Science.gov

Sample records for enhanced survival compared

  1. Concentrated Growth Factor Enhanced Fat Graft Survival: A Comparative Study.

    PubMed

    Hu, Yun; Jiang, Yichen; Wang, Muyao; Tian, Weidong; Wang, Hang

    2018-06-08

    Concentrated growth factors (CGFs) belong to a new generation biomaterials that concentrate large number of growth factors and CD34 stem cells in small volume of plasma. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of the new technique, CGF, on fat graft survival, which compared with platelet-rich plasma (PRP) and platelet-rich fibrin (PRF). Nude mice received fat graft were divided into PRP group, PRF group, CGF group, and saline. The grafts were volumetrically and histologically evaluated at 4, 8, and 12 weeks after fat grafting. In vitro growth factor levels in PRP, PRF, and CGF were compared using enzyme-linked immunoassay method. Cell count and real-time polymerase chain reaction were used to evaluate the impact of CGF in medium on human adipose-derived stem cell (hADSC) proliferation and vascular differentiation, respectively. Fat graft weight was significantly higher in the CGF group than those in the other groups, and histologic evaluation revealed greater vascularity, fewer cysts, and less fibrosis. Adding CGF to the medium maximally promoted hADSC proliferation and expressing vascular endothelial growth factor and PECAM-1. In this preliminary study, CGF treatment improved the survival and quality of fat grafts.

  2. Rigid shells enhance survival of gekkotan eggs.

    PubMed

    Andrews, Robin M

    2015-11-01

    The majority of lizards and snakes produce permeable parchment-shelled eggs that require high moisture conditions for successful embryonic development. One clade of gekkotan lizards is an exception; females produce relatively impermeable rigid-shelled eggs that normally incubate successfully under low moisture conditions. I tested the hypothesis that the rigid-shell increases egg survival during incubation, but only under low moisture conditions. To test this hypothesis, I incubated rigid-shelled eggs of Chondrodactylus turneri under low and under high moisture conditions. Eggs were incubated with parchment-shelled eggs of Eublepharis macularius to insure that incubation conditions were suitable for parchment-shelled eggs. Chondrodactylus turneri eggs had very high survival (>90%) when they were incubated under low moisture conditions. In contrast, eggs incubated under high moisture conditions had low survival overall, and lower survival than those of the parchment-shelled eggs of E. macularius. Mortality of C. turneri and E. macularius eggs incubated under high moisture conditions was the result of fungal infection, a common source of egg mortality for squamates under laboratory and field conditions. These observations document high survival of rigid-shelled eggs under low moisture conditions because eggs escape from fungal infection. Highly mineralized rigid shells also make egg survival independent of moisture availability and may also provide protection from small invertebrates in nature. Enhanced egg survival could thus compensate for the low reproductive output of gekkotans that produce rigid-shelled eggs. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Altruism: A natural strategy for enhancing survival

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rozenfeld, Alejandro F.; Luis Gruver, José; Albano, Ezequiel V.; Havlin, Shlomo

    2006-09-01

    We study the influence of altruistic behavior in a prey-predator model permitting the preys to commit suicide by confronting the predators instead of escaping. Surprising, altruistic behavior at microscopic (local) scale, leads to the emergence of new complex macroscopic (global) phenomena characterized by dramatic changes in the dynamic topology of the prey-predator spatiotemporal distribution, yielding spiral patterns. We show that such dynamics enhances the prey's survivability.

  4. Enhanced Microbial Survivability in Subzero Brines.

    PubMed

    Heinz, Jacob; Schirmack, Janosch; Airo, Alessandro; Kounaves, Samuel P; Schulze-Makuch, Dirk

    2018-04-17

    It is well known that dissolved salts can significantly lower the freezing point of water and thus extend habitability to subzero conditions. However, most investigations thus far have focused on sodium chloride as a solute. In this study, we report on the survivability of the bacterial strain Planococcus halocryophilus in sodium, magnesium, and calcium chloride or perchlorate solutions at temperatures ranging from +25°C to -30°C. In addition, we determined the survival rates of P. halocryophilus when subjected to multiple freeze/thaw cycles. We found that cells suspended in chloride-containing samples have markedly increased survival rates compared with those in perchlorate-containing samples. In both cases, the survival rates increase with lower temperatures; however, this effect is more pronounced in chloride-containing samples. Furthermore, we found that higher salt concentrations increase survival rates when cells are subjected to freeze/thaw cycles. Our findings have important implications not only for the habitability of cold environments on Earth but also for extraterrestrial environments such as that of Mars, where cold brines might exist in the subsurface and perhaps even appear temporarily at the surface such as at recurring slope lineae. Key Words: Brines-Halophile-Mars-Perchlorate-Subzero-Survival. Astrobiology 18, xxx-xxx.

  5. Diversity and relatedness enhance survival in colour polymorphic grasshoppers.

    PubMed

    Caesar, Sofia; Karlsson, Magnus; Forsman, Anders

    2010-05-28

    Evolutionary theory predicts that different resource utilization and behaviour by alternative phenotypes may reduce competition and enhance productivity and individual performance in polymorphic, as compared with monomorphic, groups of individuals. However, firm evidence that members of more heterogeneous groups benefit from enhanced survival has been scarce or lacking. Furthermore, benefits associated with phenotypic diversity may be counterbalanced by costs mediated by reduced relatedness, since closely related individuals typically are more similar. Pygmy grasshoppers (Tetrix subulata) are characterized by extensive polymorphism in colour pattern, morphology, behaviour and physiology. We studied experimental groups founded by different numbers of mothers and found that survival was higher in low than in high density, that survival peaked at intermediate colour morph diversity in high density, and that survival was independent of diversity in low density where competition was less intense. We further demonstrate that survival was enhanced by relatedness, as expected if antagonistic and competitive interactions are discriminately directed towards non-siblings. We therefore also performed behavioural observations and staged encounters which confirmed that individuals recognized and responded differently to siblings than to non-siblings. We conclude that negative effects associated with competition are less manifest in diverse groups, that there is conflicting selection for and against genetic diversity occurring simultaneously, and that diversity and relatedness may facilitate the productivity and ecological success of groups of interacting individuals.

  6. Adaptive Memory: Survival Processing Enhances Retention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nairne, James S.; Thompson, Sarah R.; Pandeirada, Josefa N. S.

    2007-01-01

    The authors investigated the idea that memory systems might have evolved to help us remember fitness-relevant information--specifically, information relevant to survival. In 4 incidental learning experiments, people were asked to rate common nouns for their survival relevance (e.g., in securing food, water, or protection from predators); in…

  7. Survival Processing Enhances Visual Search Efficiency.

    PubMed

    Cho, Kit W

    2018-05-01

    Words rated for their survival relevance are remembered better than when rated using other well-known memory mnemonics. This finding, which is known as the survival advantage effect and has been replicated in many studies, suggests that our memory systems are molded by natural selection pressures. In two experiments, the present study used a visual search task to examine whether there is likewise a survival advantage for our visual systems. Participants rated words for their survival relevance or for their pleasantness before locating that object's picture in a search array with 8 or 16 objects. Although there was no difference in search times among the two rating scenarios when set size was 8, survival processing reduced visual search times when set size was 16. These findings reflect a search efficiency effect and suggest that similar to our memory systems, our visual systems are also tuned toward self-preservation.

  8. Female partner preferences enhance offspring ability to survive an infection.

    PubMed

    Raveh, Shirley; Sutalo, Sanja; Thonhauser, Kerstin E; Thoß, Michaela; Hettyey, Attila; Winkelser, Friederike; Penn, Dustin J

    2014-01-23

    It is often suggested that mate choice enhances offspring immune resistance to infectious diseases. To test this hypothesis, we conducted a study with wild-derived house mice (Mus musculus musculus) in which females were experimentally mated either with their preferred or non-preferred male, and their offspring were infected with a mouse pathogen, Salmonella enterica (serovar Typhimurium). We found that offspring sired by preferred males were significantly more likely to survive the experimental infection compared to those sired by non-preferred males. We found no significant differences in the pathogen clearance or infection dynamics between the infected mice, suggesting that offspring from preferred males were better able to cope with infection and had improved tolerance rather than immune resistance. Our results provide the first direct experimental evidence within a single study that partner preferences enhance offspring resistance to infectious diseases.

  9. Enhanced secondary analysis of survival data: reconstructing the data from published Kaplan-Meier survival curves.

    PubMed

    Guyot, Patricia; Ades, A E; Ouwens, Mario J N M; Welton, Nicky J

    2012-02-01

    The results of Randomized Controlled Trials (RCTs) on time-to-event outcomes that are usually reported are median time to events and Cox Hazard Ratio. These do not constitute the sufficient statistics required for meta-analysis or cost-effectiveness analysis, and their use in secondary analyses requires strong assumptions that may not have been adequately tested. In order to enhance the quality of secondary data analyses, we propose a method which derives from the published Kaplan Meier survival curves a close approximation to the original individual patient time-to-event data from which they were generated. We develop an algorithm that maps from digitised curves back to KM data by finding numerical solutions to the inverted KM equations, using where available information on number of events and numbers at risk. The reproducibility and accuracy of survival probabilities, median survival times and hazard ratios based on reconstructed KM data was assessed by comparing published statistics (survival probabilities, medians and hazard ratios) with statistics based on repeated reconstructions by multiple observers. The validation exercise established there was no material systematic error and that there was a high degree of reproducibility for all statistics. Accuracy was excellent for survival probabilities and medians, for hazard ratios reasonable accuracy can only be obtained if at least numbers at risk or total number of events are reported. The algorithm is a reliable tool for meta-analysis and cost-effectiveness analyses of RCTs reporting time-to-event data. It is recommended that all RCTs should report information on numbers at risk and total number of events alongside KM curves.

  10. Picturing survival memories: enhanced memory after fitness-relevant processing occurs for verbal and visual stimuli.

    PubMed

    Otgaar, Henry; Smeets, Tom; van Bergen, Saskia

    2010-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that processing words according to a survival scenario leads to superior retention relative to control conditions. Here, we examined whether a survival recall advantage could be elicited by using pictures. Furthermore, in Experiment 1, we were interested in whether survival processing also results in improved memory for details. Undergraduates rated the relevance of pictures in a survival, moving, or pleasantness scenario and were subsequently given a surprise free recall test. We found that survival processing yielded superior retention. We also found that distortions occurred more often in the survival condition than in the pleasantness condition. In Experiment 2, we directly compared the survival recall effect between pictures and words. A comparable survival recall advantage was found for pictures and words. The present findings support the idea that memory is enhanced by processing information in terms of fitness value, yet at the same time, the present results suggest that this may increase the risk for memory distortions.

  11. NASA Research Announcement for Space Suit Survivability Enhancement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fredrickson, Thad H.; Ware, Joanne S.; Lin, John K.; Pastore, Christopher M.

    1998-01-01

    This report documents the research activities for space suit survivability material enhancements. Self-sealing mechanisms for the pressure envelope were addressed, as were improvements in materials for cut, puncture, and hypervelocity impact resistance.

  12. Individual survival curves comparing subjective and observed mortality risks.

    PubMed

    Bissonnette, Luc; Hurd, Michael D; Michaud, Pierre-Carl

    2017-12-01

    We compare individual survival curves constructed from objective (actual mortality) and elicited subjective information (probability of survival to a given target age). We develop a methodology to estimate jointly subjective and objective individual survival curves accounting for rounding on subjective reports of perceived survival. We make use of the long follow-up period in the Health and Retirement Study and the high quality of mortality data to estimate individual survival curves that feature both observed and unobserved heterogeneity. This allows us to compare objective and subjective estimates of remaining life expectancy for various groups and compare welfare effects of objective and subjective mortality risk using the life cycle model of consumption. We find that subjective and objective hazards are not the same. The median welfare loss from misperceptions of mortality risk when annuities are not available is 7% of current wealth at age 65 whereas more than 25% of respondents have losses larger than 60% of wealth. When annuities are available and exogenously given, the welfare loss is substantially lower. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Adaptive memory: enhanced location memory after survival processing.

    PubMed

    Nairne, James S; Vanarsdall, Joshua E; Pandeirada, Josefa N S; Blunt, Janell R

    2012-03-01

    Two experiments investigated whether survival processing enhances memory for location. From an adaptive perspective, remembering that food has been located in a particular area, or that potential predators are likely to be found in a given territory, should increase the chances of subsequent survival. Participants were shown pictures of food or animals located at various positions on a computer screen. The task was to rate the ease of collecting the food or capturing the animals relative to a central fixation point. Surprise retention tests revealed that people remembered the locations of the items better when the collection or capturing task was described as relevant to survival. These data extend the generality of survival processing advantages to a new domain (location memory) by means of a task that does not involve rating the relevance of words to a scenario. 2012 APA, all rights reserved

  14. Comparative Effect of Heat Shock on Survival of O157:H7 and Non-O157 Shiga Toxigenic Escherichia coli and Salmonella in Lean Beef with or without Moisture-Enhancing Ingredients.

    PubMed

    Vasan, Akhila; Ingham, Steven C; Ingham, Barbara H

    2017-06-01

    Thermal tolerance of pathogenic bacteria has been shown to increase after exposure to sublethal elevated temperatures, or heat shock. We evaluated the effect of heat shock at 48°C on thermal tolerance (D 55°C ) of cocktails of O157 and non-O157 Shiga toxigenic Escherichia coli (STEC) and Salmonella in lean ground beef with or without moisture-enhancing ingredients. Beef was moisture enhanced to 110% (w) with a 5% NaCl-2.5% sodium tripolyphosphate (w/w) brine. Meat, with or without added brine, was inoculated (∼10 8 CFU/g) and heat shocked at 48°C for 0, 5, or 30 min, followed by isothermal heating at 55°C. Inoculated control samples were unenhanced and were not subject to heat shock. From the linear portion of the log CFU per gram surviving cells over time plots, D 55°C -values (minutes) were calculated. D 55°C was 20.43, 28.78, and 21.15 min for O157, non-O157, and Salmonella controls, respectively. Overall, heat shock significantly increased D 55°C , regardless of pathogen (P < 0.05). After 30 min of heat shock, D 55°C increased 89 and 160% for O157 STEC, 32 and 49% for non-O157 STEC, and 29 and 57% for Salmonella, in unenhanced and enhanced samples, respectively, relative to the pathogen control. D 55°C for Salmonella was the same or significantly less than for O157 and non-O157 STEC, regardless of heat shock, and was significantly less than for O157 and non-O157 STEC in all trials with moisture-enhanced meat (P < 0.05). Moisture-enhancing ingredients significantly increased D 55°C , regardless of pathogen (P < 0.05). We suggest that thermal processes validated against Salmonella may not prove effective against STEC in all cases and that regulators of the beef industry should focus attention on STEC in nonintact moisture-enhanced beef products.

  15. Proapoptotic protein Bim attenuates estrogen-enhanced survival in lymphangioleiomyomatosis

    PubMed Central

    Li, Chenggang; Li, Na; Liu, Xiaolei; Zhang, Erik Y.; Sun, Yang; Masuda, Kouhei; Li, Jing; Sun, Julia; Morrison, Tasha; Li, Xiangke; Chen, Yuanguang; Wang, Jiang; Karim, Nagla A.; Zhang, Yi; Blenis, John; Reginato, Mauricio J.; Henske, Elizabeth P.; Yu, Jane J.

    2016-01-01

    Lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM) is a progressive lung disease that primarily affects young women. Genetic evidence suggests that LAM cells bearing TSC2 mutations migrate to the lungs, proliferate, and cause cystic remodeling. The female predominance indicates that estrogen plays a critical role in LAM pathogenesis, and we have proposed that estrogen promotes LAM cell metastasis by inhibition of anoikis. We report here that estrogen increased LAM patient–derived cells’ resistance to anoikis in vitro, accompanied by decreased accumulation of the proapoptotic protein Bim, an activator of anoikis. The resistance to anoikis was reversed by the proteasome inhibitor, bortezomib. Treatment of LAM patient–derived cells with estrogen plus bortezomib promoted anoikis compared with estrogen alone. Depletion of Bim by siRNA in TSC2-deficient cells resulted in anoikis resistance. Treatment of mice with bortezomib reduced estrogen-promoted lung colonization of TSC2-deficient cells. Importantly, molecular depletion of Bim by siRNA in Tsc2-deficient cells increased lung colonization in a mouse model. Collectively, these data indicate that Bim plays a key role in estrogen-enhanced survival of LAM patient–derived cells under detached conditions that occur with dissemination. Thus, targeting Bim may be a plausible future treatment strategy in patients with LAM. PMID:27882343

  16. Biofilm formation enhances Helicobacter pylori survivability in vegetables.

    PubMed

    Ng, Chow Goon; Loke, Mun Fai; Goh, Khean Lee; Vadivelu, Jamuna; Ho, Bow

    2017-04-01

    To date, the exact route and mode of transmission of Helicobacter pylori remains elusive. The detection of H. pylori in food using molecular approaches has led us to postulate that the gastric pathogen may survive in the extragastric environment for an extended period. In this study, we show that H. pylori prolongs its survival by forming biofilm and micro-colonies on vegetables. The biofilm forming capability of H. pylori is both strain and vegetable dependent. H. pylori strains were classified into high and low biofilm formers based on their highest relative biofilm units (BU). High biofilm formers survived longer on vegetables compared to low biofilm formers. The bacteria survived better on cabbage compared to other vegetables tested. In addition, images captured on scanning electron and confocal laser scanning microscopes revealed that the bacteria were able to form biofilm and reside as micro-colonies on vegetable surfaces, strengthening the notion of possible survival of H. pylori on vegetables for an extended period of time. Taken together, the ability of H. pylori to form biofilm on vegetables (a common food source for human) potentially plays an important role in its survival, serving as a mode of transmission of H. pylori in the extragastric environment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. A faster escape does not enhance survival in zebrafish larvae

    PubMed Central

    Nair, Arjun; Nguyen, Christy

    2017-01-01

    An escape response is a rapid manoeuvre used by prey to evade predators. Performing this manoeuvre at greater speed, in a favourable direction, or from a longer distance have been hypothesized to enhance the survival of prey, but these ideas are difficult to test experimentally. We examined how prey survival depends on escape kinematics through a novel combination of experimentation and mathematical modelling. This approach focused on zebrafish (Danio rerio) larvae under predation by adults and juveniles of the same species. High-speed three-dimensional kinematics were used to track the body position of prey and predator and to determine the probability of behavioural actions by both fish. These measurements provided the basis for an agent-based probabilistic model that simulated the trajectories of the animals. Predictions of survivorship by this model were found by Monte Carlo simulations to agree with our observations and we examined how these predictions varied by changing individual model parameters. Contrary to expectation, we found that survival may not be improved by increasing the speed or altering the direction of the escape. Rather, zebrafish larvae operate with sufficiently high locomotor performance due to the relatively slow approach and limited range of suction feeding by fish predators. We did find that survival was enhanced when prey responded from a greater distance. This is an ability that depends on the capacity of the visual and lateral line systems to detect a looming threat. Therefore, performance in sensing, and not locomotion, is decisive for improving the survival of larval fish prey. These results offer a framework for understanding the evolution of predator–prey strategy that may inform prey survival in a broad diversity of animals. PMID:28404783

  18. Calcineurin inhibition enhances motor neuron survival following injury

    PubMed Central

    Hui, Kelvin KW; Liadis, Nicole; Robertson, Jennifer; Kanungo, Anish; Henderson, Jeffrey T

    2010-01-01

    Abstract The immunosuppressive agents cyclosporin A (CsA) and FK-506 have previously been shown to exhibit neurotrophic and neuroprotective properties in vivo. Given that significant clinical expertise exists for both drugs, they represent an attractive starting point for treatment of acute neural injuries. One putative mechanism for neuroprotection by these drugs relates to inhibition of calcineurin activity. However each drug–immunophilin complex can potentially influence additional signal transduction pathways. Furthermore, several non-immunosuppressive immunophilin ligands have been described as possessing neuroprotective properties, suggesting that neuroprotection may be separable from calcineurin inhibition. In the present study, we examined the mechanism of this neuroprotection in facial motor neurons following axotomy-induced injury. Similar to previous studies in rats, CsA and FK-506 enhanced motor neuron survival in mice following acute injury. To examine the mechanism responsible for neuroprotection by these agents, pharmacologic inhibitors of several potential alternate signalling pathways (17-(allylamino)-17-demethoxygeldanamycin, rapamycin, cypermethrin) were evaluated with respect to neuroprotection. Of these, only cypermethrin, a direct calcineurin inhibitor not previously associated with neuronal survival properties, was observed to significantly enhance motor neuron survival following injury. The results demonstrate for the first time that direct inhibition of calcineurin is neuroprotective in vivo. These data support a model in which calcineurin inhibition promotes neuronal survival, distinct from effects upon neurite outgrowth. PMID:19243469

  19. Current hypotheses on how microsatellite instability leads to enhanced survival of Lynch Syndrome patients.

    PubMed

    Drescher, Kristen M; Sharma, Poonam; Lynch, Henry T

    2010-01-01

    High levels of microsatellite instability (MSI-high) are a cardinal feature of colorectal tumors from patients with Lynch Syndrome. Other key characteristics of Lynch Syndrome are that these patients experience fewer metastases and have enhanced survival when compared to patients diagnosed with microsatellite stable (MSS) colorectal cancer. Many of the characteristics associated with Lynch Syndrome including enhanced survival are also observed in patients with sporadic MSI-high colorectal cancer. In this review we will present the current state of knowledge regarding the mechanisms that are utilized by the host to control colorectal cancer in Lynch Syndrome and why these same mechanisms fail in MSS colorectal cancers.

  20. Current Hypotheses on How Microsatellite Instability Leads to Enhanced Survival of Lynch Syndrome Patients

    PubMed Central

    Drescher, Kristen M.; Sharma, Poonam; Lynch, Henry T.

    2010-01-01

    High levels of microsatellite instability (MSI-high) are a cardinal feature of colorectal tumors from patients with Lynch Syndrome. Other key characteristics of Lynch Syndrome are that these patients experience fewer metastases and have enhanced survival when compared to patients diagnosed with microsatellite stable (MSS) colorectal cancer. Many of the characteristics associated with Lynch Syndrome including enhanced survival are also observed in patients with sporadic MSI-high colorectal cancer. In this review we will present the current state of knowledge regarding the mechanisms that are utilized by the host to control colorectal cancer in Lynch Syndrome and why these same mechanisms fail in MSS colorectal cancers. PMID:20631828

  1. Intensive Hemodialysis Associates with Improved Survival Compared with Conventional Hemodialysis

    PubMed Central

    Lindsay, Robert M.; Cuerden, Meaghan S.; Garg, Amit X.; Port, Friedrich; Austin, Peter C.; Moist, Louise M.; Pierratos, Andreas; Chan, Christopher T.; Zimmerman, Deborah; Lockridge, Robert S.; Couchoud, Cécile; Chazot, Charles; Ofsthun, Norma; Levin, Adeera; Copland, Michael; Courtney, Mark; Steele, Andrew; McFarlane, Philip A.; Geary, Denis F.; Pauly, Robert P.; Komenda, Paul; Suri, Rita S.

    2012-01-01

    Patients undergoing conventional maintenance hemodialysis typically receive three sessions per week, each lasting 2.5–5.5 hours. Recently, the use of more intensive hemodialysis (>5.5 hours, three to seven times per week) has increased, but the effects of these regimens on survival are uncertain. We conducted a retrospective cohort study to examine whether intensive hemodialysis associates with better survival than conventional hemodialysis. We identified 420 patients in the International Quotidian Dialysis Registry who received intensive home hemodialysis in France, the United States, and Canada between January 2000 and August 2010. We matched 338 of these patients to 1388 patients in the Dialysis Outcomes and Practice Patterns Study who received in-center conventional hemodialysis during the same time period by country, ESRD duration, and propensity score. The intensive hemodialysis group received a mean (SD) 4.8 (1.1) sessions per week with a mean treatment time of 7.4 (0.87) hours per session; the conventional group received three sessions per week with a mean treatment time of 3.9 (0.32) hours per session. During 3008 patient-years of follow-up, 45 (13%) of 338 patients receiving intensive hemodialysis died compared with 293 (21%) of 1388 patients receiving conventional hemodialysis (6.1 versus 10.5 deaths per 100 person-years; hazard ratio, 0.55 [95% confidence interval, 0.34–0.87]). The strength and direction of the observed association between intensive hemodialysis and improved survival were consistent across all prespecified subgroups and sensitivity analyses. In conclusion, there is a strong association between intensive home hemodialysis and improved survival, but whether this relationship is causal remains unknown. PMID:22362910

  2. Does colour polymorphism enhance survival of prey populations?

    PubMed Central

    Wennersten, Lena; Forsman, Anders

    2009-01-01

    That colour polymorphism may protect prey populations from predation is an old but rarely tested hypothesis. We examine whether colour polymorphic populations of prey exposed to avian predators in an ecologically valid visual context were exposed to increased extinction risk compared with monomorphic populations. We made 2976 artificial pastry prey, resembling Lepidoptera larvae, in four different colours and presented them in 124 monomorphic and 124 tetramorphic populations on tree trunks and branches such that they would be exposed to predation by free-living birds, and monitored their ‘survival’. Among monomorphic populations, there was a significant effect of prey coloration on survival, confirming that coloration influenced susceptibility to visually oriented predators. Survival of polymorphic populations was inferior to that of monomorphic green populations, but did not differ significantly from monomorphic brown, yellow or red populations. Differences in survival within polymorphic populations paralleled those seen among monomorphic populations; the red morph most frequently went extinct first and the green morph most frequently survived the longest. Our findings do not support the traditional protective polymorphism hypothesis and are in conflict with those of earlier studies. As a possible explanation to our findings, we offer a competing ‘giveaway cue’ hypothesis: that polymorphic populations may include one morph that attracts the attention of predators and that polymorphic populations therefore may suffer increased predation compared with some monomorphic populations. PMID:19324729

  3. Survival Outcomes in Split Compared to Whole Liver Transplantation.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Kyung Chul; Song, Sanghee; Jwa, Eun-Kyoung; Lee, Sanghoon; Kim, Jong Man; Kim, Ok-Kyoung; Hong, Suk Kyun; Yi, Nam-Joon; Lee, Kwang-Woong; Kim, Myoung Soo; Hwang, Shin; Suh, Kyung-Suk; Lee, Suk-Koo

    2018-05-10

    Split liver transplantation (SLT) should be cautiously considered because the right tri-sectional (RTS) graft can be a marginal graft in adult recipients. Herein, we analyzed the outcomes of RTS-SLT in Korea, where > 75% of adult liver transplantations are performed by living donor liver transplantation. Among 2,462 patients who underwent deceased donor liver transplantations (DDLT) from 2005 to 2014, we retrospectively reviewed 86 adult patients (3.4%) who received a RTS graft (RTS-SLT group). The outcomes of the RTS-SLT group were compared to those of 303 recipients of whole liver (WL-DDLT group). Recipients' age, laboratory Model for End-Stage-Liver Disease (L-MELD) score, ischemic time, and donor recipient weight ratio (DRWR) were not different between the two groups (P >0.05). However, malignancy was uncommon (4.7 vs. 36.3%), and donor was younger (25.2 vs. 42.7 years) in the RST-SLT group than in the WL-DDLT group (P <0.05). The technical complication rates and the 5-year graft survival rates (89.0 vs. 92.8%) were not different between the two groups (P >0.05). The 5-year overall survival rate (OS) (63.1%) and graft-failure-free survival rate (63.1%) of the RTS-SLT group were worse than that of the WL-DDLT group (79.3% and 79.3%) (P <0.05). The factors affecting graft survival rates were not definite. However, the factors affecting OS in the RTS-SLT group were L-MELD score >30 and DRWR ≤1.0. In the subgroup analysis, OS was not different between the two groups if the DRWR was >1.0, regardless of the L-MELD score (P >0.05). In conclusion, sufficient volume of the graft estimated from DRWR-matching could lead to better outcomes of adult SLTs with a RTS graft, even in patients with high L-MELD scores. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. © 2018 by the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.

  4. Early survival factor deprivation in the olfactory epithelium enhances activity-driven survival

    PubMed Central

    François, Adrien; Laziz, Iman; Rimbaud, Stéphanie; Grebert, Denise; Durieux, Didier; Pajot-Augy, Edith; Meunier, Nicolas

    2013-01-01

    The neuronal olfactory epithelium undergoes permanent renewal because of environmental aggression. This renewal is partly regulated by factors modulating the level of neuronal apoptosis. Among them, we had previously characterized endothelin as neuroprotective. In this study, we explored the effect of cell survival factor deprivation in the olfactory epithelium by intranasal delivery of endothelin receptors antagonists to rat pups. This treatment induced an overall increase of apoptosis in the olfactory epithelium. The responses to odorants recorded by electroolfactogram were decreased in treated animal, a result consistent with a loss of olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs). However, the treated animal performed better in an olfactory orientation test based on maternal odor compared to non-treated littermates. This improved performance could be due to activity-dependent neuronal survival of OSNs in the context of increased apoptosis level. In order to demonstrate it, we odorized pups with octanal, a known ligand for the rI7 olfactory receptor (Olr226). We quantified the number of OSN expressing rI7 by RT-qPCR and whole mount in situ hybridization. While this number was reduced by the survival factor removal treatment, this reduction was abolished by the presence of its ligand. This improved survival was optimal for low concentration of odorant and was specific for rI7-expressing OSNs. Meanwhile, the number of rI7-expressing OSNs was not affected by the odorization in non-treated littermates; showing that the activity-dependant survival of OSNs did not affect the OSN population during the 10 days of odorization in control conditions. Overall, our study shows that when apoptosis is promoted in the olfactory mucosa, the activity-dependent neuronal plasticity allows faster tuning of the olfactory sensory neuron population toward detection of environmental odorants. PMID:24399931

  5. PERSPECTIVE: Electrical activity enhances neuronal survival and regeneration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corredor, Raul G.; Goldberg, Jeffrey L.

    2009-10-01

    The failure of regeneration in the central nervous system (CNS) remains an enormous scientific and clinical challenge. After injury or in degenerative diseases, neurons in the adult mammalian CNS fail to regrow their axons and reconnect with their normal targets, and furthermore the neurons frequently die and are not normally replaced. While significant progress has been made in understanding the molecular basis for this lack of regenerative ability, a second approach has gained momentum: replacing lost neurons or lost connections with artificial electrical circuits that interface with the nervous system. In the visual system, gene therapy-based 'optogenetics' prostheses represent a competing technology. Now, the two approaches are converging, as recent data suggest that electrical activity itself, via the molecular signaling pathways such activity stimulates, is sufficient to induce neuronal survival and regeneration, particularly in retinal ganglion cells. Here, we review these data, discuss the effects of electrical activity on neurons' molecular signaling pathways and propose specific mechanisms by which exogenous electrical activity may be acting to enhance survival and regeneration.

  6. Polyandry promotes enhanced offspring survival in decorated crickets.

    PubMed

    Ivy, Tracie M; Sakaluk, Scott K

    2005-01-01

    Although female multiple mating is ubiquitous in insects, its adaptive significance remains poorly understood. Benefits to multiple mating can accrue via direct material benefits, indirect genetic benefits, or both. We investigated the effects of multiple mating in the decorated cricket, Gryllodes sigillatus, by simultaneously varying the number of times that females mated and the number of different males with which they mated, measuring aspects of female fecundity and elements of offspring performance and viability. Multiple matings resulted in enhanced female fitness relative to single matings when females mated with different partners, but not when females mated repeatedly with the same male. Specifically, polyandrous females produced significantly more offspring surviving to reproductive maturity than did monogamous females mating once or mating repeatedly with the same male. These results suggest that the benefit females gain from multiple mating is influenced primarily by genetic and not material benefits.

  7. Adaptive memory: the comparative value of survival processing.

    PubMed

    Nairne, James S; Pandeirada, Josefa N S; Thompson, Sarah R

    2008-02-01

    We recently proposed that human memory systems are "tuned" to remember information that is processed for survival, perhaps as a result of fitness advantages accrued in the ancestral past. This proposal was supported by experiments in which participants showed superior memory when words were rated for survival relevance, at least relative to when words received other forms of deep processing. The current experiments tested the mettle of survival memory by pitting survival processing against conditions that are universally accepted as producing excellent retention, including conditions in which participants rated words for imagery, pleasantness, and self-reference; participants also generated words, studied words with the intention of learning them, or rated words for relevance to a contextually rich (but non-survival-related) scenario. Survival processing yielded the best retention, which suggests that it may be one of the best encoding procedures yet discovered in the memory field.

  8. Encounter with mesoscale eddies enhances survival to settlement in larval coral reef fishes

    PubMed Central

    Shulzitski, Kathryn; Sponaugle, Su; Hauff, Martha; Walter, Kristen D.; Cowen, Robert K.

    2016-01-01

    Oceanographic features, such as eddies and fronts, enhance and concentrate productivity, generating high-quality patches that dispersive marine larvae may encounter in the plankton. Although broad-scale movement of larvae associated with these features can be captured in biophysical models, direct evidence of processes influencing survival within them, and subsequent effects on population replenishment, are unknown. We sequentially sampled cohorts of coral reef fishes in the plankton and nearshore juvenile habitats in the Straits of Florida and used otolith microstructure analysis to compare growth and size-at-age of larvae collected inside and outside of mesoscale eddies to those that survived to settlement. Larval habitat altered patterns of growth and selective mortality: Thalassoma bifasciatum and Cryptotomus roseus that encountered eddies in the plankton grew faster than larvae outside of eddies and likely experienced higher survival to settlement. During warm periods, T. bifasciatum residing outside of eddies in the oligotrophic Florida Current experienced high mortality and only the slowest growers survived early larval life. Such slow growth is advantageous in nutrient poor habitats when warm temperatures increase metabolic demands but is insufficient for survival beyond the larval stage because only fast-growing larvae successfully settled to reefs. Because larvae arriving to the Straits of Florida from distant sources must spend long periods of time outside of eddies, our results indicate that they have a survival disadvantage. High productivity features such as eddies not only enhance the survival of pelagic larvae, but also potentially increase the contribution of locally spawned larvae to reef populations. PMID:27274058

  9. Creatine Enhances Mitochondrial-Mediated Oligodendrocyte Survival After Demyelinating Injury.

    PubMed

    Chamberlain, Kelly A; Chapey, Kristen S; Nanescu, Sonia E; Huang, Jeffrey K

    2017-02-08

    Chronic oligodendrocyte loss, which occurs in the demyelinating disorder multiple sclerosis (MS), contributes to axonal dysfunction and neurodegeneration. Current therapies are able to reduce MS severity, but do not prevent transition into the progressive phase of the disease, which is characterized by chronic neurodegeneration. Therefore, pharmacological compounds that promote oligodendrocyte survival could be beneficial for neuroprotection in MS. Here, we investigated the role of creatine, an organic acid involved in adenosine triphosphate (ATP) buffering, in oligodendrocyte function. We found that creatine increased mitochondrial ATP production directly in oligodendrocyte lineage cell cultures and exerted robust protection on oligodendrocytes by preventing cell death in both naive and lipopolysaccharide-treated mixed glia. Moreover, lysolecithin-mediated demyelination in mice deficient in the creatine-synthesizing enzyme guanidinoacetate-methyltransferase ( Gamt ) did not affect oligodendrocyte precursor cell recruitment, but resulted in exacerbated apoptosis of regenerated oligodendrocytes in central nervous system (CNS) lesions. Remarkably, creatine administration into Gamt -deficient and wild-type mice with demyelinating injury reduced oligodendrocyte apoptosis, thereby increasing oligodendrocyte density and myelin basic protein staining in CNS lesions. We found that creatine did not affect the recruitment of macrophages/microglia into lesions, suggesting that creatine affects oligodendrocyte survival independently of inflammation. Together, our results demonstrate a novel function for creatine in promoting oligodendrocyte viability during CNS remyelination. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT We report that creatine enhances oligodendrocyte mitochondrial function and protects against caspase-dependent oligodendrocyte apoptosis during CNS remyelination. This work has important implications for the development of therapeutic targets for diseases characterized by

  10. Creatine Enhances Mitochondrial-Mediated Oligodendrocyte Survival After Demyelinating Injury

    PubMed Central

    Nanescu, Sonia E.

    2017-01-01

    Chronic oligodendrocyte loss, which occurs in the demyelinating disorder multiple sclerosis (MS), contributes to axonal dysfunction and neurodegeneration. Current therapies are able to reduce MS severity, but do not prevent transition into the progressive phase of the disease, which is characterized by chronic neurodegeneration. Therefore, pharmacological compounds that promote oligodendrocyte survival could be beneficial for neuroprotection in MS. Here, we investigated the role of creatine, an organic acid involved in adenosine triphosphate (ATP) buffering, in oligodendrocyte function. We found that creatine increased mitochondrial ATP production directly in oligodendrocyte lineage cell cultures and exerted robust protection on oligodendrocytes by preventing cell death in both naive and lipopolysaccharide-treated mixed glia. Moreover, lysolecithin-mediated demyelination in mice deficient in the creatine-synthesizing enzyme guanidinoacetate-methyltransferase (Gamt) did not affect oligodendrocyte precursor cell recruitment, but resulted in exacerbated apoptosis of regenerated oligodendrocytes in central nervous system (CNS) lesions. Remarkably, creatine administration into Gamt-deficient and wild-type mice with demyelinating injury reduced oligodendrocyte apoptosis, thereby increasing oligodendrocyte density and myelin basic protein staining in CNS lesions. We found that creatine did not affect the recruitment of macrophages/microglia into lesions, suggesting that creatine affects oligodendrocyte survival independently of inflammation. Together, our results demonstrate a novel function for creatine in promoting oligodendrocyte viability during CNS remyelination. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT We report that creatine enhances oligodendrocyte mitochondrial function and protects against caspase-dependent oligodendrocyte apoptosis during CNS remyelination. This work has important implications for the development of therapeutic targets for diseases characterized by

  11. Cooking frequency may enhance survival in Taiwanese elderly.

    PubMed

    Chen, Rosalind Chia-Yu; Lee, Meei-Shyuan; Chang, Yu-Hung; Wahlqvist, Mark L

    2012-07-01

    To investigate the association between cooking behaviour and long-term survival among elderly Taiwanese. Cohort study. The duration of follow-up was the interval between the date of interview and the date of death or 31 December 2008, when censored for survivors. Information used included demographics, socio-economic status, health behaviours, cooking frequencies, physical function, cognitive function, nutrition knowledge awareness, eating out habits and food and nutrient intakes. These data were linked to death records. Cox proportional-hazards models were used to evaluate cooking frequency on death from 1999 to 2008 with related covariate adjustments. Elderly Nutrition and Health Survey in Taiwan, 1999-2000. Nationally representative free-living elderly people aged ≥65 years (n 1888). During a 10-year follow-up, 695 participants died. Those who cooked most frequently were younger, women, unmarried, less educated, non-drinkers of alcohol, non-smokers, without chewing difficulty, had spouse as dinner companion, normal cognition, who walked or shopped more than twice weekly, who ate less meat and more vegetables. Highly frequent cooking (>5 times/week, compared with never) predicted survival (hazard ratio (HR) = 0·47; 95 % CI, 0·36, 0·61); with adjustment for physical function, cognitive function, nutrition knowledge awareness and other covariates, HR was 0·59 (95 % CI, 0·41, 0·86). Women benefited more from cooking more frequently than did men, with decreased HR, 51 % v. 24 %, when most was compared with least. A 2-year delay in the assessment of survivorship led to similar findings. Cooking behaviour favourably predicts survivorship. Highly frequent cooking may favour women more than men.

  12. Survival analysis: comparing peritoneal dialysis and hemodialysis in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chiu-Ching; Cheng, Kuang-Fu; Wu, Hong-Dar Isaac

    2008-06-01

    Comparisons of survival in patients on peritoneal dialysis (PD) and on hemodialysis (HD) have been conducted in many Western countries, but publications on this subject in Asian populations are scarce. The present study estimated the survival and the relative mortality hazard for HD and PD patients in Taiwan. Incident end-stage renal disease patients reported to the Taiwan Renal Registry during 1995 - 2002 were included in the study. Patients had to be 20 years of age or older and had to have survived for the first 90 days on dialysis. A total of 45,820 incident HD and 2,809 incident PD patients formed the study population. Patients on PD were treated mainly with traditional glucose-based solutions. Using an intent-to-treat analysis, the Cox proportional hazards (CPH) model was applied to identify the factors that predict survival by treatment modality. Subgroup analyses were conducted by stratifying patients according to sex, comorbidity, age, and diabetes status. Kaplan-Meier estimates were used to explore the survival of HD and PD patients. Adjustments were implemented using the CPH model. The overall 1-year, 2-year, 3-year, 5-year and 10-year survival rates for PD patients were 89.8%, 77.6%, 67.6%, 55.5%, and 35% respectively. The equivalent survival rates for HD patients were 87.5%, 76.6%, 68.1%, 54.3%, and 33.8%. The differences were not statistically significant (p = 0.125). The CPH analysis stratified by diabetes status and age revealed that PD patients 55 years of age or younger and nondiabetic had a lower mortality ratio (MR) of 0.94. But the MR increased to 1.31 for nondiabetic patients older than 55. The MR for PD versus HD further increased to 1.72 for diabetic patients 55 years of age or younger, and to 1.99 for diabetic patients older than 55. After adjusting for both demographic and clinical case-mix differences, PD and HD patients were observed to have similar long-term survival. Subgroup analyses revealed that, among diabetic patients and patients

  13. Comparative genet survival after fire in woody Mediterranean species.

    PubMed

    López-Soria, Luis; Castell, Carles

    1992-10-01

    Using data from three fires in northeastern Spain, we tested a condition necessary to support the idea that fire has been a factor in the evolution of the resprouting habit: populations of all resprouting species within a community should show high levels of genet survival after fires and show a low coefficient of variation. Species with high mean survival values were:Quercus ilex L.,Phillyrea latifolia L., andViburnum tinus L., with 88, 86 and 83% survival respectively; these groups had resprouts emerging from rootcrowns. Then followedArbutus unedo L. (75%),Pistacia lentiscus L. (73%),Erica arborea L. (77%),Erica multiflora L. (57%) andJuniperus oxycedrus L. (55%). This last group had resprouts from lignotubers or burls. These two groups also differed in the variability around the mean: the first showed a lower coefficient of variation, 6-12, and the second ranged from 19 to 26. Slope exposure had no significant influence on the process of resprouting, but soil depth did, with precipitation as a covariate. In the shallow soil category, the difference in genet survival between southern and northern exposures was 14% (71% vs. 57%); while the difference in the deep soil category was low, 5% (87% vs. 82%). There was no significant interaction. The component of variance for soils was larger than that for species-specific effects; substantial overlap of the within-species variance indicated that species responded as if they were a single hypothetical population, in which most of the variation in chances of survival was due to the soil conditions. The possession of the resprouting habit did not ensure a high performance. Hence, we find weak support for fire as a factor in the evolution of the resprouting habit.

  14. Impact of Focused Ultrasound-enhanced Drug Delivery on Survival in Rats with Glioma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Treat, Lisa Hsu; Zhang, Yongzhi; McDannold, Nathan; Hynynen, Kullervo

    2009-04-01

    Malignancies of the brain remain difficult to treat with chemotherapy because the selective permeability of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) blocks many potent agents from reaching their target. Previous studies have illustrated the feasibility of drug and antibody delivery across the BBB using MRI-guided focused ultrasound. In this study, we investigated the impact of focused ultrasound-enhanced delivery of doxorubicin on survival in rats with aggressive glioma. Sprague-Dawley rats were implanted with 9 L gliosarcoma cells in the brain. Eight days after implantation, each rat received one of the following: (1) no treatment (control), (2) a single treatment with microbubble-enhanced MRI-guided focused ultrasound (FUS only), (3) a single treatment with i.v. liposomal doxorubicin (DOX only), or (4) a single treatment with microbubble-enhanced MRI-guided focused ultrasound and concurrent i.v. injections of liposomal doxorubicin (FUS+DOX). The survival time from implantation to death or euthanasia was recorded. We observed a modest but significant increase in median survival time in rats treated with combined MRI-guided focused ultrasound chemotherapy, compared to chemotherapy alone (p<0.001). There was no significant improvement in survival between those who received stand-alone chemotherapy and those who did not receive any treatment (p>0.10). Our study demonstrates for the first time a therapeutic benefit achieved with ultrasound-enhanced drug delivery across the blood-brain barrier. This confirmation of efficacy in an in vivo tumor model indicates that targeted drug delivery using MRI-guided focused ultrasound has the potential to have a major impact on the treatment of patients with brain tumors and other neurological disorders.

  15. Nearby grandmother enhances calf survival and reproduction in Asian elephants

    PubMed Central

    Lahdenperä, Mirkka; Mar, Khyne U.; Lummaa, Virpi

    2016-01-01

    Usually animals reproduce into old age, but a few species such as humans and killer whales can live decades after their last reproduction. The grandmother hypothesis proposes that such life-history evolved through older females switching to invest in their existing (grand)offspring, thereby increasing their inclusive fitness and selection for post-reproductive lifespan. However, positive grandmother effects are also found in non-menopausal taxa, but evidence of their associated fitness effects is rare and only a few tests of the hypothesis in such species exist. Here we investigate the grandmother effects in Asian elephants. Using a multigenerational demographic dataset on semi-captive elephants in Myanmar, we found that grandcalves from young mothers (<20 years) had 8 times lower mortality risk if the grandmother resided with her grandcalf compared to grandmothers residing elsewhere. Resident grandmothers also decreased their daughters’ inter-birth intervals by one year. In contrast to the hypothesis predictions, the grandmother’s own reproductive status did not modify such grandmother benefits. That elephant grandmothers increased their inclusive fitness by enhancing their daughter’s reproductive rate and success irrespective of their own reproductive status suggests that fitness-enhancing grandmaternal effects are widespread, and challenge the view that grandmother effects alone select for menopause coupled with long post-reproductive lifespan. PMID:27282468

  16. Nearby grandmother enhances calf survival and reproduction in Asian elephants.

    PubMed

    Lahdenperä, Mirkka; Mar, Khyne U; Lummaa, Virpi

    2016-06-10

    Usually animals reproduce into old age, but a few species such as humans and killer whales can live decades after their last reproduction. The grandmother hypothesis proposes that such life-history evolved through older females switching to invest in their existing (grand)offspring, thereby increasing their inclusive fitness and selection for post-reproductive lifespan. However, positive grandmother effects are also found in non-menopausal taxa, but evidence of their associated fitness effects is rare and only a few tests of the hypothesis in such species exist. Here we investigate the grandmother effects in Asian elephants. Using a multigenerational demographic dataset on semi-captive elephants in Myanmar, we found that grandcalves from young mothers (<20 years) had 8 times lower mortality risk if the grandmother resided with her grandcalf compared to grandmothers residing elsewhere. Resident grandmothers also decreased their daughters' inter-birth intervals by one year. In contrast to the hypothesis predictions, the grandmother's own reproductive status did not modify such grandmother benefits. That elephant grandmothers increased their inclusive fitness by enhancing their daughter's reproductive rate and success irrespective of their own reproductive status suggests that fitness-enhancing grandmaternal effects are widespread, and challenge the view that grandmother effects alone select for menopause coupled with long post-reproductive lifespan.

  17. Enhancing Aircraft Survivability - A Vulnerability Perspective. Volume I

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1997-10-21

    37 Mr. Kevin R. Crosthwaite Director, Survivability/Vulnerability Information Analysis Center (SURVIAC) Wright-Patterson AFB...340 W"E "W*TE "-y N... T SUE,--* WAER FIGURE 4. WIDE CABIN BODY RESULTS/SAVE SYSTEM/MODERATE WIND 302 12-9 210 .............. tos -to. " 0 3253 GPM -00

  18. Evaluating the use of enhanced oak seedlings for increased survival and growth: first-year survival

    Treesearch

    Joshua L. Moree; Andrew W. Ezell; John D. Hodges; Andrew J. Londo; K. David Godwin

    2010-01-01

    Oaks (Quercus spp.) are very important in the southern landscape for timber production and wildlife habitat. More landowners are attempting to establish oak plantations as the demand for wood products and wildlife habitat continues to increase. These attempts are not always successful with early growth and survival becoming major concerns. In this...

  19. Enhancement of Neoangiogenesis and Follicle Survival by Sphingosine-1-Phosphate in Human Ovarian Tissue Xenotransplants

    PubMed Central

    Oktay, Kutluk

    2011-01-01

    Ovarian transplantation is one of the key approaches to restoring fertility in women who became menopausal as a result of cancer treatments. A major limitation of human ovarian transplants is massive follicular loss during revascularization. Here we investigated whether sphingosine-1-phosphate or its receptor agonists could enhance neoangiogenesis and follicle survival in ovarian transplants in a xenograft model. Human ovarian tissue xenografts in severe-combined-immunodeficient mice were treated with sphingosine-1-phosphate, its analogs, or vehicle for 1–10 days. We found that sphingosine-1-phosphate treatment increased vascular density in ovarian transplants significantly whereas FTY720 and SEW2871 had the opposite effect. In addition, sphingosine-1-phosphate accelerated the angiogenic process compared to vehicle-treated controls. Furthermore, sphingosine-1-phosphate treatment was associated with a significant proliferation of ovarian stromal cell as well as reduced necrosis and tissue hypoxia compared to the vehicle-treated controls. This resulted in a significantly lower percentage of apoptotic follicles in sphingosine-1-phosphate-treated transplants. We conclude that while sphingosine-1-phosphate promotes neoangiogenesis in ovarian transplants and reduces ischemic reperfusion injury, sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor agonists appear to functionally antagonize this process. Sphingosine-1-phosphate holds great promise to clinically enhance the survival and longevity of human autologous ovarian transplants. PMID:21559342

  20. Can seed-caching enhance seedling survival of Indian ricegrass (Achnatherum hymenoides) through intraspecific facilitation?

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Positive interactions among individual plants (facilitation) may often enhance seedling survival in stressful environments. Many granivorous small mammal species cache groups of seeds for future consumption in shallowly buried scatterhoards, and seeds of many plant species germinate and establish ag...

  1. Caffeine-enhanced survival of radiation-sensitive, repair-deficient Chinese hamster cells

    SciTech Connect

    Utsumi, H.; Elkind, M.M.

    1983-11-01

    A clone of V79 Chinese hamster cells (V79-AL162/S-10) with unique properties has been isolated after a challenge of parental cells (V79-AL162) with 1 mM ouabain. Compared with parental cells, or with other clones isolated after the ouabain challenge, these cells form smaller colonies, are more sensitive to both x rays and fission-spectrum neutrons, and respond atypically to a postirradiation treatment with caffeine. Their enhanced response to x rays results mainly from a large reduction in the shoulder of their survival curve, probably because in late S phase, the most resistant phase in the cell cycle, the survival curve of thesemore » cells has a reduced shoulder width. Caffeine, and to a lesser extent theophylline, added to the colony-forming medium immediately after exposure appreciably increases the width of the shoulder of these sensitive cells, whereas caffeine has the opposite effect on the response of normal V79 cells. Thus the unique response of the V79-AL162/S-10 cells to a radiation posttreatment with caffeine (increased survival) results from a net increase in their ability to repair damage that is otherwise lethal; caffeine treatment ordinarly prevents normal V79 cells from repairing damage that is only potentially lethal.« less

  2. Co-Transplantation of Nanofat Enhances Neovascularization and Fat Graft Survival in Nude Mice.

    PubMed

    Yu, Qian; Cai, Yizuo; Huang, He; Wang, Zhenxing; Xu, Peng; Wang, Xiangsheng; Zhang, Lu; Zhang, Wenjie; Li, Wei

    2018-05-15

    Autologous fat grafting is commonly used for soft-tissue augmentation and reconstruction. However, this technique is limited by a high rate of graft absorption. Thus, approaches to improve fat graft survival that promote neovascularization are of great interest. Nanofat has several beneficial features that may render it more suitable for clinical applications than other stem-cell based approaches. We aimed to determine whether nanofat could enhance new vessel formation and improve the long-term retention of fat grafts. Nanofat was processed via mechanical emulsification and filtration. Fat grafts were transplanted subcutaneously under the scalps of nude mice with different nanofat volumes or without nanofat. The grafted fat was dissected 12 weeks after transplantation. Graft weight and volume were measured, and histological evaluations, including capillary density measurement, were performed. The co-transplantation of fat with nanofat showed higher graft weight and volume retention, better histological structure, and higher capillary density compared to that in controls. However, there were no significant differences between the two nanofat volumes utilized. Nanofat can enhance neovascularization and improve fat graft survival, providing a potential clinically viable approach to fat graft supplementation in plastic and reconstructive surgery.

  3. Comparing Temperature Effects on E. Coli, Salmonella, and Enterococcus Survival in Surface Waters

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objective of this study was to compare dependency of survival rates on temperature for indicator organisms E. coli and Enterococcus and the pathogen Salmonella in surface waters. A database of 86 survival datasets from peer-reviewed papers on inactivation of E. coli, Salmonel...

  4. Early enhanced local neutrophil recruitment in peritonitis-induced sepsis improves bacterial clearance and survival.

    PubMed

    Craciun, Florin L; Schuller, Elizabeth R; Remick, Daniel G

    2010-12-01

    Neutrophils are critical for the rapid eradication of bacterial pathogens, but they also contribute to the development of multiple organ failure in sepsis. We hypothesized that increasing early recruitment of neutrophils to the focus of infection will increase bacterial clearance and improve survival. Sepsis was induced in mice, using cecal ligation and puncture (CLP); blood samples were collected at 6 and 24 h; and survival was followed for 28 d. In separate experiments, peritoneal bacteria and inflammatory cells were measured. Septic mice predicted to die based on IL-6 levels (Die-P) had higher concentrations of CXCL1 and CXCL2 in the peritoneum and plasma compared with those predicted to live (Live-P). At 6 h, Live-P and Die-P had equivalent numbers of peritoneal neutrophils and bacteria. In Die-P mice the number of peritoneal bacteria increased between 6 and 24 h post-CLP, whereas in Live-P it decreased. The i.p. injection of CXCL1 and CXCL2 in naive mice resulted in local neutrophil recruitment. When given immediately after CLP, CXC chemokines increased peritoneal neutrophil recruitment at 6 h after CLP. This early increase in neutrophils induced by exogenous chemokines resulted in significantly fewer peritoneal bacteria by 24 h [CFU (log) = 6.04 versus 4.99 for vehicle versus chemokine treatment; p < 0.05]. Chemokine treatment significantly improved survival at both 5 d (40 versus 72%) and 28 d (27 versus 52%; p < 0.02 vehicle versus chemokines). These data demonstrate that early, local treatment with CXC chemokines enhances neutrophil recruitment and clearance of bacteria as well as improves survival in the CLP model of sepsis.

  5. Genetic modification of embryonic stem cells with VEGF enhances cell survival and improves cardiac function.

    PubMed

    Xie, Xiaoyan; Cao, Feng; Sheikh, Ahmad Y; Li, Zongjin; Connolly, Andrew J; Pei, Xuetao; Li, Ren-Ke; Robbins, Robert C; Wu, Joseph C

    2007-01-01

    Cardiac stem cell therapy remains hampered by acute donor cell death posttransplantation and the lack of reliable methods for tracking cell survival in vivo. We hypothesize that cells transfected with inducible vascular endothelial growth factor 165 (VEGF(165)) can improve their survival as monitored by novel molecular imaging techniques. Mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells were transfected with an inducible, bidirectional tetracycline (Bi-Tet) promoter driving VEGF(165) and renilla luciferase (Rluc). Addition of doxycycline induced Bi-Tet expression of VEGF(165) and Rluc significantly compared to baseline (p<0.05). Expression of VEGF(165) enhanced ES cell proliferation and inhibited apoptosis as determined by Annexin-V staining. For noninvasive imaging, ES cells were transduced with a double fusion (DF) reporter gene consisting of firefly luciferase and enhanced green fluorescence protein (Fluc-eGFP). There was a robust correlation between cell number and Fluc activity (R(2)=0.99). Analysis by immunostaining, histology, and RT-PCR confirmed that expression of Bi-Tet and DF systems did not affect ES cell self-renewal or pluripotency. ES cells were differentiated into beating embryoid bodies expressing cardiac markers such as troponin, Nkx2.5, and beta-MHC. Afterward, 5 x 10(5) cells obtained from these beating embryoid bodies or saline were injected into the myocardium of SV129 mice (n=36) following ligation of the left anterior descending (LAD) artery. Bioluminescence imaging (BLI) and echocardiography showed that VEGF(165) induction led to significant improvements in both transplanted cell survival and cardiac function (p<0.05). This is the first study to demonstrate imaging of embryonic stem cell-mediated gene therapy targeting cardiovascular disease. With further validation, this platform may have broad applications for current basic research and further clinical studies.

  6. 76 FR 29005 - Endangered Plants and Wildlife; Receipt of Applications for Enhancement of Survival Permits

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-19

    ... conjunction with life history studies for the purpose of enhancing its survival. Public Comments We are... National Park, Hawaii Island, Hawaii, in conjunction with genetic research for the purpose of enhancing its... (Chasiempis sandwichensis ibidis) on Oahu Island, Hawaii, in conjunction with life history studies for the...

  7. Enhancing neonatal survival: what can we do today?

    PubMed

    Daga, S; Daga, A; Mhatre, S; Ghane, V

    2016-08-01

    Neonatal deaths account for 44% of the world's under-5 child mortality. Over half of all neonatal deaths globally occur in preterm babies. Therefore, improving care of a preterm baby is particularly important to reduce under-5 mortality. The objective of this study was to spell out components of care of preterm/low birth weight babies at first level health facility and at first referral unit (FRU) in low resource settings. We have analyzed weight-wise survivals at two hospitals attached to medical colleges, J.J. Hospital, Mumbai and General Hospital, Talegaon, and at Rural Hospital, Dahanu. There were three-tier interventions: (i) warmth+ feeding and antibiotics, (ii) improved care at birth plus increased oxygen availability and (iii) use of dopamine. J.J. Hospital went through all these stages one after another; General Hospital had all three going simultaneously. The Rural Hospital had a 1+2. During 1978 to 1984, J.J. Hospital saved 50 to 55% very low birth weight (VLBW) babies by providing warmth, feeding and antibiotics. This percentage increased to 56 to 58%, when adequate oxygen and good care at birth was available (1984 to 1989). For babies in the moderately low birth weight category (MLBW), 1500 to 2000 g at birth, the corresponding figures were 56 to 58% and 84 to 86%. The same interventions led to statistically significant decline in MLBW and VLBW categories at General Hospital, Talegaon (2010 to 2013). The Rural Hospital, Dahanu (1987 to 1992) achieved better survival rates in VLBW (61.5%) and MLBW (92.5%) categories with identical interventions and less staff. On the basis of our results, we suggest that in resource-limited settings, the first level health facility may be able to look after short-stay babies that weigh more than 1500 g and that have no respiratory distress. The FRU may look after MLBW babies, with or without respiratory distress, and VLBW babies without respiratory distress by giving special care.

  8. EASEPort NPWT System to Enhance Skin Graft Survival--A Simple Assembly.

    PubMed

    Prasetyono, Theddeus O H; Rini, Irena Sakura; Wibisono, Cindy

    2015-03-01

    Skin graft has been known to be prone to failure. This study was aimed to make a simplification of the negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT), which follows EASEPort (effective, affordable, safe, easily handled, and portable) concept to support the take of skin graft. The design of the EASEPort-NPWT was then made and technically verified. Thereafter, an animal experimental study comparing the EASEPort-NPWT to the classic tie-over technique on skin graft over exudative wound was conducted. The EASEPort-NPWT was verified to be able to yield and sustain the subatmospheric pressure needed. In the animal study, the treatment group showed better skin graft survival rate (97.55 ± 11.18% take) than the control group (54.88 ± 19.73%) on day-7. Histopathology examination showed good quality of the skin structures taken from the treatment group, which was better than the structures of the skin in the control group. In summary, this study has been able to fulfill its objective to create a device following EASEPort concept. Subsequently, the EASEPort-NPWT was able to enhance skin graft survival rate in exudative wound.

  9. Mucin can enhance growth, biofilm formation, and survival of Streptococcus mutans.

    PubMed

    Mothey, Deepa; Buttaro, Bettina A; Piggot, Patrick J

    2014-01-01

    Streptococcus mutans is a member of the dental plaque and is the primary causative agent of dental caries. It can survive extended periods of starvation, which may occur in different niches within the oral cavity. We have found that mucin compensated for the absence of amino acids to promote exponential growth and biofilm formation of S. mutans in minimal medium supplemented with glucose and sucrose, respectively. Mucin extended survival in conditions where there was no net growth provided the operon encoding the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex was intact. Mucin extended survival in conditions of amino acid sufficiency provided the tagatose pathway for galactose utilization was intact, suggesting that S. mutans can scavenge sufficient galactose from mucin to enhance survival, although not to serve as a primary carbon and energy source. The results suggest that mucin has a metabolic role in promoting survival of S. mutans. © 2013 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Transplantation of Human Neural Progenitor Cells Expressing IGF-1 Enhances Retinal Ganglion Cell Survival

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Caiwei; Sun, Yu; Liao, Tiffany; Beattie, Ursula; López, Francisco J.; Chen, Dong Feng; Lashkari, Kameran

    2015-01-01

    We have previously characterized human neuronal progenitor cells (hNP) that can adopt a retinal ganglion cell (RGC)-like morphology within the RGC and nerve fiber layers of the retina. In an effort to determine whether hNPs could be used a candidate cells for targeted delivery of neurotrophic factors (NTFs), we evaluated whether hNPs transfected with an vector that expresses IGF-1 in the form of a fusion protein with tdTomato (TD), would increase RGC survival in vitro and confer neuroprotective effects in a mouse model of glaucoma. RGCs co-cultured with hNPIGF-TD cells displayed enhanced survival, and increased neurite extension and branching as compared to hNPTD or untransfected hNP cells. Application of various IGF-1 signaling blockers or IGF-1 receptor antagonists abrogated these effects. In vivo, using a model of glaucoma we showed that IOP elevation led to reductions in retinal RGC count. In this model, evaluation of retinal flatmounts and optic nerve cross sections indicated that only hNPIGF-TD cells effectively reduced RGC death and showed a trend to improve optic nerve axonal loss. RT-PCR analysis of retina lysates over time showed that the neurotrophic effects of IGF-1 were also attributed to down-regulation of inflammatory and to some extent, angiogenic pathways. This study shows that neuronal progenitor cells that hone into the RGC and nerve fiber layers may be used as vehicles for local production and delivery of a desired NTF. Transplantation of hNPIGF-TD cells improves RGC survival in vitro and protects against RGC loss in a rodent model of glaucoma. Our findings have provided experimental evidence and form the basis for applying cell-based strategies for local delivery of NTFs into the retina. Application of cell-based delivery may be extended to other disease conditions beyond glaucoma. PMID:25923430

  11. Acute Sleep Deprivation Enhances Post-Infection Sleep and Promotes Survival during Bacterial Infection in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Kuo, Tzu-Hsing; Williams, Julie A.

    2014-01-01

    Study Objectives: Sleep is known to increase as an acute response to infection. However, the function of this behavioral response in host defense is not well understood. To address this problem, we evaluated the effect of acute sleep deprivation on post-infection sleep and immune function in Drosophila. Setting: Laboratory. Participants: Drosophila melanogaster. Methods and Results: Flies were subjected to sleep deprivation before (early DEP) or after (late DEP) bacterial infection. Relative to a non-deprived control, flies subjected to early DEP had enhanced sleep after infection as well as increased bacterial clearance and survival outcome. Flies subjected to late DEP experienced enhanced sleep following the deprivation period, and showed a modest improvement in survival outcome. Continuous DEP (early and late DEP) throughout infection also enhanced sleep later during infection and improved survival. However, improved survival in flies subjected to late or continuous DEP did not occur until after flies had experienced sleep. During infection, both early and late DEP enhanced NFκB transcriptional activity as measured by a luciferase reporter (κB-luc) in living flies. Early DEP also increased NFκB activity prior to infection. Flies that were deficient in expression of either the Relish or Dif NFκB transcription factors showed normal responses to early DEP. However, the effect of early DEP on post-infection sleep and survival was abolished in double mutants, which indicates that Relish and Dif have redundant roles in this process. Conclusions: Acute sleep deprivation elevated NFκB-dependent activity, increased post-infection sleep, and improved survival during bacterial infection. Citation: Kuo TH, Williams JA. Acute sleep deprivation enhances post-infection sleep and promotes survival during bacterial infection in Drosophila. SLEEP 2014;37(5):859-869. PMID:24790264

  12. Nefopam and Ketamine Comparably Enhance Postoperative Analgesia

    PubMed Central

    Kapfer, Barbara; Alfonsi, Pascal; Guignard, Bruno; Sessler, Daniel I.; Chauvin, Marcel

    2005-01-01

    Summary Opioids alone sometimes provide insufficient postoperative analgesia. Co-administration of drugs may reduce opioid use and to improve opioid efficacy. We therefore tested the hypothesis that administration of ketamine or nefopam, to postoperative patients with pain only partly alleviated by morphine, limits the amount of subsequent opioid necessary to produce adequate analgesia. Patients (n=77) recovering from major surgery were given up to 9 mg intravenous morphine. Those still suffering from pain were randomly assigned to blinded administration of: 1) isotonic saline (Control, n=21); 2) ketamine 10 mg (Ketamine, n=22); or, 3) nefopam 20 mg (Nefopam, n=22). Three-mg morphine boluses were subsequently given at 5-minute intervals until adequate analgesia was obtained, or 60 minutes elapsed after the beginning of the study drug administration, or ventilation became insufficient (respiratory rate < 10 breath/minute or saturation by pulse oxymetery < 95%). Supplemental morphine (i.e., after test drug administration) requirements were significantly greater in the Control group [17 ± 10 (SD) mg] than in the Nefopam (10 ± 5 mg, P < 0.005) or Ketamine (9 ± 5 mg, P < 0.001) groups. Morphine titration was successful in all Ketamine and Nefopam patients, but failed in four Control patients (two from respiratory toxicity and two from persistent pain). Tachycardia and profuse sweating were more frequent in patients given nefopam and sedation was greater with ketamine; however, the incidence of other potential complications did not differ between groups. Implications We conclude that ketamine 10 mg and nefopam 20 mg comparably potentiate opioid analgesia, each reducing opioid need by approximately 40%. Ketamine administration was associated with sedation whereas nefopam produced tachycardia and sweating. However, none of the side effects was serious. Either drug can thus be used to potentiate opioid analgesia. PMID:15616073

  13. EDD enhances cell survival and cisplatin resistance and is a therapeutic target for epithelial ovarian cancer

    PubMed Central

    Bradley, Amber; Zheng, Hui; Eblen, Scott T.

    2014-01-01

    The E3 ubiquitin ligase EDD is overexpressed in recurrent, platinum-resistant ovarian cancers, suggesting a role in tumor survival and/or platinum resistance. EDD knockdown by small interfering RNA (siRNA) induced apoptosis in A2780ip2, OVCAR5 and ES-2 ovarian cancer cells, correlating with loss of the prosurvival protein myeloid cell leukemia sequence 1 (Mcl-1) through a glycogen synthase kinase 3 beta-independent mechanism. SiRNA to EDD or Mcl-1 induced comparable levels of apoptosis in A2780ip2 and ES-2 cells. Stable overexpression of Mcl-1 protected cells from apoptosis following EDD knockdown, accompanied by a loss of endogenous, but not exogenous, Mcl-1 protein, suggesting that EDD regulated Mcl-1 synthesis. Indeed, EDD knockdown induced a 1.87-fold decrease in Mcl-1 messenger RNA and EDD transfection enhanced murine Mcl-1 promoter-driven luciferase expression 5-fold. To separate EDD survival and potential cisplatin resistance functions, we generated EDD shRNA stable cell lines that could survive initial EDD knockdown and showed that these cells were 4- to 21-fold more sensitive to cisplatin. Moreover, transient EDD overexpression in COS-7 cells was sufficient to promote cisplatin resistance 2.4-fold, dependent upon its E3 ligase activity. In vivo, mouse intraperitoneal ES-2 and A2780ip2 xenograft experiments showed that mice treated with EDD siRNA by nanoliposomal delivery [1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phophatidylcholine (DOPC)] and cisplatin had significantly less tumor burden than those treated with control siRNA/DOPC alone (ES-2, 77.9% reduction, P = 0.004; A2780ip2, 75.9% reduction, P = 0.042) or control siRNA/DOPC with cisplatin in ES-2 (64.4% reduction, P = 0.035), with a trend in A2780ip2 (60.3% reduction, P = 0.168). These results identify EDD as a dual regulator of cell survival and cisplatin resistance and suggest that EDD is a therapeutic target for ovarian cancer. PMID:24379240

  14. Survival of Kidney Retransplant Compared With First Kidney Transplant: A Report From Southern Iran.

    PubMed

    Roozbeh, Jamshid; Malekmakan, Leila; Monavarian, Mehri; Daneshian, Arghavan; Karimi, Zeynab

    2016-11-18

    Kidney retransplant is increasingly performed, but patient survival is controversial. The aim of this study was to evaluate the outcomes of patients with second kidney grafts and compare survival rates of recipients with first and second kidney transplant procedures. This was a retrospective study analyzing records from the Shiraz University of Medical Sciences transplant ward. Survival rates of retrans?lanted patients were compared with a randomly selected group of first kidney recipients. Factors related to retransplant survival were evaluated. Data were analyzed by SPSS version 16.0, and P < .05 was consi?ered as significant. This study included 200 patients with first kidney transplants and 68 patients with kidney retransplants. We found that 1-, 3-, 5-, and 7-year graft survival rates were 91.9%, 87.2% ,86.3%, and 86.3% among retransplanted patients versus 98.3%, 95.4%, 90.2%, and 88.7% among the first transplant group (P = .130). Hospital stay duration after transplant, kidney rejection rate during hospitalization, delayed graft function, and creatinine levels at discharge were significantly associated with survival in retransplanted patients (P < .05). Kidney retransplants can yield desirable outcomes and is the treatment of choice in patients who have lost their graft. Careful screening for risk factors should be consider for obtaining better results in second kidney transplant procedures.

  15. 76 FR 33336 - Endangered Plants and Wildlife; Receipt of Application for Enhancement of Survival Permit

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-08

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Fish and Wildlife Service [FWS-R1-ES-2011-N106; 10120-1113-0000-F5] Endangered Plants and Wildlife; Receipt of Application for Enhancement of Survival Permit AGENCY: Fish and..., the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Service), invite the public to comment on applications for permits...

  16. Can Survival Processing Enhance Story Memory? Testing the Generalizability of the Adaptive Memory Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seamon, John G.; Bohn, Justin M.; Coddington, Inslee E.; Ebling, Maritza C.; Grund, Ethan M.; Haring, Catherine T.; Jang, Sue-Jung; Kim, Daniel; Liong, Christopher; Paley, Frances M.; Pang, Luke K.; Siddique, Ashik H.

    2012-01-01

    Research from the adaptive memory framework shows that thinking about words in terms of their survival value in an incidental learning task enhances their free recall relative to other semantic encoding strategies and intentional learning (Nairne, Pandeirada, & Thompson, 2008). We found similar results. When participants used incidental…

  17. Acute sleep deprivation enhances post-infection sleep and promotes survival during bacterial infection in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Tzu-Hsing; Williams, Julie A

    2014-05-01

    Sleep is known to increase as an acute response to infection. However, the function of this behavioral response in host defense is not well understood. To address this problem, we evaluated the effect of acute sleep deprivation on post-infection sleep and immune function in Drosophila. Laboratory. Drosophila melanogaster. Flies were subjected to sleep deprivation before (early DEP) or after (late DEP) bacterial infection. Relative to a non-deprived control, flies subjected to early DEP had enhanced sleep after infection as well as increased bacterial clearance and survival outcome. Flies subjected to late DEP experienced enhanced sleep following the deprivation period, and showed a modest improvement in survival outcome. Continuous DEP (early and late DEP) throughout infection also enhanced sleep later during infection and improved survival. However, improved survival in flies subjected to late or continuous DEP did not occur until after flies had experienced sleep. During infection, both early and late DEP enhanced NFκB transcriptional activity as measured by a luciferase reporter (κB-luc) in living flies. Early DEP also increased NFκB activity prior to infection. Flies that were deficient in expression of either the Relish or Dif NFκB transcription factors showed normal responses to early DEP. However, the effect of early DEP on post-infection sleep and survival was abolished in double mutants, which indicates that Relish and Dif have redundant roles in this process. Acute sleep deprivation elevated NFκB-dependent activity, increased post-infection sleep, and improved survival during bacterial infection.

  18. Can the combination of laparoscopy and enhanced recovery improve long-term survival after elective colorectal cancer surgery?

    PubMed

    Curtis, N J; Taylor, M; Fraser, L; Salib, E; Noble, E; Hipkiss, R; Allison, A S; Dalton, R; Ockrim, J B; Francis, Nader K

    2018-02-01

    Enhanced recovery after surgery (ERAS) programmes and laparoscopic techniques both provide short-term benefits to patients undergoing colorectal cancer surgery. ERAS protocol compliance may improve long-term survival in those undergoing open colorectal resection but as laparoscopic data has not been reported. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the impact of the combination of laparoscopy and ERAS management on 5-year overall survival. A dedicated prospectively populated colorectal cancer surgery database was reviewed. Patient inclusion criteria were biopsy-proven colorectal adenocarcinoma, undergoing elective surgery undertaken with curative intent. All patients were managed within an established ERAS programme and routinely followed up for 5 years. Overall survival was measured using the log-rank Kaplan-Meier method at 5 years. Eight hundred fifty-four patients met the inclusion criteria. Four hundred eighty-one (56%) cases were laparoscopic with 98 patients (20%) requiring conversion. There were no differences in patient or tumour demographics between the surgical groups. Median ERAS protocol compliance was 93% (range 53-100%). Five-year overall survival was superior in laparoscopic cases compared with that of converted and open surgery (78 vs 68 vs 70%, respectively, p < 0.007). An open approach (HR 1.55, 95%CI 1.16-2.06, p = 0.002) and delayed hospital discharge (> 7 days, HR 1.5, 95%CI 1.13-1.9, p = 0.003) were the only modifiable risk factors associated with poor survival. The use of a laparoscopic approach with enhanced recovery after surgery management appears to have long-term survival benefits following colorectal cancer resection.

  19. Biofilms Formed by Gram-Negative Bacteria Undergo Increased Lipid A Palmitoylation, Enhancing In Vivo Survival

    PubMed Central

    Chalabaev, Sabina; Chauhan, Ashwini; Novikov, Alexey; Iyer, Pavithra; Szczesny, Magdalena; Beloin, Christophe; Caroff, Martine

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Bacterial biofilm communities are associated with profound physiological changes that lead to novel properties compared to the properties of individual (planktonic) bacteria. The study of biofilm-associated phenotypes is an essential step toward control of deleterious effects of pathogenic biofilms. Here we investigated lipopolysaccharide (LPS) structural modifications in Escherichia coli biofilm bacteria, and we showed that all tested commensal and pathogenic E. coli biofilm bacteria display LPS modifications corresponding to an increased level of incorporation of palmitate acyl chain (palmitoylation) into lipid A compared to planktonic bacteria. Genetic analysis showed that lipid A palmitoylation in biofilms is mediated by the PagP enzyme, which is regulated by the histone-like protein repressor H-NS and the SlyA regulator. While lipid A palmitoylation does not influence bacterial adhesion, it weakens inflammatory response and enhances resistance to some antimicrobial peptides. Moreover, we showed that lipid A palmitoylation increases in vivo survival of biofilm bacteria in a clinically relevant model of catheter infection, potentially contributing to biofilm tolerance to host immune defenses. The widespread occurrence of increased lipid A palmitoylation in biofilms formed by all tested bacteria suggests that it constitutes a new biofilm-associated phenotype in Gram-negative bacteria. PMID:25139899

  20. Estimation of brood and nest survival: Comparative methods in the presence of heterogeneity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Manly, Bryan F.J.; Schmutz, Joel A.

    2001-01-01

    The Mayfield method has been widely used for estimating survival of nests and young animals, especially when data are collected at irregular observation intervals. However, this method assumes survival is constant throughout the study period, which often ignores biologically relevant variation and may lead to biased survival estimates. We examined the bias and accuracy of 1 modification to the Mayfield method that allows for temporal variation in survival, and we developed and similarly tested 2 additional methods. One of these 2 new methods is simply an iterative extension of Klett and Johnson's method, which we refer to as the Iterative Mayfield method and bears similarity to Kaplan-Meier methods. The other method uses maximum likelihood techniques for estimation and is best applied to survival of animals in groups or families, rather than as independent individuals. We also examined how robust these estimators are to heterogeneity in the data, which can arise from such sources as dependent survival probabilities among siblings, inherent differences among families, and adoption. Testing of estimator performance with respect to bias, accuracy, and heterogeneity was done using simulations that mimicked a study of survival of emperor goose (Chen canagica) goslings. Assuming constant survival for inappropriately long periods of time or use of Klett and Johnson's methods resulted in large bias or poor accuracy (often >5% bias or root mean square error) compared to our Iterative Mayfield or maximum likelihood methods. Overall, estimator performance was slightly better with our Iterative Mayfield than our maximum likelihood method, but the maximum likelihood method provides a more rigorous framework for testing covariates and explicity models a heterogeneity factor. We demonstrated use of all estimators with data from emperor goose goslings. We advocate that future studies use the new methods outlined here rather than the traditional Mayfield method or its previous

  1. Modelling Comparative Efficacy of Drugs with Different Survival Profiles: Ipilimumab, Vemurafenib and Dacarbazine in Advanced Melanoma.

    PubMed

    Lee, D; Porter, J; Hertel, N; Hatswell, A J; Briggs, A

    2016-08-01

    In the absence of head-to-head data, a common method for modelling comparative survival for cost-effectiveness analysis is estimating hazard ratios from trial publications. This assumes that the hazards of mortality are proportional between treatments and that outcomes are not polluted by subsequent therapy use. Newer techniques that compare treatments where the proportional hazards assumption is violated and adjust for use of subsequent therapies often require patient-level data, which are rarely available for all treatments. The objective of this study was to provide a comparison of overall survival data for ipilimumab, vemurafenib and dacarbazine using data from three trials lacking a common comparator arm and confounded by the use of subsequent treatment. We compared three estimated overall survival curves for vemurafenib and the difference compared to ipilimumab and dacarbazine. We performed a naïve comparison and adjusted it for heterogeneity between the ipilimumab and vemurafenib trials, including differences in prognostic characteristics and subsequent therapy using a published hazard function for the impact of prognostic characteristics in melanoma and trial data on the impact of second-line use of ipilimumab. The mean incremental life-years gained for patients receiving ipilimumab compared with vemurafenib were 0.34 (95 % confidence interval [CI] -0.24 to 0.84) using the naïve comparison and 0.51 (95 % CI -0.08 to 0.99) using the covariate-adjusted survival curve. The analyses estimated the comparative efficacy of ipilimumab and vemurafenib in the absence of head-to-head patient-level data for all trials and proportional hazards in overall survival.

  2. Par3L enhances colorectal cancer cell survival by inhibiting Lkb1/AMPK signaling pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Taiyuan; Liu, Dongning; Lei, Xiong

    Partitioning defective 3-like protein (Par3L) is a recently identified cell polarity protein that plays an important role in mammary stem cell maintenance. Previously, we showed that high expression of Par3L is associated with poor survival in malignant colorectal cancer (CRC), but the underlying mechanism remained unknown. To this end, we established a Par3L knockout colorectal cancer cell line using the CRISPR/Cas system. Interestingly, reduced proliferation, enhanced cell death and caspase-3 activation were observed in Par3L knockout (KO) cells as compared with wildtype (WT) cells. Consistent with previous studies, we showed that Par3L interacts with a tumor suppressor protein liver kinasemore » B1 (Lkb1). Moreover, Par3L depletion resulted in abnormal activation of Lkb1/AMPK signaling cascade. Knockdown of Lkb1 in these cells could significantly reduce AMPK activity and partially rescue cell death caused by Par3L knockdown. Furthermore, we showed that Par3L KO cells were more sensitive to chemotherapies and irradiation. Together, these results suggest that Par3L is essential for colorectal cancer cell survival by inhibiting Lkb1/AMPK signaling pathway, and is a putative therapeutic target for CRC. - Highlights: • Par3L knockout using the CRISPR/Cas system induces apoptosis in colorectal cancer cells. • Par3L interacts with Lkb1 and regulates the activity of AMPK signaling cascade. • Par3L knockout cells are more sensitive to treatment of different chemotherapy drugs and irradiation.« less

  3. Comparative survival and growth of Atlantic salmon from egg stocking and fry releases

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, James H.

