Science.gov

Sample records for enhances aminolevulinate-based photodynamic

  1. Vitamin D as a potential enhancer of aminolevulinate-based photodynamic therapy for nonmelanoma skin cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maytin, Edward V.; Anand, Sanjay; Atanaskova, Natasha; Wilson, Clara

    2010-02-01

    Vitamin D3 (Vit D3) is a hormone essential for normal bone and cardiovascular health, and may participate in preventing nonmelanoma skin cancers (NMSC). Calcitriol (1,25 dihydroxyD3) is the active form of the hormone. We showed previously that calcitriol is a potent inducer of protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) in skin keratinocytes grown in organotypic cultures. Here, we investigated the ability of Vit D3 to enhance PpIX levels within skin tumors in vivo. Squamous tumors, generated by chemical carcinogenesis in mice, were pretreated for 3 days with topical calcitriol. Then 5-aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA) was applied topically, and PpIX levels were measured by noninvasive fluorimetry and in biopsied tissue. Calcitriol pretreatment resulted in a 3 to 4-fold elevation of PpIX in tumors, relative to no pretreatmen, providing significantly more photosensitizer available for tumor destruction. For deep tumors, topical calcitriol may not penetrate sufficiently. Therefore we explored whether systemic Vit D3, given short-term (3 days), might elevate PpIX within NMSC in a deep tumor model (subcutaneously-implanted A431 human squamous carcinoma cells). Defined amounts of calcitriol were injected into the mice for 3 d, followed by systemic 5-ALA, tissue biopsy, and confocal microscopic measurement of PpIX in frozen tissues. PpIX was clearly elevated after systemically delivered calcitriol. More work is needed, but if the amount of calcitriol required to elevate PpIX levels proves to be small, then the approach may ultimately prove attractive. Since most Americans are currently Vitamin D deficient, a small increase in calcitriol might be possible without risk of hypercalcemia.

  2. Low-dose methotrexate enhances aminolevulinate-based photodynamic therapy in skin carcinoma cells in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Anand, Sanjay; Honari, Golara; Hasan, Tayyaba; Elson, Paul; Maytin, Edward V

    2009-05-15

    To improve treatment efficacy and tumor cell selectivity of delta-aminolevulinic acid (ALA)-based photodynamic therapy (PDT) via pretreatment of cells and tumors with methotrexate to enhance intracellular photosensitizer levels. Skin carcinoma cells, in vitro and in vivo, served as the model system. Cultured human SCC13 and HEK1 cells, normal keratinocytes, and in vivo skin tumor models were preconditioned with methotrexate for 72 h and then incubated with ALA for 4 h. Changes in protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) levels and cell survival after light exposure were assessed. Methotrexate preconditioning of monolayer cultures preferentially increased intracellular PpIX levels 2- to 4-fold in carcinoma cells versus normal keratinocytes. Photodynamic killing was synergistically enhanced by the combined therapy compared with PDT alone. Methotrexate enhancement of PpIX levels was achieved over a broad methotrexate concentration range (0.0003-1.0 mg/L; 0.6 nmol/L-2 mmol/L). PpIX enhancement correlated with changes in protein expression of key porphyrin pathway enzymes, approximately 4-fold increase in coproporphyrinogen oxidase and stable or slightly decreased expression of ferrochelatase. Differentiation markers (E-cadherin, involucrin, and filaggrin) were also selectively induced by methotrexate in carcinoma cells. In vivo relevance was established by showing that methotrexate preconditioning enhances PpIX accumulation in three models: (a) organotypic cultures of immortalized keratinocytes, (b) chemically induced skin tumors in mice; and (c) human A431 squamous cell tumors implanted subcutaneously in mice. Combination therapy using short-term exposure to low-dose methotrexate followed by ALA-PDT should be further investigated as a new combination modality to enhance efficacy and selectivity of PDT for epithelial carcinomas.

  3. 5-Fluorouracil as an enhancer of aminolevulinate-based photodynamic therapy for skin cancer: New use for a venerable agent?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maytin, Edward V.; Anand, Sanjay; Wilson, Clara; Iyer, Karthik

    2011-02-01

    5-Fluorouracil (5-FU) was developed in the 1950s as an anticancer drug and is now widely used to treat many cancers, including colon and breast carcinoma. 5-FU causes fluoronucleotide misincorporation into RNA and DNA, inhibits thymidylate synthase, and leads to growth arrest and apoptosis. For skin precancers (actinic keratoses; AK), 5-FU is prescribed as a topical agent and was essentially the only option for treating widespread AK of the skin prior to FDA approval of photodynamic therapy (PDT) in 1999. PDT is now gradually replacing 5-FU as a preferred treatment for AK, but neither PDT nor 5-FU are effective for true skin cancers (basal or squamous cell), particularly for tumors >1 mm in depth. In our ongoing work to improve the efficacy of PDT for skin cancer, we previously showed that PDT efficacy can be significantly enhanced by preconditioning tumors with methotrexate (MTX), which leads to increased production of protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) in target cells. However, because MTX must be given orally or intravenously, it is considered unacceptable for widespread human use due to potential toxicity. MTX and 5-FU exert similar effects on the thymidylate synthesis pathway, so we reasoned that topical 5-FU could be a potential alternative to MTX. In this paper, exploratory studies that test 5-FU as a preconditioning agent for PDT are presented. In a cutaneous model of squamous cell carcinoma (chemically-induced papillomatous tumors in mice), 5-FU significantly enhances PpIX accumulation and therefore emerges as a new candidate agent for combination therapy with PDT.

  4. Low-dose Methotrexate Enhances Aminolevulinate-based Photodynamic Therapy in Skin Carcinoma Cells In-vitro and In-vivo

    PubMed Central

    Anand, Sanjay; Honari, Golara; Hasan, Tayyaba; Elson, Paul; Maytin, Edward V.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose To improve treatment efficacy and tumor cell selectivity of δ-aminolevulinic acid (ALA)-based photodynamic therapy (PDT), via pretreatment of cells and tumors with methotrexate (MTX) to enhance intracellular photosensitizer levels. Experimental Design Skin carcinoma cells, in-vitro and in-vivo, served as the model system. Cultured human SCC13 and HEK1 cells, normal keratinocytes, and in-vivo skin tumor models (see below) were preconditioned with MTX for 72 h, then incubated with ALA for 4 h. Changes in PpIX levels and in cell survival after light exposure were assessed. Results MTX-preconditioning of monolayer cultures preferentially raised intracellular PpIX levels 2- to 4-fold in carcinoma cells versus normal keratinocytes. Photodynamic killing was synergistically enhanced by the combined therapy, compared to PDT alone. MTX enhancement of PpIX levels was achieved over a broad MTX concentration range (0.0003 – 1.0 mg/L; 0.6 nM – 2 mM). PpIX enhancement correlated with changes in protein expression of key porphyrin pathway enzymes, i.e. ~4-fold increase in coproporphyrinogen oxidase, and stable or slightly decreased expression of ferrochelatase. Differentiation markers (E-cadherin, involucrin, filaggrin) were also selectively induced by MTX in carcinoma cells. In-vivo relevance was established by showing that MTX preconditioning enhances PpIX accumulation in three models: (1) organotypic cultures of immortalized keratinocytes; (2) chemically-induced skin tumors in mice; and (3) human A431 squamous cell tumors implanted subcutaneously in mice. Conclusion Combination therapy using short-term exposure to low-dose MTX followed by ALA-PDT should be further investigated as a new combination modality to enhance efficacy and selectivity of PDT for epithelial carcinomas. PMID:19447864

  5. The hydroxypyridinone iron chelator CP94 increases methyl-aminolevulinate-based photodynamic cell killing by increasing the generation of reactive oxygen species.

    PubMed

    Dogra, Yuktee; Ferguson, Daniel C J; Dodd, Nicholas J F; Smerdon, Gary R; Curnow, Alison; Winyard, Paul G

    2016-10-01

    Methyl-aminolevulinate-based photodynamic therapy (MAL-PDT) is utilised clinically for the treatment of non-melanoma skin cancers and pre-cancers and the hydroxypyridinone iron chelator, CP94, has successfully been demonstrated to increase MAL-PDT efficacy in an initial clinical pilot study. However, the biochemical and photochemical processes leading to CP94-enhanced photodynamic cell death, beyond the well-documented increases in accumulation of the photosensitiser protoporphyrin IX (PpIX), have not yet been fully elucidated. This investigation demonstrated that MAL-based photodynamic cell killing of cultured human squamous carcinoma cells (A431) occurred in a predominantly necrotic manner following the generation of singlet oxygen and ROS. Augmenting MAL-based photodynamic cell killing with CP94 co-treatment resulted in increased PpIX accumulation, MitoSOX-detectable ROS generation (probably of mitochondrial origin) and necrotic cell death, but did not affect singlet oxygen generation. We also report (to our knowledge, for the first time) the detection of intracellular PpIX-generated singlet oxygen in whole cells via electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy in conjunction with a spin trap. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Photodynamic Therapy Treatment to Enhance Fracture Healing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-10-01

    AD_________________ Award Number: W81XWH-10-1-0997 TITLE: Photodynamic Therapy treatment to...TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Photodynamic Therapy treatment to Enhance Fracture Healing 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-10-1-0997 5c...13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT Long bone fractures resulting from high impact trauma can result in delayed healing. Photodynamic therapy

  7. Does photodynamic therapy enhance standard antibacterial therapy in dentistry?

    PubMed

    Javed, Fawad; Romanos, Georgios E

    2013-11-01

    The aim of this study was to assess whether or not photodynamic therapy enhanced standard antibacterial therapy in dentistry. Photodynamic therapy when used as an adjunct to conventional periodontal therapy kills more bacteria than when conventional periodontal therapy is used alone. To address the focused question, "Does photodynamic therapy enhance killing of oral bacteria?" PubMed/MEDLINE(®) and Google Scholar databases were explored. Original human and experimental studies and studies using photodynamic therapy for killing oral bacteria were included. Letters to the Editor, historic reviews, and unpublished data were excluded. Photodynamic therapy significantly reduces periodontopathogenic bacteria including Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Prevotella intermedia, and Porphyromonas gingivalis. Photodynamic therapy kills cariogenic bacteria (such as Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sanguis), bacteria associated with infected root canals, and those associated with periimplantitis. Photodynamic therapy, when used as an adjunct to conventional oral disinfection protocols, enhances standard antibacterial therapy in dentistry.

  8. Inorganic nanoparticles for enhanced photodynamic cancer therapy.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Shih-Hsun; Lo, Leu-Wei

    2011-09-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) in cancer treatment uses photosensitizers to generate singlet oxygen followed by photoirradiation. The efficacy of PDT is greatly determined by the dosimetry of activation light and the photosensitizer (PS), modulating the photodynamic reaction at depth in diseased tissue. Development of nano-formulated photosensitizer has emerged as a promising field because of the biocompatibility and the accessibility for multi-functionalization of nanoparticles. In this review, we summarize the contemporary progress in use of inorganic nanoparticles for improvement of PDT in cancer therapeutics.

  9. Tumor vasculature targeted photodynamic therapy for enhanced delivery of nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Zhen, Zipeng; Tang, Wei; Chuang, Yen-Jun; Todd, Trever; Zhang, Weizhong; Lin, Xin; Niu, Gang; Liu, Gang; Wang, Lianchun; Pan, Zhengwei; Chen, Xiaoyuan; Xie, Jin

    2014-06-24

    Delivery of nanoparticle drugs to tumors relies heavily on the enhanced permeability and retention (EPR) effect. While many consider the effect to be equally effective on all tumors, it varies drastically among the tumors' origins, stages, and organs, owing much to differences in vessel leakiness. Suboptimal EPR effect represents a major problem in the translation of nanomedicine to the clinic. In the present study, we introduce a photodynamic therapy (PDT)-based EPR enhancement technology. The method uses RGD-modified ferritin (RFRT) as "smart" carriers that site-specifically deliver (1)O2 to the tumor endothelium. The photodynamic stimulus can cause permeabilized tumor vessels that facilitate extravasation of nanoparticles at the sites. The method has proven to be safe, selective, and effective. Increased tumor uptake was observed with a wide range of nanoparticles by as much as 20.08-fold. It is expected that the methodology can find wide applications in the area of nanomedicine.

  10. Enhancement of selectivity for photodynamic therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bedwell, Joanne

    Photodynamic Therapy (PDT) is a technique for producing localised tissue damage with low power light following prior administration of a photosensitising drug. The promise of PDT has been based on the selective retention of photosensitisers by tumours, but this aspect has been over-emphasised with a maximum ratio of photosensitiser concentration of 3:1, tumour to normal, for extracranial tumours and current drugs. This makes selective tumour necrosis difficult to achieve. This thesis explores ways in which selectivity may be improved. Aluminium sulphonated phthalocyanine (AlSPc) has better photochemical properties than the widely used HpD and Photofrin II, but has the same tumour selectivity, although the ratio was improved marginally using its disulphonated component. However, when used in conjunction with the radioprotective drug W7, in a rat colon cancer model, tumour necrosis was the same as without W7 while there was no damage to adjacent normal colon. A radical new approach is to give 5-aminolaevulinic acid (ALA) which induces endogenous production of the photosensitiser protoporphyrin IX. This improves selectivity in the rat colon cancer to 6:1 (tumour to normal mucosa), but also sensitises the mucosa selectively compared with the underlying muscle (10:1), giving a tumour to muscle ratio of 60:1. This has enormous potential for treating small tumours or areas of dysplasia in a range of hollow organs. ALA also has the major advantages of a short optimum drug to light time (typically 4-6 hours), short duration of skin sensitivity (approximately 24 hours) and it can be given orally with minimal systemic toxicity. This work has also shown in vitro that PDT with AlSPc sensitisation can kill helicohacter pylori at doses unlikely to affect gastric mucosa. In conclusion, by careful choice of photosensitising agents and treatment regimes, it is possible to limit PDT effects to abnormal tissues, and even if there is some normal tissue damage, in most cases, this heals

  11. Combination photodynamic therapy using 5-fluorouracil and aminolevulinate enhances tumor-selective production of protoporphyrin IX and improves treatment efficacy of squamous skin cancers and precancers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maytin, Edward V.; Anand, Sanjay

    2016-03-01

    In combination photodynamic therapy (cPDT), a small-molecule drug is used to modulate the physiological state of tumor cells prior to giving aminolevulinate (ALA; a precursor for protoporphyrin IX, PpIX). In our laboratory we have identified three agents (methotrexate, 5-fluorouracil, and vitamin D) that can enhance therapeutic effectiveness of ALAbased photodynamic therapy for cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). However, only one (5-fluorouracil; 5-FU) is FDA-approved for skin cancer management. Here, we describe animal and human studies on 5-FU mechanisms of action, in terms of how 5-FU pretreatment leads to enhanced PpIX accumulation and improves selectivity of ALA-PDT treatment. In A431 subcutaneous tumors in mice, 5-FU changed expression of heme enzyme (upregulating coproporphyrinogen oxidase, and down-regulating ferrochelatase), inhibited tumor cell proliferation (Ki-67), enhanced differentiation (E-cadherin), and led to strong, tumor-selective increases in apoptosis. Interestingly, enhancement of apoptosis by 5-FU correlated strongly with an increased accumulation of p53 in tumor cells that persisted for 24 h post- PDT. In a clinical trial using a split-body, bilaterally controlled study design, human subjects with actinic keratoses (AK; preneoplastic precursors of SCC) were pretreated on one side of the face, scalp, or forearms with 5-FU cream for 6 days, while the control side received no 5-FU. On the seventh day, the levels of PpIX in 4 test lesions were measured by noninvasive fluorescence dosimetry, and then all lesions were treated with PDT using methyl-aminolevulinate (MAL) and red light (635 nm). Relative amounts of PpIX were found to be increased ~2-fold in 5-FU pretreated lesions relative to controls. At 3 months after PDT, the overall clinical response to PDT (reduction in lesion counts) was 2- to 3-fold better for the 5-FU pretreated lesions, a clinically important result. In summary, 5-FU is a useful adjuvant to aminolevulinate-based PDT

  12. Enhanced efficacy of photodynamic therapy after fractional resurfacing: fractional photodynamic rejuvenation.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Rodriguez, Ricardo; López, Laura; Candelas, Daniel; Zelickson, Brian

    2007-08-01

    Conventional ablative resurfacing is the gold standard for removing signs of cutaneous photodamage. Despite the excellent results one can achieve with this technique, it is accompanied with significant downtime and risks. Fractional resurfacing and photodynamic therapy (PDT) with aminolevulinic acid (ALA) have been used to improve the signs of photodamage with less downtime. However, independently they do not yield results as good as ablative resurfacing. This pilot study will examine the potential for synergistic effects of combining fractional resurfacing and ALA-PDT. Four women with Fitzpatrick skin types II or III, mild to moderate rhytides and no actinic keratosis in the perioral area were treated. The perioral area was treated with 2 sessions of fractional resurfacing with the Fraxel SR (formerly Fraxel SR750, Reliant Technologies Inc, Palo Alto, CA) 3 weeks apart. Immediately after each fractional treatment we applied methyl 5-aminolevulinate (MAL or Metvix) on one half of the perioral area and 3 hours later we illuminated that area with a red light (Aktilite lamp, PhotoCure ASA, Oslo, Norway) in a dose of 37 J/cm2. Prior to treatment and at 4 and 12 weeks after the final treatment, a blinded investigator evaluated each side of the perioral area and rated the improvement from baseline as excellent, good, fair, or poor improvement of superficial wrinkles by comparing the results with pretreatment photographs. Patients also completed an evaluation form assessing their satisfaction with the treatment on each side of the perioral area while comparing the results with pretreatment photographs. The study showed increased improvement in superficial wrinkles in 3 out of 4 patients on the combined treatment side. In one patient, the investigator found no significant difference when comparing both sides. All the patients noted greater improvement in the combined fractional and PDT-treated side compared to the side only treated with fractional surfacing. This pilot

  13. Contrast enhanced-magnetic resonance imaging as a surrogate to map verteporfin delivery in photodynamic therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samkoe, Kimberley S.; Bryant, Amber; Gunn, Jason R.; Pereira, Stephen P.; Hasan, Tayyaba; Pogue, Brian W.

    2013-12-01

    The use of in vivo contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance (MR) imaging as a surrogate for photosensitizer (verteporfin) dosimetry in photodynamic therapy of pancreas cancer is demonstrated by correlating MR contrast uptake to ex vivo fluorescence images on excised tissue. An orthotopic pancreatic xenograft mouse model was used for the study. A strong correlation (r=0.57) was found for bulk intensity measurements of T1-weighted gadolinium enhancement and verteporfin fluorescence in the tumor region of interest. The use of contrast-enhanced MR imaging shows promise as a method for treatment planning and photosensitizer dosimetry in human photodynamic therapy (PDT) of pancreas cancer.

  14. Enhancing antibiofilm efficacy in antimicrobial photodynamic therapy: effect of microbubbles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kishen, Anil; George, Saji

    2013-02-01

    In this study, we tested the hypothesis that a microbubble containing photosensitizer when activated with light would enable comprehensive disinfection of bacterial biofilms in infected root dentin by antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (APDT). Experiments were conducted in two stages. In the stage-1, microbubble containing photosensitizing formulation was tested for its photochemical properties. In the stage-2, the efficacy of microbubble containing photosensitizing formulation was tested on in vitro infected root canal model, developed with monospecies biofilm models of Enterococcus faecalis on root dentin substrate. The findings from this study showed that the microbubble containing photosensitizing formulation was overall the most effective formulation for photooxidation, generation of singlet oxygen, and in disinfecting the biofilm bacteria in the infected root canal model. This modified photosensitizing formulation will have potential advantages in eliminating bacterial biofilms from infected root dentin.

  15. Multifunctional nanoplatform for enhanced photodynamic cancer therapy and magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Hao, Yongwei; Zhang, Bingxiang; Zheng, Cuixia; Niu, Mengya; Guo, Haochen; Zhang, Hongling; Chang, Junbiao; Zhang, Zhenzhong; Wang, Lei; Zhang, Yun

    2017-03-01

    Co-delivery of photosensitizers and synergistic agents by one single nanoplatform is interesting for enhancing photodynamic therapy (PDT) of cancer. Here, a multifunctional nanoplatform for enhanced photodynamic therapy and magnetic resonance imaging of cancer was constructed. The poly (lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) nanoparticles (NPs) loaded with hematoporphyrin monomethyl ether (HMME) were coated with multifunctional manganese dioxide (MnO2) shells, which were designed as PLGA/HMME@MnO2 NPs. Once the NPs were effectively taken up by tumor cells, the intracellular H2O2 was catalysed by the MnO2 shells to generate O2. Meanwhile, the higher glutathione (GSH) promoted the degradation of MnO2 into Mn(2+) ions with the ability of magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. After the degradation of outer layer, the release of photosensitizer was promoted. Under irradiation, the released HMME produced cytotoxic reactive oxygen species (ROS) to damage the tumor cells when the O2 was generated in the hypoxic tumor site. Furthermore, the decreased GSH level further inhibited the consumption of the produced ROS, which greatly enhanced the PDT efficacy. Therefore, this study suggested that this multifunctional system has the potential for enhanced photodynamic therapy and magnetic resonance imaging. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Comparing desferrioxamine and light fractionation enhancement of ALA-PpIX photodynamic therapy in skin cancer

    PubMed Central

    de Souza, Ana Luiza Ribeiro; Marra, Kayla; Gunn, Jason; Samkoe, Kimberley S; Kanick, Stephen Chad; Davis, Scott C; Chapman, M Shane; Maytin, Edward V; Hasan, Tayyaba; Pogue, Brian W

    2016-01-01

    Background: Aminolevulinic acid (ALA)-based photodynamic therapy (PDT) provides selective uptake and conversion of ALA into protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) in actinic keratosis and squamous cell carcinoma, yet large response variations in effect are common between individuals. The aim of this study was to compare pre-treatment strategies that increase the therapeutic effect, including fractionated light delivery during PDT (fPDT) and use of iron chelator desferrioxamine (DFO), separately and combined. Methods: Optical measurements of fluorescence were used to quantify PpIX produced, and the total amount of PpIX photobleached as an implicit measure of the photodynamic dose. In addition, measurements of white light reflectance were used to quantify changes in vascular physiology throughout the PDT treatment. Results: fPDT produced both a replenishment of PpIX and vascular re-oxygenation during a 2 h dark interval between the first and second PDT light fractions. The absolute photodynamic dose was increased 57% by fPDT, DFO and their combination, as compared with PDT group (from 0.7 to 1.1). Despite that light fractionation increased oedema and scab formation during the week after treatment, no significant difference in long-term survival has been observed between treatment groups. However, outcomes stratified on the basis of measured photodynamic dose showed a significant difference in long-term survival. Conclusions: The assessment of implicit photodynamic dose was a more significant predictor of efficacy for ALA-PDT skin cancer treatments than prescription of an enhanced treatment strategy, likely because of high individual variation in response between subjects. PMID:27575852

  17. Comparing desferrioxamine and light fractionation enhancement of ALA-PpIX photodynamic therapy in skin cancer.

    PubMed

    de Souza, Ana Luiza Ribeiro; Marra, Kayla; Gunn, Jason; Samkoe, Kimberley S; Kanick, Stephen Chad; Davis, Scott C; Chapman, M Shane; Maytin, Edward V; Hasan, Tayyaba; Pogue, Brian W

    2016-09-27

    Aminolevulinic acid (ALA)-based photodynamic therapy (PDT) provides selective uptake and conversion of ALA into protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) in actinic keratosis and squamous cell carcinoma, yet large response variations in effect are common between individuals. The aim of this study was to compare pre-treatment strategies that increase the therapeutic effect, including fractionated light delivery during PDT (fPDT) and use of iron chelator desferrioxamine (DFO), separately and combined. Optical measurements of fluorescence were used to quantify PpIX produced, and the total amount of PpIX photobleached as an implicit measure of the photodynamic dose. In addition, measurements of white light reflectance were used to quantify changes in vascular physiology throughout the PDT treatment. fPDT produced both a replenishment of PpIX and vascular re-oxygenation during a 2 h dark interval between the first and second PDT light fractions. The absolute photodynamic dose was increased 57% by fPDT, DFO and their combination, as compared with PDT group (from 0.7 to 1.1). Despite that light fractionation increased oedema and scab formation during the week after treatment, no significant difference in long-term survival has been observed between treatment groups. However, outcomes stratified on the basis of measured photodynamic dose showed a significant difference in long-term survival. The assessment of implicit photodynamic dose was a more significant predictor of efficacy for ALA-PDT skin cancer treatments than prescription of an enhanced treatment strategy, likely because of high individual variation in response between subjects.

  18. Targeted Chemo-Photodynamic Combination Platform Based on the DOX Prodrug Nanoparticles for Enhanced Cancer Therapy.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yumin; Huang, Fan; Ren, Chunhua; Yang, Lijun; Liu, Jianfeng; Cheng, Zhen; Chu, Liping; Liu, Jinjian

    2017-04-19

    Chemo-photodynamic combination therapy has been received widespread attention in cancer treatment due to its excellent characteristics, such as reducing the adverse side effects of chemo-drugs and improving the therapeutic effects for various cancers. In this study, RGD and DOX was conjugated to PEG by thiol-ene addition and Schiff's base reaction, respectively, to prepare the targeted and pH-sensitive antitumor prodrug nanoparticles (RGD-PEG-DOX NPs, RGD-NPs). Subsequently, the photosensitizer chlorin e6 (Ce6) was encapsulated into RGD-NPs, thus obtaining a simple and efficient chemo-photodynamic combination platform (RGD-PEG-DOX/Ce6 NPs, RGD-NPs/Ce6). This nanoparticle possessed high drug loading property of both the chemo-drug and photosensitizer and could simultaneously release them under the mild acidic microenvironment of cancer cells, which was expected to realize the synchronization therapy of chemotherapy and photodynamic therapy (PDT). Compared with free DOX and Ce6, RGD-NPs/Ce6 could significantly improve the cellular uptake capacities of DOX and Ce6, resulting in the increased contents of ROS in cancer cells and effective cytotoxicity for tumor cells (MDA-MB-231 cells and MCF-7 cells) upon a laser radiation. The in vivo experiment showed that RGD-NPs/Ce6 displayed superior tumor targeting, accumulation, and retention ability than the other groups (free DOX, free Ce6 and NPs/Ce6), and thus significantly enhancing the antitumor effect in vivo with a laser radiation. In addition, the cardiotoxicity induced by DOX was thoroughly wiped out after being loaded and delivered by the nanoparticles according to the pathological analysis. Therefore, the targeted chemo-photodynamic combination therapeutic platform may be a promising candidate for enhanced cancer therapy.

  19. Stimulation of dendritic cells enhances immune response after photodynamic therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mroz, Pawel; Castano, Ana P.; Hamblin, Michael R.

    2009-02-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) involves the administration of photosensitizers followed by illumination of the primary tumor with red light producing reactive oxygen species that cause vascular shutdown and tumor cell necrosis and apoptosis. Anti-tumor immunity is stimulated after PDT due to the acute inflammatory response, priming of the immune system to recognize tumor-associated antigens (TAA). The induction of specific CD8+ Tlymphocyte cells that recognize major histocompatibility complex class I (MHC-I) restricted epitopes of TAAs is a highly desirable goal in cancer therapy. The PDT killed tumor cells may be phagocytosed by dendritic cells (DC) that then migrate to draining lymph nodes and prime naÃve T-cells that recognize TAA epitopes. This process is however, often sub-optimal, in part due to tumor-induced DC dysfunction. Instead of DC that can become mature and activated and have a potent antigen-presenting and immune stimulating phenotype, immature dendritic cells (iDC) are often found in tumors and are part of an immunosuppressive milieu including regulatory T-cells and immunosuppressive cytokines such as TGF-beta and IL10. We here report on the use of a potent DC activating agent, an oligonucleotide (ODN) that contains a non-methylated CpG motif and acts as an agonist of toll like receptor (TLR) 9. TLR activation is a danger signal to notify the immune system of the presence of invading pathogens. CpG-ODN (but not scrambled non-CpG ODN) increased bone-marrow DC activation after exposure to PDT-killed tumor cells, and significantly increased tumor response to PDT and mouse survival after peri-tumoral administration. CpG may be a valuable immunoadjuvant to PDT especially for tumors that produce DC dysfunction.

  20. Cationic Phosphorus Dendrimer Enhances Photodynamic Activity of Rose Bengal against Basal Cell Carcinoma Cell Lines.

    PubMed

    Dabrzalska, Monika; Janaszewska, Anna; Zablocka, Maria; Mignani, Serge; Majoral, Jean Pierre; Klajnert-Maculewicz, Barbara

    2017-04-06

    In the last couple of decades, photodynamic therapy emerged as a useful tool in the treatment of basal cell carcinoma. However, it still meets limitations due to unfavorable properties of photosensitizers such as poor solubility or lack of selectivity. Dendrimers, polymers widely studied in biomedical field, may play a role as photosensitizer carriers and improve the efficacy of photodynamic treatment. Here, we describe the evaluation of an electrostatic complex of cationic phosphorus dendrimer and rose bengal in such aspects as singlet oxygen production, cellular uptake, and phototoxicity against three basal cell carcinoma cell lines. Rose bengal-cationic dendrimer complex in molar ratio 5:1 was compared to free rose bengal. Obtained results showed that the singlet oxygen production in aqueous medium was significantly higher for the complex than for free rose bengal. The cellular uptake of the complex was 2-7-fold higher compared to a free photosensitizer. Importantly, rose bengal, rose bengal-dendrimer complex, and dendrimer itself showed no dark toxicity against all three cell lines. Moreover, we observed that phototoxicity of the complex was remarkably enhanced presumably due to high cellular uptake. On the basis of the obtained results, we conclude that rose bengal-cationic dendrimer complex has a potential in photodynamic treatment of basal cell carcinoma.

  1. Enhanced photodynamic efficacy of PLGA-encapsulated 5-ALA nanoparticles in mice bearing Ehrlich ascites carcinoma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaker, Maryam N.; Ramadan, Heba S.; Mohamed, Moustafa M.; El khatib, Ahmed M.; Roston, Gamal D.

    2014-10-01

    Nanoparticles (NPs) fabricated from the biodegradable copolymer poly(lactic- co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) were investigated as a drug delivery system to enhance the photodynamic efficacy of 5-aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA) in mice bearing Ehrlich ascites carcinoma. The PLGA-encapsulated 5-ALA NPs were prepared using binary organic solvent diffusion method and characterized in terms of shape and particle size. The in vivo photodynamic efficiency in Ehrlich ascites-bearing mice was studied. The obtained particles were uniform in size with spherical shape of mean size of 249.5 nm as obtained by particle size analyzer and the in vitro release studies demonstrated a controlled release profile of 5-ALA. Tumor-bearing mice injected with PLGA-encapsulated 5-ALA NPs exhibited significantly smaller mean tumor volume, increased tumor growth delay compared with the control group and the group injected with free 5-ALA during the time course of the experiment. Histopathological examination of tumor from mice treated with PLGA-encapsulated 5-ALA NPs showed regression of tumor cells, in contrast to those obtained from mice treated with free 5-ALA. The results indicate that PLGA-encapsulated 5-ALA NPs are a successful delivery system for improving photodynamic activity in the target tissue.

  2. Urea enhances the photodynamic efficiency of methylene blue.

    PubMed

    Nuñez, Silvia C; Yoshimura, Tania M; Ribeiro, Martha S; Junqueira, Helena C; Maciel, Cleiton; Coutinho-Neto, Maurício D; Baptista, Maurício S

    2015-09-01

    Methylene blue (MB) is a well-known photosensitizer used mostly for antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (APDT). MB tends to aggregate, interfering negatively with its singlet oxygen generation, because MB aggregates lean towards electron transfer reactions, instead of energy transfer with oxygen. In order to avoid MB aggregation we tested the effect of urea, which destabilizes solute-solute interactions. The antimicrobial efficiency of MB (30 μM) either in water or in 2M aqueous urea solution was tested against a fungus (Candida albicans). Samples were kept in the dark and irradiation was performed with a light emitting diode (λ = 645 nm). Without urea, 9 min of irradiation was needed to achieve complete microbial eradication. In urea solution, complete eradication was obtained with 6 min illumination (light energy of 14.4 J). The higher efficiency of MB/urea solution was correlated with a smaller concentration of dimers, even in the presence of the microorganisms. Monomer to dimer concentration ratios were extracted from the absorption spectra of MB solutions measured as a function of MB concentration at different temperatures and at different concentrations of sodium chloride and urea. Dimerization equilibrium decreased by 3 and 6 times in 1 and 2M urea, respectively, and increased by a factor of 6 in 1M sodium chloride. The destabilization of aggregates by urea seems to be applied to other photosensitizers, since urea also destabilized aggregation of Meso-tetra(4-n-methyl-pyridyl)porphyrin, which is a positively charged porphyrin. We showed that urea destabilizes MB aggregates mainly by causing a decrease in the enthalpic gain of dimerization, which was exactly the opposite of the effect of sodium chloride. In order to understand this phenomenon at the molecular level, we computed the free energy for the dimer association process (ΔG(dimer)) in aqueous solution as well as its enthalpic component in aqueous and in aqueous/urea solutions by molecular dynamics

  3. Examples of adjuvant treatment enhancing the antitumor effect of photodynamic therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korbelik, Mladen; Cecic, Ivana; Sun, Jinghai; Chaplin, David J.

    1999-07-01

    Strategies for improving the clinical efficacy of photodynamic therapy (PDT) in treatment of solid cancers include applications of different types of adjuvant treatments in addition to this modality that may result in superior therapeutic outcome. Examples of such an approach investigated using mouse tumor models are presented in this report. It is shown that the cures of PDT treated subcutaneous tumors can be substantially improved by adjuvant therapy with: metoclopramide (enhancement of cancer cell apoptosis), combretastatin A-4 (selective destruction of tumor neovasculature), Roussin's Black Salt (light activated tumor localized release of nitric oxide), or dendritic cell-based adoptive immunotherapy (immune rejection of treated tumor).

  4. Enhanced Fluorescence Imaging Guided Photodynamic Therapy of Sinoporphyrin Sodium Loaded Graphene Oxide

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Xuefeng; Niu, Gang; Lin, Jing; Jin, Albert J.; Hu, Hao; Tang, Yuxia; Zhang, Yujie; Wu, Aiguo; Lu, Jie; Zhang, Shaoliang; Huang, Peng; Shen, Baozhong; Chen, Xiaoyuan

    2014-01-01

    Extensive research indicates that graphene oxide (GO) can effectively deliver photosensitives (PSs) by π-π stacking for photodynamic therapy (PDT). However, due to the tight complexes of GO and PSs, the fluorescence of PSs are often drastically quenched via an energy/charge transfer process, which limits this GO-PS system for photodiagnostics especially in fluorescence imaging. To solve this problem, we herein strategically designed and prepared a novel photo-theranostic agent based on sinoporphyrin sodium (DVDMS) loaded PEGylated GO (GO-PEG-DVDMS) with improved fluorescence property for enhanced optical imaging guided PDT. The fluorescence of loaded DVDMS is drastically enhanced via intramolecular charge transfer. Meanwhile, the GO-PEG vehicles can significantly increase the tumor accumulation efficiency of DVDMS and lead to an improved photodynamic therapy (PDT) efficacy as compared to DVDMS alone. The cancer theranostic capability of the as-prepared GO-PEG-DVDMS was carefully investigated both in vitro and in vivo. Most intriguingly, 100% in vivo tumor elimination was achieved by intravenous injection of GO-PEG-DVDMS (2 mg/kg of DVDMS, 50 J) without tumor recurrence, loss of body weight or other noticeable toxicity. This novel GO-PEG-DVDMS theranostics is well suited for enhanced fluorescence imaging guided PDT. PMID:25542797

  5. Protoporphyrin IX fluorescence for enhanced photodynamic diagnosis and photodynamic therapy in murine models of skin and breast cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rollakanti, Kishore Reddy

    Protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) is a photosensitizing agent derived from aminolevulinic acid. PpIX accumulates specifically within target cancer cells, where it fluoresces and produces cytotoxic reactive oxygen species. Our aims were to employ PpIX fluorescence to detect squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the skin (Photodynamic diagnosis, PDD), and to improve treatment efficacy (Photodynamic therapy, PDT) for basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and cutaneous breast cancer. Hyperspectral imaging and a spectrometer based dosimeter system were used to detect very early SCC in UVB-irradiated murine skin, using PpIX fluorescence. Regarding PDT, we showed that low non-toxic doses of vitamin D, given before ALA application, increase tumor specific PpIX accumulation and sensitize BCC and breast cancer cells to ALA-PDT. These optical imaging methods and the combination therapy regimen (vitamin D and ALA-PDT) are promising tools for effective management of skin and breast cancer.

  6. Colloidal gold nanorings for improved photodynamic therapy through field-enhanced generation of reactive oxygen species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Yue; Yang, Yamin; Wang, Hongjun; Du, Henry

    2013-02-01

    Au nanostructures that exhibit strong localized surface plasmon resonance (SPR) have excellent potential for photo-medicine, among a host of other applications. Here, we report the synthesis and use of colloidal gold nanorings (GNRs) with potential for enhanced photodynamic therapy of cancer. The GNRs were fabricated via galvanic replacement reaction of sacrificial Co nanoparticles in gold salt solution with low molecular weight (Mw = 2,500) poly(vinylpyrrolidone) (PVP) as a stabilizing agent. The size and the opening of the GNRs were controlled by the size of the starting Co particles and the concentration of the gold salt. UV-Vis absorption measurements indicated the tunability of the SPR of the GNRs from 560 nm to 780 nm. MTT assay showed that GNRs were non-toxic and biocompatible when incubated with breast cancer cells as well as the healthy counterpart cells. GNRs conjugated with 5-aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA) photosensitizer precursor led to elevated formation of reactive oxygen species and improved efficacy of photodynamic therapy of breast cancer cells under light irradiation compared to 5-ALA alone. These results can be attributed to significantly enhance localized electromagnetic field of the GNRs.

  7. Enhancement of 5-aminolevulinic acid phototoxicity by encapsulation in polysaccharides based nanocomplexes for photodynamic therapy application.

    PubMed

    Di Martino, Antonio; Pavelkova, Alena; Postnikov, Pavel S; Sedlarik, Vladimir

    2017-10-01

    Polysaccharides based nanocomplexes have been developed for encapsulation, controlled delivery and to enhance the phototoxicity of the photosensitizer 5-aminolevulinic acid for application in photodynamic therapy. The nanocomplexes were prepared by coacervation in a solvent free environment using chitosan as polycation while alginic and polygalacturonic acid as polyanions. The complexes showed average dimension in the range 90-120nm, good stability in simulated physiological media and high drug encapsulation efficiency, up to 800μg per mg of carrier. Release studies demonstrate the possibility to tune the overall release rate and the intensity of the initial burst by changing the external pH. Cytotoxicity and photocytotoxicity tests confirmed the not toxicity of the used polysaccharides. Cell viability results confirmed the improvement of 5-aminolevulinic acid phototoxicity when loaded into the carrier compared to the free form. No effect of the irradiation on the nanocomplexes structure and on the release kinetics of the drug was observed. The results demonstrate that the prepared formulations have suitable properties for future application in photodynamic therapy and to ameliorate the therapeutic efficacy and overcome the side-effects related to the use of the photosensitizer 5-aminolevulinic acid. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. Enhanced efficacy of photodynamic therapy by inhibiting ABCG2 in colon cancers.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ju Hee; Park, Jae Myung; Roh, Yoon Jin; Kim, In-Wook; Hasan, Tayyaba; Choi, Myung-Gyu

    2015-07-07

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) contains a photosensitizing process, which includes cellular uptake of photosensitizer and delivery of light to the target. ATP-binding cassette subfamily G2 (ABCG2) regulates endogenous protoporphyrin levels. In human colon cancers, it is not fully examined the role of ABCG2 in porphyrin-based photodynamic therapy. SW480 and HT29 cells were selected because they showed low and high ABCG2 expression levels, respectively. Pyropheophorbid-a (PPa) was used as a photosensitizer. Cells were exposed to a 670 nm diod laser. Cell viability and necrosi apoptosis was examined. Production level of singlet oxygen was detected with the photomultiplier-tube s/ -based singlet oxygen detection system. SW480 cells, which expressed lower level of ABCG2, showed the higher uptake of PPa than HT-29 cells. The uptake level of PPa was significantly correlated with the decreased cell viability after PDT. Pretreatment with a ABCG2 inhibitor, Ko-143, significantly enhanced the PDT efficacy in HT29 cells compared to vehicle-pretreated cells. To confirm the ABCG2 effect on PDT, we established ABCG2 over-expressing stable cells in SW480 cells (SW480/ABCG2). Furthermore, SW480/ABCG2 cells showed significantly decreased PDT effect compared to the control cells. The increased or decreased cell survival was significantly correlated with the production level of singlet oxygen after PDT. ABCG2 plays an important role in determining the PDT efficacy by controlling the photosensitizer efflux rate. This implies the control of ABCG2 expression may be a potential solution to enhance photosensitivity.

  9. Lysosomal Signaling Enhances Mitochondria-Mediated Photodynamic Therapy in A431 Cancer Cells: Role of Iron

    PubMed Central

    Saggu, Shalini; Hung, Hsin-I; Quiogue, Geraldine; Lemasters, John J.; Nieminen, Anna-Liisa

    2015-01-01

    In photodynamic therapy (PDT), light activates a photosensitizer added to a tissue, resulting in singlet oxygen formation and cell death. The photosensitizer phthalocyanine 4 (Pc 4) localizes primarily to mitochondrial membranes in cancer cells, resulting in mitochondria-mediated cell death. The aim of this study was to determine how lysosomes contribute to PDT-induced cell killing by mitochondria-targeted photosensitizers such as Pc 4. We monitored cell killing of A431 cells after Pc 4-PDT in the presence and absence of bafilomycin, an inhibitor of the vacuolar proton pump of lysosomes and endosomes. Bafilomycin was not toxic by itself, but greatly enhanced Pc 4-PDT-induced cell killing. To investigate whether iron loading of lysosomes affects bafilomycin-induced killing, cells were incubated with ammonium ferric citrate (30 μm) for 30 h prior to PDT. Ammonium ferric citrate enhanced Pc 4 plus bafilomycin-induced cell killing without having toxicity by itself. Iron chelators (desferrioxamine and starch-desferrioxamine) and the inhibitor of the mitochondrial calcium (and ferrous iron) uniporter, Ru360, protected against Pc 4 plus bafilomycin toxicity. These results support the conclusion that chelatable iron stored in the lysosomes enhances the efficacy of bafilomycin-mediated PDT and that lysosomal disruption augments PDT with Pc 4. PMID:22220628

  10. Tumor-Triggered Geometrical Shape Switch of Chimeric Peptide for Enhanced in Vivo Tumor Internalization and Photodynamic Therapy.

    PubMed

    Han, Kai; Zhang, Jin; Zhang, Weiyun; Wang, Shibo; Xu, Luming; Zhang, Chi; Zhang, Xianzheng; Han, Heyou

    2017-03-28

    Geometrical shape of nanoparticles plays an important role in cellular internalization. However, the applicability in tumor selective therapeutics is still scarcely reported. In this article, we designed a tumor extracellular acidity-responsive chimeric peptide with geometrical shape switch for enhanced tumor internalization and photodynamic therapy. This chimeric peptide could self-assemble into spherical nanoparticles at physiological condition. While at tumor extracellular acidic microenvironment, chimeric peptide underwent detachment of acidity-sensitive 2,3-dimethylmaleic anhydride groups. The subsequent recovery of ionic complementarity between chimeric peptides resulted in formation of rod-like nanoparticles. Both in vitro and in vivo studies demonstrated that this acidity-triggered geometrical shape switch endowed chimeric peptide with accelerated internalization in tumor cells, prolonged accumulation in tumor tissue, enhanced photodynamic therapy, and minimal side effects. Our results suggested that fusing tumor microenvironment with geometrical shape switch should be a promising strategy for targeted drug delivery.

  11. The conjugates of gold nanorods and chlorin e6 for enhancing the fluorescence detection and photodynamic therapy of cancers.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xiao; Tian, Xue-Jiao; Yang, Wu-Li; Ehrenberg, Benjamin; Chen, Ji-Yao

    2013-10-14

    Gold nanorods (AuNRs) were conjugated with chlorin e6 (Ce6), a commonly used photosensitizer, to form AuNRs-Ce6 by electrostatic binding. Due to the strong surface plasmon resonance coupling, the fluorescence of conjugated Ce6 was enhanced 3-fold and the production of singlet oxygen was increased 1.4-fold. AuNRs-Ce6 were taken up by the HeLa and KB cell lines more easily than free Ce6, enhancing the intracellular delivery of Ce6. The increased cellular amount of Ce6 leads to a 3-fold more efficient photodynamic killing of these two cell lines. This demonstrates the potential of this approach to improve photodynamic detection and therapy of cancers.

  12. Inner salt-shaped small molecular photosensitizer with extremely enhanced two-photon absorption for mitochondrial-targeted photodynamic therapy.

    PubMed

    Hu, Wenbo; He, Tingchao; Jiang, Rongcui; Yin, Jun; Li, Lin; Lu, Xiaomei; Zhao, Hui; Zhang, Lei; Huang, Ling; Sun, Handong; Huang, Wei; Fan, Quli

    2017-02-04

    Herein, we experimentally and theoretically demonstrate an unprecedentedly enhanced two-photon absorption in a small organic molecule by a simple introduction of an inner salt-shaped structure. Moreover, such an inner salt-shaped small molecule also exhibits superior singlet oxygen quantum yield and fascinating structure-inherent mitochondrial-targeting ability for highly efficient two-photon photodynamic therapy via a mitochondrial apoptosis pathway.

  13. Enhanced photodynamic therapy efficacy of methylene blue-loaded calcium phosphate nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Seong, Da-Young; Kim, Young-Jin

    2015-05-01

    Although methylene blue (MB) is the most inexpensive photosensitizer with promising applications in the photodynamic therapy (PDT) for its high quantum yield of singlet oxygen generation, the clinical use of MB has been limited by its rapid enzymatic reduction in the biological environment. To enhance PDT efficacy of MB by preventing the enzymatic reduction, we have developed a new mineralization method to produce highly biocompatible MB-loaded calcium phosphate (CaP-MB) nanoparticles in the presence of polymer templates. The resulting CaP-MB nanoparticles exhibited spherical shape with a size of under 50 nm. Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) and zeta-potential analyses confirmed the insertion of MB into the CaP-MB nanoparticles. The encapsulation of MB in CaP nanoparticles could effectively protect MB from the enzymatic reduction. In addition, the CaP-MB nanoparticles exhibited a good biocompatibility in the dark condition and significantly enhanced PDT efficacy due to apoptotic cell death against human breast cancer cells as compared with free MB, implying that CaP-MB nanoparticle system might be potentially applicable in PDT. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Fluorination of phthalocyanine substituents: Improved photoproperties and enhanced photodynamic efficacy after optimal micellar formulations.

    PubMed

    Pucelik, Barbara; Gürol, Ilke; Ahsen, Vefa; Dumoulin, Fabienne; Dąbrowski, Janusz M

    2016-11-29

    A fluorinated phthalocyanine and its non-fluorinated analogue were selected to evaluate the potential enhancement of fluorination on photophysical, photochemical and redox properties as well as on biological activity in cellular and animal models. Due to the pharmacological relevance, the affinity of these phthalocyanines towards biological membranes (logPow) as well as their primary interaction with human serum albumin (HSA) or low-density lipoprotein (LDL) were determined. Water-dispersible drug formulation of phthalocyanines via Pluronic(®)-based triblock copolymer micelles was prepared to avoid self-aggregation effects and to improve their delivery. The obtained results demonstrate that phthalocyanines incorporation into tunable-polymeric micelles significantly enhanced their cellular uptake and their photocytotoxicity. The improved biodistribution and photodynamic efficacy of the phthalocyanines-triblock copolymer conjugates was also confirmed in vivo in CT26 bearing BALB/c mice. PDT with both compounds led to tumor growth inhibition in all treated animals. Fluorinated phthalocyanine 2 turned out to be the most effective anticancer agent as the tumors of 20% of mice treated regressed completely and did not appear for over one year after treatment.

  15. Targeted Multifunctional Nanoparticles cure and image Brain Tumors: Selective MRI Contrast Enhancement and Photodynamic Therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kopelman, Raoul

    2008-03-01

    Aimed at targeted therapy and imaging of brain tumors, our approach uses targeted, multi-functional nano-particles (NP). A typical nano-particle contains a biologically inert, non-toxic matrix, biodegradable and bio-eliminable over a long time period. It also contains active components, such as fluorescent chemical indicators, photo-sensitizers, MRI contrast enhancement agents and optical imaging dyes. In addition, its surface contains molecular targeting units, e.g. peptides or antibodies, as well as a cloaking agent, to prevent uptake by the immune system, i.e. enabling control of the plasma residence time. These dynamic nano-platforms (DNP) contain contrast enhancement agents for the imaging (MRI, optical, photo-acoustic) of targeted locations, i.e. tumors. Added to this are targeted therapy agents, such as photosensitizers for photodynamic therapy (PDT). A simple protocol, for rats implanted with human brain cancer, consists of tail injection with DNPs, followed by 5 min red light illumination of the tumor region. It resulted in excellent cure statistics for 9L glioblastoma.

  16. Enhancement of photodynamic therapy effect by temporally inhibiting infarction with anticoagulant heparin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Liyong; Zhao, Hongyou

    2008-12-01

    Photodynamic Therapy (PDT) is one of the tumor-targeting therapeutics, and has been an established medical practice in recent years. PDT mediates tumor destruction mainly by killing tumor cells directly and damaging the tumor-associated vasculature, also inducing an immune response against tumor cells. For the Photofrin-mediated PDT, Vascular system injury is the predominant destruction that results in vascular collapse and blood plasma leakage, then leading to tumor infarction. However, thrombus formation during PDT may influence the light transmission and oxygen supply. Also some tumor cells not killed by PDT may irritate angiogenesis, causing the tumor recurrence under the condition of hypoxia after PDT. In our work, to prolong coagulation and formation of thrombus, an anticoagulant heparin was employed before the Photofrin-mediated PDT. After being administrated both Photofrin and anticoagulant heparin, the BALB/c mice with the subcutaneous EMT6 mammary carcinomas model were exposed to laser (635nm). And then an enhanced effect was received. Our experiments indicated that its antitumor effect may be attributed to the improvement of the light delivery to the deep part of tumor and oxygen supply for PDT. The results suggested that heparin can be used to enhance the effect of PDT in a solid tumor treatment.

  17. Nuclear transcription factors: a new approach to enhancing cellular responses to ALA-mediated photodynamic therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maytin, Edward V.; Anand, Sanjay; Sato, Nobuyuki; Moore, Brian; Mack, Judith; Gasbarre, Christopher; Keevey, Samantha; Ortel, Bernhard; Sinha, Alok; Khachemoune, Amor

    2006-02-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) using aminolevulinic acid (ALA) relies upon the uptake of ALA into cancer cells, where it is converted into a porphyrin intermediate, protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) that is highly photosensitizing. For large or resistant tumors, however, ALA/PDT is often not completely effective due to inadequate PpIX levels. Therefore, new approaches to enhance the intracellular production of PpIX are sought. Here, we describe a general approach to improve intracellular PpIX accumulation via manipulations that increase the expression of an enzyme, coproporphyrinogen oxidase (CPO), that is rate-determining for PpIX production. We show that nuclear hormones that promote terminal differentiation, e.g. vitamin D or androgens, can also increase the accumulation of PpIX and the amount of killing of the target cells upon exposure to light. These hormones bind to intracellular hormone receptors that translocate to the nucleus, where they act as transcription factors to increase the expression of target genes. We have found that several other transcription factors associated with terminal differentiation, including members of the CCAAT enhancer binding (C/EBP) family, and a homeobox protein named Hoxb13, are also capable of enhancing PpIX accumulation. These latter transcription factors appear to interact directly with the CPO gene promoter, resulting in enhanced CPO transcriptional activity. Our data in several different cell systems, including epithelial cells of the skin and prostate cancer cells, indicate that enhancement of CPO expression and PpIX accumulation represents a viable new approach toward improving the efficacy of ALA/PDT.

  18. Self-Monitoring Artificial Red Cells with Sufficient Oxygen Supply for Enhanced Photodynamic Therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Zhenyu; Zheng, Mingbin; Zhao, Pengfei; Chen, Ze; Siu, Fungming; Gong, Ping; Gao, Guanhui; Sheng, Zonghai; Zheng, Cuifang; Ma, Yifan; Cai, Lintao

    2016-03-01

    Photodynamic therapy has been increasingly applied in clinical cancer treatments. However, native hypoxic tumoural microenvironment and lacking oxygen supply are the major barriers hindering photodynamic reactions. To solve this problem, we have developed biomimetic artificial red cells by loading complexes of oxygen-carrier (hemoglobin) and photosensitizer (indocyanine green) for boosted photodynamic strategy. Such nanosystem provides a coupling structure with stable self-oxygen supply and acting as an ideal fluorescent/photoacoustic imaging probe, dynamically monitoring the nanoparticle biodistribution and the treatment of PDT. Upon exposure to near-infrared laser, the remote-triggered photosensitizer generates massive cytotoxic reactive oxygen species (ROS) with sufficient oxygen supply. Importantly, hemoglobin is simultaneously oxidized into the more active and resident ferryl-hemoglobin leading to persistent cytotoxicity. ROS and ferryl-hemoglobin synergistically trigger the oxidative damage of xenograft tumour resulting in complete suppression. The artificial red cells with self-monitoring and boosted photodynamic efficacy could serve as a versatile theranostic platform.

  19. Combining vascular and cellular targeting regimens enhances the efficacy of photodynamic therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Chen Bin; Pogue, Brian W. . E-mail: pogue@dartmouth.edu; Hoopes, P. Jack; Hasan, Tayyaba

    2005-03-15

    Purpose: Photodynamic therapy (PDT) can be designed to target either tumor vasculature or tumor cells by varying the drug-light interval. Photodynamic therapy treatments with different drug-light intervals can be combined to increase tumor response by targeting both tumor vasculature and tumor cells. The sequence of photosensitizer and light delivery can influence the effect of combined treatments. Methods and materials: The R3327-MatLyLu rat prostate tumor model was used in this study. Photosensitizer verteporfin distribution was quantified by fluorescence microscopy. Tumor blood flow changes were monitored by laser-Doppler system and tumor hypoxia was quantified by the immunohistochemical staining for the hypoxic marker EF5. The therapeutic effects of PDT treatments were evaluated by the histologic examination and tumor regrowth assay. Results: Fluorescence microscopic studies indicated that tumor localization of verteporfin changed from predominantly within the tumor vasculature at 15 min after injection, to being throughout the tumor parenchyma at 3 h after injection. Light treatment (50 J/cm{sup 2}) at 15 min after verteporfin injection (0.25 mg/kg, i.v.) induced significant tumor vascular damage, as manifested by tumor blood flow reduction and increase in the tumor hypoxic fraction. In contrast, the vascular effect observed after the same light dose (50 J/cm{sup 2}) delivered 3 h after administration of verteporfin (1 mg/kg, i.v.) was an initial acute decrease in blood flow, followed by recovery to the level of control. The EF5 staining revealed no significant increase in hypoxic fraction at 1 h after PDT using 3 h drug-light interval. The combination of 3-h interval PDT and 15-min interval PDT was more effective in inhibiting tumor growth than each individual PDT treatment. However, it was found that the combined treatment with the sequence of 3-h interval PDT before 15-min interval PDT led to a superior antitumor effect than the other combinative PDT

  20. Selenium enhances the efficacy of Radachlorin mediated-photodynamic therapy in cervical cancer model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bae, Dong Han; Wen, Lan Ying; Bae, Su Mi; Kang, Uk; Kim, Keun Hee; Jheon, Sang Hoon; Lee, Jeong Sang; Ahn, Woong Shick

    2009-06-01

    Selenium, an essential trace element possessing anti-carcinogenic properties, can induce apoptosis in cancer cells. Our goal was to investigate the enhanced anti-tumor effects of photodynamic therapy (PDT) plus selenium in TC-1 tumor cells implanted into mice. The MTT assay and tumor growth inhibition study were evaluated at various time intervals after the PDT plus a various dose of selenium. Following Radachlorin injections after 3 hr, the mice were then administrated selenium (2ug/kg b.w.) and then, tumors were treated with external light treatment (300 J/cm2). The selenium was administered daily for 20 days. PDT or selenium was found to be more compared to control groups. Moreover, the PDT combined with selenium demonstrated a significant suppression of tumor growth in vitro and in vivo. The tumor growth by the PDT combined with selenium was significantly reduced. These data suggest that selenium plus PDT can induce a significant tumor suppression response compared with PDT alone. Also, it can be an effective approach to induce anti-cancer therapy strategy.

  1. Enhanced 5-aminolevulinic acid-gold nanoparticle conjugate-based photodynamic therapy using pulse laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Hao; Yao, Cuiping; Wang, Jing; Chang, Zhennan; Zhang, Zhenxi

    2016-02-01

    The low bioavailability is a crucial limitation for the application of 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) in theranostics. In this research, 5-aminolevulinic acid and gold nanoparticle conjugates (ALA-GNPs) were synthesized to improve the bioavailability of ALA and to investigate the impact of ALA photodynamic therapy (ALA-PDT) in Hela cells. A 532 nm pulse laser and light-emitting diode (central wavelengths 502 nm) were jointly used as light sources in PDT research. The results show a 532 nm pulse laser can control ALA release from ALA-GNPs by adjusting the pulse laser dose. This laser control release may be attributed to the heat generation from GNPs under pulse laser irradiation, which indicates accurately adjusting the pulse laser dose to control the drug release in the cell interior can be considered as a new cellular surgery modality. Furthermore, the PDT results in Hela cells indicate the enhancement of ALA release by pulse laser before PDT can promote the efficacy of cell eradication in the light-emitting diode PDT (LED-PDT). This laser mediated drug release system can provide a new online therapy approach in PDT and it can be utilized in the optical monitor technologies based individual theranostics.

  2. Troglitazone Enhances the Apoptotic Response of DLD-1 Colon Cancer Cells to Photodynamic Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Park, Hyunju; Ko, Si-Hwan; Lee, Jae Myun; Park, Jeon Han

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The aim of this study was to investigate whether the peroxisomal proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) ligand troglitazone in combination with photodynamic therapy (PDT) enhances the apoptotic response of DLD-1 colon cancer cells. Materials and Methods The effects of troglitazone, PDT, and troglitazone in combination with PDT on cell viability and apoptosis were assessed in DLD-1 cells. Cell viability and proliferation were evaluated using the tetrazolium-based MTT assay, and apoptosis was evaluated via cell staining with propidium iodide (PI) and annexin V-FITC. The levels of pro-caspase-3 were measured via Western blot analyses. Results Treatment of troglitazone and PDT induced the growth retardation and cell death of DLD-1 cells in a dose-dependent manner, respectively. The combination treatment significantly suppressed cell growth and increased the apoptotic response of DLD-1 and resulted in apoptosis rather than necrosis, as shown by PI/annexin V staining and degradation of procaspase-3. Conclusion Conclusion: These results document the anti-proliferative and apoptotic activities of PDT in combination with the PPARγ ligand troglitazone and provide a strong rationale for testing the therapeutic potential of combination treatment in colon cancer. PMID:27593880

  3. Photodynamic and Nail Penetration Enhancing Effects of Novel Multifunctional Photosensitizers Designed for The Treatment of Onychomycosis.

    PubMed

    Smijs, Threes; Dame, Zoë; de Haas, Ellen; Aans, Jan-Bonne; Pavel, Stan; Sterenborg, Henricus

    2014-01-01

    Novel multifunctional photosensitizers (MFPSs), 5,10,15-tris(4-N-methylpyridinium)-20-(4-phenylthio)-[21H,23H]-porphine trichloride (PORTH) and 5,10,15-tris(4-N-methylpyridinium)-20-(4-(butyramido-methylcysteinyl)-hydroxyphenyl)-[21H,23H]-porphine trichloride (PORTHE), derived from 5,10,15-Tris(4-methylpyridinium)-20-phenyl-[21H,23H]-porphine trichloride (Sylsens B) and designed for treatment of onychomycosis were characterized and their functionality evaluated. MFPSs should function as nail penetration enhancer and as photosensitizer for photodynamic treatment (PDT) of onychomycosis. Spectrophotometry was used to characterize MFPSs with and without 532 nm continuous-wave 5 mW cm(-2) laser light (± argon/mannitol/NaN3 ). Nail penetration enhancement was screened (pH 5, pH 8) using water uptake in nails and fluorescence microscopy. PDT efficacy was tested (pH 5, ± argon/mannitol/NaN3 ) in vitro with Trichophyton mentagrophytus microconida (532 nm, 5 mW cm(-2) ). A light-dependent absorbance decrease and fluorescence increase were found, PORTH being less photostable. Argon and mannitol increased PORTH and PORTHE photostability; NaN3 had no effect. PDT (0.6 J cm(-2) , 2 μm) showed 4.6 log kill for PORTH, 4.4 for Sylsens B and 3.2 for PORTHE (4.1 for 10 μm). Argon increased PORTHE, but decreased PORTH PDT efficacy; NaN3 increased PDT effect of both MFPSs whereas mannitol increased PDT effect of PORTHE only. Similar penetration enhancement effects were observed for PORTH (pH 5 and 8) and PORTHE (pH 8). PORTHE is more photostable, effective under low oxygen conditions and thus realistic candidate for onychomycosis PDT.

  4. Hyperoxygenation enhances the direct tumor cell killing of photofrin-mediated photodynamic therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Zheng; Chen, Qun; Shakil, Abdus; Chen, Hua; Beckers, Jill; Shapiro, Howard; Hetzel, Fred W.

    2003-06-01

    Tumor hypoxia, either pre-existing or as a result of oxygen bleaching during Photodynamic Therapy (PDT) light irradiation, can significantly reduce the effectiveness of PDT induced cell killing. To overcome the effect of tumor hypoxia and improve tumor cell killing, we propose using supplemental hyperoxygenation during Photofrin PDT. Our previous study has demonstrated that, in an in vivo model, tumor control can be improved by normobaric or hyperbaric 100% oxygen supply. The mechanism for the tumor cure enhancement of the hyperoxygenation-PDT combined therapy is investigated in this study by using an in vivo/in vitro technique. A hypoxic tumor model was established by implanting mammary adenocarcinoma (MCA) in hind legs of C3H mice. Light irradiation (200 J/cm2 at either 75 or 150 mW/cm2), under various oxygen supplemental conditions (room air or carbogen or 100% normobaric or hyperbaric 100% oxygen), was delivered through an optical fiber with a microlens to animals who received 12.5 mg/kg Photofrin 24 hours prior to light irradiation. Tumors treated with PDT were harvested and grown in vitro for colony formation analysis. Treated tumors were also analyzed histologically. The results show that, when combined with hyperoxygenation, the cell killing rate immediately after a PDT treatment is significantly improved over that treated without hyperoxygenation, suggesting an enhanced direct cell killing. This study further confirms our earlier observation that when a PDT treatment is combined with hyperoxygenation, it can be more effective in controlling hypoxic tumors. H&E stain revealed that PDT induced tumor necrosis and hemorrhage. In conclusion, by using an in vivo/in vitro assay, we have shown that PDT combined with hyper-oxygenation can enhance direct cell killing and improve tumor cure.

  5. Design of Pluronic-Based Formulation for Enhanced Redaporfin-Photodynamic Therapy against Pigmented Melanoma.

    PubMed

    Pucelik, Barbara; Arnaut, Luis G; Stochel, Grażyna; Dąbrowski, Janusz M

    2016-08-31

    The therapeutic outcome of photodynamic therapy (PDT) with redaporfin (a fluorinated sulfonamide bacteriochlorin, F2BMet or LUZ11) was improved using Pluronic-based (P123, F127) formulations. Neither redaporfin encapsulated in Pluronic nor micelles alone exhibited cytotoxicity in a broad concentration range. Comprehensive in vitro studies against B16F10 melanoma cells showed that redaporfin-P123 micelles enhanced cellular uptake and increased oxidative stress compared with redaporfin-F127 or photosensitizer alone after short incubation times. ROS-sensitive fluorescent probes showed that the increased oxidative stress is due, at least in part, to a more efficient formation of hydroxyl radicals, and causes strong light-dose dependent apoptosis and necrosis. Tissue distribution and pharmacokinetic studies in tumor-bearing mice show that the Pluronic P123 formulation of redaporfin increases its bioavailability as well as the tumor-to-muscle and tumor-to-skin ratios, in comparison with Cremophor EL and Pluronic F127 formulations. Redaporfin in P123 was most successful in the PDT of C57BL/6J mice bearing subcutaneously implanted B16F10 melanoma tumors. Vascular-targeted PDT combining 1.5 mg kg(-1) redaporfin in P123 with a light dose of 74 J cm(-2) led to 100% complete cures (i.e., no tumor regrowth over one year post-treatment). This remarkable result reveals that modification of redaporfin with Pluronic block copolymers overcomes the resistance of melanoma cells to PDT possibly via increased tumor selectivity and enhanced ROS generation.

  6. Vitamin D enhances the efficacy of photodynamic therapy in a murine model of breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Rollakanti, Kishore R; Anand, Sanjay; Maytin, Edward V

    2015-01-01

    Cutaneous metastasis occurs more frequently in breast cancer than in any other malignancy in women, causing significant morbidity. Photodynamic therapy (PDT), which combines a porphyrin-based photosensitizer and activation by light, can be employed for breast cancer (especially cutaneous metastases) but tumor control after PDT has not surpassed traditional treatments methods such as surgery, radiation, and chemotherapy up to now. Here, we report that breast cancer nodules in mice can be effectively treated by preconditioning the tumors with 1α, 25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (calcitriol; Vit D) prior to administering 5-aminolevulinate (ALA)-based PDT. Breast carcinoma tumors (MDA-MB-231 cells implanted subcutaneously in nude mice) received systemic Vit D (1 μg/kg) for 3 days prior to receiving ALA. The addition of Vit D increased intratumoral accumulation of protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) by 3.3 ± 0.5-fold, relative to mice receiving ALA alone. Bioluminescence imaging in vivo and immunohistochemical staining confirmed that tumor-specific cell death after ALA-PDT was markedly enhanced (36.8 ± 7.4-fold increase in TUNEL-positive nuclei; radiance decreased to 14% of control) in Vit D pretreated tumors as compared to vehicle-pretreated tumors. Vit D stimulated proliferation (10.7 ± 2.8-fold) and differentiation (9.62 ± 1.7-fold) in tumor cells, underlying an augmented cellular sensitivity to ALA-PDT. The observed enhancement of tumor responses to ALA-PDT after low, nontoxic doses of Vit D supports a new combination approach that deserves consideration in the clinical setting, and offers potential for improved remission of cutaneous breast cancer metastases. PMID:25712788

  7. Enhanced singlet oxygen production by photodynamic therapy and a novel method for its intracellular measurement.

    PubMed

    Pena Luengas, Sandra L; Marin, Gustavo Horacio; Aviles, Kevin; Cruz Acuña, Ricardo; Roque, Gustavo; Rodríguez Nieto, Felipe; Sanchez, Francisco; Tarditi, Adrián; Rivera, Luis; Mansilla, Eduardo

    2014-12-01

    The generation of singlet oxygen (SO) in the presence of specific photosensitizers (PSs) or semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) and its application in photodynamic therapy (PDT) is of great interest to develop cancer therapies with no need of surgery, chemotherapy, and/or radiotherapy. This work was focused on the identification of the main factors leading to the enhancement of SO production using Rose Bengal (RB), and Methylene Blue (MB) as PS species in organic and aqueous mediums. Subsequently, the capacity of zinc oxide (ZnO), zinc sulfide (ZnS), and ZnO/ZnS core-shell QDs as well as manganese (Mn(+2)) doped ZnO and ZnS nanoparticles (NPs) as potential PS was also investigated. Many variable parameters such as type of quencher, PSs, NPs, as well as its different concentrations, light source, excitation wavelength, reaction time, distance from light source, and nature of solvent were used. The degradation kinetics of the quenchers generated by SO species and the corresponding quantum yields were determined by monitoring the photo-oxidation of the chemical quencher and measuring its disappearance by fluorometry and spectrophotometry in the presence of NPs. Small intracellular changes of SO induced by these metal Zn (zinc) NPs and PDT could execute and accelerate deadly programs in these leukemic cells, providing in this way an innovative modality of treatment. In order to perform further more specific in vitro cytotoxic studies on B-chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells exposed to Zn NPs and PDT, we needed first to measure and ascertain those possible intracellular SO variations generated by this type of treatment; for this purpose, we have also developed and tested a novel method first described by us.

  8. Enhanced Singlet Oxygen Production by Photodynamic Therapy and a Novel Method for Its Intracellular Measurement

    PubMed Central

    Marin, Gustavo Horacio; Aviles, Kevin; Acuña, Ricardo Cruz; Roque, Gustavo; Nieto, Felipe Rodríguez; Sanchez, Francisco; Tarditi, Adrián; Rivera, Luis; Mansilla, Eduardo

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The generation of singlet oxygen (SO) in the presence of specific photosensitizers (PSs) or semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) and its application in photodynamic therapy (PDT) is of great interest to develop cancer therapies with no need of surgery, chemotherapy, and/or radiotherapy. This work was focused on the identification of the main factors leading to the enhancement of SO production using Rose Bengal (RB), and Methylene Blue (MB) as PS species in organic and aqueous mediums. Subsequently, the capacity of zinc oxide (ZnO), zinc sulfide (ZnS), and ZnO/ZnS core-shell QDs as well as manganese (Mn+2) doped ZnO and ZnS nanoparticles (NPs) as potential PS was also investigated. Many variable parameters such as type of quencher, PSs, NPs, as well as its different concentrations, light source, excitation wavelength, reaction time, distance from light source, and nature of solvent were used. The degradation kinetics of the quenchers generated by SO species and the corresponding quantum yields were determined by monitoring the photo-oxidation of the chemical quencher and measuring its disappearance by fluorometry and spectrophotometry in the presence of NPs. Small intracellular changes of SO induced by these metal Zn (zinc) NPs and PDT could execute and accelerate deadly programs in these leukemic cells, providing in this way an innovative modality of treatment. In order to perform further more specific in vitro cytotoxic studies on B-chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells exposed to Zn NPs and PDT, we needed first to measure and ascertain those possible intracellular SO variations generated by this type of treatment; for this purpose, we have also developed and tested a novel method first described by us. PMID:25490599

  9. Enhancing the efficiency of 5-aminolevulinic acid-mediated photodynamic therapy using 5-fluorouracil on human melanoma cells.

    PubMed

    Tahmasebi, Hadis; Khoshgard, Karim; Sazgarnia, Ameneh; Mostafaie, Ali; Eivazi, Mohammad Taghi

    2016-03-01

    5-Aminolevulinic acid-mediated photodynamic therapy (ALA-PDT) is an effective and noninvasive modality for treatment of several types of non-melanoma skin cancers. This in-vitro study attempted to know whether the killing effect of ALA-PDT on the human melanoma cells (Mel-Rm cell line) could be increased by the presence of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU). To evaluate the effect of ALA-PDT in combination with 5-FU on viability of human melanoma Mel-Rm cells, the cells incubated with 5-ALA and 5-FU for 3h in nontoxic concentrations, and subsequently illuminated with a 630 nm light-emitting diode array. The cells viability and cytotoxicity determined by mitochondrial activity and lactate dehydrogenase assays. Combination of ALA-PDT and 5-FU (FU-ALA-PDT) showed a considerable growth inhibition according to the results of MTT assay compared to ALA-PDT. The results of LDH assay also showed a cytotoxicity effect in ALA-PDT; however, the FU-ALA-PDT showed no significantly enhancement in cytotoxicity compared to ALA-PDT using LDH assay. The Mel-Rm cells incubation with 5-FU before PDT enhances the efficiency of 5-Aminolevulinic acid-mediated photodynamic therapy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Mitochondria-Targeted Photodynamic Therapy with a Galactodendritic Chlorin to Enhance Cell Death in Resistant Bladder Cancer Cells.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Patrícia M R; Silva, Sandrina; Bispo, Mafalda; Zuzarte, Mónica; Gomes, Célia; Girão, Henrique; Cavaleiro, José A S; Ribeiro, Carlos A F; Tomé, João P C; Fernandes, Rosa

    2016-11-16

    Here, we report the rational design of a new third-generation photosensitizer (PS), a chlorin conjugated with galactodendritic units, ChlGal8, to improve the effectiveness of bladder cancer treatment. ChlGal8 shows better photochemical and photophysical properties than a recently reported homologous porphyrin, PorGal8. In addition to inheriting excellent photostability, the ability to generate singlet oxygen, and the ability to interact with the proteins galectin-1 and human serum albumin (HSA), ChlGal8 exhibits high absorption in the red region of the electromagnetic spectrum. In vitro studies of anticancer activity of ChlGal8 revealed that once this PS is taken up by UM-UC-3 bladder cancer cells, it induces high cytotoxicity after a single dose of light irradiation. In HT-1376 bladder cancer cells resistant to therapy, a second light irradiation treatment enhanced in vitro and in vivo photodynamic efficacy. The enhanced phototoxicity in HT-1376 cancer cells seems to be due to the ability of ChlGal8 to accumulate in the mitochondria, via facilitative glucose transporter 1 (GLUT1), in the period between single and repeated irradiation. A photodynamic therapy (PDT) regimen using an extra dose of light irradiation and ChlGal8 as PS represents a promising strategy in treating resistant cancers in a clinical setting.

  11. Enhancing photodynamic therapy of a metastatic mouse breast cancer by immune stimulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castano, Ana P.; Hamblin, Michael R.

    2006-02-01

    One in 8 women in the United States will develop breast cancer during her lifetime and 40,000 die each year. Deaths are due to tumors that have metastasized despite local control. Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a promising cancer treatment in which a photosensitizer (PS) accumulates in tumors and is subsequently activated by visible light of an appropriate wavelength. The energy of the light is transferred to molecular oxygen to produce reactive oxygen species that produce cell death and tumor ablation. Mechanisms include cytotoxicity to tumor cells, shutting down of the tumor vasculature, and the induction of a host immune response. The precise mechanisms involved in the PDT-mediated induction of anti-tumor immunity are not yet understood. Potential contributing factors are alterations in the tumor microenvironment via stimulation of proinflammatory cytokines and direct effects of PDT on the tumor that increase immunogenicity. We have studied PDT of 410.4 variant 4T1 tumors growing in the mammary fat pad (orthotopic) in Balb/c mice and which produce metastasis. We have shown that a PDT regimen that produces vascular shutdown and tumor necrosis leads to initial tumor ablation but the tumors recur at the periphery. We studied the combination of PDT with immunostimulating therapies. Low dose cyclophosphamide (CY) is a specific mechanism to deplete the regulatory T cells (CD4+CD25+), these cells play an important role in the immunosuppression activity of tumors. In combination with PDT that produces release of tumor specific antigens, this immunostimulation may lead to generation of cytotoxic CD8 T-lymphocytes that recognize and destroy the tumor. The second alternative therapy is the use of a novel combination of the immunostimulant CpG oligodeoxynucleotides (CpG-ODN) and PDT. CpG-ODN is recognized by Toll-like receptor 9 and directly or indirectly triggers B cells, NK cells, monocyte-macrophages and dendritic cells to proliferate, mature and secrete cytokines

  12. Visible light-induced singlet oxygen-mediated intracellular disassembly of polymeric micelles co-loaded with a photosensitizer and an anticancer drug for enhanced photodynamic therapy.

    PubMed

    Saravanakumar, Gurusamy; Lee, Junseok; Kim, Jihoon; Kim, Won Jong

    2015-06-21

    Herein, we report a biocompatible amphiphilic block copolymer micelle bearing a singlet oxygen-sensitive vinyldithioether cleavable linker at the core-shell junction, which undergoes singlet oxygen-mediated photocleavage in the presence of visible light. The micelle facilitates the light-responsive release of singlet oxygen and an anticancer drug for enhanced photodynamic therapy.

  13. Enhanced photodynamic leishmanicidal activity of hydrophobic zinc phthalocyanine within archaeolipids containing liposomes

    PubMed Central

    Perez, Ana Paula; Casasco, Agustina; Schilrreff, Priscila; Defain Tesoriero, Maria Victoria; Duempelmann, Luc; Altube, Maria Julia; Higa, Leticia; Morilla, Maria Jose; Petray, Patricia; Romero, Eder L

    2014-01-01

    In this work, the in vitro anti-Leishmania activity of photodynamic liposomes made of soybean phosphatidylcholine, sodium cholate, total polar archaeolipids (TPAs) extracted from the hyperhalophile archaea Halorubrum tebenquichense and the photosensitizer zinc phthalocyanine (ZnPcAL) was compared to that of ultradeformable photodynamic liposomes lacking TPAs (ZnPcUDLs). We found that while ZnPcUDLs and ZnPcALs (130 nm mean diameter and −35 mV zeta potential) were innocuous against promastigotes, a low concentration (0.01 μM ZnPc and 7.6 μM phospholipids) of ZnPcALs irradiated at a very low-energy density (0.2 J/cm2) eliminated L. braziliensis amastigotes from J774 macrophages, without reducing the viability of the host cells. In such conditions, ZnPcALs were harmless for J774 macrophages, HaCaT keratinocytes, and bone marrow-derived dendritic cells. Therefore, topical photodynamic treatment would not likely affect skin-associated lymphoid tissue. ZnPcALs were extensively captured by macrophages, but ZnPcUDLs were not, leading to 2.5-fold increased intracellular delivery of ZnPc than with ZnPcUDLs. Despite mediating low levels of reactive oxygen species, the higher delivery of ZnPc and the multiple (caveolin- and clathrin-dependent plus phagocytic) intracellular pathway followed by ZnPc would have been the reason for the higher antiamastigote activity of ZnPcALs. The leishmanicidal activity of photodynamic liposomal ZnPc was improved by TPA-containing liposomes. PMID:25045264

  14. Enhanced photodynamic leishmanicidal activity of hydrophobic zinc phthalocyanine within archaeolipids containing liposomes.

