingly, when a recognition test was applied instead of a cued-recall test, memory performance was still robust at both 1 and 3 weeks after training. Here we show that the period in which this memory can be reactivated and become labile largely exceeds the period in which that memory is recalled, proving evidence that conscious access is not needed for reconsolidation. Present results are consistent with dissociation between the mechanisms mediating memory labilization and the mechanisms that underlie the behavioral expression of memory.

  9. Graded Effects of Social Conformity on Recognition Memory

    PubMed Central

    Axmacher, Nikolai; Gossen, Anna; Elger, Christian E.; Fell, Juergen

    2010-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that the opinion of confederates in a group influences recognition memory, but inconsistent results have been obtained concerning the question of whether recognition of items as old and new are affected similarly, possibly because only one or two confederates are present during the recognition phase. Here, we present data from a study where recognition of novel faces was tested in the presence of four confederates. In a long version of this experiment, recognition of items as old and new was similarly affected by group responses. However, in the short version, recognition of old items depended proportionally on the number of correct group responses, while rejection of new items only decreased significantly when all confederates gave an incorrect response. These findings indicate that differential effects of social conformity on recognition of items as old and new occur in situations with an intermediate level of group pressure. PMID:20174641

  10. Narrative, memory and social representations: a conversation between history and social psychology.

    PubMed

    Jovchelovitch, Sandra

    2012-12-01

    This paper explores relations between narrative, memory and social representations by examining how social representations express the ways in which communities deal with the historical past. Drawing on a case study of social representations of the Brazilian public sphere, it shows how a specific narrative of origins re-invents history as a useful mythological resource for defending identity, building inter-group solidarity and maintaining social cohesion. Produced by a time-travelling dialogue between multiple sources, this historical narrative is functional both to transform, to stabilise and give resilience to specific social representations of public life. The Brazilian case shows that historical narratives, which tend to be considered as part of the stable core of representational fields, are neither homogenous nor consensual but open polyphasic platforms for the construction of alternative, often contradictory, representations. These representations do not go away because they are ever changing and situated, recruit multiple ways of thinking and fulfil functions of identity, inter-group solidarity and social cohesion. In the disjunction between historiography and the past as social representation are the challenges and opportunities for the dialogue between historians and social psychologists.

  11. Face likeability mediates the memory-enhancing effect of face attractiveness in young but not older adults.

    PubMed

    Lin, Tian; Lendry, Reesa; Ebner, Natalie C

    2016-11-01

    Evidence of effects of face attractiveness on memory is mixed and little is known about the underlying mechanisms of this relationship. Previous work suggests a possible mediating role of affective responding to faces (i.e., face likeability) on the relationship between face attractiveness and memory. Age-related change in social motivation may reduce the relevance of face attractiveness in older adults, with downstream effects on memory. In the present study, 50 young and 51 older participants were presented with face-trait pairs. Faces varied in attractiveness. Participants then completed a face-trait associative recognition memory task and provided likeability ratings for each face. There was a memory-enhancing effect of face attractiveness in young (but not older) participants, which was partially mediated by face likeability. In addition, more attractive and less attractive (compared to moderately attractive) faces were more likely remembered by both young and older participants. This quadratic effect of face attractiveness on memory was not mediated by face likeability. Findings are discussed in the context of motivational influences on memory that vary with age.

  12. A cortical neural prosthesis for restoring and enhancing memory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berger, Theodore W.; Hampson, Robert E.; Song, Dong; Goonawardena, Anushka; Marmarelis, Vasilis Z.; Deadwyler, Sam A.

    2011-08-01

    A primary objective in developing a neural prosthesis is to replace neural circuitry in the brain that no longer functions appropriately. Such a goal requires artificial reconstruction of neuron-to-neuron connections in a way that can be recognized by the remaining normal circuitry, and that promotes appropriate interaction. In this study, the application of a specially designed neural prosthesis using a multi-input/multi-output (MIMO) nonlinear model is demonstrated by using trains of electrical stimulation pulses to substitute for MIMO model derived ensemble firing patterns. Ensembles of CA3 and CA1 hippocampal neurons, recorded from rats performing a delayed-nonmatch-to-sample (DNMS) memory task, exhibited successful encoding of trial-specific sample lever information in the form of different spatiotemporal firing patterns. MIMO patterns, identified online and in real-time, were employed within a closed-loop behavioral paradigm. Results showed that the model was able to predict successful performance on the same trial. Also, MIMO model-derived patterns, delivered as electrical stimulation to the same electrodes, improved performance under normal testing conditions and, more importantly, were capable of recovering performance when delivered to animals with ensemble hippocampal activity compromised by pharmacologic blockade of synaptic transmission. These integrated experimental-modeling studies show for the first time that, with sufficient information about the neural coding of memories, a neural prosthesis capable of real-time diagnosis and manipulation of the encoding process can restore and even enhance cognitive, mnemonic processes.

  13. Revisiting propranolol and PTSD: Memory erasure or extinction enhancement?

    PubMed

    Giustino, Thomas F; Fitzgerald, Paul J; Maren, Stephen

    2016-04-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) has been described as the only neuropsychiatric disorder with a known cause, yet effective behavioral and pharmacotherapies remain elusive for many afflicted individuals. PTSD is characterized by heightened noradrenergic signaling, as well as a resistance to extinction learning. Research aimed at promoting more effective treatment of PTSD has focused on memory erasure (disrupting reconsolidation) and/or enhancing extinction retention through pharmacological manipulations. Propranolol, a β-adrenoceptor antagonist, has received considerable attention for its therapeutic potential in PTSD, although its impact on patients is not always effective. In this review, we briefly examine the consequences of β-noradrenergic manipulations on both reconsolidation and extinction learning in rodents and in humans. We suggest that propranolol is effective as a fear-reducing agent when paired with behavioral therapy soon after trauma when psychological stress is high, possibly preventing or dampening the later development of PTSD. In individuals who have already suffered from PTSD for a significant period of time, propranolol may be less effective at disrupting reconsolidation of strong fear memories. Also, when PTSD has already developed, chronic treatment with propranolol may be more effective than acute intervention, given that individuals with PTSD tend to experience long-term, elevated noradrenergic hyperarousal.

  14. A cortical neural prosthesis for restoring and enhancing memory.

    PubMed

    Berger, Theodore W; Hampson, Robert E; Song, Dong; Goonawardena, Anushka; Marmarelis, Vasilis Z; Deadwyler, Sam A

    2011-08-01

    A primary objective in developing a neural prosthesis is to replace neural circuitry in the brain that no longer functions appropriately. Such a goal requires artificial reconstruction of neuron-to-neuron connections in a way that can be recognized by the remaining normal circuitry, and that promotes appropriate interaction. In this study, the application of a specially designed neural prosthesis using a multi-input/multi-output (MIMO) nonlinear model is demonstrated by using trains of electrical stimulation pulses to substitute for MIMO model derived ensemble firing patterns. Ensembles of CA3 and CA1 hippocampal neurons, recorded from rats performing a delayed-nonmatch-to-sample (DNMS) memory task, exhibited successful encoding of trial-specific sample lever information in the form of different spatiotemporal firing patterns. MIMO patterns, identified online and in real-time, were employed within a closed-loop behavioral paradigm. Results showed that the model was able to predict successful performance on the same trial. Also, MIMO model-derived patterns, delivered as electrical stimulation to the same electrodes, improved performance under normal testing conditions and, more importantly, were capable of recovering performance when delivered to animals with ensemble hippocampal activity compromised by pharmacologic blockade of synaptic transmission. These integrated experimental-modeling studies show for the first time that, with sufficient information about the neural coding of memories, a neural prosthesis capable of real-time diagnosis and manipulation of the encoding process can restore and even enhance cognitive, mnemonic processes. PMID:21677369

  15. Enhanced memory performance thanks to neural network assortativity

    SciTech Connect

    Franciscis, S. de; Johnson, S.; Torres, J. J.

    2011-03-24

    The behaviour of many complex dynamical systems has been found to depend crucially on the structure of the underlying networks of interactions. An intriguing feature of empirical networks is their assortativity--i.e., the extent to which the degrees of neighbouring nodes are correlated. However, until very recently it was difficult to take this property into account analytically, most work being exclusively numerical. We get round this problem by considering ensembles of equally correlated graphs and apply this novel technique to the case of attractor neural networks. Assortativity turns out to be a key feature for memory performance in these systems - so much so that for sufficiently correlated topologies the critical temperature diverges. We predict that artificial and biological neural systems could significantly enhance their robustness to noise by developing positive correlations.

  16. Overnight Sleep Enhances Hippocampus-Dependent Aspects of Spatial Memory

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Nam D.; Tucker, Matthew A.; Stickgold, Robert; Wamsley, Erin J.

    2013-01-01

    Study Objectives: Several studies have now demonstrated that spatial information is processed during sleep, and that posttraining sleep is beneficial for human navigation. However, it remains unclear whether the effects of sleep are primarily due to consolidation of cognitive maps, or alternatively, whether sleep might also affect nonhippocampal aspects of navigation (e.g., speed of motion) involved in moving through a virtual environment. Design: Participants were trained on a virtual maze navigation task (VMT) and then given a memory test following either a day of wakefulness or a night of sleep. Subjects reported to the laboratory for training at either 10:00am or 10:00pm, depending on randomly assigned condition, and were tested 11 h later. Overnight subjects slept in the laboratory with polysomnography. Setting: A hospital-based academic sleep laboratory. Patients or Participants: Thirty healthy college student volunteers. Interventions: N/A. Measurements and Results: Point-by-point position data were collected from the VMT. Analysis of the movement data revealed a sleep-dependent improvement in maze completion time (P < 0.001) due to improved spatial understanding of the maze layout, which led to a shortening of path from start to finish (P = 0.01) rather than faster exploration speed through the maze (P = 0.7). Conclusions: We found that overnight sleep benefitted performance, not because subjects moved faster through the maze, but because they were more accurate in navigating to the goal. These findings suggest that sleep enhances participants' knowledge of the spatial layout of the maze, contributing to the consolidation of hippocampus-dependent spatial information. Citation: Nguyen ND; Tucker MA; Stickgold R; Wamsley EJ. Overnight sleep enhances hippocampus-dependent aspects of spatial memory. SLEEP 2013;36(7):1051-1057. PMID:23814342

  17. Odor-enriched environment rescues long-term social memory, but does not improve olfaction in social isolated adult mice.

    PubMed

    Gusmão, Isabela D; Monteiro, Brisa M M; Cornélio, Guilherme O S; Fonseca, Cristina S; Moraes, Márcio F D; Pereira, Grace S

    2012-03-17

    Prolonged permanence of animals under social isolation (SI) arouses a variety of psychological symptoms like aggression, stress, anxiety and depression. However, short-term SI is commonly used to evaluate social memory. Interestingly, the social memory cannot be accessed with delays higher than 30min in SI mice. Our hypothesis is that SI with intermediate duration, like one week (1w), impairs the long-term storage of new social information (S-LTM), without affecting anxiety or other types of memories, because the SI compromises the olfactory function of the animal. Our results demonstrated that SI impaired S-LTM, without affecting other kinds of memory or anxiety. In addition, the SI increased the latency in the buried-food finding task, but did not affect the habituation or the discrimination of odors. Next, we postulated that if continuous input to the olfactory system is fundamental for the maintenance of the olfactory function and social memory persistence, isolated mice under odor-enriched environment (OEE) should behave like group-housed (GH) animals. In fact, the OEE prevented the S-LTM deficit imposed by the SI. However, OEE did not restore the SI mice olfaction to the GH mice level. Our results suggest that SI modulates olfaction and social memory persistence, probably, by independent mechanisms. We also showed for the first time that OEE rescued S-LTM in SI mice through a mechanism not necessarily involved with olfaction.

  18. The Emergence of Autobiographical Memory: A Social Cultural Developmental Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Katherine; Fivush, Robyn

    2004-01-01

    The authors present a multicomponent dynamic developmental theory of human autobiographical memory that emerges gradually across the preschool years. The components that contribute to the process of emergence include basic memory abilities, language and narrative, adult memory talk, temporal understanding, and understanding of self and others. The…

  19. The memory enhancement effect of emotion is absent in conceptual implicit memory.

    PubMed

    Ramponi, Cristina; Handelsman, Gemma; Barnard, Philip J

    2010-04-01

    Memory for emotional stimuli is superior to memory for neutral stimuli. This study investigated whether this memory advantage is present in implicit memory. Memory was tested with a test of explicit memory (associate cued recall) and a test of conceptual implicit memory (free association) identical in all respects apart from the retrieval instructions. After studying emotional and neutral paired associates, participants saw the first member of the pair, the cue; in the test of explicit memory participants were instructed to recall the associate; in the test of implicit memory participants were instructed to generate the first word coming to mind associated to the word. Depth of study processing dissociated performance in the tests, confirming that the free-association test was not contaminated by an intentional retrieval strategy. Emotional pairs were better recalled than neutral pairs in the test of explicit memory but not in the equivalent test of implicit memory. The absence of an emotion effect in implicit memory implies that emotional material does not have a privileged global mnemonic status; intentional retrieval is necessary for observing the emotion-related memory advantage. PMID:20364908

  20. Systemic administration of riluzole enhances recognition memory and facilitates extinction of fear memory in rats.

    PubMed

    Sugiyama, Azusa; Saitoh, Akiyoshi; Inagaki, Masatoshi; Oka, Jun-Ichiro; Yamada, Mitsuhiko

    2015-10-01

    Strategies to enhance recognition memory and facilitate extinction of fear memory have attracted increasing attention for enhancing the effectiveness of exposure therapy for anxiety disorders. Previously, we demonstrated that systemic administration of riluzole has clear anxiolytic-like effects, without impairing memory, in rats. In the present study, we examined whether riluzole could have therapeutic potential for anxiety disorders when combined with exposure therapy. Both riluzole and D-cycloserine enhanced recognition memory in the novel object recognition test and facilitated extinction learning in the contextual fear conditioning in rats. Interestingly, the facilitatory effect of riluzole on extinction learning was clearly observed even after a short re-exposure to the context, while D-cycloserine was ineffective at facilitating extinction when a short duration exposure session was given. In contrast, diazepam impaired both recognition memory and the extinction of fear memory. Our findings strongly suggest that systemic administration of riluzole may have therapeutic efficacy when combined with exposure therapy for treating a range of anxiety disorders. Clinical trials to examine the efficacy of riluzole in combination with exposure therapy in these patients are warranted.

  1. Remembering the snake in the grass: Threat enhances recognition but not source memory.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Miriam Magdalena; Bell, Raoul; Buchner, Axel

    2015-12-01

    Research on the influence of emotion on source memory has yielded inconsistent findings. The object-based framework (Mather, 2007) predicts that negatively arousing stimuli attract attention, resulting in enhanced within-object binding, and, thereby, enhanced source memory for intrinsic context features of emotional stimuli. To test this prediction, we presented pictures of threatening and harmless animals, the color of which had been experimentally manipulated. In a memory test, old-new recognition for the animals and source memory for their color was assessed. In all 3 experiments, old-new recognition was better for the more threatening material, which supports previous reports of an emotional memory enhancement. This recognition advantage was due to the emotional properties of the stimulus material, and not specific for snake stimuli. However, inconsistent with the prediction of the object-based framework, intrinsic source memory was not affected by emotion. PMID:25915001

  2. Playing nice: a multi-methodological study on the effects of social conformity on memory

    PubMed Central

    Deuker, Lorena; Müller, Anna R.; Montag, Christian; Markett, Sebastian; Reuter, Martin; Fell, Juergen; Trautner, Peter; Axmacher, Nikolai

    2013-01-01

    Conformity is an important aspect of social behavior. Two main motives have been identified: people may adapt their behavior to “play nice” despite knowing better (normative conformity) or they may accept the others' opinion as a valid source of information (informative conformity). Neuroimaging studies can help to distinguish between these two possibilities. Here, we present a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study on memory conformity in a real group situation. We investigated the effects of group pressure on activity in hippocampus and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) which likely support informative and normative memory conformity, respectively. Furthermore, we related the single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs4680 [called Catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) Val158Met] on the gene coding for COMT to both behavior and fMRI activation. Homozygous Met-allele carriers (Val−) behaved more conformist than carriers of at least one Val-allele (Val+). In the neuroimaging data, we compared trials in which subjects were confronted with a majority of incorrect group responses to trials in which they were confronted with a majority of correct group responses. We found increased hippocampal activity when the majority of the group was correct, possibly indicating retrieval processes. Moreover, we observed enhanced activity in the ACC when the majority of the group was incorrect, suggesting that conformity was mostly normative. Most interestingly, this latter effect was more pronounced for Val− as compared to Val+ participants. This offers a speculative explanation for the higher behavioral levels of social conformity in Val− allele carriers, because their subjectively perceived conflict in the presence of an incorrect group majority may have been higher. Overall, this study demonstrates how the mechanisms leading to complex social behavior such as conformity can be studied by combining genetic analyses and fMRI in social neuroscience paradigms. PMID

  3. Playing nice: a multi-methodological study on the effects of social conformity on memory.

    PubMed

    Deuker, Lorena; Müller, Anna R; Montag, Christian; Markett, Sebastian; Reuter, Martin; Fell, Juergen; Trautner, Peter; Axmacher, Nikolai

    2013-01-01

    Conformity is an important aspect of social behavior. Two main motives have been identified: people may adapt their behavior to "play nice" despite knowing better (normative conformity) or they may accept the others' opinion as a valid source of information (informative conformity). Neuroimaging studies can help to distinguish between these two possibilities. Here, we present a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study on memory conformity in a real group situation. We investigated the effects of group pressure on activity in hippocampus and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) which likely support informative and normative memory conformity, respectively. Furthermore, we related the single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs4680 [called Catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) Val158Met] on the gene coding for COMT to both behavior and fMRI activation. Homozygous Met-allele carriers (Val-) behaved more conformist than carriers of at least one Val-allele (Val+). In the neuroimaging data, we compared trials in which subjects were confronted with a majority of incorrect group responses to trials in which they were confronted with a majority of correct group responses. We found increased hippocampal activity when the majority of the group was correct, possibly indicating retrieval processes. Moreover, we observed enhanced activity in the ACC when the majority of the group was incorrect, suggesting that conformity was mostly normative. Most interestingly, this latter effect was more pronounced for Val- as compared to Val+ participants. This offers a speculative explanation for the higher behavioral levels of social conformity in Val- allele carriers, because their subjectively perceived conflict in the presence of an incorrect group majority may have been higher. Overall, this study demonstrates how the mechanisms leading to complex social behavior such as conformity can be studied by combining genetic analyses and fMRI in social neuroscience paradigms.

  4. Enhanced dimension-specific visual working memory in grapheme-color synesthesia.

    PubMed

    Terhune, Devin Blair; Wudarczyk, Olga Anna; Kochuparampil, Priya; Cohen Kadosh, Roi

    2013-10-01

    There is emerging evidence that the encoding of visual information and the maintenance of this information in a temporarily accessible state in working memory rely on the same neural mechanisms. A consequence of this overlap is that atypical forms of perception should influence working memory. We examined this by investigating whether having grapheme-color synesthesia, a condition characterized by the involuntary experience of color photisms when reading or representing graphemes, would confer benefits on working memory. Two competing hypotheses propose that superior memory in synesthesia results from information being coded in two information channels (dual-coding) or from superior dimension-specific visual processing (enhanced processing). We discriminated between these hypotheses in three n-back experiments in which controls and synesthetes viewed inducer and non-inducer graphemes and maintained color or grapheme information in working memory. Synesthetes displayed superior color working memory than controls for both grapheme types, whereas the two groups did not differ in grapheme working memory. Further analyses excluded the possibilities of enhanced working memory among synesthetes being due to greater color discrimination, stimulus color familiarity, or bidirectionality. These results reveal enhanced dimension-specific visual working memory in this population and supply further evidence for a close relationship between sensory processing and the maintenance of sensory information in working memory.

  5. Changing Behavior by Memory Aids: A Social Psychological Model of Prospective Memory and Habit Development Tested with Dynamic Field Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tobias, Robert

    2009-01-01

    This article presents a social psychological model of prospective memory and habit development. The model is based on relevant research literature, and its dynamics were investigated by computer simulations. Time-series data from a behavior-change campaign in Cuba were used for calibration and validation of the model. The model scored well in…

  6. Adult-Onset Hypothyroidism Enhances Fear Memory and Upregulates Mineralocorticoid and Glucocorticoid Receptors in the Amygdala

    PubMed Central

    Montero-Pedrazuela, Ana; Fernández-Lamo, Iván; Alieva, María; Pereda-Pérez, Inmaculada; Venero, César; Guadaño-Ferraz, Ana

    2011-01-01

    Hypothyroidism is the most common hormonal disease in adults, which is frequently accompanied by learning and memory impairments and emotional disorders. However, the deleterious effects of thyroid hormones deficiency on emotional memory are poorly understood and often underestimated. To evaluate the consequences of hypothyroidism on emotional learning and memory, we have performed a classical Pavlovian fear conditioning paradigm in euthyroid and adult-thyroidectomized Wistar rats. In this experimental model, learning acquisition was not impaired, fear memory was enhanced, memory extinction was delayed and spontaneous recovery of fear memory was exacerbated in hypothyroid rats. The potentiation of emotional memory under hypothyroidism was associated with an increase of corticosterone release after fear conditioning and with higher expression of glucocorticoid and mineralocorticoid receptors in the lateral and basolateral nuclei of the amygdala, nuclei that are critically involved in the circuitry of fear memory. Our results demonstrate for the first time that adult-onset hypothyroidism potentiates fear memory and also increases vulnerability to develop emotional memories. Furthermore, our findings suggest that enhanced corticosterone signaling in the amygdala is involved in the pathophysiological mechanisms of fear memory potentiation. Therefore, we recommend evaluating whether inappropriate regulation of fear in patients with post-traumatic stress and other mental disorders is associated with abnormal levels of thyroid hormones, especially those patients refractory to treatment. PMID:22039511

  7. The Quality of Self, Social, and Directive Memories: Are There Adult Age Group Differences?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alea, Nicole; Arneaud, Mary Jane; Ali, Sideeka

    2013-01-01

    The quality of functional autobiographical memories was examined in young, middle-aged, and older adult Trinidadians ("N" = 245). Participants wrote about an event that served a self, social, and directive function, and reported on the memory's quality (e.g., significance, vividness, valence, etc.). Across age groups, directive…

  8. Social Recognition Memory Requires Two Stages of Protein Synthesis in Mice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolf, Gerald; Engelmann, Mario; Richter, Karin

    2005-01-01

    Olfactory recognition memory was tested in adult male mice using a social discrimination task. The testing was conducted to begin to characterize the role of protein synthesis and the specific brain regions associated with activity in this task. Long-term olfactory recognition memory was blocked when the protein synthesis inhibitor anisomycin was…

  9. Memory, Reality, and Ethnography in a Colombian War Zone: Towards a Social Phenomenology of Collective Remembrance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haymes, Stephen Nathan

    2012-01-01

    This paper considers phenomenology as a philosophical framework from which to understand the moral experience of collective memory. As a philosophical approach to human reality, phenomenology contributes insight into the connection between the experiential grounding of collective memory and the reality of the social world. The inspiration for…

  10. CB2 Cannabinoid Receptor Knockout in Mice Impairs Contextual Long-Term Memory and Enhances Spatial Working Memory.

    PubMed

    Li, Yong; Kim, Jimok

    2016-01-01

    Neurocognitive effects of cannabinoids have been extensively studied with a focus on CB1 cannabinoid receptors because CB1 receptors have been considered the major cannabinoid receptor in the nervous system. However, recent discoveries of CB2 cannabinoid receptors in the brain demand accurate determination of whether and how CB2 receptors are involved in the cognitive effects of cannabinoids. CB2 cannabinoid receptors are primarily involved in immune functions, but also implicated in psychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia and depression. Here, we examined the effects of CB2 receptor knockout in mice on memory to determine the roles of CB2 receptors in modulating cognitive function. Behavioral assays revealed that hippocampus-dependent, long-term contextual fear memory was impaired whereas hippocampus-independent, cued fear memory was normal in CB2 receptor knockout mice. These mice also displayed enhanced spatial working memory when tested in a Y-maze. Motor activity and anxiety of CB2 receptor knockout mice were intact when assessed in an open field arena and an elevated zero maze. In contrast to the knockout of CB2 receptors, acute blockade of CB2 receptors by AM603 in C57BL/6J mice had no effect on memory, motor activity, or anxiety. Our results suggest that CB2 cannabinoid receptors play diverse roles in regulating memory depending on memory types and/or brain areas.

  11. CB2 Cannabinoid Receptor Knockout in Mice Impairs Contextual Long-Term Memory and Enhances Spatial Working Memory

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yong; Kim, Jimok

    2016-01-01

    Neurocognitive effects of cannabinoids have been extensively studied with a focus on CB1 cannabinoid receptors because CB1 receptors have been considered the major cannabinoid receptor in the nervous system. However, recent discoveries of CB2 cannabinoid receptors in the brain demand accurate determination of whether and how CB2 receptors are involved in the cognitive effects of cannabinoids. CB2 cannabinoid receptors are primarily involved in immune functions, but also implicated in psychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia and depression. Here, we examined the effects of CB2 receptor knockout in mice on memory to determine the roles of CB2 receptors in modulating cognitive function. Behavioral assays revealed that hippocampus-dependent, long-term contextual fear memory was impaired whereas hippocampus-independent, cued fear memory was normal in CB2 receptor knockout mice. These mice also displayed enhanced spatial working memory when tested in a Y-maze. Motor activity and anxiety of CB2 receptor knockout mice were intact when assessed in an open field arena and an elevated zero maze. In contrast to the knockout of CB2 receptors, acute blockade of CB2 receptors by AM603 in C57BL/6J mice had no effect on memory, motor activity, or anxiety. Our results suggest that CB2 cannabinoid receptors play diverse roles in regulating memory depending on memory types and/or brain areas. PMID:26819779

  12. Polarization control for enhanced defect detection on advanced memory devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Byoung-Ho; Ihm, Dong-Chul; Yeo, Jeong-Ho; Gluk, Yael; Meshulach, Doron

    2006-03-01

    Dense repetitive wafer structures, such as memory cells, with a pitch below the wavelength of the illumination light may take on effective birefringent properties, especially in layers of high refractive index materials such as silicon or conductors. Such induced "form birefringence" effects may result in dependency of the optical response on the illumination polarization and direction. In such structures, control over the polarization of the light becomes important to enhance signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of pattern defects. We present defect detection results and analysis using DUV laser illumination for different polarization configurations and collection perspectives on Flash RAM devices. Improvement in detection SNR of bridge defect type is observed with linear illumination polarization perpendicular to the pattern lines. Generally, for small design rules (smaller than wavelength) polarization effects become more evident. Also, for smaller defect sizes, detection strongly depends on control of the illumination polarization. Linear polarization perpendicular to the pattern showed penetration into the structure even though the pitch is smaller than the illumination wavelength.

  13. Exercise enhances memory consolidation in the aging brain

    PubMed Central

    Snigdha, Shikha; de Rivera, Christina; Milgram, Norton W.; Cotman, Carl W.

    2014-01-01

    Exercise has been shown to reduce age-related losses in cognitive function including learning and memory, but the mechanisms underlying this effect remain poorly understood. Memory formation occurs in stages that include an initial acquisition phase, an intermediate labile phase, and then a process of consolidation which leads to long-term memory formation. An effective way to examine the mechanism by which exercise improves memory is to introduce the intervention (exercise), post-acquisition, making it possible to selectively examine memory storage and consolidation. Accordingly we evaluated the effects of post-trial exercise (10 min on a treadmill) on memory consolidation in aged canines both right after, an hour after, and 24 h after acute exercise training in concurrent discrimination, object location memory (OLM), and novel object recognition tasks. Our study shows that post-trial exercise facilitates memory function by improving memory consolidation in aged animals in a time-dependent manner. The improvements were significant at 24 h post-exercise and not right after or 1 h after exercise. Aged animals were also tested following chronic exercise (10 min/day for 14 consecutive days) on OLM or till criterion were reached (for reversal learning task). We found improvements from a chronic exercise design in both the object location and reversal learning tasks. Our studies suggest that mechanisms to improve overall consolidation and cognitive function remain accessible even with progressing age and can be re-engaged by both acute and chronic exercise. PMID:24550824

  14. Exercise enhances memory consolidation in the aging brain.

    PubMed

    Snigdha, Shikha; de Rivera, Christina; Milgram, Norton W; Cotman, Carl W

    2014-01-01

    Exercise has been shown to reduce age-related losses in cognitive function including learning and memory, but the mechanisms underlying this effect remain poorly understood. Memory formation occurs in stages that include an initial acquisition phase, an intermediate labile phase, and then a process of consolidation which leads to long-term memory formation. An effective way to examine the mechanism by which exercise improves memory is to introduce the intervention (exercise), post-acquisition, making it possible to selectively examine memory storage and consolidation. Accordingly we evaluated the effects of post-trial exercise (10 min on a treadmill) on memory consolidation in aged canines both right after, an hour after, and 24 h after acute exercise training in concurrent discrimination, object location memory (OLM), and novel object recognition tasks. Our study shows that post-trial exercise facilitates memory function by improving memory consolidation in aged animals in a time-dependent manner. The improvements were significant at 24 h post-exercise and not right after or 1 h after exercise. Aged animals were also tested following chronic exercise (10 min/day for 14 consecutive days) on OLM or till criterion were reached (for reversal learning task). We found improvements from a chronic exercise design in both the object location and reversal learning tasks. Our studies suggest that mechanisms to improve overall consolidation and cognitive function remain accessible even with progressing age and can be re-engaged by both acute and chronic exercise.

  15. Glucose enhancement of 24-h memory retrieval in healthy elderly humans.

    PubMed

    Manning, C A; Stone, W S; Korol, D L; Gold, P E

    1998-06-01

    When administered soon before or after training, glucose facilitates memory in rodents and in several populations of humans, including healthy elderly people. Thus, glucose appears to enhance memory formation in a time- and dose-dependent manner. By assessing the effects of glucose at the time of memory tests, the present experiment examined the role of glucose on memory retrieval in healthy elderly people. On four sessions separated by a week, glucose or saccharin were administered immediately before hearing a narrative prose passage, as in previous experiments, or immediately before being tested for recall of the passage (24 h after training). Subjects recalled significantly more information after glucose ingestion than after saccharin ingestion whether the glucose was given before acquisition or memory tests. In addition, recall was significantly better in the preacquisition glucose condition relative to recall in the retrieval glucose condition. These findings provide evidence that glucose enhances both memory storage and retrieval.

  16. Working memory-driven attention improves spatial resolution: Support for perceptual enhancement.

    PubMed

    Pan, Yi; Luo, Qianying; Cheng, Min

    2016-08-01

    Previous research has indicated that attention can be biased toward those stimuli matching the contents of working memory and thereby facilitates visual processing at the location of the memory-matching stimuli. However, whether this working memory-driven attentional modulation takes place on early perceptual processes remains unclear. Our present results showed that working memory-driven attention improved identification of a brief Landolt target presented alone in the visual field. Because the suprathreshold target appeared without any external noise added (i.e., no distractors or masks), the results suggest that working memory-driven attention enhances the target signal at early perceptual stages of visual processing. Furthermore, given that performance in the Landolt target identification task indexes spatial resolution, this attentional facilitation indicates that working memory-driven attention can boost early perceptual processing via enhancement of spatial resolution at the attended location.

  17. Perceptual expertise enhances the resolution but not the number of representations in working memory.

    PubMed

    Scolari, Miranda; Vogel, Edward K; Awh, Edward

    2008-02-01

    Despite its central role in cognition, capacity in visual working memory is restricted to about three or four items. Curby and Gauthier (2007) examined whether perceptual expertise can help to overcome this limit by enabling more efficient coding of visual information. In line with this, they observed higher capacity estimates for upright than for inverted faces, suggesting that perceptual expertise enhances visual working memory. In the present work, we examined whether the improved capacity estimates for upright faces indicates an increased number of "slots" in working memory, or improved resolution within the existing slots. Our results suggest that perceptual expertise enhances the resolution but not the number of representations that can be held in working memory. These results clarify the effects of perceptual expertise in working memory and support recent suggestions that number and resolution represent distinct facets of working memory ability.

  18. Early memories in social anxiety: A meaningful and enduring collaboration with my Dad.

    PubMed

    Moscovitch, David A

    2016-09-01

    In this short paper in honour of my father's Festschrift, I describe a recent collaboration with him in which we joined forces to investigate the nature of autobiographical images and memories in social anxiety. I outline our work together and the unique insights that were gleaned from our interactive contributions. Then, I reflect on how this collaboration has helped to lay the foundation for subsequent work in my lab and illuminate new directions in my program of research, enhance my career as a scientist-practitioner, and ultimately, enrich both my personal and professional identities. In so doing, I aim to highlight one of the most important and enduring aspects of my father's legacy: the profound positive impact he has on the people with whom he has worked. PMID:26994594

  19. Impaired Social Processing in Autism and Its Reflections in Memory: A Deeper View of Encoding and Retrieval Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brezis, Rachel S.; Galili, Tal; Wong, Tiffany; Piggot, Judith I.

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies of memory in autism spectrum conditions (ASC) have consistently shown that persons with ASC have reduced memories for social information, relative to a spared memory for non-social facts. The current study aims to reproduce these findings, while examining the possible causes leading to this difference. Participants' memory…

  20. Improving Outcome of Psychosocial Treatments by Enhancing Memory and Learning

    PubMed Central

    Harvey, Allison G.; Lee, Jason; Williams, Joseph; Hollon, Steven D.; Walker, Matthew P.; Thompson, Monique A.; Smith, Rita

    2014-01-01

    Mental disorders are prevalent and lead to significant impairment. Progress toward establishing treatments has been good. However, effect sizes are small to moderate, gains may not persist, and many patients derive no benefit. Our goal is to highlight the potential for empirically-supported psychosocial treatments to be improved by incorporating insights from cognitive psychology and research on education. Our central question is: If it were possible to improve memory for content of sessions of psychosocial treatments, would outcome substantially improve? This question arises from five lines of evidence: (a) mental illness is often characterized by memory impairment, (b) memory impairment is modifiable, (c) psychosocial treatments often involve the activation of emotion, (d) emotion can bias memory and (e) memory for psychosocial treatment sessions is poor. Insights from scientific knowledge on learning and memory are leveraged to derive strategies for a transdiagnostic and transtreatment cognitive support intervention. These strategies can be applied within and between sessions and to interventions delivered via computer, the internet and text message. Additional novel pathways to improving memory include improving sleep, engaging in exercise and imagery. Given that memory processes change across the lifespan, services to children and older adults may benefit from cognitive support. PMID:25544856

  1. Revisiting the Novelty Effect: When Familiarity, Not Novelty, Enhances Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poppenk, J.; Kohler, S.; Moscovitch, M.

    2010-01-01

    Reports of superior memory for novel relative to familiar material have figured prominently in recent theories of memory. However, such "novelty effects" are incongruous with long-standing observations that familiar items are remembered better. In 2 experiments, we explored whether this discrepancy was explained by differences in the type of…

  2. A familiar pattern? Semantic memory contributes to the enhancement of visuo-spatial memories.

    PubMed

    Riby, Leigh M; Orme, Elizabeth

    2013-03-01

    In this study we quantify for the first time electrophysiological components associated with incorporating long-term semantic knowledge with visuo-spatial information using two variants of a traditional matrix patterns task. Results indicated that the matrix task with greater semantic content was associated with enhanced accuracy and RTs in a change-detection paradigm; this was also associated with increased P300 and N400 components as well as a sustained negative slow wave (NSW). In contrast, processing of the low semantic stimuli was associated with an increased N200 and a reduction in the P300. These findings suggest that semantic content can aid in reducing early visual processing of information and subsequent memory load by unitizing complex patterns into familiar forms. The N400/NSW may be associated with the requirements for maintaining visuo-spatial information about semantic forms such as orientation and relative location. Evidence for individual differences in semantic elaboration strategies used by participants is also discussed.

  3. Memory-enhancing effects of Cuscuta japonica Choisy via enhancement of adult hippocampal neurogenesis in mice.

    PubMed

    Moon, Minho; Jeong, Hyun Uk; Choi, Jin Gyu; Jeon, Seong Gak; Song, Eun Ji; Hong, Seon-Pyo; Oh, Myung Sook

    2016-09-15

    It is generally accepted that functional and structural changes within the hippocampus are involved in learning and memory and that adult neurogenesis in this region may modulate cognition. The extract of Cuscuta japonica Choisy (CJ) is a well-known traditional Chinese herbal medicine that has been used since ancient times as a rejuvenation remedy. The systemic effects of this herb are widely known and can be applied for the treatment of a number of physiological diseases, but there is a lack of evidence describing its effects on brain function. Thus, the present study investigated whether CJ would enhance memory function and/or increase hippocampal neurogenesis using mice orally administered with CJ water extract or vehicle for 21days. Performance on the novel object recognition and passive avoidance tests revealed that treatment with CJ dose-dependently improved the cognitive function of mice. Additionally, CJ increased the Ki-67-positive proliferating cells and the number of doublecortin-stained neuroblasts in the dentate gyrus (DG) of the hippocampus, and double labeling with 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine and neuronal specific nuclear protein showed that CJ increased the number of mature neurons in the DG. Finally, CJ resulted in the upregulated expression of neurogenic differentiation factor, which is essential for the maturation and differentiation of granule cells in the hippocampus. Taken together, the present findings indicate that CJ stimulated neuronal cell proliferation, differentiation, and maturation, which are all processes associated with neurogenesis. Additionally, these findings suggest that CJ may improve learning and memory via the enhancement of adult hippocampal neurogenesis.

  4. Enhanced recognition memory in grapheme-color synaesthesia for different categories of visual stimuli

    PubMed Central

    Ward, Jamie; Hovard, Peter; Jones, Alicia; Rothen, Nicolas

    2013-01-01

    Memory has been shown to be enhanced in grapheme-color synaesthesia, and this enhancement extends to certain visual stimuli (that don't induce synaesthesia) as well as stimuli comprised of graphemes (which do). Previous studies have used a variety of testing procedures to assess memory in synaesthesia (e.g., free recall, recognition, associative learning) making it hard to know the extent to which memory benefits are attributable to the stimulus properties themselves, the testing method, participant strategies, or some combination of these factors. In the first experiment, we use the same testing procedure (recognition memory) for a variety of stimuli (written words, non-words, scenes, and fractals) and also check which memorization strategies were used. We demonstrate that grapheme-color synaesthetes show enhanced memory across all these stimuli, but this is not found for a non-visual type of synaesthesia (lexical-gustatory). In the second experiment, the memory advantage for scenes is explored further by manipulating the properties of the old and new images (changing color, orientation, or object presence). Again, grapheme-color synaesthetes show a memory advantage for scenes across all manipulations. Although recognition memory is generally enhanced in this study, the largest effects were found for abstract visual images (fractals) and scenes for which color can be used to discriminate old/new status. PMID:24187542

  5. (-)Epigallocatechin-3-gallate prevents the reserpine-induced impairment of short-term social memory in rats.

    PubMed

    Tseng, Hsiang-Chien; Wang, Mao-Hsien; Soung, Hung-Sheng; Chang, Yi; Chang, Kuo-Chi

    2015-12-01

    Reserpine has been confirmed to induce cognitive dysfunction and increase brain neural oxidative stress. Green tea catechins, particularly (-)epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), have strong antioxidative properties and can protect against numerous oxidative damages. In this study, we examined the possible protective effects of EGCG on reserpine-induced impairment of short-term memory in rats. Reserpine (1 mg/kg, intraperitoneal)-induced memory impairment was assessed using the social recognition task method; locomotor activity and the olfactory discrimination ability were not altered as measured by an open-field test and an olfactory discrimination test, respectively. EGCG treatment (100 and 300 mg/kg, intraperitoneal, for 7 days, starting 6 days before the reserpine injection) could improve the worsened social memory of reserpine-treated rats. Also, EGCG treatment reduced reserpine-induced lipid peroxidation and enhanced the antioxidation power in the hippocampi of reserpine-treated rats. These results suggest a protective effect of EGCG in treating reserpine-induced impairment of memory, most probably through its powerful antioxidative activities. Accordingly, EGCG may hold a clinically relevant value in preventing reserpine-induced cognitive dysfunction. PMID:26196076

  6. Noradrenergic enhancement of associative fear memory in humans.

    PubMed

    Soeter, Marieke; Kindt, Merel

    2011-09-01

    Ample evidence in animals and humans supports the noradrenergic modulation in the formation of emotional memory. However, in humans the effects of stress on emotional memory are traditionally investigated by declarative memory tests (e.g., recall, recognition) for non-associative emotional stimuli (e.g., stories, pictures). Given that anxiety disorders are thought to originate from associative learning processes and are characterized by distressing emotional responses, the existing literature seems to be inconclusive for the understanding of these disorders. Here, we tested whether noradrenaline strengthens the emotional expression of associative fear memory by using a differential fear conditioning procedure in humans. Stimulation of the noradrenergic system by the administration of yohimbine HCl (20mg) during memory formation did not directly augment the differential startle fear response 48 h later. Yet, the other retention tests uncovered that the administration of yohimbine HCl contrary to placebo pill extensively delayed the process of extinction learning and generated a superior recovery of fear (i.e., reinstatement and reacquisition). Conversely, the yohimbine HCl manipulation did not affect the skin conductance responding and the US expectancy ratings, emphasizing the concept of multiple memory systems. To our knowledge this is the first demonstration in humans that increased noradrenaline release during or shortly after a stressful event strengthens the formation of associative fear memory traces. The present findings suggest that noradrenaline may play an important role in the etiology and maintenance of anxiety disorders. PMID:21624479

  7. Divided Attention Can Enhance Memory Encoding: The Attentional Boost Effect in Implicit Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spataro, Pietro; Mulligan, Neil W.; Rossi-Arnaud, Clelia

    2013-01-01

    Distraction during encoding has long been known to disrupt later memory performance. Contrary to this long-standing result, we show that detecting an infrequent target in a dual-task paradigm actually improves memory encoding for a concurrently presented word, above and beyond the performance reached in the full-attention condition. This absolute…

  8. Memory for reputational trait information: is social-emotional information processing less flexible in old age?

    PubMed

    Bell, Raoul; Giang, Trang; Mund, Iris; Buchner, Axel

    2013-12-01

    How do younger and older adults remember reputational trait information about other people? In the present study, trustworthy-looking and untrustworthy-looking faces were paired with cooperation or cheating in a cooperation game. In a surprise source-memory test, participants were asked to rate the likability of the faces, and were required to remember whether the faces were associated with negative or positive outcomes. The social expectations of younger and older adults were clearly affected by a priori facial trustworthiness. Facial trustworthiness was associated with high cooperation-game investments, high likability ratings, and a tendency toward guessing that a face belonged to a cooperator instead of a cheater in both age groups. Consistent with previous results showing that emotional memory is spared from age-related decline, memory for the association between faces and emotional reputational information was well preserved in older adults. However, younger adults used a flexible encoding strategy to remember the social interaction partners. Source-memory was best for information that violated their (positive) expectations. Older adults, in contrast, showed a uniform memory bias for negative social information; their memory performance was not modulated by their expectations. This finding suggests that older adults are less likely to adjust their encoding strategies to their social expectations than younger adults. This may be in line with older adults' motivational goals to avoid risks in social interactions. PMID:24364403

  9. Memory

    MedlinePlus

    ... it has to decide what is worth remembering. Memory is the process of storing and then remembering this information. There are different types of memory. Short-term memory stores information for a few ...

  10. Improving Outcome of Psychosocial Treatments by Enhancing Memory and Learning.

    PubMed

    Harvey, Allison G; Lee, Jason; Williams, Joseph; Hollon, Steven D; Walker, Matthew P; Thompson, Monique A; Smith, Rita

    2014-03-01

    Mental disorders are prevalent and can lead to significant impairment. Some progress has been made toward establishing treatments; however, effect sizes are small to moderate, gains may not persist, and many patients derive no benefit. Our goal is to highlight the potential for empirically supported psychosocial treatments to be improved by incorporating insights from cognitive psychology and research on education. Our central question is: If it were possible to improve memory for the content of sessions of psychosocial treatments, would outcome substantially improve? We leverage insights from scientific knowledge on learning and memory to derive strategies for transdiagnostic and transtreatment cognitive support interventions. These strategies can be applied within and between sessions and to interventions delivered via computer, the Internet, and text message. Additional novel pathways to improving memory include improving sleep, engaging in exercise, and using imagery. Given that memory processes change across the lifespan, services to children and older adults may benefit from different types and amounts of cognitive support.

  11. Memory-Enhancing Effects of the Crude Extract of Polygala tenuifolia on Aged Mice.

    PubMed

    Li, Zongyang; Liu, Yamin; Wang, Liwei; Liu, Xinmin; Chang, Qi; Guo, Zhi; Liao, Yonghong; Pan, Ruile; Fan, Tai-Ping

    2014-01-01

    Learning and memory disorders arise from distinct age-associated processes, and aging animals are often used as a model of memory impairment. The root of Polygala tenuifolia has been commonly used in some Asian countries as memory enhancer and its memory improvement has been reported in various animal models. However, there is less research to verify its effect on memory functions in aged animals. Herein, the memory-enhancing effects of the crude extract of Polygala tenuifolia (EPT) on normal aged mice were assessed by Morris water maze (MWM) and step-down passive avoidance tests. In MWM tests, the impaired spatial memory of the aged mice was partly reversed by EPT (100 and 200 mg/kg; P < 0.05) as compared with the aged control mice. In step-down tests, the nonspatial memory of the aged mice was improved by EPT (100 and 200 mg/kg; P < 0.05). Additionally, EPT could increase superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activities, inhibit monoamine oxidase (MAO) and acetyl cholinesterase (AChE) activities, and decrease the levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) in the brain tissue of the aged mice. The results showed that EPT improved memory functions of the aged mice probably via its antioxidant properties and via decreasing the activities of MAO and AChE.

  12. Cytokine-induced memory-like natural killer cells exhibit enhanced responses against myeloid leukemia.

    PubMed

    Romee, Rizwan; Rosario, Maximillian; Berrien-Elliott, Melissa M; Wagner, Julia A; Jewell, Brea A; Schappe, Timothy; Leong, Jeffrey W; Abdel-Latif, Sara; Schneider, Stephanie E; Willey, Sarah; Neal, Carly C; Yu, Liyang; Oh, Stephen T; Lee, Yi-Shan; Mulder, Arend; Claas, Frans; Cooper, Megan A; Fehniger, Todd A

    2016-09-21

    Natural killer (NK) cells are an emerging cellular immunotherapy for patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML); however, the best approach to maximize NK cell antileukemia potential is unclear. Cytokine-induced memory-like NK cells differentiate after a brief preactivation with interleukin-12 (IL-12), IL-15, and IL-18 and exhibit enhanced responses to cytokine or activating receptor restimulation for weeks to months after preactivation. We hypothesized that memory-like NK cells exhibit enhanced antileukemia functionality. We demonstrated that human memory-like NK cells have enhanced interferon-γ production and cytotoxicity against leukemia cell lines or primary human AML blasts in vitro. Using mass cytometry, we found that memory-like NK cell functional responses were triggered against primary AML blasts, regardless of killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptor (KIR) to KIR-ligand interactions. In addition, multidimensional analyses identified distinct phenotypes of control and memory-like NK cells from the same individuals. Human memory-like NK cells xenografted into mice substantially reduced AML burden in vivo and improved overall survival. In the context of a first-in-human phase 1 clinical trial, adoptively transferred memory-like NK cells proliferated and expanded in AML patients and demonstrated robust responses against leukemia targets. Clinical responses were observed in five of nine evaluable patients, including four complete remissions. Thus, harnessing cytokine-induced memory-like NK cell responses represents a promising translational immunotherapy approach for patients with AML.

  13. Cytokine-induced memory-like natural killer cells exhibit enhanced responses against myeloid leukemia.

    PubMed

    Romee, Rizwan; Rosario, Maximillian; Berrien-Elliott, Melissa M; Wagner, Julia A; Jewell, Brea A; Schappe, Timothy; Leong, Jeffrey W; Abdel-Latif, Sara; Schneider, Stephanie E; Willey, Sarah; Neal, Carly C; Yu, Liyang; Oh, Stephen T; Lee, Yi-Shan; Mulder, Arend; Claas, Frans; Cooper, Megan A; Fehniger, Todd A

    2016-09-21

    Natural killer (NK) cells are an emerging cellular immunotherapy for patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML); however, the best approach to maximize NK cell antileukemia potential is unclear. Cytokine-induced memory-like NK cells differentiate after a brief preactivation with interleukin-12 (IL-12), IL-15, and IL-18 and exhibit enhanced responses to cytokine or activating receptor restimulation for weeks to months after preactivation. We hypothesized that memory-like NK cells exhibit enhanced antileukemia functionality. We demonstrated that human memory-like NK cells have enhanced interferon-γ production and cytotoxicity against leukemia cell lines or primary human AML blasts in vitro. Using mass cytometry, we found that memory-like NK cell functional responses were triggered against primary AML blasts, regardless of killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptor (KIR) to KIR-ligand interactions. In addition, multidimensional analyses identified distinct phenotypes of control and memory-like NK cells from the same individuals. Human memory-like NK cells xenografted into mice substantially reduced AML burden in vivo and improved overall survival. In the context of a first-in-human phase 1 clinical trial, adoptively transferred memory-like NK cells proliferated and expanded in AML patients and demonstrated robust responses against leukemia targets. Clinical responses were observed in five of nine evaluable patients, including four complete remissions. Thus, harnessing cytokine-induced memory-like NK cell responses represents a promising translational immunotherapy approach for patients with AML. PMID:27655849

  14. Performance-based empathy mediates the influence of working memory on social competence in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Smith, Matthew J; Horan, William P; Cobia, Derin J; Karpouzian, Tatiana M; Fox, Jaclyn M; Reilly, James L; Breiter, Hans C

    2014-07-01

    Empathic deficits have been linked to poor functioning in schizophrenia, but this work is mostly limited to self-report data. This study examined whether performance-based empathy measures account for incremental variance in social competence and social attainment above and beyond self-reported empathy, neurocognition, and clinical symptoms. Given the importance of working memory in theoretical models of empathy and in the prediction of functioning in schizophrenia, we also examined whether empathy mediates the relationship between working memory and functioning. Sixty outpatients and 45 healthy controls were compared on performance-based measures of 3 key components of empathic responding, including facial affect perception, emotional empathy (affective responsiveness), and cognitive empathy (emotional perspective-taking). Participants also completed measures of self-reported empathy, neurocognition, clinical symptoms, and social competence and attainment. Patients demonstrated lower accuracy than controls across the 3 performance-based empathy measures. Among patients, these measures showed minimal relations to self-reported empathy but significantly correlated with working memory and other neurocognitive functions as well as symptom levels. Furthermore, cognitive empathy explained significant incremental variance in social competence (∆R (2) = .07, P < .05) and was found to mediate the relation between working memory and social competence. Performance-based measures of empathy were sensitive to functionally relevant disturbances in schizophrenia. Working memory deficits appear to have an important effect on these disruptions in empathy. Empathy is emerging as a promising new area for social cognitive research and for novel recovery-oriented treatment development.

  15. Social Processes Affecting the Mnemonic Consequences of Rumors on Children's Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Principe, Gabrielle F.; Daley, Lauren; Kauth, Kyli

    2010-01-01

    This research examined whether the impact of overheard rumors on children's memory for their experiences varies as a function of social processes. The results of two experiments revealed that the very same errant rumor had different consequences for children's recollections depending on the degree and type of social interactions they had with…

  16. High energy diets prevent the enhancing effects of emotional arousal on memory.

    PubMed

    Ross, Amy P; Darling, Jenna N; Parent, Marise B

    2013-10-01

    Over the past five decades, per capita caloric intake has increased by approximately 28% in the United States. Excessive intake of calories from fats and sugars (high energy diets; HEDs) negatively impacts hippocampal-dependent memory. These deleterious effects of HEDs on hippocampal function involve HED-induced decreases in neuronal growth factors, neurogenesis, and synaptic plasticity. Given that HEDs also alter responses to emotional arousal, the present experiment determined whether the effects of HEDs on memory depend on the emotional arousal produced by the memory task during encoding. Rats were fed a high fat/sugar cafeteria-style diet for 4 weeks and then tested in a low or high emotional arousal version of a spatial object place recognition task. The results demonstrated that the HED prevented the memory-enhancing effects of emotional arousal. Thus, altered responses to emotional arousal likely contribute to HED-induced memory impairments, particularly in stressful memory tasks such as the spatial water maze.

  17. Depletion of perineuronal nets enhances recognition memory and long-term depression in the perirhinal cortex.

    PubMed

    Romberg, Carola; Yang, Sujeong; Melani, Riccardo; Andrews, Melissa R; Horner, Alexa E; Spillantini, Maria G; Bussey, Timothy J; Fawcett, James W; Pizzorusso, Tommaso; Saksida, Lisa M

    2013-04-17

    Perineuronal nets (PNNs) are extracellular matrix structures surrounding cortical neuronal cell bodies and proximal dendrites and are involved in the control of brain plasticity and the closure of critical periods. Expression of the link protein Crtl1/Hapln1 in neurons has recently been identified as the key event triggering the formation of PNNs. Here we show that the genetic attenuation of PNNs in adult brain Crtl1 knock-out mice enhances long-term object recognition memory and facilitates long-term depression in the perirhinal cortex, a neural correlate of object recognition memory. Identical prolongation of memory follows localized digestion of PNNs with chondroitinase ABC, an enzyme that degrades the chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan components of PNNs. The memory-enhancing effect of chondroitinase ABC treatment attenuated over time, suggesting that the regeneration of PNNs gradually restored control plasticity levels. Our findings indicate that PNNs regulate both memory and experience-driven synaptic plasticity in adulthood.

  18. Glucose enhancement of memory is modulated by trait anxiety in healthy adolescent males.

    PubMed

    Smith, Michael A; Hii, Hilary L; Foster, Jonathan K; van Eekelen, J A M

    2011-01-01

    Glucose administration is associated with memory enhancement in healthy young individuals under conditions of divided attention at encoding. While the specific neurocognitive mechanisms underlying this 'glucose memory facilitation effect' are currently uncertain, it is thought that individual differences in glucoregulatory efficiency may alter an individual's sensitivity to the glucose memory facilitation effect. In the present study, we sought to investigate whether basal hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis function (itself a modulator of glucoregulatory efficiency), baseline self-reported stress and trait anxiety influence the glucose memory facilitation effect. Adolescent males (age range = 14-17 years) were administered glucose and placebo prior to completing a verbal episodic memory task on two separate testing days in a counter-balanced, within-subjects design. Glucose ingestion improved verbal episodic memory performance when memory recall was tested (i) within an hour of glucose ingestion and encoding, and (ii) one week subsequent to glucose ingestion and encoding. Basal hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis function did not appear to influence the glucose memory facilitation effect; however, glucose ingestion only improved memory in participants reporting relatively higher trait anxiety. These findings suggest that the glucose memory facilitation effect may be mediated by biological mechanisms associated with trait anxiety.