    2004-01-01

    First summer survival and subsequent growth of Atlantic salmon Salmo salar planted as eggs and fry in a tributary of Cayuga Lake, New York, were examined for 3 years. Atlantic salmon were planted in December 1999-2001 in 20 Whitlock-Vibert (W-V) egg incubators, each containing 300 eyed eggs. The following May, 500 fin-clipped Atlantic salmon fry were released in the same stream section. In autumn, a backpack electroshocker was used to capture fry to assess survival and growth. Mean survival was significantly greater for fry (27.9%) than eggs (0.8%). In autumn, mean length was significantly greater for Atlantic salmon released as fry (90.1 mm) than those planted as eggs (76.2 mm), probably owing to accelerated growth in the hatchery caused by warmer water temperatures (i.e., hatchery, 9.4A?C; stream, 5.1A?C). Releasing Atlantic salmon fry in May was nearly 11 times more costly in terms of hatchery effort than was releasing eggs in December. Although the survival of Atlantic salmon eggs in W-V incubators was low, when considering production costs, the use of egg plantings may warrant consideration under certain restoration or enhancement situations.

  4. 50 CFR 17.62 - Permits for scientific purposes or for the enhancement of propagation or survival.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... purposes or enhancing the propagation or survival of the species; and (B) The planned disposition of such... scientific purposes or enhancing the propagation or survival of the species; and (iv) If the activities would... the reproductive potential of the species where the taking will occur. (v) If the activities would...

  5. Sodium Nitroprusside Enhanced Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation Improves Short Term Survival in a Porcine Model of Ischemic Refractory Ventricular Fibrillation

    PubMed Central

    Yannopoulos, Demetris; Bartos, Jason A.; George, Stephen A.; Sideris, George; Voicu, Sebastian; Oestreich, Brett; Matsuura, Timothy; Shekar, Kadambari; Rees, Jennifer; Aufderheide, Tom P.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Sodium nitroprusside (SNP) enhanced CPR (SNPeCPR) demonstrates increased vital organ blood flow and survival in multiple porcine models. We developed a new, coronary occlusion/ischemia model of prolonged resuscitation, mimicking the majority of out-of-hospital cardiac arrests presenting with shockable rhythms. Hypothesis SNPeCPR will increase short term (4-hour) survival compared to standard 2015 Advanced Cardiac Life Support (ACLS) guidelines in an ischemic refractory ventricular fibrillation (VF), prolonged CPR model. Methods Sixteen anesthetized pigs had the ostial left anterior descending artery occluded leading to ischemic VF arrest. VF was untreated for 5 minutes. Basic life support was performed for 10 minutes. At minute 10 (EMS arrival), animals received either SNPeCPR (n=8) or standard ACLS (n=8). Defibrillation (200J) occurred every 3 minutes. CPR continued for a total of 45 minutes, then the balloon was deflated simulating revascularization. CPR continued until return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) or a total of 60 minutes, if unsuccessful. SNPeCPR animals received 2 mg of SNP at minute 10 followed by 1 mg every 5 minutes until ROSC. Standard ACLS animals received 0.5 mg epinephrine every 5 minutes until ROSC. Primary endpoints were ROSC and 4-hour survival. Results All SNPeCPR animals (8/8) achieved sustained ROSC versus 2/8 standard ACLS animals within one hour of resuscitation (p=0.04). The 4-hour survival was significantly improved with SNPeCPR compared to standard ACLS, 7/8 versus 1/8 respectively, p=0.0019. Conclusion SNPeCPR significantly improved ROSC and 4-hour survival compared with standard ACLS CPR in a porcine model of prolonged ischemic, refractory VF cardiac arrest. PMID:27771299

  6. Sodium nitroprusside enhanced cardiopulmonary resuscitation improves short term survival in a porcine model of ischemic refractory ventricular fibrillation.

    PubMed

    Yannopoulos, Demetris; Bartos, Jason A; George, Stephen A; Sideris, George; Voicu, Sebastian; Oestreich, Brett; Matsuura, Timothy; Shekar, Kadambari; Rees, Jennifer; Aufderheide, Tom P

    2017-01-01

    Sodium nitroprusside (SNP) enhanced CPR (SNPeCPR) demonstrates increased vital organ blood flow and survival in multiple porcine models. We developed a new, coronary occlusion/ischemia model of prolonged resuscitation, mimicking the majority of out-of-hospital cardiac arrests presenting with shockable rhythms. SNPeCPR will increase short term (4-h) survival compared to standard 2015 Advanced Cardiac Life Support (ACLS) guidelines in an ischemic refractory ventricular fibrillation (VF), prolonged CPR model. Sixteen anesthetized pigs had the ostial left anterior descending artery occluded leading to ischemic VF arrest. VF was untreated for 5min. Basic life support was performed for 10min. At minute 10 (EMS arrival), animals received either SNPeCPR (n=8) or standard ACLS (n=8). Defibrillation (200J) occurred every 3min. CPR continued for a total of 45min, then the balloon was deflated simulating revascularization. CPR continued until return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) or a total of 60min, if unsuccessful. SNPeCPR animals received 2mg of SNP at minute 10 followed by 1mg every 5min until ROSC. Standard ACLS animals received 0.5mg epinephrine every 5min until ROSC. Primary endpoints were ROSC and 4-h survival. All SNPeCPR animals (8/8) achieved sustained ROSC versus 2/8 standard ACLS animals within one hour of resuscitation (p=0.04). The 4-h survival was significantly improved with SNPeCPR compared to standard ACLS, 7/8 versus 1/8 respectively, p=0.0019. SNPeCPR significantly improved ROSC and 4-h survival compared with standard ACLS CPR in a porcine model of prolonged ischemic, refractory VF cardiac arrest. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Survival in commercially insured multiple sclerosis patients and comparator subjects in the U.S.

    PubMed

    Kaufman, D W; Reshef, S; Golub, H L; Peucker, M; Corwin, M J; Goodin, D S; Knappertz, V; Pleimes, D; Cutter, G

    2014-05-01

    Compare survival in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) from a U.S. commercial health insurance database with a matched cohort of non-MS subjects. 30,402 MS patients and 89,818 non-MS subjects (comparators) in the OptumInsight Research (OIR) database from 1996 to 2009 were included. An MS diagnosis required at least 3 consecutive months of database reporting, with two or more ICD-9 codes of 340 at least 30 days apart, or the combination of 1 ICD-9-340 code and at least 1 MS disease-modifying treatment (DMT) code. Comparators required the absence of ICD-9-340 and DMT codes throughout database reporting. Up to three comparators were matched to each patient for: age in the year of the first relevant code (index year - at least 3 months of reporting in that year were required); sex; region of residence in the index year. Deaths were ascertained from the National Death Index and the Social Security Administration Death Master File. Subjects not identified as deceased were assumed to be alive through the end of 2009. Annual mortality rates were 899/100,000 among MS patients and 446/100,000 among comparators. Standardized mortality ratios compared to the U.S. population were 1.70 and 0.80, respectively. Kaplan-Meier analysis yielded a median survival from birth that was 6 years lower among MS patients than among comparators. The results show, for the first time in a U.S. population, a survival disadvantage for contemporary MS patients compared to non-MS subjects from the same healthcare system. The 6-year decrement in lifespan parallels a recent report from British Columbia. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Technology-Enhanced Consultation in Counselling: A Comparative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Astramovich, Randall L.; Jones, W. Paul; Coker, J. Kelly

    2004-01-01

    Two quasi-experimental studies comparing technology-enhanced counselling consultation were conducted with a sample of 147 students enrolled in an undergraduate counselling and consultation course for elementary and secondary teachers. Study 1 (N = 76) compared the effectiveness of counselling consultation using telephone, text chat, or text chat…

  9. Lower kidney allograft survival in African-Americans compared to Hispanic-Americans with lupus.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez-Suarez, M L; Contreras, G

    2017-10-01

    Background and objective African-Americans and Hispanic-Americans with lupus are the two most common minority groups who receive kidney transplants in the USA. It is unknown if African-Americans and Hispanic-Americans with lupus have similar outcomes after kidney transplantation. In this study, we assessed whether African-Americans compared to Hispanic-Americans have worse kidney allograft survival after risk factors of rejection and other prognostic factors were matched between both groups. Methods Out of 1816 African-Americans and 901 Hispanic-Americans with lupus, who received kidney transplants between 1987 and 2006 and had complete records in the UNOS program, 478 pairs were matched in 16 baseline predictors and follow-up time employing a predicted probability of group membership. The primary outcome was kidney allograft survival. Main secondary outcomes were rejection, allograft failure attributed to rejection, and mortality. Results Matched pairs were predominantly women (81%) with the mean age of 36 years. 96% were on dialysis before transplantation. 89% of recipients received kidneys from deceased donors and 15.5% from expanded criteria donors. 12% of recipients had zero HLA mismatch. African-Americans compared to Hispanic-Americans had lower cumulative allograft survival during 12-year follow-up ( p < 0.001). African-Americans compared to Hispanic-Americans had higher rates of rejection (10.4 vs 6.73 events/100 patients-years; p = 0.0002) and allograft failure attributed to rejection (6.31 vs 3.99; p = 0.0023). However, African-Americans and Hispanic-Americans had similar mortality rates (2.71 vs 2.31; p = 0.4269). Conclusions African-Americans compared to Hispanic-Americans with lupus had lower kidney allograft survival when recognized risk factors of rejection were matched between groups.

  10. Survival rates among Seventh Day Adventists compared with the general population in Poland.

    PubMed

    Jedrychowski, W; Tobiasz-Adamczyk, B; Olma, A; Gradzikiewicz, P

    1985-01-01

    The purpose of the work was to test the hypothesis that the survival rate is higher among the Seventh Day Adventists (SDA) than in the general population of Poland, because of the strictly respected customs adhered to by members of this church community, such as abstinence from smoking and from alcohol. The data on life expectancy in the SDA community covered a total of 236 members of this denomination in Kraków (86 males and 150 females). The survival probability rates were estimated by the life table method, for both men and women separately, and were subsequently compared with the corresponding parameters of the Polish Life Tables. Over a period of 10 years, in which these data were studied, there were 11 deaths in males and 24 deaths in females. Mean age at death was 71.9 years among men and 75.1 among women. The survival curves traced over the age groups of both sexes of SDA members were fairly similar, but they were markedly higher than in the general population of Poland. In the general population the survival rates for people over 40 years old were higher in females than in males, whereas no corresponding sex differences in rates concerning SDA members were observed. The greater benefit in life expectancy is gained in the SDA group in comparison with men in the general population. This is attributable to their abstinence from very harmful habits, otherwise more widespread in this sex group.

  11. Does predator management enhance survival of reintroduced black-footed ferrets?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Breck, Stewart W.; Biggins, Dean E.; Livieri, Travis M.; Matchett, Marc R.; Kopcso, Valerie

    2006-01-01

    Predation on black-footed ferrets (Mustela nigripes) is a potential problem at reintroduction sites, causing up to 95 percent of the documented mortality of ferrets. Strategies to reduce mortality due to predation can focus on preconditioning ferrets prior to reintroduction and/or managing predators of ferrets. Biologists have tried three general strategies to control predators at reintroduction sites: (1) selective removal of individual predators, (2) nonselective removal of coyotes (Canis latrans), and (3) electric fences to exclude coyotes from release sites. We conducted a post hoc review of data from releases during 1994–2003 at 11 sites in South Dakota and Montana to address whether or not predator management has benefited reintroduced black-footed ferrets. Limited evidence indicates that (1) individual great horned owls (Bubo virginianus) can cause significant ferret mortality and that identifying and removing these individuals can be beneficial, (2) lethal control of coyotes may have inverse effects on ferret survival, and (3) electric fencing does not enhance short- or long-term survival of reintroduced ferrets. The data are confounded by a variety of factors, making conclusions tenuous. Well designed studies are needed to properly address the effectiveness of predator management for enhancing ferret survival.

  12. Oral cancer/endothelial cell fusion experiences nuclear fusion and acquisition of enhanced survival potential

    SciTech Connect

    Song, Kai; The State Key Laboratory Breeding Base of Basic Science of Stomatology; Song, Yong

    Most previous studies have linked cancer–macrophage fusion with tumor progression and metastasis. However, the characteristics of hybrid cells derived from oral cancer and endothelial cells and their involvement in cancer remained unknown. Double-immunofluorescent staining and fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) were performed to confirm spontaneous cell fusion between eGFP-labeled human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and RFP-labeled SCC9, and to detect the expression of vementin and cytokeratin 18 in the hybrids. The property of chemo-resistance of such hybrids was examined by TUNEL assay. The hybrid cells in xenografted tumor were identified by FISH and GFP/RFP dual-immunofluoresence staining. We showed thatmore » SCC9 cells spontaneously fused with cocultured endothelial cells, and the resultant hybrid cells maintained the division and proliferation activity after re-plating and thawing. Such hybrids expressed markers of both parental cells and became more resistant to chemotherapeutic drug cisplatin as compared to the parental SCC9 cells. Our in vivo data indicated that the hybrid cells contributed to tumor composition by using of immunostaining and FISH analysis, even though the hybrid cells and SCC9 cells were mixed with 1:10,000, according to the FACS data. Our study suggested that the fusion events between oral cancer and endothelial cells undergo nuclear fusion and acquire a new property of drug resistance and consequently enhanced survival potential. These experimental findings provide further supportive evidence for the theory that cell fusion is involved in cancer progression. - Highlights: • The fusion events between oral cancer and endothelial cells undergo nuclear fusion. • The resulting hybrid cells acquire a new property of drug resistance. • The resulting hybrid cells express the markers of both parental cells (i.e. vimentin and cytokeratin 18). • The hybrid cells contribute to tumor repopulation in vivo.« less

  13. Oral cancer/endothelial cell fusion experiences nuclear fusion and acquisition of enhanced survival potential.

    PubMed

    Song, Kai; Song, Yong; Zhao, Xiao-Ping; Shen, Hui; Wang, Meng; Yan, Ting-Lin; Liu, Ke; Shang, Zheng-Jun

    2014-10-15

    Most previous studies have linked cancer-macrophage fusion with tumor progression and metastasis. However, the characteristics of hybrid cells derived from oral cancer and endothelial cells and their involvement in cancer remained unknown. Double-immunofluorescent staining and fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) were performed to confirm spontaneous cell fusion between eGFP-labeled human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and RFP-labeled SCC9, and to detect the expression of vementin and cytokeratin 18 in the hybrids. The property of chemo-resistance of such hybrids was examined by TUNEL assay. The hybrid cells in xenografted tumor were identified by FISH and GFP/RFP dual-immunofluoresence staining. We showed that SCC9 cells spontaneously fused with cocultured endothelial cells, and the resultant hybrid cells maintained the division and proliferation activity after re-plating and thawing. Such hybrids expressed markers of both parental cells and became more resistant to chemotherapeutic drug cisplatin as compared to the parental SCC9 cells. Our in vivo data indicated that the hybrid cells contributed to tumor composition by using of immunostaining and FISH analysis, even though the hybrid cells and SCC9 cells were mixed with 1:10,000, according to the FACS data. Our study suggested that the fusion events between oral cancer and endothelial cells undergo nuclear fusion and acquire a new property of drug resistance and consequently enhanced survival potential. These experimental findings provide further supportive evidence for the theory that cell fusion is involved in cancer progression. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Five-Year Graft Survival Comparing Descemet Stripping Automated Endothelial Keratoplasty and Penetrating Keratoplasty.

    PubMed

    Ang, Marcus; Soh, Yuqiang; Htoon, Hla Myint; Mehta, Jodhbir S; Tan, Donald

    2016-08-01

    To compare 5-year graft survival after Descemet stripping automated endothelial keratoplasty (DSAEK) and penetrating keratoplasty (PK) in Asian eyes. Prospective, nested, cohort study. Consecutive patients who underwent DSAEK (423 eyes) or PK (405 eyes) for Fuchs' endothelial dystrophy (FED) or bullous keratopathy (BK). Clinical data and donor and recipient characteristics were recorded from our prospective cohort from the Singapore Corneal Transplant Registry. All surgeries were performed by the corneal surgeons at our center, which included cases performed or partially performed by corneal fellows in training under direct supervision. Five-year cumulative graft survival. Overall mean age was 67.8±9.8 years, and 50.1% of patients were men. There were no significant differences in age (P = 0.261) or gender (P = 0.78) between PK and DSAEK groups in our predominantly Chinese (76.6%) Asian cohort, with more BK compared with FED (68.1% vs. 31.9%; P < 0.001). Overall 5-year graft survival was superior for DSAEK compared with PK (79.4% vs. 66.5%; P < 0.001, log-rank test). Median 5-year percent endothelial cell density loss was significantly greater in PK compared with DSAEK (60.9% vs. 48.7%; P = 0.007). Cox regression analysis revealed that BK was a significant factor associated with graft failure (hazard ratio [HR], 3.30; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.05-5.33; P < 0.001), and PK was more likely to fail compared with endothelial keratoplasty (HR, 1.61; 95% CI, 1.08-2.41; P = 0.02) adjusting for confounders such as recipient age, gender, and donor factors. Five-year cumulative incidence of complications such as graft rejection (P < 0.001), epitheliopathy (P < 0.001), suture-related corneal infections (P < 0.001), and wound dehiscence (P = 0.002) were greater in the PK group compared with the DSAEK group. In Asian eyes from the same study cohort with standardized surgical and postoperative regimes, 5-year graft survival was superior for DSAEK compared with

  15. Comparative Survival of Patients With Anal Adenocarcinoma, Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Anus, and Rectal Adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Franklin, Robert A; Giri, Smith; Valasareddy, Poojitha; Lands, Lindsey T; Martin, Mike G

    2016-03-01

    Anal adenocarcinoma (AA) represents 5% to 10% of anal cancer. Little is known about its natural history and prognosis. Using population-based data, we defined the outcomes of AA relative to other anorectal malignancies. We analyzed the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results 18 database to identify patients ≥ 18 years old with AA, squamous cell carcinoma of the anus (SCCA), and rectal adenocarcinoma (RA) diagnosed between 1990 and 2011. Median overall survival (OS), 1-year, 3-year, 5-year, and 10-year OS were computed using actuarial methods. The log rank test was used to estimate the difference between Kaplan-Meier survival curves. A Cox proportional hazard regression model was used to adjust the effects of other covariates on survival, including age, year diagnosed, sex, stage, surgery, and radiation. Of 57,369 cases, 0.8% (n = 462) were patients with AA, 87.8% (n = 50,382) were patients with RA, and 11.4% (n = 6525) were patients with SCCA. The median age for AA was 69 years (range, 20-96 years), 66 years (range, 18-103 years) for RA, and 66 years (range, 14-104 years) for SCCA. The median OS was significantly lower for AA (33 months), compared with SCCA (118 months) and RA (68 months) (P < .01). In multivariate analysis, AA had a worse prognosis compared with SCCA (hazard ratio [HR], 0.66; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.59-0.75; P < .01) and RA (HR, 0.68; 95% CI, 0.61-0.77; P < .01), after adjusting for age, sex, race, stage, grade, radiation, and surgery. There was a strong trend for improved survival among patients who received radical surgery (HR, 0.71; 95% CI, 0.51-1.00; P = .05). AA confers a significantly worse prognosis than SCCA and RA. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Interaction of Erp Protein of Mycobacterium tuberculosis with Rv2212 Enhances Intracellular Survival of Mycobacterium smegmatis.

    PubMed

    Ganaie, Arsheed Ahmad; Trivedi, Garima; Kaur, Amanpreet; Jha, Sidharth Shankar; Anand, Shashi; Rana, Vibhuti; Singh, Amit; Kumar, Shekhar; Sharma, Charu

    2016-10-15

    The Mycobacterium tuberculosis exported repetitive protein (RvErp) is a crucial virulence-associated factor as determined by its role in the survival and multiplication of mycobacteria in cultured macrophages and in vivo Although attempts have been made to understand the function of Erp protein, its exact role in Mycobacterium pathogenesis is still elusive. One way to determine this is by searching for novel interactions of RvErp. Using a yeast two-hybrid assay, an adenylyl cyclase (AC), Rv2212, was found to interact with RvErp. The interaction between RvErp and Rv2212 is direct and occurs at the endogenous level. The Erp protein of Mycobacterium smegmatis (MSMEG_6405, or MsErp) interacts neither with Rv2212 nor with Ms_4279, the M. smegmatis homologue of Rv2212. Deletion mutants of Rv2212 revealed its adenylyl cyclase domain to be responsible for the interaction. RvErp enhances Rv2212-mediated cyclic AMP (cAMP) production. Also, the biological significance of the interaction between RvErp and Rv2212 was demonstrated by the enhanced survival of M. smegmatis within THP-1 macrophages. Taken together, these studies address a novel mechanism by which Erp executes its function. RvErp is one of the important virulence factors of M. tuberculosis This study describes a novel function of RvErp protein of M. tuberculosis by identifying Rv2212 as its interacting protein. Rv2212 is an adenylyl cyclase (AC) and produces cAMP, one of the prime second messengers that regulate the intracellular survival of mycobacteria. Therefore, the significance of investigating novel interactions of RvErp is paramount in unraveling the mechanisms governing the intracellular survival of mycobacteria. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  17. Enhancing tumor apparent diffusion coefficient histogram skewness stratifies the postoperative survival in recurrent glioblastoma multiforme patients undergoing salvage surgery.

    PubMed

    Zolal, Amir; Juratli, Tareq A; Linn, Jennifer; Podlesek, Dino; Sitoci Ficici, Kerim Hakan; Kitzler, Hagen H; Schackert, Gabriele; Sobottka, Stephan B; Rieger, Bernhard; Krex, Dietmar

    2016-05-01

    Objective To determine the value of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) histogram parameters for the prediction of individual survival in patients undergoing surgery for recurrent glioblastoma (GBM) in a retrospective cohort study. Methods Thirty-one patients who underwent surgery for first recurrence of a known GBM between 2008 and 2012 were included. The following parameters were collected: age, sex, enhancing tumor size, mean ADC, median ADC, ADC skewness, ADC kurtosis and fifth percentile of the ADC histogram, initial progression free survival (PFS), extent of second resection and further adjuvant treatment. The association of these parameters with survival and PFS after second surgery was analyzed using log-rank test and Cox regression. Results Using log-rank test, ADC histogram skewness of the enhancing tumor was significantly associated with both survival (p = 0.001) and PFS after second surgery (p = 0.005). Further parameters associated with prolonged survival after second surgery were: gross total resection at second surgery (p = 0.026), tumor size (0.040) and third surgery (p = 0.003). In the multivariate Cox analysis, ADC histogram skewness was shown to be an independent prognostic factor for survival after second surgery. Conclusion ADC histogram skewness of the enhancing lesion, enhancing lesion size, third surgery, as well as gross total resection have been shown to be associated with survival following the second surgery. ADC histogram skewness was an independent prognostic factor for survival in the multivariate analysis.

  18. Comparative Effectiveness of Cancer Control and Survival After Robot Assisted versus Open Radical Prostatectomy

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Jim H.; O’Malley, Padraic; Chughtai, Bilal; Isaacs, Abby; Mao, Jialin; Wright, Jason D.; Hershman, Dawn; Sedrakyan, Art

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Robot-assisted surgery has been rapidly adopted in the U.S. for prostate cancer (PCa). Its adoption has been driven by market forces and patient preference, and debate continues regarding whether it offers improved outcomes to justify higher cost relative to open surgery. We examined comparative effectiveness of robot assisted (RARP) versus open radical prostatectomy (ORP) in cancer control and survival in a nationally representative population. Materials and Methods Population based observational cohort study of PCa patients undergoing RARP and ORP during 2003–2012 captured in Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER)-Medicare linked database. Propensity score matching and time to event analysis was used to compare all-cause mortality, prostate cancer-specific mortality and use of additional treatment following surgery. Results 6,430 RARP and 9,161 ORP performed during 2003–2012 were identified. RARP increased in use from 13.6% to 72.6% in 2003–2004 to 72.6% in 2011–2012. After median follow-up of 6.5 years (IQR 5.2–7.9), RARP was associated with equivalent risk of all-cause mortality (Hazard Ratio [HR] 0.85, [0.72–1.01]) and similar cancer-specific mortality (HR 0.85, [0.50–1.43]) versus ORP. RARP was also associated with less use of additional treatment (HR 0.78, [0. 70–0.86]). Conclusions RARP has comparable intermediate cancer control, as evidenced by less use of additional postoperative cancer therapies and equivalent cancer-specific and overall survival. Longer-term follow-up is needed to assess for differences in PCa-specific survival, which was similar during intermediate follow-up. Our findings have significant quality and cost implications and provide reassurance regarding the adoption of more expensive technology in absence of randomized controlled trials. PMID:27720782

  19. Human umbilical-cord-blood mononucleated cells enhance the survival of lethally irradiated mice: dosage and the window of time.

    PubMed

    Kovalenko, Olga A; Azzam, Edouard I; Ende, Norman

    2013-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the window of time and dose of human umbilical-cord-blood (HUCB) mononucleated cells necessary for successful treatment of radiation injury in mice. Female A/J mice (27-30 weeks old) were exposed to an absorbed dose of 9-10 Gy of (137)Cs γ-rays delivered acutely to the whole body. They were treated either with 1 × 10(8) or 2 × 10(8) HUCB mononucleated cells at 24-52 h after the irradiation. The antibiotic Levaquin was applied 4 h postirradiation. The increased dose of cord-blood cells resulted in enhanced survival. The enhancement of survival in animals that received 2 × 10(8) HUCB mononucleated cells relative to irradiated but untreated animals was highly significant (P < 0.01). Compared with earlier studies, the increased dose of HUCB mononucleated cells, coupled with early use of an antibiotic, extended the window of time for effective treatment of severe radiation injury from 4 to 24-52 h after exposure.

  20. Zcchc11 Uridylates Mature miRNAs to Enhance Neonatal IGF-1 Expression, Growth, and Survival

    PubMed Central

    Kozlowski, Elyse; Matsuura, Kori Y.; Ferrari, Joseph D.; Morris, Samantha A.; Powers, John T.; Daley, George Q.; Quinton, Lee J.; Mizgerd, Joseph P.

    2012-01-01

    The Zcchc11 enzyme is implicated in microRNA (miRNA) regulation. It can uridylate let-7 precursors to decrease quantities of the mature miRNA in embryonic stem cell lines, suggested to mediate stem cell maintenance. It can uridylate mature miR-26 to relieve silencing activity without impacting miRNA content in cancer cell lines, suggested to mediate cytokine and growth factor expression. Broader roles of Zcchc11 in shaping or remodeling the miRNome or in directing biological or physiological processes remain entirely speculative. We generated Zcchc11-deficient mice to address these knowledge gaps. Zcchc11 deficiency had no impact on embryogenesis or fetal development, but it significantly decreased survival and growth immediately following birth, indicating a role for this enzyme in early postnatal fitness. Deep sequencing of small RNAs from neonatal livers revealed roles of this enzyme in miRNA sequence diversity. Zcchc11 deficiency diminished the lengths and terminal uridine frequencies for diverse mature miRNAs, but it had no influence on the quantities of any miRNAs. The expression of IGF-1, a liver-derived protein essential to early growth and survival, was enhanced by Zcchc11 expression in vitro, and miRNA silencing of IGF-1 was alleviated by uridylation events observed to be Zcchc11-dependent in the neonatal liver. In neonatal mice, Zcchc11 deficiency significantly decreased IGF-1 mRNA in the liver and IGF-1 protein in the blood. We conclude that the Zcchc11-mediated terminal uridylation of mature miRNAs is pervasive and physiologically significant, especially important in the neonatal period for fostering IGF-1 expression and enhancing postnatal growth and survival. We propose that the miRNA 3′ terminus is a regulatory node upon which multiple enzymes converge to direct silencing activity and tune gene expression. PMID:23209448

  1. Overexpression of Gremlin1 in Mesenchymal Stem Cells Improves Hindlimb Ischemia in Mice by Enhancing Cell Survival.

    PubMed

    Xiang, Qiuling; Hong, Dongxi; Liao, Yan; Cao, Yong; Liu, Muyun; Pang, Jun; Zhou, Junjie; Wang, Guang; Yang, Renhao; Wang, Maosheng; Xiang, Andy Peng

    2017-05-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are a promising cell resource for the treatment of ischemic diseases, partially through paracrine effects. One of the major obstacles of MSC treatment is the poor survival rate and low efficiency of transplanted stem cells due to ischemic or inflammatory environments. Gremlin1 (GREM1), a regulator of growth, differentiation and development, has been identified as a novel proangiogenic factor. However, the role and mechanism of GREM1 in MSCs remains unclear. Therefore, we assessed the putative beneficial effects of GREM1 on MSC-based therapy for hindlimb ischemia. The lentiviral vector, EF1a-GREM1, was constructed using the Multisite Gateway System and used to transduce MSCs. In vitro studies demonstrated increased survival of GREM1-MSCs exposed to H 2 O 2 , which is consistent with the activation of caspase-3. Conditional medium from GREM1-MSCs (GREM1-MSC-CM) increased the anti-apoptotic effects of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs), and this effect was attenuated by treatment with the PI3K/Akt pathway inhibitor LY294002. MSCs modified with GREM1 could significantly increase blood perfusion of the ischemic hindlimb in vivo in a mouse model, which was correlated to improved MSC survival. This study demonstrates that overexpression of GREM1 in MSCs have greater therapeutic effects against ischemia compared with wild-type MSCs by enhancing the survival of MSCs and ECs, which may provide new tools for studies investigating the treatment of ischemic diseases. J. Cell. Physiol. 232: 996-1007, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Host plant associated enhancement of immunity and survival in virus infected caterpillars.

    PubMed

    Smilanich, Angela M; Langus, Tara C; Doan, Lydia; Dyer, Lee A; Harrison, Joshua G; Hsueh, Jennifer; Teglas, Mike B

    2018-01-01

    Understanding the interaction between host plant chemistry, the immune response, and insect pathogens can shed light on host plant use by insect herbivores. In this study, we focused on how interactions between the insect immune response and plant secondary metabolites affect the response to a viral pathogen. Based upon prior research, we asked whether the buckeye caterpillar, Junonia coenia (Nymphalidae), which specializes on plants containing iridoid glycosides (IGs), is less able to resist the pathogenic effects of a densovirus infection when feeding on plants with high concentrations of IGs. In a fully factorial design, individuals were randomly assigned to three treatments, each of which had two levels: (1) exposed to the densovirus versus control, (2) placed on a plant species with high concentrations of IGs (Plantago lanceolata, Plantaginaceae) versus low concentrations of IGs (P. major), and (3) control versus surface sterilized to exclude surface microbes that may contribute to viral resistance. We measured phenoloxidase (PO) activity, hemocyte counts, and gut bacterial diversity (16S ribosomal RNA) during the fourth larval instar, as well as development time, pupal weight, and survival to adult. Individuals infected with the virus were immune-suppressed (as measured by PO response and hemocyte count) and developed significantly faster than virus-free individuals. Contrary to our predictions,mortality was significantly less for virus challengedindividuals reared on the high IG plant compared to the low IG plant.This suggests that plant secondary metabolites can influence survival from viral infection and may be associated with activation of PO. Removing egg microbes did not affect the immune response or survival of the larvae. In summary, these results suggest that plant secondary metabolites are important for survival against a viral pathogen. Even though the PO response was better on the high IG plant, the extent to which this result contributes to

  3. Timely disclosure of progress in long-term cancer survival: the boomerang method substantially improved estimates in a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Brenner, Hermann; Jansen, Lina

    2016-02-01

    Monitoring cancer survival is a key task of cancer registries, but timely disclosure of progress in long-term survival remains a challenge. We introduce and evaluate a novel method, denoted "boomerang method," for deriving more up-to-date estimates of long-term survival. We applied three established methods (cohort, complete, and period analysis) and the boomerang method to derive up-to-date 10-year relative survival of patients diagnosed with common solid cancers and hematological malignancies in the United States. Using the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results 9 database, we compared the most up-to-date age-specific estimates that might have been obtained with the database including patients diagnosed up to 2001 with 10-year survival later observed for patients diagnosed in 1997-2001. For cancers with little or no increase in survival over time, the various estimates of 10-year relative survival potentially available by the end of 2001 were generally rather similar. For malignancies with strongly increasing survival over time, including breast and prostate cancer and all hematological malignancies, the boomerang method provided estimates that were closest to later observed 10-year relative survival in 23 of the 34 groups assessed. The boomerang method can substantially improve up-to-dateness of long-term cancer survival estimates in times of ongoing improvement in prognosis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Comparative Effectiveness of Cancer Control and Survival after Robot-Assisted versus Open Radical Prostatectomy.

    PubMed

    Hu, Jim C; O'Malley, Padraic; Chughtai, Bilal; Isaacs, Abby; Mao, Jialin; Wright, Jason D; Hershman, Dawn; Sedrakyan, Art

    2017-01-01

    Robot-assisted surgery has been rapidly adopted in the U.S. for prostate cancer. Its adoption has been driven by market forces and patient preference, and debate continues regarding whether it offers improved outcomes to justify the higher cost relative to open surgery. We examined the comparative effectiveness of robot-assisted vs open radical prostatectomy in cancer control and survival in a nationally representative population. This population based observational cohort study of patients with prostate cancer undergoing robot-assisted radical prostatectomy and open radical prostatectomy during 2003 to 2012 used data captured in the SEER (Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results)-Medicare linked database. Propensity score matching and time to event analysis were used to compare all cause mortality, prostate cancer specific mortality and use of additional treatment after surgery. A total of 6,430 robot-assisted radical prostatectomies and 9,161 open radical prostatectomies performed during 2003 to 2012 were identified. The use of robot-assisted radical prostatectomy increased from 13.6% in 2003 to 2004 to 72.6% in 2011 to 2012. After a median followup of 6.5 years (IQR 5.2-7.9) robot-assisted radical prostatectomy was associated with an equivalent risk of all cause mortality (HR 0.85, 0.72-1.01) and similar cancer specific mortality (HR 0.85, 0.50-1.43) vs open radical prostatectomy. Robot-assisted radical prostatectomy was also associated with less use of additional treatment (HR 0.78, 0.70-0.86). Robot-assisted radical prostatectomy has comparable intermediate cancer control as evidenced by less use of additional postoperative cancer therapies and equivalent cancer specific and overall survival. Longer term followup is needed to assess for differences in prostate cancer specific survival, which was similar during intermediate followup. Our findings have significant quality and cost implications, and provide reassurance regarding the adoption of more

  5. Descemet stripping automated endothelial keratoplasty 3-year graft and endothelial cell survival compared with penetrating keratoplasty

    PubMed Central

    Price, Marianne O.; Gorovoy, Mark; Price, Francis W.; Benetz, Beth A.; Menegay, Harry J.; Lass, Jonathan H.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To assess 3-year outcomes of Descemet stripping automated endothelial keratoplasty (DSAEK) in comparison with penetrating keratoplasty (PKP) from the Cornea Donor Study (CDS). Design Prospective, multicenter, nonrandomized clinical trial. Participants A total of 173 subjects undergoing DSAEK for a moderate risk condition (principally Fuchs’ dystrophy or pseudophakic corneal edema) compared with 1101 subjects undergoing PKP from the CDS. Methods The DSAEK procedures were performed by two experienced surgeons using the same donor and similar recipient criteria as for the CDS PKP procedures, performed by 68 surgeons. Graft success was assessed by Kaplan Meier survival analysis. Central endothelial cell density (ECD) was determined from baseline donor and postoperative central endothelial images by the reading center used in the CDS Specular Microscopy Ancillary Study. Main Outcome Measures Graft clarity and endothelial cell density Results The donor and recipient demographics were comparable in the DSAEK and PKP groups, except the proportion of Fuchs’ dystrophy cases was higher in the DSAEK cohort. The 3-year survival rate did not differ significantly between DSAEK and PKP procedures performed for either Fuchs’ dystrophy (96% for both, P=0.81) or non-Fuchs cases (86% vs. 84%, respectively, P=0.41). Principal causes of graft failure/regraft within 3 years after DSAEK and PKP were immunologic graft rejection (0.6% vs. 3.1%), endothelial decompensation in the absence of documented rejection (1.7% vs 2.1%), unsatisfactory visual or refractive outcome (1.7% vs. 0.5%), and infection (0% vs. 1.1%), respectively. The 3-year predicted probability of a rejection episode was 9% with DSAEK vs. 20% with PKP (P=0.0005). The median 3-year cell loss for DSAEK and PKP was 46% and 51%, respectively (P=0.33) in Fuchs’s dystrophy cases, and 59% and 61%, respectively (P=0.70), in the non-Fuchs’ cases. At 3 years, use of a smaller DSAEK insertion incision was associated

  6. Comparable effects of low-intensity electromagnetic irradiation at the frequency of 51.8 and 53 GHz and antibiotic ceftazidime on Lactobacillus acidophilus growth and survival.

    PubMed

    Soghomonyan, Diana; Trchounian, Armen

    2013-01-01

    The effects of low-intensity electromagnetic irradiation (EMI) with the frequencies of 51.8 and 53 GHz on Lactobacillus acidophilus growth and survival were revealed. These effects were compared with antibacterial effects of antibiotic ceftazidime. Decrease in bacterial growth rate by EMI was comparable with the inhibitory effect of ceftazidime (minimal inhibitory concentration-16 μM) and no enhanced action was observed with combined effects of EMI and the antibiotic. However, EMI-enhanced antibiotic inhibitory effect on bacterial survival. The kinetics of the bacterial suspension oxidation-reduction potential up to 24 h of the growth was changed by EMI and ceftazidime. The changes were more strongly expressed by combined effects of EMI and antibiotic especially up to 12 h. Moreover, EMI did not change overall energy (glucose)-dependent H(+) efflux across the membrane but it increased N,N'-dicyclohexylcarbodiimide (DCCD)-inhibited H(+) efflux. In contrast, this EMI in combination with ceftazidime decreased DCCD-sensitive H(+) efflux. Low-intensity EMI had inhibitory effect on L. acidophilus bacterial growth and survival. The effect on bacterial survival was more significant in the combination with ceftazidime. The H(+)-translocating F 0 F 1-ATPase, for which DCCD is specific inhibitor, might be a target for EMI and ceftazidime. The revealed bactericide effects on L. acidophilus can be applied in biotechnology, food producing and safety technology.

  7. Pulmonary Physical Therapy Techniques to Enhance Survival in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Macpherson, Chelsea E; Bassile, Clare C

    2016-07-01

    Respiratory insufficiency is the primary cause of morbidity and mortality in individuals with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Although mechanical interventions are effective in prolonging survival through respiratory support, pulmonary physical therapy interventions are being investigated. The purpose of this systematic review was to examine the effectiveness of pulmonary physical therapy interventions across the progressive stages of ALS. Six databases were searched for articles from inception to December 2014 investigating pulmonary physical therapy interventions in the ALS population. The search strategy followed Cochrane Collaboration guidelines with replication per database. Effect sizes (ES) were calculated for primary outcome measures: forced vital capacity (FVC) and peak cough expiratory flow (PCEF). Seven studies met inclusion criteria. Four studies used control groups whereas the remainder used repeated measures. With the exception of diaphragmatic breathing, pulmonary physical therapy interventions were effective in improving multiple respiratory outcome measures in this population. Inspiratory muscle training (IMT) was shown to prolong respiratory muscle strength with a strong effect size (ES = 1.48) for FVC. In addition, mean length of survival increased by 12 months. Lung volume recruitment training (LVRT) strongly enhanced immediate cough efficacy with improved FVC (ES = 1.02) and PCEF (ES = 1.82). Manually assisted cough (MAC) only improved PCEF by a small amount (ES = 0.15, bulbar ALS; ES = 0.16, classical ALS groups). Specific pulmonary physical therapy interventions (IMT, LVRT, and MAC) have effectiveness in improving respiratory outcome measures and increasing survival. These should be routinely incorporated into the comprehensive management of individuals with ALS. More rigorous methodological investigations should be performed to replicate these findings.Video abstract available with brief technique demonstration of IMT and LVRT (see

  8. Coenzyme Q10 protects neural stem cells against hypoxia by enhancing survival signals.

    PubMed

    Park, Jinse; Park, Hyun-Hee; Choi, Hojin; Kim, Young Seo; Yu, Hyun-Jeung; Lee, Kyu-Yong; Lee, Young Joo; Kim, Seung Hyun; Koh, Seong-Ho

    2012-10-10

    Recanalization and secondary prevention are the main therapeutic strategies for acute ischemic stroke. Neuroprotective therapies have also been investigated despite unsuccessful clinical results. Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10), which is an essential cofactor for electron transport in mitochondria, is known to have an antioxidant effect. We investigated the protective effects of CoQ10 against hypoxia in neural stem cells (NSCs). We measured cell viability and levels of intracellular signaling proteins after treatment with several concentrations of CoQ10 under hypoxia-reperfusion. CoQ10 protected NSCs against hypoxia-reperfusion in a concentration-dependent manner by reducing growth inhibition and inhibiting free radical formation. It increased the expression of a number of survival-related proteins such as phosphorylated Akt (pAkt), phosphorylated glycogen synthase kinase 3-β (pGSK3-β), and B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2) in NSCs injured by hypoxia-reperfusion and reduced the expression of death-related proteins such as cleaved caspase-3. We conclude that CoQ10 has effects against hypoxia-reperfusion induced damage to NSCs by enhancing survival signals and decreasing death signals. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Cryptic female choice enhances fertilization success and embryo survival in chinook salmon.

    PubMed

    Rosengrave, Patrice; Montgomerie, Robert; Gemmell, Neil

    2016-03-30

    In this study, we investigated two potentially important intersexual postcopulatory gametic interactions in a population of chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha): (i) the effect of female ovarian fluid (OF) on the behaviour of spermatozoa during fertilization and (ii) the effects of multilocus heterozygosity (MLH) (as an index of male quality) and female-male genetic relatedness on sperm behaviour and male fertilization success when there is sperm competition in the presence of that OF. To do this, we conducted a series of in vitro competitive fertilization experiments and found that, when ejaculates from two males are competing for access to a single female's unfertilized eggs, fertilization success was significantly biased towards the male whose sperm swam fastest in the female's OF. Embryo survival--a measure of fitness--was also positively correlated with both sperm swimming speed in OF and male MLH, providing novel evidence that cryptic female choice is adaptive for the female, enhancing the early survival of her offspring and potentially influencing her fitness. © 2016 The Author(s).

  10. An Incident Cohort Study Comparing Survival on Home Hemodialysis and Peritoneal Dialysis (Australia and New Zealand Dialysis and Transplantation Registry)

    PubMed Central

    Nadeau-Fredette, Annie-Claire; Hawley, Carmel M.; Pascoe, Elaine M.; Chan, Christopher T.; Clayton, Philip A.; Polkinghorne, Kevan R.; Boudville, Neil; Leblanc, Martine

    2015-01-01

    Background and objectives Home dialysis is often recognized as a first-choice therapy for patients initiating dialysis. However, studies comparing clinical outcomes between peritoneal dialysis and home hemodialysis have been very limited. Design, setting, participants, & measurements This Australia and New Zealand Dialysis and Transplantation Registry study assessed all Australian and New Zealand adult patients receiving home dialysis on day 90 after initiation of RRT between 2000 and 2012. The primary outcome was overall survival. The secondary outcomes were on-treatment survival, patient and technique survival, and death-censored technique survival. All results were adjusted with three prespecified models: multivariable Cox proportional hazards model (main model), propensity score quintile–stratified model, and propensity score–matched model. Results The study included 10,710 patients on incident peritoneal dialysis and 706 patients on incident home hemodialysis. Treatment with home hemodialysis was associated with better patient survival than treatment with peritoneal dialysis (5-year survival: 85% versus 44%, respectively; log-rank P<0.001). Using multivariable Cox proportional hazards analysis, home hemodialysis was associated with superior patient survival (hazard ratio for overall death, 0.47; 95% confidence interval, 0.38 to 0.59) as well as better on-treatment survival (hazard ratio for on-treatment death, 0.34; 95% confidence interval, 0.26 to 0.45), composite patient and technique survival (hazard ratio for death or technique failure, 0.34; 95% confidence interval, 0.29 to 0.40), and death-censored technique survival (hazard ratio for technique failure, 0.34; 95% confidence interval, 0.28 to 0.41). Similar results were obtained with the propensity score models as well as sensitivity analyses using competing risks models and different definitions for technique failure and lag period after modality switch, during which events were attributed to the

  11. Benefits of prescribed flows for salmon smolt survival enhancement vary longitudinally in a highly managed river system

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Courter, Ian; Garrison, Thomas; Kock, Tobias J.; Perry, Russell W.; Child, David; Hubble, Joel

    2016-01-01

    The influence of streamflow on survival of emigrating juvenile Pacific salmonids Oncorhynchus spp. (smolts) is a major concern for water managers throughout the northeast Pacific Rim. However, few studies have quantified flow effects on smolt survival, and available information does not indicate a consistent flow–survival relationship within the typical range of flows under management control. In the Yakima Basin, Washington, the potential effects of streamflow alterations on smolt survival have been debated for over 20 years. Using a series of controlled flow releases from upper basin reservoirs and radiotelemetry, we quantified the relationship between flow and yearling Chinook salmon smolt survival in the 208 km reach between Roza Dam and the Yakima River mouth. A multistate mark–recapture model accounted for weekly variation in flow conditions experienced by tagged fish in four discrete river segments. Smolt survival was significantly associated with streamflow in the Roza Reach [river kilometre (rkm) 208–189] and marginally associated with streamflow in the Sunnyside Reach (rkm 169–77). However, smolt survival was not significantly associated with flow in the Naches and Prosser Reaches (rkm 189–169 and rkm 77–3). This discrepancy indicates potential differences in underlying flow-related survival mechanisms, such as predation or passage impediments. Our results clarify trade-offs between flow augmentation for fisheries enhancement and other beneficial uses, and our study design provides a framework for resolving uncertainties about streamflow effects on migratory fish survival in other river systems. 

  12. Adoptive cell transfer after chemotherapy enhances survival in patients with resectable HNSCC.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Pan; Zhang, Yan; J Archibald, Steve; Wang, Hua

    2015-09-01

    The aims of this study were to evaluate the therapeutic efficacy and to determine the immune factors for treatment success in patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) treated with chemotherapy followed by adoptive cell transfer (ACT). A total of 43 HNSCC patients who received radical resection and chemotherapy were analysed in this study. Twenty-one of the patients were repeatedly treated with ACT after chemotherapy (ACT group), and the other twenty-two patients without ACT treatment were included as part of the control group. To investigate the immunological differences underlying these observations, we expanded and profiled improving cytokine-induced killer cells (iCIK) from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) with the timed addition of RetroNectin, OKT3 mAb, IFN γ and IL-2. The median of progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) in the ACT group were significantly higher as compared to the control group (56 vs. 40; 58 vs. 45 months). In iCIK culture, there was a significant reduction in CD3+CD4+ T-cell proliferation and cytokines (IL-2, TNF) production from patients who received chemotherapy compared to patients without chemotherapy. Intra-arterial infusion of iCIK, in coordination with chemotherapy, considerably rescued iCIK culture from the suppression of systemic immunity induced by chemotherapy and induced tumour regression. Altogether, these findings suggest that ACT is an effective neo-adjuvant therapy for rescuing systemic immune suppression and improving survival time in patients with HNSCC. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Collagen esterification enhances the function and survival of pancreatic β cells in 2D and 3D culture systems

    SciTech Connect

    Ko, Jae Hyung; Kim, Yang Hee; Asan Institute for Life Science, 388-1 Pungnap-2 Dong, Songpa-gu, Seoul

    Collagen, one of the most important components of the extracellular matrix (ECM), may play a role in the survival of pancreatic islet cells. In addition, chemical modifications that change the collagen charge profile to a net positive charge by esterification have been shown to increase the adhesion and proliferation of various cell types. The purpose of this study was to characterize and compare the effects of native collagen (NC) and esterified collagen (EC) on β cell function and survival. After isolation by the collagenase digestion technique, rat islets were cultured with NC and EC in 2 dimensional (2D) and 3more » dimensional (3D) environments for a long-term duration in vitro. The cells were assessed for islet adhesion, morphology, viability, glucose-induced insulin secretion, and mRNA expression of glucose metabolism-related genes, and visualized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Islet cells attached tightly in the NC group, but islet cell viability was similar in both the NC and EC groups. Glucose-stimulated insulin secretion was higher in the EC group than in the NC group in both 2D and 3D culture. Furthermore, the mRNA expression levels of glucokinase in the EC group were higher than those in the NC group and were associated with glucose metabolism and insulin secretion. Finally, SEM observation confirmed that islets had more intact component cells on EC sponges than on NC sponges. These results indicate that modification of collagen may offer opportunities to improve function and viability of islet cells. - Highlights: • We changed the collagen charge profile to a net positive charge by esterification. • Islets cultured on esterified collagen improved survival in both 2D and 3D culture. • Islets cultured on esterified collagen enhanced glucose-stimulated insulin release. • High levels of glucokinase mRNA may be associated with increased insulin release.« less

  14. A comparative, descriptive study of systemic factors and survival in elderly patients with sacral pressure ulcers.

    PubMed

    Jaul, Efraim; Menczel, Jacob

    2015-03-01

    Sacral pressure ulcers (PUs) are a serious complication in frail elderly patients. Thin tissue in the sacral area, low body mass index, and anatomical location contribute to the development of sacral PUs. A comparative, descriptive study was conducted to identify patient systemic factors associated with sacral PUs and to compare survival time in patients with and without PU. All consecutive patients with PUs (n = 77) and without sacral PUs (n = 53) admitted to the skilled nursing department of a geriatric hospital in Jerusalem, Israel between July 1, 2008 and December 31, 2011 were eligible to participate. Charts of previously admitted patients were abstracted and patients were prospectively followed until discharge, death, or the end of the study. Patient demographics, comorbidities, nutritional status, physical and cognitive function (measured using the Reisberg's Functional Assessment Staging Tool [FAST], Stages of Dementia of Alzheimer Scale, and the Glasgow Coma Scale), PU status, number of courses of antibiotic treatment during admission, length of hospitalization, and mortality were compared between patients admitted with and without a sacral PU using descriptive and univariate statistics. Logistic regression models were used to estimate the odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for sacral PU versus without PU by study covariate. The association between sacral PU and survival time was assessed using Kaplan-Meier models. Patients with a sacral PU were significantly older (average age 81.60 ±10.78 versus 77.06±11.19 years old, P = 0.02) and had a higher prevalence of dementia (70% versus 30%, P = 0.007), Parkinson's disease (92.3% versus 7.7%, P = 0.03), and anemia (67.7% versus 32.3%, P = 0.06) than patients admitted without a PU. Patients with a sacral PU also had a lower body mass index (23.1 versus 25.4, P = 0.04), and lower hemoglobin (10.54 versus 11.11, P = 0.03), albumin (26.2 versus 29.7, P = 0.002), and total protein levels (61.3 versus

  15. Stimulated hemopoiesis and enhanced survival following glucan treatment in sublethally and lethally irradiated mice

    SciTech Connect

    Patchen, M.L.; MacVittie, T.J.

    1985-01-01

    Hemopoietic effects of the reticuloendothelial agent glucan were assayed in normal mice and in mice hemopoietically depleted by exposure to /sup 60/Co radiation. In normal mice, glucan administration increased the content of bone marrow and splenic transplantable pluripotent hemopoietic stem cells (CFU-2), committed granulocyte-macrophage progenitor cells (GM-CFC), and pure macrophage progenitor cells (M-CFC). Erythroid progenitor cells (CFU-e) were increased only in the spleen. In sublethally irradiated mice (650 rads), glucan increased the number of endogeneous pluripotent hemopoietic stem cells (E-CFU) when administered either before or after irradiation. The most pronounced effects were observed when glucan was administered 1 day before,more » 1 h before, or 1 h after irradiation. In addition, the administration of glucan before lethal irradiation (900 rads) enhanced survival. The most significant results were seen when glucan was administered 1 day prior to irradiation. The possibility of using agents such as glucan to enhance hemopoietic reconstitution and prevent septicemia following chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy is discussed.« less

  16. Survival of the Fittest: How Bacterial Pathogens Utilize Bile To Enhance Infection

    PubMed Central

    Sistrunk, Jeticia R.; Nickerson, Kourtney P.; Chanin, Rachael B.; Rasko, David A.

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY Bacterial pathogens have coevolved with humans in order to efficiently infect, replicate within, and be transmitted to new hosts to ensure survival and a continual infection cycle. For enteric pathogens, the ability to adapt to numerous host factors under the harsh conditions of the gastrointestinal tract is critical for establishing infection. One such host factor readily encountered by enteric bacteria is bile, an innately antimicrobial detergent-like compound essential for digestion and nutrient absorption. Not only have enteric pathogens evolved to resist the bactericidal conditions of bile, but these bacteria also utilize bile as a signal to enhance virulence regulation for efficient infection. This review provides a comprehensive and up-to-date analysis of bile-related research with enteric pathogens. From common responses to the unique expression of specific virulence factors, each pathogen has overcome significant challenges to establish infection in the gastrointestinal tract. Utilization of bile as a signal to modulate virulence factor expression has led to important insights for our understanding of virulence mechanisms for many pathogens. Further research on enteric pathogens exposed to this in vivo signal will benefit therapeutic and vaccine development and ultimately enhance our success at combating such elite pathogens. PMID:27464994

  17. Comparative Transcriptomics Reveals Discrete Survival Responses of S. aureus and S. epidermidis to Sapienic Acid

    PubMed Central

    Moran, Josephine C.; Alorabi, Jamal A.; Horsburgh, Malcolm J.

    2017-01-01

    Staphylococcal colonization of human skin is ubiquitous, with particular species more frequent at different body sites. Whereas Staphylococcus epidermidis can be isolated from the skin of every individual tested, Staphylococcus aureus is isolated from <5% of healthy individuals. The factors that drive staphylococcal speciation and niche selection on skin are incompletely defined. Here we show that S. aureus is inhibited to a greater extent than S. epidermidis by the sebaceous lipid sapienic acid, supporting a role for this skin antimicrobial in selection of skin staphylococci. We used RNA-Seq and comparative transcriptomics to identify the sapienic acid survival responses of S. aureus and S. epidermidis. Consistent with the membrane depolarization mode of action of sapienic acid, both species shared a common transcriptional response to counteract disruption of metabolism and transport. The species differed in their regulation of SaeRS and VraRS regulons. While S. aureus upregulated urease operon transcription, S. epidermidis upregulated arginine deiminase, the oxygen-responsive NreABC nitrogen regulation system and the nitrate and nitrite reduction pathways. The role of S. aureus ACME and chromosomal arginine deiminase pathways in sapienic acid resistance was determined through mutational studies. We speculate that ammonia production could contribute to sapienic acid resistance in staphylococci. PMID:28179897

  18. Comparative analyses of longevity and senescence reveal variable survival benefits of living in zoos across mammals.

    PubMed

    Tidière, Morgane; Gaillard, Jean-Michel; Berger, Vérane; Müller, Dennis W H; Bingaman Lackey, Laurie; Gimenez, Olivier; Clauss, Marcus; Lemaître, Jean-François

    2016-11-07

    While it is commonly believed that animals live longer in zoos than in the wild, this assumption has rarely been tested. We compared four survival metrics (longevity, baseline mortality, onset of senescence and rate of senescence) between both sexes of free-ranging and zoo populations of more than 50 mammal species. We found that mammals from zoo populations generally lived longer than their wild counterparts (84% of species). The effect was most notable in species with a faster pace of life (i.e. a short life span, high reproductive rate and high mortality in the wild) because zoos evidently offer protection against a number of relevant conditions like predation, intraspecific competition and diseases. Species with a slower pace of life (i.e. a long life span, low reproduction rate and low mortality in the wild) benefit less from captivity in terms of longevity; in such species, there is probably less potential for a reduction in mortality. These findings provide a first general explanation about the different magnitude of zoo environment benefits among mammalian species, and thereby highlight the effort that is needed to improve captive conditions for slow-living species that are particularly susceptible to extinction in the wild.

  19. Comparative analyses of longevity and senescence reveal variable survival benefits of living in zoos across mammals

    PubMed Central

    Tidière, Morgane; Gaillard, Jean-Michel; Berger, Vérane; Müller, Dennis W. H.; Bingaman Lackey, Laurie; Gimenez, Olivier; Clauss, Marcus; Lemaître, Jean-François

    2016-01-01

    While it is commonly believed that animals live longer in zoos than in the wild, this assumption has rarely been tested. We compared four survival metrics (longevity, baseline mortality, onset of senescence and rate of senescence) between both sexes of free-ranging and zoo populations of more than 50 mammal species. We found that mammals from zoo populations generally lived longer than their wild counterparts (84% of species). The effect was most notable in species with a faster pace of life (i.e. a short life span, high reproductive rate and high mortality in the wild) because zoos evidently offer protection against a number of relevant conditions like predation, intraspecific competition and diseases. Species with a slower pace of life (i.e. a long life span, low reproduction rate and low mortality in the wild) benefit less from captivity in terms of longevity; in such species, there is probably less potential for a reduction in mortality. These findings provide a first general explanation about the different magnitude of zoo environment benefits among mammalian species, and thereby highlight the effort that is needed to improve captive conditions for slow-living species that are particularly susceptible to extinction in the wild. PMID:27819303

  20. Targeting autophagy to modulate cell survival: a comparative analysis in cancer, normal and embryonic cells.

    PubMed

    Divac Rankov, Aleksandra; Ljujić, Mila; Petrić, Marija; Radojković, Dragica; Pešić, Milica; Dinić, Jelena

    2017-11-01

    Autophagy is linked to multiple cancer-related signaling pathways, and represents a defense mechanism for cancer cells under therapeutic stress. The crosstalk between apoptosis and autophagy is essential for both tumorigenesis and embryonic development. We studied the influence of autophagy on cell survival in pro-apoptotic conditions induced by anticancer drugs in three model systems: human cancer cells (NCI-H460, COR-L23 and U87), human normal cells (HaCaT and MRC-5) and zebrafish embryos (Danio rerio). Autophagy induction with AZD2014 and tamoxifen antagonized the pro-apoptotic effect of chemotherapeutics doxorubicin and cisplatin in cell lines, while autophagy inhibition by wortmannin and chloroquine synergized the action of both anticancer agents. This effect was further verified by assessing cleaved caspase-3 and PARP-1 levels. Autophagy inhibitors significantly increased both apoptotic markers when applied in combination with doxorubicin while autophagy inducers had the opposite effect. In a similar manner, autophagy induction in zebrafish embryos prevented cisplatin-induced apoptosis in the tail region while autophagy inhibition increased cell death in the tail and retina of cisplatin-treated animals. Autophagy modulation with direct inhibitors of the PI3kinase/Akt/mTOR pathway (AZD2014 and wortmannin) triggered the cellular response to anticancer drugs more effectively in NCI-H460 and zebrafish embryonic models compared to HaCaT suggesting that these modulators are selective towards rapidly proliferating cells. Therefore, evaluating the autophagic properties of chemotherapeutics could help determine more accurately the fate of different cell types under treatment. Our study underlines the importance of testing autophagic activity of potential anticancer agents in a comparative approach to develop more rational anticancer therapeutic strategies.

  1. Young breast cancer patients who develop distant metastasis after surgery have better survival outcomes compared with elderly counterparts.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jingjing; Wang, Jiayu; Li, Qing; Zhang, Pin; Yuan, Peng; Ma, Fei; Luo, Yang; Cai, Ruigang; Fan, Ying; Chen, Shanshan; Li, Qiao; Xu, Binghe

    2017-07-04

    To investigate the recurrence pattern and subsequent survival outcomes in young breast cancer population, 483 young patients (≤ 35) and 739 elderly patients (≥ 65), who received mastectomy or breast-conserving surgery from 2008 to 2012, were included in this study. The young population presented with a higher rate of pathologic tumor stage (P < 0.001), positive pathologic lymph node (P < 0.001), grade III tumors (P < 0.001), and lymphovascular invasion (P < 0.001). With a median follow-up of 56.5 months, young patients had a significantly lower 5-year disease-free survival (73.7% vs 83.4%, P = 0.001), while no difference in 5-year overall survival was observed (91.7% vs 91.7%, P = 0.721). The 5-year cumulative incidences of locoregional relapse (8.9% vs 4.3%, P = 0.009) and distant metastasis (18.8% vs 9.5%, P < 0.001) were significantly higher in the young population. However, for patients with distant metastasis, the survival outcomes were significantly better in the young patients (5-year overall survival since diagnosis: 60.0% vs 47.3%, P = 0.025; 5-year overall survival after recurrence: 31.0% vs 24.3%, P = 0.001). Young breast cancer patients present with more aggressive clinicopathological features and have poor prognosis compared with elderly. But young patients with distant metastasis might have better survival outcomes.

  2. Heat-killed Lactobacillus spp. cells enhance survivals of Caenorhabditis elegans against Salmonella and Yersinia infections.

    PubMed

    Lee, J; Choe, J; Kim, J; Oh, S; Park, S; Kim, S; Kim, Y

    2015-12-01

    This study examined the effect of feeding heat-killed Lactobacillus cells on the survival of Caenorhabditis elegans nematodes after Salmonella Typhimurium and Yersinia enterocolitica infection. The feeding of heat-killed Lactobacillus plantarum 133 (LP133) and Lactobacillus fermentum 21 (LP21) cells to nematodes was shown to significantly increase the survival rate as well as stimulate the expression of pmk-1 gene that key factor for C. elegans immunity upon infection compared with control nematodes that were only fed Escherichia coli OP50 (OP50) cells. These results suggest that heat-killed LP133 and LF21 cells exert preventive or protective effects against the Gram-negative bacteria Salm. Typhimurium and Y. enterocolitica. To better understand the mechanisms underlying the LF21-mediated and LP133-mediated protection against bacterial infection in nematodes, transcriptional profiling was performed for each experimental group. These experiments showed that genes related to energy generation and ageing, regulators of insulin/IGF-1-like signalling, DAF genes, oxidation and reduction processes, the defence response and/or the innate immune response, and neurological processes were upregulated in nematodes that had been fed heat-killed Lactobacillus cells compared with nematodes that had been fed E. coli cells. In this study, the feeding of heat-killed Lactobacillus bacteria to Caenorhabditis elegans nematodes was shown to decrease infection by Gram-negative bacteria and increase the host lifespan. C. elegans has a small, well-organized genome and is an excellent in vivo model organism; thus, these results will potentially shed light on important Lactobacillus-host interactions. © 2015 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  3. Coconut oil protects cortical neurons from amyloid beta toxicity by enhancing signaling of cell survival pathways.

    PubMed

    Nafar, F; Clarke, J P; Mearow, K M

    2017-05-01

    Alzheimer's disease is a progressive neurodegenerative disease that has links with other conditions that can often be modified by dietary and life-style interventions. In particular, coconut oil has received attention as having potentially having benefits in lessening the cognitive deficits associated with Alzheimer's disease. In a recent report, we showed that neuron survival in cultures co-treated with coconut oil and Aβ was rescued compared to cultures exposed only to Aβ. Here we investigated treatment with Aβ for 1, 6 or 24 h followed by addition of coconut oil for a further 24 h, or treatment with coconut oil for 24 h followed by Aβ exposure for various periods. Neuronal survival and several cellular parameters (cleaved caspase 3, synaptophysin labeling and ROS) were assessed. In addition, the influence of these treatments on relevant signaling pathways was investigated with Western blotting. In terms of the treatment timing, our data indicated that coconut oil rescues cells pre-exposed to Aβ for 1 or 6 h, but is less effective when the pre-exposure has been 24 h. However, pretreatment with coconut oil prior to Aβ exposure showed the best outcomes. Treatment with octanoic or lauric acid also provided protection against Aβ, but was not as effective as the complete oil. The coconut oil treatment reduced the number of cells with cleaved caspase and ROS labeling, as well as rescuing the loss of synaptophysin labeling observed with Aβ treatment. Treatment with coconut oil, as well as octanoic, decanoic and lauric acids, resulted in a modest increase in ketone bodies compared to controls. The biochemical data suggest that Akt and ERK activation may contribute to the survival promoting influence of coconut oil. This was supported by observations that a PI3-Kinase inhibitor blocked the rescue effect of CoOil on Aβ amyloid toxicity. Further studies into the mechanisms of action of coconut oil and its constituent medium chain fatty acids are warranted

  4. Survival of modern knee tumor megaprostheses: failures, functional results, and a comparative statistical analysis.

    PubMed

    Pala, Elisa; Trovarelli, Giulia; Calabrò, Teresa; Angelini, Andrea; Abati, Caterina N; Ruggieri, Pietro

    2015-03-01

    Modular megaprostheses are now the most common method of reconstruction after segmental resection of the long bones in the lower extremities. Previous studies reported variable outcome and failure rates after knee megaprosthetic reconstructions. The objectives of this study were to analyze the results of a modular tumor prosthesis after resection of bone tumor around the knee with respect to (1) survivorship; (2) failure rate; (3) comparative survivorship against different sites of reconstructions and of primary and revision implants; and (4) functional results on the Musculoskeletal Tumor Society (MSTS) scoring system. Between 2003 and 2010, 247 rotating-hinge Global Modular Reconstruction System (GMRS) knee prostheses were implanted in our institute for malignant and aggressive benign tumors. During this time, that group represented 23% of the patients who had oncologic megaprosthesis reconstruction about the knee after resection of primary or metastatic bone tumors (247 of 1086 patients). In the other 77% of cases we used other types of oncologic prostheses. Before 2003 we used the older Howmedica Modular Resection System and Kotz Modular Femur/Tibia Replacement from 2003 we used mostly the GMRS but we continued to use the HMRS in some cases such as patients with poor prognoses, elderly patients, or metastatic patients. Sites included 187 distal femurs and 60 proximal tibias. Causes of megaprosthesis failure were classified according to Henderson et al. in five types: Type 1 (soft tissue failure), Type 2 (aseptic loosening), Type 3 (structural failure), Type 4 (infection), and Type 5 (tumor progression). Followup was at a minimum oncologic followup of 2 years (mean, 4 years; range, 2-8 years). Kaplan-Meier actuarial curves of implant survival to major failures were done. Functional results were analyzed according to the MSTS II system; 223 of the 247 were available for functional scoring (81%). At latest followup, among 175 treated patients for primary

  5. Cryptic female choice enhances fertilization success and embryo survival in chinook salmon

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we investigated two potentially important intersexual postcopulatory gametic interactions in a population of chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha): (i) the effect of female ovarian fluid (OF) on the behaviour of spermatozoa during fertilization and (ii) the effects of multilocus heterozygosity (MLH) (as an index of male quality) and female–male genetic relatedness on sperm behaviour and male fertilization success when there is sperm competition in the presence of that OF. To do this, we conducted a series of in vitro competitive fertilization experiments and found that, when ejaculates from two males are competing for access to a single female's unfertilized eggs, fertilization success was significantly biased towards the male whose sperm swam fastest in the female's OF. Embryo survival—a measure of fitness—was also positively correlated with both sperm swimming speed in OF and male MLH, providing novel evidence that cryptic female choice is adaptive for the female, enhancing the early survival of her offspring and potentially influencing her fitness. PMID:27009221

  6. Aluminum carboxymethyl cellulose-rice bran microcapsules: enhancing survival of Lactobacillus reuteri KUB-AC5.

    PubMed

    Chitprasert, Pakamon; Sudsai, Polin; Rodklongtan, Akkaratch

    2012-09-01

    This research aimed to enhance the survival of Lactobacillus reuteri KUB-AC5 from heat conditioning by using microencapsulation with aluminum carboxymethyl cellulose-rice bran (AlCMC-RB) composites of different weight ratios of 1:0, 1:1, and 1:1.5. The cell/polymer suspension was crosslinked with aluminum chloride at different agitation speeds of 1200, 1500, and 2100 rpm. The AlCMC microcapsules had significantly higher encapsulation efficiency, but lower microcapsule yield than the AlCMC-RB microcapsules (p≤0.05). Scanning electron microscopy revealed the complexation between AlCMC and RB. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy showed hydrogen bondings between AlCMC, RB, and cells. The AlCMC-RB microcapsules had significantly lower aluminum ion and moisture contents than the AlCMC ones. After heat exposure, the viability of non-encapsulated and microencapsulated cells in the AlCMC matrix dramatically declined, while that of microencapsulated cells in the AlCMC-RB matrix was about 8 log CFU/g. The results showed the promising potential of the AlCMC-RB composite microcapsules for the protection of probiotics against heat. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Interleukin-9 enhances interleukin-5 receptor expression, differentiation, and survival of human eosinophils.

    PubMed

    Gounni, A S; Gregory, B; Nutku, E; Aris, F; Latifa, K; Minshall, E; North, J; Tavernier, J; Levit, R; Nicolaides, N; Robinson, D; Hamid, Q

    2000-09-15

    Interleukin-9 (IL-9) has been implicated in the pathogenesis of allergic disorders. To examine the interaction between IL-9 and eosinophils, we evaluated mature peripheral blood eosinophils for their expression of the specific alpha-subunit of the IL-9 receptor (IL-9R-alpha). The expression of IL-9R-alpha by human eosinophils was detected at the messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein levels by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), flow cytometry, and immunocytochemical analysis, respectively. Functional analyses demonstrated that recombinant human (rh)IL-9 inhibited in vitro peripheral blood human eosinophil apoptosis in a concentration-dependent manner. We then examined the role of IL-9 in eosinophil differentiation using the human cord blood CD34(+) cells and human promyelocytic leukemia cells (HL-60). The addition of IL-9 to CD34(+) cells cultured in IL-3 and IL-5 enhanced eosinophil development, and IL-9 alone induced the expression of IL-5R-alpha. IL-9 also up-regulated the IL-5R-alpha chain cell surface expression during terminal eosinophil differentiation of the HL-60 cell line. Our findings suggest that IL-9 may potentiate in vivo eosinophil function by increasing their survival and IL-5-mediated differentiation and maturation. Taken together, these results suggest a mechanism by which IL-9 potentiates airway and tissue eosinophilia.

  8. Autophagy induction enhances TDP43 turnover and survival in neuronal ALS models

    PubMed Central

    Barmada, Sami J.; Serio, Andrea; Arjun, Arpana; Bilican, Bilada; Daub, Aaron; Ando, D. Michael; Tsvetkov, Andrey; Pleiss, Michael; Li, Xingli; Peisach, Daniel; Shaw, Christopher; Chandran, Siddharthan; Finkbeiner, Steven

    2014-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal dementia (FTD) have distinct clinical features but a common pathology—cytoplasmic inclusions rich in TDP43. Rare TDP43 mutations cause ALS or FTD, but abnormal TDP43 levels and localization may cause disease even if TDP43 lacks a mutation. Here we showed that individual neurons vary in their ability to clear TDP43 and are exquisitely sensitive to TDP43 levels. To measure TDP43 clearance, we developed and validated a single-cell optical method that overcomes the confounding effects of aggregation and toxicity, and discovered that pathogenic mutations significantly shorten TDP43 half-life. Novel compounds that stimulate autophagy improved TDP43 clearance and localization, and enhanced survival in primary murine neurons and in human stem cell–derived neurons and astrocytes harboring mutant TDP43. These findings indicate that the levels and localization of TDP43 critically determine neurotoxicity and show that autophagy induction mitigates neurodegeneration by acting directly on TDP43 clearance. PMID:24974230

  9. 77 FR 40628 - Draft Safe Harbor Agreement and Application for an Enhancement of Survival Permit for the Tres...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-10

    ...-FF02ENEH00] Draft Safe Harbor Agreement and Application for an Enhancement of Survival Permit for the Tres... permit application and the associated draft Safe Harbor Agreement (SHA). DATES: Comment Period: To ensure... . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Under a Safe Harbor Agreement, participating property owners voluntarily undertake...

  10. DNA double strand break (DSB) induction and cell survival in iodine-enhanced computed tomography (CT)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Streitmatter, Seth W.; Stewart, Robert D.; Jenkins, Peter A.; Jevremovic, Tatjana

    2017-08-01

    A multi-scale Monte Carlo model is proposed to assess the dosimetric and biological impact of iodine-based contrast agents commonly used in computed tomography. As presented, the model integrates the general purpose MCNP6 code system for larger-scale radiation transport and dose assessment with the Monte Carlo damage simulation to determine the sub-cellular characteristics and spatial distribution of initial DNA damage. The repair-misrepair-fixation model is then used to relate DNA double strand break (DSB) induction to reproductive cell death. Comparisons of measured and modeled changes in reproductive cell survival for ultrasoft characteristic k-shell x-rays (0.25-4.55 keV) up to orthovoltage (200-500 kVp) x-rays indicate that the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) for DSB induction is within a few percent of the RBE for cell survival. Because of the very short range of secondary electrons produced by low energy x-ray interactions with contrast agents, the concentration and subcellular distribution of iodine within and near cellular targets have a significant impact on the estimated absorbed dose and number of DSB produced in the cell nucleus. For some plausible models of the cell-level distribution of contrast agent, the model predicts an increase in RBE-weighted dose (RWD) for the endpoint of DSB induction of 1.22-1.40 for a 5-10 mg ml-1 iodine concentration in blood compared to an RWD increase of 1.07  ±  0.19 from a recent clinical trial. The modeled RWD of 2.58  ±  0.03 is also in good agreement with the measured RWD of 2.3  ±  0.5 for an iodine concentration of 50 mg ml-1 relative to no iodine. The good agreement between modeled and measured DSB and cell survival estimates provides some confidence that the presented model can be used to accurately assess biological dose for other concentrations of the same or different contrast agents.

  11. Enhancement of islet engraftment and achievement of long-term islet allograft survival by Toll-like receptor 4 blockade.

    PubMed

    Giovannoni, Laurianne; Muller, Yannick D; Lacotte, Stéphanie; Parnaud, Géraldine; Borot, Sophie; Meier, Raphaël P H; Lavallard, Vanessa; Bédat, Benoît; Toso, Christian; Daubeuf, Bruno; Elson, Greg; Shang, Limin; Morel, Philippe; Kosco-Vilbois, Marie; Bosco, Domenico; Berney, Thierry

    2015-01-01

    Toll-like receptors are key players in sterile inflammation phenomena and can link the innate and adaptive immune systems by enhancing graft immunogenicity. They are also considered mediators of types 1 and 2 diabetes development. The aim of the present study was to assess the role of Toll-like receptor-4 (TLR4) in mediating the inflammatory and immune responses to pancreatic islets, thereby promoting inflammatory destruction and immune rejection of islet grafts. Experiments were conducted in murine and human in vitro systems and in vivo murine islet transplant models, using species-specific anti-TLR4 monoclonal antibodies. In vitro, mixed lymphocyte-islet reaction experiments were performed to assess T-cell activation and proliferation. In vivo, both a syngeneic (B6-to-B6) marginal mass islet transplant model to assess the impact of TLR4 blockade on islet engraftment and an allogeneic (DBA1-to-B6) model were used. In vitro TLR4 blockade decreased lipopolysaccharide-mediated β-cell apoptosis and T-cell activation and proliferation against allogeneic islets. In vivo, TLR4 blockade resulted in significantly better syngeneic marginal mass islet engraftment and in indefinite allogeneic islet graft survival. Tolerance was not observed because donor-specific skin graft rechallenge in nonrejecting animals resulted in rejection of both skin and islets, but without accelerated rejection as compared to naive animals. Taken together, our data indicate that TLR4 blockade leads to a significant improvement of syngeneic islet engraftment and of allogeneic islet graft survival. A mechanism of graft accommodation with concurrent inhibition of donor-specific immune memory is likely to be involved.

  12. Enhanced cell survival and paracrine effects of mesenchymal stem cells overexpressing hepatocyte growth factor promote cardioprotection in myocardial infarction

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, Liyan; Liu, Xiaolin; Zhang, Yuelin

    Poor cell survival post transplantation compromises the therapeutic benefits of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in myocardial infarction (MI). Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) is an important cytokine for angiogenesis, anti-inflammation and anti-apoptosis. This study aimed to evaluate the cardioprotective effects of MSCs overexpressing HGF in a mouse model of MI. The apoptosis of umbilical cord-derived MSCs (UC-MSCs) and HGF-UC-MSCs under normoxic and hypoxic conditions was detected. The conditioned medium (CdM) of UC-MSCs and HGF-UC-MSCs under a hypoxic condition was harvested and its protective effect on neonatal cardiomyocytes (NCMs) exposed to a hypoxic challenge was examined. UC-MSCs and HGF-UC-MSCs were transplanted intomore » the peri-infarct region in mice following MI and heart function assessed 4 weeks post transplantation. The apoptosis of HGF-UC-MSCs under hypoxic conditions was markedly decreased compared with that of UC-MSCs. NCMs treated with HGF-UC-MSC hypoxic CdM (HGF-UC-MSCs-hy-CdM) exhibited less cell apoptosis in response to hypoxic challenge than those treated with UC-MSC hypoxic CdM (UC-MSCs-hy-CdM). HGF-UC-MSCs-hy-CdM released the inhibited p-Akt and lowered the enhanced ratio of Bax/Bcl-2 induced by hypoxia in the NCMs. HGF-UC-MSCs-hy-CdM expressed higher levels of HGF, EGF, bFGF and VEGF than UC-MSCs-hy-CdM. Transplantation of HGF-UC-MSCs or UC-MSCs greatly improved heart function in the mouse model of MI. Compared with UC-MSCs, transplantation of HGF-UC-MSCs was associated with less cardiomyocyte apoptosis, enhanced angiogenesis and increased proliferation of cardiomyocytes. This study may provide a novel therapeutic strategy for MSC-based therapy in cardiovascular disease.« less

  13. Adaptive memory: the survival scenario enhances item-specific processing relative to a moving scenario.

    PubMed

    Burns, Daniel J; Hart, Joshua; Griffith, Samantha E; Burns, Amy D

    2013-01-01

    Nairne, Thompson, and Pandeirada (2007) found that retention of words rated for their relevance to survival is superior to that of words encoded under numerous other deep processing conditions. They suggested that our memory systems might have evolved to confer an advantage for survival-relevant information. Burns, Burns, and Hwang (2011) suggested a two-process explanation of the proximate mechanisms responsible for the survival advantage. Whereas most control tasks encourage only one type of processing, the survival task encourages both item-specific and relational processing. They found that when control tasks encouraged both types of processing, the survival processing advantage was eliminated. However, none of their control conditions included non-survival scenarios (e.g., moving, vacation, etc.), so it is not clear how this two-process explanation would explain the survival advantage when scenarios are used as control conditions. The present experiments replicated the finding that the survival scenario improves recall relative to a moving scenario in both a between-lists and within-list design and also provided evidence that this difference was accompanied by an item-specific processing difference, not a difference in relational processing. The implications of these results for several existing accounts of the survival processing effect are discussed.

  14. Cryotop vitrification as compared to conventional slow freezing for human embryos at the cleavage stage: survival and outcomes.