    PubMed

    Perez, Ana Paula; Casasco, Agustina; Schilrreff, Priscila; Tesoriero, Maria Victoria Defain; Duempelmann, Luc; Pappalardo, Juan Sebastián; Altube, Maria Julia; Higa, Leticia; Morilla, Maria Jose; Petray, Patricia; Romero, Eder L

    2014-01-01

    In this work, the in vitro anti-Leishmania activity of photodynamic liposomes made of soybean phosphatidylcholine, sodium cholate, total polar archaeolipids (TPAs) extracted from the hyperhalophile archaea Halorubrum tebenquichense and the photosensitizer zinc phthalocyanine (ZnPcAL) was compared to that of ultradeformable photodynamic liposomes lacking TPAs (ZnPcUDLs). We found that while ZnPcUDLs and ZnPcALs (130 nm mean diameter and -35 mV zeta potential) were innocuous against promastigotes, a low concentration (0.01 μM ZnPc and 7.6 μM phospholipids) of ZnPcALs irradiated at a very low-energy density (0.2 J/cm(2)) eliminated L. braziliensis amastigotes from J774 macrophages, without reducing the viability of the host cells. In such conditions, ZnPcALs were harmless for J774 macrophages, HaCaT keratinocytes, and bone marrow-derived dendritic cells. Therefore, topical photodynamic treatment would not likely affect skin-associated lymphoid tissue. ZnPcALs were extensively captured by macrophages, but ZnPcUDLs were not, leading to 2.5-fold increased intracellular delivery of ZnPc than with ZnPcUDLs. Despite mediating low levels of reactive oxygen species, the higher delivery of ZnPc and the multiple (caveolin- and clathrin-dependent plus phagocytic) intracellular pathway followed by ZnPc would have been the reason for the higher antiamastigote activity of ZnPcALs. The leishmanicidal activity of photodynamic liposomal ZnPc was improved by TPA-containing liposomes.

  15. Breast cancer as photodynamic therapy target: Enhanced therapeutic efficiency by overview of tumor complexity.

    PubMed

    Lamberti, María Julia; Vittar, Natalia Belén Rumie; Rivarola, Viviana Alicia

    2014-12-10

    Photodynamic therapy is a minimally invasive and clinically approved procedure for eliminating selected malignant cells with specific light activation of a photosensitizer agent. Whereas interstitial and intra-operative approaches have been investigated for the ablation of a broad range of superficial or bulky solid tumors such as breast cancer, the majority of approved photodynamic therapy protocols are for the treatment of superficial lesions of skin and luminal organs. This review article will discuss recent progress in research focused mainly on assessing the efficacies of various photosensitizers used in photodynamic therapy, as well as the combinatory strategies of various therapeutic modalities for improving treatments of parenchymal and/or stromal tissues of breast cancer solid tumors. Cytotoxic agents are used in cancer treatments for their effect on rapidly proliferating cancer cells. However, such therapeutics often lack specificity, which can lead to toxicity and undesirable side effects. Many approaches are designed to target tumors. Selective therapies can be established by focusing on distinctive intracellular (receptors, apoptotic pathways, multidrug resistance system, nitric oxide-mediated stress) and environmental (glucose, pH) differences between tumor and healthy tissue. A rational design of effective combination regimens for breast cancer treatment involves a better understanding of the mechanisms and molecular interactions of cytotoxic agents that underlie drug resistance and sensitivity.

  16. Breast cancer as photodynamic therapy target: Enhanced therapeutic efficiency by overview of tumor complexity

    PubMed Central

    Lamberti, María Julia; Vittar, Natalia Belén Rumie; Rivarola, Viviana Alicia

    2014-01-01

    Photodynamic therapy is a minimally invasive and clinically approved procedure for eliminating selected malignant cells with specific light activation of a photosensitizer agent. Whereas interstitial and intra-operative approaches have been investigated for the ablation of a broad range of superficial or bulky solid tumors such as breast cancer, the majority of approved photodynamic therapy protocols are for the treatment of superficial lesions of skin and luminal organs. This review article will discuss recent progress in research focused mainly on assessing the efficacies of various photosensitizers used in photodynamic therapy, as well as the combinatory strategies of various therapeutic modalities for improving treatments of parenchymal and/or stromal tissues of breast cancer solid tumors. Cytotoxic agents are used in cancer treatments for their effect on rapidly proliferating cancer cells. However, such therapeutics often lack specificity, which can lead to toxicity and undesirable side effects. Many approaches are designed to target tumors. Selective therapies can be established by focusing on distinctive intracellular (receptors, apoptotic pathways, multidrug resistance system, nitric oxide-mediated stress) and environmental (glucose, pH) differences between tumor and healthy tissue. A rational design of effective combination regimens for breast cancer treatment involves a better understanding of the mechanisms and molecular interactions of cytotoxic agents that underlie drug resistance and sensitivity. PMID:25493228

  17. Gold nanoparticles enhance methylene blue–induced photodynamic therapy: a novel therapeutic approach to inhibit Candida albicans biofilm

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Shakir; Alam, Fahad; Azam, Ameer; Khan, Asad U

    2012-01-01

    This article explores the novel gold nanoparticle–enhanced photodynamic therapy of methylene blue against recalcitrant pathogenic Candida albicans biofilm. Physiochemical (X-ray diffraction, ultraviolet-visible absorption, photon cross-correlation, FTIR, and fluorescence spectroscopy) and electron microscopy techniques were used to characterize gold nanoparticles as well as gold nanoparticle–methylene blue conjugate. A 38.2-J/cm2 energy density of 660-nm diode laser was applied for activation of gold nanoparticle–methylene blue conjugate and methylene blue against C. albicans biofilm and cells. Antibiofilm assays, confocal laser scanning, and electron microscopy were used to investigate the effects of the conjugate. Physical characteristics of the gold nanoparticles (21 ± 2.5 nm and 0.2 mg/mL) and methylene blue (20 μg/mL) conjugation were confirmed by physicochemical and electron microscopy techniques. Antibiofilm assays and microscopic studies showed significant reduction of biofilm and adverse effect against Candida cells in the presence of conjugate. Fluorescence spectroscopic study confirmed type I photo toxicity against biofilm. Gold nanoparticle conjugate–mediated photodynamic therapy may be used against nosocomially acquired refractory Candida albicans biofilm. PMID:22802686

  18. Gold nanoparticles enhance methylene blue-induced photodynamic therapy: a novel therapeutic approach to inhibit Candida albicans biofilm.

    PubMed

    Khan, Shakir; Alam, Fahad; Azam, Ameer; Khan, Asad U

    2012-01-01

    This article explores the novel gold nanoparticle-enhanced photodynamic therapy of methylene blue against recalcitrant pathogenic Candida albicans biofilm. Physiochemical (X-ray diffraction, ultraviolet-visible absorption, photon cross-correlation, FTIR, and fluorescence spectroscopy) and electron microscopy techniques were used to characterize gold nanoparticles as well as gold nanoparticle-methylene blue conjugate. A 38.2-J/cm(2) energy density of 660-nm diode laser was applied for activation of gold nanoparticle-methylene blue conjugate and methylene blue against C. albicans biofilm and cells. Antibiofilm assays, confocal laser scanning, and electron microscopy were used to investigate the effects of the conjugate. Physical characteristics of the gold nanoparticles (21 ± 2.5 nm and 0.2 mg/mL) and methylene blue (20 μg/mL) conjugation were confirmed by physicochemical and electron microscopy techniques. Antibiofilm assays and microscopic studies showed significant reduction of biofilm and adverse effect against Candida cells in the presence of conjugate. Fluorescence spectroscopic study confirmed type I photo toxicity against biofilm. Gold nanoparticle conjugate-mediated photodynamic therapy may be used against nosocomially acquired refractory Candida albicans biofilm.

  19. Her2 oncogene transformation enhances 5-aminolevulinic acid-mediated protoporphyrin IX production and photodynamic therapy response

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Xue; Palasuberniam, Pratheeba; Myers, Kenneth A.; Wang, Chenguang; Chen, Bin

    2016-01-01

    Enhanced protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) production in tumors derived from the administration of 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) enables the use of ALA as a prodrug for photodynamic therapy (PDT) and fluorescence-guided tumor resection. Although ALA has been successfully used in the clinic, the mechanism underlying enhanced ALA-induced PpIX production in tumors is not well understood. Human epidermal growth receptor 2 (Her2, Neu, ErbB2) is a driver oncogene in human cancers, particularly breast cancers. Here we showed that, in addition to activating Her2/Neu cell signaling, inducing epithelial-mesenchymal transition and upregulating glycolytic enzymes, transfection of NeuT (a mutated Her2/Neu) oncogene in MCF10A human breast epithelial cells significantly enhanced ALA-induced PpIX fluorescence by elevating some enzymes involved in PpIX biosynthesis. Furthermore, NeuT-transformed and vector control cells exhibited drastic differences in the intracellular localization of PpIX, either produced endogenously from ALA or applied exogenously. In vector control cells, PpIX displayed a cell contact-dependent membrane localization at high cell densities and increased mitochondrial localization at low cell densities. In contrast, no predominant membrane localization of PpIX was observed in NeuT cells and ALA-induced PpIX showed a consistent mitochondrial localization regardless of cell density. PDT with ALA caused significantly more decrease in cell viability in NeuT cells than in vector cells. Our data demonstrate that NeuT oncogene transformation enhanced ALA-induced PpIX production and altered PpIX intracellular localization, rendering NeuT-transformed cells increased response to ALA-mediated PDT. These results support the use of ALA for imaging and photodynamic targeting Her2/Neu-positive tumors. PMID:27527860

  20. Enhanced apoptotic cancer cell killing after Foscan photodynamic therapy combined with fenretinide via de novo sphingolipid biosynthesis pathway.

    PubMed

    Boppana, Nithin B; DeLor, Jeremy S; Van Buren, Eric; Bielawska, Alicja; Bielawski, Jacek; Pierce, Jason S; Korbelik, Mladen; Separovic, Duska

    2016-06-01

    We and others have shown that stresses, including photodynamic therapy (PDT), can disrupt the de novo sphingolipid biosynthesis pathway, leading to changes in the levels of sphingolipids, and subsequently, modulation of cell death. The de novo sphingolipid biosynthesis pathway includes a ceramide synthase-dependent reaction, giving rise to dihydroceramide, which is then converted in a desaturase-dependent reaction to ceramide. In this study we tested the hypothesis that combining Foscan-mediated PDT with desaturase inhibitor fenretinide (HPR) enhances cancer cell killing. We discovered that by subjecting SCC19 cells, a human head and neck squamous cell carcinoma cell line, to PDT+HPR resulted in enhanced accumulation of C16-dihydroceramide, not ceramide. Concomitantly, mitochondrial depolarization was enhanced by the combined treatment. Enhanced activation of caspase-3 after PDT+HPR was inhibited by FB. Enhanced clonogenic cell death after the combination was sensitive to FB, as well as Bcl2- and caspase inhibitors. Treatment of mouse SCCVII squamous cell carcinoma tumors with PDT+HPR resulted in improved long-term tumor cures. Overall, our data showed that combining PDT with HPR enhanced apoptotic cancer cell killing and antitumor efficacy of PDT. The data suggest the involvement of the de novo sphingolipid biosynthesis pathway in enhanced apoptotic cell killing after PDT+HPR, and identify the combination as a novel more effective anticancer treatment than either treatment alone. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Photodynamic antitumor agents: beta-methoxyethyl groups give access to functionalized porphycenes and enhance cellular uptake and activity.

    PubMed

    Richert, C; Wessels, J M; Müller, M; Kisters, M; Benninghaus, T; Goetz, A E

    1994-08-19

    Porphycene photosensitizers bearing two or four methoxyethyl side chains were synthesized in nine steps from commercially available starting materials. Ether cleavage led to (hydroxyethyl)- and (bromoethyl)porphycenes that were converted to vinyl and benzo derivatives. Five of the side chain-functionalized porphycenes were biologically studied in comparison with two tetra-n-propylporphycenes. Porphycenes were incorporated in small unilamellar liposomes and incubated with cultivated SSK2 murine fibrosarcoma cells. Cellular uptake and phototoxicity 24 h after 5 J/cm2 laser light treatment were determined. The porphycenes tested were between 17 and 220 times more photodynamically active than the currently clinically used sensitizer Photofrin, although extinction coefficients of the porphycenes' irradiated bands are only approximately 10-fold higher. The LD50 concentration for SSK2 cells in the incubation medium was as low as (8.5 +/- 2.8) x 10(-9) M for tetrakis(methoxyethyl)porphycene. Two methoxy or hydroxy groups enhanced cellular uptake, three or four methoxy groups both enhanced and accelerated cellular uptake of tetraalkylporphycenes. Half-life times of the uptake processes varied between (0.14 +/- 0.04) and (14 +/- 4) h and cellular saturation levels between (1.2 +/- 0.2) and (26 +/- 3) pmol/10(5) cells. When individual uptake rates were accounted for, all porphycenes had a similar "cellular" phototoxicity, pointing toward a common mechanism of action. Evidence is presented for the assumption that cell membranes are the primary targets of the tested porphycenes and that membrane solubility may play a critical role in their photodynamic efficiency. The results show that nonionic polar side chain functionalities can strongly enhance cellular uptake and antitumor activity of lipophilic porphyrinoids and thus that the known lipophilicity/activity relationship can be reversed for very hydrophobic sensitizers.

  2. Enhanced photodynamic efficacy towards melanoma cells by encapsulation of Pc4 in silica nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao Baozhong; Yin Junjie; Bilski, Piotr J.; Chignell, Colin F.; Roberts, Joan E.; He Yuying

    2009-12-01

    Nanoparticles have been explored recently as an efficient means of delivering photosensitizers for cancer diagnosis and photodynamic therapy (PDT). Silicon phthalocyanine 4 (Pc4) is currently being clinically tested as a photosensitizer for PDT. Unfortunately, Pc4 aggregates in aqueous solutions, which dramatically reduces its PDT efficacy and therefore limits its clinical application. We have encapsulated Pc4 using silica nanoparticles (Pc4SNP), which not only improved the aqueous solubility, stability, and delivery of the photodynamic drug but also increased its photodynamic efficacy compared to free Pc4 molecules. Pc4SNP generated photo-induced singlet oxygen more efficiently than free Pc4 as measured by chemical probe and EPR trapping techniques. Transmission electron microscopy and dynamic light scattering measurements showed that the size of the particles is in the range of 25-30 nm. Cell viability measurements demonstrated that Pc4SNP was more phototoxic to A375 or B16-F10 melanoma cells than free Pc4. Pc4SNP photodamaged melanoma cells primarily through apoptosis. Irradiation of A375 cells in the presence of Pc4SNP resulted in a significant increase in intracellular protein-derived peroxides, suggesting a Type II (singlet oxygen) mechanism for phototoxicity. More Pc4SNP than free Pc4 was localized in the mitochondria and lysosomes. Our results show that these stable, monodispersed silica nanoparticles may be an effective new formulation for Pc4 in its preclinical and clinical studies. We expect that modifying the surface of silicon nanoparticles encapsulating the photosensitizers with antibodies specific to melanoma cells will lead to even better early diagnosis and targeted treatment of melanoma in the future.

  3. Enhanced photodynamic efficacy towards melanoma cells by encapsulation of Pc4 in silica nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Baozhong; Yin, Jun-Jie; Bilski, Piotr J; Chignell, Colin F; Roberts, Joan E; He, Yu-Ying

    2009-12-01

    Nanoparticles have been explored recently as an efficient means of delivering photosensitizers for cancer diagnosis and photodynamic therapy (PDT). Silicon phthalocyanine 4 (Pc4) is currently being clinically tested as a photosensitizer for PDT. Unfortunately, Pc4 aggregates in aqueous solutions, which dramatically reduces its PDT efficacy and therefore limits its clinical application. We have encapsulated Pc4 using silica nanoparticles (Pc4SNP), which not only improved the aqueous solubility, stability, and delivery of the photodynamic drug but also increased its photodynamic efficacy compared to free Pc4 molecules. Pc4SNP generated photo-induced singlet oxygen more efficiently than free Pc4 as measured by chemical probe and EPR trapping techniques. Transmission electron microscopy and dynamic light scattering measurements showed that the size of the particles is in the range of 25-30 nm. Cell viability measurements demonstrated that Pc4SNP was more phototoxic to A375 or B16-F10 melanoma cells than free Pc4. Pc4SNP photodamaged melanoma cells primarily through apoptosis. Irradiation of A375 cells in the presence of Pc4SNP resulted in a significant increase in intracellular protein-derived peroxides, suggesting a Type II (singlet oxygen) mechanism for phototoxicity. More Pc4SNP than free Pc4 was localized in the mitochondria and lysosomes. Our results show that these stable, monodispersed silica nanoparticles may be an effective new formulation for Pc4 in its preclinical and clinical studies. We expect that modifying the surface of silicon nanoparticles encapsulating the photosensitizers with antibodies specific to melanoma cells will lead to even better early diagnosis and targeted treatment of melanoma in the future.

  4. Enhanced Photodynamic Efficacy towards Melanoma Cells by Encapsulation of Pc4 in Silica Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Baozhong; Yin, Jun-Jie; Bilski, Piotr J.; Chignell, Colin F.; Roberts, Joan E.; He, Yu-Ying

    2009-01-01

    Nanoparticles have been explored recently as an efficient means of delivering photosensitizers for cancer diagnosis and photodynamic therapy (PDT). Silicon phthalocyanine 4 (Pc4) is currently being clinically tested as a photosensitizer for PDT. Unfortunately, Pc4 aggregates in aqueous solutions, which dramatically reduces its PDT efficacy and therefore limits its clinical application. We have encapsulated Pc4 using silica nanoparticles (Pc4SNP), which not only improved the aqueous solubility, stability, and delivery of the photodynamic drug but also increased its photodynamic efficacy compared to free Pc4 molecules. Pc4SNP generated photo-induced singlet oxygen more efficiently than free Pc4 as measured by chemical probe and EPR trapping techniques. Transmission electron microscopy and dynamic light scattering measurements showed that the size of the particles is in the range of 25-30 nm. Cell viability measurements demonstrated that Pc4SNP was more phototoxic to A375 or B16-F10 melanoma cells than free Pc4. Pc4SNP photodamaged melanoma cells primarily through apoptosis. Irradiation of A375 cells in the presence of Pc4SNP resulted in a significant increase in intracellular protein-derived peroxides, suggesting a Type II (singlet oxygen) mechanism for phototoxicity. More Pc4SNP than free Pc4 was localized in the mitochondria and lysosomes. Our results show that these stable, monodispersed silica nanoparticles may be an effective new formulation for Pc4 in its preclinical and clinical studies. We expect that modifying the surface of silicon nanoparticles encapsulating the photosensitizers with antibodies specific to melanoma cells will lead to even better early diagnosis and targeted treatment of melanoma in the future. PMID:19695274

  5. Targeting Antitumor Immune Response for Enhancing the Efficacy of Photodynamic Therapy of Cancer: Recent Advances and Future Perspectives

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a minimally invasive therapeutic strategy for cancer treatment, which can destroy local tumor cells and induce systemic antitumor immune response, whereas, focusing on improving direct cytotoxicity to tumor cells treated by PDT, there is growing interest in developing approaches to further explore the immune stimulatory properties of PDT. In this review we summarize the current knowledge of the innate and adaptive immune responses induced by PDT against tumors, providing evidence showing PDT facilitated-antitumor immunity. Various immunotherapeutic approaches on different cells are reviewed for their effectiveness in improving the treatment efficiency in concert with PDT. Future perspectives are discussed for further enhancing PDT efficiency via intracellular targetable drug delivery as well as optimized experimental model development associated with the study of antitumor immune response. PMID:27672421

  6. Photodynamic treatment of red blood cell concentrates for virus inactivation enhances red blood cell aggregation: protection with antioxidants.

    PubMed

    Ben-Hur, E; Barshtein, G; Chen, S; Yedgar, S

    1997-10-01

    Photodynamic treatment (PDT) using phthalocyanines and red light appears to be a promising procedure for decontamination of red blood cell (RBC) concentrates for transfusion. A possible complication of this treatment may be induced aggregation of RBC. The production of RBC aggregates was measured with a novel computerized cell flow properties analyzer (CFA). The PDT of RBC concentrates with sulfonated aluminum phthalocyanine (AIPcS4) and the silicon phthalocyanine Pc 4 under virucidal conditions markedly enhanced RBC aggregation and higher shear stress was required to disperse these aggregates. The clusters of cells were huge and abnormally shaped, unlike the rouleaux formed by untreated RBC. This aggregation was prevented when a mixture of antioxidants was included during PDT. Addition of the antioxidants after PDT reduced aggregation only partially. It is concluded that inclusion of antioxidants during PDT of RBC concentrates prior to transfusion may reduce or eliminate the hemodynamic risk that the virucidal treatment may present to the recipient.

  7. Photodynamic Therapy Induced Enhancement of Tumor Vasculature Permeability Using an Upconversion Nanoconstruct for Improved Intratumoral Nanoparticle Delivery in Deep Tissues.

    PubMed

    Gao, Weidong; Wang, Zhaohui; Lv, Liwei; Yin, Deyan; Chen, Dan; Han, Zhihao; Ma, Yi; Zhang, Min; Yang, Man; Gu, Yueqing

    2016-01-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) has recently emerged as an approach to enhance intratumoral accumulation of nanoparticles. However, conventional PDT is greatly limited by the inability of the excitation light to sufficiently penetrate tissue, rendering PDT ineffective in the relatively deep tumors. To address this limitation, we developed a novel PDT platform and reported for the first time the effect of deep-tissue PDT on nanoparticle uptake in tumors. This platform employed c(RGDyK)-conjugated upconversion nanoparticles (UCNPs), which facilitate active targeting of the nanoconstruct to tumor vasculature and achieve the deep-tissue photosensitizer activation by NIR light irradiation. Results indicated that our PDT system efficiently enhanced intratumoral uptake of different nanoparticles in a deep-seated tumor model. The optimal light dose for deep-tissue PDT (34 mW/cm(2)) was determined and the most robust permeability enhancement was achieved by administering the nanoparticles within 15 minutes following PDT treatment. Further, a two-step treatment strategy was developed and validated featuring the capability of improving the therapeutic efficacy of Doxil while simultaneously reducing its cardiotoxicity. This two-step treatment resulted in a tumor inhibition rate of 79% compared with 56% after Doxil treatment alone. These findings provide evidence in support of the clinical application of deep-tissue PDT for enhanced nano-drug delivery.

  8. Photodynamic Therapy Induced Enhancement of Tumor Vasculature Permeability Using an Upconversion Nanoconstruct for Improved Intratumoral Nanoparticle Delivery in Deep Tissues

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Weidong; Wang, Zhaohui; Lv, Liwei; Yin, Deyan; Chen, Dan; Han, Zhihao; Ma, Yi; Zhang, Min; Yang, Man; Gu, Yueqing

    2016-01-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) has recently emerged as an approach to enhance intratumoral accumulation of nanoparticles. However, conventional PDT is greatly limited by the inability of the excitation light to sufficiently penetrate tissue, rendering PDT ineffective in the relatively deep tumors. To address this limitation, we developed a novel PDT platform and reported for the first time the effect of deep-tissue PDT on nanoparticle uptake in tumors. This platform employed c(RGDyK)-conjugated upconversion nanoparticles (UCNPs), which facilitate active targeting of the nanoconstruct to tumor vasculature and achieve the deep-tissue photosensitizer activation by NIR light irradiation. Results indicated that our PDT system efficiently enhanced intratumoral uptake of different nanoparticles in a deep-seated tumor model. The optimal light dose for deep-tissue PDT (34 mW/cm2) was determined and the most robust permeability enhancement was achieved by administering the nanoparticles within 15 minutes following PDT treatment. Further, a two-step treatment strategy was developed and validated featuring the capability of improving the therapeutic efficacy of Doxil while simultaneously reducing its cardiotoxicity. This two-step treatment resulted in a tumor inhibition rate of 79% compared with 56% after Doxil treatment alone. These findings provide evidence in support of the clinical application of deep-tissue PDT for enhanced nano-drug delivery. PMID:27279907

  9. Enhanced plasmonic resonance energy transfer in mesoporous silica-encased gold nanorod for two-photon-activated photodynamic therapy.

    PubMed

    Chen, Nai-Tzu; Tang, Kuo-Chun; Chung, Ming-Fang; Cheng, Shih-Hsun; Huang, Ching-Mao; Chu, Chia-Hui; Chou, Pi-Tai; Souris, Jeffrey S; Chen, Chin-Tu; Mou, Chung-Yuan; Lo, Leu-Wei

    2014-01-01

    The unique optical properties of gold nanorods (GNRs) have recently drawn considerable interest from those working in in vivo biomolecular sensing and bioimaging. Especially appealing in these applications is the plasmon-enhanced photoluminescence of GNRs induced by two-photon excitation at infrared wavelengths, owing to the significant penetration depth of infrared light in tissue. Unfortunately, many studies have also shown that often the intensity of pulsed coherent irradiation of GNRs needed results in irreversible deformation of GNRs, greatly reducing their two-photon luminescence (TPL) emission intensity. In this work we report the design, synthesis, and evaluation of mesoporous silica-encased gold nanorods (MS-GNRs) that incorporate photosensitizers (PSs) for two-photon-activated photodynamic therapy (TPA-PDT). The PSs, doped into the nano-channels of the mesoporous silica shell, can be efficiently excited via intra-particle plasmonic resonance energy transfer from the encased two-photon excited gold nanorod and further generates cytotoxic singlet oxygen for cancer eradication. In addition, due to the mechanical support provided by encapsulating mesoporous silica matrix against thermal deformation, the two-photon luminescence stability of GNRs was significantly improved; after 100 seconds of 800 nm repetitive laser pulse with the 30 times higher than average power for imaging acquisition, MS-GNR luminescence intensity exhibited ~260% better resistance to deformation than that of the uncoated gold nanorods. These results strongly suggest that MS-GNRs with embedded PSs might provide a promising photodynamic therapy for the treatment of deeply situated cancers via plasmonic resonance energy transfer.

  10. Enhanced Plasmonic Resonance Energy Transfer in Mesoporous Silica-Encased Gold Nanorod for Two-Photon-Activated Photodynamic Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Nai-Tzu; Tang, Kuo-Chun; Chung, Ming-Fang; Cheng, Shih-Hsun; Huang, Ching-Mao; Chu, Chia-Hui; Chou, Pi-Tai; Souris, Jeffrey S.; Chen, Chin-Tu; Mou, Chung-Yuan; Lo, Leu-Wei

    2014-01-01

    The unique optical properties of gold nanorods (GNRs) have recently drawn considerable interest from those working in in vivo biomolecular sensing and bioimaging. Especially appealing in these applications is the plasmon-enhanced photoluminescence of GNRs induced by two-photon excitation at infrared wavelengths, owing to the significant penetration depth of infrared light in tissue. Unfortunately, many studies have also shown that often the intensity of pulsed coherent irradiation of GNRs needed results in irreversible deformation of GNRs, greatly reducing their two-photon luminescence (TPL) emission intensity. In this work we report the design, synthesis, and evaluation of mesoporous silica-encased gold nanorods (MS-GNRs) that incorporate photosensitizers (PSs) for two-photon-activated photodynamic therapy (TPA-PDT). The PSs, doped into the nano-channels of the mesoporous silica shell, can be efficiently excited via intra-particle plasmonic resonance energy transfer from the encased two-photon excited gold nanorod and further generates cytotoxic singlet oxygen for cancer eradication. In addition, due to the mechanical support provided by encapsulating mesoporous silica matrix against thermal deformation, the two-photon luminescence stability of GNRs was significantly improved; after 100 seconds of 800 nm repetitive laser pulse with the 30 times higher than average power for imaging acquisition, MS-GNR luminescence intensity exhibited ~260% better resistance to deformation than that of the uncoated gold nanorods. These results strongly suggest that MS-GNRs with embedded PSs might provide a promising photodynamic therapy for the treatment of deeply situated cancers via plasmonic resonance energy transfer. PMID:24955141

  11. Invasion-promoting extracellular matrix composition enhances photodynamic therapy response in 3D pancreatic cancer models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cramer, Gwendolyn M.; El-Hamidi, Hamid; Celli, Jonathan P.

    2017-02-01

    Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is characterized by extracellular matrix-rich stromal involvement, but it is not clear how ECM properties that affect invasiveness and chemotherapy response influence efficacy of photodynamic therapy (PDT). To disentangle the mechanical and biochemical effects of ECM composition, we measured the effects of various combinations of ECM proteins on growth behavior, invasive potential, and therapeutic response of multicellular 3D pancreatic tumor models. These spheroids were grown in attachment-free conditions before embedding in combinations of rheologically characterized collagen 1 and Matrigel combinations and treated with oxaliplatin chemotherapy and PDT. We find that cells invading from collagen-embedded tumor spheroids, the least rigid ECM substrate described here, displayed better response to PDT than to oxaliplatin chemotherapy. Overall, our results support that ECM-mediated invading PDAC populations remain responsive to PDT in conditions that induce chemoresistance.

  12. Multifunctional ZnPc-loaded mesoporous silica nanoparticles for enhancement of photodynamic therapy efficacy by endolysosomal escape.

    PubMed

    Tu, Jing; Wang, Tianxiao; Shi, Wei; Wu, Guisen; Tian, Xinhua; Wang, Yuhua; Ge, Dongtao; Ren, Lei

    2012-11-01

    The cellular uptake and localization of photosensitizer-loaded nanoparticles have significant impact on photodynamic therapy (PDT) efficacy due to short lifetime and limited action radius of singlet oxygen. Herein, we develop poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG)- and polyethylenimine (PEI)-functionalized zinc(II) phthalocyanine (ZnPc)-loaded mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs), which are able to distribute in the cytosol by endolysosomal escape. In this photosensitizer-carrier system (PEG-PEI-MSNs/ZnPc), ZnPc is a PDT agent; MSNs are the nanocarrier for encapsulating ZnPc; PEI facilitates endosomal escape; and PEG enhances biocompatibility. The as-synthesized PEG-PEI-MSNs/ZnPc have a high escape efficiency from the lysosome to the cytosol due to the "proton sponge" effect of PEI. Compared with the ZnPc-loaded MSNs, the phototoxicity of the PEG-PEI-MSNs/ZnPc is greatly enhanced in vitro. By measuring the mitochondrial membrane potential, a significant loss of >80% Δψm after treatment with PEG-PEI-MSNs/ZnPc-PDT is observed. It is further demonstrated that the ultra-efficient passive tumor targeting and excellent PDT efficacy are achieved in tumor-bearing mice upon intravenous injection of PEG-PEI-MSNs/ZnPc and the followed light exposure. We present here a strategy for enhancement of PDT efficacy by endolysosomal escape and highlight the promise of using multifunctional MSNs for cancer therapy.

  13. Nanoparticle delivery of Wnt-1 siRNA enhances photodynamic therapy by inhibiting epithelial-mesenchymal transition for oral cancer.

    PubMed

    Ma, Chuan; Shi, Leilei; Huang, Yu; Shen, Lingyue; Peng, Hao; Zhu, Xinyuan; Zhou, Guoyu

    2017-02-28

    Activation of the epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) in photodynamic therapy (PDT) can lead to the recurrence and progression of tumors. To enhance the effects of PDT, it is essential to inhibit the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway involved in EMT progression. Herein, we used polyethylene glycol-polyethyleneimine-chlorin e6 (PEG-PEI-Ce6) nanoparticles to efficiently deliver Wnt-1 small interfering RNA (siRNA) to the cytoplasm of KB cells (oral squamous cell carcinoma) that were subjected to PDT. Wnt-1 siRNA effectively inhibited the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway, reducing the expression of Wnt-1, β-catenin and vimentin that are crucial to the EMT. Combined with Wnt-1 siRNA, PEG-PEI-Ce6 nanoparticle mediated PDT inhibited cell growth and enhanced the cancer cell killing effect remarkably. Our results show the promise of combination therapy of PEG-PEI-Ce6 nanoparticles for delivery of Wnt-1 siRNA along with PDT in the treatment of oral cancer.

  14. Copper(II)-Graphitic Carbon Nitride Triggered Synergy: Improved ROS Generation and Reduced Glutathione Levels for Enhanced Photodynamic Therapy.

    PubMed

    Ju, Enguo; Dong, Kai; Chen, Zhaowei; Liu, Zhen; Liu, Chaoqun; Huang, Yanyan; Wang, Zhenzhen; Pu, Fang; Ren, Jinsong; Qu, Xiaogang

    2016-09-12

    Graphitic carbon nitride (g-C3 N4 ) has been used as photosensitizer to generate reactive oxygen species (ROS) for photodynamic therapy (PDT). However, its therapeutic efficiency was far from satisfactory. One of the major obstacles was the overexpression of glutathione (GSH) in cancer cells, which could diminish the amount of generated ROS before their arrival at the target site. Herein, we report that the integration of Cu(2+) and g-C3 N4 nanosheets (Cu(2+) -g-C3 N4 ) led to enhanced light-triggered ROS generation as well as the depletion of intracellular GSH levels. Consequently, the ROS generated under light irradiation could be consumed less by reduced GSH, and efficiency was improved. Importantly, redox-active species Cu(+) -g-C3 N4 could catalyze the reduction of molecular oxygen to the superoxide anion or hydrogen peroxide to the hydroxyl radical, both of which facilitated the generation of ROS. This synergy of improved ROS generation and GSH depletion could enhance the efficiency of PDT for cancer therapy.

  15. Enhancement of the efficiency of photodynamic therapy by combination with the microtubule inhibitor vincristine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Li Wei; Berg, Kristian; Danielsen, Havard E.; Iani, Vladimir; Moan, Johan

    1996-01-01

    Combination effects of photodynamic therapy (PDT) with meso-tetra (di-adjacent- sulfonatophenyl) porphine (TPPS2a) and the microtubule (MT) inhibitor, vincristine (VCR), were studied in the CaD2 mouse tumor model in mice. A synergistic effect was found when VCR, at an almost nontoxic dose (1 mg/kg), was injected i.p. into the mice 6 hr before PDT. The data on mitotic index show a 4 - 5 fold accumulation of the cells in mitosis 6 hr after injection of VCR into the mice. Cell cycle and ploidy distributions in tumor tissues were determined by means of image analysis with measurement of integrated optical density after Feulgen reaction on monolayers. Ploidy distribution of the tumors was not significantly changed 6 and 12 hr after administration of VCR only, while an increasing aneuploidy was observed 24 and 48 hr after VCR treatment. No prominent changes of the cell cycle and ploidy distributions were found in the tumor tissues after PDT or PDT combined with VCR.

  16. Gold Nanocage-Photosensitizer Conjugates for Dual-Modal Image-Guided Enhanced Photodynamic Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Srivatsan, Avinash; Jenkins, Samir V.; Jeon, Mansik; Wu, Zhijin; Kim, Chulhong; Chen, Jingyi; Pandey, Ravindra K.

    2014-01-01

    We have demonstrated that gold nanocage-photosensitizer conjugates can enable dual image-guided delivery of photosensitizer and significantly improve the efficacy of photodynamic therapy in a murine model. The photosensitizer, 3-devinyl-3-(1'-hexyloxyethyl)pyropheophorbide (HPPH), was noncovalently entrapped in the poly(ethylene glycol) monolayer coated on the surface of gold nanocages. The conjugate is stable in saline solutions, while incubation in protein rich solutions leads to gradual unloading of the HPPH, which can be monitored optically by fluorescence and photoacoustic imaging. The slow nature of the release in turn results in an increase in accumulation of the drug within implanted tumors due to the passive delivery of gold nanocages. Furthermore, the conjugate is found to generate more therapeutic singlet oxygen and have a lower IC50 value than the free drug alone. Thus the conjugate shows significant suppression of tumor growth as compared to the free drug in vivo. Short-term study showed neither toxicity nor phenotypical changes in mice at therapeutic dose of the conjugates or even at 100-fold higher than therapeutic dose of gold nanocages. PMID:24465274

  17. Methylene blue covalently loaded polyacrylamide nanoparticles for enhanced tumor-targeted photodynamic therapy.

    PubMed

    Qin, Ming; Hah, Hoe Jin; Kim, Gwangseong; Nie, Guochao; Lee, Yong-Eun Koo; Kopelman, Raoul

    2011-05-01

    The use of targeted nanoparticles (NPs) as a platform for loading photosensitizers enables selective accumulation of the photosensitizers in the tumor area, while maintaining their photodynamic therapy (PDT) effectiveness. Here two novel kinds of methylene blue (MB)-conjugated polyacrylamide (PAA) nanoparticles, MBI-PAA NPs and MBII-PAA NPs, based on two separate MB derivatives, are developed for PDT. This covalent conjugation with the NPs (i) improves the loading of MB, (ii) prevents any leaching of MB from the NPs and (iii) protects the MB from the effects of enzymes in the biological environment. The loading of MB into these two kinds of NPs was controlled by the input amount, resulting in concentrations with optimal singlet oxygen production. For each of the MB-NPs, the highest singlet oxygen production was found for an MB loading of around 11 nmol mg(-1). After attachment of F3 peptide groups, for targeting, each of these NPs was taken up, selectively, by MDA-MB-435 tumor cells, in vitro. PDT tests demonstrated that both kinds of targeted NPs resulted in effective tumor cell kill, following illumination, while not causing dark toxicity.

  18. Methylene blue covalently loaded polyacrylamide nanoparticles for enhanced tumor-targeted photodynamic therapy†

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Ming; Hah, Hoe Jin; Kim, Gwangseong; Nie, Guochao; Lee, Yong-Eun Koo

    2013-01-01

    The use of targeted nanoparticles (NPs) as a platform for loading photosensitizers enables selective accumulation of the photosensitizers in the tumor area, while maintaining their photodynamic therapy (PDT) effectiveness. Here two novel kinds of methylene blue (MB)-conjugated polyacrylamide (PAA) nanoparticles, MBI-PAA NPs and MBII-PAA NPs, based on two separate MB derivatives, are developed for PDT. This covalent conjugation with the NPs (i) improves the loading of MB, (ii) prevents any leaching of MB from the NPs and (iii) protects the MB from the effects of enzymes in the biological environment. The loading of MB into these two kinds of NPs was controlled by the input amount, resulting in concentrations with optimal singlet oxygen production. For each of the MB-NPs, the highest singlet oxygen production was found for an MB loading of around 11 nmol mg−1. After attachment of F3 peptide groups, for targeting, each of these NPs was taken up, selectively, by MDA-MB-435 tumor cells, in vitro. PDT tests demonstrated that both kinds of targeted NPs resulted in effective tumor cell kill, following illumination, while not causing dark toxicity. PMID:21479315

  19. Poly(amidoamine) dendrimer-grafted porous hollow silica nanoparticles for enhanced intracellular photodynamic therapy.

    PubMed

    Tao, Xia; Yang, Yun-Jie; Liu, Song; Zheng, Yan-Zhen; Fu, Jing; Chen, Jian-Feng

    2013-05-01

    We report a novel photodynamic therapy (PDT) drug-carrier system, whereby third-generation (G3) polyamidoamine (PAMAM) was successfully grafted to the surface of porous hollow silica nanoparticles (PHSNPs), followed by the attachment of gluconic acid (GA) for surface charge tuning. The composite G3-PAMAM-grafted PHSNPs (denoted as G3-PHSNPs) with a diameter range of 100-200 nm and about 30 nm sized shell thickness retain bimodal pore structures (e.g. inner voids and porous structure of the shells) and PAMAM-functionalized outer layer with a large number of amino groups, allowing high loading efficacy of aluminum phthalocyanine tetrasulfonate (AlPcS4) and its effective release to target tissue. The GA-induced G3-PHSNPs were evidenced to be able to favorably cross tumor cell walls and enter into the cell interior. The generation of singlet oxygen ((1)O2) from AlPcS4-GA-G3-PHSNPs under visible light excitation was detected by the in situ electron spin resonance measurements and the oxidative reaction between the generated (1)O2 and a chemical probe. In vitro cellular experiments showed that the photosensitive GA-G3-PHSNPs exhibited a good biocompatibility in the dark and a higher killing efficacy against MCF-7 tumor cells upon irradiation as compared with free AlPcS4, which implies that the preformed photosensitive drug-carrier system might be potentially applicable in PDT.

  20. Molecular Electronic Tuning of Photosensitizers to Enhance Photodynamic Therapy: Synthetic Dicyanobacteriochlorins as a Case Study

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Eunkyung; Diers, James R.; Huang, Ying-Ying; Hamblin, Michael R.; Lindsey, Jonathan S.; Bocian, David F.; Holten, Dewey

    2012-01-01

    Photophysical, photostability, electrochemical, and molecular-orbital characteristics are analyzed for a set of stable dicyanobacteriochlorins that are promising photosensitizers for photodynamic therapy (PDT). The bacteriochlorins are the parent compound (BC), dicyano derivative (NC)2BC and corresponding zinc (NC)2BC-Zn and palladium chelate (NC)2BC-Pd. The order of PDT activity against HeLa human cancer cells in vitro is (NC)2BC-Pd > (NC)2BC > (NC)2BC-Zn ≈ BC. The near-infrared absorption feature of each dicyanobacteriochlorin is bathochromically shifted 35–50 nm (748–763 nm) from that for BC (713 nm). Intersystem crossing to the PDT-active triplet excited state is essentially quantitative for (NC)2BC-Pd. Phosphorescence from (NC)2BC-Pd occurs at 1122 nm (1.1 eV). This value and the measured ground-state redox potentials fix the triplet excited-state redox properties, which underpin PDT activity via Type-1 (electron-transfer) pathways. A perhaps counterintuitive (but readily explicable) result is that of the three dicyanobacteriochlorins, the photosensitizer with the shortest triplet lifetime (7 μs), (NC)2BC-Pd, has the highest activity. Photostabilities of the dicyanobacteriochlorins and other bacteriochlorins studied recently are investigated and discussed in terms of four phenomena: aggregation, reduction, oxidation, and chemical reaction. Collectively, the results and analysis provide fundamental insights concerning the molecular design of PDT agents. PMID:23163632

  1. Nanoparticle Delivered VEGF-A siRNA Enhances Photodynamic Therapy for Head and Neck Cancer Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Lecaros, Rumwald Leo G; Huang, Leaf; Lee, Tsai-Chia; Hsu, Yih-Chih

    2016-01-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is believed to promote hypoxic conditions to tumor cells leading to overexpression of angiogenic markers such as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). In this study, PDT was combined with lipid–calcium–phosphate nanoparticles (LCP NPs) to deliver VEGF-A small interfering RNA (siVEGF-A) to human head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) xenograft models. VEGF-A were significantly decreased for groups treated with siVEGF-A in human oral squamous cancer cell (HOSCC), SCC4 and SAS models. Cleaved caspase-3 and in situ TdT-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling assay showed more apoptotic cells and reduced Ki-67 expression for treated groups compared to phosphate buffered saline (PBS) group. Indeed, the combined therapy showed significant tumor volume decrease to ~70 and ~120% in SCC4 and SAS models as compared with untreated PBS group, respectively. In vivo toxicity study suggests no toxicity of such LCP NP delivered siVEGF-A. In summary, results suggest that PDT combined with targeted VEGF-A gene therapy could be a potential therapeutic modality to achieve enhanced therapeutic outcome for HNSCC. PMID:26373346

  2. Light Delivery Over Extended Time Periods Enhances the Effectiveness of Photodynamic Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Seshadri, Mukund; Bellnier, David A.; Vaughan, Lurine A.; Spernyak, Joseph A.; Mazurchuk, Richard; Foster, Thomas H.; Henderson, Barbara W.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose The rate of energy delivery is a principal factor determining the biological consequences of photodynamic therapy (PDT). In contrast to conventional high irradiance treatments, recent preclinical and clinical studies have focused on low irradiance schemes. The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between irradiance, photosensitizer dose and PDT dose with regard to treatment outcome and tumor oxygenation in a rat tumor model. Experimental Design Using the photosensitizer HPPH (2-[1-hexyloxyethyl]-2 devinyl pyropheophorbide), a wide range of PDT doses that included clinically relevant photosensitizer concentrations were evaluated. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and oxygen tension measurements were performed along with the Evans blue exclusion assay to assess vascular response, oxygenation status and tumor necrosis. Results In contrast to high incident laser power (150 mW), low power regimens (7 mW) yielded effective tumor destruction. This was largely independent of PDT dose (drug-light product), with up to 30-fold differences in photosensitizer dose and 15-fold differences in drug-light product. For all drug-light products, the duration of light treatment positively influenced tumor response. Regimens utilizing treatment times of 120–240 mins showed marked reduction in signal intensity in T2-weighted MR images at both low (0.1 mg/kg) and high (3 mg/kg) drug doses compared to short duration (6–11 mins) regimens. Significantly greater reductions in pO2 were observed with extended exposures, which persisted after completion of treatment. Conclusions These results confirm the benefit of prolonged light exposure, identify vascular response as a major contributor and suggest that duration of light treatment (time) may be an important new treatment parameter. PMID:18451247

  3. Enhancement of photodynamic inactivation of Staphylococcus aureus biofilms by disruptive strategies.

    PubMed

    Gándara, Lautaro; Mamone, Leandro; Bohm, Gabriela Cervini; Buzzola, Fernanda; Casas, Adriana

    2017-06-13

    Photodynamic inactivation (PDI) has been used to inactivate microorganisms through the use of photosensitizers and visible light. On the one hand, near-infrared treatment (NIRT) has also bactericidal and dispersal effects on biofilms. In addition, dispersal biological tools such as enzymes have also been employed in antibiotic combination treatments. The aim of this work was to use alternative approaches to increase the PDI efficacy, employing combination therapies aimed at the partial disruption of the biofilms, thus potentially increasing photosensitizer or oxygen penetration and interaction with bacteria. To that end, we applied toluidine blue (TB)-PDI treatment to Staphylococcus aureus biofilms previously treated with NIRT or enzymes and investigated the outcome of the combined therapies. TB employed at 0.5 mM induced per se 2-log drop in S. aureus RN6390 biofilm viability. Each NIRT (980-nm laser) and PDI (635-nm laser) treatment induced a further reduction of 1-log of viable counts. The combination of successive 980- and 635-nm laser treatments on TB-treated biofilms induced additive effects, leading to a 4.5-log viable count decrease. Proteinase K treatment applied to S. aureus of the Newman strain induced an additive effect on PDI mortality, leading to an overall 4-log decrease in S. aureus viability. Confocal scanning laser microscopy after biofilm staining with a fluorescent viability test and scanning electron microscopy observations were correlated with colony counts. The NIRT dose employed (227 J/cm(2)) led to an increase from 21 to 47 °C in the buffer temperature of the biofilm system, and this NIRT dose also induced 100% keratinocyte death. Further work is needed to establish conditions under which biofilm dispersal occurs at lower NIRT doses.

  4. Combined regimen of photodynamic therapy mediated by Gallium phthalocyanine chloride and Metformin enhances anti-melanoma efficacy

    PubMed Central

    Filip, Gabriela Adriana; Olteanu, Diana; Cenariu, Mihai; Tabaran, Flaviu; Ion, Rodica Mariana; Gligor, Lucian; Baldea, Ioana

    2017-01-01

    Background Melanoma therapy is challenging, especially in advanced cases, due to multiple developed tumor defense mechanisms. Photodynamic therapy (PDT) might represent an adjuvant treatment, because of its bimodal action: tumor destruction and immune system awakening. In this study, a combination of PDT mediated by a metal substituted phthalocyanine—Gallium phthalocyanine chloride (GaPc) and Metformin was used against melanoma. The study aimed to: (1) find the anti-melanoma efficacy of GaPc-PDT, (2) assess possible beneficial effects of Metformin addition to PDT, (3) uncover some of the mechanisms underlining cell killing and anti-angiogenic effects. Methods Two human lightly pigmented melanoma cell lines: WM35 and M1/15 subjected to previous Metformin exposure were treated by GaPc-PDT. Cell viability, death mechanism, cytoskeleton alterations, oxidative damage, were assessed by means of colorimetry, flowcytometry, confocal microscopy, spectrophotometry, ELISA, Western Blotting. Results GaPc proved an efficient photosensitizer. Metformin addition enhanced cell killing by mechanisms dependent on the cell line, namely apoptosis in the metastatic M1/15 and necrosis in the radial growth phase, WM35. Cell death mechanism relied on the inhibition of nuclear transcription factor (NF)-κB activation and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)—related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) sensitization, leading to TRAIL and TNF-α induced apoptosis. Metformin diminished the anti-angiogenic effect of PDT. Conclusions Metformin addition to GaPc-PDT increased tumor cell killing through enhanced oxidative damage and induction of proapoptotic mechanisms, but altered PDT anti-angiogenic effects. General significance Combination of Metformin and PDT might represent a solution to enhance the efficacy, leading to a potential adjuvant role of PDT in melanoma therapy. PMID:28278159

  5. Ruthenium(II) Complex Incorporated UiO-67 Metal-Organic Framework Nanoparticles for Enhanced Two-Photon Fluorescence Imaging and Photodynamic Cancer Therapy.

    PubMed

    Chen, Rui; Zhang, Jinfeng; Chelora, Jipsa; Xiong, Yuan; Kershaw, Stephen V; Li, King Fai; Lo, Pik-Kwan; Cheah, Kok Wai; Rogach, Andrey L; Zapien, Juan Antonio; Lee, Chun-Sing

    2017-02-22

    Ruthenium(II) tris(bipyridyl) cationic complex (Ru(bpy)3(2+)) incorporated UiO-67 (Universitetet i Oslo) nanoscale metal-organic frameworks (NMOFs) with an average diameter of ∼92 nm were developed as theranostic nanoplatform for in vitro two-photon fluorescence imaging and photodynamic therapy. After incorporation into porous UiO-67 nanoparticles, the quantum yield, luminescence lifetime, and two-photon fluorescence intensity of Ru(bpy)3(2+) guest molecules were much improved owing to the steric confinement effect of MOF pores. Benefiting from these merits, the as-synthesized nanoparticles managed to be internalized by A549 cells while providing excellent red fluorescence in cytoplasm upon excitation with 880 nm irradiation. Photodynamic therapeutic application of the Ru(bpy)3(2+)-incorporated UiO-67 NMOFs was investigated in vitro. The Ru(bpy)3(2+)-incorporated UiO-67 NMOFs exhibited good biocompatibility without irradiation while having good cell-killing rates upon irradiation. In view of these facts, the developed Ru(bpy)3(2+)-incorporated NMOFs give a new potential pathway to achieve enhanced two-photon fluorescence imaging and photodynamic therapy.

  6. Enhanced antitumor effects of BPD-MA-mediated photodynamic therapy combined with adriamycin on breast cancer in mice.

    PubMed

    Tong, Zhong-sheng; Miao, Pei-tian; Liu, Ting-ting; Jia, Yong-sheng; Liu, Xiao-dong

    2012-10-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is an emerging treatment used to eradicate premalignant and early-stage cancers and to reduce tumor size in end-stage cancers. In this study, we investigated the effects of a combination of benzoporphyrin derivative monoacid ring A (BPD-MA)-mediated PDT with adriamycin (ADM) on 4T1 breast carcinoma cells in vivo and the mechanisms underlying this effect. Normal BALA/c female mice bearing 4T1 breast carcinoma xenografts were tested. The animals were treated with PDT (BPD-MA 1 mg/kg, iv, plus single-dose laser irradiation) or ADM (5 mg/kg, iv) alone, or a combination of PDT with ADM. The tumor growth rate was determined by measuring the tumor weight. Cell apoptosis was measured with flow cytometry, and the expression of apoptosis-related molecules was assessed using Western blot. Microvessel density (MVD) was determined with immunohistochemical staining. Compared to PDT or ADM alone, PDT plus ADM produced a combined inhibition on the tumor growth, prolonged life span, and enhanced apoptosis in the mice bearing 4T1 subcutaneously xenografted tumors. The combination of PDT and ADM exerted additive effects on the upregulation of Bax and the downregulation of Bcl-2, and on the reduction of MVD in 4T1 xenografted tumors. Our results demonstrate that PDT plus ADM exerts enhanced in vivo antitumor effect on breast cancer, which is closely associated with the cooperative regulation of extrinsic apoptotic pathways and the inhibition of tumor angiogenesis. Thus, PDT plus ADM is a promising combined treatment strategy for breast carcinoma.

  7. Enhancement and optimization of PpIX-based photodynamic therapy of skin cancer: translational studies from bench to clinic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maytin, Edward V.; Anand, Sanjay; Baran, Christine; Honari, Golara; Lohser, Sara; Kyei, Angela; Bailin, Philip; Pogue, Brian W.

    2009-02-01

    Nonmelanoma skin carcinomas are the most common of all human cancers. Photodynamic therapy (PDT) using 5-aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA) has been used to treat these tumors, but has shown variable results. We are pursuing a multifaceted approach toward optimizing tumor responsiveness. First, a new paradigm is being developed in which tumors are pretreated with differentiation-inducing agents, e.g. methotrexate or Vitamin D, to enhance synthesis of protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) and improve tumor cell killing upon exposure to 635 nm light. This principle was first elucidated in cell culture studies, and has now been shown to hold true for murine skin tumors, and for a human subcutaneous tumor model (A431 cells injected in nude mice). Clinical trials to test methotrexate and Vitamin D as augmenting agents for ALA-PDT of nonmelanoma skin cancer are being designed. Second, better methods to measure PpIX in patients' skin tumors in real time are being developed. In a clinical study to measure PpIX in patients with dysplastic skin lesions, in vivo fluorescence dosimetry was used to measure the accumulation of PpIX over time, and revealed that intralesional PpIX may reach clinically-useful levels earlier than previously thought for the treatment of actinic keratoses. In a second clinical study to examine depth of PpIX production in nonmelanoma skin cancer, the depth of PpIX within BCC tumors was found at relatively deep levels (>1 mm) in some tumor nests, but not in others. Production of PpIX in deep squamous cell carcinoma was very low. In summary, molecular approaches such as differentiation therapy to enhance ALA-PDT for individual patients may ultimately be needed to help to improve skin cancer responses to this modality.

  8. Photodynamic therapy for cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... that is treated. The side effects are temporary. Alternative Names Phototherapy; Photochemotherapy; Photoradiation therapy; Cancer of the esophagus-photodynamic; Esophageal cancer-photodynamic; Lung ...

  9. Photodynamic Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Dougherty, Thomas J.; Gomer, Charles J.; Henderson, Barbara W.; Jori, Giulio; Kessel, David; Korbelik, Mladen; Moan, Johan; Peng, Qian

    2015-01-01

    Photodynamic therapy involves administration of a tumor-localizing photosensitizing agent, which may require metabolic synthesis (i.e., a prodrug), followed by activation of the agent by light of a specific wavelength. This therapy results in a sequence of photochemical and photobiologic processes that cause irreversible photodamage to tumor tissues. Results from preclinical and clinical studies conducted worldwide over a 25-year period have established photodynamic therapy as a useful treatment approach for some cancers. Since 1993, regulatory approval for photodynamic therapy involving use of a partially purified, commercially available hematoporphyrin derivative compound (Photofrin®) in patients with early and advanced stage cancer of the lung, digestive tract, and genitourinary tract has been obtained in Canada, The Netherlands, France, Germany, Japan, and the United States. We have attempted to conduct and present a comprehensive review of this rapidly expanding field. Mechanisms of subcellular and tumor localization of photosensitizing agents, as well as of molecular, cellular, and tumor responses associated with photodynamic therapy, are discussed. Technical issues regarding light dosimetry are also considered. PMID:9637138

  10. Enhancement of photodynamic therapy due to hyperbaric hyperoxia: an experimental study of Walker 256 tumors in rats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicola, Jorge H.; Colussi, Valdir C.; Nicola, Ester M. D.; Metze, Konradin

    1997-05-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT), which is now an approved treatment for many types of cancers, is based on the simultaneous involvement of three factors, namely: tumor tissue retention of a specific photosensitizer; local illumination of the lesion with a visible light source and the occurrence of oxygen in the triplet state. Theoretically, a change in any one of these factors may be compensated by a change in the other two factors, leading to the same therapeutic result. In practice, this is not true, since we are dealing with living tissue, but we may expect to find an ideal combination of these three factors which may give the best clinical results. In this work we present experimental results of PDT under Hyperbaric hyperoxia (HBO) in tumor masses of the dorsal subcutaneous tissue of rats. These tumors were created by previous inoculation of 'Walker 256' neoplastic cells Hematoporphyrin Ester (HpE) was administered as the photosensitizer. The rats were pressurized at up to 3 atm with a 100 percent continuous oxygen ventilation environment in a specially designed hyperbaric chamber. The skin area above the tumor was photosensitized for 45 minutes with a 7 mw HeNe laser. Twenty four hours later, the tumor was removed for study. In all the animals treated with PDT/HBO histology revealed a very important reduction in the number of tumor cells as compared with the PDT controls in normal atmospheric condition, showing numerous apoptotic as well as necrotic cells at the border of the radiated area. The observed enhancement in the PDT for this situation is, of course, related to the extra oxygen in the circulatory system.

  11. Site-specific conjugation of single domain antibodies to liposomes enhances photosensitizer uptake and photodynamic therapy efficacy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Broekgaarden, M.; van Vught, R.; Oliveira, S.; Roovers, R. C.; van Bergen En Henegouwen, P. M. P.; Pieters, R. J.; van Gulik, T. M.; Breukink, E.; Heger, M.

    2016-03-01

    Photodynamic therapy for therapy-resistant cancers will greatly benefit from targeted delivery of tumor photosensitizing agents. In this study, a strategy for the site-specific conjugation of single domain antibodies onto liposomes containing the photosensitizer zinc phthalocyanine was developed and tested.Photodynamic therapy for therapy-resistant cancers will greatly benefit from targeted delivery of tumor photosensitizing agents. In this study, a strategy for the site-specific conjugation of single domain antibodies onto liposomes containing the photosensitizer zinc phthalocyanine was developed and tested. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Materials and methods. See DOI: 10.1039/c6nr00014b

  12. Photodynamic antibacterial enhanced effect of methylene blue-gold nanoparticles conjugate on Staphylococcal aureus isolated from impetigo lesions in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Tawfik, Abeer Attia; Alsharnoubi, Jehan; Morsy, Mona

    2015-06-01

    Staphylococcal aureus is the most common organism which has been encountered in impetigo infection. Gold nanoparticles can be used as a tool to deliver antimicrobials or to enhance photodynamic destruction of bacteria. To evaluate the photodynamic effect of methylene blue gold nanoparticles (MB-gold nanoparticles conjugate) on S. aureus which were isolated from impetigo lesions. Twenty children were diagnosed clinically as impetigo, and aged from 3 to 5 years of both sexes were recruited in the study. Two bacteriological samples were collected from each patient, identified and cultured. Samples of S. aureus of a concentration of 10(-1)ml were divided into four groups. S. aureus was treated by MB-gold nanoparticles conjugate, gold nanoparticles, MB, and the fourth group served as a control group. Diode laser (660 nm) was used for photoactivation. The bacterial growth inhibition was determined by two methods: the percentage of reduction of viable bacteria count and the optical density (O.D) of bacterial growth. The highest significant inhibitory effect on S. aureus was obtained with MB-gold nanoparticles conjugate when irradiated by diode laser 660 nm (P < 0.0001). The percentage of viable bacteria was 3%. The photoactivated gold nanoparticles showed a significant inhibitory effect on bacterial growth (P < 0.05). A non-significant inhibitory effect was elicited in other groups. The photoactivated MB-gold nanoparticles conjugate showed the maximum inhibitory effect on S. aureus activity. The gold nanoparticles proved efficacy as a drug delivery system. It enhanced the photodynamic antibacterial effect of methylene blue. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Site-specific conjugation of single domain antibodies to liposomes enhances photosensitizer uptake and photodynamic therapy efficacy.

    PubMed

    Broekgaarden, M; van Vught, R; Oliveira, S; Roovers, R C; van Bergen en Henegouwen, P M P; Pieters, R J; Van Gulik, T M; Breukink, E; Heger, M

    2016-03-28

    Photodynamic therapy for therapy-resistant cancers will greatly benefit from targeted delivery of tumor photosensitizing agents. In this study, a strategy for the site-specific conjugation of single domain antibodies onto liposomes containing the photosensitizer zinc phthalocyanine was developed and tested.

  14. Multifunctional nanoparticle platforms for in vivo MRI enhancement and photodynamic therapy of a rat brain cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kopelman, Raoul; Lee Koo, Yong-Eun; Philbert, Martin; Moffat, Bradford A.; Ramachandra Reddy, G.; McConville, Patrick; Hall, Daniel E.; Chenevert, Thomas L.; Bhojani, Mahaveer Swaroop; Buck, Sarah M.; Rehemtulla, Alnawaz; Ross, Brian D.

    2005-05-01

    A paradigm for brain cancer detection, treatment, and monitoring is established. Multifunctional biomedical nanoparticles (30-60 nm) containing photosensitizer externally deliver reactive oxygen species (ROS) to cancer cells while simultaneously enhancing magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast providing real-time tumor kill measurement. Plasma residence time control and specific cell targeting are achieved. A 5 min treatment in rats halted and even reversed in vivo tumor growth after 3-4 days post-treatment.

  15. Photodynamic therapy in endodontics: a literature review.

    PubMed

    Trindade, Alessandra Cesar; De Figueiredo, José Antônio Poli; Steier, Liviu; Weber, João Batista Blessmann

    2015-03-01

    Recently, several in vitro and in vivo studies demonstrated promising results about the use of photodynamic therapy during root canal system disinfection. However, there is no consensus on a standard protocol for its incorporation during root canal treatment. The purpose of this study was to summarize the results of research on photodynamic therapy in endodontics published in peer-reviewed journals. A review of pertinent literature was conducted using the PubMed database, and data obtained were categorized into sections in terms of relevant topics. Studies conducted in recent years highlighted the antimicrobial potential of photodynamic therapy in endodontics. However, most of these studies were not able to confirm a significant improvement in root canal disinfection for photodynamic therapy as a substitute for current disinfection methods. Its indication as an excellent adjunct to conventional endodontic therapy is well documented, however. Data suggest the need for protocol adjustments or new photosensitizer formulations to enhance photodynamic therapy predictability in endodontics.

  16. Nanoscale electron transport and photodynamics enhancement in lipid-depleted bacteriorhodopsin monomers.

    PubMed

    Mukhopadhyay, Sabyasachi; Cohen, Sidney R; Marchak, Debora; Friedman, Noga; Pecht, Israel; Sheves, Mordechai; Cahen, David

    2014-08-26

    Potential future use of bacteriorhodopsin (bR) as a solid-state electron transport (ETp) material requires the highest possible active protein concentration. To that end we prepared stable monolayers of protein-enriched bR on a conducting HOPG substrate by lipid depletion of the native bR. The ETp properties of this construct were then investigated using conducting probe atomic force microscopy at low bias, both in the ground dark state and in the M-like intermediate configuration, formed upon excitation by green light. Photoconductance modulation was observed upon green and blue light excitation, demonstrating the potential of these monolayers as optoelectronic building blocks. To correlate protein structural changes with the observed behavior, measurements were made as a function of pressure under the AFM tip, as well as humidity. The junction conductance is reversible under pressure changes up to ∼300 MPa, but above this pressure the conductance drops irreversibly. ETp efficiency is enhanced significantly at >60% relative humidity, without changing the relative photoactivity significantly. These observations are ascribed to changes in protein conformation and flexibility and suggest that improved electron transport pathways can be generated through formation of a hydrogen-bonding network.

  17. A Bifunctional Photosensitizer for Enhanced Fractional Photodynamic Therapy: Singlet Oxygen Generation in the Presence and Absence of Light.

    PubMed

    Turan, Ilke Simsek; Yildiz, Deniz; Turksoy, Abdurrahman; Gunaydin, Gurcan; Akkaya, Engin U

    2016-02-18

    The photosensitized generation of singlet oxygen within tumor tissues during photodynamic therapy (PDT) is self-limiting, as the already low oxygen concentrations within tumors is further diminished during the process. In certain applications, to minimize photoinduced hypoxia the light is introduced intermittently (fractional PDT) to allow time for the replenishment of cellular oxygen. This condition extends the time required for effective therapy. Herein, we demonstrated that a photosensitizer with an additional 2-pyridone module for trapping singlet oxygen would be useful in fractional PDT. Thus, in the light cycle, the endoperoxide of 2-pyridone is generated along with singlet oxygen. In the dark cycle, the endoperoxide undergoes thermal cycloreversion to produce singlet oxygen, regenerating the 2-pyridone module. As a result, the photodynamic process can continue in the dark as well as in the light cycles. Cell-culture studies validated this working principle in vitro.

  18. Minimally toxic approach for treatment of cutaneous breast cancer metastases: capecitabine-enhanced photodynamic therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anand, Sanjay; Bullock, Taylor; Maytin, Edward V.

    2017-02-01

    Cutaneous metastasis (CM) occurs in 20% of patients with breast carcinoma (BCA), and is extremely difficult to treat. These CM are relatively resistant to chemotherapy, generally responding only to ionizing radiation (IR). Multiple rounds of IR, however, lead to debilitating fibrosis and radiation dermatitis. An alternative to IR is needed for better management of BCA/CM. In our laboratory, we have developed differentiation-enhanced combination PDT (cPDT), a concept in which a pro-differentiating agent (methotrexate; vitamin D; or 5-fluorouracil, 5FU) is used as a neoadjuvant prior to PDT. After using these neoadjuvants, levels of protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) were elevated in animal tumor models of skin, prostate, and BCA, leading to better PDT efficacy. However, all the agents have toxicity issues. Here, we use a nontoxic 5FU precursor called Capecitabine (CPBN) for cPDT. CBPN is a standard chemotherapeutic for metastatic BCA, and is metabolized to 5FU specifically within tumor tissue. Murine (4T1) and human (MCF-7) BCA cell lines were injected into breast fat pads of nude mice. After tumor nodules appeared, CPBN (400-600 mg/kg/day) was administered by oral gavage for five days followed by intraperitoneal ALA administration on day 6. Mice were sacrificed and tumors harvested. CPBN pretreatment led to a 4-fold elevation of PpIX levels in tumors, relative to vehicle control. Not only did PpIX levels increase, but also PpIX distribution became more homogeneous after CPBN pretreatment. In summary, the use of non-toxic CPBN as a neoadjuvant prior to PDT is a combination approach with significant potential for translation into the clinic.

  19. Stability enhanced polyelectrolyte-coated gold nanorod-photosensitizer complexes for high/low power density photodynamic therapy

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Zhenzhi; Ren, Wenzhi; Gong, An; Zhao, Xinmei; Zou, Yuehong; Brown, Eric Michael Bratsolias; Chen, Xiaoyuan; Wu, Aiguo

    2015-01-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a promising treatment modality for cancer and other malignant diseases, however safety and efficacy improvements are required before it reaches its full potential and wider clinical use. Herein, we investigated a highly efficient and safe photodynamic therapy procedure by developing a high/low power density photodynamic therapy mode (high/low PDT mode) using methoxypoly(ethylene glycol) thiol (mPEG-SH) modified gold nanorod (GNR)-AlPcS4 photosensitizer complexes. mPEG-SH conjugated to the surface of simple polyelectrolyte-coated GNRs was verified using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy; this improved stability, reduced cytotoxicity, and increased the encapsulation and loading efficiency of the nanoparticle dispersions. The GNR-photosensitizer complexes were exposed to the high/low PDT mode (high light dose = 80 mW/cm2 for 0.5 min; low light dose = 25 mW/cm2 for 1.5 min), and a high PDT efficacy leads to approximately 90% tumor cell killing. Due to synergistic plasmonic photothermal properties of the complexes, the high/low PDT mode demonstrated improved efficacy over using single wavelength continuous laser irradiation. Additionally, no significant loss in viability was observed in cells exposed to free AlPcS4 photosensitizer under the same irradiation conditions. Consequently, free AlPcS4 released from GNRs prior to cellular entry did not contribute to cytotoxicity of normal cells or impose limitations on the use of the high power density laser. This high/low PDT mode may effectively lead to a safer and more efficient photodynamic therapy for superficial tumors. PMID:24855961

  20. Designing Theranostic Agents Based on Pluronic Stabilized Gold Nanoaggregates Loaded with Methylene Blue for Multimodal Cell Imaging and Enhanced Photodynamic Therapy.

    PubMed

    Simon, Timea; Potara, Monica; Gabudean, Ana-Maria; Licarete, Emilia; Banciu, Manuela; Astilean, Simion

    2015-08-05

    At present, multifunctional noble metal-based nanocomposites are extensively investigated for their potential in performing cellular imaging, diagnostics, and therapy by integration of unique plasmonic properties with the spectroscopic expression and therapeutic activity of appropriate drug. In this work, we report the fabrication of 3-dimensional (3-D) close-packed nanoassemblies of gold nanoparticles by controlling the aggregation of individual nanoparticles in solution and subsequent stabilization of formed aggregates by Pluronic block copolymer (F127) coating. Besides conferring high stability, Pluronic mediates the loading of Methylene Blue (MB) molecules which exhibit interesting spectroscopic and photochemical properties to be employed as both optical label and photosensitizing drug. Indeed, here we demonstrate the pertinence of the fabricated nanoassemblies to provide optical imaging of murine colon carcinoma cells (C-26) via both Raman and fluorescence signals collected from MB molecules, specifically by using scanning confocal surface-enhanced resonant raman spectroscopy (SERRS) and fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM) techniques. The specific configuration of as fabricated nanoassemblies allows a small population of MB molecules to be located in very small areas between the aggregated nanoparticles ("hot spots") to provide SERRS signal while the other population remains captured in Pluronic coating and preserves both its fluorescence signal and singlet-oxygen generation capability. Remarkably, we demonstrate an enhanced photodynamic therapeutic activity of MB-loaded gold nanoaggregates against murine colon carcinoma cells (C-26), as compared to the free photosensitizer. To our knowledge, this is the first report on plasmonic nanoplatforms conveying photosensitizing drug into cells to operate as optical label via both SER(R)S and FLIM and to perform enhanced photodynamic therapy.

  1. Photodynamic Therapy for Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Related to Cancer Off-Label Drug Use in Cancer Treatment Complementary & Alternative Medicine (CAM) CAM for Patients CAM for Health Professionals Questions to Ask about Your Treatment Research Photodynamic Therapy for Cancer On This Page What is photodynamic ...

  2. Mechanism of enhanced responses after combination photodynamic therapy (cPDT) in carcinoma cells involves C/EBP-mediated transcriptional upregulation of the coproporphyrinogen oxidase (CPO) gene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anand, Sanjay; Hasan, Tayyaba; Maytin, Edward V.

    2013-03-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) with aminolevulinate (ALA) is widely accepted as an effective treatment for superficial carcinomas and pre-cancers. However, PDT is still suboptimal for deeper tumors, mainly due to inadequate ALA penetration and subsequent conversion to PpIX. We are interested in improving the effectiveness of photodynamic therapy (PDT) for deep tumors, using a combination approach (cPDT) in which target protoporphyrin (PpIX) levels are significantly enhanced by differentiation caused by giving Vitamin D or methotrexate (MTX) for 3 days prior to ALAPDT. In LNCaP and MEL cells, a strong correlation between inducible differentiation and expression of C/EBP transcription factors, as well as between differentiation and mRNA levels of CPO (a key heme-synthetic enzyme), indicates the possibility of CPO transcriptional regulation by the C/EBPs. Sequence analysis of the first 1300 base pairs of the murine CPO upstream region revealed 15 consensus C/EBP binding sites. Electrophoretic Mobility Shift Assays (EMSA) proved that these sites form specific complexes that have strong, moderate or weak affinities for C/EBPs. However, in the context of the full-length CPO promoter, inactivation of any type of site (strong or weak) reduced CPO promoter activity (luciferase assay) to nearly the same extent, suggesting cooperative interactions. A comparative analysis of murine and human CPO promoters revealed possible protein-protein interactions between C/EBPs and several neighboring transcription factors such as NFkB, Sp1, AP-1, CBP/p300 and CREB (an enhanceosome complex). Overall, these results confirm that C/EBP's are important for CPO expression via complex mechanisms which upregulate PpIX and enhance the outcome of cPDT.

  3. Enhanced aggressiveness of bystander cells in an anti-tumor photodynamic therapy model: Role of nitric oxide produced by targeted cells.

    PubMed

    Bazak, Jerzy; Fahey, Jonathan M; Wawak, Katarzyna; Korytowski, Witold; Girotti, Albert W

    2017-01-01

    The bystander effects of anti-cancer ionizing radiation have been widely studied, but far less is known about such effects in the case of non-ionizing photodynamic therapy (PDT). In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that photodynamically-stressed prostate cancer PC3 cells can elicit nitric oxide (NO)-mediated pro-growth/migration responses in non-stressed bystander cells. A novel approach was used whereby both cell populations existed on a culture dish, but made no physical contact with one other. Visible light irradiation of target cells sensitized with 5-aminolevulinic acid-induced protoporphyrin IX resulted in a striking upregulation of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) along with NO, the level of which increased after irradiation. Slower and less pronounced iNOS/NO upregulation was also observed in bystander cells. Activation of transcription factor NF-κB was implicated in iNOS induction in both targeted and bystander cells. Like surviving targeted cells, bystanders exhibited a significant increase in growth and migration rate, both responses being strongly attenuated by an iNOS inhibitor (1400W), a NO scavenger (cPTIO), or iNOS knockdown. Incubating bystander cells with conditioned medium from targeted cells failed to stimulate growth/migration, ruling out involvement of relatively long-lived stimulants. The following post-irradiation changes in pro-survival/pro-growth proteins were observed in bystander cells: upregulation of COX-2 and activation of protein kinases Akt and ERK1/2, NO again playing a key role. This is the first reported evidence for NO-enhanced bystander aggressiveness in the context of PDT. In the clinical setting, such effects could be averted through pharmacologic use of iNOS inhibitors as PDT adjuvants. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  4. Enhanced killing of SCC17B human head and neck squamous cell carcinoma cells after photodynamic therapy plus fenretinide via the de novo sphingolipid biosynthesis pathway and apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Boppana, Nithin B; Stochaj, Ursula; Kodiha, Mohamed; Bielawska, Alicja; Bielawski, Jacek; Pierce, Jason S; Korbelik, Mladen; Separovic, Duska

    2015-05-01

    Because photodynamic therapy (PDT) alone is not always effective as an anticancer treatment, PDT is combined with other anticancer agents for improved efficacy. The clinically-relevant fenretinide [N-(4-hydroxyphenyl) retinamide; 4HPR], was combined with the silicon phthalocyanine photosensitizer Pc4-mediated PDT to test for their potential to enhance killing of SCC17B cells, a clinically-relevant model of human head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. Because each of these treatments induces apoptosis and regulates the de novo sphingolipid (SL) biosynthesis pathway, the role of ceramide synthase, the pathway-associated enzyme, in PDT+4HPR-induced apoptotic cell death was determined using the ceramide synthase inhibitor fumonisin B1 (FB). PDT+4HPR enhanced loss of clonogenicity. zVAD-fmk, a pan-caspase inhibitor, and FB, protected cells from death post-PDT+4HPR. In contrast, the anti-apoptotic protein Bcl2 inhibitor ABT199 enhanced cell killing after PDT+4HPR. Combining PDT with 4HPR led to FB-sensitive, enhanced Bax associated with mitochondria and cytochrome c redistribution. Mass spectrometry data showed that the accumulation of C16-dihydroceramide, a precursor of ceramide in the de novo SL biosynthesis pathway, was enhanced after PDT+4HPR. Using quantitative confocal microscopy, we found that PDT+4HPR enhanced dihydroceramide/ceramide accumulation in the ER, which was inhibited by FB. The results suggest that SCC17B cells are sensitized to PDT by 4HPR via the de novo SL biosynthesis pathway and apoptosis, and imply potential clinical relevance of the combination for cancer treatment.

  5. Enhanced killing of SCC17B human head and neck squamous cell carcinoma cells after photodynamic therapy plus fenretinide via the de novo sphingolipid biosynthesis pathway and apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    BOPPANA, NITHIN B.; STOCHAJ, URSULA; KODIHA, MOHAMED; BIELAWSKA, ALICJA; BIELAWSKI, JACEK; PIERCE, JASON S.; KORBELIK, MLADEN; SEPAROVIC, DUSKA

    2015-01-01

    Because photodynamic therapy (PDT) alone is not always effective as an anticancer treatment, PDT is combined with other anticancer agents for improved efficacy. The clinically-relevant fenretinide [N-(4-hydroxyphenyl) retinamide; 4HPR], was combined with the silicon phthalocyanine photosensitizer Pc4-mediated PDT to test for their potential to enhance killing of SCC17B cells, a clinically-relevant model of human head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. Because each of these treatments induces apoptosis and regulates the de novo sphingolipid (SL) biosynthesis pathway, the role of ceramide synthase, the pathway-associated enzyme, in PDT+4HPR-induced apoptotic cell death was determined using the ceramide synthase inhibitor fumonisin B1 (FB). PDT+4HPR enhanced loss of clonogenicity. zVAD-fmk, a pan-caspase inhibitor, and FB, protected cells from death post-PDT+4HPR. In contrast, the anti-apoptotic protein Bcl2 inhibitor ABT199 enhanced cell killing after PDT+4HPR. Combining PDT with 4HPR led to FB-sensitive, enhanced Bax associated with mitochondria and cytochrome c redistribution. Mass spectrometry data showed that the accumulation of C16-dihydroceramide, a precursor of ceramide in the de novo SL biosynthesis pathway, was enhanced after PDT+4HPR. Using quantitative confocal microscopy, we found that PDT+4HPR enhanced dihydroceramide/ceramide accumulation in the ER, which was inhibited by FB. The results suggest that SCC17B cells are sensitized to PDT by 4HPR via the de novo SL biosynthesis pathway and apoptosis, and imply potential clinical relevance of the combination for cancer treatment. PMID:25739041

  6. Aberration of the enzymatic activity of Fhit tumor suppressor protein enhances cancer cell death upon photodynamic therapy similarly to that driven by wild-type Fhit.

    PubMed

    Ferens, Bartosz; Kawiak, Anna; Banecki, Bogdan; Bielawski, Krzysztof P; Zawacka-Pankau, Joanna

    2009-07-18

    The tumor suppressor Fhit protein lost in many human pre-malignant tissues, possesses diadenosine triphosphate activity regulated by a photosensitizer, protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) in vitro. Interestingly, when exogenously restored, the protein suppresses the growth of human cervical carcinoma HeLa cells which is further enhanced by PpIX. Additionally, Fhit production enhances the overall response of cells to PpIX-mediated photodynamic reaction. In the present study, we have estimated, for the first time, the biological activity of two Fhit mutated forms exhibiting aberrant Ap(3)A hydrolase activity in vitro which emphasizes the recent findings that hydrolysis of Ap(3)A is not necessary for Fhit tumor suppression function. Using several biophysical methods we revealed the dynamic nature of mutant Fhit-PpIX complexes in vitro which support our previous hypothesis that Fhit-Ap(3)A-PpIX might be a signaling molecule driving apoptosis in cancer cells. Moreover, according to our findings, substitution at histidine94 in Fhit active site induces the vulnerability of HeLa cells to PpIX-PDT in a similar manner to that caused by wild-type Fhit protein. These results support the view that inhibition of Fhit hydrolase activity might be a crucial element in a Fhit-driven cancer cells death.