  19. Images of the self in social anxiety: effects on the retrieval of autobiographical memories.

    PubMed

    Stopa, Lusia; Jenkins, Andy

    2007-12-01

    Cognitive models of social phobia propose that negative self-images play an important role in maintaining anxiety. This study examines the effect of holding a positive or a negative image in mind during a speech on the retrieval of autobiographical memories. Twenty high socially anxious participants performed a standard autobiographical memory task (AMT), which used positive, negative and neutral cue words. Participants performed the AMT twice: once after giving a speech holding a positive image and once while holding a negative image. Participants were more anxious and rated their performance worse in the negative image condition. Negative memories were retrieved faster in the negative image condition and positive memories were retrieved faster in the positive image condition. In the negative image condition, positive memories were retrieved more slowly than either negative or neutral memories. Inhibition and facilitation are proposed as two processes that could explain the effects of differently valenced imagery on autobiographical memory. The clear evidence for an inhibitory effect on positive autobiographical memories in the negative imagery condition is considered in relation to Brewin's [(2006). Understanding cognitive behaviour therapy: A retrieval competition account. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 44, 765-784] retrieval competition hypothesis. The paper concludes with a brief discussion of the potential role of inhibition in imagery rescripting. PMID:17931596

  20. Enhancing Social Competence in the Music Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gooding, Lori

    2009-01-01

    Strong social skills are vital for successful functioning in life. Social skills can affect academic success, peer relationships, family relationships, employment, and extracurricular and leisure activities. Children and adolescents who display academic, social, and behavioral deficits are at risk for both short-term and long-term negative social…

  1. Lesions to the CA2 region of the hippocampus impair social memory in mice

    PubMed Central

    Stevenson, Erica L.; Caldwell, Heather K.

    2014-01-01

    The function of the CA2 region of the hippocampus is poorly understood. While the CA1 and CA3 regions have been extensively studied, for years the CA2 region has primarily been viewed as a linking area between the two. However, the CA2 region is known to have distinct neurochemical and structural features that are different from the other parts of hippocampus and in recent years it has been suggested that the CA2 region may play a role in the formation and or recall of olfactory-based memories needed for normal social behavior. While this hypothesis has been supported by hippocampal lesion studies that have included the CA2 region, no studies have attempted to specifically lesion the CA2 region of the hippocampus in mice to determine the effects on social recognition memory and olfaction. To fill this knowledge gap, we sought to perform excitotoxic N-methyl-D aspartate (NMDA) lesions of the CA2 region in mice and determine the effects on social recognition memory. We predicted that lesions of the CA2 region would impair social recognition memory. We then went on to test olfaction in CA2 lesioned mice since social memory requires a functional olfactory system. Consistent with our prediction, we found that CA2 lesioned animals have impaired social recognition. These findings are significant because they confirm that the CA2 region of the hippocampus is a part of the neural circuitry that regulates social recognition memory, which may have implications for our understanding of the neural regulation of social behavior across species. PMID:25131412

  2. Lesions to the CA2 region of the hippocampus impair social memory in mice.

    PubMed

    Stevenson, Erica L; Caldwell, Heather K

    2014-11-01

    The function of the CA2 region of the hippocampus is poorly understood. Although the CA1 and CA3 regions have been extensively studied, for years the CA2 region has primarily been viewed as a linking area between the two. However, the CA2 region is known to have distinct neurochemical and structural features that are different from the other parts of the hippocampus and in recent years it has been suggested that the CA2 region may play a role in the formation and/or recall of olfactory-based memories needed for normal social behavior. Although this hypothesis has been supported by hippocampal lesion studies that have included the CA2 region, no studies have attempted to specifically lesion the CA2 region of the hippocampus in mice to determine the effects on social recognition memory and olfaction. To fill this knowledge gap, we sought to perform excitotoxic N-methyl-D-aspartate lesions of the CA2 region and determine the effects on social recognition memory. We predicted that lesions of the CA2 region would impair social recognition memory. We then went on to test olfaction in CA2-lesioned mice, as social memory requires a functional olfactory system. Consistent with our prediction, we found that CA2-lesioned animals had impaired social recognition. These findings are significant because they confirmed that the CA2 region of the hippocampus is a part of the neural circuitry that regulates social recognition memory, which may have implications for our understanding of the neural regulation of social behavior across species. PMID:25131412

  3. Stereotype threat can both enhance and impair older adults' memory.

    PubMed

    Barber, Sarah J; Mather, Mara

    2013-12-01

    Negative stereotypes about aging can impair older adults' memory via stereotype threat; however, the mechanisms underlying this phenomenon are unclear. In two experiments, we tested competing predictions derived from two theoretical accounts of stereotype threat: executive-control interference and regulatory fit. Older adults completed a working memory test either under stereotype threat about age-related memory declines or not under such threat. Monetary incentives were manipulated such that recall led to gains or forgetting led to losses. The executive-control-interference account predicts that stereotype threat decreases the availability of executive-control resources and hence should impair working memory performance. The regulatory-fit account predicts that threat induces a prevention focus, which should impair performance when gains are emphasized but improve performance when losses are emphasized. Results were consistent only with the regulatory-fit account. Although stereotype threat significantly impaired older adults' working memory performance when remembering led to gains, it significantly improved performance when forgetting led to losses. PMID:24150969

  4. Stereotype threat can both enhance and impair older adults' memory.

    PubMed

    Barber, Sarah J; Mather, Mara

    2013-12-01

    Negative stereotypes about aging can impair older adults' memory via stereotype threat; however, the mechanisms underlying this phenomenon are unclear. In two experiments, we tested competing predictions derived from two theoretical accounts of stereotype threat: executive-control interference and regulatory fit. Older adults completed a working memory test either under stereotype threat about age-related memory declines or not under such threat. Monetary incentives were manipulated such that recall led to gains or forgetting led to losses. The executive-control-interference account predicts that stereotype threat decreases the availability of executive-control resources and hence should impair working memory performance. The regulatory-fit account predicts that threat induces a prevention focus, which should impair performance when gains are emphasized but improve performance when losses are emphasized. Results were consistent only with the regulatory-fit account. Although stereotype threat significantly impaired older adults' working memory performance when remembering led to gains, it significantly improved performance when forgetting led to losses.

  5. Communal nesting, an early social enrichment, affects social competences but not learning and memory abilities at adulthood.

    PubMed

    D'Andrea, Ivana; Alleva, Enrico; Branchi, Igor

    2007-10-01

    We exposed mouse pups to an early social enrichment, the communal nest (CN), to study the effects of the early social experiences on adult brain function and behavior. CN, which consists of a single nest where three mothers keep their pups together and share care-giving behavior from birth to weaning (postnatal day 25), mimics the natural ecological niche of the mouse species. In order to better characterize the previously reported effect of CN on social behavior and to evaluate the extent to which the effects of the CN tend to be pervasive across different behavioral competences, we carried out both a detailed analysis of home-cage social behavior, taking into account the time of the day and absence/presence of an established social hierarchy, and of learning and memory abilities in the water maze. Home-cage observations revealed that, when the hierarchy is established, CN mice display higher levels of social investigation behavior, namely allogrooming and allosniffing, compared to mice reared in standard laboratory conditions (SN). However, when exposed to cage cleaning, a stimulus challenging social hierarchy, CN mice display higher levels of offensive behavior. In the water maze test, CN mice showed a performance similar to that of SN mice. Overall, the present findings confirm that CN mice have elaborate social competencies displaying high levels of aggressive behavior when needed to set up or defend their own territory. Furthermore, present data suggest that the early social enrichment specifically affect adult social behavior but not learning and memory abilities.

  6. Mechanisms underlying the social enhancement of vocal learning in songbirds.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yining; Matheson, Laura E; Sakata, Jon T

    2016-06-14

    Social processes profoundly influence speech and language acquisition. Despite the importance of social influences, little is known about how social interactions modulate vocal learning. Like humans, songbirds learn their vocalizations during development, and they provide an excellent opportunity to reveal mechanisms of social influences on vocal learning. Using yoked experimental designs, we demonstrate that social interactions with adult tutors for as little as 1 d significantly enhanced vocal learning. Social influences on attention to song seemed central to the social enhancement of learning because socially tutored birds were more attentive to the tutor's songs than passively tutored birds, and because variation in attentiveness and in the social modulation of attention significantly predicted variation in vocal learning. Attention to song was influenced by both the nature and amount of tutor song: Pupils paid more attention to songs that tutors directed at them and to tutors that produced fewer songs. Tutors altered their song structure when directing songs at pupils in a manner that resembled how humans alter their vocalizations when speaking to infants, that was distinct from how tutors changed their songs when singing to females, and that could influence attention and learning. Furthermore, social interactions that rapidly enhanced learning increased the activity of noradrenergic and dopaminergic midbrain neurons. These data highlight striking parallels between humans and songbirds in the social modulation of vocal learning and suggest that social influences on attention and midbrain circuitry could represent shared mechanisms underlying the social modulation of vocal learning.

  7. Mechanisms underlying the social enhancement of vocal learning in songbirds.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yining; Matheson, Laura E; Sakata, Jon T

    2016-06-14

    Social processes profoundly influence speech and language acquisition. Despite the importance of social influences, little is known about how social interactions modulate vocal learning. Like humans, songbirds learn their vocalizations during development, and they provide an excellent opportunity to reveal mechanisms of social influences on vocal learning. Using yoked experimental designs, we demonstrate that social interactions with adult tutors for as little as 1 d significantly enhanced vocal learning. Social influences on attention to song seemed central to the social enhancement of learning because socially tutored birds were more attentive to the tutor's songs than passively tutored birds, and because variation in attentiveness and in the social modulation of attention significantly predicted variation in vocal learning. Attention to song was influenced by both the nature and amount of tutor song: Pupils paid more attention to songs that tutors directed at them and to tutors that produced fewer songs. Tutors altered their song structure when directing songs at pupils in a manner that resembled how humans alter their vocalizations when speaking to infants, that was distinct from how tutors changed their songs when singing to females, and that could influence attention and learning. Furthermore, social interactions that rapidly enhanced learning increased the activity of noradrenergic and dopaminergic midbrain neurons. These data highlight striking parallels between humans and songbirds in the social modulation of vocal learning and suggest that social influences on attention and midbrain circuitry could represent shared mechanisms underlying the social modulation of vocal learning. PMID:27247385

  8. Social Support and Social Anxiety in Use and Perceptions of Online Mental Health Resources: Exploring Social Compensation and Enhancement.

    PubMed

    Ruppel, Erin K; McKinley, Christopher J

    2015-08-01

    This study used the frameworks of social compensation and social enhancement to examine how social anxiety and social support were related to college students' (N=443) use and perceptions of online mental health resources (Web sites and online support groups). Potential interactions between social support and social anxiety were also examined. Consistent with the social compensation hypothesis, perceived usefulness of Web sites was positively associated with social support. Perceived usefulness of online support groups was positively associated with social support when participants reported average or high, but not low, social anxiety. In contrast, previous use of Web sites was consistent with the social compensation hypothesis. Participants who reported less social support were more likely to have used a Web site for a mental or emotional problem. These findings suggest that college students' use and perceptions of online mental health resources vary as a function of social support and social anxiety, and that patterns suggestive of social compensation and social enhancement depend on whether perceptions or actual use of resources are examined. Combined with the significant interaction between social support and social anxiety on perceived usefulness of online support groups, these findings highlight the potential complexity of social compensation and enhancement phenomena.

  9. Memory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKean, Kevin

    1983-01-01

    Discusses current research (including that involving amnesiacs and snails) into the nature of the memory process, differentiating between and providing examples of "fact" memory and "skill" memory. Suggests that three brain parts (thalamus, fornix, mammilary body) are involved in the memory process. (JN)

  10. Children's memory distortions following social contact with a co-witness: disentangling social and cognitive mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Bright-Paul, Alexandra; Jarrold, Christopher; Wright, Daniel B; Guillaume, Stephanie

    2012-01-01

    This study examined whether recalling an event with a co-witness influences children's recall. Individual 3-5-year-olds (n = 48) watched a film with a co-witness. Unbeknown to participants, the co-witness was watching an alternative version of the film. Afterwards both the co-witness and the participant answered questions about the film together (public recall), and the degree to which children conformed to the co-witness's alternative version of events was measured. Subsequently participants were questioned again individually (private recall). Children also completed false belief and inhibitory control tasks. By separating errors made in public and private, the results indicated that both social conformity (32% of errors) and memory distortion (68% of errors) played a role in co-witness influence. Inhibitory control predicted the likelihood of retracting errors in private, but only for children who failed (r = .66) rather than passed false belief tasks (r = -.10). The results suggest that children with a theory of mind conform in the company of the co-witness to avoid social embarrassment, while those a poor theory of mind conform on the basis of an inability to inhibit the co-witness's response. The findings contribute to our understanding of the motivations responsible for co-witness conformity across early childhood.

  11. Enhancing Young Children's Social Competence: Enhance!/Social Competence Program (ESCP): A Field Developed Program for Children, Teachers and Parents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshall, H. M.; And Others

    This poster session report describes the Enhance!/Social Competence Program (ESCP), a program for preschoolers and kindergartners delayed in social competency and problem solving skills. ESCP is part of the Rochester Early Enhancement Program (REEP), a collaboration of agencies serving young children through prenatal education and services, home…

  12. A single bout of resistance exercise can enhance episodic memory performance

    PubMed Central

    Weinberg, Lisa; Hasni, Anita; Shinohara, Minoru; Duarte, Audrey

    2014-01-01

    Acute aerobic exercise can be beneficial to episodic memory. This benefit may occur because exercise produces a similar physiological response as physical stressors. When administered during consolidation, acute stress, both physical and psychological, consistently enhances episodic memory, particularly memory for emotional materials. Here we investigated whether a single bout of resistance exercise performed during consolidation can produce episodic memory benefits 48 hours later. We used a one-leg knee extension/flexion task for the resistance exercise. To assess the physiological response to the exercise, we measured salivary alpha amylase (a biomarker of central norepinephrine), heart rate, and blood pressure. To test emotional episodic memory, we used a remember-know recognition memory paradigm with equal numbers of positive, negative, and neutral IAPS images as stimuli. The group that performed the exercise, the active group, had higher overall recognition accuracy than the group that did not exercise, the passive group. We found a robust effect of valence across groups, with better performance on emotional items as compared to neutral items and no difference between positive and negative items. This effect changed based on the physiological response to the exercise. Within the active group, participants with a high physiological response to the exercise were impaired for neutral items as compared to participants with a low physiological response to the exercise. Our results demonstrate that a single bout of resistance exercise performed during consolidation can enhance episodic memory and that the effect of valence on memory depends on the physiological response to the exercise. PMID:25262058

  13. A single bout of resistance exercise can enhance episodic memory performance.

    PubMed

    Weinberg, Lisa; Hasni, Anita; Shinohara, Minoru; Duarte, Audrey

    2014-11-01

    Acute aerobic exercise can be beneficial to episodic memory. This benefit may occur because exercise produces a similar physiological response as physical stressors. When administered during consolidation, acute stress, both physical and psychological, consistently enhances episodic memory, particularly memory for emotional materials. Here we investigated whether a single bout of resistance exercise performed during consolidation can produce episodic memory benefits 48 h later. We used a one-leg knee extension/flexion task for the resistance exercise. To assess the physiological response to the exercise, we measured salivary alpha amylase (a biomarker of central norepinephrine), heart rate, and blood pressure. To test emotional episodic memory, we used a remember-know recognition memory paradigm with equal numbers of positive, negative, and neutral IAPS images as stimuli. The group that performed the exercise, the active group, had higher overall recognition accuracy than the group that did not exercise, the passive group. We found a robust effect of valence across groups, with better performance on emotional items as compared to neutral items and no difference between positive and negative items. This effect changed based on the physiological response to the exercise. Within the active group, participants with a high physiological response to the exercise were impaired for neutral items as compared to participants with a low physiological response to the exercise. Our results demonstrate that a single bout of resistance exercise performed during consolidation can enhance episodic memory and that the effect of valence on memory depends on the physiological response to the exercise. PMID:25262058

  14. A single bout of resistance exercise can enhance episodic memory performance.

    PubMed

    Weinberg, Lisa; Hasni, Anita; Shinohara, Minoru; Duarte, Audrey

    2014-11-01

    Acute aerobic exercise can be beneficial to episodic memory. This benefit may occur because exercise produces a similar physiological response as physical stressors. When administered during consolidation, acute stress, both physical and psychological, consistently enhances episodic memory, particularly memory for emotional materials. Here we investigated whether a single bout of resistance exercise performed during consolidation can produce episodic memory benefits 48 h later. We used a one-leg knee extension/flexion task for the resistance exercise. To assess the physiological response to the exercise, we measured salivary alpha amylase (a biomarker of central norepinephrine), heart rate, and blood pressure. To test emotional episodic memory, we used a remember-know recognition memory paradigm with equal numbers of positive, negative, and neutral IAPS images as stimuli. The group that performed the exercise, the active group, had higher overall recognition accuracy than the group that did not exercise, the passive group. We found a robust effect of valence across groups, with better performance on emotional items as compared to neutral items and no difference between positive and negative items. This effect changed based on the physiological response to the exercise. Within the active group, participants with a high physiological response to the exercise were impaired for neutral items as compared to participants with a low physiological response to the exercise. Our results demonstrate that a single bout of resistance exercise performed during consolidation can enhance episodic memory and that the effect of valence on memory depends on the physiological response to the exercise.

  15. Autobiographical Memory and Social Problem-Solving in Asperger Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goddard, Lorna; Howlin, Patricia; Dritschel, Barbara; Patel, Trishna

    2007-01-01

    Difficulties in social interaction are a central feature of Asperger syndrome. Effective social interaction involves the ability to solve interpersonal problems as and when they occur. Here we examined social problem-solving in a group of adults with Asperger syndrome and control group matched for age, gender and IQ. We also assessed…

  16. Adaptive Memory: Animacy Enhances Free Recall but Impairs Cued Recall

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Popp, Earl Y.; Serra, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    Recent research suggests that human memory systems evolved to remember animate things better than inanimate things. In the present experiments, we examined whether these effects occur for both free recall and cued recall. In Experiment 1, we directly compared the effect of animacy on free recall and cued recall. Participants studied lists of…

  17. Intersensory Redundancy Enhances Memory in Bobwhite Quail Embryos

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lickliter, Robert; Bahrick, Lorraine E.; Honeycutt, Hunter

    2004-01-01

    Information presented concurrently and redundantly to 2 or more senses (intersensory redundancy) has been shown to recruit attention and promote perceptual learning of amodal stimulus properties in animal embryos and human infants. This study examined whether the facilitative effect of intersensory redundancy also extends to the domain of memory.…

  18. Working Memory Enhances Visual Perception: Evidence from Signal Detection Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soto, David; Wriglesworth, Alice; Bahrami-Balani, Alex; Humphreys, Glyn W.

    2010-01-01

    We show that perceptual sensitivity to visual stimuli can be modulated by matches between the contents of working memory (WM) and stimuli in the visual field. Observers were presented with an object cue (to hold in WM or to merely attend) and subsequently had to identify a brief target presented within a colored shape. The cue could be…

  19. Estradiol enhances retention but not organization of hippocampus-dependent memory in intact male mice.

    PubMed

    Al Abed, Alice Shaam; Sellami, Azza; Brayda-Bruno, Laurent; Lamothe, Valérie; Noguès, Xavier; Potier, Mylène; Bennetau-Pelissero, Catherine; Marighetto, Aline

    2016-07-01

    Because estrogens have mostly been studied in gonadectomized females, effects of chronic exposure to environmental estrogens in the general population are underestimated. Estrogens can enhance hippocampus-dependent memory through the modulation of information storage. However, declarative memory, the hippocampus-dependent memory of facts and events, demands more than abilities to retain information. Specifically, memory of repetitive events of everyday life such as "where I parked" requires abilities to organize/update memories to prevent proactive interference from similar memories of previous "parking events". Whether such organizational processes are estrogen-sensitive is unknown. We here studied, in intact young and aged adult mice, drinking-water (1μM) estradiol effects on both retention and organizational components of hippocampus-dependent memory, using a radial-maze task of everyday-like memory. Demand on retention vs organization was manipulated by varying the time-interval separating repetitions of similar events. Estradiol increased performance in young and aged mice under minimized organizational demand, but failed to improve the age-associated memory impairment and diminished performance in young mice under high organizational demand. In fact, estradiol prolonged mnemonic retention of successive events without improving organization abilities, hence resulted in more proactive interference from irrelevant memories. c-Fos imaging of testing-induced brain activations showed that the deterioration of young memory was associated with dentate gyrus dysconnectivity, reminiscent of that seen in aged mice. Our findings support the view that estradiol is promnesic but also reveal that such property can paradoxically impair memory. These findings have important outcomes regarding health issues relative to the impact of environmental estrogens in the general population.

  20. Training Working Memory in Childhood Enhances Coupling between Frontoparietal Control Network and Task-Related Regions

    PubMed Central

    Barnes, Jessica J.; Nobre, Anna Christina; Woolrich, Mark W.; Baker, Kate

    2016-01-01

    Working memory is a capacity upon which many everyday tasks depend and which constrains a child's educational progress. We show that a child's working memory can be significantly enhanced by intensive computer-based training, relative to a placebo control intervention, in terms of both standardized assessments of working memory and performance on a working memory task performed in a magnetoencephalography scanner. Neurophysiologically, we identified significantly increased cross-frequency phase amplitude coupling in children who completed training. Following training, the coupling between the upper alpha rhythm (at 16 Hz), recorded in superior frontal and parietal cortex, became significantly coupled with high gamma activity (at ∼90 Hz) in inferior temporal cortex. This altered neural network activity associated with cognitive skill enhancement is consistent with a framework in which slower cortical rhythms enable the dynamic regulation of higher-frequency oscillatory activity related to task-related cognitive processes. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Whether we can enhance cognitive abilities through intensive training is one of the most controversial topics of cognitive psychology in recent years. This is particularly controversial in childhood, where aspects of cognition, such as working memory, are closely related to school success and are implicated in numerous developmental disorders. We provide the first neurophysiological account of how working memory training may enhance ability in childhood, using a brain recording technique called magnetoencephalography. We borrowed an analysis approach previously used with intracranial recordings in adults, or more typically in other animal models, called “phase amplitude coupling.” PMID:27559180

  1. Ventromedial prefrontal cortex stimulation enhances memory and hippocampal neurogenesis in the middle-aged rats

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Albert; Jain, Neeraj; Vyas, Ajai; Lim, Lee Wei

    2015-01-01

    Memory dysfunction is a key symptom of age-related dementia. Although recent studies have suggested positive effects of electrical stimulation for memory enhancement, its potential targets remain largely unknown. In this study, we hypothesized that spatially targeted deep brain stimulation of ventromedial prefrontal cortex enhanced memory functions in a middle-aged rat model. Our results show that acute stimulation enhanced the short-, but not the long-term memory in the novel-object recognition task. Interestingly, after chronic high-frequency stimulation, both the short- and long-term memories were robustly improved in the novel-object recognition test and Morris water-maze spatial task compared to sham. Our results also demonstrated that chronic ventromedial prefrontal cortex high-frequency stimulation upregulated neurogenesis-associated genes along with enhanced hippocampal cell proliferation. Importantly, these memory behaviors were strongly correlated with the hippocampal neurogenesis. Overall, these findings suggest that chronic ventromedial prefrontal cortex high-frequency stimulation may serve as a novel effective therapeutic target for dementia-related disorders. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.04803.001 PMID:25768425

  2. Factor structure of overall autobiographical memory usage: the directive, self and social functions revisited.

    PubMed

    Rasmussen, Anne S; Habermas, Tilmann

    2011-08-01

    According to theory, autobiographical memory serves three broad functions of overall usage: directive, self, and social. However, there is evidence to suggest that the tripartite model may be better conceptualised in terms of a four-factor model with two social functions. In the present study we examined the two models in Danish and German samples, using the Thinking About Life Experiences Questionnaire (TALE; Bluck, Alea, Habermas, & Rubin, 2005), which measures the overall usage of the three functions generalised across concrete memories. Confirmatory factor analysis supported the four-factor model and rejected the theoretical three-factor model in both samples. The results are discussed in relation to cultural differences in overall autobiographical memory usage as well as sharing versus non-sharing aspects of social remembering.

  3. Enhancing Classroom Effectiveness through Social Networking Tools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kurthakoti, Raghu; Boostrom, Robert E., Jr.; Summey, John H.; Campbell, David A.

    2013-01-01

    To determine the usefulness of social networking Web sites such as Ning.com as a communication tool in marketing courses, a study was designed with special concern for social network use in comparison to Blackboard. Students from multiple marketing courses were surveyed. Assessments of Ning.com and Blackboard were performed both to understand how…

  4. c-Fos expression predicts long-term social memory retrieval in mice.

    PubMed

    Lüscher Dias, Thomaz; Fernandes Golino, Hudson; Moura de Oliveira, Vinícius Elias; Dutra Moraes, Márcio Flávio; Schenatto Pereira, Grace

    2016-10-15

    The way the rodent brain generally processes socially relevant information is rather well understood. How social information is stored into long-term social memory, however, is still under debate. Here, brain c-Fos expression was measured after adult mice were exposed to familiar or novel juveniles and expression was compared in several memory and socially relevant brain areas. Machine Learning algorithm Random Forest was then used to predict the social interaction category of adult mice based on c-Fos expression in these areas. Interaction with a familiar co-specific altered brain activation in the olfactory bulb, amygdala, hippocampus, lateral septum and medial prefrontal cortex. Remarkably, Random Forest was able to predict interaction with a familiar juvenile with 100% accuracy. Activity in the olfactory bulb, amygdala, hippocampus and the medial prefrontal cortex were crucial to this prediction. From our results, we suggest long-term social memory depends on initial social olfactory processing in the medial amygdala and its output connections synergistically with non-social contextual integration by the hippocampus and medial prefrontal cortex top-down modulation of primary olfactory structures.

  5. c-Fos expression predicts long-term social memory retrieval in mice.

    PubMed

    Lüscher Dias, Thomaz; Fernandes Golino, Hudson; Moura de Oliveira, Vinícius Elias; Dutra Moraes, Márcio Flávio; Schenatto Pereira, Grace

    2016-10-15

    The way the rodent brain generally processes socially relevant information is rather well understood. How social information is stored into long-term social memory, however, is still under debate. Here, brain c-Fos expression was measured after adult mice were exposed to familiar or novel juveniles and expression was compared in several memory and socially relevant brain areas. Machine Learning algorithm Random Forest was then used to predict the social interaction category of adult mice based on c-Fos expression in these areas. Interaction with a familiar co-specific altered brain activation in the olfactory bulb, amygdala, hippocampus, lateral septum and medial prefrontal cortex. Remarkably, Random Forest was able to predict interaction with a familiar juvenile with 100% accuracy. Activity in the olfactory bulb, amygdala, hippocampus and the medial prefrontal cortex were crucial to this prediction. From our results, we suggest long-term social memory depends on initial social olfactory processing in the medial amygdala and its output connections synergistically with non-social contextual integration by the hippocampus and medial prefrontal cortex top-down modulation of primary olfactory structures. PMID:27449201

  6. Glucocorticoid enhancement of dorsolateral striatum-dependent habit memory requires concurrent noradrenergic activity.

    PubMed

    Goodman, J; Leong, K-C; Packard, M G

    2015-12-17

    Previous findings indicate that post-training administration of glucocorticoid stress hormones can interact with the noradrenergic system to enhance consolidation of hippocampus- or amygdala-dependent cognitive/emotional memory. The present experiments were designed to extend these findings by examining the potential interaction of glucocorticoid and noradrenergic mechanisms in enhancement of dorsolateral striatum (DLS)-dependent habit memory. In experiment 1, different groups of adult male Long-Evans rats received training in two DLS-dependent memory tasks. In a cued water maze task, rats were released from various start points and were reinforced to approach a visibly cued escape platform. In a response-learning version of the water plus-maze task, animals were released from opposite starting positions and were reinforced to make a consistent egocentric body-turn to reach a hidden escape platform. Immediately post-training, rats received peripheral injections of the glucocorticoid corticosterone (1 or 3 mg/kg) or vehicle solution. In both tasks, corticosterone (3 mg/kg) enhanced DLS-dependent habit memory. In experiment 2, a separate group of animals received training in the response learning version of the water plus-maze task and were given peripheral post-training injections of corticosterone (3 mg/kg), the β-adrenoreceptor antagonist propranolol (3 mg/kg), corticosterone and propranolol concurrently, or control vehicle solution. Corticosterone injections again enhanced DLS-dependent memory, and this effect was blocked by concurrent administration of propranolol. Propranolol administration by itself (3 mg/kg) did not influence DLS-dependent memory. Taken together, the findings indicate an interaction between glucocorticoid and noradrenergic mechanisms in DLS-dependent habit memory. Propranolol administration may be useful in treating stress-related human psychopathologies associated with a dysfunctional DLS-dependent habit memory system.

  7. Hippocampal neurogenesis enhancers promote forgetting of remote fear memory after hippocampal reactivation by retrieval

    PubMed Central

    Ishikawa, Rie; Fukushima, Hotaka; Frankland, Paul W; Kida, Satoshi

    2016-01-01

    Forgetting of recent fear memory is promoted by treatment with memantine (MEM), which increases hippocampal neurogenesis. The approaches for treatment of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) using rodent models have focused on the extinction and reconsolidation of recent, but not remote, memories. Here we show that, following prolonged re-exposure to the conditioning context, enhancers of hippocampal neurogenesis, including MEM, promote forgetting of remote contextual fear memory. However, these interventions are ineffective following shorter re-exposures. Importantly, we find that long, but not short re-exposures activate gene expression in the hippocampus and induce hippocampus-dependent reconsolidation of remote contextual fear memory. Furthermore, remote memory retrieval becomes hippocampus-dependent after the long-time recall, suggesting that remote fear memory returns to a hippocampus dependent state after the long-time recall, thereby allowing enhanced forgetting by increased hippocampal neurogenesis. Forgetting of traumatic memory may contribute to the development of PTSD treatment. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.17464.001

  8. Hippocampal neurogenesis enhancers promote forgetting of remote fear memory after hippocampal reactivation by retrieval

    PubMed Central

    Ishikawa, Rie; Fukushima, Hotaka; Frankland, Paul W; Kida, Satoshi

    2016-01-01

    Forgetting of recent fear memory is promoted by treatment with memantine (MEM), which increases hippocampal neurogenesis. The approaches for treatment of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) using rodent models have focused on the extinction and reconsolidation of recent, but not remote, memories. Here we show that, following prolonged re-exposure to the conditioning context, enhancers of hippocampal neurogenesis, including MEM, promote forgetting of remote contextual fear memory. However, these interventions are ineffective following shorter re-exposures. Importantly, we find that long, but not short re-exposures activate gene expression in the hippocampus and induce hippocampus-dependent reconsolidation of remote contextual fear memory. Furthermore, remote memory retrieval becomes hippocampus-dependent after the long-time recall, suggesting that remote fear memory returns to a hippocampus dependent state after the long-time recall, thereby allowing enhanced forgetting by increased hippocampal neurogenesis. Forgetting of traumatic memory may contribute to the development of PTSD treatment. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.17464.001 PMID:27669409

  9. Three-Dimensional Cellular Structures Enhanced By Shape Memory Alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nathal, Michael V.; Krause, David L.; Wilmoth, Nathan G.; Bednarcyk, Brett A.; Baker, Eric H.

    2014-01-01

    This research effort explored lightweight structural concepts married with advanced smart materials to achieve a wide variety of benefits in airframe and engine components. Lattice block structures were cast from an aerospace structural titanium alloy Ti-6Al-4V and a NiTi shape memory alloy (SMA), and preliminary properties have been measured. A finite element-based modeling approach that can rapidly and accurately capture the deformation response of lattice architectures was developed. The Ti-6-4 and SMA material behavior was calibrated via experimental tests of ligaments machined from the lattice. Benchmark testing of complete lattice structures verified the main aspects of the model as well as demonstrated the advantages of the lattice structure. Shape memory behavior of a sample machined from a lattice block was also demonstrated.

  10. Glucose Administration Enhances fMRI Brain Activation and Connectivity Related to Episodic Memory Encoding for Neutral and Emotional Stimuli

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parent, Marise B.; Krebs-Kraft, Desiree L.; Ryan, John P.; Wilson, Jennifer S.; Harenski, Carla; Hamann, Stephan

    2011-01-01

    Glucose enhances memory in a variety of species. In humans, glucose administration enhances episodic memory encoding, although little is known regarding the neural mechanisms underlying these effects. Here we examined whether elevating blood glucose would enhance functional MRI (fMRI) activation and connectivity in brain regions associated with…

  11. Retrieval practice enhances the accessibility but not the quality of memory.

    PubMed

    Sutterer, David W; Awh, Edward

    2016-06-01

    Numerous studies have demonstrated that retrieval from long-term memory (LTM) can enhance subsequent memory performance, a phenomenon labeled the retrieval practice effect. However, the almost exclusive reliance on categorical stimuli in this literature leaves open a basic question about the nature of this improvement in memory performance. It has not yet been determined whether retrieval practice improves the probability of successful memory retrieval or the quality of the retrieved representation. To answer this question, we conducted three experiments using a mixture modeling approach (Zhang & Luck, 2008) that provides a measure of both the probability of recall and the quality of the recalled memories. Subjects attempted to memorize the color of 400 unique shapes. After every 10 images were presented, subjects either recalled the last 10 colors (the retrieval practice condition) by clicking on a color wheel with each shape as a retrieval cue or they participated in a control condition that involved no further presentations (Experiment 1) or restudy of the 10 shape/color associations (Experiments 2 and 3). Performance in a subsequent delayed recall test revealed a robust retrieval practice effect. Subjects recalled a significantly higher proportion of items that they had previously retrieved relative to items that were untested or that they had restudied. Interestingly, retrieval practice did not elicit any improvement in the precision of the retrieved memories. The same empirical pattern also was observed following delays of greater than 24 hours. Thus, retrieval practice increases the probability of successful memory retrieval but does not improve memory quality.

  12. Short theta burst stimulation to left frontal cortex prior to encoding enhances subsequent recognition memory.

    PubMed

    Demeter, Elise; Mirdamadi, Jasmine L; Meehan, Sean K; Taylor, Stephan F

    2016-08-01

    Deep semantic encoding of verbal stimuli can aid in later successful retrieval of those stimuli from long-term episodic memory. Evidence from numerous neuropsychological and neuroimaging experiments demonstrate regions in left prefrontal cortex, including left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), are important for processes related to encoding. Here, we investigated the relationship between left DLPFC activity during encoding and successful subsequent memory with transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). In a pair of experiments using a 2-session within-subjects design, we stimulated either left DLPFC or a control region (Vertex) with a single 2-s train of short theta burst stimulation (sTBS) during a semantic encoding task and then gave participants a recognition memory test. We found that subsequent memory was enhanced on the day left DLPFC was stimulated, relative to the day Vertex was stimulated, and that DLPFC stimulation also increased participants' confidence in their decisions during the recognition task. We also explored the time course of how long the effects of sTBS persisted. Our data suggest 2 s of sTBS to left DLPFC is capable of enhancing subsequent memory for items encoded up to 15 s following stimulation. Collectively, these data demonstrate sTBS is capable of enhancing long-term memory and provide evidence that TBS protocols are a potentially powerful tool for modulating cognitive function.

  13. Short theta burst stimulation to left frontal cortex prior to encoding enhances subsequent recognition memory.

    PubMed

    Demeter, Elise; Mirdamadi, Jasmine L; Meehan, Sean K; Taylor, Stephan F

    2016-08-01

    Deep semantic encoding of verbal stimuli can aid in later successful retrieval of those stimuli from long-term episodic memory. Evidence from numerous neuropsychological and neuroimaging experiments demonstrate regions in left prefrontal cortex, including left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), are important for processes related to encoding. Here, we investigated the relationship between left DLPFC activity during encoding and successful subsequent memory with transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). In a pair of experiments using a 2-session within-subjects design, we stimulated either left DLPFC or a control region (Vertex) with a single 2-s train of short theta burst stimulation (sTBS) during a semantic encoding task and then gave participants a recognition memory test. We found that subsequent memory was enhanced on the day left DLPFC was stimulated, relative to the day Vertex was stimulated, and that DLPFC stimulation also increased participants' confidence in their decisions during the recognition task. We also explored the time course of how long the effects of sTBS persisted. Our data suggest 2 s of sTBS to left DLPFC is capable of enhancing subsequent memory for items encoded up to 15 s following stimulation. Collectively, these data demonstrate sTBS is capable of enhancing long-term memory and provide evidence that TBS protocols are a potentially powerful tool for modulating cognitive function. PMID:27098772

  14. Maintaining vs. enhancing motor sequence memories: respective roles of striatal and hippocampal systems.

    PubMed

    Albouy, Genevieve; Fogel, Stuart; King, Bradley R; Laventure, Samuel; Benali, Habib; Karni, Avi; Carrier, Julie; Robertson, Edwin M; Doyon, Julien

    2015-03-01

    It is now accepted that hippocampal- and striatal-dependent memory systems do not act independently, but rather interact during both memory acquisition and consolidation. However, the respective functional roles of the hippocampus and the striatum in these processes remain unknown. Here, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was used in a daytime sleep/wake protocol to investigate this knowledge gap. Using a protocol developed earlier in our lab (Albouy et al., 2013a), the manipulation of an explicit sequential finger-tapping task, allowed us to isolate allocentric (spatial) and egocentric (motor) representations of the sequence, which were supported by distinct hippocampo- and striato-cortical networks, respectively. Importantly, a sleep-dependent performance enhancement emerged for the hippocampal-dependent memory trace, whereas performance was maintained for the striatal-dependent memory trace, irrespective of the sleep condition. Regression analyses indicated that the interaction between these two systems influenced subsequent performance improvements. While striatal activity was negatively correlated with performance enhancement after both sleep and wakefulness in the allocentric representation, hippocampal activity was positively related to performance improvement for the egocentric representation, but only if sleep was allowed after training. Our results provide the first direct evidence of a functional dissociation in consolidation processes whereby memory stabilization seems supported by the striatum in a time-dependent manner whereas memory enhancement seems linked to hippocampal activity and sleep-dependent processes.

  15. Role of Acid Sphingomyelinase in the Regulation of Social Behavior and Memory.

    PubMed

    Zoicas, Iulia; Reichel, Martin; Gulbins, Erich; Kornhuber, Johannes

    2016-01-01

    Major depressive disorder is often associated with deficits in social and cognitive functioning. Mice transgenic for acid sphingomyelinase (t-ASM) were previously shown to have a depressive-like phenotype, which could be normalized by antidepressant treatment. Here, we investigated whether t-ASM mice show deficits in social behavior and memory performance, and whether these possible deficits might be normalized by amitriptyline treatment. Our results revealed that ASM overexpression altered the behavior of mice in a sex-dependent manner. As such, t-ASM female, but not male, mice showed an impaired social preference and a depressive- and anxiogenic-like phenotype, which could be normalized by amitriptyline treatment. Both male and female t-ASM mice showed unaltered preference for social novelty, novel object recognition, and social and object discrimination abilities. Amitriptyline treatment impaired novel object recognition and object discrimination abilities in female, but not in male, wild-type mice, while female t-ASM mice showed unaltered novel object recognition and object discrimination abilities. This study suggests that female t-ASM mice represent a model of depression with comorbid anxiety and social deficits, without memory impairments. It further suggests that ASM overexpression has a protective role against the detrimental effects of amitriptyline on female, but not on male, non-social (object) memory. PMID:27598773

  16. Role of Acid Sphingomyelinase in the Regulation of Social Behavior and Memory

    PubMed Central

    Zoicas, Iulia; Reichel, Martin; Gulbins, Erich; Kornhuber, Johannes

    2016-01-01

    Major depressive disorder is often associated with deficits in social and cognitive functioning. Mice transgenic for acid sphingomyelinase (t-ASM) were previously shown to have a depressive-like phenotype, which could be normalized by antidepressant treatment. Here, we investigated whether t-ASM mice show deficits in social behavior and memory performance, and whether these possible deficits might be normalized by amitriptyline treatment. Our results revealed that ASM overexpression altered the behavior of mice in a sex-dependent manner. As such, t-ASM female, but not male, mice showed an impaired social preference and a depressive- and anxiogenic-like phenotype, which could be normalized by amitriptyline treatment. Both male and female t-ASM mice showed unaltered preference for social novelty, novel object recognition, and social and object discrimination abilities. Amitriptyline treatment impaired novel object recognition and object discrimination abilities in female, but not in male, wild-type mice, while female t-ASM mice showed unaltered novel object recognition and object discrimination abilities. This study suggests that female t-ASM mice represent a model of depression with comorbid anxiety and social deficits, without memory impairments. It further suggests that ASM overexpression has a protective role against the detrimental effects of amitriptyline on female, but not on male, non-social (object) memory. PMID:27598773

  17. Post-learning stress enhances long-term memory and differentially influences memory in females depending on menstrual stage.

    PubMed

    Zoladz, Phillip R; Peters, David M; Cadle, Chelsea E; Kalchik, Andrea E; Aufdenkampe, Rachael L; Dailey, Alison M; Brown, Callie M; Scharf, Amanda R; Earley, McKenna B; Knippen, Courtney L; Rorabaugh, Boyd R

    2015-09-01

    Most work has shown that post-learning stress enhances long-term memory; however, there have been recent inconsistencies in this literature. The purpose of the present study was to examine further the effects of post-learning stress on long-term memory and to explore any sex differences that may exist. Male and female participants learned a list of 42 words that varied in emotional valence and arousal level. Following encoding, participants completed a free recall assessment and then submerged their hand into a bath of ice cold (stress) or lukewarm (no stress) water for 3 min. The next day, participants were given free recall and recognition tests. Stressed participants recalled more words than non-stressed participants 24h after learning. Stress also enhanced female participants' recall of arousing words when they were in the follicular, but not luteal, phase. These findings replicate previous work examining post-learning stress effects on memory and implicate the involvement of sex-related hormones in such effects. PMID:26233730

  18. Post-learning stress enhances long-term memory and differentially influences memory in females depending on menstrual stage.

    PubMed

    Zoladz, Phillip R; Peters, David M; Cadle, Chelsea E; Kalchik, Andrea E; Aufdenkampe, Rachael L; Dailey, Alison M; Brown, Callie M; Scharf, Amanda R; Earley, McKenna B; Knippen, Courtney L; Rorabaugh, Boyd R

    2015-09-01

    Most work has shown that post-learning stress enhances long-term memory; however, there have been recent inconsistencies in this literature. The purpose of the present study was to examine further the effects of post-learning stress on long-term memory and to explore any sex differences that may exist. Male and female participants learned a list of 42 words that varied in emotional valence and arousal level. Following encoding, participants completed a free recall assessment and then submerged their hand into a bath of ice cold (stress) or lukewarm (no stress) water for 3 min. The next day, participants were given free recall and recognition tests. Stressed participants recalled more words than non-stressed participants 24h after learning. Stress also enhanced female participants' recall of arousing words when they were in the follicular, but not luteal, phase. These findings replicate previous work examining post-learning stress effects on memory and implicate the involvement of sex-related hormones in such effects.

  19. Positive modulation of a neutral declarative memory by a threatening social event.

    PubMed

    Fernández, Rodrigo S; Bavassi, Luz; Campos, Jorge; Allegri, Ricardo F; Molina, Victor A; Forcato, Cecilia; Pedreira, María E

    2015-12-01

    Memories can be altered by negative or arousing experiences due to the activation of the stress-responsive sympatho-adrenal-medullary axis (SYM). Here, we used a neutral declarative memory that was acquired during multi-trial training to determine the effect of a threatening event on memory without emotional valence. To this end, participants received a new threatening social protocol before learning pairs of meaningless syllables and were tested either 15 min, 2 days or 8 days after acquisition. We first demonstrated that this threatening social situation activates not only the SYM axis (Experiment 1) and the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA; Experiment 2), but also, it improves the acquisition or early consolidation of the syllable pairs (Experiment 3). This improvement is not a transient effect; it can be observed after the memory is consolidated. Furthermore, this modulation increases the persistence of memory (Experiment 4). Thus, it is possible to affect memories with specific events that contain unrelated content and a different valence.

  20. Time-dependent enhancement of hippocampus-dependent memory after treatment with memantine: Implications for enhanced hippocampal adult neurogenesis.

    PubMed

    Ishikawa, Rie; Kim, Ryang; Namba, Takashi; Kohsaka, Shinichi; Uchino, Shigeo; Kida, Satoshi

    2014-07-01

    Adult hippocampal neurogenesis has been suggested to play modulatory roles in learning and memory. Importantly, previous studies have shown that newborn neurons in the adult hippocampus are integrated into the dentate gyrus circuit and are recruited more efficiently into the hippocampal memory trace of mice when they become 3 weeks old. Interestingly, a single high-dose treatment with the N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor antagonist memantine (MEM) has been shown to increase hippocampal neurogenesis dramatically by promoting cell proliferation. In the present study, to understand the impact of increased adult neurogenesis on memory performance, we examined the effects of a single treatment of MEM on hippocampus-dependent memory in mice. Interestingly, mice treated with MEM showed an improvement of hippocampus-dependent spatial and social recognition memories when they were trained and tested at 3-6 weeks, but not at 3 days or 4 months, after treatment with MEM. Importantly, we observed a significant positive correlation between the scores for spatial memory (probe trial in the Morris water maze task) and the number of young mature neurons (3 weeks old) in MEM-treated mice, but not saline-treated mice. We also observed that the young mature neurons generated by treatment with MEM were recruited into the trace of spatial memory similarly to those generated through endogenous neurogenesis. Taken together, our observations suggest that treatment with MEM temporally improves hippocampus-dependent memory formation and that the newborn neurons increased by treatment with MEM contribute to this improvement when they become 3 weeks old.

  1. Deletion of Glutamate Delta-1 Receptor in Mouse Leads to Enhanced Working Memory and Deficit in Fear Conditioning

    PubMed Central

    Yadav, Roopali; Hillman, Brandon G.; Gupta, Subhash C.; Suryavanshi, Pratyush; Bhatt, Jay M.; Pavuluri, Ratnamala; Stairs, Dustin J.; Dravid, Shashank M.

    2013-01-01

    Glutamate delta-1 (GluD1) receptors are expressed throughout the forebrain during development with high levels in the hippocampus during adulthood. We have recently shown that deletion of GluD1 receptor results in aberrant emotional and social behaviors such as hyperaggression and depression-like behaviors and social interaction deficits. Additionally, abnormal expression of synaptic proteins was observed in amygdala and prefrontal cortex of GluD1 knockout mice (GluD1 KO). However the role of GluD1 in learning and memory paradigms remains unknown. In the present study we evaluated GluD1 KO in learning and memory tests. In the eight-arm radial maze GluD1 KO mice committed fewer working memory errors compared to wildtype mice but had normal reference memory. Enhanced working memory in GluD1 KO was also evident by greater percent alternation in the spontaneous Y-maze test. No difference was observed in object recognition memory in the GluD1 KO mice. In the Morris water maze test GluD1 KO mice showed no difference in acquisition but had longer latency to find the platform in the reversal learning task. GluD1 KO mice showed a deficit in contextual and cue fear conditioning but had normal latent inhibition. The deficit in contextual fear conditioning was reversed by D-Cycloserine (DCS) treatment. GluD1 KO mice were also found to be more sensitive to foot-shock compared to wildtype. We further studied molecular changes in the hippocampus, where we found lower levels of GluA1, GluA2 and GluK2 subunits while a contrasting higher level of GluN2B in GluD1 KO. Additionally, we found higher postsynaptic density protein 95 (PSD95) and lower glutamate decarboxylase 67 (GAD67) expression in GluD1 KO. We propose that GluD1 is crucial for normal functioning of synapses and absence of GluD1 leads to specific abnormalities in learning and memory. These findings provide novel insights into the role of GluD1 receptors in the central nervous system. PMID:23560106

  2. The influence of eating psychopathology on autobiographical memory specificity and social problem-solving.

    PubMed

    Ridout, Nathan; Matharu, Munveen; Sanders, Elizabeth; Wallis, Deborah J

    2015-08-30

    The primary aim was to examine the influence of subclinical disordered eating on autobiographical memory specificity (AMS) and social problem solving (SPS). A further aim was to establish if AMS mediated the relationship between eating psychopathology and SPS. A non-clinical sample of 52 females completed the autobiographical memory test (AMT), where they were asked to retrieve specific memories of events from their past in response to cue words, and the means-end problem-solving task (MEPS), where they were asked to generate means of solving a series of social problems. Participants also completed the Eating Disorders Inventory (EDI) and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. After controlling for mood, high scores on the EDI subscales, particularly Drive-for-Thinness, were associated with the retrieval of fewer specific and a greater proportion of categorical memories on the AMT and with the generation of fewer and less effective means on the MEPS. Memory specificity fully mediated the relationship between eating psychopathology and SPS. These findings have implications for individuals exhibiting high levels of disordered eating, as poor AMS and SPS are likely to impact negatively on their psychological wellbeing and everyday social functioning and could represent a risk factor for the development of clinically significant eating disorders.

  3. Enhancing Social Presence in Online Learning: Mediation Strategies Applied to Social Networking Tools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joyce, Kristopher M.; Brown, Abbie

    2009-01-01

    An exploration of the mediation strategies applied to social networking tools for purposes of enhancing social presence for students participating in online course work. The article includes a review of the literature, specific examples from the authors' professional practice and recommendations for creating a positive social experience for online…

  4. Dehydroepiandosterone and its sulphate enhance memory retention in day-old chicks.

    PubMed

    Migues, P V; Johnston, A N B; Rose, S P R

    2002-01-01

    We report the presence of dehydroepiandosterone (DHEA) and DHEA sulphate (DHEA-S) in the day-old-chick brain, and their possible role in memory formation. DHEA and DHEA-S were present in the brain at higher concentrations than in the plasma. Radioimmunoassay examination of the intermediate medial hyperstriatum ventrale 5 or 30 min after training or the lobus parolfactorius 60 or 120 min after training on the passive avoidance task did not show learning-related differences in absolute levels of DHEA or DHEA-S. However, bilateral intracerebral injections of DHEA or DHEA-S before or after training on the weak passive avoidance task enhanced recall 24 h after training. Memory retention was enhanced by administration of DHEA and DHEA-S 15 min before training or 30 and 60 but not 180 min after training. Neurosteroids are present in high concentrations in regions of the chick brain known to be associated with learning and memory for an aversive one-trial task. Our study demonstrates that memory retention for this task is enhanced by administration of the neurosteroids DHEA-S and DHEA. These findings provide additional evidence that these neurosteroids have memory-enhancing properties and, thus, if common to other tasks and species, that DHEA-S and DHEA may constitute potential therapeutic tools for the treatment of cognitive deficits.

  5. Post-Training Intrahippocampal Inhibition of Class I Histone Deacetylases Enhances Long-Term Object-Location Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawk, Joshua D.; Florian, Cedrick; Abel, Ted

    2011-01-01

    Long-term memory formation involves covalent modification of the histone proteins that package DNA. Reducing histone acetylation by mutating histone acetyltransferases impairs long-term memory, and enhancing histone acetylation by inhibiting histone deacetylases (HDACs) improves long-term memory. Previous studies using HDAC inhibitors to enhance…

  6. Enhancing Formal E-Learning with Edutainment on Social Networks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Labus, A.; Despotovic-Zrakic, M.; Radenkovic, B.; Bogdanovic, Z.; Radenkovic, M.

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports on the investigation of the possibilities of enhancing the formal e-learning process by harnessing the potential of informal game-based learning on social networks. The goal of the research is to improve the outcomes of the formal learning process through the design and implementation of an educational game on a social network…

  7. Enhancing a declarative memory in humans: the effect of clonazepam on reconsolidation.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, M L C; Campos, J; Forcato, C; Leiguarda, R; Maldonado, H; Molina, V A; Pedreira, M E

    2013-01-01

    A consolidated memory recalled by a specific reminder can become unstable (labile) and susceptible to facilitation or impairment for a discrete period of time. This labilization phase is followed by a process of stabilization called reconsolidation. The phenomenon has been shown in diverse types of memory, and different pharmacological agents have been used to disclose its presence. Several studies have revealed the relevance of the GABAergic system to this process. Consequently, our hypothesis is that the system is involved in the reconsolidation of declarative memory in humans. Thus, using our verbal learning task, we analyzed the effect of benzodiazepines on the re-stabilization of the declarative memory. On Day 1, volunteers learned an association between five cue- response-syllables. On Day 2, the verbal memory was labilized by a reminder presentation, and then a placebo capsule or 0.25 mg or 0.03 mg of clonazepam was administered to the subjects. The verbal memory was evaluated on Day 3. The volunteers who had received the 0.25 mg clonazepam along with the specific reminder on Day 2, exhibited memory improvement. In contrast, there was no effect when the drug was given without retrieval, when the memory was simply retrieved instead of being reactivated or when short-term memory testing was performed 4 h after reactivation. We discuss the GABAergic role in reconsolidation, which shows a collateral effect on other memories when the treatment is aimed at treating anxiety disorders. Further studies might elucidate the role of GABA in the reconsolidation process associated with dissimilar scenarios. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'Cognitive Enhancers'.