    PubMed

    Lin, Tseng-Kai; Su, Jin-Tsung; Lee, Fa-Kung; Lin, Yu-Ru; Lo, Hsiao-Ching

    2010-09-01

    This study was conducted to compare the efficacy of cryotop vitrification of human cleavage-stage embryos to that of conventional slow freezing of these embryos with respect to survival. A second objective was to compare the two cryopreservation techniques with respect to outcomes for a cohort of women. Cleavage-stage embryos from 102 patients were cryopreserved either by vitrification (57 patients) or by traditional slow freezing (45 patients). After thawing, rates of embryo survival, implantation, and clinical pregnancy were determined. Survival of embryos was significantly higher with the vitrification procedure as compared to traditional slow freezing [287/298 (96.3%) vs. 294/446 (65.9%); p < 0.05). Rates of implantation and clinical pregnancy were also significantly higher using vitrification procedure as compared to the slow freezing procedure (24.3% vs. 7.1% and 35.6% vs. 15.6% respectively, p < 0.05). As compared to conventional slow freezing, cryopreservation of human cleavage-stage embryo using vitrification results in higher rates of embryo survival, implantation, and clinical pregnancy. Vitrification therefore represents the superior cryopreservation technique for cleavage-stage embryos. Copyright © 2010 Taiwan Association of Obstetric & Gynecology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Overall Survival and Updated Results for Sunitinib Compared With Interferon Alfa in Patients With Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Motzer, Robert J.; Hutson, Thomas E.; Tomczak, Piotr; Michaelson, M. Dror; Bukowski, Ronald M.; Oudard, Stéphane; Negrier, Sylvie; Szczylik, Cezary; Pili, Roberto; Bjarnason, Georg A.; Garcia-del-Muro, Xavier; Sosman, Jeffrey A.; Solska, Ewa; Wilding, George; Thompson, John A.; Kim, Sindy T.; Chen, Isan; Huang, Xin; Figlin, Robert A.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose A randomized, phase III trial demonstrated superiority of sunitinib over interferon alfa (IFN-α) in progression-free survival (primary end point) as first-line treatment for metastatic renal cell carcinoma (RCC). Final survival analyses and updated results are reported. Patients and Methods Seven hundred fifty treatment-naïve patients with metastatic clear cell RCC were randomly assigned to sunitinib 50 mg orally once daily on a 4 weeks on, 2 weeks off dosing schedule or to IFN-α 9 MU subcutaneously thrice weekly. Overall survival was compared by two-sided log-rank and Wilcoxon tests. Progression-free survival, response, and safety end points were assessed with updated follow-up. Results Median overall survival was greater in the sunitinib group than in the IFN-α group (26.4 v 21.8 months, respectively; hazard ratio [HR] = 0.821; 95% CI, 0.673 to 1.001; P = .051) per the primary analysis of unstratified log-rank test (P = .013 per unstratified Wilcoxon test). By stratified log-rank test, the HR was 0.818 (95% CI, 0.669 to 0.999; P = .049). Within the IFN-α group, 33% of patients received sunitinib, and 32% received other vascular endothelial growth factor–signaling inhibitors after discontinuation from the trial. Median progression-free survival was 11 months for sunitinib compared with 5 months for IFN-α (P < .001). Objective response rate was 47% for sunitinib compared with 12% for IFN-α (P < .001). The most commonly reported sunitinib-related grade 3 adverse events included hypertension (12%), fatigue (11%), diarrhea (9%), and hand-foot syndrome (9%). Conclusion Sunitinib demonstrates longer overall survival compared with IFN-α plus improvement in response and progression-free survival in the first-line treatment of patients with metastatic RCC. The overall survival highlights an improved prognosis in patients with RCC in the era of targeted therapy. PMID:19487381

  16. Survival After Neoadjuvant and Adjuvant Treatments Compared to Surgery Alone for Resectable Esophageal Carcinoma: A Network Meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Pasquali, Sandro; Yim, Guang; Vohra, Ravinder S; Mocellin, Simone; Nyanhongo, Donald; Marriott, Paul; Geh, Ju Ian; Griffiths, Ewen A

    2017-03-01

    This network meta-analysis compared overall survival after neoadjuvant or adjuvant chemotherapy (CT), radiotherapy (RT), or combinations of both (chemoradiotherapy, CRT) or surgery alone to identify the most effective approach. The optimal treatment for resectable esophageal cancer is unknown. A search for randomized controlled trials reporting on neoadjuvant and adjuvant therapies was conducted. Using a network meta-analysis, treatments were ranked based on their effectiveness for improving survival. In 33 eligible randomized controlled trials, 6072 patients were randomized to receive either surgery alone (N = 2459) or neoadjuvant CT (N = 1332), RT (N = 58), and CRT (N = 1196) followed by surgery or surgery followed by adjuvant CT (N = 542), RT (N = 383), and CRT (N = 102). Twenty-one comparisons were generated. Neoadjuvant CRT followed by surgery compared with surgery alone was the only treatment to significantly improve survival [hazard ratio (HR) = 0.77, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.68-0.87]. When trials were grouped considering neoadjuvant and adjuvant therapies and surgery alone, neoadjuvant therapies combined with surgery compared with surgery alone showed a survival advantage (HR = 0.83, 95% CI 0.76-0.90), whereas surgery along with adjuvant therapies showed no significant survival advantage (HR = 0.87, 95% CI 0.67-1.14). A subgroup analysis of neoadjuvant therapies showed a superior effectiveness of neoadjuvant CRT and surgery compared with surgery alone (HR = 0.77, 95% CI 0.68-0.87). This network meta-analysis showed neoadjuvant CRT followed by surgery to be the most effective strategy in improving survival of resectable esophageal cancer. Resources should be focused on developing the most effective neoadjuvant CRT regimens for both adenocarcinomas and squamous cell carcinomas of the esophagus.

  17. Sanguinarine inhibits Rac1b-rendered cell survival enhancement by promoting apoptosis and blocking proliferation

    PubMed Central

    Ying, Li; Li, Gang; Wei, Si-si; Wang, Hong; An, Pei; Wang, Xun; Guo, Kai; Luo, Xian-jin; Gao, Ji-min; Zhou, Qing; Li, Wei; Yu, Ying; Li, Yi-gang; Duan, Jun-li; Wang, Yue-peng

    2015-01-01

    Aim: Small GTPase Rac1 is a member of the Ras superfamily, which plays important roles in regulation of cytoskeleton reorganization, cell growth, proliferation, migration, etc. The aim of this study was to determine how a constitutively active Rac1b regulated cell proliferation and to investigate the effects of the Rac1b inhibitor sanguinarine. Methods: Three HEK293T cell lines stably overexpressing GFP, Rac1-GFP or Rac1b-GFP were constructed by lentiviral infection. The cells were treated with sanguinarine (1 μmol/L) or its analogue berberine (1 μmol/L) for 4 d. Cell proliferation was evaluated by counting cell numbers and with a BrdU incorporation assay. The levels of cleaved PARP-89 (an apoptosis marker) and cyclin-D1 (a proliferative index) were measured using Western blotting. Results: In 10% serum-containing media, overexpressing either Rac1 or Rac1b did not significantly change the cell proliferation. In the serum-starved media, however, the survival rate of Rac1b cells was significantly increased, whereas that of Rac1 cells was moderately increased. The level of cleaved PARP-89 was significantly increased in serum-starved Rac1 cells, but markedly reduced in serum-starved Rac1b cells. The level of cyclin-D1 was significantly increased in both serum-starved Rac1 and Rac1b cells. Treatment with sanguinarine, but not berberine, inhibited the proliferation of Rac1b cells, which was accompanied by significantly increased the level of PARP-89, and decreased both the level of cyclin-D1 and the percentage of BrdU positive cells. Conclusion: Rac1b enhances the cell proliferation under a growth-limiting condition via both anti-apoptotic and pro-proliferative mechanisms. Sanguinarine, as the specific inhibitor of Rac1b, is a potential therapeutic agent for malignant tumors with up-regulated Rac1b. PMID:25544362

  18. Does hospital readmission following colorectal cancer resection and enhanced recovery after surgery affect long term survival?

    PubMed

    Curtis, N J; Noble, E; Salib, E; Hipkiss, R; Meachim, E; Dalton, R; Allison, A; Ockrim, J; Francis, N K

    2017-08-01

    Hospital readmission is undesirable for patients and care providers as this can affect short-term recovery and carries financial consequences. It is unknown if readmission has long-term implications. We aimed to investigate the impact of 30-day readmission on long-term overall survival (OS) following colorectal cancer resection within enhanced recovery after surgery (ERAS) care and explore the reasons for and the severity and details of readmission episodes. A dedicated, prospectively populated database was reviewed. All patients were managed within an established ERAS programme. Five-year OS was calculated using the Kaplan-Meier method. The number, reason for and severity of 30-day readmissions were classified according to the Clavien-Dindo (CD) system, along with total (initial and readmission) length of stay (LoS). Multivariate analysis was used to identify factors predicting readmission. A total of 1023 consecutive patients underwent colorectal cancer resection between 2002 and 2015. Of these, 166 (16%) were readmitted. Readmission alone did not have a significant impact on 5-year OS (59% vs 70%, P = 0.092), but OS was worse in patients with longer total LoS (20 vs 14 days, P = 0.04). Of the readmissions, 121 (73%) were minor (CD I-II) and 27 (16%) required an intervention of which 16 (10%) were returned to theatre. Gut dysfunction 32 (19%) and wound complications 23 (14%) were the most frequent reasons for readmission. Prolonged initial LoS, rectal cancer and younger age predicted for hospital readmission. Readmission does not have a significant impact on 5-year OS. A broad range of conditions led to readmission, with the majority representing minor complications. Colorectal Disease © 2017 The Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland.

  19. Use of Systemic Rosmarinus Officinalis to Enhance the Survival of Random-Pattern Skin Flaps

    PubMed Central

    İnce, Bilsev; Bilgen, Fatma; Gündeşlioğlu, Ayşe Özlem; Dadacı, Mehmet; Kozacıoğlu, Sümeyye

    2016-01-01

    Background Skin flaps are commonly used in soft-tissue reconstruction; however, necrosis can be a frequent complication. Several systemic and local agents have been used in attempts to improve skin flap survival, but none that can prevent flap necrosis have been identified. Aims This study aims to determine whether the use of systemic Rosmarinus officinalis (R. officinalis) extract can prevent flap necrosis and improve skin flap recovery. Study Design Animal experimentation. Methods Thirty-five Wistar albino rats were divided in five groups. A rectangular random-pattern flaps measuring 8×2 cm was elevated from the back of each rat. Group I was the control group. In Group II, 0.2 ml of R. officinalis oil was given orally 2h before surgery. R. officinalis oil was then applied orally twice a day for a week. In Group III, R. officinalis oil was given orally twice a day for one week before surgery. At the end of the week, 0.2 mL of R. officinalis oil was given orally 2 h before surgery. In Group IV, 0.2 mL of R. officinalis oil was injected subcutaneously 2 h before surgery. After the surgery, 0.2 mL R. officinalis oil was injected subcutaneously twice a day for one week. In Group V, 0.2 mL R. officinalis oil was injected subcutaneously twice a day for one week prior to surgery. At the end of the week, one last 0.2 mL R. officinalis oil injection was administered subcutaneously 2 h before surgery. After the surgery, 0.2 mL R. officinalis oil was injected subcutaneously twice a day for one week. Results The mean percentage of viable surface area was significantly greater (p<0.05) in Groups II, III, IV, and V as compared to Group I. Mean vessel diameter was significantly greater (p<0.05) in Groups II, III, IV, and V as compared to Group I. Conclusion We have determined that, in addition to its anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant effects, R. officinalis has vasodilatory effects that contribute to increased skin flap survival. PMID:27994918

  20. Impact of resilience enhancing programs on youth surviving the Beslan school siege

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate a resilience-enhancing program for youth (mean age = 13.32 years) from Beslan, North Ossetia, in the Russian Federation. The program, offered in the summer of 2006, combined recreation, sport, and psychosocial rehabilitation activities for 94 participants, 46 of who were taken hostage in the 2004 school tragedy and experienced those events first hand. Self-reported resilience, as measured by the CD-RISC, was compared within subjects at the study baseline and at two follow-up assessments: immediately after the program and 6 months later. We also compared changes in resilience levels across groups that differed in their traumatic experiences. The results indicate a significant intra-participant mean increase in resilience at both follow-up assessments, and greater self-reported improvements in resilience processes for participants who experienced more trauma events. PMID:20412559

  1. Urea loading enhances freezing survival and postfreeze recovery in a terrestrially hibernating frog.

    PubMed

    Costanzo, Jon P; Lee, Richard E

    2008-09-01

    We tested the hypothesis that urea, an osmolyte accumulated early in hibernation, functions as a cryoprotectant in the freeze-tolerant wood frog, Rana sylvatica. Relative to saline-treated, normouremic (10 micromol ml(-1)) frogs, individuals rendered hyperuremic (70 micromol ml(-1)) by administration of an aqueous urea solution exhibited significantly higher survival (100% versus 64%) following freezing at -4 degrees C, a potentially lethal temperature. Hyperuremic frogs also had lower plasma levels of intracellular proteins (lactate dehydrogenase, creatine kinase, hemoglobin), which presumably escaped from damaged cells, and more quickly recovered neurobehavioral functions following thawing. Experimental freezing-thawing did not alter tissue urea concentrations, but did elevate glucose levels in the blood and organs of all frogs. When measured 24 h after thawing commenced, glucose concentrations were markedly higher in urea-loaded frogs as compared to saline-treated ones, possibly because elevated urea retarded glucose clearance. Like other low-molecular-mass cryoprotectants, urea colligatively reduces both the amount of ice forming within the body and the osmotic dehydration of cells. In addition, by virtue of certain non-colligative properties, it may bestow additional protection from freeze-thaw damage not afforded by glucose.

  2. Double lung transplants have significantly improved survival compared with single lung transplants in high lung allocation score patients.

    PubMed

    Black, Matthew C; Trivedi, Jaimin; Schumer, Erin M; Bousamra, Michael; van Berkel, Victor

    2014-11-01

    Historically, double lung transplantation survival rates are higher than those of single lung transplantation, but in critically ill patients a single lung transplant, with less associated operative morbidity, could afford a better outcome. This article evaluates how survival is affected in patients who have a high lung allocation score (LAS) and receive a single versus a double lung transplant. The UNOS Thoracic Transplant Database for lung transplants from January 2005 to June 2012 was used for analysis. Propensity matching was used to minimize differences between the high and low LAS groups and between single and double lung transplants in the high LAS group. Within this database, there were 8,778 patients, of whom 8,050 had an LAS less than 75 and 728 had an LAS greater than or equal to 75. Kaplan-Meier survival curves stratified by high and low LAS, and by single versus double lung transplants, showed a marked decrease in survival (p<0.001) in those with a high LAS who received a single lung transplant when compared with those with a high LAS who received a double lung transplant. This was a much greater difference in survival than was present in the low LAS patient population. Despite a higher operative morbidity, patients who had a high LAS did substantially better in terms of survival if two lungs were transplanted rather than only one, with a larger difference in survival than for patients with a lower LAS. Copyright © 2014 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Seasonal cues induce phenotypic plasticity of Drosophila suzukii to enhance winter survival.

    PubMed

    Shearer, Peter W; West, Jessica D; Walton, Vaughn M; Brown, Preston H; Svetec, Nicolas; Chiu, Joanna C

    2016-03-22

    As global climate change and exponential human population growth intensifies pressure on agricultural systems, the need to effectively manage invasive insect pests is becoming increasingly important to global food security. Drosophila suzukii is an invasive pest that drastically expanded its global range in a very short time since 2008, spreading to most areas in North America and many countries in Europe and South America. Preliminary ecological modeling predicted a more restricted distribution and, for this reason, the invasion of D. suzukii to northern temperate regions is especially unexpected. Investigating D. suzukii phenology and seasonal adaptations can lead to a better understanding of the mechanisms through which insects express phenotypic plasticity, which likely enables invasive species to successfully colonize a wide range of environments. We describe seasonal phenotypic plasticity in field populations of D. suzukii. Specifically, we observed a trend of higher proportions of flies with the winter morph phenotype, characterized by darker pigmentation and longer wing length, as summer progresses to winter. A laboratory-simulated winter photoperiod and temperature (12:12 L:D and 10 °C) were sufficient to induce the winter morph phenotype in D. suzukii. This winter morph is associated with increased survival at 1 °C when compared to the summer morph, thus explaining the ability of D. suzukii to survive cold winters. We then used RNA sequencing to identify gene expression differences underlying seasonal differences in D. suzukii physiology. Winter morph gene expression is consistent with known mechanisms of cold-hardening such as adjustments to ion transport and up-regulation of carbohydrate metabolism. In addition, transcripts involved in oogenesis and DNA replication were down-regulated in the winter morph, providing the first molecular evidence of a reproductive diapause in D. suzukii. To date, D. suzukii cold resistance studies suggest that this

  4. Glioblastoma: Vascular Habitats Detected at Preoperative Dynamic Susceptibility-weighted Contrast-enhanced Perfusion MR Imaging Predict Survival.

    PubMed

    Juan-Albarracín, Javier; Fuster-Garcia, Elies; Pérez-Girbés, Alexandre; Aparici-Robles, Fernando; Alberich-Bayarri, Ángel; Revert-Ventura, Antonio; Martí-Bonmatí, Luis; García-Gómez, Juan M

    2018-06-01

    Purpose To determine if preoperative vascular heterogeneity of glioblastoma is predictive of overall survival of patients undergoing standard-of-care treatment by using an unsupervised multiparametric perfusion-based habitat-discovery algorithm. Materials and Methods Preoperative magnetic resonance (MR) imaging including dynamic susceptibility-weighted contrast material-enhanced perfusion studies in 50 consecutive patients with glioblastoma were retrieved. Perfusion parameters of glioblastoma were analyzed and used to automatically draw four reproducible habitats that describe the tumor vascular heterogeneity: high-angiogenic and low-angiogenic regions of the enhancing tumor, potentially tumor-infiltrated peripheral edema, and vasogenic edema. Kaplan-Meier and Cox proportional hazard analyses were conducted to assess the prognostic potential of the hemodynamic tissue signature to predict patient survival. Results Cox regression analysis yielded a significant correlation between patients' survival and maximum relative cerebral blood volume (rCBV max ) and maximum relative cerebral blood flow (rCBF max ) in high-angiogenic and low-angiogenic habitats (P < .01, false discovery rate-corrected P < .05). Moreover, rCBF max in the potentially tumor-infiltrated peripheral edema habitat was also significantly correlated (P < .05, false discovery rate-corrected P < .05). Kaplan-Meier analysis demonstrated significant differences between the observed survival of populations divided according to the median of the rCBV max or rCBF max at the high-angiogenic and low-angiogenic habitats (log-rank test P < .05, false discovery rate-corrected P < .05), with an average survival increase of 230 days. Conclusion Preoperative perfusion heterogeneity contains relevant information about overall survival in patients who undergo standard-of-care treatment. The hemodynamic tissue signature method automatically describes this heterogeneity, providing a set of vascular habitats with high

  5. Comparing the survival rate of juvenile Chinook salmon migrating through hydropower systems using injectable and surgical acoustic transmitters

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Z. D.; Martinez, J. J.; Li, H.; Harnish, R. A.; Woodley, C. M.; Hughes, J. A.; Li, X.; Fu, T.; Lu, J.; McMichael, G. A.; Weiland, M. A.; Eppard, M. B.; Skalski, J. R.; Townsend, R. L.

    2017-01-01

    Acoustic telemetry is one of the primary technologies for studying the behavior and survival of fishes throughout the world. The size and performance of the transmitter are key limiting factors. The newly developed injectable transmitter is the first acoustic transmitter that can be implanted via injection instead of surgery. A two-part field study was conducted to evaluate the performance of the injectable transmitter and its effect on the survival of implanted fish. The injectable transmitter performed well and similarly to the proceeding generation of commercially-available JSATS transmitters tested concurrently. Snake River subyearling Chinook salmon smolts implanted with the injectable transmitter had a higher survival probability from release to each of eleven downstream detection arrays, because reach-specific survival estimates were significantly higher for the injectable group in three of the eleven reaches examined. Overall, the injectable group had a 0.263 (SE = 0.017) survival probability over the entire 500 km study area compared to 0.199 (0.012) for the surgically implanted group. The reduction in size and ability to implant the new transmitter via injection has reduced the tag or tagging effect bias associated with studying small fishes. The information gathered with this new technology is helping to evaluate the impacts of dams on fishes. PMID:28220850

  6. Comparing the survival rate of juvenile Chinook salmon migrating through hydropower systems using injectable and surgical acoustic transmitters.

    PubMed

    Deng, Z D; Martinez, J J; Li, H; Harnish, R A; Woodley, C M; Hughes, J A; Li, X; Fu, T; Lu, J; McMichael, G A; Weiland, M A; Eppard, M B; Skalski, J R; Townsend, R L

    2017-02-21

    Acoustic telemetry is one of the primary technologies for studying the behavior and survival of fishes throughout the world. The size and performance of the transmitter are key limiting factors. The newly developed injectable transmitter is the first acoustic transmitter that can be implanted via injection instead of surgery. A two-part field study was conducted to evaluate the performance of the injectable transmitter and its effect on the survival of implanted fish. The injectable transmitter performed well and similarly to the proceeding generation of commercially-available JSATS transmitters tested concurrently. Snake River subyearling Chinook salmon smolts implanted with the injectable transmitter had a higher survival probability from release to each of eleven downstream detection arrays, because reach-specific survival estimates were significantly higher for the injectable group in three of the eleven reaches examined. Overall, the injectable group had a 0.263 (SE = 0.017) survival probability over the entire 500 km study area compared to 0.199 (0.012) for the surgically implanted group. The reduction in size and ability to implant the new transmitter via injection has reduced the tag or tagging effect bias associated with studying small fishes. The information gathered with this new technology is helping to evaluate the impacts of dams on fishes.

  7. Comparing survival outcomes of gross total resection and subtotal resection with radiotherapy for craniopharyngioma: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Guoqing; Zhang, Xiaoyang; Feng, Mengzhao; Guo, Fuyou

    2018-06-01

    Recent studies suggest that subtotal resection (STR) followed by radiation therapy (RT) is an appealing alternative to gross total resection (GTR) for craniopharyngioma, but it remains controversial. We conducted a meta-analysis to determine whether GTR is superior to STR with RT for craniopharyngioma. A systematic search was performed for articles published until October 2017 in the PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane Central databases. The endpoints of interest are overall survival and progression-free survival. Pooled hazard ratios (HRs) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using a fixed or random-effects model. The data were analyzed using Review Manager 5.3 software. A total of 744 patients (seven cohort studies) were enrolled for analyses. There were no significant differences between the GTR and STR with RT groups when the authors compared the pooled HRs at the end of the follow-up period. Overall survival (pooled HR = 0.76, 95% CI: 0.46-1.25, P = 0.28) and progression-free survival (pooled HR = 1.52, 95% CI: 0.42-5.44, P = 0.52) were similar between the two groups. The current meta-analysis suggests that GTR and STR with RT have the similar survival outcomes for craniopharyngioma. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Comparing the survival rate of juvenile Chinook salmon migrating through hydropower systems using injectable and surgical acoustic transmitters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Z. D.; Martinez, J. J.; Li, H.; Harnish, R. A.; Woodley, C. M.; Hughes, J. A.; Li, X.; Fu, T.; Lu, J.; McMichael, G. A.; Weiland, M. A.; Eppard, M. B.; Skalski, J. R.; Townsend, R. L.

    2017-02-01

    Acoustic telemetry is one of the primary technologies for studying the behavior and survival of fishes throughout the world. The size and performance of the transmitter are key limiting factors. The newly developed injectable transmitter is the first acoustic transmitter that can be implanted via injection instead of surgery. A two-part field study was conducted to evaluate the performance of the injectable transmitter and its effect on the survival of implanted fish. The injectable transmitter performed well and similarly to the proceeding generation of commercially-available JSATS transmitters tested concurrently. Snake River subyearling Chinook salmon smolts implanted with the injectable transmitter had a higher survival probability from release to each of eleven downstream detection arrays, because reach-specific survival estimates were significantly higher for the injectable group in three of the eleven reaches examined. Overall, the injectable group had a 0.263 (SE = 0.017) survival probability over the entire 500 km study area compared to 0.199 (0.012) for the surgically implanted group. The reduction in size and ability to implant the new transmitter via injection has reduced the tag or tagging effect bias associated with studying small fishes. The information gathered with this new technology is helping to evaluate the impacts of dams on fishes.

  9. Reduced survival for uncemented compared to cemented total hip arthroplasty after operatively treated acetabular fractures.

    PubMed

    Clarke-Jenssen, John; Westberg, Marianne; Røise, Olav; Storeggen, Stein Arne Øvre; Bere, Tone; Silberg, Ingunn; Madsen, Jan Erik

    2017-11-01

    Post traumatic arthritis and avascular necrosis of the femoral head are common complications after operatively treated acetabular fractures. This may cause severe disabilities for the patient, necessitating a total hip arthroplasty. Even though an arthroplasty may provide good symptomatic relief, the long-term results are more uncertain and no consensus exists according to preferred prosthetic designs. With this cohort study, we aimed to investigate the medium to long term arthroplasty survival and clinical results of total hip arthroplasty after operatively treated acetabular fractures. We included 52 patients treated with a secondary total hip arthroplasty at a median of 2.4 (0.1-14.1) years after an operatively treated acetabular fracture. The median age was 54 (11-82) years. Cemented arthroplasty was used for 33 patients, 10 patients had an uncemented arthroplasty and 9 patients received a hybrid arthroplasty. Average follow up was 8.0 (SD 5.0) years. Ten-year revision free arthroplasty survival was 79%. Uncemented arthroplasties had a significantly worse 10-year survival of 57%. Arthroplasties performed at a centre without a pelvic fracture service also had a significantly worse 10-years survival of 51%. Cox regression showed similar results with an 8-fold increase in risk of revision for both uncemented arthroplasties and operations performed at a non-pelvic trauma centre. Total hip arthroplasty secondary to an operatively treated acetabular fracture provides good symptomatic relief. These patients are, however, complex cases and are probably best treated at specialist centres with both pelvic trauma surgeons and arthroplasty surgeons proficient in complex revisions present. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Improved Survival After the Ross Procedure Compared With Mechanical Aortic Valve Replacement.

    PubMed

    Buratto, Edward; Shi, William Y; Wynne, Rochelle; Poh, Chin L; Larobina, Marco; O'Keefe, Michael; Goldblatt, John; Tatoulis, James; Skillington, Peter D

    2018-03-27

    It is unclear whether the Ross procedure offers superior survival compared with mechanical aortic valve replacement (AVR). This study evaluated experience and compared long-term survival between the Ross procedure and mechanical AVR. Between 1992 and 2016, a total of 392 Ross procedures were performed. These were compared with 1,928 isolated mechanical AVRs performed during the same time period as identified using the University of Melbourne and Australia and New Zealand Society of Cardiac and Thoracic Surgeons' Cardiac Surgery Databases. Only patients between 18 and 65 years of age were included. Propensity-score matching was performed for risk adjustment. Ross procedure patients were younger, and had fewer cardiovascular risk factors. The Ross procedure was associated with longer cardiopulmonary bypass and aortic cross-clamp times. Thirty-day mortality was similar (Ross, 0.3%; mechanical, 0.8%; p = 0.5). Ross procedure patients experienced superior unadjusted long-term survival at 20 years (Ross, 95%; mechanical, 68%; p < 0.001). Multivariable analysis showed the Ross procedure to be associated with a reduced risk of late mortality (hazard ratio: 0.34; 95% confidence internal: 0.17 to 0.67; p < 0.001). Among 275 propensity-score matched pairs, Ross procedure patients had superior survival at 20 years (Ross, 94%; mechanical, 84%; p = 0.018). In this Australian, propensity-score matched study, the Ross procedure was associated with better long-term survival compared with mechanical AVR. In younger patients, with a long life expectancy, the Ross procedure should be considered in centers with sufficient expertise. Crown Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Gestational age specific neonatal survival in the State of Qatar (2003-2008) - a comparative study with international benchmarks.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Sajjad; Salameh, Khalil; Al-Rifai, Hilal; Masoud, Ahmed; Lutfi, Samawal; Salama, Husam; Abdoh, Ghassan; Omar, Fahmi; Bener, Abdulbari

    2011-09-01

    To analyze and compare the current gestational age specific neonatal survival rates between Qatar and international benchmarks. An analytical comparative study. Women's Hospital, Hamad Medical Corporation, Doha, Qatar, from 2003-2008. Six year's (2003-2008) gestational age specific neonatal mortality data was stratified for each completed week of gestation at birth from 24 weeks till term. The data from World Health Statistics by WHO (2010), Vermont Oxford Network (VON, 2007) and National Statistics United Kingdom (2006) were used as international benchmarks for comparative analysis. A total of 82,002 babies were born during the study period. Qatar's neonatal mortality rate (NMR) dropped from 6/1000 in 2003 to 4.3/1000 in 2008 (p < 0.05). The overall and gestational age specific neonatal mortality rates of Qatar were comparable with international benchmarks. The survival of < 27 weeks and term babies was better in Qatar (p=0.01 and p < 0.001 respectively) as compared to VON. The survival of > 32 weeks babies was better in UK (p=0.01) as compared to Qatar. The relative risk (RR) of death decreased with increasing gestational age (p < 0.0001). Preterm babies (45%) followed by lethal chromosomal and congenital anomalies (26.5%) were the two leading causes of neonatal deaths in Qatar. The current total and gestational age specific neonatal survival rates in the State of Qatar are comparable with international benchmarks. In Qatar, persistently high rates of low birth weight and lethal chromosomal and congenital anomalies significantly contribute towards neonatal mortality.

  12. Chitinase Induction Prior to Caspofungin Treatment of Experimental Invasive Aspergillosis in Neutropenic Rats Does Not Enhance Survival.

    PubMed

    Refos, Jeannine M; Vonk, Alieke G; Ten Kate, Marian T; Verbrugh, Henri A; Bakker-Woudenberg, Irma A J M; van de Sande, Wendy W J

    2018-01-01

    Host chitinases, chitotriosidase and acidic mammalian chitinase (AMCase), improved the antifungal activity of caspofungin (CAS) against Aspergillus fumigatus in vitro These chitinases are not constitutively expressed in the lung. Here, we investigated whether chitosan derivatives were able to induce chitinase activity in the lungs of neutropenic rats and, if so, whether these chitinases were able to prolong survival of rats with invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA) or of rats with IPA and treated with CAS. An oligosaccharide-lactate chitosan (OLC) derivative was instilled in the left lung of neutropenic rats to induce chitotriosidase and AMCase activities. Rats instilled with OLC or with phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) were subsequently infected with A. fumigatus and then treated with suboptimal doses of CAS. Survival, histopathology, and galactomannan indexes were determined. Instillation of OLC resulted in chitotriosidase and AMCase activities. However, instillation of OLC did not prolong rat survival when rats were subsequently challenged with A. fumigatus In 5 of 7 rats instilled with OLC, the fungal foci in the lungs were smaller than those in rats instilled with PBS. Instillation of OLC did not significantly enhance the survival of neutropenic rats challenged with A. fumigatus and treated with a suboptimal dosage of CAS. Chitotriosidase and AMCase activities can be induced with OLC, but the presence of active chitinases in the lung did not prevent the development of IPA or significantly enhance the therapeutic outcome of CAS treatment. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  13. Oxygenated drinking water enhances immune activity in broiler chicks and increases survivability against Salmonella Gallinarum in experimentally infected broiler chicks.

    PubMed

    Jung, Bock-Gie; Lee, Jin-A; Nam, Kyoung-Woo; Lee, Bong-Joo

    2012-03-01

    It has been suggested that drinking oxygenated water may improve oxygen availability, which may increase vitality and improving immune activity. The present study evaluated the immune enhancing effects of oxygenated drinking water in broiler chicks and demonstrated the protective efficacy of oxygenated drinking water against Salmonella Gallinarum in experimentally infected broiler chicks. Continuous drinking of oxygenated water markedly increased serum lysozyme activity, peripheral blood mononuclear cell proliferation and the CD4(+)/CD8(+) splenocyte ratio in broiler chicks. In the chicks experimentally infected with S. Gallinarum, oxygenated drinking water alleviated symptoms and increased survival. These findings suggest that oxygenated drinking water enhances immune activity in broiler chicks, and increases survivability against S. Gallinarum in experimentally infected broiler chicks.

  14. Narrower grid structure of artificial reef enhances initial survival of in situ settled coral.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Go; Kai, Sayaka; Yamashita, Hiroshi; Suzuki, Kiyoshi; Iehisa, Yukihiro; Hayashibara, Takeshi

    2011-12-01

    The initial factors that cause a decline in the survival of in situ settled corals remain poorly understood. In this study, we demonstrated through field experiments that the design of artificial grid plates may influence the initial survival of Acropora corals, with narrower grids being the most effective. In fact, grid plates with a 2.5-cm mesh presented the highest recorded survival rate (14%) at 6 months after settlement (representing approximately 50 corals per 0.25 m(2) of plate). This is the first study where such high survival rates, matching those of cultures under aquarium conditions, were obtained in the field without using additional protective measures, such as guard nets against fish grazing after seeding. Therefore, our results provide a foundation for establishing new and effective coral restoration techniques for larval seeding, in parallel to clarifying the details of the early life stages of reef-building corals. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Trehalose Dimycolate Enhances Survival of Fission Neutron-Irradiated Mice and Klebsiella pneumoniae-Challenged Irradiated Mice

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-01-01

    SR90-5 Trehalose Dimycolate Enhances Survival of Fission Neutron-Irradiated Mice and Kiebsiella pneumoniae-Challenged Irradiated Mice 1’ 2 D. (. M...doses kines and immunomodulators of nonspecific resistance to of fission neutron radiation is increased when trehalose dimycol- infection might have... trehalose day before exposure to radiation. TDM in an emulsion of squa- dimycolate (TDM) have been shown to be effective in in- lene. Tween 80, and saline

  16. Natural exopolysaccharides enhance survival of lactic acid bacteria in frozen dairy desserts.

    PubMed

    Hong, S H; Marshall, R T

    2001-06-01

    Viable lactic acid-producing bacteria in frozen dairy desserts can be a source of beta-galactosidase for persons who absorb lactose insufficiently. However, freezing kills many of the cells, causing loss of enzymatic activity. Cultures selected for high beta-galactosidase activities and high survival rates in the presence of bile were examined for survivability during freezing in reduced-fat ice cream. Encapsulated S. thermophilus strains survived better than their nonencapsulated mutants in reduced-fat ice cream after freezing and frozen storage at -29 degrees C for 16 d (28 vs. 19%). However, a small nonencapsulated strain of Lactobacillus delbrueckii sp. bulgaricus survived better than the large encapsulated strain in reduced-fat ice cream. Factors that improved survival of encapsulated S. thermophilus 1068 in ice cream were 1) harvest of cells in the late-log phase of growth at 37 degrees C rather than at 40, 42.5, or 45 degrees C; 2) overrun at 50% rather than 100%; and 3) storage at -17 degrees C rather than -23 or -29 degrees C. Survival of strain ST1068 was unaffected by 1) neutralization of acid during growth or 2) substitution of nitrogen for air in building overrun.

  17. Pretreatment Evaluation of Microcirculation by Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging Predicts Survival in Primary Rectal Cancer Patients

    SciTech Connect

    DeVries, Alexander Friedrich; Piringer, Gudrun, E-mail: gudrun.piringer@hotmail.com; Kremser, Christian

    2014-12-01

    Purpose: To investigate the prognostic value of the perfusion index (PI), a microcirculatory parameter estimated from dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI), which integrates information on both flow and permeability, to predict overall survival and disease-free survival in patients with primary rectal cancer. Methods and Materials: A total of 83 patients with stage cT3 rectal cancer requiring neoadjuvant chemoradiation were investigated with DCE-MRI before start of therapy. Contrast-enhanced dynamic T{sub 1} mapping was obtained, and a simple data analysis strategy based on the calculation of the maximum slope of the tissue concentration–time curve divided by the maximum of the arterial inputmore » function was used as a measure of tumor microcirculation (PI), which integrates information on both flow and permeability. Results: In 39 patients (47.0%), T downstaging (ypT0-2) was observed. During a mean (±SD) follow-up period of 71 ± 29 months, 58 patients (69.9%) survived, and disease-free survival was achieved in 45 patients (54.2%). The mean PI (PImean) averaged over the group of nonresponders was significantly higher than for responders. Additionally, higher PImean in age- and gender-adjusted analyses was strongly predictive of therapy nonresponse. Most importantly, PImean strongly and significantly predicted disease-free survival (unadjusted hazard ratio [HR], 1.85 [ 95% confidence interval, 1.35-2.54; P<.001)]; HR adjusted for age and sex, 1.81 [1.30-2.51]; P<.001) as well as overall survival (unadjusted HR 1.42 [1.02-1.99], P=.040; HR adjusted for age and sex, 1.43 [1.03-1.98]; P=.034). Conclusions: This analysis identifies PImean as a novel biomarker that is predictive for therapy response, disease-free survival, and overall survival in patients with primary locally advanced rectal cancer.« less

  18. Comparing the survival rate of juvenile Chinook salmon migrating through hydropower systems using injectable and surgical acoustic transmitters

    DOE PAGES

    Deng, Zhiqun D.; Martinez, J. J.; Li, H.; ...

    2017-02-21

    Acoustic telemetry is one of the primary technologies for studying the behavior and survival of fishes throughout the world. The size and performance of the transmitters is still the key limiting factor despite that considerable effort has been expended to understand the biological effects of implantation of acoustic transmitters in yearling and subyearling Chinook salmon. The newly developed injectable transmitter is the first active acoustic tag that can be implanted via injection instead of surgery. It also lasts more than four times longer than the commercially-available transmitters. A two-part field study was conducted to evaluate the performance of the injectablemore » transmitter and its effect on the survival of implanted fish. The injectable transmitter performed well and similarly to the other commercially-available transmitters tested. Snake River subyearling Chinook salmon smolts implanted with the injectable tag had a higher survival probability from release to each of 11 downstream detection arrays than concurrent releases of fish surgically implanted with commercially-available tags. In addition, reach-specific survival estimates were significantly higher for the injectable group in three of the eleven reaches examined. Overall, the injectable group had a 0.263 (SE = 0.017) survival probability over the entire 500 km study area compared to 0.199 (0.012) for the surgically implanted group. The differences in survival may have been caused by warm water temperatures and higher rates of infection experienced by the surgically implanted group due to the presence of sutures acting as an attachment site for pathogens. The reduction in size and ability to implant the new transmitter via injection has further reduced the tag or tagging effect bias associated with studying small fishes. As a result, the information gathered with this new technology is helping minimize the impact of dams on fish, leading to more environmentally sustainable energy systems.« less

  19. Comparing the survival rate of juvenile Chinook salmon migrating through hydropower systems using injectable and surgical acoustic transmitters

    SciTech Connect

    Deng, Zhiqun D.; Martinez, J. J.; Li, H.

    Acoustic telemetry is one of the primary technologies for studying the behavior and survival of fishes throughout the world. The size and performance of the transmitters is still the key limiting factor despite that considerable effort has been expended to understand the biological effects of implantation of acoustic transmitters in yearling and subyearling Chinook salmon. The newly developed injectable transmitter is the first active acoustic tag that can be implanted via injection instead of surgery. It also lasts more than four times longer than the commercially-available transmitters. A two-part field study was conducted to evaluate the performance of the injectablemore » transmitter and its effect on the survival of implanted fish. The injectable transmitter performed well and similarly to the other commercially-available transmitters tested. Snake River subyearling Chinook salmon smolts implanted with the injectable tag had a higher survival probability from release to each of 11 downstream detection arrays than concurrent releases of fish surgically implanted with commercially-available tags. In addition, reach-specific survival estimates were significantly higher for the injectable group in three of the eleven reaches examined. Overall, the injectable group had a 0.263 (SE = 0.017) survival probability over the entire 500 km study area compared to 0.199 (0.012) for the surgically implanted group. The differences in survival may have been caused by warm water temperatures and higher rates of infection experienced by the surgically implanted group due to the presence of sutures acting as an attachment site for pathogens. The reduction in size and ability to implant the new transmitter via injection has further reduced the tag or tagging effect bias associated with studying small fishes. As a result, the information gathered with this new technology is helping minimize the impact of dams on fish, leading to more environmentally sustainable energy systems.« less

  20. Long-term survival of beta thalassemia major patients treated with hematopoietic stem cell transplantation compared with survival with conventional treatment.

    PubMed

    Caocci, Giovanni; Orofino, Maria Grazia; Vacca, Adriana; Piroddi, Antonio; Piras, Eugenia; Addari, Maria Carmen; Caria, Rossella; Pilia, Maria Paola; Origa, Raffaella; Moi, Paolo; La Nasa, Giorgio

    2017-12-01

    Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) in thalassemia remains a challenge. We reported a single-centre case-control study of a large cohort of 516 children and adult patients treated with HSCT or blood transfusion support and iron chelation therapy; 258 patients (median age 12, range 1-45) underwent sibling (67%) or unrelated (33%) HSCT; 97 patients were adults (age ≥ 16 years). The median follow-up after HSCT was 11 years (range 1-30). The conditioning regimen was busulfan (80.6%) or treosulfan-based (19.4%). A cohort of 258 age-sex matched conventionally treated (CT) patients was randomly selected. In transplanted patients the 30-year overall survival (OS) and thalassemia-free survival (TFS) were 82.6 ± 2.7% and 77.8 ± 2.9%, compared to the OS of 85.3 ± 2.7% in CT patients (P = NS); The incidence of grade II-IV acute and chronic graft versus host disease (GvHD) was 23.6% and 12.9% respectively. The probability of rejection was 6.9%. Transplant-related mortality (TRM) (13.8%) was similar to the probability of dying of cardiovascular events in CT patients (12.2%). High-risk Pesaro score (class 3) was associated with lower OS (OR = 1.99, 95% C.I.=1.31-3.03) and TFS (OR = 1.54, 95% C.I.=1.12-2.12). In adult patients, the 23-years OS and TFS after HSCT were 70 ± 5% and 67.3 ± 5%, compared to 71.2 ± 5% of OS in CT (P = NS). Finally, treosulfan was associated with lower risk of acute GvHD (P = .004; OR = 0.28, 95% C.I.=0.12-0.67). In conclusion, the 30-year survival rate of ex-thalassemia patients after HSCT was similar to that expected in CT thalassemia patients, with the vast majority of HSCT survivors cured from thalassemia. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Doxycycline Enhances Survival and Self-Renewal of Human Pluripotent Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Mi-Yoon; Rhee, Yong-Hee; Yi, Sang-Hoon; Lee, Su-Jae; Kim, Rae-Kwon; Kim, Hyongbum; Park, Chang-Hwan; Lee, Sang-Hun

    2014-01-01

    Summary We here report that doxycycline, an antibacterial agent, exerts dramatic effects on human embryonic stem and induced pluripotent stem cells (hESC/iPSCs) survival and self-renewal. The survival-promoting effect was also manifest in cultures of neural stem cells (NSCs) derived from hESC/iPSCs. These doxycycline effects are not associated with its antibacterial action, but mediated by direct activation of a PI3K-AKT intracellular signal. These findings indicate doxycycline as a useful supplement for stem cell cultures, facilitating their growth and maintenance. PMID:25254347

  2. Comparative cardiopulmonary effects of particulate matter- and ozone-enhanced smog atmospheres in mice

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study was conducted to compare the cardiac effects of particulate matter (PM)-enhanced and ozone(O3)-enhanced smog atmospheres in mice. We hypothesized that O3-enhanced smog would cause greater cardiac dysfunction than PM-enhanced smog due to the higher concentrations of irr...

  3. Microvesicles Derived from Mesenchymal Stem Cells Enhance Survival in a Lethal Model of Acute Kidney Injury

    PubMed Central

    Bruno, Stefania; Grange, Cristina; Collino, Federica; Deregibus, Maria Chiara; Cantaluppi, Vincenzo; Biancone, Luigi; Tetta, Ciro; Camussi, Giovanni

    2012-01-01

    Several studies demonstrated that treatment with mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) reduces cisplatin mortality in mice. Microvesicles (MVs) released from MSCs were previously shown to favor renal repair in non lethal toxic and ischemic acute renal injury (AKI). In the present study we investigated the effects of MSC-derived MVs in SCID mice survival in lethal cisplatin-induced AKI. Moreover, we evaluated in vitro the effect of MVs on cisplatin-induced apoptosis of human renal tubular epithelial cells and the molecular mechanisms involved. Two different regimens of MV injection were used. The single administration of MVs ameliorated renal function and morphology, and improved survival but did not prevent chronic tubular injury and persistent increase in BUN and creatinine. Multiple injections of MVs further decreased mortality and at day 21 surviving mice showed normal histology and renal function. The mechanism of protection was mainly ascribed to an anti-apoptotic effect of MVs. In vitro studies demonstrated that MVs up-regulated in cisplatin-treated human tubular epithelial cells anti-apoptotic genes, such as Bcl-xL, Bcl2 and BIRC8 and down-regulated genes that have a central role in the execution-phase of cell apoptosis such as Casp1, Casp8 and LTA. In conclusion, MVs released from MSCs were found to exert a pro-survival effect on renal cells in vitro and in vivo, suggesting that MVs may contribute to renal protection conferred by MSCs. PMID:22431999

  4. Bumblebee family lineage survival is enhanced in high-quality landscapes.

    PubMed

    Carvell, Claire; Bourke, Andrew F G; Dreier, Stephanie; Freeman, Stephen N; Hulmes, Sarah; Jordan, William C; Redhead, John W; Sumner, Seirian; Wang, Jinliang; Heard, Matthew S

    2017-03-23

    Insect pollinators such as bumblebees (Bombus spp.) are in global decline. A major cause of this decline is habitat loss due to agricultural intensification. A range of global and national initiatives aimed at restoring pollinator habitats and populations have been developed. However, the success of these initiatives depends critically upon understanding how landscape change affects key population-level parameters, such as survival between lifecycle stages, in target species. This knowledge is lacking for bumblebees, because of the difficulty of systematically finding and monitoring colonies in the wild. We used a combination of habitat manipulation, land-use and habitat surveys, molecular genetics and demographic and spatial modelling to analyse between-year survival of family lineages in field populations of three bumblebee species. Here we show that the survival of family lineages from the summer worker to the spring queen stage in the following year increases significantly with the proportion of high-value foraging habitat, including spring floral resources, within 250-1,000 m of the natal colony. This provides evidence for a positive impact of habitat quality on survival and persistence between successive colony cycle stages in bumblebee populations. These findings also support the idea that conservation interventions that increase floral resources at a landscape scale and throughout the season have positive effects on wild pollinators in agricultural landscapes.

  5. Fibroblast growth factor receptor 4 (FGFR4) and fibroblast growth factor 19 (FGF19) autocrine enhance breast cancer cells survival.

    PubMed

    Tiong, Kai Hung; Tan, Boon Shing; Choo, Heng Lungh; Chung, Felicia Fei-Lei; Hii, Ling-Wei; Tan, Si Hoey; Khor, Nelson Tze Woei; Wong, Shew Fung; See, Sze-Jia; Tan, Yuen-Fen; Rosli, Rozita; Cheong, Soon-Keng; Leong, Chee-Onn

    2016-09-06

    Basal-like breast cancer is an aggressive tumor subtype with poor prognosis. The discovery of underlying mechanisms mediating tumor cell survival, and the development of novel agents to target these pathways, is a priority for patients with basal-like breast cancer. From a functional screen to identify key drivers of basal-like breast cancer cell growth, we identified fibroblast growth factor receptor 4 (FGFR4) as a potential mediator of cell survival. We found that FGFR4 mediates cancer cell survival predominantly via activation of PI3K/AKT. Importantly, a subset of basal-like breast cancer cells also secrete fibroblast growth factor 19 (FGF19), a canonical ligand specific for FGFR4. siRNA-mediated silencing of FGF19 or neutralization of extracellular FGF19 by anti-FGF19 antibody (1A6) decreases AKT phosphorylation, suppresses cancer cell growth and enhances doxorubicin sensitivity only in the FGFR4+/FGF19+ breast cancer cells. Consistently, FGFR4/FGF19 co-expression was also observed in 82 out of 287 (28.6%) primary breast tumors, and their expression is strongly associated with AKT phosphorylation, Ki-67 staining, higher tumor stage and basal-like phenotype. In summary, our results demonstrated the presence of an FGFR4/FGF19 autocrine signaling that mediates the survival of a subset of basal-like breast cancer cells and suggest that inactivation of this autocrine loop may potentially serve as a novel therapeutic intervention for future treatment of breast cancers.

  6. Chitosan inactivates spoilage yeasts but enhances survival of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in apple juice.

    PubMed

    Kiskó, G; Sharp, R; Roller, S

    2005-01-01

    To develop new measures for controlling both spoilage and pathogenic micro-organisms in unpasteurized apple juice using chitosan. Micro-organisms were isolated and identified from apple juice treated or untreated with chitosan using enrichment, selective media, microscopy, substrate assimilation patterns and ribosomal DNA profiling. Chitosan (0.05-0.1%) delayed spoilage by yeasts at 25 degrees C for up to 12 days but the effect was species specific: Kloeckera apiculata and Metschnikowia pulcherrima were inactivated but Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Pichia spp. multiplied slowly. In challenge experiments at 25 degrees C, total yeast counts were 3-5 log CFU ml(-1) lower in chitosan-treated juices than in the controls for 4 days but the survival of Escherichia coli O157:H7 was extended from 1 to 2 days; at 4 degrees C, chitosan reduced the yeast counts by 2-3 log CFU ml(-1) for up to 10 days but survival of the pathogen was prolonged from 3 to 5 days. The survival of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium was unaffected by chitosan at either temperature. The addition of chitosan to apple juice delayed spoilage by yeasts but enhanced the survival of E. coli O157:H7. The results suggest that the use of chitosan in the treatment of fruit juices may potentially lead to an increased risk of food poisoning from E. coli O157:H7.

  7. Enhanced malignant transformation is accompanied by increased survival recovery after ionizing radiation in Chinese hamster embryo fibroblasts

    SciTech Connect

    Boothman, D.A.

    Transformed Chinese hamster embryo fibroblasts (CHEF), which gradually increase in tumor-forming ability in nude mice, were isolated from normal diploid CHEF/18 cells. Transformed CHEF cells (i.e., T30-4 > 21-2M3 > 21-2 > normal CHEF/18) showed gradual increases in potentially lethal damage (PLD) survival recovery. {beta}-Lapachone and camptothecin, modulators of topoisomerase I (Topo I) activity, not only prevented survival recovery in normal as well as in tumor cells, but enhanced unscheduled DNA synthesis. These seemingly conflicting results are due to the fact that Topo I activity can be modulated by inhibitors to convert single-stranded DNA lesions into double-stranded breaks. Increases inmore » unscheduled DNA synthesis may result from a continual supply of free ends, on which DNA repair processes may act. Altering Topo I activity with modulators appears to increase X-ray lethality via a DNA lesion modification suicide pathway. Cells down-regulate Topo I immediately after ionizing radiation to prevent Topo I-mediated lesion modification and to enhance survival recovery. 16 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.« less

  8. Adipose-derived stromal cells enhance auditory neuron survival in an animal model of sensory hearing loss.

    PubMed

    Schendzielorz, Philipp; Vollmer, Maike; Rak, Kristen; Wiegner, Armin; Nada, Nashwa; Radeloff, Katrin; Hagen, Rudolf; Radeloff, Andreas

    2017-10-01

    A cochlear implant (CI) is an electronic prosthesis that can partially restore speech perception capabilities. Optimum information transfer from the cochlea to the central auditory system requires a proper functioning auditory nerve (AN) that is electrically stimulated by the device. In deafness, the lack of neurotrophic support, normally provided by the sensory cells of the inner ear, however, leads to gradual degeneration of auditory neurons with undesirable consequences for CI performance. We evaluated the potential of adipose-derived stromal cells (ASCs) that are known to produce neurotrophic factors to prevent neural degeneration in sensory hearing loss. For this, co-cultures of ASCs with auditory neurons have been studied, and autologous ASC transplantation has been performed in a guinea pig model of gentamicin-induced sensory hearing loss. In vitro ASCs were neuroprotective and considerably increased the neuritogenesis of auditory neurons. In vivo transplantation of ASCs into the scala tympani resulted in an enhanced survival of auditory neurons. Specifically, peripheral AN processes that are assumed to be the optimal activation site for CI stimulation and that are particularly vulnerable to hair cell loss showed a significantly higher survival rate in ASC-treated ears. ASC transplantation into the inner ear may restore neurotrophic support in sensory hearing loss and may help to improve CI performance by enhanced AN survival. Copyright © 2017 International Society for Cellular Therapy. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Comparative reproductive biology of sympatric species: Nest and chick survival of American avocets and black-necked stilts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ackerman, Joshua T.; Herzog, Mark P.; Takekawa, John Y.; Hartman, Christopher A.

    2014-01-01

    Identifying differences in reproductive success rates of closely related and sympatrically breeding species can be useful for understanding limitations to population growth. We simultaneously examined the reproductive ecology of American avocets Recurvirostra americana and black-necked stilts Himantopus mexicanus using 1274 monitored nests and 240 radio-marked chicks in San Francisco Bay, California. Although there were 1.8 times more avocet nests than stilt nests, stilts nonetheless fledged 3.3 times more chicks. Greater production by stilts than avocets was the result of greater chick survival from hatching to fledging (avocet: 6%; stilt: 40%), and not because of differences in clutch size (avocet: 3.84; stilt: 3.77), nest survival (avocet: 44%; stilt: 35%), or egg hatching success (avocet: 90%; stilt: 92%). We reviewed the literature and confirmed that nest survival and hatching success are generally similar when avocets and stilts breed sympatrically. In addition to species, chick survival was strongly influenced by age, site, and year. In particular, daily survival rates increased rapidly with chick age, with 70% of mortalities occurring ≤ 1 week after hatch. California gulls Larus californicus caused 55% of avocet, but only 15% of stilt, chick deaths. Differential use of micro-habitats likely reduced stilt chick’s vulnerability to gull predation, particularly during the first week after hatch, because stilts nested in vegetation 2.7 times more often than avocets and vegetation height was 65% taller at stilt nests compared with avocet nests. Our results demonstrate that two co-occurring and closely related species with similar life history strategies can differ markedly in reproductive success, and simultaneous studies of such species can identify differences that limit productivity.

  10. Breast cancer characteristics at diagnosis and survival among Arab-American women compared to European- and African-American women

    PubMed Central

    Alford, Sharon Hensley; Schwartz, Kendra; Soliman, Amr; Johnson, Christine Cole; Gruber, Stephen B.; Merajver, Sofia D.

    2009-01-01

    Background Data from Arab world studies suggest that Arab women may experience a more aggressive breast cancer phenotype. To investigate this finding, we focused on one of the largest settlements of Arabs and Iraqi Christians (Chaldeans) in the US, metropolitan Detroit- a SEER reporting site since 1973. Materials and Methods We identified a cohort of primary breast cancer cases diagnosed 1973–2003. Using a validated name algorithm, women were identified as being of Arab/Chaldean descent if they had an Arab last or maiden name. We compared characteristics at diagnosis (age, grade, histology, SEER stage, and marker status) and overall survival between Arab-, European-, and African-Americans. Results The cohort included 1,652 (2%) women of Arab descent, 13,855 (18%) African-American women, and 63,615 (80%) European-American. There were statistically significant differences between the racial groups for all characteristics at diagnosis. Survival analyses overall and for each SEER stage showed that Arab-American women had the best survival, followed by European-American women. African-American women had the poorest overall survival and were 1.37 (95% confidence interval: 1.23–1.52) times more likely to be diagnosed with an aggressive tumor (adjusting for age, grade, marker status, and year of diagnosis). Conclusion Overall, Arab-American women have a distribution of breast cancer histology similar to European-American women. In contrast, the stage, age, and hormone receptor status at diagnosis among Arab-Americans was more similar to African-American women. However, Arab-American women have a better overall survival than even European-American women. PMID:18415013

  11. Breast cancer characteristics at diagnosis and survival among Arab-American women compared to European- and African-American women.

    PubMed

    Hensley Alford, Sharon; Schwartz, Kendra; Soliman, Amr; Johnson, Christine Cole; Gruber, Stephen B; Merajver, Sofia D

    2009-03-01

    Data from Arab world studies suggest that Arab women may experience a more aggressive breast cancer phenotype. To investigate this finding, we focused on one of the largest settlements of Arabs and Iraqi Christians (Chaldeans) in the US, metropolitan Detroit- a SEER reporting site since 1973. We identified a cohort of primary breast cancer cases diagnosed 1973-2003. Using a validated name algorithm, women were identified as being of Arab/Chaldean descent if they had an Arab last or maiden name. We compared characteristics at diagnosis (age, grade, histology, SEER stage, and marker status) and overall survival between Arab-, European-, and African-Americans. The cohort included 1,652 (2%) women of Arab descent, 13,855 (18%) African-American women, and 63,615 (80%) European-American women. There were statistically significant differences between the racial groups for all characteristics at diagnosis. Survival analyses overall and for each SEER stage showed that Arab-American women had the best survival, followed by European-American women. African-American women had the poorest overall survival and were 1.37 (95% confidence interval: 1.23-1.52) times more likely to be diagnosed with an aggressive tumor (adjusting for age, grade, marker status, and year of diagnosis). Overall, Arab-American women have a distribution of breast cancer histology similar to European-American women. In contrast, the stage, age, and hormone receptor status at diagnosis among Arab-Americans was more similar to African-American women. However, Arab-American women have a better overall survival than even European-American women.

  12. Phenazine redox cycling enhances anaerobic survival in Pseudomonas aeruginosa by facilitating generation of ATP and a proton-motive force

    PubMed Central

    Glasser, Nathaniel R.; Kern, Suzanne E.

    2014-01-01

    Summary While many studies have explored the growth of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, comparatively few have focused on its survival. Previously, we reported that endogenous phenazines support the anaerobic survival of P. aeruginosa, yet the physiological mechanism underpinning survival was unknown. Here, we demonstrate that phenazine redox cycling enables P. aeruginosa to oxidize glucose and pyruvate into acetate, which promotes survival by coupling acetate and ATP synthesis through the activity of acetate kinase. By measuring intracellular NAD(H) and ATP concentrations, we show that survival is correlated with ATP synthesis, which is tightly coupled to redox homeostasis during pyruvate fermentation but not during arginine fermentation. We also show that ATP hydrolysis is required to generate a proton-motive force using the ATP synthase complex during fermentation. Together, our results suggest that phenazines enable maintenance of the proton-motive force by promoting redox homeostasis and ATP synthesis. This work demonstrates the more general principle that extracellular redox-active molecules, such as phenazines, can broaden the metabolic versatility of microorganisms by facilitating energy generation. PMID:24612454

  13. Enhancing PRTR Comparability to Address Global Sustainability Needs

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    A report by students from George Washington University's Environmental Resource Policy Program identifying methods of increasing the usefulness and comparability of TRI-like data from around the world.

  14. Equivalent survival after nipple-sparing compared to non-nipple-sparing mastectomy: data from California, 1988-2013.

    PubMed

    Kurian, Allison W; Canchola, Alison J; Gomez, Scarlett L; Clarke, Christina A

    2016-11-01

    Nipple-sparing mastectomy, which may improve cosmesis, body image, and sexual function in comparison to non-nipple-sparing mastectomy, is increasingly used to treat early-stage breast cancer; however, long-term survival data are lacking. We evaluated survival after nipple-sparing mastectomy versus non-nipple-sparing mastectomy in a population-based cancer registry. We conducted an observational study using the California Cancer Registry, considering all stage 0-III breast cancers diagnosed in California from 1988 to 2013. We compared breast cancer-specific and overall survival time after nipple-sparing versus non-nipple-sparing mastectomy, using multivariable analysis. Among 157,592 stage 0-III female breast cancer patients treated with unilateral mastectomy from 1988-2013, 993 (0.6 %) were reported as having nipple-sparing and 156,599 (99.4 %) non-nipple-sparing mastectomies; median follow-up was 7.9 years. The proportion of mastectomies that were nipple-sparing increased over time (1988, 0.2 %; 2013, 5.1 %) and with neighborhood socioeconomic status, and decreased with age and stage. On multivariable analysis, nipple-sparing mastectomy was associated with a lower risk of breast cancer-specific mortality compared to non-nipple-sparing mastectomy [hazard ratio (HR) 0.71, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 0.51-0.98]. However, when restricting to diagnoses 1996 or later and adjusting for a larger set of covariates, risk was attenuated (HR 0.86, 95 % CI 0.52-1.42). Among California breast cancer patients diagnosed from 1988-2013, nipple-sparing mastectomy was not associated with worse survival than non-nipple-sparing mastectomy. These results may inform the decisions of patients and doctors deliberating between these surgical approaches for breast cancer treatment.

  15. Equivalent survival following liver transplantation in patients with non-alcoholic steatohepatitis compared with patients with other liver diseases.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, Christopher; Redden, David; Gray, Stephen; Eckhoff, Devin; Massoud, Omar; McGuire, Brendan; Alkurdi, Basem; Bloomer, Joseph; DuBay, Derek A

    2012-09-01

    Orthotopic liver transplantation (LT) in non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is increasing in parallel with the obesity epidemic. This study retrospectively reviewed the clinical outcomes of LTs in NASH (n = 129) and non-NASH (n = 775) aetiologies carried out at a single centre between 1999 and 2009. Rates of 1-, 3- and 5-year overall survival in NASH (90%, 88% and 85%, respectively) were comparable with those in non-NASH (92%, 86% and 80%, respectively) patients. Mortality within 4 months of LT was twice as high in NASH as in non-NASH patients (8.5% vs. 4.2%; P = 0.04). Compared with non-NASH patients, post-LT mortality in NASH patients was more commonly caused by infectious (38% vs. 26%; P < 0.05) or cardiac (19% vs. 7%; P < 0.05) aetiologies. Five-year survival was lower in NASH patients with a high-risk phenotype (age >60 years, body mass index >30 kg/m(2), with hypertension and diabetes) than in NASH patients without these characteristics (72% vs. 87%; P = 0.02). Subgroup analyses revealed that 5-year overall survival in NASH was equivalent to that in Laennec's cirrhosis (85% vs. 80%; P 0.87), but lower than that in cirrhosis of cryptogenic aetiology (85% vs. 96%; P = 0.04). Orthotopic LT in NASH was associated with increased early postoperative mortality, but 1-, 3- and 5-year overall survival rates were equivalent to those in non-NASH patients. © 2012 International Hepato-Pancreato-Biliary Association.

  16. Death certificate only proportions should be age adjusted in studies comparing cancer survival across populations and over time.

    PubMed

    Brenner, Hermann; Castro, Felipe A; Eberle, Andrea; Emrich, Katharina; Holleczek, Bernd; Katalinic, Alexander; Jansen, Lina

    2016-01-01

    The proportion of cases notified by death certificate only (DCO) is a commonly used data quality indicator in studies comparing cancer survival across regions and over time. We aimed to assess dependence of DCO proportions on the age structure of cancer patients. Using data from a national cancer survival study in Germany, we determined age specific and overall (crude) DCO proportions for 24 common forms of cancer. We then derived overall (crude) DCO proportions expected in case of shifts of the age distribution of the cancer populations by 5 and 10 years, respectively, assuming age specific DCO proportions to remain constant. Median DCO proportions across the 24 cancers were 2.4, 3.7, 5.5, 8.5 and 23.9% in age groups 15-44, 45-54, 55-64, 65-74, and 75+, respectively. A decrease of ages by 5 and 10 years resulted in decreases of cancer specific crude DCO proportions ranging from 0.4 to 4.8 and from 0.7 to 8.6 percent units, respectively. Conversely, an increase of ages by 5 and 10 years led to increases of cancer specific crude DCO proportions ranging from 0.8 to 4.8 and from 1.8 to 9.6 percent units, respectively. These changes were of similar magnitude (but in opposite direction) as changes in crude 5-year relative survival resulting from the same shifts in age distribution. The age structure of cancer patient populations has a substantial impact on DCO proportions. DCO proportions should therefore be age adjusted in comparative studies on cancer survival across regions and over time. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Improved survival in cystic fibrosis patients diagnosed by newborn screening compared to a historical cohort from the same centre.

    PubMed

    Dijk, F Nicole; McKay, Karen; Barzi, Federica; Gaskin, Kevin J; Fitzgerald, Dominic A

    2011-12-01

    Newborn screening (NBS) for cystic fibrosis (CF) is associated with improved early nutritional outcomes and improved spirometry in children. The aim of this study was to determine whether early diagnosis and treatment of CF with NBS in New South Wales in 1981 led to better clinical outcomes and survival into early adulthood. Retrospective observational study comprising two original cohorts born in the 3 years before ('non-screened cohort', n=57) and after ('screened'; n=60) the introduction of NBS. Patient records were assessed at transfer from paediatric to adult care by age 19 years and survival was documented to age 25 years. Non-screened patients (n=38) when compared with screened patients (n=41) had a higher rate and lower age of Pseudomonas aeruginosa acquisition at age 18 years (p ≤ 0.01). Height, weight and body mass index (BMI) z scores (all p<0.01) and forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV(1))% were better in the screened group (n=41) (difference: 16.7 ± 6.4%; p=0.01) compared to non-screened (n=38) subjects on transfer to adult care. Each 1% increase in FEV(1)% was associated with a 3% (95% CI 1% to 5%; p=0.001) decrease in risk of death and each 1.0 kg/m(2) increase in BMI contributed to a 44% (95% CI 31% to 55%; p<0.001) decrease in risk of death. This accumulated in a significant survival difference at age 25 years (25 vs 13 deaths or lung transplants; p=0.01). NBS for CF leads to better lung function, nutritional status and improved survival in screened patients in early adulthood.

  18. Anodal Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation Enhances Survival and Integration of Dopaminergic Cell Transplants in a Rat Parkinson Model

    PubMed Central

    Winkler, Christian; Reis, Janine; Hoffmann, Nadin; Gellner, Anne-Kathrin; Münkel, Christian; Curado, Marco Rocha

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Restorative therapy concepts, such as cell based therapies aim to restitute impaired neurotransmission in neurodegenerative diseases. New strategies to enhance grafted cell survival and integration are still needed to improve functional recovery. Anodal direct current stimulation (DCS) promotes neuronal activity and secretion of the trophic factor BDNF in the motor cortex. Transcranial DCS applied to the motor cortex transiently improves motor symptoms in Parkinson’s disease (PD) patients. In this proof-of-concept study, we combine cell based therapy and noninvasive neuromodulation to assess whether neurotrophic support via transcranial DCS would enhance the restitution of striatal neurotransmission by fetal dopaminergic transplants in a rat Parkinson model. Transcranial DCS was applied daily for 20 min on 14 consecutive days following striatal transplantation of fetal ventral mesencephalic (fVM) cells derived from transgenic rat embryos ubiquitously expressing GFP. Anodal but not cathodal transcranial DCS significantly enhanced graft survival and dopaminergic reinnervation of the surrounding striatal tissue relative to sham stimulation. Behavioral recovery was more pronounced following anodal transcranial DCS, and behavioral effects correlated with the degree of striatal innervation. Our results suggest anodal transcranial DCS may help advance cell-based restorative therapies in neurodegenerative diseases. In particular, such an assistive approach may be beneficial for the already established cell transplantation therapy in PD. PMID:28966974

  19. Anodal Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation Enhances Survival and Integration of Dopaminergic Cell Transplants in a Rat Parkinson Model.

    PubMed

    Winkler, Christian; Reis, Janine; Hoffmann, Nadin; Gellner, Anne-Kathrin; Münkel, Christian; Curado, Marco Rocha; Furlanetti, Luciano; Garcia, Joanna; Döbrössy, Máté D; Fritsch, Brita

    2017-01-01

    Restorative therapy concepts, such as cell based therapies aim to restitute impaired neurotransmission in neurodegenerative diseases. New strategies to enhance grafted cell survival and integration are still needed to improve functional recovery. Anodal direct current stimulation (DCS) promotes neuronal activity and secretion of the trophic factor BDNF in the motor cortex. Transcranial DCS applied to the motor cortex transiently improves motor symptoms in Parkinson's disease (PD) patients. In this proof-of-concept study, we combine cell based therapy and noninvasive neuromodulation to assess whether neurotrophic support via transcranial DCS would enhance the restitution of striatal neurotransmission by fetal dopaminergic transplants in a rat Parkinson model. Transcranial DCS was applied daily for 20 min on 14 consecutive days following striatal transplantation of fetal ventral mesencephalic (fVM) cells derived from transgenic rat embryos ubiquitously expressing GFP. Anodal but not cathodal transcranial DCS significantly enhanced graft survival and dopaminergic reinnervation of the surrounding striatal tissue relative to sham stimulation. Behavioral recovery was more pronounced following anodal transcranial DCS, and behavioral effects correlated with the degree of striatal innervation. Our results suggest anodal transcranial DCS may help advance cell-based restorative therapies in neurodegenerative diseases. In particular, such an assistive approach may be beneficial for the already established cell transplantation therapy in PD.

  20. Enhancing the child survival agenda to promote, protect, and support early child development.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Sarah K G; Bouhouch, Raschida R; Walson, Judd L; Daelmans, Bernadette; Bahl, Rajiv; Darmstadt, Gary L; Dua, Tarun

    2015-08-01

    High rates of child mortality and lost developmental potential in children under 5 years of age remain important challenges and drivers of inequity in the developing world. Substantive progress has been made toward Millennium Development Goal (MDG) 4 to improve child survival, but as we move into the post-2015 sustainable development agenda, much more work is needed to ensure that all children can realize their full and holistic physical, cognitive, psychological, and socio-emotional development potential. This article presents child survival and development as a continuous and multifaceted process and suggests that a life-course perspective of child development should be at the core of future policy making, programming, and research. We suggest that increased attention to child development, beyond child survival, is key to operationalize the sustainable development goals (SDGs), address inequities, build on the demographic dividend, and maximize gains in human potential. An important step toward implementation will be to increase integration of existing interventions for child survival and child development. Integrated interventions have numerous potential benefits, including optimization of resource use, potential additive impacts across multiple domains of health and development, and opportunity to realize a more holistic approach to client-centered care. However, a notable challenge to integration is the continued division between the health sector and other sectors that support child development. Despite these barriers, empirical evidence is available to suggest that successful multisectoral coordination is feasible and leads to improved short- and long-term outcomes in human, social, and economic development. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Enhancing semantic congruity effects with category-contingent comparative judgments

    PubMed Central

    Leth-Steensen, Craig; Petrusic, William M.; Shaki, Samuel

    2014-01-01

    In each of two experiments the direction of a binary comparison was contingent on the category of the stimulus pair. In one experiment, participants had to compare the size of animals from memory. On congruent trials, they had to select the smaller animal if both were small and the larger if both were large and on incongruent trials they selected the larger if both were small and the smaller if both were large. In a second experiment, participants had to compare visual extents and the direction of the comparison was contingent on whether the lines were short or long. Response times were increased and semantic congruity effects (SCEs) were greatly amplified with the category-contingent instructions relative to the conventional non-contingent instructions, precisely as predicted by the class of evidence accrual models of decisional processing and contrary to the single-sample stage models of the SCE. PMID:25374556

  2. AAV2-mediated gene transfer of GDNF to the striatum of MPTP monkeys enhances the survival and outgrowth of co-implanted fetal dopamine neurons

    PubMed Central

    Elsworth, JD; Redmond, DE; Leranth, C; Bjugstad, KB; Sladek, JR; Collier, TJ; Foti, SB; Samulski, RJ; Vives, KP; Roth, RH

    2009-01-01

    Neural transplantation offers the potential of treating Parkinson’s disease by grafting fetal dopamine neurons to depleted regions of the brain. However, clinical studies of neural grafting in Parkinson’s disease have produced only modest improvements. One of the main reasons for this is the low survival rate of transplanted neurons. The inadequate supply of critical neurotrophic factors in the adult brain is likely to be a major cause of early cell death and restricted outgrowth of fetal grafts placed into the mature striatum. Glial derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) is a potent neurotrophic factor that is crucial to the survival, outgrowth and maintenance of dopamine neurons, and so is a candidate for protecting grafted fetal dopamine neurons in the adult brain. We found that implantation of adeno-associated virus type 2 encoding GDNF (AAV2-GDNF) in the normal monkey caudate nucleus induced over-expression of GDNF that persisted for at least 6 months after injection. In a 6-month within-animal controlled study, AAV2-GDNF enhanced the survival of fetal dopamine neurons by 4-fold, and increased the outgrowth of grafted fetal dopamine neurons by almost 3-fold in the caudate nucleus of MPTP-treated monkeys, compared with control grafts in the other caudate nucleus. Thus, the addition of GDNF gene therapy to neural transplantation may be a useful strategy to improve treatment for Parkinson’s disease. PMID:18346734

  3. Smolt Monitoring Program Comparative Survival Rate Study (CSS); Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife, Annual Report 2001-2002.

    SciTech Connect

    Jonasson, Brian; Carmichael, Richard

    2003-05-01

    We PIT-tagged juvenile spring chinook salmon reared at Lookingglass Hatchery in October 2001 as part of the Comparative Survival Rate Study (CSS) for migratory year (MY) 2002. We tagged 20,998 Imnaha stock spring chinook salmon, and after mortality and tag loss, we allowed the remaining 20,920 fish to leave the acclimation pond at our Imnaha River satellite facility beginning 21 March 2002 to begin their seaward migration. The fish remaining in the pond were forced out on 17 April 2002. We tagged 20,973 Catherine Creek stock captive brood progeny spring chinook salmon, and after mortality and tag loss, we allowedmore » the remaining 20,796 fish to leave the acclimation ponds at our Catherine Creek satellite facility beginning 1 April 2001 to begin their seaward migration. The fish remaining in the ponds were forced out on 15 April 2001. We estimated survival rates, from release to Lower Granite Dam in MY 2002, for three stocks of hatchery spring chinook salmon tagged at Lookingglass Hatchery to determine their relative migration performance. Imnaha River stock and Lostine River stock survival rates were similar and were higher than the survival rate of Catherine Creek stock. We PIT-tagged 20,950 BY 2001 Imnaha River stock and 20,820 BY 2001 Catherine Creek stock captive brood progeny in October 2002 as part of the CSS for MY 2003. At the time the fish were transferred from Lookingglass Hatchery to the acclimation site, the rates of mortality and tag loss for Imnaha River stock were 0.14% and 0.06%, respectively. Catherine Creek stock, during the same period, had rates of mortality and tag loss of 0.57% and 0.31%, respectively. There was slightly elevated mortality, primarily from BKD, in one raceway of Catherine Creek stock at Lookingglass Hatchery for BY 2001.« less

  4. Comparative Survival Rates of Human-Derived Probiotic Lactobacillus paracasei and L. salivarius Strains during Heat Treatment and Spray Drying

    PubMed Central

    Gardiner, G. E.; O'Sullivan, E.; Kelly, J.; Auty, M. A. E.; Fitzgerald, G. F.; Collins, J. K.; Ross, R. P.; Stanton, C.

    2000-01-01

    Spray drying of skim milk was evaluated as a means of preserving Lactobacillus paracasei NFBC 338 and Lactobacillus salivarius UCC 118, which are human-derived strains with probiotic potential. Our initial experiments revealed that NFBC 338 is considerably more heat resistant in 20% (wt/vol) skim milk than UCC 118 is; the comparable decimal reduction times were 11.1 and 1.1 min, respectively, at 59°C. An air outlet temperature of 80 to 85°C was optimal for spray drying; these conditions resulted in powders with moisture contents of 4.1 to 4.2% and viable counts of 3.2 × 109 CFU/g for NFBC 338 and 5.2 × 107 CFU/g for UCC 118. Thus, L. paracasei NFBC 338 survived better than L. salivarius UCC 118 during spray drying; similar results were obtained when we used confocal scanning laser microscopy and LIVE/DEAD BacLight viability staining. In addition, confocal scanning laser microscopy revealed that the probiotic lactobacilli were located primarily in the powder particles. Although both spray-dried cultures appeared to be stressed, as shown by increased sensitivity to NaCl, bacteriocin production by UCC 118 was not affected by the process, nor was the activity of the bacteriocin peptide. The level of survival of NFBC 338 remained constant at ∼1 × 109 CFU/g during 2 months of powder storage at 4°C, while a decline in the level of survival of approximately 1 log (from 7.2 × 107 to 9.5 × 106 CFU/g) was observed for UCC 118 stored under the same conditions. However, survival of both Lactobacillus strains during powder storage was inversely related to the storage temperature. Our data demonstrate that spray drying may be a cost-effective way to produce large quantities of some probiotic cultures. PMID:10831444

  5. Evaluating and Comparing Interventions Designed to Enhance Math Fact Accuracy and Fluency: Cover, Copy, and Compare versus Taped Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poncy, Brian C.; Skinner, Christopher H.; Jaspers, Kathryn E.

    2007-01-01

    An adapted alternating treatments design was used to evaluate and compare the effects of two procedures designed to enhance math fact accuracy and fluency in an elementary student with low cognitive functioning. Results showed that although the cover, copy, compare (CCC) and the taped problems (TP) procedures both increased the student's math fact…

  6. The Gottingen minipig is a model of the hematopoietic acute radiation syndrome: G-CSF stimulates hematopoiesis and enhances survival from lethal total-body gamma-irradiation

    PubMed Central

    Moroni, Maria; Ngudiankama, Barbara F.; Christensen, Christine; Olsen, Cara H.; Owens, Rossitsa; Lombardini, Eric D.; Holt, Rebecca K.; Whitnall, Mark H.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose We are characterizing the Gottingen minipig as an additional large animal model for advanced drug testing for the Acute Radiation Syndrome (ARS), to enhance discovery and development of novel radiation countermeasures. Among the advantages provided by this model, the similarities to human hematological parameters and dynamics of cell loss/recovery following irradiation provide a convenient means to compare efficacy of drugs known to affect bone marrow cellularity and hematopoiesis. Methods and Materials Male Gottingen minipigs, 4–5 months old and weighing 9–11 kg were used for this study. We tested the standard off-label treatment for ARS, rhG-CSF (Neupogen®, 10 μg/kg/day for 17 days), at the estimated LD70/30 total-body gamma-irradiation (TBI) radiation dose for the hematopoietic syndrome, starting 24 hours after irradiation. Results Results indicate G-CSF enhanced survival, stimulated recovery from neutropenia, and induced mobilization of hematopoietic progenitor cells. In addition, administration of G-CSF resulted in maturation of monocytes/macrophages. Conclusion These results support continuing efforts toward validation of the minipig as a large animal model for advanced testing of radiation countermeasures and characterization of the pathophysiology of ARS, and suggest that the efficacy of G-CSF in improving survival after total body irradiation may involve mechanisms other than increasing numbers of circulating granulocytes. PMID:23845847

  7. A synbiotic multiparticulate microcapsule for enhancing inulin intestinal release and Bifidobacterium gastro-intestinal survivability.

    PubMed

    Fayed, Bahgat; Abood, Amira; El-Sayed, Hoda S; Hashem, Amal M; Mehanna, Nayra S H

    2018-08-01

    A novel synbiotic multiparticulate microparticle was produced in the current study to expand the synbiotic industrial applications. Initially, the inulin was fabricated into PLGA nanoparticles. After the inulin entrapment efficiency was boosted to reach 92.9 ± 8.4% by adjusting the formulation parameters, the developed particles were characterized by different techniques such as particle size analyzer, TEM, and TLC. The obtained data showed that the particle size was 115.8 ± 82.7 nm, the particles had smooth surface and round shape, and the fabrication procedure did not affect the integrity of the inulin. Later, the inulin loaded nanoparticles together with selected Bifidobacterium species were double coated with gum arabic and alginate. The maximum survivability of the encapsulated Bifidobacterium in the simulated gastric solution reached 88.29% of the initial population, which was significantly higher than the survivability of the free bacteria. Finally, the inulin release from the multiparticulate microparticles was studied and found to be sustained over three days. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Xylitol-supplemented nutrition enhances bacterial killing and prolongs survival of rats in experimental pneumococcal sepsis

    PubMed Central

    Renko, Marjo; Valkonen, Päivi; Tapiainen, Terhi; Kontiokari, Tero; Mattila, Pauli; Knuuttila, Matti; Svanberg, Martti; Leinonen, Maija; Karttunen, Riitta; Uhari, Matti

    2008-01-01

    Background Xylitol has antiadhesive effects on Streptococcus pneumoniae and inhibits its growth, and has also been found to be effective in preventing acute otitis media and has been used in intensive care as a valuable source of energy. Results We evaluated the oxidative burst of neutrophils in rats fed with and without xylitol. The mean increase in the percentage of activated neutrophils from the baseline was higher in the xylitol-exposed group than in the control group (58.1% vs 51.4%, P = 0.03 for the difference) and the mean induced increase in the median strength of the burst per neutrophil was similarly higher in the xylitol group (159.6 vs 140.3, P = 0.04). In two pneumococcal sepsis experiments rats were fed either a basal powder diet (control group) or the same diet supplemented with 10% or 20% xylitol and infected with an intraperitoneal inoculation of S. pneumoniae after two weeks. The mean survival time was 48 hours in the xylitol groups and 34 hours in the control groups (P < 0.001 in log rank test). Conclusion Xylitol has beneficial effects on both the oxidative killing of bacteria in neutrophilic leucocytes and on the survival of rats with experimental pneumococcal sepsis. PMID:18334022

  9. Glow discharge plasma pretreatment enhances osteoclast differentiation and survival on titanium plates.

    PubMed

    Kawai, Hiroyuki; Shibata, Yo; Miyazaki, Takashi

    2004-05-01

    Despite the fact that several reports have demonstrated osteoclast activity on various bioactive ceramics, osteoclast functions on surface-modified titanium have not come under focus. This study aimed to examine whether the increasing surface energy of glow discharge plasma (GDP) involved in protein adhesion containing the RGD (Arg-Gly-Asp) sequence affects osteoclast responses on titanium plates. We examined osteoclast differentiation and survival rates on titanium plates with and without GDP. The amounts of osteoclasts on titanium plates were not increased by GDP after 1 week. However, osteoclast differentiation was greatly activated by GDP pretreatment, as tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase synthesis significantly increased on the titanium plates with GDP. Additionally, since the presence of osteoclasts was detected only on the titanium plates with GDP, even after 4h cultivation in a coculture test, the osteoclasts survival rate was increased by GDP pretreatment. As osteoclast responses were affected even on surface modified metallic materials, we concluded that novel approaches are needed not only for osteoclastic resorption on ceramic materials but also for osteoclast responses on surface-modified metallic materials.