  7. Combination of Oral Vitamin D3 with Photodynamic Therapy Enhances Tumor Cell Death in a Murine Model of Cutaneous Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Anand, Sanjay; Rollakanti, Kishore R.; Horst, Ronald L.; Hasan, Tayyaba; Maytin, Edward V.

    2014-01-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT), in which 5-ALA (a precursor for protoporphyrin IX, PpIX) is administered prior to exposure to light, is a nonscarring treatment for skin cancers. However, for deep tumors, ALA-PDT is not always effective due to inadequate production of PpIX. We previously developed and reported a combination approach in which the active form of vitamin D3 (calcitriol) is given systemically prior to PDT to improve PpIX accumulation and to enhance PDT-induced tumor cell death; calcitriol, however, poses a risk of hypercalcemia. Here, we tested a possible strategy to circumvent the problem of hypercalcemia by substituting natural dietary vitamin D3 (cholecalciferol; D3) for calcitriol. Oral D3 supplementation (10 days of a 10-fold elevated D3 diet) enhanced PpIX levels 3- to 4-fold, and PDT-mediated cell death 20-fold, in subcutaneous A431 tumors. PpIX levels and cell viability in normal tissues were not affected. Hydroxylated metabolic forms of D3 were only modestly elevated in serum, indicating minimal hypercalcemic risk. These results show that brief oral administration of cholecalciferol can serve as a safe neoadjuvant to ALA-PDT. We suggest a clinical study, using oral vitamin D3 prior to PDT, should be considered to evaluate this promising new approach to treating human skin cancer. PMID:24807677

  8. Optimal gadolinium dose level for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast enhancement of U87-derived tumors in athymic nude rats for the assessment of photodynamic therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cross, Nathan; Varghai, Davood; Flask, Chris A.; Feyes, Denise K.; Oleinick, Nancy L.; Dean, David

    2009-02-01

    This study aims to determine the effect of varying gadopentetate dimeglumine (Gd-DTPA) dose on Dynamic Contrast Enhanced-Magnetic Resonance Imaging (DCE-MRI) tracking of brain tumor photodynamic therapy (PDT) outcome. Methods: We injected 2.5 x 105 U87 cells (derived from human malignant glioma) into the brains of six athymic nude rats. After 9, 12, and 13 days DCE-MRI images were acquired on a 9.4 T micro-MRI scanner before and after administration of 100, 150, or 200 μL of Gd-DTPA. Results: Tumor region normalized DCE-MRI scan enhancement at peak was: 1.217 over baseline (0.018 Standard Error [SE]) at the 100 μL dose, 1.339 (0.013 SE) at the 150 μL dose, and 1.287 (0.014 SE) at the 200 μL dose. DCE-MRI peak tumor enhancement at the 150 μL dose was significantly greater than both the 100 μL dose (p < 3.323E-08) and 200 μL dose (p < 0.0007396). Discussion: In this preliminary study, the 150 μL Gd-DTPA dose provided the greatest T1 weighted contrast enhancement, while minimizing negative T2* effects, in DCE-MRI scans of U87-derived tumors. Maximizing Gd-DTPA enhancement in DCE-MRI scans may assist development of a clinically robust (i.e., unambiguous) technique for PDT outcome assessment.

  9. Dye-enhanced selective photothermal laser-tissue interaction and photodynamic therapy in combination with immunoadjuvant for cancer treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Wei R.; Bartels, Kenneth E.; Sun, Jinghai; Liu, Hong; Nordquist, Robert E.; Korbelik, Mladen

    2003-12-01

    Immunoadjuvants have been used to stimulate host immune responses. However, immunoadjuvants alone have not been very successful in treating metastatic tumors. Following the principle of combined therapy in AIDS treatment and in combination chemotherapy, immunoadjuvants have been used in conjunction with other treatment modalities. The current study is an attempt to use both selective photothermal and selective photochemical interactions to accompany a new immunoadjuvant in the treatment of metastatic tumors. The immunoadjuvant, glycated chitosan (GC), has been shown in the previous studies to be effective in inducing immune responses when combined with the treatment of laser irradiation after the intratumoral injection of indocyanine green solution. When glycated chitosan was used with photodynamic therapy (PDT), the treatment effect was significantly increased. Specifically, when glycated chitosan was injected peritumorally after Photofrin-based PDT treatment of EMT6 mammary sarcoma in mice, the tumor-free rate of the treated mice was increased from 38% to 75% using 1.5% GC solution. In mTHPC-based PDT treatment of Line-1 lung adenocarcinoma in mice, the tumor-free rates of treated mice reached 38% while PDT alone did not result in any tumor free mouse. The combination of the immunoadjuvant and selective photophysical interaction may become an effective method to treat tumors with an induced anti-tumor immunity.

  10. Bacterial Photodynamic Inactivation Mediated by Methylene Blue and Red Light Is Enhanced by Synergistic Effect of Potassium Iodide

    PubMed Central

    Vecchio, Daniela; Gupta, Asheesh; Huang, Liyi; Landi, Giacomo; Avci, Pinar; Rodas, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    The inexorable increase of antibiotic resistance occurring in different bacterial species is increasing the interest in developing new antimicrobial treatments that will be equally effective against multidrug-resistant strains and will not themselves induce resistance. One of these alternatives may be photodynamic inactivation (PDI), which uses a combination of nontoxic dyes, called photosensitizers (PS), excited by harmless visible light to generate reactive oxygen species (ROS) by type 1 (radical) and type 2 (singlet oxygen) pathways. In this study, we asked whether it was possible to improve the efficacy of PDI in vitro and in vivo by addition of the inert salt potassium iodide (KI) to a commonly investigated PS, the phenothiazinium dye methylene blue (MB). By adding KI, we observed a consistent increase of red light-mediated bacterial killing of Gram-positive and Gram-negative species in vitro and in vivo. In vivo, we also observed less bacterial recurrence in wounds in the days posttreatment. The mechanism of action is probably due to formation of reactive iodine species that are produced quickly with a short lifetime. This finding may have a relevant clinical impact by reducing the risk of amputation and, in some cases, the risk of death, leading to improvement in the care of patients affected by localized infections. PMID:26077247

  11. Triblock copolymers encapsulated poly (aryl benzyl ether) dendrimer zinc(II) phthalocyanine nanoparticles for enhancement in vitro photodynamic efficacy.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yide; Yu, Huizhen; Lv, Huafei; Zhang, Hong; Ma, Dongdong; Yang, Hongqin; Xie, Shusen; Peng, Yiru

    2016-12-01

    A novel series of nanoparticles formed via an electrostatic interaction between the periphery of negatively charged 1-2 generation aryl benzyl ether dendrimer zinc (II) phthalocyanines and positively charged poly(L-lysin) segment of triblock copolymer, poly(L-lysin)-block-poly(ethylene glycol)-block-poly(L-lysin), was developed for the use as an effective photosensitizers in photodynamic therapy. The dynamic light scattering, atomic force microscopy showed that two nanoparticles has a relevant size of 80-150nm. The photophysical properties and singlet oxygen quantum yields of free dendrimer phthalocyanines and nanoparticles exhibited generation dependence. The intracellular uptake of dendrimer phthalocyanines in Hela cells was significantly elevated as they were incorporated into the micelles, but was inversely correlated with the generation of dendrimer phthalocyanines. The photocytotoxicity of dendrimer phthalocyanines incorporated into polymeric micelles was also increased. The presence of nanoparticles induced efficient cell death. Using a mitochondrial-sepcific dye rhodamine 123 (Rh123), our fluorescence microscopic result indicated that nanoparticles localized to the mitochondria.

  12. Bacterial photodynamic inactivation mediated by methylene blue and red light is enhanced by synergistic effect of potassium iodide.

    PubMed

    Vecchio, Daniela; Gupta, Asheesh; Huang, Liyi; Landi, Giacomo; Avci, Pinar; Rodas, Andrea; Hamblin, Michael R

    2015-09-01

    The inexorable increase of antibiotic resistance occurring in different bacterial species is increasing the interest in developing new antimicrobial treatments that will be equally effective against multidrug-resistant strains and will not themselves induce resistance. One of these alternatives may be photodynamic inactivation (PDI), which uses a combination of nontoxic dyes, called photosensitizers (PS), excited by harmless visible light to generate reactive oxygen species (ROS) by type 1 (radical) and type 2 (singlet oxygen) pathways. In this study, we asked whether it was possible to improve the efficacy of PDI in vitro and in vivo by addition of the inert salt potassium iodide (KI) to a commonly investigated PS, the phenothiazinium dye methylene blue (MB). By adding KI, we observed a consistent increase of red light-mediated bacterial killing of Gram-positive and Gram-negative species in vitro and in vivo. In vivo, we also observed less bacterial recurrence in wounds in the days posttreatment. The mechanism of action is probably due to formation of reactive iodine species that are produced quickly with a short lifetime. This finding may have a relevant clinical impact by reducing the risk of amputation and, in some cases, the risk of death, leading to improvement in the care of patients affected by localized infections.

  13. The conjugates of carbon nanodots and chlorin e6 for enhancing cellular internalization and photodynamic therapy of cancers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jing; Wang, Xiongwei; Wang, Shimiao; Huang, Zheng; Liu, Jun

    2016-09-01

    Chlorin e6 (Ce6), a large heterocyclic aromatic molecule, is a promising photosensitizer for photodynamic therapy (PDT). We propose an efficient nano-photosensitizer delivery system based on covalent interactions between Ce6 and polyethylenimine (PEI) coated carbon nanodots (CDots). We observed  >50% Ce6 drug loading content for PEI, due to this compound’s unique ‘proton sponge effect.’ We found that the covalently incorporated Ce6 molecules retained their functional properties for near-infrared (NIR) fluorescence imaging and PDT. The chemical characteristics of CDot-PEI-Ce6 and Ce6 were evaluated using different analytical methods, including transmission electron microscopy and UV-Visible absorption spectra. Time-correlated single photon counting (TCSPC) and fluorescence spectra were used to demonstrate that Ce6 successfully conjugated to the CDots. The high cellular uptake of CDots-PEI-Ce6 was confirmed using flow cytometry and confocal laser scanning microscopy. According to the MTT assay, the CDots-PEI-Ce6 exhibited low dark toxicity and efficient PDT efficacy to HeLa cancer cells. These results indicate that CDot-PEI-Ce6 conjugates are potential photosensitizer delivery systems for PDT.

  14. A new NIR-triggered doxorubicin and photosensitizer indocyanine green co-delivery system for enhanced multidrug resistant cancer treatment through simultaneous chemo/photothermal/photodynamic therapy.

    PubMed

    Yu, Yanna; Zhang, Zhipeng; Wang, Yun; Zhu, Hao; Li, Fangzhou; Shen, Yuanyuan; Guo, Shengrong

    2017-09-01

    It is a great challenge to combat multidrug resistant (MDR) cancer effectively. To address this issue, we developed a new near-infrared (NIR) triggered chemotherapeutic agent doxorubicin (DOX) and photosensitizer indocyanine green (ICG) co-release system by aid of NIR induced photothermal effect of gold nanocages (AuNCs) and temperature sensitive phase-change property of 1-tetradecanol at its melting point of 39°C, which could simultaneously exerted chemo/photothermal/photodynamic treatment on MDR human breast cancer MCF-7/ADR cells. This nano-sized system was constructed by filling the interior of AuNCs with DOX, ICG and 1-tetradecanol, and modifying the surface with biotinylated poly (ethylene glycol) via Au-S bonds, termed as DOX/ICG@biotin-PEG-AuNC-PCM. The DOX and ICG co-release from DOX/ICG@biotin-PEG-AuNC-PCM was much faster in PBS at 40°C or under 808nm NIR irradiation at 2.5W/cm(2) than at 37°C (e.g. 67.27% or 80.31% vs. 5.57% of DOX, 76.08% vs. 3.83% of ICG for 20min). The flow cytometry and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) results showed, the AuNCs were taken up by MCF-7/ADR cells via endocytosis, thus enhancing DOX uptake; the biotin on AuNCs facilitated this endocytosis; NIR irradiation caused the heating of the AuNCs, triggering the DOX and ICG co-release and enhancing the distribution of DOX in nuclei, the released ICG generated ROS to take photodynamic therapy. Due to the above unique properties, DOX/ICG@biotin-PEG-AuNC-PCM exerted excellent anti-tumor effects under NIR irradiation, its IC50 against MCF-7/ADR cells was very low, only 0.48µg/mL, much smaller than that of free DOX (74.51μg/mL). A new near-infrared (NIR) triggered chemotherapeutic agent doxorubicin (DOX) and photosensitizer indocyanine green (ICG) co-release system by aid of NIR induced photothermal effect of gold nanocages (AuNCs) and temperature sensitive phase-change property of 1-tetradecanol at its melting point of 39°C, was prepared, termed as DOX

  15. Redox-sensitive cross-linking enhances albumin nanoparticle function as delivery system for photodynamic cancer therapy

    PubMed Central

    Molina, Anna M.; Morales-Cruz, Moraima; Benítez, Marimar; Berríos, Kiara; Figueroa, Cindy M.; Griebenow, Kai

    2016-01-01

    Photodynamic cancer therapy is still limited in its efficiency because of a lack of targeted methods avoiding non-specific toxicity. To overcome this we developed a system that is solely effective upon cellular uptake and intracellular activation by incorporating redox-sensitive chemistry. We used a nanoprecipitation method to obtain human serum albumin nanoparticles (HSA NP) with a diameter of 295 ± 5 nm and decorated them with the photosensitizer (PS) chlorin e6 (Ce6). The NP were stabilized using a redox-sensitive cross-linker to create a smart drug delivery system that is activated only upon NP disintegration in the reducing intracellular environment. Indeed, our drug delivery NP broke down in an environment emulating the reducing intracellular environment with 10 mM glutathione, but not under extracellular conditions. In contrast, the control cross-linked with glutaraldehyde did not break down in the reducing environment. Upon NP disintegration Ce6 fluorescence doubled as the result of diminished self-quenching. While the Ce6-HSA NP did not produce a significant amount of singlet oxygen upon irradiation, NP disintegration restored singlet oxygen production to about half of the value generated by the free Ce6. In vitro experiments with HeLa cells showed that the smart system was able to kill up to 81% of the cells while the glutaraldehyde cross-linked control only killed 56% of them at a drug concentration of 10 ng/ml. Also, Ce6 immobilization in HSA NP prevented dark toxicity in three different cell lines. For the first time, we demonstrate that it is possible to design a smart NP drug delivery system delivering a PS drug to cancer cells while avoiding toxicity prior to the uptake and irradiation. This finding may provide a means of designing more efficient PDT in cancer treatment. PMID:27088048

  16. Topical calcitriol prior to photodynamic therapy enhances treatment efficacy in non-melanoma skin cancer mouse models

    PubMed Central

    Rollakanti, Kishore; Anand, Sanjay; Maytin, Edward V.

    2015-01-01

    Non-melanoma skin cancers (NMSCs) such as basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) are the most common form of human cancer worldwide, and their incidence is increasing. Photodynamic therapy (PDT), mediated by topically applied aminolevulinic acid (ALA) and subsequent exposure to light (either a laser or a noncoherent source), is being increasingly used for the treatment of dermatological disorders, including BCC and SCC. However, therapeutic responses of NMSCs to ALA-PDT are currently not superior to standard therapies, although the latter have undesirable side effects including scarring. In this study, we report that preconditioning of skin tumors with calcitriol (active form of Vitamin D; Vit D) prior to ALA-PDT, significantly improves the treatment outcome. In BCC and UVB-induced SCC mouse models, we identified an increase in tumor-specific accumulation of ALA induced photosensitizer (protoporphyrin IX, PpIX) due to Vit D preconditioning, of up to 6-fold in vivo. In addition, increased expression of differentiation (145 fold, p < 0.02) and proliferation (42 fold, p < 0.005) markers were identified in BCC tumors, all leading to increased tumor destruction (18.3 fold, p < 0.03) with the combination approach, as compared to ALA-PDT alone. Histomorphological changes identified using hematoxylin and eosin staining, and results of TUNEL staining, together documented a beneficial effect of Vit D pretreatment upon tumor cell death. We conclude that this new combination approach with Vit D and ALA-PDT has great potential to achieve complete remission of NMSC tumors, with excellent cosmetic results and an overall beneficial impact upon patient care. PMID:25983370

  17. Ultrasonic activation and chemical modification of photosensitizers enhances the effects of photodynamic therapy against Enterococcus faecalis root-canal isolates.

    PubMed

    Tennert, C; Drews, A M; Walther, V; Altenburger, M J; Karygianni, L; Wrbas, K T; Hellwig, E; Al-Ahmad, A

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of photodynamic therapy (PDT) on Enterococcus faecalis biofilms in artificially infected root canals using modified photosensitizers and passive ultrasonic activation. Two hundred and seventy extracted human teeth with one root canal were instrumented utilizing ProTaper files, autoclaved, infected with E. faecalis T9 for 72 h and divided into different groups: irrigation with 3% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl), 20% ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), or 20% citric acid, PDT without irrigation, PDT accompanied by irrigation with NaOCl, EDTA, or citric acid, PDT using an EDTA-based photosensitizer or a citric-acid-based photosensitizer and PDT with ultrasonic activation of the photosensitizer. A 15 mg/ml toluidine blue served as the photosensitizer, activated by a 100 mW LED light source. Sterile paper points were used for sampling the root canals and dentin chips were collected to assess the remaining contamination after treatment. Samples were cultured on blood agar plates and colony forming units were quantified. PDT alone achieved a reduction in E. faecalis counts by 92.7%, NaOCl irrigation alone and combined with PDT by 99.9%. The antibacterial effects increased by the combination of irrigation using EDTA or citric acid and PDT compared to irrigation alone. More than 99% of E. faecalis were killed using PDT with the modified photosensitizers and ultrasonic activation. NaOCl based disinfection achieved the highest antimicrobial effect. Using PDT with an EDTA-based or citric-acid-based phozosensitizer or activating the photosensitizer with ultrasound resulted in a significantly higher reduction in E. faecalis counts compared to conventional PDT. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Topical calcitriol prior to photodynamic therapy enhances treatment efficacy in non-melanoma skin cancer mouse models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rollakanti, Kishore; Anand, Sanjay; Maytin, Edward V.

    2015-03-01

    Non-melanoma skin cancers (NMSCs) such as basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) are the most common form of human cancer worldwide, and their incidence is increasing. Photodynamic therapy (PDT), mediated by topically applied aminolevulinic acid (ALA) and subsequent exposure to light (either a laser or a noncoherent source), is being increasingly used for the treatment of dermatological disorders, including BCC and SCC. However, therapeutic responses of NMSCs to ALA-PDT are currently not superior to standard therapies, although the latter have undesirable side effects including scarring. In this study, we report that preconditioning of skin tumors with calcitriol (active form of Vitamin D; Vit D) prior to ALA-PDT, significantly improves the treatment outcome. In BCC and UVB-induced SCC mouse models, we identified an increase in tumor-specific accumulation of ALA induced photosensitizer (protoporphyrin IX, PpIX) due to Vit D preconditioning, of up to 6- fold in vivo. In addition, increased expression of differentiation (145 fold, p < 0.02) and proliferation (42 fold, p <0.005) markers were identified in BCC tumors, all leading to increased tumor destruction (18.3 fold, p < 0.03) with the combination approach, as compared to ALA-PDT alone. Histomorphological changes identified using hematoxylin and eosin staining, and results of TUNEL staining, together documented a beneficial effect of Vit D pretreatment upon tumor cell death. We conclude that this new combination approach with Vit D and ALA-PDT has great potential to achieve complete remission of NMSC tumors, with excellent cosmetic results and an overall beneficial impact upon patient care.

  19. Graphene-based nanovehicles for photodynamic medical therapy.

    PubMed

    Li, Yan; Dong, Haiqing; Li, Yongyong; Shi, Donglu

    2015-01-01

    Graphene and its derivatives such as graphene oxide (GO) have been widely explored as promising drug delivery vehicles for improved cancer treatment. In this review, we focus on their applications in photodynamic therapy. The large specific surface area of GO facilitates efficient loading of the photosensitizers and biological molecules via various surface functional groups. By incorporation of targeting ligands or activatable agents responsive to specific biological stimulations, smart nanovehicles are established, enabling tumor-triggering release or tumor-selective accumulation of photosensitizer for effective therapy with minimum side effects. Graphene-based nanosystems have been shown to improve the stability, bioavailability, and photodynamic efficiency of organic photosensitizer molecules. They have also been shown to behave as electron sinks for enhanced visible-light photodynamic activities. Owing to its intrinsic near infrared absorption properties, GO can be designed to combine both photodynamic and photothermal hyperthermia for optimum therapeutic efficiency. Critical issues and future aspects of photodynamic therapy research are addressed in this review.

  20. Monitoring Pc 4-mediated photodynamic therapy of U87 tumors with dynamic contrast enhanced-magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) in the athymic nude rat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varghai, Davood; Covey, Kelly; Sharma, Rahul; Cross, Nathan; Feyes, Denise K.; Oleinick, Nancy L.; Flask, Chris A.; Dean, David

    2008-02-01

    Post-operative verification of the specificity and sensitivity of photodynamic therapy (PDT) is most pressing for deeply placed lesions such as brain tumors. We wish to determine whether Dynamic Contrast Enhanced-Magnetic Resonance Imaging (DCE-MRI) can provide a non-invasive and unambiguous quantitative measure of the specificity and sensitivity of brain tumor PDT. Methods: 2.5 x 10 5 U87 cells were injected into the brains of six athymic nude rats. After 5-6 days, the animals received 0.5 mg/kg b.w. of the phthalocyanine photosensitizer Pc 4 via tail-vein injection. On day 7 peri-tumor DCE-MRI images were acquired on a 7T microMRI scanner before and after tail-vein administration of 100 μL gadolinium and 400 μL saline. After this scan the animals received a 30 J/cm2 dose of 672-nm light from a diode laser (i.e., PDT). The DCE-MRI scan protocol was repeated on day 13. Next, the animals were euthanized and their brains were explanted for Hematoxylin and Eosin (H&E) histology. Results: No tumor was found in one animal. The DCE-MRI images of the other five animals demonstrated significant tumor enhancement increase (p < 0.053 two-sided t-test and p < 0.026 one-sided t-test) following PDT. H&E histology presented moderate to severe tumor necrosis. Discussion: The change in signal detected by DCE-MRI appears to be due to PDT-induced tumor necrosis. This DCE-MRI signal appears to provide a quantitative, non-invasive measure of the outcome of PDT in this animal model and may be useful for determining the safety and effectiveness of PDT in deeply placed tumors (e.g., glioma).

  1. Enhancement of tumor responsiveness to aminolevulinate-photodynamic therapy (ALA-PDT) using differentiation-promoting agents in mouse models of skin carcinoma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anand, Sanjay; Honari, Golara; Paliwal, Akshat; Hasan, Tayyaba; Maytin, Edward V.

    2009-06-01

    Aminolevulinic acid-mediated photodynamic therapy (ALA-PDT) is an emerging treatment for cancers. ALA, given as a prodrug, selectively accumulates and is metabolized in cancer cells to form protoporphyrin IX (PpIX). Targeted local irradiation with light induces cell death. Since the efficacy of ALA-PDT for large or deep tumors is currently limited, we are developing a new approach that combines differentiation-inducing agents with ALA-PDT to improve the clinical response. Here, we tested this new combination paradigm in the following two models of skin carcinoma in mice: 1) tumors generated by topical application of chemical carcinogens (DMBA-TPA); 2) human SCC cells (A431) implanted subcutaneously. To achieve a differentiated state of the tumors, pretreatment with a low concentration of methotrexate (MTX) or Vitamin D (Vit D) was administered for 72 h prior to exposure to ALA. Confocal images of histological sections were captured and digitally analyzed to determine relative PpIX levels. PpIX in the tumors was also monitored by real-time in vivo fluorescence dosimetry. In both models, a significant increase in levels of PpIX was observed following pretreatment with MTX or Vit D, as compared to no-pretreatment controls. This enhancing effect was observed at very low, non-cytotoxic concentrations, and was highly specific to cancer cells as compared to normal cells. These results suggest that use of differentiating agents such as MTX or Vit D, as a short-term combination therapy given prior to ALA-PDT, can increase the production of PpIX photosensitizer and enhance the therapeutic response of skin cancers.

  2. Photodynamic therapy with recombinant adenovirus AdmIL-12 enhances anti-tumour therapy efficacy in human papillomavirus 16 (E6/E7) infected tumour model

    PubMed Central

    Park, Eun Kyung; Bae, Su-Mi; Kwak, Sun-Young; Lee, Sung Jong; Kim, Yong-Wook; Han, Chan-Hee; Cho, Hyun-Jung; Kim, Kyung Tae; Kim, Young-Jae; Kim, Hyun-Jung; Ahn, Woong Shick

    2008-01-01

    Immunotherapy with photodynamic therapy (PDT) offers great promise as a new alternative for cancer treatment; however, its use remains experimental. Here we investigated the utility of adenoviral delivery of interleukin-12 (AdmIL-12) as an adjuvant for PDT in mouse tumour challenge model. PDT was performed by irradiating Radachlorin in C57BL/6 mice transplanted with TC-1 cells. PDT plus AdmIL-12 treatment for tumour suppression as well as specific immune responses were evaluated with the following tests: in vitro and in vivo tumour growth inhibition, interferon-γ (IFN-γ) and tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) assay, and cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) assay. Direct intratumoral injection of AdmIL-12 resulted in a significant suppression of tumour growth compared to the control group. Treatment of PDT along with AdmIL-12 further enhanced antitumour effects significantly higher than either AdmIL-12 or PDT alone. This combined treatment resulted in complete regression of 9-mm sized tumour in every animal. We also evaluated immune responses induced by these treatments. Combined treatment significantly increased the production level of IFN-γ and TNF-α compared with that by AdmIL-12 or PDT alone. PDT plus AdmIL-12 enhanced antitumour immunity through increased expansion of the CTL subset mediated by CD8+ T cells. Taken together, these results indicate that the high anti-cancer activity of PDT with AdmIL-12 is a powerful tool against cancer therapy and is a promising subject for further investigation. PMID:18397271

  3. Low-dose arsenic trioxide enhances 5-aminolevulinic acid-induced PpIX accumulation and efficacy of photodynamic therapy in human glioma.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chunlei; Chen, Xiaofeng; Wu, Jianing; Liu, Huailei; Ji, Zhiyong; Shi, Huaizhang; Gao, Cheng; Han, Dayong; Wang, Ligang; Liu, Yaohua; Yang, Guang; Fu, Changyu; Li, Huadong; Zhang, Dongzhi; Liu, Ziyi; Li, Xianfeng; Yin, Fei; Zhao, Shiguang

    2013-10-05

    Among glioma treatment strategies, 5-aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA)-based fluorescence-guided resection (FGR) and photodynamic therapy (PDT) have been used as effective novel approaches against malignant glioma. However, insufficient intracellular protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) accumulation limits the application of FGR and PDT in the marginal areas of gliomas. To overcome these issues, we assessed the intracellular levels of PpIX in human glioma cell lines and rat cortical astrocytes pretreated with 0.1μM arsenic trioxide (ATO). Apoptosis and cell viability after PDT were evaluated using Annexin V-FITC apoptosis detection kit and MTT assay, respectively. In order to find out the possible mechanism, we investigated the expression of the key enzymes in the heme biosynthesis pathway, which regulates porphyrin synthesis in glioma cells. Our findings showed that the 5-ALA-induced PpIX accumulation in glioma cell lines pretreated with 0.1μM ATO was increased relative to the control groups. No changes in fluorescence intensity were detected in the rat cortical astrocytes pretreated using the same ATO concentration. Apoptosis following PDT in glioma cells pretreated with 0.1μM ATO were significantly higher than in control groups, especially late apoptotic cells, while the cell viability was decreased. The expression of CPOX was upregulated in glioma cells after pretreatment with 0.1μM ATO. We concluded that ATO was a potential optional approach in enhancing intracellular PpIX accumulation and improving the benefits of 5-ALA-induced FGR and PDT in glioma.

  4. C-Phycocyanin as a tumour-associated macrophage-targeted photosensitiser and a vehicle of phthalocyanine for enhanced photodynamic therapy.

    PubMed

    Wan, Dong-Hua; Zheng, Bi-Yuan; Ke, Mei-Rong; Duan, Ji-Ying; Zheng, Yun-Quan; Yeh, Chih-Kuang; Huang, Jian-Dong

    2017-04-06

    C-Phycocyanin (CPC) as a tumour-associated macrophage (TAM)-targeted photosensitiser has been first proved, and used as a vehicle of zinc phthalocyanine (ZnPc) to fabricate a ZnPc-CPC conjugate, which exhibits an efficient in vitro photodynamic activity, and selectively accumulates in tumour sites probably due to the affinity to TAM.

  5. On involvement of transcription factors nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells, activator protein-1 and signal transducer and activator of transcription-3 in photodynamic therapy-induced death of crayfish neurons and satellite glial cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berezhnaya, Elena; Neginskaya, Marya; Kovaleva, Vera; Sharifulina, Svetlana; Ischenko, Irina; Komandirov, Maxim; Rudkovskii, Mikhail; Uzdensky, Anatoly B.

    2015-07-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is currently used in the treatment of brain tumors. However, not only malignant cells but also neighboring normal neurons and glial cells are damaged during PDT. In order to study the potential role of transcription factors-nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB), activator protein (AP-1), and signal transducer and activator of transcription-3 (STAT-3)-in photodynamic injury of normal neurons and glia, we photosensitized the isolated crayfish mechanoreceptor consisting of a single sensory neuron enveloped by glial cells. Application of different inhibitors and activators showed that transcription factors NF-κB (inhibitors caffeic acid phenethyl ester and parthenolide, activator betulinic acid), AP-1 (inhibitor SR11302), and STAT-3 (inhibitors stattic and cucurbitacine) influenced PDT-induced death and survival of neurons and glial cells in different ways. These experiments indicated involvement of NF-κB in PDT-induced necrosis of neurons and apoptosis of glial cells. However, in glial cells, it played the antinecrotic role. AP-1 was not involved in PDT-induced necrosis of neurons and glia, but mediated glial apoptosis. STAT-3 was involved in PDT-induced apoptosis of glial cells and necrosis of neurons and glia. Therefore, signaling pathways that regulate cell death and survival in neurons and glial cells are different. Using various inhibitors or activators of transcription factors, one can differently influence the sensitivity and resistance of neurons and glial cells to PDT.

  6. NIR-light-induced surface-enhanced Raman scattering for detection and photothermal/photodynamic therapy of cancer cells using methylene blue-embedded gold nanorod@SiO2 nanocomposites.

    PubMed

    Seo, Sun-Hwa; Kim, Bo-Mi; Joe, Ara; Han, Hyo-Won; Chen, Xiaoyuan; Cheng, Zhen; Jang, Eue-Soon

    2014-03-01

    Methylene blue-loaded gold nanorod@SiO2 (MB-GNR@SiO2) core@shell nanoparticles are synthesized for use in cancer imaging and photothermal/photodynamic dual therapy. For the preparation of GNR@SiO2 nanoparticles, we found that the silica coating rate of hexadecylcetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB)-capped GNRs is much slower than that of PEGylated GNRs due to the densely coated CTAB bilayer. Encapsulated MB molecules have both monomer and dimer forms that result in an increase in the photosensitizing effect through different photochemical pathways. As a consequence of the excellent plasmonic properties of GNRs at near-infrared (NIR) light, the embedded MB molecules showed NIR light-induced SERS performance with a Raman enhancement factor of 3.0 × 10(10), which is enough for the detection of a single cancer cell. Moreover, the MB-GNR@SiO2 nanoparticles exhibit a synergistic effect of photodynamic and photothermal therapies of cancer under single-wavelength NIR laser irradiation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. NIR-light-induced surface-enhanced Raman scattering for detection and photothermal/photodynamic therapy of cancer cells using methylene blue-embedded gold nanorod@SiO2 nanocomposites

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Sun-Hwa; Kim, Bo-Mi; Joe, Ara; Han, Hyo-Won; Chen, Xiaoyuan; Cheng, Zhen; Jang, Eue-Soon

    2015-01-01

    Methylene blue-loaded gold nanorod@SiO2 (MB-GNR@SiO2) core@shell nanoparticles are synthesized for use in cancer imaging and photothermal/photodynamic dual therapy. For the preparation of GNR@SiO2 nanoparticles, we found that the silica coating rate of hexadecylcetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB)-capped GNRs is much slower than that of PEGylated GNRs due to the densely coated CTAB bilayer. Encapsulated MB molecules have both monomer and dimer forms that result in an increase in the photosensitizing effect through different photochemical pathways. As a consequence of the excellent plasmonic properties of GNRs at near-infrared (NIR) light, the embedded MB molecules showed NIR light-induced SERS performance with a Raman enhancement factor of 3.0 × 1010, which is enough for the detection of a single cancer cell. Moreover, the MB-GNR@SiO2 nanoparticles exhibit a synergistic effect of photodynamic and photothermal therapies of cancer under single-wavelength NIR laser irradiation. PMID:24424205

  8. Photodynamic therapy with ultrafast lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wachter, Eric A.; Petersen, Mark G.; Dees, Craig

    1999-06-01

    The photodynamic properties of several photosensitive compounds have been evaluated in vivo using simultaneous two-photon excitation (TPE) and multi-photon excitation (MPE). TPE and MPE are effected using a mode-locked laser, such as the mode-locked titanium:sapphire or Nd:YLF laser, the near infrared output of which allows direct promotion of various non-resonant transitions. Such lasers are exceptionally well suited for non-linear activation of exogenous or endogenous PDT agents in biological systems due to their extremely short pulse width, modest pulse energy, and high repetition rate; these features combine to effect efficient PDT activation with minimal potential for non- specific biological damage, improved spatial localization of activation, and enhanced depth of penetration. Results in several murine models are presented.

  9. Poly(D, L-lactide-co-glycolide) nanoparticles as delivery agents for photodynamic therapy: enhancing singlet oxygen release and photototoxicity by surface PEG coating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boix-Garriga, Ester; Acedo, Pilar; Casadó, Ana; Villanueva, Angeles; Stockert, Juan Carlos; Cañete, Magdalena; Mora, Margarita; Lluïsa Sagristá, Maria; Nonell, Santi

    2015-09-01

    Poly(D, L-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) nanoparticles (NPs) are being considered as nanodelivery systems for photodynamic therapy. The physico-chemical and biological aspects of their use remain largely unknown. Herein we report the results of a study of PLGA NPs for the delivery of the model hydrophobic photosensitizer ZnTPP to HeLa cells. ZnTPP was encapsulated in PLGA with high efficiency and the NPs showed negative zeta potentials and diameters close to 110 nm. Poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) coating, introduced to prevent opsonization and clearance by macrophages, decreased the size and zeta potential of the NPs by roughly a factor of two and improved their stability in the presence of serum proteins. Photophysical studies revealed two and three populations of ZnTPP and singlet oxygen in uncoated and PEGylated NPs, respectively. Singlet oxygen is confined within the NPs in bare PLGA while it is more easily released into the external medium after PEG coating, which contributes to a higher photocytotoxicity towards HeLa cells in vitro. PLGA NPs are internalized by endocytosis, deliver their cargo to lysosomes and induce cell death by apoptosis upon exposure to light. In conclusion, PLGA NPs coated with PEG show high potential as delivery systems for photodynamic applications.

  10. Poly(D, L-lactide-co-glycolide) nanoparticles as delivery agents for photodynamic therapy: enhancing singlet oxygen release and photototoxicity by surface PEG coating.

    PubMed

    Boix-Garriga, Ester; Acedo, Pilar; Casadó, Ana; Villanueva, Angeles; Stockert, Juan Carlos; Cañete, Magdalena; Mora, Margarita; Sagristá, Maria Lluïsa; Nonell, Santi

    2015-09-11

    Poly(D, L-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) nanoparticles (NPs) are being considered as nanodelivery systems for photodynamic therapy. The physico-chemical and biological aspects of their use remain largely unknown. Herein we report the results of a study of PLGA NPs for the delivery of the model hydrophobic photosensitizer ZnTPP to HeLa cells. ZnTPP was encapsulated in PLGA with high efficiency and the NPs showed negative zeta potentials and diameters close to 110 nm. Poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) coating, introduced to prevent opsonization and clearance by macrophages, decreased the size and zeta potential of the NPs by roughly a factor of two and improved their stability in the presence of serum proteins. Photophysical studies revealed two and three populations of ZnTPP and singlet oxygen in uncoated and PEGylated NPs, respectively. Singlet oxygen is confined within the NPs in bare PLGA while it is more easily released into the external medium after PEG coating, which contributes to a higher photocytotoxicity towards HeLa cells in vitro. PLGA NPs are internalized by endocytosis, deliver their cargo to lysosomes and induce cell death by apoptosis upon exposure to light. In conclusion, PLGA NPs coated with PEG show high potential as delivery systems for photodynamic applications.

  11. [Photodynamic therapy vs imiquimod].

    PubMed

    Serra-Guillén, C; Nagore, E; Guillén, C

    2012-01-01

    Photodynamic therapy and imiquimod are highly regarded treatments dermatologists frequently prescribe for actinic keratoses, basal cell carcinoma, and Bowen disease. The scarcity of evidence from comparative trials prevents us from drawing well-founded conclusions about the efficacy, tolerance, and adverse effects of these therapeutic options or to recommend one over the other in any particular type of lesion or patient. On the other hand, in certain conditions (eg, actinic chelitis, immunosuppression, and basal cell carcinoma affecting the eyelids), there is evidence to support the use of photodynamic therapy or imiquimod even though they might initially seem contraindicated. We critically review and compare the use of these 2 treatments in order to suggest which is more appropriate in specific cases.

  12. Photodynamic therapy with fullerenes†

    PubMed Central

    Mroz, Pawel; Tegos, George P.; Gali, Hariprasad; Wharton, Tim; Sarna, Tadeusz; Hamblin, Michael R.

    2010-01-01

    Fullerenes are a class of closed-cage nanomaterials made exclusively from carbon atoms. A great deal of attention has been focused on developing medical uses of these unique molecules especially when they are derivatized with functional groups to make them soluble and therefore able to interact with biological systems. Due to their extended π-conjugation they absorb visible light, have a high triplet yield and can generate reactive oxygen species upon illumination, suggesting a possible role of fullerenes in photodynamic therapy. Depending on the functional groups introduced into the molecule, fullerenes can effectively photoinactivate either or both pathogenic microbial cells and malignant cancer cells. The mechanism appears to involve superoxide anion as well as singlet oxygen, and under the right conditions fullerenes may have advantages over clinically applied photosensitizers for mediating photodynamic therapy of certain diseases. PMID:17973044

  13. Real-time imaging of photodynamic action in bacteria.

    PubMed

    Gollmer, Anita; Felgentraeger, Ariane; Maisch, Tim; Flors, Cristina

    2017-02-01

    Fluorescence imaging studies of the processes leading to photodynamic inactivation of bacteria have been limited due to the small size of microorganisms as well as by the faint fluorescence of most photosensitizers. A versatile method based on highly-sensitive fluorescence microscopy is presented which allows to study, in real time, the incorporation of photosensitizers inside S. aureus upon photodynamic action. The method takes advantage of the fluorescence enhancement of phenothiazine and porphyrin photosensitizers upon entering the bacterial cytosol after the cell wall has been compromised. In combination with typical assays, such as the addition of specific enhancers of reactive oxygen species, it is possible to extract mechanistic information about the pathway of photodynamic damage at the single-cell level. Imaging experiments in deuterated buffer strongly support a Type-I mechanism for methylene blue and a very minor role of singlet oxygen. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Photodynamic immune modulation (PIM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    North, John R.; Hunt, David W. C.; Simkin, Guillermo O.; Ratkay, Leslie G.; Chan, Agnes H.; Lui, Harvey; Levy, Julia G.

    1999-09-01

    Photodynamic Therapy (PDT) is accepted for treatment of superficial and lumen-occluding tumors in regions accessible to activating light and is now known to be effective in closure of choroidal neovasculature in Age Related Macular Degeneration. PDT utilizes light absorbing drugs (photosensitizers) that generate the localized formation of reactive oxygen species after light exposure. In a number of systems, PDT has immunomodulatory effects; Photodynamic Immune Modulation (PIM). Using low- intensity photodynamic regimens applied over a large body surface area, progression of mouse autoimmune disease could be inhibited. Further, this treatment strongly inhibited the immunologically- medicated contact hypersensitivity response to topically applied chemical haptens. Immune modulation appears to result from selective targeting of activated T lymphocytes and reduction in immunostimulation by antigen presenting cells. Psoriasis, an immune-mediated skin condition, exhibits heightened epidermal cell proliferation, epidermal layer thickening and plaque formation at different body sites. In a recent clinical trial, approximately one-third of patients with psoriasis and arthritis symptoms (psoriatic arthritis) displayed a significant clinical improvement in several psoriasis-related parameters after four weekly whole-body PIM treatments with verteporfin. The safety profile was favorable. The capacity of PIM to influence other human immune disorders including rheumatoid arthritis is under extensive evaluation.

  15. Natural extracellular nanovesicles and photodynamic molecules: is there a future for drug delivery?

    PubMed

    Kusuzaki, Katsuyuki; Matsubara, Takao; Murata, Hiroaki; Logozzi, Mariantonia; Iessi, Elisabetta; Di Raimo, Rossella; Carta, Fabrizio; Supuran, Claudiu T; Fais, Stefano

    2017-12-01

    Photodynamic molecules represent an alternative approach for cancer therapy for their property (i) to be photo-reactive; (ii) to be not-toxic for target cells in absence of light; (iii) to accumulate specifically into tumour tissues; (iv) to be activable by a light beam only at the tumour site and (v) to exert cytotoxic activity against tumour cells. However, to date their clinical use is limited by the side effects elicited by systemic administration. Extracellular vesicles are endogenous nanosized-carriers that have been recently introduced as a natural delivery system for therapeutic molecules. We have recently shown the ability of human exosomes to deliver photodynamic molecules. Therefore, this review focussed on extracellular vesicles as a novel strategy for the delivery of photodynamic molecules at cancer sites. This completely new approach may enhance the delivery and decrease the toxicity of photodynamic molecules, therefore, represent the future for photodynamic therapy for cancer treatment.

  16. The pro-apoptotic and anti-invasive effects of hypericin-mediated photodynamic therapy are enhanced by hyperforin or aristoforin in HT-29 colon adenocarcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Šemeláková, Martina; Mikeš, Jaromír; Jendželovský, Rastislav; Fedoročko, Peter

    2012-12-05

    Photodynamic therapy is a rapidly-developing anti-cancer approach for the treatment of various types of malignant as well as non-malignant diseases. In this study, hypericin-mediated photodynamic therapy (HY-PDT) in sub-optimal dose was combined with hyperforin (HP) or its stable derivative aristoforin (AR) in an effort to improve efficacy on the cellular level. The logic of this combination is based on the fact that both bioactive compounds naturally occur in plants of Hypericum sp. At relatively low concentrations up to 5 μM, hyperforin and aristoforin were able to stimulate onset of apoptosis in HT-29 colon adenocarcinoma cells exposed to HY-PDT, inhibit cell cycle progression, suppress expression of matrixmetalloproteinases-2/-9 together with cell adhesivity, thereby affecting the clonogenic potential of the cells. As the action of aristoforin was more pronounced, in line with our assumption, these changes were also linked in this case with hypericin accumulation and increased ROS generation leading to dissipation of mitochondrial membrane potential in a significant portion of the cells, as well as activation of caspase-3. Comparison of HT-29 cells to another colon adenocarcinoma-derived cell line HCT-116 demonstrated significant differences in sensitivity of different cell lines to PDT, however, accumulated effect of HY-PDT with HP/AR proved similar in both tested cell lines. The presented data may help to elucidate the mechanisms of action for different bioactive constituents of St. John's wort, which are increasingly recognized as being able to regulate a variety of pathobiological processes, thus possessing potential therapeutic properties.

  17. Dynamic contrast enhanced-magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) for the assessment of Pc 4-sensitized photodynamic therapy of a U87-derived glioma model in the athymic nude rat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anka, Ali; Thompson, Paul; Mott, Eric; Sharma, Rahul; Zhang, Ruozhen; Cross, Nathan; Sun, Jiayang; Flask, Chris A.; Oleinick, Nancy L.; Dean, David

    2010-02-01

    Introduction: Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced-Magnetic Resonance Imaging (DCE-MRI) may provide a means of tracking the outcome of Pc 4-sensitized photodynamic therapy (PDT) in deeply placed lesions (e.g., brain tumors). We previously determined that 150 μL of gadolinium (Gd-DTPA) produces optimal enhancement of U87-derived intracerebral tumors in an athymic nude rat glioma model. We wish to determine how consistently DCE-MRI enhancement will detect an increase in Gd-enhancement of these tumors following Pc 4-PDT. Methods: We injected 2.5 x 105 U87 cells into the brains of 6 athymic nude rats. After 7-8 days pre-Pc 4 PDT peri-tumor DCE-MRI images were acquired on a 7.0T microMRI scanner before and after administration of 150 μL Gd. DCE-MRI scans were repeated on Days 11, 12, and 13 following Pc 4-PDT (Day 8 or 9). Results: Useful DCE-MRI data were obtained for these animals before and after Pc 4- PDT. In the pre-Pc 4-PDT DCE-MRI scans an average normalized peak Gd enhancement was observed in tumor tissue that was 1.297 times greater than baseline (0.035 Standard Error [SE]). The average normalized peak Gd enhancement in the tumor tissue in the scan following PDT (Day 11) was 1.537 times greater than baseline (0.036 SE), a statistically significant increase in enhancement (p = 0.00584) over the pre-PDT level. Discussion: A 150 μL Gd dose appears to provide an unambiguous increase in signal indicating Pc 4-PDT-induced necrosis of the U87-derived tumor. Our DCEMRI protocol may allow the development of a clinically robust, unambiguous, non-invasive technique for the assessment of PDT outcome.

  18. Sono-photodynamic combination therapy: a review on sensitizers.

    PubMed

    Sadanala, Krishna Chaitanya; Chaturvedi, Pankaj Kumar; Seo, You Mi; Kim, Jeung Mo; Jo, Yong Sam; Lee, Yang Koo; Ahn, Woong Shick

    2014-09-01

    Cancer is characterized by the dysregulation of cell signaling pathways at several steps. The majority of current anticancer therapies involve the modulation of a single target. A tumor-targeting drug-delivery system consists of a tumor detection moiety and a cytotoxic material joined directly or through a suitable linker to form a conjugate. Photodynamic therapy has been used for more than 100 years to treat tumors. One of the present goals of photodynamic therapy research is to enhance the selective targeting of tumor cells in order to reduce the risk and extension of unwanted side-effects, caused by normal cell damage. Sonodynamic therapy is a promising new treatment for patients with cancer. It treats cancer with ultrasound and sonosensitive agents. Porphyrin compounds often serve as photosensitive and sonosensitive agents. The combination of these two methods makes cancer treatment more effective. The present review provides an overview of photodynamic therapy, sonodynamic therapy, sono-photodynamic therapy and the four sensitizers which are suitable candidates for combined sono-photodynamic therapy. Copyright© 2014 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  19. Graphene-based nanovehicles for photodynamic medical therapy

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yan; Dong, Haiqing; Li, Yongyong; Shi, Donglu

    2015-01-01

    Graphene and its derivatives such as graphene oxide (GO) have been widely explored as promising drug delivery vehicles for improved cancer treatment. In this review, we focus on their applications in photodynamic therapy. The large specific surface area of GO facilitates efficient loading of the photosensitizers and biological molecules via various surface functional groups. By incorporation of targeting ligands or activatable agents responsive to specific biological stimulations, smart nanovehicles are established, enabling tumor-triggering release or tumor-selective accumulation of photosensitizer for effective therapy with minimum side effects. Graphene-based nanosystems have been shown to improve the stability, bioavailability, and photodynamic efficiency of organic photosensitizer molecules. They have also been shown to behave as electron sinks for enhanced visible-light photodynamic activities. Owing to its intrinsic near infrared absorption properties, GO can be designed to combine both photodynamic and photothermal hyperthermia for optimum therapeutic efficiency. Critical issues and future aspects of photodynamic therapy research are addressed in this review. PMID:25848263

  20. Influence of bacterial interactions on the susceptibility to photodynamic inactivation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Upadya, M. H.; Tegos, G.; Hamblin, M.; Kishen, A.

    2009-06-01

    Photodynamic therapy has emerged as a possible supplement to the existing protocols for endodontic disinfection. Microbes are known to gain significant ecological advantage when they survive as coaggregates and biofilms in an infected tissue. Such microbial coaggregates and biofilms have been confirmed to play a key role in the pathogenicity of many infections. So far, not many studies have correlated the efficacy of antimicrobial photodynamic inactivation (APDI) to the different modes of bacterial growth. This study aims to evaluate the APDI of 3 strains of Enterococcus faecalis in planktonic phase, in a co-aggregated suspension and in a 4-day old biofilm. The results showed that the biofilm mode of growth offered the greatest resistance to APDI and the inclusion of an efflux pump inhibitor significantly increased the APDI of biofilm bacteria. From this study, we conclude that APDI of bacteria in biofilms is the most challenging and that the use of bacterial efflux pump inhibitors enhances its photodynamic antibiofilm efficacy.

  1. [Photophysical properties and photodynamic activity of nanostructured aluminium phthalocyanines].

    PubMed

    Udartseva, O O; Lobanov, A V; Andeeva, E R; Dmitrieva, G S; Mel'nikov, M Ia; Buravkova, L B

    2014-01-01

    We developed water-soluble supramolecular complexes of aluminium phthalocyanine based on mesoporous silica nanoparticles and polyvinylpirrolidone containing rare photoactive nanoaggregates. Radiative lifetimes, extinction coefficients and energy of electronic transitions of isolated and associated metal phthalocyanine complexes were calculated. Nontoxic concentrations of synthesized nanocomposite photosensibilizers were in vitro determined. In present study we compared photodynamic treatment efficacy using different modifications of aluminium phthalocyanine (Photosens®, AlPc-nSiO2 and AlPc-PVP). Mesenchymal stromal cells were used as a model for photodynamic treatment. Intracellular accumulation of aluminium phthalocyanine based on mesoporous silica nanoparticles AlPc-nSiO2 was the most efficient. Illumination of phthalocyanine-loaded cells led to reactive oxygen species generation and subsequent apoptotic cell death. Silica nanoparticles provided a significant decrease of effective phthalocyanine concentration and enhanced cytotoxicity of photodynamic treatment.

  2. Photodynamic therapy: a review.

    PubMed

    McCaughan, J S

    1999-07-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) of malignant tumours is a new technique for treating cancers. After intravenous injection, a photosensitiser is selectively retained by the tumour cells so after time there is more sensitiser in the tumour than in the normal adjacent tissue. The photosensitiser must be able to absorb the wavelength of light being delivered to it, and the amount of light getting to the photosensitiser depends on the characteristics of the tissue it passes through. When exposed to light with the proper wavelength, the sensitiser produces an activated oxygen species, singlet oxygen, that oxidises critical elements of neoplastic cells. Because there is less sensitiser in the adjacent normal tissue, less reaction occurs to it. Since this is an entirely different process, the use of chemotherapy, ionising radiation or surgery does not preclude the use of PDT. Also, unlike ionising irradiation, repeated injections and treatments can be made indefinitely. Different molecules and atoms absorb different wavelengths of energy. Since the light energy must be absorbed to start the photochemical reaction, the absorption spectrum of the photosensitiser determines the wavelength used to initiate the reaction. However, this can be qualified by the tissue the light has to travel through to get to the photosensitiser. The photosensitiser porfimer sodium has a peak absorption in the area of 405 nm (blue-violet) and a much lower absorption peak at 630 nm (red). However, because the longer red wavelength penetrates tissue deeper than 405 nm, we use the red wavelength, usually delivered from a laser system. This permits coupling of the red light beam to quartz fibres which can then be used with modifications to treat external surface tumours, inserted interstitially directly into large tumours, passed though any endoscope to treat intraluminal tumours, or inserted behind the retina to treat tumours of the retina. Twenty years after the pioneering work of Dr. Thomas Doherty, the

  3. Photodynamic therapy laser system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shu, Xiaoqin; Lin, Qing; Wang, Feng; Shu, Chao; Wang, Jianhua

    2009-08-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) treatment is a new treatment for tumour and Dermatology. With the successful development of the second-generation photosensitizer and the significant manifestations in clinics, PDT has shown a more extensive application potentials. To activate the photosensitizer, in this paper, we present a GaAs-based diode laser system with a wavelength of 635 nm. In this system, to prolong the working life-time of the diode lasers, we use specific feedback algorithm to control the current and the temperature of the diode laser with high precision. The clinic results show an excellent effect in the treatment of Condyloma combined with 5-ALA.

  4. Liposomes in topical photodynamic therapy.

    PubMed

    Dragicevic-Curic, Nina; Fahr, Alfred

    2012-08-01

    Topical photodynamic therapy (PDT) refers to topical application of a photosensitizer onto the site of skin disease which is followed by illumination and results in death of selected cells. The main problem in topical PDT is insufficient penetration of the photosensitizer into the skin, which limits its use to superficial skin lesions. In order to overcome this problem, recent studies tested liposomes as delivery systems for photosensitizers. This paper reviews the use of different types of liposomes for encapsulating photosensitizers for topical PDT. Liposomes should enhance the photosensitizers' penetration into the skin, while decreasing its absorption into systemic circulation. Only few photosensitizers have currently been encapsulated in liposomes for topical PDT: 5-aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA), temoporfin (mTHPC) and methylene blue. Investigated liposomes enhanced the skin penetration of 5-ALA and mTHPC, reduced their systemic absorption and reduced their cytotoxicity compared with free drugs. Their high tissue penetration should enable the treatment of deep and hyperkeratotic skin lesions, which is the main goal of using liposomes. However, liposomes still do not attract enough attention as drug carriers in topical PDT. In vivo studies of their therapeutic effectiveness are needed in order to obtain enough evidence for their potential clinical use as carriers for photosensitizers in topical PDT.

  5. Enhancement of the photokilling effect of aluminum phthalocyanine in photodynamic therapy by conjugating with nitrogen-doped TiO2 nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Pan, Xiaobo; Xie, Jin; Li, Zheng; Chen, Maxin; Wang, Mengyan; Wang, Pei-Nan; Chen, Li; Mi, Lan

    2015-06-01

    As a second-generation photodynamic therapy (PDT) photosensitizer, aluminum phthalocyanine chloride tetrasulfonate (Pc) has gained great attention due to its high absorption at the red light region. Yet, its application in PDT is strongly limited by its low cellular uptake efficiency. In this report, nitrogen-doped TiO2 nanoparticles (N-TiO2) conjugated with Pc are synthesized by a two-step surface modification method. The N-TiO2-Pc products are characterized by Zeta potential, transmission electron microscopy and UV-vis absorption spectroscopy. The cellular uptake, intracellular distribution, cytotoxicity and the photokilling effect of the nanoparticles are studied on different cancer cell lines. Compared with Pc, the absorption spectrum of N-TiO2-Pc expands from red to UV region, resulting in a higher production of reactive oxygen species under visible light irradiation. In addition, the cellular uptake of Pc is largely improved by its carrier N-TiO2. The photokilling efficiency of N-TiO2-Pc is over ten times higher than that of Pc. The results suggest that N-TiO2-Pc is an excellent candidate as a photosensitizer in PDT. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Photoinduced Electron-Transfer Mechanisms for Radical-Enhanced Photodynamic Therapy Mediated by Water-Soluble Decacationic C70 and C84O2 Fullerene Derivatives

    PubMed Central

    Sperandio, Felipe F.; Sharma, Sulbha K.; Wang, Min; Jeon, Seaho; Huang, Ying-Ying; Dai, Tianhong; Nayka, Suhasini; de Sousa, Suzana C.O.M.; Chiang, Long Y.; Hamblin, Michael R.

    2012-01-01

    Fullerenes are promising candidates for photodynamic therapy (PDT). Thus, C70 and novel C84O2 fullerenes were functionalized with and without an additional deca-tertiary ethyleneamino-chain as an electron source, giving rise to two distinct pairs of photosensitizers, the monoadducts LC-17, LC-19 and the bisadducts LC18 and LC-20 to perform PDT in HeLa cells with UVA, blue, green, white and red light. Shorter wavelengths gave more phototoxicity with LC-20 while LC-19 was better at longer wavelengths; the ratio between killing obtained with LC-19 and LC-20 showed an almost perfect linear correlation (R = 0.975) with wavelength. The incorporation of a deca-tertiary amine chain in the C84O2 fullerene gave more PDT killing when excited with shorter wavelengths or in presence of low ascorbate concentration through higher generation of hydroxyl radicals. Photoactivated C84O2 fullerenes induced apoptosis of HeLa cancer cells, together with mitochondrial and lysosomal damage demonstrated by acridine orange and rhodamine 123 fluorescent probes. PMID:23117043

  7. Enhanced Anti-Tumor Efficacy through a Combination of Integrin αvβ6-Targeted Photodynamic Therapy and Immune Checkpoint Inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Liquan; Zhang, Chenran; Gao, Duo; Liu, Hao; Yu, Xinhe; Lai, Jianhao; Wang, Fan; Lin, Jian; Liu, Zhaofei

    2016-01-01

    “Training” the host immune system to recognize and systemically eliminate residual tumor lesions and micrometastases is a promising strategy for cancer therapy. In this study, we investigated whether integrin αvβ6-targeted photodynamic therapy (PDT) of tumors using a phthalocyanine dye-labeled probe (termed DSAB-HK) could trigger the host immune response, and whether PDT in combination with anti-PD-1 immune checkpoint inhibition could be used for the effective therapy of primary tumors and metastases. By near-infrared fluorescence imaging, DSAB-HK was demonstrated to specifically target either subcutaneous tumors in a 4T1 mouse breast cancer model or firefly luciferase stably transfected 4T1 (4T1-fLuc) lung metastatic tumors. Upon light irradiation, PDT by DSAB-HK significantly inhibited the growth of subcutaneous 4T1 tumors, and in addition promoted the maturation of dendritic cells and their production of cytokines, which subsequently stimulated the tumor recruitment of CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocytes. Furthermore, DSAB-HK PDT of the first tumor followed by PD-1 blockade markedly suppressed the growth of a second subcutaneous tumor, and also slowed the growth of 4T1-fLuc lung metastasis as demonstrated by serial bioluminescence imaging. Together, our results demonstrated the synergistic effect of tumor-targeted PDT and immune checkpoint inhibition for improving anti-tumor immunity and suppressing tumor growth/metastasis. PMID:27022411

  8. Photodynamic therapy in dermatology.

    PubMed

    Ceburkov, O; Gollnick, H

    2000-01-01

    Application of non-ionising radiation with or without photosensitizers is rather common in dermatology. Though the method itself was described in ancient times, its routine use in medicine based on scientific research started in the second half of the 20th century. Light can be used in three different patterns: phototherapy (UV-A or UV-B light), photochemotherapy (combination of psoralens with UV-A light) and photodynamic therapy (combination of photosensitizers with UV- and/or visible light). The following article deals with the photodynamic therapy or PDT. Using PDT implies the understanding of light dosimetry and calculation of light dose using different light sources and photosensitizers. The number of PDT sensitisers under investigation is rapidly increasing. The PDT itself, being a relatively new modality, quickly spreads its list of applications covering new indications in different areas of medicine. Though the main part of this list is made up of dermatological conditions, the use of PDT in other disciplines is also discussed to make dermatologists familiar with different aspects of the issue. PDT, like any treatment modality, has its benefits and adverse effects. The future of PDT is closely related to teamwork in physical, biochemical and clinical research which could provide better understanding of underlying mechanisms and help to create protocols for higher therapeutic efficacy.

  9. Dynamic contrast enhanced-magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) of photodynamic therapy (PDT) outcome and associated changes in the blood-brain barrier following Pc 4-PDT of glioma in an athymic nude rat model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belle, Vaijayantee; Anka, Ali; Cross, Nathan; Thompson, Paul; Mott, Eric; Sharma, Rahul; Gray, Kayla; Zhang, Ruozhen; Xu, Yueshuo; Sun, Jiayang; Flask, Chris A.; Oleinick, Nancy L.; Dean, David

    2012-02-01

    Introduction: Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced-Magnetic Resonance Imaging (DCE-MRI) appears to provide an unambiguous means of tracking the outcome of photodynamic therapy (PDT) of brain tumors with the photosensitizer Pc 4. The increase in Gd enhancement observed after Pc 4-PDT may be due to a temporary opening of the blood-brain-barrier which, as noted by others, may offer a therapeutic window. Methods: We injected 2.5 x 105 U87 cells into the brains of 9 athymic nude rats. After 8-9 days peri-tumor DCE-MRI images were acquired on a 7.0 T microMRI scanner before and after the administration of 150 μL Gd. DCE-MRI scans were repeated three times following Pc 4-PDT. Results: The average, normalized peak enhancement in the tumor region, approximately 30-90 seconds after Gd administration, was 1.31 times greater than baseline (0.03 Standard Error [SE]) prior to PDT and was 1.44 (0.02 SE) times baseline in the first Post-PDT scans (Day 11), a statistically significant (p ~ 0.014, N=8) increase over the Pre- PDT scans, and was 1.38 (0.02 SE) times baseline in the second scans (Day 12), also a statistically significant (p ~ 0.008, N=7) increase. Observations were mixed in the third Post-PDT scans (Day 13), averaging 1.29 (0.03 SE) times baseline (p ~ 0.66, N=7). Overall a downward trend in enhancement was observed from the first to the third Post-PDT scans. Discussion: DCE-MRI may provide an unambiguous indication of brain tumor PDT outcome. The initial increase in DCE-MRI signal may correlate with a temporary, PDT-induced opening of the blood-brain-barrier, creating a potential therapeutic window.

  10. Photodynamic Therapy (PDT): PDT Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Allison, Ron R.

    2013-01-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a light based therapy used to ablate tumors. As practiced in oncology a photosensitizing agent is applied and then activated by a specific wavelength and energy of light. This light energy in the presence of oxygen will lead to the creation of the photodynamic reaction which is cyto and vasculo toxic. This paper will review the mechanisms of action of PDT and how they may be manipulated to improve clinical outcome in cancer patients. PMID:23422955

  11. Daylight photodynamic therapy in Scotland.

    PubMed

    Cordey, Helen; Valentine, Ronan; Lesar, Andrea; Moseley, Harry; Eadie, Ewan; Ibbotson, Sally

    2017-05-01

    Chronic sun-induced dysplastic skin changes (actinic keratoses) are extremely common in fair-skinned people in Scotland. These changes are a major cause of morbidity and may develop into skin cancer. Actinic keratoses are often extensive and pose a therapeutic challenge as field-directed treatment is required for chronic disease management. One such treatment approach is hospital-based photodynamic therapy, which is a well-established treatment in Scotland for actinic keratoses, using a photosensitiser pro-drug and red LED light irradiation. However, photodynamic therapy using daylight as the activating light source is increasingly and effectively used in continental Europe, but had not been explored in Scotland until we initiated this in 2013. We report our experience of daylight photodynamic therapy in 64 patient-treatment courses and demonstrate that this can be an effective, well-tolerated treatment, which is liked by patients. Our most recent data show that most patients (73%) achieved clearance or at least a good response to treatment and had high levels of satisfaction with daylight photodynamic therapy. Daylight exposure measurements indicated that treatment is feasible in Scotland between April to September. Daylight photodynamic therapy is an important advancement in treatment options for Scottish patients with extensive pre-cancerous field changes and provides opportunities for home-based treatment and increased efficiency of photodynamic therapy services.

  12. Inorganic Nanoparticles for Photodynamic Therapy.

    PubMed

    Colombeau, L; Acherar, S; Baros, F; Arnoux, P; Gazzali, A Mohd; Zaghdoudi, K; Toussaint, M; Vanderesse, R; Frochot, C

    2016-01-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a well-established technique employed to treat aged macular degeneration and certain types of cancer, or to kill microbes by using a photoactivatable molecule (a photosensitizer, PS) combined with light of an appropriate wavelength and oxygen. Many PSs are used against cancer but none of them are highly specific. Moreover, most are hydrophobic, so are poorly soluble in aqueous media. To improve both the transportation of the compounds and the selectivity of the treatment, nanoparticles (NPs) have been designed. Thanks to their small size, these can accumulate in a tumor because of the well-known enhanced permeability effect. By changing the composition of the nanoparticles it is also possible to achieve other goals, such as (1) targeting receptors that are over-expressed on tumoral cells or neovessels, (2) making them able to absorb two photons (upconversion or biphoton), and (3) improving singlet oxygen generation by the surface plasmon resonance effect (gold nanoparticles). In this chapter we describe recent developments with inorganic NPs in the PDT domain. Pertinent examples selected from the literature are used to illustrate advances in the field. We do not consider either polymeric nanoparticles or quantum dots, as these are developed in other chapters.

  13. Can nanotechnology potentiate photodynamic therapy?

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Ying-Ying; Sharma, Sulbha K.; Dai, Tianhong; Chung, Hoon; Yaroslavsky, Anastasia; Garcia-Diaz, Maria; Chang, Julie; Chiang, Long Y.

    2015-01-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) uses the combination of non-toxic dyes and harmless visible light to produce reactive oxygen species that can kill cancer cells and infectious microorganisms. Due to the tendency of most photosensitizers (PS) to be poorly soluble and to form nonphotoactive aggregates, drug-delivery vehicles have become of high importance. The nanotechnology revolution has provided many examples of nanoscale drug-delivery platforms that have been applied to PDT. These include liposomes, lipoplexes, nanoemulsions, micelles, polymer nanoparticles (degradable and nondegradable), and silica nanoparticles. In some cases (fullerenes and quantum dots), the actual nanoparticle itself is the PS. Targeting ligands such as antibodies and peptides can be used to increase specificity. Gold and silver nanoparticles can provide plasmonic enhancement of PDT. Two-photon excitation or optical upconversion can be used instead of one-photon excitation to increase tissue penetration at longer wavelengths. Finally, after sections on in vivo studies and nanotoxicology, we attempt to answer the title question, “can nano-technology potentiate PDT?” PMID:26361572

  14. Prodrugs in photodynamic anticancer therapy.

    PubMed

    Musiol, Robert; Serda, Maciej; Polanski, Jaroslaw

    2011-01-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT), the concept of cancer treatment through the selective uptake of a light-sensitive agent followed by exposure to a specific wavelength, is limited by the transport of a photosensitizer (PS) to the tumor tissue. Porphyrin, an important PS class, can be used in PDT in the form of its prodrug molecule 5-aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA). Unfortunately, its poor pharmacokinetic properties make this compound difficult to administer. Two different methods for eliminating this problem can be distinguished. The first approach is to play with its formulation in order to improve the drug's applicability. The second approach, which is to find possible 5- ALA prodrugs, is an example of the double-prodrug method, a strategy often used in modern drug design. In this approach, the biological mechanisms in a long biosynthetic pathway involving several steps must be completed before the active drug appears. Recently, an idea of enhancing PDT sensitization using the so-called iron chelators seemed to increase the accumulation of protoporphyrin in cells. At the same time, iron chelators can destroy tumor cells by producing active oxygen after the formation of an active drug by chelating iron in the cancer cells. Thus, in the latter case, the therapy resembles a prodrug strategy. The mechanism can be explained by the Fenton reaction. Vitamin C is another example of a potential anticancer agent of this type.

  15. Can nanotechnology potentiate photodynamic therapy?

    PubMed

    Huang, Ying-Ying; Sharma, Sulbha K; Dai, Tianhong; Chung, Hoon; Yaroslavsky, Anastasia; Garcia-Diaz, Maria; Chang, Julie; Chiang, Long Y; Hamblin, Michael R

    2012-03-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) uses the combination of non-toxic dyes and harmless visible light to produce reactive oxygen species that can kill cancer cells and infectious microorganisms. Due to the tendency of most photosensitizers (PS) to be poorly soluble and to form nonphotoactive aggregates, drug-delivery vehicles have become of high importance. The nanotechnology revolution has provided many examples of nanoscale drug-delivery platforms that have been applied to PDT. These include liposomes, lipoplexes, nanoemulsions, micelles, polymer nanoparticles (degradable and nondegradable), and silica nanoparticles. In some cases (fullerenes and quantum dots), the actual nanoparticle itself is the PS. Targeting ligands such as antibodies and peptides can be used to increase specificity. Gold and silver nanoparticles can provide plasmonic enhancement of PDT. Two-photon excitation or optical upconversion can be used instead of one-photon excitation to increase tissue penetration at longer wavelengths. Finally, after sections on in vivo studies and nanotoxicology, we attempt to answer the title question, "can nano-technology potentiate PDT?"

  16. Enhancement of the Effect of Methyl Pyropheophorbide-a-Mediated Photodynamic Therapy was Achieved by Increasing ROS via Inhibition of Nrf2-HO-1 or Nrf2-ABCG2 Signaling.

    PubMed

    Tian, Si; Yong, Min; Zhu, Jiang; Zhang, Li; Pan, Li; Chen, Qing; Li, Kai-Ting; Kong, Yu-Han; Jiang, Yuan; Yu, Ting-He; Yu, Le-Hua; Bai, Ding-Qun

    2017-03-27

    Emerging evidence indicates that the transcription factor nuclear factor-E2-related factor 2 (-NRF2) plays an essential role in cellular defense against oxidative stress; its activation has been related to cytoprotection. Here, we investigated the role of Nrf2 in improving the efficacy of methyl pyropheophorbide-a-mediated photodynamic therapy (Mppa-PDT) via the downregulation of Nrf2 in human ovarian cancer A2780 cells and SKOV3 cells. We found that Nrf2 translocated from the cytoplasm to the nucleus in vitro and in vivo, and the expression of Nrf2 and P-Nrf2 increased through a possible mechanism regulated by mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) after Mppa-PDT treatment. Furthermore, cytotoxicity and apoptosis induced by Mppa-PDT increased after Nrf2down-regulation. Nrf2 down -regulation increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels by attenuating antioxidants or pumping Mppa out of cells, which resulted from the inhibition of Nrf2-HO-1 or Nrf2-ABCG2 signaling. In addition, SKOV3 cells exhibited increased resistance to Mppa-PDT, and the expression levels of P-Nrf2 and ABCG2 were higher in SKOV3 cells than in A2780 cells, suggesting that Nrf2-ABCG2 signaling might be involved in the intrinsic resistanceto Mppa-PDT. Taken together, these results provided evidence that Nrf2 down-regulation can enhance the effect of Mppa-PDT.

  17. Rational design of a comprehensive cancer therapy platform using temperature-sensitive polymer grafted hollow gold nanospheres: simultaneous chemo/photothermal/photodynamic therapy triggered by a 650 nm laser with enhanced anti-tumor efficacy.

    PubMed

    Deng, Xiaoran; Chen, Yinyin; Cheng, Ziyong; Deng, Kerong; Ma, Ping'an; Hou, Zhiyao; Liu, Bei; Huang, Shanshan; Jin, Dayong; Lin, Jun

    2016-03-28

    Combining multi-model treatments within one single system has attracted great interest for the purpose of synergistic therapy. In this paper, hollow gold nanospheres (HAuNs) coated with a temperature-sensitive polymer, poly(oligo(ethylene oxide) methacrylate-co-2-(2-methoxyethoxy)ethyl methacrylate) (p(OEGMA-co-MEMA)), co-loaded with DOX and a photosensitizer Chlorin e6 (Ce6) were successfully synthesized. As high as 58% DOX and 6% Ce6 by weight could be loaded onto the HAuNs-p(OEGMA-co-MEMA) nanocomposites. The grafting polymer brushes outside the HAuNs play the role of "gate molecules" for controlled drug release by 650 nm laser radiation owing to the temperature-sensitive property of the polymer and the photothermal effect of HAuNs. The HAuNs-p(OEGMA-co-MEMA)-Ce6-DOX nanocomposites with 650 nm laser radiation show effective inhibition of cancer cells in vitro and enhanced anti-tumor efficacy in vivo. In contrast, control groups without laser radiation show little cytotoxicity. The nanocomposite demonstrates a way of "killing three birds with one stone", that is, chemotherapy, photothermal and photodynamic therapy are triggered simultaneously by the 650 nm laser stimulation. Therefore, the nanocomposites show the great advantages of multi-modal synergistic effects for cancer therapy by a remote-controlled laser stimulus.

  18. Synergistic enhancement of the efficacy of the bioreductively activated alkylating agent RSU-1164 in the treatment of prostatic cancer by photodynamic therapy.

    PubMed

    Henry, J M; Isaacs, J T

    1989-07-01

    Bioreductively activated alkylating agents (BAA) require metabolic reduction to become cytotoxic. Hypoxia induces a massive increase in reductive metabolism activating BAA to their cytotoxic form. One of these BAA agents is cis-2,3-dimethyl 1-(2-nitro-1-imidazolyl)-3-(1-aziridinyl)-2-propanol referred to as RSU-1164. In a hypoxic environment, RSU-1164 is activated to a highly reactive bifunctional alkylating agent capable of crosslinking macromolecules which results in cell death. Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a treatment modality which consists of the initial accumulation of hematoporphyrin derivative (HPD) within a tumor followed by the activation of the HPD by 630 nm. light to induce a cytotoxic response. The precise mechanism of PDT is not known, however, two actions of the activated HPD have been documented. The first is a direct cytotoxic effect, secondary to singlet oxygen production. The second is through vascular collapse and subsequent hypoxia. The combination of a chemotherapeutic agent like RSU-1164, which is activated by hypoxia, with PDT to produce such hypoxia, therefore, should greatly increase the efficiency and utility of RSU-1164. To test this hypothesis, Copenhagen rats bearing established Dunning R-3327 AT-2 prostate cancers were treated with PDT treatment alone (HPD 20 mg./kg. injected IP and then 24 hr. later, the tumor exposed to 630 nm. light at 400 mW/cm.2 for 30 min. [total dose 720 J/cm.2]), RSU-1164 alone (injected IP at a dose of 200 mg./kg.) or with the combination of this PDT treatment plus RSU-1164 given 30 min. before light exposure. These results demonstrated that this combinational treatment synergistically produces a greater retardation in the growth of the AT-2 tumor than either of the monotherapies of RSU-1164 or PDT alone.

  19. Doxorubicin-loaded NaYF4:Yb/Tm-TiO2 inorganic photosensitizers for NIR-triggered photodynamic therapy and enhanced chemotherapy in drug-resistant breast cancers.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Leyong; Pan, Yuanwei; Tian, Ying; Wang, Xin; Ren, Wenzhi; Wang, Shouju; Lu, Guangming; Wu, Aiguo

    2015-07-01

    The combination therapy has exhibited important potential for the treatment of cancers, especially for drug-resistant cancers. In this report, bi-functional nanoprobes based on doxorubicin (DOX)-loaded NaYF4:Yb/Tm-TiO2 inorganic photosensitizers (FA-NPs-DOX) were synthesized for in vivo near infrared (NIR)-triggered inorganic photodynamic therapy (PDT) and enhanced chemotherapy to overcome the multidrug resistance (MDR) in breast cancers. Using the up-conversion luminescence (UCL) performance of NaYF4:Yb/Tm converting near-infrared (NIR) into ultraviolent (UV) lights, reactive oxygen species (ROS) were triggered from TiO2 inorganic photosensitizers for PDT under the irradiation of a 980 nm laser, by which the deep-penetration and low photo-damage could be reached. Moreover, nanocarrier delivery and folic acid (FA) targeting promoted the cellular uptake, and accelerated the release of DOX in drug-sensitive MCF-7 and resistant MCF-7/ADR cells. The toxicity assessment in vitro and in vivo revealed the good biocompatibility of the as-prepared FA-NPs-DOX nanocomposites. By the combination of enhanced chemotherapy and NIR-triggered inorganic PDT, the viability of MCF-7/ADR cells could decrease by 53.5%, and the inhibition rate of MCF-7/ADR tumors could increase up to 90.33%, compared with free DOX. Therefore, the MDR of breast cancers could be obviously overcome by enhanced chemotherapy and NIR-triggered inorganic PDT of FA-NPs-DOX nanocomposites under the excitation of a 980 nm laser.

  20. Photodynamic therapy in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Junheng

    1993-03-01

    After the pioneering work of photodynamic therapy of malignant tumors had been reported by Dr. Dougherty and his colleagues, applications of hematoporphyrin derivative for the diagnosis and treatment of human cancers has been reported by Professor Hayata et al. Chinese HpD was first made by Shi-Lin Xu, an engineer of Beijing Institute of Pharmaceutical Industry in 1980. The first patient to receive the PDT in China was a case of basal cell carcinoma of the lower eyelid, treated in 1981 by Dr. Ping Zhu a physician in Tong Ren Hospital in Beijing using a Chinese made laser. In 1982, research groups of PDT were established under the sponsorships of the State Science and Technology Commission of China, Beijing Commission for Science and Technology, etc. Physics, chemistry, preclinical and clinical research studies of PDT were then started widely.

  1. Brazilian Green Propolis Extract Synergizes with Protoporphyrin IX-mediated Photodynamic Therapy via Enhancement of Intracellular Accumulation of Protoporphyrin IX and Attenuation of NF-κB and COX-2.

    PubMed

    Wang, Cheng-Cheng; Wang, Yu-Xuan; Yu, Nian-Qin; Hu, Die; Wang, Xiao-Yan; Chen, Xing-Guang; Liao, You-Wei; Yao, Jing; Wang, Hao; He, Ling; Wu, Liang

    2017-05-04

    Brazilian green propolis (BGP) is noted for its impressive antitumor effects and has been used as a folk medicine in various cultures for many years. It has been demonstrated that BGP could enhance the cytotoxic effect of cytostatic drugs on tumor cells. Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a therapeutic approach used against malignant cells. To assess the synergistic effect of BGP extract on protoporphyrin IX (PpIX)-mediated photocytotoxicity, MTT assays were performed using A431 and HeLa cells. TUNEL assay and Annexin V-FITC/PI staining were performed to confirm the induction of apoptosis. Western blotting analysis was performed to examine the pro-apoptotic proteins, anti-apoptotic proteins and inflammation related proteins in A431 cells. Intracellular accumulation of PpIX was examined by flow cytometry. The synergistic effect of BGP extract in PpIX-PDT was also evaluated with a xenograft model. Our findings reveal that BGP extract increased PpIX-mediated photocytotoxicity in A431 and HeLa cells. PpIX-PDT with BGP extract treatment resulted in a decrease in Bcl-xL and an increase in NOXA, Bax and caspase-3 cleavage. The protein expression levels of p-IKKα/β, NF-κB and COX-2 were upregulated by PpIX-PDT but significantly attenuated when in combination with BGP extract. BGP extract was also found to significantly enhance the intracellular accumulation of PpIX in A431 cells. BGP extract increased PpIX-mediated photocytotoxicity in a xenograft model as well. Our findings provide evidence for a synergistic effect of BGP extract in PpIX-PDT both in vitro and in vivo.