  8. Animal model of methylphenidate's long-term memory-enhancing effects.

    PubMed

    Carmack, Stephanie A; Howell, Kristin K; Rasaei, Kleou; Reas, Emilie T; Anagnostaras, Stephan G

    2014-01-16

    Methylphenidate (MPH), introduced more than 60 years ago, accounts for two-thirds of current prescriptions for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Although many studies have modeled MPH's effect on executive function, almost none have directly modeled its effect on long-term memory (LTM), even though improvement in LTM is a critical target of therapeutic intervention in ADHD. We examined the effects of a wide range of doses of MPH (0.01-10 mg/kg, i.p.) on Pavlovian fear learning, a leading model of memory. MPH's effects were then compared to those of atomoxetine (0.1-10 mg/kg, i.p.), bupropion (0.5-20 mg/kg, i.p.), and citalopram (0.01-10 mg/kg, i.p.). At low, clinically relevant doses, MPH enhanced fear memory; at high doses it impaired memory. MPH's memory-enhancing effects were not confounded by its effects on locomotion or anxiety. Further, MPH-induced memory enhancement seemed to require both dopamine and norepinephrine transporter inhibition. Finally, the addictive potential of MPH (1 mg/kg and 10 mg/kg) was compared to those of two other psychostimulants, amphetamine (0.005 mg/kg and 1.5 mg/kg) and cocaine (0.15 mg/kg and 15 mg/kg), using a conditioned place preference and behavioral sensitization paradigm. We found that memory-enhancing effects of psychostimulants observed at low doses are readily dissociable from their reinforcing and locomotor activating effects at high doses. Together, our data suggest that fear conditioning will be an especially fruitful platform for modeling the effects of psychostimulants on LTM in drug development.

  9. Animal model of methylphenidate's long-term memory-enhancing effects

    PubMed Central

    Carmack, Stephanie A.; Howell, Kristin K.; Rasaei, Kleou; Reas, Emilie T.; Anagnostaras, Stephan G.

    2014-01-01

    Methylphenidate (MPH), introduced more than 60 years ago, accounts for two-thirds of current prescriptions for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Although many studies have modeled MPH's effect on executive function, almost none have directly modeled its effect on long-term memory (LTM), even though improvement in LTM is a critical target of therapeutic intervention in ADHD. We examined the effects of a wide range of doses of MPH (0.01–10 mg/kg, i.p.) on Pavlovian fear learning, a leading model of memory. MPH's effects were then compared to those of atomoxetine (0.1–10 mg/kg, i.p.), bupropion (0.5–20 mg/kg, i.p.), and citalopram (0.01–10 mg/kg, i.p.). At low, clinically relevant doses, MPH enhanced fear memory; at high doses it impaired memory. MPH's memory-enhancing effects were not confounded by its effects on locomotion or anxiety. Further, MPH-induced memory enhancement seemed to require both dopamine and norepinephrine transporter inhibition. Finally, the addictive potential of MPH (1 mg/kg and 10 mg/kg) was compared to those of two other psychostimulants, amphetamine (0.005 mg/kg and 1.5 mg/kg) and cocaine (0.15 mg/kg and 15 mg/kg), using a conditioned place preference and behavioral sensitization paradigm. We found that memory-enhancing effects of psychostimulants observed at low doses are readily dissociable from their reinforcing and locomotor activating effects at high doses. Together, our data suggest that fear conditioning will be an especially fruitful platform for modeling the effects of psychostimulants on LTM in drug development. PMID:24434869

  10. Self-Referenced Memory, Social Cognition, and Symptom Presentation in Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henderson, Heather A.; Zahka, Nicole E.; Kojkowski, Nicole M.; Inge, Anne P.; Schwartz, Caley B.; Hileman, Camilla M.; Coman, Drew C.; Mundy, Peter C.

    2009-01-01

    Background: We examined performance on a self-referenced memory (SRM) task for higher-functioning children with autism (HFA) and a matched comparison group. SRM performance was examined in relation to symptom severity and social cognitive tests of mentalizing. Method: Sixty-two children (31 HFA, 31 comparison; 8-16 years) completed a SRM task in…

  11. Age Differences in Children's Memory of Information about Aggressive, Socially Withdrawn, and Prosociable Boys and Girls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bukowski, William M.

    1990-01-01

    In two studies, second and sixth graders heard descriptions of hypothetical boys and girls who were either aggressive, socially withdrawn, or prosociable. Subjects' memories of items in the descriptions were assessed. Results indicated that school-age and early adolescent children's recall of information about a peer is affected by the peer's…

  12. Enhancing Social Studies Instruction through Consumer Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rader, William D.

    The document contains theoretical and practical information to aid social studies classroom teachers as they develop and implement consumer education programs. The monograph is presented in three major sections. Section I illustrates the kinds of theoretical content the author believes are appropriate for a school consumer education program.…

  13. Social contagion of correct and incorrect information in memory.

    PubMed

    Rush, Ryan A; Clark, Steven E

    2014-01-01

    The present study examines how discussion between individuals regarding a shared memory affects their subsequent individual memory reports. In three experiments pairs of participants recalled items from photographs of common household scenes, discussed their recall with each other, and then recalled the items again individually. Results showed that after the discussion. individuals recalled more correct items and more incorrect items, with very small non-significant increases, or no change, in recall accuracy. The information people were exposed to during the discussion was generally accurate, although not as accurate as individuals' initial recall. Individuals incorporated correct exposure items into their subsequent recall at a higher rate than incorrect exposure items. Participants who were initially more accurate became less accurate, and initially less-accurate participants became more accurate as a result of their discussion. Comparisons to no-discussion control groups suggest that the effects were not simply the product of repeated recall opportunities or self-cueing, but rather reflect the transmission of information between individuals.

  14. Enhanced memory effect with embedded graphene nanoplatelets in ZnO charge trapping layer

    SciTech Connect

    El-Atab, Nazek; Nayfeh, Ammar; Cimen, Furkan; Alkis, Sabri; Okyay, Ali K.

    2014-07-21

    A charge trapping memory with graphene nanoplatelets embedded in atomic layer deposited ZnO (GNIZ) is demonstrated. The memory shows a large threshold voltage V{sub t} shift (4 V) at low operating voltage (6/−6 V), good retention (>10 yr), and good endurance characteristic (>10{sup 4} cycles). This memory performance is compared to control devices with graphene nanoplatelets (or ZnO) and a thicker tunnel oxide. These structures showed a reduced V{sub t} shift and retention characteristic. The GNIZ structure allows for scaling down the tunnel oxide thickness along with improving the memory window and retention of data. The larger V{sub t} shift indicates that the ZnO adds available trap states and enhances the emission and retention of charges. The charge emission mechanism in the memory structures with graphene nanoplatelets at an electric field E ≥ 5.57 MV/cm is found to be based on Fowler-Nordheim tunneling. The fabrication of this memory device is compatible with current semiconductor processing, therefore, has great potential in low-cost nano-memory applications.

  15. Medial temporal theta/alpha power enhancement precedes successful memory encoding: evidence based on intracranial EEG.

    PubMed

    Fell, Juergen; Ludowig, Eva; Staresina, Bernhard P; Wagner, Tobias; Kranz, Thorsten; Elger, Christian E; Axmacher, Nikolai

    2011-04-01

    Not only poststimulus, but also prestimulus neural activity has been shown to be predictive for later successful memory encoding. However, it is still not clear which medial temporal lobe processes precede effective memory formation. Here, our aim was to investigate whether such prestimulus markers for successful memory encoding can be specified based on intracranial recordings directly from the hippocampus and rhinal cortex. For this purpose, we analyzed subsequent memory effects during a continuous word recognition paradigm in 31 presurgical epilepsy patients. We found that rhinal and hippocampal theta and successive alpha power enhancement before word presentation predicted successful memory encoding. Previous studies suggest that stimulus-triggered hippocampal theta activity is particularly related to memory retrieval and activation of a mnemonic context, whereas the alpha rhythm reflects inhibitory top-down control of task processing and executive functioning. In line with these suggestions, we propose that the observed medial temporal theta and alpha power increases before stimulus presentation reflect activation of contextual information and inhibitory top-down control processes preparing for stimulus-triggered memory processing.

  16. Role of Glia in Stress-Induced Enhancement and Impairment of Memory

    PubMed Central

    Pearson-Leary, Jiah; Osborne, Danielle Maria; McNay, Ewan C.

    2016-01-01

    Both acute and chronic stress profoundly affect hippocampally-dependent learning and memory: moderate stress generally enhances, while chronic or extreme stress can impair, neural and cognitive processes. Within the brain, stress elevates both norepinephrine and glucocorticoids, and both affect several genomic and signaling cascades responsible for modulating memory strength. Memories formed at times of stress can be extremely strong, yet stress can also impair memory to the point of amnesia. Often overlooked in consideration of the impact of stress on cognitive processes, and specifically memory, is the important contribution of glia as a target for stress-induced changes. Astrocytes, microglia, and oligodendrocytes all have unique contributions to learning and memory. Furthermore, these three types of glia express receptors for both norepinephrine and glucocorticoids and are hence immediate targets of stress hormone actions. It is becoming increasingly clear that inflammatory cytokines and immunomodulatory molecules released by glia during stress may promote many of the behavioral effects of acute and chronic stress. In this review, the role of traditional genomic and rapid hormonal mechanisms working in concert with glia to affect stress-induced learning and memory will be emphasized. PMID:26793072

  17. Oroxylin A enhances memory consolidation through the brain-derived neurotrophic factor in mice.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dong Hyun; Lee, Younghwan; Lee, Hyung Eun; Park, Se Jin; Jeon, Su Jin; Jeon, Se Jin; Cheong, Jae Hoon; Shin, Chan Young; Son, Kun Ho; Ryu, Jong Hoon

    2014-09-01

    Memory consolidation is a process by which acquired information is transformed from a labile into a more stable state that can be retrieved at a later time. In the present study, we investigated the role of oroxylin A on the memory consolidation process in mice. Oroxylin A improved the memory retention administered at 0 h, 1 h and 3 h after training in a passive avoidance task, suggesting that oroxylin A facilitates memory consolidation. Oroxylin A increased mature brain-derived neurotrophic factor (mBDNF) levels in the hippocampus from 6h to 24h after administration. Moreover, 3h post-training administration of oroxylin A enhanced the mBDNF level at 9h after the acquisition trial compared to the level at 6h after the acquisition trial. However, 6h post-training administration of oroxylin A did not increase the mBDNF level at 9h after the acquisition trial. Blocking mBDNF signaling with recombinant tropomyosin receptor kinase B (TrkB)-Fc or k252a at 9h after the acquisition trial obstructed the effect of oroxylin A on memory consolidation. Taken together, our data suggest that oroxylin A facilitates memory consolidation through BDNF-TrkB signaling and confirms that the increase of BDNF in a specific time window plays a crucial role in memory consolidation.

  18. On the flexibility of social source memory: a test of the emotional incongruity hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Bell, Raoul; Buchner, Axel; Kroneisen, Meike; Giang, Trang

    2012-11-01

    A popular hypothesis in evolutionary psychology posits that reciprocal altruism is supported by a cognitive module that helps cooperative individuals to detect and remember cheaters. Consistent with this hypothesis, a source memory advantage for faces of cheaters (better memory for the cheating context in which these faces were encountered) was observed in previous studies. Here, we examined whether positive or negative expectancies would influence source memory for cheaters and cooperators. A cooperation task with virtual opponents was used in Experiments 1 and 2. Source memory for the emotionally incongruent information was enhanced relative to the congruent information: In Experiment 1, source memory was best for cheaters with likable faces and for cooperators with unlikable faces; in Experiment 2, source memory was better for smiling cheater faces than for smiling cooperator faces, and descriptively better for angry cooperator faces than for angry cheater faces. Experiments 3 and 4 showed that the emotional incongruity effect generalizes to 3rd-party reputational information (descriptions of cheating and trustworthy behavior). The results are inconsistent with the assumption of a highly specific cheater detection module. Focusing on expectancy-incongruent information may represent a more efficient, general, and hence more adaptive memory strategy for remembering exchange-relevant information than focusing only on cheaters.

  19. Review: Modulating the unfolded protein response to prevent neurodegeneration and enhance memory

    PubMed Central

    Halliday, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Recent evidence has placed the unfolded protein response (UPR) at the centre of pathological processes leading to neurodegenerative disease. The translational repression caused by UPR activation starves neurons of the essential proteins they need to function and survive. Restoration of protein synthesis, via genetic or pharmacological means, is neuroprotective in animal models, prolonging survival. This is of great interest due to the observation of UPR activation in the post mortem brains of patients with Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, tauopathies and prion diseases. Protein synthesis is also an essential step in the formation of new memories. Restoring translation in disease or increasing protein synthesis from basal levels has been shown to improve memory in numerous models. As neurodegenerative diseases often present with memory impairments, targeting the UPR to both provide neuroprotection and enhance memory provides an extremely exciting novel therapeutic target. PMID:25556298

  20. Emotion regulation strategies that promote learning: reappraisal enhances children's memory for educational information.

    PubMed

    Davis, Elizabeth L; Levine, Linda J

    2013-01-01

    The link between emotion regulation and academic achievement is well documented. Less is known about specific emotion regulation strategies that promote learning. Six- to 13-year-olds (N = 126) viewed a sad film and were instructed to reappraise the importance, reappraise the outcome, or ruminate about the sad events; another group received no regulation instructions. Children viewed an educational film, and memory for this was later assessed. As predicted, reappraisal strategies more effectively attenuated children's self-reported emotional processing. Reappraisal enhanced memory for educational details relative to no instructions. Rumination did not lead to differences in memory from the other instructions. Memory benefits of effective instructions were pronounced for children with poorer emotion regulation skill, suggesting the utility of reappraisal in learning contexts.

  1. More Memory Bang for the Attentional Buck: Self-Protection Goals Enhance Encoding Efficiency for Potentially Threatening Males

    PubMed Central

    Becker, D. Vaughn; Anderson, Uriah S.; Neuberg, Steven L.; Maner, Jon K.; Shapiro, Jenessa R.; Ackerman, Joshua M.; Schaller, Mark; Kenrick, Douglas T.

    2011-01-01

    When encountering individuals with a potential inclination to harm them, people face a dilemma: Staring at them provides useful information about their intentions but may also be perceived by them as intrusive and challenging—thereby increasing the likelihood of the very threat the people fear. One solution to this dilemma would be an enhanced ability to efficiently encode such individuals—to be able to remember them without spending any additional direct attention on them. In two experiments, the authors primed self-protective concerns in perceivers and assessed visual attention and recognition memory for a variety of faces. Consistent with hypotheses, self-protective participants (relative to control participants) exhibited enhanced encoding efficiency (i.e., greater memory not predicated on any enhancement of visual attention) for Black and Arab male faces—groups stereotyped as being potentially dangerous—but not for female or White male faces. Results suggest that encoding efficiency depends on the functional relevance of the social information people encounter. PMID:21874152

  2. The memory-enhancing effect of erucic acid on scopolamine-induced cognitive impairment in mice.

    PubMed

    Kim, Eunji; Ko, Hae Ju; Jeon, Se Jin; Lee, Sunhee; Lee, Hyung Eun; Kim, Ha Neul; Woo, Eun-Rhan; Ryu, Jong Hoon

    2016-03-01

    Erucic acid is a monounsaturated omega-9 fatty acid isolated from the seed of Raphanus sativus L. that is known to normalize the accumulation of very long chain fatty acids in the brains of patients suffering from X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy. Here, we investigated whether erucic acid enhanced cognitive function or ameliorated scopolamine-induced memory impairment using the passive avoidance, Y-maze and Morris water maze tasks. Erucic acid (3mg/kg, p.o.) enhanced memory performance in normal naïve mice. In addition, erucic acid (3mg/kg, p.o.) ameliorated scopolamine-induced memory impairment, as assessed via the behavioral tasks. We then investigated the underlying mechanism of the memory-enhancing effect of erucic acid. The administration of erucic acid increased the phosphorylation levels of phosphatidylinositide 3-kinase (PI3K), protein kinase C zeta (PKCζ), extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) and additional protein kinase B (Akt) in the hippocampus. These results suggest that erucic acid has an ameliorative effect in mice with scopolamine-induced memory deficits and that the effect of erucic acid is partially due to the activation of PI3K-PKCζ-ERK-CREB signaling as well as an increase in phosphorylated Akt in the hippocampus. Therefore, erucic acid may be a novel therapeutic agent for diseases associated with cognitive deficits, such as Alzheimer's disease. PMID:26780350

  3. Motor Skills Enhance Procedural Memory Formation and Protect against Age-Related Decline.

    PubMed

    Müller, Nils C J; Genzel, Lisa; Konrad, Boris N; Pawlowski, Marcel; Neville, David; Fernández, Guillén; Steiger, Axel; Dresler, Martin

    2016-01-01

    The ability to consolidate procedural memories declines with increasing age. Prior knowledge enhances learning and memory consolidation of novel but related information in various domains. Here, we present evidence that prior motor experience-in our case piano skills-increases procedural learning and has a protective effect against age-related decline for the consolidation of novel but related manual movements. In our main experiment, we tested 128 participants with a sequential finger-tapping motor task during two sessions 24 hours apart. We observed enhanced online learning speed and offline memory consolidation for piano players. Enhanced memory consolidation was driven by a strong effect in older participants, whereas younger participants did not benefit significantly from prior piano experience. In a follow up independent control experiment, this compensatory effect of piano experience was not visible after a brief offline period of 30 minutes, hence requiring an extended consolidation window potentially involving sleep. Through a further control experiment, we rejected the possibility that the decreased effect in younger participants was caused by training saturation. We discuss our results in the context of the neurobiological schema approach and suggest that prior experience has the potential to rescue memory consolidation from age-related cognitive decline. PMID:27333186

  4. Integrin-linked Kinase is Essential for Environmental Enrichment Enhanced Hippocampal Neurogenesis and Memory.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xu-Feng; Li, Ting; Wang, Dong-Dong; Chen, Bing; Wang, Yue; Chen, Zhe-Yu

    2015-06-22

    Environment enrichment (EE) has a variety of effects on brain structure and function. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is essential for EE-induced hippocampal neurogenesis and memory enhancement. However, the intracellular pathway downstream of BDNF to modulate EE effects is poorly understood. Here we show that integrin-linked kinase (ILK) levels are elevated upon EE stimuli in a BDNF-dependent manner. Using ILK-shRNA (siILK) lentivirus, we demonstrate that knockdown of ILK impairs EE-promoted hippocampal neurogenesis and memory by increasing glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK3β) activity. Finally, overexpressing ILK in the hippocampus could rescue the neurogenesis and memory deficits in BDNF(+/-) mice. These results indicate that ILK is indispensable for BDNF-mediated hippocampal neurogenesis and memory enhancement upon EE stimuli via regulating GSK3β activity. This is a new insight of the precise mechanism in EE-enhanced memory processes and ILK is a potentially important therapeutic target that merits further study.

  5. Motor Skills Enhance Procedural Memory Formation and Protect against Age-Related Decline

    PubMed Central

    Müller, Nils C. J.; Genzel, Lisa; Konrad, Boris N.; Pawlowski, Marcel; Neville, David; Fernández, Guillén; Steiger, Axel

    2016-01-01

    The ability to consolidate procedural memories declines with increasing age. Prior knowledge enhances learning and memory consolidation of novel but related information in various domains. Here, we present evidence that prior motor experience–in our case piano skills–increases procedural learning and has a protective effect against age-related decline for the consolidation of novel but related manual movements. In our main experiment, we tested 128 participants with a sequential finger-tapping motor task during two sessions 24 hours apart. We observed enhanced online learning speed and offline memory consolidation for piano players. Enhanced memory consolidation was driven by a strong effect in older participants, whereas younger participants did not benefit significantly from prior piano experience. In a follow up independent control experiment, this compensatory effect of piano experience was not visible after a brief offline period of 30 minutes, hence requiring an extended consolidation window potentially involving sleep. Through a further control experiment, we rejected the possibility that the decreased effect in younger participants was caused by training saturation. We discuss our results in the context of the neurobiological schema approach and suggest that prior experience has the potential to rescue memory consolidation from age-related cognitive decline. PMID:27333186

  6. Music-Based Memory Enhancement in Alzheimer’s Disease: Promise and Limitations

    PubMed Central

    Simmons-Stern, Nicholas R.; Deason, Rebecca G.; Brandler, Brian J.; Frustace, Bruno S.; O’Connor, Maureen K.; Ally, Brandon A.; Budson, Andrew E.

    2012-01-01

    In a previous study (Simmons-Stern, Budson, & Ally 2010), we found that patients with Alzheimer’s disease (AD) better recognized visually presented lyrics when the lyrics were also sung rather than spoken at encoding. The present study sought to further investigate the effects of music on memory in patients with AD by making the content of the song lyrics relevant for the daily life of an older adult and by examining how musical encoding alters several different aspects of episodic memory. Patients with AD and healthy older adults studied visually presented novel song lyrics related to instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) that were accompanied by either a sung or a spoken recording. Overall, participants performed better on a memory test of general lyric content for lyrics that were studied sung as compared to spoken. However, on a memory test of specific lyric content, participants performed equally well for sung and spoken lyrics. We interpret these results in terms of a dual-process model of recognition memory such that the general content questions represent a familiarity-based representation that is preferentially sensitive to enhancement via music, while the specific content questions represent a recollection-based representation unaided by musical encoding. Additionally, in a test of basic recognition memory for the audio stimuli, patients with AD demonstrated equal discrimination for sung and spoken stimuli. We propose that the perceptual distinctiveness of musical stimuli enhanced metamemorial awareness in AD patients via a non-selective distinctiveness heuristic, thereby reducing false recognition while at the same time reducing true recognition and eliminating the mnemonic benefit of music. These results are discussed in the context of potential music-based memory enhancement interventions for the care of patients with AD. PMID:23000133

  7. Music-based memory enhancement in Alzheimer's disease: promise and limitations.

    PubMed

    Simmons-Stern, Nicholas R; Deason, Rebecca G; Brandler, Brian J; Frustace, Bruno S; O'Connor, Maureen K; Ally, Brandon A; Budson, Andrew E

    2012-12-01

    In a previous study (Simmons-Stern, Budson & Ally, 2010), we found that patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) better recognized visually presented lyrics when the lyrics were also sung rather than spoken at encoding. The present study sought to further investigate the effects of music on memory in patients with AD by making the content of the song lyrics relevant for the daily life of an older adult and by examining how musical encoding alters several different aspects of episodic memory. Patients with AD and healthy older adults studied visually presented novel song lyrics related to instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) that were accompanied by either a sung or a spoken recording. Overall, participants performed better on a memory test of general lyric content for lyrics that were studied sung as compared to spoken. However, on a memory test of specific lyric content, participants performed equally well for sung and spoken lyrics. We interpret these results in terms of a dual-process model of recognition memory such that the general content questions represent a familiarity-based representation that is preferentially sensitive to enhancement via music, while the specific content questions represent a recollection-based representation unaided by musical encoding. Additionally, in a test of basic recognition memory for the audio stimuli, patients with AD demonstrated equal discrimination for sung and spoken stimuli. We propose that the perceptual distinctiveness of musical stimuli enhanced metamemorial awareness in AD patients via a non-selective distinctiveness heuristic, thereby reducing false recognition while at the same time reducing true recognition and eliminating the mnemonic benefit of music. These results are discussed in the context of potential music-based memory enhancement interventions for the care of patients with AD.

  8. Social cognition and prefrontal hemodynamic responses during a working memory task in schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Pu, Shenghong; Nakagome, Kazuyuki; Yamada, Takeshi; Itakura, Masashi; Yamanashi, Takehiko; Yamada, Sayaka; Masai, Mieko; Miura, Akihiko; Yamauchi, Takahira; Satake, Takahiro; Iwata, Masaaki; Nagata, Izumi; Roberts, David L.; Kaneko, Koichi

    2016-01-01

    Social cognition is an important determinant of functional impairment in schizophrenia, but its relationship with the prefrontal functional abnormalities associated with the condition is still unclear. The present study aimed to explore the relationship between social cognition and prefrontal function in patients with schizophrenia using 52-channel near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS). Twenty-six patients with schizophrenia and 26 age-, gender-, and intelligence quotient-matched healthy controls (HCs) participated in the study. Hemodynamic responses in the prefrontal and superior temporal cortical regions were assessed during a working memory task using NIRS. Social cognition was assessed using the Social Cognition Screening Questionnaire (SCSQ). The observed hemodynamic responses were significantly reduced in the lateral prefrontal cortex (PFC), the frontopolar cortex, and temporal regions in subjects with schizophrenia compared to HCs. Additionally, lateral PFC hemodynamic responses assessed during the working memory task demonstrated a strong positive correlation with the SCSQ theory of mind (ToM) subscale score even after controlling for working memory performance. These results suggest that ToM integrity is closely related to lateral PFC functional abnormalities found in patients with schizophrenia. In addition, this study provides evidence to suggest that NIRS could be used to identify biomarkers of social cognition function in subjects with schizophrenia. PMID:26928254

  9. The wick in the candle of learning: epistemic curiosity activates reward circuitry and enhances memory.

    PubMed

    Kang, Min Jeong; Hsu, Ming; Krajbich, Ian M; Loewenstein, George; McClure, Samuel M; Wang, Joseph Tao-yi; Camerer, Colin F

    2009-08-01

    Curiosity has been described as a desire for learning and knowledge, but its underlying mechanisms are not well understood. We scanned subjects with functional magnetic resonance imaging while they read trivia questions. The level of curiosity when reading questions was correlated with activity in caudate regions previously suggested to be involved in anticipated reward. This finding led to a behavioral study, which showed that subjects spent more scarce resources (either limited tokens or waiting time) to find out answers when they were more curious. The functional imaging also showed that curiosity increased activity in memory areas when subjects guessed incorrectly, which suggests that curiosity may enhance memory for surprising new information. This prediction about memory enhancement was confirmed in a behavioral study: Higher curiosity in an initial session was correlated with better recall of surprising answers 1 to 2 weeks later.

  10. Neural Correlates of Enhanced Visual Short-Term Memory for Angry Faces: An fMRI Study

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, Margaret C.; Wolf, Claudia; Johnston, Stephen J.; Raymond, Jane E.; Linden, David E. J.

    2008-01-01

    Background Fluid and effective social communication requires that both face identity and emotional expression information are encoded and maintained in visual short-term memory (VSTM) to enable a coherent, ongoing picture of the world and its players. This appears to be of particular evolutionary importance when confronted with potentially threatening displays of emotion - previous research has shown better VSTM for angry versus happy or neutral face identities. Methodology/Principal Findings Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, here we investigated the neural correlates of this angry face benefit in VSTM. Participants were shown between one and four to-be-remembered angry, happy, or neutral faces, and after a short retention delay they stated whether a single probe face had been present or not in the previous display. All faces in any one display expressed the same emotion, and the task required memory for face identity. We find enhanced VSTM for angry face identities and describe the right hemisphere brain network underpinning this effect, which involves the globus pallidus, superior temporal sulcus, and frontal lobe. Increased activity in the globus pallidus was significantly correlated with the angry benefit in VSTM. Areas modulated by emotion were distinct from those modulated by memory load. Conclusions/Significance Our results provide evidence for a key role of the basal ganglia as an interface between emotion and cognition, supported by a frontal, temporal, and occipital network. PMID:18958158

  11. Communism and the meaning of social memory: towards a critical-interpretive approach.

    PubMed

    Tileagă, Cristian

    2012-12-01

    Using a case study of representations of communism in Romania, the paper offers a sketch of a critical-interpretive approach for exploring and engaging with the social memory of communism. When one considers the various contemporary appraisals, responses to and positions towards the communist period one identifies and one is obliged to deal with a series of personal and collective moral/political quandaries. In their attempt to bring about historical justice, political elites create a world that conforms more to their needs and desires than to the diversity of meanings of communism, experiences and dilemmas of lay people. This paper argues that one needs to study formal aspects of social memory as well as "lived", often conflicting, attitudinal and mnemonic stances and interpretive frameworks. One needs to strive to find the meaning of the social memory of communism in the sometimes contradictory, paradoxical attitudes and meanings that members of society communicate, endorse and debate. Many of the ethical quandaries and dilemmas of collective memory and recent history can be better understood by describing the discursive and sociocultural processes of meaning-making and meaning-interpretation carried out by members of a polity.

  12. The Dark Side of Testing Memory: Repeated Retrieval Can Enhance Eyewitness Suggestibility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chan, Jason C. K.; LaPaglia, Jessica A.

    2011-01-01

    Eyewitnesses typically recount their experiences many times before trial. Such repeated retrieval can enhance memory retention of the witnessed event. However, recent studies (e.g., Chan, Thomas, & Bulevich, 2009) have found that initial retrieval can exacerbate eyewitness suggestibility to later misleading information--a finding termed…

  13. Test-Enhanced Learning of Natural Concepts: Effects on Recognition Memory, Classification, and Metacognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacoby, Larry L.; Wahlheim, Christopher N.; Coane, Jennifer H.

    2010-01-01

    Three experiments examined testing effects on learning of natural concepts and metacognitive assessments of such learning. Results revealed that testing enhanced recognition memory and classification accuracy for studied and novel exemplars of bird families on immediate and delayed tests. These effects depended on the balance of study and test…

  14. Enhanced Associative Memory for Colour (but Not Shape or Location) in Synaesthesia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pritchard, Jamie; Rothen, Nicolas; Coolbear, Daniel; Ward, Jamie

    2013-01-01

    People with grapheme-colour synaesthesia have been shown to have enhanced memory on a range of tasks using both stimuli that induce synaesthesia (e.g. words) and, more surprisingly, stimuli that do not (e.g. certain abstract visual stimuli). This study examines the latter by using multi-featured stimuli consisting of shape, colour and location…

  15. Emotional Enhancement Effect of Memory: Removing the Influence of Cognitive Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sommer, Tobias; Glascher, Jan; Moritz, Steffen; Buchel, Christian

    2008-01-01

    According to the modulation hypothesis, arousal is the crucial factor in the emotional enhancement of memory (EEM). However, the multifactor theory of the EEM recently proposed that cognitive characteristics of emotional stimuli, e.g., relatedness and distinctiveness, also play an important role. The current study aimed to investigate the…

  16. Extinction Memory Improvement by the Metabolic Enhancer Methylene Blue

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzalez-Lima, F.; Bruchey, Aleksandra K.

    2004-01-01

    We investigated whether postextinction administration of methylene blue (MB) could enhance retention of an extinguished conditioned response. MB is a redox compound that at low doses elevates cytochrome oxidase activity, thereby improving brain energy production. Saline or MB (4 mg/kg intraperitoneally) were administered to rats for 5 d following…

  17. Music Enhances Autobiographical Memory in Mild Alzheimer's Disease

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    El Haj, Mohamad; Postal, Virginie; Allain, Philippe

    2012-01-01

    Studies have shown that the "Four Seasons" music may enhance the autobiographical performance of Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients. We used a repeated measures design in which autobiographical recall of 12 mild AD patients was assessed using a free narrative method under three conditions: (a) in "Silence," (b) after being exposed to the opus "Four…

  18. Using Background Music To Enhance Memory and Improve Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Scheree; Henke, Jeanette; McLaughlin, Maureen; Ripp, Mary; Tuffs, Patricia

    This report describes a program to enhance spelling word retention through the use of background music. The targeted population consisted of elementary students in three middle class communities located in the southwestern suburbs of Chicago. The problems for poor spelling retention were documented through data revealing the number of students…

  19. Don't Break the Memory Line: Social Memory, Digital Storytelling and Local Communities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferri, Paolo; Mangiatordi, Andrea; Pozzali, Andrea

    In this paper we present and analyze some of the main results obtained by the empirical research carried out within the scope of the Socrates Grundtvig Project "Memory Line", that aimed at developing instruments and methodologies in order to help overcoming the intergenerational divide. The project aimed at training groups of elderly and young citizens, resident in the project partner countries, to collect records (stories, songs, poems, experiences, etc.) and to save them in a digital form, mainly by using the methodology of digital storytelling. Focus groups and interviews with people involved in the intergenerational ateliers have been carried out in order to gather a series of first hand evidences directly from the voices of people who were actively involved in the project, and to enable an ongoing monitoring and self evaluation of the project itself.

  20. Chronic corticosterone exposure persistently elevates the expression of memory-related genes in the lateral amygdala and enhances the consolidation of a Pavlovian fear memory.

    PubMed

    Monsey, Melissa S; Boyle, Lara M; Zhang, Melinda L; Nguyen, Caroline P; Kronman, Hope G; Ota, Kristie T; Duman, Ronald S; Taylor, Jane R; Schafe, Glenn E

    2014-01-01

    Chronic exposure to stress has been widely implicated in the development of anxiety disorders, yet relatively little is known about the long-term effects of chronic stress on amygdala-dependent memory formation. Here, we examined the effects of a history of chronic exposure to the stress-associated adrenal steroid corticosterone (CORT) on the consolidation of a fear memory and the expression of memory-related immediate early genes (IEGs) in the lateral nucleus of the amygdala (LA). Rats received chronic exposure to CORT (50 μg/ml) in their drinking water for 2 weeks and were then titrated off the CORT for an additional 6 days followed by a 2 week 'wash-out' period consisting of access to plain water. Rats were then either sacrificed to examine the expression of memory-related IEG expression in the LA or given auditory Pavlovian fear conditioning. We show that chronic exposure to CORT leads to a persistent elevation in the expression of the IEGs Arc/Arg3.1 and Egr-1 in the LA. Further, we show that rats with a history of chronic CORT exposure exhibit enhanced consolidation of a fear memory; short-term memory (STM) is not affected, while long-term memory (LTM) is significantly enhanced. Treatment with the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) fluoxetine following the chronic CORT exposure period was observed to effectively reverse both the persistent CORT-related increases in memory-related IEG expression in the LA and the CORT-related enhancement in fear memory consolidation. Our findings suggest that chronic exposure to CORT can regulate memory-related IEG expression and fear memory consolidation processes in the LA in a long-lasting manner and that treatment with fluoxetine can reverse these effects.

  1. Chronic Corticosterone Exposure Persistently Elevates the Expression of Memory-Related Genes in the Lateral Amygdala and Enhances the Consolidation of a Pavlovian Fear Memory

    PubMed Central

    Monsey, Melissa S.; Boyle, Lara M.; Zhang, Melinda L.; Nguyen, Caroline P.; Kronman, Hope G.; Ota, Kristie T.; Duman, Ronald S.; Taylor, Jane R.; Schafe, Glenn E.

    2014-01-01

    Chronic exposure to stress has been widely implicated in the development of anxiety disorders, yet relatively little is known about the long-term effects of chronic stress on amygdala-dependent memory formation. Here, we examined the effects of a history of chronic exposure to the stress-associated adrenal steroid corticosterone (CORT) on the consolidation of a fear memory and the expression of memory-related immediate early genes (IEGs) in the lateral nucleus of the amygdala (LA). Rats received chronic exposure to CORT (50 μg/ml) in their drinking water for 2 weeks and were then titrated off the CORT for an additional 6 days followed by a 2 week ‘wash-out’ period consisting of access to plain water. Rats were then either sacrificed to examine the expression of memory-related IEG expression in the LA or given auditory Pavlovian fear conditioning. We show that chronic exposure to CORT leads to a persistent elevation in the expression of the IEGs Arc/Arg3.1 and Egr-1 in the LA. Further, we show that rats with a history of chronic CORT exposure exhibit enhanced consolidation of a fear memory; short-term memory (STM) is not affected, while long-term memory (LTM) is significantly enhanced. Treatment with the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) fluoxetine following the chronic CORT exposure period was observed to effectively reverse both the persistent CORT-related increases in memory-related IEG expression in the LA and the CORT-related enhancement in fear memory consolidation. Our findings suggest that chronic exposure to CORT can regulate memory-related IEG expression and fear memory consolidation processes in the LA in a long-lasting manner and that treatment with fluoxetine can reverse these effects. PMID:24618807

  2. Repeated social defeat stress enhances glutamatergic synaptic plasticity in the VTA and cocaine place conditioning.

    PubMed

    Stelly, Claire E; Pomrenze, Matthew B; Cook, Jason B; Morikawa, Hitoshi

    2016-01-01

    Enduring memories of sensory cues associated with drug intake drive addiction. It is well known that stressful experiences increase addiction vulnerability. However, it is not clear how repeated stress promotes learning of cue-drug associations, as repeated stress generally impairs learning and memory processes unrelated to stressful experiences. Here, we show that repeated social defeat stress in rats causes persistent enhancement of long-term potentiation (LTP) of NMDA receptor-mediated glutamatergic transmission in the ventral tegmental area (VTA). Protein kinase A-dependent increase in the potency of inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate-induced Ca(2+) signaling underlies LTP facilitation. Notably, defeated rats display enhanced learning of contextual cues paired with cocaine experience assessed using a conditioned place preference (CPP) paradigm. Enhancement of LTP in the VTA and cocaine CPP in behaving rats both require glucocorticoid receptor activation during defeat episodes. These findings suggest that enhanced glutamatergic plasticity in the VTA may contribute, at least partially, to increased addiction vulnerability following repeated stressful experiences. PMID:27374604

  3. Repeated social defeat stress enhances glutamatergic synaptic plasticity in the VTA and cocaine place conditioning

    PubMed Central

    Stelly, Claire E; Pomrenze, Matthew B; Cook, Jason B; Morikawa, Hitoshi

    2016-01-01

    Enduring memories of sensory cues associated with drug intake drive addiction. It is well known that stressful experiences increase addiction vulnerability. However, it is not clear how repeated stress promotes learning of cue-drug associations, as repeated stress generally impairs learning and memory processes unrelated to stressful experiences. Here, we show that repeated social defeat stress in rats causes persistent enhancement of long-term potentiation (LTP) of NMDA receptor-mediated glutamatergic transmission in the ventral tegmental area (VTA). Protein kinase A-dependent increase in the potency of inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate-induced Ca2+ signaling underlies LTP facilitation. Notably, defeated rats display enhanced learning of contextual cues paired with cocaine experience assessed using a conditioned place preference (CPP) paradigm. Enhancement of LTP in the VTA and cocaine CPP in behaving rats both require glucocorticoid receptor activation during defeat episodes. These findings suggest that enhanced glutamatergic plasticity in the VTA may contribute, at least partially, to increased addiction vulnerability following repeated stressful experiences. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.15448.001 PMID:27374604

  4. Music as a memory enhancer in patients with Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Simmons-Stern, Nicholas R; Budson, Andrew E; Ally, Brandon A

    2010-08-01

    Musical mnemonics have a long and diverse history of popular use. In addition, music processing in general is often considered spared by the neurodegenerative effects of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Research examining these two phenomena is limited, and no work to our knowledge has explored the effectiveness of musical mnemonics in AD. The present study sought to investigate the effect of music at encoding on the subsequent recognition of associated verbal information. Lyrics of unfamiliar children's songs were presented bimodally at encoding, and visual stimuli were accompanied by either a sung or a spoken recording. Patients with AD demonstrated better recognition accuracy for the sung lyrics than the spoken lyrics, while healthy older adults showed no significant difference between the two conditions. We propose two possible explanations for these findings: first, that the brain areas subserving music processing may be preferentially spared by AD, allowing a more holistic encoding that facilitates recognition, and second, that music heightens arousal in patients with AD, allowing better attention and improved memory.

  5. Focusing on food during lunch enhances lunch memory and decreases later snack intake.

    PubMed

    Higgs, Suzanne; Donohoe, Jessica E

    2011-08-01

    We investigated whether eating lunch mindfully, in contrast to eating with distractions or no particular focus, reduces later snack intake and if this is related to a measure of meal memory. The design was between-subjects with three conditions. Twenty-nine female undergraduate students either ate a fixed lunch while (1) focusing on the sensory characteristics of the food as they ate (food focus group), (2) reading a newspaper article about food (food thoughts control group) or (3) in the absence of any secondary task (neutral control group). Cookie intake later that afternoon was measured as well as rated vividness of memory of the lunch. Participants ate significantly fewer cookies in the food focus group than in both the food thoughts control group or the neutral control group. Rated appetite before the snack session was lower in the food focus group than in the other two groups and rated vividness of lunch memory was higher. Rated vividness of lunch memory was negatively correlated with snack intake. These results suggest that enhancing meal memory by paying attention to food while eating can reduce later intake and are consistent with the suggestion that memory plays an important role in appetite control. PMID:21569808

  6. 16Oxygen irradiation enhances cued fear memory in B6D2F1 mice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raber, Jacob; Marzulla, Tessa; Kronenberg, Amy; Turker, Mitchell S.

    2015-11-01

    The space radiation environment includes energetic charged particles that may impact cognitive performance. We assessed the effects of 16O ion irradiation on cognitive performance of C57BL/6J × DBA/2J F1 (B6D2F1) mice at OHSU (Portland, OR) one month following irradiation at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL, Upton, NY). Hippocampus-dependent contextual fear memory and hippocampus-independent cued fear memory of B6D2F1 mice were tested. 16O ion exposure enhanced cued fear memory. This effect showed a bell-shaped dose response curve. Cued fear memory was significantly stronger in mice irradiated with 16O ions at a dose of 0.4 or 0.8 Gy than in sham-irradiated mice or following irradiation at 1.6 Gy. In contrast to cued fear memory, contextual fear memory was not affected following 16O ion irradiation at the doses used in this study. These data indicate that the amygdala might be particularly susceptible to effects of 16O ion exposure.

  7. Getting more from visual working memory: Retro-cues enhance retrieval and protect from visual interference.

    PubMed

    Souza, Alessandra S; Rerko, Laura; Oberauer, Klaus

    2016-06-01

    Visual working memory (VWM) has a limited capacity. This limitation can be mitigated by the use of focused attention: if attention is drawn to the relevant working memory content before test, performance improves (the so-called retro-cue benefit). This study tests 2 explanations of the retro-cue benefit: (a) Focused attention protects memory representations from interference by visual input at test, and (b) focusing attention enhances retrieval. Across 6 experiments using color recognition and color reproduction tasks, we varied the amount of color interference at test, and the delay between a retrieval cue (i.e., the retro-cue) and the memory test. Retro-cue benefits were larger when the memory test introduced interfering visual stimuli, showing that the retro-cue effect is in part because of protection from visual interference. However, when visual interference was held constant, retro-cue benefits were still obtained whenever the retro-cue enabled retrieval of an object from VWM but delayed response selection. Our results show that accessible information in VWM might be lost in the processes of testing memory because of visual interference and incomplete retrieval. This is not an inevitable state of affairs, though: Focused attention can be used to get the most out of VWM. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26752731

  8. Association between polymorphisms in NOS3 and KCNH2 and social memory.

    PubMed

    Henningsson, Susanne; Zettergren, Anna; Hovey, Daniel; Jonsson, Lina; Svärd, Joakim; Cortes, Diana S; Melke, Jonas; Ebner, Natalie C; Laukka, Petri; Fischer, Håkan; Westberg, Lars

    2015-01-01

    Social memory, including the ability to recognize faces and voices, is essential for social relationships. It has a large heritable component, but the knowledge about the contributing genes is sparse. The genetic variation underlying inter-individual differences in social memory was investigated in an exploratory sample (n = 55), genotyped with a chip comprising approximately 200,000 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), and in a validation sample (n = 582), where 30 SNPs were targeted. In the exploratory study face identity recognition was measured. The validation study also measured vocal sound recognition, as well as recognition of faces and vocal sounds combined (multimodal condition). In the exploratory study, the 30 SNPs that were associated with face recognition at p uncorrected < 0.001 and located in genes, were chosen for further study. In the validation study two of these SNPs showed significant associations with recognition of faces, vocal sounds, and multimodal stimuli: rs1800779 in the gene encoding nitric oxide synthase 3 (NOS3) and rs3807370 in the gene encoding the voltage-gated channel, subfamily H, member 2 (KCNH2), in strong linkage disequilibrium with each other. The uncommon alleles were associated with superior performance, and the effects were present for men only (p < 0.0002). The exploratory study also showed a weaker but significant association with (non-emotional) word recognition, an effect that was independent of the effect on face recognition. This study demonstrates evidence for an association between NOS3 and KCNH2 SNPs and social memory. PMID:26539080

  9. Association between polymorphisms in NOS3 and KCNH2 and social memory

    PubMed Central

    Henningsson, Susanne; Zettergren, Anna; Hovey, Daniel; Jonsson, Lina; Svärd, Joakim; Cortes, Diana S.; Melke, Jonas; Ebner, Natalie C.; Laukka, Petri; Fischer, Håkan; Westberg, Lars

    2015-01-01

    Social memory, including the ability to recognize faces and voices, is essential for social relationships. It has a large heritable component, but the knowledge about the contributing genes is sparse. The genetic variation underlying inter-individual differences in social memory was investigated in an exploratory sample (n = 55), genotyped with a chip comprising approximately 200,000 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), and in a validation sample (n = 582), where 30 SNPs were targeted. In the exploratory study face identity recognition was measured. The validation study also measured vocal sound recognition, as well as recognition of faces and vocal sounds combined (multimodal condition). In the exploratory study, the 30 SNPs that were associated with face recognition at puncorrected < 0.001 and located in genes, were chosen for further study. In the validation study two of these SNPs showed significant associations with recognition of faces, vocal sounds, and multimodal stimuli: rs1800779 in the gene encoding nitric oxide synthase 3 (NOS3) and rs3807370 in the gene encoding the voltage-gated channel, subfamily H, member 2 (KCNH2), in strong linkage disequilibrium with each other. The uncommon alleles were associated with superior performance, and the effects were present for men only (p < 0.0002). The exploratory study also showed a weaker but significant association with (non-emotional) word recognition, an effect that was independent of the effect on face recognition. This study demonstrates evidence for an association between NOS3 and KCNH2 SNPs and social memory. PMID:26539080

  10. A Familiar Pattern? Semantic Memory Contributes to the Enhancement of Visuo-Spatial Memories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riby, Leigh M.; Orme, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    In this study we quantify for the first time electrophysiological components associated with incorporating long-term semantic knowledge with visuo-spatial information using two variants of a traditional matrix patterns task. Results indicated that the matrix task with greater semantic content was associated with enhanced accuracy and RTs in a…

  11. Method for training honeybees to respond to olfactory stimuli and enhancement of memory retention therein

    SciTech Connect

    McCade, Kirsten J.; Wingo, Robert M.; Haarmann, Timothy K.; Sutherland, Andrew; Gubler, Walter D.

    2015-12-15

    A specialized conditioning protocol for honeybees that is designed for use within a complex agricultural ecosystem. This method ensures that the conditioned bees will be less likely to exhibit a conditioned response to uninfected plants, a false positive response that would render such a biological sensor unreliable for agricultural decision support. Also described is a superboosting training regime that allows training without the aid of expensive equipment and protocols for training in out in the field. Also described is a memory enhancing cocktail that aids in long term memory retention of a vapor signature. This allows the bees to be used in the field for longer durations and with fewer bees trained overall.

  12. Gonadal Hormones Rapidly Enhance Spatial Memory and Increase Hippocampal Spine Density in Male Rats.

    PubMed

    Jacome, Luis F; Barateli, Ketti; Buitrago, Dina; Lema, Franklin; Frankfurt, Maya; Luine, Victoria N

    2016-04-01

    17β-estradiol (E2) rapidly, within minutes, activates behaviors and cognition by binding to membrane estrogen receptors, activating cell signaling cascades and increasing dendritic spines. In female rodents, E2 enhances spatial memory within 2-4 hours, and spine density is increased in the CA1 area of the hippocampus within 30-60 minutes. Although chronic gonadal hormone treatments in male rats alter cognition and spines/spine synapses and acute hormone effects occur in hippocampal slices, effects of acute, in vivo hormone administration in males are unknown. Therefore, we assessed rapid effects of E2 (20 μg/kg) and testosterone (T) (750 μg/kg) on spatial memory using the object placement task and on hippocampal spine density using Golgi impregnation. Orchidectomized rats received hormones immediately after the training trial and were tested for retention 2 hours later. Vehicle-injected orchidectomized males spent equal time exploring objects in the old and new locations, but E2- or T-treated subjects spent more time exploring objects at the new location, suggesting enhanced memory. Both hormones also increased spine density in CA1, but not the dentate gyrus, by 20%-40% at 30 minutes and 2 hours after injections. This report is the first, to our knowledge, to show E2 and T enhancements of memory and spine density within such a short time frame in male rats.

  13. Memory-enhancing effect of Mori Fructus via induction of nerve growth factor.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyo Geun; Oh, Myung Sook

    2013-07-14

    Fruits rich in phytochemicals have been shown to improve memory by protecting or enhancing neuronal functions mediated by neurotrophic factors, such as nerve growth factor (NGF), in the hippocampus. Mori Fructus (Morus alba L., Moraceae), also called mulberry, is used as a food, dietary supplement and an anti-ageing agent in traditional Oriental medicine. It is also known to contain abundant flavonoid compounds and to exhibit various pharmacological effects. The present study was performed to evaluate the memory-enhancing effect of Mori Fructus extract (ME) in mice, with a focus on NGF regulation. ME (20, 100 and 500 mg/kg per d for 7 d, per os) dose-dependently promoted NGF release in the mouse hippocampus, leading to phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinases and cyclic AMP response element-binding protein. ME significantly increased pre- and post-synapse formation, acetylcholine synthesisation, neuronal cell differentiation, neurite outgrowth and neuronal cell proliferation in the mouse hippocampus. Furthermore, ME significantly increased latency time in the passive avoidance task (P< 0·001) and recognition time of novel objects in the object recognition test (P< 0·05), indicating improvements in learning and memory. Taken together, these data suggest that ME exhibits a memory-enhancing effect via up-regulation of NGF.

  14. Sensory input from the osphradium modulates the response to memory-enhancing stressors in Lymnaea stagnalis.

    PubMed

    Karnik, Vikram; Braun, Marvin; Dalesman, Sarah; Lukowiak, Ken

    2012-02-01

    In the freshwater environment species often rely on chemosensory information to modulate behavior. The pond snail, Lymnaea stagnalis, is a model species used to characterize the causal mechanisms of long-term memory (LTM) formation. Chemical stressors including crayfish kairomones and KCl enhance LTM formation (≥24 h) in Lymnaea; however, how these stressors are sensed and the mechanism by which they affect the electrophysiological properties of neurons necessary for memory formation are poorly understood. Here, we assessed whether the osphradium, a primary chemosensory organ in Lymnaea, modulates LTM enhancement. To test this we severed the osphradial nerve proximal to the osphradium, using sham-operated animals as controls, and assessed the behavioral and electrophysiological response to crayfish kairomones and KCl. We operantly conditioned aerial respiratory behavior in intact, sham and osphradially cut animals, and tested for enhanced memory formation after exposure to the chemical stressors. Sham-operated animals displayed the same memory enhancement as intact animals but snails with a severed osphradial nerve did not show LTM enhancement. Extracellular recordings made from the osphradial nerve demonstrate that these stressors evoked afferent sensory activity. Intracellular recordings from right pedal dorsal 1 (RPeD1), a neuron necessary for LTM formation, demonstrate that its electrophysiological activity is altered by input from the osphradium following exposure to crayfish kairomones or KCl in sham and intact animals but no response is seen in RPeD1 in osphradially cut animals. Therefore, sensory input from the osphradium is necessary for LTM enhancement following exposure to these chemical stressors.

  15. Electrocortical Evidence of Enhanced Performance Monitoring in Social Anxiety.

    PubMed

    Judah, Matt R; Grant, DeMond M; Frosio, Kristen E; White, Evan J; Taylor, Danielle L; Mills, Adam C

    2016-03-01

    Self-focused attention is thought to be a key feature of social anxiety disorder. Yet few studies have used event-related potentials (ERPs) to examine whether socially anxious individuals display greater monitoring of their performance and attention to their errors. Similarly, only a few studies have used ERPs to examine how social anxiety is related to processing of performance feedback. Individuals with high (n=26) and low (n=28) levels of social anxiety completed a trial-and-error learning task. Self-focus was manipulated using false heart-rate feedback during a random subset of trials. Performance feedback was given using emotional and neutral faces in a positive context (correct=happy face; incorrect=neutral face) and negative context (correct=neutral face; incorrect=disgust face) in order to investigate biased interpretation and attention to feedback. Socially anxious subjects displayed enhanced amplitude of the ERN and CRN, suggesting greater response monitoring, and enhanced Pe amplitude, suggesting greater processing of errors relative to the low social anxiety group. No group differences were observed with respect to feedback processing. Before learning stimulus-response mappings in the negative context, the FRN was larger for self-focus compared to standard trials and marginally larger for socially anxious subjects compared to controls. These findings support cognitive models and suggest avenues for future research.

  16. Social Processes Affecting the Mnemonic Consequences of Rumors on Children’s Memory

    PubMed Central

    Principe, Gabrielle F.; Daley, Lauren; Kauth, Kyli

    2010-01-01

    This research examined whether the impact of overheard rumors on children‘s memory for their experiences varies as a function of social processes. The results of two experiments revealed that the very same errant rumor had different consequences for children‘s recollections depending on the degree and type of social interactions they had with peers after exposure to the rumor. In both experiments, 3- to 5-year-olds overheard a false rumor about a recently-experienced event and then were interviewed one week later about the event. In Experiment 1, children were more likely to report experiencing rumored-but-nonoccurring information if they were allowed to interact naturally with peers following exposure to the rumor than if they were prevented from peer exchange. In Experiment 2, exposure to the rumor induced greater memory contamination if it was planted among familiar peers than if it was encountered among strangers. PMID:20659735

  17. Developmental Links Between Children's Working Memory and their Social Relations with Teachers and Peers in the Early School Years.

    PubMed

    de Wilde, Amber; Koot, Hans M; van Lier, Pol A C

    2016-01-01

    This study assessed the developmental links between children's working memory development and their relations with teachers and peers across 2 years of kindergarten and early elementary school. Kindergarten and first grade children, N = 1109, 50% boys, were followed across 2 school-years. Children were assessed across 3 waves, in the fall and spring of the first school-year (within school-year), and finally in the spring of the second school-year. Working memory was assessed using a visuo-spatial working memory task. The developmental links between working memory and child-reported teacher-child relationship quality (warmth and conflict) and peer-nominated likeability and friendedness were assessed using autoregressive cross-lagged models. Lower working memory scores were related to increases in teacher-child conflict and decreases in teacher-child warmth one school-year later, in addition to decreases in likeability by peers within the same school-year. Conversely, teacher-child conflict was negatively associated with the development of working memory across the studied period. Path estimates between working memory and social relational factors were similar for boys and girls. Findings show developmental links between working memory and social-relational factors and vice versa. These results suggest that children's working memory development can be fostered through pro-social relations with teachers in early elementary school children. PMID:26219261

  18. Overexpression of Protein Kinase Mζ in the Prelimbic Cortex Enhances the Formation of Long-Term Fear Memory.

    PubMed

    Xue, Yan-Xue; Zhu, Zhen-Zhen; Han, Hai-Bin; Liu, Jian-Feng; Meng, Shi-Qiu; Chen, Chen; Yang, Jian-Li; Wu, Ping; Lu, Lin

    2015-08-01

    Neuroplasticity in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) after fear conditioning has been suggested to regulate the formation and expression of fear memory. Protein kinase Mζ (PKMζ), an isoform of protein kinase C with persistent activity, is involved in the formation and maintenance of memory. However, less is known about the role of PKMζ in the PFC in the formation of fear memory. We investigated whether the overexpression of PKMζ enhances the formation of auditory fear memory in rats. We found that microinfusion of lentiviral vector-expressing PKMζ into the prelimbic cortex (PrL) selectively enhanced the expression of PKMζ without influencing the expression of other isoforms of PKC. The overexpression of PKMζ in the PrL enhanced the formation of long-term fear memory without affecting short-term fear memory, whereas the overexpression of PKMζ in the infralimbic cortex had no effect on either short-term or long-term fear memory. The overexpression of PKMζ in the PrL had no effect on anxiety-like behavior or locomotor activity. We also found that PKMζ overexpression potentiated the fear conditioning-induced increase in the membrane levels of glutamate subunit 2 of AMPA receptors in the PrL. These results demonstrate that the overexpression of PKMζ in the PrL but not infralimbic cortex selectively enhanced the formation of long-term fear memory, and PKMζ in the PrL may be involved in the formation of fear memory.