  10. Human cytomegalovirus immediate early protein 2 enhances myocardin-mediated survival of rat aortic smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Liao, Xing-Hua; Dong, Xiumei; Wu, Chenyu; Wang, Tao; Liu, Fenyong; Zhou, Jun; Zhang, Tong-Cun

    2014-11-04

    Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) may increase the incidence of restenosis and predispose to atherosclerosis. The lesions of restenosis and atherosclerosis often contain smooth muscle cells (SMCs) with high rates of proliferation and apoptosis. One of the immediate early (IE) gene products of HCMV-IE2 affects transcriptional activities of some cellular factors in SMCs, including myocardin. In this study, we studied the effects of IE2 and myocardin on PI3K pathway inducer wortmannin induced apoptosis in rat aortic SMCs. We show that the transcriptional activity of myocardin on Mcl-1 promoter is enhanced by co-expression of HCMV IE2 in rat aortic SMCs; and the expressions of mRNA and protein of antiapoptotic genes-Mcl-1 and Bcl-2 are upregulated by IE2 alone and co-transfection of myocardin and IE2, but decreased by myocardin-specific shRNA in rat aortic SMCs. We further demonstrate that co-expression of myocardin and HCMV IE2 declines apoptotic cell numbers and caspase-3 activities induced by serum starvation plus wortmannin in rat aortic SMCs. The results suggest that HCMV IE2 enhances myocardin-mediated survival of rat aortic SMCs under serum deprivation and PI3-kinase inhibition, partly via activation of Mcl-1's antiapoptosis effect. Our study connects HCMV IE2 to myocardin-induced transcriptional program for rat aortic SMCs survival and proliferation, involving in HCMV related restenosis and atherosclerosis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Mast Cells and IgE can Enhance Survival During Innate and Acquired Host Responses to Venoms*

    PubMed Central

    GALLI, STEPHEN J.; STARKL, PHILIPP; MARICHAL, THOMAS; TSAI, MINDY

    2017-01-01

    Mast cells and immunoglobulin E (IgE) antibodies are thought to promote health by contributing to host responses to certain parasites, but other beneficial functions have remained obscure. Venoms provoke innate inflammatory responses and pathology reflecting the activities of the contained toxins. Venoms also can induce allergic sensitization and development of venom-specific IgE antibodies, which can predispose some subjects to exhibit anaphylaxis upon subsequent exposure to the relevant venom. We found that innate functions of mast cells, including degradation of venom toxins by mast cell–derived proteases, enhanced survival in mice injected with venoms from the honeybee, two species of scorpion, three species of poisonous snakes, or the Gila monster. We also found that mice injected with sub-lethal amounts of honeybee or Russell’s viper venom exhibited enhanced survival after subsequent challenge with potentially lethal amounts of that venom, and that IgE antibodies, FcεRI, and probably mast cells contributed to such acquired resistance. PMID:28790503

  12. Enhancement of CD4(+) T cell response and survival via coexpressed OX40/OX40L in Graves' disease.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qin; Shi, Bi-Min; Xie, Fang; Fu, Zhao-Yang; Chen, Yong-Jing; An, Jing-Nan; Ma, Yu; Liu, Cui-Ping; Zhang, Xue-Kun; Zhang, Xue-Guang

    2016-07-15

    OX40/OX40L pathway plays a very important role in the antigen priming T cells and effector T cells. In the present study, we aimed to examine the involvement of OX40/OX40L pathway in the activation of autoreactive T cells in patients with Grave's disease (GD). We found that OX40 and OX40L were constitutively coexpressed on peripheral CD4(+) T cells from GD patients using flow cytometry analysis. The levels of OX40 and OX40L coexpression on CD4(+) T cells were shown to be correlated with TRAbs. Cell proliferation assay showed that blocking OX40/OX40L signal inhibited T cell proliferation and survival, which suggested that OX40/OX40L could enhance CD4(+) T cell proliferation and maintain their long-term survival in GD by self-enhancing loop of T cell activation independent of APCs. Confocal microscopy and coimmunoprecipitation analysis further revealed that OX40 and OX40L formed a functional complex, which may facilitate signal transduction from OX40L to OX40 and contribute to the pathogenesis of GD. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Guanabenz promotes neuronal survival via enhancement of ATF4 and parkin expression in models of Parkinson disease.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xiaotian; Aimé, Pascaline; Dai, David; Ramalingam, Nagendran; Crary, John F; Burke, Robert E; Greene, Lloyd A; Levy, Oren A

    2018-05-01

    Reduced function of parkin appears to be a central pathogenic event in Parkinson disease (PD). Increasing parkin levels enhances survival in models of PD-related neuronal death and is a promising therapeutic objective. Previously, we demonstrated that the transcription factor ATF4 promotes survival in response to PD-mimetic stressors by maintaining parkin levels. ATF4 translation is up-regulated by phosphorylation of the translation initiation factor eIF2α. The small molecule guanabenz enhances eIF2α phosphorylation by blocking the function of GADD34, a regulatory protein that promotes eIF2α dephosphorylation. We tested the hypothesis that guanabenz, by inhibiting GADD34 and consequently increasing eIF2α phosphorylation and elevating ATF4, would improve survival in models of PD by up-regulating parkin. We found that GADD34 is strongly induced by 6-OHDA, and that GADD34 localization is dramatically altered in dopaminergic substantia nigra neurons in PD cases. We further demonstrated that guanabenz attenuates 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) induced cell death of differentiated PC12 cells and primary ventral midbrain dopaminergic neurons in culture, and of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra of mice. In culture models, guanabenz also increases eIF2α phosphorylation and ATF4 and parkin levels in response to 6-OHDA. Furthermore, if either ATF4 or parkin is silenced, then the protective effect of guanabenz is lost. We also found similar results in a distinct model of neuronal death: primary cultures of cortical neurons treated with the topoisomerase I inhibitor camptothecin, in which guanabenz limited camptothecin-induced neuronal death in an ATF4- and parkin-dependent manner. In summary, our data suggest that guanabenz and other GADD34 inhibitors could be used as therapeutic agents to boost parkin levels and thereby slow neurodegeneration in PD and other neurodegenerative conditions. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Transarterial chemoembolization for early stage hepatocellular carcinoma decrease local tumor control and overall survival compared to radiofrequency ablation

    PubMed Central

    Hocquelet, Arnaud; Seror, Olivier; Blanc, Jean-Frédéric; Frulio, Nora; Salut, Cécile; Nault, Jean-Charles; Hervé Trillaud

    2017-01-01

    Background & Aims To compare treatment failure and survival associated with ultrasound-guided radiofrequency ablation (RFA) and trans-arterial chemoembolization (TACE) for early-stage HCC in Child-Pugh A cirrhosis patients. Methods 122 cirrhotic patients (RFA: 61; TACE: 61) were well matched according to cirrhosis severity; tumor size and serum alpha-fetoprotein. TACE was performed in case of inconspicuous nodule on US or nodule with “at risk location”. Treatment failure was defined as local tumor progression (LTP) and primary treatment failure (failing to obtain complete response after two treatment session). Treatment failure and overall survival (OS) were compared after coarsened exact matching. Cox proportional model to assess independent predictive factors was performed. Results No significant difference was seen for baseline characteristics between the two groups. Mean tumor size was 3cm in both group with 41% HCC>3cm. Treatment failure rates after TACE was 42.6% (14 primary treatment failures and 12 LTP) and 9.8% after RFA (no primary treatment failure and 6 LTP) P < 0.001. TACE was the only predictive factor of treatment failure (Hazard ratio: 5.573). The 4-years OS after RFA and TACE were 54.1% and 31.5% (P = 0.042), respectively. Conclusion For Child-Pugh A patients with early-stage HCC, alternative treatment as supra-selective TACE to RFA regarded as too challenging using common US guidance decrease significantly the local tumor control and overall survival. Efforts to improve feasibility of RFA especially for inconspicuous target have to be made. PMID:27793027

  15. Shorter survival in adolescent and young adult patients, compared to adult patients, with stage IV colorectal cancer in Japan.

    PubMed

    Shida, Dai; Ahiko, Yuka; Tanabe, Taro; Yoshida, Takefumi; Tsukamoto, Shunsuke; Ochiai, Hiroki; Takashima, Atsuo; Boku, Narikazu; Kanemitsu, Yukihide

    2018-03-27

    The incidence of colorectal cancer in adolescent and young adult patients is increasing. However, survival and clinical features of young patients, especially those with stage IV disease, relative to adult patients remain unclear. This retrospective single-institution cohort study was conducted at a tertiary care cancer center. Subjects were 861 consecutive patients who were diagnosed with stage IV colorectal cancer at the age of 15 to 74 years and who were referred to the division of surgery or gastrointestinal oncology at the National Cancer Center Hospital from 1999 to 2013. Overall survival (OS) was investigated and clinicopathological variables were analyzed for prognostic significance. Of these, 66 (8%) were adolescent and young adult patients and 795 (92%) were adult patients. Median survival time was 13.6 months in adolescent and young adult patients and 22.4 months in adult patients, and 5-year OS rates were 17.3% and 20.3%, respectively, indicating significant worse prognosis of adolescent and young adult patients (p = 0.042). However, age itself was not an independent factor associated with prognosis by multivariate analysis. When compared with adult patients, adolescent and young adult patients consisted of higher proportion of the patients who did not undergo resection of primary tumor, which was an independent factor associated with poor prognosis in multivariate analysis. In patients who did not undergo resection (n = 349), OS of adolescent and young adult patients were significantly worse (p = 0.033). Prognoses were worse in adolescent and young adult patients with stage IV colorectal cancer compared to adult patients in Japan, due to a higher proportion of patients who did not undergo resection with more advanced and severe disease, but not due to age itself.

  16. Ultrasound ablation enhances drug accumulation and survival in mammary carcinoma models.

    PubMed

    Wong, Andrew W; Fite, Brett Z; Liu, Yu; Kheirolomoom, Azadeh; Seo, Jai W; Watson, Katherine D; Mahakian, Lisa M; Tam, Sarah M; Zhang, Hua; Foiret, Josquin; Borowsky, Alexander D; Ferrara, Katherine W

    2016-01-01

    Magnetic resonance-guided focused ultrasound (MRgFUS) facilitates noninvasive image-guided conformal thermal therapy of cancer. Yet in many scenarios, the sensitive tissues surrounding the tumor constrain the margins of ablation; therefore, augmentation of MRgFUS with chemotherapy may be required to destroy remaining tumor. Here, we used 64Cu-PET-CT, MRI, autoradiography, and fluorescence imaging to track the kinetics of long-circulating liposomes in immunocompetent mammary carcinoma-bearing FVB/n and BALB/c mice. We observed a 5-fold and 50-fold enhancement of liposome and drug concentration, respectively, within MRgFUS thermal ablation-treated tumors along with dense accumulation within the surrounding tissue rim. Ultrasound-enhanced drug accumulation was rapid and durable and greatly increased total tumor drug exposure over time. In addition, we found that the small molecule gadoteridol accumulates around and within ablated tissue. We further demonstrated that dilated vasculature, loss of vascular integrity resulting in extravasation of blood cells, stromal inflammation, and loss of cell-cell adhesion and tissue architecture all contribute to the enhanced accumulation of the liposomes and small molecule probe. The locally enhanced liposome accumulation was preserved even after a multiweek protocol of doxorubicin-loaded liposomes and partial ablation. Finally, by supplementing ablation with concurrent liposomal drug therapy, a complete and durable response was obtained using protocols for which a sub-mm rim of tumor remained after ablation.

  17. Ultrasound ablation enhances drug accumulation and survival in mammary carcinoma models

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Andrew W.; Fite, Brett Z.; Liu, Yu; Kheirolomoom, Azadeh; Seo, Jai W.; Watson, Katherine D.; Mahakian, Lisa M.; Tam, Sarah M.; Zhang, Hua; Foiret, Josquin; Borowsky, Alexander D.; Ferrara, Katherine W.

    2015-01-01

    Magnetic resonance–guided focused ultrasound (MRgFUS) facilitates noninvasive image-guided conformal thermal therapy of cancer. Yet in many scenarios, the sensitive tissues surrounding the tumor constrain the margins of ablation; therefore, augmentation of MRgFUS with chemotherapy may be required to destroy remaining tumor. Here, we used 64Cu-PET-CT, MRI, autoradiography, and fluorescence imaging to track the kinetics of long-circulating liposomes in immunocompetent mammary carcinoma–bearing FVB/n and BALB/c mice. We observed a 5-fold and 50-fold enhancement of liposome and drug concentration, respectively, within MRgFUS thermal ablation–treated tumors along with dense accumulation within the surrounding tissue rim. Ultrasound-enhanced drug accumulation was rapid and durable and greatly increased total tumor drug exposure over time. In addition, we found that the small molecule gadoteridol accumulates around and within ablated tissue. We further demonstrated that dilated vasculature, loss of vascular integrity resulting in extravasation of blood cells, stromal inflammation, and loss of cell-cell adhesion and tissue architecture all contribute to the enhanced accumulation of the liposomes and small molecule probe. The locally enhanced liposome accumulation was preserved even after a multiweek protocol of doxorubicin-loaded liposomes and partial ablation. Finally, by supplementing ablation with concurrent liposomal drug therapy, a complete and durable response was obtained using protocols for which a sub-mm rim of tumor remained after ablation. PMID:26595815

  18. Improvements in survival of the uncemented Nottingham Total Shoulder prosthesis: a prospective comparative study

    PubMed Central

    Rosenberg, Nahum; Neumann, Lars; Modi, Amit; Mersich, Istvan J; Wallace, Angus W

    2007-01-01

    Background The uncemented Nottingham Total Shoulder Replacement prosthesis system (Nottingham TSR) was developed from the previous BioModular® shoulder prosthesis taking into consideration the causes of the initial implant's failure. We investigated the impact of changes in the design of Nottingham TSR prosthesis on its survivorship rate. Methods Survivorship analyses of three types of uncemented total shoulder arthroplasty prostheses (BioModular®, initial Nottingham TSR and current Nottingham TSR systems with 11, 8 and 4 year survivorship data respectively) were compared. All these prostheses were implanted for the treatment of disabling pain in the shoulder due to primary and secondary osteoarthritis or rheumatoid arthritis. Each type of the prosthesis studied was implanted in consecutive group of patients – 90 patients with BioModular® system, 103 with the initial Nottingham TSR and 34 patients with the current Nottingham TSR system. The comparison of the annual cumulative survivorship values in the compatible time range between the three groups was done according to the paired t test. Results The 8-year and 11-year survivorship rates for the initially used modified BioModular® uncemented prosthesis were relatively low (75.6% and 71.7% respectively) comparing to the reported survivorship of the conventional cemented implants. The 8-year survivorship for the uncemented Nottingham TSR prosthesis was significantly higher (81.8%), but still not in the desired range of above 90%, that is found in other cemented designs. Glenoid component loosening was the main factor of prosthesis failure in both prostheses and mainly occurred in the first 4 postoperative years. The 4-year survivorship of the currently re-designed Nottingham TSR prosthesis, with hydroxylapatite coating of the glenoid baseplate, was significantly higher, 93.1% as compared to 85.1% of the previous Nottingham TSR. Conclusion The initial Nottingham shoulder prosthesis showed significantly higher

  19. Comparative study of spermatogonial survival after X-ray exposure, high LET (HZE) irradiation or spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sapp, W. J.; Williams, C. S.; Williams, J. W.; Philpott, D. E.; Kato, K.; Miquel, J. M.; Serova, L.

    1992-01-01

    Spermatogonial cell loss has been observed in rats flown on Space Lab 3, Cosmos 1887, Cosmos 2044 and in mice following irradiation with X-ray or with HZE particle beams. Spermatogonial loss is determined by cell counting in maturation stage-6 seminferous tubules. With the exception of iron, laboratory irradiation experiments (with mice) revealed a similar pattern of spermatogonial loss proportional to the radiation dose at levels less than 0.1 Gy. Helium and argon irradiation resulted in a 5-percent loss of spermatogonia after only 0.01 Gy exposure. Significant spermatogonial loss (45 percent) occurred at this radiation level with iron particle beams. The loss of spermatogonia during each spaceflight was less than 10 percent when compared to control (nonflight) animals.

  20. Comparing environmental issues in Cuba before and after the Special Period: balancing sustainable development and survival.

    PubMed

    Maal-Bared, Rasha

    2006-04-01

    Following the Earth Summit in 1992, Cuba designed and implemented a variety of programs, administrative structures, and public awareness activities to promote sound environmental management and sustainable development. This came shortly after the fall of the Soviet Union and the strengthening of the US blockade in 1990, which resulted in a 35% drop in Cuban GDP. This period, referred to as the Special Period, witnessed a decrease in many environmentally damaging activities both by choice and by necessity, but also resulted in many decisions to resuscitate the Cuban economy. The purpose of this work was to compare and rank the environmental risks Cuba faced before and during the Special Period (1990-2000) using two Comparative environmental risk assessments (CERAs). To do so, an ecosystem integrity risk assessment matrix was constructed with 42 risk end points. The matrix assessed the risk posed by 17 problem areas including air pollution, water contamination, solid waste sites, pesticides and ecosystem degradation. The risks were calculated using five criteria: area affected, vulnerability of affected population, severity of impact, irreversibility of effect and uncertainty. To construct this matrix, both literature reviews and expert interviews in Cuba were conducted in 2000. The results showed a general decrease in risk scores during the Special Period. Before the Special Period, high risks were posed by: terrestrial degradation and industrial wastewater and sludge, followed by freshwater degradation, surface water stressors, and pesticides. After the Special Period, industrial wastewater and sludge and pesticides were no longer high-risk areas, but municipal wastewater and marine coastal degradation ranked higher than previously. Also, the risk endpoints most stressed after 1990 were affected by activities controlled by the government, such as mining and tourism, and lack of infrastructure. Therefore, the claims that public environmental education is the main

  1. Convection enhanced delivery of panobinostat (LBH589)-loaded pluronic nano-micelles prolongs survival in the F98 rat glioma model

    PubMed Central

    Singleton, WG; Collins, AM; Bienemann, AS; Killick-Cole, CL; Haynes, HR; Asby, DJ; Butts, CP; Wyatt, MJ; Barua, NU; Gill, SS

    2017-01-01

    Background The pan-histone deacetylase inhibitor panobinostat is a potential therapy for malignant glioma, but it is water insoluble and does not cross the blood–brain barrier when administered systemically. In this article, we describe the in vitro and in vivo efficacy of a novel water-soluble nano-micellar formulation of panobinostat designed for administration by convection enhanced delivery (CED). Materials and methods The in vitro efficacy of panobinostat-loaded nano-micelles against rat F98, human U87-MG and M059K glioma cells and against patient-derived glioma stem cells was measured using a cell viability assay. Nano-micelle distribution in rat brain was analyzed following acute CED using rhodamine-labeled nano-micelles, and toxicity was assayed using immunofluorescent microscopy and synaptophysin enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. We compared the survival of the bioluminescent syngenic F98/Fischer344 rat glioblastoma model treated by acute CED of panobinostat-loaded nano-micelles with that of untreated and vehicle-only-treated controls. Results Nano-micellar panobinostat is cytotoxic to rat and human glioma cells in vitro in a dose-dependent manner following short-time exposure to drug. Fluorescent rhodamine-labelled nano-micelles distribute with a volume of infusion/volume of distribution (Vi/Vd) ratio of four and five respectively after administration by CED. Administration was not associated with any toxicity when compared to controls. CED of panobinostat-loaded nano-micelles was associated with significantly improved survival when compared to controls (n=8 per group; log-rank test, P<0.001). One hundred percent of treated animals survived the 60-day experimental period and had tumour response on post-mortem histological examination. Conclusion CED of nano-micellar panobinostat represents a potential novel therapeutic option for malignant glioma and warrants translation into the clinic. PMID:28260886

  2. Convection enhanced delivery of panobinostat (LBH589)-loaded pluronic nano-micelles prolongs survival in the F98 rat glioma model.

    PubMed

    Singleton, W G; Collins, A M; Bienemann, A S; Killick-Cole, C L; Haynes, H R; Asby, D J; Butts, C P; Wyatt, M J; Barua, N U; Gill, S S

    2017-01-01

    The pan-histone deacetylase inhibitor panobinostat is a potential therapy for malignant glioma, but it is water insoluble and does not cross the blood-brain barrier when administered systemically. In this article, we describe the in vitro and in vivo efficacy of a novel water-soluble nano-micellar formulation of panobinostat designed for administration by convection enhanced delivery (CED). The in vitro efficacy of panobinostat-loaded nano-micelles against rat F98, human U87-MG and M059K glioma cells and against patient-derived glioma stem cells was measured using a cell viability assay. Nano-micelle distribution in rat brain was analyzed following acute CED using rhodamine-labeled nano-micelles, and toxicity was assayed using immunofluorescent microscopy and synaptophysin enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. We compared the survival of the bioluminescent syngenic F98/Fischer344 rat glioblastoma model treated by acute CED of panobinostat-loaded nano-micelles with that of untreated and vehicle-only-treated controls. Nano-micellar panobinostat is cytotoxic to rat and human glioma cells in vitro in a dose-dependent manner following short-time exposure to drug. Fluorescent rhodamine-labelled nano-micelles distribute with a volume of infusion/volume of distribution (Vi/Vd) ratio of four and five respectively after administration by CED. Administration was not associated with any toxicity when compared to controls. CED of panobinostat-loaded nano-micelles was associated with significantly improved survival when compared to controls (n=8 per group; log-rank test, P <0.001). One hundred percent of treated animals survived the 60-day experimental period and had tumour response on post-mortem histological examination. CED of nano-micellar panobinostat represents a potential novel therapeutic option for malignant glioma and warrants translation into the clinic.

  3. Comparing two correlated C indices with right-censored survival outcome: a one-shot nonparametric approach

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Le; Chen, Weijie; Petrick, Nicholas A.; Gallas, Brandon D.

    2014-01-01

    The area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve (AUC) is often used as a summary index of the diagnostic ability in evaluating biomarkers when the clinical outcome (truth) is binary. When the clinical outcome is right-censored survival time, the C index, motivated as an extension of AUC, has been proposed by Harrell as a measure of concordance between a predictive biomarker and the right-censored survival outcome. In this work, we investigate methods for statistical comparison of two diagnostic or predictive systems, of which they could either be two biomarkers or two fixed algorithms, in terms of their C indices. We adopt a U-statistics based C estimator that is asymptotically normal and develop a nonparametric analytical approach to estimate the variance of the C estimator and the covariance of two C estimators. A z-score test is then constructed to compare the two C indices. We validate our one-shot nonparametric method via simulation studies in terms of the type I error rate and power. We also compare our one-shot method with resampling methods including the jackknife and the bootstrap. Simulation results show that the proposed one-shot method provides almost unbiased variance estimations and has satisfactory type I error control and power. Finally, we illustrate the use of the proposed method with an example from the Framingham Heart Study. PMID:25399736

  4. Comparing two correlated C indices with right-censored survival outcome: a one-shot nonparametric approach.

    PubMed

    Kang, Le; Chen, Weijie; Petrick, Nicholas A; Gallas, Brandon D

    2015-02-20

    The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve is often used as a summary index of the diagnostic ability in evaluating biomarkers when the clinical outcome (truth) is binary. When the clinical outcome is right-censored survival time, the C index, motivated as an extension of area under the receiver operating characteristic curve, has been proposed by Harrell as a measure of concordance between a predictive biomarker and the right-censored survival outcome. In this work, we investigate methods for statistical comparison of two diagnostic or predictive systems, of which they could either be two biomarkers or two fixed algorithms, in terms of their C indices. We adopt a U-statistics-based C estimator that is asymptotically normal and develop a nonparametric analytical approach to estimate the variance of the C estimator and the covariance of two C estimators. A z-score test is then constructed to compare the two C indices. We validate our one-shot nonparametric method via simulation studies in terms of the type I error rate and power. We also compare our one-shot method with resampling methods including the jackknife and the bootstrap. Simulation results show that the proposed one-shot method provides almost unbiased variance estimations and has satisfactory type I error control and power. Finally, we illustrate the use of the proposed method with an example from the Framingham Heart Study. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. The in vitro preconditioning of myoblasts to enhance subsequent survival in an in vivo tissue engineering chamber model.

    PubMed

    Tilkorn, Daniel J; Davies, E Michele; Keramidaris, Effie; Dingle, Aaron M; Gerrand, Yi-Wen; Taylor, Caroline J; Han, Xiao Lian; Palmer, Jason A; Penington, Anthony J; Mitchell, Christina A; Morrison, Wayne A; Dusting, Gregory J; Mitchell, Geraldine M

    2012-05-01

    The effects of in vitro preconditioning protocols on the ultimate survival of myoblasts implanted in an in vivo tissue engineering chamber were examined. In vitro testing: L6 myoblasts were preconditioned by heat (42 °C; 1.5 h); hypoxia (<8% O(2); 1.5 h); or nitric oxide donors: S-nitroso-N-acetylpenicillamine (SNAP, 200 μM, 1.5 h) or 1-[N-(2-aminoethyl)-N-(2-aminoethyl)amino]-diazen-1-ium-1,2-diolate (DETA-NONOate, 500 μM, 7 h). Following a rest phase preconditioned cells were exposed to 24 h hypoxia, and demonstrated minimal overall cell loss, whilst controls (not preconditioned, but exposed to 24 h hypoxia) demonstrated a 44% cell loss. Phosphoimmunoblot analysis of pro-survival signaling pathways revealed significant activation of serine threonine kinase Akt with DETA-NONOate (p < 0.01) and heat preconditioning (p < 0.05). DETA-NONOate also activated ERK 1/2 signaling (p < 0.05). In vivo implantation: 100,000 preconditioned (heat, hypoxia, or DETA-NONOate) myoblasts were implanted in SCID mouse tissue engineering chambers. 100,000 (not preconditioned) myoblasts were implanted in control chambers. At 3 weeks, morphometric assessment of surviving myoblasts indicated myoblast percent volume (p = 0.012) and myoblasts/mm(2) (p = 0.0005) overall significantly increased in preconditioned myoblast chambers compared to control, with DETA-NONOate-preconditioned myoblasts demonstrating the greatest increase in survival (p = 0.007 and p = 0.001 respectively). DETA-NONOate therefore has potential therapeutic benefits to significantly improve survival of transplanted cells. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Superior long-term survival for fixed bearing compared with mobile bearing in ligament-balanced total knee arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Heesterbeek, P J C; van Houten, A H; Klenk, J S; Eijer, H; Christen, B; Wymenga, A B; Schuster, A J

    2018-05-01

    Only few long-term data on ligament-balanced cruciate-retaining total knee arthroplasty (CR TKA) are currently available. Either a mobile- or fixed-bearing insert can be chosen, which showed good mid-term outcome and few complications and revisions. This multi-centre retrospective cross-sectional cohort study investigated the 12-year results of primary TKA using a balancing gap technique and compared survival and clinical outcome between fixed and mobile inserts. In this retrospective cross-sectional cohort study, 557 cases of three clinics (2 Swiss, 1 Dutch) operated between 1998 and 2003 with the first series of a TKA implanted with a balanced gap technique (433 (77.7%) fixed, 124 (22.3%) mobile (anterior-posterior gliding (7-9 mm) and rotational (15°) degrees of freedom) inserts) were included for survival analysis (Kaplan-Meier, by insert type). At the 12-year follow-up (FU) examination of 189 cases, range of motion, knee society score (KSS), numeric rating scale (NRS) for pain and satisfaction were determined and radiographs were evaluated by median tests, by insert type. Of 521 cases available for analysis, 28 (5.4%; 11 fixed, 17 mobile bearing) were revised. Mean cumulative survival after 12.4 years was 97.0% (95% CI 94.7-98.4) for fixed bearings and 85.4% (95% CI 77.5-90.7) after 12.2 years for mobile bearings, p < 0.0001. Patients' mean age at 11.0 years FU (n = 189) was 78.0 (range 54.5-97.3) years. Mean total KSS was 157.8 (24-200) points, and mean passive flexion was 114° (45-150); no clinical score differed significantly between fixed and mobile bearings. This study showed a superior survival for fixed bearing compared with mobile bearing in a CR TKA using a ligament-balanced technique after more than 12 years. Clinical outcomes are excellent to good after long-term follow-up, and similar for fixed and mobile bearing. Therapeutic studies-retrospective cohort study, Level III.

  7. Retinoic acid-loaded polymeric nanoparticles enhance vascular regulation of neural stem cell survival and differentiation after ischaemia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferreira, R.; Fonseca, M. C.; Santos, T.; Sargento-Freitas, J.; Tjeng, R.; Paiva, F.; Castelo-Branco, M.; Ferreira, L. S.; Bernardino, L.

    2016-04-01

    Stroke is one of the leading causes of death and disability worldwide. However, current therapies only reach a small percentage of patients and may cause serious side effects. We propose the therapeutic use of retinoic acid-loaded nanoparticles (RA-NP) to safely and efficiently repair the ischaemic brain by creating a favourable pro-angiogenic environment that enhances neurogenesis and neuronal restitution. Our data showed that RA-NP enhanced endothelial cell proliferation and tubule network formation and protected against ischaemia-induced death. To evaluate the effect of RA-NP on vascular regulation of neural stem cell (NSC) survival and differentiation, endothelial cell-conditioned media (EC-CM) were collected. EC-CM from healthy RA-NP-treated cells reduced NSC death and promoted proliferation while EC-CM from ischaemic RA-NP-treated cells decreased cell death, increased proliferation and neuronal differentiation. In parallel, human endothelial progenitor cells (hEPC), which are part of the endogenous repair response to vascular injury, were collected from ischaemic stroke patients. hEPC treated with RA-NP had significantly higher proliferation, which further highlights the therapeutic potential of this formulation. To conclude, RA-NP protected endothelial cells from ischaemic death and stimulated the release of pro-survival, proliferation-stimulating factors and differentiation cues for NSC. RA-NP were shown to be up to 83-fold more efficient than free RA and to enhance hEPC proliferation. These data serve as a stepping stone to use RA-NP as vasculotrophic and neurogenic agents for vascular disorders and neurodegenerative diseases with compromised vasculature.

  8. Survival in HIV-positive transplant recipients compared with transplant candidates and with HIV-negative controls

    PubMed Central

    Roland, Michelle E.; Barin, Burc; Huprikar, Shirish; Murphy, Barbara; Hanto, Douglas W.; Blumberg, Emily; Olthoff, Kim; Simon, David; Hardy, William D.; Beatty, George; Stock, Peter G.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate the impact of liver and kidney transplantation on survival in HIV-positive transplant candidates and compare outcomes between HIV-positive and negative recipients. Design Observational cohort of HIV-positive transplant candidates and recipients and secondary analysis comparing study recipients to HIV-negative national registry controls. Methods We fit proportional hazards models to assess transplantation impact on mortality among recipients and candidates. We compared time to graft failure and death with HIV-negative controls in unmatched, demographic-matched, and risk-adjusted models. Results There were 17 (11.3%) and 46 (36.8%) deaths among kidney and liver recipients during a median follow-up of 4.0 and 3.5 years, respectively. Transplantation was associated with survival benefit for HIV-infected liver recipients with model for end-stage liver disease (MELD) greater than or equal 15 [hazard ratio (HR) 0.1; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.05, 0.01; P <0.0001], but not for MELD less than 15 (HR 0.7; 95% CI 0.3, 1.8; P =0.43) or for kidney recipients (HR 0.6; 95% CI 0.3, 1.4; P =0.23). In HIV-positive kidney recipients, unmatched and risk-matched analyses indicated a marginally significant HR for graft loss [1.3 (P =0.07) and HR 1.4 (P =0.052)]; no significant increase in risk of death was observed. All models demonstrated a higher relative hazard of graft loss or death in HIV-positive liver recipients; the absolute difference in the proportion of deaths was 6.7% in the risk-matched analysis. Conclusion Kidney transplantation should be standard of care for well managed HIV-positive patients. Liver transplant in candidates with high MELD confers survival benefit; transplant is a viable option in selected candidates. The increased mortality risk compared with HIV-negative recipients was modest. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.Gov; NCT00074386; http://clinicaltrials.gov/. PMID:26765937

  9. Survival times in dogs with presumptive intracranial gliomas treated with oral lomustine: A comparative retrospective study (2008-2017).

    PubMed

    Moirano, S J; Dewey, C W; Wright, K Z; Cohen, P W

    2018-05-24

    Intracranial gliomas are a common malignancy in dogs, and are associated with a poor prognosis due to their aggressive nature and a lack of clinically effective treatments. The efficacies of various treatment modalities for canine brain tumours have been previously described, though little data exist on the use of cytotoxic chemotherapy. A comparative retrospective study, including 40 cases from 5 northeastern US veterinary hospitals, from 2008 to 2017, was conducted. Variables analysed in this study with relation to overall survival and prognostic significance included: age, sex, clinical signs, clinical sign duration, tumour location and treatment protocol used. Dogs with presumptive intracranial gliomas treated with lomustine chemotherapy lived longer (median, 138 days) than those treated exclusively with symptomatic care (median, 35 days; P = .0026 log-rank, 0.0138 Wilcoxon). Additionally, a duration of clinical signs ≥16 days prior to diagnosis (median, 109 days) was associated with a longer survival than a duration <16 days prior (median, 25 days; P = .0100 log-rank, 0.0322 Wilcoxon). Lomustine-associated side effects included neutropenia in 46% of dogs, anaemia in 15% and thrombocytopenia in 15%. Potential renal and hepatotoxicity based on increased BUN and/or creatinine and ALT values were reported in 15% and 50% of dogs, respectively. This study provides evidence that lomustine therapy may be effective in prolonging survival in dogs with intracranial gliomas and should be considered as a potential treatment option. Although lomustine-related toxicities are fairly common, they are rarely life threatening and often do not result in discontinuation of therapy. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. High population density enhances recruitment and survival of a harvested coral reef fish.

    PubMed

    Wormald, Clare L; Steele, Mark A; Forrester, Graham E

    2013-03-01

    A negative relationship between population growth and population density (direct density dependence) is necessary for population regulation and is assumed in most models of harvested populations. Experimental tests for density dependence are lacking for large-bodied, harvested fish because of the difficulty of manipulating population density over large areas. We studied a harvested coral reef fish, Lutjanus apodus (schoolmaster snapper), using eight large, isolated natural reefs (0.4-1.6 ha) in the Bahamas as replicates. An initial observational test for density dependence was followed by a manipulation of population density. The manipulation weakened an association between density and shelter-providing habitat features and revealed a positive effect of population density on recruitment and survival (inverse density dependence), but no effect of density on somatic growth. The snappers on an individual reef were organized into a few shoals, and we hypothesize that large shoals on high-density reefs were less vulnerable to large piscivores (groupers and barracudas) than the small shoals on low-density reefs. Reductions in predation risk for individuals in large social groups are well documented, but because snapper shoals occupied reefs the size of small marine reserves, these ecological interactions may influence the outcome of management actions.

  11. Geminin deficiency enhances survival in a murine medulloblastoma model by inducing apoptosis of preneoplastic granule neuron precursors

    PubMed Central

    Sankar, Savita; Patterson, Ethan; Lewis, Emily M.; Waller, Laura E.; Tong, Caili; Dearborn, Joshua; Wozniak, David; Rubin, Joshua B.; Kroll, Kristen L.

    2017-01-01

    Medulloblastoma is the most common malignant brain cancer of childhood. Further understanding of tumorigenic mechanisms may define new therapeutic targets. Geminin maintains genome fidelity by controlling re-initiation of DNA replication within a cell cycle. In some contexts, Geminin inhibition induces cancer-selective cell cycle arrest and apoptosis and/or sensitizes cancer cells to Topoisomerase IIα inhibitors such as etoposide, which is used in combination chemotherapies for medulloblastoma. However, Geminin's potential role in medulloblastoma tumorigenesis remained undefined. Here, we found that Geminin is highly expressed in human and mouse medulloblastomas and in murine granule neuron precursor (GNP) cells during cerebellar development. Conditional Geminin loss significantly enhanced survival in the SmoA1 mouse medulloblastoma model. Geminin loss in this model also reduced numbers of preneoplastic GNPs persisting at one postnatal month, while at two postnatal weeks these cells exhibited an elevated DNA damage response and apoptosis. Geminin knockdown likewise impaired human medulloblastoma cell growth, activating G2 checkpoint and DNA damage response pathways, triggering spontaneous apoptosis, and enhancing G2 accumulation of cells in response to etoposide treatment. Together, these data suggest preneoplastic and cancer cell-selective roles for Geminin in medulloblastoma, and suggest that targeting Geminin may impair tumor growth and enhance responsiveness to Topoisomerase IIα-directed chemotherapies. PMID:29234490

  12. A Comparative Study on Multifactor Dimensionality Reduction Methods for Detecting Gene-Gene Interactions with the Survival Phenotype

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Seungyeoun; Kim, Yongkang; Kwon, Min-Seok; Park, Taesung

    2015-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have extensively analyzed single SNP effects on a wide variety of common and complex diseases and found many genetic variants associated with diseases. However, there is still a large portion of the genetic variants left unexplained. This missing heritability problem might be due to the analytical strategy that limits analyses to only single SNPs. One of possible approaches to the missing heritability problem is to consider identifying multi-SNP effects or gene-gene interactions. The multifactor dimensionality reduction method has been widely used to detect gene-gene interactions based on the constructive induction by classifying high-dimensional genotype combinations into one-dimensional variable with two attributes of high risk and low risk for the case-control study. Many modifications of MDR have been proposed and also extended to the survival phenotype. In this study, we propose several extensions of MDR for the survival phenotype and compare the proposed extensions with earlier MDR through comprehensive simulation studies. PMID:26339630

  13. Ultrasound-based follow-up does not increase survival in early-stage melanoma patients: A comparative cohort study.

    PubMed

    Ribero, S; Podlipnik, S; Osella-Abate, S; Sportoletti-Baduel, E; Manubens, E; Barreiro, A; Caliendo, V; Chavez-Bourgeois, M; Carrera, C; Cassoni, P; Malvehy, J; Fierro, M T; Puig, S

    2017-11-01

    Different protocols have been used to follow up melanoma patients in stage I-II. However, there is no consensus on the complementary tests that should be requested or the appropriate intervals between visits. Our aim is to compare an ultrasound-based follow-up with a clinical follow-up. Analysis of two prospectively collected cohorts of melanoma patients in stage IB-IIA from two tertiary referral centres in Barcelona (clinical-based follow-up [C-FU]) and Turin (ultrasound-based follow-up [US-FU]). Kaplan-Meier curves were used to evaluate distant metastases-free survival (DMFS), disease-free interval (DFI), nodal metastases-free survival (NMFS) and melanoma-specific survival (MSS). A total of 1149 patients in the American Joint Committee on Cancer stage IB and IIA were included in this study, of which 554 subjects (48%) were enrolled for a C-FU, and 595 patients (52%) received a protocolised US-FU. The median age was 53.8 years (interquartile range [IQR] 41.5-65.2) with a median follow-up time of 4.14 years (IQR 1.2-7.6). During follow-up, 69 patients (12.5%) in C-FU and 72 patients (12.1%) in US-FU developed disease progression. Median time to relapse for the first metastatic site was 2.11 years (IQR 1.14-4.04) for skin metastases, 1.32 (IQR 0.57-3.29) for lymph node metastases and 2.84 (IQR 1.32-4.60) for distant metastases. The pattern of progression and the total proportion of metastases were not significantly different (P = .44) in the two centres. No difference in DFI, DMFS, NMFS and MSS was found between the two cohorts. Ultrasound-based follow-up does not increase the survival of melanoma patients in stage IB-IIA. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Enhancing bile tolerance improves survival and persistence of Bifidobacterium and Lactococcus in the murine gastrointestinal tract

    PubMed Central

    Watson, Debbie; Sleator, Roy D; Hill, Colin; Gahan, Cormac GM

    2008-01-01

    Background The majority of commensal gastrointestinal bacteria used as probiotics are highly adapted to the specialised environment of the large bowel. However, unlike pathogenic bacteria; they are often inadequately equipped to endure the physicochemical stresses of gastrointestinal (GI) delivery in the host. Herein we outline a patho-biotechnology strategy to improve gastric delivery and host adaptation of a probiotic strain Bifidobacterium breve UCC2003 and the generally regarded as safe (GRAS) organism Lactococcus lactis NZ9000. Results In vitro bile tolerance of both strains was significantly enhanced (P < 0.001), following heterologous expression of the Listeria monocytogenes bile resistance mechanism BilE. Strains harbouring bilE were also recovered at significantly higher levels (P < 0.001), than control strains from the faeces and intestines of mice (n = 5), following oral inoculation. Furthermore, a B. breve strain expressing bilE demonstrated increased efficacy relative to the wild-type strain in reducing oral L. monocytogenes infection in mice. Conclusion Collectively the data indicates that bile tolerance can be enhanced in Bifidobacterium and Lactococcus species through rational genetic manipulation and that this can significantly improve delivery to and colonisation of the GI tract. PMID:18844989

  15. Enhancing bile tolerance improves survival and persistence of Bifidobacterium and Lactococcus in the murine gastrointestinal tract.

    PubMed

    Watson, Debbie; Sleator, Roy D; Hill, Colin; Gahan, Cormac G M

    2008-10-09

    The majority of commensal gastrointestinal bacteria used as probiotics are highly adapted to the specialised environment of the large bowel. However, unlike pathogenic bacteria; they are often inadequately equipped to endure the physicochemical stresses of gastrointestinal (GI) delivery in the host. Herein we outline a patho-biotechnology strategy to improve gastric delivery and host adaptation of a probiotic strain Bifidobacterium breve UCC2003 and the generally regarded as safe (GRAS) organism Lactococcus lactis NZ9000. In vitro bile tolerance of both strains was significantly enhanced (P < 0.001), following heterologous expression of the Listeria monocytogenes bile resistance mechanism BilE. Strains harbouring bilE were also recovered at significantly higher levels (P < 0.001), than control strains from the faeces and intestines of mice (n = 5), following oral inoculation. Furthermore, a B. breve strain expressing bilE demonstrated increased efficacy relative to the wild-type strain in reducing oral L. monocytogenes infection in mice. Collectively the data indicates that bile tolerance can be enhanced in Bifidobacterium and Lactococcus species through rational genetic manipulation and that this can significantly improve delivery to and colonisation of the GI tract.

  16. Long-Term Survival Prediction for Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting: Validation of the ASCERT Model Compared With The Society of Thoracic Surgeons Predicted Risk of Mortality.

    PubMed

    Lancaster, Timothy S; Schill, Matthew R; Greenberg, Jason W; Ruaengsri, Chawannuch; Schuessler, Richard B; Lawton, Jennifer S; Maniar, Hersh S; Pasque, Michael K; Moon, Marc R; Damiano, Ralph J; Melby, Spencer J

    2018-05-01

    The recently developed American College of Cardiology Foundation-Society of Thoracic Surgeons (STS) Collaboration on the Comparative Effectiveness of Revascularization Strategy (ASCERT) Long-Term Survival Probability Calculator is a valuable addition to existing short-term risk-prediction tools for cardiac surgical procedures but has yet to be externally validated. Institutional data of 654 patients aged 65 years or older undergoing isolated coronary artery bypass grafting between 2005 and 2010 were reviewed. Predicted survival probabilities were calculated using the ASCERT model. Survival data were collected using the Social Security Death Index and institutional medical records. Model calibration and discrimination were assessed for the overall sample and for risk-stratified subgroups based on (1) ASCERT 7-year survival probability and (2) the predicted risk of mortality (PROM) from the STS Short-Term Risk Calculator. Logistic regression analysis was performed to evaluate additional perioperative variables contributing to death. Overall survival was 92.1% (569 of 597) at 1 year and 50.5% (164 of 325) at 7 years. Calibration assessment found no significant differences between predicted and actual survival curves for the overall sample or for the risk-stratified subgroups, whether stratified by predicted 7-year survival or by PROM. Discriminative performance was comparable between the ASCERT and PROM models for 7-year survival prediction (p < 0.001 for both; C-statistic = 0.815 for ASCERT and 0.781 for PROM). Prolonged ventilation, stroke, and hospital length of stay were also predictive of long-term death. The ASCERT survival probability calculator was externally validated for prediction of long-term survival after coronary artery bypass grafting in all risk groups. The widely used STS PROM performed comparably as a predictor of long-term survival. Both tools provide important information for preoperative decision making and patient counseling about potential

  17. Transient enhancement of proliferation of neural progenitors and impairment of their long-term survival in p25 transgenic mice

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Fengping; Shu, Tianzhi; Zhou, Ying; Tsai, Li-Huei; Mao, Yingwei

    2016-01-01

    Cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (CDK5) regulates important neuronal functions via p35. p35 undergoes cleavage in response to neuronal activity and neurotoxic conditions to release its subunit p25. Although p25 has been implicated in various neurodegenerative diseases, the mechanisms by which p25 mediates neurodegenerative impairment have not been fully elucidated. We aimed to determine the role of p25-mediated neurodegeneration on neurogenesis in an inducible transgenic mouse line overexpressing p25 (p25 TG) in the forebrain. Adult neuronal progenitor cells (NPCs) were labeled with BrdU in vivo, which were significantly increased in numbers in the subventricular zone, the hippocampus, and the cortex of p25 TG mice. Consistently, more mitotic cells were observed in p25 TG mice than in controls, even in the cortex and the CA1, which are not neurogenic regions. BrdU-positive cells were negative for GFAP or γ-H2AX, suggesting that they are not astrocytes or dying cells. Neurospheres derived from the dentate gyrus and the cortex were significantly increased in p25 TG mice and can be differentiated into astrocytes and neurons. However, p25 TG decreased the long-term survival of proliferating NPCs and severely impaired adult neurogenesis. A Transwell co-culture system was used to assess the influence of p25-expressing primary neurons on adult NPCs. Co-culture with p25-expressing neurons downregulated Ki67 expression and upregulated cleaved caspase-3, indicating that the paracrine signaling in cell-cell communication is essential for NPC survival and proliferation. Moreover, increased CDK5 activity impairs Wnt activation. This study demonstrates that hyperactivation of p25 may temporarily enhance NPC proliferation, but impair their long-term survival. PMID:27283769

  18. Transient enhancement of proliferation of neural progenitors and impairment of their long-term survival in p25 transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Zou, Donghua; Zhou, Yijing; Liu, Long; Dong, Fengping; Shu, Tianzhi; Zhou, Ying; Tsai, Li-Huei; Mao, Yingwei

    2016-06-28

    Cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (CDK5) regulates important neuronal functions via p35. p35 undergoes cleavage in response to neuronal activity and neurotoxic conditions to release its subunit p25. Although p25 has been implicated in various neurodegenerative diseases, the mechanisms by which p25 mediates neurodegenerative impairment have not been fully elucidated. We aimed to determine the role of p25-mediated neurodegeneration on neurogenesis in an inducible transgenic mouse line overexpressing p25 (p25 TG) in the forebrain. Adult neuronal progenitor cells (NPCs) were labeled with BrdU in vivo, which were significantly increased in numbers in the subventricular zone, the hippocampus, and the cortex of p25 TG mice. Consistently, more mitotic cells were observed in p25 TG mice than in controls, even in the cortex and the CA1, which are not neurogenic regions. BrdU-positive cells were negative for GFAP or γ-H2AX, suggesting that they are not astrocytes or dying cells. Neurospheres derived from the dentate gyrus and the cortex were significantly increased in p25 TG mice and can be differentiated into astrocytes and neurons. However, p25 TG decreased the long-term survival of proliferating NPCs and severely impaired adult neurogenesis. A Transwell co-culture system was used to assess the influence of p25-expressing primary neurons on adult NPCs. Co-culture with p25-expressing neurons downregulated Ki67 expression and upregulated cleaved caspase-3, indicating that the paracrine signaling in cell-cell communication is essential for NPC survival and proliferation. Moreover, increased CDK5 activity impairs Wnt activation. This study demonstrates that hyperactivation of p25 may temporarily enhance NPC proliferation, but impair their long-term survival.

  19. Social Familiarity Reduces Reaction Times and Enhances Survival of Group-Living Predatory Mites under the Risk of Predation

    PubMed Central

    Strodl, Markus Andreas; Schausberger, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Background Social familiarity, which is based on the ability to recognise familiar conspecific individuals following prior association, may affect all major life activities of group-living animals such as foraging, reproduction and anti-predator behaviours. A scarcely experimentally tested explanation why social familiarity is beneficial for group-living animals is provided by limited attention theory. Limited attention theory postulates that focusing on a given task, such as inspection and assessment of unfamiliar group members, has cognitive and associated physiological and behavioural costs with respect to the attention paid to other tasks, such as anti-predator vigilance and response. Accordingly, we hypothesised that social familiarity enhances the anti-predator success of group-living predatory mites, Phytoseiulus persimilis, confronted with an intraguild predator, the predatory mite Amblyseius andersoni. Methodology/Principal Findings We videotaped and analysed the response of two P. persimilis larvae, held in familiar or unfamiliar pairs, to attacks by a gravid A. andersoni female, using the behavioural analyses software EthoVision Pro®. Familiar larvae were more frequently close together, reacted more quickly to predator attacks, survived more predator encounters and survived longer than unfamiliar larvae. Significance In line with the predictions of limited attention theory, we suggest that social familiarity improves anti-predator behaviours because it allows prey to shift attention to other tasks rather than group member assessment. PMID:22927997

  20. Complete resection of contrast-enhancing tumor volume is associated with improved survival in recurrent glioblastoma—results from the DIRECTOR trial

    PubMed Central

    Suchorska, Bogdana; Weller, Michael; Tabatabai, Ghazaleh; Senft, Christian; Hau, Peter; Sabel, Michael C.; Herrlinger, Ulrich; Ketter, Ralf; Schlegel, Uwe; Marosi, Christine; Reifenberger, Guido; Wick, Wolfgang; Tonn, Jörg C.; Wirsching, Hans-Georg

    2016-01-01

    Background The role of reoperation for recurrent glioblastoma (GBM) remains unclear. Prospective studies are lacking. Here, we studied the association of clinical outcome with extent of resection upon surgery for recurrent GBM in the patient cohort of DIRECTOR, a prospective randomized multicenter trial comparing 2 dose-intensified temozolomide regimens at recurrence of GBM. Methods We analyzed prospectively collected clinical and imaging data from the DIRECTOR cohort (N = 105). Volumetric analysis was performed on gadolinium contrast-enhanced MRI as well as fluid attenuated inversion recovery/T2 MRI and correlated with PFS after initial progression (PFS2) and post-recurrence survival (PRS). Quality of life was monitored by the EORTC QLQ-C30 and QLQ-BN20 questionnaires at 8-week intervals. Results Seventy-one patients received surgery at first recurrence. Prognostic factors, including age, MGMT promoter methylation, and Karnofsky performance score, were balanced between patients with and without reoperation. Outcome in patients with versus without surgery at recurrence was similar for PFS2 (2.0 mo vs 1.9 mo, P = .360) and PRS (11.4 mo vs 9.8 mo, P = .633). Among reoperated patients, post-surgery imaging was available in 59 cases. In these patients, complete resection of contrast-enhancing tumor (N = 40) versus residual detection of contrast enhancement (N = 19) was associated with improved PRS (12.9 mo [95% CI: 11.5–18.2] vs 6.5 mo [95% CI: 3.6–9.9], P < .001) and better quality of life. Incomplete tumor resection was associated with inferior PRS compared with patients who did not undergo surgery (6.5 vs 9.8 mo, P = .052). Quality of life was similar in these 2 groups. Conclusion Surgery at first recurrence of GBM improves outcome if complete resection of contrast-enhancing tumor is achieved. PMID:26823503

  1. T11TS immunotherapy repairs PI3K-AKT signaling in T-cells: Clues toward enhanced T-cell survival in rat glioma model.

    PubMed

    Chaudhuri, Suhnrita; Singh, Manoj K; Bhattacharya, Debanjan; Datta, Ankur; Hazra, Iman; Mondal, Somnath; Faruk Sk Md, Omar; Ronsard, Larance; Ghosh, Tushar K; Chaudhuri, Swapna

    2018-02-01

    Malignant glioma is the most fatal of astrocytic lineage tumors despite therapeutic advances. Onset and progression of gliomas is accompanied by severe debilitation of T-cell defense and T-cell survival. One of the chief contributors to T-cell survival downstream of activation is the PI3K-AKT pathway. Our prior studies showed that the novel immunotherapeutic molecule T11-target structure (T11TS) blocks T-cell apoptosis in glioma. We also showed activation of immunological synapse components and calcineurin-NFAT pathway following T11TS immunotherapy of glioma-bearing rats. This lead to investigations whether such T-cell activation upon T11TS therapy translates into activation of downstream PI3K/AKT signals which may be related to observed blockade of T-cell apoptosis. For the purpose, we assessed by flowcytometry and immunoblotting, expressions of PI3K, PDK1, AKT, p-AKT, and PTEN in splenic T-cells of normal, experimentally-induced glioma-bearing rats and glioma-bearing rats receiving first, second and third doses of T11TS. We also determined comparative nuclear translocation of NF-κB across groups. We found significant increases in T-cell expressions of PDK1, PI3K, and p-AKT in T11TS-treated animal groups compared to sharp downregulations in glioma. AKT levels remained unchanged across groups. PTEN levels declined sharply after T11TS immunotherapy. T11TS also caused enhanced NF-κB translocation to the T-cell nucleus compared to glioma group. Results showed heightened activation of the PI3K-AKT pathway in glioma-bearing rats following T11TS immunotherapy. These results illustrate the novel role of T11TS immunotherapy in ameliorating the PI3K pathway in T-cells in glioma-bearing animals to enhance T-cell survival, according greater defense against glioma. The study thus has far-reaching clinical outcomes. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. SG2NA enhances cancer cell survival by stabilizing DJ-1 and thus activating Akt

    SciTech Connect

    Tanti, Goutam Kumar, E-mail: goutamjnu@hotmail.com; Pandey, Shweta; Goswami, Shyamal K.

    2015-08-07

    SG2NA in association with striatin and zinedin forms a striatin family of WD-40 repeat proteins. This family of proteins functions as scaffold in different signal transduction pathways. They also act as a regulatory subunit of protein phosphatase 2A. We have shown that SG2NA which evolved first in the metazoan evolution among the striatin family members expresses different isoforms generated out of alternative splicing. We have also shown that SG2NA protects cells from oxidative stress by recruiting DJ-1 and Akt to mitochondria and membrane in the post-mitotic neuronal cells. DJ-1 is both cancer and Parkinson's disease related protein. In the presentmore » study we have shown that SG2NA protects DJ-1 from proteasomal degradation in cancer cells. Hence, downregulation of SG2NA reduces DJ-1/Akt colocalization in cancer cells resulting in the reduction of anchorage dependent and independent growth. Thus SG2NA enhances cancer cell survival. Reactive oxygen species enhances SG2NA, DJ-1 and Akt trimerization. Removal of the reactive oxygen species by N-acetyl-cysteine thus reduces cancer cell growth. - Highlights: • Reactive oxygen species (ROS) play potential role in cancer cell proliferation. • It enhances the association between DJ-1 and Akt mediated by SG2NA. • In cancer cells SG2NA stabilizes DJ-1 by inhibiting it from proteosomal degradation. • DJ-1 then activates Akt and cancer cells get their property of enhanced proliferation by sustained activation of Akt. • Further study on this field could lead to new target for cancer therapy.« less

  3. Enhancement of survival and electricity production in an engineered bacterium by light-driven proton pumping.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Ethan T; Baron, Daniel B; Naranjo, Belén; Bond, Daniel R; Schmidt-Dannert, Claudia; Gralnick, Jeffrey A

    2010-07-01

    Microorganisms can use complex photosystems or light-dependent proton pumps to generate membrane potential and/or reduce electron carriers to support growth. The discovery that proteorhodopsin is a light-dependent proton pump that can be expressed readily in recombinant bacteria enables development of new strategies to probe microbial physiology and to engineer microbes with new light-driven properties. Here, we describe functional expression of proteorhodopsin and light-induced changes in membrane potential in the bacterium Shewanella oneidensis strain MR-1. We report that there were significant increases in electrical current generation during illumination of electrochemical chambers containing S. oneidensis expressing proteorhodopsin. We present evidence that an engineered strain is able to consume lactate at an increased rate when it is illuminated, which is consistent with the hypothesis that proteorhodopsin activity enhances lactate uptake by increasing the proton motive force. Our results demonstrate that there is coupling of a light-driven process to electricity generation in a nonphotosynthetic engineered bacterium. Expression of proteorhodopsin also preserved the viability of the bacterium under nutrient-limited conditions, providing evidence that fulfillment of basic energy needs of organisms may explain the widespread distribution of proteorhodopsin in marine environments.

  4. LONG-TERM PRECONDITIONING OF PLANTLETS: A PRACTICAL METHOD FOR ENHANCING SURVIVAL OF PINEAPPLE (Ananas comosus Merr.) SHOOT TIPS CRYOPRESERVED USING VITRIFICATION.

    PubMed

    Hu, W H; Liu, S F; Liaw, S I

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop an efficient cryopreservation protocol for pineapple (Ananas comosus Merr.) shoot tips. The optimal state of pineapple plantlets was investigated by using sucrose preconditioning to enhance survival after cryostorage. To achieve a suitable state of plantlets before cryopreservation, 0.2 M to 0.4 M sucrose concentrations combined with short- (0-7 days), medium- (15-30 days), and long-term (75-150 days) preconditioning periods were compared. The highest survival (100 %) was achieved using the following procedure: intact plantlets underwent long-term preconditioning with 0.2 M sucrose for 135 days, dissected shoot tips were treated with a loading solution containing 2.0 M glycerol + 0.4 M sucrose for 60 min at 25 degree and the shoot tips were dehydrated in PVS2 for 2h at 0 degree C before being plunged in liquid nitrogen. Rewarming was conducted in a water-bath for 30 s at 40 degree C and PVS2 was replaced with a 1.2 M sucrose solution for 30 min at 25 degree C. The shoot tips were transferred on semisolid medium and left in the dark for 1 week, then in dim light for 3 weeks.

  5. Enhancement on primate corneal endothelial cell survival in vitro by a ROCK inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Okumura, Naoki; Ueno, Morio; Koizumi, Noriko; Sakamoto, Yuji; Hirata, Kana; Hamuro, Junji; Kinoshita, Shigeru

    2009-08-01

    The transplantation of cultivated corneal endothelial cells (CECs) has gained attention recently for the treatment of patients with corneal endothelial dysfunction. However, an efficient culturing technique for human (H)CECs has yet to be properly established. The present study was conducted to investigate the applicability of the Rho kinase (ROCK) inhibitor Y-27632 in promoting cultivation of cynomolgus monkey (M)CECs. MCECs of cynomolgus monkeys were cultured in a medium containing 10 microM Y-27632. The number of viable cells adherent to culture plates were monitored by a luminescent cell-viability assay and colony growth was detected by toluidine blue staining. Proliferating cells were detected by Ki67 expression using flow cytometry and a BrdU-labeling assay for immunocytochemistry. Annexin V-positive apoptotic cells were analyzed by flow cytometry. The number of viable cultivated MCECs was enhanced by Y-27632 addition after 24 hours in culture. The colony area of the culture in the presence of Y-27632 was higher than in the absence of Y-27632 on day 10. In Y-27632-treated cultures, the number of Ki67-positive cells was significantly increased at 24 and 48 hours, and the number of proliferating BrdU-positive cells was increased at 48 hours. The number of Annexin V-positive apoptotic cells was decreased at 24 hours. The inhibition of Rho/ROCK signaling by specific ROCK inhibitor Y-27632 promoted the adhesion of MCECs, inhibited apoptosis, and increased the number of proliferating cells. These results suggest that the ROCK inhibitor may serve as a new tool for cultivating HCECs for transplantation.

  6. Two Novel Functions of Hyaluronidase from Streptococcus agalactiae Are Enhanced Intracellular Survival and Inhibition of Proinflammatory Cytokine Expression

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhaofei; Guo, Changming; Xu, Yannan; Liu, Guangjin; Lu, Chengping

    2014-01-01

    Streptococcus agalactiae is the causative agent of septicemia and meningitis in fish. Previous studies have shown that hyaluronidase (Hyl) is an important virulence factor in many Gram-positive bacteria. To investigate the role of S. agalactiae Hyl during interaction with macrophages, we inactivated the gene encoding extracellular hyaluronidase, hylB, in a clinical Hyl+ isolate. The isogenic hylb mutant (Δhylb) displayed reduced survival in macrophages compared to the wild type and stimulated a significantly higher release of proinflammatory cytokines, such as interleukin-1β (IL-1β), IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), than the wild type in macrophages as well as in mice. Furthermore, only Hyl+ strains could grow utilizing hyaluronic acid (HA) as the sole carbon source, suggesting that Hyl permits the organism to utilize host HA as an energy source. Fifty percent lethal dose (LD50) determinations in zebrafish demonstrated that the hylb mutant was highly attenuated relative to the wild-type strain. Experimental infection of BALB/c mice revealed that bacterial loads in the blood, spleen, and brain at 16 h postinfection were significantly reduced in the ΔhylB mutant compared to those in wild-type-infected mice. In conclusion, hyaluronidase has a strong influence on the intracellular survival of S. agalactiae and proinflammatory cytokine expression, suggesting that it plays a key role in S. agalactiae pathogenicity. PMID:24711564

  7. Two novel functions of hyaluronidase from Streptococcus agalactiae are enhanced intracellular survival and inhibition of proinflammatory cytokine expression.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhaofei; Guo, Changming; Xu, Yannan; Liu, Guangjin; Lu, Chengping; Liu, Yongjie

    2014-06-01

    Streptococcus agalactiae is the causative agent of septicemia and meningitis in fish. Previous studies have shown that hyaluronidase (Hyl) is an important virulence factor in many Gram-positive bacteria. To investigate the role of S. agalactiae Hyl during interaction with macrophages, we inactivated the gene encoding extracellular hyaluronidase, hylB, in a clinical Hyl(+) isolate. The isogenic hylb mutant (Δhylb) displayed reduced survival in macrophages compared to the wild type and stimulated a significantly higher release of proinflammatory cytokines, such as interleukin-1β (IL-1β), IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), than the wild type in macrophages as well as in mice. Furthermore, only Hyl(+) strains could grow utilizing hyaluronic acid (HA) as the sole carbon source, suggesting that Hyl permits the organism to utilize host HA as an energy source. Fifty percent lethal dose (LD50) determinations in zebrafish demonstrated that the hylb mutant was highly attenuated relative to the wild-type strain. Experimental infection of BALB/c mice revealed that bacterial loads in the blood, spleen, and brain at 16 h postinfection were significantly reduced in the ΔhylB mutant compared to those in wild-type-infected mice. In conclusion, hyaluronidase has a strong influence on the intracellular survival of S. agalactiae and proinflammatory cytokine expression, suggesting that it plays a key role in S. agalactiae pathogenicity.

  8. Two-step transplantation with adipose tissue-derived stem cells increases follicle survival by enhancing vascularization in xenografted frozen-thawed human ovarian tissue.

    PubMed

    Manavella, D D; Cacciottola, L; Pommé, S; Desmet, C M; Jordan, B F; Donnez, J; Amorim, C A; Dolmans, M M

    2018-06-01

    compared to the OT group on Day 7 (P = 0.028). Total CD34-positive vessel area on Day 7 was greater in the Fi/ASCs+OT group than in any other group (vs non-grafted group: P = 0.0014; vs OT group: P = 0.013; vs Fi+OT group: P = 0.018). Primordial follicle survival rates after grafting were higher in the Fi/ASCs+OT group than in the OT (P = 0.0059) or Fi+OT groups (P = 0.0307). TUNEL-positive follicle percentages after grafting were significantly lower in the Fi/ASCs+OT group than in any other grafted tissue (vs OT group: P = 0.045; vs Fi+OT group: P = 0.0268). Percentages of Ki-67-positive primordial follicles were significantly higher in all grafted groups compared to non-grafted tissue controls (P < 0.01). As demonstrated by our results, the proposed two-step ovarian tissue transplantation procedure using ASCs enhances vascularization in the early post-grafting period, leading to increased follicle survival rates and decreased apoptosis. However, mechanisms involved in the proangiogenic behavior of ASCs remain to be elucidated. Our results suggest that the proposed transplantation procedure with ASCs is a promising step towards potentially solving the problem of massive follicle loss after ovarian tissue grafting. This study was supported by grants from the Fonds National de la Recherche Scientifique de Belgique (FNRS-PDR Convention T.0077.14, grant Télévie No. 7.6515.16 F to DDM and grant 5/4/150/5 awarded to MMD and CAA is research associate, FRS-FNRS), Fonds Spéciaux de Recherche, Fondation St Luc, and Foundation Against Cancer, and donations from the Ferrero family.

  9. The use of landscape fabric and supplemental irrigation to enhance survival and growth of woody perennials planted on reclaimed surface mine lands

    Treesearch

    R .C. Musselman; F. W. Smith; W. D. Shepperd; L. A. Asherin; B. W. Gee

    2009-01-01

    A study was initiated to determine the effectiveness of landscape fabric and supplemental irrigation in survival and growth of woody perennials planted on reclaimed surface coal mine lands. The study compared growth and survival of nursery grown potted aspen and serviceberry planted with or without landscape fabric, and with or without biweekly supplemental irrigation...

  10. Over-expression of the Arabidopsis proton-pyrophosphatase AVP1 enhances transplant survival, root mass, and fruit development under limiting phosphorus conditions

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Haibing; Zhang, Xiao; Gaxiola, Roberto A.; Xu, Guohua; Peer, Wendy Ann; Murphy, Angus S.

    2014-01-01

    Phosphorus (P), an element required for plant growth, fruit set, fruit development, and fruit ripening, can be deficient or unavailable in agricultural soils. Previously, it was shown that over-expression of a proton-pyrophosphatase gene AVP1/AVP1D (AVP1DOX) in Arabidopsis, rice, and tomato resulted in the enhancement of root branching and overall mass with the result of increased mineral P acquisition. However, although AVP1 over-expression also increased shoot biomass in Arabidopsis, this effect was not observed in tomato under phosphate-sufficient conditions. AVP1DOX tomato plants exhibited increased rootward auxin transport and root acidification compared with control plants. AVP1DOX tomato plants were analysed in detail under limiting P conditions in greenhouse and field trials. AVP1DOX plants produced 25% (P=0.001) more marketable ripened fruit per plant under P-deficient conditions compared with the controls. Further, under low phosphate conditions, AVP1DOX plants displayed increased phosphate transport from leaf (source) to fruit (sink) compared to controls. AVP1DOX plants also showed an 11% increase in transplant survival (P<0.01) in both greenhouse and field trials compared with the control plants. These results suggest that selection of tomato cultivars for increased proton pyrophosphatase gene expression could be useful when selecting for cultivars to be grown on marginal soils. PMID:24723407

  11. Cryopreservation of isolated primary rat hepatocytes: enhanced survival and long-term hepatospecific function.

    PubMed

    Sosef, Meindert N; Baust, John M; Sugimachi, Keishi; Fowler, Alex; Tompkins, Ronald G; Toner, Mehmet

    2005-01-01

    To investigate the long-term effect of cryopreservation on hepatocyte function, as well as attempt to improve cell viability and function through the utilization of the hypothermic preservation solution, HypoThermosol (HTS), as the carrier solution. Advances in the field of bioartificial liver support have led to an increasing demand for successful, efficient means of cryopreservation of hepatocytes. Fresh rat hepatocytes were cryopreserved in suspension in culture media (Media-cryo group) or HTS (HTS-cryo group), both supplemented with 10% DMSO. Following storage up to 2 months in liquid nitrogen, cells were thawed and maintained in a double collagen gel culture for 14 days. Hepatocyte yield and viability were assessed up to 14 days postthaw. Serial measurements of albumin secretion, urea synthesis, deethylation of ethoxyresorufin (CYT P450 activity), and responsiveness to stimulation with interleukin-6 (IL-6) were performed. Immediate postthaw viability was 60% in Media-cryo and 79% in HTS-cryo, in comparison with control (90%). Albumin secretion, urea synthesis and CYT P450 activity yielded 33%, 55%, and 59% in Media-cryo and 71%, 80%, and 88% in HTS-cryo, respectively, compared with control (100%). Assessment of cellular response to IL-6 following cryopreservation revealed a similar pattern of up-regulation in fibrinogen production and suppression of albumin secretion compared with nonfrozen controls. This study demonstrates that isolated rat hepatocytes cryopreserved using HTS showed high viability, long-term hepatospecific function, and response to cytokine challenge. These results may represent an important step forward to the utilization of cryopreserved isolated hepatocytes in bioartificial liver devices.

  12. Trehalose in glycerol-free freezing extender enhances post-thaw survival of boar spermatozoa

    PubMed Central

    ATHURUPANA, Rukmali; TAKAHASHI, Daisen; IOKI, Sumire; FUNAHASHI, Hiroaki

    2015-01-01

    Cryopreservation of boar semen is still considered suboptimal due to lower fertility as compared with fresh samples when glycerol, a permeating cryoprotectant, is used. Trehalose is a non-permeable cryoprotectant and nonreducing disaccharide known to stabilize proteins and biologic membranes. The aim of this study was to evaluate the cryosurvival and in vitro penetrability of boar spermatozoa when glycerol was replaced with trehalose in a freezing extender. Ejaculated Berkshire semen samples were diluted in egg yolk-based freezing extender containing glycerol (100 mM) or trehalose (0, 50, 100, 150, 200 and 250 mM) and cryopreserved using a straw freezing procedure. Thawed samples were analyzed for motility, viability, mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), and acrosome integrity. In experiment 2, penetrability of spermatozoa cryopreserved with 100 mM glycerol or trehalose was examined. Replacement of cryoprotectant glycerol (100 mM) with trehalose had no effect on sperm viability, but replacing it with 100 mM trehalose improved motility, MMP and acrosome integrity significantly. Sperm motility and MMP were considerably higher in 100 mM trehalose, whereas the acrosome integrity was substantially higher in 100–250 mM trehalose. The in vitro penetration rate was also significantly higher in spermatozoa cryopreserved with trehalose (61.3%) than in those cryopreserved with glycerol (43.6%). In conclusion, 100 mM non-permeable trehalose can be used to replace glycerol, a permeating cryoprotectant, for maintenance of better post-thaw quality of boar spermatozoa. PMID:25754239

  13. Mycobacterium tuberculosis Rv1987 induces Th2 immune responses and enhances Mycobacterium smegmatis survival in mice.

    PubMed

    Sha, Shanshan; Shi, Xiaoxia; Deng, Guoying; Chen, Lina; Xin, Yi; Ma, Yufang

    2017-04-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis can interfere with host immune response and escape clearance through its specific antigens. M. tuberculosis Rv1987 encoded by region of difference (RD)-2 gene is a secretory protein with immunogenic potency. Here, we investigated the impact of Rv1987 on host cytokine responses and T cell polarization in mouse aerosol model. A recombinant M. smegmatis mc 2 155 strain that overexpressed Rv1987 protein (named MS1987) was constructed and used to infect C57BL/6 mice. The mc 2 155 harbored the empty vector (named MSVec) was as a control. The results showed that MS1987 challenged mice promoted Th2-biased cytokine responses with lower secretion of IFN-γ but higher production of IL-4 and Rv1987-specific IgG antibody compared to MSVec infected mice. Neutrophilic inflammation and high bacterial burden were observed in the lung tissues of MS1987 infected mice probably own to the failed Th1 cell immunity. Besides, subcutaneous injection of Rv1987 protein could mediate the Th1 cytokine responses caused by M. bovis BCG in mice. These results indicated that M. tuberculosis Rv1987 protein could modulate host immune response towards Th2 profile, which probably contributed to the immune evasion of bacteria from host elimination. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  14. Ovarian cancer survival population differences: a "high resolution study" comparing Philippine residents, and Filipino-Americans and Caucasians living in the US.

    PubMed

    Redaniel, Maria Theresa M; Laudico, Adriano; Mirasol-Lumague, Maria Rica; Gondos, Adam; Uy, Gemma Leonora; Toral, Jean Ann; Benavides, Doris; Brenner, Hermann

    2009-09-24

    In contrast to most other forms of cancer, data from some developing and developed countries show surprisingly similar survival rates for ovarian cancer. We aimed to compare ovarian cancer survival in Philippine residents, Filipino-Americans and Caucasians living in the US, using a high resolution approach, taking potential differences in prognostic factors into account. Using databases from the SEER 13 and from the Manila and Rizal Cancer Registries, age-adjusted five-year absolute and relative survival estimates were computed using the period analysis method and compared between Filipino-American ovarian cancer patients with cancer patients from the Philippines and Caucasians in the US. Cox proportional hazards modelling was used to determine factors affecting survival differences. Despite more favorable distribution of age and cancer morphology and similar stage distribution, 5-year absolute and relative survival were lower in Philippine residents (Absolute survival, AS, 44%, Standard Error, SE, 2.9 and Relative survival, RS, 49.7%, SE, 3.7) than in Filipino-Americans (AS, 51.3%, SE, 3.1 and RS, 54.1%, SE, 3.4). After adjustment for these and additional covariates, strong excess risk of death for Philippine residents was found (Relative Risk, RR, 2.45, 95% confidence interval, 95% CI, 1.99-3.01). In contrast, no significant differences were found between Filipino-Americans and Caucasians living in the US. Multivariate analyses disclosed strong survival disadvantages of Philippine residents compared to Filipino-American patients, for which differences in access to health care might have played an important role. Survival is no worse among Filipino-Americans than among Caucasians living in the US.

  15. ALK5 inhibition maintains islet endothelial cell survival but does not enhance islet graft revascularisation or function.

    PubMed

    King, A J F; Clarkin, C E; Austin, A L F; Ajram, L; Dhunna, J K; Jamil, M O; Ditta, S I; Ibrahim, S; Raza, Z; Jones, P M

    2015-01-01

    Islet transplantation is a potential treatment for Type 1 diabetes but long term graft function is suboptimal. The rich supply of intraislet endothelial cells diminishes rapidly after islet isolation and culture, which affects the revascularisation rate of islets after transplantation. The ALK5 pathway inhibits endothelial cell proliferation and thus inhibiting ALK5 is a potential target for improving endothelial cell survival. The aim of the study was to establish whether ALK5 inhibition prevents the loss of intraislet endothelial cells during islet culture and thus improves the functional survival of transplanted islets by enhancing their subsequent revascularisation after implantation. Islets were cultured for 48 h in the absence or presence of 2 different ALK inhibitors: SB-431542 or A-83-01. Their vascular density after culture was analysed using immunohistochemistry. Islets pre-cultured with the ALK5 inhibitors were implanted into streptozotocin-diabetic mice for either 3 or 7 days and blood glucose concentrations were monitored and vascular densities of the grafts were analysed. Islets cultured with ALK5 inhibitors had higher vascular densities than control-cultured islets. Three days after implantation, endothelial cell numbers in islet grafts were minimal, irrespective of treatment during culture. Seven days after implantation, endothelial cells were evident within the islet grafts but there was no difference between control-cultured islets and islets pre-treated with an ALK5 inhibitor. Blood glucose concentrations were no different between the treatment groups. In conclusion, inhibition of ALK5 improved intraislet endothelial cell numbers after islet culture, but this effect was lost in the early post-transplantation period. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  16. Enhancer of zeste homologue 2 plays an important role in neuroblastoma cell survival independent of its histone methyltransferase activity.

    PubMed

    Bate-Eya, Laurel T; Gierman, Hinco J; Ebus, Marli E; Koster, Jan; Caron, Huib N; Versteeg, Rogier; Dolman, M Emmy M; Molenaar, Jan J

    2017-04-01

    Neuroblastoma is predominantly characterised by chromosomal rearrangements. Next to V-Myc Avian Myelocytomatosis Viral Oncogene Neuroblastoma Derived Homolog (MYCN) amplification, chromosome 7 and 17q gains are frequently observed. We identified a neuroblastoma patient with a regional 7q36 gain, encompassing the enhancer of zeste homologue 2 (EZH2) gene. EZH2 is the histone methyltransferase of lysine 27 of histone H3 (H3K27me3) that forms the catalytic subunit of the polycomb repressive complex 2. H3K27me3 is commonly associated with the silencing of genes involved in cellular processes such as cell cycle regulation, cellular differentiation and cancer. High EZH2 expression correlated with poor prognosis and overall survival independent of MYCN amplification status. Unexpectedly, treatment of 3 EZH2-high expressing neuroblastoma cell lines (IMR32, CHP134 and NMB), with EZH2-specific inhibitors (GSK126 and EPZ6438) resulted in only a slight G1 arrest, despite maximum histone methyltransferase activity inhibition. Furthermore, colony formation in cell lines treated with the inhibitors was reduced only at concentrations much higher than necessary for complete inhibition of EZH2 histone methyltransferase activity. Knockdown of the complete protein with three independent shRNAs resulted in a strong apoptotic response and decreased cyclin D1 levels. This apoptotic response could be rescued by overexpressing EZH2ΔSET, a truncated form of wild-type EZH2 lacking the SET transactivation domain necessary for histone methyltransferase activity. Our findings suggest that high EZH2 expression, at least in neuroblastoma, has a survival function independent of its methyltransferase activity. This important finding highlights the need for studies on EZH2 beyond its methyltransferase function and the requirement for compounds that will target EZH2 as a complete protein. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Comparative survival analysis of Deinococcus radiodurans and the haloarchaea Natrialba magadii and Haloferax volcanii exposed to vacuum ultraviolet irradiation.

    PubMed

    Abrevaya, Ximena C; Paulino-Lima, Ivan G; Galante, Douglas; Rodrigues, Fabio; Mauas, Pablo J D; Cortón, Eduardo; Lage, Claudia de Alencar Santos

    2011-12-01

    The haloarchaea Natrialba magadii and Haloferax volcanii, as well as the radiation-resistant bacterium Deinococcus radiodurans, were exposed to vacuum UV (VUV) radiation at the Brazilian Synchrotron Light Laboratory. Cell monolayers (containing 10(5) to 10(6) cells per sample) were prepared over polycarbonate filters and irradiated under high vacuum (10(-5) Pa) with polychromatic synchrotron radiation. N. magadii was remarkably resistant to high vacuum with a survival fraction of (3.77±0.76)×10(-2), which was larger than that of D. radiodurans (1.13±0.23)×10(-2). The survival fraction of the haloarchaea H. volcanii, of (3.60±1.80)×10(-4), was much smaller. Radiation resistance profiles were similar between the haloarchaea and D. radiodurans for fluences up to 150 J m(-2). For fluences larger than 150 J m(-2), there was a significant decrease in the survival of haloarchaea, and in particular H. volcanii did not survive. Survival for D. radiodurans was 1% after exposure to the higher VUV fluence (1350 J m(-2)), while N. magadii had a survival lower than 0.1%. Such survival fractions are discussed regarding the possibility of interplanetary transfer of viable microorganisms and the possible existence of microbial life in extraterrestrial salty environments such as the planet Mars and Jupiter's moon Europa. This is the first work to report survival of haloarchaea under simulated interplanetary conditions.