  2. Nanoparticle Self-Lighting Photodynamic Therapy For Cancer Treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Wei

    2011-03-01

    Photodynamic therapy has been designated as a ``promising new modality in the treatment of cancer'' since the early 1980s. Light must be delivered in order to activate photodynamic therapy. Most photosensitizers have strong absorption in the ultraviolet -- blue range, therefore, UV -blue light is needed for their activation. Unfortunately, UV-blue light has minimal penetration into tissue and its application for in vivo activation is a problem. To solve the problem and to enhance the PDT treatment for deep cancers, we introduce a new PDT system in which the light is generated by afterglow nanoparticles with attached photosensitizers. When the nanoparticle-photosensitizer conjugates are targeted to tumor, the light from afterglow nanoparticles will activate the photosensitizers for photodynamic therapy. Therefore, no external light is required for treatment. More importantly, it can be used to treat deep tumor such as breast cancer because the light source is attached to the photosensitizers and are delivered to the tumor cells all together. This modality is referred as nanoparticle self-lighting photodynamic therapy.

  3. [Photodynamic therapy for actinic cheilitis].

    PubMed

    Castaño, E; Comunión, A; Arias, D; Miñano, R; Romero, A; Borbujo, J

    2009-12-01

    Actinic cheilitis is a subtype of actinic keratosis that mainly affects the lower lip and has a higher risk of malignant transformation. Its location on the labial mucosa influences the therapeutic approach. Vermilionectomy requires local or general anesthetic and is associated with a risk of an unsightly scar, and the treatment with 5-fluorouracil or imiquimod lasts for several weeks and the inflammatory reaction can be very intense. A number of authors have used photodynamic therapy as an alternative to the usual treatments. We present 3 patients with histologically confirmed actinic cheilitis treated using photodynamic therapy with methyl aminolevulinic acid as the photosensitizer and red light at 630 nm. The clinical response was good, with no recurrences after 3 to 6 months of follow-up. Our experience supports the use of photodynamic therapy as a good alternative for the treatment of actinic cheilitis.

  4. Chlorin e6 conjugated copper sulfide nanoparticles for photodynamic combined photothermal therapy.

    PubMed

    Bharathiraja, Subramaniyan; Manivasagan, Panchanathan; Moorthy, Madhappan Santha; Bui, Nhat Quang; Lee, Kang Dae; Oh, Junghwan

    2017-09-01

    The photo-based therapeutic approaches have attracted tremendous attention in recent years especially in treatment and management of tumors. Photodynamic and photothermal are two major therapeutic modalities which are being applied in clinical therapy. The development of nanomaterials for photodynamic combined with photothermal therapy has gained significant attention for its treatment efficacy. In the present study, we designed chlorin e6 (Ce6) conjugated copper sulfide (CuS) nanoparticles (CuS-Ce6 NPs) through amine functionalization and the synthesized nanoparticles act as a dual-model agent for photodynamic therapy and photothermal therapy. CuS-Ce6 NPs showed enhanced photodynamic effect through generation of singlet oxygen upon 670nm laser illumination. The same nanoparticles exerted thermal response under an 808nm laser at 2W/cm(2). The fabricated nanoparticles did not show any cytotoxic effect toward breast cancer cells in the absence of light. In vitro cell viability assay showed a potent cytotoxicity in photothermal and photodynamic treatment. Rather than singular treatment, the photodynamic combined photothermal treatment showed an enhanced cytotoxic effect on treated cells. In addition, the CuS-Ce6 NPs exert a photoacoustic signal for non-invasive imaging of treated cells in tissue-mimicking phantom. In conclusion the CuS-Ce6 NPs act as multimodal agent for photo based imaging and therapy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Quantum dot-folic acid conjugates as potential photosensitizers in photodynamic therapy of cancer.

    PubMed

    Morosini, Vincent; Bastogne, Thierry; Frochot, Céline; Schneider, Raphaël; François, Aurélie; Guillemin, François; Barberi-Heyob, Muriel

    2011-05-01

    This study examined the in vitro potential of bioconjugated quantum dots (QDs) as photosensitizers for photodynamic therapy (PDT). According to our previous approaches using photosensitizers, folic acid appears to be an optimal targeting ligand for selective delivery of attached therapeutic agents to cancer tissues. We synthesized hydrophilic near infrared emitting CdTe(S)-type QDs conjugated with folic acid using different spacers. Photodynamic efficiency of QDs conjugated or not with folic acid was evaluated on KB cells, acting as a positive control due to their overexpression of FR-α, and HT-29 cells lacking FR-α, as negative control. A design of experiments was suggested as a rational solution to evaluate the impacts of each experimental factor (QD type and concentration, light fluence and excitation wavelength, time of contact before irradiation and cell phenotype). We demonstrated that, for concentrations lower than 10 nM, QDs displayed practically no cytotoxic effect without light exposure for both cell lines. Whereas QDs at 2.1 nM displayed a weak photodynamic activity, a concentration of 8 nM significantly enhanced the photodynamic efficiency characterized by a light dose-dependent response. A statistically significant difference in photodynamic efficiency between KB and HT-29 cells was evidenced in the case of folic acid-conjugated QDs. Optimal conditions led to an enhanced photocytotoxicity response, allowing us to validate the ability of QDs to generate a photodynamic effect and of folic acid-conjugated QDs for targeted PDT.

  6. Role of multidrug resistance in photodynamic therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diddens, Heyke C.

    1992-06-01

    Multidrug resistance in cancer chemotherapy is a well established phenomenon. One of the most common phenotypical changes in acquired or intrinsic multidrug resistance in human tumor cells is the overexpression of the mdrl gene product P-glycoprotein, which acts as an active efflux pump. Increased levels of P-glycoprotein are associated with resistance to a variety of anticancer drugs commonly used in tumor chemotherapy like anthracyclins, vinca- alcaloids, epipodophyllotoxins or actinomycin D. We investigated the efficacy or photodynamic therapy in the treatment of tumor cells expressing the multidrug resistance phenotype. Our data show that multidrug resistant cells are highly cross resistant to the phototoxic stain rhodamine 123 but exhibit only low degrees of cross resistance (2 - 3 -folds) to the photosensitizers Photosan-3, Clorin-2, methylene blue and meso-tetra (4- sulfonatophenyl) porphine (TPPS4). Resistance is associated with a decrease in intracellular accumulation of the photosensitizer. Verapamil, a membrane active compound known to enhance drug sensitivity in multidrug resistant cells by inhibition of P-glycoprotein, also increases phototoxicity in multidrug resistant cells. Our results imply that tumors expressing the multidrug resistance phenotype might fail to respond to photochemotherapy with rhodamine 123. On the other hand, multidrug resistance may not play an important role in photodynamic therapy with Photosan-3, Chlorin-2, methylene blue or TPPS4.

  7. Drug Carrier for Photodynamic Cancer Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Debele, Tilahun Ayane; Peng, Sydney; Tsai, Hsieh-Chih

    2015-01-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a non-invasive combinatorial therapeutic modality using light, photosensitizer (PS), and oxygen used for the treatment of cancer and other diseases. When PSs in cells are exposed to specific wavelengths of light, they are transformed from the singlet ground state (S0) to an excited singlet state (S1–Sn), followed by intersystem crossing to an excited triplet state (T1). The energy transferred from T1 to biological substrates and molecular oxygen, via type I and II reactions, generates reactive oxygen species, (1O2, H2O2, O2*, HO*), which causes cellular damage that leads to tumor cell death through necrosis or apoptosis. The solubility, selectivity, and targeting of photosensitizers are important factors that must be considered in PDT. Nano-formulating PSs with organic and inorganic nanoparticles poses as potential strategy to satisfy the requirements of an ideal PDT system. In this review, we summarize several organic and inorganic PS carriers that have been studied to enhance the efficacy of photodynamic therapy against cancer. PMID:26389879

  8. Rational design of a comprehensive cancer therapy platform using temperature-sensitive polymer grafted hollow gold nanospheres: simultaneous chemo/photothermal/photodynamic therapy triggered by a 650 nm laser with enhanced anti-tumor efficacy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Xiaoran; Chen, Yinyin; Cheng, Ziyong; Deng, Kerong; Ma, Ping'an; Hou, Zhiyao; Liu, Bei; Huang, Shanshan; Jin, Dayong; Lin, Jun

    2016-03-01

    Combining multi-model treatments within one single system has attracted great interest for the purpose of synergistic therapy. In this paper, hollow gold nanospheres (HAuNs) coated with a temperature-sensitive polymer, poly(oligo(ethylene oxide) methacrylate-co-2-(2-methoxyethoxy)ethyl methacrylate) (p(OEGMA-co-MEMA)), co-loaded with DOX and a photosensitizer Chlorin e6 (Ce6) were successfully synthesized. As high as 58% DOX and 6% Ce6 by weight could be loaded onto the HAuNs-p(OEGMA-co-MEMA) nanocomposites. The grafting polymer brushes outside the HAuNs play the role of ``gate molecules'' for controlled drug release by 650 nm laser radiation owing to the temperature-sensitive property of the polymer and the photothermal effect of HAuNs. The HAuNs-p(OEGMA-co-MEMA)-Ce6-DOX nanocomposites with 650 nm laser radiation show effective inhibition of cancer cells in vitro and enhanced anti-tumor efficacy in vivo. In contrast, control groups without laser radiation show little cytotoxicity. The nanocomposite demonstrates a way of ``killing three birds with one stone'', that is, chemotherapy, photothermal and photodynamic therapy are triggered simultaneously by the 650 nm laser stimulation. Therefore, the nanocomposites show the great advantages of multi-modal synergistic effects for cancer therapy by a remote-controlled laser stimulus.Combining multi-model treatments within one single system has attracted great interest for the purpose of synergistic therapy. In this paper, hollow gold nanospheres (HAuNs) coated with a temperature-sensitive polymer, poly(oligo(ethylene oxide) methacrylate-co-2-(2-methoxyethoxy)ethyl methacrylate) (p(OEGMA-co-MEMA)), co-loaded with DOX and a photosensitizer Chlorin e6 (Ce6) were successfully synthesized. As high as 58% DOX and 6% Ce6 by weight could be loaded onto the HAuNs-p(OEGMA-co-MEMA) nanocomposites. The grafting polymer brushes outside the HAuNs play the role of ``gate molecules'' for controlled drug release by 650 nm laser radiation

  9. [Historical development of photodynamic therapy].

    PubMed

    Kick, G; Messer, G; Plewig, G

    1996-08-01

    Photodynamic therapy is based on the accumulation of photosensitizing drugs in tumours and subsequent activation by visible light, leading to the release of singlet oxygen in photochemical reactions. Besides the treatment of precancerous lesions and malignant tumours in superficial sites, new experimental indications, such as psoriasis, are being investigated. The development of new photosensitizing agents for topical application and appropriate light sources has led to increasing interest in this promising treatment modality among dermatologists. This historical review deals with the scientific investigations of photodynamic therapy and diagnosis that started with the experiments of Oscar Raab at the end of the nineteenth century.

  10. Medical complex for photodynamic therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soldatov, Anatoly N.; Domanov, Michail S.; Lyabin, Nikolay A.; Chursin, Alexandr D.; Mirza, Sergey Y.; Sukhanov, Viktor B.; Polunin, Yu. P.; Ivanov, Aleksandr I.; Kirilov, Anatoly E.; Rubanov, Sergey N.

    2002-03-01

    Experimental results of initial testing dye-laser 'MLK-02' pumped by a copper vapor laser 'Kulon-10' are presented. Output parameters obtained are the following: average power - 1 and 1.5 W, efficiency - 17.6 and 18.7% at the wavelengths of 670 and 725 nm, respectively. The laser apparatus is supposed to be used for methods of photodynamic therapy.

  11. Immunosuppressive effects of silicon phthalocyanine photodynamic therapy.

    PubMed

    Reddan, J C; Anderson, C Y; Xu, H; Hrabovsky, S; Freye, K; Fairchild, R; Tubesing, K A; Elmets, C A

    1999-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if silicon phthalocyanine 4 (Pc 4), a second-generation photosensitizer being evaluated for the photodynamic therapy (PDT) of solid tumors, was immunosuppressive. Mice treated with Pc 4 PDT 3 days before dinitrofluorobenzene sensitization showed significant suppression of their cell-mediated immune response when compared to mice that were not exposed to PDT. The response was dose dependent, required both Pc 4 and light and occurred at a skin site remote from that exposed to the laser. The immunosuppression could not be reversed by in vivo pre-treatment of mice with antibodies to tumor necrosis factor-alpha or interleukin-10. These results provide evidence that induction of cell-mediated immunity is suppressed after Pc 4 PDT. Strategies that prevent PDT-mediated immunosuppression may therefore enhance the efficacy of this therapeutic modality.

  12. Photodynamic therapy for basal cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Fargnoli, Maria Concetta; Peris, Ketty

    2015-11-01

    Topical photodynamic therapy is an effective and safe noninvasive treatment for low-risk basal cell carcinoma, with the advantage of an excellent cosmetic outcome. Efficacy of photodynamic therapy in basal cell carcinoma is supported by substantial research and clinical trials. In this article, we review the procedure, indications and clinical evidences for the use of photodynamic therapy in the treatment of basal cell carcinoma.

  13. Photoactivated hypericin increases the expression of SOD-2 and makes MCF-7 cells resistant to photodynamic therapy.

    PubMed

    Kimáková, Patrícia; Solár, Peter; Fecková, Barbora; Sačková, Veronika; Solárová, Zuzana; Ilkovičová, Lenka; Kello, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Photoactivated hypericin increased production of reactive oxygen species in human breast adenocarcinoma MCF-7 as well as in MDA-MB-231 cells 1h after photodynamic therapy. On the other hand, reactive oxygen species dropped 3h after photodynamic therapy with hypericin, but only in MCF-7 cells, whereas in MDA-MB-231 cells remained elevated. The difference in the dynamics of reactive oxygen species after hypericin activation was related to increased activity of SOD-2 in MCF-7 cells compared to MDA-MB-231 cells. Indeed, photodynamic therapy with hypericin significantly increased SOD-2 activity in MCF-7 cells, but only slightly in MDA-MB-231 cells. In this regard, SOD-2 activity correlated well with enhanced both mRNA expression as well as SOD-2 protein level in MCF-7 cells. The role of SOD-2 in the resistance of MCF-7 cells to photodynamic therapy with hypericin was monitored using SOD-2 inhibitor - 2-methoxyestradiol. Interestingly, the combination of photodynamic therapy with hypericin and methoxyestradiol sensitized MCF-7 cells to photodynamic therapy and significantly reduced its clonogenic ability. Furthermore, methoxyestradiol potentiated the activation of caspase 3/7 and apoptosis induced by photodynamic therapy with hypericin. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. Monte Carlo study of skin optical clearing to enhance light penetration in the tissue: implications for photodynamic therapy of acne vulgaris

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bashkatov, Alexey N.; Genina, Elina A.; Tuchin, Valery V.; Altshuler, Gregory B.; Yaroslavsky, Ilya V.

    2008-06-01

    Result of Monte Carlo simulations of skin optical clearing is presented. The model calculations were carried out with the aim of studying of spectral response of skin under immersion liquids action and calculation of enhancement of light penetration depth. In summary, we have shown that: 1) application of glucose, propylene glycol and glycerol produced significant decrease of light scattering in different skin layers; 2) maximal clearing effect will be obtained in case of optical clearing of skin dermis, however, absorbed light fraction in skin dermis changed insignificantly, independently on clearing agent and place it administration; 3) in contrast to it, the light absorbed fraction in skin adipose layer increased significantly in case of optical clearing of skin dermis. It is very important because it can be used for development of optical methods of obesity treatment; 4) optical clearing of superficial skin layers can be used for decreasing of power of light radiation used for treatment of acne vulgaris.

  15. Future of oncologic photodynamic therapy.

    PubMed

    Allison, Ron R; Bagnato, Vanderlei S; Sibata, Claudio H

    2010-06-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a tumor-ablative and function-sparing oncologic intervention. The relative simplicity of photosensitizer application followed by light activation resulting in the cytotoxic and vasculartoxic photodynamic reaction has allowed PDT to reach a worldwide audience. With several commercially available photosensitizing agents now on the market, numerous well designed clinical trials have demonstrated the efficacy of PDT on various cutaneous and deep tissue tumors. However, current photosensitizers and light sources still have a number of limitations. Future PDT will build on those findings to allow development and refinement of more optimal therapeutic agents and illumination devices. This article reviews the current state of the art and limitations of PDT, and highlight the progress being made towards the future of oncologic PDT.

  16. X-Ray Induced Photodynamic Therapy: A Combination of Radiotherapy and Photodynamic Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Geoffrey D.; Nguyen, Ha T.; Chen, Hongmin; Cox, Phillip B.; Wang, Lianchun; Nagata, Koichi; Hao, Zhonglin; Wang, Andrew; Li, Zibo; Xie, Jin

    2016-01-01

    Conventional photodynamic therapy (PDT)'s clinical application is limited by depth of penetration by light. To address the issue, we have recently developed X-ray induced photodynamic therapy (X-PDT) which utilizes X-ray as an energy source to activate a PDT process. In addition to breaking the shallow tissue penetration dogma, our studies found more efficient tumor cell killing with X-PDT than with radiotherapy (RT) alone. The mechanisms behind the cytotoxicity, however, have not been elucidated. In the present study, we investigate the mechanisms of action of X-PDT on cancer cells. Our results demonstrate that X-PDT is more than just a PDT derivative but is essentially a PDT and RT combination. The two modalities target different cellular components (cell membrane and DNA, respectively), leading to enhanced therapy effects. As a result, X-PDT not only reduces short-term viability of cancer cells but also their clonogenecity in the long-run. From this perspective, X-PDT can also be viewed as a unique radiosensitizing method, and as such it affords clear advantages over RT in tumor therapy, especially for radioresistant cells. This is demonstrated not only in vitro but also in vivo with H1299 tumors that were either subcutaneously inoculated or implanted into the lung of mice. These findings and advances are of great importance to the developments of X-PDT as a novel treatment modality against cancer. PMID:27877235

  17. Somatostatin Analogues for Receptor Targeted Photodynamic Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Kaščáková, Slávka; Hofland, Leo J.; De Bruijn, Henriette S.; Ye, Yunpeng; Achilefu, Samuel; van der Wansem, Katy; van der Ploeg-van den Heuvel, Angelique; van Koetsveld, Peter M.; Brugts, Michael P.; van der Lelij, Aart-Jan; Sterenborg, Henricus J. C. M.; ten Hagen, Timo L. M.; Robinson, Dominic J.; van Hagen, Martin P.

    2014-01-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is an established treatment modality, used mainly for anticancer therapy that relies on the interaction of photosensitizer, light and oxygen. For the treatment of pathologies in certain anatomical sites, improved targeting of the photosensitizer is necessary to prevent damage to healthy tissue. We report on a novel dual approach of targeted PDT (vascular and cellular targeting) utilizing the expression of neuropeptide somatostatin receptor (sst2) on tumor and neovascular-endothelial cells. We synthesized two conjugates containing the somatostatin analogue [Tyr3]-octreotate and Chlorin e6 (Ce6): Ce6-K3-[Tyr3]-octreotate (1) and Ce6-[Tyr3]-octreotate-K3-[Tyr3]-octreotate (2). Investigation of the uptake and photodynamic activity of conjugates in-vitro in human erythroleukemic K562 cells showed that conjugation of [Tyr3]-octreotate with Ce6 in conjugate 1 enhances uptake (by a factor 2) in cells over-expressing sst2 compared to wild-type cells. Co-treatment with excess free Octreotide abrogated the phototoxicity of conjugate 1 indicative of a specific sst2-mediated effect. In contrast conjugate 2 showed no receptor-mediated effect due to its high hydrophobicity. When compared with un-conjugated Ce6, the PDT activity of conjugate 1 was lower. However, it showed higher photostability which may compensate for its lower phototoxicity. Intra-vital fluorescence pharmacokinetic studies of conjugate 1 in rat skin-fold observation chambers transplanted with sst2+ AR42J acinar pancreas tumors showed significantly different uptake profiles compared to free Ce6. Co-treatment with free Octreotide significantly reduced conjugate uptake in tumor tissue (by a factor 4) as well as in the chamber neo-vasculature. These results show that conjugate 1 might have potential as an in-vivo sst2 targeting photosensitizer conjugate. PMID:25111655

  18. Silylation improves the photodynamic activity of tetraphenylporphyrin derivatives in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Horiuchi, Hiroaki; Hosaka, Masahiro; Mashio, Hiroyuki; Terata, Motoki; Ishida, Shintaro; Kyushin, Soichiro; Okutsu, Tetsuo; Takeuchi, Toshiyuki; Hiratsuka, Hiroshi

    2014-05-12

    The effects of silyl and hydrophilic groups on the photodynamic properties of tetraphenylporphyrin (TPP) derivatives have been studied in vitro and in vivo. Silylation led to an improvement in the quantum yield of singlet oxygen sensitization for both sulfo and carboxy derivatives, although the silylation did not affect other photophysical properties. Silylation also improved the cellular uptake efficiency for both sulfo and carboxy derivatives, enhancing the in vitro photodynamic activity of the photosensitizer in U251 human glioma cells. The carboxy derivative (SiTPPC4 ) was found to show higher cellular uptake efficiency and in vitro photodynamic activity than the corresponding sulfo derivative (SiTPPS4 ), which indicates that the carboxy group is a more promising hydrophilic group than the sulfo group in the silylated porphyrin. SiTPPC4 was found to show high selective accumulation efficiency in tumors, although almost no tumor selectivity was observed for the nonsilylated porphyrin. The concentration of SiTPPC4 in tumors was 13 times higher than that in muscle 12 h after drug administration. We also studied tumor response after treatment and found that silylation enhanced in vivo photodynamic activity significantly. SiTPPC4 shows higher photodynamic activity than NPe6 with white light irradiation.

  19. Treatment of rheumatoid arthritis using photodynamic therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hendrich, Christian; Diddens, Heyke C.; Nosir, Hany R.; Siebert, Werner E.

    1995-03-01

    The only early therapy of rheumatoid arthritis in orthopedic surgery is a synovectomy, which is restricted to more or less big joints. A laser-synovectomy of small joints is ineffective yet. An alternative method may be photodynamic therapy. In our study we describe the photodynamic effect of Photosan 3 in a cell culture study.

  20. Photodynamic Diagnosis and Therapy of Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Subiel, Anna

    2010-01-05

    This paper gives brief information about photodynamic method used in diagnosis and therapy for cancer and other human body disorders. In particular it concentrates on detection and analysis of fluorescent dye, i.e. protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) and its two-photon excitation (TPE) process, which offers photodynamic method many fascinating possibilities.

  1. Nanotechnology-Based Photodynamic Therapy: Concepts, Advances, and Perspectives.

    PubMed

    Garg, Tarun; Jain, Nitin K; Rath, Goutam; Goyal, Amit Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a photoactive process that uses the combination of photosensitizers (PSs) and specific wavelengths of light for the treatment of solid tumors and other diseases. PDT received increased attention after regulatory approval of several photosensitizing drugs and light applicators worldwide. With the advent of newer PSs, the role of PDT in the treatment of cancer and other diseases has been revolutionized. In addition, various targeting strategies developed for site-specific delivery of PSs will be helpful for avoiding phototoxicity to normal tissues. Receptor-mediated targeted PDT approaches using nanocarriers offer the opportunity of enhancing photodynamic efficiency by directly targeting diseased cells and tissues. At present, clinical application of PDT is well established in medicine and surgery. Successfully used in dermatology, urology, gastroenterology, and neurosurgery, PDT has also seen much progress in basic sciences and clinical photodynamics in recent years. Currently, the use of PDT is just beginning, and more research must be performed to prove its therapeutic efficacy. However, nontoxic compounds involved in PDT provide a certain hope that it will evolve to be an effective mechanism for combating chronic diseases.

  2. Specific inhibition of the ABCG2 transporter could improve the efficacy of photodynamic therapy.

    PubMed

    Bebes, Attila; Nagy, Tünde; Bata-Csörgo, Zsuzsanna; Kemény, Lajos; Dobozy, Attila; Széll, Márta

    2011-11-03

    Photodynamic therapy is based on the selective accumulation of a photosensitizer in tumors, followed by destruction of the target tissue by a light source. Protoporphyrin IX, a well-known photosensitizer, was recently reported as an endogenous substrate for the multidrug transporter ABCG2. We investigated the role of ABCG2 protein in the porphyrin extrusion ability of keratinocytes, with regard to the impact of the specific inhibition of ABCG2 by a non-toxic fumitremorgin C analog, Ko-134, on photodynamic therapy efficacy. We studied the level of porphyrin accumulation in response to delta-aminolevulinic acid pretreatment in proliferating and highly differentiated HaCaT keratinocytes. An in vitro model of photodynamic therapy on HaCaT cells was established with a therapeutically approved narrow-bandwidth red-light source. The porphyrin extrusion ability of HaCaT cells proved to correlate with their ABCG2 expression which was higher in proliferating cells than in differentiated cells. Moreover, the specific inhibition of ABCG2 by Ko-134 enhanced the sensitivity of keratinocytes to photodynamic therapy in vitro. These results suggest that ABCG2 may serve as a target molecule via which to improve the photodynamic therapy of skin lesions: its inhibition by the non-toxic Ko-134 is a promising therapeutic modality.

  3. Photosensitizer anchored gold nanorods for targeted combinational photothermal and photodynamic therapy.

    PubMed

    Tham, Huijun Phoebe; Chen, Hongzhong; Tan, Yu Hui; Qu, Qiuyu; Sreejith, Sivaramapanicker; Zhao, Lingzhi; Venkatraman, Subbu S; Zhao, Yanli

    2016-07-07

    Silylated zinc phthalocyanine (ZnPc) was anchored onto silica-coated gold nanorods (AuNR) with retained local surface plasmon resonance (LSPR). Independent LSPR and singlet oxygen production of anchored ZnPc enhance the photothermal and photodynamic efficacy of the obtained AuNR-Si-ZnPc under NIR light excitation. AuNR-Si-ZnPc was further grafted with hyaluronic acid (HA). Since HA has selective targeting capability to CD44 antigens, the final hybrid could target cancer cells directly for synergistic photothermal and photodynamic therapy.

  4. Photodynamic Therapy Treatment to Enhance Fracture Healing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-06-01

    applied to treat multiple types  of cancer, skin diseases and age related  macular   degeneration . This treatment involves the local  or systemic... macular degeneration . This treatment involves the local or systemic administration of a photosensitizing drug, which is activated by non- thermal...treatment, which has been successfully applied to treat multiple types of cancer, skin diseases and age related macular degeneration . This treatment

  5. Plasmonic Nanoparticle-based Hybrid Photosensitizers with Broadened Excitation Profile for Photodynamic Therapy of Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Peng; Tang, Hong; Zhang, Peng

    2016-01-01

    Photodynamic therapy combining nanotechnology has shown great potential with improved therapeutic efficacy and fewer side effects. Ideal photosensitizers for cancer treatment should both have good singlet oxygen production capability and be excitable by light illuminations with deep tissue penetration. Here we report a type of hybrid photosensitizers consisting of plasmonic silver nanoparticles and photosensitizing molecules, where strong resonance coupling between the two leads to a broadened excitation profile and exceptionally high singlet oxygen production under both visible light and infrared light excitations. Our results indicate that the hybrid photosensitizers display low cytotoxicity without light illumination yet highly enhanced photodynamic inhibition efficacy against Hela cells under a broad spectrum of light illuminations including the near-infrared light, which has great implication in photodynamic therapy of deep-tissue cancers. PMID:27725746

  6. Plasmonic Nanoparticle-based Hybrid Photosensitizers with Broadened Excitation Profile for Photodynamic Therapy of Cancer Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Peng; Tang, Hong; Zhang, Peng

    2016-10-01

    Photodynamic therapy combining nanotechnology has shown great potential with improved therapeutic efficacy and fewer side effects. Ideal photosensitizers for cancer treatment should both have good singlet oxygen production capability and be excitable by light illuminations with deep tissue penetration. Here we report a type of hybrid photosensitizers consisting of plasmonic silver nanoparticles and photosensitizing molecules, where strong resonance coupling between the two leads to a broadened excitation profile and exceptionally high singlet oxygen production under both visible light and infrared light excitations. Our results indicate that the hybrid photosensitizers display low cytotoxicity without light illumination yet highly enhanced photodynamic inhibition efficacy against Hela cells under a broad spectrum of light illuminations including the near-infrared light, which has great implication in photodynamic therapy of deep-tissue cancers.

  7. Clinical efficacy of photodynamic therapy

    PubMed Central

    Park, Ye-Kyu

    2016-01-01

    Objective The management of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) and early invasive cancer of the uterine cervix is very difficult to approach, especially in case of young woman who wants to preserve her fertility. Conization of the cervix may have various kinds of disadvantage. The objective of this clinical retrospective study is to investigate the therapeutic effects and clinical efficacy of photodynamic therapy (PDT) including combined chemo-photodynamic therapy in patients with pre-malignant CIN and malignant invasive cervical cancer. Methods Total number of PDT trial case was 50 cases and total number of patient was 22 patients who registered to PDT clinic. We used photogem sensitizer and 632 nm diode laser in early two cases. After then we performed PDT using photofrin sensitizer and 630 nm diode laser in other cases. We used flat-cut, microlens, cylindrical diffuser, and interstitial type optic fibers in order to irradiate the lesions. 240 J/cm2 energy was irradiated to the lesions. Results CIN 2 were 4 cases (18.2%) and CIN 3 were 15 (68.2%) and invasive cervical cancer were 3 (13.6%). Complete remission (CR) was found in 20 patients (91%). One case of 19 patients with CIN lesion recurred at 18 months after PDT treatment. CR was found in 18 cases in the patients with CIN lesions (95%). CR was found in 2 cases in the patients with invasive cervical cancer (67%). Conclusion Our data showed that CR rate was fantastic in CIN group (95%). This study suggests that PDT can be recommended as new optimistic management modality on the patients with pre-malignant CIN lesions including carcinoma in situ and relatively early invasive cancer of the uterine cervix. Combined chemo-photodynamic therapy is essential in case of invasive cervical cancer. For the young age group who desperately want to preserve their fertility and have a healthy baby, PDT can be a beacon of hope. PMID:27896250

  8. Clinical efficacy of photodynamic therapy.

    PubMed

    Park, Ye-Kyu; Park, Choong-Hak

    2016-11-01

    The management of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) and early invasive cancer of the uterine cervix is very difficult to approach, especially in case of young woman who wants to preserve her fertility. Conization of the cervix may have various kinds of disadvantage. The objective of this clinical retrospective study is to investigate the therapeutic effects and clinical efficacy of photodynamic therapy (PDT) including combined chemo-photodynamic therapy in patients with pre-malignant CIN and malignant invasive cervical cancer. Total number of PDT trial case was 50 cases and total number of patient was 22 patients who registered to PDT clinic. We used photogem sensitizer and 632 nm diode laser in early two cases. After then we performed PDT using photofrin sensitizer and 630 nm diode laser in other cases. We used flat-cut, microlens, cylindrical diffuser, and interstitial type optic fibers in order to irradiate the lesions. 240 J/cm(2) energy was irradiated to the lesions. CIN 2 were 4 cases (18.2%) and CIN 3 were 15 (68.2%) and invasive cervical cancer were 3 (13.6%). Complete remission (CR) was found in 20 patients (91%). One case of 19 patients with CIN lesion recurred at 18 months after PDT treatment. CR was found in 18 cases in the patients with CIN lesions (95%). CR was found in 2 cases in the patients with invasive cervical cancer (67%). Our data showed that CR rate was fantastic in CIN group (95%). This study suggests that PDT can be recommended as new optimistic management modality on the patients with pre-malignant CIN lesions including carcinoma in situ and relatively early invasive cancer of the uterine cervix. Combined chemo-photodynamic therapy is essential in case of invasive cervical cancer. For the young age group who desperately want to preserve their fertility and have a healthy baby, PDT can be a beacon of hope.

  9. Temperature effects in photodynamic processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hovhannisyan, Vladimir A.; Avetisyan, Hasmik A.; Mathevosyan, Margarita B.; Elbakyan, Egishe G.

    2005-04-01

    Photodynamic activity of several dyes on Drosophila melanogaster at different temperatures (15-35°C) inside of test-tubes was investigated. Both phototoxic sensitizers (chlorin e6, methylene blue, etc. -group A) and non active compounds (hemoglobin, brilliant green, pyronine, etc.-group B) were used. Dyes of 10-5-10-3 M concentration were added to the food for drosophila 24 hours before irradiation. Solar radiation, narrow-band halogen lamps, LEDs and laser were used as a photo-stimulator. Irradiation parameters: I <= 45mW/cm2 and 0.2photodynamic effect. This, probably, is concerned with the toxic photoproduct suppression by the inactive dye. Experimental model of drosophila allows to investigate photosensitization impact within wide temperature range, to find out the processes, when using combination of dyes, as well as to study photodynamic effect on reproductive functions of insects.

  10. Nuclear targets of photodynamic tridentate ruthenium complexes.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Ran; Hammitt, Richard; Thummel, Randolph P; Liu, Yao; Turro, Claudia; Snapka, Robert M

    2009-12-28

    Octahedral ruthenium complexes, capable of photodynamic singlet oxygen production at near 100% efficiency, were shown to cause light-dependent covalent crosslinking of p53 and PCNA subunits in mammalian cells and cell lysates. Azide, a singlet oxygen quencher, greatly reduced the p53 photocrosslinking, consistent with the idea that singlet oxygen is the reactive oxygen species involved in p53 photocrosslinking. A photodynamically inactive ruthenium complex, [Ru(tpy)(2)](2+) (tpy = [2,2';6',2'']-terpyridine), had no effect on p53 or PCNA photocrosslinking. Photodynamic damage to p53 has particular relevance since p53 status is an important determinant of phototoxicity and the effectiveness of photodynamic cancer therapy. The two photodynamic complexes studied, [Ru(tpy)(pydppn)](2+), where pydppn = (3-(pyrid-2'-yl)-4,5,9,16-tetraaza-dibenzo[a,c]naphthacene, and [Ru(pydppn)(2)](2+), differed in their efficiency of p53 and PCNA photocrosslinking in cells, but showed similar efficiency of photocrosslinking in cell lysates, suggesting that they differ in their ability to enter cells. Photocrosslinking of PCNA by [Ru(tpy)(pydppn)](2+) increased linearly with concentration, time of uptake, or light exposure. Both [Ru(tpy)(pydppn)](2+) and [Ru(pydppn)(2)](2+) caused photodynamic protein-DNA crosslinking in cells, but [Ru(tpy)(pydppn)](2+) was more efficient. The efficiency of photodynamic protein-DNA crosslinking by [Ru(tpy)(pydppn)](2+) in cells increased with increasing levels of photodynamic damage. Photodynamic damage by [Ru(tpy)(pydppn)](2+) caused inhibition of DNA replication in a classical biphasic response, suggesting that DNA damage signaling and cell cycle checkpoint pathways were still operative after significant damage to nuclear proteins.

  11. Photodynamic therapy for actinic keratoses.

    PubMed

    Kalisiak, Michal S; Rao, Jaggi

    2007-01-01

    Actinic keratoses (AKs) are one of the most common conditions that are treated by dermatologists and they have the potential to progress to squamous cell carcinoma if left untreated. Photodynamic therapy (PDT) has emerged as a novel and versatile method of treating those lesions. Topical preparations of aminolevulinic acid and methyl aminolevulinate are commercially available photosensitizers, and numerous light sources may be used for photoactivation. This article focuses on practical aspects of PDT in the treatment of AKs, outcomes of relevant clinical trials, and special applications of PDT in transplant recipients and other who are predisposed to AK formation. Step-by-step descriptions of PDT sessions are presented.

  12. Metal nanoparticles amplify photodynamic effect on skin cells in vitro

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bauer, Brigitte; Chen, Si; Käll, Mikael; Gunnarsson, Linda; Ericson, Marica B.

    2011-03-01

    We report on an investigation aimed to increase the efficiency of photodynamic therapy (PDT) through the influence of localized surface plasmon resonances (LSPR's) in metal nanoparticles. PDT is based on photosensitizers that generate singlet oxygen at the tumour site upon exposure to visible light. Although PDT is a well-established treatment for skin cancer, a major drawback is the low quantum yield for singlet-oxygen production. This motivates the development of novel methods that enhance singlet oxygen generation during treatment. In this context, we study the photodynamic effect on cultured human skin cells in the presence or absence of gold nanoparticles with well established LSPR and field-enhancement properties. The cultured skin cells were exposed to protoporphyrin IX and gold nanoparticles and subsequently illuminated with red light. We investigated the differences in cell viability by tuning different parameters, such as incubation time and light dose. In order to find optimal parameters for specific targeting of tumour cells, we compared normal human epidermal keratinocytes with a human squamous skin cancer cell line. The study indicates significantly enhanced cell death in the presence of nanoparticles and important differences in treatment efficiency between normal and tumour cells. These results are thus promising and clearly motivate further development of nanoparticle enhanced clinical PDT treatment.

  13. Photosensitizers for photodynamic immune modulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    North, John R.; Boch, Ronald; Hunt, David W. C.; Ratkay, Leslie G.; Simkin, Guillermo O.; Tao, Jing-Song; Richter, Anna M.; Levy, Julia G.

    2000-06-01

    PDT may be an effective treatment for certain immune-mediated disorders. The immunomodulatory action of PDT is likely a consequence of effects exerted at a number of levels including stimulation of specific cell signaling pathways, selective depletion of activated immune cells, alteration of receptor expression by immune and non-immune cells, and the modulation of cytokine availability. QLT0074, a potent photosensitizer that exhibits rapid clearance kinetics in vivo, is in development for the treatment of immune disorders. In comparison to the well-characterized and structurally related photosensitizer verteporfin, lower concentrations of QLT0074 were required to induce apoptosis in human blood T cells and keratinocytes using blue light for photoactivation. Both photosensitizers triggered the stress activated protein kinase (SAPK) and p38 (HOG1) pathways but not extracellularly regulated kinase (ERK) activity in mouse Pam212 keratinocytes. In cell signaling responses, QLT0074 was active at lower concentrations than verteporfin. For all in vitro test systems, the stronger photodynamic activity of QLT0074 was associated with a greater cell uptake of this photosensitize than verteporfin. In mouse immune models, sub-erythemogenic doses of QLT0074 in combination with whole body blue light irradiation inhibited the contact hypersensitivity response and limited the development of adjuvant-induced arthritis. QLT0074 exhibits activities that indicate it may be a favorable agent for the photodynamic treatment of human immune disease.

  14. Vascular effect of photodynamic therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fyodorov, Svyatoslav N.; Kopayeva, V. G.; Andreev, J. B.; Ponomarev, Gelii V.; Stranadko, Eugeny P.; Suchin, H. M.

    1996-01-01

    Vascular effect of PDT has been studied in patients with corneal vascularized leucomas (10 patients) and in patients with corneal neovascularized transplant (3 patients). For vascularized leucomas the method of photodynamic therapy consisted of the local injection of dimegin (deiteroporphyrin derivative) into the space of the newly-formed vessels under operating microscope (opton) with the microneedle (diameter 200 microns) and corneal irradiation by the operating microscope light. For corneal neovascularized transplant the injection of photogem (hematoporphyrin derivative) intravenously were made with subsequent irradiation by light of dye laser (5 hours after the injection) with light density of 150 mW/cm2 for 15 minutes. In all the cases at the time of irradiation the aggregated blood flow was appeared, followed by blood flow stasis. In postoperative period the vessels disintegrated into separate fragments which disappeared completely after 10 - 15 days. Taking into account the data of light microscopy, the disappearance of the vessels took place as a result of the vascular endothelium lisis along the vascular walls. Neovascularized cornea and newly-formed vessels in tumor stroms have much in common. The vessel alterations study presented in this paper, may serve to specify the mechanism of photodynamic destruction of neovascularized stroma of tumor.

  15. Photodynamic therapy toward selective endometrial ablation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tadir, Yona; Tromberg, Bruce J.; Krasieva, Tatiana B.; Berns, Michael W.

    1993-05-01

    Potential applications of photodynamic therapy for endometrial disease are discussed. Experimental models that may lead to diagnosis and treatment of endometriosis as well as selective endometrial ablation are summarized.

  16. Photodynamic effect of curcumin on Vibrio parahaemolyticus.

    PubMed

    Wu, Juan; Mou, Haijin; Xue, Changhu; Leung, Albert Wingnang; Xu, Chuanshan; Tang, Qing-Juan

    2016-09-01

    Vibrio parahaemolyticus (V. parahaemolyticus) is currently a major cause of bacterial diarrhoea associated with seafood consumption. The objective of this study was to determine the inactivation effect of curcumin-mediated photodynamic action on V. parahaemolyticus. First of all, V. parahaemolyticus suspended in PBS buffer was irradiated by a visible light from a LED light source with an energy density of 3.6J/cm(2). Colony forming units (CFU) were counted and the viability of V. parahaemolyticus cells was calculated after treatment. Singlet oxygen ((1)O2) production after photodynamic action of curcumin was evaluated using 9,10-Anthracenediyl-bis (methylene) dimalonic acid (ADMA). Bacterial outer membrane protein was extracted and analyzed using electrophoresis SDS-PAGE. DNA and RNA of V. parahaemolyticus were also extracted and analyzed using agarose gel electrophoresis after photodynamic treatment. Finally, the efficacy of photodynamic action of curcumin was preliminarily evaluated in the decontamination of V. parahaemolyticus in oyster. Results showed that the viability of V. parahaemolyticus was significantly decreased to non-detectable levels over 6.5-log reductions with the curcumin concentration of 10 and 20μM. Photodynamic action of curcumin significantly increased the singlet oxygen level with the curcumin concentration of 10μM. Notable damage was found to bacterial outer membrane proteins and genetic materials after photodynamic treatment. Photodynamic action of curcumin reduced the number of V. parahaemolyticus contaminating in oyster to non-detectable level. Our findings demonstrated that photodynamic action of curcumin could be a potentially good method to inactivate Vibrio parahaemolyticus contaminating in oyster.

  17. Mitochondria-targeting for improved photodynamic therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ngen, Ethel J.

    % was observed from the Rh moiety (donor) to the TPP moiety (acceptor) of the system. This significantly enhanced the sigma 2 of TPP-Rh by ˜ 100 % (20 GM) compared to the parent TPP-OH. Furthermore, TPP-Rh produced singlet oxygen at a significantly faster rate than TPP-OH upon two-photon excitation. Thus, this indicates that conjugating photosensitizers to Rh B via short saturated hydrocarbon linkers could provide deeper tissue penetration, in addition to preferential mitochondrial accumulation for improved photodynamic response. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)

  18. Choriocapillaris photodynamic therapy using indocyanine green.

    PubMed

    Costa, R A; Farah, M E; Freymüller, E; Morales, P H; Smith, R; Cardillo, J A

    2001-10-01

    To evaluate the potential of photodynamic therapy using indocyanine green for occlusion of choroidal neovascularization, the authors studied efficiency and collateral damage of photodynamic therapy-induced photothrombosis in the rabbit choriocapillary layer. Fundus photography, fluorescein angiography, and light and transmission electron microscopy were used to study the efficiency of photodynamic therapy-induced photothrombosis using indocyanine green as the photosensitizer, and to assess the resultant collateral damage. The delivery system consisted of a modified infrared diode laser tuned to 810 nm, near the maximum absorption peak of indocyanine green. Choriocapillary occlusion was achieved at indocyanine green doses of 10 and 20 mg/kg and a radiant as low as 6.3 J/cm(2). When photodynamic therapy was performed with indocyanine green doses of 10 mg/kg, damage to the neural retina was minimal. Only inner photoreceptor segments showed degeneration, probably secondary to choroidal ischemia. Bruch membrane remained intact. Retinal pigment epithelium was invariably damaged, as seen with other photosensitizers. Temporary occlusion of large choroidal vessels occurred at both dye doses. In this experimental study, photodynamic therapy using indocyanine green and 810-nm light irradiation produced endothelium-bound intraluminal photothrombosis, with preservation of the retinal architecture and minimal loss of visual cells. Membrane targetability, hydrophilic and fluorescent properties, and activation at 805 nm suggest indocyanine green as a potential photosensitizer for choroidal neovascularization. These combined considerations point toward further study of photodynamic therapy using indocyanine green for the treatment of choroidal vascular disease.

  19. Combination immunotherapy and photodynamic therapy for cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamblin, Michael R.; Castano, Ana P.; Mroz, Pawel

    2006-02-01

    Cancer is a leading cause of death among modern people largely due to metastatic disease. The ideal cancer treatment should target both the primary tumor and the metastases with minimal toxicity towards normal tissue. This is best accomplished by priming the body's immune system to recognize the tumor antigens so that after the primary tumor is destroyed, distant metastases will also be eradicated. Photodynamic therapy (PDT) involves the IV administration of photosensitizers followed by illumination of the tumor with red light producing reactive oxygen species leading to vascular shutdown and tumor cell death. Anti-tumor immunity is stimulated after PDT due to the acute inflammatory response, generation of tumor-specific antigens, and induction of heat-shock proteins. Combination regimens using PDT and immunostimulating treatments are likely to even further enhance post-PDT immunity. These immunostimulants are likely to include products derived from pathogenic microorganisms that are effectively recognized by Toll-like receptors and lead to upregulation of transcription factors for cytokines and inflammatory mediators. The following cascade of events causes activation of macrophages, dendritic and natural killer cells. Exogenous cytokine administration can be another way to increase PDT-induced immunity as well as treatment with a low dose of cyclophosphamide that selectively reduces T-regulatory cells. Although so far these combination therapies have only been used in animal models, their use in clinical trials should receive careful consideration.

  20. Photodynamic therapy (PDT) as a biological modifier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Obochi, Modestus; Tao, Jing-Song; Hunt, David W. C.; Levy, Julia G.

    1996-04-01

    The capacity of photosensitizers and light to ablate cancerous tissues and unwanted neovasculature constitutes the classical application of photodynamic therapy (PDT). Cell death results from either necrotic or apoptotic processes. The use of photosensitizers and light at doses which do not cause death has been found to affect changes in certain cell populations which profoundly effect their expression of cell surface molecules and secretion of cytokines, thereby altering the functional attributes of the treated cells. Cells of the immune system and the skin may be sensitive to modulation by 'sub-lethal PDT.' Ongoing studies have been conducted to assess, at the molecular level, changes in both lymphocytes and epidermal cells (EC) caused by treatment with low levels of benzoporphyrin derivative monoacid ring A (BPD) (a photosensitizer currently in clinical trials for cancer, psoriasis, endometriosis and age-related macular degeneration) and light. Treatment of skin with BPD and light, at levels which significantly enhanced the length of murine skin allograft acceptance, have been found to down-regulate the expression of Langerhans cell (LC) surface antigen molecules [major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II and intracellular adhesion molecule (ICAM)-1] and the formation of some cytokines (tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF- (alpha) ).

  1. 5-ALA based photodynamic management of glioblastoma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rühm, Adrian; Stepp, Herbert; Beyer, Wolfgang; Hennig, Georg; Pongratz, Thomas; Sroka, Ronald; Schnell, Oliver; Tonn, Jörg-Christian; Kreth, Friedrich-Wilhelm

    2014-03-01

    Objective: Improvement of the clinical outcome of glioblastoma (GBM) patients by employment of fluorescence and photosensitization on the basis of 5-aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA) induced protoporphyrin IX (PpIX). Methods: In this report the focus is laid on the use of tumor selective PpIX fluorescence for stereotactic biopsy sampling and intra-operative treatment monitoring. In addition, our current concept for treatment planning is presented. For stereotactic interstitial photodynamic therapy (iPDT), radial diffusers were implanted into the contrast enhancing tumor volume. Spectroscopic measurements of laser light transmission and fluorescence between adjacent fibers were performed prior, during and post PDT. Results: PpIX concentrations in primary glioblastoma tissue show high intra- and inter-patient variability, but are usually sufficient for an effective PDT. During individual treatment attempts with 5-ALA based GBM-iPDT, transmission and fluorescence measurements between radial diffusers gave the following results: 1. In some cases, transmission after PDT is considerably reduced compared to the value before PDT, which may be attributable to a depletion of oxygenated hemoglobin and/or diffuse bleeding. 2. PpIX fluorescence is efficiently photobleached during PDT in all cases. Conclusion: iPDT with assessment of PpIX fluorescence and photobleaching is a promising treatment option. Individualization of treatment parameters appears to bear a potential to further improve clinical outcomes.

  2. Advances in photodynamic therapy assisted by electroporation.

    PubMed

    Kotulska, Malgorzata; Kulbacka, Julita; Saczko, Jolanta

    2013-03-01

    Low invasive therapies of cancer are directed toward the methods that target selectively on carcinoma cells. Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a therapeutic modality in which combination of a photosensitizer, light, and oxygen renders reactive oxygen species (ROS) which cause damage to a tumor tissue. Each of these factors is not toxic in itself and the effect of therapy results from high uptake of a photosensitizer by carcinoma cells and directed tumor irradiation by light. Realization of the therapy depends on efficient transport of the photosensitizer across the membrane and intracellular accumulation of the drug. Depending on the treatment conditions and the uptake mechanism, sensitizers can potentially reach different intracellular concentrations and different cellular effects can be triggered. Transport efficacy can be significantly augmented by applying electric pulses to plasma membrane, which opens transient non-selective hydrophilic nanopores as additional pathways across lipid membranes. Electroporation (EP) has been utilized to facilitate drug uptake in electrochemotherapy (ECT) and has been tested in combination with PDT. In the review, we described effects of PDT and electrophotodynamic therapy (EPDT) on carcinoma and healthy cells, studied in vitro and vivo. The comparison of different drugs has been applied to tests considering the enhancement of their cytotoxicity, selectivity, and additional effects caused by electroporation.

  3. Photodynamic therapy of malignant mesothelioma of pleura

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warloe, Trond; Heyerdahl, Helen; Peng, Qian; Hoie, J.; Normann, E.; Solheim, O.; Moan, Johan; Giercksky, Karl-Erik

    1995-03-01

    Nine patients with malignant pleural mesothelioma underwent extensive surgery followed by intra-operative photodynamic therapy. Two mg/kg Photofrin was given 48 hours prior to surgery. The thoracic cavity and eventual remaining lung were exposed to 15 - 30 Joules/cm2 of 630 nm laser light. Tumor tissue was analyzed by microscopic photometrical techniques. Five patients with mixed or epithelioid tumors with fluorescence intensity > 100 gray level/pixel seemed to benefit from the given therapy. One patient was free of disease 18 months after treatment. Two patients were treated for metastasis after 12 months with no sign of intrathoracic recurrence. Both are still alive, one without further sign of disease 32 months after initial treatment. Two patients presented generalized disease after 9 and 13 months and intrathoracic recurrence several months later. Two patients with poorly differentiated tumors and 2 patients with moderate to highly differentiated tumors, but with fluorescence intensity < 100 gray level/pixel, presented recurrences after 4 months. PDT-efficiency seems to be predicted by the intensity and distribution of drug-induced fluorescence in tumor tissue. PDT may enhance the possibility to achieve complete local tumor control after excision. Multimodal therapeutic approach of local and systemic disease seems mandatory to further improve survival.

  4. Photodynamic Cancer Therapy - Recent Advances

    SciTech Connect

    Abrahamse, Heidi

    2011-09-22

    The basic principle of the photodynamic effect was discovered over a hundred years ago leading to the pioneering work on PDT in Europe. It was only during the 1980s, however, when 'photoradiation therapy' was investigated as a possible treatment modality for cancer. Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a photochemotherapeutic process which requires the use of a photosensitizer (PS) that, upon entry into a cancer cell is targeted by laser irradiation to initiate a series of events that contribute to cell death. PSs are light-sensitive dyes activated by a light source at a specific wavelength and can be classified as first or second generation PSs based on its origin and synthetic pathway. The principle of PS activation lies in a photochemical reaction resulting from excitation of the PS producing singlet oxygen which in turn reacts and damages cell organelles and biomolecules required for cell function and ultimately leading to cell destruction. Several first and second generation PSs have been studied in several different cancer types in the quest to optimize treatment. PSs including haematoporphyrin derivative (HpD), aminolevulinic acid (ALA), chlorins, bacteriochlorins, phthalocyanines, naphthalocyanines, pheophorbiedes and purpurins all require selective uptake and retention by cancer cells prior to activation by a light source and subsequent cell death induction. Photodynamic diagnosis (PDD) is based on the fluorescence effect exhibited by PSs upon irradiation and is often used concurrently with PDT to detect and locate tumours. Both laser and light emitting diodes (LED) have been used for PDT depending on the location of the tumour. Internal cancers more often require the use of laser light delivery using fibre optics as delivery system while external PDT often make use of LEDs. Normal cells have a lower uptake of the PS in comparison to tumour cells, however the acute cytotoxic effect of the compound on the recovery rate of normal cells is not known. Subcellular

  5. Photodynamic inactivation and mutagenesis by angelicin (isopsoralen) or thiopyronin (methylene red) in wild-type and repair-deficient strains of bacteriophage T4

    SciTech Connect

    Drake, J.W.

    1985-06-01

    Photodynamic inactivation of bacteriophage T4 particles, mediated by either angelicin or thiopyronin, is enhanced by defects in the T4 uvsW-uvsX-uvsY postreplication repair system but not by a defect in the denV pyrimidine-dimer-excision system. There was no evidence for functional interactions between the two repair systems. As observed previously with 8-methoxypsoralen, photodynamic mutagenesis with angelicin is abolished by defects in the uvsW-uvsX-uvsY system.

  6. Photodynamic therapy of acne vulgaris.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ershova, Ekaterina Y.; Karimova, Lubov N.; Kharnas, Sergey S.; Kuzmin, Sergey G.; Loschenov, Victor B.

    2003-06-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) with topical 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) was tested for the treatment of acne vulgaris. Patients with acne were treated with ALA plus red light. Ten percent water solution of ALA was applied with 1,5-2 h occlusion and then 18-45 J/cm2 630 nm light was given. Bacterial endogenous porphyrins fluorescence also was used for acne therapy. Treatment control and diagnostics was realized by fluorescence spectra and fluorescence image. Light sources and diagnostic systems were used: semiconductor laser (λ=630 nm, Pmax=1W), (LPhT-630-01-BIOSPEC); LED system for PDT and diagnostics with fluorescent imager (λ=635 nm, P=2W, p=50 mW/cm2), (UFPh-630-01-BIOSPEC); high sensitivity CCD video camera with narrow-band wavelength filter (central wavelength 630 nm); laser electronic spectrum analyzer for fluorescent diagnostics and photodynamic therapy monitoring (LESA-01-BIOSPEC). Protoporphyrin IX (PP IX) and endogenous porphyrins concentrations were measured by fluorescence at wavelength, correspondingly, 700 nm and 650 nm. It was shown that topical ALA is converted into PP IX in hair follicles, sebaceous glands and acne scars. The amount of resulting PP IX is sufficient for effective PDT. There was good clinical response and considerable clearance of acne lesion. ALA-PDT also had good cosmetic effect in treatment acne scars. PDT with ALA and red light assist in opening corked pores, destroying Propionibacterium acnes and decreasing sebum secretion. PDT treatment associated with several adverse effects: oedema and/or erytema for 3-5 days after PDT, epidermal exfoliation from 5th to 10th day and slight pigmentation during 1 month after PDT. ALA-PDT is effective for acne and can be used despite several side effects.

  7. Dual imaging-guided photothermal/photodynamic therapy using micelles

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Miao; Mao, Huajian; Li, Yanli; Zhu, Aijun; He, Hui; Yang, Hong; Wang, Yangyun; Tian, Xin; Ge, Cuicui; Peng, Qiaoli; Wang, Xiaoyong; Yang, Xiangliang; Chen, Xiaoyuan; Liu, Gang; Chen, Huabing

    2015-01-01

    We report a type of photosensitizer (PS)-loaded micelles integrating cyanine dye as potential theranostic micelles for precise anatomical tumor localization via dual photoacoustic (PA)/near-infrared fluorescent (NIRF) imaging modalities, and simultaneously superior cancer therapy via sequential synergistic photothermal therapy (PTT)/photodynamic therapy (PDT). The micelles exhibit enhanced photostability, cell internalization and tumor accumulation. The dual NIRF/PA imaging modalities of the micelles cause the high imaging contrast and spatial resolution of tumors, which provide precise anatomical localization of the tumor and its inner vasculature for guiding PTT/PDT treatments. Moreover, the micelles can generate severe photothermal damage on cancer cells and destabilization of the lysosomes upon PTT photo-irradiation, which subsequently facilitate synergistic photodynamic injury via PS under PDT treatment. The sequential treatments of PTT/PDT trigger the enhanced cytoplasmic delivery of PS, which contributes to the synergistic anticancer efficacy of PS. Our strategy provides a dual-modal cancer imaging with high imaging contrast and spatial resolution, and subsequent therapeutic synergy of PTT/PDT for potential multimodal theranostic application. PMID:24613048

  8. Involvement of Bim in Photofrin-mediated photodynamically induced apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xianwang; He, Xiaobing; Hu, Shujuan; Sun, Anbang; Lu, Chengbiao

    2015-01-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a promising noninvasive technique, which has been successfully applied to the treatment of human cancers. Studies have shown that the Bcl-2 family proteins play important roles in PDT-induced apoptosis. However, whether Bcl-2-interacting mediator of cell death (Bim) is involved in photodynamic treatment remains unknown. In this study, we attempt to determine the effect of Bim on Photofrin photodynamic treatment (PPT)-induced apoptosis in human lung adenocarcinoma ASTC-a-1 cells. The translocation of Bim/Bax of the cells were monitored by laser confocal scanning microscope. The levels of Bim protein and activated caspase-3 in cells were detected by western blot assay. Caspase-3 activities were measured by Caspase-3 Fluorogenic Substrate (Ac-DEVD-AFC) analysis. The induction of apoptosis was detected by Hoechst 33258 and PI staining as well as flow cytometry analysis. The effect of Bim on PPT-induced apoptosis was determined by RNAi. BimL translocated to mitochondria in response to PPT, similar to the downstream pro-apoptotic protein Bax activation. PPT increased the level of Bim and activated caspase-3 in cells and that knockdown of Bim by RNAi significantly protected against caspase-3 activity. PPT-induced apoptosis were suppressed in cells transfected with shRNA-Bim. We demonstrated the involvement of Bim in PPT-induced apoptosis in human ASTC-a-1 lung adenocarcinoma cells and suggested that enhancing Bim activity might be a potential strategy for treating human cancers. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  9. pH-responsive metallo-supramolecular nanogel for synergistic chemo-photodynamic therapy.

    PubMed

    Yao, Xuemei; Chen, Li; Chen, Xiaofei; Xie, Zhigang; Ding, Jianxun; He, Chaoliang; Zhang, Jingping; Chen, Xuesi

    2015-10-01

    Benefited from the high orientation of coordinated interaction, metallo-supramolecular materials have attracted enormous interest in many fields. Herein, a novel metallo-supramolecular nanogel (SNG)-based drug delivery system for synergistic chemo-photodynamic therapy is explored to enhance anticancer efficacy. It is fabricated by the metallo-supramolecular-coordinated interaction between tetraphenylporphyrin zinc (Zn-Por) and histidine. It can respond to tumor acid microenvironment to release the co-delivered anticancer drug and photosensitizer to kill the lesion cells. Zn-Por moieties in SNG keep the photosensitivity in the range of visible wavelength and possess the ability of generating active oxygen species for photodynamic therapy. The drug-loaded SNG provides a di-functional platform for chemotherapy and photodynamic therapy. Compared with the single chemotherapy of free doxorubicine (DOX) or photodynamic therapy of Zn-Por in SNG, DOX-loaded SNG with irradiation shows higher in vitro cytotoxicity and in vivo anticancer therapeutic activity, endowing the SNG with great potential in cancer treatments. A combination of multiple non-cross-resistant anticancer agents has been widely applied clinically. Applying multiple drugs with different molecular targets can raise the genetic barriers and delay the cancer adaption process. Multiple drugs targeting different cellular pathways can function synergistically, giving higher therapeutic efficacy and target selectivity. Overall, developing a combination therapeutic approach might even be the key to enhance anticancer efficacy and overcome chemo-resistance. Herein, a novel metallo-supramolecular nanogel (SNG) is fabricated by the metallo-supramolecular-coordinated interaction between tetraphenylporphyrin zinc (Zn-Por) and histidine. The DOX-loaded SNG provides a di-functional platform for chemotherapy and photodynamic therapy because it can respond to tumor acid microenvironment to release the co-delivered anticancer

  10. A tumor-targeted activatable phthalocyanine-tetrapeptide-doxorubicin conjugate for synergistic chemo-photodynamic therapy.

    PubMed

    Ke, Mei-Rong; Chen, Shao-Fang; Peng, Xiao-Hui; Zheng, Qiao-Feng; Zheng, Bi-Yuan; Yeh, Chih-Kuang; Huang, Jian-Dong

    2017-02-15

    Chemo-photodynamic therapy is a promising strategy for cancer treatments. However, it remains a challenge to develop a chemo-photodynamic therapeutic agent with little side effect, high tumor-targeting, and efficient synergistic effect simultaneously. Herein, we report a zinc(II) phthalocyanine (ZnPc)-doxorubicin (DOX) prodrug linked with a fibroblast activation protein (FAP)-responsive short peptide with the sequence of Thr-Ser-Gly-Pro for chemo-photodynamic therapy. In the conjugate, both photosensitizing activity of ZnPc and cytotoxicity of DOX are inhibited obviously. However, FAP-triggered separation of the photosensitizer and DOX can enhance fluorescence emission, singlet oxygen generation, dark- and photo-cytotoxicity significantly, and lead to a synergistic anticancer efficacy against HepG2 cells. The prodrug can also be specifically and efficiently activated in tumor tissue of mice. Thus, this prodrug shows great potential for clinical application in chemo-photodynamic therapy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. Regulating Near-Infrared Photodynamic Properties of Semiconducting Polymer Nanotheranostics for Optimized Cancer Therapy.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Houjuan; Fang, Yuan; Miao, Qingqing; Qi, Xiaoying; Ding, Dan; Chen, Peng; Pu, Kanyi

    2017-09-26

    Development of optical nanotheranostics for the capability of photodynamic therapy (PDT) provides opportunities for advanced cancer therapy. However, most nanotheranostic systems fail to regulate their generation levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) according to the disease microenvironment, which can potentially limit their therapeutic selectivity and increase the risk of damage to normal tissues. We herein report the development of hybrid semiconducting polymer nanoparticles (SPNs) with self-regulated near-infrared (NIR) photodynamic properties for optimized cancer therapy. The SPNs comprise a binary component nanostructure: a NIR-absorbing semiconducting polymer acts as the NIR fluorescent PDT agent, while nanoceria serves as the smart intraparticle regular to decrease and increase ROS generation at physiologically neutral and pathologically acidic environments, respectively. As compared with nondoped SPNs, the NIR fluorescence imaging ability of nanoceria-doped SPNs is similar due to the optically inactive nature of nanoceria; however, the self-regulated photodynamic properties of nanoceria-doped SPN not only result in dramatically reduced nonspecific damage to normal tissue under NIR laser irradiation but also lead to significantly enhanced photodynamic efficacy for cancer therapy in a murine mouse model. This study thus provides a simple yet effective hybrid approach to modulate the phototherapeutic performance of organic photosensitizers.

  12. Photodynamic inactivation of mammalian viruses and bacteriophages.

    PubMed

    Costa, Liliana; Faustino, Maria Amparo F; Neves, Maria Graça P M S; Cunha, Angela; Almeida, Adelaide

    2012-07-01

    Photodynamic inactivation (PDI) has been used to inactivate microorganisms through the use of photosensitizers. The inactivation of mammalian viruses and bacteriophages by photosensitization has been applied with success since the first decades of the last century. Due to the fact that mammalian viruses are known to pose a threat to public health and that bacteriophages are frequently used as models of mammalian viruses, it is important to know and understand the mechanisms and photodynamic procedures involved in their photoinactivation. The aim of this review is to (i) summarize the main approaches developed until now for the photodynamic inactivation of bacteriophages and mammalian viruses and, (ii) discuss and compare the present state of the art of mammalian viruses PDI with phage photoinactivation, with special focus on the most relevant mechanisms, molecular targets and factors affecting the viral inactivation process.

  13. Photodynamic Inactivation of Mammalian Viruses and Bacteriophages

    PubMed Central

    Costa, Liliana; Faustino, Maria Amparo F.; Neves, Maria Graça P. M. S.; Cunha, Ângela; Almeida, Adelaide

    2012-01-01

    Photodynamic inactivation (PDI) has been used to inactivate microorganisms through the use of photosensitizers. The inactivation of mammalian viruses and bacteriophages by photosensitization has been applied with success since the first decades of the last century. Due to the fact that mammalian viruses are known to pose a threat to public health and that bacteriophages are frequently used as models of mammalian viruses, it is important to know and understand the mechanisms and photodynamic procedures involved in their photoinactivation. The aim of this review is to (i) summarize the main approaches developed until now for the photodynamic inactivation of bacteriophages and mammalian viruses and, (ii) discuss and compare the present state of the art of mammalian viruses PDI with phage photoinactivation, with special focus on the most relevant mechanisms, molecular targets and factors affecting the viral inactivation process. PMID:22852040

  14. Treatment of experimental murine arthritis with transdermal photodynamic therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ratkay, Leslie G.; Chowdhary, R. K.; Neyndorff, Herma C.; Levy, Julia G.; Waterfield, J. D.

    1995-03-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) using benzoporphyrin derivative, monoacid ring A (BPD), and transdermal light was able to significantly treat symptoms of adjuvant-enhanced arthritis in MRL-lpr mice. Clinical and histological evaluation showed that PDT was able to modify the progression of adjuvant-enhanced arthritis up to 10 days after induction. When PDT was used on arthritic joints displaying swelling, it prevented further deterioration of clinical symptoms (76%, 16/21). However, it did not significantly effect the histopathologic parameters. As we have previously reported that mitogen activated MRL-lpr splenocytes were shown to be more susceptible to in vitro PDT we postulate that our findings reflect a selective destruction of adjuvant activated lymphocytes in the circulation and/or joints. The application of PDT to eliminate activated cells responsible for the inflammatory reaction at the arthritic site may have significant clinical implications for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis.

  15. Active and passive control of zinc phthalocyanine photodynamics.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Divya; Huijser, Annemarie; Savolainen, Janne; Steen, Gerwin; Herek, Jennifer L

    2013-01-01

    In this work we report on the ultrafast photodynamics of the photosensitizer zinc phthalocyanine (ZnPc) and manipulation thereof. Two approaches are followed: active control via pulse shaping and passive control via strategic manipulation in the periphery of the molecular structure. The objective of both of these control experiments is the same: to enhance the yield of the functional pathway and to minimize loss channels. The aim of the active control experiments is to increase the intersystem crossing yield in ZnPc, which is important for application in photodynamic therapy (PDT). Pulse shaping allowed an improvement in triplet to singlet ratio of 15% as compared to a transform-limited pulse. This effect is ascribed to a control mechanism that utilizes multiphoton pathways to higher-lying states from where intersystem crossing is more likely to occur. The passive control experiments are performed on ZnPc derivatives deposited onto TiO2, serving as a model system of a dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC). Modification of the anchoring ligand of the molecular structure resulted in an increased rate for electron injection into TiO2 and slower back electron transfer, improving the DSSC efficiency.

  16. Complexing Methylene Blue with Phosphorus Dendrimers to Increase Photodynamic Activity.

    PubMed

    Dabrzalska, Monika; Janaszewska, Anna; Zablocka, Maria; Mignani, Serge; Majoral, Jean Pierre; Klajnert-Maculewicz, Barbara

    2017-02-23

    The efficiency of photodynamic therapy is limited mainly due to low selectivity, unfavorable biodistribution of photosensitizers, and long-lasting skin sensitivity to light. However, drug delivery systems based on nanoparticles may overcome the limitations mentioned above. Among others, dendrimers are particularly attractive as carriers, because of their globular architecture and high loading capacity. The goal of the study was to check whether an anionic phosphorus dendrimer is suitable as a carrier of a photosensitizer-methylene blue (MB). As a biological model, basal cell carcinoma cell lines were used. We checked the influence of the MB complexation on its singlet oxygen production ability using a commercial fluorescence probe. Next, cellular uptake, phototoxicity, reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, and cell death were investigated. The MB-anionic dendrimer complex (MB-1an) was found to generate less singlet oxygen; however, the complex showed higher cellular uptake and phototoxicity against basal cell carcinoma cell lines, which was accompanied with enhanced ROS production. Owing to the obtained results, we conclude that the photodynamic activity of MB complexed with an anionic dendrimer is higher than free MB against basal cell carcinoma cell lines.

  17. Nanoparticles in photodynamic therapy: an emerging paradigm.

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, Dev Kumar; Fong, Li Shan; Zhang, Yong

    2008-12-14

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) has emerged as one of the important therapeutic options in management of cancer and other diseases [M. Triesscheijn, P. Baas, J.H. Schellens, F.A. Stewart, Photodynamic therapy in oncology, Oncologist 11 (2006) 1034-1044]. Most photosensitizers are highly hydrophobic and require delivery systems. Previous classification of delivery systems was based on presence or absence of a targeting molecule on the surface [Y.N. Konan, R. Gurny, E. Allemann, State of the art in the delivery of photosensitizers for photodynamic therapy, J. Photochem. Photobiol., B 66 (2002) 89-106]. Recent reports have described carrier nanoparticles with additional active complementary and supplementary roles in PDT. We introduce a functional classification for nanoparticles in PDT to divide them into passive carriers and active participants in photosensitizer excitation. Active nanoparticles are distinguished from non-biodegradable carriers with extraneous functions, and sub-classified mechanistically into photosensitizer nanoparticles, [A.C. Samia, X. Chen, C. Burda, Semiconductor quantum dots for photodynamic therapy, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 125 (2003) 15736-15737, R. Bakalova, H. Ohba, Z. Zhelev, M. Ishikawa, Y. Baba, Quantum dots as photosensitizers? Nat. Biotechnol. 22 (2004) 1360-1361] self-illuminating nanoparticles [W. Chen, J. Zhang, Using nanoparticles to enable simultaneous radiation and photodynamic therapies for cancer treatment, J. Nanosci. Nanotechnology 6 (2006) 1159-1166] and upconverting nanoparticles [P. Zhang, W. Steelant, M. Kumar, M. Scholfield, Versatile photosensitizers for photodynamic therapy at infrared excitation, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 129 (2007) 4526-4527]. Although several challenges remain before they can be adopted for clinical use, these active or second-generation PDT nanoparticles probably offer the best hope for extending the reach of PDT to regions deep in the body.

  18. Mechanisms of Resistance to Photodynamic Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Casas, Adriana; Di Venosa, Gabriela; Hasan, Tayyaba; Batlle, Alcira

    2013-01-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) involves the administration of a photosensitizer (PS) followed by illumination with visible light, leading to generation of reactive oxygen species. The mechanisms of resistance to PDT ascribed to the PS may be shared with the general mechanisms of drug resistance, and are related to altered drug uptake and efflux rates or altered intracellular trafficking. As a second step, an increased inactivation of oxygen reactive species is also associated to PDT resistance via antioxidant detoxifying enzymes and activation of heat shock proteins. Induction of stress response genes also occurs after PDT, resulting in modulation of proliferation, cell detachment and inducing survival pathways among other multiple extracellular signalling events. In addition, an increased repair of induced damage to proteins, membranes and occasionally to DNA may happen. PDT-induced tissue hypoxia as a result of vascular damage and photochemical oxygen consumption may also contribute to the appearance of resistant cells. The structure of the PS is believed to be a key point in the development of resistance, being probably related to its particular subcellular localization. Although most of the features have already been described for chemoresistance, in many cases, no cross-resistance between PDT and chemotherapy has been reported. These findings are in line with the enhancement of PDT efficacy by combination with chemotherapy. The study of cross resistance in cells with developed resistance against a particular PS challenged against other PS is also highly complex and comprises different mechanisms. In this review we will classify the different features observed in PDT resistance, leading to a comparison with the mechanisms most commonly found in chemo resistant cells. PMID:21568910

  19. Functionalized Fullerenes in Photodynamic Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Ying-Ying; Sharma, Sulbha K.; Yin, Rui; Agrawal, Tanupriya; Chiang, Long Y.; Hamblin, Michael R.

    2014-01-01

    Since the discovery of C60 fullerene in 1985, scientists have been searching for biomedical applications of this most fascinating of molecules. The unique photophysical and photochemical properties of C60 suggested that the molecule would function well as a photosensitizer in photodynamic therapy (PDT). PDT uses the combination of non-toxic dyes and harmless visible light to produce reactive oxygen species that kill unwanted cells. However the extreme insolubility and hydrophobicity of pristine C60, mandated that the cage be functionalized with chemical groups that provided water solubility and biological targeting ability. It has been found that cationic quaternary ammonium groups provide both these features, and this review covers work on the use of cationic fullerenes to mediate destruction of cancer cells and pathogenic microorganisms in vitro and describes the treatment of tumors and microbial infections in mouse models. The design, synthesis, and use of simple pyrrolidinium salts, more complex decacationic chains, and light-harvesting antennae that can be attached to C60, C70 and C84 cages are covered. In the case of bacterial wound infections mice can be saved from certain death by fullerene-mediated PDT. PMID:25544837

  20. Dye Sensitizers for Photodynamic Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Ormond, Alexandra B.; Freeman, Harold S.

    2013-01-01

    Photofrin® was first approved in the 1990s as a sensitizer for use in treating cancer via photodynamic therapy (PDT). Since then a wide variety of dye sensitizers have been developed and a few have been approved for PDT treatment of skin and organ cancers and skin diseases such as acne vulgaris. Porphyrinoid derivatives and precursors have been the most successful in producing requisite singlet oxygen, with Photofrin® still remaining the most efficient sensitizer (quantum yield = 0.89) and having broad food and drug administration (FDA) approval for treatment of multiple cancer types. Other porphyrinoid compounds that have received approval from US FDA and regulatory authorities in other countries include benzoporphyrin derivative monoacid ring A (BPD-MA), meta-tetra(hydroxyphenyl)chlorin (m-THPC), N-aspartyl chlorin e6 (NPe6), and precursors to endogenous protoporphyrin IX (PpIX): 1,5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA), methyl aminolevulinate (MAL), hexaminolevulinate (HAL). Although no non-porphyrin sensitizer has been approved for PDT applications, a small number of anthraquinone, phenothiazine, xanthene, cyanine, and curcuminoid sensitizers are under consideration and some are being evaluated in clinical trials. This review focuses on the nature of PDT, dye sensitizers that have been approved for use in PDT, and compounds that have entered or completed clinical trials as PDT sensitizers. PMID:28809342

  1. Photodynamic therapy for esophageal tumors.

    PubMed

    McCaughan, J S; Nims, T A; Guy, J T; Hicks, W J; Williams, T E; Laufman, L R

    1989-01-01

    Between 1982 and 1987, 40 patients with esophageal tumors (19 adenocarcinomas, 19 squamous carcinomas, and two melanomas) in whom conventional treatments were unsuccessful were treated with photodynamic therapy (PDT) after injection with either hematoporphyrin derivative or dihematoporphyrin ether. Patients underwent endoscopy again two to three days and one month after PDT and as needed when symptoms recurred. At one month, the average minimal diameter opening of 28 assessable tumors increased from 6 to 9 mm. Of the 35 patients who could be evaluated one month after PDT, the average improvement in food intake was from a liquid to a soft diet. Average survival time (from time of first treatment) was 7.7 months (n = 17) for adenocarcinoma, 5.8 months (n = 12) for squamous cell carcinoma, and 25 months (n = 2) for melanoma. Two patients with stage I adenocarcinoma were alive with no evidence of disease at 11 and 23 months. One patient with stage I squamous cell cancer died 18 months after PDT, with recurrence of tumor above the treated area noted eight months after treatment. One patient with stage I melanoma died of a synchronous colon cancer 31 months after PDT, with no evidence of residual melanoma.

  2. Photodynamic therapy to treat periimplantitis.

    PubMed

    Bombeccari, Gian Paolo; Guzzi, Gianpaolo; Gualini, Federico; Gualini, Sara; Santoro, Franco; Spadari, Francesco

    2013-12-01

    : Periimplantitis is a bacterial complication after dental implants implantation. Photodynamic therapy (PDT) implies the use of low-power laser in combination with appropriate photosensitizer to increase the detoxification of the implant surfaces. Little information exists about PDT in the treatment of periimplantitis. A randomized comparative case-control study has been conducted with 20 patients and 20 controls to compare the efficacy of antimicrobial PDT versus surgical therapy in patients with periimplantitis, who have received dental implants with rough surfaces. In the surgery group, mucoperiosteal flap surgery was used with scaling on implant surfaces and debridement of granulation tissue. Microbiologic testing was evaluated before and after intervention treatment, at 12 and 24 weeks in the study subjects. Total anaerobic counts of bacteria did not differ significantly between patients assigned to receive PDT and those assigned to receive surgical therapy (mean, 95.2% and 80.85%, respectively). PDT was associated with a significant decrease in bleeding scores (P = 0.02) as well as inflammatory exudation (P = 0.001). Treatment with PDT in patients with periimplantitis was not associated with major reduction of total anaerobic bacteria on the rough surfaces of dental implants as compared with surgical therapy. A significantly lower proinflammatory index of periimplantitis was observed in the PDT group at 24 weeks of follow-up.

  3. New photosensitizers for photodynamic therapy.

    PubMed

    Abrahamse, Heidi; Hamblin, Michael R

    2016-02-15

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) was discovered more than 100 years ago, and has since become a well-studied therapy for cancer and various non-malignant diseases including infections. PDT uses photosensitizers (PSs, non-toxic dyes) that are activated by absorption of visible light to initially form the excited singlet state, followed by transition to the long-lived excited triplet state. This triplet state can undergo photochemical reactions in the presence of oxygen to form reactive oxygen species (including singlet oxygen) that can destroy cancer cells, pathogenic microbes and unwanted tissue. The dual-specificity of PDT relies on accumulation of the PS in diseased tissue and also on localized light delivery. Tetrapyrrole structures such as porphyrins, chlorins, bacteriochlorins and phthalocyanines with appropriate functionalization have been widely investigated in PDT, and several compounds have received clinical approval. Other molecular structures including the synthetic dyes classes as phenothiazinium, squaraine and BODIPY (boron-dipyrromethene), transition metal complexes, and natural products such as hypericin, riboflavin and curcumin have been investigated. Targeted PDT uses PSs conjugated to antibodies, peptides, proteins and other ligands with specific cellular receptors. Nanotechnology has made a significant contribution to PDT, giving rise to approaches such as nanoparticle delivery, fullerene-based PSs, titania photocatalysis, and the use of upconverting nanoparticles to increase light penetration into tissue. Future directions include photochemical internalization, genetically encoded protein PSs, theranostics, two-photon absorption PDT, and sonodynamic therapy using ultrasound.