  19. Object memory enhancement by combining sub-efficacious doses of specific phosphodiesterase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Bollen, E; Akkerman, S; Puzzo, D; Gulisano, W; Palmeri, A; D'Hooge, R; Balschun, D; Steinbusch, H W M; Blokland, A; Prickaerts, J

    2015-08-01

    The second messengers cGMP and cAMP have a vital role in synaptic plasticity and memory processes. As such, phosphodiesterases inhibitors (PDE-Is), which prevent the breakdown of these cyclic nucleotides, represent a potential treatment strategy in memory decline. Recently it has been demonstrated that cGMP and cAMP signaling act in sequence during memory consolidation, with early cGMP signaling requiring subsequent cAMP signaling. Here, we sought to confirm this relationship, and to evaluate its therapeutic implications. Combining sub-efficacious doses of the cGMP-specific PDE type 5 inhibitor vardenafil (0.1 mg/kg) and cAMP-specific PDE type 4 inhibitor rolipram (0.01 mg/kg) during the early and late memory consolidation phase, respectively, led to improved memory performance in a 24 h interval object recognition task. Similarly, such a sub-efficacious combination treatment enhanced the transition of early-phase long-term potentiation (LTP) to late-phase LTP in hippocampal slices. In addition, both object memory and LTP were improved after administration of two sub-efficacious doses of the dual substrate PDE type 2 inhibitor BAY60 7550 (0.3 mg/kg) at the early and late consolidation phase, respectively. Taken together, combinations of sub-efficacious doses of cAMP- and cGMP-specific PDE-Is have an additive effect on long-term synaptic plasticity and memory formation and might prove a superior alternative to single PDE-I treatment. PMID:25896769

  20. Rapid-Eye-Movement-Sleep (REM) Associated Enhancement of Working Memory Performance after a Daytime Nap.

    PubMed

    Lau, Esther Yuet Ying; Wong, Mark Lawrence; Lau, Kristy Nga Ting; Hui, Florence Wai Ying; Tseng, Chia-huei

    2015-01-01

    The main objective was to study the impact of a daytime sleep opportunity on working memory and the mechanism behind such impact. This study adopted an experimental design in a sleep research laboratory. Eighty healthy college students (Age:17-23, 36 males) were randomized to either have a polysomnography-monitored daytime sleep opportunity (Nap-group, n=40) or stay awake (Wake-group, n=40) between the two assessment sessions. All participants completed a sleep diary and wore an actigraph-watch for 5 days before and one day after the assessment sessions. They completed the state-measurement of sleepiness and affect, in addition to a psychomotor vigilance test and a working memory task before and after the nap/wake sessions. The two groups did not differ in their sleep characteristics prior to and after the lab visit. The Nap-group had higher accuracy on the working memory task, fewer lapses on the psychomotor vigilance test and lower state-sleepiness than the Wake-group. Within the Nap-group, working memory accuracy was positively correlated with duration of rapid eye movement sleep (REM) and total sleep time during the nap. Our findings suggested that "sleep gain" during a daytime sleep opportunity had significant positive impact on working memory performance, without affecting subsequent nighttime sleep in young adult, and such impact was associated with the duration of REM. While REM abnormality has long been noted in pathological conditions (e.g. depression), which are also presented with cognitive dysfunctions (e.g. working memory deficits), this was the first evidence showing working memory enhancement associated with REM in daytime napping in college students, who likely had habitual short sleep duration but were otherwise generally healthy. PMID:25970511

  1. Rapid-Eye-Movement-Sleep (REM) Associated Enhancement of Working Memory Performance after a Daytime Nap

    PubMed Central

    Lau, Kristy Nga Ting; Hui, Florence Wai Ying; Tseng, Chia-huei

    2015-01-01

    The main objective was to study the impact of a daytime sleep opportunity on working memory and the mechanism behind such impact. This study adopted an experimental design in a sleep research laboratory. Eighty healthy college students (Age:17-23, 36 males) were randomized to either have a polysomnography-monitored daytime sleep opportunity (Nap-group, n=40) or stay awake (Wake-group, n=40) between the two assessment sessions. All participants completed a sleep diary and wore an actigraph-watch for 5 days before and one day after the assessment sessions. They completed the state-measurement of sleepiness and affect, in addition to a psychomotor vigilance test and a working memory task before and after the nap/wake sessions. The two groups did not differ in their sleep characteristics prior to and after the lab visit. The Nap-group had higher accuracy on the working memory task, fewer lapses on the psychomotor vigilance test and lower state-sleepiness than the Wake-group. Within the Nap-group, working memory accuracy was positively correlated with duration of rapid eye movement sleep (REM) and total sleep time during the nap. Our findings suggested that “sleep gain” during a daytime sleep opportunity had significant positive impact on working memory performance, without affecting subsequent nighttime sleep in young adult, and such impact was associated with the duration of REM. While REM abnormality has long been noted in pathological conditions (e.g. depression), which are also presented with cognitive dysfunctions (e.g. working memory deficits), this was the first evidence showing working memory enhancement associated with REM in daytime napping in college students, who likely had habitual short sleep duration but were otherwise generally healthy. PMID:25970511

  2. Rapid-Eye-Movement-Sleep (REM) Associated Enhancement of Working Memory Performance after a Daytime Nap.

    PubMed

    Lau, Esther Yuet Ying; Wong, Mark Lawrence; Lau, Kristy Nga Ting; Hui, Florence Wai Ying; Tseng, Chia-huei

    2015-01-01

    The main objective was to study the impact of a daytime sleep opportunity on working memory and the mechanism behind such impact. This study adopted an experimental design in a sleep research laboratory. Eighty healthy college students (Age:17-23, 36 males) were randomized to either have a polysomnography-monitored daytime sleep opportunity (Nap-group, n=40) or stay awake (Wake-group, n=40) between the two assessment sessions. All participants completed a sleep diary and wore an actigraph-watch for 5 days before and one day after the assessment sessions. They completed the state-measurement of sleepiness and affect, in addition to a psychomotor vigilance test and a working memory task before and after the nap/wake sessions. The two groups did not differ in their sleep characteristics prior to and after the lab visit. The Nap-group had higher accuracy on the working memory task, fewer lapses on the psychomotor vigilance test and lower state-sleepiness than the Wake-group. Within the Nap-group, working memory accuracy was positively correlated with duration of rapid eye movement sleep (REM) and total sleep time during the nap. Our findings suggested that "sleep gain" during a daytime sleep opportunity had significant positive impact on working memory performance, without affecting subsequent nighttime sleep in young adult, and such impact was associated with the duration of REM. While REM abnormality has long been noted in pathological conditions (e.g. depression), which are also presented with cognitive dysfunctions (e.g. working memory deficits), this was the first evidence showing working memory enhancement associated with REM in daytime napping in college students, who likely had habitual short sleep duration but were otherwise generally healthy.

  3. The Relations between Children's Past Experiences, Social Knowledge, and Memories for Social Situations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenhoot, Andrea F.; Tsethlikai, Monica; Wagoner, Beth J.

    2006-01-01

    This study explored the relations between 5- and 6-year-olds' (N = 40) past social experiences, social knowledge, and interpretation and recall of social situations. Children were read stories depicting a fictional child's behaviors, and path analyses related children's impressions of the story character and story recall to their expectations…

  4. Effects of Network Structure, Competition and Memory Time on Social Spreading Phenomena

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gleeson, James P.; O'Sullivan, Kevin P.; Baños, Raquel A.; Moreno, Yamir

    2016-04-01

    Online social media has greatly affected the way in which we communicate with each other. However, little is known about what fundamental mechanisms drive dynamical information flow in online social systems. Here, we introduce a generative model for online sharing behavior that is analytically tractable and that can reproduce several characteristics of empirical micro-blogging data on hashtag usage, such as (time-dependent) heavy-tailed distributions of meme popularity. The presented framework constitutes a null model for social spreading phenomena that, in contrast to purely empirical studies or simulation-based models, clearly distinguishes the roles of two distinct factors affecting meme popularity: the memory time of users and the connectivity structure of the social network.

  5. Nigella sativa Oil Enhances the Spatial Working Memory Performance of Rats on a Radial Arm Maze.

    PubMed

    Sahak, Mohamad Khairul Azali; Mohamed, Abdul Majid; Hashim, Noor Hashida; Hasan Adli, Durriyyah Sharifah

    2013-01-01

    Nigella sativa, an established historical and religion-based remedy for a wide range of health problems, is a herbal medicine known to have antioxidant and neuroprotective effects. This present study investigated the effect of Nigella sativa oil (NSO) administration on the spatial memory performance (SMP) of male adult rats using eight-arm radial arm maze (RAM). Twelve Sprague Dawley rats (7-9 weeks old) were force-fed daily with 6.0  μ L/100 g body weight of Nigella sativa oil (NSO group; n = 6) or 0.1 mL/100 g body weight of corn oil (control) (CO group; n = 6) for a period of 20 consecutive weeks. For each weekly evaluation of SMP, one day food-deprived rats were tested by allowing each of them 3 minutes to explore the RAM for food as their rewards. Similar to the control group, the SMP of the treated group was not hindered, as indicated by the establishment of the reference and working memory components of the spatial memory. The results demonstrated that lesser mean numbers of error were observed for the NSO-treated group in both parameters as compared to the CO-treated group. NSO could therefore enhance the learning and memory abilities of the rats; there was a significant decrease in the overall mean number of working memory error (WME) in the NSO-treated group. PMID:24454487

  6. Designer Receptors Enhance Memory in a Mouse Model of Down Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Fortress, Ashley M.; Hamlett, Eric D.; Vazey, Elena M.; Aston-Jones, Gary; Cass, Wayne A.; Boger, Heather A.

    2015-01-01

    Designer receptors exclusively activated by designer drugs (DREADDs) are novel and powerful tools to investigate discrete neuronal populations in the brain. We have used DREADDs to stimulate degenerating neurons in a Down syndrome (DS) model, Ts65Dn mice. Individuals with DS develop Alzheimer's disease (AD) neuropathology and have elevated risk for dementia starting in their 30s and 40s. Individuals with DS often exhibit working memory deficits coupled with degeneration of the locus coeruleus (LC) norepinephrine (NE) neurons. It is thought that LC degeneration precedes other AD-related neuronal loss, and LC noradrenergic integrity is important for executive function, working memory, and attention. Previous studies have shown that LC-enhancing drugs can slow the progression of AD pathology, including amyloid aggregation, oxidative stress, and inflammation. We have shown that LC degeneration in Ts65Dn mice leads to exaggerated memory loss and neuronal degeneration. We used a DREADD, hM3Dq, administered via adeno-associated virus into the LC under a synthetic promoter, PRSx8, to selectively stimulate LC neurons by exogenous administration of the inert DREADD ligand clozapine-N-oxide. DREADD stimulation of LC-NE enhanced performance in a novel object recognition task and reduced hyperactivity in Ts65Dn mice, without significant behavioral effects in controls. To confirm that the noradrenergic transmitter system was responsible for the enhanced memory function, the NE prodrug l-threo-dihydroxyphenylserine was administered in Ts65Dn and normosomic littermate control mice, and produced similar behavioral results. Thus, NE stimulation may prevent memory loss in Ts65Dn mice, and may hold promise for treatment in individuals with DS and dementia. PMID:25632113

  7. Manipulating Memory CD8 T Cell Numbers by Timed Enhancement of IL-2 Signals.

    PubMed

    Kim, Marie T; Kurup, Samarchith P; Starbeck-Miller, Gabriel R; Harty, John T

    2016-09-01

    As a result of the growing burden of tumors and chronic infections, manipulating CD8 T cell responses for clinical use has become an important goal for immunologists. In this article, we show that dendritic cell (DC) immunization coupled with relatively early (days 1-3) or late (days 4-6) administration of enhanced IL-2 signals increase peak effector CD8 T cell numbers, but only early IL-2 signals enhance memory numbers. IL-2 signals delivered at relatively late time points drive terminal differentiation and marked Bim-mediated contraction and do not increase memory T cell numbers. In contrast, early IL-2 signals induce effector cell metabolic profiles that are more conducive to memory formation. Of note, downregulation of CD80 and CD86 was observed on DCs in vivo following early IL-2 treatment. Mechanistically, early IL-2 treatment enhanced CTLA-4 expression on regulatory T cells, and CTLA-4 blockade alongside IL-2 treatment in vivo prevented the decrease in CD80 and CD86, supporting a cell-extrinsic role for CTLA-4 in downregulating B7 ligand expression on DCs. Finally, DC immunization followed by early IL-2 treatment and anti-CTLA-4 blockade resulted in lower memory CD8 T cell numbers compared with the DC+early IL-2 treatment group. These data suggest that curtailed signaling through the B7-CD28 costimulatory axis during CD8 T cell activation limits terminal differentiation and preserves memory CD8 T cell formation; thus, it should be considered in future T cell-vaccination strategies. PMID:27439516

  8. Naltrexone blocks the enhancing effect of novel experiences on performance in memory tests in humans.

    PubMed

    Chaves, M L; Bizzi, J W; Palmini, A L; Izquierdo, I

    1988-01-01

    Two experiments were carried out in healthy human volunteers in order to investigate the effect of novel experiences on retrieval, and the influence of naltrexone thereupon. Naltrexone (50 mg) and placebo (50 mg of starch) were given orally using a double blind design. In Experiment 1, the subjects were asked, on two consecutive days, to recall well-known facts or events, and to recall the year in which major events took place. On Day 2, some subjects were, and others were not, exposed to a nonsense text prior to testing, which was viewed as a novel experience by the subjects. Exposure to the text was followed by enhanced scores in both memory tests. The effect was blocked by naltrexone, but not by the placebo, given 1 hr prior to the novel experience; the treatments had no effect of their own in subjects unexposed to the nonsense text. In Experiment 2, the memory tests were the recognition of famous faces, and the dates test (see above); and the novel experience was being taken for 5 min to a room where they had never been before. Again, the novel experience was followed by increased scores in both memory tests in the untreated and placebo groups, but not in the naltrexone treated subjects. These results confirm previous findings on memory enhancement by pre-test exposure to novel experiences, and suggest that endogenous opioid, or at least naltrexone-sensitive, mechanisms are involved in the effect.

  9. Role of the hippocampus and orbitofrontal cortex during the disambiguation of social cues in working memory.

    PubMed

    Ross, Robert S; LoPresti, Matthew L; Schon, Karin; Stern, Chantal E

    2013-12-01

    Human social interactions are complex behaviors requiring the concerted effort of multiple neural systems to track and monitor the individuals around us. Cognitively, adjusting our behavior on the basis of changing social cues such as facial expressions relies on working memory and the ability to disambiguate, or separate, the representations of overlapping stimuli resulting from viewing the same individual with different facial expressions. We conducted an fMRI experiment examining the brain regions contributing to the encoding, maintenance, and retrieval of overlapping identity information during working memory using a delayed match-to-sample task. In the overlapping condition, two faces from the same individual with different facial expressions were presented at sample. In the nonoverlapping condition, the two sample faces were from two different individuals with different expressions. fMRI activity was assessed by contrasting the overlapping and nonoverlapping conditions at sample, delay, and test. The lateral orbitofrontal cortex showed increased fMRI signal in the overlapping condition in all three phases of the delayed match-to-sample task and increased functional connectivity with the hippocampus when encoding overlapping stimuli. The hippocampus showed increased fMRI signal at test. These data suggest that lateral orbitofrontal cortex helps encode and maintain representations of overlapping stimuli in working memory, whereas the orbitofrontal cortex and hippocampus contribute to the successful retrieval of overlapping stimuli. We suggest that the lateral orbitofrontal cortex and hippocampus play a role in encoding, maintaining, and retrieving social cues, especially when multiple interactions with an individual need to be disambiguated in a rapidly changing social context in order to make appropriate social responses. PMID:23640112

  10. Methamphetamine enhances memory of operantly conditioned respiratory behavior in the snail Lymnaea stagnalis.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, Colin D; Houmes, Stephen W; Wyrick, Katherine L; Kammerzell, Samuel M; Lukowiak, Ken; Sorg, Barbara A

    2010-06-15

    Amphetamines have been used as cognitive enhancers to promote learning and memory. Amphetamines are also drugs of abuse that may promote the initiation of strong memories that ultimately lead to addiction. To understand how methamphetamine (Meth) may be augmenting learning and memory, we chose a relatively simple system, the pond snail, Lymnaea stagnalis. We studied the effects of Meth exposure on the long-term memory (LTM), extinction and reinstatement of operantly conditioned aerial respiratory behavior in Lymnaea. We first determined doses of Meth that would acutely alter respiratory behavior. Next, we measured the impact of training snails in Meth solution or water (control group) using a training procedure that produces LTM (>6 h) in control conditions. Meth exposure impaired the expression of LTM 21 h after two training sessions, but this appeared to be a context-dependent effect only. However, snails exposed to 3.3 mumol l(-1) Meth during training had a decreased rate of extinction of the operantly conditioned memory. We then tested whether this decreased ability of snails to extinguish memory was due to enhanced LTM or impaired extinction of that memory. Snails were operantly conditioned in water and exposed to Meth 16 h after their last trial but 4-5 h prior to extinction. Meth produced an increase rather than a decrease in extinction rate. Thus, Meth impaired extinction only when snails were exposed to Meth during training. Last, we tested the effect of Meth on the ability to form LTM using a single training procedure that is suboptimal for LTM formation. Control snails did not demonstrate LTM, as expected, but pre-exposure of snails to 3.3 micromol l(-1) Meth 24 h prior to the single training session produced LTM 24 h later, indicating that Meth pre-exposure primed snails for LTM formation. Taken together, our studies suggest that LTM is strengthened by Meth such that extinction training is less effective. Lymnaea provides a simple and useful model

  11. Enhancing topology adaptation in information-sharing social networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cimini, Giulio; Chen, Duanbing; Medo, Matúš; Lü, Linyuan; Zhang, Yi-Cheng; Zhou, Tao

    2012-04-01

    The advent of the Internet and World Wide Web has led to unprecedent growth of the information available. People usually face the information overload by following a limited number of sources which best fit their interests. It has thus become important to address issues like who gets followed and how to allow people to discover new and better information sources. In this paper we conduct an empirical analysis of different online social networking sites and draw inspiration from its results to present different source selection strategies in an adaptive model for social recommendation. We show that local search rules which enhance the typical topological features of real social communities give rise to network configurations that are globally optimal. These rules create networks which are effective in information diffusion and resemble structures resulting from real social systems.

  12. Acute stress blocks the caffeine-induced enhancement of contextual memory retrieval in mice.

    PubMed

    Pierard, Chistophe; Krazem, Ali; Henkous, Nadia; Decorte, Laurence; Béracochéa, Daniel

    2015-08-15

    This study investigated in mice the dose-effect of caffeine on memory retrieval in non-stress and stress conditions. C57 Bl/6 Jico mice learned two consecutive discriminations (D1 and D2) in a four-hole board which involved either distinct contextual (CSD) or similar contextual (SSD) cues. All mice received an i.p. injection of vehicle or caffeine (8, 16 or 32mg/kg) 30min before the test session. Results showed that in non-stress conditions, the 16mg/kg caffeine dose induced a significant enhancement of D1 performance in CSD but not in SSD. Hence, we studied the effect of an acute stress (electric footshocks) administered 15min before the test session on D1 performance in caffeine-treated mice. Results showed that stress significantly decreased D1 performance in vehicle-treated controls and the memory-enhancing effect induced by the 16mg/kg caffeine dose in non-stress condition is no longer observed. Interestingly, whereas caffeine-treated mice exhibited weaker concentrations of plasma corticosterone as compared to vehicles in non-stress condition, stress significantly increased plasma corticosterone concentrations in caffeine-treated mice which reached similar level to that of controls. Overall, the acute stress blocked both the endocrinological and memory retrieval enhancing effects of caffeine.

  13. 3D networked graphene-ferromagnetic hybrids for fast shape memory polymers with enhanced mechanical stiffness and thermal conductivity.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sang-Heon; Jung, Jung-Hwan; Oh, Il-Kwon

    2014-10-15

    A novel 3D networked graphene-ferromagnetic hybrid can be easily fabricated using one-step microwave irradiation. By incorporating this hybrid material into shape memory polymers, the synergistic effects of fast speed and the enhancement of thermal conductivity and mechanical stiffness can be achieved. This can be broadly applicable to designing magneto-responsive shape memory polymers for multifunction applications.

  14. The enhancement of reconsolidation with a naturalistic mild stressor improves the expression of a declarative memory in humans.

    PubMed

    Coccoz, V; Maldonado, H; Delorenzi, A

    2011-06-30

    The reconsolidation hypothesis proposes that a previously consolidated memory recalled by a reminder enters an unstable state (memory labilization) during which it is transiently sensitive to disruption. Although this process has been shown in very diverse species and types of memories, including human declarative memory, elucidating the role of this process is still an open challenge. The hypothesis that reconsolidation allows the incorporation of new information has recently been demonstrated in humans. However, the findings show that, during the reconsolidation phase, memory retention can be increased by pharmacological modulation or real life events in animals have not been found in humans yet. In order to evaluate this, we used a paradigm of human declarative memory whose reminder structure allows us to differentiate between a retrieved labile memory state and a retrieved but non-labile state. Volunteers learned an association between five cue-syllables and their respective response-syllables. 6 days later, the paired-associate memory was reactivated by exposing the subjects to the reminder, and then they received a mild stressor, cold pressor stress (CPS). Poor memory performance was found at both the time of memory reactivation (day 6 after training) and at testing of all groups that were designed as controls (day 7). Conversely, robust memory performance was shown at testing when the CPS administration was concurrent with the retrieved-labile memory state. Results from the present study reveal that a naturalistic mild stressor can enhance reconsolidation, improving the long-term expression of this declarative memory. This finding might have significant implications for the comprehension of memory persistence and memory expression, and add new evidence in order to understand the adaptive meaning of the reconsolidation process.

  15. Influences of appearance-behaviour congruity on memory and social judgements.

    PubMed

    Cassidy, Brittany S; Gutchess, Angela H

    2015-01-01

    Prior work shows that appearance-behaviour congruity impacts memory and evaluations. Building upon prior work, we assessed influences of appearance-behaviour congruity on source memory and judgement strength to illustrate ways congruity effects permeate social cognition. We paired faces varying on trustworthiness with valenced behaviours to create congruent and incongruent face-behaviour pairs. Young and older adults remembered congruent pairs better than incongruent, but both were remembered better than pairs with faces rated average in appearance. This suggests that multiple, even conflicting, valenced cues improve memory over receiving fewer cues. Consistent with our manipulation of facial trustworthiness, congruity effects were present in the strength of trustworthiness-related but not dominance judgements. Subtle age differences emerged in congruity effects when learning about others, with older adults showing effects for approach judgements given both high and low arousal behaviours. Young adults had congruity effects for approach, prosociality and trustworthiness judgements, given high arousal behaviours only. These findings deepen our understanding of how appearance-behaviour congruity impacts memory for and evaluations of others. PMID:25180615

  16. The Good, the Bad, and the Rare: Memory for Partners in Social Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Volstorf, Jenny; Rieskamp, Jörg; Stevens, Jeffrey R.

    2011-01-01

    For cooperation to evolve via direct reciprocity, individuals must track their partners' behavior to avoid exploitation. With increasing size of the interaction group, however, memory becomes error prone. To decrease memory effort, people could categorize partners into types, distinguishing cooperators and cheaters. We explored two ways in which people might preferentially track one partner type: remember cheaters or remember the rare type in the population. We assigned participants to one of three interaction groups which differed in the proportion of computer partners' types (defectors rare, equal proportion, or cooperators rare). We extended research on both hypotheses in two ways. First, participants experienced their partners repeatedly by interacting in Prisoner's Dilemma games. Second, we tested categorization of partners as cooperators or defectors in memory tests after a short and long retention interval (10 min and 1 week). Participants remembered rare partner types better than they remembered common ones at both retention intervals. We propose that the flexibility of responding to the environment suggests an ecologically rational memory strategy in social interactions. PMID:21559490

  17. Influences of appearance-behaviour congruity on memory and social judgements.

    PubMed

    Cassidy, Brittany S; Gutchess, Angela H

    2015-01-01

    Prior work shows that appearance-behaviour congruity impacts memory and evaluations. Building upon prior work, we assessed influences of appearance-behaviour congruity on source memory and judgement strength to illustrate ways congruity effects permeate social cognition. We paired faces varying on trustworthiness with valenced behaviours to create congruent and incongruent face-behaviour pairs. Young and older adults remembered congruent pairs better than incongruent, but both were remembered better than pairs with faces rated average in appearance. This suggests that multiple, even conflicting, valenced cues improve memory over receiving fewer cues. Consistent with our manipulation of facial trustworthiness, congruity effects were present in the strength of trustworthiness-related but not dominance judgements. Subtle age differences emerged in congruity effects when learning about others, with older adults showing effects for approach judgements given both high and low arousal behaviours. Young adults had congruity effects for approach, prosociality and trustworthiness judgements, given high arousal behaviours only. These findings deepen our understanding of how appearance-behaviour congruity impacts memory for and evaluations of others.

  18. Nonthermal effects of lifelong high-frequency electromagnetic field exposure on social memory performance in rats.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Janine; Stangassinger, Manfred

    2014-10-01

    We are today surrounded almost constantly by high-frequency electromagnetic fields (EMFs) from mobile communications base stations. To date, however, there has been little concern regarding nonthermal effects of EMFs on cognition. In the present study, male and female rats were subjected to continuous far-field exposure to a frequency of 900-MHz (Global System for Mobile Communications [GSM]) or 1.966-GHz (Universal Mobile Telecommunications System [UMTS]) at 0.4 W/kg. Memory performance of adult EMF-exposed and sham-exposed female rats (at 6 months of age) and male rats (at 3 and 6 months of age) was tested using a social discrimination procedure. For this procedure, a target juvenile male was introduced to the subject's home cage for 4 min (Trial 1). After 30 min, the same target animal and a novel juvenile male were simultaneously presented to the subject for 4 min (Trial 2). Differences in sniffing duration to the familiar and novel target rats during Trial 2 were used to assess memory performance. EMF-exposed females exhibited no differences in sniffing duration compared with controls. In contrast, the sniffing durations of EMF-exposed males at 3 months of age were significantly affected. At 6 months of age, GSM-, but not UMTS-, exposed male adults showed a memory performance deficit. These findings provide new insight into the nonthermal effects of long-term high-frequency EMF exposure on memory.

  19. CREB SUMOylation by the E3 ligase PIAS1 enhances spatial memory.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yan-Chu; Hsu, Wei-Lun; Ma, Yun-Li; Tai, Derek J C; Lee, Eminy H Y

    2014-07-16

    cAMP-responsive element binding protein (CREB) phosphorylation and signaling plays an important role in long-term memory formation, but other posttranslational modifications of CREB are less known. Here, we found that CREB1Δ, the short isoform of CREB, could be sumoylated by the small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO) E3 ligase protein inhibitor of activated STAT1 (PIAS1) at Lys271 and Lys290 and PIAS1 SUMOylation of CREB1Δ increased the expression level of CREB1Δ. CREB1Δ could also be sumoylated by other PIAS family proteins, but not by the E3 ligases RanBP2 and Pc2 or by the E2 ligase Ubc9. Furthermore, water maze training increased the level of endogenous CREB SUMOylation in rat CA1 neurons determined by in vitro SUMOylation assay, but this effect was not observed in other brain areas. Moreover, transduction of Lenti-CREBWT to rat CA1 area facilitated, whereas transduction of Lenti-CREB double sumo-mutant (CREBK271RK290R) impaired, spatial learning and memory performance. Transduction of Lenti-CREBWT-SUMO1 fusion vector to rat CA1 area showed a more significant effect in enhancing spatial learning and memory and CREB SUMOylation. Lenti-CREBWT transduction increased, whereas Lenti-CREBK271RK290R transduction decreased, CREB DNA binding to the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (bdnf) promoter and decreased bdnf mRNA expression. Knock-down of PIAS1 expression in CA1 area by PIAS1 siRNA transfection impaired spatial learning and memory and decreased endogenous CREB SUMOylation. In addition, CREB SUMOylation was CREB phosphorylation dependent and lasted longer. Therefore, CREB phosphorylation may be responsible for signal transduction during the early phase of long-term memory formation, whereas CREB SUMOylation sustains long-term memory.

  20. A role for the endocannabinoid system in exercise-induced spatial memory enhancement in mice.

    PubMed

    Ferreira-Vieira, Talita H; Bastos, Cristiane P; Pereira, Grace S; Moreira, Fabricio A; Massensini, André R

    2014-01-01

    It is well known that physical exercise has positive effects on cognitive functions and hippocampal plasticity. However, the underlying mechanisms have remained to be further investigated. Here we investigated the hypothesis that the memory-enhancement promoted by physical exercise relies on facilitation of the endocannabinoid system. We observed that the spatial memory tested in the object location paradigm did not persist in sedentary mice, but could be improved by 1 week of treadmill running. In addition, exercise up-regulated CB1 receptor and BDNF expression in the hippocampus. To verify if these changes required CB1 activation, we treated the mice with the selective antagonist, AM251, before each period of physical activity. In line with our hypothesis, this drug prevented the exercise-induced memory enhancement and BDNF expression. Furthermore, AM251 reduced CB1 expression. To test if facilitating the endocannabinoid system signaling would mimic the alterations observed after exercise, we treated sedentary animals during 1 week with the anandamide-hydrolysis inhibitor, URB597. Mice treated with this drug recognized the object in a new location and have increased levels of CB1 and BDNF expression in the hippocampus, showing that potentiating the endocanabinoid system equally benefits memory. In conclusion, the favorable effects of exercise upon spatial memory and BDNF expression depend on facilitation of CB1 receptor signaling, which can be mimic by inhibition of anandamide hydrolysis in sedentary animals. Our results suggest that, at least in part, the promnesic effect of the exercise is dependent of CB1 receptor activation and is mediated by BDNF.

  1. The Enhanced Rise and Delayed Fall of Memory in a Model of Synaptic Integration: Extension to Discrete State Synapses.

    PubMed

    Elliott, Terry

    2016-09-01

    Integrate-and-express models of synaptic plasticity propose that synapses may act as low-pass filters, integrating synaptic plasticity induction signals in order to discern trends before expressing synaptic plasticity. We have previously shown that synaptic filtering strongly controls destabilizing fluctuations in developmental models. When applied to palimpsest memory systems that learn new memories by forgetting old ones, we have also shown that with binary-strength synapses, integrative synapses lead to an initial memory signal rise before its fall back to equilibrium. Such an initial rise is in dramatic contrast to nonintegrative synapses, in which the memory signal falls monotonically. We now extend our earlier analysis of palimpsest memories with synaptic filters to consider the more general case of discrete state, multilevel synapses. We derive exact results for the memory signal dynamics and then consider various simplifying approximations. We show that multilevel synapses enhance the initial rise in the memory signal and then delay its subsequent fall by inducing a plateau-like region in the memory signal. Such dynamics significantly increase memory lifetimes, defined by a signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). We derive expressions for optimal choices of synaptic parameters (filter size, number of strength states, number of synapses) that maximize SNR memory lifetimes. However, we find that with memory lifetimes defined via mean-first-passage times, such optimality conditions do not exist, suggesting that optimality may be an artifact of SNRs. PMID:27391686

  2. Multiple social identities and stereotype threat: imbalance, accessibility, and working memory.

    PubMed

    Rydell, Robert J; McConnell, Allen R; Beilock, Sian L

    2009-05-01

    In 4 experiments, the authors showed that concurrently making positive and negative self-relevant stereotypes available about performance in the same ability domain can eliminate stereotype threat effects. Replicating past work, the authors demonstrated that introducing negative stereotypes about women's math performance activated participants' female social identity and hurt their math performance (i.e., stereotype threat) by reducing working memory. Moving beyond past work, it was also demonstrated that concomitantly presenting a positive self-relevant stereotype (e.g., college students are good at math) increased the relative accessibility of females' college student identity and inhibited their gender identity, eliminating attendant working memory deficits and contingent math performance decrements. Furthermore, subtle manipulations in questions presented in the demographic section of a math test eliminated stereotype threat effects that result from women reporting their gender before completing the test. This work identifies the motivated processes through which people's social identities became active in situations in which self-relevant stereotypes about a stigmatized group membership and a nonstigmatized group membership were available. In addition, it demonstrates the downstream consequences of this pattern of activation on working memory and performance.

  3. Memories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brand, Judith, Ed.

    1998-01-01

    This theme issue of the journal "Exploring" covers the topic of "memories" and describes an exhibition at San Francisco's Exploratorium that ran from May 22, 1998 through January 1999 and that contained over 40 hands-on exhibits, demonstrations, artworks, images, sounds, smells, and tastes that demonstrated and depicted the biological,…

  4. Enhancing promotional strategies within social marketing programs: use of Web 2.0 social media.

    PubMed

    Thackeray, Rosemary; Neiger, Brad L; Hanson, Carl L; McKenzie, James F

    2008-10-01

    The second generation of Internet-based applications (i.e., Web 2.0), in which users control communication, holds promise to significantly enhance promotional efforts within social marketing campaigns. Web 2.0 applications can directly engage consumers in the creative process by both producing and distributing information through collaborative writing, content sharing, social networking, social bookmarking, and syndication. Web 2.0 can also enhance the power of viral marketing by increasing the speed at which consumers share experiences and opinions with progressively larger audiences. Because of the novelty and potential effectiveness of Web 2.0, social marketers may be enticed to prematurely incorporate related applications into promotional plans. However, as strategic issues such as priority audience preferences, selection of appropriate applications, tracking and evaluation, and related costs are carefully considered, Web 2.0 will expand to allow health promotion practitioners more direct access to consumers with less dependency on traditional communication channels. PMID:18936268

  5. Enhancing promotional strategies within social marketing programs: use of Web 2.0 social media.

    PubMed

    Thackeray, Rosemary; Neiger, Brad L; Hanson, Carl L; McKenzie, James F

    2008-10-01

    The second generation of Internet-based applications (i.e., Web 2.0), in which users control communication, holds promise to significantly enhance promotional efforts within social marketing campaigns. Web 2.0 applications can directly engage consumers in the creative process by both producing and distributing information through collaborative writing, content sharing, social networking, social bookmarking, and syndication. Web 2.0 can also enhance the power of viral marketing by increasing the speed at which consumers share experiences and opinions with progressively larger audiences. Because of the novelty and potential effectiveness of Web 2.0, social marketers may be enticed to prematurely incorporate related applications into promotional plans. However, as strategic issues such as priority audience preferences, selection of appropriate applications, tracking and evaluation, and related costs are carefully considered, Web 2.0 will expand to allow health promotion practitioners more direct access to consumers with less dependency on traditional communication channels.

  6. You are that smiling guy I met at the party! Socially positive signals foster memory for identities and contexts.

    PubMed

    Righi, Stefania; Gronchi, Giorgio; Marzi, Tessa; Rebai, Mohamed; Viggiano, Maria Pia

    2015-07-01

    The emotional influence of facial expressions on memory is well-known whereas the influence of emotional contextual information on memory for emotional faces is yet to be extensively explored. This study investigated the interplay between facial expression and the emotional surrounding context in affecting both memory for identities (item memory) and memory for associative backgrounds (source memory). At the encoding fearful and happy faces were presented embedded in fear or happy scenes (i.e.: fearful faces in fear-scenes, happy faces in happy-scenes, fearful faces in happy-scenes and happy faces in fear-scenes) and participants were asked to judge the emotional congruency of the face-scene compounds (i.e. fearful faces in fear-scenes and happy faces in happy-scenes were congruent compounds). In the recognition phase, the old faces were intermixed with the new ones: all the faces were presented isolated with a neutral expression. Participants were requested to indicate whether each face had been previously presented (item memory). Then, for each old face the memory for the scene originally compounded with the face was tested by a three alternative forced choice recognition task (source memory). The results evidenced that face identity memory is differently modulated by the valence in congruent face-context compounds with better identity recognition (item memory) for happy faces encoded in happy-scenarios. Moreover, also the memory for the surrounding context (source memory) benefits from the association with a smiling face. Our findings highlight that socially positive signals conveyed by smiling faces may prompt memory for identity and context. PMID:26000956

  7. Retrograde enhancement of memory by mild flurothyl treatment in the chick.

    PubMed

    Cherkin, A; Meinecke, R O; Garman, M W

    1975-02-01

    Strong flurothyl treatment (1.7% v/v for 8 min) produces retrograde amnesia in chicks when administered as long as 24 hr after one-trial avoidance training with a strongly aversive stimulus. Mild flurothyl treatment (0.2% v/v for 8 min) produced retrograde enhancement when administered as long as 16 min after similar training with a moderately aversive stimulus. The moderate training followed by mild flurothyl treatment enhanced 24-hr retention to the level found after strong training alone. Enhanced retention persisted for at least 72 hr; nonspecific performance effects faded within 48 hr. The predominant dose-dependent and time-dependent enhancement effect of mild flurothyl treatment is interpreted as improved memory consolidation.

  8. Enhanced zinc consumption causes memory deficits and increased brain levels of zinc

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Flinn, J.M.; Hunter, D.; Linkous, D.H.; Lanzirotti, A.; Smith, L.N.; Brightwell, J.; Jones, B.F.

    2005-01-01

    Zinc deficiency has been shown to impair cognitive functioning, but little work has been done on the effects of elevated zinc. This research examined the effect on memory of raising Sprague-Dawley rats on enhanced levels of zinc (10 ppm ZnCO3; 0.153 mM) in the drinking water for periods of 3 or 9 months, both pre- and postnatally. Controls were raised on lab water. Memory was tested in a series of Morris Water Maze (MWM) experiments, and zinc-treated rats were found to have impairments in both reference and working memory. They were significantly slower to find a stationary platform and showed greater thigmotaxicity, a measure of anxiety. On a working memory task, where the platform was moved each day, zinc-treated animals had longer latencies over both trials and days, swam further from the platform, and showed greater thigmotaxicity. On trials using an Atlantis platform, which remained in one place but was lowered on probe trials, the zinc-treated animals had significantly fewer platform crossings, spent less time in the target quadrant, and did not swim as close to the platform position. They had significantly greater latency on nonprobe trials. Microprobe synchrotron X-ray fluorescence (??SXRF) confirmed that brain zinc levels were increased by adding ZnCO 3 to the drinking water. These data show that long-term dietary administration of zinc can lead to impairments in cognitive function. ?? 2004 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Cognitive-Enhancing Effect of Aronia melanocarpa Extract against Memory Impairment Induced by Scopolamine in Mice.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyeon Yong; Weon, Jin Bae; Jung, Youn Sik; Kim, Nam Young; Kim, Myong Ki; Ma, Choong Je

    2016-01-01

    Aronia melanocarpa (A. melanocarpa) berries are a fruit with a marked antioxidant effect. The objective of this study was to confirm the effect of A. melanocarpa berries extract against scopolamine-induced memory impairment in mice using the Morris water maze and passive avoidance test. Moreover, we determined a possible mechanism of the cognitive-enhancing effect involving AChE activity and BDNF and p-CREB expression in the hippocampus of mice. A. melanocarpa berries extract attenuated the learning and memory impairment induced by scopolamine in the Morris water maze (79.3 ± 0.8 s of 200 mg/kg and 64.4 ± 10.7 s of 400 mg/kg on day 4) and passive avoidance tests (46.0 ± 41.1 s of 200 mg/kg and 25.6 ± 18.7 s of 400 mg/kg). A. melanocarpa berries extract reduced the acetylcholinesterase level in the hippocampus of scopolamine-injected mice and increased BDNF and p-CREB expression in the hippocampus. The major compound, cyanidin-3-O-galactoside, also reversed memory impairment. These results showed that A. melanocarpa berries extract improved memory impairment by inhibiting AChE and increasing BDNF and p-CREB expression, and cyanidin-3-O-galactoside may be responsible for the effect of A. melanocarpa berries extract.

  10. Cognitive-Enhancing Effect of Aronia melanocarpa Extract against Memory Impairment Induced by Scopolamine in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hyeon Yong; Weon, Jin Bae; Jung, Youn Sik; Kim, Nam Young; Kim, Myong Ki; Ma, Choong Je

    2016-01-01

    Aronia melanocarpa (A. melanocarpa) berries are a fruit with a marked antioxidant effect. The objective of this study was to confirm the effect of A. melanocarpa berries extract against scopolamine-induced memory impairment in mice using the Morris water maze and passive avoidance test. Moreover, we determined a possible mechanism of the cognitive-enhancing effect involving AChE activity and BDNF and p-CREB expression in the hippocampus of mice. A. melanocarpa berries extract attenuated the learning and memory impairment induced by scopolamine in the Morris water maze (79.3 ± 0.8 s of 200 mg/kg and 64.4 ± 10.7 s of 400 mg/kg on day 4) and passive avoidance tests (46.0 ± 41.1 s of 200 mg/kg and 25.6 ± 18.7 s of 400 mg/kg). A. melanocarpa berries extract reduced the acetylcholinesterase level in the hippocampus of scopolamine-injected mice and increased BDNF and p-CREB expression in the hippocampus. The major compound, cyanidin-3-O-galactoside, also reversed memory impairment. These results showed that A. melanocarpa berries extract improved memory impairment by inhibiting AChE and increasing BDNF and p-CREB expression, and cyanidin-3-O-galactoside may be responsible for the effect of A. melanocarpa berries extract. PMID:27239211

  11. Examination of mechanisms underlying enhanced memory performance in action video game players: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Li, Xianchun; Cheng, Xiaojun; Li, Jiaying; Pan, Yafeng; Hu, Yi; Ku, Yixuan

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have shown enhanced memory performance resulting from extensive action video game playing. The mechanisms underlying the cognitive benefit were investigated in the current study. We presented two types of retro-cues, with variable intervals to memory array (Task 1) or test array (Task 2), during the retention interval in a change detection task. In Task 1, action video game players demonstrated steady performance while non-action video game players showed decreased performance as cues occurred later, indicating their performance difference increased as the cue-to-memory-array intervals became longer. In Task 2, both participant groups increased their performance at similar rates as cues presented later, implying the performance difference in two groups were irrespective of the test-array-to-cue intervals. These findings suggested that memory benefit from game plays is not attributable to the higher ability of overcoming interference from the test array, but to the interactions between the two processes of protection from decay and resistance from interference, or from alternative hypotheses. Implications for future studies were discussed.

  12. Examination of mechanisms underlying enhanced memory performance in action video game players: a pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xianchun; Cheng, Xiaojun; Li, Jiaying; Pan, Yafeng; Hu, Yi; Ku, Yixuan

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have shown enhanced memory performance resulting from extensive action video game playing. The mechanisms underlying the cognitive benefit were investigated in the current study. We presented two types of retro-cues, with variable intervals to memory array (Task 1) or test array (Task 2), during the retention interval in a change detection task. In Task 1, action video game players demonstrated steady performance while non-action video game players showed decreased performance as cues occurred later, indicating their performance difference increased as the cue-to-memory-array intervals became longer. In Task 2, both participant groups increased their performance at similar rates as cues presented later, implying the performance difference in two groups were irrespective of the test-array-to-cue intervals. These findings suggested that memory benefit from game plays is not attributable to the higher ability of overcoming interference from the test array, but to the interactions between the two processes of protection from decay and resistance from interference, or from alternative hypotheses. Implications for future studies were discussed. PMID:26136720

  13. Tadalafil enhances working memory, and reduces hippocampal oxidative stress in both young and aged mice.

    PubMed

    Al-Amin, Md Mamun; Hasan, S M Nageeb; Alam, Tanzir; Hasan, Ahmed Tasdid; Hossain, Imran; Didar, Rohini Rowshan; Alam, Md Ashraful; Rahman, Md Mahbubur

    2014-12-15

    Tadalafil, a type-5 phosphodiesterase enzyme inhibitor with long half-life used to treat erectile dysfunction. Recently it has been reported that tadalafil improves cognitive function. Here, we aimed to investigate the age dependent effects of tadalafil on memory, locomotor, behavior, and oxidative stress in the hippocampus. Tadalafil was orally administered everyday (5 mg/kg) to young (2 months) and old (16 months) healthy mice for 4 weeks. Control mice from each group received equal volume of 0.9% normal saline for the same duration. Memory and locomotor activity were tested using radial arm maze and open field test respectively. The level of malondialdehyde (MDA), nitric oxide (NO), and advanced protein oxidation product (APOP) was analyzed and catalase activity was determined from the isolated hippocampus. Treatment with tadalafil in aged mice improves working memory than the corresponding tadalafil treated young mice in radial arm maze test. Tadalafil treated mice traveled less distance in the center and the mean speed of tadalafil treated aged mice was significantly lower than the tadalafil treated young mice in open field test. Tadalafil treatment elicited a decrease of MDA level in the hippocampus of aged mice than that of young mice. APOP level was decreased only in aged mice treated with tadalafil. Treatment with tadalafil decreased NO and increased catalase activity in both young and aged mice. On the basis of previous and our findings, we conclude that tadalafil treatment reduces oxidative stress while increased cGMP level in the hippocampus might be responsible for memory enhancement.

  14. Effects of enhanced zinc and copper in drinking water on spatial memory and fear conditioning

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chrosniak, L.D.; Smith, L.N.; McDonald, C.G.; Jones, B.F.; Flinn, J.M.

    2006-01-01

    Ingestion of enhanced zinc can cause memory impairments and copper deficiencies. This study examined the effect of zinc supplementation, with and without copper, on two types of memory. Rats raised pre- and post-natally on 10 mg/kg ZnCO3 or ZnSO4 in the drinking water were tested in a fear-conditioning experiment at 11 months of age. Both zinc groups showed a maladaptive retention of fearful memories compared to controls raised on tap water. Rats raised on 10 mg/kg ZnCO3, 10 mg/kg ZnCO3 + 0.25 mg/kg CuCl2, or tap water, were tested for spatial memory ability at 3 months of age. Significant improvements in performance were found in the ZnCO3 + CuCl2 group compared to the ZnCO3 group, suggesting that some of the cognitive deficits associated with zinc supplementation may be remediated by addition of copper. ?? 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Histamine enhances inhibitory avoidance memory consolidation through a H2 receptor-dependent mechanism.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Weber C; Bonini, Juliana S; Bevilaqua, Lia R M; Izquierdo, Iván; Cammarota, Martín

    2006-07-01

    Several evidences suggest that brain histamine is involved in memory consolidation but the actual contribution of the hippocampal histaminergic system to this process remains controversial. Here, we show that when infused into the CA1 region of the dorsal hippocampus immediately after training in an inhibitory avoidance task, but not later, histamine induced a dose-dependent promnesic effect without altering locomotor activity, exploratory behavior, anxiety state or retrieval of the avoidance response. The facilitatory effect of intra-CA1 histamine was mimicked by the histamine N-methyltransferase inhibitor SKF-91844 as well as by the H2 receptor agonist dimaprit and it was blocked completely by the H2 receptor antagonist ranitidine. Conversely, the promnesic action of histamine was unaffected by the H1 receptor antagonist pyrilamine, the H3 receptor antagonist, thioperamide, and the NMDAr polyamine-binding site antagonist ifenprodil. By themselves, ranitidine, pyrilamine, thioperamide, and ifenprodil did not affect IA memory consolidation. Our data indicate that, when given into CA1, histamine enhances memory consolidation through a mechanism that involves activation of H2 receptors; however, endogenous CA1 histamine does not seem to participate in the consolidation of IA memory at least at the post-training times analyzed.

  16. Acute stress rapidly and persistently enhances memory formation in the male rat.

    PubMed

    Shors, T J

    2001-01-01

    Previous studies, as well as the present one, report that acute exposure to intermittent tailshocks enhances classical eyeblink conditioning in male rats when trained 24 h after stressor cessation. In Experiment 1, it was determined that the facilitating effect of stress on conditioning could also be obtained in response to a stressor of acute inescapable swim stress but not inescapable noise or the unconditioned stimulus of periorbital eyelid stimulation. These selective responses arose despite comparable enhancements of the stress-related hormone corticosterone in response to tailshocks, periorbital eyelid stimulation, noise stress, and supraelevation in response to swim stress. Although corticosterone is necessary for the enhanced learning in response to stress (Beylin & Shors, 1999), these results suggest that it is not sufficient. In addition, the results suggest that the enhancement is not dependent on common characteristics between the stressor and the conditioning stimuli (stimulus generalization). In Experiment 2, it was determined that the facilitating effect of the stressor on conditioning occurs within 30 min of stressor cessation. Thus, the mechanism responsible for facilitating memory formation is rapidly induced as well as persistently expressed. In Experiment 3, it was determined that exposure to the stressor does not enhance performance of the conditioned response after the response has been acquired. Thus, exposure to the stressor enhances the formation of new associations rather than affecting retention or performance of the motor response. These studies extend the circumstances under which stress is known to enhance associative learning and implicate neural mechanisms of memory enhancement that are rapidly induced and persistently expressed.

  17. Repeated administration of almonds increases brain acetylcholine levels and enhances memory function in healthy rats while attenuates memory deficits in animal model of amnesia.

    PubMed

    Batool, Zehra; Sadir, Sadia; Liaquat, Laraib; Tabassum, Saiqa; Madiha, Syeda; Rafiq, Sahar; Tariq, Sumayya; Batool, Tuba Sharf; Saleem, Sadia; Naqvi, Fizza; Perveen, Tahira; Haider, Saida

    2016-01-01

    Dietary nutrients may play a vital role in protecting the brain from age-related memory dysfunction and neurodegenerative diseases. Tree nuts including almonds have shown potential to combat age-associated brain dysfunction. These nuts are an important source of essential nutrients, such as tocopherol, folate, mono- and poly-unsaturated fatty acids, and polyphenols. These components have shown promise as possible dietary supplements to prevent or delay the onset of age-associated cognitive dysfunction. This study investigated possible protective potential of almond against scopolamine induced amnesia in rats. The present study also investigated a role of acetylcholine in almond induced memory enhancement. Rats in test group were orally administrated with almond suspension (400 mg/kg/day) for four weeks. Both control and almond-treated rats were then divided into saline and scopolamine injected groups. Rats in the scopolamine group were injected with scopolamine (0.5 mg/kg) five minutes before the start of each memory test. Memory was assessed by elevated plus maze (EPM), Morris water maze (MWM) and novel object recognition (NOR) task. Cholinergic function was determined in terms of hippocampal and frontal cortical acetylcholine content and acetylcholinesterase activity. Results of the present study suggest that almond administration for 28 days significantly improved memory retention. This memory enhancing effect of almond was also observed in scopolamine induced amnesia model. Present study also suggests a role of acetylcholine in the attenuation of scopolamine induced amnesia by almond.

  18. Exploring the Role of Social Memory of Floods for Designing Flood Early Warning Operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Girons Lopez, Marc; Di Baldassarre, Giuliano; Grabs, Thomas; Halldin, Sven; Seibert, Jan

    2016-04-01

    Early warning systems are an important tool for natural disaster mitigation practices, especially for flooding events. Warnings rely on near-future forecasts to provide time to take preventive actions before a flood occurs, thus reducing potential losses. However, on top of the technical capacities, successful warnings require an efficient coordination and communication among a range of different actors and stakeholders. The complexity of integrating the technical and social spheres of warning systems has, however, resulted in system designs neglecting a number of important aspects such as social awareness of floods thus leading to suboptimal results. A better understanding of the interactions and feedbacks among the different elements of early warning systems is therefore needed to improve their efficiency and therefore social resilience. When designing an early warning system two important decisions need to be made regarding (i) the hazard magnitude at and from which a warning should be issued and (ii) the degree of confidence required for issuing a warning. The first decision is usually taken based on the social vulnerability and climatic variability while the second one is related to the performance (i.e. accuracy) of the forecasting tools. Consequently, by estimating the vulnerability and the accuracy of the forecasts, these two variables can be optimized to minimize the costs and losses. Important parameters with a strong influence on the efficiency of warning systems such as social awareness are however not considered in their design. In this study we present a theoretical exploration of the impact of social awareness on the design of early warning systems. For this purpose we use a definition of social memory of flood events as a proxy for flood risk awareness and test its effect on the optimization of the warning system design variables. Understanding the impact of social awareness on warning system design is important to make more robust warnings that can

  19. Slow light enhanced atomic frequency comb quantum memories in photonic crystal waveguides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Chenzhi; Zhang, Wei; Huang, Yidong; Peng, Jiangde

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, we propose a slow light-enhanced quantum memory with high efficiency based on atomic frequency comb (AFC) in ion-doped photonic crystal waveguide (PCW). The performance of the quantum memory is investigated theoretically, considering the impact of the signal bandwidth. Both the forward and backward retrieval schemes are analyzed. In the forward retrieval scheme, the analysis shows that a moderate slow light effect can improve the retrieval efficiency to above 50% with very high fidelity, even when the intrinsic optical depth is very low and the signal bandwidth is comparable with the AFC bandwidth. In the backward retrieval scheme, retrieval efficiency larger than 90% can be obtained and fidelity can remain above 90% for signal with bandwidth much narrower than AFC bandwidth, when moderate slow light is introduced into waveguide with low intrinsic optical depth. Although the phase mismatching effect limits the slow light enhancement on retrieval efficiency and decreases the fidelity for signal with bandwidth approaching AFC bandwidth, we design a modified atomic frequency comb structure (MAFC) based on which a moderate slow light can make the retrieval efficiency larger than 85% and keep the fidelity above 80%. Our calculations show that the proposed scheme provides a promising way to realize high efficiency on-chip quantum memory. Supplementary material in the form of one pdf file available from the Journal web page at http://dx.doi.org/10.1140/epjd/e2016-60662-3

  20. Slow light enhanced atomic frequency comb quantum memories in photonic crystal waveguides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Chenzhi; Zhang, Wei; Huang, Yidong; Peng, Jiangde

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, we propose a slow light-enhanced quantum memory with high efficiency based on atomic frequency comb (AFC) in ion-doped photonic crystal waveguide (PCW). The performance of the quantum memory is investigated theoretically, considering the impact of the signal bandwidth. Both the forward and backward retrieval schemes are analyzed. In the forward retrieval scheme, the analysis shows that a moderate slow light effect can improve the retrieval efficiency to above 50% with very high fidelity, even when the intrinsic optical depth is very low and the signal bandwidth is comparable with the AFC bandwidth. In the backward retrieval scheme, retrieval efficiency larger than 90% can be obtained and fidelity can remain above 90% for signal with bandwidth much narrower than AFC bandwidth, when moderate slow light is introduced into waveguide with low intrinsic optical depth. Although the phase mismatching effect limits the slow light enhancement on retrieval efficiency and decreases the fidelity for signal with bandwidth approaching AFC bandwidth, we design a modified atomic frequency comb structure (MAFC) based on which a moderate slow light can make the retrieval efficiency larger than 85% and keep the fidelity above 80%. Our calculations show that the proposed scheme provides a promising way to realize high efficiency on-chip quantum memory.