  18. Ciprofloxacin Enhances Stress Erythropoiesis in Spleen and Increases Survival after Whole-Body Irradiation Combined with Skin-Wound Trauma

    PubMed Central

    Fukumoto, Risaku; Burns, True M.; Kiang, Juliann G.

    2014-01-01

    Severe hematopoietic loss is one of the major therapeutic targets after radiation-combined injury (CI), a kind of injury resulting from radiation exposure combined with other traumas. In this study, we tested the use of ciprofloxacin (CIP) as a treatment, because of recently reported immunomodulatory effects against CI that may improve hematopoiesis. The CIP regimen was a daily, oral dose for 3 weeks, with the first dose 2 h after CI. CIP treatment improved 30-day survival in mice at 80% compared to 35% for untreated controls. Study of early changes in hematological parameters identified CI-induced progressive anemia by 10 days that CIP significantly ameliorated. CI induced erythropoietin (EPO) mRNA in kidney and protein in kidney and serum; CIP stimulated EPO mRNA expression. In spleens of CI mice, CIP induced bone morphogenetic protein 4 (BMP4) in macrophages with EPO receptors. Splenocytes from CIP-treated CI mice formed CD71+ colony-forming unit-erythroid significantly better than those from controls. Thus, CIP-mediated BMP4-dependent stress erythropoiesis may play a role in improving survival after CI. PMID:24587369

  19. Recombination enhances HIV-1 envelope diversity by facilitating the survival of latent genomic fragments in the plasma virus population

    SciTech Connect

    Immonen, Taina T.; Conway, Jessica M.; Romero-Severson, Ethan O.

    HIV-1 is subject to immune pressure exerted by the host, giving variants that escape the immune response an advantage. Virus released from activated latent cells competes against variants that have continually evolved and adapted to host immune pressure. Nevertheless, there is increasing evidence that virus displaying a signal of latency survives in patient plasma despite having reduced fitness due to long-term immune memory. We investigated the survival of virus with latent envelope genomic fragments by simulating within-host HIV-1 sequence evolution and the cycling of viral lineages in and out of the latent reservoir. Our model incorporates a detailed mutation processmore » including nucleotide substitution, recombination, latent reservoir dynamics, diversifying selection pressure driven by the immune response, and purifying selection pressure asserted by deleterious mutations. We evaluated the ability of our model to capture sequence evolution in vivo by comparing our simulated sequences to HIV-1 envelope sequence data from 16 HIV-infected untreated patients. Empirical sequence divergence and diversity measures were qualitatively and quantitatively similar to those of our simulated HIV-1 populations, suggesting that our model invokes realistic trends of HIV-1 genetic evolution. Moreover, reconstructed phylogenies of simulated and patient HIV-1 populations showed similar topological structures. Our simulation results suggest that recombination is a key mechanism facilitating the persistence of virus with latent envelope genomic fragments in the productively infected cell population. Recombination increased the survival probability of latent virus forms approximately 13-fold. Prevalence of virus with latent fragments in productively infected cells was observed in only 2% of simulations when we ignored recombination, while the proportion increased to 27% of simulations when we allowed recombination. We also found that the selection pressures exerted by different

  20. Recombination enhances HIV-1 envelope diversity by facilitating the survival of latent genomic fragments in the plasma virus population

    DOE PAGES

    Immonen, Taina T.; Conway, Jessica M.; Romero-Severson, Ethan O.; ...

    2015-12-22

    HIV-1 is subject to immune pressure exerted by the host, giving variants that escape the immune response an advantage. Virus released from activated latent cells competes against variants that have continually evolved and adapted to host immune pressure. Nevertheless, there is increasing evidence that virus displaying a signal of latency survives in patient plasma despite having reduced fitness due to long-term immune memory. We investigated the survival of virus with latent envelope genomic fragments by simulating within-host HIV-1 sequence evolution and the cycling of viral lineages in and out of the latent reservoir. Our model incorporates a detailed mutation processmore » including nucleotide substitution, recombination, latent reservoir dynamics, diversifying selection pressure driven by the immune response, and purifying selection pressure asserted by deleterious mutations. We evaluated the ability of our model to capture sequence evolution in vivo by comparing our simulated sequences to HIV-1 envelope sequence data from 16 HIV-infected untreated patients. Empirical sequence divergence and diversity measures were qualitatively and quantitatively similar to those of our simulated HIV-1 populations, suggesting that our model invokes realistic trends of HIV-1 genetic evolution. Moreover, reconstructed phylogenies of simulated and patient HIV-1 populations showed similar topological structures. Our simulation results suggest that recombination is a key mechanism facilitating the persistence of virus with latent envelope genomic fragments in the productively infected cell population. Recombination increased the survival probability of latent virus forms approximately 13-fold. Prevalence of virus with latent fragments in productively infected cells was observed in only 2% of simulations when we ignored recombination, while the proportion increased to 27% of simulations when we allowed recombination. We also found that the selection pressures exerted by different

  1. Comparative Survival Study (CSS) of PIT-Tagged Spring/Summer Chinook and Summer Steelhead : 2008 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Comparative Survival Study Oversight Committee and Fish Passage Center

    2008-12-02

    The Comparative Survival Study (CSS; BPA Project 199602000) began in 1996 with the objective of establishing a long term dataset of the survival rate of annual generations of salmon from their outmigration as smolts to their return to freshwater as adults to spawn (smolt-to-adult return rate; SAR). The study was implemented with the express need to address the question whether collecting juvenile fish at dams and transporting them downstream in barges and trucks and releasing them downstream of Bonneville Dam was compensating for the effect of the Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS) on survival of Snake Basin spring/summer Chinookmore » salmon migrating through the hydrosystem. The Completion of this annual report for the CSS signifies the 12th outmigration year of hatchery spring/summer Chinook salmon marked with Passive Integrated Transponder (PIT) tags as part of the CSS and the 9th complete brood year return as adults of those PIT-tagged fish (report covers adult returns from 1997-2006 hatchery Chinook juvenile migrations). In addition, the CSS has provided PIT-tags to on-going tagging operations for wild Chinook since 2002 (report covers adult returns from 1994-2006 wild Chinook juvenile migrations). The CSS tags wild steelhead on the lower Clearwater River and utilized wild and hatchery steelhead from other tagging operations in evaluations of transportation (report covers adult returns from 1997-2005 wild and hatchery steelhead migrations). The primary purpose of this report is to update the time series of smolt-to-adult survival rate data and related parameters with additional years of data since the completion of the CSS 10-yr retrospective analysis report (Schaller et al 2007). The 10-yr report provided a synthesis of the results from this ongoing study, the analytical approaches employed, and the evolving improvements incorporated into the study as reported in CSS annual progress reports. This current report specifically addresses the

  2. A docking study of enhanced intracellular survival protein from Mycobacterium tuberculosis with human DUSP16/MKP-7.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Hye Jin; Kim, Kyoung Hoon; Yang, Jin Kuk; Suh, Se Won; Kim, Hyunsik; Jang, Soonmin

    2013-11-01

    The intracellular pathogen Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) causes tuberculosis, and one of its secreted effector proteins, called enhanced intracellular survival (Eis) protein, enhances its survival in macrophages. Mtb Eis activates JNK-specific dual-specificity protein phosphatase 16 (DUSP16)/mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphatase-7 (MKP-7) through the acetylation on Lys55, thus inactivating JNK by dephosphorylation. Based on the recently reported crystal structure of Mtb Eis, a docking model for the binding of Mtb Eis to DUSP16/MKP-7 was generated. In the docking model, the substrate helix containing Lys55 of DUSP16/MKP-7 fits nicely into the active-site cleft of Mtb Eis; the twisted β-sheet of Eis domain II embraces the substrate helix from one side. Most importantly, the side-chain of Lys55 is inserted toward acetyl-CoA and the resulting distance is 4.6 Å between the NZ atom of Lys55 and the carbonyl carbon of the acetyl group in acetyl-CoA. The binding of Mtb Eis and DUSP16/MKP-7 is maintained by strong electrostatic interactions. The active-site cleft of Mtb Eis has a negatively charged surface formed by Asp25, Glu138, Asp286, Glu395 and the terminal carboxylic group of Phe396. In contrast, DUSP16/MKP-7 contains five basic residues, Lys52, Lys55, Arg56, Arg57 and Lys62, which point toward the negatively charged surface of the active-site pocket of Mtb Eis. Thus, the current docking model suggests that the binding of DUSP16/MKP-7 to Mtb Eis should be established by charge complementarity in addition to a very favorable geometric arrangement. The suggested mode of binding requires the dissociation of the hexameric Mtb Eis into dimers or monomers. This study may be useful for future studies aiming to develop inhibitors of Mtb Eis as a new anti-tuberculosis drug candidate.

  3. Intravenous versus intramuscular cobinamide compared to intravenous saline (control) in the treatment of acute, survivable, hydrogen sulfide toxicity in swine (Sus Scrofa).

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-11-09

    FWH20140070A, “Intravenous versus intramuscular // compared to intravenous saline ( control ) in the treatment of acute, survivable, hydrogen sulfide toxicity... control ) in the treatment of acute, survivable, hydrogen sulfide toxicity in swine (Sus Scrofa). 4. Principal Investigator (PI): Name Rank Date...remainder of the study. Animals were treated with IV HOC, IV Cobinamide or control (no treatment) 1 minute post apnea. There were no significant

  4. Comparative Transcriptome Analysis of the Necrotrophic Fungus Ascochyta rabiei during Oxidative Stress: Insight for Fungal Survival in the Host Plant

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Kunal; Nizam, Shadab; Sinha, Manisha; Verma, Praveen K.

    2012-01-01

    Localized cell death, known as the hypersensitive response (HR), is an important defense mechanism for neutralizing phytopathogens. The hallmark of the HR is an oxidative burst produced by the host plant. We aimed to identify genes of the necrotrophic chickpea blight fungus Ascochyta rabiei that are involved in counteracting oxidative stress. A subtractive cDNA library was constructed after menadione treatment, which resulted in the isolation of 128 unigenes. A reverse northern blot was used to compare transcript profiles after H2O2, menadione and sodium nitroprusside treatments. A total of 70 unigenes were found to be upregulated by more than two-fold following menadione treatment at different time intervals. A large number of genes not previously associated with oxidative stress were identified, along with many stress-responsive genes. Differential expression patterns of several genes were validated by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) and northern blotting. In planta qRT-PCR of several selected genes also showed differential expression patterns during infection and disease progression. These data shed light on the molecular responses of the phytopathogen A. rabiei to overcome oxidative and nitrosative stresses and advance the understanding of necrotrophic fungal pathogen survival mechanisms. PMID:22427966

  5. Soymilk residue (okara) as a natural immobilization carrier for Lactobacillus plantarum cells enhances soymilk fermentation, glucosidic isoflavone bioconversion, and cell survival under simulated gastric and intestinal conditions

    PubMed Central

    Xiudong, Xia; Ying, Wang; Xiaoli, Liu; Ying, Li

    2016-01-01

    Cell immobilization is an alternative to microencapsulation for the maintenance of cells in a liquid medium. However, artificial immobilization carriers are expensive and pose a high safety risk. Okara, a food-grade byproduct from soymilk production, is rich in prebiotics. Lactobacilli could provide health enhancing effects to the host. This study aimed to evaluate the potential of okara as a natural immobilizer for L. plantarum 70810 cells. The study also aimed to evaluate the effects of okara-immobilized L. plantarum 70810 cells (IL) on soymilk fermentation, glucosidic isoflavone bioconversion, and cell resistance to simulated gastric and intestinal stresses. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to show cells adherence to the surface of okara. Lactic acid, acetic acid and isoflavone analyses in unfermented and fermented soymilk were performed by HPLC with UV detection. Viability and growth kinetics of immobilized and free L. plantarum 70810 cells (FL) were followed during soymilk fermentation. Moreover, changes in pH, titrable acidity and viscosity were measured by conventional methods. For in vitro testing of simulated gastrointestinal resistance, fermented soymilk was inoculated with FL or IL and an aliquot incubated into acidic MRS broth which was conveniently prepared to simulate gastric, pancreatic juices and bile salts. Survival to simulated gastric and intestinal stresses was evaluated by plate count of colony forming units on MRS agar. SEM revealed that the lactobacilli cells attached and bound to the surface of okara. Compared with FL, IL exhibited a significantly higher specific growth rate, shorter lag phase of growth, higher productions of lactic and acetic acids, a faster decrease in pH and increase in titrable acidity, and a higher soymilk viscosity. Similarly, IL in soymilk showed higher productions of daizein and genistein compared with the control. Compared with FL, IL showed reinforced resistance to simulatedgastric and intestinal

  6. Soymilk residue (okara) as a natural immobilization carrier for Lactobacillus plantarum cells enhances soymilk fermentation, glucosidic isoflavone bioconversion, and cell survival under simulated gastric and intestinal conditions.

    PubMed

    Xiudong, Xia; Ying, Wang; Xiaoli, Liu; Ying, Li; Jianzhong, Zhou

    2016-01-01

    Cell immobilization is an alternative to microencapsulation for the maintenance of cells in a liquid medium. However, artificial immobilization carriers are expensive and pose a high safety risk. Okara, a food-grade byproduct from soymilk production, is rich in prebiotics. Lactobacilli could provide health enhancing effects to the host. This study aimed to evaluate the potential of okara as a natural immobilizer for L. plantarum 70810 cells. The study also aimed to evaluate the effects of okara-immobilized L. plantarum 70810 cells (IL) on soymilk fermentation, glucosidic isoflavone bioconversion, and cell resistance to simulated gastric and intestinal stresses. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to show cells adherence to the surface of okara. Lactic acid, acetic acid and isoflavone analyses in unfermented and fermented soymilk were performed by HPLC with UV detection. Viability and growth kinetics of immobilized and free L. plantarum 70810 cells (FL) were followed during soymilk fermentation. Moreover, changes in pH, titrable acidity and viscosity were measured by conventional methods. For in vitro testing of simulated gastrointestinal resistance, fermented soymilk was inoculated with FL or IL and an aliquot incubated into acidic MRS broth which was conveniently prepared to simulate gastric, pancreatic juices and bile salts. Survival to simulated gastric and intestinal stresses was evaluated by plate count of colony forming units on MRS agar. SEM revealed that the lactobacilli cells attached and bound to the surface of okara. Compared with FL, IL exhibited a significantly higher specific growth rate, shorter lag phase of growth, higher productions of lactic and acetic acids, a faster decrease in pH and increase in titrable acidity, and a higher soymilk viscosity. Similarly, IL in soymilk showed higher productions of daizein and genistein compared with the control. Compared with FL, IL showed reinforced resistance to simulatedgastric and intestinal

  7. A thin polymer membrane, nano-suit, enhancing survival across the continuum between air and high vacuum

    PubMed Central

    Takaku, Yasuharu; Suzuki, Hiroshi; Ohta, Isao; Ishii, Daisuke; Muranaka, Yoshinori; Shimomura, Masatsugu; Hariyama, Takahiko

    2013-01-01

    Most multicellular organisms can only survive under atmospheric pressure. The reduced pressure of a high vacuum usually leads to rapid dehydration and death. Here we show that a simple surface modification can render multicellular organisms strongly tolerant to high vacuum. Animals that collapsed under high vacuum continued to move following exposure of their natural extracellular surface layer (or that of an artificial coat-like polysorbitan monolaurate) to an electron beam or plasma ionization (i.e., conditions known to enhance polymer formation). Transmission electron microscopic observations revealed the existence of a thin polymerized extra layer on the surface of the animal. The layer acts as a flexible “nano-suit” barrier to the passage of gases and liquids and thus protects the organism. Furthermore, the biocompatible molecule, the component of the nano-suit, was fabricated into a “biomimetic” free-standing membrane. This concept will allow biology-related fields especially to use these membranes for several applications. PMID:23589878

  8. A Comparative Study on Preprocessing Techniques in Diabetic Retinopathy Retinal Images: Illumination Correction and Contrast Enhancement

    PubMed Central

    Rasta, Seyed Hossein; Partovi, Mahsa Eisazadeh; Seyedarabi, Hadi; Javadzadeh, Alireza

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the effect of preprocessing techniques including contrast enhancement and illumination correction on retinal image quality, a comparative study was carried out. We studied and implemented a few illumination correction and contrast enhancement techniques on color retinal images to find out the best technique for optimum image enhancement. To compare and choose the best illumination correction technique we analyzed the corrected red and green components of color retinal images statistically and visually. The two contrast enhancement techniques were analyzed using a vessel segmentation algorithm by calculating the sensitivity and specificity. The statistical evaluation of the illumination correction techniques were carried out by calculating the coefficients of variation. The dividing method using the median filter to estimate background illumination showed the lowest Coefficients of variations in the red component. The quotient and homomorphic filtering methods after the dividing method presented good results based on their low Coefficients of variations. The contrast limited adaptive histogram equalization increased the sensitivity of the vessel segmentation algorithm up to 5% in the same amount of accuracy. The contrast limited adaptive histogram equalization technique has a higher sensitivity than the polynomial transformation operator as a contrast enhancement technique for vessel segmentation. Three techniques including the dividing method using the median filter to estimate background, quotient based and homomorphic filtering were found as the effective illumination correction techniques based on a statistical evaluation. Applying the local contrast enhancement technique, such as CLAHE, for fundus images presented good potentials in enhancing the vasculature segmentation. PMID:25709940

  9. A comparative study on preprocessing techniques in diabetic retinopathy retinal images: illumination correction and contrast enhancement.

    PubMed

    Rasta, Seyed Hossein; Partovi, Mahsa Eisazadeh; Seyedarabi, Hadi; Javadzadeh, Alireza

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the effect of preprocessing techniques including contrast enhancement and illumination correction on retinal image quality, a comparative study was carried out. We studied and implemented a few illumination correction and contrast enhancement techniques on color retinal images to find out the best technique for optimum image enhancement. To compare and choose the best illumination correction technique we analyzed the corrected red and green components of color retinal images statistically and visually. The two contrast enhancement techniques were analyzed using a vessel segmentation algorithm by calculating the sensitivity and specificity. The statistical evaluation of the illumination correction techniques were carried out by calculating the coefficients of variation. The dividing method using the median filter to estimate background illumination showed the lowest Coefficients of variations in the red component. The quotient and homomorphic filtering methods after the dividing method presented good results based on their low Coefficients of variations. The contrast limited adaptive histogram equalization increased the sensitivity of the vessel segmentation algorithm up to 5% in the same amount of accuracy. The contrast limited adaptive histogram equalization technique has a higher sensitivity than the polynomial transformation operator as a contrast enhancement technique for vessel segmentation. Three techniques including the dividing method using the median filter to estimate background, quotient based and homomorphic filtering were found as the effective illumination correction techniques based on a statistical evaluation. Applying the local contrast enhancement technique, such as CLAHE, for fundus images presented good potentials in enhancing the vasculature segmentation.

  10. Comparative study of conventional US, contrast enhanced US and enhanced MR for the follow-up of prostatic radiofrequency ablation.

    PubMed

    Feng, Chao; Hu, Bin; Hu, Bing; Chen, Lei; Li, Jia; Huang, Jin

    2017-06-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate and compare the effectiveness of different imaging methods during follow-up of prostatic radiofrequency ablation. Prostatic radiofrequency ablation (RFA) was performed in 20 healthy beagle dogs. Various imaging examinations were used to monitor the results of RFA, including conventional ultrasound (US), contrast enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) and enhanced magnetic resonance (MR). Imaging exams were performed at five phases: Immediately following RFA, one week later, one month later, three months later and six months later. The morphology for each imaging test and histological results were recorded and compared in each phase. Based on the actual results from autopsy, the accuracy of those imaging exams was evaluated. The canine prostate gland demonstrated typical coagulative necrosis immediately following RFA. The lesion would develop into stable cyst if no other complications occurred within the six-month follow-up. Regarding the RFA lesion volume measurement and the reflection of pathological changes, conventional US was not able to accurately measure the volume of RFA lesion and missed many more details concerning the RFA-treated area than CEUS and MR during the three months. The results from CEUS exhibited comparable accuracy to those from enhanced MR at each phase. However, there were no significant differences in the results from US, CEUS and MR at six months, which may contribute to the complete formation of lesion cyst. In the early phase, conventional US was not sufficient for evaluating the efficacy of RFA. Enhanced US and MR provided clear images and accurate information. However, CEUS has the advantage of being more economical, using more convenient equipment and faster scanning, thus identifying it as the more feasible choice. Furthermore, no notable advantages were observed among any image examinations in the long-term follow-up.

  11. A Comparative Study of Survival Rate in High Grade Glioma Tumors Being Treated by Radiotherapy Alone Versus Chemoradiation With Nitrosourea.

    PubMed

    Houshyari, Mohammad; Hajalikhani, Farzaneh; Rakhsha, Afshin; Hajian, Parastoo

    2015-03-25

    In adults, malignant glioma (high-grade glioma) is one of the most common brain tumors. In spite of different types of treatment, the outcome is still not likely to be favorable. The aim of this study was to determine the difference between survival rate in adult patients with high grade glioma treated by radiotherapy only and those treated by a combination of radiotherapy and nitrosurea-based chemotherapy. This study was conducted using the records of 48 patients with grade 3 or 4 of glial brain tumor referred to the radiation-oncology ward of Shohada-e-Tajrish Hospital in Tehran, Iran from 2005 to 2012. The patients had undergone radiotherapy alone or adjuvant chemoradiation with nitrosourea. The median survival of patients after receiving the different types of treatment were evaluated using the Kaplan-Meier method and the log -rank exam. Data were analyzed using univariate analysis for median survival regarding to the patients' age, gender, extent of surgery, Karnofsky performance status (KPS) with the Kaplan-Meier method, and the log-rank exam. We used the Cox-model for multivariate analysis. Records of 48 patients were studied (34 men and 14 women). The mean survival were 18 months for men and 15.2 months for women (P=0.05). Around 58% (28 patients) were more than 50 years old, and 42% (20 patients) were less than 50, and mean survival for the two age groups were 13 and 20 months, respectively (P<0.001). Then, the patients were divided into three groups according to the extent of surgery, i.e., excisional biopsy (11 patients), stereotactic biopsy (22 patients), and resection (15 patients), and the mean survival for the three groups were 14.7, 17.3, and 18.8 months, respectively. There was no significant statistical difference for mean survival between the three groups (P=0.23). The KPS was greater than 70% in 23 patients and less than 70% in 21 patients, and the mean survival for the former and latter groups were 17.6 and 16 months, respectively (P=0

  12. NTCP modelling of lung toxicity after SBRT comparing the universal survival curve and the linear quadratic model for fractionation correction.

    PubMed

    Wennberg, Berit M; Baumann, Pia; Gagliardi, Giovanna; Nyman, Jan; Drugge, Ninni; Hoyer, Morten; Traberg, Anders; Nilsson, Kristina; Morhed, Elisabeth; Ekberg, Lars; Wittgren, Lena; Lund, Jo-Åsmund; Levin, Nina; Sederholm, Christer; Lewensohn, Rolf; Lax, Ingmar

    2011-05-01

    In SBRT of lung tumours no established relationship between dose-volume parameters and the incidence of lung toxicity is found. The aim of this study is to compare the LQ model and the universal survival curve (USC) to calculate biologically equivalent doses in SBRT to see if this will improve knowledge on this relationship. Toxicity data on radiation pneumonitis grade 2 or more (RP2+) from 57 patients were used, 10.5% were diagnosed with RP2+. The lung DVHs were corrected for fractionation (LQ and USC) and analysed with the Lyman- Kutcher-Burman (LKB) model. In the LQ-correction α/β = 3 Gy was used and the USC parameters used were: α/β = 3 Gy, D(0) = 1.0 Gy, [Formula: see text] = 10, α = 0.206 Gy(-1) and d(T) = 5.8 Gy. In order to understand the relative contribution of different dose levels to the calculated NTCP the concept of fractional NTCP was used. This might give an insight to the questions of whether "high doses to small volumes" or "low doses to large volumes" are most important for lung toxicity. NTCP analysis with the LKB-model using parameters m = 0.4, D(50) = 30 Gy resulted for the volume dependence parameter (n) with LQ correction n = 0.87 and with USC correction n = 0.71. Using parameters m = 0.3, D(50) = 20 Gy n = 0.93 with LQ correction and n = 0.83 with USC correction. In SBRT of lung tumours, NTCP modelling of lung toxicity comparing models (LQ,USC) for fractionation correction, shows that low dose contribute less and high dose more to the NTCP when using the USC-model. Comparing NTCP modelling of SBRT data and data from breast cancer, lung cancer and whole lung irradiation implies that the response of the lung is treatment specific. More data are however needed in order to have a more reliable modelling.

  13. The comparative cost-effectiveness of an equity-focused approach to child survival, health, and nutrition: a modelling approach.

    PubMed

    Carrera, Carlos; Azrack, Adeline; Begkoyian, Genevieve; Pfaffmann, Jerome; Ribaira, Eric; O'Connell, Thomas; Doughty, Patricia; Aung, Kyaw Myint; Prieto, Lorena; Rasanathan, Kumanan; Sharkey, Alyssa; Chopra, Mickey; Knippenberg, Rudolf

    2012-10-13

    Progress on child mortality and undernutrition has seen widening inequities and a concentration of child deaths and undernutrition in the most deprived communities, threatening the achievement of the Millennium Development Goals. Conversely, a series of recent process and technological innovations have provided effective and efficient options to reach the most deprived populations. These trends raise the possibility that the perceived trade-off between equity and efficiency no longer applies for child health--that prioritising services for the poorest and most marginalised is now more effective and cost effective than mainstream approaches. We tested this hypothesis with a mathematical-modelling approach by comparing the cost-effectiveness in terms of child deaths and stunting events averted between two approaches (from 2011-15 in 14 countries and one province): an equity-focused approach that prioritises the most deprived communities, and a mainstream approach that is representative of current strategies. We combined some existing models, notably the Marginal Budgeting for Bottlenecks Toolkit and the Lives Saved Tool, to do our analysis. We showed that, with the same level of investment, disproportionately higher effects are possible by prioritising the poorest and most marginalised populations, for averting both child mortality and stunting. Our results suggest that an equity-focused approach could result in sharper decreases in child mortality and stunting and higher cost-effectiveness than mainstream approaches, while reducing inequities in effective intervention coverage, health outcomes, and out-of-pocket spending between the most and least deprived groups and geographic areas within countries. Our findings should be interpreted with caution due to uncertainties around some of the model parameters and baseline data. Further research is needed to address some of these gaps in the evidence base. Strategies for improving child nutrition and survival, however

  14. Convection-enhanced delivery of a synthetic retinoid Am80, loaded into polymeric micelles, prolongs the survival of rats bearing intracranial glioblastoma xenografts.

    PubMed

    Yokosawa, Michiko; Sonoda, Yukihiko; Sugiyama, Shin-ichiro; Saito, Ryuta; Yamashita, Yoji; Nishihara, Masamichi; Satoh, Taku; Kumabe, Toshihiro; Yokoyama, Masayuki; Tominaga, Teiji

    2010-08-01

    Prognosis for the patients with glioblastoma, the most common malignant brain tumor, remains dismal. A major barrier to progress in treatment of glioblastoma is the relative inaccessibility of tumors to chemotherapeutic agents. Convection-enhanced delivery (CED) is a direct intracranial drug infusion technique to deliver chemotherapeutic agents to the central nervous system, circumventing the blood-brain barrier and reducing systemic side effects. CED can provide wider distribution of infused agents compared to simple diffusion. We have reported that CED of a polymeric micelle carrier system could yield a clinically relevant distribution of encapsulated agents in the rat brain. Our aim was to evaluate the efficacy of CED of polymeric micellar Am80, a synthetic agonist with high affinity to nuclear retinoic acid receptor, in a rat model of glioblastoma xenografts. We also used systemic administration of temozolomide, a DNA-alkylating agent, which has been established as the standard of care for newly diagnosed malignant glioma. U87MG human glioma cells were injected into the cerebral hemisphere of nude rats. Rats bearing U87MG xenografts were treated with CED of micellar Am80 (2.4 mg/m(2)) on day 7 after tumor implantation. Temozolomide (200 mg/m(2)/day) was intraperitoneally administered daily for 5 days, starting on day 7 after tumor implantation. CED of micellar Am80 provided significantly longer survival than the control. The combination of CED of micellar Am80 and systemic administration of temozolomide provided significantly longer survival than single treatment. In conclusion, temozolomide combined with CED of micellar Am80 may be a promising method for the treatment of malignant gliomas.

  15. Cell cycle inhibitor, p19INK4d, promotes cell survival and decreases chromosomal aberrations after genotoxic insult due to enhanced DNA repair.

    PubMed

    Scassa, María E; Marazita, Mariela C; Ceruti, Julieta M; Carcagno, Abel L; Sirkin, Pablo F; González-Cid, Marcela; Pignataro, Omar P; Cánepa, Eduardo T

    2007-05-01

    Genome integrity and cell proliferation and survival are regulated by an intricate network of pathways that includes cell cycle checkpoints, DNA repair and recombination, and programmed cell death. It makes sense that there should be a coordinated regulation of these different processes, but the components of such mechanisms remain unknown. In this report, we demonstrate that p19INK4d expression enhances cell survival under genotoxic conditions. By using p19INK4d-overexpressing clones, we demonstrated that p19INK4d expression correlates with the cellular resistance to UV treatment with increased DNA repair activity against UV-induced lesions. On the contrary, cells transfected with p19INK4d antisense cDNA show reduced ability to repair DNA damage and increased sensitivity to genotoxic insult when compared with their p19INK4d-overexpressing counterparts. Consistent with these findings, our studies also show that p19INK4d-overexpressing cells present not only a minor accumulation of UV-induced chromosomal aberrations but a lower frequency of spontaneous chromosome abnormalities than p19INK4d-antisense cells. Lastly, we suggest that p19INK4d effects are dissociated from its role as CDK4/6 inhibitor. The results presented herein support a crucial role for p19INK4d in regulating genomic stability and overall cell viability under conditions of genotoxic stress. We propose that p19INK4d would belong to a protein network that would integrate DNA repair, apoptotic and checkpoint mechanisms in order to maintain the genomic integrity.

  16. Comparative Study of Survival following Videothoracoscopic Lobectomy Procedures for Lung Cancer: Single- versus Multiple-port Approaches.

    PubMed

    Borro, José M; Regueiro, Francisco; Pértega, Sonia; Constenla, Manuel; Pita, Salvador

    2017-04-01

    Video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery has become the technique of choice in the early stages of lung cancer in many centers although there is no evidence that all of the surgical approaches achieve the same long-term survival. We carried out a retrospective review of 276 VATS lobectomies performed in our department, analyzing age, sex, comorbidities, current smoker, FEV1 and FCV, surgical approach, TNM and pathological stage, histologic type, neoadjuvant or coadjuvant chemotherapy, relapse and metastasis time, with the main aim of evaluating the survival rate and disease-free time, especially with regard to the two/three versus single port approach. The one/four year global survival rate was 88.1 and 67.6% respectively. Bivariate analysis found that the variables associated with survival are comorbidity, histological type, stage, surgical approach and need for chemotherapy. When we independently analyzed the surgical approach, we found a lower survival rate in the single-port group vs. the two/three-port group (VATS). Stratifying by tumoral stage (stage I) and by tumor size (T2) survival was significantly lower for patients with single-port group in comparison to VATS approach. In the multivariate analysis, single-port group is associated with a higher risk of death (HR=1.78). In analyzing disease-free survival, differences were found in both cases in favor of two/three port VATS: p=.093 for local relapses and p=.091 for the development of metastasis. These results challenge the use of the single port technique in malignant lung pathologies, suggesting the need for clinical trials in order to identify the role this technique may have in lung cancer surgery. Copyright © 2016 SEPAR. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  17. Acetalated Dextran Microparticulate Vaccine Formulated via Coaxial Electrospray Preserves Toxin Neutralization and Enhances Murine Survival Following Inhalational Bacillus Anthracis Exposure.

    PubMed

    Gallovic, Matthew D; Schully, Kevin L; Bell, Matthew G; Elberson, Margaret A; Palmer, John R; Darko, Christian A; Bachelder, Eric M; Wyslouzil, Barbara E; Keane-Myers, Andrea M; Ainslie, Kristy M

    2016-10-01

    Subunit formulations are regarded as the safest type of vaccine, but they often contain a protein-based antigen that can result in significant challenges, such as preserving antigenicity during formulation and administration. Many studies have demonstrated that encapsulation of protein antigens in polymeric microparticles (MPs) via emulsion techniques results in total IgG antibody titers comparable to alum formulations, however, the antibodies themselves are non-neutralizing. To address this issue, a coaxial electrohydrodynamic spraying (electrospray) technique is used to formulate a microparticulate-based subunit anthrax vaccine under conditions that minimize recombinant protective antigen (rPA) exposure to harsh solvents and high shear stress. rPA and the adjuvant resiquimod are encapsulated either in separate or the same acetalated dextran MPs. Using a murine model, the electrospray formulations lead to higher IgG2a subtype titers as well as comparable total IgG antibody titers and toxin neutralization relative to the FDA-approved vaccine (BioThrax). BioThrax provides no protection against a lethal inhalational challenge of the highly virulent Ames Bacillus anthracis anthrax strain, whereas 50% of the mice vaccinated with separately encapsulated electrospray MPs survive. Overall, this study demonstrates the potential use of electrospray for encapsulating protein antigens in polymeric MPs. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Reduced-intensity allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation combined with imatinib has comparable event-free survival and overall survival to long-term imatinib treatment in young patients with chronic myeloid leukemia.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yanmin; Wang, Jiasheng; Luo, Yi; Shi, Jimin; Zheng, Weiyan; Tan, Yamin; Cai, Zhen; Huang, He

    2017-08-01

    The relative merits of reduced intensity hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (RIST) for chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) in the first chronic phase (CP) in imatinib era have not been evaluated. The study was designed to compare the outcomes of combination therapy of RIST plus imatinib (RIST + IM) vs. imatinib (IM) alone for young patients with early CP (ECP) and late CP (LCP). Of the patients, 130 were non-randomly assigned to treatment with IM alone (n = 88) or RIST + IM (n = 42). The 10-year overall survival (OS) and event-free survival (EFS) were comparable between RIST + IM and IM groups. LCP, high Sokal score, and no complete cytogenetic response at 3 months were adverse prognostic factors for survival, but only the time from diagnosis to IM was an independent predictor after multivariate analysis. For ECP, IM was similar to RIST + IM, with 10-year EFS rates of 77.2 vs. 81.6% (p = 0.876) and OS rates of 93.8 vs. 87.9% (p = 0.102), respectively. For LCP, both treatments resulted in similar survival, but more patients in the imatinib group experienced events (10-year EFS 40.8 vs. 66.7%, p = 0.047). The patients with higher EBMT risk scores had an inferior survival than those with lower scores (69.2 vs. 92.9%, p = 0.04). We concluded that RIST + IM was comparable to IM in terms of OS and EFS. However, RIST + IM was more affordable than IM alone in a 10-year scale. Thus, RIST + IM could be considered as an alternative treatment option, especially when the patients have low EBMT risk scores and demand a definite cure for CML.

  19. Comparative study of joint analysis of microarray gene expression data in survival prediction and risk assessment of breast cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Microarray gene expression data sets are jointly analyzed to increase statistical power. They could either be merged together or analyzed by meta-analysis. For a given ensemble of data sets, it cannot be foreseen which of these paradigms, merging or meta-analysis, works better. In this article, three joint analysis methods, Z -score normalization, ComBat and the inverse normal method (meta-analysis) were selected for survival prognosis and risk assessment of breast cancer patients. The methods were applied to eight microarray gene expression data sets, totaling 1324 patients with two clinical endpoints, overall survival and relapse-free survival. The performance derived from the joint analysis methods was evaluated using Cox regression for survival analysis and independent validation used as bias estimation. Overall, Z -score normalization had a better performance than ComBat and meta-analysis. Higher Area Under the Receiver Operating Characteristic curve and hazard ratio were also obtained when independent validation was used as bias estimation. With a lower time and memory complexity, Z -score normalization is a simple method for joint analysis of microarray gene expression data sets. The derived findings suggest further assessment of this method in future survival prediction and cancer classification applications. PMID:26504096

  20. Convergent RANK- and c-Met-mediated signaling components predict survival of patients with prostate cancer: an interracial comparative study.

    PubMed

    Hu, Peizhen; Chung, Leland W K; Berel, Dror; Frierson, Henry F; Yang, Hua; Liu, Chunyan; Wang, Ruoxiang; Li, Qinlong; Rogatko, Andre; Zhau, Haiyen E

    2013-01-01

    We reported (PLoS One 6 (12):e28670, 2011) that the activation of c-Met signaling in RANKL-overexpressing bone metastatic LNCaP cell and xenograft models increased expression of RANK, RANKL, c-Met, and phosphorylated c-Met, and mediated downstream signaling. We confirmed the significance of the RANK-mediated signaling network in castration resistant clinical human prostate cancer (PC) tissues. In this report, we used a multispectral quantum dot labeling technique to label six RANK and c-Met convergent signaling pathway mediators simultaneously in formalin fixed paraffin embedded (FFPE) tissue specimens, quantify the intensity of each expression at the sub-cellular level, and investigated their potential utility as predictors of patient survival in Caucasian-American, African-American and Chinese men. We found that RANKL and neuropilin-1 (NRP-1) expression predicts survival of Caucasian-Americans with PC. A Gleason score ≥ 8 combined with nuclear p-c-Met expression predicts survival in African-American PC patients. Neuropilin-1, p-NF-κB p65 and VEGF are predictors for the overall survival of Chinese men with PC. These results collectively support interracial differences in cell signaling networks that can predict the survival of PC patients.

  1. Antitumor Synergism and Enhanced Survival with a Tumor Vasculature-Targeted Enzyme Prodrug System, Rapamycin, and Cyclophosphamide.

    PubMed

    Krais, John J; Virani, Needa; McKernan, Patrick H; Nguyen, Quang; Fung, Kar-Ming; Sikavitsas, Vassilios I; Kurkjian, Carla; Harrison, Roger G

    2017-09-01

    Mutant cystathionine gamma-lyase was targeted to phosphatidylserine exposed on tumor vasculature through fusion with Annexin A1 or Annexin A5. Cystathionine gamma-lyase E58N, R118L, and E338N mutations impart nonnative methionine gamma-lyase activity, resulting in tumor-localized generation of highly toxic methylselenol upon systemic administration of nontoxic selenomethionine. The described therapeutic system circumvents systemic toxicity issues using a novel drug delivery/generation approach and avoids the administration of nonnative proteins and/or DNA required with other enzyme prodrug systems. The enzyme fusion exhibits strong and stable in vitro binding with dissociation constants in the nanomolar range for both human and mouse breast cancer cells and in a cell model of tumor vascular endothelium. Daily administration of the therapy suppressed growth of highly aggressive triple-negative murine 4T1 mammary tumors in immunocompetent BALB/cJ mice and MDA-MB-231 tumors in SCID mice. Treatment did not result in the occurrence of negative side effects or the elicitation of neutralizing antibodies. On the basis of the vasculature-targeted nature of the therapy, combinations with rapamycin and cyclophosphamide were evaluated. Rapamycin, an mTOR inhibitor, reduces the prosurvival signaling of cells in a hypoxic environment potentially exacerbated by a vasculature-targeted therapy. IHC revealed, unsurprisingly, a significant hypoxic response (increase in hypoxia-inducible factor 1 α subunit, HIF1A) in the enzyme prodrug-treated tumors and a dramatic reduction of HIF1A upon rapamycin treatment. Cyclophosphamide, an immunomodulator at low doses, was combined with the enzyme prodrug therapy and rapamycin; this combination synergistically reduced tumor volumes, inhibited metastatic progression, and enhanced survival. Mol Cancer Ther; 16(9); 1855-65. ©2017 AACR . ©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.

  2. Hypoxia-induced oxidative stress promotes MUC4 degradation via autophagy to enhance pancreatic cancer cells survival.

    PubMed

    Joshi, S; Kumar, S; Ponnusamy, M P; Batra, S K

    2016-11-10

    Pancreatic cancer (PC) and associated pre-neoplastic lesions have been reported to be hypoxic, primarily due to hypovascular nature of PC. Though the presence of hypoxia under cancerous condition has been associated with the overexpression of oncogenic proteins (MUC1), multiple emerging reports have also indicated the growth inhibitory effects of hypoxia. In spite of being recognized as the top-most differentially expressed and established oncogenic protein in PC, MUC4 regulation in terms of micro-environmental stress has not been determined. Herein, for the first time, we are reporting that MUC4 protein stability is drastically affected in PC, under hypoxic condition in a hypoxia inducible factor 1α (HIF-1α)-independent manner. Mechanistically, we have demonstrated that hypoxia-mediated induction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) promotes autophagy by inhibiting pAkt/mTORC1 pathway, one of the central regulators of autophagy. Immunohistofluorescence analyses revealed significant negative correlation (P-value=0.017) between 8-hydroxy guanosine (8-OHG) and MUC4 in primary pancreatic tumors (n=25). Moreover, we found pronounced colocalization between MUC4 and LAMP1/LC3 (microtubule-associated protein 1A/1B-light chain 3) in PC tissues and also observed their negative relationship in their expression pattern, suggesting that areas with high autophagy rate had less MUC4 expression. We also found that hypoxia and ROS have negative impact on overall cell growth and viability, which was partially, though significantly (P<0.05), rescued in the presence of MUC4. Altogether, hypoxia-mediated oxidative stress induces autophagy in PC, leading to the MUC4 degradation to enhance survival, possibly by offering required metabolites to stressed cells.

  3. Hypoxia-induced oxidative stress promotes MUC4 degradation via autophagy to enhance pancreatic cancer cells survival

    PubMed Central

    Joshi, S; Kumar, S; Ponnusamy, MP; Batra, SK

    2016-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer (PC) and associated pre-neoplastic lesions have been reported to be hypoxic, primarily due to hypovascular nature of PC. Though the presence of hypoxia under cancerous condition has been associated with the overexpression of oncogenic proteins (MUC1), multiple emerging reports have also indicated the growth inhibitory effects of hypoxia. In spite of being recognized as the top-most differentially expressed and established oncogenic protein in PC, MUC4 regulation in terms of micro-environmental stress has not been determined. Herein, for the first time, we are reporting that MUC4 protein stability is drastically affected in PC, under hypoxic condition in a hypoxia inducible factor 1α (HIF-1α)-independent manner. Mechanistically, we have demonstrated that hypoxia-mediated induction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) promotes autophagy by inhibiting pAkt/ mTORC1 pathway, one of the central regulators of autophagy. Immunohistofluorescence analyses revealed significant negative correlation (P-value = 0.017) between 8-hydroxy guanosine (8-OHG) and MUC4 in primary pancreatic tumors (n = 25). Moreover, we found pronounced colocalization between MUC4 and LAMP1/LC3 (microtubule-associated protein 1A/1B-light chain 3) in PC tissues and also observed their negative relationship in their expression pattern, suggesting that areas with high autophagy rate had less MUC4 expression. We also found that hypoxia and ROS have negative impact on overall cell growth and viability, which was partially, though significantly (P < 0.05), rescued in the presence of MUC4. Altogether, hypoxia-mediated oxidative stress induces autophagy in PC, leading to the MUC4 degradation to enhance survival, possibly by offering required metabolites to stressed cells. PMID:27109098

  4. Mid-term survival analysis of closed wedge high tibial osteotomy: A comparative study of computer-assisted and conventional techniques.

    PubMed

    Bae, Dae Kyung; Song, Sang Jun; Kim, Kang Il; Hur, Dong; Jeong, Ho Yeon

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of the present study was to compare the clinical and radiographic results and survival rates between computer-assisted and conventional closing wedge high tibial osteotomies (HTOs). Data from a consecutive cohort comprised of 75 computer-assisted HTOs and 75 conventional HTOs were retrospectively reviewed. The Knee Society knee and function scores, Hospital for Special Surgery (HSS) score and femorotibial angle (FTA) were compared between the two groups. Survival rates were also compared with procedure failure. The knee and function scores at one year postoperatively were slightly better in the computer-assisted group than those in conventional group (90.1 vs. 86.1) (82.0 vs. 76.0). The HSS scores at one year postoperatively were slightly better for the computer-assisted HTOs than those of conventional HTOs (89.5 vs. 81.8). The inlier of the postoperative FTA was wider in the computer-assisted group than that in the conventional HTO group (88.0% vs. 58.7%), and mean postoperative FTA was greater in the computer-assisted group that in the conventional HTO group (valgus 9.0° vs. valgus 7.6°, p<0.001). The five- and 10-year survival rates were 97.1% and 89.6%, respectively. No difference was detected in nine-year survival rates (p=0.369) between the two groups, although the clinical and radiographic results were better in the computer-assisted group that those in the conventional HTO group. Mid-term survival rates did not differ between computer-assisted and conventional HTOs. A comparative analysis of longer-term survival rate is required to demonstrate the long-term benefit of computer-assisted HTO. III. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Comparative transgenic analysis of enhancers from the human SHOX and mouse Shox2 genomic regions.

    PubMed

    Rosin, Jessica M; Abassah-Oppong, Samuel; Cobb, John

    2013-08-01

    Disruption of presumptive enhancers downstream of the human SHOX gene (hSHOX) is a frequent cause of the zeugopodal limb defects characteristic of Léri-Weill dyschondrosteosis (LWD). The closely related mouse Shox2 gene (mShox2) is also required for limb development, but in the more proximal stylopodium. In this study, we used transgenic mice in a comparative approach to characterize enhancer sequences in the hSHOX and mShox2 genomic regions. Among conserved noncoding elements (CNEs) that function as enhancers in vertebrate genomes, those that are maintained near paralogous genes are of particular interest given their ancient origins. Therefore, we first analyzed the regulatory potential of a genomic region containing one such duplicated CNE (dCNE) downstream of mShox2 and hSHOX. We identified a strong limb enhancer directly adjacent to the mShox2 dCNE that recapitulates the expression pattern of the endogenous gene. Interestingly, this enhancer requires sequences only conserved in the mammalian lineage in order to drive strong limb expression, whereas the more deeply conserved sequences of the dCNE function as a neural enhancer. Similarly, we found that a conserved element downstream of hSHOX (CNE9) also functions as a neural enhancer in transgenic mice. However, when the CNE9 transgenic construct was enlarged to include adjacent, non-conserved sequences frequently deleted in LWD patients, the transgene drove expression in the zeugopodium of the limbs. Therefore, both hSHOX and mShox2 limb enhancers are coupled to distinct neural enhancers. This is the first report demonstrating the activity of cis-regulatory elements from the hSHOX and mShox2 genomic regions in mammalian embryos.

  6. Comparative Study of Antenna Elements for TDRSS Enhanced Multiple Access System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kory, Carol L.; Lambert, Kevin; Acosta, Roberto; Nessel, James

    2006-01-01

    We compare three antennas, which are candidates for the TDRSS-Continuation enhanced MA array antenna elements. Measured and simulated data show very good agreement for all antenna elements. All of the antennas meet the specifications with the exception of the SBA isolation. However, improvements can likely be made with further design efforts.

  7. A comparative study of generalized linear mixed modelling and artificial neural network approach for the joint modelling of survival and incidence of Dengue patients in Sri Lanka

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hapugoda, J. C.; Sooriyarachchi, M. R.

    2017-09-01

    Survival time of patients with a disease and the incidence of that particular disease (count) is frequently observed in medical studies with the data of a clustered nature. In many cases, though, the survival times and the count can be correlated in a way that, diseases that occur rarely could have shorter survival times or vice versa. Due to this fact, joint modelling of these two variables will provide interesting and certainly improved results than modelling these separately. Authors have previously proposed a methodology using Generalized Linear Mixed Models (GLMM) by joining the Discrete Time Hazard model with the Poisson Regression model to jointly model survival and count model. As Aritificial Neural Network (ANN) has become a most powerful computational tool to model complex non-linear systems, it was proposed to develop a new joint model of survival and count of Dengue patients of Sri Lanka by using that approach. Thus, the objective of this study is to develop a model using ANN approach and compare the results with the previously developed GLMM model. As the response variables are continuous in nature, Generalized Regression Neural Network (GRNN) approach was adopted to model the data. To compare the model fit, measures such as root mean square error (RMSE), absolute mean error (AME) and correlation coefficient (R) were used. The measures indicate the GRNN model fits the data better than the GLMM model.

  8. Comparing Western and Eastern criteria for sarcopenia and their association with survival in patients with pancreatic cancer.

    PubMed

    Wu, Chih-Horng; Chang, Ming-Chu; Lyadov, Vladimir K; Liang, Po-Chin; Chen, Chyi-Mong; Shih, Tiffany Ting-Fang; Chang, Yu-Ting

    2018-02-20

    Sarcopenia and cachexia are associated with pancreatic cancer and serve as important adverse prognostic factors. Body composition can be analyzed by routine computed tomography (CT) for cancer staging and has been used to study many types of cancer. The CT measurements are robust, but the diagnostic criteria for sarcopenia vary among different studies. Age, sex and race are important factors that affect muscle and fat masses. This study aimed to analyze the effect of different sarcopenia diagnostic criteria on the prognosis of patients with pancreatic cancer. Patients with newly diagnosed pancreatic cancer at National Taiwan University Hospital between October 2013 and October 2016 were retrospectively reviewed in this study. Body composition was assessed using cross-sectional CT images to calculate the total skeletal muscle (TSM) index. The concordance and interobserver variability of the TSM measurements were evaluated using both the Western criteria and the Eastern criteria. Kaplan-Meier analyses and the Cox proportional hazard ratio with two different diagnostic criteria for sarcopenia were used to compare the effect on overall survival (OS). A total of 146 patients with pancreatic cancer were enrolled. The TSM index measured by the Western institute was highly correlated with that measured by the Eastern institute (r = 0.953, p < 0.001). The prevalence of sarcopenia in the patient group at baseline was 66.4% (97/146) by the Western criteria and 11.0% (16/146) by the Eastern criteria, and only low agreement was found between the Western and Eastern criteria (Kappa value = 0.028, p = 0.149). Patients who were sarcopenic by the Western criteria showed no significant difference in OS versus those who were not sarcopenic (p = 0.807). However, patients who were sarcopenic by the Eastern criteria showed a significant difference in OS versus those who were not sarcopenic in a univariate analysis (p = 0.008) and multivariate analysis after adjustment for

  9. A comparative evaluation of risk-adjustment models for benchmarking amputation-free survival after lower extremity bypass.

    PubMed

    Simons, Jessica P; Goodney, Philip P; Flahive, Julie; Hoel, Andrew W; Hallett, John W; Kraiss, Larry W; Schanzer, Andres

    2016-04-01

    Providing patients and payers with publicly reported risk-adjusted quality metrics for the purpose of benchmarking physicians and institutions has become a national priority. Several prediction models have been developed to estimate outcomes after lower extremity revascularization for critical limb ischemia, but the optimal model to use in contemporary practice has not been defined. We sought to identify the highest-performing risk-adjustment model for amputation-free survival (AFS) at 1 year after lower extremity bypass (LEB). We used the national Society for Vascular Surgery Vascular Quality Initiative (VQI) database (2003-2012) to assess the performance of three previously validated risk-adjustment models for AFS. The Bypass versus Angioplasty in Severe Ischaemia of the Leg (BASIL), Finland National Vascular (FINNVASC) registry, and the modified Project of Ex-vivo vein graft Engineering via Transfection III (PREVENT III [mPIII]) risk scores were applied to the VQI cohort. A novel model for 1-year AFS was also derived using the VQI data set and externally validated using the PIII data set. The relative discrimination (Harrell c-index) and calibration (Hosmer-May goodness-of-fit test) of each model were compared. Among 7754 patients in the VQI who underwent LEB for critical limb ischemia, the AFS was 74% at 1 year. Each of the previously published models for AFS demonstrated similar discriminative performance: c-indices for BASIL, FINNVASC, mPIII were 0.66, 0.60, and 0.64, respectively. The novel VQI-derived model had improved discriminative ability with a c-index of 0.71 and appropriate generalizability on external validation with a c-index of 0.68. The model was well calibrated in both the VQI and PIII data sets (goodness of fit P = not significant). Currently available prediction models for AFS after LEB perform modestly when applied to national contemporary VQI data. Moreover, the performance of each model was inferior to that of the novel VQI-derived model

  10. Performance of a surface bypass structure to enhance juvenile steelhead passage and survival at Lower Granite Dam, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Adams, Noah S.; Plumb, John M.; Perry, Russell W.; Rondorf, Dennis W.

    2014-01-01

    An integral part of efforts to recover stocks of Pacific salmon Oncorhynchus spp. and steelhead O. mykiss in Pacific Northwest rivers is to increase passage efficacy and survival of juveniles past hydroelectric dams. As part of this effort, we evaluated the efficacy of a prototype surface bypass structure, the removable spillway weir (RSW), installed in a spillbay at Lower Granite Dam, Washington, on the Snake River during 2002, 2003, 2005, and 2006. Radio-tagged juvenile steelhead were released upstream from the dam and their route of passage through the turbines, juvenile bypass, spillway, or RSW was recorded. The RSW was operated in an on-or-off condition and passed 3–13% of the total discharge at the dam when it was on. Poisson rate models were fit to the passage counts of hatchery- and natural-origin juvenile steelhead to predict the probability of fish passing the dam. Main-effect predictor variables were RSW operation, diel period, day of the year, proportion of flow passed by the spillway, and total discharge at the dam. The combined fish passage through the RSW and spillway was 55–85% during the day and 37–61% during the night. The proportion of steelhead passing through nonturbine routes was <88% when the RSW was off during the day and increased to >95% when the RSW was on during the day. The ratio of the proportion of steelhead passed to the proportion of water passing the RSW was from 6.3:1 to 10.0:1 during the day and from 2.7:1 to 5.2:1 during the night. Steelhead passing through the RSW exited the tailrace about 15 min faster than fish passing through the spillway. Mark–recapture single-release survival estimates for steelhead passing the RSW ranged from 0.95 to 1.00. The RSW appeared to be an effective bypass structure compared with other routes of fish passage at the dam.

  11. Comparative survival study of glial cells and cells composing walls of blood vessels in crustacean ventral nerve cord after photodynamic treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolosov, Mikhail S.; Shubina, Elena

    2015-03-01

    Photodynamic therapy is a prospective treatment modality of brain cancers. It is of importance to have information about relative survival rate of different cell types in nerve tissue during photodynamic treatment. Particularly, for development of sparing strategy of the photodynamic therapy of brain tumors, which pursuits both total elimination of malignant cells, which are usually of glial origin, and, at the same time, preservation of normal blood circulation as well as normal glial cells in the brain. The aim of this work was to carry out comparative survival study of glial cells and cells composing walls of blood vessels after photodynamic treatment, using simple model object - ventral nerve cord of crustacean.

  12. Enhanced Perfusion During Advanced Life Support Improves Survival With Favorable Neurologic Function in a Porcine Model of Refractory Cardiac Arrest

    PubMed Central

    Debaty, Guillaume; Metzger, Anja; Rees, Jennifer; McKnite, Scott; Puertas, Laura; Yannopoulos, Demetris; Lurie, Keith

    2016-01-01

    .7 ± 0.8, and 1.0 ± 0, respectively (p = 0.001). Protocol B: Brain blood flow was significantly higher with active compression-decompression plus intrathoracic pressure regulator compared with active compression-decompression plus impedance threshold device (0.39 ± 0.23 vs 0.27 ± 0.14 mL/min/g; p = 0.03), whereas differences in myocardial perfusion were not statistically significant (0.65 ± 0.81 vs 0.42 ± 0.36 mL/min/g; p = 0.23). Brain and myocardial blood flow with active compression-decompression plus intrathoracic pressure regulator plus epinephrine were significantly increased versus active compression-decompression plus impedance threshold device (0.40 ± 0.22 and 0.84 ± 0.60 mL/min/g; p = 0.02 for both). Conclusion Advanced life support with active compression-decompression plus intrathoracic pressure regulator significantly improved cerebral perfusion and 24-hour survival with favorable neurologic function. These findings support further evaluation of this new advanced life support methodology in humans. PMID:25756411

  13. Loss of Cbl–PI3K Interaction Enhances Osteoclast Survival due to p21-Ras Mediated PI3K Activation Independent of Cbl-b

    PubMed Central

    Adapala, Naga Suresh; Barbe, Mary F.; Tsygankov, Alexander Y.; Lorenzo, Joseph A.; Sanjay, Archana

    2015-01-01

    Cbl family proteins, Cbl and Cbl-b, are E3 ubiquitin ligases and adaptor proteins, which play important roles in bone-resorbing osteoclasts. Loss of Cbl in mice decreases osteoclast migration, resulting in delayed bone development where as absence of Cbl-b decreases bone volume due to hyper-resorptive osteoclasts. A major structural difference between Cbl and Cbl-b is tyrosine 737 (in YEAM motif) only on Cbl, which upon phosphorylation interacts with the p85 subunit of phosphatidylinositol-3 Kinase (PI3K). In contrast to Cbl−/− and Cbl-b−/−, mice lacking Cbl–PI3K interaction due to a Y737F (tyrosine to phenylalanine, YF) mutation showed enhanced osteoclast survival, but defective bone resorption. To investigate whether Cbl–PI3K interaction contributes to distinct roles of Cbl and Cbl-b in osteoclasts, mice bearing CblY737F mutation in the Cbl-b−/− background (YF/YF;Cbl-b−/−) were generated. The differentiation and survival were augmented similarly in YF/YF and YF/YF;Cbl-b−/− osteoclasts, associated with enhanced PI3K signaling suggesting an exclusive role of Cbl–PI3K interaction, independent of Cbl-b. In addition to PI3K, the small GTPase Ras also regulates osteoclast survival. In the absence of Cbl–PI3K interaction, increased Ras GTPase activity and Ras–PI3K binding were observed and inhibition of Ras activation attenuated PI3K mediated osteoclast survival. In contrast to differentiation and survival, increased osteoclast activity observed in Cbl-b−/− mice persisted even after introduction of the resorption-defective YF mutation in YF/YF;Cbl-b−/− mice. Hence, Cbl and Cbl-b play mutually exclusive roles in osteoclasts. Whereas Cbl–PI3K interaction regulates differentiation and survival, bone resorption is predominantly regulated by Cbl-b in osteoclasts. PMID:24470255

  14. Loss of Cbl-PI3K interaction enhances osteoclast survival due to p21-Ras mediated PI3K activation independent of Cbl-b.

    PubMed

    Adapala, Naga Suresh; Barbe, Mary F; Tsygankov, Alexander Y; Lorenzo, Joseph A; Sanjay, Archana

    2014-07-01

    Cbl family proteins, Cbl and Cbl-b, are E3 ubiquitin ligases and adaptor proteins, which play important roles in bone-resorbing osteoclasts. Loss of Cbl in mice decreases osteoclast migration, resulting in delayed bone development where as absence of Cbl-b decreases bone volume due to hyper-resorptive osteoclasts. A major structural difference between Cbl and Cbl-b is tyrosine 737 (in YEAM motif) only on Cbl, which upon phosphorylation interacts with the p85 subunit of phosphatidylinositol-3 Kinase (PI3K). In contrast to Cbl(-/-) and Cbl-b(-/-) , mice lacking Cbl-PI3K interaction due to a Y737F (tyrosine to phenylalanine, YF) mutation showed enhanced osteoclast survival, but defective bone resorption. To investigate whether Cbl-PI3K interaction contributes to distinct roles of Cbl and Cbl-b in osteoclasts, mice bearing CblY737F mutation in the Cbl-b(-/-) background (YF/YF;Cbl-b(-/-) ) were generated. The differentiation and survival were augmented similarly in YF/YF and YF/YF;Cbl-b(-/-) osteoclasts, associated with enhanced PI3K signaling suggesting an exclusive role of Cbl-PI3K interaction, independent of Cbl-b. In addition to PI3K, the small GTPase Ras also regulates osteoclast survival. In the absence of Cbl-PI3K interaction, increased Ras GTPase activity and Ras-PI3K binding were observed and inhibition of Ras activation attenuated PI3K mediated osteoclast survival. In contrast to differentiation and survival, increased osteoclast activity observed in Cbl-b(-/-) mice persisted even after introduction of the resorption-defective YF mutation in YF/YF;Cbl-b(-/-) mice. Hence, Cbl and Cbl-b play mutually exclusive roles in osteoclasts. Whereas Cbl-PI3K interaction regulates differentiation and survival, bone resorption is predominantly regulated by Cbl-b in osteoclasts. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Enhancing hatch rate and survival in laboratory-reared hybrid Devils Hole Pupfish through application of antibiotics to eggs and larvae

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Feuerbacher, Olin; Bonar, Scott A.; Barrett, Paul J.

    2017-01-01

    We evaluated the effectiveness of four antibiotics in enhancing the hatch rate, larval survival, and adult survival of hybrid Devils Hole Pupfish Cyprinodon diabolis (hybridized with Ash Meadows Amargosa Pupfish C. nevadensis mionectes). Cephalexin (CEX; concentration = 6.6 mg/L of water), chloramphenicol (CAM; 50 mg/L), erythromycin (ERY; 12.5 mg/L), and trimethoprim sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX; 25 mg/L) were applied as a constant bath either to incubating eggs or to larvae that hatched from untreated eggs. Hatch rate was roughly doubled by incubation in the presence of CAM (68% hatch) and TMP-SMX (66%) relative to the control (28%). Cephalexin and ERY conferred no benefit upon the hatch rate. Among fry that hatched from treated eggs, there was no increase in 15-d larval survival. However, fish that hatched from eggs treated with CAM, ERY, and TMP-SMX demonstrated enhanced survival at 360 d (51.2, 38.4, and 43.6%, respectively) and at 540 d (22.6, 6.8, and 20.2%, respectively); the untreated control had no survivors to those time points. All groups of eggs treated with antibiotics showed reductions in bacterial colony-forming units (CFUs) at 24 h posttreatment. At 120 h posttreatment, CEX-treated eggs had CFU counts similar to those of the control, whereas the TMP-SMX-treated eggs had the lowest CFU counts. Eggs treated with CAM and ERY had similar CFU counts, which were significantly reduced from the control counts. Larvae that were treated with CAM and TMP-SMX within 12 h posthatch showed enhanced 15-d survival (74% and 72%, respectively) in comparison with the control (56%). For pupfish rearing efforts in which antibiotic use is appropriate, CAM and TMP-SMX appear to provide the greatest benefit, particularly when applied to incubating eggs rather than to hatched larvae.

  16. Squamous Cancers of the Rectum Demonstrate Poorer Survival and Increased Need for Salvage Surgery Compared With Squamous Cancers of the Anus.

    PubMed

    Kulaylat, Audrey S; Hollenbeak, Christopher S; Stewart, David B

    2017-09-01

    Squamous cell cancers of the anus are rare GI malignancies for which neoadjuvant chemoradiation is the first-line treatment for nonmetastatic disease. Squamous cancers of the rectum are far less common, and it is unclear to what degree chemoradiotherapy improves their outcomes. The purpose of this study was to compare stage-specific survival for anal and rectal squamous cancers stratified by treatment approach. This was a retrospective cohort study. The study was conducted at Commission on Cancer designated hospitals. Patients (2006-2012) identified in the National Cancer Database with pretreatment clinical stage I to III cancers who underwent chemoradiotherapy, with and without subsequent salvage surgical resection (low anterior resection or abdominoperineal resection), ≥12 weeks after chemoradiotherapy were included in the study. Overall survival and the need for salvage surgery were measured. Anal cancers (n = 11,224) typically presented with stage II (45.7%) or III (36.3%) disease, whereas rectal cancer stages (n = 1049) were more evenly distributed (p < 0.001). More patients with rectal cancer underwent low anterior or abdominoperineal resections 12 weeks or later after chemoradiotherapy versus those undergoing abdominoperineal resection for anal cancer (3.8% versus 1.2%; p < 0.001). Stage I and II rectal cancer was associated with poorer survival compared with anal cancer (stage I, p = 0.017; stage II, p < 0.001); survival was similar for stage III disease. Salvage surgery for anal cancer was associated with worse survival for stage I to III cancers; salvage surgery did not significantly affect survival for rectal cancer. This was a retrospective study without cancer-specific survival measures. Squamous rectal cancers are associated with significantly worse survival than squamous cancers of the anus for clinical stage I and II disease. Despite both cancers exhibiting squamous histology, rectal cancers may be less radiosensitive than anal cancers, as

  17. Intravenous versus intramuscular cobinamide compared to intravenous saline (control) in the treatment of acute, survivable, mitochondrial toxins in swine (Sus Scrofa): a pilot study

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2018-04-10

    Type of Research: Animal Research 3. Title: Intravenous versus intramuscular cobinamide compared to intravenous saline ( control ) in the treatment...the hyperkalemia under control and in our upcoming protocol we feel we will finally be able to induce apnea with the toxin and calcium channel...intramuscular cobinamide compared to intravenous saline ( control ) in the treatment of acute, survivable, mitochondrial toxins in swine (Sus Scrofa): a pilot

  18. Hydrophobic Surfaces of Spacecraft Components Enhance the Aggregation of Microorganisms and May Lead to Higher Survival Rates on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schuerger, A. C.; Kern, R. G.

    2003-01-01

    In order to minimize the forward contamination of Mars, spacecraft are assembled under clean-room conditions that often require several procedures to clean and sterilize components. Surface characteristics of spacecraft materials may contribute to microbial survival by protecting spores from sterilizing agents, including UV irradiation on the surface of Mars. The primary objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of surface characteristics of several spacecraft materials on the survival of Bacillus subtilis spores under simulated Martian conditions.

  19. Comparative evaluation of three heat transfer enhancement strategies in a grooved channel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herman, C.; Kang, E.

    Results of a comparative evaluation of three heat transfer enhancement strategies for forced convection cooling of a parallel plate channel populated with heated blocks, representing electronic components mounted on printed circuit boards, are reported. Heat transfer in the reference geometry, the asymmetrically heated parallel plate channel, is compared with that for the basic grooved channel, and the same geometry enhanced by cylinders and vanes placed above the downstream edge of each heated block. In addition to conventional heat transfer and pressure drop measurements, holographic interferometry combined with high-speed cinematography was used to visualize the unsteady temperature fields in the self-sustained oscillatory flow. The locations of increased heat transfer within one channel periodicity depend on the enhancement technique applied, and were identified by analyzing the unsteady temperature distributions visualized by holographic interferometry. This approach allowed gaining insight into the mechanisms responsible for heat transfer enhancement. Experiments were conducted at moderate flow velocities in the laminar, transitional and turbulent flow regimes. Reynolds numbers were varied in the range Re=200-6500, corresponding to flow velocities from 0.076 to 2.36m/s. Flow oscillations were first observed between Re=1050 and 1320 for the basic grooved channel, and around Re=350 and 450 for the grooved channels equipped with cylinders and vanes, respectively. At Reynolds numbers above the onset of oscillations and in the transitional flow regime, heat transfer rates in the investigated grooved channels exceeded the performance of the reference geometry, the asymmetrically heated parallel plate channel. Heat transfer in the grooved channels enhanced with cylinders and vanes showed an increase by a factor of 1.2-1.8 and 1.5-3.5, respectively, when compared to data obtained for the basic grooved channel; however, the accompanying pressure drop penalties also

  20. Quantitative T2 mapping of recurrent glioblastoma under bevacizumab improves monitoring for non-enhancing tumor progression and predicts overall survival

    PubMed Central

    Hattingen, Elke; Jurcoane, Alina; Daneshvar, Keivan; Pilatus, Ulrich; Mittelbronn, Michel; Steinbach, Joachim P.; Bähr, Oliver

    2013-01-01

    Background Anti-angiogenic treatment in recurrent glioblastoma patients suppresses contrast enhancement and reduces vasogenic edema while non-enhancing tumor progression is common. Thus, the importance of T2-weighted imaging is increasing. We therefore quantified T2 relaxation times, which are the basis for the image contrast on T2-weighted images. Methods Conventional and quantitative MRI procedures were performed on 18 patients with recurrent glioblastoma before treatment with bevacizumab and every 8 weeks thereafter until further tumor progression. We segmented the tumor on conventional MRI into 3 subvolumes: enhancing tumor, non-enhancing tumor, and edema. Using coregistered quantitative maps, we followed changes in T2 relaxation time in each subvolume. Moreover, we generated differential T2 maps by a voxelwise subtraction using the first T2 map under bevacizumab as reference. Results Visually segmented areas of tumor and edema did not differ in T2 relaxation times. Non-enhancing tumor volume did not decrease after commencement of bevacizumab treatment but strikingly increased at progression. Differential T2 maps clearly showed non-enhancing tumor progression in previously normal brain. T2 relaxation times decreased under bevacizumab without re-increasing at tumor progression. A decrease of <26 ms in the enhancing tumor following exposure to bevacizumab was associated with longer overall survival. Conclusions Combining quantitative MRI and tumor segmentation improves monitoring of glioblastoma patients under bevacizumab. The degree of change in T2 relaxation time under bevacizumab may be an early response parameter predictive of overall survival. The sustained decrease in T2 relaxation times toward values of healthy tissue masks progressive tumor on conventional T2-weighted images. Therefore, quantitative T2 relaxation times may detect non-enhancing progression better than conventional T2-weighted imaging. PMID:23925453

  1. Improvement of isolated caprine islet survival and functionality in vitro by enhancing of PDX1 gene expression.

    PubMed

    Hani, Homayoun; Allaudin, Zeenathul Nazariah; Mohd-Lila, Mohd-Azmi; Sarsaifi, Kazhal; Rasouli, Mina; Tam, Yew Joon; Tengku-Ibrahim, Tengku-Azmi; Othman, Abas Mazni

    2017-05-01

    Dead islets replaced with viable islets are a promising offer to restore normal insulin production to a person with diabetes. The main reason for establishing a new islet source for transplantation is the insufficiency of human donor pancreas while using xenogeneic islets perhaps assists this problem. The expression of PDX1 is essential for the pancreas expansion. In mature β-cells, PDX1 has several critical roles such as glucose sensing, insulin synthesis, and insulin secretion. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the expression of pancreatic duodenal homeobox-1 (PDX1) in treated caprine islets in culture and to assess the protective effects of antioxidant factors on the PDX1 gene in cultured caprine islets. Purified islets were treated with serum-free, serum, IBMX, tocopherol, or IBMX and tocopherol media. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction and Western blotting were carried out to compare the expression levels of PDX1 in treated purified islets cultured with different media. Islets treated with IBMX/tocopherol exhibited the highest fold change in the relative expression of PDX1 on day 5 post-treatment (relative expression: 6.80±2.08), whereas serum-treated islets showed the lowest fold changes in PDX1 expression on day 5 post-treatment (0.67±0.36), as compared with the expression on day 1 post-treatment. Insulin production and viability tests of purified islets showed superiority of islet at supplemented serum-free media with IBMX/tocopherol compared to other cultures (53.875%±1.59%). Our results indicated that supplemented serum-free medium with tocopherol and IBMX enhances viability and PDX1 gene expression compared to serum-added and serum-free media. © 2017 The Authors. Xenotransplantation published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Comparative Study Of Image Enhancement Algorithms For Digital And Film Mammography

    SciTech Connect

    Delgado-Gonzalez, A.; Sanmiguel, R. E.

    2008-08-11

    Here we discuss the application of edge enhancement algorithms on images obtained with a Mammography System which has a Selenium Detector and on the other hand, on images obtained from digitized film mammography. Comparative analysis of such images includes the study of technical aspects of image acquisition, storage, compression and display. A protocol for a local database has been created as a result of this study.

  3. Comparing the case mix and survival of women receiving breast cancer care from one private provider with other London women with breast cancer: pilot data exchange and analyses.

    PubMed

    Davies, Elizabeth A; Coupland, Victoria H; Dixon, Steve; Mokbel, Kefah; Jack, Ruth H

    2016-07-07

    Data from providers of private cancer care are not yet formally included in English cancer registration data. This study aimed to test the exchange of breast cancer data from one Hospital Corporation of America International (HCAI) hospital in London with the cancer registration system and assess the suitability of these data for comparative analyses of case mix and adjusted survival. Data on 199 London women receiving 'only HCAI care', 278 women receiving 'some HCAI care' (HCAI and other services), and 31,234 other London women diagnosed between 2005 and 2011 could be identified and compared. Overall survival was estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method, and Cox regression was used to adjust for age, socioeconomic deprivation, year of diagnosis, stage of disease and recorded treatment. Women receiving 'only HCAI care' were younger, lived in areas of higher affluence (47.8 % vs 27.6 %) and appeared less likely to be recorded as having screen-detected (2.5 % vs 25.0 %) disease than other London women. Women receiving 'some HCAI care' were more similar to 'HCAI only' women. Although HCAI stage of disease data completeness improved during the study period, this was less complete overall than cancer registration data and limited the comparative survival analyses. An apparent survival advantage for 'HCAI only' women compared with other London women (hazard ratio 0.48, 95 % confidence interval (CI): 0.32-0.74) was attenuated and no longer statistically significant after adjustment (0.79, 95 % CI: 0.51-1.21). Women receiving 'some HCAI care' appeared to have higher survival (hazard ratio 0.24, 95 % CI 0.14-0.41) which was attenuated to 0.48 (95 % CI: 0.28-0.80) in the fully adjusted model. Exchange of data between the private cancer sector and the English cancer registration service can identify patients who receive all or some private care. The better survival of women receiving only or some HCAI breast cancer care appears to be at least partly explained by

  4. Silencing of Tuberin Enhances Photoreceptor Survival and Function in a Preclinical Model of Retinitis Pigmentosa (An American Ophthalmological Society Thesis)

    PubMed Central

    Tsang, Stephen H.; Chan, Lawrence; Tsai, Yi-Ting; Wu, Wen-Hsuan; Hsu, Chun-Wei; Yang, Jin; Tosi, Joaquin; Wert, Katherine J.; Davis, Richard J.; Mahajan, Vinit B.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To assess the functional consequences of silencing of tuberin, an inhibitor of the mTOR signaling pathway, in a preclinical model of retinitis pigmentosa (RP) in order to test the hypothesis that insufficient induction of the protein kinase B (PKB)-regulated tuberin/mTOR self-survival pathway initiates apoptosis. Methods: In an unbiased genome-scale approach, kinase peptide substrate arrays were used to analyze self-survival pathways at the onset of photoreceptor degeneration. The mutant Pde6bH620Q/Pde6bH620Q at P14 and P18 photoreceptor outer segment (OS) lysates were labeled with P-ATP and hybridized to an array of 1,164 different synthetic peptide substrates. At this stage, OS of Pde6bH620Q/Pde6bH620Q rods are morphologically normal. In vitro kinase assays and immunohistochemistry were used to validate phosphorylation. Short hairpin RNA (shRNA) gene silencing was used to validate tuberin’s role in regulating survival. Results: At the onset of degeneration, 162 peptides were differentially phosphorylated. Protein kinases A, G, C (AGC kinases), and B exhibited increased activity in both peptide array and in vitro kinase assays. Immunohistochemical data confirmed altered phosphorylation patterns for phosphoinositide-dependent kinase-1 (PDK1), ribosomal protein S6 (RPS6), and tuberin. Tuberin gene silencing rescued photoreceptors from degeneration. Conclusions: Phosphorylation of tuberin and RPS6 is due to the upregulated activity of PKB. PKB/tuberin cell growth/survival signaling is activated before the onset of degeneration. Substrates of the AGC kinases in the PKB/tuberin pathway are phosphorylated to promote cell survival. Knockdown of tuberin, the inhibitor of the mTOR pathway, increased photoreceptor survival and function in a preclinical model of RP. PMID:25646031

  5. A comparative study of machine learning methods for time-to-event survival data for radiomics risk modelling.

    PubMed

    Leger, Stefan; Zwanenburg, Alex; Pilz, Karoline; Lohaus, Fabian; Linge, Annett; Zöphel, Klaus; Kotzerke, Jörg; Schreiber, Andreas; Tinhofer, Inge; Budach, Volker; Sak, Ali; Stuschke, Martin; Balermpas, Panagiotis; Rödel, Claus; Ganswindt, Ute; Belka, Claus; Pigorsch, Steffi; Combs, Stephanie E; Mönnich, David; Zips, Daniel; Krause, Mechthild; Baumann, Michael; Troost, Esther G C; Löck, Steffen; Richter, Christian

    2017-10-16

    Radiomics applies machine learning algorithms to quantitative imaging data to characterise the tumour phenotype and predict clinical outcome. For the development of radiomics risk models, a variety of different algorithms is available and it is not clear which one gives optimal results. Therefore, we assessed the performance of 11 machine learning algorithms combined with 12 feature selection methods by the concordance index (C-Index), to predict loco-regional tumour control (LRC) and overall survival for patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. The considered algorithms are able to deal with continuous time-to-event survival data. Feature selection and model building were performed on a multicentre cohort (213 patients) and validated using an independent cohort (80 patients). We found several combinations of machine learning algorithms and feature selection methods which achieve similar results, e.g. C-Index = 0.71 and BT-COX: C-Index = 0.70 in combination with Spearman feature selection. Using the best performing models, patients were stratified into groups of low and high risk of recurrence. Significant differences in LRC were obtained between both groups on the validation cohort. Based on the presented analysis, we identified a subset of algorithms which should be considered in future radiomics studies to develop stable and clinically relevant predictive models for time-to-event endpoints.

  6. Signals of large scale climate drivers, hatchery enhancement, and marine factors in Yukon River Chinook salmon survival revealed with a Bayesian life history model.

    PubMed

    Cunningham, Curry J; Westley, Peter A H; Adkison, Milo D

    2018-05-18

    Understanding how species might respond to climate change involves disentangling the influence of co-occurring environmental factors on population dynamics, and is especially problematic for migratory species like Pacific salmon that move between ecosystems. To date, debate surrounding the causes of recent declines in Yukon River Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) abundance has centered on whether factors in freshwater or marine environments control variation in survival, and how these populations at the northern extremity of the species range will respond to climate change. To estimate the effect of factors in marine and freshwater environments on Chinook salmon survival, we constructed a stage-structured assessment model that incorporates the best available data, estimates incidental marine bycatch mortality in trawl fisheries, and uses Bayesian model selection methods to quantify support for alternative hypotheses. Models fitted to two index populations of Yukon River Chinook salmon indicate that processes in the nearshore and marine environments are the most important determinants of survival. Specifically, survival declines when ice leaves the Yukon River later in the spring, increases with wintertime temperature in the Bering Sea, and declines with the abundance of globally enhanced salmon species consistent with competition at sea. In addition, we found support for density-dependent survival limitations in freshwater but not marine portions of the life cycle, increasing average survival with ocean age, and age-specific selectivity of bycatch mortality in the Bering Sea. This study underscores the utility of flexible estimation models capable of fitting multiple data types and evaluating mortality from both natural and anthropogenic sources in multiple habitats. Overall, these analyses suggest that mortality at sea is the primary driver of population dynamics, yet under a warming climate Chinook salmon populations at the northern extent of the species

  7. Combined application of BDNF to the eye and brain enhances ganglion cell survival and function in the cat after optic nerve injury.

    PubMed

    Weber, Arthur J; Viswanáthan, Suresh; Ramanathan, Chidambaram; Harman, Christine D

    2010-01-01

    To determine whether application of BDNF to the eye and brain provides a greater level of neuroprotection after optic nerve injury than treatment of the eye alone. Retinal ganglion cell survival and pattern electroretinographic responses were compared in normal cat eyes and in eyes that received (1) a mild nerve crush and no treatment, (2) a single intravitreal injection of BDNF at the time of the nerve injury, or (3) intravitreal treatment combined with 1 to 2 weeks of continuous delivery of BDNF to the visual cortex, bilaterally. Relative to no treatment, administration of BDNF to the eye alone resulted in a significant increase in ganglion cell survival at both 1 and 2 weeks after nerve crush (1 week, 79% vs. 55%; 2 weeks, 60% vs. 31%). Combined treatment of the eye and visual cortex resulted in a modest additional increase (17%) in ganglion cell survival in the 1-week eyes, a further significant increase (55%) in the 2-week eyes, and ganglion cell survival levels for both that were comparable to normal (92%-93% survival). Pattern ERG responses for all the treated eyes were comparable to normal at 1 week after injury; however, at 2 weeks, only the responses of eyes receiving the combined BDNF treatment remained so. Although treatment of the eye alone with BDNF has a significant impact on ganglion cell survival after optic nerve injury, combined treatment of the eye and brain may represent an even more effective approach and should be considered in the development of future optic neuropathy-related neuroprotection strategies.