  4. [Photodynamic therapy for severe myopia].

    PubMed

    Krebs, I; Binder, S; Stolba, U; Abri, A

    2004-01-01

    In the modern western world quality of life depends on the ability of reading. Our study was designed to prove the possibility of stabilization of reading acuity, central visual field and multifocal electroretinogram (mERG) after photodynamic therapy (PDT) in cases of pathologic myopia. In our study 20 eyes were included. At baseline, after 6 weeks,3 months and afterwards every 3 months we investigated distance acuity, reading acuity, 10 degrees static threshold perimetry, mERG, optical coherence tomography and fluorescence angiograophy. After 1 year 85% of eyes lost less than 1.5 lines of distance acuity, the reading acuity could be stabilized in 80%, the central visual field in 60% and the ERG in 55%. Patients less than 60 years old showed better results than older patients. PDT was found to be very effective because the membranes were classic without any occult parts in 100%. They were small and superficially located and the scotomas were small. There was a good correlation between functional and morphological results.

  5. New photosensitizers for photodynamic therapy

    PubMed Central

    Abrahamse, Heidi; Hamblin, Michael R.

    2016-01-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) was discovered more than 100 years ago, and has since become a well-studied therapy for cancer and various non-malignant diseases including infections. PDT uses photosensitizers (PSs, non-toxic dyes) that are activated by absorption of visible light to initially form the excited singlet state, followed by transition to the long-lived excited triplet state. This triplet state can undergo photochemical reactions in the presence of oxygen to form reactive oxygen species (including singlet oxygen) that can destroy cancer cells, pathogenic microbes and unwanted tissue. The dual-specificity of PDT relies on accumulation of the PS in diseased tissue and also on localized light delivery. Tetrapyrrole structures such as porphyrins, chlorins, bacteriochlorins and phthalocyanines with appropriate functionalization have been widely investigated in PDT, and several compounds have received clinical approval. Other molecular structures including the synthetic dyes classes as phenothiazinium, squaraine and BODIPY (boron-dipyrromethene), transition metal complexes, and natural products such as hypericin, riboflavin and curcumin have been investigated. Targeted PDT uses PSs conjugated to antibodies, peptides, proteins and other ligands with specific cellular receptors. Nanotechnology has made a significant contribution to PDT, giving rise to approaches such as nanoparticle delivery, fullerene-based PSs, titania photocatalysis, and the use of upconverting nanoparticles to increase light penetration into tissue. Future directions include photochemical internalization, genetically encoded protein PSs, theranostics, two-photon absorption PDT, and sonodynamic therapy using ultrasound. PMID:26862179

  6. Photodynamic therapy for skin cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panjehpour, Masoud; Julius, Clark E.; Hartman, Donald L.

    1996-04-01

    Photodynamic therapy was used to treat 111 lesions in 27 cases with squamous and basal cell carcinoma. There were 82 squamous cell carcinomas and 29 basal cell carcinomas. Photofrin was administered intravenously at either 1.0 mg/kg or 0.75 mg/kg. An argon/dye laser was used to deliver 630 nm light to the lesion superficially at either 215 J/cm2 or 240 J/cm2. In some cases the laser light was delivered both superficially and interstitially. The laser light was delivered two to four days after the Photofrin injection. There were 105 complete responses and 5 partial responses. One patient was lost to follow-up. Among partial responses were basal cell carcinoma on the tip of the nose and morphea basal cell carcinoma of the left cheek. Another partial response occurred in a basal cell carcinoma patient where insufficient margins were treated due to the proximity to the eye. When 0.75 mg/kg drug dose was used, the selectivity of tumor necrosis was improved. Decreased period of skin photosensitivity was documented in some cases.

  7. Transferrin-coated magnetic upconversion nanoparticles for efficient photodynamic therapy with near-infrared irradiation and luminescence bioimaging.

    PubMed

    Wang, Dan; Zhu, Lin; Pu, Yuan; Wang, Jie-Xin; Chen, Jian-Feng; Dai, Liming

    2017-08-10

    In the present study, we devised a green-synthesis route to NaYF4:Gd(3+),Yb(3+),Er(3+) upconversion nanoparticles (UCNPs) by using eco-friendly paraffin liquid, instead of 1-octadecene, as a high boiling non-coordinating solvent. A multifunctional nanoplatform was then developed by coating UCNPs with biocompatible transferrin (TRF) for magnetically-assisted and near-infrared light induced photodynamic therapy and bioimaging. Protoporphyrin IX (PpIX), a clinically approved photodynamic therapy agent, was loaded into the shell layer of the TRF-coated UCNPs (UCNP@TRF nanoparticles), which can be efficiently taken up by cancer cells for photodynamic therapy. Upon near-infrared light irradiation, the UCNP@TRF-PpIX nanoparticles could not only kill the cancer cells via photodynamic therapy but also serve as imaging probes. We also demonstrated that an external magnetic field could be used to increase the uptake of UCNP@TRF-PpIX nanoparticles by MDA-MB-231 and HeLa cancer cells, and hence result in an enhanced photodynamic therapy efficiency. This work demonstrates the innovative design and development of high-performance multifunctional PDT agents.

  8. Two-photon excitation of porphyrin-functionalized porous silicon nanoparticles for photodynamic therapy.

    PubMed

    Secret, Emilie; Maynadier, Marie; Gallud, Audrey; Chaix, Arnaud; Bouffard, Elise; Gary-Bobo, Magali; Marcotte, Nathalie; Mongin, Olivier; El Cheikh, Khaled; Hugues, Vincent; Auffan, Mélanie; Frochot, Céline; Morère, Alain; Maillard, Philippe; Blanchard-Desce, Mireille; Sailor, Michael J; Garcia, Marcel; Durand, Jean-Olivier; Cunin, Frédérique

    2014-12-03

    Porous silicon nanoparticles (pSiNPs) act as a sensitizer for the 2-photon excitation of a pendant porphyrin using NIR laser light, for imaging and photodynamic therapy. Mannose-functionalized pSiNPs can be vectorized to MCF-7 human breast cancer cells through a mannose receptor-mediated endocytosis mechanism to provide a 3-fold enhancement of the 2-photon PDT effect.

  9. Photodynamic application in neurosurgery: present and future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kostron, Herwig

    2009-06-01

    Photodynamic techniques such as photodynamic diagnosis (PDD), fluorescence guided tumor resection (FGR) and photodynamic therapy (PDT) are currently undergoing intensive clinical investigations as adjunctive treatment for malignant brain tumours. This review provides an overview on the current clinical data and trials as well as on photosensitisers, technical developments and indications for photodynamic application in Neurosurgery. Furthermore new developments and clinical significance of FGR for neurosurgery will be discussed. Over 1000 patients were enrolled in various clinical phase I/II trials for PDT for malignant brain tumours. Despite various treatment protocols, variation of photosensitisers and light dose there is a clear trend towards prolonging median survival after one single PDT as compared to conventional therapeutic modalities. The median survival after PDT for primary glioblastoma multiforme WHO IV was 19 months and for recurrent GBM 9 months as compared to standard convential treatment which is 15 months and 3 months, respectively. FGR in combination with adjunctive radiation was significantly superior to standard surgical resection followed by radiation. The combination of FGR/PDD and intraoperative PDT increased significantly survival in recurrent glioblastoma patients. The combination of PDD/ FGR and PDT offers an exciting approach to the treatment of malignant brain tumours "to see and to treat." PDT was generally well tolerated and side effects consisted of occasionally increased intracranial pressure and prolonged skin sensitivity against direct sunlight. This review covers the current available data and draws the future potential of PDD and PDT for its application in neurosurgery.

  10. Photodynamic therapy: current role in the treatment of chorioretinal conditions

    PubMed Central

    Newman, D K

    2016-01-01

    Verteporfin photodynamic therapy (vPDT) is a selective vaso-occlusive treatment that targets choroidal vascular abnormalities. It was initially developed to treat neovascular age-related macular degeneration using the ‘standard' vPDT protocol (verteporfin 6 mg/m2, vPDT laser fluence 50 J/cm2). vPDT therapy has subsequently evolved as an important treatment modality for a range of other chorioretinal conditions including choroidal haemangioma, central serous chorioretinopathy, polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy, and peripapillary choroidal neovascularisation. Various ‘safety-enhanced' vPDT protocols have been devised to optimise treatment outcomes, typically using reduced dose verteporfin (verteporfin 3 mg/m2) or reduced fluence vPDT (vPDT laser fluence 25 J/cm2). This paper reviews the current role of vPDT therapy in the treatment of chorioretinal conditions. PMID:26742867

  11. Fat tissue staining and photodynamic/photothermal effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tuchin, Valery V.; Altshuler, Gregory B.; Yanina, Irina Yu.; Kochubey, Vyacheslav I.; Simonenko, Georgy V.

    2010-02-01

    Cellulite is considered as a disease of the subcutaneous fat layer that appears mostly in women and consists of changes in fat cell accumulation together with disturbed lymphatic drainage, affecting the external appearance of the skin. The photodynamic and selective photothermal treatments may provide reduction the volume of regional or sitespecific accumulations of subcutaneous adipose tissue on the cellular level. We hypothesize that light irradiation of stained fat tissue at selected temperature leads to fat cell lypolytic activity (the enhancement of lipolysis of cell triglycerides due to expression of lipase activity and cell release of free fat acids (FFAs) due to temporal cell membrane porosity), and cell killing due to apoptosis caused by the induced fat cell stress and/or limited cell necrosis.

  12. Self-assembled liposomal nanoparticles in photodynamic therapy

    PubMed Central

    Sadasivam, Magesh; Avci, Pinar; Gupta, Gaurav K.; Lakshmanan, Shanmugamurthy; Chandran, Rakkiyappan; Huang, Ying-Ying; Kumar, Raj; Hamblin, Michael R.

    2013-01-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) employs the combination of non-toxic photosensitizers (PS) together with harmless visible light of the appropriate wavelength to produce reactive oxygen species that kill unwanted cells. Because many PS are hydrophobic molecules prone to aggregation, numerous drug delivery vehicles have been tested to solubilize these molecules, render them biocompatible and enhance the ease of administration after intravenous injection. The recent rise in nanotechnology has markedly expanded the range of these nanoparticulate delivery vehicles beyond the well-established liposomes and micelles. Self-assembled nanoparticles are formed by judicious choice of monomer building blocks that spontaneously form a well-oriented 3-dimensional structure that incorporates the PS when subjected to the appropriate conditions. This self-assembly process is governed by a subtle interplay of forces on the molecular level. This review will cover the state of the art in the preparation and use of self-assembled liposomal nanoparticles within the context of PDT. PMID:24348377

  13. Effects of verteporfin-mediated photodynamic therapy on endothelial cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kraus, Daniel; Chen, Bin

    2015-03-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a treatment modality in which cytotoxic reactive oxygen species are generated from oxygen and other biological molecules when a photosensitizer is activated by light. PDT has been approved for the treatment of cancers and age-related macular degeneration (AMD) due to its effectiveness in cell killing and manageable normal tissue complications. In this study, we characterized the effects of verteporfin-PDT on SVEC mouse endothelial cells and determined its underlying cell death mechanisms. We found that verteporfin was primarily localized in mitochondria and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) in SVEC cells. Light treatment of photosensitized SVEC cells induced a rapid onset of cell apoptosis. In addition to significant structural damages to mitochondria and ER, verteporfin-PDT caused substantial degradation of ER signaling molecules, suggesting ER stress. These results demonstrate that verteporfin-PDT triggered SVEC cell apoptosis by both mitochondrial and ER stress pathways. Results from this study may lead to novel therapeutic approaches to enhance PDT outcome.

  14. [The wider application of photodynamic therapy in dermatology].

    PubMed

    Thissen, M R T M; Kuijpers, D I M; Neumann, H A M

    2005-01-29

    Photodynamic treatment is increasingly employed in the detection and treatment of malignant and non-malignant skin disease. --Indications for photodynamic therapy so far are actinic keratosis, Bowen's disease and superficially growing basal cell carcinomas, and probably verrucae and acne vulgaris. --This technology is also currently under investigation for fluorescence diagnostics oftumour margins. --The exact position of photodynamic therapy has not yet been established because there are too less long-term comparative studies demonstrating its effectiveness. --Based on the short-term results, photodynamic therapy deserves a place within the total therapeutic arsenal of the dermatologist of today for the indications mentioned above.

  15. Photodynamic therapy in treatment of severe oral lichen planus.

    PubMed

    Rabinovich, O F; Rabinovich, I M; Guseva, A V

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to elaborate the rationale for the application of photodynamic therapy in complex treatment of patient with severe oral lichen planus. Complex clinical and laboratory examination and treatment was performed in 54 patients divided on 3 groups. Diagnosis of oral lichen planus was based on clinical, histological and immunohistochemical features. Group 1 received standard treatment, in the second group photodynamic therapy was conducted in addition to conventional treatment, patients in the third group received only photodynamic therapy. The study results proved photodynamic therapy to be useful tool in complex treatment of severe oral lichen planus.

  16. Photodynamic therapy of diseased bone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bisland, Stuart K.; Yee, Albert; Siewerdsen, Jeffery; Wilson, Brian C.; Burch, Shane

    2005-08-01

    Objective: Photodynamic therapy (PDT) defines the oxygen-dependent reaction that occurs upon light-mediated activation of a photosensitizing compound, culminating in the generation of cytotoxic, reactive oxygen species, predominantly, singlet oxygen. We are investigating PDT treatment of diseased bone. Methods: Using a rat model of human breast cancer (MT-1)-derived bone metastasis we confirmed the efficacy of benzoporphyrin-derivative monoacid (BPD-MA)-PDT for treating metastatic lesions within vertebrae or long bones. Results: Light administration (150 J) 15 mins after BPDMA (2.5 mg/Kg, i.v.) into the lumbar (L3) vertebra of rats resulted in complete ablation of the tumour and surrounding bone marrow 48 hrs post-PDT without paralysis. Porcine vertebrae provided a model comparable to that of human for light propagation (at 150 J/cm) and PDT response (BPD-MA; 6 mg/m2, i.v.) in non-tumour vertebrae. Precise fibre placement was afforded by 3-D cone beam computed tomography. Average penetration depth of light was 0.16 +/- 0.04 cm, however, the necrotic/non-necrotic interface extended 0.6 cm out from the treatment fiber with an average incident fluence rate of 4.3 mW/cm2. Non-necrotic tissue damage was evident 2 cm out from the treatment fiber. Current studies involving BPD-MA-PDT treatment of primary osteosarcomas in the forelimbs of dogs are very promising. Magnetic resonance imaging 24 hr post treatment reveal well circumscribed margins of treatment that encompass the entire 3-4 cm lesion. Finally, we are also interested in using 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) mediated PDT to treat osteomyelitis. Response to therapy was monitored as changes in bioluminescence signal of staphylococcus aureus (SA)-derived biofilms grown onto 0.5 cm lengths of wire and subjected to ALA-PDT either in vitro or in vivo upon implant into the intramedullary space of rat tibia. Transcutaneous delivery of PDT (75 J/cm2) effectively eradicated SAbiofilms within bone. Conclusions: Results support

  17. Bis(pyrene)-Doped Cationic Dipeptide Nanoparticles for Two-Photon-Activated Photodynamic Therapy.

    PubMed

    Sun, Bingbing; Wang, Lei; Li, Qi; He, Pingping; Liu, Huiling; Wang, Hao; Yang, Yang; Li, Junbai

    2017-08-25

    At present, one of main problems for photodynamic therapy (PDT) is how to improve the treatment depth. Two-photon activated (TPA) developed recently provide a possible solution for it. In this work, we report the energy-transferring assembled cationic dipeptide nanoparticles for two-photon activated photodynamic therapy (TPA-PDT). In the nanoparticles, the coencapsulated two-photon fluorescent dye bis(pyrene) (BP) is an energy donor, and a photosensitizer rose bengal (RB) is an acceptor based on an intraparticle fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) mechanism. BP in the nanoparticles can be excited by one- or two- photon laser. And then, the energy of BP was transferred to RB, which highly enhanced the generation of singlet oxygen. The cellular experiments indicated that this nanosystem can induce the cytotoxicity under one- and two-photon irradiation, which allows further applications of FRET-based biomaterials for TPA-PDT.

  18. Nanoscintillator Conjugates as Photodynamic Therapy-Based Radiosensitizers: Calculation of Required Physical Parameters

    PubMed Central

    Morgan, Nicole Y.; Kramer-Marek, Gabriela; Smith, Paul D.; Camphausen, Kevin; Capala, Jacek

    2011-01-01

    The recent demonstration of nanoscale scintillators has led to interest in the combination of radiation and photodynamic therapy. In this model, scintillating nanoparticles conjugated to photosensitizers and molecular targeting agents would enhance the targeting and improve the efficacy of radiotherapy and extend the application of photodynamic therapy to deeply seated tumors. In this study, we calculated the physical parameters required for these nanoparticle conjugates to deliver cytotoxic levels of singlet oxygen at therapeutic radiation doses, drawing on the published literature from several disparate fields. Although uncertainties remain, it appears that the light yield of the nanoscintillators, the efficiency of energy transfer to the photosensitizers, and the cellular uptake of the nano-particles all need to be fairly well optimized to observe a cytotoxic effect. Even so, the efficacy of the combination therapy will likely be restricted to X-ray energies below 300 keV, which limits the application to brachytherapy. PMID:19267550

  19. Pharmaceutical development, composition and quantitative analysis of phthalocyanine as the photosensitizer for cancer photodynamic therapy.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Zhou; Shao, Jingwei; Yang, Tingting; Wang, Jian; Jia, Lee

    2014-01-01

    Phthalocyanine (Pc) and its related derivatives are a class of functional materials that are easily activated by the light at a special wavelength. As such photosensitizer, Pc has been applied to photodynamic therapy (PDT), in addition to its broad applications in many fields, for both malignant and benign diseases. One of our long-term research focuses is to develop Pc for cancer therapy. Herein we briefly review mechanisms of action of Pc used for photodynamic therapy, its pharmaceutical development and molecular modification to enhance its drugability and improve its intracellular localization. We also describe the current status of the Pc derivatives under clinical investigation, and analyze the methods used for quantitative analysis of those Pc derivatives. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Cell Death Pathways and Phthalocyanine as an Efficient Agent for Photodynamic Cancer Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Mfouo-Tynga, Ivan; Abrahamse, Heidi

    2015-01-01

    The mechanisms of cell death can be predetermined (programmed) or not and categorized into apoptotic, autophagic and necrotic pathways. The process of Hayflick limits completes the execution of death-related mechanisms. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are associated with oxidative stress and subsequent cytodamage by oxidizing and degrading cell components. ROS are also involved in immune responses, where they stabilize and activate both hypoxia-inducible factors and phagocytic effectors. ROS production and presence enhance cytodamage and photodynamic-induced cell death. Photodynamic cancer therapy (PDT) uses non-toxic chemotherapeutic agents, photosensitizer (PS), to initiate a light-dependent and ROS-related cell death. Phthalocyanines (PCs) are third generation and stable PSs with improved photochemical abilities. They are effective inducers of cell death in various neoplastic models. The metallated PCs localize in critical cellular organelles and are better inducers of cell death than other previous generation PSs as they favor mainly apoptotic cell death events. PMID:25955645

  1. Photodynamic therapy for recurrent respiratory papillomatosis.

    PubMed

    Lieder, Anja; Khan, Muhammad K; Lippert, Burkard M

    2014-06-05

    Recurrent respiratory papillomatosis (RRP) is a benign condition of the mucosa of the upper aerodigestive tract. It is characterised by recurrent papillomatous lesions and is associated with human papillomavirus (HPV). Frequent recurrence and rapid papilloma growth are common and in part responsible for the onset of potentially life-threatening symptoms. Most patients afflicted by the condition will require repeated surgical treatments to maintain their airway, and these may result in scarring and voice problems. Photodynamic therapy introduces a light-sensitising agent, which is administered either orally or by injection. This substance (called a photo-sensitiser) is selectively retained in hyperplastic and neoplastic tissue, including papilloma. It is then activated by light of a specific wavelength and may be used as a sole or adjuvant treatment for RRP. To assess the effects of photodynamic therapy in the management of recurrent respiratory papillomatosis (RRP) in children and adults. We searched the Cochrane Ear, Nose and Throat Disorders Group Trials Register; the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL); PubMed; EMBASE; CINAHL; Web of Science; Cambridge Scientific Abstracts; ICTRP and additional sources for published and unpublished trials. The date of the search was 27 January 2014. Randomised controlled trials utilising photodynamic therapy as sole or adjuvant therapy in participants of any age with proven RRP versus control intervention. Primary outcome measures were symptom improvement (respiratory distress/dyspnoea and voice quality), quality of life improvement and recurrence-free interval. Secondary outcomes included reduction in the frequency of surgical intervention, reduction in disease volume and adverse effects of treatment.   We used the standard methodological procedures expected by The Cochrane Collaboration. Meta-analysis was not possible and results are presented descriptively. We included one trial with a total of 23

  2. NIR photoregulated chemo- and photodynamic cancer therapy based on conjugated polyelectrolyte-drug conjugate encapsulated upconversion nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Youyong; Min, Yuanzeng; Hu, Qinglian; Xing, Bengang; Liu, Bin

    2014-09-01

    The design of nanoplatforms with target recognition and near-infrared (NIR) laser photoregulated chemo- and photodynamic therapy is highly desirable but remains challenging. In this work, we have developed such a system by taking advantage of a conjugated polyelectrolyte (CPE)-drug conjugate and upconversion nanoparticles (UCNPs). The poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) grafted CPE not only serves as a polymer matrix for UCNP encapsulation, but also as a fluorescent imaging agent, a photosensitizer as well as a carrier for chemotherapeutic drug doxorubicin (DOX) through a UV-cleavable ortho-nitrobenzyl (NB) linker. Upon 980 nm laser irradiation, the UCNPs emit UV and visible light. The up-converted UV light is utilized for controlled drug release through the photocleavage of the ortho-nitrobenzyl linker, while the up-converted visible light is used to initiate the polymer photosensitizer to produce reactive oxygen species (ROS) for photodynamic therapy. The NIR photo-regulated UCNP@CPE-DOX showed high efficiency of ROS generation and controlled drug release in cancer cells upon single laser irradiation. In addition, the combination therapy showed enhanced inhibition of U87-MG cell growth as compared to sole treatments. As two light sources with different wavelengths are always needed for traditional photodynamic therapy and photoregulated drug release, the adoption of UCNPs as an NIR light switch is highly beneficial to combined chemo- and photodynamic therapy with enhanced therapeutic effects.

  3. Cyanines as efficient photosensitizers in photodynamic reaction: photophysical properties and in vitro photodynamic activity.

    PubMed

    Kulbacka, J; Pola, A; Mosiadz, D; Choromanska, A; Nowak, P; Kotulska, M; Majkowski, M; Hryniewicz-Jankowska, A; Purzyc, L; Saczko, J

    2011-04-01

    The purpose of the present study was to explore the potential application of cyanines in photodynamic treatment. The photophysical features of four cyanines (KF570, HM118, FBF-749, and ER-139) were investigated by elemental and spectral analyses. Two malignant cell lines (MCF-7/WT and MCF-7/DOX) were used to test the potential for use in the photodynamic therapy. The cytotoxic effects of these dyes were determined by the MTT assay after 4 and 24 h of incubation with the cyanine. KF570 and HM118 were irradiated with red light (630-nm filter) and FBF-749 and ER-139 with green light (435-nm filter). The results showed that the cyanine HM118 demonstrated a major phototoxic effect. It was also noted that the efficiency of photodynamic therapy was higher in the doxorubicin-resistant cell line (MCF-7/DOX).

  4. Second generation photodynamic agents: a review.

    PubMed

    Sternberg, E D; Dolphin, D

    1993-10-01

    Over the last decade, laser treatment of neoplastic diseases has become routine. The ability of these light-induced therapies to effect positive results is increased with the utilization of photosensitizing dyes. The approval of Photofrin in Canada as a first generation photodynamic therapeutic agent for the treatment of some forms of bladder cancer is being followed by the development of other agents with improved properties. At this time a number of second generation photosensitizing dyes are under study in phase I/II clinical trials. A review of the status of these trials along with mechanistic aspects is reviewed in this article. In addition, a review of the status of lasers to be utilized for photodynamic therapy gives some indication of which instruments could be considered for this therapy in the future.

  5. Mechanism of photodynamic activity of pheophorbides.

    PubMed

    Tanielian, C; Kobayashi, M; Wolff, C

    2001-04-01

    Plasmid DNA is efficiently photocleaved by sodium pheophorbides (Na-Phdes) a and b in the absence of oxygen as well as in the presence of oxygen. Fluorescence microscopic observation shows a rapid incorporation of Na-Phde a into nuclei, mitochondria, and lysosome of human oral mucosa cells. In contrast Na-Phde b is incorporated only into the plasma membrane. The photodynamic activity of these pigments in living tissues is probably determined by the monomeric pigment molecules formed in hydrophobic cellular structures and involves two types of reactions: (i) direct electron transfer between DNA bases (especially guanine) and pheophorbide singlet excited state, and (ii) indirect reactions mediated by reactive oxygen species, including singlet oxygen whose production from molecular oxygen is sensitized by the Na-Phdes triplet state. A preliminary report has appeared in "Photodynamic Therapy of Cancer II," Proc. SPIE 2325, 416-424 (1994).

  6. Photodynamic therapy of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inada, Natalia M.; Lombardi, Welington; Leite, Marieli F. M.; Trujillo, Jose R.; Kurachi, Cristina; Bagnato, Vanderlei S.

    2014-03-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a technique that has been used for the treatment of tumors, especially in Gynecology. The photodynamic reaction is based on the production of reactive oxygen species after the activation of a photosensitizer. Advantages of the PDT in comparison to the surgical resection are: ambulatory treatment and tissue recovery highly satisfactory, through a non-invasive procedure. The cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) grades I and II presents potential indications for PDT. The aim of the proposed study is to evaluate the safety and efficacy of the PDT for the diagnostics and treatment of CIN I and II. The equipment and the photosensitizer are produced in Brazil with a representative low cost. It is possible to visualize the fluorescence of the cervix and to treat the lesions, without side effects. The proposed clinical protocol shows great potential to become a public health technique.

  7. Photodynamic therapy for pododermatitis in penguins.

    PubMed

    Sellera, Fábio Parra; Sabino, Caetano Padial; Ribeiro, Martha Simões; Fernandes, Loriê Tukamoto; Pogliani, Fabio Celidonio; Teixeira, Carlos Roberto; Dutra, Gustavo Henrique Pereira; Nascimento, Cristiane Lassálvia

    2014-01-01

    Pododermatitis is currently one of most frequent and important clinical complications in seabirds kept in captivity or in rehabilitation centers. In this study, five Magellanic penguins with previous pododermatitis lesions on their footpad were treated with photodynamic therapy (PDT). All PDT treated lesions successfully regressed and no recurrence was observed during the 6-month follow-up period. PDT seems to be an inexpensive and effective alternative treatment for pododermatitis in Magellanic penguins encouraging further research on this topic.

  8. Photodynamic therapy for occluded biliary metal stents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roche, Joseph V. E.; Krasner, Neville; Sturgess, R.

    1999-02-01

    In this abstract we describe the use of photodynamic therapy (PDT) to recanalize occluded biliary metal stents. In patients with jaundice secondary to obstructed metal stents PDT was carried out 72 hours after the administration of m THPC. Red laser light at 652 nm was delivered endoscopically at an energy intensity of 50 J/cm. A week later endoscopic retrograde cholangiogram showed complete recanalization of the metal stent.

  9. Porphyrin-based Nanostructure-Dependent Photodynamic and Photothermal Therapies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Cheng S.

    This thesis presents the investigation of nanostructure-dependent phototherapy. We reviewed the liposomal structures for delivery of photosensitizers, and introduced a novel class of phototransducing liposomes called "porphysomes". Porphysomes are self-assembled from high packing density of pyropheophorbide alpha-conjugated phospholipids, resulting in extreme self-quenching of porphyrin fluorescence and comparable optical absorption to gold nanoparticles for high photothermal efficiency. We demonstrated this self-assembly of porphyrin-lipid conjugates converts a singlet oxygen generating mechanism (photodynamic therapy PDT activity) of porphyrin to photothermal mechanism (photothermal therapy PTT activity). The efficacy of porphysome-enhanced PTT was then evaluated on two pre-clinical animal models. We validated porphysome-enabled focal PTT to treat orthotopic prostate cancer using MRI-guided focal laser placement to closely mimic the current clinic procedure. Furthermore, porphysome-enabled fluorescence-guided transbronchial PTT of lung cancer was demonstrated in rabbit orthotopic lung cancer models, which led to the development of an ultra-minimally invasive therapy for early-stage peripheral lung cancer. On the other hand, the nanostructure-mediated conversion of PDT to PTT can be switched back by nanoparticle dissociation. By incorporating folate-conjugated phospholipids into the formulation, porphysomes were internalized into cells rapidly via folate receptor-mediated endocytosis and resulted in efficient disruption of nanostructures, which turned back on the photodynamic activity of densely packed porphyrins, making a closed loop of conversion between PDT and PTT. The multimodal imaging and therapeutic features of porphysome make it ideal for future personalized cancer treatments.

  10. Dendritic nanoconjugates of photosensitizer for targeted photodynamic therapy.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Ahu; Yang, Bing; Wu, Jinhui; Hu, Yiqiao; Ming, Xin

    2015-07-01

    Application of photodynamic therapy for treating cancers has been restrained by suboptimal delivery of photosensitizers to cancer cells. Nanoparticle (NP)-based delivery has become an important strategy to improve tumor delivery of photosensitizers; however, the success is still limited. One problem for many NPs is poor penetration into tumors, and thus the photokilling is not complete. We aimed to use chemical conjugation method to engineer small NPs for superior cancer cell uptake and tumor penetration. Thus, Chlorin e6 (Ce6) was covalently conjugated to PAMAM dendrimer (generation 7.0) that was also modified by tumor-targeting RGD peptide. With multiple Ce6 molecules in a single nanoconjugate molecule, the resultant targeted nanoconjugates showed uniform and monodispersed size distribution with a diameter of 28 nm. The singlet oxygen generation efficiency and fluorescence intensity of the nanoconjugates in aqueous media were significantly higher than free Ce6. Targeted nanoconjugates demonstrated approximately 16-fold enhancement in receptor-specific cellular delivery of Ce6 into integrin-expressing A375 cells compared to free Ce6 and thus were able to cause massive cell killing at low nanomolar concentrations under photo-irradiation. In contrast, they did not cause significant toxicity up to 2 μM in dark. Due to their small size, the targeted nanoconjugates could penetrate deeply into tumor spheroids and produced strong photo-toxicity in this 3-D tumor model. As a result of their great cellular delivery, small size, and lack of dark cytotoxicity, the nanoconjugates may provide an effective tool for targeted photodynamic therapy of solid tumors.

  11. Glucose modulates antimicrobial photodynamic inactivation of Candida albicans in biofilms.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Luis Cláudio; Kato, Ilka Tiemy; Prates, Renato Araujo; Sabino, Caetano Padial; Yoshimura, Tania Mateus; Silva, Tamires Oliveira; Ribeiro, Martha Simões

    2017-03-01

    Candida albicans biofilm is a main cause of infections associated with medical devices such as catheters, contact lens and artificial joint prosthesis. The current treatment comprises antifungal chemotherapy that presents low success rates. Photodynamic inactivation (PDI) involves the combination of a photosensitizing compound (PS) and light to generate oxidative stress that has demonstrated effective antimicrobial activity against a broad-spectrum of pathogens, including C. albicans. This fungus senses glucose inducing an upregulation of membrane transporters that can facilitate PS uptake into the cell. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of glucose on methylene blue (MB) uptake and its influence on PDI efficiency when combined to a red LED with central wavelength at λ=660nm. C. albicans biofilms were grown on hydrogel disks. Prior to PDI assays, MB uptake tests were performed with and without glucose-sensitization. In this system, the optimum PS administration was determined as 500μM of MB in contact with the biofilm during 30min before irradiation. Irradiation was performed during 3, 6, 9, 12, 15 and 18min with irradiance of 127.3mW/cm(2). Our results showed that glucose was able to increase MB uptake in C. albicans cells. In addition, PDI without glucose showed a higher viability reduction until 6min; after 9min, glucose group demonstrated a significant decrease in cell viability when compared to glucose-free group. Taken together, our data suggest that glucose is capable to enhance MB uptake and modulate photodynamic inactivation of C. albicans biofilm.

  12. Combined surgery and photodynamic therapy of cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Douplik, Alexandre

    According to the recent guidelines, the gold standard is resecting an extra 0.5-3 cm beyond the lesion margins that are visually detected and/or biopsy confirmed depending on type of malignancy and its localisation to avoid missing the residuals of the tumour. Often, such a large resection leads to dysfunctions of the organ or tissues, which underwent the surgery. In some cases, an extra tumour-free margin cannot be achieved because of tumour proximity to vital sites such as major vascular or nerve structures. Photodynamic Therapy (PDT) is an emerging clinical modality to locally destroy cancer lesions selectively. The limitation of photodynamic therapy is the curable depth of an order of one centimetre or less. A combination of cancer surgery following by PDT can bring a benefit to reduce the resection and minimise the impact on the organ or tissue functionality. Combination of cancer surgery and photodynamic therapy provides another opportunity-fluorescence image guidance of cancer removal. Most of the photosensitizers intensively fluoresce and hence facilitate a strong fluorescence contrast versus healthy adjacent tissues.

  13. Retinoblastoma: might photodynamic therapy be an option?

    PubMed

    Teixo, Ricardo; Laranjo, Mafalda; Abrantes, Ana Margarida; Brites, Gonçalo; Serra, Arménio; Proença, Rui; Botelho, Maria Filomena

    2015-12-01

    Retinoblastoma is a tumor that mainly affects children under 5 years, all over the world. The origin of these tumors is related with mutations in the RB1 gene, which may result from genetic alterations in cells of the germ line or in retinal somatic cells. In developing countries, the number of retinoblastoma-related deaths is higher due to less access to treatment, unlike what happens in developed countries where survival rates are higher. However, treatments such as chemotherapy and radiotherapy, although quite effective in treating this type of cancer, do not avoid high indices of mortality due to secondary malignances which are quite frequent in these patients. Additionally, treatments such as cryotherapy, thermotherapy, thermochemotherapy, or brachytherapy represent other options for retinoblastoma. When all these approaches fail, enucleation is the last option. Photodynamic therapy might be considered as an alternative, particularly because of its non-mutagenic character. Photodynamic therapy is a treatment modality based on the administration of photosensitizing molecules that only upon irradiation of the tumor with a light source of appropriate wavelength are activated, triggering its antitumor action. This activity may be not only due to direct damage to tumor cells but also due to damage caused to the blood vessels responsible for the vascular supply of the tumor. Over the past decades, several in vitro and in vivo studies were conducted to assess the effectiveness of photodynamic therapy in the treatment of retinoblastoma, and very promising results were achieved.

  14. Pulse mode of laser photodynamic treatment induced cell apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Klimenko, Vladimir V; Knyazev, Nickolay A; Moiseenko, Fedor V; Rusanov, Anatoliy A; Bogdanov, Alexey A; Dubina, Michael V

    2016-03-01

    One of the factors limiting photodynamic therapy (PDT) is hypoxia in tumor cells during photodynamic action. PDT with pulse mode irradiation and appropriate irradiation parameters could be more effective in the singlet oxygen generation and tissue re-oxygenation than continuous wave (CW) mode. We theoretically demonstrate differences between the cumulative singlet oxygen concentration in PDT using pulse mode and CW mode of laser irradiation. In vitro experimental results show that photodynamic treatment with pulse mode irradiation has similar cytotoxicity to CW mode and induces mainly cell apoptosis, whereas CW mode induces necrotic cell death. We assume that the cumulative singlet oxygen concentration and the temporal distribution of singlet oxygen are important in photodynamic cytotoxicity and apoptosis initiation. We expect our research may improve irradiation protocols and photodynamic therapy efficiency.

  15. Photoangioplasty: new applications of photodynamic therapy in atherosclerosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rockson, Stanley G.

    2000-05-01

    Atherosclerosis has traditionally held appeal as a pathologic entity in which photodynamic therapy might arrest or reverse the manifestations of disease. Earlier attempts to bring photodynamic therapy to the human clinical arena were hampered by the limitations of the photosensitizers under investigation, including the propensity to phototoxic manifestations and light-induced trauma to surrounding, normal vascular tissues. Many of these inherent limitations may be circumvented by newer photosensitizers that are activated at longer, more optimal wavelengths of light energy. Advances in fiberoptic catheter design for the endovascular delivery of light have also contributed to the greater applicability of photodynamic therapy to human atherosclerosis. Initial experiences with one family of photosensitizers, the texaphyrins, indicate that photodynamic therapy of human peripheral arterial atherosclerosis is feasible, safe, and well-tolerated. Photodynamic therapy of atherosclerosis holds promise for the treatment of de novo atherosclerosis and may have future applicability in the treatment, and perhaps prevention, of restenosis.

  16. Capacity of photodynamic therapy for microbial reduction in periodontal pockets.

    PubMed

    Pinheiro, Sérgio Luiz; Donegá, Juliana Marla; Seabra, Lia Maura Soares; Adabo, Marina Dalto; Lopes, Talita; do Carmo, Thiago Henrique Dias; Ribeiro, Mariângela Cagnoni; Bertolini, Patrícia Fernanda Roesler

    2010-01-01

    Practitioners are not successful in implemented treatments due to the great difficulty in completely removing bacterial deposits and their endotoxins. This study aimed to evaluate the capacity of photodynamic therapy to reduce the numbers of viable bacteria in periodontal pockets. Microbiological samples were collected before and after scaling and after photodynamic therapy. Photodynamic therapy was performed through the insertion of the photosensitizer toluidine blue and Endo PTC into the pocket for 3 min, followed by photosensitization with low-intensity diode of 4 J/cm(2). The results (log(10)) were submitted to a descriptive analysis and a t-test. A reduction of 81.24% in the numbers of bacteria after scaling was observed, as well as 95.90% after photodynamic therapy (P < 0.01). Photodynamic therapy is indicated as an adjuvant treatment to reduce the numbers of viable bacteria in periodontal diseases.

  17. Photodynamic activity of the boronated chlorin e6 amide in artificial and cellular membranes.

    PubMed

    Antonenko, Yuri N; Kotova, Elena A; Omarova, Elena O; Rokitskaya, Tatyana I; Ol'shevskaya, Valentina A; Kalinin, Valery N; Nikitina, Roza G; Osipchuk, Julia S; Kaplan, Mikhail A; Ramonova, Alla A; Moisenovich, Mikhail M; Agapov, Igor I; Kirpichnikov, Mikhail P

    2014-03-01

    Photodynamic tumor-destroying activity of the boronated chlorin e6 derivative BACE (chlorin e6 13(1)-N-{2-[N-(1-carba-closo-dodecaboran-1-yl)methyl]aminoethyl}amide-15(2), 17(3)-dimethyl ester), previously described in Moisenovich et al. (2010) PLoS ONE 5(9) e12717, was shown here to be enormously higher than that of unsubstituted chlorin e6, being supported by the data on much higher photocytotoxicity of BACE in M-1 sarcoma cell culture. To validate membrane damaging effect as the basis of the enhanced tumoricidal activity, BACE was compared with unsubstituted chlorin e6 in the potency to photosensitize dye leakage from liposomes, transbilayer lipid flip-flop, inactivation of gramicidin A ionic channels in planar lipid membranes and erythrocyte hemolysis. In all the models comprising artificial and cellular membranes, the photodynamic effect of BACE exceeded that of chlorin e6. BACE substantially differed from chlorin e6 in the affinity to liposomes and erythrocytes, as monitored by fluorescence spectroscopy, flow cytometry and centrifugation. The results support the key role of membrane binding in the photodynamic effect of the boronated chlorin e6 amide.

  18. Effective near-infrared photodynamic therapy assisted by upconversion nanoparticles conjugated with photosensitizers

    PubMed Central

    Dou, Qing Qing; Teng, Choon Peng; Ye, Enyi; Loh, Xian Jun

    2015-01-01

    A drug model photosensitizer–conjugated upconversion nanoparticles nanocomplex was explored for application in near-infrared photodynamic therapy. As near-infrared penetrates deeper into the tissue, the model is useful for the application of photodynamic therapy in deeper tissue. The nanocomplex that was synthesized had low polydispersity, and the upconversion nanoparticle was covalently conjugated with the photosensitizer. The robust bond could prevent the undesired premature release of photosensitizer and also enhance the singlet-oxygen generation. Singlet-oxygen generation rate from this nanocomplex was evaluated in solution. The photodynamic therapy effect was assessed with MCF-7 cells in two different methods, 3-(4,5-dimethylth-iazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay and live/dead assay. The assay results showed that promising efficacy (>90%) can be achieved with a low concentration (50 μg mL−1) of this nanocomplex and mild dosage (7 mW cm−2) of near-infrared laser treatment. PMID:25609954

  19. Murine Model Imitating Chronic Wound Infections for Evaluation of Antimicrobial Photodynamic Therapy Efficacy

    PubMed Central

    Fila, Grzegorz; Kasimova, Kamola; Arenas, Yaxal; Nakonieczna, Joanna; Grinholc, Mariusz; Bielawski, Krzysztof P.; Lilge, Lothar

    2016-01-01

    It is generally acknowledged that the age of antibiotics could come to an end, due to their widespread, and inappropriate use. Particularly for chronic wounds alternatives are being thought. Antimicrobial Photodynamic Therapy (APDT) is a potential candidate, and while approved for some indications, such as periodontitis, chronic sinusitis and other niche indications, its use in chronic wounds is not established. To further facilitate the development of APDT in chronic wounds we present an easy to use animal model exhibiting the key hallmarks of chronic wounds, based on full-thickness skin wounds paired with an optically transparent cover. The moisture-retaining wound exhibited rapid expansion of pathogen colonies up to 8 days while not jeopardizing the host survival. Use of two bioluminescent pathogens; methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa permits real time monitoring of the pathogens. The murine model was employed to evaluate the performance of four different photosensitizers as mediators in Photodynamic Therapy. While all four photosensitizers, Rose Bengal, porphyrin TMPyP, New Methylene Blue, and TLD1411 demonstrated good to excellent antimicrobial efficacy in planktonic solutions at 1 to 50 μM concentrations, whereas in in vivo the growth delay was limited with 24–48 h delay in pathogen expansion for MRSA, and we noticed longer growth suppression of P. aeruginosa with TLD1411 mediated Photodynamic Therapy. The murine model will enable developing new strategies for enhancement of APDT for chronic wound infections. PMID:27555843

  20. Spacer intercalated disassembly and photodynamic activity of zinc phthalocyanine inside nanochannels of mesoporous silica nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Ma, Xing; Sreejith, Sivaramapanicker; Zhao, Yanli

    2013-12-26

    Hydrophobic photosensitizer zinc(II) phthalocyanine (ZnPc) was loaded into adamantane (Ad) modified nanochannels of mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNPs). The Ad units on the surface of MSNPs were complexed with amino-substituted β-cyclodextrin to enhance the solubility of the hybrid in aqueous solution. The amino groups on β-cyclodextrin also provide functional sites for further conjugation with targeting ligands toward targeted cancer therapy. Since the intercalation of the Ad spacer isolates loaded ZnPc and prevents its aggregation inside MSNPs, ZnPc exhibits its monomeric characteristics to effectively generate cytotoxic singlet oxygen ((1)O2) upon light irradiation (675 nm) in aqueous conditions, leading to efficient photodynamic activity for successful cancer treatment in vitro. Current research presents a convenient approach to maintain the monomeric state of hydrophobic photosensitizer ZnPc by rationally utilizing multifunctional MSNPs as the carriers. The novel hybrid with targeting capability achieves active photodynamic property of monomeric ZnPc in aqueous solution under light irradiation, which may find its way for practical photodynamic therapy in the future.

  1. Simple nanophotosensitizer fabrication using water-soluble chitosan for photodynamic therapy in gastrointestinal cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Young-Il; Cha, Byungyoul; Lee, Hye Lim; Song, Yeon Hui; Jung, Yun Hye; Kwak, Tae Won; Choi, Changyong; Jeong, Gyeong-Won; Nah, Jae Woon; Kang, Dae Hwan

    2017-10-30

    The polysaccharide chitosan has abundant cationic amine groups, and can form ion-complexes with anionic molecules such as the strong photosensitizer chlorin e6 (Ce6). In this study, water-soluble chitosan (WSC) was used to fabricate Ce6-incorporated nanophotosensitizers (Abbreviated as ChitoCe6 nanophotosensitizer) via a self-assembling process. This was accomplished by dissolving WSC in pure water and then directly mixing the solution with solid Ce6 causing ion complex formation between WSC and Ce6. The resulting nanophotosensitizer was spherical in shape and had a particle size of less than 300nm. The photodynamic effect of ChitoCe6 nanophotosensitizer was evaluated using gastrointestinal (GI) cancer cells. At in vitro study using SNU478 cholangiocarcinoma cells, ChitoCe6 nanophotosensitizer showed improved Ce6 uptake by tumor cells, reactive oxygen species production, and cellular phototoxicity. An in vivo study using SNU478-bearing nude mice showed that the ChitoCe6 nanophotosensitizer efficiently accumulated in the tumor tissue and inhibited tumor growth more than treatment with Ce6 alone. Furthermore, ChitoCe6 nanophotosensitizer was also efficiently absorbed through tissue layers in an ex vivo study using porcine bile duct explants. ChitoCe6 nanophotosensitizer showed enhanced photosensitivity and photodynamic effects against cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. We present ChitoCe6 nanophotosensitizer as a promising candidate for photodynamic therapy of GI cancer. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. Photodynamic injury of isolated crayfish neuron and surrounding glial cells: the role of p53

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharifulina, S. A.; Uzdensky, A. B.

    2015-03-01

    The pro-apoptotic transcription factor p53 is involved in cell responses to injurious impacts. Using its inhibitor pifithrin- α and activators tenovin-1, RITA and WR-1065, we studied its potential participation in inactivation and death of isolated crayfish mechanoreceptor neuron and satellite glial cells induced by photodynamic treatment, a strong inducer of oxidative stress. In dark, p53 activation by tenovin-1 or WR-1065 shortened activity of isolated neurons. Tenovin-1 and WR-1065 induced apoptosis of glial cells, whereas pifithrin-α was anti-apoptotic. Therefore, p53 mediated glial apoptosis and suppression of neuronal activity after axotomy. Tenovin-1 but not other p53 modulators induced necrosis of axotomized neurons and surrounding glia, possibly, through p53-independent pathway. Under photodynamic treatment, p53 activators tenovin-1 and RITA enhanced glial apoptosis indicating the pro-apoptotic activity of p53. Photoinduced necrosis of neurons and glia was suppressed by tenovin-1 and, paradoxically, by pifithrin-α. Modulation of photoinduced changes in the neuronal activity and necrosis of neurons and glia was possibly p53-independent. The different effects of p53 modulators on neuronal and glial responses to axotomy and photodynamic impact were apparently associated with different signaling pathways in neurons and glial cells.

  3. Photodynamic therapy: Theoretical and experimental approaches to dosimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ken Kang-Hsin

    fluorescence spectroscopy. We successfully simulate the in vivo photobleaching of PpIX in this patient population over a wide range of irradiances using the PDT model. For most cases, the rate of bleaching slows as treatment progresses, leaving a fraction of the PpIX unbleached despite sustained irradiation. To account for this feature, the model predicts that incorporation of ALA-PDT-induced blood flow reduction is necessary. In addition to using the theoretical method to understand the dose deposited by photodynamic therapy, experimentally, we propose a potential dose metric for Pc 4-PDT. Pc 4 is a promising second generation photosensitizer that is now in Phase I clinical trials for the treatment of cutaneous lesions. We have observed a significant irradiation-induced increase in Pc 4 fluorescence in tumor cell monolayers. The amount of the fluorescence increase observed in vitro strongly correlates to the cell death and mitochondrial swelling reported by the clonogenic cell survival assay and light scattering measurements, respectively. Based on those biological responses, we anticipate that irradiation-induced fluorescence enhancement in Pc 4-PDT may be a potential dose metric.

  4. Overcoming photodynamic resistance and tumor targeting dual-therapy mediated by indocyanine green conjugated gold nanospheres.

    PubMed

    Li, Wei; Guo, Xiaomeng; Kong, Fenfen; Zhang, Hanbo; Luo, Lihua; Li, Qingpo; Zhu, Chunqi; Yang, Jie; Du, Yongzhong; You, Jian

    2017-07-28

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) and photothermal therapy (PTT) have captured much attention due to the great potential to cure malignant tumor. Nevertheless, photodynamic resistance of cancer cells has limited the further efficacy of PDT. Unfortunately, the resistance mechanism and efforts to overcome the resistance still have been rarely reported so far. Here, we report a nanosystem with specific tumor targeting for combined PDT and PTT mediated by near-infrared (NIR) light, which was established by covalently conjugating indocyanine green (ICG) and TNYL peptide onto the surface of hollow gold nanospheres (HAuNS). Our nanosystem (TNYL-ICG-HAuNS) was proved to possess significantly increased light stability, reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and photothermal effect under NIR light irradiation, thus presenting a remarkably enhanced antitumor efficacy. The up-regulation of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (NFE2L2, Nrf2) in cancer cells during PDT induced a significant increase of ABCG2, NQO-1 and HIF-1α expression, causing PDT resistance of the cells. Interestingly, ABCG2 expression could almost keep a normal level in the whole PDT process mediated by TNYL-ICG-HAuNS. After repeated irradiations, TNYL-ICG-HAuNS could still produce almost constant ROS in cells while the Nrf2 expression reduced significantly. Furthermore, PDT resistance induced an obvious decrease of the internalization of free ICG, but didn't influence the cell uptake of TNYL-ICG-HAuNS. Our data explained that TNYL-ICG-HAuNS could overcome the photodynamic resistance of cancer cells, acting as a promising modality for simultaneous photothermal and photodynamic cancer therapy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Near-infrared-absorbing gold nanopopcorns with iron oxide cluster core for magnetically amplified photothermal and photodynamic cancer therapy.

    PubMed

    Bhana, Saheel; Lin, Gan; Wang, Lijia; Starring, Hunter; Mishra, Sanjay R; Liu, Gang; Huang, Xiaohua

    2015-06-03

    We present the synthesis and application of a new type of dual magnetic and plasmonic nanostructures for magnetic-field-guided drug delivery and combined photothermal and photodynamic cancer therapy. Near-infrared-absorbing gold nanopopcorns containing a self-assembled iron oxide cluster core were prepared via a seed-mediated growth method. The hybrid nanostructures are superparamagnetic and show great photothermal conversion efficiency (η=61%) under near-infrared irradiation. Compact and stable nanocomplexes for photothermal-photodynamic therapy were formed by coating the nanoparticles with near-infrared-absorbing photosensitizer silicon 2,3-naphthalocyannie dihydroxide and stabilization with poly(ethylene glycol) linked with 11-mercaptoundecanoic acid. The nanocomplex showed enhanced release and cellular uptake of the photosensitizer with the use of a gradient magnetic field. In vitro studies using two different cell lines showed that the dual mode photothermal and photodynamic therapy with the assistance of magnetic-field-guided drug delivery dramatically improved the therapeutic efficacy of cancer cells as compared to the combination treatment without using a magnetic field and the two treatments alone. The "three-in-one" nanocomplex has the potential to carry therapeutic agents deep into a tumor through magnetic manipulation and to completely eradicate tumors by subsequent photothermal and photodynamic therapies without systemic toxicity.

  6. Stimulation of the host immune response by photodynamic therapy (PDT)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gollnick, Sandra O.; Kabingu, Edith; Kousis, Philaretos C.; Henderson, Barbara W.

    2004-07-01

    The tumor response to photodynamic therapy (PDT) involves a complex interplay between direct cytotoxicity to the tumor cells and secondary damage as a result of the effects of PDT on the vasculature and stimulation of the host inflammatory response. Pre-clinical and clinical studies have suggested that the combination of direct and indirect effects of PDT culminate in an activation of host anti-tumor immune responses. We have begun to examine the direct effects of PDT on tumor immunogenicity and have made the novel discovery that PDT treatment of tumor cells in vitro enhances tumor cell immunogenicity. We have further demonstrated that the increase in tumor cell immunogenicity by PDT can be correlated with the ability of PDT-generated tumor cell lysates to stimulate dendritic cell maturation and activation. The mechanisms by which PDT is able to enhance tumor cell immunogenicity and stimulate dendritic cell maturation and activation is unclear, however our finding suggest that alterations in tumor immunogenicity correlate with enhanced release of dendritic cell stimulating factors such as heat shock proteins.

  7. Photodynamic therapy for treatment subretinal neovascularization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avetisov, Sergey E.; Budzinskaja, Maria V.; Kiseleva, Tatyana N.; Balatskaya, Natalia V.; Gurova, Irina V.; Loschenov, Viktor B.; Shevchik, Sergey A.; Kuzmin, Sergey G.; Vorozhtsov, Georgy N.

    2007-07-01

    This work are devoted our experience with photodynamic therapy (PDT) with <> for patients with choroidal neovascularization (CNV). 18 patients with subfoveal CNV in age-related macular degeneration (AMD), 24 patients with subfoveal CNV in pathological myopia (PM) and 4 patients with subfoveal CNV associated with toxoplasmic retinochoroiditis were observed. CNV was 100% classic in all study patients. Standardized protocol refraction, visual acuity testing, ophthalmologic examinations, biomicroscopy, fluorescein angiography, and ultrasonography were performed before treatment and 1 month, 3 months, 6 months, and 1 year after treatment; were used to evaluate the results of photodynamic therapy with <> (0.02% solution of mixture sulfonated aluminium phtalocyanine 0.05 mg/kg, intravenously). A diode laser (<>, Inc, Moscow) was used operating in the range of 675 nm. Need for retreatment was based on fluorescein angiographic evidence of leakage at 3-month follow-up intervals. At 3, 6, 9 month 26 (56.5%) patients had significant improvement in the mean visual acuity. At the end of the 12-month minimal fluorescein leakage from choroidal neovascularization was seen in 12 (26.1%) patients and the mean visual acuity was slightly worse than 0.2 which was not statistically significant as compared with the baseline visual acuity. Patients with fluorescein leakage from CNV underwent repeated PDT with <>. 3D-mode ultrasound shown the decreasing thickness of chorioretinal complex in CNV area. Photodynamic therapy with <> can safely reduce the risk of severe vision loss in patients with predominantly classic subfoveal choroidal neovascularization secondary to AMD, PM and toxoplasmic retinochoroiditis.

  8. In-office Painless Aminolevulinic Acid Photodynamic Therapy

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the efficacy, safety, and pain of in-office “painless” aminolevulinic acid photodynamic therapy aimed at decreasing treatment-associated pain in patients undergoing removal of actinic keratoses. Design: Prospective split-face study comparing short aminolevulinic acid incubation times of 15 minutes followed by extended exposure (60 minutes) of continuous blue light versus conventional aminolevulinic acid photodynamic therapy. Prospective assessment of pain in patients undergoing in-office “painless” aminolevulinic acid photodynamic therapy. Setting: Clinical practice office. Participants: Three patients with actinic keratoses participated in the split-face study and 101 in the pain assessment study. Measurements: Evaluations in the split-face study included removal of actinic keratoses, skin temperature, and pain measured on a 10-point visual analog scale. Pain was assessed using the visual analog scale in the pain assessment study. Results: In the split-face study, in-office “painless” aminolevulinic acid photodynamic therapy resulted in a 52-percent reduction in lesions versus 44 percent for conventional aminolevulinic acid photodynamic therapy. Maximum pain scores of in-office “painless” aminolevulinic acid photodynamic therapy were all 0 at each time point, and the average score for conventional aminolevulinic acid photodynamic therapy was 7. Baseline skin temperatures increased from a baseline of 29 to 32°C to 34 to 35°C by minute 10 of blue light activation on both sides of the face. Results from the pain assessment study indicated no or minimal (scores 0-2) pain in nearly all patients who received in-office “painless” aminolevulinic acid photodynamic therapy as monotherapy or in combination with 5-fluoruacil or imiquimod used as pretreatments. Conclusions: In-office “painless” aminolevulinic acid photodynamic therapy appears to be effective for removing actinic keratoses and is associated with little or no pain

  9. Photodynamic dosimetry in the treatment of periodontitis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andersen, Roger C.; Loebel, Nicolas G.; Andersen, Dane M.

    2009-06-01

    Photodynamic therapy has been demonstrated to effectively kill human periopathogens in vitro. However, the translation of in vitro work to in vivo clinical efficacy has been difficult due to the number of variables present in any given patient. Parameters such as photosensitizer concentration, duration of light therapy and amount of light delivered to the target tissue all play a role in the dose response of PDT in vivo. In this 121 patient study we kept all parameters the same except for light dose which was delivered at either 150 mW or 220 mW. This clearly demonstrated the clinical benefits of a higher light dose in the treatment of periodontitis.

  10. Flexible textile light diffuser for photodynamic therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Selm, Barbel; Camenzind, Martin

    2005-03-01

    In this article a new medical application is introduced using textile production techniques to deliver a defined radiation dose. The advantage for photodynamic therapy (PDT) is that a flat luminous textile structure can homogeneously illuminate unequal body surfaces. The optical properties of this two-dimensional luminous pad are characterized with a set of bench-scale tests. In vitro investigations on petri dishes with cultivated cells and first clinical tests on animal patients are promising. In addition first measurement results are presented together with an outlook to future developments.

  11. Hormonal component of tumor photodynamic therapy response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korbelik, Mladen; Merchant, Soroush

    2008-02-01

    The involvement of adrenal glucocorticoid hormones in the response of the treatment of solid tumors by photodynamic therapy (PDT) comes from the induction of acute phase response by this modality. This adrenal gland activity is orchestrated through the engagement of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal hormonal axis incited by stress signals emanating from the PDT-treated tumor. Glucocorticoid hormone activity engendered within the context of PDT-induced acute phase response performs multiple important functions; among other involvements they beget acute phase reactant production, systemic neutrophil mobilization, and control the production of inflammation-modulating and immunoregulatory proteins.

  12. Photodynamic therapy and anti-tumour immunity

    PubMed Central

    Castano, Ana P.; Mroz, Pawel; Hamblin, Michael R.

    2010-01-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) uses non-toxic photosensitizers and harmless visible light in combination with oxygen to produce cytotoxic reactive oxygen species that kill malignant cells by apoptosis and/or necrosis, shut down the tumour microvasculature and stimulate the host immune system. In contrast to surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy that are mostly immunosuppressive, PDT causes acute inflammation, expression of heat-shock proteins, invasion and infiltration of the tumour by leukocytes, and might increase the presentation of tumour-derived antigens to T cells. PMID:16794636

  13. Acceleration Of Wound Healing Ny Photodynamic Therapy

    DOEpatents

    Hasan, Tayyaba; Hamblin, Michael R.; Trauner, Kenneth

    2000-08-22

    Disclosed is a method for accelerating wound healing in a mammal. The method includes identifying an unhealed wound site or partially-healed wound site in a mammal; administering a photosensitizer to the mammal; waiting for a time period wherein the photosensitizer reaches an effective tissue concentration at the wound site; and photoactivating the photosensitizer at the wound site. The dose of photodynamic therapy is selected to stimulate the production of one or more growth factor by cells at the wound site, without causing tissue destruction.

  14. Semiconductor quantum dots for photodynamic therapy.

    PubMed

    Samia, Anna C S; Chen, Xiaobo; Burda, Clemens

    2003-12-24

    The applicability of semiconductor QDs in photodynamic therapy (PDT) was evaluated by studying the interaction between CdSe QDs with a known silicon phthalocyanine PDT photosensitizer, Pc4. The study revealed that the QDs could be used to sensitize the PDT agent through a fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) mechanism, or interact directly with molecular oxygen via a triplet energy-transfer process (TET). Both mechanisms result in the generation of reactive singlet oxygen species that can be used for PDT cancer therapy.

  15. Combination of photodynamic therapy and immunotherapy - evolving role in dermatology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiu-Li; Wang, Hong-Wei; Huang, Zheng

    2008-02-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a promising treatment modality. It offers alternative options in the treatment of cancer and vascular diseases. In cancer treatment, PDT has been used primarily for localized superficial or endoluminal malignant and premalignant conditions. More recently, its application has also been expanded to solid tumors. However, its antitumor efficacy remains debatable and its acceptance still variable. Pre-clinical studies demonstrate that, in addition to the primary local cytotoxicity, PDT might induce secondary host immune responses, which may further enhance PDT's therapeutic effects on primary tumor as well as metastasis. Therefore, PDT-induced local and systemic antitumor immune response might play an important role in successful control of malignant diseases. Furthermore, PDT's antitumor efficacy might also be enhanced through an effective immunoadjuvant or immunomodulator. Our recent clinical data also indicate that improved clinical outcomes can be obtained by a combination of PDT and immunomodulation therapy for the treatment of pre-malignant skin diseases. For instance, the combination of topical ALA-PDT and Imiquimod is effective for the treatment of genital bowenoid papulosis. This presentation will also report our preliminary data in developing combination approaches of PDT and immunotherapy for actinic keratosis (AK), basal cell carcinomas (BCCs) and Bowen's disease.

  16. Photosensitizer and light diffusion through dentin in photodynamic therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nogueira, Ana C.; Graciano, Ariane X.; Nagata, Juliana Y.; Fujimaki, Mitsue; Terada, Raquel S. S.; Bento, Antonio C.; Astrath, Nelson G. C.; Baesso, Mauro L.

    2013-05-01

    Photodynamic therapy has been considered a potential antimicrobial modality against oral infections, including dental caries. A model to estimate the penetration of both photosensitizers and light through human dentin, a factor of interest in photodynamic therapy, is proposed. The photoacoustic spectroscopy technique was used to evaluate in vitro dentin permeability of three different photosensitizers. Using the dentin optical absorption and scattering coefficients, it was possible to propose a semi-quantitative model predicting both photosensitizer and light doses within dentin. The graphic illustrations obtained provided guidelines that may be useful in photodynamic therapy protocols used as antimicrobial tools in caries lesions.

  17. Clinical use of photodynamic therapy in ocular tumors.

    PubMed

    Cerman, Eren; Çekiç, Osman

    2015-01-01

    Although the introduction of intravitreal anti-vascular endothelial growth factor drugs reduced the indications for photodynamic therapy in ophthalmology, it may still be used in various ocular tumors. Although many studies have shown that photodynamic therapy is effective in ocular tumors, the literature consists of case reports and series. In this review, we systematically performed a meta-analysis for the use of photodynamic therapy in circumscribed choroidal hemangioma, diffuse choroidal hemangioma, retinal capillary hemangioma, von Hippel-Lindau angiomatosis, choroidal melanoma, retinal astrocytoma, retinoblastoma, eyelid tumors, conjunctival tumors, and choroidal metastasis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Photodynamic Action of Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Murakami, Tatsuya

    2017-01-01

    Photodynamic therapy is achieved by the combination of photosensitizers, harmless visible or near-infrared (NIR) light, and molecular oxygen (O2). Photosensitizers transfer their absorbed light energy to O2 to generate a major active species in photodynamic therapy, singlet oxygen. In this review, I will discuss the possibility of single-walled carbon nanotubes as NIR photosensitizers, while explaining the general photophysics and photochemistry underlying photodynamic therapy as well as summarizing recent advances in the purification technologies for single-walled carbon nanotubes to reduce their toxicity concerns.

  19. Photodynamic antimicrobial chemotherapy using zinc phthalocyanine derivatives in treatment of bacterial skin infection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Zhuo; Zhang, Yaxin; Wang, Dong; Li, Linsen; Zhou, Shanyong; Huang, Joy H.; Chen, Jincan; Hu, Ping; Huang, Mingdong

    2016-01-01

    Photodynamic antimicrobial chemotherapy (PACT) is an effective method for killing bacterial cells in view of the increasing problem of multiantibiotic resistance. We herein reported the PACT effect on bacteria involved in skin infections using a zinc phthalocyanine derivative, pentalysine β-carbonylphthalocyanine zinc (ZnPc-Lys). Compared with its anionic ZnPc counterpart, ZnPc-Lys showed an enhanced antibacterial efficacy in vitro and in an animal model of localized infection. Meanwhile, ZnPc-Lys was observed to significantly reduce the wound skin blood flow during wound healing, indicating an anti-inflammation activity. This study provides new insight on the mechanisms of PACT in bacterial skin infection.

  20. Photosensitizer methylene blue-semiconductor nanocrystals hybrid system for photodynamic therapy.

    PubMed

    Rakovich, Aliaksandra; Rakovich, Tatsiana; Kelly, Vincent; Lesnyak, Vladimir; Eychmüller, Alexander; Rakovich, Yury P; Donegan, John F

    2010-04-01

    In this work we report on the development of novel hybrid material with enhanced photodynamic properties based on methylene blue and CdTe nanocrystals. Absorption spectroscopy, visible photoluminescence spectroscopy and fluorescence lifetime imaging of this system reveal efficient charge transfer between nanocrystals and the methylene blue dye. Near infra-red photoluminescence measurements provide evidence for an increased efficiency of singlet oxygen production by the methylene blue dye. In vitro studies on the growth of HepG2 and HeLa cancerous cells were also performed, they point towards an improvement in the cell kill efficiency for the methylene blue-semiconductor nanocrystals hybrid system.

  1. Potential new photosensitizers for photodynamic therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ho, Yau-Kwan; Pandey, Ravindra K.; Sumlin, Adam B.; Missert, Joseph R.; Bellnier, David A.; Dougherty, Thomas J.

    1990-07-01

    In continuation of the effort to search for an ideal photosensitizer, two groups of potential new photosensitizers were synthesized and investigated for their photodynamic actions against tumors in mice. These were derivatives of methyl pheophorbide-a and of silicon naphthalocyanine. Of the former group, the 2 (1-0--hexyl) ethyl-desvinyl--methyl pheophorbide-a, or }IEDP, was the most active sensitizer. HEDP could be readily produced in large quantities and showed an optimum photodynamic action at 665 mu where it absorbs strongly. Also HEDP was cleared from the mouse skin within 4 days after administration, thus possibly alleviating the long-term phototoxic side-effects observed in Photofrin-based therapy. Of the second group of photosensitizers, the bis (dimethyl hydroxypropylsiloxy) silicon naphthalocyanine (HPSiNc) , and the corresponding acetoxy derivative (APSiNc) were of particular interest. At a drug-light dose of 1.0 mg/kg-135 J/cm2 (delivered by a laser at 772 nm), they showed antitumor activities comparable to that of PhotofrinTM. Further studies on these photosensitizers are warranted.

  2. Singlet oxygen dosimetry modeling for photodynamic therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Xing; Wang, Ken Kang-hsin; Zhu, Timothy C.

    2012-02-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is an important treatment modality for cancer and other localized diseases. In addition to PDT dose, singlet oxygen (1O2) concentration is used as an explicit PDT dosimetry quantity, because 1O2 is the major cytotoxic agent in photodynamic therapy, and the reaction between 1O2 and tumor tissues/cells determines the treatment efficacy. 1O2 concentration can be obtained by the PDT model, which includes diffusion equation for the light transport in tissue and macroscopic kinetic equations for the generation of the singlet oxygen. This model was implemented using finite-element method (FEM) by COMSOL. In the kinetic equations, 5 photo-physiological parameters were determined explicitly to predict the generation of 1O2. The singlet oxygen concentration profile was calculated iteratively by comparing the model with the measurements based on mice experiments, to obtain the apparent reacted 1O2concentration as an explicit PDT dosimetry quantity. Two photosensitizers including Photofrin and BPD Verteporfin, were tested using this model to determine their photo-physiological parameters and the reacted 1O2 concentrations.

  3. Photodynamic therapy in dentistry: a literature review.

    PubMed

    Gursoy, Hare; Ozcakir-Tomruk, Ceyda; Tanalp, Jale; Yilmaz, Selçuk

    2013-05-01

    The purpose of this review was to summarize recent developments regarding photodynamic therapy (PDT) in the field of dentistry. A review of pertinent literature was carried out in PubMED to determine the current position of PDT applications in dentistry. One hundred thirteen relevant articles were retrieved from PubMED by inserting the keywords "photodynamic therapy", "dentistry", "periodontology", "oral surgery", and "endodontics". It is anticipated that this overview will create a specific picture in the practitioner's mind regarding the current status and use of PDT. In spite of different results and suggestions brought about by different researchers, PDT can be considered as a promising and less invasive technique in dentistry. PDT seems to be an effective tool in the treatment of localized and superficial infections. Within the limitations of the present review, it can be concluded that although PDT cannot replace antimicrobial therapy at its current stage, it may be used as an adjunctive tool for facilitating the treatment of oral infections. Oral infections (such as mucosal and endodontic infections, periodontal diseases, caries, and peri-implantitis) are among the specific targets where PDT can be applied. Further long-term clinical studies are necessary in establishing a more specific place of the technique in the field of dentistry.

  4. History of photodynamic therapy in Great Britain.

    PubMed

    Mitton, D; Ackroyd, R

    2005-12-01

    Although the concept photodynamic therapy has been recognised for over a century, it is only over the last 25 years that it has been used in Great Britain. The first applications in the UK were in 1981 by John Carruth, who treated patients with advanced ENT and skin cancers. The following year, he and Stephen Bown set up the British Medical Laser Association (BMLA). Since that time, the use of PDT in the UK has slowly expanded in all fields of medicine and surgery. In 1986, Bown set up the National Medical Laser Centre (NMLC) and later collaborated with Liverpool gastroenterologist, Neville Krasner, in animal studies on rat colon. In 1997, Keyvan Moghissi founded the Yorkshire Laser Centre (YLC) and began treating patients with advanced inoperable bronchial and oesophageal cancers. Stan Brown in Leeds set up the Centre for Photobiology and Photodynamic Therapy at the University of Leeds, working in close collaboration with the Yorkshire Cancer Research Centre. Other pioneers include Hugh Barr in Gloucester, Colin Hopper in London, Grant Fullarton in Glasgow and Roger Ackroyd, Malcolm Reed and Nicky Brown in Sheffield. PDT has now been used in the UK in the treatment of skin, oral, ENT, oesophageal, lung, bladder and gynaecological malignancies.

  5. Treatment of ichthyophthiriasis with photodynamically active chlorophyllin.

    PubMed

    Häder, D-P; Schmidl, J; Hilbig, R; Oberle, M; Wedekind, H; Richter, P R

    2016-04-01

    Water-soluble chlorophyll (chlorophyllin) exerts pronounced photodynamic activity on fish parasites. In order to determine its potential as a remedy against ectoparasites in fish carps were incubated in water with defined concentrations of chlorophyllin. The main focus of the experiments was on the ciliate Ichthyophthirius multifiliis (Fouquet) which is responsible for considerable losses in livestock in aquaculture. As malachite green, which in the past efficiently cured infected fishes, is banned because of its possible carcinogenicity; no effective remedy is presently available in aquaculture to treat ichthyophthiriasis. Using chlorophyllin, the number of trophonts was significantly reduced (more than 50 %) after 3 h incubation of infested fish at 2 and 4 mg/L and subsequent irradiation with simulated solar radiation. The lack of reinfection after light treatment indicates that also the remaining parasites have lost their multiplication capacity. In the controls (no chlorophyllin and no light, light but no chlorophyllin, or chlorophyllin but no light), no reduction of the I. multifiliis infection was observed. We propose that chlorophyllin (or other photodynamic substances) is a possible effective countermeasure against I. multifiliis and other ectoparasites in aquaculture.

  6. Photodynamic-induced inactivation of Propionibacterium acnes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koenig, Karsten; Teschke, M.; Eick, Stephen G.; Pfister, W.; Meyer, Herbert; Halbhuber, Karl-Juergen

    1998-05-01

    We report on photodynamically induced inactivation of the skin bacterium Propionibacterium acnes (P. acnes) using endogenous as well as exogenous photosensitizers and red light sources. P. acnes is involved in the pathogenesis of the skin disease acne vulgaris. The skin bacterium is able to synthesize the metal-free fluorescent porphyrins protoporphyrin IX (PP) and coproporphyrin (CP) as shown by in situ spectrally-resolved detection of natural autofluorescence of human skin and bacteria colonies. These naturally occurring intracellular porphyrins act as efficient endogenous photosensitizers. Inactivation of P. acnes suspensions was achieved by irradiation with He-Ne laser light in the red spectral region (632.8 nm). We monitored the photodynamically-induced death of single bacteria using a fluorescent viability kit in combination with confocal laser scanning microscopy. In addition, the photo-induced inactivation was calculated by CFU (colony forming units) determination. We found 633 nm-induced inactivation (60 mW, 0.12 cm2 exposure area, 1 hour irradiation) of 72% in the case of non-incubated bacteria based on the destructive effect of singlet oxygen produced by red light excited endogenous porphyrins and subsequent energy transfer to molecular oxygen. In order to achieve a nearly complete inactivation within one exposure procedure, the exogenous photosensitizer Methylene Blue (Mb) was added. Far red exposure of Mb-labeled bacteria using a krypton ion laser at 647 nm and 676 nm resulted in 99% inactivation.

  7. Photodynamic inactivation of oropharyngeal Candida strains.

    PubMed

    Postigo, Agustina; Bulacio, Lucía; Sortino, Maximiliano

    2014-09-25

    Oropharyngeal candidiasis (OPC) is an infection frequent in immunocompromised patients. Photodynamic therapy is an alternative to conventional treatments, based on the utilization of compounds that inhibit or kill microorganisms only under the effect of light, process known as Photodynamic Inactivation (PDI). In the present study, PDI of Candida spp. by the natural product α-terthienyl (α-T) was investigated following the guidelines of CLSI M27-A3, under UV-A light irradiation. The optimal values of two variables, exposure irradiation time (ET) and distance to the irradiation source (DIS) were established by employing Design Expert Software (DES). For this purpose, a panel of Candida strains isolated from OPC (C. albicans, C. tropicalis, C. parapsilosis and C. krusei) was employed and optimal values were 5 min (ET) and between 6.06 and 6.43 cm (DIS) with a desirability factor of 0.989. α-T plus UV-A light in the optimal conditions caused a complete reduction in viable cells in 5 min which was demonstrated by viable cells reduction assays and confocal microscopy after vital staining (propidium iodide/fluorescein diacetate). The germ tube formation of C. albicans was inhibited by α-T at sub-inhibitory concentrations. Results showed that α-T plus UV-A light could constitute an alternative for OPC treatments at the optimal conditions determined here. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  8. Photonic metallic nanostructures in photodynamic therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ion, Rodica-Mariana; Fierascu, R. C.; Dumitriu, Irina

    2009-01-01

    Plasmons are resonant modes that involve the interaction between free charges and light. Nanoparticle-based photonic explorers have been developed for photodynamic therapy (PDT). PDT has been widely used in both oncological (e.g., tumors) and nononcological (e.g., age-related macular degeneration, localized infection, and nonmalignant skin conditions) applications. Three primary components are involved in PDT: light, a photosensitizing drug, and oxygen. The photosensitizer adsorbs light energy, which it then transfers to molecular oxygen to create an activated form of oxygen called singlet oxygen. The singlet oxygen is a cytotoxic agent and reacts rapidly with cellular components to cause damage that ultimately leads to cell death and tumor destruction. The changed topography of the film surface after deposition is caused by a local material transport and a material separation between formed particles (probably AgNO3) and an embedding polymer matrix as chitosan. This paper focuses on the current use of injectable in situ Au/(Ag)/chitosan hydrogels in cancer photodynamic treatment. Formulation protocols for their cytotoxic properties, their effect on cell growth in vitro and inhibition of tumor growth in vivo using mouse models, are discussed.

  9. Photodynamic impact on the epiphyseal plates.

    PubMed

    Kurchenko, S; Shashko, A; Dudin, M; Mikhailov, V; Netylko, G; Ashmarov, V

    2012-01-01

    This study was carried out to prove the possibility of inhibition of long bones epiphyseal plates activity with photodynamic impact. Comparative analysis of the Chlorin E6 accumulation with transcutaneous and intraperitoneal administration mode, carried out on 175 laboratory mice showed the drug accumulates selectively in the epiphyseal plates of long bones, regardless of the mode of administration. 15 mice (males and females) at the age of active grownig were subjected to the single laser radiation impact on the knee joints area: 5 ones with transcutaneous Chlorine E6 administration, another 5 ones with intraperitoneal administration and the rest 5 without the drug. Histological samples of 15 experimental mice epiphyseal plates were examined by light microscopy, compared with 10 intact control mice. Influence of the laser radiation without administration of Chlorin E6 leads to intracellular swelling of epiphyseal plates chondrocytes. Influence of the laser radiation after transcutaneous or intraperitoneal injection of Chlorine E6 reduces significantly the total number of epiphyseal plates chondrocytes, without reducing the proportion of terminally-differentiated chondrocytes. Thus, the photodynamic impact inhibits the activity of epiphyseal plates of the mice.

  10. Nanoparticle Based Photodynamic Therapy for Cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Wei

    2006-10-01

    This presentation describes research into a new approach to cancer treatment through a combination of radiation and photodynamic therapy. Under this concept, scintillation or persistent luminescence nanoparticles with attached photosensitizers, such as porphyrins, are used as an in vivo agent for photodynamic therapy. The nanoparticle PDT agents are delivered to the treatment site. Upon exposure to ionizing radiation such as X-rays, the nanoparticles emit scintillation or luminescence, which in turn activates the photosensitizers; as a consequence, singlet oxygen (^1O2) is produced. Studies have shown that ^1O2 can be effective in killing cancer cells. The innovation described in this study involves the use of in vivo luminescent nanoparticles so that an external light source is not required to support PDT. Consequently, application of the therapy can be more localized and the potential of damage to healthy cells is reduced. This new modality will provide an efficient, low-cost approach to PDT while still offering the benefits of augmented radiation therapy at lower doses.