  1. Investigating the enhancing effect of music on autobiographical memory in mild Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Irish, Muireann; Cunningham, Conal J; Walsh, J Bernard; Coakley, Davis; Lawlor, Brian A; Robertson, Ian H; Coen, Robert F

    2006-01-01

    The enhancing effect of music on autobiographical memory recall in mild Alzheimer's disease individuals (n = 10; Mini-Mental State Examination score >17/30) and healthy elderly matched individuals (n = 10; Mini-Mental State Examination score 25-30) was investigated. Using a repeated-measures design, each participant was seen on two occasions: once in music condition (Vivaldi's 'Spring' movement from 'The Four Seasons') and once in silence condition, with order counterbalanced. Considerable improvement was found for Alzheimer individuals' recall on the Autobiographical Memory Interview in the music condition, with an interaction for condition by group (p < 0.005). There were no differences in terms of overall arousal using galvanic skin response recordings or attentional errors during the Sustained Attention to Response Task. A significant reduction in state anxiety was found on the State Trait Anxiety Inventory in the music condition (p < 0.001), suggesting anxiety reduction as a potential mechanism underlying the enhancing effect of music on autobiographical memory recall.

  2. Topographical Organization of Attentional, Social, and Memory Processes in the Human Temporoparietal Cortex.

    PubMed

    Igelström, Kajsa M; Webb, Taylor W; Kelly, Yin T; Graziano, Michael S A

    2016-01-01

    The temporoparietal junction (TPJ) is activated in association with a large range of functions, including social cognition, episodic memory retrieval, and attentional reorienting. An ongoing debate is whether the TPJ performs an overarching, domain-general computation, or whether functions reside in domain-specific subdivisions. We scanned subjects with fMRI during five tasks known to activate the TPJ, probing social, attentional, and memory functions, and used data-driven parcellation (independent component analysis) to isolate task-related functional processes in the bilateral TPJ. We found that one dorsal component in the right TPJ, which was connected with the frontoparietal control network, was activated in all of the tasks. Other TPJ subregions were specific for attentional reorienting, oddball target detection, or social attribution of belief. The TPJ components that participated in attentional reorienting and oddball target detection appeared spatially separated, but both were connected with the ventral attention network. The TPJ component that participated in the theory-of-mind task was part of the default-mode network. Further, we found that the BOLD response in the domain-general dorsal component had a longer latency than responses in the domain-specific components, suggesting an involvement in distinct, perhaps postperceptual, computations. These findings suggest that the TPJ performs both domain-general and domain-specific computations that reside within spatially distinct functional components. PMID:27280153

  3. Topographical Organization of Attentional, Social, and Memory Processes in the Human Temporoparietal Cortex123

    PubMed Central

    Webb, Taylor W.; Kelly, Yin T.; Graziano, Michael S. A.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The temporoparietal junction (TPJ) is activated in association with a large range of functions, including social cognition, episodic memory retrieval, and attentional reorienting. An ongoing debate is whether the TPJ performs an overarching, domain-general computation, or whether functions reside in domain-specific subdivisions. We scanned subjects with fMRI during five tasks known to activate the TPJ, probing social, attentional, and memory functions, and used data-driven parcellation (independent component analysis) to isolate task-related functional processes in the bilateral TPJ. We found that one dorsal component in the right TPJ, which was connected with the frontoparietal control network, was activated in all of the tasks. Other TPJ subregions were specific for attentional reorienting, oddball target detection, or social attribution of belief. The TPJ components that participated in attentional reorienting and oddball target detection appeared spatially separated, but both were connected with the ventral attention network. The TPJ component that participated in the theory-of-mind task was part of the default-mode network. Further, we found that the BOLD response in the domain-general dorsal component had a longer latency than responses in the domain-specific components, suggesting an involvement in distinct, perhaps postperceptual, computations. These findings suggest that the TPJ performs both domain-general and domain-specific computations that reside within spatially distinct functional components. PMID:27280153

  4. DREADD in Parvalbumin Interneurons of the Dentate Gyrus Modulates Anxiety, Social Interaction and Memory Extinction

    PubMed Central

    Zou, D.; Chen, L.; Deng, D.; Jiang, D.; Dong, F.; McSweeney, C.; Zhou, Y.; Liu, L.; Chen, G.; Wu, Y.; Mao, Y.

    2016-01-01

    Parvalbumin (PV)-positive interneurons in the hippocampus play a critical role in animal memory, such as spatial working memory. However, how PV-positive interneurons in the subregions of the hippocampus affect animal behaviors remains poorly defined. Here, we achieved specific and reversible activation of PV-positive interneurons using designer receptors exclusively activated by designer drugs (DREADD) technology. Inducible DREADD expression was demonstrated in vitro in cultured neurons, in which co-transfection of the hM3D-Gq-mCherry vector with a Cre plasmid resulted in a cellular response to hM3Dq ligand clozapine-N-oxide (CNO) stimulation. In addition, the dentate gyrus (DG) of PV-Cre mice received bilateral injection of control lentivirus or lentivirus expressing double floxed hM3D-Gq-mCherry. Selective activation of PV-positive interneurons in the DG did not affect locomotor activity or depression-related behavior in mice. Interestingly, stimulation of PV-positive interneurons induced an anxiolytic effect. Activation of PV-positive interneurons appears to impair social interaction to novelty, but has no effect on social motivation. However, this defect is likely due to the anxiolytic effect as the exploratory behavior of mice expressing hM3D-Gq is significantly increased. Mice expressing hM3D-Gq did not affect novel object recognition. Activation of PV-positive interneurons in the DG maintains intact cued and contextual fear memory but facilitates fear extinction. Collectively, our results demonstrated that proper control of PV interneurons activity in the DG is critical for regulation of the anxiety, social interaction and fear extinction. These results improve our fundamental understanding of the physiological role of PV-positive interneurons in the hippocampus.

  5. DREADD in parvalbumin interneurons of the dentate gyrus modulates anxiety, social interaction and memory extinction.

    PubMed

    Zou, D; Chen, L; Deng, D; Jiang, D; Dong, F; McSweeney, C; Zhou, Y; Liu, L; Chen, G; Wu, Y; Mao, Y

    2016-01-01

    Parvalbumin (PV)-positive interneurons in the hippocampus play a critical role in animal memory, such as spatial working memory. However, how PV-positive interneurons in the subregions of the hippocampus affect animal behaviors remains poorly defined. Here, we achieved specific and reversible activation of PV-positive interneurons using designer receptors exclusively activated by designer drugs (DREADD) technology. Inducible DREADD expression was demonstrated in vitro in cultured neurons, in which co-transfection of the hM3D-Gq-mCherry vector with a Cre plasmid resulted in a cellular response to hM3Dq ligand clozapine-N-oxide (CNO) stimulation. In addition, the dentate gyrus (DG) of PV-Cre mice received bilateral injection of control lentivirus or lentivirus expressing double floxed hM3D-Gq-mCherry. Selective activation of PV-positive interneurons in the DG did not affect locomotor activity or depression-related behavior in mice. Interestingly, stimulation of PV-positive interneurons induced an anxiolytic effect. Activation of PVpositive interneurons appears to impair social interaction to novelty, but has no effect on social motivation. However, this defect is likely due to the anxiolytic effect as the exploratory behavior of mice expressing hM3DGq is significantly increased. Mice expressing hM3D-Gq did not affect novel object recognition. Activation of PV-positive interneurons in the DG maintains intact cued and contextual fear memory but facilitates fear extinction. Collectively, our results demonstrated that proper control of PV interneurons activity in the DG is critical for regulation of the anxiety, social interaction and fear extinction. These results improve our fundamental understanding of the physiological role of PV-positive interneurons in the hippocampus.

  6. DREADD in Parvalbumin Interneurons of the Dentate Gyrus Modulates Anxiety, Social Interaction and Memory Extinction

    PubMed Central

    Zou, D.; Chen, L.; Deng, D.; Jiang, D.; Dong, F.; McSweeney, C.; Zhou, Y.; Liu, L.; Chen, G.; Wu, Y.; Mao, Y.

    2016-01-01

    Parvalbumin (PV)-positive interneurons in the hippocampus play a critical role in animal memory, such as spatial working memory. However, how PV-positive interneurons in the subregions of the hippocampus affect animal behaviors remains poorly defined. Here, we achieved specific and reversible activation of PV-positive interneurons using designer receptors exclusively activated by designer drugs (DREADD) technology. Inducible DREADD expression was demonstrated in vitro in cultured neurons, in which co-transfection of the hM3D-Gq-mCherry vector with a Cre plasmid resulted in a cellular response to hM3Dq ligand clozapine-N-oxide (CNO) stimulation. In addition, the dentate gyrus (DG) of PV-Cre mice received bilateral injection of control lentivirus or lentivirus expressing double floxed hM3D-Gq-mCherry. Selective activation of PV-positive interneurons in the DG did not affect locomotor activity or depression-related behavior in mice. Interestingly, stimulation of PV-positive interneurons induced an anxiolytic effect. Activation of PV-positive interneurons appears to impair social interaction to novelty, but has no effect on social motivation. However, this defect is likely due to the anxiolytic effect as the exploratory behavior of mice expressing hM3D-Gq is significantly increased. Mice expressing hM3D-Gq did not affect novel object recognition. Activation of PV-positive interneurons in the DG maintains intact cued and contextual fear memory but facilitates fear extinction. Collectively, our results demonstrated that proper control of PV interneurons activity in the DG is critical for regulation of the anxiety, social interaction and fear extinction. These results improve our fundamental understanding of the physiological role of PV-positive interneurons in the hippocampus. PMID:26733123

  7. Enhanced memory characteristics in organic ferroelectric field-effect transistors through thermal annealing

    SciTech Connect

    Sugano, Ryo; Tashiro, Tomoya; Sekine, Tomohito; Fukuda, Kenjiro; Kumaki, Daisuke; Tokito, Shizuo

    2015-11-15

    We report on the memory characteristics of organic ferroelectric field-effect transistors (FeFETs) using spin-coated poly(vinylidene difluoride/trifluoroethylene) (P(VDF/TrFE)) as a gate insulating layer. By thermal annealing the P(VDF/TrFE) layer at temperatures above its melting point, we could significantly improve the on/off current ratio to over 10{sup 4}. Considerable changes in the surface morphology and x-ray diffraction patterns were also observed in the P(VDF/TrFE) layer as a result of the annealing process. The enhanced memory effect is attributed to large polarization effects caused by rearranged ferroelectric polymer chains and improved crystallinity in the organic semiconductor layer of the FeFET devices.

  8. In the white cube: museum context enhances the valuation and memory of art.

    PubMed

    Brieber, David; Nadal, Marcos; Leder, Helmut

    2015-01-01

    Art museum attendance is rising steadily, unchallenged by online alternatives. However, the psychological value of the real museum experience remains unclear because the experience of art in the museum and other contexts has not been compared. Here we examined the appreciation and memory of an art exhibition when viewed in a museum or as a computer simulated version in the laboratory. In line with the postulates of situated cognition, we show that the experience of art relies on organizing resources present in the environment. Specifically, artworks were found more arousing, positive, interesting and liked more in the museum than in the laboratory. Moreover, participants who saw the exhibition in the museum later recalled more artworks and used spatial layout cues for retrieval. Thus, encountering real art in the museum enhances cognitive and affective processes involved in the appreciation of art and enriches information encoded in long-term memory.

  9. Dendritic Cells Enhance HIV Infection of Memory CD4(+) T Cells in Human Lymphoid Tissues.

    PubMed

    Reyes-Rodriguez, Angel L; Reuter, Morgan A; McDonald, David

    2016-02-01

    Dendritic cells (DCs) play a key role in controlling infections by coordinating innate and adaptive immune responses to invading pathogens. Paradoxically, DCs can increase HIV-1 dissemination in vitro by binding and transferring infectious virions to CD4(+) T cells, a process called transinfection. Transinfection has been well characterized in cultured cell lines and circulating primary T cells, but it is unknown whether DCs enhance infection of CD4(+) T cells in vivo. In untreated HIV infection, massive CD4(+) T-cell infection and depletion occur in secondary lymphoid tissues long before decline is evident in the peripheral circulation. To study the role of DCs in HIV infection of lymphoid tissues, we utilized human tonsil tissues, cultured either as tissue blocks or as aggregate suspension cultures, in single-round infection experiments. In these experiments, addition of monocyte-derived DCs (MDDCs) to the cultures increased T-cell infection, particularly in CD4(+) T cells expressing lower levels of HLA-DR. Subset analysis demonstrated that MDDCs increased HIV-1 infection of central and effector memory T-cell populations. Depletion of endogenous myeloid DCs (myDCs) from the cultures decreased memory T-cell infection, and readdition of MDDCs restored infection to predepletion levels. Using an HIV-1 fusion assay, we found that MDDCs equally increased HIV delivery into naïve, central, and effector memory T cells in the cultures, whereas predepletion of myDCs reduced fusion into memory T cells. Together, these data suggest that resident myDCs facilitate memory T-cell infection in lymphoid tissues, implicating DC-mediated transinfection in driving HIV dissemination within these tissues in untreated HIV/AIDS.

  10. Conditions for enhancing the encoding of an elementary motor memory by rTMS

    PubMed Central

    Buetefisch, C. M.; Howard, C.; Korb, C.; Haut, M.W.; Shuster, L.; Pergami, P.; Smith, C.; Hobbs, G.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Motor learning results in changes of movement representation in primary motor cortex (M1) a process involving long-term potentiation (LTP). Pairing motor training with repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) of M1 enhances the formation of a motor memory. Here we determined the effect of pairing M1 stimulation and the execution of training movements at different times and frequencies on the formation of a motor memory. Methods Formation of a motor memory was defined as increases in motor evoked potentials (MEP) of the training agonist (extensor carpi ulnaris muscle, ECU) and increases in peak acceleration of the trained movements that last more than 60 min. Training consisted of auditory-paced ballistic wrist extension movements (30 min, 0.5 Hz) paired with 0.1, 0.25 or 0.5 Hz subthreshold rTMS. The rTMS pulse was applied at either the onset, 100ms prior to or 300ms after the onset of training movement related increases in electromyographic (EMG) activity of ECU. This was compared to a sham condition. Results Only 0.1 Hz rTMS applied at the onset of the training related increase in ECU-EMG activity resulted in increases in MEP amplitudes and peak acceleration when compared to the sham. Conclusions The formation of motor memory is enhanced above the naïve level by co-administration of low frequency rTMS at the time of execution of training movements. Significance These results indicate the importance of time and frequency of rTMS in these settings and should be considered in the design of rehabilitation treatment strategies using rTMS. PMID:25113275

  11. Involvement of dopaminergic and cholinergic systems in social isolation-induced deficits in social affiliation and conditional fear memory in mice.

    PubMed

    Okada, R; Fujiwara, H; Mizuki, D; Araki, R; Yabe, T; Matsumoto, K

    2015-07-23

    Post-weaning social isolation rearing (SI) in rodents elicits various behavioral abnormalities including attention deficit hyperactivity disorder-like behaviors. In order to obtain a better understanding of SI-induced behavioral abnormalities, we herein investigated the effects of SI on social affiliation and conditioned fear memory as well as the neuronal mechanism(s) underlying these effects. Four-week-old male mice were group-housed (GH) or socially isolated for 2-4 weeks before the experiments. The social affiliation test and fear memory conditioning were conducted at the age of 6 and 7 weeks, respectively. SI mice were systemically administered saline or test drugs 30 min before the social affiliation test and fear memory conditioning. Contextual and auditory fear memories were elucidated 1 and 4 days after fear conditioning. Social affiliation and contextual and auditory fear memories were weaker in SI mice than in GH mice. Methylphenidate (MPH), an inhibitor for dopamine transporters, ameliorated the SI-induced social affiliation deficit and the effect was attenuated by SCH23390, a D1 receptor antagonist, but not by sulpiride, a D2 receptor antagonist. On the other hand, tacrine, an acetylcholinesterase inhibitor, had no effect on this deficit. In contrast, tacrine improved SI-induced deficits in fear memories in a manner that was reversed by the muscarinic receptor antagonist scopolamine, while MPH had no effect on memory deficits. Neurochemical studies revealed that SI down-regulated the expression levels of the phosphorylated forms of neuro-signaling proteins, calmodulin-dependent kinase II (p-CaMKII), and cyclic AMP-responsive element binding protein (p-CREB), as well as early growth response protein-1 (Egr-1) in the hippocampus. The administration of MPH or tacrine before fear conditioning had no effect on the levels of the phosphorylated forms of the neuro-signaling proteins elucidated following completion of the auditory fear memory test; however

  12. Amygdala in action: relaying biological and social significance to autobiographical memory.

    PubMed

    Markowitsch, Hans J; Staniloiu, Angelica

    2011-03-01

    The human amygdala is strongly embedded in numerous other structures of the limbic system, but is also a hub for a multitude of other brain regions it is connected with. Its major involvement in various kinds of integrative sensory and emotional functions makes it a cornerstone for self-relevant biological and social appraisals of the environment and consequently also for the processing of autobiographical events. Given its contribution to the integration of emotion, perception and cognition (including memory for past autobiographical events) the amygdala also forges the establishment and maintenance of an integrated self. Damage or disturbances of amygdalar connectivity may therefore lead to disconnection syndromes, in which the synchronous processing of affective and cognitive aspects of memory is impaired. We will provide support for this thesis by reviewing data from patients with a rare experiment of nature - Urbach-Wiethe disease - as well as other conditions associated with amygdala abnormalities. With respect to memory processing, we propose that the amygdala's role is to charge cues so that mnemonic events of a specific emotional significance can be successfully searched within the appropriate neural nets and re-activated.

  13. EVOLUTION AND EPISODIC MEMORY: AN ANALYSIS AND DEMONSTRATION OF A SOCIAL FUNCTION OF EPISODIC RECOLLECTION

    PubMed Central

    Klein, Stanley B.; Cosmides, Leda; Gangi, Cynthia E.; Jackson, Betsy; Tooby, John; Costabile, Kristi A.

    2013-01-01

    Over the past two decades, an abundance of evidence has shown that individuals typically rely on semantic summary knowledge when making trait judgments about self and others (for reviews, see Klein, 2004; Klein, Robertson, Gangi, & Loftus, 2008). But why form trait summaries if one can consult the original episodes on which the summary was based? Conversely, why retain episodes after having abstracted a summary representation from them? Are there functional reasons to have trait information represented in two different, independently retrievable databases? Evolution does not produce new phenotypic systems that are complex and functionally organized by chance. Such systems acquire their functional organization because they solved some evolutionarily recurrent problems for the organism. In this article we explore some of the functional properties of episodic memory. Specifically, in a series of studies we demonstrate that maintaining a database of episodic memories enables its owner to reevaluate an individual’s past behavior in light of new information, sometimes drastically changing one’s impression in the process. We conclude that some of the most important functions of episodic memory have to do with its role in human social interaction. PMID:23378680

  14. LRP8-Reelin-regulated Neuronal (LRN) Enhancer Signature Underlying Learning and Memory Formation

    PubMed Central

    Telese, Francesca; Ma, Qi; Perez, Patricia Montilla; Notani, Dimple; Oh, Soohwan; Li, Wenbo; Comoletti, Davide; Ohgi, Kenneth A.; Taylor, Havilah; Rosenfeld, Michael G.

    2015-01-01

    Summary One of the exceptional properties of the brain is its ability to acquire new knowledge through learning and to store that information through memory. The epigenetic mechanisms linking changes in neuronal transcriptional programs to behavioral plasticity remain largely unknown. Here, we identify the epigenetic signature of the neuronal enhancers required for transcriptional regulation of synaptic plasticity genes during memory formation, linking this to Reelin signaling. The binding of Reelin to its receptor, LRP8, triggers activation of this cohort of LRP8-Reelin-regulated-Neuronal (LRN) enhancers that serve as the ultimate convergence point of a novel synapse-to-nucleus pathway. Reelin simultaneously regulates NMDA-receptor transmission, which reciprocally permits the required, γ-secretase-dependent cleavage of LRP8, revealing an unprecedented role for its intracellular domain in the regulation of synaptically generated signals. These results uncover an in vivo enhancer code serving as a critical molecular component of cognition and relevant to psychiatric disorders linked to defects in Reelin signaling. PMID:25892301

  15. LRP8-Reelin-Regulated Neuronal Enhancer Signature Underlying Learning and Memory Formation.

    PubMed

    Telese, Francesca; Ma, Qi; Perez, Patricia Montilla; Notani, Dimple; Oh, Soohwan; Li, Wenbo; Comoletti, Davide; Ohgi, Kenneth A; Taylor, Havilah; Rosenfeld, Michael G

    2015-05-01

    One of the exceptional properties of the brain is its ability to acquire new knowledge through learning and to store that information through memory. The epigenetic mechanisms linking changes in neuronal transcriptional programs to behavioral plasticity remain largely unknown. Here, we identify the epigenetic signature of the neuronal enhancers required for transcriptional regulation of synaptic plasticity genes during memory formation, linking this to Reelin signaling. The binding of Reelin to its receptor, LRP8, triggers activation of this cohort of LRP8-Reelin-regulated neuronal (LRN) enhancers that serve as the ultimate convergence point of a novel synapse-to-nucleus pathway. Reelin simultaneously regulates NMDA-receptor transmission, which reciprocally permits the required γ-secretase-dependent cleavage of LRP8, revealing an unprecedented role for its intracellular domain in the regulation of synaptically generated signals. These results uncover an in vivo enhancer code serving as a critical molecular component of cognition and relevant to psychiatric disorders linked to defects in Reelin signaling.

  16. Social Isolation During Adolescence Strengthens Retention of Fear Memories and Facilitates Induction of Late-Phase Long-Term Potentiation.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ji-Hong; You, Qiang-Long; Wei, Mei-Dan; Wang, Qian; Luo, Zheng-Yi; Lin, Song; Huang, Lang; Li, Shu-Ji; Li, Xiao-Wen; Gao, Tian-Ming

    2015-12-01

    Social isolation during the vulnerable period of adolescence produces emotional dysregulation that often manifests as abnormal behavior in adulthood. The enduring consequence of isolation might be caused by a weakened ability to forget unpleasant memories. However, it remains unclear whether isolation affects unpleasant memories. To address this, we used a model of associative learning to induce the fear memories and evaluated the influence of isolation mice during adolescence on the subsequent retention of fear memories and its underlying cellular mechanisms. Following adolescent social isolation, we found that mice decreased their social interaction time and had an increase in anxiety-related behavior. Interestingly, when we assessed memory retention, we found that isolated mice were unable to forget aversive memories when tested 4 weeks after the original event. Consistent with this, we observed that a single train of high-frequency stimulation (HFS) enabled a late-phase long-term potentiation (L-LTP) in the hippocampal CA1 region of isolated mice, whereas only an early-phase LTP was observed with the same stimulation in the control mice. Social isolation during adolescence also increased brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) expression in the hippocampus, and application of a tropomyosin-related kinase B (TrkB) receptor inhibitor ameliorated the facilitated L-LTP seen after isolation. Together, our results suggest that adolescent isolation may result in mental disorders during adulthood and that this may stem from an inability to forget the unpleasant memories via BDNF-mediated synaptic plasticity. These findings may give us a new strategy to prevent mental disorders caused by persistent unpleasant memories.

  17. Different types of theta rhythmicity are induced by social and fearful stimuli in a network associated with social memory

    PubMed Central

    Tendler, Alex; Wagner, Shlomo

    2015-01-01

    Rhythmic activity in the theta range is thought to promote neuronal communication between brain regions. In this study, we performed chronic telemetric recordings in socially behaving rats to monitor electrophysiological activity in limbic brain regions linked to social behavior. Social encounters were associated with increased rhythmicity in the high theta range (7–10 Hz) that was proportional to the stimulus degree of novelty. This modulation of theta rhythmicity, which was specific for social stimuli, appeared to reflect a brain-state of social arousal. In contrast, the same network responded to a fearful stimulus by enhancement of rhythmicity in the low theta range (3–7 Hz). Moreover, theta rhythmicity showed different pattern of coherence between the distinct brain regions in response to social and fearful stimuli. We suggest that the two types of stimuli induce distinct arousal states that elicit different patterns of theta rhythmicity, which cause the same brain areas to communicate in different modes. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.03614.001 PMID:25686218

  18. Social, demographic, and environmental influences on perceptions and memories of weather, climate, and climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malmberg, Julie Suzanne

    This research seeks to understand how people in the Denver metropolitan area perceive and remember weather, climate, and climate change and how social, demographic, and environmental factors might influence these perceptions and memories. To do this, an online survey was completed in 2006 and in-person interviews were conducted in 2010 and 2011. The online survey and the in-person interviews both asked questions about recent weather, seasonal climate for specific years, beliefs about climate change and human impact on climate change, and social and demographic information. During the 2010--2011 in-person interviews, ambient meteorological conditions were recorded. For climate recollections, overall accuracy was about 20%. In general, women who were politically liberal, majored in a science field, believed in climate change, and were in a good mood were the most accurate for past climates. However, this accuracy was still only about 30%. For recent weather memories, the accuracy was about 50%. Time was the biggest indicator of accuracy, with the most recent weather being remembered the most accurately. When asked to rate the weather from positive to negative for specific events, respondents reported the weather with a negative bias for extremely negative flashbulb memory events. For perceptions about climate change, over 80% of the respondents in the Denver metropolitan area believed global warming was occurring and that humans had an impact on global warming. Over 80% of respondents believed that global warming will impact the Denver metropolitan area, however not all of these people knew how climate change would impact them personally.

  19. PMC-12, a traditional herbal medicine, enhances learning memory and hippocampal neurogenesis in mice.

    PubMed

    Park, Hee Ra; Kim, Ju Yeon; Lee, Yujeong; Chun, Hye Jeong; Choi, Young Whan; Shin, Hwa Kyoung; Choi, Byung Tae; Kim, Cheol Min; Lee, Jaewon

    2016-03-23

    The beneficial effects of traditional Korean medicine are recognized during the treatment of neurodegenerative conditions, such as, Alzheimer's disease and neurocognitive dysfunction, and recently, hippocampal neurogenesis has been reported to be associated with memory function. In this study, the authors investigated the beneficial effects of polygonum multiflorum Thunberg complex composition-12 (PMC-12), which is a mixture of four medicinal herbs, that is, Polygonum multiflorum, Polygala tenuifolia, Rehmannia glutinosa, and Acorus gramineus, on hippocampal neurogenesis, learning, and memory in mice. PMC-12 was orally administered to male C57BL/6 mice (5 weeks old) at 100 or 500 mg/kg daily for 2 weeks. PMC-12 administration significantly was found to increase the proliferation of neural progenitor cells and the survival of newly-generated cells in the dentate gyrus. In the Morris water maze test, the latency times of PMC-12 treated mice (100 or 500 mg/kg) were shorter than those of vehicle-control mice. In addition, PMC-12 increased the levels of BDNF, p-CREB, and synaptophysin, which are known to be associated with neural plasticity and hippocampal neurogenesis. These findings suggest PMC-12 enhances hippocampal neurogenesis and neurocognitive function and imply that PMC-12 ameliorates memory impairment and cognitive deficits. PMID:26917101

  20. Hippocampal hyperexcitability underlies enhanced fear memories in TgNTRK3, a panic disorder mouse model.

    PubMed

    Santos, Mónica; D'Amico, Davide; Spadoni, Ornella; Amador-Arjona, Alejandro; Stork, Oliver; Dierssen, Mara

    2013-09-18

    Panic attacks are a hallmark in panic disorder (PAND). During the panic attack, a strong association with the surrounding context is established suggesting that the hippocampus may be critically involved in the pathophysiology of PAND, given its role in contextual processing. We previously showed that variation in the expression of the neurotrophin tyrosine kinase receptor type 3 (NTRK3) in both PAND patients and a transgenic mouse model (TgNTRK3) may have a role in PAND pathophysiology. Our study examines hippocampal function and activation of the brain fear network in TgNTRK3 mice. TgNTRK3 mice showed increased fear memories accompanied by impaired extinction, congruent with an altered activation pattern of the amygdala-hippocampus-medial prefrontal cortex fear circuit. Moreover, TgNTRK3 mice also showed an unbalanced excitation-to-inhibition ratio in the hippocampal cornu ammonis 3 (CA3)-CA1 subcircuit toward hyperexcitability. The resulting hippocampal hyperexcitability underlies the enhanced fear memories, as supported by the efficacy of tiagabine, a GABA reuptake inhibitor, to rescue fear response. The fearful phenotype appears to be the result of hippocampal hyperexcitability and aberrant fear circuit activation. We conclude that NTRK3 plays a role in PAND by regulating hippocampus-dependent fear memories. PMID:24048855

  1. Electroacupuncture ameliorates memory impairments by enhancing oligodendrocyte regeneration in a mouse model of prolonged cerebral hypoperfusion

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, Sung Min; Kim, Yu Ri; Kim, Ha Neui; Shin, Yong-Il; Shin, Hwa Kyoung; Choi, Byung Tae

    2016-01-01

    We modeled prolonged cerebral hypoperfusion in mice using bilateral common carotid artery stenosis (BCAS) and electroacupuncture (EA) stimulation was applied at two acupoints, Baihui (GV20) and Dazhui (GV14). In behavioral tests of memory, BCAS produced impairments in spatial and short-term memory in mice that were attenuated by therapeutic EA stimulation. Therapeutic use of EA in BCAS also enhanced oligodendrocyte (OL) differentiation from oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs), in association with white matter improvements in the corpus callosum (CC). In PCR analyses of growth factor gene expression, significant positive changes in 3 genes were observed following EA stimulation in BCAS, and here we highlight alterations in neurotrophin-4/5 (NT4/5). We confirmed EA-mediated positive changes in the expression of NT4/5 and its receptor, tyrosine receptor kinase B (TrkB). Treatment of naïve and BCAS + EA animals with a selective TrkB antagonist, ANA-12, produced losses of myelin and cognitive function that were ameliorated by EA therapy. Moreover, following BCAS we observed an EA-dependent increase in phospho-activated CREB (a downstream mediator of NT4/5-TrkB signaling) in OPCs and OLs of the CC. Our results suggest that EA stimulation promotes the recovery of memory function following white matter injury via a mechanism that promotes oligodendrocyte regeneration and involves NT4/5-TrkB signaling. PMID:27350403

  2. PMC-12, a traditional herbal medicine, enhances learning memory and hippocampal neurogenesis in mice.

    PubMed

    Park, Hee Ra; Kim, Ju Yeon; Lee, Yujeong; Chun, Hye Jeong; Choi, Young Whan; Shin, Hwa Kyoung; Choi, Byung Tae; Kim, Cheol Min; Lee, Jaewon

    2016-03-23

    The beneficial effects of traditional Korean medicine are recognized during the treatment of neurodegenerative conditions, such as, Alzheimer's disease and neurocognitive dysfunction, and recently, hippocampal neurogenesis has been reported to be associated with memory function. In this study, the authors investigated the beneficial effects of polygonum multiflorum Thunberg complex composition-12 (PMC-12), which is a mixture of four medicinal herbs, that is, Polygonum multiflorum, Polygala tenuifolia, Rehmannia glutinosa, and Acorus gramineus, on hippocampal neurogenesis, learning, and memory in mice. PMC-12 was orally administered to male C57BL/6 mice (5 weeks old) at 100 or 500 mg/kg daily for 2 weeks. PMC-12 administration significantly was found to increase the proliferation of neural progenitor cells and the survival of newly-generated cells in the dentate gyrus. In the Morris water maze test, the latency times of PMC-12 treated mice (100 or 500 mg/kg) were shorter than those of vehicle-control mice. In addition, PMC-12 increased the levels of BDNF, p-CREB, and synaptophysin, which are known to be associated with neural plasticity and hippocampal neurogenesis. These findings suggest PMC-12 enhances hippocampal neurogenesis and neurocognitive function and imply that PMC-12 ameliorates memory impairment and cognitive deficits.

  3. Microinjection of valproic acid into the ventrolateral orbital cortex enhances stress-related memory formation.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yan; Xing, Bo; Dang, Yong-hui; Qu, Chao-ling; Zhu, Feng; Yan, Chun-xia

    2013-01-01

    There is collecting evidence suggesting that the process of chromatin remodeling such as changes in histone acetylation contribute to the formation of stress-related memory. Recently, the ventrolateral orbital cortex (VLO), a major subdivision of orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), was shown to be involved in antidepressant-like actions through epigenetic mechanisms. Here, we further investigated the effects of the histone deacetylase inhibitor (HDACi) valproic acid (VPA) on stress-related memory formation and the underlying molecular mechanisms by using the traditional two-day forced swimming test (FST). The results showed that VPA significantly increased the immobility time on day 2 when infused into the VLO before the initial forced swim stress on day 1. The learned immobility response to the stress was associated with increased phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) in VLO and hippocampus on the first day. The levels of phosphorylated ERK (phospho-ERK) in VLO and hippocampus were significantly decreased when retested 24 h later. The pretreatment with intra-VLO VPA infusion further reduced the activation of ERK on day 2 and day 7 compared with the saline controls. Moreover, the VPA infusion pretreatment also induced a significantly decreased BDNF level in the VLO on day 2, whereas no change was detected in the hippocampus. These findings suggest that VPA enhance the memories of emotionally stressful events and the ERK activity is implicated in stimulating adaptive and mnemonic processes in case the event would recur.

  4. Glucose administration enhances fMRI brain activation and connectivity related to episodic memory encoding for neutral and emotional stimuli.

    PubMed

    Parent, Marise B; Krebs-Kraft, Desiree L; Ryan, John P; Wilson, Jennifer S; Harenski, Carla; Hamann, Stephan

    2011-04-01

    Glucose enhances memory in a variety of species. In humans, glucose administration enhances episodic memory encoding, although little is known regarding the neural mechanisms underlying these effects. Here we examined whether elevating blood glucose would enhance functional MRI (fMRI) activation and connectivity in brain regions associated with episodic memory encoding and whether these effects would differ depending on the emotional valence of the material. We used a double-blind, within-participants, crossover design in which either glucose (50g) or a saccharin placebo were administered before scanning, on days approximately 1 week apart. We scanned healthy young male participants with fMRI as they viewed emotionally arousing negative pictures and emotionally neutral pictures, intermixed with baseline fixation. Free recall was tested at 5 min after scanning and again after 1 day. Glucose administration increased activation in brain regions associated with successful episodic memory encoding. Glucose also enhanced activation in regions whose activity was correlated with subsequent successful recall, including the hippocampus, prefrontal cortex, and other regions, and these effects differed for negative vs. neutral stimuli. Finally, glucose substantially increased functional connectivity between the hippocampus and amygdala and a network of regions previously implicated in successful episodic memory encoding. These findings fit with evidence from nonhuman animals indicating glucose modulates memory by selectively enhancing neural activity in brain regions engaged during memory tasks. Our results highlight the modulatory effects of glucose and the importance of examining both regional changes in activity and functional connectivity to fully characterize the effects of glucose on brain function and memory.

  5. Enhancement of Short-Term Memory by Methyl-6-(Phenylethynyl)-Pyridine in the BTBR T+tf/J Mouse Model of Autism Spectrum Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Haijie; Huh, Sung-Oh

    2015-01-01

    Background Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) encompasses a range of disorders that are characterized by social and communication deficits and repetitive behaviors. This study evaluated the effect of methyl-6-(phenylethynyl)-pyridine (MPEP), an antagonist of the mGluR5 metabotropic glutamate receptor, on memory enhancement in the BTBR T+tf/J (BTBR) mouse strain, which has been recognized as a model of ASD. Methods The pharmacological effects of MPEP on memory and motor coordination were assessed using the Morris water maze and rotarod tests in BTBR and C57BL/6J (B6) mice. Furthermore, we performed morphological analyses of cerebellar foliation in BTBR and B6 mice using hematoxylin and eosin staining. Results MPEP-treated BTBR mice exhibited improved learning and memory in the Morris water maze test. MPEP administration also improved motor coordination in the rotarod test. However, no significant difference was observed regarding the numbers of Purkinje cells in the cerebella of BTBR versus normal B6 mice. Conclusion This study suggests that the mGluR5 antagonist MPEP has the potential to ameliorate learning and memory dysfunction and impaired motor coordination in BTBR mice. These results further suggest that the BTBR mouse model may be useful in pharmacological studies investigating drugs that could potentially alleviate cognitive dysfunction in ASD. PMID:25559718

  6. Enhanced resting-state functional connectivity between core memory-task activation peaks is associated with memory impairment in MCI.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yifei; Simon-Vermot, Lee; Araque Caballero, Miguel Á; Gesierich, Benno; Taylor, Alexander N W; Duering, Marco; Dichgans, Martin; Ewers, Michael

    2016-09-01

    Resting-state functional connectivity (FC) is altered in Alzheimer's disease (AD) but its predictive value for episodic memory impairment is debated. Here, we aimed to assess whether resting-state FC in core brain regions activated during memory-task functional magnetic resonance imaging is altered and predictive of memory performance in AD and amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI). Twenty-three elderly cognitively healthy controls (HC), 76 aMCI subjects, and 19 AD dementia patients were included. We computed resting-state FC between 18 meta-analytically determined peak coordinates of brain activation during successful memory retrieval. Higher FC between the parahippocampus, parietal cortex, and the middle frontal gyrus was observed in both AD and mild cognitive impairment compared to HC (false-discovery rate-corrected p < 0.05). The increase in FC between the parahippocampus and middle frontal gyrus was associated with reduced episodic memory in aMCI, independent of amyloid-beta positron emission tomography binding and apolipoprotein E ε4-carrier status. In conclusion, increased parahippocampal-prefrontal FC is predictive of impaired episodic memory in aMCI and may reflect a dysfunctional change within the episodic memory-related neural network. PMID:27459924

  7. Following the crowd: Brain Substrates of Long-Term Memory Conformity

    PubMed Central

    Edelson, Micah; Sharot, Tali; Dolan, Raymond J; Dudai, Yadin

    2012-01-01

    Human memory is strikingly susceptible to social influences, yet we know little about the underlying mechanisms. We examined how socially induced memory errors are generated in the brain by studying the memory of individuals exposed to recollections of others. Participants exhibited a strong tendency to conform to erroneous recollections of the group, producing both long-lasting and temporary errors, even when their initial memory was strong and accurate. Functional brain imaging revealed that social influence modified the neuronal representation of memory. Specifically, a particular brain signature of enhanced amygdala activity and enhanced amygdala-hippocampus connectivity predicted long-lasting, but not temporary memory alterations. Our findings reveal how social manipulation can alter memory and extend the known functions of the amygdala to encompass socially-mediated memory distortions. PMID:21719681

  8. The flavonoid baicalein promotes NMDA receptor-dependent long-term potentiation and enhances memory

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Wei; Wang, Fang; Yang, Yuan-Jian; Hu, Zhuang-Li; Long, Li-Hong; Fu, Hui; Xie, Na; Chen, Jian-Guo

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE There is growing interest in the physiological functions of flavonoids, especially in their effects on cognitive function and on neurodegenerative diseases. The aim of the current investigation was to evaluate the role of the flavonoid baicalein in long-term potentiation (LTP) in the hippocampal CA1 region and cognitive behavioural performance. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH Effects of baicalein on LTP in rat hippocampal slices were investigated by electrophysiological methods. Phosphorylation of Akt (at Ser473), the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK1/2) and the transcription factor cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) (at Ser133) were analysed by Western blot. Fear conditioning was used to determine whether baicalein could improve learning and memory in rats. KEY RESULTS Baicalein enhanced the N-methyl-d-aspartate glutamate receptor-dependent LTP in a bell-shaped concentration-dependent manner. Addition of the lipoxygenase metabolites 12(S)-HETE and 12(S)-HPETE did not reverse these effects of baicalein. Baicalein treatment enhanced phosphorylation of Akt during induction of LTP with the same bell-shaped dose–response curve. LTP potentiation induced by baicalein was blocked by inhibitors of phosphoinositide 3-kinase. CREB phosphorylation was also increased in the CA1 region of baicalein-treated slices. Baicalein-treated rats performed significantly better than controls in a hippocampus-dependent contextual fear conditioning task. Furthermore, baicalein treatment selectively increased the phosphorylation of Akt and CREB in the CA1 region of hippocampus, but not in the prefrontal cortex, after fear conditioning training. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS Our results demonstrate that the flavonoid baicalein can facilitate memory, and therefore it might be useful in the treatment of patients with memory disorders. PMID:21133890

  9. Grapheme-color synesthesia can enhance immediate memory without disrupting the encoding of relational cues.

    PubMed

    Gibson, Bradley S; Radvansky, Gabriel A; Johnson, Ann C; McNerney, M Windy

    2012-12-01

    Previous evidence has suggested that grapheme-color synesthesia can enhance memory for words, but little is known about how these photisms cue retrieval. Often, the encoding of specific features of individual words can disrupt the encoding of ordered relations between words, resulting in an overall decrease in recall accuracy. Here we show that the photisms arising from grapheme-color synesthesia do not function like these item-specific cues. The influences of high and low word frequency on the encoding of ordered relations and the accuracy of immediate free recall were compared across a group of 10 synesthetes and 48 nonsynesthetes. The main findings of Experiment 1 showed that the experience of synesthesia had no adverse effect on the encoding of ordered relations (as measured by input-output correspondence); furthermore, it enhanced recall accuracy in a strictly additive fashion across the two word frequency conditions. Experiment 2 corroborated these findings by showing that the synesthetes only outperformed the nonsynesthetes when the materials involved words and letters, not when they involved digits and spatial locations. Altogether, the present findings suggest that synesthesia can boost immediate memory performance without disrupting the encoding of ordered relations.

  10. Exchange Protein Activated by cAMP Enhances Long-Term Memory Formation Independent of Protein Kinase A

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ma, Nan; Abel, Ted; Hernandez, Pepe J.

    2009-01-01

    It is well established that cAMP signaling within neurons plays a major role in the formation of long-term memories--signaling thought to proceed through protein kinase A (PKA). However, here we show that exchange protein activated by cAMP (Epac) is able to enhance the formation of long-term memory in the hippocampus and appears to do so…

  11. Genetic activation of ERK5 MAP kinase enhances adult neurogenesis and extends hippocampus-dependent long-term memory.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wenbin; Pan, Yung-Wei; Zou, Junhui; Li, Tan; Abel, Glen M; Palmiter, Richard D; Storm, Daniel R; Xia, Zhengui

    2014-02-01

    Recent studies have shown that inhibition of adult neurogenesis impairs the formation of hippocampus-dependent memory. However, it is not known whether increasing adult neurogenesis affects the persistence of hippocampus-dependent long-term memory. Furthermore, signaling mechanisms that regulate adult neurogenesis are not fully defined. We recently reported that the conditional and targeted knock-out of ERK5 MAP kinase in adult neurogenic regions of the mouse brain attenuates adult neurogenesis in the hippocampus and disrupts several forms of hippocampus-dependent memory. Here, we developed a gain-of-function knock-in mouse model to specifically activate endogenous ERK5 in the neurogenic regions of the adult brain. We report that the selective and targeted activation of ERK5 increases adult neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus by enhancing cell survival, neuronal differentiation, and dendritic complexity. Conditional ERK5 activation also improves the performance of challenging forms of spatial learning and memory and extends hippocampus-dependent long-term memory. We conclude that enhancing signal transduction of a single signaling pathway within adult neural stem/progenitor cells is sufficient to increase adult neurogenesis and improve the persistence of hippocampus-dependent memory. Furthermore, activation of ERK5 may provide a novel therapeutic target to improve long-term memory.

  12. Those were the days: memory bias for the frequency of positive events, depression, and self-enhancement.

    PubMed

    Lotterman, Jenny H; Bonanno, George A

    2014-01-01

    Past research has associated depression with memory biases pertaining to the frequency, duration, and specificity of past events. Associations have been proposed between both negative and positive memory biases and depression symptoms. However, research has not examined the occurrence of actual events over time in the study of memory bias. To address these limitations and investigate whether a negative or positive memory bias is associated with symptoms of depression, we collected weekly data on specific types of life events over a 4-year period from a sample of college students, and asked students to recall event frequency at the end of that period. Exaggerated recall of frequency for positive events but not other types of events was associated with depression symptoms, using both continuous and categorical measures. Moderator analyses indicated that these effects were evidenced primarily for memories involving the self and among individuals low in trait self-enhancement. The current study indicates that positive memory-frequency bias is an important type of memory bias associated with symptoms of depression. Results support the idea that the link between memory bias for positive event frequency and depressed mood arises out of a current-self vs past-self comparison.

  13. Competition between frontoparietal control and default networks supports social working memory and empathy.

    PubMed

    Xin, Fei; Lei, Xu

    2015-08-01

    An extensive body of literature has indicated that there is increased activity in the frontoparietal control network (FPC) and decreased activity in the default mode network (DMN) during working memory (WM) tasks. The FPC and DMN operate in a competitive relationship during tasks requiring externally directed attention. However, the association between this FPC-DMN competition and performance in social WM tasks has rarely been reported in previous studies. To investigate this question, we measured FPC-DMN connectivity during resting state and two emotional face recognition WM tasks using the 2-back paradigm. Thirty-four individuals were instructed to perform the tasks based on either the expression [emotion (EMO)] or the identity (ID) of the same set of face stimuli. Consistent with previous studies, an increased anti-correlation between the FPC and DMN was observed during both tasks relative to the resting state. Specifically, this anti-correlation during the EMO task was stronger than during the ID task, as the former has a higher social load. Intriguingly, individual differences in self-reported empathy were significantly correlated with the FPC-DMN anti-correlation in the EMO task. These results indicate that the top-down signals from the FPC suppress the DMN to support social WM and empathy. PMID:25556209

  14. Competition between frontoparietal control and default networks supports social working memory and empathy.

    PubMed

    Xin, Fei; Lei, Xu

    2015-08-01

    An extensive body of literature has indicated that there is increased activity in the frontoparietal control network (FPC) and decreased activity in the default mode network (DMN) during working memory (WM) tasks. The FPC and DMN operate in a competitive relationship during tasks requiring externally directed attention. However, the association between this FPC-DMN competition and performance in social WM tasks has rarely been reported in previous studies. To investigate this question, we measured FPC-DMN connectivity during resting state and two emotional face recognition WM tasks using the 2-back paradigm. Thirty-four individuals were instructed to perform the tasks based on either the expression [emotion (EMO)] or the identity (ID) of the same set of face stimuli. Consistent with previous studies, an increased anti-correlation between the FPC and DMN was observed during both tasks relative to the resting state. Specifically, this anti-correlation during the EMO task was stronger than during the ID task, as the former has a higher social load. Intriguingly, individual differences in self-reported empathy were significantly correlated with the FPC-DMN anti-correlation in the EMO task. These results indicate that the top-down signals from the FPC suppress the DMN to support social WM and empathy.

  15. Motivated social categorization: fundamental motives enhance people's sensitivity to basic social categories.

    PubMed

    Maner, Jon K; Miller, Saul L; Moss, Justin H; Leo, Jennifer L; Plant, E Ashby

    2012-07-01

    This article presents an evolutionary framework for identifying the characteristics people use to categorize members of their social world. Findings suggest that fundamental social motives lead people to implicitly categorize social targets based on whether those targets display goal-relevant phenotypic traits. A mate-search prime caused participants to categorize opposite-sex targets (but not same-sex targets) based on their level of physical attractiveness (Experiment 1). A mate-guarding prime interacted with relationship investment, causing participants to categorize same-sex targets (but not opposite-sex targets) based on their physical attractiveness (Experiment 2). A self-protection prime interacted with chronic beliefs about danger, increasing participants' tendency to categorize targets based on their racial group membership (Black or White; Experiment 3). This work demonstrates that people categorize others based on whether they display goal-relevant characteristics reflecting high levels of perceived desirability or threat. Social categorization is guided by fundamental evolved motives designed to enhance adaptive social outcomes. PMID:22545747

  16. Better Working Memory for Non-Social Targets in Infant Siblings of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noland, Julia S.; Reznick, J. Steven; Stone, Wendy L.; Walden, Tedra; Sheridan, Elisabeth H.

    2010-01-01

    We compared working memory (WM) for the location of social versus non-social targets in infant siblings of children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (sibs-ASD, n = 25) and of typically developing children (sibs-TD, n = 30) at 6.5 and 9 months of age. There was a significant interaction of risk group and target type on WM, in which the sibs-ASD had…

  17. Effects of social stress and clomipramine on emotional memory in mice.

    PubMed

    Duque, Aranzazu; Vinader-Caerols, Concepción; Monleón, Santiago

    2016-01-01

    We have previously observed impairing effects of social defeat stress (CSDS) on inhibitory avoidance (IA) in mice. Given the similarity between changes produced by social stress in animals and symptoms of certain human psychopathologies such as depression and anxiety, the effects of the antidepressant clomipramine on IA impairment produced by CSDS were evaluated in the present study. Male CD1 mice were randomly assigned to the groups: non-stressed+saline, non-stressed+clomipramine, stressed+saline and stressed+clomipramine. Stressed animals were subjected to daily agonistic encounters (10 min) in the home cage of the aggressor over a 20-day period. Just before each encounter, non-stressed and stressed mice were injected i.p. with saline or clomipramine (10 mg/kg) according to their experimental condition. 24 hours after the last CSDS session, all the mice were tested in a step-through IA task. In the IA training phase, animals were punished by a shock to the paw when they entered the dark compartment of the apparatus. In the IA test phase (one week later) the same procedure took place, but without shock. Complementary measures were obtained by evaluating all the animals in an elevated plus maze (locomotor activity and emotionality) and on a hot plate (analgesia). IA learning was confirmed in all groups except the stressed+saline group, which was the only one that exhibited higher anxiety levels. No variations were observed in either locomotor activity or analgesia. In conclusion, CSDS induces anxiety and impairs emotional memory in mice; the negative effects of CSDS on memory appear to be attenuated by clomipramine, and these detrimental effects do not seem to be secondary to the effects of CSDS on locomotor activity, emotionality or pain sensitivity. PMID:27685775

  18. Enhancing Spatial Memory: Anxiolytic and Antidepressant Effects of Tapinanthus dodoneifolius (DC) Danser in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Harquin Simplice, Foyet; David Emery, Tsala; Hervé Hervé, Ngatanko Abaissou

    2014-01-01

    We evaluated the anxiolytic and antidepressant effects of the aqueous extract of the bark of Tapinanthus dodoneifolius (TAE) (Danser) (25, 50, and 100 mg/kg), using open field, elevated plus maze, and forced swimming tests. Effect of TAE was compared to standard drugs diazepam (2 mg/kg) and imipramine (10 mg/kg). Additionally, the same doses of TAE were evaluated on rat's memory using Y-maze task. Results showed a significant (P < 0.05; 100 mg/kg) increase in the percentage of open arm entry and the time spent in the open arms in the elevated plus maze, suggesting an anxiolytic activity of the extract. In a dose-dependant manner, TAE at 25 mg/kg significantly (P < 0.05) decreased the number of lines crossed and the rearing behavior in the open field test, suggesting its possible sedative activity. In the forced swimming test, the immobility time of the animal was significantly reduced (P < 0.05) by TAE (100 mg/kg), compared to control, and this effect was quite comparable to that of imipramine. In the Y-maze paradigm, TAE at 50 mg/kg caused a significant increase in the spontaneous alternations but with a significant decrease in exploratory behavioral pattern. Taking these results together, TAE improved the spatial memory and showed anxiolytic, antidepressant, and sedative activities. The present results support the anxiolytic and antidepressant activities of TAE and, to our knowledge, for the first time, demonstrate its enhancing effect on memory. PMID:24649363

  19. Enhancing Spatial Memory: Anxiolytic and Antidepressant Effects of Tapinanthus dodoneifolius (DC) Danser in Mice.

    PubMed

    Harquin Simplice, Foyet; David Emery, Tsala; Hervé Hervé, Ngatanko Abaissou

    2014-01-01

    We evaluated the anxiolytic and antidepressant effects of the aqueous extract of the bark of Tapinanthus dodoneifolius (TAE) (Danser) (25, 50, and 100 mg/kg), using open field, elevated plus maze, and forced swimming tests. Effect of TAE was compared to standard drugs diazepam (2 mg/kg) and imipramine (10 mg/kg). Additionally, the same doses of TAE were evaluated on rat's memory using Y-maze task. Results showed a significant (P < 0.05; 100 mg/kg) increase in the percentage of open arm entry and the time spent in the open arms in the elevated plus maze, suggesting an anxiolytic activity of the extract. In a dose-dependant manner, TAE at 25 mg/kg significantly (P < 0.05) decreased the number of lines crossed and the rearing behavior in the open field test, suggesting its possible sedative activity. In the forced swimming test, the immobility time of the animal was significantly reduced (P < 0.05) by TAE (100 mg/kg), compared to control, and this effect was quite comparable to that of imipramine. In the Y-maze paradigm, TAE at 50 mg/kg caused a significant increase in the spontaneous alternations but with a significant decrease in exploratory behavioral pattern. Taking these results together, TAE improved the spatial memory and showed anxiolytic, antidepressant, and sedative activities. The present results support the anxiolytic and antidepressant activities of TAE and, to our knowledge, for the first time, demonstrate its enhancing effect on memory.