  8. Comparing the Survival Rate of Mangrove Clam, Polymesoda (Geloina) spp. (Solander 1876) Through Field Experiments in Mangrove Forests of Iriomote Island.

    PubMed

    Washitani, Yasuko; Hayakawa, Reiko; Li, Meihua; Shibata, Shozo

    2017-06-01

    Polymesoda spp., which represent bivalves in the mangrove ecosystem, inhabit the mangrove forests of the Indo-Pacific region. They tend not to be broadly distributed across zones within the mangrove forest, but are instead typically encountered in the mesozone. We conducted field rearing experiments on four plots which were set across a mangrove forest along the Urauchi River of Iriomote Island, from the seaward to landward sides, over a period of 10 months. We compared the survival rates of clams at these plots with different environment for four months. Salinity was also measured during the study period, and we established a correlation between survival rate and change in salinity of each plot. The survival rate of the plot in the mesozone was 90%, that of two plots which were positioned in the seaward zone of the mesozone was 40%, and that of the plot on the landward side was 0%. In plot 4, the ambient water of the bivalves was fresh water. The salinity of the seaward zone changed rapidly in one day, or the salinity of the ambient water surrounding the bivalves was high for a long period of time. In Plot 3, salinity change was gradual, and the average salinity was lower than in Plots 1 and 2. This study indicates that salinity level affects bivalve survival rate and that area similar the mesozone, where gradual salinity change and average salinity were neither too high nor too low, are suitable for these species.

  9. Photosynthetic response, survival, and growth of three ponderosa pine stocktypes under water stress enhanced by vegetative competition

    Treesearch

    Jeremiah R. Pinto; John D. Marshall; R. Kasten Dumroese; Anthony S. Davis; Douglas R. Cobos

    2012-01-01

    Selecting the proper stock type for reforestation on dry sites can be critical for the long-term survival and growth of seedlings. In this study, we use a novel approach to understand stock type selection on a site where drought was induced with vegetative competition. Three ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Lawson & C. Lawson var. ponderosa C. Lawson) seedling stock...

  10. Protein kinase A inhibitor, H89, significantly enhances survival rate of dissociated human embryonic stem cells following cryopreservation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Liang; Xu, Yanqing; Xu, Jiandong; Wei, Yuping; Xu, Xia

    2016-10-01

    Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) have huge potential for establishment of disease models and for treating degenerative diseases. However, the extremely low survival level of dissociated hESCs following cryopreservation is been a tremendous problem to allow for their rapid expansion, genetic manipulation and future medical applications. In this study, we have aimed to develop an efficient strategy to improve survival of dissociated hESCs after cryopreservation. Human embryonic stem cells (H9 line), dissociated into single cells, were cryopreserved using the slow-freezing method. Viable cells and their colony numbers in culture after cryopreservation were evaluated when treated with protein kinase A inhibitor H89. Western blotting was carried out to investigate mechanisms of low survival levels of dissociated hESCs following cryopreservation. Immunofluorescence, reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), in vitro and in vivo differentiation were performed to testify to pluripotency and differentiation ability of hte cryopreserved cells treated with H89. H89 significantly improved survival level of dissociated hESCs after cryopreservation through ROCK inhibition. H89-treated cells still maintained their pluripotency and differentiation capacity. This new approach for cryopreservation of single hESCs, using H89, can promote potential use of hESCs in regenerative medicine in the future. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Dietary administration of the commercially available probiotics enhanced the survival, growth, and innate immune responses in Mori (Cirrhinus mrigala) in a natural earthen polyculture system.

    PubMed

    Ullah, Amin; Zuberi, Amina; Ahmad, Muhammad; Bashir Shah, Aqsa; Younus, Naima; Ullah, Sami; Khattak, Muhammad Nasir Khan

    2018-01-01

    The use of probiotics is considered effective for survival, growth and enhanced immune response in aquaculture. In the current study, effects of commercially available probiotic (Magic Plus) was investigated on survival, growth and immune response of Mori (Cirrhinus mrigala) in a polyculture system. The experiment was conducted for 90 days on 1200 fingerlings in two groups i.e. control and probiotic supplemented groups each having 600 fingerlings. Control group was fed with 35% protein basal diet without any supplements and the other group was supplemented with commercially available probiotic at the rate of (10 12  CFU kg -1 diet). After 90 days, probiotic supplemented group was characterized with significant increase (p < 0.05) in growth parameters like, total weight, total length, %weight gain, specific growth rate and survival growth rate. Immunological indices like, lysozyme activity, white blood cells, total plasma protein level and immunoglobulin (IgM) of supplemented group were also significantly (p < 0.05) enhanced. Moreover, digestive enzymes i.e. cellulase, protease and amylase were also found to be significantly (p < 0.05) hyper-active in probiotic supplemented groups. Haematological parameters like, RBCs, Hb, Hct, MCH and MCHC were also significantly (p < 0.05) increased. Thus, the current study strongly suggests that a commercially available probiotic Magic plus may serve as a healthy and immunostimulating feed additive in C. mrigala culture. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Growth and survival of Enterobacter sakazakii in human breast milk with and without fortifiers as compared to powdered infant formula.

    PubMed

    Lenati, Raquel F; O'Connor, Deborah L; Hébert, Karine C; Farber, Jeffrey M; Pagotto, Franco J

    2008-02-29

    Enterobacter sakazakii infections often involve debilitated neonates consuming contaminated reconstituted powdered infant formula. There is the possibility that expressed human breast milk can become contaminated with E. sakazakii in the hospital or home setting and through the use of contaminated breast milk fortifiers. In addition, although breast milk has been shown to have some antimicrobial effects, this has not been extensively researched in regards to E. sakazakii. Thus, we examined the survival and growth of 9 strains of E. sakazakii in breast milk, human breast milk with fortifiers and powdered infant formula at 10, 23 and 37 degrees C. The average generation times for clinical, food and environmental isolates in breast milk were 0.94+/-0.04, 0.75+/-0.04 and 0.84+/-0.04 h at 23 degrees C; and 0.51+/-0.03, 0.33+/-0.03 and 0.42+/-0.03 h at 37 degrees C, respectively. E. sakazakii was able to survive up to 12 days in breast milk with fortifiers at 10 degrees C. However, its average generation times among replicates and isolate sources ranged from 11.97+/-3.82 to 27.08+/-4.54 h in breast milk at 10 degrees C. Interestingly, average generation times in breast milk with fortifiers at 23 degrees C (0.83+/-0.05, 0.93+/-0.06 and 0.96+/-0.06 h) and 37 degrees C (0.41+/-0.04, 0.51+/-0.05 and 0.54+/-0.05 h) were longer than in powdered infant formula and breast milk at the same temperatures, indicating that human breast milk fortifiers may have an inhibitory effect on the growth of E. sakazakii. However, the intrinsically ascribed antimicrobial properties of breast milk do not appear to inhibit the growth of this foodborne pathogen in-vitro.

  13. Arid1a Inactivation in an Apc and Pten-defective Mouse Ovarian Cancer Model Enhances Epithelial Differentiation and Prolongs Survival

    PubMed Central

    Zhai, Yali; Kuick, Rork; Tipton, Courtney; Wu, Rong; Sessine, Michael; Wang, Zhong; Baker, Suzanne J.; Fearon, Eric R.; Cho, Kathleen R.

    2015-01-01

    Inactivation of the ARID1A tumor suppressor gene is frequent in ovarian endometrioid (OEC) and clear cell carcinomas (OCCC), often in conjunction with mutations activating the PI3K/AKT and/or canonical Wnt signaling pathways. Prior work has shown that conditional bi-allelic inactivation of the Apc and Pten tumor suppressor genes in the mouse ovarian surface epithelium (OSE) promotes outgrowth of tumors that reflect the biological behavior and gene expression profiles of human OECs harboring comparable Wnt and PI3K/AKT pathway defects, though the mouse tumors are more poorly differentiated than their human tumor counterparts. We found that conditional inactivation of one or both Arid1a alleles in OSE concurrently with Apc and Pten inactivation unexpectedly prolonged survival of tumor-bearing mice and promoted striking epithelial differentiation of the cancer cells, resulting in morphological features akin to those in human OECs. Enhanced epithelial differentiation was linked to reduced expression of mesenchymal markers N-cadherin and vimentin, and increased expression of epithelial markers Crb3 and E-cadherin. Global gene expression profiling showed enrichment for genes associated with mesenchymal-to-epithelial transition in the Arid1a-deficient tumors. We also found that an activating (E545K) Pik3ca mutation, unlike Pten inactivation or Pik3ca H1047R mutation, cannot cooperate with Arid1a loss to promote ovarian cancer development in the mouse. Our results indicate the Arid1a tumor suppressor gene has a key role in regulating OEC differentiation, and paradoxically the mouse cancers with more initiating tumor suppressor gene defects had a less aggressive phenotype than cancers arising from fewer gene alterations. PMID:26279473

  14. Is Survival for Patients with Resectable Lung Metastatic Colorectal Cancer Comparable to Those with Resectable Liver Disease? Results from the South Australian Metastatic Colorectal Registry.

    PubMed

    Patel, Dainik; Townsend, Amanda R; Karapetis, Christos; Beeke, Carol; Padbury, Rob; Roy, Amitesh; Maddern, Guy; Roder, David; Price, Timothy J

    2016-10-01

    Hepatic resection for colorectal (CRC) metastasis is considered a standard of care. Resection of metastasis isolated to lung also is considered potentially curable, although there is still some variation in recommendations. We explore outcomes for patients undergoing lung resection for mCRC, with the liver resection group as the comparator. South Australian (SA) metastatic CRC registry data were analysed to assess patient characteristics and survival outcomes for patients suitable for lung or liver resection. A total of 3241 patients are registered on the database to December 2014. One hundred two (3.1 %) patients were able to undergo a lung resection compared with 420 (12.9 %) who had a liver resection. Of the lung resection patients, 62 (61 %) presented with lung disease only, 21 % initially presented with liver disease only, 11 % had both lung and liver, and 7 % had brain or pelvic disease resection. Of these patients, 79 % went straight to surgery without any neoadjuvant treatment and 34 % had lung resection as the only intervention. Chemotherapy for metastatic disease was given more often to liver resection patients: 76.9 versus 53.9 %, p = 0.17. Median overall survival is 5.6 years for liver resection and has not been reached for lung resection (hazard ratio 0.82, 95 % confidence interval 0.54-1.24, p = 0.33). Lung resection was undertaken in 3.1 % of patients with mCRC in our registry. These data provide further support for long-term survival after lung resection in mCRC, survival that is at least comparable to those who undergo resection for liver metastasis in mCRC.

  15. Is Reading Impairment Associated with Enhanced Holistic Processing in Comparative Visual Search?

    PubMed

    Wang, Jiahui; Schneps, Matthew H; Antonenko, Pavlo D; Chen, Chen; Pomplun, Marc

    2016-11-01

    This study explores a proposition that individuals with dyslexia develop enhanced peripheral vision to process visual-spatial information holistically. Participants included 18 individuals diagnosed with dyslexia and 18 who were not. The experiment used a comparative visual search design consisting of two blocks of 72 trials. Each trial presented two halves of the display each comprising three kinds of shapes in three colours to be compared side-by-side. Participants performed a conjunctive search to ascertain whether the two halves were identical. In the first block, participants were provided no instruction regarding the visual-spatial processing strategy they were to employ. In the second block, participants were instructed to use a holistic processing strategy-to defocus their attention and perform the comparison by examining the whole screen at once. The results did not support the hypothesis associating dyslexia with talents for holistic visual processing. Using holistic processing strategy, both groups scored lower in accuracy and reacted faster, compared to the first block. Impaired readers consistently reacted more slowly and did not exhibit enhanced accuracy. Given the extant evidence of strengths for holistic visual processing in impaired readers, these findings are important because they suggest such strengths may be task dependent. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Enhanced annotations and features for comparing thousands of Pseudomonas genomes in the Pseudomonas genome database.

    PubMed

    Winsor, Geoffrey L; Griffiths, Emma J; Lo, Raymond; Dhillon, Bhavjinder K; Shay, Julie A; Brinkman, Fiona S L

    2016-01-04

    The Pseudomonas Genome Database (http://www.pseudomonas.com) is well known for the application of community-based annotation approaches for producing a high-quality Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 genome annotation, and facilitating whole-genome comparative analyses with other Pseudomonas strains. To aid analysis of potentially thousands of complete and draft genome assemblies, this database and analysis platform was upgraded to integrate curated genome annotations and isolate metadata with enhanced tools for larger scale comparative analysis and visualization. Manually curated gene annotations are supplemented with improved computational analyses that help identify putative drug targets and vaccine candidates or assist with evolutionary studies by identifying orthologs, pathogen-associated genes and genomic islands. The database schema has been updated to integrate isolate metadata that will facilitate more powerful analysis of genomes across datasets in the future. We continue to place an emphasis on providing high-quality updates to gene annotations through regular review of the scientific literature and using community-based approaches including a major new Pseudomonas community initiative for the assignment of high-quality gene ontology terms to genes. As we further expand from thousands of genomes, we plan to provide enhancements that will aid data visualization and analysis arising from whole-genome comparative studies including more pan-genome and population-based approaches. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  17. Primary surgery results in no survival benefit compared to primary radiation for oropharyngeal cancer patients stratified by high-risk human papilloma virus status.

    PubMed

    Lybak, Stein; Ljøkjel, Borghild; Haave, Hilde; Karlsdottir, Àsa; Vintermyr, Olav K; Aarstad, Hans Jørgen

    2017-01-01

    We changed the primary oropharynx squamous cell carcinoma (OPSCC) treatment recommendation from primary radiation therapy (RT) to tumor surgery and neck dissection, followed by RT around the year 2000 with apparently improved survival. However, high-risk human papilloma virus (hr-HPV)-16-caused OPSCCs have increased during this period. Furthermore, hr-HPV+ OPSCC carry a better prognosis than hr-HPV-negative patients. We have, therefore, evaluated the 5-year survival in the period from 1992 to 1999 versus 2000 to 2008 stratified by hr-HPV tumor infection status. Ninety-six OPSCC patients were treated from 1992 to 1999 compared with 136 patients from 2000 to 2008. The 5-year disease-specific survival (DDS) and overall survival (OS) were recorded, while the health-related quality of life (HRQoL) scores were obtained from some of the cured patients. Thirty-eight (40 %) in the first period and 86 OPSCCs (63 %) in the second period were hr-HPV+. In the first period, 16 versus 62 patients in the last period were treated by neck dissection, primary tumor surgery, and RT. DSS among all the hr-HPV-negative patients in the first period was 51 versus 55 % in the second period, and the corresponding OS was 33 versus 31 %, respectively. The DSS among all the hr-HPV+ patients was 78 % in the first period versus 77 % in the second period, while the OS was 71 versus 69 %, respectively. The HRQoL scores among successfully treated patients were worse following surgery, plus RT than RT only. The hr-HPV-adjusted 5-year survival in OPSCC patients was similar between the two time periods. A decreased HRQoL was associated with surgical therapy, which indicates that hr-HPV+ OPSCC patients may be treated by primary RT followed by major surgery only if RT treatment fails.

  18. Genome Wide Analysis of Inbred Mouse Lines Identifies a Locus Containing Ppar-γ as Contributing to Enhanced Malaria Survival

    PubMed Central

    Henson, Kerstin; Luzader, Angelina; Lindstrom, Merle; Spooner, Muriel; Steffy, Brian M.; Suzuki, Oscar; Janse, Chris; Waters, Andrew P.; Zhou, Yingyao; Wiltshire, Tim; Winzeler, Elizabeth A.

    2010-01-01

    The genetic background of a patient determines in part if a person develops a mild form of malaria and recovers, or develops a severe form and dies. We have used a mouse model to detect genes involved in the resistance or susceptibility to Plasmodium berghei malaria infection. To this end we first characterized 32 different mouse strains infected with P. berghei and identified survival as the best trait to discriminate between the strains. We found a locus on chromosome 6 by linking the survival phenotypes of the mouse strains to their genetic variations using genome wide analyses such as haplotype associated mapping and the efficient mixed-model for association. This new locus involved in malaria resistance contains only two genes and confirms the importance of Ppar-γ in malaria infection. PMID:20531941

  19. Comparative study of LDR (Manchester system) and HDR image-guided conformal brachytherapy of cervical cancer: patterns of failure, late complications, and survival.

    PubMed

    Narayan, Kailash; van Dyk, Sylvia; Bernshaw, David; Rajasooriyar, Chrishanthi; Kondalsamy-Chennakesavan, Srinivas

    2009-08-01

    To compare patterns of failure, late toxicities, and survival in locally advanced cervical cancer patients treated by either low-dose-rate (LDR) or conformal high-dose-rate (HDRc) brachytherapy as a part of curative radiotherapy. A retrospective comparative study of 217 advanced cervix cancer patients was conducted; 90 of these patients received LDR and 127 received HDRc brachytherapy. All patients were staged using International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) rules, had pretreatment magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and were treated with concurrent cisplatin chemoradiotherapy. Both groups matched for FIGO stage, MRI tumor volume, and uterine invasion status. Local and pelvic failures were similar 12-13% and 14% both in both groups. Abdominal and systemic failures in LDR group were 21% and 24%, whereas corresponding failures in HDRc group were 20% and 24%. Sixty-eight percent (87/127) of patients treated by HDRc remained asymptomatic, whereas 42% (38/90) of patients were asymptomatic from the bowel and bladder symptoms after treatment with LDR. The 5-year OS rate was 60% (SE = 4%). The 5-year failure-free survival rate was 55% (SE = 3%). There was no significant difference between the groups. Image-guided HDRc planning led to a large decrease in late radiation effects in patients treated by HDRc. Patterns of failure and survival were similar in patients treated either by LDR or HDRc.

  20. Perspectives on the Use of Scopolamine as an Adjunct Treatment to Enhance Survival Following Organophosphorus Nerve Agent Poisoning

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-11-01

    particular nerve agent and oxime uti- lized in the treatment regimen. Atropine is the universal treatment for organophospho- rus anticholinesterase poisoning...general, to the recovery of AChE activity either through decarbamylation of PB protected enzyme or by use of an effective oxime. The results against...this protected enzyme in the first few minutes after intoxication and treat- ment provides sufficient enzyme activity to sustain survival.̂ ’"* A

  1. Determination of optimized growth medium and cryoprotective additives to enhance the growth and survival of Lactobacillus salivarius.

    PubMed

    Yeo, Soyoung; Shin, Hee Sung; Lee, Hye Won; Hong, Doseon; Park, Hyunjoon; Holzapfel, Wilhelm; Kim, Eun Bae; Huh, Chul Sung

    2018-03-16

    Beneficial effects of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) have been intensively investigated in recent decades with special focus on modulation of the host intestinal microbiota. Numerous discoveries of effective probiotics are driven by a significantly increasing demand for dietary supplements. Consequently, technological advances in the large-scale production and lyophilization are needed by probiotic-related industries for producing probiotic LAB for commercial use. Our study had a dual objective, i.e., to determine the optimum growth medium composition and to investigate appropriate cryoprotective additives (CPAs) for Lactobacillus salivarius , and compare its responses with other Lactobacillus species. The one-factor-at-a-time method and central composite design were applied to determine the optimal medium composition for L. salivarius cultivation. The following composition of the medium was established (per liter): 21.64 g maltose, 85 g yeast extract, 1.21 ml Tween 80, 6 g sodium acetate, 0.2 g MgSO 4 ∙7H 2 O, 0.02 g MnSO 4 ∙H 2 O, 1 g K 2 HPO 4 , 1.5 g KH 2 PO 4 , 0.01 g FeSO 4 ∙7H 2 O and 1 g sodium citrate. A cryoprotective additive combination comprising 10% ( w/v ) skim milk and 10% ( w/v ) sucrose supplemented with 2.5% ( w/v ) sodium glutamate was selected for L. salivarius , and its effectiveness was confirmed using culture-independent methods in the freeze-dried cells of the Lactobacillus strains. In conclusion, the optimized medium enhanced the species-specific cultivation of L. salivarius . On the other hand, the cryoprotective effects of the selected CPA mixture may also be dependent on the bacterial strain. This study highlights the necessity for precise and advanced processing techniques for large-scale production of probiotics in the food and feed industries.

  2. Survival in extreme environment by "preserve-expand-specialize" strategy: lessons from comparative genomics of an anhydrobiotic midge.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gusev, Oleg; Sugimoto, Manabu; Novikova, Nataliya; Sychev, Vladimir; Okuda, Takashi; Kikawada, Takahiro

    2012-07-01

    Anhydrobiotic chironomid larvae of Polypedilum vanderplanki (Diptera) can withstand prolonged complete desiccation as well as other external stresses including ionizing radiation. Recent experiments showed that this insect is able to survive long-tern exposure to real outer space. At the same time, we found that dehydration causes alterations in chromatin structure and a severe fragmentation of nuclear DNA in the cells of the larvae despite successful anhydrobiosis. Analysis of several remote populations of the chironomid in Africa that desiccation-related DNA damage might be a driving genetic force for rapid radiation within the species. First results of ongoing genome project suggest that origin and evolution of anhydrobiosis in this single insect species related to rapid duplication of the genes, coding late embryogenesis abundant proteins (LEA) and other molecular agents directly involved in desiccation resistance in the cells. Analysis of genome-wide mRNA expression profiles in the larvae subjected to desiccation shows that joint-activity of large multiple-genes coding regions in the genome involved in control of anhydrobiosis-related molecular adaptations in the chironomid.

  3. Can angiogenesis induced by chronic electrical stimulation enhance latissimus dorsi muscle flap survival for application in cardiomyoplasty?

    PubMed

    Overgoor, Max L E; Carroll, Sean M; Papanicolau, George; Carroll, Camilla M A; Ustüner, Tuncay E T; Stremel, Richard W; Anderson, Gary L; Franken, Ralph J P M; Kon, Moshe; Barker, John H

    2003-01-01

    In cardiomyoplasty, the latissimus dorsi muscle is lifted on its primary neurovascular pedicle and wrapped around a failing heart. After 2 weeks, it is trained for 6 weeks using chronic electrical stimulation, which transforms the latissimus dorsi muscle into a fatigue-resistant muscle that can contract in synchrony with the beating heart without tiring. In over 600 cardiomyoplasty procedures performed clinically to date, the outcomes have varied. Given the data obtained in animal experiments, the authors believe these variable outcomes are attributable to distal latissimus dorsi muscle flap necrosis. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether the chronic electrical stimulation training used to transform the latissimus dorsi muscle into fatigue-resistant muscle could also be used to induce angiogenesis, increase perfusion, and thus protect the latissimus dorsi muscle flap from distal necrosis. After 14 days of chronic electrical stimulation (10 Hz, 330 microsec, 4 to 6 V continuous, 8 hours/day) of the right or left latissimus dorsi muscle (randomly selected) in 11 rats, both latissimus dorsi muscles were lifted on their thoracodorsal pedicles and returned to their anatomical beds. Four days later, the resulting amount of distal flap necrosis was measured. Also, at predetermined time intervals throughout the experiment, muscle surface blood perfusion was measured using scanning laser Doppler flowmetry. Finally, latissimus dorsi muscles were excised in four additional stimulated rats, to measure angiogenesis (capillary-to-fiber ratio), fiber type (oxidative or glycolytic), and fiber size using histologic specimens. The authors found that chronic electrical stimulation (1) significantly (p < 0.05) increased angiogenesis (mean capillary-to-fiber ratio) by 82 percent and blood perfusion by 36 percent; (2) did not reduce the amount of distal flap necrosis compared with nonchronic electrical stimulation controls (29 +/- 5.3 percent versus 26.6 +/- 5

  4. Patients double-seropositive for ANCA and anti-GBM antibodies have varied renal survival, frequency of relapse, and outcomes compared to single-seropositive patients.

    PubMed

    McAdoo, Stephen P; Tanna, Anisha; Hrušková, Zdenka; Holm, Lisa; Weiner, Maria; Arulkumaran, Nishkantha; Kang, Amy; Satrapová, Veronika; Levy, Jeremy; Ohlsson, Sophie; Tesar, Vladimir; Segelmark, Mårten; Pusey, Charles D

    2017-09-01

    Co-presentation with both ANCA and anti-GBM antibodies is thought to be relatively rare. Current studies of such 'double-positive' cases report small numbers and variable outcomes. To study this further we retrospectively analyzed clinical features and long-term outcomes of a large cohort of 568 contemporary patients with ANCA-associated vasculitis, 41 patients with anti-GBM disease, and 37 double-positive patients with ANCA and anti-GBM disease from four European centers. Double-positive patients shared characteristics of ANCA-associated vasculitis (AAV), such as older age distribution and longer symptom duration before diagnosis, and features of anti-GBM disease, such as severe renal disease and high frequency of lung hemorrhage at presentation. Despite having more evidence of chronic injury on renal biopsy compared to patients with anti-GBM disease, double-positive patients had a greater tendency to recover from being dialysis-dependent after treatment and had intermediate long-term renal survival compared to the single-positive patients. However, overall patient survival was similar in all three groups. Predictors of poor patient survival included advanced age, severe renal failure, and lung hemorrhage at presentation. No single-positive anti-GBM patients experienced disease relapse, whereas approximately half of surviving patients with AAV and double-positive patients had recurrent disease during a median follow-up of 4.8 years. Thus, double-positive patients have a truly hybrid disease phenotype, requiring aggressive early treatment for anti-GBM disease, and careful long-term follow-up and consideration for maintenance immunosuppression for AAV. Since double-positivity appears common, further work is required to define the underlying mechanisms of this association and define optimum treatment strategies. Copyright © 2017 International Society of Nephrology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Secondary corpora lutea induced by HCG treatment enhanced demi-embryo survival in lactating high-yielding dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Torres, A; Chagas e Silva, J; Deloche, M C; Humblot, P; Horta, A E M; Lopes-da-Costa, L

    2013-08-01

    Using a novel in vivo model considering a low developmental competence embryo (demi-embryo) and a subnormal fertility recipient (lactating high-yielding dairy cow), this experiment evaluated the effect of human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG) treatment at embryo transfer (ET) on embryonic size at implantation, embryonic survival and recipient plasma progesterone (P4 ) and bovine pregnancy-specific protein B (PSPB) concentrations until day 63 of pregnancy. Embryos were bisected and each pair of demi-embryos was bilaterally transferred to recipients (n = 61) on day 7 of the oestrous cycle. At ET recipients were randomly assigned to treatment with 1500 IU hCG or to untreated controls. Higher (p < 0.01) pregnancy rates on days 25, 42 and 63, and embryo survival rate on day 63 were observed in hCG-treated cows with secondary CL than in hCG-treated cows without secondary CL and in untreated cows. Pregnancy rates and embryo survival rate were similar in hCG-treated cows without secondary CL and untreated cows. Embryonic size on day 42 was not affected by treatment with hCG, presence of secondary CL and type of pregnancy (single vs twin). Presence of secondary CL increased (p < 0.05) plasma P4 concentrations of pregnant cows on days 14, 19 and 25 but not thereafter and of non-pregnant cows on days 14-21. Treatment with hCG and presence of secondary CL had no effect on plasma PSPB concentrations, which were higher (p < 0.05) in twin than in single pregnancies. In conclusion, secondary CL induced by hCG treatment at ET significantly increased plasma P4 concentrations, the survival rate of demi-embryos and the pregnancy rate of high-yielding lactating dairy cows. Embryos were rescued beyond maternal recognition of pregnancy, but later embryonic survival, growth until implantation and placental PSPB secretion until day 63 of pregnancy were not affected by treatment or presence of secondary CL. © 2013 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  6. Enhancement of adipogenesis and fibrogenesis in skeletal muscle of Wagyu compared with Angus cattle.

    PubMed

    Duarte, M S; Paulino, P V R; Das, A K; Wei, S; Serão, N V L; Fu, X; Harris, S M; Dodson, M V; Du, M

    2013-06-01

    Intramuscular fat and collagen content are major factors affecting beef quality, but mechanisms regulating intramuscular adipose and connective tissue deposition are far from clear. Japanese Wagyu cattle are well known for their extremely high marbling. The objective of this study was to evaluate intramuscular fat (IMF) and collagen deposition in the muscle of Wagyu compared with Angus cattle. Animals were managed under the same condition and slaughtered at an averaging 585 ± 12.1 kg of BW. Samples of sternomandibularis muscle were collected from Wagyu (n = 3) and Angus (n = 3) for molecular and histological investigations of adipogenesis and fibrogenesis. With exception of C/EBPβ (P = 0.2864), the expression of the adipogenic markers C/EBPα (P = 0.008), PPARγ (P = 0.028), and zip finger protein 423 (Zfp423; P = 0.047) in Wagyu were greater than in Angus muscle, which was consistent with greater IMF deposition in Wagyu (P < 0.05). In addition, more adipocytes and preadipocytes were detected intramuscularly in Wagyu cattle. Similarly, fibrogenesis was also enhanced in Wagyu, with a greater expression of fibroblast growth factor (FGF)-2 (P = 0.028), FGF receptor 1 (P = 0.030), transforming growth factor (TGF)-β (P = 0.028), collagen I (P = 0.012), and collagen III (P = 0.025). Similarly, Wagyu muscle had greater collagen content (P = 0.002) and decreased collagen solubility (P = 0.005). In addition, muscle fiber diameter was larger (P < 0.0001) in Wagyu than in Angus cattle. These results clearly show that both IMF and collagen contents are enhanced in Wagyu cattle and more adipogenic cells are detected in Wagyu muscle, indicating intramuscular adipogenesis is enhanced in Wagyu compared with Angus muscle.

  7. Facial Expression Enhances Emotion Perception Compared to Vocal Prosody: Behavioral and fMRI Studies.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Heming; Chen, Xuhai; Chen, Shengdong; Li, Yansong; Chen, Changming; Long, Quanshan; Yuan, Jiajin

    2018-05-09

    Facial and vocal expressions are essential modalities mediating the perception of emotion and social communication. Nonetheless, currently little is known about how emotion perception and its neural substrates differ across facial expression and vocal prosody. To clarify this issue, functional MRI scans were acquired in Study 1, in which participants were asked to discriminate the valence of emotional expression (angry, happy or neutral) from facial, vocal, or bimodal stimuli. In Study 2, we used an affective priming task (unimodal materials as primers and bimodal materials as target) and participants were asked to rate the intensity, valence, and arousal of the targets. Study 1 showed higher accuracy and shorter response latencies in the facial than in the vocal modality for a happy expression. Whole-brain analysis showed enhanced activation during facial compared to vocal emotions in the inferior temporal-occipital regions. Region of interest analysis showed a higher percentage signal change for facial than for vocal anger in the superior temporal sulcus. Study 2 showed that facial relative to vocal priming of anger had a greater influence on perceived emotion for bimodal targets, irrespective of the target valence. These findings suggest that facial expression is associated with enhanced emotion perception compared to equivalent vocal prosodies.

  8. Comparing GOSAT Observations of Localized CO2 Enhancements by Large Emitters with Inventory-Based Estimates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Janardanan, Rajesh; Maksyutov, Shamil; Oda, Tomohiro; Saito, Makoto; Kaiser, Johannes W.; Ganshin, Alexander; Stohl, Andreas; Matsunaga, Tsuneo; Yoshida, Yukio; Yokota, Tatsuya

    2016-01-01

    We employed an atmospheric transport model to attribute column-averaged CO2 mixing ratios (XCO2) observed by Greenhouse gases Observing SATellite (GOSAT) to emissions due to large sources such as megacities and power plants. XCO2 enhancements estimated from observations were compared to model simulations implemented at the spatial resolution of the satellite observation footprint (0.1deg × 0.1deg). We found that the simulated XCO2 enhancements agree with the observed over several continental regions across the globe, for example, for North America with an observation to simulation ratio of 1.05 +/- 0.38 (p<0.1), but with a larger ratio over East Asia (1.22 +/- 0.32; p<0.05). The obtained observation-model discrepancy (22%) for East Asia is comparable to the uncertainties in Chinese emission inventories (approx.15%) suggested by recent reports. Our results suggest that by increasing the number of observations around emission sources, satellite instruments like GOSAT can provide a tool for detecting biases in reported emission inventories.

  9. Compared to Sucrose, Previous Consumption of Fructose and Glucose Monosaccharides Reduces Survival and Fitness of Female Mice123

    PubMed Central

    Ruff, James S; Hugentobler, Sara A; Suchy, Amanda K; Sosa, Mirtha M; Tanner, Ruth E; Hite, Megumi E; Morrison, Linda C; Gieng, Sin H; Shigenaga, Mark K; Potts, Wayne K

    2015-01-01

    Background: Intake of added sugar has been shown to correlate with many human metabolic diseases, and rodent models have characterized numerous aspects of the resulting disease phenotypes. However, there is a controversy about whether differential health effects occur because of the consumption of either of the two common types of added sugar—high-fructose corn syrup (fructose and glucose monosaccharides; F/G) or table sugar (sucrose, a fructose and glucose disaccharide). Objectives: We tested the equivalence of sucrose- vs. F/G-containing diets on mouse (Mus musculus) longevity, reproductive success, and social dominance. Methods: We fed wild-derived mice, outbred mice descended from wild-caught ancestors, a diet in which 25% of the calories came from either an equal ratio of F/G or an isocaloric amount of sucrose (both diets had 63% of total calories as carbohydrates). Exposure lasted 40 wk, starting at weaning (21 d of age), and then mice (104 females and 56 males) were released into organismal performances assays—seminatural enclosures where mice competed for territories, resources, and mates for 32 wk. Within enclosures all mice consumed the F/G diet. Results: Females initially fed the F/G diet experienced a mortality rate 1.9 times the rate (P = 0.012) and produced 26.4% fewer offspring than females initially fed sucrose (P = 0.001). This reproductive deficiency was present before mortality differences, suggesting the F/G diet was causing physiologic performance deficits prior to mortality. No differential patterns in survival, reproduction, or social dominance were observed in males, indicating a sex-specific outcome of exposure. Conclusion: This study provides experimental evidence that the consumption of human-relevant levels of F/G is more deleterious than an isocaloric amount of sucrose for key organism-level health measures in female mice. PMID:25733457

  10. The Significance of Notch1 Compared with Notch3 in High Metastasis and Poor Overall Survival in Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Li, Qingjun; Sun, Wei; Zhang, Yong; Wang, Desheng; Dou, Kefeng

    2013-01-01

    Background The prognosis for patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is poor, and the mechanisms underlying the development of HCC remain unclear. Notch1 and Notch3 may be involved in malignant transformation, although their roles remain unknown. Materials and Methods HCC tissues were stained with anti-Notch1 or -Notch3 antibody. The migration and invasion capacities of the cells were measured with transwell cell culture chambers. RT-PCR was used to measure the expression of Notch1 and Notch3 mRNA. Additionally, western blot analysis was used to assess the protein expression of Notch1, Notch3, CD44v6, E-cadherin, matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2), MMP-9, and urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA). RNA interference was used to down-regulate the expression of Notch1 and Notch3. Cell viability was assessed using MTT. Results Based on immunohistochemistry, high Notch1 expression was correlated with tumor size, tumor grade, metastasis, venous invasion and AJCC TNM stage. High Notch3 expression was only strongly correlated with metastasis, venous invasion and satellite lesions. Kaplan-Meier curves demonstrated that patients with high Notch1 or Notch3 expression were at a significantly increased risk for shortened survival time. In vitro, the down-regulation of Notch1 decreased the migration and invasion capacities of HCC cells by regulating CD44v6, E-cadherin, MMP-2, MMP-9, and uPA via the COX-2 and ERK1/2 pathways. Down-regulation of Notch3 only decreased the invasion capacity of HCC cells by regulating MMP-2 and MMP-9 via the ERK1/2 pathway. Conclusions Based on the migration and invasion of HCC, we hypothesize that targeting Notch1 may be more useful than Notch3 for designing novel preventive and therapeutic strategies for HCC in the near future. PMID:23468978

  11. Compared to sucrose, previous consumption of fructose and glucose monosaccharides reduces survival and fitness of female mice.

    PubMed

    Ruff, James S; Hugentobler, Sara A; Suchy, Amanda K; Sosa, Mirtha M; Tanner, Ruth E; Hite, Megumi E; Morrison, Linda C; Gieng, Sin H; Shigenaga, Mark K; Potts, Wayne K

    2015-03-01

    Intake of added sugar has been shown to correlate with many human metabolic diseases, and rodent models have characterized numerous aspects of the resulting disease phenotypes. However, there is a controversy about whether differential health effects occur because of the consumption of either of the two common types of added sugar-high-fructose corn syrup (fructose and glucose monosaccharides; F/G) or table sugar (sucrose, a fructose and glucose disaccharide). We tested the equivalence of sucrose- vs. F/G-containing diets on mouse (Mus musculus) longevity, reproductive success, and social dominance. We fed wild-derived mice, outbred mice descended from wild-caught ancestors, a diet in which 25% of the calories came from either an equal ratio of F/G or an isocaloric amount of sucrose (both diets had 63% of total calories as carbohydrates). Exposure lasted 40 wk, starting at weaning (21 d of age), and then mice (104 females and 56 males) were released into organismal performances assays-seminatural enclosures where mice competed for territories, resources, and mates for 32 wk. Within enclosures all mice consumed the F/G diet. Females initially fed the F/G diet experienced a mortality rate 1.9 times the rate (P = 0.012) and produced 26.4% fewer offspring than females initially fed sucrose (P = 0.001). This reproductive deficiency was present before mortality differences, suggesting the F/G diet was causing physiologic performance deficits prior to mortality. No differential patterns in survival, reproduction, or social dominance were observed in males, indicating a sex-specific outcome of exposure. This study provides experimental evidence that the consumption of human-relevant levels of F/G is more deleterious than an isocaloric amount of sucrose for key organism-level health measures in female mice. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  12. A Comparative Study of Defibrillator Leads at a Large-Volume Implanting Hospital: Results From the Pacemaker and Implantable Defibrillator Leads Survival Study ("PAIDLESS").

    PubMed

    Cohen, Todd J; Asheld, Wilbur J; Germano, Joseph; Islam, Shahidul; Patel, Dhimesh

    2015-06-01

    The purpose of the study was to examine survival in the implantable defibrillator subset of implanted leads at a large-volume implanting hospital. Implantable lead survival has been the subject of many multicenter studies over the past decade. Fewer large implanting volume single-hospital studies have examined defibrillator lead failure as it relates to patient survival and lead construction. This investigator-initiated retrospective study examined defibrillator lead failure in those who underwent implantation of a defibrillator between February 1, 1996 and December 31, 2011. Lead failure was defined as: failure to capture/sense, abnormal pacing and/or defibrillator impedance, visual insulation defect or lead fracture, extracardiac stimulation, cardiac perforation, tricuspid valve entrapment, lead tip fracture and/or lead dislodgment. Patient characteristics, implant approach, lead manufacturers, lead models, recalled status, patient mortality, and core lead design elements were compared using methods that include Kaplan Meier analysis, univariate and multivariable Cox regression models. A total of 4078 defibrillator leads were implanted in 3802 patients (74% male; n = 2812) with a mean age of 70 ± 13 years at Winthrop University Hospital. Lead manufacturers included: Medtronic: [n = 1834; 801 recalled]; St. Jude Medical: [n = 1707; 703 recalled]; Boston Scientific: [n = 537; 0 recalled]. Kaplan-Meier analysis adjusted for multiple comparisons revealed that both Boston Scientific's and St. Jude Medical's leads had better survival than Medtronic's leads (P<.001 and P=.01, respectively). Lead survival was comparable between Boston Scientific and St. Jude Medical (P=.80). A total of 153 leads failed (3.5% of all leads) during the study. There were 99 lead failures from Medtronic (5.4% failure rate); 56 were recalled Sprint Fidelis leads. There were 36 lead failures from St. Jude (2.1% failure rate); 20 were recalled Riata or Riata ST leads. There were 18 lead

  13. ROCK inhibitor Y-27632 enhances the survivability of dissociated buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) embryonic stem cell-like cells.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Ruchi; George, Aman; Chauhan, Manmohan S; Singla, Suresh; Manik, Radhey S; Palta, Prabhat

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of supplementation of culture medium with 10 μM Y-27632, a specific inhibitor of Rho kinase activity, for 6 days on self-renewal of buffalo embryonic stem (ES) cell-like cells at Passage 50-80. Y-27632 increased mean colony area (P<0.05) although it did not improve their survival. It decreased OCT4 expression (P<0.05), increased NANOG expression (P<0.05), but had no effect on SOX2 expression. It also increased expression of anti-apoptotic gene BCL-2 (P<0.05) and decreased that of pro-apoptotic genes BAX and BID (P<0.05). It increased plating efficiency of single-cell suspensions of ES cells (P<0.05). Following vitrification, the presence of Y-27632 in the vitrification solution or thawing medium or both did not improve ES cell colony survival. However, following seeding of clumps of ES cells transfected with pAcGFP1N1 carrying green fluorescent protein (GFP), Y-27632 increased colony formation rate (P<0.01). ES cell colonies that formed in all Y-27632-supplemented groups were confirmed for expression of pluripotency markers alkaline phosphatase, SSEA-4 and TRA-1-60, and for their ability to generate embryoid bodies containing cells that expressed markers of ectoderm, mesoderm and endoderm. In conclusion, Y-27632 improves survival of buffalo ES cells under unfavourable conditions such as enzymatic dissociation to single cells or antibiotic-assisted selection after transfection, without compromising their pluripotency.

  14. Neoadjuvant chemoradiation and surgery improves survival outcomes compared with definitive chemoradiation in the treatment of stage IIIA N2 non-small-cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Darling, Gail E; Li, Fei; Patsios, Demetris; Massey, Christine; Wallis, Adam G; Coate, Linda; Keshavjee, Shaf; Pierre, Andrew; De Perrot, Marc; Yasufuku, Kazuhiro; Cypel, Marcelo; Waddell, Tom

    2015-11-01

    The objective of this study was to compare survival in patients with stage IIIA (N2) non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) treated with definitive chemoradiation (CRT) or surgery plus neoadjuvant chemoradiation or chemotherapy (CRTS). A retrospective analysis of 242 patients with stage IIIA (N2) NSCLC treated with curative intent between 1997 and 2007, identified 215 patients with surgically resectable disease. Overall survival outcomes were analysed using the Kaplan-Meier plots, log-rank tests and Cox proportional hazards models adjusting for age, gender, histology, smoking history and performance status. Recurrences were compared using competing risks methods, including the proportional subdistribution hazards regression model. CRTS was used to treat 104 patients and CRT in 111. Comparing CRTS with CRT patients, median age was 60 vs 62, 50 (48%) vs 69 (62%) were male and 65 (62.5%) vs 60 (54%) had adenocarcinoma. Of CRTS patients, 83 (80%) had a lobectomy. CRTS patients compared with CRT patients had decreased risk of recurrence at any site [hazard ratio (HR) = 0. 46, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.32-0.64 P < 0.0001], local recurrence (HR = 0.50, 95% CI: 0.29-0.87, P = 0.013), loco--regional recurrence (HR = 0.51, 95% CI: 0.33-0.78, P = 0.002) and death (HR: 0.45, 95% CI: 0.33-0.62, P < 0.0001) with a median survival of 4.2 years vs 1.7 years). Risk of distant recurrence was also reduced in the surgical group (HR: 0.57; 95% CI: 0.38-0.87, P = 0.017). Treatment-related mortality was low in both cohorts. For patients with surgically resectable stage IIIA (N2) NSCLC, neoadjuvant therapy plus surgery reduces loco-regional and distant recurrence and improves survival. Treatment-related mortality was not significantly increased compared with the patients treated with CRT alone. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery. All rights reserved.

  15. Comparing the catch composition, profitability and discard survival from different trammel net designs targeting common spiny lobster (Palinurus elephas) in a Mediterranean fishery.

    PubMed

    Catanese, Gaetano; Hinz, Hilmar; Gil, Maria Del Mar; Palmer, Miquel; Breen, Michael; Mira, Antoni; Pastor, Elena; Grau, Amalia; Campos-Candela, Andrea; Koleva, Elka; Grau, Antoni Maria; Morales-Nin, Beatriz

    2018-01-01

    In the Balearic Islands, different trammel net designs have been adopted to promote fisheries sustainability and reduce discards. Here, we compare the catch performance of three trammel net designs targeting the spiny lobster Palinurus elephas in terms of biomass, species composition and revenue from commercial catches and discards. Designs differ in the netting fiber type (standard polyfilament, PMF, or a new polyethylene multi-monofilament, MMF) and the use of a guarding net or greca , a mesh piece intended to reduce discards. Catches were surveyed by an on-board observer from 1,550 netting walls corresponding to 70 nets. The number of marketable species captured indicated that the lobster trammel net fishery has multiple targets, which contribute significantly to the total revenue. The discarded species ranged from habitat-forming species to elasmobranches, but the magnitude of gear-habitat interactions on the long term dynamics of benthos remains unclear. No relevant differences in revenue and weight of discards were detected after Bayesian analyses. However, the species composition of discards was different when using greca . Interestingly, high immediate survival was found for discarded undersized lobsters, while a seven day survival assessment, using captive observation, gave an asymptotic estimate of survival probability as 0.64 (95% CI [0.54-0.76]). Therefore, it is recommended that it would be beneficial for this stock if an exemption from the EU landing obligation regulation was sought for undersized lobsters in the Balearic trammel net fishery.

  16. Validation of post-operative residual contrast enhancing tumor volume as an independent prognostic factor for overall survival in newly diagnosed glioblastoma.

    PubMed

    Ellingson, Benjamin M; Abrey, Lauren E; Nelson, Sarah J; Kaufmann, Timothy J; Garcia, Josep; Chinot, Olivier; Saran, Frank; Nishikawa, Ryo; Henriksson, Roger; Mason, Warren P; Wick, Wolfgang; Butowski, Nicholas; Ligon, Keith L; Gerstner, Elizabeth R; Colman, Howard; de Groot, John; Chang, Susan; Mellinghoff, Ingo; Young, Robert J; Alexander, Brian M; Colen, Rivka; Taylor, Jennie W; Arrillaga-Romany, Isabel; Mehta, Arnav; Huang, Raymond Y; Pope, Whitney B; Reardon, David; Batchelor, Tracy; Prados, Michael; Galanis, Evanthia; Wen, Patrick Y; Cloughesy, Timothy F

    2018-04-05

    In the current study, we pooled imaging data in newly diagnosed GBM patients from international multicenter clinical trials, single institution databases, and multicenter clinical trial consortiums to identify the relationship between post-operative residual enhancing tumor volume and overall survival (OS). Data from 1,511 newly diagnosed GBM patients from 5 data sources were included in the current study: 1) a single institution database from UCLA (N=398; Discovery); 2) patients from the Ben and Cathy Ivy Foundation for Early Phase Clinical Trials Network Radiogenomics Database (N=262 from 8 centers; Confirmation); 3) the chemoradiation placebo arm from an international phase III trial (AVAglio; N=394 from 120 locations in 23 countries; Validation); 4) the experimental arm from AVAglio examining chemoradiation plus bevacizumab (N=404 from 120 locations in 23 countries; Exploratory Set 1); and 5) an Alliance (N0874) Phase I/II trial of vorinostat plus chemoradiation (N=53; Exploratory Set 2). Post-surgical, residual enhancing disease was quantified using T1 subtraction maps. Multivariate Cox regression models were used to determine influence of clinical variables, MGMT status, and residual tumor volume on OS. A log-linear relationship was observed between post-operative, residual enhancing tumor volume and OS in newly diagnosed GBM treated with standard chemoradiation. Post-operative tumor volume is a prognostic factor for OS (P<0.01), regardless of therapy, age, and MGMT promoter methylation status. Post-surgical, residual contrast-enhancing disease significantly negatively influences survival in patients with newly diagnosed glioblastoma treated with chemoradiation with or without concomitant experimental therapy.

  17. The Gottingen Minipig Is a Model of the Hematopoietic Acute Radiation Syndrome: G-Colony Stimulating Factor Stimulates Hematopoiesis and Enhances Survival From Lethal Total-Body γ-Irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Moroni, Maria, E-mail: maria.moroni@usuhs.edu; Ngudiankama, Barbara F.; Christensen, Christine

    Purpose: We are characterizing the Gottingen minipig as an additional large animal model for advanced drug testing for the acute radiation syndrome (ARS) to enhance the discovery and development of novel radiation countermeasures. Among the advantages provided by this model, the similarities to human hematologic parameters and dynamics of cell loss/recovery after irradiation provide a convenient means to compare the efficacy of drugs known to affect bone marrow cellularity and hematopoiesis. Methods and Materials: Male Gottingen minipigs, 4 to 5 months old and weighing 9 to 11 kg, were used for this study. We tested the standard off-label treatment formore » ARS, rhG-CSF (Neupogen, 10 μg/kg/day for 17 days), at the estimated LD70/30 total-body γ-irradiation (TBI) radiation dose for the hematopoietic syndrome, starting 24 hours after irradiation. Results: The results indicated that granulocyte colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) enhanced survival, stimulated recovery from neutropenia, and induced mobilization of hematopoietic progenitor cells. In addition, the administration of G-CSF resulted in maturation of monocytes/macrophages. Conclusions: These results support continuing efforts toward validation of the minipig as a large animal model for advanced testing of radiation countermeasures and characterization of the pathophysiology of ARS, and they suggest that the efficacy of G-CSF in improving survival after total body irradiation may involve mechanisms other than increasing the numbers of circulating granulocytes.« less

  18. The Gottingen minipig is a model of the hematopoietic acute radiation syndrome: G-colony stimulating factor stimulates hematopoiesis and enhances survival from lethal total-body γ-irradiation.

    PubMed

    Moroni, Maria; Ngudiankama, Barbara F; Christensen, Christine; Olsen, Cara H; Owens, Rossitsa; Lombardini, Eric D; Holt, Rebecca K; Whitnall, Mark H

    2013-08-01

    We are characterizing the Gottingen minipig as an additional large animal model for advanced drug testing for the acute radiation syndrome (ARS) to enhance the discovery and development of novel radiation countermeasures. Among the advantages provided by this model, the similarities to human hematologic parameters and dynamics of cell loss/recovery after irradiation provide a convenient means to compare the efficacy of drugs known to affect bone marrow cellularity and hematopoiesis. Male Gottingen minipigs, 4 to 5 months old and weighing 9 to 11 kg, were used for this study. We tested the standard off-label treatment for ARS, rhG-CSF (Neupogen, 10 μg/kg/day for 17 days), at the estimated LD70/30 total-body γ-irradiation (TBI) radiation dose for the hematopoietic syndrome, starting 24 hours after irradiation. The results indicated that granulocyte colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) enhanced survival, stimulated recovery from neutropenia, and induced mobilization of hematopoietic progenitor cells. In addition, the administration of G-CSF resulted in maturation of monocytes/macrophages. These results support continuing efforts toward validation of the minipig as a large animal model for advanced testing of radiation countermeasures and characterization of the pathophysiology of ARS, and they suggest that the efficacy of G-CSF in improving survival after total body irradiation may involve mechanisms other than increasing the numbers of circulating granulocytes. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  19. Health check-ups and family screening allow detection of hereditary hemochromatosis with less advanced liver fibrosis and survival comparable with the general population.

    PubMed

    Aleman, Soo; Endalib, Sanam; Stål, Per; Lööf, Lars; Lindgren, Stefan; Sandberg-Gertzén, Hanna; Almer, Sven; Olsson, Sigvard; Danielsson, Ake; Wallerstedt, Sven; Hultcrantz, Rolf

    2011-09-01

    The information concerning the morbidity and mortality of hereditary hemochromatosis is based primarily on clinical cohorts of symptomatic patients. The major aim of this study was to analyze the long-term prognosis for Swedish patients with this condition, with respect to both clinical features and survival, in relation to the route by which the disease was detected. 373 patients with hemochromatosis detected through routine health check-ups (n = 153), family screening (n = 44), symptoms of arthralgia (n = 23), investigation of other diseases/symptoms (n = 108) or signs of liver disease (n = 45) were monitored for a mean period of 11.9 ± 5.8 years. The degree of liver fibrosis and survival were analyzed. Overall survival among these patients was not significantly different from that of a matched normal population. The patients diagnosed through health check-ups and family screening were detected at an earlier age and had the highest rate of survival. Liver biopsy at the time of diagnosis revealed cirrhosis in 9% of those detected through the health check-ups and 5% in the case of family screening, compared with 13% for the group with arthralgia, 17% for other diseases/symptoms and 42% for liver disease. Health check-ups and family screening allow detection of hereditary hemochromatosis at an earlier age and with less advanced liver fibrosis, although a few of these patients have already developed cirrhosis. Our study indicates that iron indices should be included in health check-ups, and if abnormal, should lead to further investigation.

  20. Survival of infectious Poliovirus-1 in river water compared to the persistence of somatic coliphages, thermotolerant coliforms and Poliovirus-1 genome.

    PubMed

    Skraber, S; Gassilloud, B; Schwartzbrod, L; Gantzer, C

    2004-07-01

    The microbiological quality of water is currently assessed by search for fecal bacteria indicators. There is, however, a body of knowledge demonstrating that bacterial indicators are less resistant to environmental factors than human pathogenic viruses and therefore underestimate the viral risk. As river water is often used as a resource for drinking water production, it is particularly important to obtain a valid estimation of the health hazard, including specific viral risk. This work was conducted to compare the survival of infectious Poliovirus-1 used as a pathogenic virus model to the persistence of, on the one hand, thermotolerant coliforms commonly used as indicators and on the other hand, to somatic coliphages and Poliovirus-1 genome considered as potential indicators. We studied the behavior of infectious Poliovirus-1 and the three (potential) indicators of viral contamination in river water at three different temperatures (4 degrees C,18 degrees C and 25 degrees C). This experiment was performed twice with river water sampled at two different periods, once in winter and once in summer. Our results showed that the survival of thermotolerant coliforms can be 1.5-fold lower than infectious Poliovirus-1. In contrast, under all our experimental conditions, somatic coliphages and Poliovirus-1 genome persisted longer than infectious Poliovirus-1, surviving, respectively, 2-6-fold and about 2-fold longer than infectious Poliovirus-1. According to our results exclusively based on survival capacity, somatic coliphages and viral genome, unlike thermotolerant coliforms appear to be better indicators of viral contamination in river water. Moreover, the disappearance of viral genome is well-correlated to that one of infectious virus irrespective of the conditions tested.

  1. Enhancing Cancer Registry Data for Comparative Effectiveness Research (CER) Project: Overview and Methodology

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Vivien W.; Eheman, Christie R.; Johnson, Christopher J.; Hernandez, Monique N.; Rousseau, David; Styles, Timothy S.; West, Dee W.; Hsieh, Meichin; Hakenewerth, Anne M.; Celaya, Maria O.; Rycroft, Randi K.; Wike, Jennifer M.; Pearson, Melissa; Brockhouse, Judy; Mulvihill, Linda G.; Zhang, Kevin B.

    2015-01-01

    Following the Institute of Medicine's 2009 report on the national priorities for comparative effectiveness research (CER), funding for support of CER became available in 2009 through the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) received funding to enhance the infrastructure of population-based cancer registries and to expand registry data collection to support CER. The CDC established 10 specialized registries within the National Program of Cancer Registries (NPCR) to enhance data collection for all cancers and to address targeted CER questions, including the clinical use and prognostic value of specific biomarkers. The project also included a special focus on detailed first course of treatment for cancers of the breast, colon, and rectum, as well as chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) diagnosed in 2011. This paper describes the methodology and the work conducted by the CDC and the NPCR specialized registries in collecting data for the 4 special focused cancers, including the selection of additional data variables, development of data collection tools and software modifications, institutional review board approvals, training, collection of detailed first course of treatment, and quality assurance. It also presents the characteristics of the study population and discusses the strengths and limitations of using population-based cancer registries to support CER as well as the potential future role of population-based cancer registries in assessing the quality of patient care and cancer control. PMID:25419602

  2. Enhancing cancer registry data for comparative effectiveness research (CER) project: overview and methodology.

    PubMed

    Chen, Vivien W; Eheman, Christie R; Johnson, Christopher J; Hernandez, Monique N; Rousseau, David; Styles, Timothy S; West, Dee W; Hsieh, Meichin; Hakenewerth, Anne M; Celaya, Maria O; Rycroft, Randi K; Wike, Jennifer M; Pearson, Melissa; Brockhouse, Judy; Mulvihill, Linda G; Zhang, Kevin B

    2014-01-01

    Following the Institute of Medicine's 2009 report on the national priorities for comparative effectiveness research (CER), funding for support of CER became available in 2009 through the American Recovery and Re-investment Act. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) received funding to enhance the infrastructure of population-based cancer registries and to expand registry data collection to support CER. The CDC established 10 specialized registries within the National Program of Cancer Registries (NPCR) to enhance data collection for all cancers and to address targeted CER questions, including the clinical use and prognostic value of specific biomarkers. The project also included a special focus on detailed first course of treatment for cancers of the breast, colon, and rectum, as well as chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) diagnosed in 2011. This paper describes the methodology and the work conducted by the CDC and the NPCR specialized registries in collecting data for the 4 special focused cancers, including the selection of additional data variables, development of data collection tools and software modifications, institutional review board approvals, training, collection of detailed first course of treatment, and quality assurance. It also presents the characteristics of the study population and discusses the strengths and limitations of using population-based cancer registries to support CER as well as the potential future role of population-based cancer registries in assessing the quality of patient care and cancer control.

  3. l-Arginine Uptake by Cationic Amino Acid Transporter Promotes Intra-Macrophage Survival of Leishmania donovani by Enhancing Arginase-Mediated Polyamine Synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Mandal, Abhishek; Das, Sushmita; Kumar, Ajay; Roy, Saptarshi; Verma, Sudha; Ghosh, Ayan Kumar; Singh, Ruby; Abhishek, Kumar; Saini, Savita; Sardar, Abul Hasan; Purkait, Bidyut; Kumar, Ashish; Mandal, Chitra; Das, Pradeep

    2017-01-01

    The survival of intracellular protozoan parasite, Leishmania donovani, the causative agent of Indian visceral leishmaniasis (VL), depends on the activation status of macrophages. l-Arginine, a semi-essential amino acid plays a crucial regulatory role for activation of macrophages. However, the role of l-arginine transport in VL still remains elusive. In this study, we demonstrated that intra-macrophage survival of L. donovani depends on the availability of extracellular l-arginine. Infection of THP-1-derived macrophage/human monocyte-derived macrophage (hMDM) with Leishmania, resulted in upregulation of l-arginine transport. While investigating the involvement of the transporters, we observed that Leishmania survival was greatly impaired when the transporters were blocked either using inhibitor or siRNA-mediated downregulation. CAT-2 was found to be the main isoform associated with l-arginine transport in L. donovani-infected macrophages. l-arginine availability and its transport regulated the host arginase in Leishmania infection. Arginase and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression were reciprocally regulated when assayed using specific inhibitors and siRNA-mediated downregulation. Interestingly, induction of iNOS expression and nitric oxide production were observed in case of inhibition of arginase in infected macrophages. Furthermore, inhibition of l-arginine transport as well as arginase resulted in decreased polyamine production, limiting parasite survival inside macrophages. l-arginine availability and transport regulated Th1/Th2 cytokine levels in case of Leishmania infection. Upregulation of l-arginine transport, induction of host arginase, and enhanced polyamine production were correlated with increased level of IL-10 and decreased level of IL-12 and TNF-α in L. donovani-infected macrophages. Our findings provide clear evidence for targeting the metabolism of l-arginine and l-arginine-metabolizing enzymes as an important therapeutic and

  4. GM-CSF production by glioblastoma cells has a functional role in eosinophil survival, activation and growth factor production for enhanced tumor cell proliferation

    PubMed Central

    Curran, Colleen S.; Evans, Michael D.; Bertics, Paul J.

    2011-01-01

    Medicinal interventions of limited efficacy are currently available for the treatment of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), the most common and lethal primary brain tumor in adults. The eosinophil is a pivotal immune cell in the pathobiology of atopic disease that is also found to accumulate in certain tumor tissues. Inverse associations between atopy and GBM risk suggest that the eosinophil may play a functional role in certain tumor immune responses. To assess the potential interactions between eosinophils and GBM, human primary blood eosinophils were cultured with two separate human GBM-derived cell lines (A172, U87-MG) or conditioned media generated in the presence or absence of TNF-α. Results revealed differential eosinophil adhesion and increased survival in response to co-culture with GBM cell lines. Eosinophil responses to GBM cell line-conditioned media included increased survival, activation, CD11b expression and S100A9 release. Addition of GM-CSF neutralizing antibodies to GBM cell cultures or conditioned media reduced eosinophil adhesion, survival and activation, linking tumor cell-derived GM-CSF to the functions of eosinophils in the tumor microenvironment. Dexamethasone, which has been reported to inhibit eosinophil recruitment and shrink GBM lesions on contrast enhanced scans, reduced the production of tumor cell-derived GM-CSF. Furthermore, culture of GBM cells in eosinophil-conditioned media increased tumor cell viability, and generation of eosinophil-conditioned media in the presence of GM-CSF enhanced the effect. These data support the idea of a paracrine loop between GM-CSF producing tumors and eosinophil-derived growth factors in tumor promotion/progression. PMID:21705618

  5. Combining visual rehabilitative training and noninvasive brain stimulation to enhance visual function in patients with hemianopia: a comparative case study.

    PubMed

    Plow, Ela B; Obretenova, Souzana N; Halko, Mark A; Kenkel, Sigrid; Jackson, Mary Lou; Pascual-Leone, Alvaro; Merabet, Lotfi B

    2011-09-01

    To standardize a protocol for promoting visual rehabilitative outcomes in post-stroke hemianopia by combining occipital cortical transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) with Vision Restoration Therapy (VRT). A comparative case study assessing feasibility and safety. A controlled laboratory setting. Two patients, both with right hemianopia after occipital stroke damage. METHODS AND OUTCOME MEASUREMENTS: Both patients underwent an identical VRT protocol that lasted 3 months (30 minutes, twice a day, 3 days per week). In patient 1, anodal tDCS was delivered to the occipital cortex during VRT training, whereas in patient 2 sham tDCS with VRT was performed. The primary outcome, visual field border, was defined objectively by using high-resolution perimetry. Secondary outcomes included subjective characterization of visual deficit and functional surveys that assessed performance on activities of daily living. For patient 1, the neural correlates of visual recovery were also investigated, by using functional magnetic resonance imaging. Delivery of combined tDCS with VRT was feasible and safe. High-resolution perimetry revealed a greater shift in visual field border for patient 1 versus patient 2. Patient 1 also showed greater recovery of function in activities of daily living. Contrary to the expectation, patient 2 perceived greater subjective improvement in visual field despite objective high-resolution perimetry results that indicated otherwise. In patient 1, visual function recovery was associated with functional magnetic resonance imaging activity in surviving peri-lesional and bilateral higher-order visual areas. Results of preliminary case comparisons suggest that occipital cortical tDCS may enhance recovery of visual function associated with concurrent VRT through visual cortical reorganization. Future studies may benefit from incorporating protocol refinements such as those described here, which include global capture of function, control for potential

  6. Bacterial Survival under Extreme UV Radiation: A Comparative Proteomics Study of Rhodobacter sp., Isolated from High Altitude Wetlands in Chile

    PubMed Central

    Pérez, Vilma; Hengst, Martha; Kurte, Lenka; Dorador, Cristina; Jeffrey, Wade H.; Wattiez, Ruddy; Molina, Veronica; Matallana-Surget, Sabine

    2017-01-01

    Salar de Huasco, defined as a polyextreme environment, is a high altitude saline wetland in the Chilean Altiplano (3800 m.a.s.l.), permanently exposed to the highest solar radiation doses registered in the world. We present here the first comparative proteomics study of a photoheterotrophic bacterium, Rhodobacter sp., isolated from this remote and hostile habitat. We developed an innovative experimental approach using different sources of radiation (in situ sunlight and UVB lamps), cut-off filters (Mylar, Lee filters) and a high-throughput, label-free quantitative proteomics method to comprehensively analyze the effect of seven spectral bands on protein regulation. A hierarchical cluster analysis of 40 common proteins revealed that all conditions containing the most damaging UVB radiation induced similar pattern of protein regulation compared with UVA and visible light spectral bands. Moreover, it appeared that the cellular adaptation of Rhodobacter sp. to osmotic stress encountered in the hypersaline environment from which it was originally isolated, might further a higher resistance to damaging UV radiation. Indeed, proteins involved in the synthesis and transport of key osmoprotectants, such as glycine betaine and inositol, were found in very high abundance under UV radiation compared to the dark control, suggesting the function of osmolytes as efficient reactive oxygen scavengers. Our study also revealed a RecA-independent response and a tightly regulated network of protein quality control involving proteases and chaperones to selectively degrade misfolded and/or damaged proteins. PMID:28694800

  7. Comparative analysis of survival between elderly and non-elderly severe sepsis and septic shock resuscitated patients

    PubMed Central

    Palomba, Henrique; Corrêa, Thiago Domingos; Silva, Eliézer; Pardini, Andreia; de Assuncao, Murillo Santucci Cesar

    2015-01-01

    Objective To compare outcomes between elderly (≥65 years old) and non-elderly (<65 years old) resuscitated severe sepsis and septic shock patients and determine predictors of death among elderly patients. Methods Retrospective cohort study including 848 severe sepsis and septic shock patients admitted to the intensive care unit between January 2006 and March 2012. Results Elderly patients accounted for 62.6% (531/848) and non-elderly patients for 37.4% (317/848). Elderly patients had a higher APACHE II score [22 (18-28) versus 19 (15-24); p<0.001], compared to non-elderly patients, although the number of organ dysfunctions did not differ between the groups. No significant differences were found in 28-day and in-hospital mortality rates between elderly and non-elderly patients. The length of hospital stay was higher in elderly compared to non-elderly patients admitted with severe sepsis and septic shock [18 (10-41) versus 14 (8-29) days, respectively; p=0.0001]. Predictors of death among elderly patients included age, site of diagnosis, APACHE II score, need for mechanical ventilation and vasopressors. Conclusion In this study population early resuscitation of elderly patients was not associated with increased in-hospital mortality. Prospective studies addressing the long-term impact on functional status and quality of life are necessary. PMID:26313436

  8. 50 CFR 17.62 - Permits for scientific purposes or for the enhancement of propagation or survival.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ..., or (ii) the wildlife or plant was bred in captivity, or artificially propagated, or was part of or..., BARTER, EXPORTATION, AND IMPORTATION OF WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) ENDANGERED AND THREATENED WILDLIFE AND PLANTS Endangered Plants § 17.62 Permits for scientific purposes or for the enhancement of...

  9. 50 CFR 17.62 - Permits for scientific purposes or for the enhancement of propagation or survival.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ..., or (ii) the wildlife or plant was bred in captivity, or artificially propagated, or was part of or..., BARTER, EXPORTATION, AND IMPORTATION OF WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) ENDANGERED AND THREATENED WILDLIFE AND PLANTS Endangered Plants § 17.62 Permits for scientific purposes or for the enhancement of...

  10. 50 CFR 17.62 - Permits for scientific purposes or for the enhancement of propagation or survival.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ..., or (ii) the wildlife or plant was bred in captivity, or artificially propagated, or was part of or..., BARTER, EXPORTATION, AND IMPORTATION OF WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) ENDANGERED AND THREATENED WILDLIFE AND PLANTS Endangered Plants § 17.62 Permits for scientific purposes or for the enhancement of...

  11. 50 CFR 17.62 - Permits for scientific purposes or for the enhancement of propagation or survival.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ..., or (ii) the wildlife or plant was bred in captivity, or artificially propagated, or was part of or..., BARTER, EXPORTATION, AND IMPORTATION OF WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) ENDANGERED AND THREATENED WILDLIFE AND PLANTS Endangered Plants § 17.62 Permits for scientific purposes or for the enhancement of...

  12. 77 FR 59414 - Application From Marys River Ranch, Elko County, NV, for an Enhancement of Survival Permit; Safe...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-27

    ... Safe Harbor Agreement for Lahontan cutthroat trout The primary objective of this proposed SHA is to... cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarkii henshawi). The SHA would cover conservation activities to create, maintain, restore, or enhance habitat for Lahontan cutthroat trout and achieve species' recovery goals...

  13. Hes-1 SUMOylation by protein inhibitor of activated STAT1 enhances the suppressing effect of Hes-1 on GADD45α expression to increase cell survival

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Hairy and Enhancer of split 1 (Hes-1) is a transcriptional repressor that plays an important role in neuronal differentiation and development, but post-translational modifications of Hes-1 are much less known. In the present study, we aimed to investigate whether Hes-1 could be SUMO-modified and identify the candidate SUMO acceptors on Hes-1. We also wished to examine the role of the SUMO E3 ligase protein inhibitor of activated STAT1 (PIAS1) in SUMOylation of Hes-1 and the molecular mechanism of Hes-1 SUMOylation. Further, we aimed to identify the molecular target of Hes-1 and examine how Hes-1 SUMOylation affects its molecular target to affect cell survival. Results In this study, by using HEK293T cells, we have found that Hes-1 could be SUMO-modified and Hes-1 SUMOylation was greatly enhanced by the SUMO E3 ligase PIAS1 at Lys8, Lys27 and Lys39. Furthermore, Hes-1 SUMOylation stabilized the Hes-1 protein and increased the transcriptional suppressing activity of Hes-1 on growth arrest and DNA damage-inducible protein alpha (GADD45α) expression. Overexpression of GADD45α increased, whereas knockdown of GADD45αα expression decreased cell apoptosis. In addition, H2O2 treatment increased the association between PIAS1 and Hes-1 and enhanced the SUMOylation of Hes-1 for endogenous protection. Overexpression of Hes-1 decreased H2O2-induced cell death, but this effect was blocked by transfection of the Hes-1 triple sumo-mutant (Hes-1 3KR). Overexpression of PIAS1 further facilitated the anti-apoptotic effect of Hes-1. Moreover, Hes-1 SUMOylation was independent of Hes-1 phosphorylation and vice versa. Conclusions The present results revealed, for the first time, that Hes-1 could be SUMO-modified by PIAS1 and GADD45α is a novel target of Hes-1. Further, Hes-1 SUMOylation mediates cell survival through enhanced suppression of GADD45α expression. These results revealed a novel role of Hes-1 in addition to its involvement in Notch signaling. They also

  14. Brachytherapy Improves Biochemical Failure–Free Survival in Low- and Intermediate-Risk Prostate Cancer Compared With Conventionally Fractionated External Beam Radiation Therapy: A Propensity Score Matched Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Graham D.; Pickles, Tom; Crook, Juanita

    2015-03-01

    Purpose: To compare, in a retrospective study, biochemical failure-free survival (bFFS) and overall survival (OS) in low-risk and intermediate-risk prostate cancer patients who received brachytherapy (BT) (either low-dose-rate brachytherapy [LDR-BT] or high-dose-rate brachytherapy with external beam radiation therapy [HDR-BT+EBRT]) versus external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) alone. Methods and Materials: Patient data were obtained from the ProCaRS database, which contains 7974 prostate cancer patients treated with primary radiation therapy at four Canadian cancer institutions from 1994 to 2010. Propensity score matching was used to obtain the following 3 matched cohorts with balanced baseline prognostic factors: (1) low-risk LDR-BT versus EBRT; (2)more » intermediate-risk LDR-BT versus EBRT; and (3) intermediate-risk HDR-BT+EBRT versus EBRT. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis was performed to compare differences in bFFS (primary endpoint) and OS in the 3 matched groups. Results: Propensity score matching created acceptable balance in the baseline prognostic factors in all matches. Final matches included 2 1:1 matches in the intermediate-risk cohorts, LDR-BT versus EBRT (total n=254) and HDR-BT+EBRT versus EBRT (total n=388), and one 4:1 match in the low-risk cohort (LDR-BT:EBRT, total n=400). Median follow-up ranged from 2.7 to 7.3 years for the 3 matched cohorts. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis showed that all BT treatment options were associated with statistically significant improvements in bFFS when compared with EBRT in all cohorts (intermediate-risk EBRT vs LDR-BT hazard ratio [HR] 4.58, P=.001; intermediate-risk EBRT vs HDR-BT+EBRT HR 2.08, P=.007; low-risk EBRT vs LDR-BT HR 2.90, P=.004). No significant difference in OS was found in all comparisons (intermediate-risk EBRT vs LDR-BT HR 1.27, P=.687; intermediate-risk EBRT vs HDR-BT+EBRT HR 1.55, P=.470; low-risk LDR-BT vs EBRT HR 1.41, P=.500). Conclusions: Propensity score matched analysis showed that BT

  15. Brachytherapy improves biochemical failure-free survival in low- and intermediate-risk prostate cancer compared with conventionally fractionated external beam radiation therapy: a propensity score matched analysis.

    PubMed

    Smith, Graham D; Pickles, Tom; Crook, Juanita; Martin, Andre-Guy; Vigneault, Eric; Cury, Fabio L; Morris, Jim; Catton, Charles; Lukka, Himu; Warner, Andrew; Yang, Ying; Rodrigues, George

    2015-03-01

    To compare, in a retrospective study, biochemical failure-free survival (bFFS) and overall survival (OS) in low-risk and intermediate-risk prostate cancer patients who received brachytherapy (BT) (either low-dose-rate brachytherapy [LDR-BT] or high-dose-rate brachytherapy with external beam radiation therapy [HDR-BT+EBRT]) versus external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) alone. Patient data were obtained from the ProCaRS database, which contains 7974 prostate cancer patients treated with primary radiation therapy at four Canadian cancer institutions from 1994 to 2010. Propensity score matching was used to obtain the following 3 matched cohorts with balanced baseline prognostic factors: (1) low-risk LDR-BT versus EBRT; (2) intermediate-risk LDR-BT versus EBRT; and (3) intermediate-risk HDR-BT+EBRT versus EBRT. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis was performed to compare differences in bFFS (primary endpoint) and OS in the 3 matched groups. Propensity score matching created acceptable balance in the baseline prognostic factors in all matches. Final matches included 2 1:1 matches in the intermediate-risk cohorts, LDR-BT versus EBRT (total n=254) and HDR-BT+EBRT versus EBRT (total n=388), and one 4:1 match in the low-risk cohort (LDR-BT:EBRT, total n=400). Median follow-up ranged from 2.7 to 7.3 years for the 3 matched cohorts. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis showed that all BT treatment options were associated with statistically significant improvements in bFFS when compared with EBRT in all cohorts (intermediate-risk EBRT vs LDR-BT hazard ratio [HR] 4.58, P=.001; intermediate-risk EBRT vs HDR-BT+EBRT HR 2.08, P=.007; low-risk EBRT vs LDR-BT HR 2.90, P=.004). No significant difference in OS was found in all comparisons (intermediate-risk EBRT vs LDR-BT HR 1.27, P=.687; intermediate-risk EBRT vs HDR-BT+EBRT HR 1.55, P=.470; low-risk LDR-BT vs EBRT HR 1.41, P=.500). Propensity score matched analysis showed that BT options led to statistically significant improvements in bFFS in

  16. A preliminary randomized clinical trial comparing diode laser and scalpel periosteal incision during implant surgery: impact on postoperative morbidity and implant survival.

    PubMed

    Shahnaz, Aysan; Jamali, Raika; Mohammadi, Farnush; Khorsand, Afshin; Moslemi, Neda; Fekrazad, Reza

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this preliminary randomized clinical trial was to compare: (1) post-operative morbidity after application of laser or scalpel incision for flap advancement during implant surgery and bone grafting and (2) implant survival rate following flap advancement with laser or scalpel incision after 6 months of loading. Eighteen patients who were scheduled for dental implant placement and simultaneous bone grafting were randomly assigned to test or control groups. Diode laser (810 nm, 2 W, pulse interval 200 μs; pulse length 100 μs, 400-μm initiated fiber tip), or scalpel (control) was used to sever the periosteum to create a tension-free flap. Visual analogue scale (VAS) pain score, rate of nonsteroid anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) consumption, intensity of swelling, and ecchymosis were measured for the six postsurgical days. Six months after loading, implant survival was assessed. VAS pain score (during the first four postoperative days), rate of NSAID consumption (during the first three postoperative days), and intensity of swelling (during the first five postoperative days) were significantly lower in the test group compared to the control group (All P values < 0.05). One patient in the control group experienced ecchymosis. All implants were successful in function. Application of laser for performing periosteal releasing incision reduced the incidence and severity of postoperative morbidity of the patients undergone implant surgery in conjunction with bone augmentation procedure. We did not find any detrimental effect of laser incision on the implant survival within 6 months of loading.

  17. Comparative genome analysis of Lactobacillus plantarum GB-LP3 provides candidates of survival-related genetic factors.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Soomin; Jung, Jaehoon; Kim, Kwondo; Yoo, DongAhn; Lee, Chanho; Kang, Jungsun; Cho, Kyungjin; Kang, Dae-Kyung; Kwak, Woori; Yoon, Sook Hee; Kim, Heebal; Cho, Seoae

    2017-09-01

    Lactobacillus plantarum is found in various environmental niches such as in the gastrointestinal tract of an animal host or a fermented food. This species isolated from a certain environment is known to possess a variety of properties according to inhabited environment's adaptation. However, a causal relationship of a genetic factor and phenotype affected by a specific environment has not been systematically comprehended. L. plantarum GB-LP3 strain was isolated from Korean traditional fermented vegetable and the whole genome of GB-LP3 was sequenced. Comparative genome analysis of GB-LP3, with other 14 L. plantarum strains, was conducted. In addition, genomic island regions were investigated. The assembled whole GB-LP3 genome contained a single circular chromosome of 3,206,111bp with the GC content of 44.7%. In the phylogenetic tree analysis, GB-LP3 was in the closest distance from ZJ316. The genomes of GB-LP3 and ZJ316 have the high level of synteny. Functional genes that are related to prophage, bacteriocin, and quorum sensing were found through comparative genomic analysis with ZJ316 and investigation of genomic islands. dN/dS analysis identified that the gene coding for phosphonate ABC transporter ATP-binding protein is evolutionarily accelerated in GB-LP3. Our study found that potential candidate genes that are affected by environmental adaptation in Korea traditional fermented vegetable. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. Exogenous cytokine modulation or neutralization of interleukin-10 enhance survival in lipopolysaccharide-hyporesponsive C3H/HeJ mice with Klebsiella infection

    PubMed Central

    Wang, M-J; Jeng, K-C G; Ping, L-I

    1999-01-01

    Klebsiella pneumoniae has been isolated from liver abscesses in patients with leukaemia or diabetes. The resistance of Klebsiella infection in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-hyporesponsive mice is unclear. Female C3H/HeJ and C3H/HeN mice, 6–8 weeks old, were intraperitoneally (i.p.) injected with K. pneumoniae. The results showed that C3H/HeJ mice were 24 times more susceptible [lethal dose 50% (LD50) 250 colony-forming units] than C3H/HeN mice to K. pneumoniae infection. C3H/HeJ mice, uninfected or infected with K. pneumoniae, had higher liver interleukin (IL)-10 levels and IL-10 mRNA levels than C3H/HeN mice. Previously, pretreatment with IL-1β and tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) protected C3H/HeJ mice from lethal bacterial infection. Therefore the effects of pretreatment with IL-1β and TNF-α or antimurine IL-10 antibody i.p. 1 hr before this infection in both strains of C3H mice were examined. Pretreatment with TNF-α or anti-IL-10 antibody enhanced the survival of both strains of mice. TNF-α, in combination with IL-1β, enhanced the survival and bacterial clearance better than single pretreatment in C3H/HeJ mice. Anti-IL-10 antibody increased bacterial clearance and significantly reduced liver cytokine mRNA levels in C3H/HeJ mice more than it did in the controls during infection. These results indicate that exogenous cytokine modulation or neutralization of IL-10 enhance the resistance of LD50 infection in C3H/HeJ mice. PMID:10469238

  19. Differences in Survival With Surgery and Postoperative Radiotherapy Compared With Definitive Chemoradiotherapy for Oral Cavity Cancer: A National Cancer Database Analysis.