  11. Fighting fish parasites with photodynamically active chlorophyllin.

    PubMed

    Häder, D-P; Schmidl, J; Hilbig, R; Oberle, M; Wedekind, H; Richter, P

    2016-06-01

    Water-soluble chlorophyll (chlorophyllin) was used in a phototoxic reaction against a number of fish ectoparasites such as Ichtyobodo, Dactylogyrus, Trichodina, and Argulus. Chlorophyllin is applied to the water at concentrations of several micrograms per milliliter for a predefined incubation time, and afterwards, the parasites are exposed to simulated solar radiation. Application in the dark caused only little damage to the parasites; likewise, light exposure without the addition of the photosensitizer was ineffective. In Ichthyobodo, 2 μg/mL proved sufficient with subsequent simulated solar radiation to almost quantitatively kill the parasites, while in Dactylogyrus, a concentration of about 6 μg/mL was necessary. The LD50 value for this parasite was 1.02 μg/mL. Trichodina could be almost completely eliminated at 2 μg/mL. Only in the parasitic crustacean Argulus, no killing could be achieved by a photodynamic reaction using chlorophyllin. Chlorophyllin is non-toxic, biodegradable, and can be produced at low cost. Therefore, we propose that chlorophyllin (or other photodynamic substances) are a possible effective countermeasure against several ectoparasites in ponds and aquaculture since chemical remedies are either forbidden and/or ineffective.

  12. Photodynamic Therapy in Non-Gastrointestinal Thoracic Malignancies

    PubMed Central

    Kidane, Biniam; Hirpara, Dhruvin; Yasufuku, Kazuhiro

    2016-01-01

    Photodynamic therapy has a role in the management of early and late thoracic malignancies. It can be used to facilitate minimally-invasive treatment of early endobronchial tumours and also to palliate obstructive and bleeding effects of advanced endobronchial tumours. Photodynamic therapy has been used as a means of downsizing tumours to allow for resection, as well as reducing the extent of resection necessary. It has also been used successfully for minimally-invasive management of local recurrences, which is especially valuable for patients who are not eligible for radiation therapy. Photodynamic therapy has also shown promising results in mesothelioma and pleural-based metastatic disease. As new generation photosensitizers are being developed and tested and methodological issues continue to be addressed, the role of photodynamic therapy in thoracic malignancies continues to evolve. PMID:26805818

  13. Photodynamic Therapy in Non-Gastrointestinal Thoracic Malignancies.

    PubMed

    Kidane, Biniam; Hirpara, Dhruvin; Yasufuku, Kazuhiro

    2016-01-21

    Photodynamic therapy has a role in the management of early and late thoracic malignancies. It can be used to facilitate minimally-invasive treatment of early endobronchial tumours and also to palliate obstructive and bleeding effects of advanced endobronchial tumours. Photodynamic therapy has been used as a means of downsizing tumours to allow for resection, as well as reducing the extent of resection necessary. It has also been used successfully for minimally-invasive management of local recurrences, which is especially valuable for patients who are not eligible for radiation therapy. Photodynamic therapy has also shown promising results in mesothelioma and pleural-based metastatic disease. As new generation photosensitizers are being developed and tested and methodological issues continue to be addressed, the role of photodynamic therapy in thoracic malignancies continues to evolve.

  14. Photodynamic Physiology—Photonanomanipulations in Cellular Physiology with Protein Photosensitizers

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Hong Ning; Li, Yuan; Cui, Zong Jie

    2017-01-01

    Singlet oxygen generated in a type II photodynamic action, due to its limited lifetime (1 μs) and reactive distance (<10 nm), could regulate live cell function nanoscopically. The genetically-encoded protein photosensitizers (engineered fluorescent proteins such as KillerRed, TagRFP, and flavin-binding proteins such as miniSOG, Pp2FbFPL30M) could be expressed in a cell type- and/or subcellular organelle-specific manner for targeted protein photo-oxidative activation/desensitization. The newly emerged active illumination technique provides an additional level of specificity. Typical examples of photodynamic activation include permanent activation of G protein-coupled receptor CCK1 and photodynamic activation of ionic channel TRPA1. Protein photosensitizers have been used to photodynamically modulate major cellular functions (such as neurotransmitter release and gene transcription) and animal behavior. Protein photosensitizers are increasingly used in photon-driven nanomanipulation in cell physiology research. PMID:28421000

  15. Photodynamic action of protoporphyrin IX derivatives on Trichophyton rubrum*

    PubMed Central

    Ramos, Rogério Rodrigo; Kozusny-Andreani, Dora Inês; Fernandes, Adjaci Uchôa; Baptista, Mauricio da Silva

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Dermatophytes are filamentous keratinophilic fungi. Trichophyton rubrum is a prevalent infectious agent in tineas and other skin diseases. Drug therapy is considered to be limited in the treatment of such infections, mainly due to low accessibility of the drug to the tissue attacked and development of antifungal resistance in these microorganisms. In this context, Photodynamic Therapy is presented as an alternative. OBJECTIVE Evaluate, in vitro, the photodynamic activity of four derivatives of Protoporphyrin IX by irradiation with LED 400 nm in T. rubrum. METHOD Assays were subjected to irradiation by twelve cycles of ten minutes at five minute intervals. RESULT Photodynamic action appeared as effective with total elimination of UFCs from the second irradiation cycle. CONCLUSION Studies show that the photodynamic activity on Trichophyton rubrum relates to a suitable embodiment of the photosensitizer, which can be maximized by functionalization of peripheral groups of the porphyrinic ring. PMID:27192510

  16. Chlorophyll mediated photodynamic inactivation of blue laser on Streptococcus mutans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Astuti, Suryani Dyah; Zaidan, A.; Setiawati, Ernie Maduratna; Suhariningsih

    2016-03-01

    Photodynamic inactivation is an inactivation method in microbial pathogens that utilize light and photosensitizer. This study was conducted to investigate photodynamic inactivation effects of low intensity laser exposure with various dose energy on Streptococcus mutans bacteria. The photodynamic inactivation was achieved with the addition of chlorophyll as photosensitizers. To determine the survival percentage of Streptococcus mutans bacteria after laser exposure, the total plate count method was used. For this study, the wavelength of the laser is 405 nm and variables of energy doses are 1.44, 2.87, 4.31, 5.74, 7.18, and 8.61 in J/cm2. The results show that exposure to laser with energy dose of 7.18 J/cm2 has the best photodynamic inactivation with a decrease of 78% in Streptococcus

  17. [Photodynamic reaction and oxidative stress - influence of the photodynamic effect on the activity antioxidant enzymes].

    PubMed

    Romiszewska, Anna; Nowak-Stępniowska, Agata

    2014-01-01

    The interaction of light with a photosensitizer, accumulated in a tissue in the presence of oxygen, leads to formation of reactive oxygen species, mainly of singlet oxygen and free radicals. These factors react with biomolecules producing their oxidized states. Reactive oxygen species, such as singlet oxygen and free radicals are able to damage membranes, DNA, enzymes, structural peptides and other cellular structures leading to cell death. An antioxidant protection of cell is formed by enzymes belonging to the family of oxidoreductases: superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and glutathione reductase (GR). Photodynamic therapy leads to the increased production of oxidizing toxic forms. It is important to analyze impact of PDT on the activity of antioxidant enzymes, such as SOD, CAT, GPx. The activity of antioxidant enzymes during the photodynamic effect is influenced by both the light energy dose and the concentration of photosensitizer. The presence only of the photosensitizer or only the light energy may also result in changes in the activity of these enzymes. The differences in changes in the activity of these enzymes depend on the type of used photosensitizer. A phenomenon of selective accumulation of photosensitizer in tumor tissues is used in the photodynamic method of tumor diagnosis and treatment.

  18. 5-Aminolevulinic acid-mediated photodynamic therapy for bladder cancer.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Keiji

    2017-02-01

    Photodynamic therapy using 5-aminolevulinic acid is a treatment method in which the fluorescent substance of protoporphyrin IX excessively accumulated specifically in cancer cells is excited by visible red or green light irradiation, and reactive oxygen is produced and injures cancer cells. Photodynamic therapy using 5-aminolevulinic acid less markedly influences the surrounding normal cells and tissue as a result of no accumulation of protoporphyrin IX, being a low-invasive, less harmful treatment localized to cancer. Furthermore, photodynamic therapy using 5-aminolevulinic acid is painless, requiring no anesthesia because localized lesions are treated at a low-energy level, and repeatedly applicable, unlike radiotherapy, and so is expected to be a new low-invasive treatment based on a concept completely different from existing treatments. In fact, photodynamic therapy using 5-aminolevulinic acid for bladder cancer was clinically demonstrated mainly for treatment-resistant bladder carcinoma in situ, and favorable outcomes have been obtained. Photodynamic therapy using 5-aminolevulinic acid are photodynamic technologies based on the common biological characteristic of cancers, and are expected as novel therapeutic strategies for many types of cancer. © 2017 The Japanese Urological Association.

  19. Photodynamic Efficiency: From Molecular Photochemistry to Cell Death

    PubMed Central

    Bacellar, Isabel O. L.; Tsubone, Tayana M.; Pavani, Christiane; Baptista, Mauricio S.

    2015-01-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a clinical modality used to treat cancer and infectious diseases. The main agent is the photosensitizer (PS), which is excited by light and converted to a triplet excited state. This latter species leads to the formation of singlet oxygen and radicals that oxidize biomolecules. The main motivation for this review is to suggest alternatives for achieving high-efficiency PDT protocols, by taking advantage of knowledge on the chemical and biological processes taking place during and after photosensitization. We defend that in order to obtain specific mechanisms of cell death and maximize PDT efficiency, PSes should oxidize specific molecular targets. We consider the role of subcellular localization, how PS photochemistry and photophysics can change according to its nanoenvironment, and how can all these trigger specific cell death mechanisms. We propose that in order to develop PSes that will cause a breakthrough enhancement in the efficiency of PDT, researchers should first consider tissue and intracellular localization, instead of trying to maximize singlet oxygen quantum yields in in vitro tests. In addition to this, we also indicate many open questions and challenges remaining in this field, hoping to encourage future research. PMID:26334268

  20. The role of photodynamic therapy in overcoming cancer drug resistance

    PubMed Central

    Spring, Bryan Q.; Rizvi, Imran; Xu, Nan; Hasan, Tayyaba

    2015-01-01

    Many modalities of cancer therapy induce mechanisms of treatment resistance and escape pathways during chronic treatments, including photodynamic therapy (PDT). It is conceivable that resistance induced by one treatment might be overcome by another treatment. Emerging evidence suggests that the unique mechanisms of tumor cell and microenvironment damage produced by PDT could be utilized to overcome cancer drug resistance, to mitigate the compensatory induction of survival pathways and even to re-sensitize resistant cells to standard therapies. Approaches that capture the unique features of PDT, therefore, offer promising factors for increasing the efficacy of a broad range of therapeutic modalities. Here, we highlight key preclinical findings utilizing PDT to overcome classical drug resistance or escape pathways and thus enhance the efficacy of many pharmaceuticals, possibly explaining the clinical observations of the PDT response to otherwise treatment-resistant diseases. With the development of nanotechnology, it is possible that light activation may be used not only to damage and sensitize tumors but also to enable controlled drug release to inhibit escape pathways that may lead to resistance or cell proliferation. PMID:25856800

  1. Photodynamic Efficiency: From Molecular Photochemistry to Cell Death.

    PubMed

    Bacellar, Isabel O L; Tsubone, Tayana M; Pavani, Christiane; Baptista, Mauricio S

    2015-08-31

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a clinical modality used to treat cancer and infectious diseases. The main agent is the photosensitizer (PS), which is excited by light and converted to a triplet excited state. This latter species leads to the formation of singlet oxygen and radicals that oxidize biomolecules. The main motivation for this review is to suggest alternatives for achieving high-efficiency PDT protocols, by taking advantage of knowledge on the chemical and biological processes taking place during and after photosensitization. We defend that in order to obtain specific mechanisms of cell death and maximize PDT efficiency, PSes should oxidize specific molecular targets. We consider the role of subcellular localization, how PS photochemistry and photophysics can change according to its nanoenvironment, and how can all these trigger specific cell death mechanisms. We propose that in order to develop PSes that will cause a breakthrough enhancement in the efficiency of PDT, researchers should first consider tissue and intracellular localization, instead of trying to maximize singlet oxygen quantum yields in in vitro tests. In addition to this, we also indicate many open questions and challenges remaining in this field, hoping to encourage future research.

  2. A robotic multi-channel platform for interstitial photodynamic therapy

    PubMed Central

    Sharikova, Anna V.; Finlay, Jarod C.; Dimofte, Andreea; Zhu, Timothy C.

    2015-01-01

    A custom-made robotic multichannel platform for interstitial photodynamic therapy (PDT) and diffuse optical tomography (DOT) was developed and tested in a phantom experiment. The system, which was compatible with the operating room (OR) environment, had 16 channels for independent positioning of light sources and/or isotropic detectors in separate catheters. Each channel’s motor had an optical encoder for position feedback, with resolution of 1.5 mm, and a maximum speed of 5 cm/s. Automatic calibration of detector positions was implemented using an optical diode beam that defined the starting position of each motor, and by means of feedback algorithms controlling individual channels. As a result, the accuracy of zero position of 0.1 mm for all channels was achieved. We have also employed scanning procedures where detectors automatically covered the appropriate range around source positions. Thus, total scan time for a typical optical properties (OP) measurement throughout the phantom was about 1.5 minutes with point sources. The OP were determined based on the measured light fluence rates. These enhancements allow a tremendous improvement of treatment quality for a bulk tumor compared to the systems employed in previous clinical trials. PMID:25914794

  3. Photodynamic Cancer Therapy—Recent Advances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abrahamse, Heidi

    2011-09-01

    The basic principle of the photodynamic effect was discovered over a hundred years ago leading to the pioneering work on PDT in Europe. It was only during the 1980s, however, when "photoradiation therapy" was investigated as a possible treatment modality for cancer. Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a photochemotherapeutic process which requires the use of a photosensitizer (PS) that, upon entry into a cancer cell is targeted by laser irradiation to initiate a series of events that contribute to cell death. PSs are light-sensitive dyes activated by a light source at a specific wavelength and can be classified as first or second generation PSs based on its origin and synthetic pathway. The principle of PS activation lies in a photochemical reaction resulting from excitation of the PS producing singlet oxygen which in turn reacts and damages cell organelles and biomolecules required for cell function and ultimately leading to cell destruction. Several first and second generation PSs have been studied in several different cancer types in the quest to optimize treatment. PSs including haematoporphyrin derivative (HpD), aminolevulinic acid (ALA), chlorins, bacteriochlorins, phthalocyanines, naphthalocyanines, pheophorbiedes and purpurins all require selective uptake and retention by cancer cells prior to activation by a light source and subsequent cell death induction. Photodynamic diagnosis (PDD) is based on the fluorescence effect exhibited by PSs upon irradiation and is often used concurrently with PDT to detect and locate tumours. Both laser and light emitting diodes (LED) have been used for PDT depending on the location of the tumour. Internal cancers more often require the use of laser light delivery using fibre optics as delivery system while external PDT often make use of LEDs. Normal cells have a lower uptake of the PS in comparison to tumour cells, however the acute cytotoxic effect of the compound on the recovery rate of normal cells is not known. Subcellular

  4. IL-6 Potentiates Tumor Resistance to Photodynamic Therapy (PDT)

    PubMed Central

    Brackett, Craig M.; Owczarczak, Barbara; Ramsey, Kimberley; Maier, Patricia G.; Gollnick, Sandra O.

    2013-01-01

    Background and Objective Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is an anticancer modality approved for the treatment of early disease and palliation of late stage disease. PDT of tumors results in the generation of an acute inflammatory response. The extent and duration of the inflammatory response is dependent upon the PDT regimen employed and is characterized by rapid induction of proinflammatory cytokines, such as IL-6, and activation and mobilization of innate immune cells. The importance of innate immune cells in long-term PDT control of tumor growth has been well defined. In contrast the role of IL-6 in long-term tumor control by PDT is unclear. Previous studies have shown that IL-6 can diminish or have no effect on PDT antitumor efficacy. Study Design/Materials and Methods In the current study we used mice deficient for IL-6, Il6−/−, to examine the role of IL-6 in activation of antitumor immunity and PDT efficacy by PDT regimens known to enhance antitumor immunity. Results Our studies have shown that elimination of IL-6 had no effect on innate cell mobilization into the treated tumor bed or tumor draining lymph node (TDLN) and did not affect primary antitumor T-cell activation by PDT. However, IL-6 does appear to negatively regulate the generation of antitumor immune memory and PDT efficacy against murine colon and mammary carcinoma models. The inhibition of PDT efficacy by IL-6 appears also to be related to regulation of Bax protein expression. Increased apoptosis was observed following treatment of tumors in Il6−/− mice 24 hours following PDT. Conclusions The development of PDT regimens that enhance antitumor immunity has led to proposals for the use of PDT as an adjuvant treatment. However, our results show that the potential for PDT induced expression of IL-6 to enhance tumor survival following PDT must be considered. PMID:22057495

  5. Chlorin e6-ZnSe/ZnS quantum dots based system as reagent for photodynamic therapy.

    PubMed

    Martynenko, I V; Kuznetsova, V A; Orlova, А O; Kanaev, P A; Maslov, V G; Loudon, A; Zaharov, V; Parfenov, P; Gun'ko, Yu K; Baranov, A V; Fedorov, A V

    2015-02-06

    Stable water-soluble complexes of Cd-free ZnSe/ZnS quantum dots (QDs) and chlorin e6 complexes have been prepared. These complexes have shown approximately 50% intracomplex fluorescence resonance energy transfer from QDs to chlorin e6. The photodynamic therapy (PDT) test of the complexes against the Erlich acsite carcinoma cell culture demonstrated a two-fold enhancement of the cancer cell photodynamic destruction as compared to that of free chlorin e6 molecules. It was shown that the PDT effect was significantly increased due to two factors: the efficient QD-chlorin e6 photoexcitation energy transfer and the improvement of cellular uptake of the photosensitizer in the presence of ZnSe/ZnS QDs.

  6. A Molecular Combination of Zinc(II) Phthalocyanine and Tamoxifen Derivative for Dual Targeting Photodynamic Therapy and Hormone Therapy.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Feng-Ling; Song, Mei-Ru; Yuan, Gan-Kun; Ye, Huan-Nian; Tian, Ye; Huang, Ming-Dong; Xue, Jin-Ping; Zhang, Zhi-Hong; Liu, Jian-Yong

    2017-08-10

    The combination of photodynamic therapy and other cancer treatment modalities is a promising strategy to enhance therapeutic efficacy and reduce side effects. In this study, a tamoxifen-zinc(II) phthalocyanine conjugate linked by a triethylene glycol chain has been synthesized and characterized. Having tamoxifen as the targeting moiety, the conjugate shows high specific affinity to MCF-7 breast cancer cells overexpressed estrogen receptors (ERs) and tumor tissues, therefore leading to a cytotoxic effect in the dark due to the cytostatic tamoxifen moiety, and a high photocytotoxicity due to the photosensitizing phthalocyanine unit against the MCF-7 cancer cells. The high photodynamic activity of the conjugate can be attributed to its high cellular uptake and efficiency in generating intracellular reactive oxygen species. Upon addition of exogenous 17β-estradiol as an ER inhibitor, the cellular uptake and photocytotoxicity of the conjugate are reduced significantly. As shown by confocal microscopy, the conjugate is preferentially localized in the lysosomes of the MCF-7 cells.

  7. A Comprehensive Tutorial on In Vitro Characterization of New Photosensitizers for Photodynamic Antitumor Therapy and Photodynamic Inactivation of Microorganisms

    PubMed Central

    Maisch, Tim; Berneburg, Mark; Plaetzer, Kristjan

    2013-01-01

    In vitro research performed on eukaryotic or prokaryotic cell cultures usually represents the initial step for characterization of a novel photosensitizer (PS) intended for application in photodynamic therapy (PDT) of cancer or photodynamic inactivation (PDI) of microorganisms. Although many experimental steps of PS testing make use of the wide spectrum of methods readily employed in cell biology, special aspects of working with photoactive substances, such as the autofluorescence of the PS molecule or the requirement of light protection, need to be considered when performing in vitro experiments in PDT/PDI. This tutorial represents a comprehensive collection of operative instructions, by which, based on photochemical and photophysical properties of a PS, its uptake into cells, the intracellular localization and photodynamic action in both tumor cells and microorganisms novel photoactive molecules may be characterized for their suitability for PDT/PDI. Furthermore, it shall stimulate the efforts to expand the convincing benefits of photodynamic therapy and photodynamic inactivation within both established and new fields of applications and motivate scientists of all disciplines to get involved in photodynamic research. PMID:23762860

  8. A comprehensive tutorial on in vitro characterization of new photosensitizers for photodynamic antitumor therapy and photodynamic inactivation of microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Kiesslich, Tobias; Gollmer, Anita; Maisch, Tim; Berneburg, Mark; Plaetzer, Kristjan

    2013-01-01

    In vitro research performed on eukaryotic or prokaryotic cell cultures usually represents the initial step for characterization of a novel photosensitizer (PS) intended for application in photodynamic therapy (PDT) of cancer or photodynamic inactivation (PDI) of microorganisms. Although many experimental steps of PS testing make use of the wide spectrum of methods readily employed in cell biology, special aspects of working with photoactive substances, such as the autofluorescence of the PS molecule or the requirement of light protection, need to be considered when performing in vitro experiments in PDT/PDI. This tutorial represents a comprehensive collection of operative instructions, by which, based on photochemical and photophysical properties of a PS, its uptake into cells, the intracellular localization and photodynamic action in both tumor cells and microorganisms novel photoactive molecules may be characterized for their suitability for PDT/PDI. Furthermore, it shall stimulate the efforts to expand the convincing benefits of photodynamic therapy and photodynamic inactivation within both established and new fields of applications and motivate scientists of all disciplines to get involved in photodynamic research.

  9. Interaction of acid ceramidase inhibitor LCL521 with tumor response to photodynamic therapy and photodynamic therapy-generated vaccine.

    PubMed

    Korbelik, Mladen; Banáth, Judit; Zhang, Wei; Saw, Kyi Min; Szulc, Zdzislaw M; Bielawska, Alicja; Separovic, Duska

    2016-09-15

    Acid ceramidase has been identified as a promising target for cancer therapy. One of its most effective inhibitors, LCL521, was examined as adjuvant to photodynamic therapy (PDT) using mouse squamous cell carcinoma SCCVII model of head and neck cancer. Lethal effects of PDT, assessed by colony forming ability of in vitro treated SCCVII cells, were greatly enhanced when combined with 10 µM LCL521 treatment particularly when preceding PDT. When PDT-treated SCCVII cells are used to vaccinate SCCVII tumor-bearing mice (PDT vaccine protocol), adjuvant LCL521 treatment (75 mg/kg) resulted in a marked retardation of tumor growth. This effect can be attributed to the capacity of LCL521 to effectively restrict the activity of two main immunoregulatory cell populations (Tregs and myeloid-derived suppressor cells, MDSCs) that are known to hinder the efficacy of PDT vaccines. The therapeutic benefit with adjuvant LCL521 was also achieved with SCCVII tumors treated with standard PDT when using immunocompetent mice but not with immunodeficient hosts. The interaction of LCL521 with PDT-based antitumor mechanisms is dominated by immune system contribution that includes overriding the effects of immunoregulatory cells, but could also include a tacit contribution from boosting direct tumor cell kill. © 2016 UICC.

  10. Intraoperative photodynamic therapy for larynx carcinomas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loukatch, Erwin V.; Latyshevska, Galina; Fekeshgazi, Ishtvan V.

    1995-05-01

    We made an experimental and clinical researches to examine Intraoperative Photodynamic Therapy (IPT) as a method to prevent the recidives of tumors. In experimental researches on models with radio-inducated fibrosarcomas and Erlich carcinomas of mice the best method of IPT was worked out. The therapeutic effect was studied also on patients with laryngeal cancer. In researches on C3H mice the antirecidive effect of IPT established with local administration of methylene blue and Ar-laser. We found that IPT (He-Ne laser combined with methylene blue administration) was endured by patients with laryngeal cancers without problems. We got good results of treatment 42 patients with laryngeal cancers with middle localization during three years with using IPT method. This can show the perspectives of using this method in treatment of other ENT-oncological diseases.

  11. Photosensitizers mediated photodynamic inactivation against virus particles.

    PubMed

    Sobotta, Lukasz; Skupin-Mrugalska, Paulina; Mielcarek, Jadwiga; Goslinski, Tomasz; Balzarini, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Viruses cause many diseases in humans from the rather innocent common cold to more serious or chronic, life-threatening infections. The long-term side effects, sometimes low effectiveness of standard pharmacotherapy and the emergence of drug resistance require a search for new alternative or complementary antiviral therapeutic approaches. One new approach to inactivate microorganisms is photodynamic antimicrobial chemotherapy (PACT). PACT has evolved as a potential method to inactivate viruses. The great challenge for PACT is to develop a methodology enabling the effective inactivation of viruses while leaving the host cells as untouched as possible. This review aims to provide some main directions of antiviral PACT, taking into account different photosensitizers, which have been widely investigated as potential antiviral agents. In addition, several aspects concerning PACT as a tool to assure viral inactivation in human blood products will be addressed.

  12. Dosimetry for photodynamic therapy of endometrial tissue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Svaasand, Lars O.; Fehr, Mathias K.; Madsen, Sten; Tadir, Yona; Tromberg, Bruce J.

    1995-05-01

    Hysterectomy is the most common major operation performed in the United States with dysfunctional uterine bleeding as one of the major indications. The clinical needs for simple and safe endometrial destruction are essential. Photodynamic therapy (PDT) may offer a simple and cost effective solution for the treatment of dysfunctional uterine bleeding. The dosimetry is discussed for the case of topical application of photosensitizer. This technique might be the method of preference because undesired side effects such as skin photosensitization that is typical for systemically injected photosensitizers, can be avoided. Effective PDT requires a sufficient amount of light delivered to the targeted tissue in a reasonable period of time. A trifurcated optical applicator consisting of three cylindrical diffusing fibers has been constructed, and this applicator can deliver a typical required optical dose of about 50-100 J/cm2 to the full depth of the endometrium for an exposure time of 10-20 minutes.

  13. PHOTODYNAMIC THERAPY OF CANCER: AN UPDATE

    PubMed Central

    Agostinis, Patrizia; Berg, Kristian; Cengel, Keith A.; Foster, Thomas H.; Girotti, Albert W.; Gollnick, Sandra O.; Hahn, Stephen M.; Hamblin, Michael R.; Juzeniene, Asta; Kessel, David; Korbelik, Mladen; Moan, Johan; Mroz, Pawel; Nowis, Dominika; Piette, Jacques; Wilson, Brian C.; Golab, Jakub

    2011-01-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a clinically approved, minimally invasive therapeutic procedure that can exert a selective cytotoxic activity toward malignant cells. The procedure involves administration of a photosensitizing agent followed by irradiation at a wavelength corresponding to an absorbance band of the sensitizer. In the presence of oxygen, a series of events lead to direct tumor cell death, damage to the microvasculature and induction of a local inflammatory reaction. Clinical studies revealed that PDT can be curative particularly in early-stage tumors. It can prolong survival in inoperable cancers and significantly improve quality of life. Minimal normal tissue toxicity, negligible systemic effects, greatly reduced long-term morbidity, lack of intrinsic or acquired resistance mechanisms, and excellent cosmetic as well as organ function-sparing effects of this treatment make it a valuable therapeutic option for combination treatments. With a number of recent technological improvements, PDT has the potential to become integrated into the mainstream of cancer treatment. PMID:21617154

  14. Scope of photodynamic therapy in periodontics.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Vivek; Sinha, Jolly; Verma, Neelu; Nayan, Kamal; Saimbi, C S; Tripathi, Amitandra K

    2015-01-01

    Periodontal disease results from inflammation of the supporting structure of the teeth and in response to chronic infection caused by various periodontopathic bacteria. The mechanical removal of this biofilm and adjunctive use of antibacterial disinfectants and antibiotics have been the conventional methods of periodontal therapy. However, the removal of plaque and the reduction in the number of infectious organisms can be impaired in sites with difficult access. Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a powerful laser-initiated photochemical reaction, involving the use of a photoactive dye (photosensitizer) activated by light of a specific wavelength in the presence of oxygen. Application of PDT in periodontics such as pocket debridement, gingivitis, and aggressive periodontitis continue to evolve into a mature clinical treatment modality and is considered as a promising novel approach for eradicating pathogenic bacteria in periodontitis.

  15. Photodynamic therapy for malignant pleural mesothelioma.

    PubMed

    Friedberg, Joseph S

    2012-10-01

    Surgery is the treatment option most likely to be associated with prolonged remission in patients with malignant pleural mesothelioma. However, it remains investigational and must always be combined with other modalities to treat the microscopic disease that remains after the most aggressive operations. Improvements in quality of life for appropriate patients with this rare yet incurable cancer may be obtained with less drastic lung-sparing surgical procedures along with intraoperative use of photodynamic therapy (PDT). Very encouraging survival results have been obtained with the combination of surgery and PDT, which requires the well-orchestrated collaborative effort of an extensive team of professionals, from thoracic surgeons and radiation oncologists to basic science researchers. Multi-institutional trials are necessary to duplicate these early findings and shed more light on the tumor-directed immune response of this surgically based multimodal treatment.

  16. Interstitial Photodynamic Therapy—A Focused Review

    PubMed Central

    Shafirstein, Gal; Bellnier, David; Oakley, Emily; Hamilton, Sasheen; Potasek, Mary; Beeson, Karl; Parilov, Evgueni

    2017-01-01

    Multiple clinical studies have shown that interstitial photodynamic therapy (I-PDT) is a promising modality in the treatment of locally-advanced cancerous tumors. However, the utilization of I-PDT has been limited to several centers. The objective of this focused review is to highlight the different approaches employed to administer I-PDT with photosensitizers that are either approved or in clinical studies for the treatment of prostate cancer, pancreatic cancer, head and neck cancer, and brain cancer. Our review suggests that I-PDT is a promising treatment in patients with large-volume or thick tumors. Image-based treatment planning and real-time dosimetry are required to optimize and further advance the utilization of I-PDT. In addition, pre- and post-imaging using computed tomography (CT) with contrast may be utilized to assess the response. PMID:28125024

  17. The role of photodynamic therapy (PDT) physics

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu, Timothy C. Finlay, Jarod C.

    2008-07-15

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is an emerging treatment modality that employs the photochemical interaction of three components: light, photosensitizer, and oxygen. Tremendous progress has been made in the last 2 decades in new technical development of all components as well as understanding of the biophysical mechanism of PDT. The authors will review the current state of art in PDT research, with an emphasis in PDT physics. They foresee a merge of current separate areas of research in light production and delivery, PDT dosimetry, multimodality imaging, new photosensitizer development, and PDT biology into interdisciplinary combination of two to three areas. Ultimately, they strongly believe that all these categories of research will be linked to develop an integrated model for real-time dosimetry and treatment planning based on biological response.

  18. The role of photodynamic therapy (PDT) physics

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Timothy C.; Finlay, Jarod C.

    2008-01-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is an emerging treatment modality that employs the photochemical interaction of three components: light, photosensitizer, and oxygen. Tremendous progress has been made in the last 2 decades in new technical development of all components as well as understanding of the biophysical mechanism of PDT. The authors will review the current state of art in PDT research, with an emphasis in PDT physics. They foresee a merge of current separate areas of research in light production and delivery, PDT dosimetry, multimodality imaging, new photosensitizer development, and PDT biology into interdisciplinary combination of two to three areas. Ultimately, they strongly believe that all these categories of research will be linked to develop an integrated model for real-time dosimetry and treatment planning based on biological response. PMID:18697538

  19. Monitoring photodynamic therapy with photoacoustic microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shao, Peng; Chapman, David W.; Moore, Ronald B.; Zemp, Roger J.

    2015-10-01

    We present our work on examining the feasibility of monitoring photodynamic therapy (PDT)-induced vasculature change with acoustic-resolution photoacoustic microscopy (PAM). Verteporfin, an FDA-approved photosensitizer for clinical PDT, was utilized. With a 60-μm-resolution PAM system, we demonstrated the capability of PAM to monitor PDT-induced vasculature variations in a chick chorioallantoic membrane model with topical application and in a rat ear with intravenous injection of the photosensitizer. We also showed oxygen saturation change in target blood vessels due to PDT. Success of the present approach may potentially lead to the application of PAM imaging in evaluating PDT efficacy, guiding treatment, and predicting responders from nonresponders.

  20. Photodynamic therapy: superficial and interstitial illumination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Svanberg, Katarina; Bendsoe, Niels; Axelsson, Johan; Andersson-Engels, Stefan; Svanberg, Sune

    2010-07-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is reviewed using the treatment of skin tumors as an example of superficial lesions and prostate cancer as an example of deep-lying lesions requiring interstitial intervention. These two applications are among the most commonly studied in oncological PDT, and illustrate well the different challenges facing the two modalities of PDT-superficial and interstitial. They thus serve as good examples to illustrate the entire field of PDT in oncology. PDT is discussed based on the Lund University group's over 20 yr of experience in the field. In particular, the interplay between optical diagnostics and dosimetry and the delivery of the therapeutic light dose are highlighted. An interactive multiple-fiber interstitial procedure to deliver the required therapeutic dose based on the assessment of light fluence rate and sensitizer concentration and oxygen level throughout the tumor is presented.

  1. Photodynamic therapy as an antifungal treatment

    PubMed Central

    LIANG, YI; LU, LI-MING; CHEN, YONG; LIN, YOU-KUN

    2016-01-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) involves the systemic or topical application of a photosensitizer (PS), alongside the selective illumination of the target lesion with light of an appropriate wavelength, in order to promote localized oxidative photodamage and subsequent cell death. Numerous studies have demonstrated that PDT is highly effective in the destruction of fungi in vitro. The mechanism underlying the effects of PDT results from the photons of visible light of an appropriate wavelength interacting with the intracellular molecules of the PS. Reactive species are produced as a result of the oxidative stress caused by the interaction between the visible light and the biological tissue. At present, no antifungal treatment based on PDT has been licensed. However, antifungal PDT is emerging as an area of interest for research. PMID:27347012

  2. Irradiation system for interstitial photodynamic therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pacheco, L.; Stolik, S.; De la Rosa, J.

    2013-11-01

    Interstitial Photodynamic Therapy (IPDT) is a promising form of treatment of deep-seated and bulky malignant tumors, based on the lethal cell response to the photochemical reactions when drug is light activated in presence of oxygen. In order to accomplish an effective internal illumination, laser sources are preferably used because of two important reasons: the monochromatic light can be confined to the narrow absorption band of the drug and the laser beam is easily focused into optical fibers. In this work the development of a diode-laser-light-source is presented. The system is tuned by temperature to get a better match in the 5-ALA absorption band. This system also comprises a trifurcated fiber system to accomplish interstitial illumination.

  3. Photodynamic therapy in dermatology: history and horizons.

    PubMed

    Taub, Amy Forman

    2004-01-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) uses a photosensitizer, light, and molecular oxygen to selectively kill cells. When localized in the target tissue, the photosensitizer is activated by light to produce oxygen intermediates that destroy target tissue cells. The easy access of skin to light-based therapy has led dermatologists to apply PDT to cutaneous disorders. In dermatology, PDT has been most successful in treating actinic keratoses, basal cell carcinoma, and Bowen's disease. The introduction of aminolevulinic acid, which does not make patients susceptible to phototoxicity for extended periods, has reduced morbidity associated with PDT. This has led to new interest in PDT not only for nonmelanoma skin cancer and premalignant lesions but also in the treatment of acne and as an adjuvant to photorejuvenation procedures. This review examines the historical roots of PDT and the research evaluating different light and laser sources as well as reports on new horizons for PDT in dermatology.

  4. [New light on skin photodynamic therapy].

    PubMed

    Kuonen, François; Gaide, Olivier

    2014-04-02

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) relies on the cellular toxicity of an exogenous porphyrin that is activated by light rays. Its specificity depends on its cellular uptake, which is typically high in cells with a high metabolism, such as cancer cells and several microbial pathogens. Both the diffusion of the substrate and the penetration of the light in the tissue limit its efficiency to the first few millimeters of the skin. This explains why this technique is used for the treatment of superficial skin cancers (actinic keratosis and basal cell carcinomas), but also for selected skin inflammatory diseases (psoriasis) or infections (leishmaniosis). However, at the bedside, the limitations of PDT are rather the complexity and the pain associated with the treatment. Herein, we present the new developments, in particular concerning the new light sources, which make PDT a better option for our patients.

  5. Photodynamic therapy of different photosensitizers in leukemia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Sujuan; Zhang, Zhenxi; Jiang, Dazong

    2002-04-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT), a cancer treatment using a photosensitizer and visible light has been applied to treatment of blood cancer-leukemia. The effect of PDT may be modulated by the leukemia cell type; the photosensitizer's type, dose, dose rate changes; the incubation time; the light wavelength, dosage, dose rate change; the conjugation of photosensitizers to variety subcellular target: cell membrane, mitochondia, lipoprotein or liposome; the addition of chemotherapeutic agents et al. Many reports in the current literature are confusing and often apparently contradictory. In this article, we have attempted to conduct and present a comprehensive review of this rapidly expanding novel field in a range of photosensitizers. Cell types, photosensitizers, treatment conditions and mechanism of PDT are considered. Nonetheless, there is ample ground for optimism, and such knowledge as we already have should effectively underpin the clinical research that is ongoing.

  6. Feasibility of chemiluminescence as photodynamic therapy dosimetor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Yanfang; Xing, Da; Zhong, Xueyun; Zhou, Jin; Luo, Shiming; Chen, Qun

    2006-09-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) utilizes light energy of a proper wavelength to activate a pre-administered photosensitizer in a target tissue to achieve a localized treatment effect. Current treatment protocol of photodynamic therapy (PDT) is defined by empirical values such as irradiation light fluence, fluence rate and the amount of administered photosensitizer. It is well known that Singlet oxygen is the most important cytotoxic agent responsible for PDT biological effects. An in situ monitoring of singlet oxygen production during PDT would provide a more accurate dosimeter for PDT. The presented study has investigated the feasibility of using Fhioresceinyl Cypridina Luciferin Analog (FCLA), a singlet oxygen specific chemiluminescence (CL) probe, as a dosimetric tool for PDT. Raji lymphoma cell suspensions were sensitized with Photofrin (R) of various concentrations and irradiated with 635 nm laser light at different fluence rates. FCLA-CL from singlet oxygen produced by the treatment was measured, in real time, with a photon multiplier tube (PMT) system, and linked to the cytotoxicity resulting from the treatment. We have observed that the CL intensity of FCLA is dependent on the PDT treatment parameters. After each PDT treatment and CL measurement, the irradiated cells were evaluated by MIT assay for their Viability. The results show that the cell viability is highly related to the accumulated CL. With 10 II quencher, we confirmed that the CL was mainly related to PDT produced 10 II The results suggest that the FCLA-CL system can be an effective means in measuring PDT 1O II production and may provide an alternative dosimetry technique for PDT.

  7. Therapeutic and Aesthetic Uses of Photodynamic Therapy Part five of a five-part series

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    The use of 5-aminolevulinic acid–photodynamic therapy in clinical practice is an individual determination based on experiences learned from clinicians and from personal experience. This manuscript reviews how one clinician approaches patients interested in having photodynamic therapy. It covers all practical aspects of the treatment process and reviews how photodynamic therapy can be utilized in your clinical practice. PMID:20967186

  8. Gold nanomaterials conjugated with indocyanine green for dual-modality photodynamic and photothermal therapy.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Wen-Shuo; Chang, Yi-Ting; Cho, Keng-Chi; Chiu, Kuo-Chih; Lien, Chi-Hsiang; Yeh, Chen-Sheng; Chen, Shean-Jen

    2012-04-01

    Light-exposure-mediated higher temperatures that markedly accelerate the degradation of indocyanine green (ICG) in aqueous solutions by thermal decomposition have been a serious medical problem. In this work, we present the example of using gold nanorods (Au NRs) and gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) simultaneously serving as photodynamic and photothermal agents to destroy malignant cells. Au NRs and Au NPs were successfully conjugated with hydrophilic photosensitizer, indocyanine green (ICG), to achieve photodynamic therapy (PDT) and photothermal therapy (PTT). We also demonstrated that Au NRs and Au NPs conjugated with ICG displayed high chemical stability and acted as a promising diagnostic probe. Moreover, the photochemical destruction ability would have a gradually increase depending on different sizes of Au NPs. Due to its stability even via higher temperatures mediated by laser irradiation, the combination of PTT and PDT proved to be efficiently killing cancer cells as compared to PTT or PDT treatment alone and enhanced the effectiveness of photodestruction and was demonstrated to enhance its photostability. As a result, the preparation of Au-based nanomaterials conjugated with ICG as well as their use in biomedical applications is valuable developments in multifunctional nanomaterials.

  9. In vitro investigation of efficient photodynamic therapy using a nonviral vector; hemagglutinating virus of Japan envelope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakai, Makoto; Fujimoto, Naohiro; Ishii, Katsunori; Nakamura, Hiroyuki; Kaneda, Yasufumi; Awazu, Kunio

    2012-07-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a photochemical modality approved for cancer treatment. PDT has demonstrated efficacy in early stage lung cancer and esophageal cancer. The accumulation of photosensitizers in cancer cells is necessary to enhance the therapeutic benefits of PDT; however, photosensitizers have low uptake efficiency. To overcome this limitation, a drug delivery system, such as the hemagglutinating virus of Japan envelope (HVJ-E) vector, is required. In this study, the combination of PDT and HVJ-E was investigated for enhancing the efficacy of PDT. The photosensitizers that were evaluated included 5-aminolaevulinic acid (5-ALA), protoporphyrin IX (PPIX), and HVJ-PPIX. The uptake of the photosensitizers as increased twenty-fold with the addition of HVJ-E. The cytotoxicity of conventional 5-ALA was enhanced by the addition of HVJ-E vector. In conclusion, HVJ-E vector improved the uptake of photosensitizers and the PDT effect.

  10. Multifunctional gold nanoparticles for photodynamic therapy of cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khaing Oo, Maung Kyaw

    As an important and growing branch of photomedicine, photodynamic therapy (PDT) is being increasingly employed in clinical applications particularly for the treatment of skin cancer. This dissertation focuses on the synthesis, characterization and deployment of gold nanoparticles for enhanced PDT of fibrosarcoma cancer cells. We have developed robust strategies and methods in fabrication of gold nanoparticles with positively- and negatively-tethered surface charges by photo-reduction of gold chloride salt using branched polyethyleneimine and sodium citrate respectively. An optimal concentration window of gold salt has been established to yield the most stable and monodispersed gold nanoparticles. 5-aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA), a photosensitizing precursor, has been successfully conjugated on to positively charged gold nanoparticles through electrostatic interactions. The 5-ALA/gold nanoparticle conjugates are biocompatible and have shown to be preferably taken up by cancer cells. Subsequent light irradiation results in the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in cancer cells, leading to their destruction without adverse effects on normal fibroblasts. We have demonstrated for the first time that gold nanoparticles can enhance PDT efficacy by 50% compared to the treatment with 5-ALA alone. Collected evidence has strongly suggested that this enhancement stems from the elevated formation of ROS via the strongly localized electric field of gold nanoparticles. Through single cell imaging using surface-enhanced Raman scattering enabled by the very same gold nanoparticles, we have shown that multifunctionality of gold nanoparticles can be harvested concurrently for biomedical applications in general and for PDT in specific. In other words, gold nanoparticles can be used not only for targeted drug delivery and field-enhanced ROS formation, but also for monitoring cell destructions during PDT. Finally, our COMSOL Multiphysics simulation of the size-dependent electric

  11. Surface charge-conversion polymeric nanoparticles for photodynamic treatment of urinary tract bacterial infections.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shijie; Qiao, Shenglin; Li, Lili; Qi, Guobin; Lin, Yaoxin; Qiao, Zengying; Wang, Hao; Shao, Chen

    2015-12-11

    Urinary tract infections are typical bacterial infections which result in a number of economic burdens. With increasing antibiotic resistance, it is urgent that new approaches are explored that can eliminate pathogenic bacteria without inducing drug resistance. Antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a new promising tactic. It is a gentle in situ photochemical reaction in which a photosensitizer (PS) generates reactive oxygen species (ROS) under laser irradiation. In this work, we have demonstrated Chlorin e6 (Ce6) encapsulated charge-conversion polymeric nanoparticles (NPs) for efficiently targeting and killing pathogenic bacteria in a weakly acidic urinary tract infection environment. Owing to the surface charge conversion of NPs in an acidic environment, the NPs exhibited enhanced recognition for Gram-positive (ex. S. aureus) and Gram-negative (ex. E. coli) bacteria due to the charge interaction. Also, those NPs showed significant antibacterial efficacy in vitro with low cytotoxicity. The MIC value of NPs to E. coli is 17.91 μg ml(-1), compared with the free Ce6 value of 29.85 μg ml(-1). Finally, a mouse acute cystitis model was used to assess the photodynamic therapy effects in urinary tract infections. A significant decline (P < 0.05) in bacterial cells between NPs and free Ce6 occurred in urine after photodynamic therapy treatment. And the plated counting results revealed a remarkable bacterial cells drop (P < 0.05) in the sacrificed bladder tissue. Above all, this nanotechnology strategy opens a new door for the treatment of urinary tract infections with minimal side effects.

  12. Photodynamic therapy of nonmelanoma skin cancer with topical hypericum perforatum extract--a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Kacerovská, Denisa; Pizinger, Karel; Majer, Filip; Smíd, Frantisek

    2008-01-01

    Hypericin, the photoactive compound of Hypericum perforatum, is probably the most powerful photosensitizer found in nature. This compound has shown high potency in the photodynamic treatment of tumor cells. However, there is only limited knowledge regarding the photodynamic effect of hypericin on nonmelanoma skin cancer cells. The aim of this prospective study was to investigate the efficacy of photodynamic therapy with topical application of an extract of H. perforatum in actinic keratosis, basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and morbus Bowen (carcinoma in situ). The study was carried out on 34 patients--eight with actinic keratoses (AKs), 21 with BCC and five with Bowen's disease. The extract of H. perforatum was applied on the skin lesions under occlusion and that was followed by irradiation with 75 J cm(-2) of red light 2 h later. The treatment was performed weekly for 6 weeks on average. The percentage of complete clinical response was 50% for AKs, 28% in patients with superficial BCC and 40% in patients with Bowen's disease. There was only a partial remission seen in patients with nodular BCCs. A complete disappearance of tumor cells was found in the histologic preparation of 11% of patients with superficial BCCs and 80% in the patients with Bowen's disease. All patients complained of burning and pain sensations during irradiation. Although the results of this first clinical trial could be regarded as disappointing, there are still possibilities for improvement. Better preparation of the lesions, enhancement of hypericin delivery and other types of light exposure procedures could significantly improve the clinical outcomes of this relatively inexpensive treatment modality.

  13. Zinc phthalocyanines attached to gold nanorods for simultaneous hyperthermic and photodynamic therapies against melanoma in vitro.

    PubMed

    Freitas, L F; Hamblin, M R; Anzengruber, F; Perussi, J R; Ribeiro, A O; Martins, V C A; Plepis, A M G

    2017-08-01

    Studies indicate that hyperthermic therapy using gold nanorods and photodynamic activity with many photosensitizers can present a synergistic effect, and offer a great therapeutic potential, although more investigation needs to be performed before such approach could be implemented. We proposed to investigate the effect of the attachment of phthalocyanines on the surface of gold nanorods (well-characterized devices for hyperthermia generation) for the elimination of melanoma, one of the most important skin cancers due to its high lethality. Following the synthesis of nanorods through a seed-mediated method, the efficacy of photodynamic therapy (PDT) and hyperthermia was assessed separately. We chose to coat the nanorods with two tetracarboxylated zinc phthalocyanines - with or without methyl-glucamine groups. After the coating process, the phthalocyanines formed ionic complexes with the cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) that was previously covering the nanoparticles. The nanorod-phthalocyanines complexes were analyzed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and their singlet oxygen and hydroxyl radical generation yields were assessed. Furthermore, they were tested in vitro with melanotic B16F10 and amelanotic B16G4F melanoma cells. The cells with nanoparticles were irradiated with laser (at 635nm), and the cell viability was assessed. The results indicate that the photodynamic properties of the phthalocyanines tested are enhanced when they are attached on the nanorods surface, and the combination of PDT and hyperthermia was able to eliminate over 90% of melanoma cells. This is a novel study because two tetracarboxylated phthalocyanines were used and because the same wavelength was irradiated to activate both the nanorods and the photosensitizers. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Surface charge-conversion polymeric nanoparticles for photodynamic treatment of urinary tract bacterial infections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Shijie; Qiao, Shenglin; Li, Lili; Qi, Guobin; Lin, Yaoxin; Qiao, Zengying; Wang, Hao; Shao, Chen

    2015-12-01

    Urinary tract infections are typical bacterial infections which result in a number of economic burdens. With increasing antibiotic resistance, it is urgent that new approaches are explored that can eliminate pathogenic bacteria without inducing drug resistance. Antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a new promising tactic. It is a gentle in situ photochemical reaction in which a photosensitizer (PS) generates reactive oxygen species (ROS) under laser irradiation. In this work, we have demonstrated Chlorin e6 (Ce6) encapsulated charge-conversion polymeric nanoparticles (NPs) for efficiently targeting and killing pathogenic bacteria in a weakly acidic urinary tract infection environment. Owing to the surface charge conversion of NPs in an acidic environment, the NPs exhibited enhanced recognition for Gram-positive (ex. S. aureus) and Gram-negative (ex. E. coli) bacteria due to the charge interaction. Also, those NPs showed significant antibacterial efficacy in vitro with low cytotoxicity. The MIC value of NPs to E. coli is 17.91 μg ml-1, compared with the free Ce6 value of 29.85 μg ml-1. Finally, a mouse acute cystitis model was used to assess the photodynamic therapy effects in urinary tract infections. A significant decline (P < 0.05) in bacterial cells between NPs and free Ce6 occurred in urine after photodynamic therapy treatment. And the plated counting results revealed a remarkable bacterial cells drop (P < 0.05) in the sacrificed bladder tissue. Above all, this nanotechnology strategy opens a new door for the treatment of urinary tract infections with minimal side effects.

  15. Stimuli-responsive magnetic nanoparticles for tumor-targeted bimodal imaging and photodynamic/hyperthermia combination therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Kyoung Sub; Kim, Jiyoung; Lee, Joo Young; Matsuda, Shofu; Hideshima, Sho; Mori, Yasurou; Osaka, Tetsuya; Na, Kun

    2016-06-01

    Despite magnetic nanoparticles having shown great potential in cancer treatment, tremendous challenges related to diagnostic sensitivity and treatment efficacy for clinical application remain. Herein, we designed optimized multifunctional magnetite nanoparticles (AHP@MNPs), composed of Fe3O4 nanoparticles and photosensitizer conjugated hyaluronic acid (AHP), to achieve enhanced tumor diagnosis and therapy. Fe3O4 nanoparticles (MNPs) were synthesized by a facile hydrolysis method. MNPs have higher biocompatibility, controllable particle sizes, and desirable magnetic properties. The fabricated AHP@MNPs have enhanced water solubility (average size: 108.13 +/- 1.08 nm), heat generation properties, and singlet oxygen generation properties upon magnetic and laser irradiation. The AHP@MNPs can target tumors via CD44 receptor-mediated endocytosis, which have enhanced tumor therapeutic effects through photodynamic/hyperthermia-combined treatment without any drugs. We successfully detected tumors implanted in mice via magnetic resonance imaging and optical imaging. Furthermore, we demonstrated the photodynamic/hyperthermia-combined therapeutic efficacy of AHP@MNPs with synergistically enhanced efficacy against cancer.Despite magnetic nanoparticles having shown great potential in cancer treatment, tremendous challenges related to diagnostic sensitivity and treatment efficacy for clinical application remain. Herein, we designed optimized multifunctional magnetite nanoparticles (AHP@MNPs), composed of Fe3O4 nanoparticles and photosensitizer conjugated hyaluronic acid (AHP), to achieve enhanced tumor diagnosis and therapy. Fe3O4 nanoparticles (MNPs) were synthesized by a facile hydrolysis method. MNPs have higher biocompatibility, controllable particle sizes, and desirable magnetic properties. The fabricated AHP@MNPs have enhanced water solubility (average size: 108.13 +/- 1.08 nm), heat generation properties, and singlet oxygen generation properties upon magnetic and laser

  16. Comparison microbial killing efficacy between sonodynamic therapy and photodynamic therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drantantiyas, Nike Dwi Grevika; Astuti, Suryani Dyah; Nasution, Aulia M. T.

    2016-11-01

    Biofilm is a way used by bacteria to survive from their environmental conditions by forming colony of bacteria. Specific characteristic in biofilm formation is the availability of matrix layer, known as extracellular polymer substance. Treatment using antibiotics may lead bacteria to be to resistant. Other treatments to reduce microbial, like biofilm, can be performed by using photodynamic therapy. Successful of this kind of therapy is induced by penetration of light and photosensitizer into target cells. The sonodynamic therapy offers greater penetrating capability into tissues. This research aimed to use sonodynamic therapy in reducing biofilm. Moreover, it compares also the killing efficacy of photodynamic therapy, sonodynamic therapy, and the combination of both therapeutic schemes (known as sono-photodynamic) to achieve higher microbial killing efficacy. Samples used are Staphylococcus aureus biofilm. Treatments were divided into 4 groups, i.e. group under ultrasound treatment with variation of 5 power levels, group of light treatment with exposure of 75s, group of combined ultrasound-light with variation of ultrasound power levels, and group of combined lightultrasound with variation of ultrasound power levels. Results obtained for each treatment, expressed in % efficacy of log CFU/mL, showed that the treatment of photo-sonodynamic provides greater killing efficacy in comparison to either sonodynamic and sono-photodynamic. The photo-sonodynamic shows also greater efficacy to photodynamic. So combination of light-ultrasound (photo-sonodynamic) can effectively kill microbial biofilm. The combined therapy will provide even better efficacy using exogenous photosensitizer.

  17. Methylene Blue-Loaded Dissolving Microneedles: Potential Use in Photodynamic Antimicrobial Chemotherapy of Infected Wounds.

    PubMed

    Caffarel-Salvador, Ester; Kearney, Mary-Carmel; Mairs, Rachel; Gallo, Luigi; Stewart, Sarah A; Brady, Aaron J; Donnelly, Ryan F

    2015-09-28

    Photodynamic therapy involves delivery of a photosensitising drug that is activated by light of a specific wavelength, resulting in generation of highly reactive radicals. This activated species can cause destruction of targeted cells. Application of this process for treatment of microbial infections has been termed "photodynamic antimicrobial chemotherapy" (PACT). In the treatment of chronic wounds, the delivery of photosensitising agents is often impeded by the presence of a thick hyperkeratotic/necrotic tissue layer, reducing their therapeutic efficacy. Microneedles (MNs) are an emerging drug delivery technology that have been demonstrated to successfully penetrate the outer layers of the skin, whilst minimising damage to skin barrier function. Delivering photosensitising drugs using this platform has been demonstrated to have several advantages over conventional photodynamic therapy, such as, painless application, reduced erythema, enhanced cosmetic results and improved intradermal delivery. The aim of this study was to physically characterise dissolving MNs loaded with the photosensitising agent, methylene blue and assess their photodynamic antimicrobial activity. Dissolving MNs were fabricated from aqueous blends of Gantrez(®) AN-139 co-polymer containing varying loadings of methylene blue. A height reduction of 29.8% was observed for MNs prepared from blends containing 0.5% w/w methylene blue following application of a total force of 70.56 N/array. A previously validated insertion test was used to assess the effect of drug loading on MN insertion into a wound model. Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Candida albicans biofilms were incubated with various methylene blue concentrations within the range delivered by MNs in vitro (0.1-2.5 mg/mL) and either irradiated at 635 nm using a Paterson Lamp or subjected to a dark period. Microbial susceptibility to PACT was determined by assessing the total viable count. Kill rates of >96%, were achieved for S

  18. Methylene Blue-Loaded Dissolving Microneedles: Potential Use in Photodynamic Antimicrobial Chemotherapy of Infected Wounds

    PubMed Central

    Caffarel-Salvador, Ester; Kearney, Mary-Carmel; Mairs, Rachel; Gallo, Luigi; Stewart, Sarah A.; Brady, Aaron J.; Donnelly, Ryan F.

    2015-01-01

    Photodynamic therapy involves delivery of a photosensitising drug that is activated by light of a specific wavelength, resulting in generation of highly reactive radicals. This activated species can cause destruction of targeted cells. Application of this process for treatment of microbial infections has been termed “photodynamic antimicrobial chemotherapy” (PACT). In the treatment of chronic wounds, the delivery of photosensitising agents is often impeded by the presence of a thick hyperkeratotic/necrotic tissue layer, reducing their therapeutic efficacy. Microneedles (MNs) are an emerging drug delivery technology that have been demonstrated to successfully penetrate the outer layers of the skin, whilst minimising damage to skin barrier function. Delivering photosensitising drugs using this platform has been demonstrated to have several advantages over conventional photodynamic therapy, such as, painless application, reduced erythema, enhanced cosmetic results and improved intradermal delivery. The aim of this study was to physically characterise dissolving MNs loaded with the photosensitising agent, methylene blue and assess their photodynamic antimicrobial activity. Dissolving MNs were fabricated from aqueous blends of Gantrez® AN-139 co-polymer containing varying loadings of methylene blue. A height reduction of 29.8% was observed for MNs prepared from blends containing 0.5% w/w methylene blue following application of a total force of 70.56 N/array. A previously validated insertion test was used to assess the effect of drug loading on MN insertion into a wound model. Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Candida albicans biofilms were incubated with various methylene blue concentrations within the range delivered by MNs in vitro (0.1–2.5 mg/mL) and either irradiated at 635 nm using a Paterson Lamp or subjected to a dark period. Microbial susceptibility to PACT was determined by assessing the total viable count. Kill rates of >96%, were achieved for

  19. Topical application of temoporfin-loaded invasomes for photodynamic therapy of subcutaneously implanted tumours in mice: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Dragicevic-Curic, Nina; Gräfe, Susanna; Albrecht, Volker; Fahr, Alfred

    2008-04-25

    Temoporfin (mTHPC) represents a very potent second-generation synthetic photosensitizer. It has shown to be effective in the photodynamic therapy of early or recurrent oral carcinomas, in the palliative treatment of refractory oral carcinomas and in the treatment of primary non-melanomatous tumours of the skin of the head and neck. Until now for all positive findings an intravenous application of the photosensitizer was mandatory. In the case of cutaneous malignant or non-malignant diseases a topical application of the drug onto the site of the disease followed by illumination, would be advantageous. Unfortunately, mTHPC is a highly hydrophobic drug with a low percutaneous absorption. The purpose of this experiment was to investigate the photodynamic efficacy of novel mTHPC-loaded invasomes after their topical application onto the skin of mice bearing the subcutaneously implanted human colorectal tumour HT29 followed by photoirradiation. Invasomes are vesicles containing in addition to phospholipids a mixture of terpenes (cineole, citral and d-limonene) or only one terpene (citral) and ethanol, as penetration enhancers. This was a pilot study since until now no data are available about the efficacy of mTHPC in the photodynamic therapy of HT29 tumours after its topical application. The aim of this experiment was to investigate whether a mTHPC-loaded invasome formulation can reduce tumour size by photodynamic therapy or at least to find a formulation slowing down tumour growth compared to the control group (mice without any treatment). The groups of mice treated with mTHPC-invasomes containing 1% of the terpene mixture prior to photoirradiation showed a significantly smaller (p<0.05) tumour increase compared to control groups (mice without any treatment and mice only photoirradiated).

  20. Nanoparticle delivery of HIF1α siRNA combined with photodynamic therapy as a potential treatment strategy for head-and-neck cancer

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Wei-Hua; Lecaros, Rumwald Leo G.; Tseng, Yu-Cheng; Huang, Leaf; Hsu, Yih-Chih

    2016-01-01

    Combination therapy has become a major strategy in cancer treatment. We used anisamide-targeted lipid–calcium–phosphate (LCP) nanoparticles to efficiently deliver HIF1α siRNA to the cytoplasm of sigma receptor-expressing SCC4 and SAS cells that were also subjected to photodynamic therapy (PDT). HIF1α siRNA nanoparticles effectively reduced HIF1α expression, increased cell death, and significantly inhibited cell growth following photosan-mediated photodynamic therapy in cultured cells. Intravenous injection of the same nanoparticles into human SCC4 or SAS xenografted mice likewise resulted in concentrated siRNA accumulation and reduced HIF1α expression in tumor tissues. When combined with photodynamic therapy, HIF1α siRNA nanoparticles enhanced the regression in tumor size resulting in a ~40% decrease in volume after 10 days. Combination therapy was found to be substantially more effective than either HIF1α siRNA or photodynamic therapy alone. Results from caspase-3, TUNEL, and CD31 marker studies support this conclusion. Our results show the potential use of LCP nanoparticles for efficient delivery of HIF1α siRNA into tumors as part of combination therapy along with PDT in the treatment of oral squamous cell carcinoma. PMID:25596376

  1. Nanoparticle delivery of HIF1α siRNA combined with photodynamic therapy as a potential treatment strategy for head-and-neck cancer.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wei-Hua; Lecaros, Rumwald Leo G; Tseng, Yu-Cheng; Huang, Leaf; Hsu, Yih-Chih

    2015-04-01

    Combination therapy has become a major strategy in cancer treatment. We used anisamide-targeted lipid-calcium-phosphate (LCP) nanoparticles to efficiently deliver HIF1α siRNA to the cytoplasm of sigma receptor-expressing SCC4 and SAS cells that were also subjected to photodynamic therapy (PDT). HIF1α siRNA nanoparticles effectively reduced HIF1α expression, increased cell death, and significantly inhibited cell growth following photosan-mediated photodynamic therapy in cultured cells. Intravenous injection of the same nanoparticles into human SCC4 or SAS xenografted mice likewise resulted in concentrated siRNA accumulation and reduced HIF1α expression in tumor tissues. When combined with photodynamic therapy, HIF1α siRNA nanoparticles enhanced the regression in tumor size resulting in a ~40% decrease in volume after 10 days. Combination therapy was found to be substantially more effective than either HIF1α siRNA or photodynamic therapy alone. Results from caspase-3, TUNEL, and CD31 marker studies support this conclusion. Our results show the potential use of LCP nanoparticles for efficient delivery of HIF1α siRNA into tumors as part of combination therapy along with PDT in the treatment of oral squamous cell carcinoma. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Photodynamic therapy for malignant pleural mesothelioma: the future of treatment?

    PubMed

    Friedberg, Joseph S

    2011-02-01

    Malignant pleural mesothelioma is a deadly incurable cancer, with a median survival of approximately 9 months. The best available chemotherapy, arguably the standard of care, only yields a 40% response rate and an 11-week extension in median survival. Surgery, the modality most likely to be associated with prolonged remission, remains investigational and must always be combined with other modalities in an effort to treat the microscopic disease that will remain even after the most aggressive operations. One such modality, photodynamic therapy, is a light-based cancer treatment that has features making it particularly well suited as a component of a surgery-based multimodal treatment plan. Utilizing intraoperative photodynamic therapy has enabled development of a less drastic surgical procedure that is also yielding some encouraging survival results. A unique aspect of photodynamic therapy is its stimulation of a tumor-directed immune response, a feature that offers promise for designing future treatments.

  3. Optical delivery and monitoring of photodynamic therapy of prostate cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weersink, Robert A.; Bogaards, Arjun; Gertner, Mark; Davidson, Sean; Zhang, Kai; Netchev, George; Giewercer, David J.; Trachtenberg, John; Wilson, Brian C.

    2004-10-01

    Photodynamic therapy of recurrent prostate cancer is currently undergoing Phase II clinical trials with the vascular targeting drug TOOKAD. Proper PDT dosage requires sound estimates of the light fluence and drug concentration throughout the organ. The treatment requires multiple diffusing light delivery fibers placed in position according to a light dose treatment plan under ultrasound guidance. Fluence rate is monitored by multiple sensor fibers placed throughout the organ and in sensitive organs near the prostate. The combination of multiple light delivery and fluence sensor fibers is used to estimate the optical properties of the tissue and to provide a general fluence map throughout the organ. This fluence map is then used to estimate extent of photodynamic dose. Optical spectroscopy is used to monitor drug pharmacokinetics in the organ and blood hemodynamics within the organ. Further development of these delivery and monitoring techniques will permit full online monitoring of the treatment that will enable real-time patient-specific delivery of photodynamic therapy.

  4. Monoglycoconjugated phthalocyanines: effect of sugar and linkage on photodynamic activity.

    PubMed

    Lafont, Dominique; Zorlu, Yunus; Savoie, Huguette; Albrieux, Florian; Ahsen, Vefa; Boyle, Ross W; Dumoulin, Fabienne

    2013-09-01

    Click chemistry can be advantageously used to graft carbohydrates on phthalocyanines which are potent photosensitisers, but the effect of the presence of triazole moieties on photodynamic efficiency was not investigated systematically to date. The nature and linkage of the sugar were investigated in order to define structure-activity relationships. Two sets of monoglycoconjugated water-soluble phthalocyanines have been designed and their photodynamic activity and uptake investigated in HT-29 human colon adenocarcinoma cells. Carbohydrates: galactose, mannose or lactose were grafted onto Zn(II) phthalocyanines either by glycosylation or by click reaction. The triazole linkage formed by click conjugation lowered the biological efficiency for mannose and galactose, compared to classical glycosylation grafting. The mannose conjugate formed by glycosylation was the most photodynamically active, without correlation with the photosensitiser cell uptake. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Photodynamic therapy in treatment of cutaneous and choroidal melanoma.

    PubMed

    Kawczyk-Krupka, Aleksandra; Bugaj, Andrzej M; Latos, Wojciech; Zaremba, Katarzyna; Sieroń, Aleksander

    2013-12-01

    Melanoma is a malignant, the most aggressive and dreaded skin cancer. This form of cancer arises from melanocytes and may grow rapidly and metastasize. Melanoma predominantly occurs in skin, but could also be found in the mouth, iris and retina of the eye. Melanoma is the most dangerous form of skin cancer, with a steeply rising incidence and a poor prognosis in its advanced stages. It is highly resistant to traditional chemotherapy and radiotherapy, although modern biological therapies are showing some promise. Photodynamic therapy (PDT), as a novel effective modality of the treatment of skin cancers, opens up new possibilities in melanoma treatment also. Many experimental photodynamic therapy studies were performed. The results of many experiments indicate that that photodynamic therapy may be a promising tool for adjuvant treatment in advanced melanoma. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Photodynamic inactivation of prions by disulfonated hydroxyaluminium phthalocyanine.

    PubMed

    Janouskova, Olga; Rakusan, Jan; Karaskova, Marie; Holada, Karel

    2012-11-01

    Sulfonated phthalocyanines (Pcs) are cyclic tetrapyrroles that constitute a group of photosensitizers. In the presence of visible light and diatomic oxygen, Pcs produce singlet oxygen and other reactive oxygen species that have known degradation effects on lipids, proteins and/or nucleic acids. Pcs have been used successfully in the treatment of bacterial, yeast and fungal infections, but their use in the photodynamic inactivation of prions has never been reported. Here, we evaluated the photodynamic activity of the disodium salt of disulfonated hydroxyaluminium phthalocyanine (PcDS) against mouse-adapted scrapie RML prions in vitro. PcDS treatment of RML brain homogenate resulted in a time- and dose-dependent inactivation of prions. The photodynamic potential of Pcs offers a new way to inactivate prions using biodegradable compounds at room temperature and normal pressure, which could be useful for treating thermolabile materials and liquids.

  7. Charge dependent photodynamic activity of alanine based zinc phthalocyanines.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ao; Li, Yejing; Zhou, Lin; Yuan, Linxin; Lu, Shan; Lin, Yun; Zhou, Jiahong; Wei, Shaohua

    2014-12-01

    In this paper, to minimize the effects of different structure, three alanine-based zinc phthalocyanines (Pcs) of differing charges were engineered and synthesized with the same basic structure. On this premise, the relationship between nature of charge and photodynamic activity was studied. Besides, further verification and explanation of some inconsistent results were also carried out. The results showed that charge can influence the aggregation state, singlet oxygen generation ability and cellular uptake of Pcs, thereby affecting their photodynamic activity. In addition, the biomolecules inside cells may interact with Pcs of differing charges, which can also influence the aggregation state and singlet oxygen generation of the Pcs, and then influence the relationship between nature of charge and photodynamic activity.

  8. [Adoptive laser immunotherapy and photodynamic therapy in ORL oncology].

    PubMed

    Antoniv, V F; Dmitriev, A A; Daĭkhes, N A; Ivanov, A V; Davudov, Kh Sh; Perekosova, Iu V; Laptev, V P

    1990-01-01

    Present-day developments in oncological applications of laser therapy are adaptive laser immunotherapy (ALIT) and photodynamic therapy (PDT). ALIT (helium-neon laser) was used in 35 ENT-cancer patients to irradiate immunocompetent leukocytes isolated from blood in an Amino cell separator. The use of ALIT in the combined treatment of our patients improved their health condition. Cytological, immunochemical and immunological examinations of blood revealed an increased count of activated lymphocytes, normalization of acute-phase proteins, stimulation of cell-mediated immunity and nonspecific resistance. The pharmacokinetics and photodynamic activity of porphyrin compounds in mice with inoculated tumors were investigated. Experimental observations demonstrated that the application of photodynamic therapy of hematoporphyrins in ENT-oncology seems very promising.

  9. Photodynamic therapy influence on anti-cancer immunity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isaeva, O. G.; Osipov, V. A.

    2009-10-01

    The system of partial differential equations describing tumor-immune dynamics with angiogenesis taken into account is presented. For spatially homogeneous case, the steady state analysis of the model is carried out. The effects of single photodynamic impact are numerically simulated. In the case of strong immune response we found that the photodynamic therapy (PDT) gives rise to the substantial shrinkage of tumor size which is accompanied by the increase of IL-2 concentration. On the contrary, the photodynamic stimulation of weak immune response is shown to be insufficient to reduce the tumor. These findings indicate the important role of anti-cancer immune response in the long-term tumor control after PDT.

  10. Photodynamic therapy influence on anti-cancer immunity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isaeva, O. G.; Osipov, V. A.

    2010-02-01

    The system of partial differential equations describing tumor-immune dynamics with angiogenesis taken into account is presented. For spatially homogeneous case, the steady state analysis of the model is carried out. The effects of single photodynamic impact are numerically simulated. In the case of strong immune response we found that the photodynamic therapy (PDT) gives rise to the substantial shrinkage of tumor size which is accompanied by the increase of IL-2 concentration. On the contrary, the photodynamic stimulation of weak immune response is shown to be insufficient to reduce the tumor. These findings indicate the important role of anti-cancer immune response in the long-term tumor control after PDT.

  11. Tumor delivery of Photofrin® by PLL-g-PEG for photodynamic therapy.

    PubMed

    Kano, Arihiro; Taniwaki, Yuki; Nakamura, Izumi; Shimada, Naohiko; Moriyama, Kenji; Maruyama, Atsushi

    2013-05-10

    Photofrin® (porfimer sodium) is a photosensitive reagent used for photodynamic therapy (PDT) of tumors and dysplasias. Because only photo-irradiated sites are damaged, PDT is less invasive than systemic treatments. However, a photosensitive reaction is a major side effect of systemically delivered Photofrin. To enhance localization of Photofrin to tumors, we have formulated Photofrin with the tumor-localizing graft copolymer poly(ethylene glycol)-grafted poly(l-lysine), PLL-g-PEG. We demonstrate that Photofrin preferentially interacts with PLL-g-PEG through both ionic and hydrophobic interactions. The serum competitive study showed that the highly PEG-grafted PLL is better for preventing serum binding to the Photofrin/PLL-g-PEG complex. In tumor-bearing mice, formulation of Photofrin with PLL-g-PEG enhanced tumor localization of Photofrin as twice as Photofrin alone and concomitantly suppressed the photosensitivity reaction drastically. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Photodynamic therapy-induced angiogenic signaling: consequences and solutions to improve therapeutic response

    PubMed Central

    Gallagher-Colombo, Shannon M.; Maas, Amanda L.; Yuan, Min; Busch, Theresa M.

    2015-01-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) can be a highly effective treatment for diseases ranging from actinic keratosis to cancer. While use of this therapy shows great promise in preclinical and clinical studies, understanding the molecular consequences of PDT is critical to designing better treatment protocols. A number of publications have documented alteration in angiogenic factors and growth factor receptors following PDT, which could abrogate treatment effect by inducing angiogenesis and re-establishment of the tumor vasculature. In response to these findings, work over the past decade has examined the efficacy of combining PDT with molecular targeting drugs, such as anti-angiogenic compounds, in an effort to combat these PDT-induced molecular changes. These combinatorial approaches increase rates of apoptosis, impair pro-tumorigenic signaling, and enhance tumor response. This report will examine the current understanding of PDT-induced angiogenic signaling and address molecular-based approaches to abrogate this signaling or its consequences thereby enhancing PDT efficacy. PMID:26109742

  13. Mreg Activity in Tumor Response to Photodynamic Therapy and Photodynamic Therapy-Generated Cancer Vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Korbelik, Mladen; Banáth, Judith; Zhang, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Myeloid regulatory cells (Mregs) are, together with regulatory T cells (Tregs), a dominant effector population responsible for restriction of the duration and strength of antitumor immune response. Photodynamic therapy (PDT) and cancer vaccines generated by PDT are modalities whose effectiveness in tumor destruction is closely dependent on the associated antitumor immune response. The present study investigated whether the immunodepletion of granulocytic Mregs in host mice by anti-GR1 antibody would improve the response of tumors to PDT or PDT vaccines in these animals. Anti-GR1 administration immediately after Temoporfin-PDT of mouse SCCVII tumors abrogated curative effect of PDT. The opposite effect, increasing PDT-mediated tumor cure-rates was attained by delaying anti-GR1 treatment to 1 h post PDT. With PDT vaccines, multiple anti-GR1 administrations (days 0, 4, and 8 post vaccination) improved the therapy response with SCCVII tumors. The results with PDT suggest that neutrophils (boosting antitumor effect of this therapy) that are engaged immediately after photodynamic light treatment are within one hour replaced with a different myeloid population, presumably Mregs that hampers the therapy-mediated antitumor effect. Anti-GR1 antibody, when used with optimal timing, can improve the efficacy of both PDT of tumors in situ and PDT-generated cancer vaccines. PMID:27754452

  14. Recent improvements in the use of synthetic peptides for a selective photodynamic therapy.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Raphaël; Tirand, Loraine; Frochot, Céline; Vanderesse, Régis; Thomas, Noémie; Gravier, Julien; Guillemin, François; Barberi-Heyob, Muriel

    2006-09-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a relatively new cytotoxic treatment, predominantly used in anti-cancer approaches, that depends on the retention of photosensitizers in tumor and their activation after light exposure. Photosensitizers are photoactive compounds such as porphyrins and chlorins that upon photoactivation, effect strongly localized oxidative damage within the target cells. The ability to confine activation of the photosensitizer by restricting illumination to the tumor allows for a certain degree of selectivity. Nevertheless, the targeted delivery of photosensitizers to defined cells is a major problem in PDT of cancer, and one area of importance is photosensitizer targeting. Alterations or increased levels in receptor expression of specific cellular type occur in the diseased tissues. Therefore, photosensitizers can be covalently attached to molecules such as peptides, leading to a receptor-mediated targeting strategy. These active-targeting approaches may be particularly useful for anti-vascular PDT. Moreover, it has been shown that the photocytotoxicity of photodynamic drugs could be enhanced by delivering high amounts of a photosensitizer into subcellular organelles such as the nucleus where nucleic acids represent target molecules sensitive to photodamage. The recent progresses in the use of active-targeting strategy with synthetic peptides and the interest of using an active-targeting strategy in PDT, which could allow efficient cellular internalization of photosensitizers, are described in this review.

  15. Near-infrared Au nanorods in photodynamic therapy, hyperthermia agents, and near-infrared optical imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuo, Wen-Shuo; Chang, Chich-Neng; Chang, Yi-Ting; Yang, Meng-Heng; Chien, Yi-Hsin; Chen, Shean-Jen; Yeh, Chen-Sheng

    2011-03-01

    The development of multifunctional nanomaterials is currently a topic of interest in the field of nanotechnology. Integrated systems that incorporate therapeutics, molecular targeting, and diagnostic imaging capabilities are considered to be the next generation of multifunctional nanomedicine. In this work, we present the first example of using Au nanorods simultaneously serving not only as photodynamic and photothermal agents to destroy A549 malignant cells but also as optical contrast agents simultaneously to monitor cellular image. Au nanorods were successfully conjugated with hydrophilic photosensitizer, indocyanine green (ICG), to achieve photodynamic therapy (PDT) and hyperthermia. With the combination of PDT and hyperthermia proved to be efficiently killing cancer cells as compared to PDT or hyperthermia treatment alone and enhanced the effectiveness of photodestruction. Moreover, Au nanorods conjugated with ICG displayed high chemical stability and simultaneously acted as a promising cellular image probe. As a result, the preparation of Au nanorods conjugated with photosensitizers as well as their use in biomedical applications is valuable developments in multifunctional nanomaterials.

  16. Photosensitizer-Conjugated Human Serum Albumin Nanoparticles for Effective Photodynamic Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Hayoung; Huh, MyungSook; Lee, So Jin; Koo, Heebeom; Kwon, Ick Chan; Jeong, Seo Young; Kim, Kwangmeyung

    2011-01-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is an emerging theranostic modality for various cancers and diseases. The focus of this study was the development of tumor-targeting albumin nanoparticles containing photosensitizers for efficient PDT. To produce tumor-targeting albumin nanoparticles, the hydrophobic photosensitizer, chlorin e6 (Ce6), was chemically conjugated to human serum albumin (HSA). The conjugates formed self-assembled nanoparticle structures with an average diameter of 88 nm under aqueous conditions. As expected, the Ce6-conjugated HSA nanoparticles (Ce6-HSA-NPs) were nontoxic in their native state, but upon illumination with the appropriate wavelength of light, they produced singlet oxygen and damaged target tumor cells in a cell culture system. Importantly, when the nanoparticles were injected through the tail vein into tumor-bearing HT-29 mice, Ce6-HSA-NPs compared with free Ce6 revealed enhanced tumor-specific biodistribution and successful therapeutic results following laser irradiation. These results suggest that highly tumor-specific albumin nanoparticles have the potential to serve not only as efficient therapeutic agents, but also as photodynamic imaging (PDI) reagents in cancer treatment. PMID:21562630

  17. [A device for fluorescence diagnosis and photodynamic therapy of eye diseases, by using photosense].