  20. Histamine infused into basolateral amygdala enhances memory consolidation of inhibitory avoidance.

    PubMed

    Benetti, Fernando; Izquierdo, Ivan

    2013-08-01

    The role of the basolateral amygdala (BLA) in the consolidation of aversive memory is well established. Here we investigate the involvement of the histaminergic system in BLA on this variable. Rats were chronically implanted with bilateral cannulae in the BLA and after recovery were trained in a one-trial step-down inhibitory avoidance task. Immediately after training histaminergic compounds either alone or in combination were infused through the cannulae. Memory was assessed in test sessions carried out 24 h after the training session. Post-training histamine (1-10 nmol; 0.5 μl/side) enhanced consolidation and the histamine H₃ receptor antagonist thioperamide (50 nmol; 0.5 μl/side) impaired memory consolidation. The effect was shared by the histamine N-methyltransferase inhibitor SKF-91844 (50 nmol; 0.5 μl/side) as well as by the H₃ receptor agonist imetit (10 nmol; 0.5 μl/side). The promnesic action of histamine was unaffected by the H₁ receptor antagonist pyrilamine (50 nmol; 0.5 μl/side). The H1 receptor agonist pyridylethylamine (10 nmol; 0.5 μl/side), the H₂ agonist dimaprit (10 nmol; 0.5 μl/side) and the H₂ antagonist ranitidine (50 nmol; 0.5 μl/side) were ineffective. Histaminergic compounds infused into the BLA had no effect on open-field or elevated plus-maze behaviour. The data show that histamine induces a dose-dependent mnemonic effect in rats and indicate that this reflects a role of endogenous histamine in the BLA mediated by H₃ receptors.

  1. The effect of background music on episodic memory and autonomic responses: listening to emotionally touching music enhances facial memory capacity.

    PubMed

    Proverbio, Alice Mado; Mado Proverbio, C A Alice; Lozano Nasi, Valentina; Alessandra Arcari, Laura; De Benedetto, Francesco; Guardamagna, Matteo; Gazzola, Martina; Zani, Alberto

    2015-10-15

    The aim of this study was to investigate how background auditory processing can affect other perceptual and cognitive processes as a function of stimulus content, style and emotional nature. Previous studies have offered contrasting evidence, and it has been recently shown that listening to music negatively affected concurrent mental processing in the elderly but not in young adults. To further investigate this matter, the effect of listening to music vs. listening to the sound of rain or silence was examined by administering an old/new face memory task (involving 448 unknown faces) to a group of 54 non-musician university students. Heart rate and diastolic and systolic blood pressure were measured during an explicit face study session that was followed by a memory test. The results indicated that more efficient and faster recall of faces occurred under conditions of silence or when participants were listening to emotionally touching music. Whereas auditory background (e.g., rain or joyful music) interfered with memory encoding, listening to emotionally touching music improved memory and significantly increased heart rate. It is hypothesized that touching music is able to modify the visual perception of faces by binding facial properties with auditory and emotionally charged information (music), which may therefore result in deeper memory encoding.

  2. The effect of background music on episodic memory and autonomic responses: listening to emotionally touching music enhances facial memory capacity

    PubMed Central

    Mado Proverbio, C.A. Alice; Lozano Nasi, Valentina; Alessandra Arcari, Laura; De Benedetto, Francesco; Guardamagna, Matteo; Gazzola, Martina; Zani, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate how background auditory processing can affect other perceptual and cognitive processes as a function of stimulus content, style and emotional nature. Previous studies have offered contrasting evidence, and it has been recently shown that listening to music negatively affected concurrent mental processing in the elderly but not in young adults. To further investigate this matter, the effect of listening to music vs. listening to the sound of rain or silence was examined by administering an old/new face memory task (involving 448 unknown faces) to a group of 54 non-musician university students. Heart rate and diastolic and systolic blood pressure were measured during an explicit face study session that was followed by a memory test. The results indicated that more efficient and faster recall of faces occurred under conditions of silence or when participants were listening to emotionally touching music. Whereas auditory background (e.g., rain or joyful music) interfered with memory encoding, listening to emotionally touching music improved memory and significantly increased heart rate. It is hypothesized that touching music is able to modify the visual perception of faces by binding facial properties with auditory and emotionally charged information (music), which may therefore result in deeper memory encoding. PMID:26469712

  3. The effect of background music on episodic memory and autonomic responses: listening to emotionally touching music enhances facial memory capacity.

    PubMed

    Proverbio, Alice Mado; Mado Proverbio, C A Alice; Lozano Nasi, Valentina; Alessandra Arcari, Laura; De Benedetto, Francesco; Guardamagna, Matteo; Gazzola, Martina; Zani, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate how background auditory processing can affect other perceptual and cognitive processes as a function of stimulus content, style and emotional nature. Previous studies have offered contrasting evidence, and it has been recently shown that listening to music negatively affected concurrent mental processing in the elderly but not in young adults. To further investigate this matter, the effect of listening to music vs. listening to the sound of rain or silence was examined by administering an old/new face memory task (involving 448 unknown faces) to a group of 54 non-musician university students. Heart rate and diastolic and systolic blood pressure were measured during an explicit face study session that was followed by a memory test. The results indicated that more efficient and faster recall of faces occurred under conditions of silence or when participants were listening to emotionally touching music. Whereas auditory background (e.g., rain or joyful music) interfered with memory encoding, listening to emotionally touching music improved memory and significantly increased heart rate. It is hypothesized that touching music is able to modify the visual perception of faces by binding facial properties with auditory and emotionally charged information (music), which may therefore result in deeper memory encoding. PMID:26469712

  4. Paternal treadmill exercise enhances spatial learning and memory related to hippocampus among male offspring.

    PubMed

    Yin, M M; Wang, W; Sun, J; Liu, S; Liu, X L; Niu, Y M; Yuan, H R; Yang, F Y; Fu, L

    2013-09-15

    Both epidemiologic and laboratory studies suggest that parents can shape their offspring's development. Recently, it has been shown that maternal exercise during pregnancy benefits the progeny's brain function. However, little is known regarding the influence of paternal exercise on their offspring's phenotype. In this study we attempt to determine the effects of 6 weeks paternal treadmill exercise on spatial learning and memory and the expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and reelin in their male offspring. Sibling males were divided into two groups: the control (C) and the exercise group (E). The mice in the E group were exercised on a motor-driven rodent treadmill for 5 days per week for 6 weeks. After 6 weeks of exercise, the male mouse was mated with its sibling female. After weaning, male pups underwent behavioral assessment (Open field and Morris water maze tests). Immunohistochemistry staining, real time-PCR and western blot were performed to determine hippocampal BDNF and reelin expression of the male pups after behavior tasks. Our results showed that paternal treadmill exercise improved the spatial learning and memory capability of male pups, which was accompanied by significantly increased expression of BDNF and reelin, as compared to those of C group. Our results provide novel evidence that paternal treadmill exercise can enhance the brain functions of their F1 male offspring. PMID:23916757

  5. Enhanced visual short-term memory in action video game players.

    PubMed

    Blacker, Kara J; Curby, Kim M

    2013-08-01

    Visual short-term memory (VSTM) is critical for acquiring visual knowledge and shows marked individual variability. Previous work has illustrated a VSTM advantage among action video game players (Boot et al. Acta Psychologica 129:387-398, 2008). A growing body of literature has suggested that action video game playing can bolster visual cognitive abilities in a domain-general manner, including abilities related to visual attention and the speed of processing, providing some potential bases for this VSTM advantage. In the present study, we investigated the VSTM advantage among video game players and assessed whether enhanced processing speed can account for this advantage. Experiment 1, using simple colored stimuli, revealed that action video game players demonstrate a similar VSTM advantage over nongamers, regardless of whether they are given limited or ample time to encode items into memory. Experiment 2, using complex shapes as the stimuli to increase the processing demands of the task, replicated this VSTM advantage, irrespective of encoding duration. These findings are inconsistent with a speed-of-processing account of this advantage. An alternative, attentional account, grounded in the existing literature on the visuo-cognitive consequences of video game play, is discussed. PMID:23709068

  6. Paternal treadmill exercise enhances spatial learning and memory related to hippocampus among male offspring.

    PubMed

    Yin, M M; Wang, W; Sun, J; Liu, S; Liu, X L; Niu, Y M; Yuan, H R; Yang, F Y; Fu, L

    2013-09-15

    Both epidemiologic and laboratory studies suggest that parents can shape their offspring's development. Recently, it has been shown that maternal exercise during pregnancy benefits the progeny's brain function. However, little is known regarding the influence of paternal exercise on their offspring's phenotype. In this study we attempt to determine the effects of 6 weeks paternal treadmill exercise on spatial learning and memory and the expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and reelin in their male offspring. Sibling males were divided into two groups: the control (C) and the exercise group (E). The mice in the E group were exercised on a motor-driven rodent treadmill for 5 days per week for 6 weeks. After 6 weeks of exercise, the male mouse was mated with its sibling female. After weaning, male pups underwent behavioral assessment (Open field and Morris water maze tests). Immunohistochemistry staining, real time-PCR and western blot were performed to determine hippocampal BDNF and reelin expression of the male pups after behavior tasks. Our results showed that paternal treadmill exercise improved the spatial learning and memory capability of male pups, which was accompanied by significantly increased expression of BDNF and reelin, as compared to those of C group. Our results provide novel evidence that paternal treadmill exercise can enhance the brain functions of their F1 male offspring.

  7. Dopamine in the nucleus accumbens modulates the memory of social defeat in Syrian hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus)

    PubMed Central

    Gray, C.L.; Norvelle, A.; Larkin, T.; Huhman, K.L..

    2015-01-01

    Conditioned defeat (CD) is a behavioral response that occurs in Syrian hamsters after they experience social defeat. Subsequently, defeated hamsters no longer produce territorial aggression but instead exhibit heightened levels of avoidance and submission, even when confronted with a smaller, non-aggressive intruder. Dopamine in the nucleus accumbens is hypothesized to act as a signal of salience for both rewarding and aversive stimuli to promote memory formation and appropriate behavioral responses to significant events. The purpose of the present study was to test the hypothesis that dopamine in the nucleus accumbens modulates the acquisition and expression of behavioral responses to social defeat. In Exp. 1, bilateral infusion of the non-specific D1/D2 receptor antagonist cis(z)flupenthixol (3.75 μg/150 nl saline) into the nucleus accumbens 5 min prior to defeat training significantly reduced submissive and defensive behavior expressed 24 hr later in response to a non-aggressive intruder. In Exp. 2, infusion of 3.75 μg cis(z)flupenthixol 5 min before conditioned defeat testing with a non-aggressive intruder significantly increased aggressive behavior in drug-infused subjects. In Exp. 3, we found that the effect of cis(z)flupenthixol on aggression was specific to defeated animals as infusion of drug into the nucleus accumbens of non-defeated animals did not significantly alter their behavior in response to a non-aggressive intruder. These data demonstrate that dopamine in the nucleus accumbens modulates both acquisition and expression of social stress-induced behavioral changes and suggest that the nucleus accumbens plays an important role in the suppression of aggression that is observed after social defeat. PMID:25721736

  8. Something in the way she sings: enhanced memory for vocal melodies.

    PubMed

    Weiss, Michael W; Trehub, Sandra E; Schellenberg, E Glenn

    2012-10-01

    Across species, there is considerable evidence of preferential processing for biologically significant signals such as conspecific vocalizations and the calls of individual conspecifics. Surprisingly, music cognition in human listeners is typically studied with stimuli that are relatively low in biological significance, such as instrumental sounds. The present study explored the possibility that melodies might be remembered better when presented vocally rather than instrumentally. Adults listened to unfamiliar folk melodies, with some presented in familiar timbres (voice and piano) and others in less familiar timbres (banjo and marimba). They were subsequently tested on recognition of previously heard melodies intermixed with novel melodies. Melodies presented vocally were remembered better than those presented instrumentally even though they were liked less. Factors underlying the advantage for vocal melodies remain to be determined. In line with its biological significance, vocal music may evoke increased vigilance or arousal, which in turn may result in greater depth of processing and enhanced memory for musical details. PMID:22894936

  9. Clitoria ternatea (Linn) root extract treatment during growth spurt period enhances learning and memory in rats.

    PubMed

    Rai, K S; Murthy, K D; Karanth, K S; Rao, M S

    2001-07-01

    Neonatal rat pups (7 days old) were intubated with either 50 mg/kg body weight or 100 mg/kg body weight of aqueous root extract of Clitoria ternatea (CTR) for 30 days. These rats were then subjected to open field, two compartment passive avoidance and spatial learning (T-Maze) tests (i) immediately after the treatment and (ii) 30 days after the treatment, along with age matched normal and saline control rats. Results showed no change in open field behaviour, but showed improved retention and spatial learning performance at both time points of behavioural tests, indicating the memory enhancing property of CTR which implicates a permanent change in the brain of CTR treated rats. PMID:11881569

  10. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex enhances working memory.

    PubMed

    Bagherzadeh, Yasaman; Khorrami, Anahita; Zarrindast, Mohammad Reza; Shariat, Seyed Vahid; Pantazis, Dimitrios

    2016-07-01

    Neuroimaging and electrophysiological studies have unequivocally identified the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) as a crucial structure for top-down control of working memory (WM) processes. By modulating the excitability of neurons in a targeted cortical area, transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) offers a unique way to modulate DLPFC function, opening the possibility of WM facilitation. Even though TMS neuromodulation effects over the left DLPFC have successfully improved WM performance in patients with depression and schizophrenia in a multitude of studies, raising the potential of TMS as a safe efficacious treatment for WM deficits, TMS interventions in healthy individuals have produced mixed and inconclusive results. Here, we stimulated the left DLPFC of healthy individuals using a high-frequency repetitive TMS protocol and evaluated behavioral performance in a battery of cognitive tasks. We found that TMS treatment enhanced WM performance in a verbal digit span and a visuospatial 2-back task.

  11. Formation of Ru nanocrystals by plasma enhanced atomic layer deposition for nonvolatile memory applications

    SciTech Connect

    Yim, Sung-Soo; Lee, Moon-Sang; Kim, Ki-Su; Kim, Ki-Bum

    2006-08-28

    The formation of Ru nanocrystals is demonstrated on a SiO{sub 2} substrate by plasma enhanced atomic layer deposition using diethylcyclopentadienyl ruthenium and NH{sub 3} plasma. The island growth of Ru was observed at the initial stages of the film formation up to a nominal thickness of 11.1 nm. A maximum Ru nanocrystal spatial density of 9.7x10{sup 11} /cm{sup 2} was achieved with an average size of 3.5 nm and standard deviation of the size of 20%. Electron charging/discharging effect in the Ru nanocrystals is demonstrated by measuring the flatband voltage shift in the capacitance-voltage measurement of metal-oxide-semiconductor memory capacitor structure.

  12. Identification of compounds that potentiate CREB signaling as possible enhancers of long-term memory

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Menghang; Huang, Ruili; Guo, Vicky; Southall, Noel; Cho, Ming-Hsuang; Inglese, James; Austin, Christopher P.; Nirenberg, Marshall

    2009-01-01

    Many studies have implicated the cAMP Response Element Binding (CREB) protein signaling pathway in long-term memory. To identify small molecule enhancers of CREB activation of gene expression, we screened ≈73,000 compounds, each at 7–15 concentrations in a quantitative high-throughput screening (qHTS) format, for activity in cells by assaying CREB mediated β-lactamase reporter gene expression. We identified 1,800 compounds that potentiated CREB mediated gene expression, with potencies as low as 16 nM, comprising 96 structural series. Mechanisms of action were systematically determined, and compounds that affect phosphodiesterase 4, protein kinase A, and cAMP production were identified, as well as compounds that affect CREB signaling via apparently unidentified mechanisms. qHTS folowed by interrogation of pathway targets is an efficient paradigm for lead generation for chemical genomics and drug development. PMID:19196967

  13. Dimebon enhances hippocampus-dependent learning in both appetitive and inhibitory memory tasks in mice.

    PubMed

    Vignisse, Julie; Steinbusch, Harry W M; Bolkunov, Alexei; Nunes, Joao; Santos, Ana Isabel; Grandfils, Christian; Bachurin, Sergei; Strekalova, Tatyana

    2011-03-30

    Pre-clinical and clinical studies on dimebon (dimebolin or latrepirdine) have demonstrated its use as a cognitive enhancer. Here, we show that dimebon administered to 3-month-old C57BL6N mice 15 min prior to training in both appetitive and inhibitory learning tasks via repeated (0.1 mg/kg) and acute (0.5 mg/kg) i.p. injections, respectively, increases memory scores. Acute treatment with dimebon was found to enhance inhibitory learning, as also shown in the step-down avoidance paradigm in 7-month-old mice. Bolus administration of dimebon did not affect the animals' locomotion, exploration or anxiety-like behaviour, with the exception of exploratory behaviour in older mice in the novel cage test. In a model of appetitive learning, a spatial version of the Y-maze, dimebon increased the rate of correct choices and decreased the latency of accessing a water reward after water deprivation, and increased the duration of drinking behaviour during training/testing procedures. Repeated treatment with dimebon did not alter the behaviours in other tests or water consumption. Acute treatment of water-deprived and non-water-deprived mice with dimebon also did not affect their water intake. Our data suggest that dimebon enhances hippocampus-dependent learning in both appetitive and inhibitory tasks in mice.

  14. Temporary CXCR3 and CCR5 Antagonism Following Vaccination Enhances Memory CD8 T Cell Immune Responses

    PubMed Central

    Li, Rui; Zhang, Nan; Tian, Miaomiao; Ran, Zihan; Zhu, Mingjun; Zhu, Haiyan; Han, Fangting; Yin, Juan; Zhong, Jiang

    2016-01-01

    Although current vaccination strategies have been successful at preventing a variety of human diseases, attempts at vaccinating against some pathogens such as AIDS and tuberculosis (TB) have been more problematic, largely because abnormally high numbers of antigen-specific CD8 + T cells are required for protection. This study assessed the effect on host immune response of temporarily dampening the chemokine receptors CXCR3 and CCR5 after vaccination by administration of TAK-779, a small-molecule CXCR3 and CCR5 antagonist commonly used to inhibit HIV infection. Our results showed that use of TAK-779 enhanced memory CD8 + T cell immune responses both qualitatively and quantitatively. Treatment with TAK-779 following vaccination of an influenza virus antigen resulted in enhanced memory generation, with more CD8 + CD127 + memory precursors and fewer terminally differentiated effector CD8 + CD69 + T cells. These memory T cells were able to become IFN-γ–secreting effector cells when re-encountering the same antigen, which can further enhance the efficacy of vaccination. The mice vaccinated in the presence of TAK-779 were better protected upon influenza virus challenge than the controls. These results show that vaccination, while temporarily inhibiting chemokine receptors CXCR3 and CCR5 by TAK-779, could be a promising strategy to generate large numbers of protective memory CD8 + T cells. PMID:27447731

  15. Twitter for Teaching: Can Social Media Be Used to Enhance the Process of Learning?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Chris

    2014-01-01

    Can social media be used to enhance the process of learning by students in higher education? Social media have become widely adopted by students in their personal lives. However, the application of social media to teaching and learning remains to be fully explored. In this study, the use of the social media tool Twitter for teaching was…

  16. Leisure's Role in Enhancing Social Competencies of Individuals with Developmental Disabilities. Research Update.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lord, Michal Anne

    1997-01-01

    This paper examines current literature about social competencies and individuals with developmental disabilities, explaining the role of leisure in enhancing social competencies through the lifespan. After defining perceived social competence, the paper looks at how recreation and leisure can increase communication and social skills for this…

  17. Estradiol replacement enhances fear memory formation, impairs extinction and reduces COMT expression levels in the hippocampus of ovariectomized female mice.

    PubMed

    McDermott, Carmel M; Liu, Dan; Ade, Catherine; Schrader, Laura A

    2015-02-01

    Females experience depression, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and anxiety disorders at approximately twice the rate of males, but the mechanisms underlying this difference remain undefined. The effect of sex hormones on neural substrates presents a possible mechanism. We investigated the effect of ovariectomy at two ages, before puberty and in adulthood, and 17β-estradiol (E2) replacement administered chronically in drinking water on anxiety level, fear memory formation, and extinction. Based on previous studies, we hypothesized that estradiol replacement would impair fear memory formation and enhance extinction rate. Females, age 4 weeks and 10 weeks, were divided randomly into 4 groups; sham surgery, OVX, OVX+low E2 (200nM), and OVX+high E2 (1000nM). Chronic treatment with high levels of E2 significantly increased anxiety levels measured in the elevated plus maze. In both age groups, high levels of E2 significantly increased contextual fear memory but had no effect on cued fear memory. In addition, high E2 decreased the rate of extinction in both ages. Finally, catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) is important for regulation of catecholamine levels, which play a role in fear memory formation and extinction. COMT expression in the hippocampus was significantly reduced by high E2 replacement, implying increased catecholamine levels in the hippocampus of high E2 mice. These results suggest that estradiol enhanced fear memory formation, and inhibited fear memory extinction, possibly stabilizing the fear memory in female mice. This study has implications for a neurobiological mechanism for PTSD and anxiety disorders. PMID:25555360

  18. Estradiol replacement enhances fear memory formation, impairs extinction and reduces COMT expression levels in the hippocampus of ovariectomized female mice.

    PubMed

    McDermott, Carmel M; Liu, Dan; Ade, Catherine; Schrader, Laura A

    2015-02-01

    Females experience depression, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and anxiety disorders at approximately twice the rate of males, but the mechanisms underlying this difference remain undefined. The effect of sex hormones on neural substrates presents a possible mechanism. We investigated the effect of ovariectomy at two ages, before puberty and in adulthood, and 17β-estradiol (E2) replacement administered chronically in drinking water on anxiety level, fear memory formation, and extinction. Based on previous studies, we hypothesized that estradiol replacement would impair fear memory formation and enhance extinction rate. Females, age 4 weeks and 10 weeks, were divided randomly into 4 groups; sham surgery, OVX, OVX+low E2 (200nM), and OVX+high E2 (1000nM). Chronic treatment with high levels of E2 significantly increased anxiety levels measured in the elevated plus maze. In both age groups, high levels of E2 significantly increased contextual fear memory but had no effect on cued fear memory. In addition, high E2 decreased the rate of extinction in both ages. Finally, catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) is important for regulation of catecholamine levels, which play a role in fear memory formation and extinction. COMT expression in the hippocampus was significantly reduced by high E2 replacement, implying increased catecholamine levels in the hippocampus of high E2 mice. These results suggest that estradiol enhanced fear memory formation, and inhibited fear memory extinction, possibly stabilizing the fear memory in female mice. This study has implications for a neurobiological mechanism for PTSD and anxiety disorders.

  19. Enhancement of Declarative Memory Performance Following a Daytime Nap Is Contingent on Strength of Initial Task Acquisition

    PubMed Central

    Tucker, Matthew A.; Fishbein, William

    2008-01-01

    Study Objectives: In this study we examined the benefit of a daytime nap containing only NREM sleep on the performance of three declarative memory tasks: unrelated paired associates, maze learning, and the Rey-Osterrieth complex figure. Additionally, we explored the impact of factors related to task acquisition on sleep-related memory processing. To this end, we examined whether testing of paired associates during training leads to sleep-related enhancement of memory compared to simply learning the word pairs without test. We also examined whether strength of task acquisition modulates sleep-related processing for each of the three tasks. Subjects and Procedure: Subjects (11 male, 22 female) arrived at 11:30, were trained on each of the declarative memory tasks at 12:15, and at 13:00 either took a nap or remained awake in the sleep lab. After the nap period, all subjects remained in the lab until retest at 16:00. Results: Compared to subjects who stayed awake during the training-retest interval, subjects who took a NREM nap demonstrated enhanced performance for word pairs that were tested during training, but not for untested word pairs. For each of the three declarative memory tasks, we observed a sleep-dependent performance benefit only for subjects that most strongly acquired the tasks during the training session. Conclusions: NREM sleep obtained during a daytime nap benefits declarative memory performance, with these benefits being intimately tied to how well subjects acquire the tasks and the way in which the information is acquired. Citation: Tucker MA; Fishbein W. Enhancement of declarative memory performance following a daytime nap is contingent on strength of initial task acquisition. SLEEP 2008;31(2):197–203. PMID:18274266

  20. Sildenafil, a selective phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitor, enhances memory reconsolidation of an inhibitory avoidance task in mice.

    PubMed

    Boccia, M M; Blake, M G; Krawczyk, M C; Baratti, C M

    2011-07-01

    Intracellular levels of the second messengers cAMP and cGMP are maintained through a balance between production, carried out by adenyl cyclase (AC) and guanylyl cyclase (GC), and degradation, carried out by phosphodiesterases (PDEs). Recently, PDEs have gained increased attention as potential new targets for cognition enhancement, with particular reference to phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDE5A). It is accepted that once consolidation is completed memory becomes permanent, but it has also been suggested that reactivation (memory retrieval) of the original memory makes it sensitive to the same treatments that affect memory consolidation when given after training. This new period of sensitivity coined the term reconsolidation. Sildenafil (1, 3, and 10mg/kg, ip), a cGMP-PDE5 inhibitor, facilitated retention performance of a one-trial step-through inhibitory avoidance task, when administered to CF-1 male mice immediately after retrieval. The effects of sildenafil (1mg/kg, ip) were time-dependent, long-lasting and inversely correlated with memory age. The administration of sildenafil (1mg/kg, ip) 30 min prior to the 2nd retention test did not affect retention of mice given post-retrieval injections of either vehicle or sildenafil (1mg/kg, ip). Finally, an enhancement of retention was also observed in CF-1 female mice receiving sildenafil (1mg/kg, ip) immediately, but not 180 min after retrieval. In the present paper we reported for the first time that systemic administration of sildenafil after memory reactivation enhances retention performance of the original learning. Our results indirectly point out cGMP, a component of the NO/cGMP/PKG pathway, as a necessary factor for memory reconsolidation.

  1. Aging, culture, and memory for socially meaningful item-context associations: an East-West cross-cultural comparison study.

    PubMed

    Yang, Lixia; Li, Juan; Spaniol, Julia; Hasher, Lynn; Wilkinson, Andrea J; Yu, Jing; Niu, Yanan

    2013-01-01

    Research suggests that people in Eastern interdependent cultures process information more holistically and attend more to contextual information than do people in Western independent cultures. The current study examined the effects of culture and age on memory for socially meaningful item-context associations in 71 Canadians of Western European descent (35 young and 36 older) and 72 native Chinese citizens (36 young and 36 older). All participants completed two blocks of context memory tasks. During encoding, participants rated pictures of familiar objects. In one block, objects were rated either for their meaningfulness in the independent living context or their typicality in daily life. In the other block, objects were rated for their meaningfulness in the context of fostering relationships with others or for their typicality in daily life. The encoding in each block was followed by a recognition test in which participants identified pictures and their associated contexts. The results showed that Chinese outperformed Canadians in context memory, though both culture groups showed similar age-related deficits in item and context memory. The results suggest that Chinese are at an advantage in memory for socially meaningful item-context associations, an advantage that continues from young adulthood into old age.

  2. Social misdirection fails to enhance a magic illusion.

    PubMed

    Cui, Jie; Otero-Millan, Jorge; Macknik, Stephen L; King, Mac; Martinez-Conde, Susana

    2011-01-01

    Visual, multisensory and cognitive illusions in magic performances provide new windows into the psychological and neural principles of perception, attention, and cognition. We investigated a magic effect consisting of a coin "vanish" (i.e., the perceptual disappearance of a coin after a simulated toss from hand to hand). Previous research has shown that magicians can use joint attention cues such as their own gaze direction to strengthen the observers' perception of magic. Here we presented naïve observers with videos including real and simulated coin tosses to determine if joint attention might enhance the illusory perception of simulated coin tosses. The observers' eye positions were measured, and their perceptual responses simultaneously recorded via button press. To control for the magician's use of joint attention cues, we occluded his head in half of the trials. We found that subjects did not direct their gaze at the magician's face at the time of the coin toss, whether the face was visible or occluded, and that the presence of the magician's face did not enhance the illusion. Thus, our results show that joint attention is not necessary for the perception of this effect. We conclude that social misdirection is redundant and possibly detracting to this very robust sleight-of-hand illusion. We further determined that subjects required multiple trials to effectively distinguish real from simulated tosses; thus the illusion was resilient to repeated viewing.

  3. The role of stress during memory reactivation on intrusive memories.

    PubMed

    Cheung, Jessica; Garber, Benjamin; Bryant, Richard A

    2015-09-01

    Intrusive memories are unwanted recollections that maintain distress in psychological disorders. Increasing evidence suggests that memories that are reactivated through retrieval become temporarily vulnerable to environmental or pharmacological manipulation, including changes in levels of circulating stress hormones. This study investigated the influence of stress during memory reactivation of an emotionally arousing trauma film on subsequent intrusive memories. Three groups of participants (N=63) viewed a trauma film depicting a serious car accident at baseline. Two days later (Time 2), one group received a reactivation induction following a socially evaluated cold pressor test (SECPT; Stress/Reactivation condition), whilst the second group reactivated the memory after a control procedure (Reactivation condition). A third group underwent the SECPT but was not asked to reactivate memory of the trauma film (Stress condition). Two days later (Time 3), all participants received a surprise cued memory recall test and intrusions questionnaire which they completed online. Results showed that those in the Stress/Reactivation group had higher intrusions scores than the other two groups, suggesting that acute stress promotes intrusive memories only when the memory trace is reactivated shortly afterwards. Increased cortisol predicted enhanced intrusive experiences in the Stress/Reactivation condition but not in the other conditions. This pattern of results suggests that acute stress during the reactivation of emotional material impacts on involuntary emotional memories. These findings suggest a possible explanation for the mechanism underlying the maintenance of intrusive memories in clinical disorders.

  4. Neural activity during self-referential working memory and the underlying role of the amygdala in social anxiety disorder.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Hyung-Jun; Kim, Jin Seong; Shin, Yu-Bin; Choi, Soo-Hee; Lee, Seung-Koo; Kim, Jae-Jin

    2016-08-01

    Self-referential processing, theory of mind, and working memory are distorted in social anxiety disorder (SAD). This study aimed to investigate characteristics of altered self-referential working memory processing and resting-state functional connectivity in patients with SAD. Twenty patients and 20 healthy controls underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging at resting-state and while performing a working memory task containing faces with self-referential positive or negative comments and three memory phases (encoding, maintenance, and retrieval). Task-related results were compared between groups and tested for correlations. Resting-state connectivity between amygdala subregions and regions showing a task-related difference was also compared between groups. Patients compared to controls showed augmented memory for the negative comments, hyperactivation of the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex and temporo-parietal junction during encoding, and hypoactivation of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and insula during retrieval. At resting-state, increased connectivity of amygdala subregions with multiple task-related regions was found in patients. These findings suggest that the encoding process in SAD is accompanied by altered involvement of self-referential processing and theory of mind, whereas the retrieval process reflects impaired cognitive control. These memory-related processing may be affected by predisposing resting-state hyperconnectivity with the amygdala, and may underlie a hypersensitivity to negative comments and post-event reflection in SAD. PMID:27260987

  5. Older adults catch up to younger adults on a learning and memory task that involves collaborative social interaction.

    PubMed

    Derksen, B J; Duff, M C; Weldon, K; Zhang, J; Zamba, K D; Tranel, D; Denburg, N L

    2015-01-01

    Learning and memory abilities tend to decline as people age. The current study examines the question of whether a learning situation that emphasises collaborative social interaction might help older persons overcome age-related learning and memory changes and thus perform similarly to younger persons. Younger and Older participants (n = 34 in each group) completed the Barrier Task (BT), a game-like social interaction where partners work together to develop labels for a set of abstract tangrams. Participants were also administered standard clinical neuropsychological measures of memory, on which the Older group showed expected inferiority to the Younger group. On the BT, the Older group performed less well than the Younger group early on, but as the task progressed, the performance of the Older group caught up and became statistically indistinguishable from that of the Younger group. These results can be taken to suggest that a learning milieu characterised by collaborative social interaction can attenuate some of the typical memory disadvantages associated with being older.

  6. OLDER ADULTS CATCH UP TO YOUNGER ADULTS ON A LEARNING AND MEMORY TASK THAT INVOLVES COLLABORATIVE SOCIAL INTERACTION

    PubMed Central

    Derksen, B.J.; Duff, M.C.; Weldon, K.; Zhang, J.; Zamba, G.; Tranel, D.; Denburg, N.L.

    2014-01-01

    Learning and memory abilities tend to decline as people age. The current study examines the question of whether a learning situation that emphasizes collaborative social interaction might help older persons overcome age-related learning and memory changes and thus perform similarly to younger persons. Younger and Older participants (n = 34 in each group) completed the Barrier Task, a game-like social interaction where partners work together to develop labels for a set of abstract tangrams. Participants were also administered standard clinical neuropsychological measures of memory, on which the Older group showed expected inferiority to the Younger group. On the Barrier Task, the Older group performed less well than the Younger group early on, but as the task progressed, the performance of the Older group caught up and became statistically indistinguishable from that of the Younger group. These results can be taken to suggest that a learning milieu characterized by collaborative social interaction can attenuate some of the typical memory disadvantages associated with being older. PMID:24841619

  7. Exogenous insulin-like growth factor 2 administration enhances memory consolidation and persistence in a time-dependent manner.

    PubMed

    Lee, Younghwan; Lee, Young Woo; Gao, Qingtao; Lee, Younghwa; Lee, Hyung Eun; Ryu, Jong Hoon

    2015-10-01

    Memory consolidation is an important process for the formation of long-term memory. We have previously reported that mature brain-derived neurotrophic factor enhances memory consolidation within 9h after initial learning. Recent studies suggest that insulin-like growth factor 2 (IGF2) significantly enhances memory consolidation and prevents forgetting. Thus, we hypothesized that IGF2 exerts its activity on cognitive performance in a time-dependent manner as observed in our previous study. In the one-trial step-through inhibitory avoidance task, we demonstrate that a bilateral injection of IGF2 into the dorsal hippocampus 6 or 9 h after training significantly enhanced the step-through latencies compared with the vehicle-treated controls in the retention trial, which was conducted 24 h after the acquisition trial. However, 12h post-training, IGF2 injection did not increase the step-through latencies. Intriguingly, in the retention trial at 21 days after the training, hippocampal IGF2 injection 6, 9 or 12 h after the acquisition trial significantly increased the step-through latencies compared with the vehicle-treated controls. IGF2 administration at 9 h and 12 h after the acquisition trial significantly increased discrimination index and exploration time on the novel-located object in the test trial at 24 h and 21 days, respectively, after the acquisition trial in the novel location recognition task. In addition, IGF2-induced an increase in the step-through latencies in the retention trial 24 h or 21 days, respectively, after the initial learning was completely abolished by co-injected anti-IGF2 receptor antibody. These results suggest that IGF2 enhances memory consolidation within 9h after initial learning, and increased IGF2 within the 12 h after the acquisition trial, which represents a delayed consolidation phase, is also critical for memory persistence.

  8. Major neurotransmitter systems in dorsal hippocampus and basolateral amygdala control social recognition memory.

    PubMed

    Garrido Zinn, Carolina; Clairis, Nicolas; Silva Cavalcante, Lorena Evelyn; Furini, Cristiane Regina Guerino; de Carvalho Myskiw, Jociane; Izquierdo, Ivan

    2016-08-16

    Social recognition memory (SRM) is crucial for reproduction, forming social groups, and species survival. Despite its importance, SRM is still relatively little studied. Here we examine the participation of the CA1 region of the dorsal hippocampus (CA1) and the basolateral amygdala (BLA) and that of dopaminergic, noradrenergic, and histaminergic systems in both structures in the consolidation of SRM. Male Wistar rats received intra-CA1 or intra-BLA infusions of different drugs immediately after the sample phase of a social discrimination task and 24-h later were subjected to a 5-min retention test. Animals treated with the protein synthesis inhibitor, anisomycin, into either the CA1 or BLA were unable to recognize the previously exposed juvenile (familiar) during the retention test. When infused into the CA1, the β-adrenoreceptor agonist, isoproterenol, the D1/D5 dopaminergic receptor antagonist, SCH23390, and the H2 histaminergic receptor antagonist, ranitidine, also hindered the recognition of the familiar juvenile 24-h later. The latter drug effects were more intense in the CA1 than in the BLA. When infused into the BLA, the β-adrenoreceptor antagonist, timolol, the D1/D5 dopamine receptor agonist, SKF38393, and the H2 histaminergic receptor agonist, ranitidine, also hindered recognition of the familiar juvenile 24-h later. In all cases, the impairment to recognize the familiar juvenile was abolished by the coinfusion of agonist plus antagonist. Clearly, both the CA1 and BLA, probably in that order, play major roles in the consolidation of SRM, but these roles are different in each structure vis-à-vis the involvement of the β-noradrenergic, D1/D5-dopaminergic, and H2-histaminergic receptors therein. PMID:27482097

  9. A calpain-2 selective inhibitor enhances learning & memory by prolonging ERK activation.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yan; Wang, Yubin; Zhu, Guoqi; Sun, Jiandong; Bi, Xiaoning; Baudry, Michel

    2016-06-01

    While calpain-1 activation is required for LTP induction by theta burst stimulation (TBS), calpain-2 activation limits its magnitude during the consolidation period. A selective calpain-2 inhibitor applied either before or shortly after TBS enhanced the degree of potentiation. In the present study, we tested whether the selective calpain-2 inhibitor, Z-Leu-Abu-CONH-CH2-C6H3 (3, 5-(OMe)2 (C2I), could enhance learning and memory in wild-type (WT) and calpain-1 knock-out (C1KO) mice. We first showed that C2I could reestablish TBS-LTP in hippocampal slices from C1KO mice, and this effect was blocked by PD98059, an inhibitor of ERK. TBS resulted in PTEN degradation in hippocampal slices from both WT and C1KO mice, and C2I treatment blocked this effect in both mouse genotypes. Systemic injection of C2I 30 min before training in the fear-conditioning paradigm resulted in a biphasic dose-response curve, with low doses enhancing and high doses inhibiting freezing behavior. The difference between the doses needed to enhance and inhibit learning matches the difference in concentrations producing inhibition of calpain-2 and calpain-1. A low dose of C2I also restored normal learning in a novel object recognition task in C1KO mice. Levels of SCOP, a ERK phosphatase known to be cleaved by calpain-1, were decreased in dorsal hippocampus early but not late following training in WT mice; C2I treatment did not affect the early decrease in SCOP levels but prevented its recovery at the later time-point and prolonged ERK activation. The results indicate that calpain-2 activation limits the extent of learning, an effect possibly due to temporal limitation of ERK activation, as a result of SCOP synthesis induced by calpain-2-mediated PTEN degradation. PMID:26907807

  10. Technology To Enhance Special Education: Remediation of Problems in Logical Thinking and Memory. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavalier, Al; And Others

    A federally sponsored project was designed to incorporate a memory-assessment task and a memory strategy into a computer-based instructional system for assessing and assisting in remediating basic memory-processing and metacognitive deficiencies. The project resulted in an instructional system for school-aged children and youth with mild to…

  11. Neural correlates of retrieval-based memory enhancement: An fMRI study of the testing effect

    PubMed Central

    Wing, Erik A.; Marsh, Elizabeth J.; Cabeza, Roberto

    2013-01-01

    Restudying material is a common method for learning new information, but not necessarily an effective one. Research on the testing effect shows that practice involving retrieval from memory can facilitate later memory in contrast to passive restudy. Despite extensive behavioral work, the brain processes that make retrieval an effective learning strategy remain unclear. In the present experiment, we explored how initially retrieving items affected memory a day later as compared to a condition involving traditional restudy. In contrast to restudy, initial testing that contributed to future memory success was associated with engagement of several regions including the anterior hippocampus, lateral temporal cortices, and medial prefrontal cortex (PFC). Additionally, testing enhanced hippocampal connectivity with ventrolateral PFC and midline regions. These findings indicate that the testing effect may be contingent on processes that are typically thought to support memory success at encoding (e.g. relational binding, selection and elaboration of semantically-related information) in addition to those more often associated with retrieval (e.g. memory search). PMID:23607935

  12. Neural correlates of retrieval-based memory enhancement: an fMRI study of the testing effect.

    PubMed

    Wing, Erik A; Marsh, Elizabeth J; Cabeza, Roberto

    2013-10-01

    Restudying material is a common method for learning new information, but not necessarily an effective one. Research on the testing effect shows that practice involving retrieval from memory can facilitate later memory in contrast to passive restudy. Despite extensive behavioral work, the brain processes that make retrieval an effective learning strategy remain unclear. In the present experiment, we explored how initially retrieving items affected memory a day later as compared to a condition involving traditional restudy. In contrast to restudy, initial testing that contributed to future memory success was associated with engagement of several regions including the anterior hippocampus, lateral temporal cortices, and medial prefrontal cortex (PFC). Additionally, testing enhanced hippocampal connectivity with ventrolateral PFC and midline regions. These findings indicate that the testing effect may be contingent on processes that are typically thought to support memory success at encoding (e.g. relational binding, selection and elaboration of semantically-related information) in addition to those more often associated with retrieval (e.g. memory search).

  13. Noisy galvanic vestibular stimulation enhances spatial memory in cognitive impairment-induced by intracerebroventricular-streptozotocin administration.

    PubMed

    Adel Ghahraman, Mansoureh; Zahmatkesh, Maryam; Pourbakht, Akram; Seifi, Behjat; Jalaie, Shohreh; Adeli, Soheila; Niknami, Zohreh

    2016-04-01

    There are several anatomical connections between vestibular system and brain areas construct spatial memory. Since subliminal noisy galvanic vestibular stimulation (GVS) has been demonstrated to enhance some types of memory, we speculated that application of noisy GVS may improve spatial memory in a rat model of intracerebroventricular streptozotocin (ICV-STZ)-induced cognitive impairment. Moreover, we attempted to determine the effect of repeated exposure to GVS on spatial memory performance. The spatial memory was assessed using Morris water maze test. The groups received 1 (ICV-STZ/GVS-I) or 5 (ICV-STZ/GVS-II) sessions, each lasting 30 min, of low amplitude noisy GVS, or no GVS at all (Control, ICV-saline, ICV-STZ/noGVS). Hippocampal morphological changes investigated with cresyl violet staining and the immediate early gene product c-Fos, as a neuronal activity marker, was measured. Hippocampal c-Fos positive cells increased in both GVS stimulated groups. We observed significantly improved spatial performance only in ICV-STZ/GVS-II group. Histological evaluation showed normal density in ICV-STZ/GVS-II group whereas degeneration observed in ICV-STZ/GVS-I group similar to ICV-STZ/noGVS. The results showed the improvement of memory impairment after repeated exposure to GVS. This effect may be due in part to frequent activation of the vestibular neurons and the hippocampal regions connected to them. Our current study suggests the potential role of GVS as a practical method to combat cognitive decline induced by sporadic Alzheimer disease.

  14. Selective inactivation of adenosine A2A receptors in striatal neurons enhances working memory and reversal learning

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Catherine J.; Singer, Philipp; Coelho, Joana; Boison, Detlev; Feldon, Joram; Yee, Benjamin K.; Chen, Jiang-Fan

    2011-01-01

    The adenosine A2A receptor (A2AR) is highly enriched in the striatum where it is uniquely positioned to integrate dopaminergic, glutamatergic, and other signals to modulate cognition. Although previous studies support the hypothesis that A2AR inactivation can be pro-cognitive, analyses of A2AR's effects on cognitive functions have been restricted to a small subset of cognitive domains. Furthermore, the relative contribution of A2ARs in distinct brain regions remains largely unknown. Here, we studied the regulation of multiple memory processes by brain region-specific populations of A2ARs. Specifically, we evaluated the cognitive impacts of conditional A2AR deletion restricted to either the entire forebrain (i.e., cerebral cortex, hippocampus, and striatum, fb-A2AR KO) or to striatum alone (st-A2AR KO) in recognition memory, working memory, reference memory, and reversal learning. This comprehensive, comparative analysis showed for the first time that depletion of A2AR-dependent signaling in either the entire forebrain or striatum alone is associated with two specific phenotypes indicative of cognitive flexibility—enhanced working memory and enhanced reversal learning. These selective pro-cognitive phenotypes seemed largely attributed to inactivation of striatal A2ARs as they were captured by A2AR deletion restricted to striatal neurons. Neither spatial reference memory acquisition nor spatial recognition memory were grossly affected, and no evidence for compensatory changes in striatal or cortical D1, D2, or A1 receptor expression was found. This study provides the first direct demonstration that targeting striatal A2ARs may be an effective, novel strategy to facilitate cognitive flexibility under normal and pathologic conditions. PMID:21693634

  15. Impaired spatial memory and enhanced long-term potentiation in mice with forebrain-specific ablation of the Stim genes.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Alvarez, Gisela; Shetty, Mahesh S; Lu, Bo; Yap, Kenrick An Fu; Oh-Hora, Masatsugu; Sajikumar, Sreedharan; Bichler, Zoë; Fivaz, Marc

    2015-01-01

    Recent findings point to a central role of the endoplasmic reticulum-resident STIM (Stromal Interaction Molecule) proteins in shaping the structure and function of excitatory synapses in the mammalian brain. The impact of the Stim genes on cognitive functions remains, however, poorly understood. To explore the function of the Stim genes in learning and memory, we generated three mouse strains with conditional deletion (cKO) of Stim1 and/or Stim2 in the forebrain. Stim1, Stim2, and double Stim1/Stim2 cKO mice show no obvious brain structural defects or locomotor impairment. Analysis of spatial reference memory in the Morris water maze revealed a mild learning delay in Stim1 cKO mice, while learning and memory in Stim2 cKO mice was indistinguishable from their control littermates. Deletion of both Stim genes in the forebrain resulted, however, in a pronounced impairment in spatial learning and memory reflecting a synergistic effect of the Stim genes on the underlying neural circuits. Notably, long-term potentiation (LTP) at CA3-CA1 hippocampal synapses was markedly enhanced in Stim1/Stim2 cKO mice and was associated with increased phosphorylation of the AMPA receptor subunit GluA1, the transcriptional regulator CREB and the L-type Voltage-dependent Ca(2+) channel Cav1.2 on protein kinase A (PKA) sites. We conclude that STIM1 and STIM2 are key regulators of PKA signaling and synaptic plasticity in neural circuits encoding spatial memory. Our findings also reveal an inverse correlation between LTP and spatial learning/memory and suggest that abnormal enhancement of cAMP/PKA signaling and synaptic efficacy disrupts the formation of new memories.

  16. Naps in school can enhance the duration of declarative memories learned by adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Lemos, Nathalia; Weissheimer, Janaina; Ribeiro, Sidarta

    2014-01-01

    Sleep helps the consolidation of declarative memories in the laboratory, but the pro-mnemonic effect of daytime naps in schools is yet to be fully characterized. While a few studies indicate that sleep can indeed benefit school learning, it remains unclear how best to use it. Here we set out to evaluate the influence of daytime naps on the duration of declarative memories learned in school by students of 10–15 years old. A total of 584 students from 6th grade were investigated. Students within a regular classroom were exposed to a 15-min lecture on new declarative contents, absent from the standard curriculum for this age group. The students were then randomly sorted into nap and non-nap groups. Students in the nap group were conducted to a quiet room with mats, received sleep masks and were invited to sleep. At the same time, students in the non-nap group attended regular school classes given by their usual teacher (Experiment I), or English classes given by another experimenter (Experiment II). These 2 versions of the study differed in a number of ways. In Experiment I (n = 371), students were pre-tested on lecture-related contents before the lecture, were invited to nap for up to 2 h, and after 1, 2, or 5 days received surprise tests with similar content but different wording and question order. In Experiment II (n = 213), students were invited to nap for up to 50 min (duration of a regular class); surprise tests were applied immediately after the lecture, and repeated after 5, 30, or 110 days. Experiment I showed a significant ~10% gain in test scores for both nap and non-nap groups 1 day after learning, in comparison with pre-test scores. This gain was sustained in the nap group after 2 and 5 days, but in the non-nap group it decayed completely after 5 days. In Experiment II, the nap group showed significantly higher scores than the non-nap group at all times tested, thus precluding specific conclusions. The results suggest that sleep can be used to enhance

  17. Naps in school can enhance the duration of declarative memories learned by adolescents.

    PubMed

    Lemos, Nathalia; Weissheimer, Janaina; Ribeiro, Sidarta

    2014-01-01

    Sleep helps the consolidation of declarative memories in the laboratory, but the pro-mnemonic effect of daytime naps in schools is yet to be fully characterized. While a few studies indicate that sleep can indeed benefit school learning, it remains unclear how best to use it. Here we set out to evaluate the influence of daytime naps on the duration of declarative memories learned in school by students of 10-15 years old. A total of 584 students from 6th grade were investigated. Students within a regular classroom were exposed to a 15-min lecture on new declarative contents, absent from the standard curriculum for this age group. The students were then randomly sorted into nap and non-nap groups. Students in the nap group were conducted to a quiet room with mats, received sleep masks and were invited to sleep. At the same time, students in the non-nap group attended regular school classes given by their usual teacher (Experiment I), or English classes given by another experimenter (Experiment II). These 2 versions of the study differed in a number of ways. In Experiment I (n = 371), students were pre-tested on lecture-related contents before the lecture, were invited to nap for up to 2 h, and after 1, 2, or 5 days received surprise tests with similar content but different wording and question order. In Experiment II (n = 213), students were invited to nap for up to 50 min (duration of a regular class); surprise tests were applied immediately after the lecture, and repeated after 5, 30, or 110 days. Experiment I showed a significant ~10% gain in test scores for both nap and non-nap groups 1 day after learning, in comparison with pre-test scores. This gain was sustained in the nap group after 2 and 5 days, but in the non-nap group it decayed completely after 5 days. In Experiment II, the nap group showed significantly higher scores than the non-nap group at all times tested, thus precluding specific conclusions. The results suggest that sleep can be used to enhance

  18. High environmental salinity induces memory enhancement and increases levels of brain angiotensin-like peptides in the crab Chasmagnathus granulatus.

    PubMed

    Delorenzi, A; Dimant, B; Frenkel, L; Nahmod, V E; Nässel, D R; Maldonado, H

    2000-11-01

    Previous work on the brackish-water crab Chasmagnathus granulatus demonstrated that an endogenous peptide similar to angiotensin II plays a significant role in enhancing long-term memory that involves an association between context and an iterative danger stimulus (context-signal memory). The present results show that this memory enhancement could be produced by moving crabs from brackish water to sea water (33.0%) and keeping them there for at least 4 days. The possibility that such a facilitatory effect is due to osmotic stress is ruled out. Coincidentally, the level of angiotensin-II-like peptides in crab brain, measured by radioimmunoassay, increases with the length of exposure to sea water, reaching a significantly different level at the fourth day. The presence of angiotensin-II-like immunoreactive material in neural structures of the supraoesophageal and eyestalk ganglia was confirmed by immunohistochemical analysis. The results are interpreted as supporting the hypothesis that exposure to water of high salinity is an external cue triggering a process mediated by angiotensins that leads to enhanced memory in these crabs.

  19. How Negative Social Bias Affects Memory for Faces: An Electrical Neuroimaging Study

    PubMed Central

    Proverbio, Alice Mado; La Mastra, Francesca; Zani, Alberto

    2016-01-01

    During social interactions, we make inferences about people’s personal characteristics based on their appearance. These inferences form a potential prejudice that can positively or negatively bias our interaction with them. Not much is known about the effects of negative bias on face perception and the ability to recognize people faces. This ability was investigated by recording event-related potentials (ERPs) from 128 sites in 16 volunteers. In the first session (encoding), they viewed 200 faces associated with a short fictional story that described anecdotal positive or negative characteristics about each person. In the second session (recognition), they underwent an old/new memory test, in which they had to distinguish 100 new faces from the previously shown faces. ERP data relative to the encoding phase showed a larger anterior negativity in response to negatively (vs. positively) biased faces, indicating an additional processing of faces with unpleasant social traits. In the recognition task, ERPs recorded in response to new faces elicited a larger FN400 than to old faces, and to positive than negative faces. Additionally, old faces elicited a larger Old-New parietal response than new faces, in the form of an enlarged late positive (LPC) component. An inverse solution SwLORETA (450–550 ms) indicated that remembering old faces was associated with the activation of right superior frontal gyrus (SFG), left medial temporal gyrus, and right fusiform gyrus. Only negatively connoted faces strongly activated the limbic and parahippocampal areas and the left SFG. A dissociation was found between familiarity (modulated by negative bias) and recollection (distinguishing old from new faces). PMID:27655327

  20. Enhanced cognitive activity--over and above social or physical activity--is required to protect Alzheimer's mice against cognitive impairment, reduce Abeta deposition, and increase synaptic immunoreactivity.

    PubMed

    Cracchiolo, Jennifer R; Mori, Takashi; Nazian, Stanley J; Tan, Jun; Potter, Huntington; Arendash, Gary W

    2007-10-01

    Although social, physical, and cognitive activities have each been suggested to reduce the risk of Alzheimer's disease (AD), epidemiologic studies cannot determine which activity or combination of activities is most important. To address this question, mutant APP transgenic AD mice were reared long-term in one of four housing conditions (impoverished, social, social+physical, or complete enrichment) from 1(1/2) through 9 months of age. Thus, a stepwise layering of social, physical, and enhanced cognitive activity was created. Behavioral evaluation in a full battery of sensorimotor, anxiety, and cognitive tasks was carried out during the final 5 weeks of housing. Only AD mice raised in complete enrichment (i.e., enhanced cognitive activity) showed: (1) protection against cognitive impairment, (2) decreased brain beta-amyloid deposition, and (3) increased hippocampal synaptic immunoreactivity. The protection provided by enhanced cognitive activity spanned multiple cognitive domains (working memory, reference learning, and recognition/identification). Cognitive and neurohistologic benefits of complete enrichment occurred without any changes in blood cytokine or corticosterone levels, suggesting that enrichment-dependent mechanisms do not involve changes in the inflammatory response or stress levels, respectively. These results indicate that the enhanced cognitive activity of complete enrichment is required for cognitive and neurologic benefit to AD mice-physical and/or social activity are insufficient. Thus, our data suggest that humans who emphasize a high lifelong level of cognitive activity (over and above social and physical activities) will attain the maximal environmental protection against AD.

  1. Creating and Perpetuating Social Memory across the Ancient Cost Rican Landscape

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sheets, Payson; Sever, Tom

    2004-01-01

    For most of the time that Native Americans lived in ancient Costa Rica, their travel across the landscape was task-oriented and thus sufficiently randomized to leave no detectable trace. That changed about 500 BC in the Arenal area when people separated their cemeteries from their villages, and travel between them was ritually mediated by travel along the same path, in single file, in as straight a line as possible. The inadvertent erosion over centuries of use entrenched paths 2 or more meters deep, and we believe the cultural standard developed that the preferred way of entering a special place was by an entrenched path. People created and perpetuated social memory across their landscapes with generation after generation of use. The construction of meaning developed as the paths entrenched, ultimately embedding that meaning deep in people s belief systems as well as literally embedding it in the landscape. the Arenal area, a series of chiefdoms did develop east of the area at about AD 1000. To satisfy their need for monumentality, we suggest here that chiefs chose the proper entrenched entryway as exemplified in the Arenal area, for elaboration. On the rocky slopes of the volcanoes monumental entryways were built of stone, and on the fine alluvial plains they were of earthen construction. For instance, the radiating entrenched roads entering Cutris are about 4 km long and as wide as 50 meters, and many meters deep.