    PubMed

    Spiotto, Michael T; Jefferson, Gina; Wenig, Barry; Markiewicz, Michael; Weichselbaum, Ralph R; Koshy, Matthew

    2017-07-01

    Because locally advanced oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma (OCSCC) is often treated with surgery followed by postoperative radiotherapy (S+PORT), the effectiveness of organ preservation with concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CRT) remains unclear. To compare the differences in survival between patients with locally advanced OCSCC treated with S+PORT or CRT. Using the National Cancer Database, this study compared 6900 patients with stage III to IVA OCSCC treated with S+PORT and CRT from 2004 through 2012 at academic and community-based cancer clinics. Comparisons were made using Kaplan-Meier methods and Cox proportional hazards regression models using the entire cohort and a propensity score-matched cohort of 2286 patients. Overall survival (OS). Of the 6900 study patients, 4809 received S+PORT (3080 male [64.0%] and 1792 [36.0%] female) and 2091 received CRT (1453 male [69.5%] and 638 [30.5%] female). Median follow-up for the entire group was 23.0 months overall but was shorter for patients receiving CRT (17.3-month) vs S+PORT (25.6 months). Patients receiving CRT were more likely to be older than 60 years, treated before 2007, live within 10 miles of the treating facility, treated at nonacademic centers, have more comorbidities, have T3 to T4a tumors, and have N2a to N2c nodal disease. Propensity score matching identified cohorts of patients with similar clinical variables. S+PORT was associated with improved survival among all patients (3-year OS: 53.9% for S+PORT vs 37.8% for CRT; difference = 16.1%; 95% CI, 13.6%-18.6%) and in the propensity score-matched cohort (3-year OS: 51.8% for S+PORT vs 39.3% for CRT; difference = 11.9%; 95% CI, 7.8%-16.0%). S+PORT was associated with improved survival among patients with T3 to T4a tumors (3-year OS: 49.7% for S+PORT vs 36.0% for CRT; difference = 16.1%; 95% CI, 13.6%-18.6%) but was not associated with improved survival among patients with T1 to T2 tumors (3-year OS: 59.1% for S+PORT vs 53.5% for CRT

  20. Doxorubicin induces ZAKα overexpression with a subsequent enhancement of apoptosis and attenuation of survivability in human osteosarcoma cells.

    PubMed

    Fu, Chien-Yao; Tseng, Yan-Shen; Chen, Ming-Cheng; Hsu, Hsi-Hsien; Yang, Jaw-Ji; Tu, Chuan-Chou; Lin, Yueh-Min; Viswanadha, Vijaya Padma; Kuo, Wei-Wen; Huang, Chih-Yang

    2018-02-01

    Human osteosarcoma (OS) is a malignant cancer of the bone. It exhibits a characteristic malignant osteoblastic transformation and produces a diseased osteoid. A previous study demonstrated that doxorubicin (DOX) chemotherapy decreases human OS cell proliferation and might enhance the relative RNA expression of ZAK. However, the impact of ZAKα overexpression on the OS cell proliferation that is inhibited by DOX and the molecular mechanism underlying this effect are not yet known. ZAK is a protein kinase of the MAPKKK family and functions to promote apoptosis. In our study, we found that ZAKα overexpression induced an apoptotic effect in human OS cells. Treatment of human OS cells with DOX enhanced ZAKα expression and decreased cancer cell viability while increasing apoptosis of human OS cells. In the meantime, suppression of ZAKα expression using shRNA and inhibitor D1771 both suppressed the DOX therapeutic effect. These findings reveal a novel molecular mechanism underlying the DOX effect on human OS cells. Taken together, our findings demonstrate that ZAKα enhances the apoptotic effect and decreases cell viability in DOX-treated human OS cells. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Two-step grafting significantly enhances the survival of foetal dopaminergic transplants and induces graft-derived vascularisation in a 6-OHDA model of Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Büchele, Fabian; Döbrössy, Máté; Hackl, Christina; Jiang, Wei; Papazoglou, Anna; Nikkhah, Guido

    2014-08-01

    Following transplantation of foetal primary dopamine (DA)-rich tissue for neurorestaurative treatment of Parkinson's disease (PD), only 5-10% of the functionally relevant DAergic cells survive both in experimental models and in clinical studies. The current work tested how a two-step grafting protocol could have a positive impact on graft survival. DAergic tissue is divided in two portions and grafted in two separate sessions into the same target area within a defined time interval. We hypothesized that the first graft creates a "DAergic" microenvironment or "nest" similar to the perinatal substantia nigra that stimulates and protects the second graft. 6-OHDA-lesioned rats were sequentially transplanted with wild-type (GFP-, first graft) and transgenic (GFP+, second graft) DAergic cells in time interims of 2, 5 or 9days. Each group was further divided into two sub-groups receiving either 200k (low cell number groups: 2dL, 5dL, 9dL) or 400k cells (high cell number groups: 2dH, 5dH, 9dH) as first graft. During the second transplantation, all groups received the same amount of 200k GFP+ cells. Controls received either low or high cell numbers in one single session (standard protocol). Drug-induced rotations, at 2 and 6weeks after grafting, showed significant improvement compared to the baseline lesion levels without significant differences between the groups. Rats were sacrificed 8weeks after transplantation for post-mortem histological assessment. Both two-step groups with the time interval of 2days (2dL and 2dH) showed a significantly higher survival of DAergic cells compared to their respective standard control group (2dL, +137%; 2dH, +47%). Interposing longer intervals of 5 or 9days resulted in the loss of statistical significance, neutralising the beneficial two-step grafting effect. Furthermore, the transplants in the 2dL and 2dH groups had higher graft volume and DA-fibre-density values compared to all other two-step groups. They also showed intense growth of

  2. Preferential extravasation and accumulation of liposomal vincristine in tumor comparing to normal tissue enhances antitumor activity.

    PubMed

    Shan, Siqing; Flowers, Clay; Peltz, Cathy D; Sweet, Heather; Maurer, Norbert; Kwon, Eun-Joo Gina; Krol, Ave; Yuan, Fan; Dewhirst, Mark W

    2006-08-01

    To quantitatively evaluate the extravasation, accumulation and selectivity to tumor tissues of liposomal vincristine (LV), dorsal skin-fold window chambers on athymic mice with or without LX-1, a human small cell lung cancer, xenograft implants and fluorescent intravital microscopy imaging were used. In vitro studies show that minimal loss of fluorescence marker DiI from liposomes occurs after 4 days of inoculation in murine plasma, and the release profiles of DiI-LV and LV were essentially the same with approximately 40% of the encapsulated vincristine sulfate (VCR) released after 26 h. Significantly faster extravasation of DiI-LV from tumor vessels was shown compared to non-tumor tissue after single dose i.v. administration. The relative interstitial amounts at 60 min (RIA(60)) for tumor and non-tumor tissues were 0.837+/-0.314 and 0.012+/-0.091, respectively (P=0.01). DiI-LV accumulation was significantly higher in tumor than in normal tissue, which continued beyond 48 h. Both DiI-LV and LV showed significant antitumor effects in window chambers and in flank tumors, compared with controls and VLS alone. The preferential extravasation of DiI-LV from tumor vasculature as well as its differential retention in tumor tissue provides the basis for the enhancement in antitumor activity of LV over VCR.

  3. Radiation exposure of contrast-enhanced spectral mammography compared with full-field digital mammography.

    PubMed

    Jeukens, Cécile R L P N; Lalji, Ulrich C; Meijer, Eduard; Bakija, Betina; Theunissen, Robin; Wildberger, Joachim E; Lobbes, Marc B I

    2014-10-01

    Contrast-enhanced spectral mammography (CESM) shows promising initial results but comes at the cost of increased dose as compared with full-field digital mammography (FFDM). We aimed to quantitatively assess the dose increase of CESM in comparison with FFDM. Radiation exposure-related data (such as kilovoltage, compressed breast thickness, glandularity, entrance skin air kerma (ESAK), and average glandular dose (AGD) were retrieved for 47 CESM and 715 FFDM patients. All examinations were performed on 1 mammography unit. Radiation dose values reported by the unit were validated by phantom measurements. Descriptive statistics of the patient data were generated using a statistical software package. Dose values reported by the mammography unit were in good qualitative agreement with those of phantom measurements. Mean ESAK was 10.5 mGy for a CESM exposure and 7.46 mGy for an FFDM exposure. Mean AGD for a CESM exposure was 2.80 mGy and 1.55 mGy for an FFDM exposure. Compared with our institutional FFDM, the AGD of a single CESM exposure is increased by 1.25 mGy (+81%), whereas ESAK is increased by 3.07 mGy (+41%). Dose values of both techniques meet the recommendations for maximum dose in mammography.

  4. Enhancement of trophoblast differentiation and survival by low molecular weight heparin requires heparin-binding EGF-like growth factor.

    PubMed

    Bolnick, Alan D; Bolnick, Jay M; Kohan-Ghadr, Hamid-Reza; Kilburn, Brian A; Pasalodos, Omar J; Singhal, Pankaj K; Dai, Jing; Diamond, Michael P; Armant, D Randall; Drewlo, Sascha

    2017-06-01

    Does low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) require heparin-binding epidermal growth factor (EGF)-like growth factor (HBEGF) signaling to induce extravillous trophoblast differentiation and decrease apoptosis during oxidative stress? LMWH increased HBEGF expression and secretion, and HBEGF signaling was required to stimulate trophoblast extravillous differentiation, increase invasion in vitro and reduce trophoblast apoptosis during oxidative stress. Abnormal trophoblast differentiation and survival contribute to placental insufficiency syndromes, including preeclampsia and intrauterine growth restriction. Preeclampsia often manifests as a pro-thrombotic state, with unsuccessful transformation of the spiral arteries that reduces oxygen supply and can produce placental infarction. LMWH improves placental function by increasing blood flow. Recent data suggest that the actions of LMWH transcend its anti-coagulative properties, but the molecular mechanism is unknown. There is evidence that LMWH alters the expression of human HBEGF in trophoblast cells, which regulates human trophoblast pathophysiology. HBEGF, itself, is capable of increasing trophoblast survival and invasiveness. First-trimester placental explants and the HTR-8/SVneo cell line, established using extravillous trophoblast outgrowths from first-trimester villous explants, were treated in vitro with LMWH to examine the effects on HBEGF signaling and trophoblast function under normal physiological and pathological conditions. A highly specific antagonist of HBEGF and other inhibitors of HBEGF downstream signaling were used to determine the relationship between LMWH treatment and HBEGF. Placental tissues (n = 5) were obtained with IRB approval and patient consent from first-trimester terminations. Placental explants and HTR-8/SVneo cells were cultured on plastic or Matrigel™ and treated with a therapeutic dose of LMWH (Enoxaparin; 10 IU/ml), with or without CRM197, pan Erb-B2 Receptor Tyrosine Kinase (ERBB

  5. Protein kinase A inhibitor, H89, enhances survival and clonogenicity of dissociated human embryonic stem cells through Rho-associated coiled-coil containing protein kinase (ROCK) inhibition.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Liang; Xu, Yanqing; Xu, Jiandong; Wei, Yuping; Xu, Xia

    2016-04-01

    Can cell survival of dissociated human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) be increased during culture? A protein kinase A (PKA) inhibitor, H89, can significantly enhance survival and clonogenicity of dissociated hESCs without affecting their pluripotency. hESCs are vulnerable to massive cell death upon cellular detachment and dissociation. hESCs were dissociated into single cells and then cultured in feeder-dependent and -independent manners. H89 was added to the culture medium at different concentrations for 1 day. The statistical results were obtained from at least three independent experiments (n ≥ 4). The group without treatment was used as the negative control. 4 µM H89 was added in the culture medium to promote cell survival and colony formation of dissociated hESCs. MTT method and propidium iodide (PI) staining were used to determine cell proliferation, cell death and cell cycle, respectively. To count colony formation, alkaline phosphatase (AP) staining was carried out. Western blot was performed to determine protein expression. Except AP staining, immunofluorescence, RT-PCR and karyotype analysis were used to confirm the pluripotent state of H89 treated hESCs. H89 inhibits the dissociation-induced phosphorylation of PKA and two substrates of Rho-associated coiled-coil containing protein kinase (ROCK), myosin light chain (MLC2) and myosin phosphatase target subunit 1 (MYPT1), significantly increases cell survival and colony formation, and strongly depresses dissociation-induced cell death and cell blebbing without affecting the pluripotency of hESCs and their differentiation in vitro. Appropriate H89 concentration should be used and 1 day of H89 treatment is sufficient for promoting survival and colony formation of dissociated hESCs. These results provide an alternative for human pluripotent stem cell (hPSC) culture, broaden the scope of participants in the cell death of single hES cells after dissociation and further enlighten clues to understand the

  6. Comparative evaluation of methylene blue and demeclocycline for enhancing optical contrast of brain neoplasms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wirth, Dennis J.

    Brain tumors cause significant morbidity and mortality even when benign. Completeness of resection of brain tumors has been associated with better quality of life. However, that is often difficult to accomplish. The goal of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of using contrast enhanced multimodal confocal imaging for intraoperative detection of brain neoplasms. Different types of benign and malignant, primary and metastatic brain tumors, stained with Methylene Blue (MB) as a contrast agent, were imaged. MB is a traditional histopathologic stain that absorbs light in the red spectral range and fluoresces in the near infrared. It is FDA-approved for in vivo staining of human skin and breast tissue. Optical images showed good correlation with histopathology, demonstrating the potential of contrast enhanced multimodal confocal imaging for intraoperative detection of brain neoplasms ex vivo. However, the safety of MB for staining human brain in vivo is questionable. Demeclocycline (DMN), an antibiotic of the tetracycline family, has shown to be effective in differentiating normal from cancerous tissue in various organs. DMN is a fluorophore, which absorbs light in the violet spectral range and has a broad emission band covering green and yellow wavelengths. It is commonly used to treat infection and inflammatory disorders, and could provide a safer alternative to MB. To test this hypothesis, fresh excess human brain tissues were bisected and stained with aqueous solutions of either MB or DMN and then imaged. Reflectance and fluorescence images acquired from tissues stained with the two dyes were compared, and correlated with processed H&E histopathology. Comparison showed similar staining patterns and contrast of diagnostic features in glioblastomas, stained using either MB or DMN. The results show potential of both MB and DMN for the intraoperative detection of microscopic nests of brain neoplasms. Further studies will establish safety and efficacy of these

  7. Irinotecan in second-line treatment of metastatic colorectal cancer: improved survival and cost-effect compared with infusional 5-FU.

    PubMed

    Iveson, T J; Hickish, T; Schmitt, C; Van Cutsem, E

    1999-12-01

    In a recent multicentre, randomised, controlled, open-label study (Rougier and colleagues, Lancet 1998, 352, 1407-1412), irinotecan significantly increased survival without any deterioration in quality of life compared with best-estimated infusional 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) therapy in the setting of second-line treatment for metastatic colorectal cancer. The aim of the cost-effectiveness analysis reported here was to compare the economic implications, from a U.K. perspective, of replacing 5-FU therapy [either as a single agent (Lokich regimen, B2) or in combination with folinic acid (de Gramont regimen, B1, or AIO regimen, B3)] with irinotecan as second-line therapy for metastatic colorectal cancer. Resource utilisation data collected prospectively during the study, supplemented by both a questionnaire to investigators and local expert clinical opinion, were used as a basis for estimating cumulative drug dosage, chemotherapy administration and treatment of complications. Drug acquisition costs were derived from the British National Formulary (March 1998), and unit costs for clinical consultation and services were derived from relevant 1996/1997 cost databases. Although cumulative drug acquisition costs per patient were higher with irinotecan than with infusional 5-FU therapy, these were at least partially offset by lower cumulative costs per patient associated with administration of therapy and treatment of complications in the irinotecan arm than in the 5-FU arm. Based on the incremental costs per life year gained (LYG), irinotecan was considered to be cost-effective by commonly accepted criteria compared with either the B1 or B2 regimens. Irinotecan was cost-saving compared with the B3 regimen (that is significant survival gain and a reduction in costs). Thus, not only is there strong evidence for the use of irinotecan as standard second-line therapy in metastatic colorectal cancer,but the results of this prospective economic evaluation have shown that irinotecan

  8. Germline polymorphisms in an enhancer of PSIP1 are associated with progression-free survival in epithelial ovarian cancer

    PubMed Central

    French, Juliet D.; Johnatty, Sharon E.; Lu, Yi; Beesley, Jonathan; Gao, Bo; Kalimutho, Murugan; Henderson, Michelle J.; Russell, Amanda J.; Kar, Siddhartha; Chen, Xiaoqing; Hillman, Kristine M.; Kaufmann, Susanne; Sivakumaran, Haran; O'Reilly, Martin; Wang, Chen; Korbie, Darren J.; Lambrechts, Diether; Despierre, Evelyn; Van Nieuwenhuysen, Els; Lambrechts, Sandrina; Vergote, Ignace; Karlan, Beth; Lester, Jenny; Orsulic, Sandra; Walsh, Christine; Fasching, Peter A.; Beckmann, Matthias W.; Ekici, Arif B.; Hein, Alexander; Matsuo, Keitaro; Hosono, Satoyo; Pisterer, Jacobus; Hillemanns, Peter; Nakanishi, Toru; Yatabe, Yasushi; Goodman, Marc T.; Lurie, Galina; Matsuno, Rayna K.; Thompson, Pamela J.; Pejovic, Tanja; Bean, Yukie; Heitz, Florian; Harter, Philipp; du Bois, Andreas; Schwaab, Ira; Hogdall, Estrid; Kjaer, Susanne K.; Jensen, Allan; Hogdall, Claus; Lundvall, Lene; Engelholm, Svend Aage; Brown, Bob; Flanagan, James M.; Metcalf, Michelle D.; Siddiqui, Nadeem; Sellers, Thomas; Fridley, Brooke; Cunningham, Julie; Schildkraut, Joellen M.; Iversen, Ed; Weber, Rachel Palmieri; Brennan, Donal; Berchuck, Andrew; Pharoah, Paul; Harnett, Paul; Norris, Murray D.; Haber, Michelle; Goode, Ellen L.; Lee, Jason S.; Khanna, Kum Kum; Meyer, Kerstin B.; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; deFazio, Anna; Edwards, Stacey L.; MacGregor, Stuart

    2016-01-01

    Women with epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) are usually treated with platinum/taxane therapy after cytoreductive surgery but there is considerable inter-individual variation in response. To identify germline single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that contribute to variations in individual responses to chemotherapy, we carried out a multi-phase genome-wide association study (GWAS) in 1,244 women diagnosed with serous EOC who were treated with the same first-line chemotherapy, carboplatin and paclitaxel. We identified two SNPs (rs7874043 and rs72700653) in TTC39B (best P=7×10−5, HR=1.90, for rs7874043) associated with progression-free survival (PFS). Functional analyses show that both SNPs lie in a putative regulatory element (PRE) that physically interacts with the promoters of PSIP1, CCDC171 and an alternative promoter of TTC39B. The C allele of rs7874043 is associated with poor PFS and showed increased binding of the Sp1 transcription factor, which is critical for chromatin interactions with PSIP1. Silencing of PSIP1 significantly impaired DNA damage-induced Rad51 nuclear foci and reduced cell viability in ovarian cancer lines. PSIP1 (PC4 and SFRS1 Interacting Protein 1) is known to protect cells from stress-induced apoptosis, and high expression is associated with poor PFS in EOC patients. We therefore suggest that the minor allele of rs7874043 confers poor PFS by increasing PSIP1 expression. PMID:26840454

  9. Community Engagement to Enhance Child Survival and Early Development in Low- and Middle-Income Countries: An Evidence Review

    PubMed Central

    Farnsworth, S. Katherine; Böse, Kirsten; Fajobi, Olaoluwa; Souza, Patricia Portela; Peniston, Anne; Davidson, Leslie L.; Griffiths, Marcia; Hodgins, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    As part of a broader evidence summit, USAID and UNICEF convened a literature review of effective means to empower communities to achieve behavioral and social changes to accelerate reductions in under-5 mortality and optimize early child development. The authors conducted a systematic review of the effectiveness of community mobilization and participation that led to behavioral change and one or more of the following: child health, survival, and development. The level and nature of community engagement was categorized using two internationally recognized models and only studies where the methods of community participation could be categorized as collaborative or shared leadership were eligible for analysis. The authors identified 34 documents from 18 countries that met the eligibility criteria. Studies with shared leadership typically used a comprehensive community action cycle, whereas studies characterized as collaborative showed clear emphasis on collective action but did not undergo an initial process of community dialogue. The review concluded that programs working collaboratively or achieving shared leadership with a community can lead to behavior change and cost-effective sustained transformation to improve critical health behaviors and reduce poor health outcomes in low- and middle-income countries. Overall, community engagement is an understudied component of improving child outcomes. PMID:25207448

  10. Community engagement to enhance child survival and early development in low- and middle-income countries: an evidence review.

    PubMed

    Farnsworth, S Katherine; Böse, Kirsten; Fajobi, Olaoluwa; Souza, Patricia Portela; Peniston, Anne; Davidson, Leslie L; Griffiths, Marcia; Hodgins, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    As part of a broader evidence summit, USAID and UNICEF convened a literature review of effective means to empower communities to achieve behavioral and social changes to accelerate reductions in under-5 mortality and optimize early child development. The authors conducted a systematic review of the effectiveness of community mobilization and participation that led to behavioral change and one or more of the following: child health, survival, and development. The level and nature of community engagement was categorized using two internationally recognized models and only studies where the methods of community participation could be categorized as collaborative or shared leadership were eligible for analysis. The authors identified 34 documents from 18 countries that met the eligibility criteria. Studies with shared leadership typically used a comprehensive community action cycle, whereas studies characterized as collaborative showed clear emphasis on collective action but did not undergo an initial process of community dialogue. The review concluded that programs working collaboratively or achieving shared leadership with a community can lead to behavior change and cost-effective sustained transformation to improve critical health behaviors and reduce poor health outcomes in low- and middle-income countries. Overall, community engagement is an understudied component of improving child outcomes.

  11. Germline polymorphisms in an enhancer of PSIP1 are associated with progression-free survival in epithelial ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    French, Juliet D; Johnatty, Sharon E; Lu, Yi; Beesley, Jonathan; Gao, Bo; Kalimutho, Murugan; Henderson, Michelle J; Russell, Amanda J; Kar, Siddhartha; Chen, Xiaoqing; Hillman, Kristine M; Kaufmann, Susanne; Sivakumaran, Haran; O'Reilly, Martin; Wang, Chen; Korbie, Darren J; Lambrechts, Diether; Despierre, Evelyn; Van Nieuwenhuysen, Els; Lambrechts, Sandrina; Vergote, Ignace; Karlan, Beth; Lester, Jenny; Orsulic, Sandra; Walsh, Christine; Fasching, Peter A; Beckmann, Matthias W; Ekici, Arif B; Hein, Alexander; Matsuo, Keitaro; Hosono, Satoyo; Pisterer, Jacobus; Hillemanns, Peter; Nakanishi, Toru; Yatabe, Yasushi; Goodman, Marc T; Lurie, Galina; Matsuno, Rayna K; Thompson, Pamela J; Pejovic, Tanja; Bean, Yukie; Heitz, Florian; Harter, Philipp; du Bois, Andreas; Schwaab, Ira; Hogdall, Estrid; Kjaer, Susanne K; Jensen, Allan; Hogdall, Claus; Lundvall, Lene; Engelholm, Svend Aage; Brown, Bob; Flanagan, James M; Metcalf, Michelle D; Siddiqui, Nadeem; Sellers, Thomas; Fridley, Brooke; Cunningham, Julie; Schildkraut, Joellen M; Iversen, Ed; Weber, Rachel Palmieri; Brennan, Donal; Berchuck, Andrew; Pharoah, Paul; Harnett, Paul; Norris, Murray D; Haber, Michelle; Goode, Ellen L; Lee, Jason S; Khanna, Kum Kum; Meyer, Kerstin B; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; deFazio, Anna; Edwards, Stacey L; MacGregor, Stuart

    2016-02-09

    Women with epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) are usually treated with platinum/taxane therapy after cytoreductive surgery but there is considerable inter-individual variation in response. To identify germline single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that contribute to variations in individual responses to chemotherapy, we carried out a multi-phase genome-wide association study (GWAS) in 1,244 women diagnosed with serous EOC who were treated with the same first-line chemotherapy, carboplatin and paclitaxel. We identified two SNPs (rs7874043 and rs72700653) in TTC39B (best P=7x10-5, HR=1.90, for rs7874043) associated with progression-free survival (PFS). Functional analyses show that both SNPs lie in a putative regulatory element (PRE) that physically interacts with the promoters of PSIP1, CCDC171 and an alternative promoter of TTC39B. The C allele of rs7874043 is associated with poor PFS and showed increased binding of the Sp1 transcription factor, which is critical for chromatin interactions with PSIP1. Silencing of PSIP1 significantly impaired DNA damage-induced Rad51 nuclear foci and reduced cell viability in ovarian cancer lines. PSIP1 (PC4 and SFRS1 Interacting Protein 1) is known to protect cells from stress-induced apoptosis, and high expression is associated with poor PFS in EOC patients. We therefore suggest that the minor allele of rs7874043 confers poor PFS by increasing PSIP1 expression.

  12. BTLA marks a less-differentiated tumor-infiltrating lymphocyte subset in melanoma with enhanced survival properties

    PubMed Central

    Haymaker, Cara L; Wu, Richard C; Ritthipichai, Krit; Bernatchez, Chantale; Forget, Marie-Andrée; Chen, Jie Qing; Liu, Hui; Wang, Ena; Marincola, Francesco; Hwu, Patrick; Radvanyi, Laszlo G

    2015-01-01

    In a recent adoptive cell therapy (ACT) clinical trial using autologous tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) in patients with metastatic melanoma, we found an association between CD8+ T cells expressing the inhibitory receptor B- and T-lymphocyte attenuator (BTLA) and clinical response. Here, we further characterized this CD8+BTLA+ TIL subset and their CD8+BTLA− counterparts. We found that the CD8+ BTLA+ TILs had an increased response to IL-2, were less-differentiated effector-memory (TEM) cells, and persisted longer in vivo after infusion. In contrast, CD8+BTLA− TILs failed to proliferate and expressed genes associated with T-cell deletion/tolerance. Paradoxically, activation of BTLA signaling by its ligand, herpes virus entry mediator (HVEM), inhibited T-cell division and cytokine production, but also activated the Akt/PKB pathway thus protecting CD8+BTLA+ TILs from apoptosis. Our results point to a new role of BTLA as a useful T-cell differentiation marker in ACT and a dual signaling molecule that curtails T-cell activation while also conferring a survival advantage for CD8+ T cells. These attributes may explain our previous observation that BTLA expression on CD8+ TILs correlates with clinical response to adoptive T-cell therapy in metastatic melanoma. PMID:26405566

  13. Comparative analyses of nonpathogenic, opportunistic, and totally pathogenic mycobacteria reveal genomic and biochemical variabilities and highlight the survival attributes of Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Syed Asad; Singh, Yadvir; Kohli, Sakshi; Ahmad, Javeed; Ehtesham, Nasreen Z; Tyagi, Anil K; Hasnain, Seyed E

    2014-11-04

    Mycobacterial evolution involves various processes, such as genome reduction, gene cooption, and critical gene acquisition. Our comparative genome size analysis of 44 mycobacterial genomes revealed that the nonpathogenic (NP) genomes were bigger than those of opportunistic (OP) or totally pathogenic (TP) mycobacteria, with the TP genomes being smaller yet variable in size--their genomic plasticity reflected their ability to evolve and survive under various environmental conditions. From the 44 mycobacterial species, 13 species, representing TP, OP, and NP, were selected for genomic-relatedness analyses. Analysis of homologous protein-coding genes shared between Mycobacterium indicus pranii (NP), Mycobacterium intracellulare ATCC 13950 (OP), and Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv (TP) revealed that 4,995 (i.e., ~95%) M. indicaus pranii proteins have homology with M. intracellulare, whereas the homologies among M. indicus pranii, M. intracellulare ATCC 13950, and M. tuberculosis H37Rv were significantly lower. A total of 4,153 (~79%) M. indicus pranii proteins and 4,093 (~79%) M. intracellulare ATCC 13950 proteins exhibited homology with the M. tuberculosis H37Rv proteome, while 3,301 (~82%) and 3,295 (~82%) M. tuberculosis H37Rv proteins showed homology with M. indicus pranii and M. intracellulare ATCC 13950 proteomes, respectively. Comparative metabolic pathway analyses of TP/OP/NP mycobacteria showed enzymatic plasticity between M. indicus pranii (NP) and M. intracellulare ATCC 13950 (OP), Mycobacterium avium 104 (OP), and M. tuberculosis H37Rv (TP). Mycobacterium tuberculosis seems to have acquired novel alternate pathways with possible roles in metabolism, host-pathogen interactions, virulence, and intracellular survival, and by implication some of these could be potential drug targets. The complete sequence analysis of Mycobacterium indicus pranii, a novel species of Mycobacterium shown earlier to have strong immunomodulatory properties and currently in use for

  14. Out-of-hospital cardiac arrest surveillance --- Cardiac Arrest Registry to Enhance Survival (CARES), United States, October 1, 2005--December 31, 2010.

    PubMed

    McNally, Bryan; Robb, Rachel; Mehta, Monica; Vellano, Kimberly; Valderrama, Amy L; Yoon, Paula W; Sasson, Comilla; Crouch, Allison; Perez, Amanda Bray; Merritt, Robert; Kellermann, Arthur

    2011-07-29

    Each year, approximately 300,000 persons in the United States experience an out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA); approximately 92% of persons who experience an OHCA event die. An OHCA is defined as cessation of cardiac mechanical activity that occurs outside of the hospital setting and is confirmed by the absence of signs of circulation. Whereas an OHCA can occur from noncardiac causes (i.e., trauma, drowning, overdose, asphyxia, electrocution, primary respiratory arrests, and other noncardiac etiologies), the majority (70%--85%) of such events have a cardiac cause. The majority of persons who experience an OHCA event, irrespective of etiology, do not receive bystander-assisted cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) or other timely interventions that are known to improve the likelihood of survival to hospital discharge (e.g., defibrillation). Because nearly half of cardiac arrest events are witnessed, efforts to increase survival rates should focus on timely and effective delivery of interventions by bystanders and emergency medical services (EMS) personnel. This is the first report to provide summary data from an OHCA surveillance registry in the United States. This report summarizes surveillance data collected during October 1, 2005-- December 31, 2010. In 2004, CDC established the Cardiac Arrest Registry to Enhance Survival (CARES) in collaboration with the Department of Emergency Medicine at the Emory University School of Medicine. This registry evaluates only OHCA events of presumed cardiac etiology that involve persons who received resuscitative efforts, including CPR or defibrillation. Participating sites collect data from three sources that define the continuum of emergency cardiac care: 911 dispatch centers, EMS providers, and receiving hospitals. OHCA is defined in CARES as a cardiac arrest that occurred in the prehospital setting, had a presumed cardiac etiology, and involved a person who received resuscitative efforts, including CPR or defibrillation

  15. Comparative survival analysis of adjuvant therapy with iodine-131-labeled lipiodol to hepatic resection of primary hepatocellular carcinoma: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Gong, Lin; Shi, Lu; Sun, Jing; Yuan, Wei-Sheng; Chen, Jian-Feng; Liu, Peng; Gong, Feng; Dong, Jia-Hong

    2014-05-01

    Adjuvant therapies play an important role in delaying the recurrence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in patients with resectable tumor. Among the available options, use of radionuclides is an effective strategy. This meta-analysis aims to examine the evidence pertaining to the effectiveness of adjuvant therapy with intra-arterial iodine-131-labeled lipiodol ((131)I-lipiodol) to hepatic resection of HCC. A literature survey was conducted of multiple electronic databases including PubMed/Medline, Embase, CINAHL, Cochrane library, and Google Scholar using various combinations of the most relevant key terms. The odds ratio-based meta-analysis of recurrence and survival rates was performed with RevMan software (version 5.2) using a random-effect model. Heterogeneity was assessed by χ(2) and I(2) statistics. When compared with the resection-only group, recurrence rates at 2 and 5 years were significantly lower in patients who received adjuvant therapy with intra-arterial I-lipiodol, with a corresponding odds ratio (95% confidence interval) of 0.45 (0.29-0.70) and 0.52 (0.32-0.85), respectively. The 3- and 5-year overall survival rates were found to be significantly higher in patients who received adjuvant therapy with (131)I-lipiodol than in patients who were not given any adjuvant therapy. Between-study statistical heterogeneity was moderate. Postoperative adjuvant therapy with intra-arterial (131)I-lipiodol to hepatic resection of HCC significantly improves overall and disease-free survival rates and reduces recurrence rates. However, well-designed randomized trials are needed to arrive at conclusive evidence.

  16. Non-coding genomic regions possessing enhancer and silencer potential are associated with healthy aging and exceptional survival.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sangkyu; Welsh, David A; Myers, Leann; Cherry, Katie E; Wyckoff, Jennifer; Jazwinski, S Michal

    2015-02-28

    We have completed a genome-wide linkage scan for healthy aging using data collected from a family study, followed by fine-mapping by association in a separate population, the first such attempt reported. The family cohort consisted of parents of age 90 or above and their children ranging in age from 50 to 80. As a quantitative measure of healthy aging, we used a frailty index, called FI34, based on 34 health and function variables. The linkage scan found a single significant linkage peak on chromosome 12. Using an independent cohort of unrelated nonagenarians, we carried out a fine-scale association mapping of the region suggestive of linkage and identified three sites associated with healthy aging. These healthy-aging sites (HASs) are located in intergenic regions at 12q13-14. HAS-1 has been previously associated with multiple diseases, and an enhancer was recently mapped and experimentally validated within the site. HAS-2 is a previously uncharacterized site possessing genomic features suggestive of enhancer activity. HAS-3 contains features associated with Polycomb repression. The HASs also contain variants associated with exceptional longevity, based on a separate analysis. Our results provide insight into functional genomic networks involving non-coding regulatory elements that are involved in healthy aging and longevity.

  17. Non-coding genomic regions possessing enhancer and silencer potential are associated with healthy aging and exceptional survival

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sangkyu; Welsh, David A.; Myers, Leann; Cherry, Katie E.; Wyckoff, Jennifer; Jazwinski, S. Michal

    2015-01-01

    We have completed a genome-wide linkage scan for healthy aging using data collected from a family study, followed by fine-mapping by association in a separate population, the first such attempt reported. The family cohort consisted of parents of age 90 or above and their children ranging in age from 50 to 80. As a quantitative measure of healthy aging, we used a frailty index, called FI34, based on 34 health and function variables. The linkage scan found a single significant linkage peak on chromosome 12. Using an independent cohort of unrelated nonagenarians, we carried out a fine-scale association mapping of the region suggestive of linkage and identified three sites associated with healthy aging. These healthy-aging sites (HASs) are located in intergenic regions at 12q13–14. HAS-1 has been previously associated with multiple diseases, and an enhancer was recently mapped and experimentally validated within the site. HAS-2 is a previously uncharacterized site possessing genomic features suggestive of enhancer activity. HAS-3 contains features associated with Polycomb repression. The HASs also contain variants associated with exceptional longevity, based on a separate analysis. Our results provide insight into functional genomic networks involving non-coding regulatory elements that are involved in healthy aging and longevity. PMID:25682868

  18. The Additional Costs per Month of Progression-Free Survival and Overall Survival: An Economic Model Comparing Everolimus with Cabozantinib, Nivolumab, and Axitinib for Second-Line Treatment of Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Swallow, Elyse; Messali, Andrew; Ghate, Sameer; McDonald, Evangeline; Duchesneau, Emilie; Perez, Jose Ricardo

    2018-04-01

    When considering optimal second-line treatments for metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC), clinicians and payers seek to understand the relative clinical benefits and costs of treatment. To use an economic model to compare the additional cost per month of overall survival (OS) and of progression-free survival (PFS) for cabozantinib, nivolumab, and axitinib with everolimus for the second-line treatment of mRCC from a third-party U.S. payer perspective. The model evaluated mean OS and PFS and costs associated with drug acquisition/administration; adverse event (AE) treatment; monitoring; and postprogression (third-line treatment, monitoring, and end-of-life costs) over 1- and 2-year horizons. Efficacy, safety, and treatment duration inputs were estimated from regimens' pivotal clinical trials; for everolimus, results were weighted across trials. Mean 1- and 2-year OS and mean 1-year PFS were estimated using regimens' reported OS and PFS Kaplan-Meier curves. Dosing and administration inputs were consistent with approved prescribing information and the clinical trials used to estimate efficacy and safety inputs. Cost inputs came from published literature and public data. Additional cost per additional month of OS or PFS was calculated using the ratio of the cost difference per treated patient and the corresponding difference in mean OS or PFS between everolimus and each comparator. One-way sensitivity analyses were conducted by varying efficacy and cost inputs. Compared with everolimus, cabozantinib, nivolumab, and axitinib were associated with 1.6, 0.3, and 0.5 additional months of PFS, respectively, over 1 year. Cabozantinib and nivolumab were associated with additional months of OS compared with everolimus (1 year: 0.7 and 0.8 months; 2 years: 1.6 and 2.3 months; respectively); axitinib was associated with fewer months (1 year: -0.2 months; 2 years: -0.7 months). The additional costs of treatment with cabozantinib, nivolumab, or axitinib versus everolimus over 1

  19. Does breast screening offer a survival benefit? A retrospective comparative study of oncological outcomes of screen-detected and symptomatic early stage breast cancer cases.

    PubMed

    Újhelyi, M; Pukancsik, D; Kelemen, P; Kovács, E; Kenessey, I; Udvarhelyi, N; Bak, M; Kovács, T; Mátrai, Z

    2016-12-01

    Mammography screening reduces breast cancer mortality by up to 32%. However, some recent studies have questioned the impact of non-palpable breast cancer detection on mortality reduction. The aim of this study was to analyse the clinicopathological and long-term follow-up data of early stage screened and symptomatic breast cancer patients. The institutional prospectively led database was systematically analysed for breast cancer cases diagnosed via the mammography screening program from 2002 to 2009. As a control group, symptomatic early stage breast cancer patients were collected randomly from the same database and matched for age and follow-up period. All medical records were reviewed retrospectively. Data from 298 breast cancer patients were collected from 47,718 mammography screenings. In addition, 331 symptomatic breast cancer patients were randomly selected. The screened group presented a significantly lower median tumour size (P < 0.00001). The incidence of negative regional lymph nodes was significantly higher in the screened group (P < 0.0006). The incidence of chemotherapy was 17% higher in the symptomatic group (P = 4*10 -5 ). At the median follow-up of 65 and 80 months, the screened group did not exhibit better overall (P = 0.717) or disease-free survival (P = 0.081) compared to the symptomatic group. Our results do not suggest that mammography screening does not reduce breast cancer mortality but the mammography screening did not bring any significant improvement in patient overall or disease-free survival for the early stage breast cancer patients compared to the symptomatic group. The drawback of symptomatic early stage tumours compared to non-palpable tumours could be equalized by modern multimodality oncology treatments. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd, BASO ~ the Association for Cancer Surgery, and the European Society of Surgical Oncology. All rights reserved.

  20. Characteristics of invasive breast cancer and overall survival of patients eligible for mass breast cancer screening in Guadeloupe compared to those of the preceding age group.

    PubMed

    Kadhel, Philippe; Borja De Mozota, Daphné; Gaumond, Stéphanie; Deloumeaux, Jacqueline

    2017-10-01

    Mass breast cancer screening is offered to French women between the ages of 50 and 74. In the French overseas department of Guadeloupe, where the population is of mostly African ancestry, a low age at diagnosis of breast cancer has been reported, as for African-Americans. This raises the question of whether breast cancer is more aggressive in the age group preceding that eligible for mass screening (40-49) in Guadeloupe. We compared the tumor-related prognostic factors, first line therapy and overall survival rates of breast cancer cases diagnosed between the 40-49 and 50-74 age groups, based on reports of the cancer registry of Guadeloupe for the period 2008-2013. The characteristics studied, risk of death after breast cancer (HR 0.84 [95% CI: 0.58-1.22] and overall survival, did not differ significantly between the two groups, except for higher tumor size (28.8 vs 24.0; p=0.004) in the younger group. These results do not show a pattern of more aggressive breast cancer in the age group preceding that eligible for mass screening in Guadeloupe. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. New Insights to Compare and Choose TKTD Models for Survival Based on an Interlaboratory Study for Lymnaea stagnalis Exposed to Cd.

    PubMed

    Baudrot, Virgile; Preux, Sara; Ducrot, Virginie; Pave, Alain; Charles, Sandrine

    2018-02-06

    Toxicokinetic-toxicodynamic (TKTD) models, as the General Unified Threshold model of Survival (GUTS), provide a consistent process-based framework compared to classical dose-response models to analyze both time and concentration-dependent data sets. However, the extent to which GUTS models (Stochastic Death (SD) and Individual Tolerance (IT)) lead to a better fitting than classical dose-response model at a given target time (TT) has poorly been investigated. Our paper highlights that GUTS estimates are generally more conservative and have a reduced uncertainty through smaller credible intervals for the studied data sets than classical TT approaches. Also, GUTS models enable estimating any x% lethal concentration at any time (LC x,t ), and provide biological information on the internal processes occurring during the experiments. While both GUTS-SD and GUTS-IT models outcompete classical TT approaches, choosing one preferentially to the other is still challenging. Indeed, the estimates of survival rate over time and LC x,t are very close between both models, but our study also points out that the joint posterior distributions of SD model parameters are sometimes bimodal, while two parameters of the IT model seems strongly correlated. Therefore, the selection between these two models has to be supported by the experimental design and the biological objectives, and this paper provides some insights to drive this choice.

  2. Sex-specific hormone receptors in urothelial carcinomas of the human urinary bladder: a comparative analysis of clinicopathological features and survival outcomes according to receptor expression.

    PubMed

    Tuygun, Can; Kankaya, Duygu; Imamoglu, Abdurrahim; Sertcelik, Ayse; Zengin, Kursad; Oktay, Murat; Sertcelik, Nurettin

    2011-01-01

    To investigate the expression of sex-specific hormone receptors in normal bladder urothelium and urothelial carcinomas (UCs) of the bladder, and to analyze clinicopathological features and survival outcomes according to receptor expression. We evaluated the clinical data and tumor specimens of 139 patients with bladder cancer (BC). In addition, 72 samples of normal urothelium were included. Immunohistochemistry was performed using streptavidin-biotin peroxidase method, a monoclonal androgen receptor (AR), and an estrogen receptor-β (ERβ) antibody on paraffin-embedded tissue sections. Expression levels of each receptor were assessed by evaluating 500 tumor cells for each case and the percentage of positively-stained nuclei was recorded. None of the 58 male control cases showed any AR and ERβ expression. Five (35, 71%) of the 14 female control cases expressed ERβ. Of the 139 patients with UCs, 71 (51, 07%) expressed AR (62 male vs. 9 female; P = 0.413) and 44 (31, 65%) (39 male vs. 5 female; P = 0.402) showed ERβ expression (P < 0.001). No significant relationship was found between ERβ expression levels and tumor grades, and stages (P = 0.441; P = 0.247). AR expression was significantly lower in T2-tumors (21%) than in Ta-tumors (60%) and T1-tumors (60%) (P < 0.001). It was significantly higher in low-grade papillary UCs (64%) compared with high-grade papillary UCs (44%) and infiltrative high-grade UCs (17%) (P = 0.039; P < 0.001). Data of 79 patients with noninvasive BC were eligible to present, with a median 29 months follow-up. AR expression level did not influence recurrence-free survival (RFS) and progression-free survival (PFS) (P = 0.095; P = 0.110). No significant association was found between ERβ expression level and RFS (P = 0.293). PFS in patients with lower ERβ-expressing tumors was significantly better than that in patients with higher ERβ-expressing tumors (P = 0.035). Multivariate analysis confirmed this significant influence on PFS (P = 0

  3. Acquisition of negative complement regulators by the saprophyte Leptospira biflexa expressing LigA or LigB confers enhanced survival in human serum.

    PubMed

    Castiblanco-Valencia, Mónica M; Fraga, Tatiana R; Breda, Leandro C D; Vasconcellos, Sílvio A; Figueira, Cláudio P; Picardeau, Mathieu; Wunder, Elsio; Ko, Albert I; Barbosa, Angela S; Isaac, Lourdes

    2016-05-01

    Leptospiral immunoglobulin-like (Lig) proteins are surface exposed molecules present in pathogenic but not in saprophytic Leptospira species. We have previously shown that Lig proteins interact with the soluble complement regulators Factor H (FH), FH like-1 (FHL-1), FH related-1 (FHR-1) and C4b Binding Protein (C4BP). In this study, we used the saprophyte L. biflexa serovar Patoc as a surrogate host to address the specific role of LigA and LigB proteins in leptospiral complement evasion. L. biflexa expressing LigA or LigB was able to acquire FH and C4BP. Bound complement regulators retained their cofactor activities of FI in the proteolytic cleavage of C3b and C4b. Moreover, heterologous expression of ligA and ligB genes in the saprophyte L. biflexa enhanced bacterial survival in human serum. Complement deposition on lig-transformed L. biflexa was assessed by flow cytometry analysis. With regard to MAC deposition, L. biflexa expressing LigA or LigB presented an intermediate profile: MAC deposition levels were greater than those found in the pathogenic L. interrogans, but lower than those observed for L. biflexa wildtype. In conclusion, Lig proteins contribute to in vitro control of complement activation on the leptospiral surface, promoting an increased bacterial survival in human serum. Copyright © 2016 European Federation of Immunological Societies. All rights reserved.

  4. Acquisition of negative complement regulators by the saprophyte Leptospira biflexa expressing LigA or LigB confers enhanced survival in human serum

    PubMed Central

    Castiblanco-Valencia, Mónica M.; Fraga, Tatiana R.; Breda, Leandro C.D.; Vasconcellos, Sílvio A.; Figueira, Cláudio P.; Picardeau, Mathieu; Wunder, Elsio; Ko, Albert I.; Barbosa, Angela S.; Isaac, Lourdes

    2017-01-01

    Leptospiral immunoglobulin-like (Lig) proteins are surface exposed molecules present in pathogenic but not in saprophytic Leptospira species. We have previously shown that Lig proteins interact with the soluble complement regulators Factor H (FH), FH like-1 (FHL-1), FH related-1 (FHR-1) and C4b Binding Protein (C4BP). In this study, we used the saprophyte L. biflexa serovar Patoc as a surrogate host to address the specific role of LigA and LigB proteins in leptospiral complement evasion. L. biflexa expressing LigA or LigB was able to acquire FH and C4BP. Bound complement regulators retained their cofactor activities of FI in the proteolytic cleavage of C3b and C4b. Moreover, heterologous expression of ligA and ligB genes in the saprophyte L. biflexa enhanced bacterial survival in human serum. Complement deposition on lig-transformed L. biflexa was assessed by flow cytometry analysis. With regard to MAC deposition, L. biflexa expressing LigA or LigB presented an intermediate profile: MAC deposition levels were greater than those found in the pathogenic L. interrogans, but lower than those observed for L. biflexa wildtype. In conclusion, Lig proteins contribute to in vitro control of complement activation on the leptospiral surface, promoting an increased bacterial survival in human serum. PMID:26976804

  5. Does PEEK/HA Enhance Bone Formation Compared With PEEK in a Sheep Cervical Fusion Model?

    PubMed

    Walsh, William R; Pelletier, Matthew H; Bertollo, Nicky; Christou, Chris; Tan, Chris

    2016-11-01

    Polyetheretherketone (PEEK) has a wide range of clinical applications but does not directly bond to bone. Bulk incorporation of osteoconductive materials including hydroxyapatite (HA) into the PEEK matrix is a potential solution to address the formation of a fibrous tissue layer between PEEK and bone and has not been tested. Using in vivo ovine animal models, we asked: (1) Does PEEK-HA improve cortical and cancellous bone ongrowth compared with PEEK? (2) Does PEEK-HA improve bone ongrowth and fusion outcome in a more challenging functional ovine cervical fusion model? The in vivo responses of PEEK-HA Enhanced and PEEK-OPTIMA ® Natural were evaluated for bone ongrowth in the form of dowels implanted in the cancellous and cortical bone of adult sheep and examined at 4 and 12 weeks as well as interbody cervical fusion at 6, 12, and 26 weeks. The bone-implant interface was evaluated with radiographic and histologic endpoints for a qualitative assessment of direct bone contact of an intervening fibrous tissue later. Gamma-irradiated cortical allograft cages were evaluated as well. Incorporating HA into the PEEK matrix resulted in more direct bone apposition as opposed to the fibrous tissue interface with PEEK alone in the bone ongrowth as well as interbody cervical fusions. No adverse reactions were found at the implant-bone interface for either material. Radiography and histology revealed resorption and fracture of the allograft devices in vivo. Incorporating HA into PEEK provides a more favorable environment than PEEK alone for bone ongrowth. Cervical fusion was improved with PEEK-HA compared with PEEK alone as well as allograft bone interbody devices. Improving the bone-implant interface with a PEEK device by incorporating HA may improve interbody fusion results and requires further clinical studies.

  6. The enhancement of biological ocular UV radiation on beaches compared to the radiation on grass.

    PubMed

    Liu, Guang-Cong; Wang, Fang; Gao, Yan-Yan; Yang, Zheng; Hu, Li-Wen; Gao, Qian; Ri, Jun-Chol; Liu, Yang

    2014-12-01

    The influence of albedo on ocular UV exposure has seldom been reported. This paper aimed to explore the enhancement effect on measured ocular UV radiation due to a sand surface compared to measured ocular UV radiation due to a grass surface. We measured ambient and ocular UV radiation over the beach and grass surface in Sanya City of China (18.4°N, 109.7°E). The experimental apparatus was composed of a manikin and a dual-detector spectrometer. Integration of both UVA and UVB radiation was used to denote UV radiation. Then biologically effective ocular UVB radiation (UVBE) and the ratios of UVBE of two surfaces were calculated. Maximum of ocular UV radiation versus time over the two surfaces is bimodal. UVBE on the beach is significantly larger than UVBE on the sand, and UVBE peaked at different solar elevation angle (SEA) over the two surfaces (about 53° and 40° on the beach and grass, respectively, according to Bayesian regression). The maximum of ocular UVBE ratios is greater than two, which peaked SEA was about 50°. One hour's cumulative radiation under sunny weather exceeds thresholds for photokeratitis, conjunctivitis and lens damage. Higher albedo significantly increased biological ocular UV radiation. Tourists on tropical beaches should take protective measures and avoid facing the sun directly, especially when SEA is around 50°. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Enhanced jump performance when providing augmented feedback compared to an external or internal focus of attention.

    PubMed

    Keller, Martin; Lauber, Benedikt; Gottschalk, Marius; Taube, Wolfgang

    2015-01-01

    Factors such as an external focus of attention (EF) and augmented feedback (AF) have been shown to improve performance. However, the efficacy of providing AF to enhance motor performance has never been compared with the effects of an EF or an internal focus of attention (IF). Therefore, the aim of the present study was to identify which of the three conditions (AF, EF or IF) leads to the highest performance in a countermovement jump (CMJ). Nineteen volunteers performed 12 series of 8 maximum CMJs. Changes in jump height between conditions and within the series were analysed. Jump heights differed between conditions (P < 0.001), resulting in best performance with AF (32.04 ± 7.11 cm), followed by EF (31.21 ± 6.67 cm) and IF (30.77 ± 6.87 cm). Significantly different (P < 0.001) within-series effects of higher jump heights at the end of the series in AF (+1.60%) and lower jump heights at the end of the series in EF (-1.79%) and IF (-1.68%) were observed. Muscle activity did not differ between conditions. The differences between conditions and within the series provide evidence that AF leads to higher performance and better progression within one series than EF and IF. Consequently, AF seems to outperform EF and IF when maximising jump height.

  8. Comparative transcriptomic evidence for Tween80-enhanced biodegradation of phenanthrene by Sphingomonas sp. GY2B.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shasha; Guo, Chuling; Lin, Weijia; Wu, Fengji; Lu, Guining; Lu, Jing; Dang, Zhi

    2017-12-31

    Previous study of the effects of surfactants on the biodegradation of phenanthrene focused on investigating alterations of the cell characteristics of Sphingomonas sp. GY2B. However, genes regulation associated with biodegradation and biological processes in response to the presence of surfactants, remains unclear. In this study, comparative transcriptome analysis was conducted to observe the gene expression of GY2B during phenanthrene biodegradation in the presence and absence of Tween80. A diverse set of genes was regulated by Tween80, leading to increased biodegradation of phenanthrene by GY2B: (i) Tween80 increased expression of genes related to H + transport in the plasma membrane to provide a driving force (i.e., ATP) for accelerating transmembrane transport of phenanthrene with increasing Tween80 concentrations, thereby enhancing the uptake and degradation of phenanthrene by GY2B; (ii) Tween80 (1 and 8 CMC) promoted intracellular biodegradation of phenanthrene by stimulating expression of genes encoding dioxygenases and monooxygenase, increasing expression of genes involved in intracellular metabolic processes (e.g., TCA cycle); and (iii) Tween80 likely increased GY2B vitality and growth by inducing expression of genes associated with ABC transporters and protein transport, regulating genes involved in other biological processes (e.g., transcription, translation). Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. Arsenic transformation predisposes human skin keratinocytes to UV-induced DNA damage yet enhances their survival apparently by diminishing oxidant response

    SciTech Connect

    Sun Yang; Kojima, Chikara; Chignell, Colin

    2011-09-15

    Inorganic arsenic and UV, both human skin carcinogens, may act together as skin co-carcinogens. We find human skin keratinocytes (HaCaT cells) are malignantly transformed by low-level arsenite (100 nM, 30 weeks; termed As-TM cells) and with transformation concurrently undergo full adaptation to arsenic toxicity involving reduced apoptosis and oxidative stress response to high arsenite concentrations. Oxidative DNA damage (ODD) is a possible mechanism in arsenic carcinogenesis and a hallmark of UV-induced skin cancer. In the current work, inorganic arsenite exposure (100 nM) did not induce ODD during the 30 weeks required for malignant transformation. Although acute UV-treatment (UVA, 25 J/cm{supmore » 2}) increased ODD in passage-matched control cells, once transformed by arsenic to As-TM cells, acute UV actually further increased ODD (> 50%). Despite enhanced ODD, As-TM cells were resistant to UV-induced apoptosis. The response of apoptotic factors and oxidative stress genes was strongly mitigated in As-TM cells after UV exposure including increased Bcl2/Bax ratio and reduced Caspase-3, Nrf2, and Keap1 expression. Several Nrf2-related genes (HO-1, GCLs, SOD) showed diminished responses in As-TM cells after UV exposure consistent with reduced oxidant stress response. UV-exposed As-TM cells showed increased expression of cyclin D1 (proliferation gene) and decreased p16 (tumor suppressor). UV exposure enhanced the malignant phenotype of As-TM cells. Thus, the co-carcinogenicity between UV and arsenic in skin cancer might involve adaptation to chronic arsenic exposure generally mitigating the oxidative stress response, allowing apoptotic by-pass after UV and enhanced cell survival even in the face of increased UV-induced oxidative stress and increased ODD. - Highlights: > Arsenic transformation adapted to UV-induced apoptosis. > Arsenic transformation diminished oxidant response. > Arsenic transformation enhanced UV-induced DNA damage.« less

  10. Comparing modern and presettlement forest dynamics of a subboreal wilderness: Does spruce budworm enhance fire risk?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sturtevant, Brian R.; Miranda, Brian R.; Shinneman, Douglas J.; Gustafson, Eric J.; Wolter, Peter T.

    2012-01-01

    Insect disturbance is often thought to increase fire risk through enhanced fuel loadings, particularly in coniferous forest ecosystems. Yet insect disturbances also affect successional pathways and landscape structure that interact with fire disturbances (and vice-versa) over longer time scales. We applied a landscape succession and disturbance model (LANDIS-II) to evaluate the relative strength of interactions between spruce budworm (Choristoneura fumiferana) outbreaks and fire disturbances in the Boundary Waters Canoe Area (BWCA) in northern Minnesota (USA). Disturbance interactions were evaluated for two different scenarios: presettlement forests and fire regimes vs. contemporary forests and fire regimes. Forest composition under the contemporary scenario trended toward mixtures of deciduous species (primarily Betula papyrifera and Populus spp.) and shade-tolerant conifers (Picea mariana, Abies balsamea, Thuja occidentalis), with disturbances dominated by a combination of budworm defoliation and high-severity fires. The presettlement scenario retained comparatively more “big pines” (i.e., Pinus strobus, P. resinosa) and tamarack (L. laricina), and experienced less budworm disturbance and a comparatively less-severe fire regime. Spruce budworm disturbance decreased area burned and fire severity under both scenarios when averaged across the entire 300-year simulations. Contrary to past research, area burned and fire severity during outbreak decades were each similar to that observed in non-outbreak decades. Our analyses suggest budworm disturbances within forests of the BWCA have a comparatively weak effect on long-term forest composition due to a combination of characteristics. These include strict host specificity, fine-scaled patchiness created by defoliation damage, and advance regeneration of its primary host, balsam fir (A. balsamea) that allows its host to persist despite repeated disturbances. Understanding the nature of the three-way interaction

  11. A novel method of comparing mating success and survival reveals similar sexual and viability selection for mobility traits in female tree crickets.

    PubMed

    Ercit, K; Gwynne, D T

    2016-06-01

    The relationship between sexual and viability selection in females is necessarily different than that in males, as investment in sexual traits potentially comes at the expense of both fecundity and survival. Accordingly, females do not usually invest in sexually selected traits. However, direct benefits obtained from mating, such as nuptial gifts, may encourage competition among females and subsidize investment into sexually selected traits. We compared sexual and viability selection on female tree crickets Oecanthus nigricornis, a species where females mate frequently to obtain nuptial gifts and sexual selection on females is likely. If male choice determines female mating success in this species, we expect sexual selection for fecundity traits, as males of many species prefer more fecund females. Alternatively, intrasexual scramble or combat competition on females may select for larger jumping legs or wider heads (respectively). We estimated mating success in wild caught crickets using microsatellite analysis of stored sperm and estimated relative viability by comparing surviving female O. nigricornis to those captured by a common wasp predator. In support of the scramble competition hypothesis, we found sexual selection for females with larger hind legs and narrower heads. We also found stabilizing viability selection for intermediate head width and hind leg size. As predicted, traits under viability and sexual selection were very similar, and the direction of that selection was not opposing. However, because the shape of sexual and viability selection differs, these episodes of selection may favour slightly different trait sizes. © 2016 European Society For Evolutionary Biology. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2016 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  12. Comparative Analyses of Nonpathogenic, Opportunistic, and Totally Pathogenic Mycobacteria Reveal Genomic and Biochemical Variabilities and Highlight the Survival Attributes of Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Yadvir; Kohli, Sakshi; Ahmad, Javeed; Ehtesham, Nasreen Z.; Tyagi, Anil K.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Mycobacterial evolution involves various processes, such as genome reduction, gene cooption, and critical gene acquisition. Our comparative genome size analysis of 44 mycobacterial genomes revealed that the nonpathogenic (NP) genomes were bigger than those of opportunistic (OP) or totally pathogenic (TP) mycobacteria, with the TP genomes being smaller yet variable in size—their genomic plasticity reflected their ability to evolve and survive under various environmental conditions. From the 44 mycobacterial species, 13 species, representing TP, OP, and NP, were selected for genomic-relatedness analyses. Analysis of homologous protein-coding genes shared between Mycobacterium indicus pranii (NP), Mycobacterium intracellulare ATCC 13950 (OP), and Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv (TP) revealed that 4,995 (i.e., ~95%) M. indicaus pranii proteins have homology with M. intracellulare, whereas the homologies among M. indicus pranii, M. intracellulare ATCC 13950, and M. tuberculosis H37Rv were significantly lower. A total of 4,153 (~79%) M. indicus pranii proteins and 4,093 (~79%) M. intracellulare ATCC 13950 proteins exhibited homology with the M. tuberculosis H37Rv proteome, while 3,301 (~82%) and 3,295 (~82%) M. tuberculosis H37Rv proteins showed homology with M. indicus pranii and M. intracellulare ATCC 13950 proteomes, respectively. Comparative metabolic pathway analyses of TP/OP/NP mycobacteria showed enzymatic plasticity between M. indicus pranii (NP) and M. intracellulare ATCC 13950 (OP), Mycobacterium avium 104 (OP), and M. tuberculosis H37Rv (TP). Mycobacterium tuberculosis seems to have acquired novel alternate pathways with possible roles in metabolism, host-pathogen interactions, virulence, and intracellular survival, and by implication some of these could be potential drug targets. PMID:25370496

  13. Longitudinal left ventricular function for prediction of survival in systemic light-chain amyloidosis: incremental value compared with clinical and biochemical markers.

    PubMed

    Buss, Sebastian J; Emami, Mostafa; Mereles, Derliz; Korosoglou, Grigorios; Kristen, Arnt V; Voss, Andreas; Schellberg, Dieter; Zugck, Christian; Galuschky, Christian; Giannitsis, Evangelos; Hegenbart, Ute; Ho, Anthony D; Katus, Hugo A; Schonland, Stefan O; Hardt, Stefan E

    2012-09-18

    The aim of the study was to determine whether longitudinal left ventricular (LV) function provides prognostic information in a large cohort of patients with systemic light-chain (AL) amyloidosis. AL amyloidosis is associated with a high incidence of cardiovascular events. Reduced myocardial longitudinal function is one of the hallmarks of myocardial involvement in this rare disease. Two hundred six consecutive patients with biopsy-proven AL amyloidosis were investigated in this prospective observational study. Echocardiographic imaging parameters, mean tissue Doppler-derived longitudinal strain (LS), and two-dimensional global longitudinal strain (2D-GLS) of the LV, cardiac serological biomarkers, and comprehensive clinical disease characteristics were assessed. The primary endpoint was all-cause mortality or heart transplantation. After a median follow-up of 1207 days, LS and 2D-GLS were significant predictors of survival in AL amyloidosis. The cutoff values discriminating survivors from nonsurvivors were -10.65% for LS and -11.78% for 2D-GLS. In a multivariable echocardiographic Cox model, only diastolic dysfunction and 2D-GLS remained as independent predictors of survival. In comprehensive clinical models, 2D-GLS (p < 0.0001), diastolic dysfunction (p < 0.01), the pathologic free light chains (p < 0.05), cardiac troponin-T (cTnT) (p < 0.01), and the Karnofsky index (p < 0.001) remained as independent predictors. 2D-GLS delineated a superior prognostic value compared with that derived from pathologic free light chains or cTnT in patients evaluated before firstline chemotherapy (n = 113; p < 0.0001), and remained the only independent predictor besides the Karnofsky index in subjects with preserved LV ejection fraction (≥50%; n = 127; p < 0.01). LS and 2D-GLS both offered significant incremental information (p < 0.001) for the assessment of outcome compared with clinical variables (age, Karnofsky index, and New York Heart Association functional class) and

  14. Granulocyte Macrophage-Colony Stimulating Factor-induced Zn Sequestration Enhances Macrophage Superoxide and Limits Intracellular Pathogen Survival

    PubMed Central

    Vignesh, Kavitha Subramanian; Landero Figueroa, Julio A.; Porollo, Aleksey; Caruso, Joseph A.; Deepe, George S.

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY Macrophages possess numerous mechanisms to combat microbial invasion, including sequestration of essential nutrients, like Zn. The pleiotropic cytokine granulocyte macrophage-colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) enhances antimicrobial defenses against intracellular pathogens such as Histoplasma capsulatum, but its mode of action remains elusive. We have found that GM-CSF activated infected macrophages sequestered labile Zn by inducing binding to metallothioneins (MTs) in a STAT3 and STAT5 transcription factor-dependent manner. GM-CSF upregulated expression of Zn exporters, Slc30a4 and Slc30a7 and the metal was shuttled away from phagosomes and into the Golgi apparatus. This distinctive Zn sequestration strategy elevated phagosomal H+ channel function and triggered reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation by NADPH oxidase. Consequently, H. capsulatum was selectively deprived of Zn, thereby halting replication and fostering fungal clearance. GM-CSF mediated Zn sequestration via MTs in vitro and in vivo in mice and in human macrophages. These findings illuminate a GM-CSF-induced Zn-sequestration network that drives phagocyte antimicrobial effector function. PMID:24138881

  15. Enhancement of Survival and Electricity Production in an Engineered Bacterium by Light-Driven Proton Pumping▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Ethan T.; Baron, Daniel B.; Naranjo, Belén; Bond, Daniel R.; Schmidt-Dannert, Claudia; Gralnick, Jeffrey A.

    2010-01-01

    Microorganisms can use complex photosystems or light-dependent proton pumps to generate membrane potential and/or reduce electron carriers to support growth. The discovery that proteorhodopsin is a light-dependent proton pump that can be expressed readily in recombinant bacteria enables development of new strategies to probe microbial physiology and to engineer microbes with new light-driven properties. Here, we describe functional expression of proteorhodopsin and light-induced changes in membrane potential in the bacterium Shewanella oneidensis strain MR-1. We report that there were significant increases in electrical current generation during illumination of electrochemical chambers containing S. oneidensis expressing proteorhodopsin. We present evidence that an engineered strain is able to consume lactate at an increased rate when it is illuminated, which is consistent with the hypothesis that proteorhodopsin activity enhances lactate uptake by increasing the proton motive force. Our results demonstrate that there is coupling of a light-driven process to electricity generation in a nonphotosynthetic engineered bacterium. Expression of proteorhodopsin also preserved the viability of the bacterium under nutrient-limited conditions, providing evidence that fulfillment of basic energy needs of organisms may explain the widespread distribution of proteorhodopsin in marine environments. PMID:20453141

  16. A Comparison of Class-Wide Taped Problems and Cover, Copy, and Compare for Enhancing Mathematics Fluency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poncy, Brian C.; Skinner, Christopher H.; McCallum, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    An adapted alternating treatments design was used to compare the effects of class-wide applications of Taped Problems (TP) and Cover, Copy, and Compare (CCC) procedures designed to enhance subtraction fact fluency in an intact third-grade classroom. During the TP procedure, a tape provided an auditory prompt (i.e., the problem), followed by a…

  17. Production, fertility, survival, and body measurements of Montbéliarde-sired crossbreds compared with pure Holsteins during their first 5 lactations.

    PubMed

    Hazel, A R; Heins, B J; Seykora, A J; Hansen, L B

    2014-01-01

    Two-breed crossbreds of Montbéliarde and Holstein (MO × HO) as well as 3-breed crossbreds of Montbéliarde and Jersey/Holstein (MO × JH) were compared with pure Holstein (HO) cows for production, somatic cell score (SCS), fertility, survival to subsequent calving, mortality, and body measurements during their first 5 lactations. Cows calved for the first time between 2005 and 2010 and were housed in either a confinement herd or a herd that had access to pasture for 165d of the year in the north central region of the United States. Body, hoof, and udder measurements of cows were also objectively measured. The MO × HO crossbred cows were not different from pure HO cows for fat-plus-protein production during any lactation. However, the MO × JH crossbred cows had 5% lower fat-plus-protein production compared with pure HO cows in the confinement herd. On the other hand, the MO × JH crossbred cows were not different for fat-plus-protein production in the third to fifth lactation compared with pure HO cows in the seasonal pasture herd. Across the 2 herds, the MO × HO and MO × JH crossbred cows had 21% higher first-service conception rate, 41 fewer days open, and 12% higher pregnancy rate compared with the pure HO cows. Furthermore, the MO × HO (5%) and MO × JH (12%) crossbred cows had lower mortality rates than the pure HO cows (18%). Because of superior fertility and lower mortality rates, the MO × HO and MO × JH crossbred cows, combined, had greater survival to second (+13%), third (+24%), fourth (+25%), and fifth (+17%) lactation compared with pure HO cows. For body measurements, MO × HO were similar to pure HO cows for hip height and heart girth, but MO × HO cows had more body condition and greater body weight (+39kg) across the first 5 lactations. The MO × JH cows had more body condition but 5cm shorter hip height and 28kg less body weight than pure HO cows across the first 5 lactations. Foot angle was steeper and hoof length was shorter for MO × HO

  18. Dehydration enhances pain-evoked activation in the human brain compared with rehydration.

    PubMed

    Ogino, Yuichi; Kakeda, Takahiro; Nakamura, Koji; Saito, Shigeru

    2014-06-01

    Negative effects of dehydration on the human brain and cognitive function have been reported. In this study, we examined the effects of dehydration on pain thresholds and cortical activations in response to pain, compared with rehydration with an oral rehydration solution (ORS) by functional magnetic resonance imaging. Five healthy adult men were subjected to dehydration and rehydration on 2 different days. The condition on the first day was randomly assigned to each subject. They completed a 40-minute exercise protocol using a walking machine after 12 hours of fasting under both conditions. For rehydration, the subjects consumed up to 3000 mL ORS starting from the night before the test day. After exercise, a painful stimulus (cold pressor test) was applied to the subjects' medial forearm in a magnetic resonance imaging scanning gantry, and pain-evoked brain activation was analyzed. On the rehydration day, each of the subjects consumed an average of 2040 mL (range; 1800-2500 mL) ORS. Physiological data revealed that subjects when dehydrated lost more weight from exercise than subjects when rehydrated had a larger heart rate increase, a higher tympanic temperature, and a higher urine osmolality. Subjective data revealed that the subjects reported significantly stronger thirst while dehydrated than while rehydrated with ORS, although the levels of hunger and anxiety and mood did not significantly differ between conditions. The cold pressor test robustly activated the pain-related neural network, notably the anterior cingulate cortex, insula, and thalamus. Such activations in the dehydrated subjects were greater than those in the rehydrated subjects in terms of peak and cluster, accompanied by a decrease in pain threshold (P = 0.001). Our findings suggest that dehydration brings about increased brain activity related to painful stimuli together with enhanced thirst, whereas rehydration with ORS alleviates thirst and decreases brain activity related to painful stimuli.

  19. Rat epidermal keratinocyte organotypic culture (ROC) compared to human cadaver skin: the effect of skin permeation enhancers.

    PubMed

    Pappinen, Sari; Tikkinen, Sanna; Pasonen-Seppänen, Sanna; Murtomäki, Lasse; Suhonen, Marjukka; Urtti, Arto

    2007-03-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the response of the rat epidermal keratinocyte organotypic culture (ROC) to permeation enhancers, and to compare these responses to those in human cadaver skin. Different concentrations of two mixtures for enhancing permeation were investigated, sodium dodecyl sulfate:phenyl piperazine and methyl pyrrolidone:dodecyl pyridinium chloride, using skin impedance spectroscopy and two experimental compounds, the lipophilic corticosterone and the hydrophilic sucrose. The chemical irritation effects of the formulations were evaluated based on leakage of lactate dehydrogenase enzyme (LDH) and cellular morphological perturbation. This study provides evidence for direct correlations of permeation/permeation, impedance/impedance and permation/impedance between the culture model and human skin. The only exception was the enhancer induced permeation of sucrose which was 1-40-fold higher in ROC compared to human skin, reflecting the more disordered lipid organization in stratum corneum and consequently the greater number of polar pathways. LDH leakage and cellular morphology indicated that it was possible to differentiate between safe permeation enhancers from irritating agents. This is not only the first study to have compared the enhancer effects on a cultured skin model with human skin, but also it has demonstrated enhancer induced irritation using an artificial skin model.

  20. Mapping of a quantitative trait locus for resistance against infectious salmon anaemia in Atlantic salmon (Salmo Salar): comparing survival analysis with analysis on affected/resistant data

    PubMed Central

    Moen, Thomas; Sonesson, Anna K; Hayes, Ben; Lien, Sigbjørn; Munck, Hege; Meuwissen, Theo HE

    2007-01-01

    Background Infectious Salmon Anaemia (ISA) is a viral disease affecting farmed Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) worldwide. The identification of Quantitative Trait Loci (QTL) affecting resistance to the disease could improve our understanding of the genetics underlying the trait and provide a means for Marker-Assisted Selection. We previously performed a genome scan on commercial Atlantic salmon families challenge tested for ISA resistance, identifying several putative QTL. In the present study, we set out to validate the strongest of these QTL in a larger family material coming from the same challenge test, and to determine the position of the QTL by interval mapping. We also wanted to explore different ways of performing QTL analysis within a survival analysis framework (i.e. using time-to-event data), and to compare results using survival analysis with results from analysis on the dichotomous trait 'affected/resistant'. Results The QTL, located on Atlantic salmon linkage group 8 (following SALMAP notation), was confirmed in the new data set. Its most likely position was at a marker cluster containing markers BHMS130, BHMS170 and BHMS553. Significant segregation distortion was observed in the same region, but was shown to be unrelated to the QTL. A maximum likelihood procedure for identifying QTL, based on the Cox proportional hazard model, was developed. QTL mapping was also done using the Haley-Knott method (affected/resistant data), and within a variance-component framework (affected/resistant data and time-to-event data). In all cases, analysis using affected/resistant data gave stronger evidence for a QTL than did analysis using time-to-event data. Conclusion A QTL for resistance to Infectious Salmon Anaemia in Atlantic salmon was validated in this study, and its more precise location on linkage group eight was determined. The QTL explained 6% of the phenotypic variation in resistance to the disease. The linkage group also displayed significant segregation

  1. Reduced intensity haplo plus single cord transplant compared to double cord transplant: improved engraftment and graft-versus-host disease-free, relapse-free survival

    PubMed Central

    van Besien, Koen; Hari, Parameswaran; Zhang, Mei-Jie; Liu, Hong-Tao; Stock, Wendy; Godley, Lucy; Odenike, Olatoyosi; Larson, Richard; Bishop, Michael; Wickrema, Amittha; Gergis, Usama; Mayer, Sebastian; Shore, Tsiporah; Tsai, Stephanie; Rhodes, Joanna; Cushing, Melissa M.; Korman, Sandra; Artz, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Umbilical cord blood stem cell transplants are commonly used in adults lacking HLA-identical donors. Delays in hematopoietic recovery contribute to mortality and morbidity. To hasten recovery, we used co-infusion of progenitor cells from a partially matched related donor and from an umbilical cord blood graft (haplo-cord transplant). Here we compared the outcomes of haplo-cord and double-cord transplants. A total of 97 adults underwent reduced intensity conditioning followed by haplo-cord transplant and 193 patients received reduced intensity conditioning followed by double umbilical cord blood transplantation. Patients in the haplo-cord group were more often from minority groups and had more advanced malignancy. Haplo-cord recipients received fludarabine-melphalan-anti-thymocyte globulin. Double umbilical cord blood recipients received fludarabine-cyclophosphamide and low-dose total body irradiation. In a multivariate analysis, haplo-cord had faster neutrophil (HR=1.42, P=0.007) and platelet (HR=2.54, P<0.0001) recovery, lower risk of grade II–IV acute graft-versus-host disease (HR=0.26, P<0.0001) and chronic graft-versus-host disease (HR=0.06, P<0.0001). Haplo-cord was associated with decreased risk of relapse (HR 0.48, P=0.001). Graft-versus-host disease-free, relapse-free survival was superior with haplo-cord (HR 0.63, P=0.002) but not overall survival (HR=0.97, P=0.85). Haplo-cord transplantation using fludarabine-melphalan-thymoglobulin conditioning hastens hematopoietic recovery with a lower risk of relapse relative to double umbilical cord blood transplantation using the commonly used fludarabine-cyclophosphamide-low-dose total body irradiation conditioning. Graft-versus-host disease-free and relapse-free survival is significantly improved. Haplo-cord is a readily available graft source that improves outcomes and access to transplant for those lacking HLA-matched donors. Trials registered at clinicaltrials.gov identifiers 00943800 and 01810588. PMID

  2. Comparative Survival Rate Study (CSS) of Hatchery PIT-tagged Chinook; Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife, Annual Report 2002-2003.

    SciTech Connect

    Jonasson, Brian

    2004-02-01

    We PIT-tagged juvenile spring chinook salmon reared at Lookingglass Hatchery in October 2002 as part of the Comparative Survival Rate Study (CSS) for migratory year (MY) 2003. We tagged 20,950 Imnaha stock spring chinook salmon, and after mortality and tag loss, we allowed the remaining 20,904 fish to leave the acclimation pond at our Imnaha River satellite facility beginning 1 April 2003 to begin their seaward migration. The fish remaining in the pond were forced out on 15 April 2003. We tagged 20,820 Catherine Creek stock captive and conventional brood progeny spring chinook salmon, and after mortality and tag loss,more » we allowed the remaining 20,628 fish to leave the acclimation ponds at our Catherine Creek satellite facility beginning during two acclimation periods. The volitional release for the early acclimation group began 12 March 2003, and all remaining fish were forced out of the ponds on 23 March 2003. The volitional release for the late acclimation group began 31 March 2003, and all remaining fish were forced out of the ponds on 14 April 2003. We estimated survival rates, from release to Lower Granite Dam in MY 2003, for three stocks of hatchery spring chinook salmon tagged at Lookingglass Hatchery to determine their relative migration performance. Survival rates for the Imnaha River, Lostine River, and Catherine Creek stocks were 0.714, 0.557, and 0.350, respectively. We PIT-tagged 20,944 BY 2002 Imnaha River stock and 20,980 BY 2002 Catherine Creek stock captive and conventional brood progeny in October and November 2003 as part of the CSS for MY 2004. From tagging to January 28, 2004, the rates of mortality and tag loss for Imnaha River stock were 0.16% and 0.04%, respectively. Catherine Creek stock, during the same period, had rates of mortality and tag loss of 0.19% and 0.06%, respectively.« less

  3. Short communication: Jersey × Holstein crossbreds compared with pure Holsteins for body weight, body condition score, fertility, and survival during the first three lactations.

    PubMed

    Heins, B J; Hansen, L B; Hazel, A R; Seykora, A J; Johnson, D G; Linn, J G

    2012-07-01

    Crossbred cows (n=80) resulting from the use of Jersey (JE) semen on their pure Holstein (HO) dams were compared with pure HO cows (n=77) for body weight, body condition score, fertility, and survival during their first 3 lactations. Cows were in 2 research herds of the University of Minnesota and calved from September 2003 to June 2008. The JE × HO crossbred cows had significantly less body weight during the first (-56 kg), second (-67 kg), and third (-82 kg) lactations than pure HO cows. However, JE × HO cows had significantly greater body condition score during the first (2.94 vs. 2.84), second (2.97 vs. 2.84), and third (2.99 vs. 2.87) lactations than pure HO cows. For fertility, JE × HO cows had fewer days to first breeding during the first (-10.6d), second (-8.4d), and third (-12.3d) lactations than pure HO cows. Crossbred cows were not significantly different from pure HO cows for number of services during first lactation; however, JE × HO cows had significantly fewer services (2.2) than pure HO cows (2.7) during the second lactation. Also, JE × HO cows had significantly fewer days open than pure HO cows in the first (-24 d), second (-42 d), and third (-42 d) lactations. For survival, JE × HO cows were not significantly different from pure HO cows for percentage of cows calving a second time; however, a tendency existed for a higher percentage of JE × HO cows (63.8%) than pure HO cows (49.4%) to calve a third time, and a higher percentage of JE × HO cows calved a third time within 28, 34, and 40 mo of first calving than pure HO cows. Copyright © 2012 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Post-nuclear disaster evacuation and survival amongst elderly people in Fukushima: A comparative analysis between evacuees and non-evacuees.