    PubMed

    Shevchik, S A; Loshchenov, M V; Meerovich, G A; Budzinskaia, M V; Ermakova, N A; Kharnas, S S; Loshchenov, V B

    2005-01-01

    By having a high photodynamic effectiveness and an ability of fluorescence, a Photosense photosensibilizer provides a way of combining photodynamic therapy (PDT) and monitoring its control within a session, which enhances the efficiency of treatment for the subretinal neovascular membrane. A slit lamp-based apparatus complex has been developed to employ the methods of fluorescence diagnosis (FD) and PDT, by applying this photosensitizer. The complex comprises an optical adapter that focusing laser radiation on the fundus of the eye in a range of 100-1000 microm, a video adapter that includes color and high-sensitive monochromic video cameras, as well as a personal computer and software that processes video information from the high-sensitive camera and displays the obtained images in real time. The original system of filters provides an image of the eye fundus in the fluorescent and usual color light at once during a FR procedure. The spatial resolution of the developed apparatus was tested on the test object specially devised for these purposes, which was 10 microm. The sensitivity of the complex is sufficient to record slightly fluorescent objects on the fundus of the eye.

  18. Diacyllipid micelle-based nanocarrier for magnetically guided delivery of drugs in photodynamic therapy.

    PubMed

    Cinteza, Ludmila O; Ohulchanskyy, Tymish Y; Sahoo, Yudhisthira; Bergey, Earl J; Pandey, Ravindra K; Prasad, Paras N

    2006-01-01

    We report the design, synthesis using nanochemistry, and characterization of a novel multifunctional polymeric micelle-based nanocarrier system, which demonstrates combined function of magnetophoretically guided drug delivery together with light-activated photodynamic therapy. Specifically, the nanocarrier consists of polymeric micelles of diacylphospholipid-poly(ethylene glycol) (PE-PEG) coloaded with the photosensitizer drug 2-[1-hexyloxyethyl]-2-devinyl pyropheophorbide-a (HPPH), and magnetic Fe3O4 nanoparticles. The nanocarrier shows excellent stability and activity over several weeks. The physicochemical characterizations have been carried out by transmission electron micrography and optical spectroscopy. An efficient cellular uptake has been confirmed with confocal laser scanning microscopy. The loading efficiency of HPPH is practically unaffected upon coloading with the magnetic nanoparticles, and its phototoxicity is retained. The magnetic response of the nanocarriers was demonstrated by their magnetically directed delivery to tumor cells in vitro. The magnetophoretic control on the cellular uptake provides enhanced imaging and phototoxicity. These multifunctional nanocarriers demonstrate the exciting prospect offered by nanochemistry for targeting photodynamic therapy.

  19. Photosensitizer and peptide-conjugated PAMAM dendrimer for targeted in vivo photodynamic therapy

    PubMed Central

    Narsireddy, Amreddy; Vijayashree, Kurra; Adimoolam, Mahesh G; Manorama, Sunkara V; Rao, Nalam M

    2015-01-01

    Challenges in photodynamic therapy (PDT) include development of efficient near infrared-sensitive photosensitizers (5,10,15,20-tetrakis(4-hydroxyphenyl)-21H,23H-porphine [PS]) and targeted delivery of PS to the tumor tissue. In this study, a dual functional dendrimer was synthesized for targeted PDT. For targeting, a poly(amidoamine) dendrimer (G4) was conjugated with a PS and a nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA) group. A peptide specific to human epidermal growth factor 2 was expressed in Escherichia coli with a His-tag and was specifically bound to the NTA group on the dendrimer. Reaction conditions were optimized to result in dendrimers with PS and the NTA at a fractional occupancy of 50% and 15%, respectively. The dendrimers were characterized by nuclear magnetic resonance, matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization, absorbance, and fluorescence spectroscopy. Using PS fluorescence, cell uptake of these particles was confirmed by confocal microscopy and fluorescence-activated cell sorting. PS-dendrimers are more efficient than free PS in PDT-mediated cell death assays in HER2 positive cells, SK-OV-3. Similar effects were absent in HER2 negative cell line, MCF-7. Compared to free PS, the PS-dendrimers have shown significant tumor suppression in a xenograft animal tumor model. Conjugation of a PS with dendrimers and with a targeting agent has enhanced photodynamic therapeutic effects of the PS. PMID:26604753

  20. Novel photosensitisers derived from pyropheophorbide-a: uptake by cells and photodynamic efficiency in vitro.

    PubMed

    Stamati, Ioanna; Kuimova, Marina K; Lion, Mattia; Yahioglu, Gokhan; Phillips, David; Deonarain, Mahendra P

    2010-07-30

    Photodynamic Therapy (PDT) is a minimally invasive procedure used for treating a range of neoplastic diseases, which utilises combined action of light and a PDT drug called a photosensitiser. The efficiency of this treatment depends crucially on the properties of the photosensitiser used, namely on its efficient uptake by cells or by the surrounding vasculature, intracellular localisation, minimal dark toxicity and substantial phototoxicity. In this report we compare the spectroscopic properties, cell uptake and in vitro phototoxicity of two novel hydrophilic photosensitisers derived from pyropheophorbide-a (PPa). Both new photosensitisers have the potential to form bioconjugates with antibody fragments for targeted PDT. We find that the photophysical properties of both new photosensitisers are favourable compared to the parent PPa, including enhanced absorption in the red spectral region and substantial singlet oxygen quantum yields. Both molecules show efficient cellular uptake, but display a different intracellular localisation. Both new photosensitisers exhibit no significant dark-toxicity at concentrations of up to 100 microM. The phototoxicity of the two photosensitisers is strikingly different, with one derivative being 13 times more efficient than the parent PPa and another derivative being 18 times less efficient in SKOV3 ovarian cancer cells. We investigate the reasons behind such drastic differences in phototoxicity using confocal fluorescence microscopy and conclude that intracellular localisation is a crucial factor in the photodynamic efficiency of pheophorbide derivatives. These studies highlight the underlying factors behind creating more potent photosensitisers through synthetic manipulation.

  1. Combined near infrared photothermolysis and photodynamic therapy by association of gold nanoparticles and an organic dye

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tuchina, Elena S.; Ratto, Fulvio; Khlebtsov, Boris N.; Centi, Sonia; Matteini, Paolo; Rossi, Francesca; Fusi, Franco; Khlebtsov, Nikolai G.; Pini, Roberto; Tuchin, Valery V.

    2011-03-01

    We investigated the combination of near infrared (NIR) photothermolysis and photodynamic therapy against different models of bacteria (S. aureus, S. epidermidis both methicillin susceptible and resistant), in order to discover possible synergistic pathways in the fight against cancer. Photothermolysis was mediated by NIR light absorption from gold nanorods, which were coated with polyethylene glycol to gain biocompatibility and provide for a convenient interface with the bacterial cell walls. At the same time photodynamic therapy was delivered by administration of Indocyanine Green (ICG), whose spectrum of molecular excitation overlaps the plasmonic oscillations of gold nanorods (~ 800 nm). Therefore irradiation with NIR light from a low power diode laser resulted into simultaneous photothermolysis and generation of reactive oxygen species and cytotoxic byproducts of ICG. We assessed the inhibition of the bacterial colony forming ability under different NIR light exposures, and compared the performance of the combined treatment (gold nanorods plus ICG) with the projected addition of the separate treatments (either gold nanorods or ICG). Our preliminary results may originate from the interplay of synergistic and conflicting interactions, which may include e.g. the enhanced intake of cytotoxic species due to permeabilization of the bacterial cell walls, quenching of ICG and modification of the bleaching of ICG due to the noble metal surface.

  2. Current Advances in 5-Aminolevulinic Acid Mediated Photodynamic Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Thunshelle, Connor; Yin, Rui; Chen, Qiquan

    2016-01-01

    Kennedy and Pottier discovered that photodynamic therapy (PDT) could be carried out using a procedure consisting of topical application of the porphyrin-precursor, 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) to the skin, followed after some time by illumination with various light parameters in the 1980s. Since then, ALA-PDT has expanded enormously and now covers most aspects of dermatological disease. The purpose of this review is to discuss a range of ingenious strategies that investigators have devised for improving the overall outcome (higher efficiency and lower side effects) of ALA-PDT. The big advance of using ALA esters instead of the free acid to improve skin penetration was conceived in the 1990s. A variety of more recent innovative approaches can be divided into three broad groups: (a) those relying on improving delivery or penetration of ALA into the skin; (b) those relying on ways to increase the synthesis of protoporphyrin IX inside the skin; (c) those relying on modification of the illumination parameters. In the first group, we have improved delivery of ALA with penetration-enhancing chemicals, iontophoresis, intracutaneous injection, or fractionated laser. There is also a large group of nanotechnology-related approaches with ALA being delivered using liposomes/ethosomes, ALA dendrimers, niosomes, mesoporous silica nanoparticles, conjugated gold nanoparticles, polymer nanoparticles, fullerene nanoparticles, and carbon nanotubes. In the second group, we can find the use of cellular differentiating agents, the use of iron chelators, and the effect of increasing the temperature. In the third group, we find methods designed to reduce pain as well as improve efficiency including fractionated light, daylight PDT, and wearable light sources for ambulatory PDT. This active area of research is expected to continue to provide a range of intriguing possibilities. PMID:28163981

  3. Nicotinamide reduces photodynamic therapy-induced immunosuppression in humans.

    PubMed

    Thanos, S M; Halliday, G M; Damian, D L

    2012-09-01

    The immune suppressive effects of topical photodynamic therapy (PDT) are potential contributors to treatment failure after PDT for nonmelanoma skin cancer. Nicotinamide (vitamin B(3) ) prevents immune suppression by ultraviolet radiation, but its effects on PDT-induced immunosuppression are unknown. To determine the effects of topical and oral nicotinamide on PDT-induced immunosuppression in humans. Twenty healthy Mantoux-positive volunteers received 5% nicotinamide lotion or vehicle to either side of the back daily for 3 days. Another group of 30 volunteers received 500 mg oral nicotinamide or placebo twice daily for 1 week in a randomized, double-blinded, crossover design. In each study, methylaminolaevulinate cream was applied to discrete areas on the back, followed by narrowband red light irradiation (37 J cm(-2) ) delivered at high (75 mW cm(-2) ) or low (15 mW cm(-2) ) irradiance rates. Adjacent, nonirradiated sites served as controls. Delayed-type hypersensitivity (Mantoux) reactions were assessed at treatment and control sites to determine immunosuppression. High irradiance rate PDT with vehicle or with placebo caused significant immunosuppression (equivalent to 48% and 50% immunosuppression, respectively; both P < 0·0001); topical and oral nicotinamide reduced this immunosuppression by 59% and 66%, respectively (both P < 0·0001). Low irradiance rate PDT was not significantly immunosuppressive in the topical nicotinamide study (15% immunosuppression, not significant), but caused 22% immunosuppression in the oral study (placebo arm; P = 0·006); nicotinamide reduced this immunosuppression by 69% (P = 0·045). While the clinical relevance of these findings is currently unknown, nicotinamide may provide an inexpensive means of preventing PDT-induced immune suppression and enhancing PDT cure rates. © 2012 The Authors. BJD © 2012 British Association of Dermatologists.

  4. Nanophotonic ensembles for targeted multi-photon photodynamic therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spangler, Charles W.; Meng, Fanqing; Gong, Aijun; Drobizhev, Mikhail A.; Karotki, Aliaksandr; Rebane, Aleksander, II

    2004-06-01

    There has been a dramatic increase in the application of new technologies for the treatment of cancerous tumors over the past decade, but for the most part, the treatment of most tumors still involves some combination of invasive surgery, chemotherapy and radiation treatments. Photodynamic therapy (PDT), which involves the activation of an administered compound with laser light followed by a series of events leading to programmed cell death of the tumor, has been proposed as a noninvasive alternative treatment to replace the standard surgery/chemotherapy/radiation protocol. However, currently approved PDT agents operate in the Visible portion of the spectrum, and laser light in this region cannot penetrate the skin more than a few millimeters. Two-photon irradiation using more highly penetrating Near-infrared (NIR) light in the tissue transparency window (700-1000 nm) has been proposed for the treatment of subcutaneous tumors, but most porphyrins exhibit extremely small two-photon cross-sections. Classical PDT also suffers from the lengthy time necessary for accumulation at the tumor site, a relative lack of discrimination between healthy and diseased tissue, particularly at the tumor margins, and difficulty in clearing from the system in a reasonable amount of time. We have recently discovered a new design paradigm for porphyrins with greatly enhanced two-photon cross-sections, and are now proposing a nano-ensemble that would also incorporate small molecule targeting agents, and possibly one-photon NIR imaging agents along with these porphyrins in one therapeutic agent. Thus these ensembles would incorporate targeting/imaging/PDT functions in one therapeutic agent, and hold the promise of single-session outpatient treatment of a large variety of subcutaneous tumors.

  5. [Treatment with photodynamic therapy of circumscribed choroidal hemangioma].

    PubMed

    Andonegui, J; Pérez de Arcelus, M; Jiménez-Lasanta, L

    2010-10-01

    The clinical characteristics of three patients with circumscribed choroidal haemangioma and subfoveal exudation detected by optical coherence tomography are described in this paper. The three patients were successfully treated with photodynamic therapy. Photodynamic therapy is the most adequate therapeutic option for circumscribed choroidal hemangioma associated with subfoveal exudation. Some questions such as whether attempts should be made to obtain a complete tumour regression, laser settings or the way the spots must be applied remain unresolved. Copyright © 2010 Sociedad Española de Oftalmología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  6. Photodynamic therapy for polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy secondary to choroidal nevus

    PubMed Central

    Wong, James G; Lai, Xin Jie; Sarafian, Richard Y; Wong, Hon Seng; Smith, Jeremy B

    2017-01-01

    We report a case of a Caucasian female who developed active polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy (PCV) at the edge of a stable choroidal nevus and was successfully treated with verteporfin photodynamic therapy. No active polyp was detectable on indocyanine green angiography 2 years after treatment, and good vision was maintained. Indocyanine green angiography is a useful investigation to diagnose PCV and may be underutilized. Unlike treatment of choroidal neovascularization secondary to choroidal nevus, management of PCV secondary to nevus may not require intravitreal anti-vascular endothelial growth factor therapy. Photodynamic monotherapy may be an effective treatment of secondary PCV. PMID:28243154

  7. Photodynamic therapy of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia using hexaminolevulinate and methylaminolevulinate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soergel, Philipp; Staboulidou, Ismini; Hertel, Herrmann; Schippert, Cordula; Hillemanns, Peter

    2009-06-01

    Cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) is the precursor of invasive cervical cancer. Previous studies indicated that photodynamic therapy (PDT) represents an effective treatment modality in CIN. In 28 patients with CIN 1 - 3, 1 - 2 cycles of PDT were conducted using hexaminolevulinate (HAL) or methylaminolevulinate (MAL) and a special light delivery system. After 6 months, biopsies were obtained to assess response. The overall response rate for complete or partial response was 65%. Photodynamic therapy using new ALA esters is effective and may offer unique advantages in the therapy of CIN.

  8. A Cell-targeted Photodynamic Nanomedicine Strategy for Head & Neck Cancers

    PubMed Central

    Master, Alyssa; Malamas, Anthony; Solanki, Rachna; Clausen, Dana M.; Eiseman, Julie L.; Gupta, Anirban Sen

    2013-01-01

    Photodynamic Therapy (PDT) holds great promise for the treatment of head and neck (H&N) carcinomas where repeated loco-regional therapy often becomes necessary due to the highly aggressive and recurrent nature of the cancers. While interstitial light delivery technologies are being refined for PDT of H&N and other cancers, a parallel clinically relevant research area is the formulation of photosensitizers in nanovehicles that allow systemic administration yet preferential enhanced uptake in the tumor. This approach can render dual-selectivity of PDT, by harnessing both the drug and the light delivery within the tumor. To this end, we report on a cell-targeted nanomedicine approach for the photosensitizer silicon phthalocyanine-4 (Pc 4), by packaging it within polymeric micelles that are surface-decorated with GE11-peptides to promote enhanced cell-selective binding and receptor-mediated internalization in EGFR-overexpressing H&N cancer cells. Using fluorescence spectroscopy and confocal microscopy, we demonstrate in vitro that the EGFR-targeted Pc 4-nanoformulation undergoes faster and higher uptake in EGFR-overexpressing H&N SCC-15 cells. We further demonstrate that this enhanced Pc 4 uptake results in significant cell-killing and drastically reduced post-PDT clonogenicity. Building on this in vitro data, we demonstrate that the EGFR-targeted Pc 4-nanoformulation results in significant intra-tumoral drug uptake and subsequent enhanced PDT response, in vivo, in SCC-15 xenografts in mice. Altogether our results show significant promise towards a cell-targeted photodynamic nanomedicine for effective treatment of H&N carcinomas. PMID:23531079

  9. A cell-targeted photodynamic nanomedicine strategy for head and neck cancers.

    PubMed

    Master, Alyssa; Malamas, Anthony; Solanki, Rachna; Clausen, Dana M; Eiseman, Julie L; Sen Gupta, Anirban

    2013-05-06

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) holds great promise for the treatment of head and neck (H&N) carcinomas where repeated loco-regional therapy often becomes necessary due to the highly aggressive and recurrent nature of the cancers. While interstitial light delivery technologies are being refined for PDT of H&N and other cancers, a parallel clinically relevant research area is the formulation of photosensitizers in nanovehicles that allow systemic administration yet preferential enhanced uptake in the tumor. This approach can render dual-selectivity of PDT, by harnessing both the drug and the light delivery within the tumor. To this end, we report on a cell-targeted nanomedicine approach for the photosensitizer silicon phthalocyanine-4 (Pc 4), by packaging it within polymeric micelles that are surface-decorated with GE11-peptides to promote enhanced cell-selective binding and receptor-mediated internalization in EGFR-overexpressing H&N cancer cells. Using fluorescence spectroscopy and confocal microscopy, we demonstrate in vitro that the EGFR-targeted Pc 4-nanoformulation undergoes faster and higher uptake in EGFR-overexpressing H&N SCC-15 cells. We further demonstrate that this enhanced Pc 4 uptake results in significant cell-killing and drastically reduced post-PDT clonogenicity. Building on this in vitro data, we demonstrate that the EGFR-targeted Pc 4-nanoformulation results in significant intratumoral drug uptake and subsequent enhanced PDT response, in vivo, in SCC-15 xenografts in mice. Altogether our results show significant promise toward a cell-targeted photodynamic nanomedicine for effective treatment of H&N carcinomas.

  10. Integrating spheres for improved skin photodynamic therapy.

    PubMed

    Glennie, Diana L; Farrell, Thomas J; Hayward, Joseph E; Patterson, Michael S

    2010-01-01

    The prescribed radiant exposures for photodynamic therapy (PDT) of superficial skin cancers are chosen empirically to maximize the success of the treatment while minimizing adverse reactions for the majority of patients. They do not take into account the wide range of tissue optical properties for human skin, contributing to relatively low treatment success rates. Additionally, treatment times can be unnecessarily long for large treatment areas if the laser power is not sufficient. Both of these concerns can be addressed by the incorporation of an integrating sphere into the irradiation apparatus. The light fluence rate can be increased by as much as 100%, depending on the tissue optical properties. This improvement can be determined in advance of treatment by measuring the reflectance from the tissue through a side port on the integrating sphere, allowing for patient-specific treatment times. The sphere is also effective at improving beam flatness, and reducing the penumbra, creating a more uniform light field. The side port reflectance measurements are also related to the tissue transport albedo, enabling an approximation of the penetration depth, which is useful for real-time light dosimetry.

  11. PDT dose dosimeter for pleural photodynamic therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Michele M.; Darafsheh, Arash; Ahmad, Mahmoud; Finlay, Jarod C.; Zhu, Timothy C.

    2016-03-01

    PDT dose is the product of the photosensitizer concentration and the light fluence in the target tissue. For improved dosimetry during plural photodynamic therapy (PDT), a PDT dose dosimeter was developed to measure both the light fluence and the photosensitizer concentration simultaneously in the same treatment location. Light fluence and spectral data were rigorously compared to other methods of measurement (e.g. photodiode, multi-fiber spectroscopy contact probe) to assess the accuracy of the measurements as well as their uncertainty. Photosensitizer concentration was obtained by measuring the fluorescence of the sensitizer excited by the treatment light. Fluence rate based on the intensity of the laser spectrum was compared to the data obtained by direct measurement of fluence rate by a fiber-coupled photodiode. Phantom studies were done to obtain an optical property correction for the fluorescence signal. Measurements were performed in patients treated Photofrin for different locations in the pleural cavity. Multiple sites were measured to investigate the heterogeneity of the cavity and to provide cross-validation via relative dosimetry. This novel method will allow for accurate real-time determination of delivered PDT dose and improved PDT dosimetry.

  12. Photodynamic inactivation of verrucae vulgares. II.

    PubMed

    Veien, N K; Genner, J; Brodthagen, H; Wettermark, G

    1977-01-01

    Photodynamic inactivation therapy, consisting of a double-blind, paired comparison treatment schedule, was used in treating 56 patients for recalcitrant, symmetrical verrucae vulgares. 0.1% proflavine in 100% dimethylsulphoxide (DMSO) and 0.1% neutral red in 100% DMSO were used as active dyes, and 1% picric acid in 100% DMSO and 1% color ruber in 100% DMSO and 1% color ruber in 100% DMSO served as corresponding placebos. A Westinghouse sunlamp and black light were used to irradiate the warts dyed with proflavine and its placebo, and the warts dyed with neutral red and its placebo were irradiated with an ordinary light bulb (Osram 588597). 50 patients completed the treatment. 10 of the 27 patients treated with proflavine and 10 of the 23 patients treated with neutral red were cured by the end of an 8 week period, with the warts disappearing simultaneously from the actively as well as the placebo-treated side. Complement fixing antibodies against wart virus were detected in one of the cured patients and 2 who were treatment failures.

  13. Nanoparticles for Advanced Photodynamic Therapy of Cancer.

    PubMed

    Abrahamse, Heidi; Kruger, Cherie Ann; Kadanyo, Sania; Mishra, Ajay

    2017-09-21

    The world widespread rise in cancer incidence has caused an increase in the demand for effective and safe materials for treatment. One of the most prevalent forms of treatment for cancer is photodynamic therapy (PDT), which is seen as an alternative to radiotherapy, as well as chemotherapy. In more recent years, researchers are exploring new nanotechnology-based strategies to improve the effectiveness of PDT. The objective of this review is to explore the current trends and research findings associated with PDT and the development of nanotechnology as treatment modality for cancer. Nanotechnology commonly deals with nanomaterials, which are well defined by their reduced size (which is <100 nm), allowing these small nanostructured particles to have unique physical, chemical, and biological properties. The unique properties of nanomaterials attribute them to have enormous potential application in many interdisciplinary fields such as medicine, electronics, biomaterials, and so on. This mini-review presents a collection of important works published with focus of nanotechnology and cancer treatment by PDT. Despite significant efforts to develop nanosystems for efficient PDT cancer treatment, it remains a challenge to develop nanostructured drug delivery systems that combine targeted tumor recognition with effective production of reactive singlet oxygen under PDT irradiation.

  14. Photodynamic therapy of breast cancer with photosense

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vakoulovskaya, Elena G.; Shental, Victor V.; Oumnova, Loubov V.; Vorozhcsov, Georgiu N.

    2003-06-01

    Photodynamic Therapy (PDT) using photosensitizer Photosense (PS) in dose 0.5 mg per kg of body weight have been provided in 24 patients with breast cancer. In 22 patients with T1-T2N0M0 primary tumor was treated as the preoperative treatment, radical mastectomy has been fulfilled 7-10 days after PDT with subsequent histological examination. 2 patients had recurrencies of breast cancer with lymph node metastases after radiotherapy. Fluorescent diagnostics of tumor, accumulation of PS in tumor, adjacent tissue, skin before and during PDT was fulfilled with spectranalyzer LESA-01. We used semiconductive laser for PDT - λ = 672+2nm, P=1,5 W, interstitial irradiation 2-24 hours after PS injection has been done in light dose 150-200 J/cm3, 1-3 irradiations with interval 24-48 hours and total light dose 400-600 J/cm3 depending mostly of size and fluorescent data. Partial regression of tumor with pathomorphosis of 2-4 degrees has been found in 19 cases. Our experience shows pronounced efficacy of PDT for treating breast cancer as preoperative modality and as palliation in cases of recurrencies.

  15. Photodynamic therapy: a promising alternative in oncology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelius, Thomas; de Riese, Werner T. W.; Filleur, Stephanie

    2004-07-01

    Photodynamic Therapy (PDT) is a treatment modality that is based on the administration of a photosensitizer and the following application of light in a wavelength range matching the absorption spectrum of the photosensitizer. Ideally the photosensitizer retains in the tumor tissue more than in normal tissue and thus allows targeted destruction of cancerous tissue. The use of PDT is slowly being accepted as a standard treatment for certain types of cancer. This includes mainly treatment strategies with only palliative intentions (obstructive esophageal cancer and advanced lung cancer) while for certain malignant conditions new applications exists that are already intended for cure (e.g. early stage of lung cancer). The main advantage of PDT is that the treatment can be repeated multiple times safely without major side effects. PDT can be safely combined with already established treatment options like surgery, chemotherapy or radiotherapy. A disadvantage of PDT is the only localized effect of the therapy, which usually cannot significantly alter the outcome of a systemic disease. In this paper we review the history of PDT as well as current clinical applications in oncology and future directions.

  16. Pecularities of clinical photodynamic therapy of cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stranadko, Eugeny P.; Skobelkin, Oleg K.; Litvin, Grigory D.; Astrakhankina, Tamara A.

    1996-01-01

    The analysis of the results of photodynamic therapy (PDT) for treating malignant neoplasms of the skin, mammary glands, tongue, oral mucous, lower lip, larynx, lungs, urinary bladder rectum and other locations has been made. During 1992 - 1995 478 tumoral foci in 125 patients have been treated with PDT. All patients were previously treated with conventional techniques without effect or they were not treated due to contraindications either because of severe accompanying diseases or because of old age. A part of the patients had PDT because of recurrences or intradermal metastases in 1 - 2 years after surgical, radial or combined treatment. Two home-made preparations were used as photosensitizers: Photohem (hematoporphyrine derivative) and Photosense (aluminum sulfonated phthalocyanine). Light sources were: the argon pumped dye laser (`Innova-200', `Coherent') and home-made laser devices: copper-vapor laser-pumped dye laser (`Yakhroma-2', Frjazino), gas-discharge unit `Ksenon' (wavelength 630 nm), gold-vapor laser (wavelength 627.8 nm) for Photohem; while for Photosense sessions we used solid-state laser on ittrium aluminate `Poljus-1' (wavelength 670 nm). Up to now we have follow-up control data within 2 months and 3 years. Positive effect of PDT was seen in 92% of patients including complete regression of tumors in 66.4% and partial in 25.6%. Currently, this new perspective technique of treating malignant neoplasms is successfully being used in Russia; new photosensitizers and light sources for PDT and fluorescent tumor diagnostics are being developed as well.

  17. Corneal endothelial glutathione after photodynamic change

    SciTech Connect

    Hull, D.S.; Riley, M.V.; Csukas, S.; Green, K.

    1982-03-01

    Rabbit corneal endothelial cells perfused with 5 X 10(-6)M rose bengal and exposed to incandescent light demonstrated no alteration of either total of or percent oxidized glutathione after 1 hr. Addition of 5400 U/ml catalase to the perfusing solution had no effect on total glutathione levels but caused a marked reduction in percent oxidized glutathione in corneas exposed to light as well as in those not exposed to light. Substitution of sucrose for glucose in the perfusing solution had no effect on total or percent oxidized glutathione. Perfusion of rabbit corneal endothelium with 0.5 mM chlorpromazine and exposure to ultraviolet (UV) light resulted in no change in total glutathione content. A marked reduction in percent oxidized glutathione occurred, however, in corneas perfused with 0.5 mM chlorpromazine both in the presence and absence of UV light. It is concluded that photodynamically induced swelling of corneas is not the result of a failure of the glutathione redox system.

  18. Photodynamic therapy monitoring with optical coherence angiography

    PubMed Central

    Sirotkina, M. A.; Matveev, L. A.; Shirmanova, M. V.; Zaitsev, V. Y.; Buyanova, N. L.; Elagin, V. V.; Gelikonov, G. V.; Kuznetsov, S. S.; Kiseleva, E. B.; Moiseev, A. A.; Gamayunov, S. V.; Zagaynova, E. V.; Feldchtein, F. I.; Vitkin, A.; Gladkova, N. D.

    2017-01-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a promising modern approach for cancer therapy with low normal tissue toxicity. This study was focused on a vascular-targeting Chlorine E6 mediated PDT. A new angiographic imaging approach known as M-mode-like optical coherence angiography (MML-OCA) was able to sensitively detect PDT-induced microvascular alterations in the mouse ear tumour model CT26. Histological analysis showed that the main mechanisms of vascular PDT was thrombosis of blood vessels and hemorrhage, which agrees with angiographic imaging by MML-OCA. Relationship between MML-OCA-detected early microvascular damage post PDT (within 24 hours) and tumour regression/regrowth was confirmed by histology. The advantages of MML-OCA such as direct image acquisition, fast processing, robust and affordable system opto-electronics, and label-free high contrast 3D visualization of the microvasculature suggest attractive possibilities of this method in practical clinical monitoring of cancer therapies with microvascular involvement. PMID:28148963

  19. Mitochondrial Reactive Oxygen Species and Photodynamic Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Ito, Hiromu

    2016-01-01

    Worldwide, the number of cancer cases is increasing. Typically, they are treated by either surgery or chemotherapy. However, these treatments may be undesirable in elderly patients or those who are under medication with antiplatelet drugs. Photodynamic therapy (PDT) represents a potentially attractive treatment option for these types of patients, since it does not involve surgery and has considerably reduced side effects compared to chemotherapy. Porphyrin, one of the most commonly used photosensitizers, has the convenient property of cancer-specific accumulation and therefore, is commonly used in PDT. However, the mechanism by which this cancer-specific accumulation occurs remains unclear. We previously reported that a heme-transport protein, HCP1, was capable of transporting porphyrin compounds. HCP1 expression is associated with increased hypoxia, although the detailed mechanism by which this regulation occurs is also unknown. Here, we review available data on the mechanism of regulation of HCP1 expression through mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (mitROS). Specifically, cancer cells show increased expression of HCP1 compared to normal cells and this over-expression is reduced in cancer cells over-expressing the mitROS scavenging enzyme manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD). Thus we conclude that mitROS is involved in regulating HCP1 expression. PMID:27853344

  20. Guidelines for topical photodynamic therapy: update.

    PubMed

    Morton, C A; McKenna, K E; Rhodes, L E

    2008-12-01

    Multicentre randomized controlled studies now demonstrate high efficacy of topical photodynamic therapy (PDT) for actinic keratoses, Bowen's disease (BD) and superficial basal cell carcinoma (BCC), and efficacy in thin nodular BCC, while confirming the superiority of cosmetic outcome over standard therapies. Long-term follow-up studies are also now available, indicating that PDT has recurrence rates equivalent to other standard therapies in BD and superficial BCC, but with lower sustained efficacy than surgery in nodular BCC. In contrast, current evidence does not support the use of topical PDT for squamous cell carcinoma. PDT can reduce the number of new lesions developing in patients at high risk of skin cancer and may have a role as a preventive therapy. Case reports and small series attest to the potential of PDT in a wide range of inflammatory/infective dermatoses, although recent studies indicate insufficient evidence to support its use in psoriasis. There is an accumulating evidence base for the use of PDT in acne, while detailed study of an optimized protocol is still required. In addition to high-quality treatment site cosmesis, several studies observe improvements in aspects of photoageing. Management of treatment-related pain/discomfort is a challenge in a minority of patients, and the modality is otherwise well tolerated. Long-term studies provide reassurance over the safety of repeated use of PDT.

  1. Tissue temperature monitoring during interstitial photodynamic therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Svensson, Jenny; Johansson, Ann; Svanberg, Katarina; Andersson-Engels, Stefan

    2005-04-01

    During δ-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) based Interstitial Photodynamic Therapy (IPDT) a high light fluence rate is present close to the source fibers. This might induce an unintentional tissue temperature increase of importance for the treatment outcome. In a previous study, we have observed, that the absorption in the tissue increases during the treatment. A system to measure the local tissue temperature at the source fibers during IPDT on tissue phantoms is presented. The temperature was measured by acquiring the fluorescence from small Cr3+-doped crystals attached to the tip of the illumination fiber used in an IPDT-system. The fluorescence of the Alexandrite crystal used is temperature dependent. A ratio of the intensity of the fluorescence was formed between two different wavelength bands in the red region. The system was calibrated by immersing the fibers in an Intralipid solution placed in a temperature controlled oven. Measurements were then performed by placing the fibers interstitially in a pork chop as a tissue phantom. Measurements were also performed superficially on skin on a volunteer. A treatment was conducted for 10 minutes, and the fluorescence was measured each minute during the illumination. The fluorescence yielded the temperature at the fiber tip through the calibration curve. The measurements indicate a temperature increase of a few degrees during the simulated treatment.

  2. Photodynamic inactivation of pathogens causing infectious keratitis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simon, Carole; Wolf, G.; Walther, M.; Winkler, K.; Finke, M.; Hüttenberger, D.; Bischoff, Markus; Seitz, B.; Cullum, J.; Foth, H.-J.

    2014-03-01

    The increasing prevalence of antibiotic resistance requires new approaches also for the treatment of infectious keratitis. Photodynamic Inactivation (PDI) using the photosensitizer (PS) Chlorin e6 (Ce6) was investigated as an alternative to antibiotic treatment. An in-vitro cornea model was established using porcine eyes. The uptake of Ce6 by bacteria and the diffusion of the PS in the individual layers of corneal tissue were investigated by fluorescence. After removal of the cornea's epithelium Ce6-concentrations < 1 mM were sufficient to reach a penetration depth of 500 μm. Liquid cultures of microorganisms were irradiated using a specially constructed illumination chamber made of Spectralon(R) (reflectance: 99 %), which was equipped with high power light emitting diodes (λ = 670 nm). Clinical isolates of Staphylococcus aureus (SA) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA) from keratitis patients were tested in liquid culture against different concentrations of Ce6 (1 - 512 μM) using 10 minutes irradiation (E = 18 J/cm2 ). This demonstrated that a complete inactivation of the pathogen strains were feasible whereby SA was slightly more susceptible than PA. 3909 mutants of the Keio collection of Escherichia coli (E.coli) were screened for potential resistance factors. The sensitive mutants can be grouped into three categories: transport mutants, mutants in lipopolysaccharide synthesis and mutants in the bacterial SOS-response. In conclusion PDI is seen as a promising therapy concept for infectious keratitis.

  3. Novel Photodynamics in Phytochrome & Cyanobacteriochrome Photosensory Proteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larsen, Delmar

    2015-03-01

    The photodynamics of recently characterized phytochrome and cyanobacteriochrome photoreceptors are discussed. Phytochromes are red/far-red photosensory proteins that utilize the photoisomerization of a linear tetrapyrrole (bilin) chromophore to detect the red to far-red light ratio. Cyanobacteriochromes (CBCRs) are distantly related cyanobacterial photosensors with homologous bilin-binding GAF domains, but exhibit greater spectral diversity. The excited-state mechanisms underlying the initial photoisomerization in the forward reactions of the cyanobacterial photoreceptor Cph1 from Synechocystis, the RcaE CBCR from Fremyella diplosiphon, and Npr6012g4 CBCR from Nostoc punctiforme were contrasted via multipulse pump-dump-probe transient spectroscopy. A rich excited-state dynamics are resolved involving a complex interplay of excited-state proton transfer, photoisomerization, multilayered inhomogeneity, and reactive intermediates, and Le Chatelier redistribution. NpR6012g4 exhibits a high quantum yield for its forward photoreaction (40%) that was ascribed to the activity of hidden, productive ground-state intermediates via a ``second chance initiation dynamics'' (SCID) mechanism. This work was supported by a grant from the Chemical Sciences, Geosciences, and Biosciences Division, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Office of Science, United States Department of Energy (DOE DE-FG02-09ER16117).

  4. Photodynamic therapy of advanced malignant tumors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Lian-xing; Dai, Lu-pin; Lu, Wen-qin

    1993-03-01

    Forty patients with advanced tumors were treated by photodynamic therapy (PDT) from May 1991 to August 1991 in our hospital with age ranges from 30 to 81 years old. The pathological diagnosis shows that 13 had tumors in the colon, 3 in the stomach, 2 in the oesophageal, 2 in the palatum, 1 in the cervix, and 19 others with malignant cancers of the skin. The histology was as follows: squamous cell in 20, adenocarcinoma in 19, melanocarcinoma in 1. By TNM classification there were no cases of T1, 5 cases of T2, and 35 cases of T2 - T3. All patients were stage IV. The overall effective rate was 85%, our experience is that the PDT is suitable for the patients with advanced tumor, especially those whose tumor recurrences are hard to treat after conventional treatment (surgery, radiotherapy, chemotherapy). The PDT appears to be a new and promising possibility to treat advanced tumors and to improve the patients' survival rates.

  5. PDT Dose Dosimeter for Pleural Photodynamic Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Michele M.; Darafsheh, Arash; Ahmad, Mahmoud; Finlay, Jarod C.; Zhu, Timothy C.

    2016-01-01

    PDT dose is the product of the photosensitizer concentration and the light fluence in the target tissue. For improved dosimetry during plural photodynamic therapy (PDT), a PDT dose dosimeter was developed to measure both the light fluence and the photosensitizer concentration simultaneously in the same treatment location. Light fluence and spectral data were rigorously compared to other methods of measurement (e.g. photodiode, multi-fiber spectroscopy contact probe) to assess the accuracy of the measurements as well as their uncertainty. Photosensitizer concentration was obtained by measuring the fluorescence of the sensitizer excited by the treatment light. Fluence rate based on the intensity of the laser spectrum was compared to the data obtained by direct measurement of fluence rate by a fiber-coupled photodiode. Phantom studies were done to obtain an optical property correction for the fluorescence signal. Measurements were performed in patients treated Photofrin for different locations in the pleural cavity. Multiple sites were measured to investigate the heterogeneity of the cavity and to provide cross-validation via relative dosimetry. This novel method will allow for accurate real-time determination of delivered PDT dose and improved PDT dosimetry. PMID:27053825

  6. Photodynamic Therapy for Infections: Clinical Applications

    PubMed Central

    Kharkwal, Gitika B.; Sharma, Sulbha K.; Huang, Ying-Ying; Dai, Tianhong; Hamblin, Michael R.

    2012-01-01

    Background and Objective Photodynamic therapy (PDT) was discovered over 100 years ago by its ability to kill various microorganisms when the appropriate dye and light were combined in the presence of oxygen. However it is only in relatively recent times that PDT has been studied as a treatment for various types of localized infections. This resurgence of interest has been partly motivated by the alarming increase in drug resistance amongst bacteria and other pathogens. This review will focus on the clinical applications of antimicrobial PDT. Study Design/Materials and Methods The published peer-reviewed literature was reviewed between 1960 and 2011. Results The basics of antimicrobial PDT are discussed. Clinical applications of antimicrobial PDT to localized viral infections caused by herpes and papilloma viruses, and nonviral dermatological infections such as acne and other yeast, fungal and bacterial skin infections are covered. PDT has been used to treat bacterial infections in brain abscesses and non-healing ulcers. PDT for dental infections including periodontitis and endodontics has been well studied. PDT has also been used for cutaneous Leishmaniasis. Clinical trials of PDT and blue light alone therapy for gastric Helicobacter pylori infection are also covered. Conclusion As yet clinical PDT for infections has been mainly in the field of dermatology using 5-aminolevulanic acid and in dentistry using phenothiazinium dyes. We expect more to see applications of PDT to more challenging infections using advanced antimicrobial photosensitizers targeted to microbial cells in the years to come. PMID:22057503

  7. Optical dosimetry for interstitial photodynamic therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Arnfield, M.R.; Tulip, J.; Chetner, M.; McPhee, M.S. )

    1989-07-01

    An approach to photodynamic treatment of tumors is the interstitial implantation of fiber optic light sources. Dosimetry is critical in identifying regions of low light intensity in the tumor which may prevent tumor cure. We describe a numerical technique for calculating light distributions within tumors, from multiple fiber optic sources. The method was tested using four translucent plastic needles, which were placed in a 0.94 X 0.94 cm grid pattern within excised Dunning R3327-AT rat prostate tumors. A cylindrical diffusing fiber tip, illuminated by 630 nm dye laser light was placed within one needle and a miniature light detector was placed within another. The average penetration depth in the tumor region between the two needles was calculated from the optical power measured by the detector, using a modified diffusion theory. Repeating the procedure for each pair of needles revealed significant variations in penetration depth within individual tumors. Average values of penetration depth, absorption coefficient, scattering coefficient, and mean scattering cosine were 0.282 cm, 0.469 cm-1, 250 cm-1 and 0.964, respectively. Calculated light distributions from four cylindrical sources in tumors gave reasonable agreement with direct light measurements using fiber optic probes.

  8. Photodynamic Antimicrobial Polymers for Infection Control

    PubMed Central

    McCoy, Colin P.; O’Neil, Edward J.; Cowley, John F.; Carson, Louise; De Baróid, Áine T.; Gdowski, Greg T.; Gorman, Sean P.; Jones, David S.

    2014-01-01

    Hospital-acquired infections pose both a major risk to patient wellbeing and an economic burden on global healthcare systems, with the problem compounded by the emergence of multidrug resistant and biocide tolerant bacterial pathogens. Many inanimate surfaces can act as a reservoir for infection, and adequate disinfection is difficult to achieve and requires direct intervention. In this study we demonstrate the preparation and performance of materials with inherent photodynamic, surface-active, persistent antimicrobial properties through the incorporation of photosensitizers into high density poly(ethylene) (HDPE) using hot-melt extrusion, which require no external intervention except a source of visible light. Our aim is to prevent bacterial adherence to these surfaces and eliminate them as reservoirs of nosocomial pathogens, thus presenting a valuable advance in infection control. A two-layer system with one layer comprising photosensitizer-incorporated HDPE, and one layer comprising HDPE alone is also described to demonstrate the versatility of our approach. The photosensitizer-incorporated materials are capable of reducing the adherence of viable bacteria by up to 3.62 Log colony forming units (CFU) per square centimeter of material surface for methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), and by up to 1.51 Log CFU/cm2 for Escherichia coli. Potential applications for the technology are in antimicrobial coatings for, or materials comprising objects, such as tubing, collection bags, handrails, finger-plates on hospital doors, or medical equipment found in the healthcare setting. PMID:25250740

  9. Variables in photodynamic therapy for Barrett's esophagus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Linda R.; Preyer, Norris W.; Buchanan, Jane; Reynolds, Daryl M.; Wolfsen, Herbert C.; Wallace, Michael B.; Gill, Kanwar R. S.

    2009-06-01

    Photodynamic therapy with porfimer sodium (PS) is a treatment option for high grade dysplasia associated with Barrett's esophagus. This study sought to investigate the optical properties of Barrett's dysplasia that may be useful in light dosimetry planning and to determine the effect of PS on tissue absorption and scattering. Fiber optic reflectance spectra were collected before and 48 hours after administration of 2 mg/kg PS. Mucosal biopsies were collected at the same locations. According to Monte Carlo analysis, the fiber optic probe sampled only the mucosal layer. A mathematical fit of the reflectance spectra was performed as a function of blood volume fraction, oxygen saturation and scattering. The average calculated blood volume was 100% higher in Barrett's tissue than normal esophageal tissue. The average scattering slope from 620 to 750 nm was 26% higher for Barrett's dysplasia than normal esophageal tissue, indicating an increase in the size of scattering particles. The difference in the scattering amplitude was not statistically significant, suggesting no significant increase in the number of scattering particles. PS tissue content was determined with extraction methods. Changes in the scattering slope due to PS sensitization were observed; however they were not proportional to the extracted PS concentration.

  10. Photodynamic antibacterial effect of graphene quantum dots.

    PubMed

    Ristic, Biljana Z; Milenkovic, Marina M; Dakic, Ivana R; Todorovic-Markovic, Biljana M; Milosavljevic, Momir S; Budimir, Milica D; Paunovic, Verica G; Dramicanin, Miroslav D; Markovic, Zoran M; Trajkovic, Vladimir S

    2014-05-01

    Synthesis of new antibacterial agents is becoming increasingly important in light of the emerging antibiotic resistance. In the present study we report that electrochemically produced graphene quantum dots (GQD), a new class of carbon nanoparticles, generate reactive oxygen species when photoexcited (470 nm, 1 W), and kill two strains of pathogenic bacteria, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. Bacterial killing was demonstrated by the reduction in number of bacterial colonies in a standard plate count method, the increase in propidium iodide uptake confirming the cell membrane damage, as well as by morphological defects visualized by atomic force microscopy. The induction of oxidative stress in bacteria exposed to photoexcited GQD was confirmed by staining with a redox-sensitive fluorochrome dihydrorhodamine 123. Neither GQD nor light exposure alone were able to cause oxidative stress and reduce the viability of bacteria. Importantly, mouse spleen cells were markedly less sensitive in the same experimental conditions, thus indicating a fairly selective antibacterial photodynamic action of GQD. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Photodynamic therapy of recurrent cerebral glioma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Shu-Gan; Wu, Si-En; Chen, Zong-Qian; Sun, Wei

    1993-03-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) was performed on 11 cases of recurrent cerebral glioma, including 3 cases of recurrent glioblastoma, 7 of recurrent anaplastic astrocytoma, and 1 recurrent ependymoma. Hematoporphyrin derivative (HPD) was administered intravenously at a dose of 4 - 7 mg/kg 5 - 24 hours before the operation. All patients underwent a craniotomy with a nearly radical excision of the tumor following which the tumor bed was irradiated with 630 nm laser light emitting either an argon pumped dye laser or frequency double YAG pumped dye laser for 30 to 80 minutes with a total dose of 50 J/cm2 (n equals 1), 100 J/cm2 (n equals 2), 200 J/cm2 (n equals 7), and 300 J/cm2 (n equals 1). The temperature was kept below 37 degree(s)C by irrigation. Two patients underwent postoperative radiotherapy. There was no evidence of increased cerebral edema, and no other toxicity by the therapy. All patients were discharged from the hospital within 15 days after surgery. We conclude that PDT using 4 - 7 mg/kg of HPD and 630 nm light with a dose of up to 300 J/cm2 can be used as an adjuvant therapy with no additional complications. Adjuvant PDT in the treatment of recurrent glioma is better than simple surgery.

  12. Photodynamic therapy monitoring with optical coherence angiography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sirotkina, M. A.; Matveev, L. A.; Shirmanova, M. V.; Zaitsev, V. Y.; Buyanova, N. L.; Elagin, V. V.; Gelikonov, G. V.; Kuznetsov, S. S.; Kiseleva, E. B.; Moiseev, A. A.; Gamayunov, S. V.; Zagaynova, E. V.; Feldchtein, F. I.; Vitkin, A.; Gladkova, N. D.

    2017-02-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a promising modern approach for cancer therapy with low normal tissue toxicity. This study was focused on a vascular-targeting Chlorine E6 mediated PDT. A new angiographic imaging approach known as M-mode-like optical coherence angiography (MML-OCA) was able to sensitively detect PDT-induced microvascular alterations in the mouse ear tumour model CT26. Histological analysis showed that the main mechanisms of vascular PDT was thrombosis of blood vessels and hemorrhage, which agrees with angiographic imaging by MML-OCA. Relationship between MML-OCA-detected early microvascular damage post PDT (within 24 hours) and tumour regression/regrowth was confirmed by histology. The advantages of MML-OCA such as direct image acquisition, fast processing, robust and affordable system opto-electronics, and label-free high contrast 3D visualization of the microvasculature suggest attractive possibilities of this method in practical clinical monitoring of cancer therapies with microvascular involvement.

  13. Cellular stress induced by photodynamic reaction with CoTPPS and MnTMPyPCl5 in combination with electroporation in human colon adenocarcinoma cell lines (LoVo and LoVoDX).

    PubMed

    Kulbacka, J; Kotulska, M; Rembiałkowska, N; Choromańska, A; Kamińska, I; Garbiec, A; Rossowska, J; Daczewska, M; Jachimska, B; Saczko, J

    2013-11-01

    Two porphyrins, CoTPPS and MnTMPyPCl5, were tested for their photodynamic activity and potential novel use in a therapy of human cancers. We investigated an effect of photodynamic reaction (PDR), electroporation (EP) and their combination (electro-photodynamic reaction [EP-PDR]) on human colon adenocarcinoma cell lines (LoVo and resistant to doxorubicin LoVoDX), human breast adenocarcinoma (wild type MCF-7/WT and resistant to doxorubicin MCF-7/DOX), and human melanoma (Me45). The efficiency of macromolecules transport was examined with cytofluorymetry by assessing the degree of propidium iodide (PI) penetration. Additionally, cellular ultrastructure after EP was evaluated. We determined cyto- and photo-cytotoxic effect on the cells viability (MTT assay) after standard PDR and PDR combined with EP. Intracellular distribution and mitochondrial colocalization of both porphyrins was also performed. The experiments proved that both complexes exhibit desirable photodynamic properties on LoVo LoVoDX cells, and EP effectively supports photodynamic method in this type of cancer. The application of EP provided shorter time of incubation (only 10 min) and enhanced effect of applied therapy. The porphyrins did not affect the MCF-7 and Me45 cell lines.

  14. Development of therapeutic Au-methylene blue nanoparticles for targeted photodynamic therapy of cervical cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Yu, Jiashing; Hsu, Che-Hao; Huang, Chih-Chia; Chang, Po-Yang

    2015-01-14

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) involves the cellular uptake of a photosensitizer (PS) combined with oxygen molecules and light at a specific wavelength to be able to trigger cancer cell death via the apoptosis pathway, which is less harmful and has less inflammatory side effect than necrosis. However, the traditional PDT treatment has two main deficiencies: the dark toxicity of the PS and the poor selectivity of the cellular uptake of PS between the target cells and normal tissues. In this work, methylene blue (MB), a known effective PS, combined with Au nanoparticles (NPs) was prepared using an intermolecular interaction between a polystyrene-alt-maleic acid (PSMA) layer on the Au NPs and MB. The Au@polymer/MB NPs produced a high quantum yield of singlet oxygen molecules, over 50% as much as that of free MB, when they were excited by a dark red light source at 660 nm, but without significant dark toxicity. Furthermore, transferrin (Tf) was conjugated on the Au@polymer/MB NPs via an EDC/NHS reaction to enhance the selectivity to HeLa cells compared to 3T3 fibroblasts. With a hand-held single laser treatment (32 mW/cm) for 4 min, the new Au@polymer/MB-Tf NPs showed a 2-fold enhancement of PDT efficiency toward HeLa cells over the use of free MB at 4 times dosage. Cellular staining examinations showed that the HeLa cells reacted with Au@polymer/MB-Tf NPs and the 660 nm light excitation triggered PDT, which caused the cells to undergo apoptosis ("programmed" cell death). We propose that applying this therapeutic Au@polymer/MB-Tf nanoagent is facile and safe for delivery and cancer cell targeting to simultaneously minimize side effects and accomplish a significant enhancement in photodynamic therapeutic efficiency toward next-generation nanomedicine development.

  15. Nanoscale metal-organic frameworks for photodynamic therapy and cancer immunotherapy (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Wenbin

    2017-02-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is an effective anticancer procedure that relies on tumor localization of a photosensitizer followed by light activation to generate cytotoxic reactive oxygen species. We recently reported the rational design of a Hf-porphyrin nanoscale metal-organic framework, DBP-UiO, as an exceptionally effective photosensitizer for PDT of resistant head and neck cancer. DBP-UiO efficiently generates singlet oxygen owing to site isolation of porphyrin ligands, enhanced intersystem crossing by heavy Hf centers, and facile singlet oxygen diffusion through porous DBP-UiO nanoplates. Consequently, DBP-UiO displayed greatly enhanced PDT efficacy both in vitro and in vivo, leading to complete tumor eradication in half of the mice receiving a single DBP-UiO dose and a single light exposure. The photophysical properties of DBP-UiO are however not optimum with the lowest energy absorption at 634 nm and a relatively small extinction coefficient of 2200 M-1·cm-1. We recently designed a chlorin-based NMOF, DBC-UiO, with much improved photophysical properties and PDT efficacy in two colon cancer mouse models. Reduction of the DBP ligands in DBP-UiO to the DBC ligands in DBC-UiO led to a 13 nm red-shift and an 11-fold extinction coefficient increase of the lowest energy Q-band. While inheriting the crystallinity, stability, porosity, and nanoplate morphology of DBP-UiO, DBC-UiO sensitizes more efficient singlet oxygen generation and exhibits much enhanced photodynamic therapy (PDT) efficacy on two colon cancer mouse models as a result of its improved photophysical properties. Both apoptosis and immunogenic cell death contributed to cancer cell-killing in DBC-UiO induced PDT. Our work has thus demonstrated that NMOFs represent a new class of highly potent PDT agents and hold great promise in treating resistant cancers in the clinic.

  16. Intracellular Targeting Specificity of Novel Phthalocyanines Assessed in a Host-Parasite Model for Developing Potential Photodynamic Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Dutta, Sujoy; Ongarora, Benson G.; Li, Hairong; Vicente, Maria da Graca H.; Kolli, Bala K.; Chang, Kwang Poo

    2011-01-01

    Photodynamic therapy, unlikely to elicit drug-resistance, deserves attention as a strategy to counter this outstanding problem common to the chemotherapy of all diseases. Previously, we have broadened the applicability of this modality to photodynamic vaccination by exploiting the unusual properties of the trypanosomatid protozoa, Leishmania, i.e., their innate ability of homing to the phagolysosomes of the antigen-presenting cells and their selective photolysis therein, using transgenic mutants endogenously inducible for porphyrin accumulation. Here, we extended the utility of this host-parasite model for in vitro photodynamic therapy and vaccination by exploring exogenously supplied photosensitizers. Seventeen novel phthalocyanines (Pcs) were screened in vitro for their photolytic activity against cultured Leishmania. Pcs rendered cationic and soluble (csPcs) for cellular uptake were phototoxic to both parasite and host cells, i.e., macrophages and dendritic cells. The csPcs that targeted to mitochondria were more photolytic than those restricted to the endocytic compartments. Treatment of infected cells with endocytic csPcs resulted in their accumulation in Leishmania-containing phagolysosomes, indicative of reaching their target for photodynamic therapy, although their parasite versus host specificity is limited to a narrow range of csPc concentrations. In contrast, Leishmania pre-loaded with csPc were selectively photolyzed intracellularly, leaving host cells viable. Pre-illumination of such csPc-loaded Leishmania did not hinder their infectivity, but ensured their intracellular lysis. Ovalbumin (OVA) so delivered by photo-inactivated OVA transfectants to mouse macrophages and dendritic cells were co-presented with MHC Class I molecules by these antigen presenting cells to activate OVA epitope-specific CD8+T cells. The in vitro evidence presented here demonstrates for the first time not only the potential of endocytic csPcs for effective photodynamic therapy

  17. Photodynamic therapy in the treatment of vulvar lichen sclerosus.

    PubMed

    Maździarz, Agnieszka; Osuch, Beata; Kowalska, Magdalena; Nalewczyńska, Agnieszka; Śpiewankiewicz, Beata

    2017-09-01

    Vulvar lichen sclerosus is a chronic and incurable disease that causes various unpleasant symptoms and serious consequences. The purpose of the study was to assess the effectiveness of photodynamic therapy in the treatment of vulvar lichen sclerosus. Participants in the study included 102 female patients aged 19-85 suffer from vulvar lichen sclerosus. The patients underwent photodynamic therapy (PDT). In the course of PDT the 5% 5- aminolevulinic acid was used in gel form. The affected areas were irradiated with a halogenic lamp PhotoDyn 501 (590-760nm) during a 10-min radiation treatment. The treatment was repeated weekly for 10 weeks. PDT has brought about a good therapeutic effect (complete or partial clinical remission), with 87.25% improvement rate in patients suffering from lichen sclerosus. The greatest vulvoscopic response was observed in the reduction of subepithelial ecchymoses and teleangiectasia (78.95%), and the reduction of erosions and fissures (70.97%). A partial remission of lichenification with hyperkeratosis was observed in 51.61% of cases. The least response was observed in the atrophic lesions reduction (improvement in 37.36% of cases). Our patients suffering from vulvar lichen sclerosus demonstrated positive responses to photodynamic therapy and the treatment was well tolerated. Photodynamic therapy used to treat lichen sclerosus yields excellent cosmetic results. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Suppression of cucurbit scab on cucumber leaves by photodynamic dyes

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The goal of this study was to test the ability of the photodynamic dyes bengal rose, toluidine blue, and methylene blue, to protect systemically cucumber plants from cucurbit scab. At the stage of one true leaf, water or aqueous solutions of the dyes were applied to the leaf as droplets. When the se...

  19. Photodynamic Therapy in Treatment of Oral Lichen Planus

    PubMed Central

    Mostafa, Diana; Tarakji, Bassel

    2015-01-01

    Oral lichen planus (OLP) is a relatively common chronic immunologic mucocutaneous disorder. Although there are many presenting treatments, some of them proved its failure. Recently, the use of photodynamic therapy (PDT) has been expanding due to its numerous advantages, as it is safe, convenient, and non-invasive and has toxic effect towards selective tissues. This article provides comprehensive review on OLP, its etiology, clinical features and recent non-pharmacological treatments. We also describe the topical PDT and its mechanisms. Our purpose was to evaluate the efficacy of PDT in treatment of OLP through collecting the data of the related clinical studies. We searched in PubMed website for the clinical studies that were reported from 2000 to 2014 using specific keywords: “photodynamic therapy” and “treatment of oral lichen planus”. Inclusion criteria were English publications only were concerned. In the selected studies of photodynamic treatment, adult patients (more than 20 years) were conducted and the OLP lesions were clinically and histologically confirmed. Exclusion criteria were classical and pharmacological treatments of OLP were excluded and also the using of PDT on skin lesions of lichen planus. We established five clinical studies in this review where all of them reported improvement and effectiveness of PDT in treatment of OLP lesions. The main outcome of comparing the related clinical studies is that the photodynamic is considered as a safe, effective and promising treatment modality for OLP. PMID:25883701

  20. Photodynamic therapy by in situ nonlinear photon conversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kachynski, A. V.; Pliss, A.; Kuzmin, A. N.; Ohulchanskyy, T. Y.; Baev, A.; Qu, J.; Prasad, P. N.

    2014-06-01

    In photodynamic therapy, light is absorbed by a therapy agent (photosensitizer) to generate reactive oxygen, which then locally kills diseased cells. Here, we report a new form of photodynamic therapy in which nonlinear optical interactions of near-infrared laser radiation with a biological medium in situ produce light that falls within the absorption band of the photosensitizer. The use of near-infrared radiation, followed by upconversion to visible or ultraviolet light, provides deep tissue penetration, thus overcoming a major hurdle in treatment. By modelling and experiment, we demonstrate activation of a known photosensitizer, chlorin e6, by in situ nonlinear optical upconversion of near-infrared laser radiation using second-harmonic generation in collagen and four-wave mixing, including coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering, produced by cellular biomolecules. The introduction of coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering/four-wave mixing to photodynamic therapy in vitro increases the efficiency by a factor of two compared to two-photon photodynamic therapy alone, while second-harmonic generation provides a fivefold increase.

  1. Nanoparticle Self-Lighting Photodynamic Therapy For Deep Cancer Treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hossu, Marius; Chen, Wei

    2009-10-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) has been designated as a ``promising new modality in the treatment of cancer'' since the early 1980s. Light must be delivered in order to activate photodynamic therapy. Most photosensitizers have strong absorption in the ultraviolet (UV) -- blue range, therefore, UV -blue light is needed for their activation. Unfortunately, UV-blue light has minimal penetration into tissue and its application for in vivo activation is a problem. Here, we introduce a new PDT system in which the light is generated by afterglow nanoparticles with attached photosensitizers. When the nanoparticle-photosensitizer conjugates are targeted to tumor, the light from afterglow nanoparticles will activate the photosensitizers for photodynamic therapy. Therefore, no external light is required for treatment. More importantly, it can be used to treat deep tumor such as breast cancer because the light source is attached to the photosensitizers and are delivered to the tumor cells all together. This new modality is refereed as Nanoparticle Self-Lighting Photodynamic Therapy (NSLPDT).

  2. Photodynamic Therapy for Malignant Brain Tumors.

    PubMed

    Akimoto, Jiro

    2016-01-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) using talaporfin sodium together with a semiconductor laser was approved in Japan in October 2003 as a less invasive therapy for early-stage lung cancer. The author believes that the principle of PDT would be applicable for controlling the invading front of malignant brain tumors and verified its efficacy through experiments using glioma cell lines and glioma xenograft models. An investigator-initiated clinical study was jointly conducted with Tokyo Women's Medical University with the support of the Japan Medical Association. Patient enrollment was started in May 2009 and a total of 27 patients were enrolled by March 2012. Of 22 patients included in efficacy analysis, 13 patients with newly diagnosed glioblastoma showed progression-free survival of 12 months, progression-free survival at the site of laser irradiation of 20 months, 1-year survival of 100%, and overall survival of 24.8 months. In addition, the safety analysis of the 27 patients showed that adverse events directly related to PDT were mild. PDT was approved in Japan for health insurance coverage as a new intraoperative therapy with the indication for malignant brain tumors in September 2013. Currently, the post-marketing investigation in the accumulated patients has been conducted, and the preparation of guidelines, holding training courses, and dissemination of information on the safe implementation of PDT using web sites and videos, have been promoted. PDT is expected to be a breakthrough for the treatment of malignant glioma as a tumor cell-selective less invasive therapy for the infiltrated functional brain area.

  3. Laser effect in photodynamic therapy of tumors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ion, Rodica-Mariana; Brezoi, Dragos-Viorel; Neagu, Monica; Manda, Gina; Constantin, Carolina

    2007-03-01

    Photodynamic therapy is a method that provides a reasonable alternative to other treatment modalities for patients with certain cancers, and in some cases may be the preferred treatment. The therapy implies the intravenous administration of a light-sensitive substance, the photosensitizer. The used sensitizer must absorb at long wavelength. For these purposes, the carbon dioxide laser, He-Ne and the argon laser are particularly suitable. In this study we evaluate in vitro the cytotoxic activity of three synthesized metallo-phthalocyanines with absorption bands in the red part of the spectrum: zinc-di-sulphonated phthalocyanine (ZnS IIPc), zinc-tri-sulphonated phthalocyanine (ZnS 3Pc) and zinc-tetrasulphonated phthalocyanine (ZnS 4Pc). Some cellular models have been used in this paper, in order to optimize the conditions of this method, as we are presenting in this paper (LSR-SF(SR) - transplantable sarcoma in rat induced by Rous sarcoma virus strain Schmidt-Ruppin; LSCC-SF(Mc29) - transplantable chicken hepatoma induced by the myelocytomatosis virus Mc29, MCF-7 cell line (human breast adenocarcinoma) derived from a patient with metastatic breast cancer, 8-MG-BA - glioblastoma multiforme 8-MG-BA, K562 - lymphoblastic human cell line, LLC-WRC 256 - Walker epithelial carcinoma. Activation of these photosensitizers retained in the cancerous cells, by red light emitted from a He-Ne laser at λ= 632.8 nm laser system, or by a diode laser emitting at 672 nm, produces a photochemical reaction that results in the selective destruction of tumor cells.

  4. Important cellular targets for antimicrobial photodynamic therapy.

    PubMed

    Awad, Mariam M; Tovmasyan, Artak; Craik, James D; Batinic-Haberle, Ines; Benov, Ludmil T

    2016-09-01

    The persistent problem of antibiotic resistance has created a strong demand for new methods for therapy and disinfection. Photodynamic inactivation (PDI) of microbes has demonstrated promising results for eradication of antibiotic-resistant strains. PDI is based on the use of a photosensitive compound (photosensitizer, PS), which upon illumination with visible light generates reactive species capable of damaging and killing microorganisms. Since photogenerated reactive species are short lived, damage is limited to close proximity of the PS. It is reasonable to expect that the larger the number of damaged targets is and the greater their variety is, the higher the efficiency of PDI is and the lower the chances for development of resistance are. Exact molecular mechanisms and specific targets whose damage is essential for microbial inactivation have not been unequivocally established. Two main cellular components, DNA and plasma membrane, are regarded as the most important PDI targets. Using Zn porphyrin-based PSs and Escherichia coli as a model Gram-negative microorganism, we demonstrate that efficient photoinactivation of bacteria can be achieved without detectable DNA modification. Among the cellular components which are modified early during illumination and constitute key PDI targets are cytosolic enzymes, membrane-bound protein complexes, and the plasma membrane. As a result, membrane barrier function is lost, and energy and reducing equivalent production is disrupted, which in turn compromises cell defense mechanisms, thus augmenting the photoinduced oxidative injury. In conclusion, high PDI antimicrobial effectiveness does not necessarily require impairment of a specific critical cellular component and can be achieved by inducing damage to multiple cellular targets.

  5. Animal models for photodynamic therapy (PDT)

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Zenildo Santos; Bussadori, Sandra Kalil; Fernandes, Kristianne Porta Santos; Huang, Ying-Ying; Hamblin, Michael R.

    2015-01-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) employs non-toxic dyes called photosensitizers (PSs), which absorb visible light to give the excited singlet state, followed by the long-lived triplet state that can undergo photochemistry. In the presence of ambient oxygen, reactive oxygen species (ROS), such as singlet oxygen and hydroxyl radicals are formed that are able to kill cancer cells, inactivate microbial pathogens and destroy unwanted tissue. Although there are already several clinically approved PSs for various disease indications, many studies around the world are using animal models to investigate the further utility of PDT. The present review will cover the main groups of animal models that have been described in the literature. Cancer comprises the single biggest group of models including syngeneic mouse/rat tumours that can either be subcutaneous or orthotopic and allow the study of anti-tumour immune response; human tumours that need to be implanted in immunosuppressed hosts; carcinogen-induced tumours; and mice that have been genetically engineered to develop cancer (often by pathways similar to those in patients). Infections are the second biggest class of animal models and the anatomical sites include wounds, burns, oral cavity, ears, eyes, nose etc. Responsible pathogens can include Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, fungi, viruses and parasites. A smaller and diverse group of miscellaneous animal models have been reported that allow PDT to be tested in ophthalmology, atherosclerosis, atrial fibrillation, dermatology and wound healing. Successful studies using animal models of PDT are blazing the trail for tomorrow's clinical approvals. PMID:26415497

  6. A rationale for treating leg length discrepancy using photodynamic therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bisland, Stuart K.; Johnson, Crystal; Diab, Mohammed; Wilson, Brian C.; Burch, Shane

    2005-09-01

    This study investigates the use of photodynamic therapy (PDT) in regulating bone development with a view to its potential role in treating Juvenile leg length discrepancy (LLD). Transgenic mice expressing the luciferase firefly gene upon activation of a promoter sequence specific to the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) gene were subject to benzoporphyrin derivative monoacid (BPD-MA)-mediated PDT in the right, tibial epiphyseal growth plate at the age of 3 weeks. BPD-MA was administered intracardially (2mg/kg) followed 10 mins later by a laser light (690 +/- 5 nm) at a range of doses (5-27J, 50 mW output) delivered either as a single or repeat regimen (x2-3). Contra-lateral legs served as no-light controls. Further controls included animals that received light treatment in the absence of photosensitizer or no treatment. Mice were imaged for VEGF related bioluminescence (photons/sec/steradian) at t= 0, 24, 48, 72 h and 1-4 weeks post PDT. FaxitronTM x-ray images provided accurate assessment of bone morphometry. Upon sacrifice, the tibia and femur of the treated and untreated limbs were harvested, imaged and measured again and prepared for histology. A number of animals were sacrificed at 24 h post PDT to allow immunohistochemical staining for CD31, VEGF and hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF-1 alpha) within the bone. PDT-treated (10 J, x2) mice displayed enhanced bioluminescence at the treatment site (and ear nick) for up to 4 weeks post treatment while control mice were bioluminescent at the ear-nick site only. Repeat regimens provided greater shortening of the limb than the corresponding single treatment. PDT-treated limbs were shorter by 3-4 mm on average as compared to the contra lateral and light only controls (10 J, x2). Immunohistochemistry confirmed the enhanced expression VEGF and CD31 at 4 weeks post-treatment although no increase in HIF-1α was evident at either 24 h or 4 weeks post PDT treatment. Results confirm the utility of PDT to provide localized

  7. Photodynamic therapy for the treatment of non-small cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Simone, Charles B; Friedberg, Joseph S; Glatstein, Eli; Stevenson, James P; Sterman, Daniel H; Hahn, Stephen M; Cengel, Keith A

    2012-02-01

    Photodynamic therapy is increasingly being utilized to treat thoracic malignancies. For patients with early-stage non-small cell lung cancer, photodynamic therapy is primarily employed as an endobronchial therapy to definitely treat endobronchial, roentgenographically occult, or synchronous primary carcinomas. As definitive monotherapy, photodynamic therapy is most effective in treating bronchoscopically visible lung cancers ≤1 cm with no extracartilaginous invasion. For patients with advanced-stage non-small cell lung cancer, photodynamic therapy can be used to palliate obstructing endobronchial lesions, as a component of definitive multi-modality therapy, or to increase operability or reduce the extent of operation required. A review of the available medical literature detailing all published studies utilizing photodynamic therapy to treat at least 10 patients with non-small cell lung cancer is performed, and treatment recommendations and summaries for photodynamic therapy applications are described.

  8. Photodynamic therapy for the treatment of non-small cell lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Simone, Charles B; Friedberg, Joseph S; Glatstein, Eli; Stevenson, James P; Sterman, Daniel H; Hahn, Stephen M; Cengel, Keith A

    2012-01-01

    Photodynamic therapy is increasingly being utilized to treat thoracic malignancies. For patients with early-stage non-small cell lung cancer, photodynamic therapy is primarily employed as an endobronchial therapy to definitely treat endobronchial, roentgenographically occult, or synchronous primary carcinomas. As definitive monotherapy, photodynamic therapy is most effective in treating bronchoscopically visible lung cancers ≤1 cm with no extracartilaginous invasion. For patients with advanced-stage non-small cell lung cancer, photodynamic therapy can be used to palliate obstructing endobronchial lesions, as a component of definitive multi-modality therapy, or to increase operability or reduce the extent of operation required. A review of the available medical literature detailing all published studies utilizing photodynamic therapy to treat at least 10 patients with non-small cell lung cancer is performed, and treatment recommendations and summaries for photodynamic therapy applications are described. PMID:22295169

  9. Phthalocyanine interaction with cells: kinetics of the photodynamic damage and intracellular localization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chernyaeva, Elena B.; Greve, Jan; de Grooth, Bart G.; Van Leeuwen, A. G.; Poroshina, Marina Y.; Zhorina, L. V.

    1993-06-01

    Phthalocyanine interaction with cultured cells was studied by means of flow-cytometry, laser scanning confocal microscopy, fluorescent and transmission pH-microphotometry. Irradiation of Pc-loaded cells caused the following order of events: increase of Pc intracellular fluorescenceyieldsmitochondria damageyieldschanges of cell surface and/or volumeyields-plasma membrane potential disintegrationyields-severe damage of the cell plasma membrane and nuclear envelope. For all these processes it takes a few hours to reach a stationary value. Pc inside the cells is found in granules surrounding the Golgi apparatus and in the peripheral cytoplasmic region, last ones partially coinciding with the acidic cellular compartments. A temporary decrease of cytoplasmic and lysosomal pH is caused by Pc uptake and irradiation. Artificial acidation of the cytoplasm of Pc-loaded cells resulted in the enhancement of the efficiency of the photodynamic inactivation.

  10. Photodynamic therapy and imaging based on tumor-targeted nanoprobe, polymer-conjugated zinc protoporphyrin

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Jun; Liao, Long; Yin, Hongzhuan; Nakamura, Hideaki; Subr, Vladimir; Ulbrich, Karel; Maeda, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    Aim: To evaluate the potential of tumor-targeted nanoprobe, N-(2-hydroxypropyl)methacrylamide copolymer-conjugated zinc protoporphyrin (PZP) for photodynamic therapy (PDT) and tumor imaging. Materials & Methods: Different tumor models including carcinogen-induced cancer were used, PZP was intravenously injected followed by irradiation with xenon or blue fluorescent light on tumor. Results: One PZP 20 mg/kg (ZnPP equivalent) dose with two or three treatments of light at an intensity of ≥20 J/cm2 caused necrosis and disappearance of most tumors (>70%) in different tumor models. We also confirmed PZP-based tumor imaging in carcinogen-induced breast tumor and colon cancer models. Conclusion: These findings support the potential application of PZP as a tumor-selective nanoprobe for PDT as well as tumor imaging, by virtue of the enhanced permeability and retention effect. PMID:28031879

  11. Synthesis and Characterization of Positively Charged Pentacationic [60]Fullerene Monoadducts for Antimicrobial Photodynamic Inactivation

    PubMed Central

    Thota, Sammaiah; Wang, Min; Jeon, Seaho; Maragani, Satyanarayana; Hamblin, Michael R.; Chiang, Long Y.

    2012-01-01

    We designed and synthesized two analogous pentacationic [60]fullerenyl monoadducts, C60(>ME1N6+C3) (1) and C60(>ME3N6+C3) (2), with variation of the methoxyethyleneglycol length. Each of these derivatives bears a well-defined number of cationic charges aimed to enhance and control their ability to target pathogenic Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial cells for allowing photodynamic inactivation. The synthesis was achieved by the use of a common synthon of pentacationic N,N’,N,N,N,N-hexapropyl-hexa(aminoethyl)amine arm (C3N6+) having six attached propyl groups, instead of methyl or ethyl groups, to provide a well-balanced hydrophobicity–hydrophilicity character of pentacationic precursor intermediates and better compatibility with the highly hydrophobic C60 cage moiety. We demonstrated two plausible synthetic routes for the preparation of 1 and 2 with the product characterization via various spectroscopic methods. PMID:22565476

  12. Photodynamic therapy in dermatology beyond non-melanoma cancer: An update.

    PubMed

    Wen, Xiang; Li, Yong; Hamblin, Michael R

    2017-09-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) employs a photosensitizer (PS) and visible light in the presence of oxygen, leading to production of cytotoxic reactive oxygen species, which can damage the cellular organelles and cause cell death. In dermatology, PDT has usually taken the form of topical application of a precursor in the heme biosynthesis pathway, called 5-aminolevulinic acid (or its methyl ester), so that an active PS, protoporphyrin IX accumulates in the skin. As PDT enhances dermal remodeling and resolves chronic inflamation, it has been used to treat cutaneous disorders include actinic keratoses, acne, viral warts, skin rejuvenation, psoriasis, localized scleroderma, some non-melanoma skin cancers and port-wine stains. Efforts are still needed to mitigate the side effects (principally pain) and improve the overall procedure. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. C6-pyridinium ceramide sensitizes SCC17B human head and neck squamous cell carcinoma cells to photodynamic therapy

    PubMed Central

    Boppana, Nithin B.; Stochaj, Ursula; Kodiha, Mohamed; Bielawska, Alicja; Bielawski, Jacek; Pierce, Jason S.; Korbelik, Mladen; Separovic, Duska

    2015-01-01

    Combining photodynamic therapy (PDT)1 with another anticancer treatment modality is an important strategy for improved efficacy. PDT with Pc4, a silicon phthalocyanine photosensitizer, was combined with C6-pyridinium ceramide (LCL29) to determine their potential to promote death of SCC17B human head and neck squamous cell carcinoma cells. PDT+LCL29-induced enhanced cell death was inhibited by zVAD-fmk, a pan-caspase inhibitor, and fumonisin B1 (FB), a ceramide synthase inhibitor. Quantitative confocal microscopy showed that combining PDT with LCL29 enhanced FB-sensitive ceramide accumulation in the mitochondria. Furthermore, PDT+LCL29 induced enhanced FB-sensitive redistribution of cytochrome c and caspase-3 activation. Overall, the data indicate that PDT+LCL29 enhanced cell death via FB-sensitive, mitochondrial ceramide accumulation and apoptosis. PMID:25635908

  14. C6-pyridinium ceramide sensitizes SCC17B human head and neck squamous cell carcinoma cells to photodynamic therapy.

    PubMed

    Boppana, Nithin B; Stochaj, Ursula; Kodiha, Mohamed; Bielawska, Alicja; Bielawski, Jacek; Pierce, Jason S; Korbelik, Mladen; Separovic, Duska

    2015-02-01

    Combining photodynamic therapy (PDT) with another anticancer treatment modality is an important strategy for improved efficacy. PDT with Pc4, a silicon phthalocyanine photosensitizer, was combined with C6-pyridinium ceramide (LCL29) to determine their potential to promote death of SCC17B human head and neck squamous cell carcinoma cells. PDT+LCL29-induced enhanced cell death was inhibited by zVAD-fmk, a pan-caspase inhibitor, and fumonisin B1 (FB), a ceramide synthase inhibitor. Quantitative confocal microscopy showed that combining PDT with LCL29 enhanced FB-sensitive ceramide accumulation in the mitochondria. Furthermore, PDT+LCL29 induced enhanced FB-sensitive redistribution of cytochrome c and caspase-3 activation. Overall, the data indicate that PDT+LCL29 enhanced cell death via FB-sensitive, mitochondrial ceramide accumulation and apoptosis.

  15. A study of the photodynamic effect on cancerous cells A study of the photodynamic effect on cancerous cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    AlSalhi, M. S.; Atif, M.; Alobiadi, A. A.; Aldwayyan, A. S.

    2012-08-01

    We use a rate equation model for the loss of the photosensitizer resulting from photo-oxidation (singlet oxygen attack on the photodynamic therapy (PDT) photosensitizer). It also incorporates the effect of photobleaching (photosensitizer decay) on the oxygen and the photosensitizer concentration which play an important role in photodynamic damage in different cell cultures. As a part of this study, we calculated photodynamic damage against the exposure time. Secondly photodynamic damage in different treated malignant/neoplastic as well as normal cell lines (Hep-2, A-549, and WI-38) has been investigated using a continuous wave (CW) He-Ne laser (633 nm of red wavelength). For determination of effectiveness of photodynamic damage two sorts of experiments are conducted. In first step of this experiment, given cell lines were photosensitized/treated with 1 ml of δ-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) having working solution of 200 μg/ml and after 4 hours of time of incubation ALA treated cells were exposed/irradiated with different doses (15 - 60 J/cm2) with constant irradiation time (15 minutes approximately). Same technique with exception of different concentration of ALA (60 - 800 μg/ml) and light dose (15 - 60 J/cm2/5-20 mW of power along with time of irradiation 15 minutes approximately) has been applied in second step of experiment. Finally result has been verified by using staining of mitochondria technique. 633 nm He-Ne (CW) along with 400 μg/ml of 5-ALA stipulates excellent therapeutic results verified by using mitochondrial staining technique as well as cell hemocytometry. Both the experimental as well as theoretical results are in good agreement with each other.