  2. Potential Role of Cortisol in Social and Memory Impairments in Individuals with 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Jacobson, Daniel; Bursch, Megan; Lajiness-O'Neill, Renee

    2016-09-01

    22q11.2 Deletion syndrome is a genetic disorder characterized by physiological and psychological symptoms. This study investigated the role of cortisol on the social and cognitive impairments in children with 22q11.2. A total of 11 children with 22q11.2 were assessed for baseline cortisol levels and received broad neuropsychological testing. Results were compared with 11 controls. Children with 22q11.2 had significantly higher cortisol levels. A significant negative correlation was observed between the general memory and attention/concentration indices of the Wide Range Assessment of Memory and Learning, 2nd edition and cortisol concentrations in the control population. These data provide evidence of a possible causal mechanism that underlies social impairments in stress disorders. PMID:27617156

  3. 17β-Estradiol and Agonism of G-protein-Coupled Estrogen Receptor Enhance Hippocampal Memory via Different Cell-Signaling Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jaekyoon; Szinte, Julia S.; Boulware, Marissa I.

    2016-01-01

    The ability of 17β-estradiol (E2) to enhance hippocampal object recognition and spatial memory depends on rapid activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) in the dorsal hippocampus (DH). Although this activation can be mediated by the intracellular estrogen receptors ERα and ERβ, little is known about the role that the membrane estrogen receptor GPER plays in regulating ERK or E2-mediated memory formation. In this study, post-training DH infusion of the GPER agonist G-1 enhanced object recognition and spatial memory in ovariectomized female mice, whereas the GPER antagonist G-15 impaired memory, suggesting that GPER activation, like E2, promotes hippocampal memory formation. However, unlike E2, G-1 did not increase ERK phosphorylation, but instead significantly increased phosphorylation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) in the DH. Moreover, DH infusion of the JNK inhibitor SP600125 prevented G-1 from enhancing object recognition and spatial memory, but the ERK inhibitor U0126 did not. These data suggest that GPER enhances memory via different cell-signaling mechanisms than E2. This conclusion was supported by data showing that the ability of E2 to facilitate memory and activate ERK signaling was not blocked by G-15 or SP600125, which demonstrates that the memory-enhancing effects of E2 are not dependent on JNK or GPER activation in the DH. Together, these data indicate that GPER regulates memory independently from ERα and ERβ by activating JNK signaling, rather than ERK signaling. Thus, the findings suggest that GPER in the DH may not function as an estrogen receptor to regulate object recognition and spatial memory. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Although 17β-estradiol has long been known to regulate memory function, the molecular mechanisms underlying estrogenic memory modulation remain largely unknown. Here, we examined whether the putative membrane estrogen receptor GPER acts like the classical estrogen receptors, ERα and ERβ, to facilitate

  4. Enhancing Social Work Research Education through Research Field Placements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hewson, Jennifer A.; Walsh, Christine A.; Bradshaw, Cathryn

    2010-01-01

    The increased focus on the role of research in the social service sector, pressure for practitioners to engage in research and the demand for integration of research and practice challenges faculties about ways in which to engage social work students in research. This paper evaluates a research based practicum program within a social work faculty…

  5. Tweeting the Night Away: Using Twitter to Enhance Social Presence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunlap, Joanna C.; Lowenthal, Patrick R.

    2009-01-01

    To be truly effective, online learning must facilitate the social process of learning. This involves providing space and opportunities for students and faculty to engage in social activities. Although learning management systems offer several tools that support social learning and student engagement, the scope, structure, and functionality of…

  6. The Use of Technology in Enhancing Social Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singer-Califano, Autumn

    2008-01-01

    Social skills training programs are frequently used with students who are at risk for or who have emotional and behavioral disorders. These students often experience social skills deficiencies, antisocial behavior, and negative peer relationships. Because the media is an important factor in the socialization and interaction of students, there…

  7. Why Teach Social Entrepreneurship: Enhance Learning and University-Community Relations through Service-Learning Outreach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wessel, Stacy; Godshalk, Veronica M.

    2004-01-01

    This article focuses on providing a convincing argument for incorporating social entrepreneurship into the business professor's classroom. The outreach provided by social entrepreneurship enhances learning and promotes university-community relations. Service-learning engagement activities, in the form of social entrepreneurship, create a three-way…

  8. SODA Strategy: Enhancing the Social Interaction Skills of Youngsters with Asperger Syndrome.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bock, Marjorie A.

    2001-01-01

    This article discusses the social interaction deficits of persons with Asperger Syndrome and describes a social behavioral learning strategy, SODA (Stop, Observe, Deliberate, and Act), that will enhance the social interaction skills of persons with Asperger Syndrome. It explains the components of SODA and provides a set of teaching guidelines.…

  9. Sexual divergence in microtubule function: the novel intranasal microtubule targeting SKIP normalizes axonal transport and enhances memory.

    PubMed

    Amram, N; Hacohen-Kleiman, G; Sragovich, S; Malishkevich, A; Katz, J; Touloumi, O; Lagoudaki, R; Grigoriadis, N C; Giladi, E; Yeheskel, A; Pasmanik-Chor, M; Jouroukhin, Y; Gozes, I

    2016-10-01

    Activity-dependent neuroprotective protein (ADNP), essential for brain formation, is a frequent autism spectrum disorder (ASD)-mutated gene. ADNP associates with microtubule end-binding proteins (EBs) through its SxIP motif, to regulate dendritic spine formation and brain plasticity. Here, we reveal SKIP, a novel four-amino-acid peptide representing an EB-binding site, as a replacement therapy in an outbred Adnp-deficient mouse model. We discovered, for the first time, axonal transport deficits in Adnp(+/-) mice (measured by manganese-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging), with significant male-female differences. RNA sequencing evaluations showed major age, sex and genotype differences. Function enrichment and focus on major gene expression changes further implicated channel/transporter function and the cytoskeleton. In particular, a significant maturation change (1 month-five months) was observed in beta1 tubulin (Tubb1) mRNA, only in Adnp(+/+) males, and sex-dependent increase in calcium channel mRNA (Cacna1e) in Adnp(+/+) males compared with females. At the protein level, the Adnp(+/-) mice exhibited impaired hippocampal expression of the calcium channel (voltage-dependent calcium channel, Cacnb1) as well as other key ASD-linked genes including the serotonin transporter (Slc6a4), and the autophagy regulator, BECN1 (Beclin1), in a sex-dependent manner. Intranasal SKIP treatment normalized social memory in 8- to 9-month-old Adnp(+/-)-treated mice to placebo-control levels, while protecting axonal transport and ameliorating changes in ASD-like gene expression. The control, all d-amino analog D-SKIP, did not mimic SKIP activity. SKIP presents a novel prototype for potential ASD drug development, a prevalent unmet medical need. PMID:26782054

  10. Sexual divergence in microtubule function: the novel intranasal microtubule targeting SKIP normalizes axonal transport and enhances memory.

    PubMed

    Amram, N; Hacohen-Kleiman, G; Sragovich, S; Malishkevich, A; Katz, J; Touloumi, O; Lagoudaki, R; Grigoriadis, N C; Giladi, E; Yeheskel, A; Pasmanik-Chor, M; Jouroukhin, Y; Gozes, I

    2016-10-01

    Activity-dependent neuroprotective protein (ADNP), essential for brain formation, is a frequent autism spectrum disorder (ASD)-mutated gene. ADNP associates with microtubule end-binding proteins (EBs) through its SxIP motif, to regulate dendritic spine formation and brain plasticity. Here, we reveal SKIP, a novel four-amino-acid peptide representing an EB-binding site, as a replacement therapy in an outbred Adnp-deficient mouse model. We discovered, for the first time, axonal transport deficits in Adnp(+/-) mice (measured by manganese-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging), with significant male-female differences. RNA sequencing evaluations showed major age, sex and genotype differences. Function enrichment and focus on major gene expression changes further implicated channel/transporter function and the cytoskeleton. In particular, a significant maturation change (1 month-five months) was observed in beta1 tubulin (Tubb1) mRNA, only in Adnp(+/+) males, and sex-dependent increase in calcium channel mRNA (Cacna1e) in Adnp(+/+) males compared with females. At the protein level, the Adnp(+/-) mice exhibited impaired hippocampal expression of the calcium channel (voltage-dependent calcium channel, Cacnb1) as well as other key ASD-linked genes including the serotonin transporter (Slc6a4), and the autophagy regulator, BECN1 (Beclin1), in a sex-dependent manner. Intranasal SKIP treatment normalized social memory in 8- to 9-month-old Adnp(+/-)-treated mice to placebo-control levels, while protecting axonal transport and ameliorating changes in ASD-like gene expression. The control, all d-amino analog D-SKIP, did not mimic SKIP activity. SKIP presents a novel prototype for potential ASD drug development, a prevalent unmet medical need.

  11. Nicotinic α7 and α4β2 agonists enhance the formation and retrieval of recognition memory: Potential mechanisms for cognitive performance enhancement in neurological and psychiatric disorders.

    PubMed

    McLean, Samantha L; Grayson, Ben; Marsh, Samuel; Zarroug, Samah H O; Harte, Michael K; Neill, Jo C

    2016-04-01

    Cholinergic dysfunction has been shown to be central to the pathophysiology of Alzheimer's disease and has also been postulated to contribute to cognitive dysfunction observed in various psychiatric disorders, including schizophrenia. Deficits are found across a number of cognitive domains and in spite of several attempts to develop new therapies, these remain an unmet clinical need. In the current study we investigated the efficacy of donepezil, risperidone and selective nicotinic α7 and α4β2 receptor agonists to reverse a delay-induced deficit in recognition memory. Adult female Hooded Lister rats received drug treatments and were tested in the novel object recognition (NOR) task following a 6h inter-trial interval (ITI). In all treatment groups, there was no preference for the left or right identical objects in the acquisition trial. Risperidone failed to enhance recognition memory in this paradigm whereas donepezil was effective such that rats discriminated between the novel and familiar object in the retention trial following a 6h ITI. Although a narrow dose range of PNU-282987 and RJR-2403 was tested, only one dose of each increased recognition memory, the highest dose of PNU-282987 (10mg/kg) and the lowest dose of RJR-2403 (0.1mg/kg), indicative of enhanced cognitive performance. Interestingly, these compounds were also efficacious when administered either before the acquisition or the retention trial of the task, suggesting an important role for nicotinic receptor subtypes in the formation and retrieval of recognition memory. PMID:26327238

  12. Social interaction rescues memory deficit in an animal model of Alzheimer's disease by increasing BDNF-dependent hippocampal neurogenesis.

    PubMed

    Hsiao, Ya-Hsin; Hung, Hui-Chi; Chen, Shun-Hua; Gean, Po-Wu

    2014-12-01

    It has been recognized that the risk of cognitive decline during aging can be reduced if one maintains strong social connections, yet the neural events underlying this beneficial effect have not been rigorously studied. Here, we show that amyloid precursor protein (APP) and presenilin 1 (PS1) double-transgenic (APP/PS1) mice demonstrate improvement in memory after they are cohoused with wild-type mice. The improvement was associated with increased protein and mRNA levels of BDNF in the hippocampus. Concomitantly, the number of BrdU(+)/NeuN(+) cells in the hippocampal dentate gyrus was significantly elevated after cohousing. Methylazoxymethanol acetate, a cell proliferation blocker, markedly reduced BrdU(+) and BrdU/NeuN(+) cells and abolished the effect of social interaction. Selective ablation of mitotic neurons using diphtheria toxin (DT) and a retrovirus vector encoding DT receptor abolished the beneficial effect of cohousing. Knockdown of BDNF by shRNA transfection blocked, whereas overexpression of BDNF mimicked the memory-improving effect. A tropomyosin-related kinase B agonist, 7,8-dihydroxyflavone, occluded the effect of social interaction. These results demonstrate that increased BDNF expression and neurogenesis in the hippocampus after cohousing underlie the reversal of memory deficit in APP/PS1 mice.

  13. PTSD-Like Memory Generated Through Enhanced Noradrenergic Activity is Mitigated by a Dual Step Pharmacological Intervention Targeting its Reconsolidation

    PubMed Central

    Gazarini, Lucas; Stern, Cristina A. J.; Piornedo, Rene R.; Takahashi, Reinaldo N.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Traumatic memories have been resilient to therapeutic approaches targeting their permanent attenuation. One of the potentially promising pharmacological strategies under investigation is the search for safe reconsolidation blockers. However, preclinical studies focusing on this matter have scarcely addressed abnormal aversive memories and related outcomes. Methods: By mimicking the enhanced noradrenergic activity reported after traumatic events in humans, here we sought to generate a suitable condition to establish whether some clinically approved drugs able to disrupt the reconsolidation of conditioned fear memories in rodents would still be effective. Results: We report that the α2-adrenoceptor antagonist yohimbine was able to induce an inability to restrict behavioral (fear) and cardiovascular (increased systolic blood pressure) responses to the paired context when administered immediately after acquisition, but not 6h later, indicating the formation of a generalized fear memory, which endured for over 29 days and was less susceptible to suppression by extinction. It was also resistant to reconsolidation disruption by the α2-adrenoceptor agonist clonidine or cannabidiol, the major non-psychotomimetic component of Cannabis sativa. Since signaling at N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors is important for memory labilization and because a dysfunctional memory may be less labile than is necessary to trigger reconsolidation on its brief retrieval and reactivation, we then investigated and demonstrated that pre-retrieval administration of the partial NMDA agonist D-cycloserine allowed the disrupting effects of clonidine and cannabidiol on reconsolidation. Conclusions: These findings highlight the effectiveness of a dual-step pharmacological intervention to mitigate an aberrant and enduring aversive memory similar to that underlying the post-traumatic stress disorder. PMID:25539509

  14. Removal of FKBP12 Enhances mTOR-Raptor Interactions, LTP, Memory, and Perseverative/Repetitive Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Hoeffer, Charles A.; Tang, Wei; Wong, Helen; Santillan, Arturo; Patterson, Richard J.; Martinez, Luis A.; Tejada-Simon, Maria V.; Paylor, Richard; Hamilton, Susan L.; Klann, Eric

    2008-01-01

    SUMMARY FK506 binding protein 12 (FKBP12) binds the immunosuppressant drugs FK506 and rapamycin and regulates several signaling pathways, including mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling. We determined whether the brain-specific disruption of the FKBP12 gene altered mTOR signaling, synaptic plasticity, and memory. Biochemically, the FKBP12-deficient mice displayed increases in basal mTOR phosphorylation, mTOR-Raptor interactions, and p70 S6 kinase (S6K) phosphorylation. Electrophysiological experiments revealed that FKBP12 deficiency was associated with an enhancement in long-lasting hippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP). The LTP enhancement was resistant to rapamycin, but not anisomycin, suggesting that altered translation control is involved in the enhanced synaptic plasticity. Behaviorally, FKBP12 conditional knockout (cKO) mice displayed enhanced contextual fear memory, and autistic/obsessive-compulsive-like perseveration in several assays including the water maze, Y-maze reversal task, and the novel object recognition task. Our results indicate that FKBP12 plays a critical role in the regulation of mTOR-Raptor interactions, LTP, memory, and perseverative behaviors. PMID:19081378

  15. Retinol and ascorbate drive erasure of epigenetic memory and enhance reprogramming to naïve pluripotency by complementary mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    von Meyenn, Ferdinand; Ravichandran, Mirunalini; Ficz, Gabriella; Oxley, David; Santos, Fátima; Balasubramanian, Shankar; Jurkowski, Tomasz P.; Reik, Wolf

    2016-01-01

    Epigenetic memory, in particular DNA methylation, is established during development in differentiating cells and must be erased to create naïve (induced) pluripotent stem cells. The ten-eleven translocation (TET) enzymes can catalyze the oxidation of 5-methylcytosine (5mC) to 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC) and further oxidized derivatives, thereby actively removing this memory. Nevertheless, the mechanism by which the TET enzymes are regulated, and the extent to which they can be manipulated, are poorly understood. Here we report that retinoic acid (RA) or retinol (vitamin A) and ascorbate (vitamin C) act as modulators of TET levels and activity. RA or retinol enhances 5hmC production in naïve embryonic stem cells by activation of TET2 and TET3 transcription, whereas ascorbate potentiates TET activity and 5hmC production through enhanced Fe2+ recycling, and not as a cofactor as reported previously. We find that both ascorbate and RA or retinol promote the derivation of induced pluripotent stem cells synergistically and enhance the erasure of epigenetic memory. This mechanistic insight has significance for the development of cell treatments for regenenerative medicine, and enhances our understanding of how intrinsic and extrinsic signals shape the epigenome. PMID:27729528

  16. Long-term administration of ginsenoside Rh1 enhances learning and memory by promoting cell survival in the mouse hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Hou, Jingang; Xue, Jianjie; Lee, Mira; Yu, Jiaojiao; Sung, Changkeun

    2014-01-01

    Ginsenosides, the secondary plant metabolites produced by Panax ginseng are responsible for the enhancing effects on learning observed following treatment with Panax ginseng. A number of studies have provided correlational evidence that cell proliferation and survival are closely associated with hippocampal-dependent learning tasks. In this study, to investigate the beneficial effects of ginsenoside Rh1 on hippocampal cells and learning, mice (6 months old) were administered ginsenoside Rh1 at a dose of 5 and 10 mg/kg/day for a period of 3 months. Saline-treated mice were used as controls. The enhancement of memory and learning in the mice was evaluated by hippocampal-dependent tasks (passive avoidance tests and Morris water maze tests) and the immunohistochemical marker of cell proliferation, bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU). In addition, the levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) were measured following treatment. Based on our data, the Rh1-treated group (5 and 10 mg/kg) showed a significantly improved learning and memory ability in the passive avoidance tests compared with the control group; however, only treatment with 10 mg/kg ginsenoside Rh1 significantly promoted spatial learning ability in the Morris water maze test. Ginsenoside Rh1 significantly enhanced cell survival in the dentate gyrus of mice, although it did not enhance hippocampal cell proliferation. In addition, ginsenoside Rh1 upregulated the expression of BDNF. These findings address the potential therapeutic significance of ginsenoside Rh1 as a nutritional supplement in memory loss and neurodegenerative diseases.

  17. Carbon nanotube (CNT) fins for enhanced cooling of shape memory alloy wire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pathak, Anupam; AuBuchon, Joseph; Brei, Diann; Shaw, John; Luntz, Jonathan; Jin, Sungho

    2008-03-01

    A commonly noted disadvantage of shape memory alloys is their frequency response which is limited by how fast the material can be cooled. This paper presents a feasibility study of using vertically aligned carbon nanotubes (CNT) as microscopic cooling fins to improve convective heat transfer. Using DC plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD), aligned CNT's were successfully grown directly on ½ of the surface of a 0.38 mm diameter SMA wire, achieving desirable thermal contact. Cooling speeds were measured with a thermal imaging camera, and the effective convective coefficient was extracted from the temperature profiles using a basic cooling model of the wire. From this model, the effective convective coefficient was estimated to have increased by 24% (from 50 W/m2K for untreated SMA wire to 62 W/m2K for the nanotube treated wire), indicating that the deposition of CNT's indeed increased performance. By extrapolating these results to full wire coverage, up to a 46% improvement in frequency response with zero weight or volumetric penalties is predicted. Further improvements in cooling performance are likely to occur with higher CNT densities and longer nanotube lengths, allowing further developments of this technology to benefit many future applications utilizing high-speed miniature/micro-scale SMA actuators.

  18. When does testing enhance retention? A distribution-based interpretation of retrieval as a memory modifier.

    PubMed

    Halamish, Vered; Bjork, Robert A

    2011-07-01

    Tests, as learning events, can enhance subsequent recall more than do additional study opportunities, even without feedback. Such advantages of testing tend to appear, however, only at long retention intervals and/or when criterion tests stress recall, rather than recognition, processes. We propose that the interaction of the benefits of testing versus restudying with final-test delay and format reflects not only that successful retrievals are more powerful learning events than are re-presentations but also that the distribution of memory strengths across items is shifted differentially by testing and restudying. The benefits of initial testing over restudying, in this view, should increase as the delay or format of the final test makes that test more difficult. Final-test difficulty, not the similarity of initial-test and final-test conditions, should determine the benefits of testing. In Experiments 1 and 2 we indeed found that initial cued-recall testing enhanced subsequent recall more than did restudying when the final test was a difficult (free-recall) test but not when it was an easier (cued-recall) test that matched the initial test. The results of Experiment 3 supported a new prediction of the distribution framework: namely, that the final cued-recall test that did not show a benefit of testing in Experiment 1 should show such a benefit when that test was made more difficult by introducing retroactive interference. Overall, our results suggest that the differential consequences of initial testing versus restudying reflect, in part, differences in how items distributions are shifted by testing and studying. PMID:21480751

  19. A Distinct Lung-Interstitium-Resident Memory CD8(+) T Cell Subset Confers Enhanced Protection to Lower Respiratory Tract Infection.

    PubMed

    Gilchuk, Pavlo; Hill, Timothy M; Guy, Clifford; McMaster, Sean R; Boyd, Kelli L; Rabacal, Whitney A; Lu, Pengcheng; Shyr, Yu; Kohlmeier, Jacob E; Sebzda, Eric; Green, Douglas R; Joyce, Sebastian

    2016-08-16

    The nature and anatomic location of the protective memory CD8(+) T cell subset induced by intranasal vaccination remain poorly understood. We developed a vaccination model to assess the anatomic location of protective memory CD8(+) T cells and their role in lower airway infections. Memory CD8(+) T cells elicited by local intranasal, but not systemic, vaccination with an engineered non-replicative CD8(+) T cell-targeted antigen confer enhanced protection to a lethal respiratory viral challenge. This protection depends on a distinct CXCR3(LO) resident memory CD8(+) T (Trm) cell population that preferentially localizes to the pulmonary interstitium. Because they are positioned close to the mucosa, where infection occurs, interstitial Trm cells act before inflammation can recruit circulating memory CD8(+) T cells into the lung tissue. This results in a local protective immune response as early as 1 day post-infection. Hence, vaccine strategies that induce lung interstitial Trm cells may confer better protection against respiratory pathogens. PMID:27498869

  20. Acupuncture reduces memory impairment and oxidative stress and enhances cholinergic function in an animal model of alcoholism.

    PubMed

    Phunchago, Nattaporn; Wattanathorn, Jintanaporn; Chaisiwamongkol, Kowit; Muchimapura, Supaporn; Thukham-Mee, Wipawee

    2015-02-01

    Currently, the therapeutic strategy against memory deficit induced by alcoholism is not satisfactory and is expensive. Therefore, an effective, low-cost strategy is required. On the basis of the memory-enhancing effect of stimulation of the HT7 acupoint, we aimed to determine whether acupuncture at the HT7 acupoint can reduce alcoholism-induced memory impairment. The possible underlying mechanism was also explored. Alcoholism was induced in male Wistar rats weighing 180-220 g. The alcoholic rats received either acupuncture at HT7 or sham acupuncture for 1 minute bilaterally once daily for 14 days. Their spatial memory was assessed after 1 day, 7 days, and 14 days of treatment. At the end of the study, the malondialdehyde level and the activities of catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, and acetylcholinesterase enzymes in the hippocampus were determined using colorimetric assays. The results showed that acupuncture at HT7 significantly decreased the acetylcholinesterase activity and the malondialdehyde level, but increased the activities of catalase, superoxide dismutase, and glutathione peroxidase in the hippocampus. These results suggest that acupuncture at HT7 can effectively reduce the alcoholism-induced memory deficit. However, further studies concerning the detailed relationships between the location of the HT7 acupoint and the changes in the observed parameters are required.

  1. Repetition suppression and repetition enhancement underlie auditory memory-trace formation in the human brain: an MEG study.

    PubMed

    Recasens, Marc; Leung, Sumie; Grimm, Sabine; Nowak, Rafal; Escera, Carles

    2015-03-01

    The formation of echoic memory traces has traditionally been inferred from the enhanced responses to its deviations. The mismatch negativity (MMN), an auditory event-related potential (ERP) elicited between 100 and 250ms after sound deviation is an indirect index of regularity encoding that reflects a memory-based comparison process. Recently, repetition positivity (RP) has been described as a candidate ERP correlate of direct memory trace formation. RP consists of repetition suppression and enhancement effects occurring in different auditory components between 50 and 250ms after sound onset. However, the neuronal generators engaged in the encoding of repeated stimulus features have received little interest. This study intends to investigate the neuronal sources underlying the formation and strengthening of new memory traces by employing a roving-standard paradigm, where trains of different frequencies and different lengths are presented randomly. Source generators of repetition enhanced (RE) and suppressed (RS) activity were modeled using magnetoencephalography (MEG) in healthy subjects. Our results show that, in line with RP findings, N1m (~95-150ms) activity is suppressed with stimulus repetition. In addition, we observed the emergence of a sustained field (~230-270ms) that showed RE. Source analysis revealed neuronal generators of RS and RE located in both auditory and non-auditory areas, like the medial parietal cortex and frontal areas. The different timing and location of neural generators involved in RS and RE points to the existence of functionally separated mechanisms devoted to acoustic memory-trace formation in different auditory processing stages of the human brain.

  2. Post-training gamma irradiation-enhanced contextual fear memory associated with reduced neuronal activation of the infralimbic cortex.

    PubMed

    Kugelman, Tara; Zuloaga, Damian G; Weber, Sydney; Raber, Jacob

    2016-02-01

    The brain might be exposed to irradiation under a variety of situations, including clinical treatments, nuclear accidents, dirty bomb scenarios, and military and space missions. Correctly recalling tasks learned prior to irradiation is important but little is known about post-learning effects of irradiation. It is not clear whether exposure to X-ray irradiation during memory consolidation, a few hours following training, is associated with altered contextual fear conditioning 24h after irradiation and which brain region(s) might be involved in these effects. Brain immunoreactivity patterns of the immediately early gene c-Fos, a marker of cellular activity was used to determine which brain areas might be altered in post-training irradiation memory retention tasks. In this study, we show that post-training gamma irradiation exposure (1 Gy) enhanced contextual fear memory 24h later and is associated with reduced cellular activation in the infralimbic cortex. Reduced GABA-ergic neurotransmission in parvalbumin-positive cells in the infralimbic cortex might play a role in this post-training radiation-enhanced contextual fear memory.

  3. Neural substrates of shared attention as social memory: A hyperscanning functional magnetic resonance imaging study.

    PubMed

    Koike, Takahiko; Tanabe, Hiroki C; Okazaki, Shuntaro; Nakagawa, Eri; Sasaki, Akihiro T; Shimada, Koji; Sugawara, Sho K; Takahashi, Haruka K; Yoshihara, Kazufumi; Bosch-Bayard, Jorge; Sadato, Norihiro

    2016-01-15

    During a dyadic social interaction, two individuals can share visual attention through gaze, directed to each other (mutual gaze) or to a third person or an object (joint attention). Shared attention is fundamental to dyadic face-to-face interaction, but how attention is shared, retained, and neutrally represented in a pair-specific manner has not been well studied. Here, we conducted a two-day hyperscanning functional magnetic resonance imaging study in which pairs of participants performed a real-time mutual gaze task followed by a joint attention task on the first day, and mutual gaze tasks several days later. The joint attention task enhanced eye-blink synchronization, which is believed to be a behavioral index of shared attention. When the same participant pairs underwent mutual gaze without joint attention on the second day, enhanced eye-blink synchronization persisted, and this was positively correlated with inter-individual neural synchronization within the right inferior frontal gyrus. Neural synchronization was also positively correlated with enhanced eye-blink synchronization during the previous joint attention task session. Consistent with the Hebbian association hypothesis, the right inferior frontal gyrus had been activated both by initiating and responding to joint attention. These results indicate that shared attention is represented and retained by pair-specific neural synchronization that cannot be reduced to the individual level.

  4. Neural substrates of shared attention as social memory: A hyperscanning functional magnetic resonance imaging study.

    PubMed

    Koike, Takahiko; Tanabe, Hiroki C; Okazaki, Shuntaro; Nakagawa, Eri; Sasaki, Akihiro T; Shimada, Koji; Sugawara, Sho K; Takahashi, Haruka K; Yoshihara, Kazufumi; Bosch-Bayard, Jorge; Sadato, Norihiro

    2016-01-15

    During a dyadic social interaction, two individuals can share visual attention through gaze, directed to each other (mutual gaze) or to a third person or an object (joint attention). Shared attention is fundamental to dyadic face-to-face interaction, but how attention is shared, retained, and neutrally represented in a pair-specific manner has not been well studied. Here, we conducted a two-day hyperscanning functional magnetic resonance imaging study in which pairs of participants performed a real-time mutual gaze task followed by a joint attention task on the first day, and mutual gaze tasks several days later. The joint attention task enhanced eye-blink synchronization, which is believed to be a behavioral index of shared attention. When the same participant pairs underwent mutual gaze without joint attention on the second day, enhanced eye-blink synchronization persisted, and this was positively correlated with inter-individual neural synchronization within the right inferior frontal gyrus. Neural synchronization was also positively correlated with enhanced eye-blink synchronization during the previous joint attention task session. Consistent with the Hebbian association hypothesis, the right inferior frontal gyrus had been activated both by initiating and responding to joint attention. These results indicate that shared attention is represented and retained by pair-specific neural synchronization that cannot be reduced to the individual level. PMID:26514295

  5. In the working memory of the beholder: Art appreciation is enhanced when visual complexity is compatible with working memory.

    PubMed

    Sherman, Aleksandra; Grabowecky, Marcia; Suzuki, Satoru

    2015-08-01

    What shapes art appreciation? Much research has focused on the importance of visual features themselves (e.g., symmetry, natural scene statistics) and of the viewer's experience and expertise with specific artworks. However, even after taking these factors into account, there are considerable individual differences in art preferences. Our new result suggests that art preference is also influenced by the compatibility between visual properties and the characteristics of the viewer's visual system. Specifically, we have demonstrated, using 120 artworks from diverse periods, cultures, genres, and styles, that art appreciation is increased when the level of visual complexity within an artwork is compatible with the viewer's visual working memory capacity. The result highlights the importance of the interaction between visual features and the beholder's general visual capacity in shaping art appreciation.

  6. Enhanced magnetic hysteresis in Ni-Mn-Ga single crystal and its influence on magnetic shape memory effect

    SciTech Connect

    Heczko, O. Drahokoupil, J.; Straka, L.

    2015-05-07

    Enhanced magnetic hysteresis due to boron doping in combination with magnetic shape memory effect in Ni-Mn-Ga single crystal results in new interesting functionality of magnetic shape memory (MSM) alloys such as mechanical demagnetization. In Ni{sub 50.0}Mn{sub 28.5}Ga{sub 21.5} single crystal, the boron doping increased magnetic coercivity from few Oe to 270 Oe while not affecting the transformation behavior and 10 M martensite structure. However, the magnetic field needed for MSM effect also increased in doped sample. The magnetic behavior is compared to undoped single crystal of similar composition. The evidence from the X-ray diffraction, magnetic domain structure, magnetization loops, and temperature evolution of the magnetic coercivity points out that the enhanced hysteresis is caused by stress-induced anisotropy.

  7. Methylphenidate does not enhance visual working memory but benefits motivation in macaque monkeys.

    PubMed

    Oemisch, Mariann; Johnston, Kevin; Paré, Martin

    2016-10-01

    Working memory is a limited-capacity cognitive process that retains relevant information temporarily to guide thoughts and behavior. A large body of work has suggested that catecholamines exert a major modulatory influence on cognition, but there is only equivocal evidence of a direct influence on working memory ability, which would be reflected in a dependence on working memory load. Here we tested the contribution of catecholamines to working memory by administering a wide range of acute oral doses of the dopamine and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor methylphenidate (MPH, 0.1-9 mg/kg) to three female macaque monkeys (Macaca mulatta), whose working memory ability was measured from their performance in a visual sequential comparison task. This task allows the systematic manipulation of working memory load, and we therefore tested the specific hypothesis that MPH modulates performance in a manner that depends on both dose and memory load. We found no evidence of a dose- or memory load-dependent effect of MPH on performance. In contrast, significant effects on measures of motivation were observed. These findings suggest that an acute increase in catecholamines does not seem to affect the retention of visual information per se. As such, these results help delimit the effects of MPH on cognition. PMID:27329555

  8. Bilateral Saccadic Eye Movements and Tactile Stimulation, but Not Auditory Stimulation, Enhance Memory Retrieval

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nieuwenhuis, Sander; Elzinga, Bernet M.; Ras, Priscilla H.; Berends, Floris; Duijs, Peter; Samara, Zoe; Slagter, Heleen A.

    2013-01-01

    Recent research has shown superior memory retrieval when participants make a series of horizontal saccadic eye movements between the memory encoding phase and the retrieval phase compared to participants who do not move their eyes or move their eyes vertically. It has been hypothesized that the rapidly alternating activation of the two hemispheres…

  9. Social interaction enhances motor resonance for observed human actions.

    PubMed

    Hogeveen, Jeremy; Obhi, Sukhvinder S

    2012-04-25

    Understanding the neural basis of social behavior has become an important goal for cognitive neuroscience and a key aim is to link neural processes observed in the laboratory to more naturalistic social behaviors in real-world contexts. Although it is accepted that mirror mechanisms contribute to the occurrence of motor resonance (MR) and are common to action execution, observation, and imitation, questions remain about mirror (and MR) involvement in real social behavior and in processing nonhuman actions. To determine whether social interaction primes the MR system, groups of participants engaged or did not engage in a social interaction before observing human or robotic actions. During observation, MR was assessed via motor-evoked potentials elicited with transcranial magnetic stimulation. Compared with participants who did not engage in a prior social interaction, participants who engaged in the social interaction showed a significant increase in MR for human actions. In contrast, social interaction did not increase MR for robot actions. Thus, naturalistic social interaction and laboratory action observation tasks appear to involve common MR mechanisms, and recent experience tunes the system to particular agent types.

  10. Suggestibility, Social Support, and Memory for a Novel Experience in Young Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quas, J.A.; Wallin, A.R.; Papini, S.; Lench, H.; Scullin, M.H.

    2005-01-01

    This study examined 5- and 6-year-olds' suggestibility and interviewer demeanor as joint predictors of their memory for a novel experience. Session 1 consisted of children taking part in a novel laboratory event. Session 2 took place after approximately a 1-week delay and consisted of children completing both a memory test concerning what happened…

  11. On the Flexibility of Social Source Memory: A Test of the Emotional Incongruity Hypothesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Raoul; Buchner, Axel; Kroneisen, Meike; Giang, Trang

    2012-01-01

    A popular hypothesis in evolutionary psychology posits that reciprocal altruism is supported by a cognitive module that helps cooperative individuals to detect and remember cheaters. Consistent with this hypothesis, a source memory advantage for faces of cheaters (better memory for the cheating context in which these faces were encountered) was…

  12. Social Recognition Memory: The Effect of Other People's Responses for Previously Seen and Unseen Items

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Daniel B.; Mathews, Sorcha A.; Skagerberg, Elin M.

    2005-01-01

    When people discuss their memories, what one person says can influence what another personal reports. In 3 studies, participants were shown sets of stimuli and then given recognition memory tests to measure the effect of one person's response on another's. The 1st study (n=24) used word recognition with participant-confederate pairs and found that…

  13. Network Sampling with Memory: A proposal for more efficient sampling from social networks

    PubMed Central

    Mouw, Ted; Verdery, Ashton M.

    2013-01-01

    Techniques for sampling from networks have grown into an important area of research across several fields. For sociologists, the possibility of sampling from a network is appealing for two reasons: (1) A network sample can yield substantively interesting data about network structures and social interactions, and (2) it is useful in situations where study populations are difficult or impossible to survey with traditional sampling approaches because of the lack of a sampling frame. Despite its appeal, methodological concerns about the precision and accuracy of network-based sampling methods remain. In particular, recent research has shown that sampling from a network using a random walk based approach such as Respondent Driven Sampling (RDS) can result in high design effects (DE)—the ratio of the sampling variance to the sampling variance of simple random sampling (SRS). A high design effect means that more cases must be collected to achieve the same level of precision as SRS. In this paper we propose an alternative strategy, Network Sampling with Memory (NSM), which collects network data from respondents in order to reduce design effects and, correspondingly, the number of interviews needed to achieve a given level of statistical power. NSM combines a “List” mode, where all individuals on the revealed network list are sampled with the same cumulative probability, with a “Search” mode, which gives priority to bridge nodes connecting the current sample to unexplored parts of the network. We test the relative efficiency of NSM compared to RDS and SRS on 162 school and university networks from Add Health and Facebook that range in size from 110 to 16,278 nodes. The results show that the average design effect for NSM on these 162 networks is 1.16, which is very close to the efficiency of a simple random sample (DE=1), and 98.5% lower than the average DE we observed for RDS. PMID:24159246

  14. Dilemmas in providing resilience-enhancing social services to long-term social assistance clients. A qualitative study of Swedish social workers

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Long-term recipients of social assistance face barriers to social and economic inclusion, and have poorer health and more limited opportunities for improving their health than many other groups in the population. During recent decades there have been changes in Swedish social policy, with cutbacks in public benefits and a re-emphasis on means-tested policies. In this context, it is important to investigate the necessary conditions for social workers to offer social assistance and services, as well as the mediating role of social workers between public policies and their clients. Swedish social services aim to promote social inclusion by strengthening the individual´s own resources. We investigated the issues that arise when providing social services to long-term social assistance clients within the framework of resilience, which focuses on the processes leading to positive functioning in adverse conditions. Methods Interviews were conducted with 23 social workers in Stockholm and analysed by qualitative content analysis. Results The main theme to emerge from the interviews concerned the constraints that the social workers faced in providing social services to social assistance clients. The first subtheme focused on dilemmas in the interaction between social workers and clients resulting from the dual role of exercising authority and supporting and building trust with clients. Working conditions of social workers also played a crucial role. The second subtheme addressed the impact of the societal context, such as labour market opportunities and coordination between authorities. Conclusions Overall, we found that social workers to a great extent tried to find individual solutions to structural problems. To provide resilience-enhancing social services to long-term social assistance clients with varying obstacles and needs requires a constructive working environment, supportive societal structures and inter-sectoral cooperation between different authorities

  15. Oxytocin administration enhances controlled social cognition in patients with schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Woolley, J.D.; Chuang, B.; Lam, O.; Lai, W.; O’Donovan, A.; Rankin, K.P.; Mathalon, D.H.; Vinogradov, S.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Background Individuals with schizophrenia have functionally significant deficits in automatic and controlled social cognition, but no currently available pharmacologic treatments reduce these deficits. The neuropeptide oxytocin has multiple prosocial effects when administered intranasally in humans and there is growing interest in its therapeutic potential in schizophrenia. Methods We administered 40 IU of oxytocin and saline placebo intranasally to 29 male subjects with schizophrenia and 31 age-matched, healthy controls in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over study. Social cognition was assessed with The Awareness of Social Inference Test (TASIT) and the Reading the Mind in the Eyes Test (RMET). We examined the effects of oxytocin administration on automatic social cognition (the ability to rapidly interpret and understand emotional cues from the voice, face, and body); controlled social cognition (the ability to comprehend indirectly expressed emotions, thoughts, and intentions through complex deliberations over longer time periods); and a control task (the ability to comprehend truthful dialog and perform general task procedures) in individuals with and without schizophrenia using mixed factorial analysis of variance models. Results Patients with schizophrenia showed significant impairments in automatic and controlled social cognition compared to healthy controls, and administration of oxytocin significantly improved their controlled, but not automatic, social cognition, F(1, 58) = 8.75; p = 0.004. Conversely, oxytocin administration had limited effects on social cognition in healthy participants. Patients and controls performed equally well and there were no effects of oxytocin administration on the control task. Discussion Intact social cognitive abilities are associated with better functional outcomes in individuals with schizophrenia. Our data highlight the potentially complex effects of oxytocin on some but not all aspects of

  16. Enhancing social networks: a qualitative study of health and social care practice in UK mental health services.

    PubMed

    Webber, Martin; Reidy, Hannah; Ansari, David; Stevens, Martin; Morris, David

    2015-03-01

    People with severe mental health problems such as psychosis have access to less social capital, defined as resources within social networks, than members of the general population. However, a lack of theoretically and empirically informed models hampers the development of social interventions which seek to enhance an individual's social networks. This paper reports the findings of a qualitative study, which used ethnographic field methods in six sites in England to investigate how workers helped people recovering from psychosis to enhance their social networks. This study drew upon practice wisdom and lived experience to provide data for intervention modelling. Data were collected from 73 practitioners and 51 people who used their services in two phases. Data were selected and coded using a grounded theory approach to depict the key themes that appeared to underpin the generation of social capital within networks. Findings are presented in four over-arching themes - worker skills, attitudes and roles; connecting people processes; role of the agency; and barriers to network development. The sub-themes which were identified included worker attitudes; person-centred approach; equality of worker-individual relationship; goal setting; creating new networks and relationships; engagement through activities; practical support; existing relationships; the individual taking responsibility; identifying and overcoming barriers; and moving on. Themes were consistent with recovery models used within mental health services and will provide the basis for the development of an intervention model to enhance individuals' access to social capital within networks. PMID:25441461

  17. Mice Overexpressing Type 1 Adenylyl Cyclase Show Enhanced Spatial Memory Flexibility in the Absence of Intact Synaptic Long-Term Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Ming; Wang, Hongbing

    2013-01-01

    There is significant interest in understanding the contribution of intracellular signaling and synaptic substrates to memory flexibility, which involves new learning and suppression of obsolete memory. Here, we report that enhancement of Ca[superscript 2+]-stimulated cAMP signaling by overexpressing type 1 adenylyl cyclase (AC1) facilitated…

  18. Enhancing the Cognitive Complexity in Social Studies Assessments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stobaugh, Rebecca; Tassell, Janet Lynne; Day, Martha M.; Blankenship, Hannah

    2011-01-01

    Social studies teachers are charged with the task of developing students' understandings as students engage in critical examination of social studies issues and topics. Teachers often use test items from textbooks or instructional resources, or create their own classroom assessments with no specific pedagogical foundation. All too often, these…

  19. Theoretical Foundations for Enhancing Social Connectedness in Online Learning Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slagter van Tryon, Patricia J.; Bishop, M. J.

    2009-01-01

    Group social structure provides a comfortable and predictable context for interaction in learning environments. Students in face-to-face learning environments process social information about others in order to assess traits, predict behaviors, and determine qualifications for assuming particular responsibilities within a group. In online learning…

  20. Semantically Enhanced Topic Modeling and Its Applications in Social Media

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guo, Lifan

    2013-01-01

    As we witness the prosperity of the social media in the past few years, and feel the explosion of "user-generated content" on the Internet, there is little question that we have entered an era of Big Data. Those social media sites, such as Facebook, LinkedIn, Quora and Twitter have been important sources for a wide spectrum of users.…

  1. Effects of several degrees of chronic social defeat stress on emotional and spatial memory in CD1 mice.

    PubMed

    Monleón, Santiago; Duque, Aranzazu; Vinader-Caerols, Concepción

    2016-03-01

    In the present study, the effects of several degrees of CSDS (Chronic Social Defeat Stress) on emotional and spatial memory in mice were evaluated in separate experiments. Male CD1 mice were randomly assigned to four experimental groups (n=10-12) for each experiment: NS (non-stressed), S5, S10 and S20 (5, 10 and 20 sessions of CSDS, respectively). The S groups underwent the corresponding number of agonistic encounters (10min each) over a 20-day period. 24h after the last session of CSDS, mice performed the inhibitory avoidance (Experiment 1) or the Morris water maze test (Experiment 2). In both experiments, animals were also evaluated in the elevated plus maze for 5min to obtain complementary measures of locomotor activity and emotionality. The results showed that the highest degree of CSDS had impairing effects on inhibitory avoidance, while there were no significant differences between groups in the water maze. The S20 group exhibited higher anxiety levels in the elevated plus maze. No variations in locomotor activity were observed in any experiment. In conclusion, CSDS has a greater impact on emotional memory than on spatial memory. These negative effects of CSDS on memory do not seem to be secondary to the motor or emotional effects of stress.

  2. Effects of several degrees of chronic social defeat stress on emotional and spatial memory in CD1 mice.

    PubMed

    Monleón, Santiago; Duque, Aranzazu; Vinader-Caerols, Concepción

    2016-03-01

    In the present study, the effects of several degrees of CSDS (Chronic Social Defeat Stress) on emotional and spatial memory in mice were evaluated in separate experiments. Male CD1 mice were randomly assigned to four experimental groups (n=10-12) for each experiment: NS (non-stressed), S5, S10 and S20 (5, 10 and 20 sessions of CSDS, respectively). The S groups underwent the corresponding number of agonistic encounters (10min each) over a 20-day period. 24h after the last session of CSDS, mice performed the inhibitory avoidance (Experiment 1) or the Morris water maze test (Experiment 2). In both experiments, animals were also evaluated in the elevated plus maze for 5min to obtain complementary measures of locomotor activity and emotionality. The results showed that the highest degree of CSDS had impairing effects on inhibitory avoidance, while there were no significant differences between groups in the water maze. The S20 group exhibited higher anxiety levels in the elevated plus maze. No variations in locomotor activity were observed in any experiment. In conclusion, CSDS has a greater impact on emotional memory than on spatial memory. These negative effects of CSDS on memory do not seem to be secondary to the motor or emotional effects of stress. PMID:26679824

  3. Noisy galvanic vestibular stimulation enhances spatial memory in cognitive impairment-induced by intracerebroventricular-streptozotocin administration.

    PubMed

    Adel Ghahraman, Mansoureh; Zahmatkesh, Maryam; Pourbakht, Akram; Seifi, Behjat; Jalaie, Shohreh; Adeli, Soheila; Niknami, Zohreh

    2016-04-01

    There are several anatomical connections between vestibular system and brain areas construct spatial memory. Since subliminal noisy galvanic vestibular stimulation (GVS) has been demonstrated to enhance some types of memory, we speculated that application of noisy GVS may improve spatial memory in a rat model of intracerebroventricular streptozotocin (ICV-STZ)-induced cognitive impairment. Moreover, we attempted to determine the effect of repeated exposure to GVS on spatial memory performance. The spatial memory was assessed using Morris water maze test. The groups received 1 (ICV-STZ/GVS-I) or 5 (ICV-STZ/GVS-II) sessions, each lasting 30 min, of low amplitude noisy GVS, or no GVS at all (Control, ICV-saline, ICV-STZ/noGVS). Hippocampal morphological changes investigated with cresyl violet staining and the immediate early gene product c-Fos, as a neuronal activity marker, was measured. Hippocampal c-Fos positive cells increased in both GVS stimulated groups. We observed significantly improved spatial performance only in ICV-STZ/GVS-II group. Histological evaluation showed normal density in ICV-STZ/GVS-II group whereas degeneration observed in ICV-STZ/GVS-I group similar to ICV-STZ/noGVS. The results showed the improvement of memory impairment after repeated exposure to GVS. This effect may be due in part to frequent activation of the vestibular neurons and the hippocampal regions connected to them. Our current study suggests the potential role of GVS as a practical method to combat cognitive decline induced by sporadic Alzheimer disease. PMID:26892259

  4. Sarcosine attenuates toluene-induced motor incoordination, memory impairment, and hypothermia but not brain stimulation reward enhancement in mice

    SciTech Connect

    Chan, Ming-Huan; Chung, Shiang-Sheng; Stoker, Astrid K.; Markou, Athina; Chen, Hwei-Hsien

    2012-12-01

    Toluene, a widely used and commonly abused organic solvent, produces various behavioral disturbances, including motor incoordination and cognitive impairment. Toluene alters the function of a large number of receptors and ion channels. Blockade of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors has been suggested to play a critical role in toluene-induced behavioral manifestations. The present study determined the effects of various toluene doses on motor coordination, recognition memory, body temperature, and intracranial self-stimulation (ICSS) thresholds in mice. Additionally, the effects of sarcosine on the behavioral and physiological effects induced by toluene were evaluated. Sarcosine may reverse toluene-induced behavioral manifestations by acting as an NMDA receptor co-agonist and by inhibiting the effects of the type I glycine transporter (GlyT1). Mice were treated with toluene alone or combined with sarcosine pretreatment and assessed for rotarod performance, object recognition memory, rectal temperature, and ICSS thresholds. Toluene dose-dependently induced motor incoordination, recognition memory impairment, and hypothermia and lowered ICSS thresholds. Sarcosine pretreatment reversed toluene-induced changes in rotarod performance, novel object recognition, and rectal temperature but not ICSS thresholds. These findings suggest that the sarcosine-induced potentiation of NMDA receptors may reverse motor incoordination, memory impairment, and hypothermia but not the enhancement of brain stimulation reward function associated with toluene exposure. Sarcosine may be a promising compound to prevent acute toluene intoxications by occupational or intentional exposure. -- Highlights: ► Toluene induces impairments in Rotarod test and novel object recognition test. ► Toluene lowers rectal temperature and ICSS thresholds in mice. ► Sarcosine reverses toluene-induced changes in motor, memory and body temperature. ► Sarcosine pretreatment does not affect toluene

  5. An evaluation of nonclinical dissociation utilizing a virtual environment shows enhanced working memory and attention.

    PubMed

    Saidel-Goley, Isaac N; Albiero, Erin E; Flannery, Kathleen A

    2012-02-01

    Dissociation is a mental process resulting in the disruption of memory, perception, and sometimes identity. At a nonclinical level, only mild dissociative experiences occur. The nature of nonclinical dissociation is disputed in the literature, with some asserting that it is a beneficial information processing style and others positing that it is a psychopathological phenomenon. The purpose of this study was to further the understanding of nonclinical dissociation with respect to memory and attention, by including a more ecologically valid virtual reality (VR) memory task along with standard neuropsychological tasks. Forty-five undergraduate students from a small liberal arts college in the northeast participated for course credit. The participants completed a battery of tasks including two standard memory tasks, a standard attention task, and an experimental VR memory task; the VR task included immersion in a virtual apartment, followed by incidental object-location recall for objects in the virtual apartment. Support for the theoretical model portraying nonclinical dissociation as a beneficial information processing style was found in this study. Dissociation scores were positively correlated with working memory scores and attentional processing scores on the standard neuropsychological tasks. In terms of the VR task, dissociation scores were positively correlated with more false positive memories that could be the result of a tendency of nonclinical highly dissociative individuals to create more elaborative schemas. This study also demonstrates that VR paradigms add to the prediction of cognitive functioning in testing protocols using standard neuropsychological tests, while simultaneously increasing ecological validity.

  6. Cold-Pressor Stress After Learning Enhances Familiarity-Based Recognition Memory in Men

    PubMed Central

    McCullough, Andrew M.; Yonelinas, Andrew P.

    2013-01-01

    Stress that is experienced after items have been encoded into memory can protect memories from the effects of forgetting. However, very little is known about how stress impacts recognition memory. The current study investigated how an aversive laboratory stressor (i.e., the cold-pressor test) that occurs after information has been encoded into memory affects subsequent recognition memory in an immediate and a delayed test (i.e., 2-hour and 3-month retention interval). Recognition was assessed for negative and neutral photographs using a hybrid remember/know confidence procedure in order to characterize overall performance and to separate recollection- and familiarity-based responses. The results indicated that relative to a non-stress control condition, post-encoding stress significantly improved familiarity but not recollection-based recognition memory or free recall. The beneficial effects of stress were observed in males for negative and neutral materials at both immediate and long-term delays, but were not significant in females. The results indicate that aversive stress can have long-lasting beneficial effects on the memory strength of information encountered prior to the stressful event. PMID:23823181

  7. Photo-enhanced polymer memory device based on polyimide containing spiropyran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seok, Woong Chul; Son, Seok Ho; An, Tae Kyu; Kim, Se Hyun; Lee, Seung Woo

    2016-07-01

    This paper reports the synthesis of a new polyimide (PI) containing a spiropyran moiety in the side chain and its applications to the switchable polymer memory before and after UV exposure. UV exposure allows memory using spiropyran-based PI as an active layer with a higher current and lower switching-ON voltage compared to the unexposed device due to the structural changes in the spiropyran moiety after UV exposure. In addition, this study examined the effects of UV exposure on the performance of the memory containing spiropyran-based PI using the UV-Vis absorption spectra and space-charge limited conduction (SCLC) model. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  8. Past-life identities, UFO abductions, and satanic ritual abuse: the social construction of memories.

    PubMed

    Spanos, N P; Burgess, C A; Burgess, M F

    1994-10-01

    People sometimes fantasize entire complex scenarios and later define these experiences as memories of actual events rather than as imaginings. This article examines research associated with three such phenomena: past-life experiences, UFO alien contact and abduction, and memory reports of childhood ritual satanic abuse. In each case, elicitation of the fantasy events is frequently associated with hypnotic procedures and structured interviews which provide strong and repeated demands for the requisite experiences, and which then legitimate the experiences as "real memories." Research associated with these phenomena supports the hypothesis that recall is reconstructive and organized in terms of current expectations and beliefs.