    PubMed

    Nomura, Shuhei; Blangiardo, Marta; Tsubokura, Masaharu; Nishikawa, Yoshitaka; Gilmour, Stuart; Kami, Masahiro; Hodgson, Susan

    2016-01-01

    Considering the health impacts of evacuation is fundamental to disaster planning especially for vulnerable elderly populations; however, evacuation-related mortality risks have not been well-investigated. We conducted an analysis to compare survival of evacuated and non-evacuated residents of elderly care facilities, following the Great East Japan Earthquake and subsequent Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant incident on 11th March 2011. To assess associations between evacuation and mortality after the Fukushima nuclear incident; and to present discussion points on disaster planning, with reference to vulnerable elderly populations. The study population comprised 1,215 residents admitted to seven elderly care facilities located 20-40km from the nuclear plant in the five years before the incident. Demographic and clinical characteristics were obtained from medical records. Evacuation histories were tracked until mid 2013. Main outcome measures are hazard ratios in evacuees versus non-evacuees using random-effects Cox proportional hazards models, and pre- and post-disaster survival probabilities and relative mortality incidence. Experiencing the disasters did not have a significant influence on mortality (hazard ratio 1.10, 95% confidence interval: 0.84-1.43). Evacuation was associated with 1.82 times higher mortality (95% confidence interval: 1.22-2.70) after adjusting for confounders, with the initial evacuation from the original facility associated with 3.37 times higher mortality risk (95% confidence interval: 1.66-6.81) than non evacuation. The government should consider updating its requirements for emergency planning for elderly facilities and ensure that, in a disaster setting, these facilities have the capacity and support to shelter in place for at least sufficient time to adequately prepare initial evacuation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Minoxidil 2% lotion for eyebrow enhancement: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, spilt-face comparative study.

    PubMed

    Lee, Saridpong; Tanglertsampan, Chuchai; Tanchotikul, Mingkwan; Worapunpong, Nigun

    2014-02-01

    Topical minoxidil has been successfully used to treat androgenetic alopecia. It can also be applied to enhance eyebrows. However, there is no study comparing minoxidil lotion with placebo for eyebrow enhancement. In this trial, we determined the efficacy and safety of minoxidil 2% lotion for eyebrow enhancement compared with placebo. Forty patients were randomized for minoxidil on the eyebrow on one side of the face and placebo on the other. Efficacy was evaluated by global photographic assessment, eyebrow diameter, eyebrow count and subject's satisfaction. Side-effects were also evaluated. Thirty-nine patients (97.5%) completed the study. After 16 weeks, the minoxidil group achieved significantly better results in all measured outcomes compared to the placebo group. Side-effects were minor and did not preclude patients from continuing the study. Our study suggests that minoxidil 2% lotion is a safe and effective treatment for eyebrow hypotrichosis. © 2014 Japanese Dermatological Association.

  6. Proteasome inhibition enhances the efficacy of volasertib-induced mitotic arrest in AML in vitro and prolongs survival in vivo.

    PubMed

    Schnerch, Dominik; Schüler, Julia; Follo, Marie; Felthaus, Julia; Wider, Dagmar; Klingner, Kathrin; Greil, Christine; Duyster, Justus; Engelhardt, Monika; Wäsch, Ralph

    2017-03-28

    Elderly and frail patients, diagnosed with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and ineligible to undergo intensive treatment, have a dismal prognosis. The small molecule inhibitor volasertib induces a mitotic block via inhibition of polo-like kinase 1 and has shown remarkable anti-leukemic activity when combined with low-dose cytarabine. We have demonstrated that AML cells are highly vulnerable to cell death in mitosis yet manage to escape a mitotic block through mitotic slippage by sustained proteasome-dependent slow degradation of cyclin B. Therefore, we tested whether interfering with mitotic slippage through proteasome inhibition arrests and kills AML cells more efficiently during mitosis. We show that therapeutic doses of bortezomib block the slow degradation of cyclin B during a volasertib-induced mitotic arrest in AML cell lines and patient-derived primary AML cells. In a xenotransplant mouse model of human AML, mice receiving volasertib in combination with bortezomib showed superior disease control compared to mice receiving volasertib alone, highlighting the potential therapeutic impact of this drug combination.

  7. Comparing gold nano-particle enhanced radiotherapy with protons, megavoltage photons and kilovoltage photons: a Monte Carlo simulation.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yuting; McMahon, Stephen J; Scarpelli, Matthew; Paganetti, Harald; Schuemann, Jan

    2014-12-21

    Gold nanoparticles (GNPs) have shown potential to be used as a radiosensitizer for radiation therapy. Despite extensive research activity to study GNP radiosensitization using photon beams, only a few studies have been carried out using proton beams. In this work Monte Carlo simulations were used to assess the dose enhancement of GNPs for proton therapy. The enhancement effect was compared between a clinical proton spectrum, a clinical 6 MV photon spectrum, and a kilovoltage photon source similar to those used in many radiobiology lab settings. We showed that the mechanism by which GNPs can lead to dose enhancements in radiation therapy differs when comparing photon and proton radiation. The GNP dose enhancement using protons can be up to 14 and is independent of proton energy, while the dose enhancement is highly dependent on the photon energy used. For the same amount of energy absorbed in the GNP, interactions with protons, kVp photons and MV photons produce similar doses within several nanometers of the GNP surface, and differences are below 15% for the first 10 nm. However, secondary electrons produced by kilovoltage photons have the longest range in water as compared to protons and MV photons, e.g. they cause a dose enhancement 20 times higher than the one caused by protons 10 μm away from the GNP surface. We conclude that GNPs have the potential to enhance radiation therapy depending on the type of radiation source. Proton therapy can be enhanced significantly only if the GNPs are in close proximity to the biological target.

  8. Water-Exchange-Modified Kinetic Parameters from Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced MRI as Prognostic Biomarkers of Survival in Advanced Hepatocellular Carcinoma Treated with Antiangiogenic Monotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sang Ho; Hayano, Koichi; Zhu, Andrew X.; Sahani, Dushyant V.; Yoshida, Hiroyuki

    2015-01-01

    Background To find prognostic biomarkers in pretreatment dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI (DCE-MRI) water-exchange-modified (WX) kinetic parameters for advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) treated with antiangiogenic monotherapy. Methods Twenty patients with advanced HCC underwent DCE-MRI and were subsequently treated with sunitinib. Pretreatment DCE-MRI data on advanced HCC were analyzed using five different WX kinetic models: the Tofts-Kety (WX-TK), extended TK (WX-ETK), two compartment exchange, adiabatic approximation to tissue homogeneity (WX-AATH), and distributed parameter (WX-DP) models. The total hepatic blood flow, arterial flow fraction (γ), arterial blood flow (BF A), portal blood flow, blood volume, mean transit time, permeability-surface area product, fractional interstitial volume (v I), extraction fraction, mean intracellular water molecule lifetime (τ C), and fractional intracellular volume (v C) were calculated. After receiver operating characteristic analysis with leave-one-out cross-validation, individual parameters for each model were assessed in terms of 1-year-survival (1YS) discrimination using Kaplan-Meier analysis, and association with overall survival (OS) using univariate Cox regression analysis with permutation testing. Results The WX-TK-model-derived γ (P = 0.022) and v I (P = 0.010), and WX-ETK-model-derived τ C (P = 0.023) and v C (P = 0.042) were statistically significant prognostic biomarkers for 1YS. Increase in the WX-DP-model-derived BF A (P = 0.025) and decrease in the WX-TK, WX-ETK, WX-AATH, and WX-DP-model-derived v C (P = 0.034, P = 0.038, P = 0.028, P = 0.041, respectively) were significantly associated with an increase in OS. Conclusions The WX-ETK-model-derived v C was an effective prognostic biomarker for advanced HCC treated with sunitinib. PMID:26366997

  9. Nitrite therapy after cardiac arrest reduces ROS generation, improves cardiac and neurological function and enhances survival via reversible inhibition of mitochondrial complex I

    PubMed Central

    Dezfulian, Cameron; Shiva, Sruti; Alekseyenko, Aleksey; Pendyal, Akshay; Beiser, DG; Munasinghe, Jeeva P.; Anderson, Stasia A.; Chesley, Christopher F.; Hoek, TL Vanden; Gladwin, Mark T.

    2009-01-01

    Background Three-fourths of cardiac arrest survivors die prior to hospital discharge or suffer significant neurological injury. Excepting therapeutic hypothermia and revascularization, no novel therapies have been developed that improve survival or cardiac and neurological function after resuscitation. Nitrite (NO2−) increases cellular resilience to focal ischemia-reperfusion injury in multiple organs. We hypothesized that nitrite therapy may improve outcomes after the unique global ischemia-reperfusion insult of cardiopulmonary arrest. Methods and Results We developed a mouse model of cardiac arrest characterized by 12-minutes of normothermic asystole and a high cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) rate. In this model, global ischemia and CPR was associated with blood and organ nitrite depletion, reversible myocardial dysfunction, impaired alveolar gas exchange, neurological injury and an approximate 50% mortality. A single low dose of intravenous nitrite (50 nmol=1.85 μmol/kg=0.13 mg/kg) compared to blinded saline placebo given at CPR initiation with epinephrine improved cardiac function, survival and neurological outcomes. From a mechanistic standpoint, nitrite treatment restored intracardiac nitrite and increased S-nitrosothiol levels, decreased pathological cardiac mitochondrial oxygen consumption due to reactive oxygen species formation and prevented oxidative enzymatic injury via reversible specific inhibition of respiratory chain complex I. Conclusion Nitrite therapy after resuscitation from 12-minutes of asystole rapidly and reversibly modulated mitochondrial reactive oxygen species generation during early reperfusion, limiting acute cardiac dysfunction and death, as well as neurological impairment in survivors. PMID:19704094

  10. Mesenchymal stem cells with overexpression of midkine enhance cell survival and attenuate cardiac dysfunction in a rat model of myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Shu-Li; Zhang, Yao-Jun; Li, Ming-Hui; Zhang, Xin-Lei; Chen, Shao-Liang

    2014-03-17

    Elevated midkine (MK) expression may contribute to ventricular remodeling and ameliorate cardiac dysfunction after myocardial infarction (MI). Ex vivo modification of signaling mechanisms in mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) with MK overexpression may improve the efficacy of cell-based therapy. This study sought to assess the safety and efficacy of MSCs with MK overexpression transplantation in a rat model of MI. A pLenO-DCE vector lentivirus encoding MK was constructed and infected in MSCs. MSC migration activity and cytoprotection was examined in hypoxia-induced H9C2 cells using transwell insert in vitro. Rats were randomized into five groups: sham, MI plus injection of phosphate buffered saline (PBS), MSCs, MSCs-green fluorescent protein (MSCs-GFP) and MSCs-MK, respectively. Survival rates were compared among groups using log-rank test and left ventricular function was measured by echocardiography at baseline, 4, 8 and 12 weeks. Overexpression of MK partially prevented hypoxia-induced MSC apoptosis and exerted MSC cytoprotection to anoxia induced H9C2 cells. The underlying mechanisms may be associated with the increased mRNA and protein levels of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), transformation growth factor-β (TGF-β), insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) and stromal cell-derived factor 1 (SDF-1a) in MSCs-MK compared with isolated MSCs and MSCs-GFP. Consistent with the qPCR results, the culture supernatant of MSCs-MK had more SDF-1a (9.23 ng/ml), VEGF (8.34 ng/ml) and TGF-β1 (17.88 ng/ml) expression. In vivo, a greater proportion of cell survival was observed in the MSCs-MK group than in the MSCs-GFP group. Moreover, MSCs-MK administration was related to a significant improvement of cardiac function compared with other control groups at 12 weeks. Therapies employing MSCs with MK overexpression may represent an effective treatment for improving cardiac dysfunction and survival rate after MI.

  11. Mesenchymal stem cells with overexpression of midkine enhance cell survival and attenuate cardiac dysfunction in a rat model of myocardial infarction

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Elevated midkine (MK) expression may contribute to ventricular remodeling and ameliorate cardiac dysfunction after myocardial infarction (MI). Ex vivo modification of signaling mechanisms in mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) with MK overexpression may improve the efficacy of cell-based therapy. This study sought to assess the safety and efficacy of MSCs with MK overexpression transplantation in a rat model of MI. Methods A pLenO-DCE vector lentivirus encoding MK was constructed and infected in MSCs. MSC migration activity and cytoprotection was examined in hypoxia-induced H9C2 cells using transwell insert in vitro. Rats were randomized into five groups: sham, MI plus injection of phosphate buffered saline (PBS), MSCs, MSCs-green fluorescent protein (MSCs-GFP) and MSCs-MK, respectively. Survival rates were compared among groups using log-rank test and left ventricular function was measured by echocardiography at baseline, 4, 8 and 12 weeks. Results Overexpression of MK partially prevented hypoxia-induced MSC apoptosis and exerted MSC cytoprotection to anoxia induced H9C2 cells. The underlying mechanisms may be associated with the increased mRNA and protein levels of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), transformation growth factor-β (TGF-β), insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) and stromal cell-derived factor 1 (SDF-1a) in MSCs-MK compared with isolated MSCs and MSCs-GFP. Consistent with the qPCR results, the culture supernatant of MSCs-MK had more SDF-1a (9.23 ng/ml), VEGF (8.34 ng/ml) and TGF-β1 (17.88 ng/ml) expression. In vivo, a greater proportion of cell survival was observed in the MSCs-MK group than in the MSCs-GFP group. Moreover, MSCs-MK administration was related to a significant improvement of cardiac function compared with other control groups at 12 weeks. Conclusions Therapies employing MSCs with MK overexpression may represent an effective treatment for improving cardiac dysfunction and survival rate after MI. PMID:24635859

  12. Human T-lymphotropic virus type-1 p30 alters cell cycle G2 regulation of T lymphocytes to enhance cell survival

    PubMed Central

    Datta, Antara; Silverman, Lee; Phipps, Andrew J; Hiraragi, Hajime; Ratner, Lee; Lairmore, Michael D

    2007-01-01

    Background Human T-lymphotropic virus type-1 (HTLV-1) causes adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma and is linked to a number of lymphocyte-mediated disorders. HTLV-1 contains both regulatory and accessory genes in four pX open reading frames. pX ORF-II encodes two proteins, p13 and p30, whose roles are still being defined in the virus life cycle and in HTLV-1 virus-host cell interactions. Proviral clones of HTLV-1 with pX ORF-II mutations diminish the ability of the virus to maintain viral loads in vivo. p30 expressed exogenously differentially modulates CREB and Tax-responsive element-mediated transcription through its interaction with CREB-binding protein/p300 and while acting as a repressor of many genes including Tax, in part by blocking tax/rex RNA nuclear export, selectively enhances key gene pathways involved in T-cell signaling/activation. Results Herein, we analyzed the role of p30 in cell cycle regulation. Jurkat T-cells transduced with a p30 expressing lentivirus vector accumulated in the G2-M phase of cell cycle. We then analyzed key proteins involved in G2-M checkpoint activation. p30 expression in Jurkat T-cells resulted in an increase in phosphorylation at serine 216 of nuclear cell division cycle 25C (Cdc25C), had enhanced checkpoint kinase 1 (Chk1) serine 345 phosphorylation, reduced expression of polo-like kinase 1 (PLK1), diminished phosphorylation of PLK1 at tyrosine 210 and reduced phosphorylation of Cdc25C at serine 198. Finally, primary human lymphocyte derived cell lines immortalized by a HTLV-1 proviral clone defective in p30 expression were more susceptible to camptothecin induced apoptosis. Collectively these data are consistent with a cell survival role of p30 against genotoxic insults to HTLV-1 infected lymphocytes. Conclusion Collectively, our data are the first to indicate that HTLV-1 p30 expression results in activation of the G2-M cell cycle checkpoint, events that would promote early viral spread and T-cell survival. PMID:17634129

  13. Complete Genome Analysis of Thermus parvatiensis and Comparative Genomics of Thermus spp. Provide Insights into Genetic Variability and Evolution of Natural Competence as Strategic Survival Attributes

    PubMed Central

    Tripathi, Charu; Mishra, Harshita; Khurana, Himani; Dwivedi, Vatsala; Kamra, Komal; Negi, Ram K.; Lal, Rup

    2017-01-01

    Thermophilic environments represent an interesting niche. Among thermophiles, the genus Thermus is among the most studied genera. In this study, we have sequenced the genome of Thermus parvatiensis strain RL, a thermophile isolated from Himalayan hot water springs (temperature >96°C) using PacBio RSII SMRT technique. The small genome (2.01 Mbp) comprises a chromosome (1.87 Mbp) and a plasmid (143 Kbp), designated in this study as pTP143. Annotation revealed a high number of repair genes, a squeezed genome but containing highly plastic plasmid with transposases, integrases, mobile elements and hypothetical proteins (44%). We performed a comparative genomic study of the group Thermus with an aim of analysing the phylogenetic relatedness as well as niche specific attributes prevalent among the group. We compared the reference genome RL with 16 Thermus genomes to assess their phylogenetic relationships based on 16S rRNA gene sequences, average nucleotide identity (ANI), conserved marker genes (31 and 400), pan genome and tetranucleotide frequency. The core genome of the analyzed genomes contained 1,177 core genes and many singleton genes were detected in individual genomes, reflecting a conserved core but adaptive pan repertoire. We demonstrated the presence of metagenomic islands (chromosome:5, plasmid:5) by recruiting raw metagenomic data (from the same niche) against the genomic replicons of T. parvatiensis. We also dissected the CRISPR loci wide all genomes and found widespread presence of this system across Thermus genomes. Additionally, we performed a comparative analysis of competence loci wide Thermus genomes and found evidence for recent horizontal acquisition of the locus and continued dispersal among members reflecting that natural competence is a beneficial survival trait among Thermus members and its acquisition depicts unending evolution in order to accomplish optimal fitness. PMID:28798737

  14. Enhancing Student Explanations of Evolution: Comparing Elaborating and Competing Theory Prompts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donnelly, Dermot F.; Namdar, Bahadir; Vitale, Jonathan M.; Lai, Kevin; Linn, Marcia C.

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we explore how two different prompt types within an online computer-based inquiry learning environment enhance 392 7th grade students' explanations of evolution with three teachers. In the "elaborating" prompt condition, students are prompted to write explanations that support the accepted theory of evolution. In the…

  15. Comparing modern and presettlement forest dynamics of a subboreal wilderness: Does spruce budworm enhance fire risk?

    Treesearch

    Brian R Sturtevant; Brian R Miranda; Douglas J Shinneman; Eric J Gustafson; Peter T. Wolter

    2012-01-01

    Insect disturbance is often thought to increase fire risk through enhanced fuel loadings, particularly in coniferous forest ecosystems. Yet insect disturbances also affect successional pathways and landscape structure that interact with fire disturbances (and vice-versa) over longer time scales. We applied a landscape succession and disturbance model (LANDIS-II) to...

  16. Enhanced Exercise Therapy in Parkinson’s disease: A comparative effectiveness trial

    PubMed Central

    Ridgel, Angela L.; Walter, Benjamin L.; Tatsuoka, Curtis; Walter, Ellen M.; Colón-Zimmermann, Kari; Welter, Elisabeth; Sajatovic, Martha

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Exercise can improve motor function in people with Parkinson’s disease but depression reduces the motivation to participate in regular exercise. The aim of this study was to develop a novel Enhanced Exercise Therapy program that uses manual-driven guided exercise and peer-facilitated psychoeducation for individuals with Parkinson’s disease and depression. Design 24 week randomized controlled design. Methods Thirty individuals were randomized to Enhanced Exercise Therapy or self-guided therapy, and evaluated at baseline, 12-weeks and at 24-weeks. Enhanced Exercise Therapy included group exercise and group psychoeducation for 12 weeks. Between 13–24 weeks, individuals had access to the fitness facility but group sessions were not held. Self-guided therapy included written guidelines for a self-paced exercise program and psychoeducation. Primary outcome measures included the number of exercise sessions and International Physical Activity Questionnaire score. Secondary measures included resting heart rate, supine blood pressure, estimated VO2max and incidence of orthostatic hypotension. Results Twenty four individuals completed the study (80% retention) and both groups attended similar number of exercise sessions. There were no significant changes in cardiovascular fitness measures but there was a significant increase in the amount of physical activity in the Enhanced Exercise Therapy group and a decrease in the self-guided therapy group during the post-intervention period. Conclusions Enhanced exercise therapy appears to promote engagement in an exercise program and more physical activity, even after group sessions were concluded in individuals with Parkinson’s disease and depression. PMID:25709055

  17. TcI Isolates of Trypanosoma cruzi Exploit the Antioxidant Network for Enhanced Intracellular Survival in Macrophages and Virulence in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Hosakote, Yashoda M.; Koo, Sue-jie; Dhiman, Monisha; Piñeyro, María Dolores; Parodi-Talice, Adriana; Basombrio, Miguel A.; Robello, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    Trypanosoma cruzi species is categorized into six discrete typing units (TcI to TcVI) of which TcI is most abundantly noted in the sylvatic transmission cycle and considered the major cause of human disease. In our study, the TcI strains Colombiana (COL), SylvioX10/4 (SYL), and a cultured clone (TCC) exhibited different biological behavior in a murine model, ranging from high parasitemia and symptomatic cardiomyopathy (SYL), mild parasitemia and high tissue tropism (COL), to no pathogenicity (TCC). Proteomic profiling of the insect (epimastigote) and infective (trypomastigote) forms by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis/matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization–time of flight mass spectrometry, followed by functional annotation of the differential proteome data sets (≥2-fold change, P < 0.05), showed that several proteins involved in (i) cytoskeletal assembly and remodeling, essential for flagellar wave frequency and amplitude and forward motility of the parasite, and (ii) the parasite-specific antioxidant network were enhanced in COL and SYL (versus TCC) trypomastigotes. Western blotting confirmed the enhanced protein levels of cytosolic and mitochondrial tryparedoxin peroxidases and their substrate (tryparedoxin) and iron superoxide dismutase in COL and SYL (versus TCC) trypomastigotes. Further, COL and SYL (but not TCC) were resistant to exogenous treatment with stable oxidants (H2O2 and peroxynitrite [ONOO−]) and dampened the intracellular superoxide and nitric oxide response in macrophages, and thus these isolates escaped from macrophages. Our findings suggest that protein expression conducive to increase in motility and control of macrophage-derived free radicals provides survival and persistence benefits to TcI isolates of T. cruzi. PMID:27068090

  18. TcI Isolates of Trypanosoma cruzi Exploit the Antioxidant Network for Enhanced Intracellular Survival in Macrophages and Virulence in Mice.

    PubMed

    Zago, María Paola; Hosakote, Yashoda M; Koo, Sue-Jie; Dhiman, Monisha; Piñeyro, María Dolores; Parodi-Talice, Adriana; Basombrio, Miguel A; Robello, Carlos; Garg, Nisha J

    2016-06-01

    Trypanosoma cruzi species is categorized into six discrete typing units (TcI to TcVI) of which TcI is most abundantly noted in the sylvatic transmission cycle and considered the major cause of human disease. In our study, the TcI strains Colombiana (COL), SylvioX10/4 (SYL), and a cultured clone (TCC) exhibited different biological behavior in a murine model, ranging from high parasitemia and symptomatic cardiomyopathy (SYL), mild parasitemia and high tissue tropism (COL), to no pathogenicity (TCC). Proteomic profiling of the insect (epimastigote) and infective (trypomastigote) forms by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis/matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry, followed by functional annotation of the differential proteome data sets (≥2-fold change, P < 0.05), showed that several proteins involved in (i) cytoskeletal assembly and remodeling, essential for flagellar wave frequency and amplitude and forward motility of the parasite, and (ii) the parasite-specific antioxidant network were enhanced in COL and SYL (versus TCC) trypomastigotes. Western blotting confirmed the enhanced protein levels of cytosolic and mitochondrial tryparedoxin peroxidases and their substrate (tryparedoxin) and iron superoxide dismutase in COL and SYL (versus TCC) trypomastigotes. Further, COL and SYL (but not TCC) were resistant to exogenous treatment with stable oxidants (H2O2 and peroxynitrite [ONOO(-)]) and dampened the intracellular superoxide and nitric oxide response in macrophages, and thus these isolates escaped from macrophages. Our findings suggest that protein expression conducive to increase in motility and control of macrophage-derived free radicals provides survival and persistence benefits to TcI isolates of T. cruzi. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  19. Sterilization of tumor-positive lymph nodes of esophageal cancer by neo-adjuvant treatment is associated with worse survival compared to tumor-negative lymph nodes treated with surgery first.

    PubMed

    Mantziari, Styliani; Allemann, Pierre; Winiker, Michael; Sempoux, Christine; Demartines, Nicolas; Schäfer, Markus

    2017-09-01

    Lymph node (LN) involvement by esophageal cancer is associated with compromised long-term prognosis. This study assessed whether LN downstaging by neoadjuvant treatment (NAT) might offer a survival benefit compared to patients with a priori negative LN. Patients undergoing esophagectomy for cancer between 2005 and 2014 were screened for inclusion. Group 1 included cN0 patients confirmed as pN0 who were treated with surgery first, whereas group 2 included patients initially cN+ and down-staged to ypN0 after NAT. Survival analysis was performed with the Kaplan-Meier and Cox regression methods. Fifty-seven patients were included in our study, 24 in group 1 and 33 in group 2. Group 2 patients had more locally advanced lesions compared to a priori negative patients, and despite complete LN sterilization by NAT they still had worse long-term survival. Overall 3-year survival was 86.8% for a priori LN negative versus 63.3% for downstaged patients (P = 0.013), while disease-free survival was 79.6% and 57.9%, respectively (P = 0.021). Tumor recurrence was also earlier and more disseminated for the down-staged group. Downstaged LN, despite the systemic effect of NAT, still inherit an increased risk for early tumor recurrence and worse long-term survival compared to a priori negative LN. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Increased Circulating Level of the Survival Factor GP88 (Progranulin) in the Serum of Breast Cancer Patients When Compared to Healthy Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Tkaczuk, Katherine Rak; Yue, Binbin; Zhan, Min; Tait, Nancy; Yarlagadda, Lavanya; Dai, Huifang; Serrero, Ginette

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: GP88 (PC-Cell Derived Growth Factor, progranulin) is a glycoprotein overexpressed in breast tumors and involved in their proliferation and survival. Since GP88 is secreted, an exploratory study was established to compare serum GP88 level between breast cancer patients (BC) and healthy volunteers (HV). Methods: An IRB approved prospective study enrolled 189 stage 1–4 BC patients and 18 HV. GP88 serum concentration was determined by immunoassay. Results: Serum GP88 level was 28.7 + 5.8 ng/ml in HV and increased to 40.7 + 16.0 ng/ml (P = 0.007) for stage 1–3 and 45.3 + 23.3 ng/ml (P = 0.0007) for stage 4 BC patients. There was no correlation between the GP88 level and BC characteristics such as age, race, tumor grade, ER, PR and HER-2 expression. Conclusion: These data suggest that serial testing of serum GP88 levels may have value as a circulating biomarker for detection, monitoring and follow up of BC. PMID:21792312

  1. Gold-nanofève surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy visualizes hypotaurine as a robust anti-oxidant consumed in cancer survival.

    PubMed

    Shiota, Megumi; Naya, Masayuki; Yamamoto, Takehiro; Hishiki, Takako; Tani, Takeharu; Takahashi, Hiroyuki; Kubo, Akiko; Koike, Daisuke; Itoh, Mai; Ohmura, Mitsuyo; Kabe, Yasuaki; Sugiura, Yuki; Hiraoka, Nobuyoshi; Morikawa, Takayuki; Takubo, Keiyo; Suina, Kentaro; Nagashima, Hideaki; Sampetrean, Oltea; Nagano, Osamu; Saya, Hideyuki; Yamazoe, Shogo; Watanabe, Hiroyuki; Suematsu, Makoto

    2018-04-19

    Gold deposition with diagonal angle towards boehmite-based nanostructure creates random arrays of horse-bean-shaped nanostructures named gold-nanofève (GNF). GNF generates many electromagnetic hotspots as surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) excitation sources, and enables large-area visualization of molecular vibration fingerprints of metabolites in human cancer xenografts in livers of immunodeficient mice with sufficient sensitivity and uniformity. Differential screening of GNF-SERS signals in tumours and those in parenchyma demarcated tumour boundaries in liver tissues. Furthermore, GNF-SERS combined with quantum chemical calculation identified cysteine-derived glutathione and hypotaurine (HT) as tumour-dominant and parenchyma-dominant metabolites, respectively. CD44 knockdown in cancer diminished glutathione, but not HT in tumours. Mechanisms whereby tumours sustained HT under CD44-knockdown conditions include upregulation of PHGDH, PSAT1 and PSPH that drove glycolysis-dependent activation of serine/glycine-cleavage systems to provide one-methyl group for HT synthesis. HT was rapidly converted into taurine in cancer cells, suggesting that HT is a robust anti-oxidant for their survival under glutathione-suppressed conditions.

  2. Nuclear translocation of p21{sup WAF1/CIP1} protein prior to its cytosolic degradation by UV enhances DNA repair and survival

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Ji Young; Kim, Hee Suk; Kim, Joo Young

    2009-12-25

    We previously reported that UV induced rapid proteasomal degradation of p21 protein in an ubiquitination-independent manner. Here, UV-induced p21 proteolysis was found to occur in the cytosol. Before cytosolic degradation, however, p21 protein translocated to and transiently accumulated in the nucleus. Nuclear translocation of p21 was not required for its degradation, but rather promoted DNA repair and cell survival. Overexpression of the wild type p21, but not the one with defective nuclear localization signal (NLS), reduced UV-induced DNA damage and cell death. Some of p21 protein translocated to the nucleus were associated with chromatin-bound PCNA and saved from UV-induced proteolysis.more » These data together show that p21 translocates to the nucleus to participate in DNA repair, while the rest is rapidly degraded in the cytosol. We propose that our findings reflect a mechanism to facilitate removal of damaged cells, enhancing DNA repair at the same time.« less

  3. Oral administration of Lactobacillus plantarum strain AYA enhances IgA secretion and provides survival protection against influenza virus infection in mice.

    PubMed

    Kikuchi, Yosuke; Kunitoh-Asari, Ayami; Hayakawa, Katsuyuki; Imai, Shinjiro; Kasuya, Kenji; Abe, Kimio; Adachi, Yu; Fukudome, Shin-Ichi; Takahashi, Yoshimasa; Hachimura, Satoshi

    2014-01-01

    The mucosal immune system provides the first line of defense against inhaled and ingested pathogenic microbacteria and viruses. This defense system, to a large extent, is mediated by the actions of secretory IgA. In this study, we screened 140 strains of lactic acid bacteria for induction of IgA production by murine Peyer's patch cells. We selected one strain and named it Lactobacillus plantarum AYA. We found that L. plantarum AYA-induced production of IL-6 in Peyer's patch dendritic cells, with this production promoting IgA(+) B cells to differentiate into IgA-secreting plasma cells. We also observed that oral administration of L. plantarum AYA in mice caused an increase in IgA production in the small intestine and lung. This production of IgA correlated strongly with protective ability, with the treated mice surviving longer than the control mice after lethal influenza virus infection. Our data therefore reveals a novel immunoregulatory role of the L. plantarum AYA strain which enhances mucosal IgA production and provides protection against respiratory influenza virus infection.

  4. Oral Administration of Lactobacillus plantarum Strain AYA Enhances IgA Secretion and Provides Survival Protection against Influenza Virus Infection in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Kikuchi, Yosuke; Kunitoh-Asari, Ayami; Hayakawa, Katsuyuki; Imai, Shinjiro; Kasuya, Kenji; Abe, Kimio; Adachi, Yu; Fukudome, Shin-ichi; Takahashi, Yoshimasa; Hachimura, Satoshi

    2014-01-01

    The mucosal immune system provides the first line of defense against inhaled and ingested pathogenic microbacteria and viruses. This defense system, to a large extent, is mediated by the actions of secretory IgA. In this study, we screened 140 strains of lactic acid bacteria for induction of IgA production by murine Peyer’s patch cells. We selected one strain and named it Lactobacillus plantarum AYA. We found that L. plantarum AYA-induced production of IL-6 in Peyer’s patch dendritic cells, with this production promoting IgA+ B cells to differentiate into IgA-secreting plasma cells. We also observed that oral administration of L. plantarum AYA in mice caused an increase in IgA production in the small intestine and lung. This production of IgA correlated strongly with protective ability, with the treated mice surviving longer than the control mice after lethal influenza virus infection. Our data therefore reveals a novel immunoregulatory role of the L. plantarum AYA strain which enhances mucosal IgA production and provides protection against respiratory influenza virus infection. PMID:24466081

  5. Latexin Inactivation Enhances Survival and Long-Term Engraftment of Hematopoietic Stem Cells and Expands the Entire Hematopoietic System in Mice.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yi; Zhang, Cuiping; Li, Zhenyu; Wang, Chi; Jia, Jianhang; Gao, Tianyan; Hildebrandt, Gerhard; Zhou, Daohong; Bondada, Subbarao; Ji, Peng; St Clair, Daret; Liu, Jinze; Zhan, Changguo; Geiger, Hartmut; Wang, Shuxia; Liang, Ying

    2017-04-11

    Natural genetic diversity offers an important yet largely untapped resource to decipher the molecular mechanisms regulating hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) function. Latexin (Lxn) is a negative stem cell regulatory gene identified on the basis of genetic diversity. By using an Lxn knockout mouse model, we found that Lxn inactivation in vivo led to the physiological expansion of the entire hematopoietic hierarchy. Loss of Lxn enhanced the competitive repopulation capacity and survival of HSCs in a cell-intrinsic manner. Gene profiling of Lxn-null HSCs showed altered expression of genes enriched in cell-matrix and cell-cell interactions. Thrombospondin 1 (Thbs1) was a potential downstream target with a dramatic downregulation in Lxn-null HSCs. Enforced expression of Thbs1 restored the Lxn inactivation-mediated HSC phenotypes. This study reveals that Lxn plays an important role in the maintenance of homeostatic hematopoiesis, and it may lead to development of safe and effective approaches to manipulate HSCs for clinical benefit. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) improves local control and overall survival compared to conventionally fractionated radiation for stage I non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC).

    PubMed

    von Reibnitz, Donata; Shaikh, Fauzia; Wu, Abraham J; Treharne, Gregory C; Dick-Godfrey, Rosalind; Foster, Amanda; Woo, Kaitlin M; Shi, Weiji; Zhang, Zhigang; Din, Shaun U; Gelblum, Daphna Y; Yorke, Ellen D; Rosenzweig, Kenneth E; Rimner, Andreas

    2018-06-06

    Stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) has been adopted as the standard of care for inoperable early-stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), with local control rates consistently >90%. However, data directly comparing the outcomes of SBRT with those of conventionally fractionated radiotherapy (CONV) is lacking. Between 1990 and 2013, 497 patients (525 lesions) with early-stage NSCLC (T1-T2N0M0) were treated with CONV (n = 127) or SBRT (n = 398). In this retrospective analysis, five endpoints were compared, with and without adjusting for clinical and dosimetric factors. Competing risks analysis was performed to estimate and compare the cumulative incidence of local failure (LF), nodal failure (NF), distant failure (DF) and disease progression. Overall survival (OS) was estimated by the Kaplan-Meier method and compared by the Cox regression model. Propensity score (PS) matched analysis was performed based on seven patient and clinical variables: age, gender, Karnofsky performance status (KPS), histology, T stage, biologically equivalent dose (BED), and history of smoking. The median dose delivered for CONV was 75.6 Gy in 1.8-2.0 Gy fractions (range 60-90 Gy; median BED = 89.20 Gy) and for SBRT 48 Gy in four fractions (45-60 Gy in three to five fractions; median BED = 105.60 Gy). Median follow-up was 24.4 months, and 3-year LF rates were 34.1% with CONV and 13.6% with SBRT (p < .001). Three-year OS rates were 38.9 and 53.1%, respectively (p = .018). PS matching showed a significant improvement of OS (p = .0497) for SBRT. T stage was the only variable correlating with all five endpoints. SBRT compared to CONV is associated with improved LF rates and OS. Our data supports the continued use and expansion of SBRT as the standard of care treatment for inoperable early-stage NSCLC.

  7. Comparing activated carbon of different particle sizes on enhancing methane generation in upflow anaerobic digester.

    PubMed

    Xu, Suyun; He, Chuanqiu; Luo, Liwen; Lü, Fan; He, Pinjing; Cui, Lifeng

    2015-11-01

    Two sizes of conductive particles, i.e. 10-20 mesh granulated activated carbon (GAC) and 80-100 mesh powdered activated carbon (PAC) were added into lab-scale upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactors, respectively, to testify their enhancement on the syntrophic metabolism of alcohols and volatile fatty acids (VFAs) in 95days operation. When OLR increased to more than 5.8gCOD/L/d, the differences between GAC/PAC supplemented reactors and the control reactor became more significant. The introduction of activated carbon could facilitate the enrichment of methanogens and accelerate the startup of methanogenesis, as indicated by enhanced methane yield and substrate degradation. High-throughput pyrosequencing analysis showed that syntrophic bacteria and Methanosarcina sp. with versatile metabolic capability increased in the tightly absorbed fraction on the PAC surface, leading to the promoted syntrophic associations. Thus PAC prevails over than GAC for methanogenic reactor with heavy load. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Aerosolized liposomes with dipalmitoyl phosphatidylcholine enhance pulmonary absorption of encapsulated insulin compared with co-administered insulin.

    PubMed

    Chono, Sumio; Togami, Kohei; Itagaki, Shirou

    2017-11-01

    We have previously shown that aerosolized liposomes with dipalmitoyl phosphatidylcholine (DPPC) enhance the pulmonary absorption of encapsulated insulin. In this study, we aimed to compare insulin encapsulated into the liposomes versus co-administration of empty liposomes and unencapsulated free insulin, where the DPCC liposomes would serve as absorption enhancer. The present study provides the useful information for development of noninvasive treatment of diabetes. Co-administration of empty DPPC liposomes and unencapsulated free insulin was investigated in vivo to assess the potential enhancement in protein pulmonary absorption. Co-administration was compared to DPPC liposomes encapsulating insulin, and free insulin. DPPC liposomes enhanced the pulmonary absorption of unencapsulated free insulin; however, the enhancing effect was lower than that of the DPPC liposomes encapsulating insulin. The mechanism of the pulmonary absorption of unencapsulated free insulin by DPPC liposomes involved the opening of epithelial cell space in alveolar mucosa, and not mucosal cell damage, similar to that of the DPPC liposomes encapsulating insulin. In an in vitro stability test, insulin in the alveolar mucus layer that covers epithelial cells was stable. These findings suggest that, although unencapsulated free insulin spreads throughout the alveolar mucus layer, the concentration of insulin released near the absorption surface is increased by the encapsulation of insulin into DPPC liposomes and the absorption efficiency is also increased. We revealed that the encapsulation of insulin into DPPC liposomes is more effective for pulmonary insulin absorption than co-administration of DPPC liposomes and unencapsulated free insulin.

  9. Essential oil from Zanthoxylum bungeanum Maxim. and its main components used as transdermal penetration enhancers: a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Lan, Yi; Li, Hui; Chen, Yan-yan; Zhang, Ye-wen; Liu, Na; Zhang, Qing; Wu, Qing

    2014-11-01

    Our previous studies had confirmed that the essential oil from Zanthoxylum bungeanum Maxim. (Z. bungeanum oil) could effectively enhance the percutaneous permeation of drug molecules as a natural transdermal penetration enhancer. The aim of the present study is to investigate and compare the skin penetration enhancement effect of Z. bungeanum oil and its main components on traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) active components. Toxicities of Z. bungeanum oil and three selected terpene compounds (terpinen-4-ol, 1,8-cineole, and limonene) in epidermal keratinocytes (HaCaT) and dermal fibroblast (CCC-ESF-1) cell lines were measured using an MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) assay. Five model drugs in TCM external preparations, namely osthole (OT), tetramethylpyrazine (TMP), ferulic acid (FA), puerarin (PR), and geniposide (GP), which were selected based on their lipophilicity denoted by logKo/w, were tested using in vitro permeation studies in which vertical Franz diffusion cells and rat abdominal skin were employed. The secondary structure changes of skin stratum corneum (SC) and drug thermodynamic activities were investigated to understand their mechanisms of action using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and saturation solubility studies, respectively. It was found that Z. bungeanum oil showed lower toxicities in both HaCaT cells and CCC-ESF-1 cells compared with three terpene compounds used alone. The enhancement permeation capacities by all tested agents were in the following increasing order: terpinen-4-ol≈1,8-cineoleenhancement suggested that these enhancers promoted the skin permeation of drugs mainly by affecting SC lipids. These results indicated that Z. bungeanum oil exhibited better performance in enhancing the skin permeation of active components in TCM preparations.

  10. Modular survivable satellite support

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, R. E.

    The development of a highly mobile, survivable satellite system from the Transportable Mobile Ground Station (T/MGS) is proposed. The addition of advanced capabilities to the T/MGS such as telemetry processing equipment, and the flexibility of a modularly designed system are examined. The need to increase survivability and mobility while reducing life cycle costs is discussed. A modular survivable satellite support system which consists of a 40-foot van, a diesel tractor, and a multimedia communications subsystem is described. The use of planar and phased arrays to improve transportability and new materials and structural designs to enhance hardness are discussed. Diagrams of the system are provided.

  11. Cover-Copy-Compare: A Method for Enhancing Evidence-Based Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Konrad, Moira; Joseph, Laurice M.

    2014-01-01

    Cover-copy-compare is a practical, low-cost, effective strategy for teachers to add to their repertoires of evidence-based practices. This article describes the cover-copy-compare strategy and how it can be applied to teach both self-management and basic academic skills. A variety of ways this strategy can be used across content areas are…

  12. Is Genetic Background Important in Lung Cancer Survival?

    PubMed Central

    Lindström, Linda S.; Hall, Per; Hartman, Mikael; Wiklund, Fredrik; Czene, Kamila

    2009-01-01

    Background In lung cancer, a patient's survival is poor with a wide variation in survival within the stage of disease. The aim of this study was to investigate the familial concordance in lung cancer survival by means of analyses of pairs with different degrees of familial relationships. Methods Our population-based Swedish family database included three million families and over 58 100 lung cancer patients. We modelled the proband (parent, sibling, spouse) survival utilizing a multivariate proportional hazard (Cox) model adjusting for possible confounders of survival. Subsequently, the survival in proband's relative (child, sibling, spouse) was analysed with a Cox model. Findings By use of Cox modelling with 5 years follow-up, we noted a decreased hazard ratio for death in children with good parental survival (Hazard Ratio [HR] = 0.71, 95% CI = 0.51 to 0.99), compared to those with poor parental survival. Also for siblings, a very strong protective effect was seen (HR = 0.14, 95% CI = 0.030 to 0.65). Finally, in spouses no correlation in survival was found. Interpretation Our findings suggest that genetic factors are important in lung cancer survival. In a clinical setting, information on prognosis in a relative may be vital in foreseeing the survival in an individual newly diagnosed with lung cancer. Future molecular studies enhancing the understanding of the underlying mechanisms and pathways are needed. PMID:19478952

  13. Enhanced biofiltration of O&G produced water comparing granular activated carbon and nutrients.

    PubMed

    Riley, Stephanie M; Ahoor, Danika C; Cath, Tzahi Y

    2018-05-31

    Large volumes of water are required for the development of unconventional oil and gas (O&G) wells. Water scarcity coupled with seismicity induced by deep-well disposal promote new O&G wastewater management strategies, specifically treatment and reuse. One technology that has been proven effective for removal of organic matter and solids is biologically active filtration (BAF) with granular active carbon (GAC); however, further optimization is needed to enhance BAF performance. This study evaluated three GAC media (one spent and two new) and two nutrient-mix supplements for enhanced removal of chemical oxygen demand (COD) and dissolved organic carbon (DOC). Biofilm development was also monitored and correlated to BAF performance. The spent GAC with extant biofilm quickly acclimated to PW and demonstrated up to 92% DOC removal (81% COD) in 24h, while little impact by nutrient addition was observed. In addition, virgin GAC was slow to establish a biofilm, indicating that appropriate GAC selection and pre-developed biofilm is critical for efficient BAF performance. Furthermore, the production of high quality BAF effluent (less than 20mg/L DOC) presents the opportunity to apply BAF as a pretreatment for subsequent desalination-expanding the potential for reuse applications of PW. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. Intricate Assessment and Evaluation of Effect of Bruxism on Long-term Survival and Failure of Dental Implants: A Comparative Study.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Kajal; Nagpal, Abhishek; Agarwal, S K; Kochhar, Aarti

    2016-08-01

    Dental implants are one of the common lines of treatment used for the treatment of missing tooth. Various risk factors are responsible for the failure of the dental implants and occurrence of postoperative complications. Bruxism is one such factor responsible for the failure of the dental implants. The actual relation between bruxism and dental implants is a subject of long-term controversy. Hence, we carried out this retrospective analysis to assess the complications occurring in dental implants in patients with and without bruxism. The present study included 1100 patients which were treated for rehabilitation by dental implant procedure at 21 dental offices of Ghaziabad (India) from 2004 to 2014. Analyzing the clinical records of the patients along with assessing the photographs of the patients was done for confirming the diagnosis of bruxism. Clinical re-evaluation of the patients, who came back for follow-up, was done to confirm the diagnosis of bruxism. Systemic questionnaires as used by previous workers were used to evaluate the patients about the self-conscience of the condition. Estimation of the mechanical complications was done only in those cases which occurred on the surfaces of the restoration of the dental implants. All the results were analyzed by Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) software. Student's t-test and Pearson's chi-square test were used to evaluate the level of significance. In both bruxer and non-bruxers, maximum number of dental implants was placed in anterior maxillary region. Significant difference was obtained while comparing the two groups for dimensions of the dental implants used. On comparing the total implant failed cases between bruxers and non-bruxers group, statistically significant result was obtained. Statistically significant difference was obtained while comparing the two study groups based on the health parameters, namely hypertension, diabetes, and smoking habit. Success of dental implant is significantly

  15. Response of thyroid follicular cells to gamma irradiation compared to proton irradiation. I. Initial characterization of DNA damage, micronucleus formation, apoptosis, cell survival, and cell cycle phase redistribution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, L. M.; Murray, D. K.; Bant, A. M.; Kazarians, G.; Moyers, M. F.; Nelson, G. A.; Tran, D. T.

    2001-01-01

    The RBE of protons has been assumed to be equivalent to that of photons. The objective of this study was to determine whether radiation-induced DNA and chromosome damage, apoptosis, cell killing and cell cycling in organized epithelial cells was influenced by radiation quality. Thyroid-stimulating hormone-dependent Fischer rat thyroid cells, established as follicles, were exposed to gamma rays or proton beams delivered acutely over a range of physical doses. Gamma-irradiated cells were able to repair DNA damage relatively rapidly so that by 1 h postirradiation they had approximately 20% fewer exposed 3' ends than their counterparts that had been irradiated with proton beams. The persistence of free ends of DNA in the samples irradiated with the proton beam implies that either more initial breaks or a quantitatively different type of damage had occurred. These results were further supported by an increased frequency of chromosomal damage as measured by the presence of micronuclei. Proton-beam irradiation induced micronuclei at a rate of 2.4% per gray, which at 12 Gy translated to 40% more micronuclei than in comparable gamma-irradiated cultures. The higher rate of micronucleus formation and the presence of larger micronuclei in proton-irradiated cells was further evidence that a qualitatively more severe class of damage had been induced than was induced by gamma rays. Differences in the type of damage produced were detected in the apoptosis assay, wherein a significant lag in the induction of apoptosis occurred after gamma irradiation that did not occur with protons. The more immediate expression of apoptotic cells in the cultures irradiated with the proton beam suggests that the damage inflicted was more severe. Alternatively, the cell cycle checkpoint mechanisms required for recovery from such damage might not have been invoked. Differences based on radiation quality were also evident in the alpha components of cell survival curves (0.05 Gy(-1) for gamma rays, 0

  16. Contrast enhancement of central nervous system lesions: multicenter intraindividual crossover comparative study of two MR contrast agents.

    PubMed

    Maravilla, Kenneth R; Maldjian, Joseph A; Schmalfuss, Ilona M; Kuhn, Matthew J; Bowen, Brian C; Wippold, Franz J; Runge, Val M; Knopp, Michael V; Kremer, Stephane; Wolansky, Leo J; Anzalone, Nicoletta; Essig, Marco; Gustafsson, Lars

    2006-08-01

    To prospectively compare gadobenate dimeglumine with gadopentetate dimeglumine (0.1 mmol per kilogram body weight) for enhanced magnetic resonance (MR) imaging of central nervous system (CNS) lesions. This study was HIPAA-compliant at U.S. centers and was conducted at all centers according to the Good Clinical Practice standard. Institutional review board and regulatory approval were granted; written informed consent was obtained. Seventy-nine men and 78 women (mean age, 50.5 years +/- 14.4 [standard deviation]) were randomized to group A (n = 78) or B (n = 79). Patients underwent two temporally separated 1.5-T MR imaging examinations. In randomized order, gadobenate followed by gadopentetate was administered in group A; order of administration was reversed in group B. Contrast agent administration (volume, speed of injection), imaging parameters before and after injection, and time between injections and postinjection acquisitions were identical for both examinations. Three blinded neuroradiologists evaluated images by using objective image interpretation criteria for diagnostic information end points (lesion border delineation, definition of disease extent, visualization of internal morphologic features of the lesion, enhancement of the lesion) and quantitative parameters (percentage of lesion enhancement, contrast-to-noise ratio [CNR]). Overall diagnostic preference in terms of lesion conspicuity, detectability, and diagnostic confidence was assessed. Between-group comparisons were performed with Wilcoxon signed rank test. Readers 1, 2, and 3 demonstrated overall preference for gadobenate in 75, 89, and 103 patients, compared with that for gadopentetate in seven, 10, and six patients, respectively (P < .0001). Significant (P < .0001) preference for gadobenate was demonstrated for diagnostic information end points, percentage of lesion enhancement, and CNR. Superiority of gadobenate was significant (P < .001) in patients with intraaxial and extraaxial lesions

  17. Comparing the enhancement efficiency between liposomes and microbubbles for insulin pulmonary absorption.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yan-Yan; Lu, Cui-Tao; Fu, Hong-Xing; Zhao, Ying-Zheng; Yang, Wei; Li, Xing; Zhang, Lu; Li, Xiao-Kun; Zhang, Ming

    2011-07-01

    The present study investigated the enhancement efficiency between liposomes and microbubbles for insulin pulmonary absorption. Two types of phospholipid-based vesicle-liposomes and microbubbles-were prepared, and the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) cytotoxicity test was used to evaluate their in vitro toxicity in A549 cells. Cellular uptake of insulin combined with liposomes or microbubbles was determined using A549 cells. With intratracheal insufflation of Sprague-Dawley rats, an insulin mixture with liposomes or microbubbles was administered to assess its potential for promoting drug pulmonary absorption. Both liposomes and microbubbles had a narrow and monodispersed size distribution with average diameter of 3.1 μm and 1.0 μm, respectively. From the MTT cytotoxicity test, a phospholipid-based vesicle concentration of <25% (vol/vol) in the final volume was the safe dosage range that could avoid severe cytotoxic effects. The intracellular uptake amount of insulin in the insulin-microbubble mixture was significantly higher than that in the insulin-liposome mixture. The minimum reductions of the blood glucose concentration produced by insulin-microbubble and insulin-liposome mixtures were 60.8% and 35.0% of the initial glucose levels, respectively, and their bioavailabilities relative to subcutaneous injection were 48.6% and 30.8%, respectively. Microbubbles have much better efficiency than liposomes in the rate and extent of insulin pulmonary absorption. Microbubbles might be recommended as a potential agent for enhancing protein intrapulmonary absorption.

  18. Porosity in plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposited SiCOH dielectrics: A comparative study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grill, A.; Patel, V.; Rodbell, K. P.; Huang, E.; Baklanov, M. R.; Mogilnikov, K. P.; Toney, M.; Kim, H.-C.

    2003-09-01

    The low dielectric constant (k) of plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposited SiCOH films has been attributed to porosity in the films. We have shown previously that the dielectric constant of such materials can be extended from the typical k values of 2.7-2.9 to ultralow-k values of k=2.0. The reduction in the dielectric constants has been achieved by enhancing the porosity in the films through the addition of an organic material to the SiCOH precursor and annealing the films to remove the thermally less-stable organic fractions. In order to confirm the relation between dielectric constant and film porosity the latter has been evaluated for SiCOH films with k values from 2.8 to 2.05 using positron annihilation spectroscopy, positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy, small angle x-ray scattering, specular x-ray reflectivity, and ellipsometric porosimetry measurements. It has been found that the SiCOH films with k=2.8 had no detectable porosity, however the porosity increased with decreasing dielectric constant reaching values of 28%-39% for k values of 2.05. The degree of porosity and the pore size determined by the dissimilar techniques agreed within reasonable limits, especially when one takes into account the small pore size in these films and the different assumptions used by the different techniques. The pore size increases with decreasing k, however the diameter remains below 5 nm for k=2.05, most of the pores being smaller than 2.5 nm.

  19. VSVΔG/EBOV GP-induced innate protection enhances natural killer cell activity to increase survival in a lethal mouse adapted Ebola virus infection.

    PubMed

    Williams, Kinola J N; Qiu, Xiangguo; Fernando, Lisa; Jones, Steven M; Alimonti, Judie B

    2015-02-01

    Members of the species Zaire ebolavirus cause severe hemorrhagic fever with up to a 90% mortality rate in humans. The VSVΔG/EBOV GP vaccine has provided 100% protection in the mouse, guinea pig, and nonhuman primate (NHP) models, and has also been utilized as a post-exposure therapeutic to protect mice, guinea pigs, and NHPs from a lethal challenge of Ebola virus (EBOV). EBOV infection causes rapid mortality in human and animal models, with death occurring as early as 6 days after infection, suggesting a vital role for the innate immune system to control the infection before cells of the adaptive immune system can assume control. Natural killer (NK) cells are the predominant cell of the innate immune response, which has been shown to expand with VSVΔG/EBOV GP treatment. In the current study, an in vivo mouse model of the VSVΔG/EBOV GP post-exposure treatment was used for a mouse adapted (MA)-EBOV infection, to determine the putative VSVΔG/EBOV GP-induced protective mechanism of NK cells. NK depletion studies demonstrated that mice with NK cells survive longer in a MA-EBOV infection, which is further enhanced with VSVΔG/EBOV GP treatment. NK cell mediated cytotoxicity and IFN-γ secretion was significantly higher with VSVΔG/EBOV GP treatment. Cell mediated cytotoxicity assays and perforin knockout mice experiments suggest that there are perforin-dependent and -independent mechanisms involved. Together, these data suggest that NK cells play an important role in VSVΔG/EBOV GP-induced protection of EBOV by increasing NK cytotoxicity, and IFN-γ secretion.

  20. Listeria monocytogenes survival of UV-C radiation is enhanced by presence of sodium chloride, organic food material and by bacterial biofilm formation.

    PubMed

    Bernbom, N; Vogel, B F; Gram, L

    2011-05-14

    The bactericidal effect on food processing surfaces of ceiling-mounted UV-C light (wavelength 254 nm) was determined in a fish smoke house after the routine cleaning and disinfection procedure. The total aerobic counts were reduced during UV-C light exposure (48 h) and the number of Listeria monocytogenes positive samples went from 30 (of 68) before exposure to 8 (of 68). We therefore in a laboratory model determined the L. monocytogenes reduction kinetics by UV-C light with the purpose of evaluating the influence of food production environmental variables, such as presence of NaCl, organic material and the time L. monocytogenes was allowed to adhere to steel before exposure. L. monocytogenes grown and attached in tryptone soy broth (TSB) with glucose were rapidly killed (after 2 min) by UV-C light. However, bacteria grown and adhered in TSB with glucose and 5% NaCl were more resistant and numbers declined with 4-5 log units during exposure of 8-10 min. Bacteria grown in juice prepared from cold-smoked salmon were protected and numbers were reduced with 2-3 log when UV-C light was used immediately after attachment whereas numbers did not change at all if bacteria had been allowed to form a biofilm for 7 days before exposure. It is not known if this enhanced survival is due to physiological changes in the attached bacterial cells, a physical protection of the cells in the food matrix or a combination. In conclusion, we demonstrate that UV-C light is a useful extra bacteriocidal step and that it, as all disinfecting procedures, is hampered by the presence of organic material. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Perceptual Training Methods Compared: The Relative Efficacy of Different Approaches to Enhancing Sport-Specific Anticipation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abernethy, Bruce; Schorer, Jorg; Jackson, Robin C.; Hagemann, Norbert

    2012-01-01

    The comparative efficacy of different perceptual training approaches for the improvement of anticipation was examined using a goalkeeping task from European handball that required the rapid prediction of shot direction. Novice participants (N = 60) were assigned equally to four different training groups and two different control groups (a placebo…

  2. Enhancing Motivation in Online Courses with Mobile Communication Tool Support: A Comparative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chaiprasurt, Chantorn; Esichaikul, Vatcharaporn

    2013-01-01

    Mobile technologies have helped establish new channels of communication among learners and instructors, potentially providing greater access to course information, and promoting easier access to course activities and learner motivation in online learning environments. The paper compares motivation between groups of learners being taught through an…

  3. Plasma-enhanced atomic layer deposition of titanium oxynitrides films: A comparative spectroscopic and electrical study

    SciTech Connect

    Sowińska, Małgorzata, E-mail: malgorzata.sowinska@b-tu.de; Henkel, Karsten; Schmeißer, Dieter

    2016-01-15

    The process parameters' impact of the plasma-enhanced atomic layer deposition (PE-ALD) method on the oxygen to nitrogen (O/N) ratio in titanium oxynitride (TiO{sub x}N{sub y}) films was studied. Titanium(IV)isopropoxide in combination with NH{sub 3} plasma and tetrakis(dimethylamino)titanium by applying N{sub 2} plasma processes were investigated. Samples were characterized by the in situ spectroscopic ellipsometry, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and electrical characterization (current–voltage: I-V and capacitance–voltage: C-V) methods. The O/N ratio in the TiO{sub x}N{sub y} films is found to be very sensitive for their electric properties such as conductivity, dielectric breakdown, and permittivity. Our results indicate that these PE-ALD film propertiesmore » can be tuned, via the O/N ratio, by the selection of the process parameters and precursor/coreactant combination.« less

  4. A nationwide study of serous "borderline" ovarian tumors in Denmark 1978-2002: centralized pathology review and overall survival compared with the general population.

    PubMed

    Hannibal, Charlotte Gerd; Vang, Russell; Junge, Jette; Frederiksen, Kirsten; Kjaerbye-Thygesen, Anette; Andersen, Klaus Kaae; Tabor, Ann; Kurman, Robert J; Kjaer, Susanne K

    2014-08-01

    To describe the study population and estimate overall survival of women with a serous "borderline" ovarian tumor (SBT) in Denmark over 25 years relative to the general population. The Danish Pathology Data Bank and the Danish Cancer Registry were used to identify 1487 women diagnosed with SBTs from 1978 to 2002. The histologic slides were collected from Danish pathology departments and reviewed by expert pathologists and classified as SBT/atypical proliferative serous tumor (APST) or noninvasive low-grade serous carcinoma (LGSC). Associated implants were classified as noninvasive or invasive. Medical records were collected from hospital departments and reviewed. Data were analyzed using Kaplan-Meier and relative survival was estimated with follow-up through September 2, 2013. A cohort of 1042 women with a confirmed SBT diagnosis was identified. Women with stage I had an overall survival similar to the overall survival expected from the general population (p=0.3), whereas women with advanced stage disease had a poorer one (p<0.0001). This was evident both in women with noninvasive (p<0.0001) and invasive implants (p<0.0001). Only among women with advanced stage, overall survival of women with SBT/APST (p<0.0001) and noninvasive LGSC (p<0.0001) was poorer than expected from the general population. To date this is the largest nationwide cohort of SBTs where all tumors have been verified by expert pathologists. Only in women with advanced stage SBT, overall survival is poorer than in the general population which applies both to women with noninvasive and invasive implants as well as to women with SBT/APST and noninvasive LGSC. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  5. Comparative metabolomics reveals the mechanism of avermectin production enhancement by S-adenosylmethionine.

    PubMed

    Tian, Pingping; Cao, Peng; Hu, Dong; Wang, Depei; Zhang, Jian; Wang, Lin; Zhu, Yan; Gao, Qiang

    2017-05-01

    It was found that S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) could effectively improve avermectin titer with 30-60 μg/mL addition to FH medium. To clearly elucidate the mechanism of SAM on intracellular metabolites of Streptomyces avermitilis, a GC-MS-based comparative metabolomics approach was carried out. First, 230 intracellular metabolites were identified and 14 of them remarkably influenced avermectin biosynthesis were discriminative biomarkers between non-SAM groups and SAM-treated groups by principal components analysis (PCA) and partial least squares (PLS). Based on further key metabolic pathway analyses, these biomarkers, such as glucose, oxaloacetic acid, fatty acids (in soybean oil), threonine, valine, and leucine, were identified as potentially beneficial precursors and added in medium. Compared with single-precursor feeding, the combined feeding of the precursors and SAM markedly increased the avermectin titer. The co-feeding approach not only directly verified our hypothesis on the mechanism of SAM by comparative metabolomics, but also provided a novel strategy to increase avermectin production.

  6. Impact of prior treatment and depth of response on survival in MM-003, a randomized phase 3 study comparing pomalidomide plus low-dose dexamethasone versus high-dose dexamethasone in relapsed/refractory multiple myeloma

    PubMed Central

    San Miguel, Jesus F.; Weisel, Katja C.; Song, Kevin W.; Delforge, Michel; Karlin, Lionel; Goldschmidt, Hartmut; Moreau, Philippe; Banos, Anne; Oriol, Albert; Garderet, Laurent; Cavo, Michele; Ivanova, Valentina; Alegre, Adrian; Martinez-Lopez, Joaquin; Chen, Christine; Renner, Christoph; Bahlis, Nizar Jacques; Yu, Xin; Teasdale, Terri; Sternas, Lars; Jacques, Christian; Zaki, Mohamed H.; Dimopoulos, Meletios A.

    2015-01-01

    Pomalidomide is a distinct oral IMiD® immunomodulatory agent with direct antimyeloma, stromal-support inhibitory, and immunomodulatory effects. The pivotal, multicenter, open-label, randomized phase 3 trial MM-003 compared pomalidomide + low-dose dexamethasone vs high-dose dexamethasone in 455 patients with refractory or relapsed and refractory multiple myeloma after failure of bortezomib and lenalidomide treatment. Initial results demonstrated significantly longer progression-free survival and overall survival with an acceptable tolerability profile for pomalidomide + low-dose dexamethasone vs high-dose dexamethasone. This secondary analysis describes patient outcomes by treatment history and depth of response. Pomalidomide + low-dose dexamethasone significantly prolonged progression-free survival and favored overall survival vs high-dose dexamethasone for all subgroups analyzed, regardless of prior treatments or refractory status. Both univariate and multivariate analyses showed that no variable relating to either the number (≤ or > 3) or type of prior treatment was a significant predictor of progression-free survival or overall survival. No cross-resistance with prior lenalidomide or thalidomide treatment was observed. Patients achieving a minimal response or better to pomalidomide + low-dose dexamethasone treatment experienced a survival benefit, which was even higher in those achieving at least a partial response (17.2 and 19.9 months, respectively, as compared with 7.5 months for patients with less than minimal response). These data suggest that pomalidomide + low-dose dexamethasone should be considered a standard of care in patients with refractory or relapsed and refractory multiple myeloma regardless of prior treatment. ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01311687; EudraCT: 2010-019820-30. PMID:26160879

  7. Enhancing person-centred communication in NICU: a comparative thematic analysis.

    PubMed

    Weis, Janne; Zoffmann, Vibeke; Egerod, Ingrid

    2015-11-01

    Aims of this article were (a) to explore how parents of premature infants experience guided family-centred care (GFCC), and (b) to compare how parents receiving GFCC versus standard care (SC) describe nurse-parent communication in the neonatal intensive care unit. Family-centred care (FCC) is acknowledged as fundamental to supporting parents of premature infants, and communication is central to this practice. Accordingly, nurses need good communication skills. GFCC is an intervention developed to improve nurse-parent communication in the neonatal intensive care unit. This intervention helps nurses to realize person-centred communication as an approach to optimize contemporary practice. Our qualitative study had a descriptive and comparative design using semi-structured interviews to explore the parent's experience of GFCC. We conducted 10 dyad interviews with parents (n = 20) and two individual interviews with mothers of premature infants (n = 2). Parents in the intervention group versus SC group were 13 versus 9. Thematic analysis was applied. GFCC was generally experienced as supportive. Three interrelated themes were identified that illustrated how the intervention helped parents cope as persons, parents and couples: (a) discovering and expressing emotions, (b) reaching a deeper level of communication, and (c) obtaining mutual understanding. In contrast, SC communication was more superficial and less structured. Factors such as inaccessibility of nurses, inability to ask for assistance and parent popularity impaired successful communication. Our study suggested that compared to SC, GFCC provided structured delivery of supportive communication between nurses and parents of premature infants. The intervention promoted the discovery of the parents' individual preferences and concerns, which enabled more focused communication, and set the stage for better nurse-parent and parent-parent understanding. We recommend GFCC as a method to improve communication in the

  8. Clinical cure and survival in Gram-positive ventilator-associated pneumonia: retrospective analysis of two double-blind studies comparing linezolid with vancomycin.

    PubMed

    Kollef, Marin H; Rello, Jordi; Cammarata, Sue K; Croos-Dabrera, Rodney V; Wunderink, Richard G

    2004-03-01

    To assess the effect of baseline variables, including treatment, on clinical cure and survival rates in patients with Gram-positive, ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP). Retrospective analysis of two randomized, double-blind studies. Multinational study with 134 sites. 544 patients with suspected Gram-positive VAP, including 264 with documented Gram-positive VAP and 91 with methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) VAP. Linezolid 600 mg or vancomycin 1 g every 12 h for 7-21 days, each with aztreonam. Clinical cure rates assessed 12-28 days after the end of therapy and excluding indeterminate or missing outcomes significantly favored linezolid in the Gram-positive and MRSA subsets. Logistic regression showed that linezolid was an independent predictor of clinical cure with odds ratios of 1.8 for all patients, 2.4 for Gram-positive VAP, and 20.0 for MRSA VAP. Kaplan-Meier survival rates favored linezolid in the MRSA subset. Logistic regression showed that linezolid was an independent predictor of survival with odds ratios of 1.6 for all patients, 2.6 for Gram-positive VAP, and 4.6 for MRSA VAP. Initial linezolid therapy was associated with significantly better clinical cure and survival rates than was initial vancomycin therapy in patients with MRSA VAP.

  9. COMPARATIVE TOXICITY OF DIURON ON SURVIVAL AND GROWTH OF PACIFIC TREEFROG, BULLFROG, RED-LEGGED FROG, AND AFRICAN CLAWED FROG EMBRYOS AND TADPOLES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The effects of the herbicide diuron on survival and growth of Pacific treefrog (Pseudacris regilla),bullfrog(Rana catesbeiana), red-legged frog(Rana aurora),and African clawed frog(Xenopus laevis)embryos and tadpoles were determined in static-renewal tests. P.regilla and X.laevis...

  10. Perceptual training methods compared: the relative efficacy of different approaches to enhancing sport-specific anticipation.

    PubMed

    Abernethy, Bruce; Schorer, Jörg; Jackson, Robin C; Hagemann, Norbert

    2012-06-01

    The comparative efficacy of different perceptual training approaches for the improvement of anticipation was examined using a goalkeeping task from European handball that required the rapid prediction of shot direction. Novice participants (N = 60) were assigned equally to four different training groups and two different control groups (a placebo group and a group who undertook no training). The training groups received either (i) explicit rules to guide anticipation; (ii) direction as to the location of the key anticipatory cues provided either just verbally (verbal cueing) or supplemented with color highlighting (color cueing); or (iii) undertook a matching judgment task to encourage implicit learning. Performance of the groups was compared on an anticipation test administered before training, after the training intervention, under a condition involving evaluative stress, and after a 5-month retention period. The explicit learning, verbal cueing, and implicit learning conditions provided the greatest sustained improvements in performance whereas the group given color cueing performed no better than the control groups. Only the implicit learning group showed performance superior to the control groups under the stress situation. The verbal cueing, color cueing, and implicit learning groups formulated the lowest number of explicit rules related to the critical shoulder cue although the reported use of general cues and rules based on all cues did not differ between any of the groups. Anticipation can be improved through a variety of different perceptual training approaches with the relative efficacy of the different approaches being contingent upon both the time scale and conditions under which learning is assessed.

  11. Dynamics of enhanced mitochondrial respiration in female compared with male rat cerebral arteries.

    PubMed

    Rutkai, Ibolya; Dutta, Somhrita; Katakam, Prasad V; Busija, David W

    2015-11-01

    Mitochondrial respiration has never been directly examined in intact cerebral arteries. We tested the hypothesis that mitochondrial energetics of large cerebral arteries ex vivo are sex dependent. The Seahorse XFe24 analyzer was used to examine mitochondrial respiration in isolated cerebral arteries from adult male and female Sprague-Dawley rats. We examined the role of nitric oxide (NO) on mitochondrial respiration under basal conditions, using N(ω)-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester, and following pharmacological challenge using diazoxide (DZ), and also determined levels of mitochondrial and nonmitochondrial proteins using Western blot, and vascular diameter responses to DZ. The components of mitochondrial respiration including basal respiration, ATP production, proton leak, maximal respiration, and spare respiratory capacity were elevated in females compared with males, but increased in both male and female arteries in the presence of the NOS inhibitor. Although acute DZ treatment had little effect on mitochondrial respiration of male arteries, it decreased the respiration in female arteries. Levels of mitochondrial proteins in Complexes I-V and the voltage-dependent anion channel protein were elevated in female compared with male cerebral arteries. The DZ-induced vasodilation was greater in females than in males. Our findings show that substantial sex differences in mitochondrial respiratory dynamics exist in large cerebral arteries and may provide the mechanistic basis for observations that the female cerebral vasculature is more adaptable after injury. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  12. Enhanced skin penetration of lidocaine through encapsulation into nanoethosomes and nanostructured lipid carriers: a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Babaei, S; Ghanbarzadeh, S; Adib, Z M; Kouhsoltani, M; Davaran, S; Hamishehkar, H

    2016-05-01

    Lipid based nanoparticles have become a major research object in topical drug delivery to enable drugs to pass the stratum corneum and reach the desired skin layer. The present investigation deals with the encapsulation of lidoacine into nanostructured lipid carriers (NLCs) and nanoethosomes for improving its dermal delivery and consequently local anesthetic efficacy. Concurrently these two topical delivery systems were compared. Lidocaine-loaded NLCs and nanoethosomes were characterized by various techniques and used for an in vitro skin penetration study using excised rat skin and Franz diffusion cells. The nanoparticles were tracked in the skin by following the Rhodamine-labled nanocarriers under fluorescent microscopy. Optimized lidocaine-loaded NLCs (size 96 nm, zeta potential -13.7 mV, encapsulation efficiency (EE) % 69.86% and loading capacity (LC) % 10.47%) and nanoethosomes (size 105.4 nm, zeta potential -33.6 mV, EE 40.14% and LC 8.02%) were chosen for a skin drug delivery study. Higher skin drug deposition of NLCs and nanoethosomal formulations compared to lidocaine hydroalcoholic solution represented a better localization of the drug in the skin. NLC formulation showed the lowest entered drug in the receptor phase of Franz diffusion cell in comparison with nanoethosomes and hydroalcoholic solution confirming the highest skin accumulation of drug. Both colloidal systems showed superiority over the drug solution for dermal delivery of lidocaine, however, NLC exhibited more promising characteristics than nanoethosomes regarding drug loading and skin targeted delivery.

  13. Enhancing prediction power of chemometric models through manipulation of the fed spectrophotometric data: A comparative study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saad, Ahmed S.; Hamdy, Abdallah M.; Salama, Fathy M.; Abdelkawy, Mohamed

    2016-10-01

    Effect of data manipulation in preprocessing step proceeding construction of chemometric models was assessed. The same set of UV spectral data was used for construction of PLS and PCR models directly and after mathematically manipulation as per well known first and second derivatives of the absorption spectra, ratio spectra and first and second derivatives of the ratio spectra spectrophotometric methods, meanwhile the optimal working wavelength ranges were carefully selected for each model and the models were constructed. Unexpectedly, number of latent variables used for models' construction varied among the different methods. The prediction power of the different models was compared using a validation set of 8 mixtures prepared as per the multilevel multifactor design and results were statistically compared using two-way ANOVA test. Root mean squares error of prediction (RMSEP) was used for further comparison of the predictability among different constructed models. Although no significant difference was found between results obtained using Partial Least Squares (PLS) and Principal Component Regression (PCR) models, however, discrepancies among results was found to be attributed to the variation in the discrimination power of adopted spectrophotometric methods on spectral data.

  14. Comparative proteomic analysis of engineered Saccharomyces cerevisiae with enhanced free fatty acid accumulation.

    PubMed

    Chen, Liwei; Lee, Jaslyn Jie Lin; Zhang, Jianhua; Chen, Wei Ning

    2016-02-01

    The engineered Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain △faa1△faa4 [Acot5s] was demonstrated to accumulate more free fatty acids (FFA) previously. Here, comparative proteomic analysis was performed to get a global overview of metabolic regulation in the strain. Over 500 proteins were identified, and 82 of those proteins were found to change significantly in the engineered strains. Proteins involved in glycolysis, acetate metabolism, fatty acid synthesis, TCA cycle, glyoxylate cycle, the pentose phosphate pathway, respiration, transportation, and stress response were found to be upregulated in △faa1△faa4 [Acot5s] as compared to the wild type. On the other hand, proteins involved in glycerol, ethanol, ergosterol, and cell wall synthesis were downregulated. Taken together with our metabolite analysis, our results showed that the disruption of Faa1 and Faa4 and expression of Acot5s in the engineered strain △faa1△faa4 [Acot5s] not only relieved the feedback inhibition of fatty acyl-CoAs on fatty acid synthesis, but also caused a major metabolic rearrangement. The rearrangement redirected carbon flux toward the pathways which generate the essential substrates and cofactors for fatty acid synthesis, such as acetyl-CoA, ATP, and NADPH. Therefore, our results help shed light on the mechanism for the increased production of fatty acids in the engineered strains, which is useful in providing information for future studies in biofuel production.

  15. Comparative genomics of xylose-fermenting fungi for enhanced biofuel production

    SciTech Connect

    Wohlbach, Dana J.; Kuo, Alan; Sato, Trey K.

    Cellulosic biomass is an abundant and underused substrate for biofuel production. The inability of many microbes to metabolize the pentose sugars abundant within hemicellulose creates specific challenges for microbial biofuel production from cellulosic material. Although engineered strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae can use the pentose xylose, the fermentative capacity pales in comparison with glucose, limiting the economic feasibility of industrial fermentations. To better understand xylose utilization for subsequent microbial engineering, we sequenced the genomes of two xylose-fermenting, beetle-associated fungi, Spathaspora passalidarum and Candida tenuis. To identify genes involved in xylose metabolism, we applied a comparative genomic approach across 14 Ascomycete genomes,more » mapping phenotypes and genotypes onto the fungal phylogeny, and measured genomic expression across five Hemiascomycete species with different xylose-consumption phenotypes. This approach implicated many genes and processes involved in xylose assimilation. Several of these genes significantly improved xylose utilization when engineered into S. cerevisiae, demonstrating the power of comparative methods in rapidly identifying genes for biomass conversion while reflecting on fungal ecology.« less

  16. Enhanced adsorption of humic acids on ordered mesoporous carbon compared with microporous activated carbon.

    PubMed

    Liu, Fengling; Xu, Zhaoyi; Wan, Haiqin; Wan, Yuqiu; Zheng, Shourong; Zhu, Dongqiang

    2011-04-01

    Humic acids are ubiquitous in surface and underground waters and may pose potential risk to human health when present in drinking water sources. In this study, ordered mesoporous carbon was synthesized by means of a hard template method and further characterized by X-ray diffraction, N2 adsorption, transition electron microscopy, elemental analysis, and zeta-potential measurement. Batch experiments were conducted to evaluate adsorption of two humic acids from coal and soil, respectively, on the synthesized carbon. For comparison, a commercial microporous activated carbon and nonporous graphite were included as additional adsorbents; moreover, phenol was adopted as a small probe adsorbate. Pore size distribution characterization showed that the synthesized carbon had ordered mesoporous structure, whereas the activated carbon was composed mainly of micropores with a much broader pore size distribution. Accordingly, adsorption of the two humic acids was substantially lower on the activated carbon than on the synthesized carbon, because of the size-exclusion effect. In contrast, the synthesized carbon and activated carbon showed comparable adsorption for phenol when the size-exclusion effect was not in operation. Additionally, we verified by size-exclusion chromatography studies that the synthesized carbon exhibited greater adsorption for the large humic acid fraction than the activated carbon. The pH dependence of adsorption on the three carbonaceous adsorbents was also compared between the two test humic acids. The findings highlight the potential of using ordered mesoporous carbon as a superior adsorbent for the removal of humic acids. Copyright © 2011 SETAC.

  17. PEGylated G-CSF (BBT-015), GM-CSF (BBT-007), and IL-11 (BBT-059) analogs enhance survival and hematopoietic cell recovery in a mouse model of the hematopoietic syndrome of the acute radiation syndrome.

    PubMed

    Plett, Paul Artur; Chua, Hui Lin; Sampson, Carol H; Katz, Barry P; Fam, Christine M; Anderson, Lana J; Cox, George N; Orschell, Christie M

    2014-01-01

    Hematopoietic growth factors (HGF) are recommended therapy for high dose radiation exposure, but unfavorable administration schedules requiring early and repeat dosing limit the logistical ease with which they can be used. In this report, using a previously described murine model of H-ARS, survival efficacy and effect on hematopoietic recovery of unique PEGylated HGF were investigated. The PEGylated-HGFs possess longer half-lives and more potent hematopoietic properties than corresponding non-PEGylated-HGFs. C57BL/6 mice underwent single dose lethal irradiation (7.76-8.72 Gy, Cs, 0.62-1.02 Gy min) and were treated with various dosing regimens of 0.1, 0.3, and 1.0 mg kg of analogs of human PEG-G-CSF, murine PEG-GM-CSF, or human PEG-IL-11. Mice were administered one of the HGF analogs at 24-28 h post irradiation, and in some studies, additional doses given every other day (beginning with the 24-28 h dose) for a total of three or nine doses. Thirty-day (30 d) survival was significantly increased with only one dose of 0.3 mg kg of PEG-G-CSF and PEG-IL-11 or three doses of 0.3 mg kg of PEG-GM-CSF (p ≤ 0.006). Enhanced survival correlated with consistently and significantly enhanced WBC, NE, RBC, and PLT recovery for PEG-G- and PEG-GM-CSF, and enhanced RBC and PLT recovery for PEG-IL-11 (p ≤ 0.05). Longer administration schedules or higher doses did not provide a significant additional survival benefit over the shorter, lower dose, schedules. These data demonstrate the efficacy of BBT's PEG-HGF to provide significantly increased survival with fewer injections and lower drug doses, which may have significant economic and logistical value in the aftermath of a radiation event.

  18. Comparing Versions of the Good Behavior Game: Can a Positive Spin Enhance Effectiveness?

    PubMed

    Wahl, Elaine; Hawkins, Renee O; Haydon, Todd; Marsicano, Richard; Morrison, Julie Q

    2016-07-01

    Disruptions can prevent the classroom from being an effective learning environment. The Good Behavior Game (GBG) is a group contingency that has been proven to effectively prevent disruptions and increase engagement. However, the traditional methods of the GBG include teacher scanning for negative student behaviors, and may not align with Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports (PBIS), which is becoming widely adopted in many schools. Extending the findings of Wright and McCurdy, the current study compared the effects of the GBG and a positive version of the GBG, called the Caught Being Good Game (CBGG), on student behavior, including engagement and off-task behaviors, as well as teachers' use of positive and negative statements. Results showed both the GBG and the CBGG improved student behavior, with data not clearly indicating one was superior. Neither intervention led to an increase in positive teacher statements. Implications for teachers and suggestions for further research are discussed. © The Author(s) 2016.

  19. Enhancing Europa surface characterization with ice penetrating radar: A Comparative study in Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Curra, C.; Arnold, E.; Karwoski, B.; Grima, C.; Schroeder, D. M.; Young, D. A.; Blankenship, D. D.

    2013-12-01

    The shape and composition of the surface of Europa result from multiple processes, most of them involving direct and indirect interactions between the liquid and solid phases of its outer water layer. The surface ice composition is likely to reflect the material exchanged with the sub-glacial ocean and potentially holds signatures of organic compounds that could demonstrate the ability of the icy moon to sustain life. Therefore, the most likely targets for in-situ landing missions are primarily located in complex terrains disrupted by exchange mechanisms with the ocean/lenses of sub-glacial liquid water. Any landing site