  9. Clemastine Enhances Myelination in the Prefrontal Cortex and Rescues Behavioral Changes in Socially Isolated Mice.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jia; Dupree, Jeffrey L; Gacias, Mar; Frawley, Rebecca; Sikder, Tamjeed; Naik, Payal; Casaccia, Patrizia

    2016-01-20

    Altered myelin structure and oligodendrocyte function have been shown to correlate with cognitive and motor dysfunction and deficits in social behavior. We and others have previously demonstrated that social isolation in mice induced behavioral, transcriptional, and ultrastructural changes in oligodendrocytes of the prefrontal cortex (PFC). However, whether enhancing myelination and oligodendrocyte differentiation could be beneficial in reversing such changes remains unexplored. To test this hypothesis, we orally administered clemastine, an antimuscarinic compound that has been shown to enhance oligodendrocyte differentiation and myelination in vitro, for 2 weeks in adult mice following social isolation. Clemastine successfully reversed social avoidance behavior in mice undergoing prolonged social isolation. Impaired myelination was rescued by oral clemastine treatment, and was associated with enhanced oligodendrocyte progenitor differentiation and epigenetic changes. Clemastine induced higher levels of repressive histone methylation (H3K9me3), a marker for heterochromatin, in oligodendrocytes, but not neurons, of the PFC. This was consistent with the capability of clemastine in elevating H3K9 histone methyltransferases activity in cultured primary mouse oligodendrocytes, an effect that could be antagonized by cotreatment with muscarine. Our data suggest that promoting adult myelination is a potential strategy for reversing depressive-like social behavior. Significance statement: Oligodendrocyte development and myelination are highly dynamic processes influenced by experience and neuronal activity. However, whether enhancing myelination and oligodendrocyte differentiation is beneficial to treat depressive-like behavior has been unexplored. Mice undergoing prolonged social isolation display impaired myelination in the prefrontal cortex. Clemastine, a Food and Drug Administration-approved antimuscarinic compound that has been shown to enhance myelination under

  10. Clemastine Enhances Myelination in the Prefrontal Cortex and Rescues Behavioral Changes in Socially Isolated Mice

    PubMed Central

    Dupree, Jeffrey L.; Gacias, Mar; Frawley, Rebecca; Sikder, Tamjeed; Naik, Payal; Casaccia, Patrizia

    2016-01-01

    Altered myelin structure and oligodendrocyte function have been shown to correlate with cognitive and motor dysfunction and deficits in social behavior. We and others have previously demonstrated that social isolation in mice induced behavioral, transcriptional, and ultrastructural changes in oligodendrocytes of the prefrontal cortex (PFC). However, whether enhancing myelination and oligodendrocyte differentiation could be beneficial in reversing such changes remains unexplored. To test this hypothesis, we orally administered clemastine, an antimuscarinic compound that has been shown to enhance oligodendrocyte differentiation and myelination in vitro, for 2 weeks in adult mice following social isolation. Clemastine successfully reversed social avoidance behavior in mice undergoing prolonged social isolation. Impaired myelination was rescued by oral clemastine treatment, and was associated with enhanced oligodendrocyte progenitor differentiation and epigenetic changes. Clemastine induced higher levels of repressive histone methylation (H3K9me3), a marker for heterochromatin, in oligodendrocytes, but not neurons, of the PFC. This was consistent with the capability of clemastine in elevating H3K9 histone methyltransferases activity in cultured primary mouse oligodendrocytes, an effect that could be antagonized by cotreatment with muscarine. Our data suggest that promoting adult myelination is a potential strategy for reversing depressive-like social behavior. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Oligodendrocyte development and myelination are highly dynamic processes influenced by experience and neuronal activity. However, whether enhancing myelination and oligodendrocyte differentiation is beneficial to treat depressive-like behavior has been unexplored. Mice undergoing prolonged social isolation display impaired myelination in the prefrontal cortex. Clemastine, a Food and Drug Administration-approved antimuscarinic compound that has been shown to enhance myelination under

  11. Cognitive-Enhancing Effect of Dianthus superbus var. Longicalycinus on Scopolamine-Induced Memory Impairment in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Weon, Jin Bae; Jung, Youn Sik; Ma, Choong Je

    2016-01-01

    Dianthus superbus (D. superbus) is a traditional crude drug used for the treatment of urethritis, carbuncles and carcinomas. The objective of this study was to confirm the cognitive enhancing effect of D. superbus in memory impairment induced mice and to elucidate the possible potential mechanism. Effect of D. superbus on scopolamine induced memory impairment on mice was evaluated using the Morris water maze and passive avoidance tests. We also investigated acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity and brain-derived neurotropic factor (BDNF) expression in scopolamine-induced mice. HPLC-DAD analysis was performed to identify active compounds in D. superbus. The results revealed that D. superbus attenuated the learning and memory impairment induced by scopolamine. D. superbus also inhibited AChE levels in the hippocampi of the scopolamine-injected mice. Moreover, D. superbus increased BDNF expression in the hippocampus. Eight compounds were identified using HPLC-DAD analysis. The content of 4-hydroxyphenyl acetic acid was higher than contents of other compounds. These results indicated that D. superbus improved memory functioning accompanied by inhibition of AChE and upregulation of BDNF, suggesting that D. superbus may be a useful therapeutic agent for the prevention or treatment of Alzheimer’s disease. PMID:27133261

  12. Cognitive-Enhancing Effect of Dianthus superbus var. Longicalycinus on Scopolamine-Induced Memory Impairment in Mice.

    PubMed

    Weon, Jin Bae; Jung, Youn Sik; Ma, Choong Je

    2016-05-01

    Dianthus superbus (D. superbus) is a traditional crude drug used for the treatment of urethritis, carbuncles and carcinomas. The objective of this study was to confirm the cognitive enhancing effect of D. superbus in memory impairment induced mice and to elucidate the possible potential mechanism. Effect of D. superbus on scopolamine induced memory impairment on mice was evaluated using the Morris water maze and passive avoidance tests. We also investigated acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity and brain-derived neurotropic factor (BDNF) expression in scopolamine-induced mice. HPLC-DAD analysis was performed to identify active compounds in D. superbus. The results revealed that D. superbus attenuated the learning and memory impairment induced by scopolamine. D. superbus also inhibited AChE levels in the hippocampi of the scopolamine-injected mice. Moreover, D. superbus increased BDNF expression in the hippocampus. Eight compounds were identified using HPLC-DAD analysis. The content of 4-hydroxyphenyl acetic acid was higher than contents of other compounds. These results indicated that D. superbus improved memory functioning accompanied by inhibition of AChE and upregulation of BDNF, suggesting that D. superbus may be a useful therapeutic agent for the prevention or treatment of Alzheimer's disease.

  13. Enhancement of CD8(+) T-cell memory by removal of a vaccinia virus nuclear factor-κB inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Ren, Hongwei; Ferguson, Brian J; Maluquer de Motes, Carlos; Sumner, Rebecca P; Harman, Laura E R; Smith, Geoffrey L

    2015-05-01

    Factors influencing T-cell responses are important for vaccine development but are incompletely understood. Here, vaccinia virus (VACV) protein N1 is shown to impair the development of both effector and memory CD8(+) T cells and this correlates with its inhibition of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) activation. Infection with VACVs that either have the N1L gene deleted (vΔN1) or contain a I6E mutation (vN1.I6E) that abrogates its inhibition of NF-κB resulted in increased central and memory CD8(+) T-cell populations, increased CD8(+) T-cell cytotoxicity and lower virus titres after challenge. Furthermore, CD8(+) memory T-cell function was increased following infection with vN1.I6E, with more interferon-γ production and greater protection against VACV infection following passive transfer to naive mice, compared with CD8(+) T cells from mice infected with wild-type virus (vN1.WT). This demonstrates the importance of NF-κB activation within infected cells for long-term CD8(+) T-cell memory and vaccine efficacy. Further, it provides a rationale for deleting N1 from VACV vectors to enhance CD8(+) T-cell immunogenicity, while simultaneously reducing virulence to improve vaccine safety.

  14. The effect of glucose administration on the emotional enhancement effect in recognition memory.

    PubMed

    Brandt, Karen R; Sünram-Lea, Sandra I; Qualtrough, Kirsty

    2006-08-01

    Previous research has demonstrated that glucose administration improves memory performance. However few studies have addressed the effects of glucose on emotional material that by nature already enjoys a memory advantage. The aim of the present research was therefore to investigate whether the memory facilitation effect associated with glucose would emerge for emotional words. Experiment 1 demonstrated that negative words were better recognized and remembered than positive and neutral words. Experiment 2 further explored these effects under conditions of glucose administration and an aspartame control. The results revealed that both the aspartame and glucose groups replicated the results from Experiment 1. The present research therefore demonstrated that the glucose facilitation effect did not emerge for material that already benefits from a memory advantage. These results also raise the question of whether the dose response relationship previously associated with glucose administration is applicable when the information being processed is of an emotional nature.

  15. Social Mimicry Enhances Mu-Suppression During Action Observation.

    PubMed

    Hogeveen, Jeremy; Chartrand, Tanya L; Obhi, Sukhvinder S

    2015-08-01

    During social interactions, there is a tendency for people to mimic the gestures and mannerisms of others, which increases liking and rapport. Psychologists have extensively studied the antecedents and consequences of mimicry at the social level, but the neural basis of this behavior remains unclear. Many researchers have speculated that mimicry is related to activity in the human mirror system (HMS), a network of parietofrontal regions that are involved in both action execution and observation. However, activity of the HMS during reciprocal social interactions involving mimicry has not been demonstrated. Here, we took an electroencephalographic (EEG) index of mirror activity-mu-suppression during action observation-in a pretest/post-test design with 1 of 3 intervening treatments: 1) social interaction in which the participant was mimicked, 2) social interaction without mimicry, or 3) an innocuous computer task, not involving another human agent. The change in mu-suppression from pre- to post-test varied as a function of the intervening treatment, with participants who had been mimicked showing an increase in mu-suppression during the post-treatment action observation session. We propose that this specific modulation of HMS activity as a function of mimicry constitutes the first direct evidence for mirror system involvement in real social mimicry.

  16. Training Mothers in Elaborative Reminiscing Enhances Children's Autobiographical Memory and Narrative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reese, Elaine; Newcombe, Rhiannon

    2007-01-01

    This longitudinal intervention assessed children's memory at 2-1/2 years (short-term posttest; N = 115) and their memory and narrative at 3-1/2 years (long-term posttest; N = 100) as a function of maternal training in elaborative reminiscing when children were 1-1/2 to 2-1/2 years. At both posttests, trained mothers were more elaborative in their…

  17. Phosphodiesterase 11A (PDE11A), Enriched in Ventral Hippocampus Neurons, is Required for Consolidation of Social but not Nonsocial Memories in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Hegde, Shweta; Capell, Will R; Ibrahim, Baher A; Klett, Jennifer; Patel, Neema S; Sougiannis, Alexander T; Kelly, Michy P

    2016-01-01

    The capacity to form long-lasting social memories is critical to our health and survival. cAMP signaling in the ventral hippocampal formation (VHIPP) appears to be required for social memory formation, but the phosphodiesterase (PDE) involved remains unknown. Previously, we showed that PDE11A, which degrades cAMP and cGMP, is preferentially expressed in CA1 and subiculum of the VHIPP. Here, we determine whether PDE11A is expressed in neurons where it could directly influence synaptic plasticity and whether expression is required for the consolidation and/or retrieval of social memories. In CA1, and possibly CA2, PDE11A4 is expressed throughout neuronal cell bodies, dendrites (stratum radiatum), and axons (fimbria), but not astrocytes. Unlike PDE2A, PDE9A, or PDE10A, PDE11A4 expression begins very low at postnatal day 7 (P7) and dramatically increases until P28, at which time it stabilizes to young adult levels. This expression pattern is consistent with the fact that PDE11A is required for social long-term memory (LTM) formation during adolescence and adulthood. Male and female PDE11 knockout (KO) mice show normal short-term memory (STM) for social odor recognition (SOR) and social transmission of food preference (STFP), but no LTM 24 h post training. Importantly, PDE11A KO mice show normal LTM for nonsocial odor recognition. Deletion of PDE11A may impair memory consolidation by impairing requisite protein translation in the VHIPP. Relative to WT littermates, PDE11A KO mice show reduced expression of RSK2 and lowered phosphorylation of S6 (pS6–235/236). Together, these data suggest PDE11A is selectively required for the proper consolidation of recognition and associative social memories. PMID:27339393

  18. Inhibition of hippocampal Jun N-terminal kinase enhances short-term memory but blocks long-term memory formation and retrieval of an inhibitory avoidance task.

    PubMed

    Bevilaqua, Lia R M; Kerr, Daniel S; Medina, Jorge H; Izquierdo, Iván; Cammarota, Martín

    2003-02-01

    Learning initiates a series of plastic events the occurrence of which are required for the storage of information related to the training experience. Several lines of evidence indicate that, in the rat hippocampus, different members of the family of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) play a key role in the onset of such plastic events. Using SP600125, the newly developed inhibitor of the MAPK c-Jun amino-terminal kinase (JNK), we show a direct involvement of this protein kinase in mnemonic processes. The intra-CA1 infusion of SP600125, at a dose that in naïve animals significantly reduced the phosphorylation levels of c-Jun without affecting the activity of ERK1/2 or p38 MAPK, enhanced short-term memory (STM) but blocked long-term memory (LTM) formation and retrieval of an inhibitory avoidance learning task. No action of this drug on locomotor/exploratory activity or general anxiety state could be detected. The significance of these results is discussed in the context of others describing the independence of LTM from STM.

  19. Enhanced Memory for both Threat and Neutral Information Under Conditions of Intergroup Threat

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Yong; Zhao, Yufang; Ybarra, Oscar; Stephan, Walter G.; Yang, Qing

    2015-01-01

    Few studies have examined the effect of intergroup threat on cognitive outcomes such as memory. Different theoretical perspectives can inform how intergroup threat should affect memory for threat-relevant and neutral information, such as the mood-congruency approach, Yerkes–Dodson law, Easterbrook’s theory, and also evolutionary perspectives. To test among these, we conducted two experiments to examine how exposure to intergroup threats affected memory compared to control conditions. In study 1, we manipulated symbolic threat and examined participants’ memory for threat and neutral words. In study 2, memory performance was assessed following the induction of realistic threat. Across the studies, in the control condition participants showed better memory for threat-related than neutral information. However, participants under threat remembered neutral information as well as threat-related information. In addition, participants in the threat condition remembered threat-related information as well as participants in the control condition. The findings are discussed in terms of automatic vigilance processes but also the effects of threat on arousal and its effect on information processing. This latter perspective, suggests paradoxically, that under some circumstances involving an outgroup threat, non-threatening information about outgroups can be extensively processed. PMID:26635669

  20. Enhancing long-term memory with stimulation tunes visual attention in one trial.

    PubMed

    Reinhart, Robert M G; Woodman, Geoffrey F

    2015-01-13

    Scientists have long proposed that memory representations control the mechanisms of attention that focus processing on the task-relevant objects in our visual field. Modern theories specifically propose that we rely on working memory to store the object representations that provide top-down control over attentional selection. Here, we show that the tuning of perceptual attention can be sharply accelerated after 20 min of noninvasive brain stimulation over medial-frontal cortex. Contrary to prevailing theories of attention, these improvements did not appear to be caused by changes in the nature of the working memory representations of the search targets. Instead, improvements in attentional tuning were accompanied by changes in an electrophysiological signal hypothesized to index long-term memory. We found that this pattern of effects was reliably observed when we stimulated medial-frontal cortex, but when we stimulated posterior parietal cortex, we found that stimulation directly affected the perceptual processing of the search array elements, not the memory representations providing top-down control. Our findings appear to challenge dominant theories of attention by demonstrating that changes in the storage of target representations in long-term memory may underlie rapid changes in the efficiency with which humans can find targets in arrays of objects.

  1. Enhancing long-term memory with stimulation tunes visual attention in one trial

    PubMed Central

    Reinhart, Robert M. G.; Woodman, Geoffrey F.

    2015-01-01

    Scientists have long proposed that memory representations control the mechanisms of attention that focus processing on the task-relevant objects in our visual field. Modern theories specifically propose that we rely on working memory to store the object representations that provide top-down control over attentional selection. Here, we show that the tuning of perceptual attention can be sharply accelerated after 20 min of noninvasive brain stimulation over medial-frontal cortex. Contrary to prevailing theories of attention, these improvements did not appear to be caused by changes in the nature of the working memory representations of the search targets. Instead, improvements in attentional tuning were accompanied by changes in an electrophysiological signal hypothesized to index long-term memory. We found that this pattern of effects was reliably observed when we stimulated medial-frontal cortex, but when we stimulated posterior parietal cortex, we found that stimulation directly affected the perceptual processing of the search array elements, not the memory representations providing top-down control. Our findings appear to challenge dominant theories of attention by demonstrating that changes in the storage of target representations in long-term memory may underlie rapid changes in the efficiency with which humans can find targets in arrays of objects. PMID:25548192

  2. A cognitive intervention to enhance institutionalized older adults' social support networks and decrease loneliness.

    PubMed

    Winningham, R G; Pike, N L

    2007-11-01

    Nearly all older adults experience social losses, which can disrupt their social support networks and impair their quality of life. Events such as retirement, an inability to drive, death of a spouse and/or close life-long friends, or moving to an elder care facility may negatively affect the quality of older adults' social support networks. Low levels of perceived social support are associated with increased depression, impaired immune functioning and reduced life expectancy. Moreover, social interactions can be cognitively stimulating and may help older adults preserve their cognitive abilities. In the present study, institutionalized older adults were exposed to either a cognitive enhancement programme designed to enhance social networks or a control group. Measures of perceived social support and loneliness were administered before and after a 3-month, group-based intervention. There was a significant interaction between group and time. Those who did not participate in the intervention experienced a decrease in perceived social support and an increase in perceived loneliness. Participants in the intervention group stayed the same on the above measures. Helping older adults increase or maintain the quality of their social networks may lead to enhanced cognitive functioning, decreased depression and improved quality of life. Recommendations to help assisted living facilities, nursing homes, retirement communities and senior centres develop social and cognitive interventions are provided.

  3. Playing in the Gutters: Enhancing Children's Cognitive and Social Play.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dinwiddie, Sue A.

    1993-01-01

    Adding plastic gutters to the nursery school's sand area began as a science curriculum enhancement and evolved into a whole curriculum that stimulated cognitive exploration, cooperative dramatic play, language enhancement, and general fun. The children manipulated the gutters and materials such as sand, water, buckets, and tennis balls in a…

  4. Multiple Social Identities Enhance Health Post-Retirement Because They Are a Basis for Giving Social Support

    PubMed Central

    Steffens, Niklas K.; Jetten, Jolanda; Haslam, Catherine; Cruwys, Tegan; Haslam, S. Alexander

    2016-01-01

    We examine the extent to which multiple social identities are associated with enhanced health and well-being in retirement because they provide a basis for giving and receiving social support. Results from a cross-sectional study show that retirees (N = 171) who had multiple social identities following (but not prior to) retirement report being (a) more satisfied with retirement, (b) in better health, and (c) more satisfied with life in general. Furthermore, mediation analyses revealed an indirect path from multiple social identities to greater satisfaction with retirement and better health through greater provision, but not receipt, of social support to others. These findings are the first to point to the value of multiple group membership post-retirement as a basis for increased opportunities to give meaningful support to others. We discuss the theoretical and practical implications for the management of multiple identities in the process of significant life transitions such as retirement. PMID:27799916

  5. Enhancing memory performance with rTMS in healthy subjects and individuals with Mild Cognitive Impairment: the role of the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex

    PubMed Central

    Turriziani, Patrizia; Smirni, Daniela; Zappalà, Giuseppe; Mangano, Giuseppa R.; Oliveri, Massimiliano; Cipolotti, Lisa

    2012-01-01

    A debated question in the literature is the degree of anatomical and functional lateralization of the executive control processes sub-served by the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) during recognition memory retrieval. We investigated if transient inhibition and excitation of the left and right DLPFC at retrieval by means of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) modulate recognition memory performance in 100 healthy controls (HCs) and in eight patients with Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI). Recognition memory tasks of faces, buildings, and words were used in different experiments. rTMS-inhibition of the right DLPFC enhanced recognition memory in both HCs and MCIs. rTMS-excitation of the same region in HCs deteriorated memory performance. Inhibition of the right DLPFC could modulate the excitability of a network of brain regions, in the ipsilateral as well as in the contralateral hemisphere, enhancing function in HCs or restoring an adaptive equilibrium in MCI. PMID:22514525

  6. Neuroprotective and memory enhancing effects of auraptene in a rat model of vascular dementia: Experimental study and histopathological evaluation.

    PubMed

    Ghanbarabadi, Mustafa; Iranshahi, Mehrdad; Amoueian, Sakineh; Mehri, Soghra; Motamedshariaty, Vahideh Sadat; Mohajeri, Seyed Ahmad

    2016-06-01

    Vascular dementia and Alzheimer disease are most common type of dementia. These diseases have been associated with cognitive decline and affected personal behavioral activities. Moreover, the pattern of cerebral blood flow in mild cognitive disorder has appeared as a predictive indication for the development into Alzheimer's disease. Permanent, bilateral occlusion of the common carotid arteries (2VO) is a standard animal model to study vascular dementia and chronic cerebral hypoperfusion. In present study neuroprotective and memory enhancing effects of auraptene (AUR), a citrus coumarin, were studied in 2VO rats. Different doses (25, 8 & 4mg/kg) of AUR were administered orally. The spatial memory performance was tested with Morris water maze after 2VO induction. Biochemical experiments and histopathological evaluations were also applied to investigate the neuroprotective effect of AUR in brain tissue. In comparison with 2VO group, AUR could significantly decrease the scape latency time in treated rats. Also AUR increased the percentage of time spent and traveled pathway in target quadrant on final trial test day. All behavioral results were confirmed by biochemical and histopathological data. Biochemical data indicated that AUR could decrease malondialdehyde (MDA), as lipid peroxidation indicator, and increase glutathione (GSH) content in cortex and hippocampus tissues. Histopathological data showed that AUR could protect cerebrocortical and hippocampus neurons against ischemia. This study demonstrated the memory enhancing effect and neuroprotective activity of AUR after induction of brain ischemia in a rat model of vascular dementia. PMID:27130820

  7. Decreased in vitro mitochondrial function is associated with enhanced brain metabolism, blood flow, and memory in Surf1-deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Lin, Ai-Ling; Pulliam, Daniel A; Deepa, Sathyaseelan S; Halloran, Jonathan J; Hussong, Stacy A; Burbank, Raquel R; Bresnen, Andrew; Liu, Yuhong; Podlutskaya, Natalia; Soundararajan, Anuradha; Muir, Eric; Duong, Timothy Q; Bokov, Alex F; Viscomi, Carlo; Zeviani, Massimo; Richardson, Arlan G; Van Remmen, Holly; Fox, Peter T; Galvan, Veronica

    2013-10-01

    Recent studies have challenged the prevailing view that reduced mitochondrial function and increased oxidative stress are correlated with reduced longevity. Mice carrying a homozygous knockout (KO) of the Surf1 gene showed a significant decrease in mitochondrial electron transport chain Complex IV activity, yet displayed increased lifespan and reduced brain damage after excitotoxic insults. In the present study, we examined brain metabolism, brain hemodynamics, and memory of Surf1 KO mice using in vitro measures of mitochondrial function, in vivo neuroimaging, and behavioral testing. We show that decreased respiration and increased generation of hydrogen peroxide in isolated Surf1 KO brain mitochondria are associated with increased brain glucose metabolism, cerebral blood flow, and lactate levels, and with enhanced memory in Surf1 KO mice. These metabolic and functional changes in Surf1 KO brains were accompanied by higher levels of hypoxia-inducible factor 1 alpha, and by increases in the activated form of cyclic AMP response element-binding factor, which is integral to memory formation. These findings suggest that Surf1 deficiency-induced metabolic alterations may have positive effects on brain function. Exploring the relationship between mitochondrial activity, oxidative stress, and brain function will enhance our understanding of cognitive aging and of age-related neurologic disorders.

  8. Why Robots Should Be Social: Enhancing Machine Learning through Social Human-Robot Interaction

    PubMed Central

    de Greeff, Joachim; Belpaeme, Tony

    2015-01-01

    Social learning is a powerful method for cultural propagation of knowledge and skills relying on a complex interplay of learning strategies, social ecology and the human propensity for both learning and tutoring. Social learning has the potential to be an equally potent learning strategy for artificial systems and robots in specific. However, given the complexity and unstructured nature of social learning, implementing social machine learning proves to be a challenging problem. We study one particular aspect of social machine learning: that of offering social cues during the learning interaction. Specifically, we study whether people are sensitive to social cues offered by a learning robot, in a similar way to children’s social bids for tutoring. We use a child-like social robot and a task in which the robot has to learn the meaning of words. For this a simple turn-based interaction is used, based on language games. Two conditions are tested: one in which the robot uses social means to invite a human teacher to provide information based on what the robot requires to fill gaps in its knowledge (i.e. expression of a learning preference); the other in which the robot does not provide social cues to communicate a learning preference. We observe that conveying a learning preference through the use of social cues results in better and faster learning by the robot. People also seem to form a “mental model” of the robot, tailoring the tutoring to the robot’s performance as opposed to using simply random teaching. In addition, the social learning shows a clear gender effect with female participants being responsive to the robot’s bids, while male teachers appear to be less receptive. This work shows how additional social cues in social machine learning can result in people offering better quality learning input to artificial systems, resulting in improved learning performance. PMID:26422143

  9. Why Robots Should Be Social: Enhancing Machine Learning through Social Human-Robot Interaction.

    PubMed

    de Greeff, Joachim; Belpaeme, Tony

    2015-01-01

    Social learning is a powerful method for cultural propagation of knowledge and skills relying on a complex interplay of learning strategies, social ecology and the human propensity for both learning and tutoring. Social learning has the potential to be an equally potent learning strategy for artificial systems and robots in specific. However, given the complexity and unstructured nature of social learning, implementing social machine learning proves to be a challenging problem. We study one particular aspect of social machine learning: that of offering social cues during the learning interaction. Specifically, we study whether people are sensitive to social cues offered by a learning robot, in a similar way to children's social bids for tutoring. We use a child-like social robot and a task in which the robot has to learn the meaning of words. For this a simple turn-based interaction is used, based on language games. Two conditions are tested: one in which the robot uses social means to invite a human teacher to provide information based on what the robot requires to fill gaps in its knowledge (i.e. expression of a learning preference); the other in which the robot does not provide social cues to communicate a learning preference. We observe that conveying a learning preference through the use of social cues results in better and faster learning by the robot. People also seem to form a "mental model" of the robot, tailoring the tutoring to the robot's performance as opposed to using simply random teaching. In addition, the social learning shows a clear gender effect with female participants being responsive to the robot's bids, while male teachers appear to be less receptive. This work shows how additional social cues in social machine learning can result in people offering better quality learning input to artificial systems, resulting in improved learning performance. PMID:26422143

  10. Why Robots Should Be Social: Enhancing Machine Learning through Social Human-Robot Interaction.

    PubMed

    de Greeff, Joachim; Belpaeme, Tony

    2015-01-01

    Social learning is a powerful method for cultural propagation of knowledge and skills relying on a complex interplay of learning strategies, social ecology and the human propensity for both learning and tutoring. Social learning has the potential to be an equally potent learning strategy for artificial systems and robots in specific. However, given the complexity and unstructured nature of social learning, implementing social machine learning proves to be a challenging problem. We study one particular aspect of social machine learning: that of offering social cues during the learning interaction. Specifically, we study whether people are sensitive to social cues offered by a learning robot, in a similar way to children's social bids for tutoring. We use a child-like social robot and a task in which the robot has to learn the meaning of words. For this a simple turn-based interaction is used, based on language games. Two conditions are tested: one in which the robot uses social means to invite a human teacher to provide information based on what the robot requires to fill gaps in its knowledge (i.e. expression of a learning preference); the other in which the robot does not provide social cues to communicate a learning preference. We observe that conveying a learning preference through the use of social cues results in better and faster learning by the robot. People also seem to form a "mental model" of the robot, tailoring the tutoring to the robot's performance as opposed to using simply random teaching. In addition, the social learning shows a clear gender effect with female participants being responsive to the robot's bids, while male teachers appear to be less receptive. This work shows how additional social cues in social machine learning can result in people offering better quality learning input to artificial systems, resulting in improved learning performance.

  11. Impairments in Episodic-Autobiographical Memory and Emotional and Social Information Processing in CADASIL during Mid-Adulthood.

    PubMed

    Staniloiu, Angelica; Woermann, Friedrich G; Markowitsch, Hans J

    2014-01-01

    Cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy (CADASIL) - is the most common genetic source of vascular dementia in adults, being caused by a mutation in NOTCH3 gene. Spontaneous de novo mutations may occur, but their frequency is largely unknown. Ischemic strokes and cognitive impairments are the most frequent manifestations, but seizures affect up to 10% of the patients. Herein, we describe a 47-year-old male scholar with a genetically confirmed diagnosis of CADASIL (Arg133Cys mutation in the NOTCH3 gene) and a seemingly negative family history of CADASIL illness, who was investigated with a comprehensive neuropsychological testing battery and neuroimaging methods. The patient demonstrated on one hand severe and accelerated deteriorations in multiple cognitive domains such as concentration, long-term memory (including the episodic-autobiographical memory domain), problem solving, cognitive flexibility and planning, affect recognition, discrimination and matching, and social cognition (theory of mind). Some of these impairments were even captured by abbreviated instruments for investigating suspicion of dementia. On the other hand the patient still possessed high crystallized (verbal) intelligence and a capacity to put forth a façade of well-preserved intellectual functioning. Although no definite conclusions can be drawn from a single case study, our findings point to the presence of additional cognitive changes in CADASIL in middle adulthood, in particular to impairments in the episodic-autobiographical memory domain and social information processing (e.g., social cognition). Whether these identified impairments are related to the patient's specific phenotype or to an ascertainment bias (e.g., a paucity of studies investigating these cognitive functions) requires elucidation by larger scale research. PMID:25009481

  12. Impairments in Episodic-Autobiographical Memory and Emotional and Social Information Processing in CADASIL during Mid-Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Staniloiu, Angelica; Woermann, Friedrich G.; Markowitsch, Hans J.

    2014-01-01

    Cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy (CADASIL) – is the most common genetic source of vascular dementia in adults, being caused by a mutation in NOTCH3 gene. Spontaneous de novo mutations may occur, but their frequency is largely unknown. Ischemic strokes and cognitive impairments are the most frequent manifestations, but seizures affect up to 10% of the patients. Herein, we describe a 47-year-old male scholar with a genetically confirmed diagnosis of CADASIL (Arg133Cys mutation in the NOTCH3 gene) and a seemingly negative family history of CADASIL illness, who was investigated with a comprehensive neuropsychological testing battery and neuroimaging methods. The patient demonstrated on one hand severe and accelerated deteriorations in multiple cognitive domains such as concentration, long-term memory (including the episodic-autobiographical memory domain), problem solving, cognitive flexibility and planning, affect recognition, discrimination and matching, and social cognition (theory of mind). Some of these impairments were even captured by abbreviated instruments for investigating suspicion of dementia. On the other hand the patient still possessed high crystallized (verbal) intelligence and a capacity to put forth a façade of well-preserved intellectual functioning. Although no definite conclusions can be drawn from a single case study, our findings point to the presence of additional cognitive changes in CADASIL in middle adulthood, in particular to impairments in the episodic-autobiographical memory domain and social information processing (e.g., social cognition). Whether these identified impairments are related to the patient’s specific phenotype or to an ascertainment bias (e.g., a paucity of studies investigating these cognitive functions) requires elucidation by larger scale research. PMID:25009481

  13. Enhanced training protects memory against amnesia produced by concurrent inactivation of amygdala and striatum, amygdala and substantia nigra, or striatum and substantia nigra

    PubMed Central

    Salado-Castillo, Rigoberto; Sánchez-Alavéz, Manuel; Quirarte, Gina L.; Martínez García, María Isabel; Prado-Alcalá, Roberto A.

    2011-01-01

    Memory is markedly impaired when normal activity of any of a number of cerebral structures is disturbed after a learning experience. A growing body of evidence indicates, however, that such interference with neuronal function becomes negligible when the learning experience is significantly enhanced. We now report on the effects of enhanced training on retention after temporary inactivation of cerebral nuclei known to be involved in memory, namely the substantia nigra (SN), striatum (STR), and amygdala (AMY). When training was conducted with a relatively low intensity of footshock (1.0 mA), post-training infusion of lidocaine into the SN, STR, or AMY produced a marked memory deficit. Increasing the aversive stimulation to 2.0 mA protected memory from the amnesic effect of intranigral lidocaine, but there was still a deficit after its infusion into the STR and AMY. Administration of lidocaine into each of these nuclei, in the groups that had been trained with 3.0 mA, was completely ineffective in producing alterations in memory consolidation. Simultaneous infusion of lidocaine into STR + SN, AMY + SN, or AMY + STR was also ineffective in altering memory formation when the highest footshock intensity was used for training. To our knowledge, this is the first demonstration that an enhanced learning experience guards against memory deficits after simultaneous temporary interruption of neural activity of brain nuclei heretofore thought to be necessary for memory formation. These findings support the proposition that brain structures involved in memory processing are functionally connected in series during memory consolidation and that, after an enhanced learning experience, these structures become functionally connected in parallel. PMID:22203796

  14. Using social media to enhance career development opportunities for health promotion professionals.

    PubMed

    Roman, Leah A

    2014-07-01

    For health promotion professionals, social media offers many ways to engage with a broader range of colleagues; participate in professional development events; promote expertise, products, or services; and learn about career-enhancing opportunities such as funding and fellowships. Previous work has recommended "building networking into what you are already doing." This article provides updated and new social media resources, as well as practical examples and strategies to promote effective use of social media. Social media offers health promotion professionals cost-effective opportunities to enhance their career by building communities of practice, participating in professional development events, and enriching classroom learning. Developing the skills necessary to use social media for networking is important in the public health workforce, especially as social media is increasingly used in academic and practice settings. PMID:24951604

  15. Using social media to enhance career development opportunities for health promotion professionals.

    PubMed

    Roman, Leah A

    2014-07-01

    For health promotion professionals, social media offers many ways to engage with a broader range of colleagues; participate in professional development events; promote expertise, products, or services; and learn about career-enhancing opportunities such as funding and fellowships. Previous work has recommended "building networking into what you are already doing." This article provides updated and new social media resources, as well as practical examples and strategies to promote effective use of social media. Social media offers health promotion professionals cost-effective opportunities to enhance their career by building communities of practice, participating in professional development events, and enriching classroom learning. Developing the skills necessary to use social media for networking is important in the public health workforce, especially as social media is increasingly used in academic and practice settings.

  16. Emotional engagements predict and enhance social cognition in young chimpanzees.

    PubMed

    Bard, Kim A; Bakeman, Roger; Boysen, Sarah T; Leavens, David A

    2014-09-01

    Social cognition in infancy is evident in coordinated triadic engagements, that is, infants attending jointly with social partners and objects. Current evolutionary theories of primate social cognition tend to highlight species differences in cognition based on human-unique cooperative motives. We consider a developmental model in which engagement experiences produce differential outcomes. We conducted a 10-year-long study in which two groups of laboratory-raised chimpanzee infants were given quantifiably different engagement experiences. Joint attention, cooperativeness, affect, and different levels of cognition were measured in 5- to 12-month-old chimpanzees, and compared to outcomes derived from a normative human database. We found that joint attention skills significantly improved across development for all infants, but by 12 months, the humans significantly surpassed the chimpanzees. We found that cooperativeness was stable in the humans, but by 12 months, the chimpanzee group given enriched engagement experiences significantly surpassed the humans. Past engagement experiences and concurrent affect were significant unique predictors of both joint attention and cooperativeness in 5- to 12-month-old chimpanzees. When engagement experiences and concurrent affect were statistically controlled, joint attention and cooperation were not associated. We explain differential social cognition outcomes in terms of the significant influences of previous engagement experiences and affect, in addition to cognition. Our study highlights developmental processes that underpin the emergence of social cognition in support of evolutionary continuity.

  17. Emotional engagements predict and enhance social cognition in young chimpanzees

    PubMed Central

    Bard, Kim A; Bakeman, Roger; Boysen, Sarah T; Leavens, David A

    2014-01-01

    Social cognition in infancy is evident in coordinated triadic engagements, that is, infants attending jointly with social partners and objects. Current evolutionary theories of primate social cognition tend to highlight species differences in cognition based on human-unique cooperative motives. We consider a developmental model in which engagement experiences produce differential outcomes. We conducted a 10-year-long study in which two groups of laboratory-raised chimpanzee infants were given quantifiably different engagement experiences. Joint attention, cooperativeness, affect, and different levels of cognition were measured in 5- to 12-month-old chimpanzees, and compared to outcomes derived from a normative human database. We found that joint attention skills significantly improved across development for all infants, but by 12 months, the humans significantly surpassed the chimpanzees. We found that cooperativeness was stable in the humans, but by 12 months, the chimpanzee group given enriched engagement experiences significantly surpassed the humans. Past engagement experiences and concurrent affect were significant unique predictors of both joint attention and cooperativeness in 5- to 12-month-old chimpanzees. When engagement experiences and concurrent affect were statistically controlled, joint attention and cooperation were not associated. We explain differential social cognition outcomes in terms of the significant influences of previous engagement experiences and affect, in addition to cognition. Our study highlights developmental processes that underpin the emergence of social cognition in support of evolutionary continuity. PMID:24410843

  18. Modifying Memory for a Museum Tour in Older Adults: Reactivation-Related Updating that Enhances and Distorts Memory is Reduced in Aging

    PubMed Central

    St Jacques, Peggy L.; Montgomery, Daniel; Schacter, Daniel L.

    2015-01-01

    Memory reactivation, the activation of a latent memory trace when we are reminded of a past experience, strengthens memory but can also contribute to distortions if new information present during reactivation is integrated with existing memory. In a previous study in young adults we found that the quality of memory reactivation, manipulated using the principle of encoding specificity and indexed by recollection ratings, modulated subsequent true and false memories for events experienced during a museum tour. Here, we examined age-related changes in the quality of memory reactivation on subsequent memory. Young and older adults reactivated memories for museum stops immediately followed by the presentation of a novel lure photo from an alternate tour version (i.e., reactivation plus new information). There was an increase in subsequent true memories for reactivated targets and for subsequent false memories for lures that followed reactivated targets, when compared to baseline target and lure photos. However, the influence of reactivation on subsequent memories was reduced in older adults. These data reveal that aging alters reactivation-related updating processes that allow memories to be strengthened and updated with new information-consequently reducing memory distortions in older compared to young adults. PMID:24993055

  19. Modifying memory for a museum tour in older adults: Reactivation-related updating that enhances and distorts memory is reduced in ageing.

    PubMed

    St Jacques, Peggy L; Montgomery, Daniel; Schacter, Daniel L

    2015-01-01

    Memory reactivation, the activation of a latent memory trace when we are reminded of a past experience, strengthens memory but can also contribute to distortions if new information present during reactivation is integrated with existing memory. In a previous study in young adults we found that the quality of memory reactivation, manipulated using the principle of encoding specificity and indexed by recollection ratings, modulated subsequent true and false memories for events experienced during a museum tour. Here in this study, we examined age-related changes in the quality of memory reactivation on subsequent memory. Memories of museum stops in young and older adults were reactivated and then immediately followed by the presentation of a novel lure photo from an alternate tour version (i.e., reactivation plus new information). There was an increase in subsequent true memories for reactivated targets and for subsequent false memories for lures that followed reactivated targets, when compared to baseline target and lure photos. However, the influence of reactivation on subsequent memories was reduced in older adults. These data reveal that ageing alters reactivation-related updating processes that allow memories to be strengthened and updated with new information, consequently reducing memory distortions in older adults compared to young adults.

  20. Declarative memory.

    PubMed

    Riedel, Wim J; Blokland, Arjan

    2015-01-01

    Declarative Memory consists of memory for events (episodic memory) and facts (semantic memory). Methods to test declarative memory are key in investigating effects of potential cognition-enhancing substances--medicinal drugs or nutrients. A number of cognitive performance tests assessing declarative episodic memory tapping verbal learning, logical memory, pattern recognition memory, and paired associates learning are described. These tests have been used as outcome variables in 34 studies in humans that have been described in the literature in the past 10 years. Also, the use of episodic tests in animal research is discussed also in relation to the drug effects in these tasks. The results show that nutritional supplementation of polyunsaturated fatty acids has been investigated most abundantly and, in a number of cases, but not all, show indications of positive effects on declarative memory, more so in elderly than in young subjects. Studies investigating effects of registered anti-Alzheimer drugs, cholinesterase inhibitors in mild cognitive impairment, show positive and negative effects on declarative memory. Studies mainly carried out in healthy volunteers investigating the effects of acute dopamine stimulation indicate enhanced memory consolidation as manifested specifically by better delayed recall, especially at time points long after learning and more so when drug is administered after learning and if word lists are longer. The animal studies reveal a different picture with respect to the effects of different drugs on memory performance. This suggests that at least for episodic memory tasks, the translational value is rather poor. For the human studies, detailed parameters of the compositions of word lists for declarative memory tests are discussed and it is concluded that tailored adaptations of tests to fit the hypothesis under study, rather than "off-the-shelf" use of existing tests, are recommended. PMID:25977084

  1. Short-term calorie restriction enhances adult hippocampal neurogenesis and remote fear memory in a Ghsr-dependent manner

    PubMed Central

    Hornsby, Amanda K.E.; Redhead, Yushi T.; Rees, Daniel J.; Ratcliff, Michael S.G.; Reichenbach, Alex; Wells, Timothy; Francis, Lewis; Amstalden, Katia; Andrews, Zane B.; Davies, Jeffrey S.

    2016-01-01

    The beneficial effects of calorie restriction (CR) have been described at both organismal and cellular levels in multiple organs. However, our understanding of the causal mediators of such hormesis is poorly understood, particularly in the context of higher brain function. Here, we show that the receptor for the orexigenic hormone acyl-ghrelin, the growth hormone secretagogue receptor (Ghsr), is enriched in the neurogenic niche of the hippocampal dentate gyrus (DG). Acute elevation of acyl-ghrelin levels by injection or by overnight CR, increased DG levels of the neurogenic transcription factor, Egr-1. Two weeks of CR increased the subsequent number of mature newborn neurons in the DG of adult wild-type but not Ghsr−/− mice. CR wild-type mice also showed improved remote contextual fear memory. Our findings suggest that Ghsr mediates the beneficial effects of CR on enhancing adult hippocampal neurogenesis and memory. PMID:26460782

  2. Enhancing memory for lists by grouped presentation and rehearsal: a pilot study in healthy subjects with unexpected results.

    PubMed

    Hoppe, Christian; Stojanovic, Jelena; Elger, Christian E

    2009-12-01

    List learning is probably the most established paradigm for the psychometric evaluation of episodic memory deficits in different neuropsychiatric conditions including epilepsy. Strategies which are capable of increasing the test performance might be promising candidates for a therapeutic improvement of daily memory performance. Based on the classical 'temporal grouping effect' we wanted to evaluate the memory-enhancing potential of disentangling perceiving, rehearsing and encoding by temporally grouped presentation and group-wise reproduction during acquisition. According to the ethical principle of subsidiary the study was performed in healthy adolescents (N=126) before setting-up a patient study. Subjects had to learn a list of 12 semantically unrelated nouns and a list of 12 figures during two acquisition trials under one of four experimental conditions defined by the size of presented item groups (GS): GS=1 (single items, i.e., 12 x 1 item), GS=3 (4 x 3 items), GS=6 (2 x 6 items), and GS=12 (standard presentation mode, i.e., 1 x 12 items). Repeated measures MANOVA confirmed a positive effect of smaller GS on acquisition performance but the grouping condition obtained no effect on immediate and delayed free recall or on yes/no recognition. For verbal retention, GS=12 even showed a tendency toward an advantage as compared to GS=3. Although appearing reasonable and promising, facilitating acquisition during list learning by temporal grouping and grouped overt rehearsal turned out to be ineffective with regard to long-term memory encoding and retrieval. A strategy however which fails in healthy subjects is unlikely to obtain a therapeutic potential in patients with memory deficits.

  3. Age-dependent and age-independent human memory persistence is enhanced by delayed posttraining methylphenidate administration.

    PubMed

    Izquierdo, Iván; Bevilaqua, Lia R; Rossato, Janine I; Lima, Ramón H; Medina, Jorge H; Cammarota, Martín

    2008-12-01

    Healthy human volunteers 16-82 years of age with at least 10 years of schooling were exposed to two different memory tasks. The first task involved incidental memory. The subjects were asked, as casually as possible: "Did you watch any movie on TV 2 days ago? And 7 days ago? If so, do you remember the title of the movie(s) and the name of the first two actors (actresses)?" Retention scores (maximum = 3: title, actor 1, and actor 2) were equally high (overall mean = 2.6, n = 61) in all age groups (16-20, 21-30, 31-40, 41-60, and 61-82 years) for the day 2 scores. Scores for the movie seen 7 days before decreased significantly and progressively in the three older groups in relation to age, which indicates reduced persistence of this type of memory beginning at the age of 41-50 years and becoming more extensive over the years. The other task was a formal memory procedure. Subjects were asked to study a brief text with factual information on the 1954 World Soccer Cup for 10 min. They were then exposed to 10 questions on the text 2 days and, again, 7 days later. Retention scores declined between the two tests, but in this task, the decline of persistence occurred to a similar extent in all age groups, and thus was not dependent on age. Methylphenidate (10 mg p.o.) given 12 hours after acquisition markedly enhanced persistence of the two memory types. This suggests an involvement of dopaminergic processes in persistence in the late posttraining period.

  4. A Review of Information and Communication Technology Enhanced Social Work Interventions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chan, Chitat; Holosko, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Information and communications technology (ICT) has impacted almost all human service disciplines and currently is evolving in social work. This study provides a systematic review of ICT-enhanced social work interventions, with particular reference to their intervention fidelity (IF), validity, and the role of ICT in the helping…

  5. Using Current Events to Enhance Learning: A Social Work Curricular Case Example

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grise-Owens, Erlene; Cambron, Shannon; Valade, Rita

    2010-01-01

    Effective social work education that promotes social justice requires expanded curricular models and creative pedagogical approaches. This article presents a curricular case study demonstrating the use of current events to enhance both implicit and explicit curricula. How the cultural crisis of Hurricane Katrina was used to engender transformative…

  6. Developing Social Work Professional Judgment Skills: Enhancing Learning in Practice by Researching Learning in Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rawles, Joanna

    2016-01-01

    The aims of this article are twofold: to discuss the value of practice-based research as a basis for enhancing learning and teaching in social work and, as an illustration of this, to present the findings of a preliminary qualitative research study into social work students' development of professional judgment skills. The research was conducted…

  7. The Effects of Assertiveness Training on Enhancing the Social Skills of Adolescents with Visual Impairments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Young-il

    2003-01-01

    A study of the effects of assertiveness training to enhance the social/assertiveness skills of 36 adolescents with visual impairments found that parents, the students, teachers, and observers judged the adolescents' social skills differently. However, the training did have some specific effect on increasing assertiveness. (Contains references.)…

  8. Development of a Learning Model for Enhancing Social Skills on Elementary Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Traisorn, Rattanaporn; Soonthornrojana, Wimonrat; Chano, Jiraporn

    2015-01-01

    The goals of this study were: 1) to study the situation, problems and needs for a learning model to enhance the social skills of sixth grade students; 2) to develop a learning model that would address those needs; 3) to study the effectiveness of that learning model; 4) to compare performance on pretests and posttests of social skills; and 5) to…

  9. Quantitative Understanding to Enhance Social Science Teaching. Project QUESST: Technical Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Educational Resources Center, Inc., Boulder, CO.

    This technical project report provides the National Science Foundation with information regarding the substantive achievements of the Social Science Education Consortium's project QUESST (Quantitative Understanding To Enhance Social Science Teaching). The report begins with a discussion of materials development and project publicity. Thirty-three…

  10. Why We Remember and What We Remember: Culture and Autobiographical Memory.

    PubMed

    Ross, Michael; Wang, Qi

    2010-07-01

    We examine cultural (mainly East and West) differences in the functions and contents of autobiographical memory. We discuss how cultural differences in physical environments, self-views, the motivation to self-enhance, concerns for behavioral and emotional regulation, socialization, and language affect the contents and use of memory. Cultural influences take place at the individual level of cognitive schemata and memory strategies, as well as the interpersonal sphere of daily mnemonic practices and exchanges. Autobiographical memory is categorically cultural.

  11. DL- and PO-phosphatidylcholines as a promising learning and memory enhancer.

    PubMed

    Nagata, Tetsu; Yaguchi, Takahiro; Nishizaki, Tomoyuki

    2011-01-01

    In the water maze test, oral administration with 1,2-dilynoleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DLPhtCho)(5 mg/kg) alone or DLPhtCho (5 mg/kg) plus 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (POPhtCho)(5 mg/kg) significantly shortened the prolonged acquisition latency for rats intraperitoneally injected with scopolamine, with more efficient effect than (POPhtCho)(5 mg/kg) alone, arachidonic acid (AA)(5 mg/kg) alone, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)(5 mg/kg) alone, or 1-palmitoyl-2-linoleil-sn-glycero-3-phosphoserine (PLPhtSer)(5 mg/kg) alone. POPhtCho (5 mg/kg) alone or DLPhtCho (5 mg/kg) plus POPhtCho (5 mg/kg) also significantly shortened the prolonged retention latency for rats intraperitoneally injected with scopolamine, but otherwise no significant effect was obtained with DLPhtCho (5 mg/kg) alone, AA (5 mg/kg) alone, DHA (5 mg/kg) alone, or PLPhtSer (5 mg/kg) alone. Oral co-administration with DLPhtCho (5 mg/kg) and POPhtCho (5 mg/kg) significantly shortened the acquisition latency for rats untreated with scopolamine as compared with the latency for administration with polyethylene glycol (PEG), DLPhtCho alone at doses of 5 and 10 mg/kg, or POPhtCho alone at doses of 5 and 10 mg/kg, while no efficient effect on the retention latency was obtained. To assess the effect of DLPhtCho and POPhtCho on cognitive functions for humans, Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE) test was performed in subjects with cognitive disorders (the average MMSE score, 15). Oral co-intake with DLPhtCho (50 mg) and POPhtCho (45 mg) once after breakfast everyday raised the score to over 20, corresponding to normal cognitive functions, throughout 5 months after intake, and the increase in the score was significantly greater than that for oral intake with DLPhtCho (100 mg/day) alone or POPhtCho (90 mg/kg) alone. Taken together, the results of the present study show that co-intake with DLPhtCho and POPhtCho could enhance learning and memory ability and improve cognitive disorders for both the

  12. Amyloid β Enhances Typical Rodent Behavior While It Impairs Contextual Memory Consolidation

    PubMed Central

    Salgado-Puga, Karla; Prado-Alcalá, Roberto A.; Peña-Ortega, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is associated with an early hippocampal dysfunction, which is likely induced by an increase in soluble amyloid beta peptide (Aβ). This hippocampal failure contributes to the initial memory deficits observed both in patients and in AD animal models and possibly to the deterioration in activities of daily living (ADL). One typical rodent behavior that has been proposed as a hippocampus-dependent assessment model of ADL in mice and rats is burrowing. Despite the fact that AD transgenic mice show some evidence of reduced burrowing, it has not been yet determined whether or not Aβ can affect this typical rodent behavior and whether this alteration correlates with the well-known Aβ-induced memory impairment. Thus, the purpose of this study was to test whether or not Aβ affects burrowing while inducing hippocampus-dependent memory impairment. Surprisingly, our results show that intrahippocampal application of Aβ increases burrowing while inducing memory impairment. We consider that this Aβ-induced increase in burrowing might be associated with a mild anxiety state, which was revealed by increased freezing behavior in the open field, and conclude that Aβ-induced hippocampal dysfunction is reflected in the impairment of ADL and memory, through mechanisms yet to be determined. PMID:26229236

  13. Blocking Mineralocorticoid Receptors Impairs, Blocking Glucocorticoid Receptors Enhances Memory Retrieval in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Rimmele, Ulrike; Besedovsky, Luciana; Lange, Tanja; Born, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Memory retrieval is impaired at very low as well as very high cortisol levels, but not at intermediate levels. This inverted-U-shaped relationship between cortisol levels and memory retrieval may originate from different roles of the mineralocorticoid (MR) and glucocorticoid receptor (GR) that bind cortisol with distinctly different affinity. Here, we examined the role of MRs and GRs in human memory retrieval using specific receptor antagonists. In two double-blind within-subject, cross-over designed studies, young healthy men were asked to retrieve emotional and neutral texts and pictures (learnt 3 days earlier) between 0745 and 0915 hours in the morning, either after administration of 400 mg of the MR blocker spironolactone vs placebo (200 mg at 2300 hours and 200 mg at 0400 hours, Study I) or after administration of the GR blocker mifepristone vs placebo (200 mg at 2300 hours, Study II). Blockade of MRs impaired free recall of both texts and pictures particularly for emotional material. In contrast, blockade of GRs resulted in better memory retrieval for pictures, with the effect being more pronounced for neutral than emotional materials. These findings indicate indeed opposing roles of MRs and GRs in memory retrieval, with optimal retrieval at intermediate cortisol levels likely mediated by high MR but concurrently low GR activation. PMID:23303058

  14. Using Simulated Sessions to Enhance Clinical Social Work Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mooradian, John K.

    2008-01-01

    This article evaluates a learning method that used theatre students as family clients in an advanced social work practice course. Data from 47 advanced graduate students showed that observing peers conduct simulated sessions can be an effective and valued learning experience. Quantitative findings indicated that simulations are perceived to be…

  15. Enhancing Social Work Education through Team-Based Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillespie, Judy

    2012-01-01

    Group learning strategies are used extensively in social work education, despite the challenges and negative outcomes regularly experienced by students and faculty. Building on principles of cooperative learning, team-based learning offers a more structured approach that maximizes the benefits of cooperative learning while also offering…

  16. Gifted Education as a Vehicle for Enhancing Social Equality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cross, Jennifer Riedl

    2013-01-01

    Considering the benefits that accrue in countries having low levels of social inequality and the harm that accompanies wide disparities in income, it is important to examine any practices or traditions that contribute to inequality. Under some circumstances, gifted education does confer advantages that are not available to all students,…

  17. Conformity enhances network reciprocity in evolutionary social dilemmas

    PubMed Central

    Szolnoki, Attila; Perc, Matjaž

    2015-01-01

    The pursuit of highest payoffs in evolutionary social dilemmas is risky and sometimes inferior to conformity. Choosing the most common strategy within the interaction range is safer because it ensures that the payoff of an individual will not be much lower than average. Herding instincts and crowd behaviour in humans and social animals also compel to conformity in their own right. Motivated by these facts, we here study the impact of conformity on the evolution of cooperation in social dilemmas. We show that an appropriate fraction of conformists within the population introduces an effective surface tension around cooperative clusters and ensures smooth interfaces between different strategy domains. Payoff-driven players brake the symmetry in favour of cooperation and enable an expansion of clusters past the boundaries imposed by traditional network reciprocity. This mechanism works even under the most testing conditions, and it is robust against variations of the interaction network as long as degree-normalized payoffs are applied. Conformity may thus be beneficial for the resolution of social dilemmas. PMID:25540242

  18. Conformity enhances network reciprocity in evolutionary social dilemmas.

    PubMed

    Szolnoki, Attila; Perc, Matjaž

    2015-02-01

    The pursuit of highest payoffs in evolutionary social dilemmas is risky and sometimes inferior to conformity. Choosing the most common strategy within the interaction range is safer beca