  16. Photodynamic therapy of melanoma skin cancer using carbon dot - chlorin e6 - hyaluronate conjugate.

    PubMed

    Beack, Songeun; Kong, Won Ho; Jung, Ho Sang; Do, In Hwan; Han, Seulgi; Kim, Hyemin; Kim, Ki Su; Yun, Seok Hyun; Hahn, Sei Kwang

    2015-10-01

    Despite wide application of photodynamic therapy (PDT) for the treatment of melanoma skin cancers, there are strong biomedical unmet needs for the effective generation of singlet oxygen after targeted delivery of photosensitizers. Here, we investigated a facile PDT of melanoma skin cancer using transdermal carbon dot - chlorine e6 - hyaluronate (Cdot-Ce6-HA) conjugates. The Cdot-Ce6-HA conjugate was synthesized by the coupling reaction of diaminohexane modified HA (DAH-HA) with the carboxylic group of Ce6. The singlet oxygen generation of Cdot-Ce6-HA conjugates in aqueous solution was more significant than that of free Ce6. The enhanced transdermal and intracellular delivery of Cdot-Ce6-HA conjugates to B16F10 melanoma cells in tumor model mice were corroborated by confocal microscopy and two-photon microscopy. The laser irradiation after topical treatment with Cdot-Ce6-HA conjugates resulted in complete suppression of melanoma skin cancers. The antitumor effect was confirmed by histological analysis with H&E staining and TUNEL assay for tumor apoptosis. Taken together, we could confirm the feasibility of Cdot-Ce6-HA conjugate for transdermal PDT of melanoma skin cancers. To our knowledge, this is the first report on a facile transdermal photodynamic therapy (PDT) of melanoma skin cancer using carbon dot - chlorine e6 - hyaluronate (Cdot-Ce6-HA) conjugates. We found that the singlet oxygen generation of Cdot-Ce6-HA conjugates in aqueous solution was more significant than that of free Ce6. Confocal microscopy and two-photon microscopy clearly confirmed the enhanced transdermal and intracellular delivery of Cdot-Ce6-HA conjugates to B16F10 melanoma cells in tumor model mice. Taken together, we could confirm the feasibility of Cdot-Ce6-HA conjugate for transdermal PDT of melanoma skin cancers. Copyright © 2015 Acta Materialia Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Red blood cell ghosts and intact red blood cells as complementary models in photodynamic cell research.

    PubMed

    Kaestner, Lars

    2004-05-01

    Recent research on erythrocytes as model cells for photodynamic therapy showed differing behaviour of certain photosensitisers in erythrocytes compared to other cells. Differences of dye accumulation in the cell membrane were proposed to be the reason for the distinct photodynamic effects. Using pheophorbide a as an example, the combination of erythrocyte ghosts as models to follow the dye accumulation in the cell membrane and intact erythrocytes as model cells to show the photodynamic damage is provided. Evidence for the correctness of the combination of erythrocyte ghosts and intact erythrocytes as a functioning model system in photodynamic cell research is provided using the confocal laser scanning microscopy on intact, pheophorbide a loaded erythrocytes.

  18. Photodynamic therapy affects the expression of IL-6 and IL-10 in vivo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gollnick, Sandra O.; Musser, David A.; Henderson, Barbara W.

    1998-05-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT), which can effectively destroy malignant tissue, also induces a complex immune response which potentiates anti-tumor immunity, but also inhibits skin contact hypersensitivity (CHS) and prolongs skin graft survival. The underlying mechanisms responsible for these effects are poorly understood, but are likely to involve meditation by cytokines. We demonstrate in a BALB/c mouse model that PDT delivered to normal and tumor tissue in vivo causes marked changes in the expression of cytokines interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-10. IL-6 mRNA and protein are rapidly and strongly enhanced in the PDT treated EMT6 tumor. Previous studies have shown that intratumoral injection of IL- 6 or transduction of the IL-6 gene into tumor cells can enhance tumor immunogenicity and inhibit tumor growth in experimental murine tumor systems. Thus, PDT may enhance local anti-tumor immunity by up-regulating IL-6. PDT also results in an increase in IL-10 mRNA and protein in the skin. The same PDT regime which enhances IL-10 production in the skin has been shown to strongly inhibit the CHS response. The kinetics of IL-10 expression coincide with the known kinetics of PDT induced CHS suppression and we propose that the enhanced IL-10 expression plays a role in the observed suppression of cell mediated responses seen following PDT.

  19. Water-Solubilization of Fullerene Derivatives by β-(1,3-1,6)-D-Glucan and Their Photodynamic Activities toward Macrophages.

    PubMed

    Ikeda, Atsushi; Iizuka, Tatsuya; Maekubo, Naotake; Nobusawa, Kazuyuki; Sugikawa, Kouta; Koumoto, Kazuya; Suzuki, Toshio; Nagasaki, Takeshi; Akiyama, Motofusa

    2017-03-06

    Anionic and neutral fullerene derivatives were dissolved in water by β-(1,3-1,6)-D-glucan (β-1,3-glucan) as a solubilizing agent. In the water-solubilized complexes, the concentrations of fullerene derivatives were ca. 0.30 mM and the average particle sizes were ca. 90 nm. The β-1,3-glucan complexed fullerene derivative with a carboxylic acid was found to have higher photodynamic activity toward macrophages under visible-light irradiation (λ > 610 nm) when compared with that of other β-1,3-glucan-complexed fullerene derivatives. This result suggests that carboxylic acid moieties in the complex enhance the binding affinity with β-1,3-glucan-receptors on the surface of macrophages when β-1,3-glucan is recognized. In contrast, all β-1,3-glucan complexed fullerene derivatives showed no photodynamic activity toward HeLa cells under the same conditions.

  20. pH-Sensitive self-assembling nanoparticles for tumor near-infrared fluorescence imaging and chemo-photodynamic combination therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hou, Wenxiu; Zhao, Xin; Qian, Xiaoqing; Pan, Fei; Zhang, Chunlei; Yang, Yuming; de La Fuente, Jesús Martínez; Cui, Daxiang

    2015-12-01

    The development of visual tumor theranostic nanoparticles has become a great challenge. In this study, d-α-tocopheryl polyethylene glycol 1000 succinate (TPGS) was conjugated to acid-sensitive cis-aconitic anhydride-modified doxorubicin (CAD) to obtain pH-sensitive anti-tumor prodrug nanoparticles (TCAD NPs) via self-assembling. Subsequently, the photosensitizer chlorin e6 (Ce6) was loaded into the resulting prodrug nanoparticles to prepare a novel tumor near-infrared fluorescence imaging and chemo-photodynamic combination therapy system (TCAD@Ce6 NPs). An accelerated release of doxorubicin (DOX) and chlorin e6 (Ce6) from the TCAD@Ce6 NPs could be achieved due to the hydrolysis of the acid-sensitive amide linker under mild acidic conditions (pH = 5.5). An in vitro experiment showed that A549 lung cancer cells exhibited a significantly higher uptake of DOX and Ce6 by using our delivery system than the free form of DOX and Ce6. An in vivo experiment showed that TCAD@Ce6 NPs displayed better tumor targeting gathering through the enhanced permeability and retention (EPR) effect than free Ce6, thus improving fluorescence imaging. Moreover, the chemo-photodynamic combination therapy of TCAD@Ce6 NPs combined with near-infrared laser irradiation was confirmed to be capable of inducing high apoptosis and necrosis of tumor cells (A549) in vitro and to display a significantly higher tumor growth suppression in the A549 lung cancer-bearing mice model. Furthermore, compared with exclusive chemotreatment (DOX) or photodynamic treatment (Ce6), our system showed enhanced therapeutic effects both in vitro and in vivo. In conclusion, the high performance TCAD@Ce6 NPs can be used as a promising NIR fluorescence imaging and highly effective chemo-photodynamic system for theranostics of lung cancer, etc. in the near future.The development of visual tumor theranostic nanoparticles has become a great challenge. In this study, d-α-tocopheryl polyethylene glycol 1000 succinate (TPGS) was

  1. Tooth discoloration induced by endodontic phenothiazine dyes in photodynamic therapy.

    PubMed

    Figueiredo, Rômulo Aguiar; Anami, Lilian Costa; Mello, Isabel; Carvalho, Erica dos Santos; Habitante, Sandra Márcia; Raldi, Denise Pontes

    2014-08-01

    This study sought to assess if discoloration of tooth structures occurs after photodynamic therapy (PDT) and to determine the efficacy of a protocol to remove the photosensitizers. PDT has been used in root canal treatment to enhance cleaning and disinfection of the root canal system. PDT uses a low power laser in association with a dye as a photosensitizer. Photosensitizers can induce staining of the dental structures, resulting in an unaesthetic appearance. Forty teeth were randomly divided into four groups according to the photosensitizer used and pre-irradiation time: 0.01% methylene blue for 5 min (MB5); 0.01% methylene blue for 10 min (MB10); 0.01% toluidine blue for 5 min (TB5); and 0.01% toluidine blue for 10 min (TB10). Specimens were irradiated with a 660 nm diode laser with a 300 μm diameter optical fiber, at 40 mW power setting for 3 min. Immediately after, the photosensitizers were removed with Endo-PTC cream+2.5% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl). The shade was measured by a Vita Easyshade spectrophotometer based on the CIELAB color system (L*a*b* values) at three different experimental times: before PDT (T0), immediately after PDT (T1), and after removal of the photosensitizer (T2). The results showed a decrease in the averages of the L*a*b* coordinate values after PDT (T1) in all the groups, when compared with the number at T0, with a significant statistical difference in group MB10. After photosensitizer removal (T2), all the values of the coordinates increased with significant statistical differences (p<0.05) between T1 and T2 in L* and a*. It can be concluded that both methylene blue and toluidine blue dyes cause tooth discoloration, and that Endo-PTC cream associated with 2.5% NaOCl effectively remove these dyes, regardless of the pre-irradiation time used for PDT.

  2. Optical Dosimetry and Treatment Planning for Photodynamic Therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baran, Timothy M.

    Accurate dosimetry and treatment planning for photodynamic therapy (PDT) require knowledge of tissue optical properties and models of light propagation. We present techniques, based on reflectance and fluorescence spectroscopy, to examine these problems using analytical approximations and Monte Carlo (MC) simulations. We begin with studies that monitored PDT in mouse models using reflectance and fluorescence spectroscopy. In the first, spectroscopy informed the optimization of treatment parameters for methylene blue PDT, with dependencies on injection vehicle, drug-light interval, and fluence found. In the second, fluorescence photobleaching during Pc 4 PDT was examined for correlation to tumor response. Irradiance-dependent photobleaching was demonstrated, but was not predictive of tumor response. Next we outline the graphics processing unit enhanced MC model that was used to simulate light propagation in tissue. We demonstrate a number of source models that were used in subsequent experiments. We then focus on the recovery of optical properties from diffuse reflectance measurements by examining two studies. In the first study, diffuse reflectance measurements were made at the surface of human kidneys to extract optical properties, which were then used in MC simulations of interstitial PDT. We found that the optical properties measured make PDT feasible in human kidneys. We then examined the interstitial recovery of optical properties using a custom optical probe. This recovery was based on a MC model of the probe used, with a mean error of 6.5% in the determination of absorption. We examined fluorescence detection by cylindrical diffusing fibers using a MC model. This model predicted heterogeneous fluorescence detection, which was verified experimentally. Recovery of intrinsic fluorescence from point, interstitial measurements was demonstrated. This technique did not require a prori knowledge of the tissue optical properties, and was used to determine these

  3. Improved photodynamic efficacy of Zn(II) phthalocyanines via glycerol substitution.

    PubMed

    Chin, Yunni; Lim, Siang Hui; Zorlu, Yunus; Ahsen, Vefa; Kiew, Lik Voon; Chung, Lip Yong; Dumoulin, Fabienne; Lee, Hong Boon

    2014-01-01

    Phthalocyanines are excellent photosensitizers for photodynamic therapy as they have strong absorbance in the near infra-red region which is most relevant for in vivo activation in deeper tissular regions. However, most phthalocyanines present two major challenges, ie, a strong tendency to aggregate and low water-solubility, limiting their effective usage clinically. In the present study, we evaluated the potential enhancement capability of glycerol substitution on the photodynamic properties of zinc (II) phthalocyanines (ZnPc). Three glycerol substituted ZnPc, 1-3, (tetra peripherally, tetra non-peripherally and mono iodinated tri non-peripherally respectively) were evaluated in terms of their spectroscopic properties, rate of singlet oxygen generation, partition coefficient (log P), intracellular uptake, photo-induced cytotoxicity and vascular occlusion efficiency. Tetrasulfonated ZnPc (ZnPcS4) was included as a reference compound. Here, we showed that 1-3 exhibited 10-100 nm red-shifted absorption peaks with higher molar absorptivity, and at least two-fold greater singlet oxygen generation rates compared to ZnPcS4. Meanwhile, phthalocyanines 1 and 2 showed more hydrophilic log P values than 3 consistent with the number of glycerol attachments but 3 was most readily taken up by cells compared to the rest. Both phthalocyanines 2 and 3 exhibited potent phototoxicity against MCF-7, HCT-116 and HSC-2 cancer cell-lines with IC50 ranging 2.8-3.2 µM and 0.04-0.06 µM respectively, while 1 and ZnPcS4 (up to 100 µM) failed to yield determinable IC50 values. In terms of vascular occlusion efficiency, phthalocyanine 3 showed better effects than 2 by causing total occlusion of vessels with diameter <70 µm of the chorioallantoic membrane. Meanwhile, no detectable vascular occlusion was observed for ZnPcS4 with treatment under similar experimental conditions. These findings provide evidence that glycerol substitution, in particular in structures 2 and 3, is able to improve

  4. Improved Photodynamic Efficacy of Zn(II) Phthalocyanines via Glycerol Substitution

    PubMed Central

    Chin, Yunni; Lim, Siang Hui; Zorlu, Yunus; Ahsen, Vefa; Kiew, Lik Voon; Chung, Lip Yong; Dumoulin, Fabienne; Lee, Hong Boon

    2014-01-01

    Phthalocyanines are excellent photosensitizers for photodynamic therapy as they have strong absorbance in the near infra-red region which is most relevant for in vivo activation in deeper tissular regions. However, most phthalocyanines present two major challenges, ie, a strong tendency to aggregate and low water-solubility, limiting their effective usage clinically. In the present study, we evaluated the potential enhancement capability of glycerol substitution on the photodynamic properties of zinc (II) phthalocyanines (ZnPc). Three glycerol substituted ZnPc, 1–3, (tetra peripherally, tetra non-peripherally and mono iodinated tri non-peripherally respectively) were evaluated in terms of their spectroscopic properties, rate of singlet oxygen generation, partition coefficient (log P), intracellular uptake, photo-induced cytotoxicity and vascular occlusion efficiency. Tetrasulfonated ZnPc (ZnPcS4) was included as a reference compound. Here, we showed that 1–3 exhibited 10–100 nm red-shifted absorption peaks with higher molar absorptivity, and at least two-fold greater singlet oxygen generation rates compared to ZnPcS4. Meanwhile, phthalocyanines 1 and 2 showed more hydrophilic log P values than 3 consistent with the number of glycerol attachments but 3 was most readily taken up by cells compared to the rest. Both phthalocyanines 2 and 3 exhibited potent phototoxicity against MCF-7, HCT-116 and HSC-2 cancer cell-lines with IC50 ranging 2.8–3.2 µM and 0.04–0.06 µM respectively, while 1 and ZnPcS4 (up to 100 µM) failed to yield determinable IC50 values. In terms of vascular occlusion efficiency, phthalocyanine 3 showed better effects than 2 by causing total occlusion of vessels with diameter <70 µm of the chorioallantoic membrane. Meanwhile, no detectable vascular occlusion was observed for ZnPcS4 with treatment under similar experimental conditions. These findings provide evidence that glycerol substitution, in particular in structures 2 and 3, is able

  5. pH-Sensitive self-assembling nanoparticles for tumor near-infrared fluorescence imaging and chemo-photodynamic combination therapy.

    PubMed

    Hou, Wenxiu; Zhao, Xin; Qian, Xiaoqing; Pan, Fei; Zhang, Chunlei; Yang, Yuming; de la Fuente, Jesús Martínez; Cui, Daxiang

    2016-01-07

    The development of visual tumor theranostic nanoparticles has become a great challenge. In this study, d-α-tocopheryl polyethylene glycol 1000 succinate (TPGS) was conjugated to acid-sensitive cis-aconitic anhydride-modified doxorubicin (CAD) to obtain pH-sensitive anti-tumor prodrug nanoparticles (TCAD NPs) via self-assembling. Subsequently, the photosensitizer chlorin e6 (Ce6) was loaded into the resulting prodrug nanoparticles to prepare a novel tumor near-infrared fluorescence imaging and chemo-photodynamic combination therapy system (TCAD@Ce6 NPs). An accelerated release of doxorubicin (DOX) and chlorin e6 (Ce6) from the TCAD@Ce6 NPs could be achieved due to the hydrolysis of the acid-sensitive amide linker under mild acidic conditions (pH = 5.5). An in vitro experiment showed that A549 lung cancer cells exhibited a significantly higher uptake of DOX and Ce6 by using our delivery system than the free form of DOX and Ce6. An in vivo experiment showed that TCAD@Ce6 NPs displayed better tumor targeting gathering through the enhanced permeability and retention (EPR) effect than free Ce6, thus improving fluorescence imaging. Moreover, the chemo-photodynamic combination therapy of TCAD@Ce6 NPs combined with near-infrared laser irradiation was confirmed to be capable of inducing high apoptosis and necrosis of tumor cells (A549) in vitro and to display a significantly higher tumor growth suppression in the A549 lung cancer-bearing mice model. Furthermore, compared with exclusive chemotreatment (DOX) or photodynamic treatment (Ce6), our system showed enhanced therapeutic effects both in vitro and in vivo. In conclusion, the high performance TCAD@Ce6 NPs can be used as a promising NIR fluorescence imaging and highly effective chemo-photodynamic system for theranostics of lung cancer, etc. in the near future.

  6. Near-infrared light triggered photodynamic therapy in combination with gene therapy using upconversion nanoparticles for effective cancer cell killing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xin; Liu, Kai; Yang, Guangbao; Cheng, Liang; He, Lu; Liu, Yumeng; Li, Yonggang; Guo, Liang; Liu, Zhuang

    2014-07-01

    Upconversion nanoparticles (UCNPs) have drawn much attention in cancer imaging and therapy in recent years. Herein, we for the first time report the use of UCNPs with carefully engineered surface chemistry for combined photodynamic therapy (PDT) and gene therapy of cancer. In our system, positively charged NaGdF4:Yb,Er UCNPs with multilayered polymer coatings are synthesized via a layer by layer strategy, and then loaded simultaneously with Chlorin e6 (Ce6), a photosensitizing molecule, and small interfering RNA (siRNA), which targets the Plk1 oncogene. On the one hand, under excitation by a near-infrared (NIR) light at 980 nm, which shows greatly improved tissue penetration compared with visible light, cytotoxic singlet oxygen can be generated via resonance energy transfer from UCNPs to photosensitizer Ce6, while the residual upconversion luminescence is utilized for imaging. On the other hand, the silencing of Plk1 induced by siRNA delivered with UCNPs could induce significant cancer cell apoptosis. As the result of such combined photodynamic and gene therapy, a remarkably enhanced cancer cell killing effect is realized. Our work thus highlights the promise of UCNPs for imaging guided combination therapy of cancer.Upconversion nanoparticles (UCNPs) have drawn much attention in cancer imaging and therapy in recent years. Herein, we for the first time report the use of UCNPs with carefully engineered surface chemistry for combined photodynamic therapy (PDT) and gene therapy of cancer. In our system, positively charged NaGdF4:Yb,Er UCNPs with multilayered polymer coatings are synthesized via a layer by layer strategy, and then loaded simultaneously with Chlorin e6 (Ce6), a photosensitizing molecule, and small interfering RNA (siRNA), which targets the Plk1 oncogene. On the one hand, under excitation by a near-infrared (NIR) light at 980 nm, which shows greatly improved tissue penetration compared with visible light, cytotoxic singlet oxygen can be generated via

  7. A charge-reversible nanocarrier using PEG-PLL (-g-Ce6, DMA)-PLA for photodynamic therapy.

    PubMed

    Lim, Chaemin; Sim, Taehoon; Hoang, Ngoc Ha; Jung, Chan Eun; Lee, Eun Seong; Youn, Yu Seok; Oh, Kyung Taek

    2017-01-01

    A polyelectrolyte nanoparticle composed of PEG-PLL(-g-Ce6, DMA)-PLA was developed for nanomedicinal application in photodynamic therapy. These nanoparticles formed stable aggregates through the hydrophobic interaction of poly(lactic acid) and demonstrated pH-dependent behaviors such as surface charge conversion and enhanced cellular uptake at acidic pH, resulting in improved phototoxicity. In vivo animal imaging revealed that the prepared PEG-PLL(-g-Ce6, DMA)-PLA nanoparticles effectively accumulated at the targeted tumor site through enhanced permeability and retention effects. Reversible surface charge for PEG-PLL (-g-Ce6, DMA)-PLA nanoparticles allows the nanoparticles to escape the immune system and concentrate on the tumor tissue. Tumor growth in the nude mice treated with the nanoparticles decreased significantly and the hydrophobic interaction in the poly(lactic acid) block could allow the incorporation of multiple drugs. Therefore, the PEG-PLL(-g-Ce6, DMA)-PLA nanoparticles could have considerable potential as a nanomedicinal platform for photodynamic therapy.

  8. A charge-reversible nanocarrier using PEG-PLL (-g-Ce6, DMA)-PLA for photodynamic therapy

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Chaemin; Sim, Taehoon; Hoang, Ngoc Ha; Jung, Chan Eun; Lee, Eun Seong; Youn, Yu Seok; Oh, Kyung Taek

    2017-01-01

    A polyelectrolyte nanoparticle composed of PEG-PLL(-g-Ce6, DMA)-PLA was developed for nanomedicinal application in photodynamic therapy. These nanoparticles formed stable aggregates through the hydrophobic interaction of poly(lactic acid) and demonstrated pH-dependent behaviors such as surface charge conversion and enhanced cellular uptake at acidic pH, resulting in improved phototoxicity. In vivo animal imaging revealed that the prepared PEG-PLL(-g-Ce6, DMA)-PLA nanoparticles effectively accumulated at the targeted tumor site through enhanced permeability and retention effects. Reversible surface charge for PEG-PLL (-g-Ce6, DMA)-PLA nanoparticles allows the nanoparticles to escape the immune system and concentrate on the tumor tissue. Tumor growth in the nude mice treated with the nanoparticles decreased significantly and the hydrophobic interaction in the poly(lactic acid) block could allow the incorporation of multiple drugs. Therefore, the PEG-PLL(-g-Ce6, DMA)-PLA nanoparticles could have considerable potential as a nanomedicinal platform for photodynamic therapy. PMID:28883728

  9. Application of Titanium Dioxide (TiO2) Nanoparticles in Photodynamic Therapy (PDT) of an Experimental Tumor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyoshi, Norio; Kume, Kyo; Tsutumi, Kotaro; Fukunaga, Yukihiro; Ito, Shinnji; Imamura, Yoshiaki; Bibin, Andriana B.

    2011-12-01

    Nano-sized particles has been used for the photodynamic and sonodynamic treatments of pre-clinical cancer study in previous studies [1-7]. In this study, the 5-aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA) solution mixed with TiO2 nanoparticles was oral-administrated into the nude mouse transplanted under the skin with a human prostate cancer cell line. The experimental tumor model tissue (7×7×7 mm3) was measured of the size at different times after the photodynamic therapy (PDT) by laser to take a growth curve of the tumor. The treatment efficacy was jugged from the growth curves comparing different conditions. In the presence of the nanoparticle, the PDT treatment effect was enhanced those in the absence of the particles. Furthermore, the sonodynamic therapy (SDT) effect also enhanced with the nanoparticle to produce more OH radicals by ultrasound irradiation. These combination therapy of PDT and SDT with nanoparticles was very effectively resulted to be useful as a clinical use in future.

  10. Magnetic and pH dual-responsive mesoporous silica nanocomposites for effective and low-toxic photodynamic therapy.

    PubMed

    Zhan, Jieqiong; Ma, Zhiqiang; Wang, Dan; Li, Xinfang; Li, Xiangui; Le, Lijing; Kang, Anfeng; Hu, Pengwei; She, Lan; Yang, Feng

    2017-01-01

    Nonspecific targeting, large doses and phototoxicity severely hamper the clinical effect of photodynamic therapy (PDT). In this work, superparamagnetic Fe3O4 mesoporous silica nanoparticles grafted by pH-responsive block polymer polyethylene glycol-b-poly(aspartic acid) (PEG-b-PAsp) were fabricated to load the model photosensitizer rose bengal (RB) in the aim of enhancing the efficiency of PDT. Compared to free RB, the nanocomposites (polyethylene glycol-b-polyaspartate-modified rose bengal-loaded magnetic mesoporous silica [RB-MMSNs]) could greatly enhance the cellular uptake due to their effective endocytosis by mouse melanoma B16 cell and exhibited higher induced apoptosis although with little dark toxicity. RB-MMSNs had little dark toxicity and even much could be facilitated by magnetic field in vitro. RB-MMSNs demonstrated 10 times induced apoptosis efficiency than that of free RB at the same RB concentration, both by cell counting kit-8 (CCK-8) result and apoptosis detection. Furthermore, RB-MMSNs-mediated PDT in vivo on tumor-bearing mice showed steady physical targeting of RB-MMSNs to the tumor site; tumor volumes were significantly reduced in the magnetic field with green light irradiation. More importantly, the survival time of tumor-bearing mice treated with RB-MMSNs was much prolonged. Henceforth, polyethylene glycol-b-polyaspartate-modified magnetic mesoporous silica (MMSNs) probably have great potential in clinical cancer photodynamic treatment because of their effective and low-toxic performance as photosensitizers' vesicles.

  11. Magnetic and pH dual-responsive mesoporous silica nanocomposites for effective and low-toxic photodynamic therapy

    PubMed Central

    Zhan, Jieqiong; Ma, Zhiqiang; Wang, Dan; Li, Xinfang; Li, Xiangui; Le, Lijing; Kang, Anfeng; Hu, Pengwei; She, Lan; Yang, Feng

    2017-01-01

    Nonspecific targeting, large doses and phototoxicity severely hamper the clinical effect of photodynamic therapy (PDT). In this work, superparamagnetic Fe3O4 mesoporous silica nanoparticles grafted by pH-responsive block polymer polyethylene glycol-b-poly(aspartic acid) (PEG-b-PAsp) were fabricated to load the model photosensitizer rose bengal (RB) in the aim of enhancing the efficiency of PDT. Compared to free RB, the nanocomposites (polyethylene glycol-b-polyaspartate-modified rose bengal-loaded magnetic mesoporous silica [RB−MMSNs]) could greatly enhance the cellular uptake due to their effective endocytosis by mouse melanoma B16 cell and exhibited higher induced apoptosis although with little dark toxicity. RB−MMSNs had little dark toxicity and even much could be facilitated by magnetic field in vitro. RB−MMSNs demonstrated 10 times induced apoptosis efficiency than that of free RB at the same RB concentration, both by cell counting kit-8 (CCK-8) result and apoptosis detection. Furthermore, RB−MMSNs-mediated PDT in vivo on tumor-bearing mice showed steady physical targeting of RB−MMSNs to the tumor site; tumor volumes were significantly reduced in the magnetic field with green light irradiation. More importantly, the survival time of tumor-bearing mice treated with RB−MMSNs was much prolonged. Henceforth, polyethylene glycol-b-polyaspartate-modified magnetic mesoporous silica (MMSNs) probably have great potential in clinical cancer photodynamic treatment because of their effective and low-toxic performance as photosensitizers’ vesicles. PMID:28442903

  12. Methylene blue, curcumin and ion pairing nanoparticles effects on photodynamic therapy of MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cell.

    PubMed

    Hosseinzadeh, Reza; Khorsandi, Khatereh

    2017-06-01

    The aim of current study was to use methylene blue-curcumin ion pair nanoparticles and single dyes as photosensitizer for comparison of photodynamic therapy (PDT) efficacy on MDA-MB-231 cancer cells, also various light sources effect on activation of photosensitizer (PS) was considered. Ion pair nanoparticles were synthesized using opposite charge ions precipitation and lyophilized. The PDT experiments were designed and the effect of PSs and light sources (Red LED (630nm; power density: 30mWcm(-2)) and blue LED (465nm; power density: 34mWcm(-2))) on the human breast cancer cell line were examined. The effect of PS concentration (0-75μg.mL(-1)), incubation time, irradiation time and light sources, and priority in irradiation of blue or red lights were determined. The results show that the ion pairing of methylene blue and curcumin enhance the photodynamic activity of both dyes and the cytotoxicity of ion pair nanoparticles on the MDA-231 breast cancer cell line. Blue and red LED light sources were used for photo activation of photosensitizers. The results demonstrated that both dyes can activate using red light LED better than blue light LED for singlet oxygen producing. Nano scale ion pair precipitating of methylene blue-curcumin enhanced the cell penetrating and subsequently cytotoxicity of both dyes together. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Hypericin-loaded lipid nanocapsules for photodynamic cancer therapy in vitro

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barras, Alexandre; Boussekey, Luc; Courtade, Emmanuel; Boukherroub, Rabah

    2013-10-01

    Hypericin (Hy), a naturally occurring photosensitizer (PS), is extracted from Hypericum perforatum plants, commonly known as St. John's wort. The discovery of the in vitro and in vivo photodynamic activities of hypericin as a photosensitizer generated great interest, mainly to induce a very potent antitumoral effect. However, this compound belongs to the family of naphthodianthrones which are known to be poorly soluble in physiological solutions and produce non-fluorescent aggregates (A. Wirz et al., Pharmazie, 2002, 57, 543; A. Kubin et al., Pharmazie, 2008, 63, 263). These phenomena can reduce its efficiency as a photosensitizer for the clinical application. In the present contribution, we have prepared, characterized, and studied the photochemical properties of Hy-loaded lipid nanocapsule (LNC) formulations. The amount of singlet oxygen (1O2) generated was measured by the use of p-nitroso-dimethylaniline (RNO) as a selective scavenger under visible light irradiation. Our results showed that Hy-loaded LNCs suppressed aggregation of Hy in aqueous media, increased its apparent solubility, and enhanced the production of singlet oxygen in comparison with free drug. Indeed, encapsulation of Hy in LNCs led to an increase of 1O2 quantum yield to 0.29-0.44, as compared to 0.02 reported for free Hy in water. Additionally, we studied the photodynamic activity of Hy-loaded LNCs on human cervical carcinoma (HeLa) and Human Embryonic Kidney (HEK) cells. The cell viability decreased radically to 10-20% at 1 μM, reflecting Hy-loaded LNC25 phototoxicity.Hypericin (Hy), a naturally occurring photosensitizer (PS), is extracted from Hypericum perforatum plants, commonly known as St. John's wort. The discovery of the in vitro and in vivo photodynamic activities of hypericin as a photosensitizer generated great interest, mainly to induce a very potent antitumoral effect. However, this compound belongs to the family of naphthodianthrones which are known to be poorly soluble in

  14. Immune Response Following Photodynamic Therapy For Bladder Cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raymond K.

    1989-06-01

    This study was undertaken to determine if photodynamic therapy (PDT) produces an immunologic response in patients treated for bladder cancer. Gamma interferon, interleukin 1-beta, interleukin 2 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha were assayed in the urine of four patients treated with photodynamic therapy for bladder cancer, in seven patients undergoing transurethral procedures, and in five healthy control subjects. Quantifiable concentrations of all cytokines, except gamma interferon, were measured in urine samples from the PDT patients treated with the highest light energies, while no urinary cytokines were found in the PDT patient who received the lowest light energy or in the control subjects. These findings suggest that a local immunologic response may occur following PDT for bladder cancer. Such an immunologic response activated by PDT may be an additional mechanism involved in bladder tumor destruction.

  15. New sensitizers and rapid monitoring of their photodynamic activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torshina, Nadezgda L.; Posypanova, Anna M.; Volkova, Anna I.

    1996-04-01

    At present, there are lots and lots of chemical compounds that are, to a certain extent, photodynamically active. Therefore, the task of carrying out the expressive screening of such compounds has been raised sharply enough. The primary screening in vitro of compounds, with the help of biological liquids, is notable for quickness and cheapness at the same time, it is possible to determine the comparative characteristics of compounds by their photodynamical activity. Decomposition of albumins of a mixture of photosensitizer and biological liquid when irradiating with light is the basis of this method. Efficiency of decomposition of components of biological liquids is determined using biochemical reactions (e.g., those for determining the total albumins or blood hemoglobin). Subsequently, with a sufficient efficiency of a photosensitizer, it will be possible to carry out a study in vivo, with the purpose of establishing accumulation of preparations in tumor.

  16. First experience of application of photodynamic therapy in keratoplasty

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fyodorov, Svyatoslav N.; Kopayeva, V. G.; Andreev, Yu. V.; Stranadko, Eugeny P.; Ponomariov, G. V.

    1996-12-01

    Vascular effect of photodynamic therapy has been studied in patients with corneal neovascularized transplant in 10 cases. THe injection of photoheme intravenously were made with subsequent irradiation by light of argon-pumped dye laser with light density of 150-300 mW/cm2 for 10-15 minutes. Energy density consisted 150-300 J/cm2. In all the cases at the time of irradiation the aggregated blood flow was appeared followed by blood flow stasis. In post- operative period the vessels disintegrated into separate fragments which disappeared completely after 10-15 days. Taking into account the data of light microscope, the disappearance of the vessels took place as a result of the vascular endothelium lysis along the vascular walls. The vessel alteration study presented in this paper, may also serve to specify the mechanism of photodynamic destruction of neovascularized stroma of tumor.

  17. Anticancer photodynamic therapy based on the use of a microsystem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jastrzebska, E.; Bulka, N.; Zukowski, K.; Chudy, M.; Brzozka, Z.; Dybko, A.

    2015-07-01

    The paper presents the evaluation of photodynamic therapy (PDT) procedures with an application of a microsystem. Two cell lines were used in the experiments, i.e. human lung carcinoma - A549 and normal human fetal lung fibroblast MRC5. Mono-, coculture and mixed cultures were performed in a microsystem at the same time. The microsystem consisted of a concentration gradient generator (CGG) which generates different concentrations of a photosensitizer, and a set of microchambers for cells. The microchambers were linked by microchannels of various length in order to allow cells migration and in this way cocultures were created. Transparent materials were used for the chip manufacture, i.e. glass and poly(dimethylsiloxane). A high power LED was used to test photodynamic therapy effectiveness in the microsystem.

  18. Use of Photosensitizers in Semisolid Formulations for Microbial Photodynamic Inactivation.

    PubMed

    González-Delgado, José A; Kennedy, Patrick J; Ferreira, Marta; Tomé, João P C; Sarmento, Bruno

    2016-05-26

    Semisolid formulations, such as gels, creams and ointments, have recently contributed to the progression of photodynamic therapy (PDT) and microbial photodynamic inactivation (PDI) in clinical applications. The most important challenges facing this field are the physicochemical properties of photosensitizers (PSs), optimal drug release profiles, and the photosensitivity of surrounding tissues. By further integration of nanotechnology with semisolid formulations, very promising pharmaceuticals have been generated against several dermatological diseases (PDT) and (antibiotic-resistant) pathogenic microorganisms (PDI). This review focuses on the different PSs and their associated semisolid formulations currently found in both the market and clinical trials that are used in PDT/PDI. Special emphasis is placed on the advantages that the semisolid formulations bring to drug delivery in PDI. Lastly, some potential considerations for improvement in this field are also discussed.

  19. Photodynamic therapy for implanted VX2 tumor in rabbit brains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Fei; Feng, Hua; Lin, Jiangkai; Zhu, Gang; Chen, Zhi; Li, Cong-yan

    2005-07-01

    To evaluate the therapeutic effect and the safety of single photodynamic therapy (PDT) with hematoporphyrin derivative produced in China, 60 New Zealand adult rabbits with VX2 tumor implanted into the brain were divided randomly into non-PDT-group and PDT-group. 36 rabbits of the PDT-group were performed photodynamic therapy. The survival time, neurological deteriorations, intracranial pressure (ICP), histology, pathology, tumor volume and brain water content were measured. Other 12 rabbits were received hematoporphyrin derivative and light irradiation of the normal brain. The ICP, histology, pathology, and brain water content were measured. The result indicated that Simple PDT may elongate the average survival time of the rabbits with VX2 tumors significantly; kill tumor cells; cause transient brain edema and increase ICP, but it is safe to be used in treating brain tumor.

  20. Towards image-guided photodynamic therapy of Glioblastoma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mallidi, Srivalleesha; Huang, Huang-Chiao; Liu, Joyce; Mai, Zhiming; Hasan, Tayyaba

    2013-03-01

    Glioblastoma (GBM) is an aggressive cancer with dismal survival rates and few new treatment options. Fluorescence guided resection of GBM followed by photodynamic therapy (PDT) has shown promise in several chemo- or radiotherapy non-responsive GBM treatments clinically. PDT is an emerging light and photosensitizer (PS) mediated cytotoxic method. However, as with other therapeutic modalities, the outcomes are variable largely due to the nonpersonalization of dose parameters. The variability can be attributed to the differences in heterogeneous photosensitizer accumulation in tumors. Building upon our previous findings on utilizing PS fluorescence for designing tumor-specific PDT dose, we explore the use of photoacoustic imaging, a technique that provides contrast based on the tissue optical absorption properties, to obtain 3D information on the tumoral photosensitizer accumulation. The findings of this study will form the basis for customized photodynamic therapy for glioblastoma and have the potential to serve as a platform for treatment of other cancers.

  1. Photodynamic therapy: novel third-generation photosensitizers one step closer?

    PubMed

    Josefsen, L B; Boyle, R W

    2008-05-01

    Photodynamic sensitizers are drugs activated by light of a specific wavelength and are used in the photodynamic therapy (PDT) of certain diseases. Second- and third-generation photosensitizers with improved PDT properties are now under investigation. In this issue of the British Journal of Pharmacology, Leung et al. have described the synthesis and investigation of a second-generation photosensitizer (BAM-SiPc) targeted towards the cells of HepG2 and HT29 tumours. BAM-SiPc is selectively functionalized with bis-amino groups and has demonstrated potent PDT activity in a small animal model. However, it also exhibited non-selective distribution and accumulation in multiple animal (small mouse) organs and tissue. These issues highlight the importance and need for good biodistribution and localization properties for an efficacious photosensitizer. The lack of tumour specificity may have a significant impact on the potential BAM-SiPc has in clinical PDT.

  2. Photodynamic treatment of endodontic polymicrobial infection in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Fimple, Jacob Lee; Fontana, Carla Raquel; Foschi, Federico; Ruggiero, Karriann; Song, Xiaoqing; Pagonis, Tom C.; Tanner, Anne C. R.; Kent, Ralph; Doukas, Apostolos G.; Stashenko, Philip P.; Soukos, Nikolaos S.

    2008-01-01

    We investigated the photodynamic effects of methylene blue (MB) on multi-species root canal biofilms comprising Actinomyces israelii, Fusobacterium nucleatum subspecies nucleatum, Porphyromonas gingivalis and Prevotella intermedia in experimentally infected root canals of extracted human teeth in vitro. The four test microorganisms were detected in root canals using DNA probes. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) showed the presence of biofilms in root canals prior to therapy. Root canal systems were incubated with MB (25 µg/ml) for 10 minutes followed by exposure to red light at 665 nm with an energy fluence of 30 J/cm2. Light was delivered from a diode laser via a 250 µm diameter polymethyl methacrylate optical fiber that uniformly distributed light at 360°. Photodynamic therapy (PDT) achieved up to 80% reduction of colony-forming unit counts. We conclude that PDT can be an effective adjunct to standard endodontic antimicrobial treatment when the PDT parameters are optimized. PMID:18498901

  3. Phototherapy, photodynamic therapy and lasers in the treatment of acne.

    PubMed

    Degitz, Klaus

    2009-12-01

    Modern acne therapy uses anticomedogenic, antimicrobial, antiinflammatory,and antiandrogenic substances. As an additional approach in recent years, treatments have been developed based on the application of electromagnetic radiation. Visible light or infrared wave lengths are utilized by most techniques, including blue light lamps, intense pulsed light, photodynamic therapy and lasers. This review evaluates the various methods with regard to efficacy and their current role in the management of acne. Although UV radiation has been frequently used to treat acne, it is now regarded as obsolete due to the unfavorable risk-benefit ratio. Visible light, especially of blue wavelengths, appears to be suitable for the treatment of mild to moderate inflammatory acne. Photodynamic therapy is effective, but, due to considerable immediate side effects, it is best reserved for selected situations. Despite promising observations, intense pulsed light and lasers have to be evaluated in further studies, before they can be recommended.

  4. In vivo uptake and photodynamic activity of porphycenes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kimel, Sol; Gottfried, Varda; Davidi, Ronit; Averbuj, Claudia

    1994-03-01

    Novel porphyrinoid photosensitizers are currently being considered for use in photodynamic therapy (PDT) of cancer. This class of sensitizers combines high absorption characteristics at the therapeutic wavelengths ((lambda) > 600 nm) and good tumor targeting properties. We have investigated the in-vivo uptake and photodynamic damage of several porphycenes. Our model system was the chick chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) which we have adapted for use in PDT studies. The CAM assay allows fast screening of novel drugs and obtaining statistically relevant results with minute quantities of the drug. Sensitizers were `trapped' in EPC (egg phosphatidylcholine) or in DPPC (dipalmitoyl phosphatidylcholine); their efficiencies were independent of the vehicle used for application of the sensitizer. The efficiencies of various porphycenes in PDT, as a function of drug and light dose, compare well with those of standard porphyrins and phthalocyanines.

  5. Structure-photodynamic activity relationships of substituted zinc trisulfophthalocyanines.

    PubMed

    Cauchon, Nicole; Tian, Hongjian; Langlois, Réjean; La Madeleine, Carole; Martin, Stephane; Ali, Hasrat; Hunting, Darel; van Lier, Johan E

    2005-01-01

    To identify optimal features of metalated sulfophthalocyanine dyes for their use as photosensitizers in the photodynamic therapy of cancer, we synthesized a series of alkynyl-substituted trisulfonated phthalocyanines and compared their amphiphilic properties to a number of parameters related to their photodynamic potency. Varying the length of the substituted alkynyl side-chain modulates the hydrophobic/hydrophilic properties of the dyes providing a linear relationship between their n-octanol/water partition coefficients and retention times on reversed-phase HPLC. Aggregate formation of the dyes in aqueous solution increased with increasing hydrophobicity while monomer formation was favored by the addition of serum proteins or organic solvent. Trisulfonated zinc phthalocyanines bearing hexynyl and nonynyl substituents exhibited high cellular uptake with strong localization at the mitochondrial membranes, which coincided with effective photocytotoxicity toward EMT-6 murine mammary tumor cells. Further increase in the length of the alkynyl chains (dodecynyl, hexadecynyl) did not improve their phototoxicity, likely resulting from extensive aggregation of the dyes in aqueous medium and reduced cell uptake. Aggregation was evident from shifts in the electronic spectra and reduced capacity to generate singlet oxygen. When monomerized through the addition of Cremophor EL all sulfonated zinc phthalocyanines gave similar singlet oxygen yields. Accordingly, differences in the tendency of the dyes to aggregate do not appear to be a determining factor in their photodynamic potency. Our results confirm that the latter in particular relates to their amphiphilic properties, which facilitate cell uptake and intracellular localization at photosensitive sites such as the mitochondria. Combined, these factors play a significant role in the overall photodynamic potency of the dyes.

  6. Simultaneous two-photon excitation of photodynamic therapy agents

    SciTech Connect

    Wachter, E.A.; Fisher, W.G. |; Partridge, W.P.; Dees, H.C.; Petersen, M.G.

    1998-01-01

    The spectroscopic and photochemical properties of several photosensitive compounds are compared using conventional single-photon excitation (SPE) and simultaneous two-photon excitation (TPE). TPE is achieved using a mode-locked titanium:sapphire laser, the near infrared output of which allows direct promotion of non-resonant TPE. Excitation spectra and excited state properties of both type 1 and type 2 photodynamic therapy (PDT) agents are examined.

  7. A Photosensitizer-Loaded DNA Origami Nanosystem for Photodynamic Therapy.

    PubMed

    Zhuang, Xiaoxi; Ma, Xiaowei; Xue, Xiangdong; Jiang, Qiao; Song, Linlin; Dai, Luru; Zhang, Chunqiu; Jin, Shubin; Yang, Keni; Ding, Baoquan; Wang, Paul C; Liang, Xing-Jie

    2016-03-22

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) offers an alternative for cancer treatment by using ultraviolet or visible light in the presence of a photosensitizer and molecular oxygen, which can produce highly reactive oxygen species that ultimately leading to the ablation of tumor cells by multifactorial mechanisms. However, this technique is limited by the penetration depth of incident light, the hypoxic environment of solid tumors, and the vulnerability of photobleaching reduces the efficiency of many imaging agents. In this work, we reported a cellular level dual-functional imaging and PDT nanosystem BMEPC-loaded DNA origami for photodynamic therapy with high efficiency and stable photoreactive property. The carbazole derivative BMEPC is a one- and two-photon imaging agent and photosensitizer with large two-photon absorption cross section, which can be fully excited by near-infrared light, and is also capable of destroying targets under anaerobic condition by generating reactive intermediates of Type I photodynamic reactions. However, the application of BMEPC was restricted by its poor solubility in aqueous environment and its aggregation caused quenching. We observed BMEPC-loaded DNA origami effectively reduced the photobleaching of BMEPC within cells. Upon binding to DNA origami, the intramolecular rotation of BMEPC became proper restricted, which intensify fluorescence emission and radicals production when being excited. After the BMEPC-loaded DNA origami are taken up by tumor cells, upon irradiation, BMEPC could generate free radicals and be released due to DNA photocleavage as well as the following partially degradation. Apoptosis was then induced by the generation of free radicals. This functional nanosystem provides an insight into the design of photosensitizer-loaded DNA origami for effective intracellular imaging and photodynamic therapy.

  8. Improvement of photodynamic activity of aluminium sulphophthalocyanine due to biotinylation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meerovich, Irina G.; Jerdeva, Victoria V.; Derkacheva, Valentina M.; Meerovich, Gennadii A.; Lukyanets, Eugeny A.; Kogan, Eugenia A.; Savitsky, Alexander P.

    2003-09-01

    The photodynamic activity of dibiotinylated aluminium sulphophthalocyanine in vitro and in vivo were studied. It was obtained that in vitro dibiotinylated aluminium sulphophthalocyanine provides the effective damage of small cell lung carcinoma OAT-75. In vivo dibiotinylated aluminium sulphophthalocyanine causes destruction of tumor (Erlich carcinoma), results in total necrosis of tumor tissue and expresses vascular damage (trombosis and destruction of vascular walls) even in concentration 0.25 mg/kg of a body weight.

  9. Photodynamic action on some pathogenic microorganisms of oral cavity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ovchinnikov, Ilya S.; Tuchin, Valery V.

    2001-10-01

    The work is devoted to an analysis of pre-clinical and clinical experiments on photodynamic action of HeNe laser radiation in aggregate with a cation thiazinium dye Methylene Blue (MB) on a mix of pathogenic and conditionally pathogenic aerobic bacteria being activators of pyoinflammatory diseases of oral cavity. Concentration of photosensitizes at which there is no own bactericidal influence on dying microflora, and parameters of influence at which the efficiency of irradiated microflora defeat reaches 99 % are determined.

  10. Photodynamic action on some pathogenic microorganisms of oral cavity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ovchinnikov, Ilya S.; Tuchin, Valery V.; Ivanov, Krill I.; Shoub, Gennady M.

    2001-04-01

    We have studied photodynamic action of He-Ne laser radiation on cultures of Staphylococcus (strain 209 P), Streptococcus anhaemolyticus, and total microflora of dental deposit been sensitized by methylene blue. The concentration of the dye was varied from 0.001% to 0.1%, radiation power density was 100 divided by 2300 mW/cm2. Irradiated strain was put into thermostat for 48 hours and the number of colonies was counted and analyzed.

  11. The impact of absorbed photons on antimicrobial photodynamic efficacy

    PubMed Central

    Cieplik, Fabian; Pummer, Andreas; Regensburger, Johannes; Hiller, Karl-Anton; Späth, Andreas; Tabenski, Laura; Buchalla, Wolfgang; Maisch, Tim

    2015-01-01

    Due to increasing resistance of pathogens toward standard antimicrobial procedures, alternative approaches that are capable of inactivating pathogens are necessary in support of regular modalities. In this instance, the photodynamic inactivation of bacteria (PIB) may be a promising alternative. For clinical application of PIB it is essential to ensure appropriate comparison of given photosensitizer (PS)-light source systems, which is complicated by distinct absorption and emission characteristics of given PS and their corresponding light sources, respectively. Consequently, in the present study two strategies for adjustment of irradiation parameters were evaluated: (i) matching energy doses applied by respective light sources (common practice) and (ii) by development and application of a formula for adjusting the numbers of photons absorbed by PS upon irradiation by their corresponding light sources. Since according to the photodynamic principle one PS molecule is excited by the absorption of one photon, this formula allows comparison of photodynamic efficacy of distinct PS per excited molecule. In light of this, the antimicrobial photodynamic efficacy of recently developed PS SAPYR was compared to that of clinical standard PS Methylene Blue (MB) regarding inactivation of monospecies biofilms formed by Enterococcus faecalis and Actinomyces naeslundii whereby evaluating both adjustment strategies. PIB with SAPYR exhibited CFU-reductions of 5.1 log10 and 6.5 log10 against E. faecalis and A. naeslundii, respectively, which is declared as a disinfectant efficacy. In contrast, the effect of PIB with MB was smaller when the applied energy dose was adjusted compared to SAPYR (CFU-reductions of 3.4 log10 and 4.2 log10 against E. faecalis and A. naeslundii), or there was even no effect at all when the number of absorbed photons was adjusted compared to SAPYR. Since adjusting the numbers of absorbed photons is the more precise and adequate method from a photophysical point

  12. Hypericin-loaded lipid nanocapsules for photodynamic cancer therapy in vitro.

    PubMed

    Barras, Alexandre; Boussekey, Luc; Courtade, Emmanuel; Boukherroub, Rabah

    2013-11-07

    Hypericin (Hy), a naturally occurring photosensitizer (PS), is extracted from Hypericum perforatum plants, commonly known as St. John's wort. The discovery of the in vitro and in vivo photodynamic activities of hypericin as a photosensitizer generated great interest, mainly to induce a very potent antitumoral effect. However, this compound belongs to the family of naphthodianthrones which are known to be poorly soluble in physiological solutions and produce non-fluorescent aggregates (A. Wirz et al., Pharmazie, 2002, 57, 543; A. Kubin et al., Pharmazie, 2008, 63, 263). These phenomena can reduce its efficiency as a photosensitizer for the clinical application. In the present contribution, we have prepared, characterized, and studied the photochemical properties of Hy-loaded lipid nanocapsule (LNC) formulations. The amount of singlet oxygen ((1)O2) generated was measured by the use of p-nitroso-dimethylaniline (RNO) as a selective scavenger under visible light irradiation. Our results showed that Hy-loaded LNCs suppressed aggregation of Hy in aqueous media, increased its apparent solubility, and enhanced the production of singlet oxygen in comparison with free drug. Indeed, encapsulation of Hy in LNCs led to an increase of (1)O2 quantum yield to 0.29-0.44, as compared to 0.02 reported for free Hy in water. Additionally, we studied the photodynamic activity of Hy-loaded LNCs on human cervical carcinoma (HeLa) and Human Embryonic Kidney (HEK) cells. The cell viability decreased radically to 10-20% at 1 μM, reflecting Hy-loaded LNC25 phototoxicity.

  13. Recent Progress in Chemical Modifications of Chlorophylls and Bacteriochlorophylls for the Applications in Photodynamic Therapy.

    PubMed

    Staron, Jakub; Boron, Bożena; Karcz, Dariusz; Szczygieł, Małgorzata; Fiedor, Leszek

    2015-01-01

    Since photodynamic therapy emerged as a promising cancer treatment, the development of photosensitizers has gained great interest. In this context, the photosynthetic pigments, chlorophylls and bacteriochlorophylls, as excellent natural photosensitizers, attracted much attention. In effect, several (bacterio) chlorophyll-based phototherapeutic agents have been developed and (or are about to) enter the clinics. The aim of this review article is to give a survey of the advances in the synthetic chemistry of these pigments which have been made over the last decade, and which are pertinent to the application of their derivatives as photosensitizers for photodynamic therapy (PDT). The review focuses on the synthetic strategies undertaken to obtain novel derivatives of (bacterio)chlorophylls with both enhanced photosensitizing and tumorlocalizing properties, and also improved photo- and chemical stability. These include modifications of the C- 17-ester moiety, the isocyclic ring, the central binding pocket, and the derivatization of peripheral functionalities at the C-3 and C-7 positions with carbohydrate-, peptide-, and nanoparticle moieties or other residues. The effects of these modifications on essential features of the pigments are discussed, such as the efficiency of reactive oxygen species generation, photostability, phototoxicity and interactions with living organisms. The review is divided into several sections. In the first part, the principles of PDT and photosensitizer action are briefly described. Then the relevant photophysical features of (bacterio)chlorophylls and earlier approaches to their modification are summarized. Next, a more detailed overview of the progress in synthetic methods is given, followed by a discussion of the effects of these modifications on the photophysics of the pigments and on their biological activity.

  14. Formation of gold decorated porphyrin nanoparticles and evaluation of their photothermal and photodynamic activity.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ruey-Juen; Chen, Po-Chung; Prasannan, Adhimoorthy; Vinayagam, Jayaraman; Huang, Chun-Chiang; Chou, Peng-Yi; Weng, Cheng-Chih; Tsai, Hsieh Chih; Lin, Shuian-Yin

    2016-06-01

    A core-shell gold (Au) nanoparticle with improved photosensitization have been successfully fabricated using Au nanoparticles and 5,10,15,20 tetrakis pentafluorophenyl)-21H,23H-porphine (PF6) dye, forming a dyad through molecular self-assembly. Au nanoparticles were decorated on the shell and PF6 was placed in the core of the nanoparticles. Highly stable Au nanoparticles were achieved using PF6 with poly(N-vinylcaprolactam-co-N-vinylimidazole)-g-poly(D,L-lactide) graft copolymer hybridization. This was compared with hybridization using cetyltrimethylammonium bromide and polyethylene glycol-b-poly(D,L-lactide) for shell formation with PF6-Au. The resulting PF6-poly(N-vinylcaprolactam-co-N-vinylimidazole)-g-poly(D,L-lactide)-Au core-shell nanoparticle were utilized for photothermal and photodynamic activities. The spectroscopic analysis and zeta potential values of micelles revealed the presence of a thin Au layer coated on the PF6 nanoparticle surface, which generally enhanced the thermal stability of the gold nanoparticles and the photothermal effect of the shell. The core-shell PF6-Au nanoparticles were avidly taken up by cells and demonstrated cellular phototoxicity upon irradiation with 300W halogen lamps. The structural arrangement of PF6 dyes in the core-shell particles assures the effectiveness of singlet oxygen production. The study verifies that PF6 particles when companied with Au nanoparticles as PF6-Au have possible combinational applications in photodynamic and photothermal therapies for cancer cells because of their high production of singlet oxygen and heat.

  15. Photodynamic therapy for inactivating endodontic bacterial biofilms and effect of tissue inhibitors on antibacterial efficacy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shrestha, Annie; Kishen, Anil

    Complex nature of bacterial cell membrane and structure of biofilm has challenged the efficacy of antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (APDT) to achieve effective disinfection of infected root canals. In addition, tissue-inhibitors present inside the root canals are known to affect APDT activity. This study was aimed to assess the effect of APDT on bacterial biofilms and evaluate the effect of tissue-inhibitors on the APDT. Rose-bengal (RB) and methylene-blue (MB) were tested on Enterococcus faecalis (gram-positive) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (gram-negative) biofilms. In vitro 7- day old biofilms were sensitized with RB and MB, and photodynamically activated with 20-60 J/cm2. Photosensitizers were pre-treated with different tissue-inhibitors (dentin, dentin-matrix, pulp tissue, bacterial lipopolysaccharides (LPS), and bovine serum albumin (BSA)) and tested for antibacterial effect of APDT. Microbiological culture based analysis was used to analyze the cell viability, while Laser Scanning Confocal Microscopy (LSCM) was used to examine the structure of biofilm. Photoactivation resulted in significant reduction of bacterial biofilms with RB and MB. The structure of biofilm under LSCM was found to be disrupted with reduced biofilm thickness. Complete biofilm elimination could not be achieved with both tested photosensitizers. APDT effect using MB and RB was inhibited in a decreasing order by dentin-matrix, BSA, pulp, dentin and LPS (P< 0.05). Both strains of bacterial biofilms resisted complete elimination after APDT and the tissue inhibitors existing within the root canal reduced the antibacterial activity at varying degrees. Further research is required to enhance the antibacterial efficacy of APDT in an endodontic environment.

  16. Co-expression of autophagic markers following photodynamic therapy in SW620 human colon adenocarcinoma cells

    PubMed Central

    Ziółkowska, Barbara; Woźniak, Marta; Ziółkowski, Piotr

    2016-01-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a minimally invasive cancer treatment. It involves the combination of a photosensitizer and light of a specific wavelength to generate singlet oxygen and other reactive oxygen species that lead to tumor cell death. Autophagy is one of the pathways that tumor cells undergo during photodamage and it is common in photodynamic therapy. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of in vitro PDT on the expression of autophagy-related proteins, autophagy related 7 (Atg7), light chain 3 (LC3) and Beclin-1. Human SW620 colon carcinoma cells were treated with 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA)-based PDT at a dose of 3 mM. The irradiation was performed using 4.5 J/cm2 total light and a fluence rate of 60 mW/cm2. Autophagy was evaluated by immunocytochemistry using specific antibodies to Atg7, Beclin-1 and LC3. The evaluation was repeated at several time points (0, 4, 8 and 24 h) following irradiation. The induction of autophagy was observed directly following the 5-ALA-mediated PDT procedure with the strongest expression of autophagy-related proteins at 4 and 8 h after irradiation as demonstrated using immunocytochemistry. It was characterized by significantly increased expression of Beclin-1, Atg7 and LC3. To the best of our knowledge this is the first study to analyze Beclin-1, Atg7 and LC3 expression in a PDT-related experiment. This study enhances the understanding of the role of autophagy in PDT, which may contribute to better and more effective tumor responses to this therapy. PMID:27485939

  17. Hypericin-bearing magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles for selective drug delivery in photodynamic therapy

    PubMed Central

    Unterweger, Harald; Subatzus, Daniel; Tietze, Rainer; Janko, Christina; Poettler, Marina; Stiegelschmitt, Alfons; Schuster, Matthias; Maake, Caroline; Boccaccini, Aldo R; Alexiou, Christoph

    2015-01-01

    Combining the concept of magnetic drug targeting and photodynamic therapy is a promising approach for the treatment of cancer. A high selectivity as well as significant fewer side effects can be achieved by this method, since the therapeutic treatment only takes place in the area where accumulation of the particles by an external electromagnet and radiation by a laser system overlap. In this article, a novel hypericin-bearing drug delivery system has been developed by synthesis of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) with a hypericin-linked functionalized dextran coating. For that, sterically stabilized dextran-coated SPIONs were produced by coprecipitation and crosslinking with epichlorohydrin to enhance stability. Carboxymethylation of the dextran shell provided a functionalized platform for linking hypericin via glutaraldehyde. Particle sizes obtained by dynamic light scattering were in a range of 55–85 nm, whereas investigation of single magnetite or maghemite particle diameter was performed by transmission electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction and resulted in approximately 4.5–5.0 nm. Surface chemistry of those particles was evaluated by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and ζ potential measurements, indicating successful functionalization and dispersal stabilization due to a mixture of steric and electrostatic repulsion. Flow cytometry revealed no toxicity of pure nanoparticles as well as hypericin without exposure to light on Jurkat T-cells, whereas the combination of hypericin, alone or loaded on particles, with light-induced cell death in a concentration and exposure time-dependent manner due to the generation of reactive oxygen species. In conclusion, the combination of SPIONs’ targeting abilities with hypericin’s phototoxic properties represents a promising approach for merging magnetic drug targeting with photodynamic therapy for the treatment of cancer. PMID:26648714

  18. Treatment planning and dose analysis for interstitial photodynamic therapy of prostate cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davidson, Sean R. H.; Weersink, Robert A.; Haider, Masoom A.; Gertner, Mark R.; Bogaards, Arjen; Giewercer, David; Scherz, Avigdor; Sherar, Michael D.; Elhilali, Mostafa; Chin, Joseph L.; Trachtenberg, John; Wilson, Brian C.

    2009-04-01

    With the development of new photosensitizers that are activated by light at longer wavelengths, interstitial photodynamic therapy (PDT) is emerging as a feasible alternative for the treatment of larger volumes of tissue. Described here is the application of PDT treatment planning software developed by our group to ensure complete coverage of larger, geometrically complex target volumes such as the prostate. In a phase II clinical trial of TOOKAD vascular targeted photodynamic therapy (VTP) for prostate cancer in patients who failed prior radiotherapy, the software was used to generate patient-specific treatment prescriptions for the number of treatment fibres, their lengths, their positions and the energy each delivered. The core of the software is a finite element solution to the light diffusion equation. Validation against in vivo light measurements indicated that the software could predict the location of an iso-fluence contour to within approximately ±2 mm. The same software was used to reconstruct the treatments that were actually delivered, thereby providing an analysis of the threshold light dose required for TOOKAD-VTP of the post-irradiated prostate. The threshold light dose for VTP-induced prostate damage, as measured one week post-treatment using contrast-enhanced MRI, was found to be highly heterogeneous, both within and between patients. The minimum light dose received by 90% of the prostate, D90, was determined from each patient's dose-volume histogram and compared to six-month sextant biopsy results. No patient with a D90 less than 23 J cm-2 had complete biopsy response, while 8/13 (62%) of patients with a D90 greater than 23 J cm-2 had negative biopsies at six months. The doses received by the urethra and the rectal wall were also investigated.

  19. Spatiotemporally Photoradiation-Controlled Intratumoral Depot for Combination of Brachytherapy and Photodynamic Therapy for Solid Tumor

    PubMed Central

    Mukerji, Ratul; Schaal, Jeffrey; Li, Xinghai; Bhattacharyya, Jayanta; Asai, Daisuke; Zalutsky, Michael R.; Chilkoti, Ashutosh; Liu, Wenge

    2015-01-01

    In an attempt to spatiotemporally control both tumor retention and the coverage of anticancer agents, we developed a photoradiation-controlled intratumoral depot (PRCITD) driven by convention enhanced delivery (CED). This intratumoral depot consists of recombinant elastin-like polypeptide (ELP) containing periodic cysteine residues and is conjugated with a photosensitizer, chlorin-e6 (Ce6) at the N-terminus of the ELP. We hypothesized that this cysteine-containing ELP (cELP) can be readily crosslinked through disulfide bonds upon exposure to oxidative agents, specifically the singlet oxygen produced during photodynamic stimulation. Upon intratumoral injection, CED drives the distribution of the soluble polypeptide freely throughout the tumor interstitium. Formation and retention of the depot was monitored using fluorescence molecular tomography imaging. When imaging shows that the polypeptide has distributed throughout the entire tumor, 660-nm light is applied externally at the tumor site. This photo-radiation wavelength excites Ce6 and generates reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the presence of oxygen. The ROS induce in situ disulfide crosslinking of the cysteine thiols, stabilizing the ELP biopolymer into a stable therapeutic depot. Our results demonstrate that this ELP design effectively forms a hydrogel both in vitro and in vivo. These depots exhibit high stability in subcutaneous tumor xenografts in nude mice and significantly improved intratumoral retention compared to controls without crosslinking, as seen by fluorescent imaging and iodine-125 radiotracer studies. The photodynamic therapy provided by the PRCITD was found to cause significant tumor inhibition in a Ce6 dose dependent manner. Additionally, the combination of PDT and intratumoral radionuclide therapy co-delivered by PRCITD provided a greater antitumor effect than either monotherapy alone. These results suggest that the PRCITD could provide a stable platform for delivering synergistic, anti

  20. Fluorescence intensity and bright spot analyses using a confocal microscope for photodynamic diagnosis of brain tumors.

    PubMed

    Yoneyama, Takeshi; Watanabe, Tetsuyo; Kagawa, Hiroyuki; Hayashi, Yutaka; Nakada, Mitsutoshi

    2017-03-01

    In photodynamic diagnosis using 5-aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA), discrimination between the tumor and normal tissue is very important for a precise resection. However, it is difficult to distinguish between infiltrating tumor and normal regions in the boundary area. In this study, fluorescent intensity and bright spot analyses using a confocal microscope is proposed for the precise discrimination between infiltrating tumor and normal regions. From the 5-ALA-resected brain tumor tissue, the red fluorescent and marginal regions were sliced for observation under a confocal microscope. Hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining were performed on serial slices of the same tissue. According to the pathological inspection of the H&E slides, the tumor and infiltrating and normal regions on confocal microscopy images were investigated. From the fluorescent intensity of the image pixels, a histogram of pixel number with the same fluorescent intensity was obtained. The fluorescent bright spot sizes and total number were compared between the marginal and normal regions. The fluorescence intensity distribution and average intensity in the tumor were different from those in the normal region. The probability of a difference from the dark enhanced the difference between the tumor and the normal region. The bright spot size and number in the infiltrating tumor were different from those in the normal region. Fluorescence intensity analysis is useful to distinguish a tumor region, and a bright spot analysis is useful to distinguish between infiltrating tumor and normal regions. These methods will be important for the precise resection or photodynamic therapy of brain tumors. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Hypericin-bearing magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles for selective drug delivery in photodynamic therapy.

    PubMed

    Unterweger, Harald; Subatzus, Daniel; Tietze, Rainer; Janko, Christina; Poettler, Marina; Stiegelschmitt, Alfons; Schuster, Matthias; Maake, Caroline; Boccaccini, Aldo R; Alexiou, Christoph

    2015-01-01

    Combining the concept of magnetic drug targeting and photodynamic therapy is a promising approach for the treatment of cancer. A high selectivity as well as significant fewer side effects can be achieved by this method, since the therapeutic treatment only takes place in the area where accumulation of the particles by an external electromagnet and radiation by a laser system overlap. In this article, a novel hypericin-bearing drug delivery system has been developed by synthesis of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) with a hypericin-linked functionalized dextran coating. For that, sterically stabilized dextran-coated SPIONs were produced by coprecipitation and crosslinking with epichlorohydrin to enhance stability. Carboxymethylation of the dextran shell provided a functionalized platform for linking hypericin via glutaraldehyde. Particle sizes obtained by dynamic light scattering were in a range of 55-85 nm, whereas investigation of single magnetite or maghemite particle diameter was performed by transmission electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction and resulted in approximately 4.5-5.0 nm. Surface chemistry of those particles was evaluated by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and ζ potential measurements, indicating successful functionalization and dispersal stabilization due to a mixture of steric and electrostatic repulsion. Flow cytometry revealed no toxicity of pure nanoparticles as well as hypericin without exposure to light on Jurkat T-cells, whereas the combination of hypericin, alone or loaded on particles, with light-induced cell death in a concentration and exposure time-dependent manner due to the generation of reactive oxygen species. In conclusion, the combination of SPIONs' targeting abilities with hypericin's phototoxic properties represents a promising approach for merging magnetic drug targeting with photodynamic therapy for the treatment of cancer.

  2. Photodynamic control of human pathogenic parasites in aquatic ecosystems using chlorophyllin and pheophorbid as photodynamic substances.

    PubMed

    Wohllebe, S; Richter, R; Richter, P; Häder, D P

    2009-02-01

    When used at low concentrations and added to the water body, water-soluble chlorophyllin (resulting from chlorophyll after removal of the phytol) and pheophorbid (produced from chlorophyllin by acidification) are able to kill mosquito larvae and other small animals within a few hours under exposure of solar radiation. Under laboratory conditions, the use of chlorophyllin/pheophorbid as photodynamic substances for pest control in water bodies promises to be not only effective and ecologically beneficial but also cheap. The LD50 (50% of mortality in the tested organisms) value in Culex sp. larvae was about 6.88 mg/l, in Chaoborus sp. larvae about 24.18 mg/l, and in Daphnia 0.55 mg/l. The LD50 values determined for pheophorbid were 8.44 mg/l in Culex, 1.05 mg/l in Chaoborus, and 0.45 mg/l in Daphnia, respectively. In some cases, chlorophyllin and pheophorbid were also found to be (less) active in darkness. The results presented in this paper show that chlorophyllin is about a factor of 100 more effective than methylene blue or hematoporphyrine, which were tested earlier for the same purpose. It is also much cheaper and, as a substance found in every green plant, it is 100% biodegradable.

  3. Photodynamic Therapy Plus Chemotherapy Compared with Photodynamic Therapy Alone in Hilar Nonresectable Cholangiocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Wentrup, Robert; Winkelmann, Nicola; Mitroshkin, Andrey; Prager, Matthias; Voderholzer, Winfried; Schachschal, Guido; Jürgensen, Christian; Büning, Carsten

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aims Standard treatments are not available for hilar nonresectable cholangiocarcinoma (NCC). It is unknown whether combination therapy of photodynamic therapy (PDT) plus systemic chemotherapy is superior to PDT alone. Methods We retrospectively reviewed 68 patients with hilar NCC treated with either PDT plus chemotherapy (PTD-C) or PDT monotherapy (PDT-M). The primary endpoint was the mean overall survival rate. Secondary endpoints included the 1-year survival rate, risk of cholangitic complications, and outcomes, which were evaluated according to the chemotherapy protocol. Results More than 90% of the study population had advanced hilar NCC Bismuth type III or IV. In the PDT-M group (n=35), the mean survival time was 374 days compared with 520 days in the PDT-C group (n=33, p=0.021). The 1-year survival rate was significantly higher in the PDT-C group compared with the PDT-M group (88% vs 58%, p=0.001) with a significant reduction of mortality (hazard ratio, 0.20; 95% confidence interval, 0.07 to 0.58; p=0.003). Gemcitabine monotherapy resulted in a shorter survival time compared with the gemcitabine combination therapy (mean, 395 days vs 566 days; p=0.09). Cholangitic complications were observed at a similar frequency in the PDT-C and PDT-M groups. Conclusions Combining repeated PDT with a gemcitabine-based combination therapy might offer a significant survival benefit in patients with hilar NCC. PMID:26814610

  4. Photodynamic Therapy Plus Chemotherapy Compared with Photodynamic Therapy Alone in Hilar Nonresectable Cholangiocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Wentrup, Robert; Winkelmann, Nicola; Mitroshkin, Andrey; Prager, Matthias; Voderholzer, Winfried; Schachschal, Guido; Jürgensen, Christian; Büning, Carsten

    2016-05-23

    Standard treatments are not available for hilar nonresectable cholangiocarcinoma (NCC). It is unknown whether combination therapy of photodynamic therapy (PDT) plus systemic chemotherapy is superior to PDT alone. We retrospectively reviewed 68 patients with hilar NCC treated with either PDT plus chemotherapy (PTD-C) or PDT monotherapy (PDT-M). The primary endpoint was the mean overall survival rate. Secondary endpoints included the 1-year survival rate, risk of cholangitic complications, and outcomes, which were evaluated according to the chemotherapy protocol. More than 90% of the study population had advanced hilar NCC Bismuth type III or IV. In the PDT-M group (n=35), the mean survival time was 374 days compared with 520 days in the PDT-C group (n=33, p=0.021). The 1-year survival rate was significantly higher in the PDT-C group compared with the PDT-M group (88% vs 58%, p=0.001) with a significant reduction of mortality (hazard ratio, 0.20; 95% confidence interval, 0.07 to 0.58; p=0.003). Gemcitabine monotherapy resulted in a shorter survival time compared with the gemcitabine combination therapy (mean, 395 days vs 566 days; p=0.09). Cholangitic complications were observed at a similar frequency in the PDT-C and PDT-M groups. Combining repeated PDT with a gemcitabine-based combination therapy might offer a significant survival benefit in patients with hilar NCC.

  5. Effects of telomerase expression on photodynamic therapy of Barrett's esophagus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Kenneth K.; Anderson, Marlys; Buttar, Navtej; WongKeeSong, Louis-Michel; Borkenhagen, Lynn; Lutzke, Lori

    2003-06-01

    Photodynamic therapy has been applied to Barrett's esophagus and has been shown in prospective randomized studies to eliminate dysplasia as well as decrease the occurrence of cancer. However, the therapy isnot always effective and there are issues with residual areas of Barrett's mucosa despite therapy. There has not been a good explanation for these residual areas and they seem to imply that there may exist a biological mechanisms by which these cells may be resistant to photodynamic therapy. It was our aim to determine if known abnormalities in Barrett's mucosa could be correlated with the lack of response of some of these tissues. We examined the tissue from mulitpel patients who had resonse to therapy as well as those who did not respond. We assessed the tissue for p53 mutations, inactivatino of p16, ploidy status, cell proliferation, telomerase activity, and degree of dysplasia. Interestingly, the only genetic marker than was found to be correlated with lack of reonse was p53 and telomerase activity. This suggests that cells that have lost mechanisms for cell death such as apoptosis or telomere shortengin may be more resistant to photodynamic therapy. In this study, we examined patients before and after PDT for telomerase activity.

  6. Porphycenes: facts and prospects in photodynamic therapy of cancer.

    PubMed

    Stockert, J C; Cañete, M; Juarranz, A; Villanueva, A; Horobin, R W; Borrell, J I; Teixidó, J; Nonell, S

    2007-01-01

    The photodynamic process induces cell damage and death by the combined effect of a photosensitizer (PS), visible light, and molecular oxygen, which generate singlet oxygen ((1)O(2)) and other reactive oxygen species that are responsible for cytotoxicity. The most important application of this process with increasing biomedical interest is the photodynamic therapy (PDT) of cancer. In addition to hematoporphyrin-based drugs, 2nd generation PSs with better photochemical properties are now studied using cell cultures, experimental tumors and clinical trials. Porphycene is a structural isomer of porphyrin and constitutes an interesting new class of PS. Porphycene derivatives show higher absorption than porphyrins in the red spectral region (lambda > 600 nm, epsilon > 50000 M-(1)cm(-1)) owing to the lower molecular symmetry. Photophysical and photobiological properties of porphycenes make them excellent candidates as PSs, showing fast uptake and diverse subcellular localizations (mainly membranous organelles). Several tetraalkylporphycenes and the tetraphenyl derivative (TPPo) induce photodamage and cell death in vitro. Photodynamic treatments of cultured tumor cells with TPPo and its palladium(II) complex induce cytoskeletal changes, mitotic blockage, and dose-dependent apoptotic or necrotic cell death. Some pharmacokinetic and phototherapeutic studies on experimental tumors after intravenous or topical application of lipophilic alkyl-substituted porphycene derivatives are known. Taking into account all these features, porphycene PSs should be very useful for PDT of cancer and other biomedical applications.

  7. Susceptibility of Candida Species to Photodynamic Effects of Photofrin

    PubMed Central

    Bliss, Joseph M.; Bigelow, Chad E.; Foster, Thomas H.; Haidaris, Constantine G.

    2004-01-01

    The in vitro susceptibility of pathogenic Candida species to the photodynamic effects of the clinically approved photosensitizing agent Photofrin was examined. Internalization of Photofrin by Candida was confirmed by confocal fluorescence microscopy, and the degree of uptake was dependent on incubation concentration. Uptake of Photofrin by Candida and subsequent sensitivity to irradiation was influenced by culture conditions. Photofrin uptake was poor in C. albicans blastoconidia grown in nutrient broth. However, conversion of blastoconidia to filamentous forms by incubation in defined tissue culture medium resulted in substantial Photofrin uptake. Under conditions where Photofrin was effectively taken up by Candida, irradiated organisms were damaged in a drug dose- and light-dependent manner. Uptake of Photofrin was not inhibited by azide, indicating that the mechanism of uptake was not dependent on energy provided via electron transport. Fungal damage induced by Photofrin-mediated photodynamic therapy (PDT) was determined by evaluation of metabolic activity after irradiation. A strain of C. glabrata took up Photofrin poorly and was resistant to killing after irradiation. In contrast, two different strains of C. albicans displayed comparable levels of sensitivity to PDT. Furthermore, a reference strain of C. krusei that is relatively resistant to fluconazole compared to C. albicans was equally sensitive to C. albicans at Photofrin concentrations of ≥3 μg/ml. The results indicate that photodynamic therapy may be a useful adjunct or alternative to current anti-Candida therapeutic modalities, particularly for superficial infections on surfaces amenable to illumination. PMID:15155191

  8. Photodynamic therapy for the treatment of buccal candidiasis in rats.

    PubMed

    Junqueira, Juliana Campos; Martins, Joyce da Silva; Faria, Raquel Lourdes; Colombo, Carlos Eduardo Dias; Jorge, Antonio Olavo Cardoso

    2009-11-01

    The study objective was to evaluate the effects of photodynamic therapy on buccal candidiasis in rats. After experimental candidiasis had been induced on the tongue dorsum, 72 rats were distributed into four groups according to treatment: treated with laser and methylene blue photosensitizer (L+P+); treated only with laser (L+P-); treated only with photosensitizer (L--P+); not treated with laser or photosensitizer (L-P-). The rats were killed immediately, 1 day, or 5 days after treatment, for microscopic analysis of the tongue dorsum. Observation verified that the photodynamic therapy group (L+P+) exhibited fewer epithelial alterations and a lower chronic inflammatory response than the L-P- group. The group L+P- presented more intense epithelial alterations and chronic inflammatory response than the remaining groups. The L-P+ group showed tissue lesions similar to those of the L-P- group. In conclusion, rats treated with photodynamic therapy developed more discrete candidiasis lesions than did the remaining groups.

  9. Optimized Photodynamic Therapy with Multifunctional Cobalt Magnetic Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Kyong-Hoon; Nam, Ki Chang; Kim, Un-Ho; Cho, Guangsup; Jung, Jin-Seung; Park, Bong Joo

    2017-01-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) has been adopted as a minimally invasive approach for the localized treatment of superficial tumors, representing an improvement in the care of cancer patients. To improve the efficacy of PDT, it is important to first select an optimized nanocarrier and determine the influence of light parameters on the photosensitizing agent. In particular, much more knowledge concerning the importance of fluence and exposure time is required to gain a better understanding of the photodynamic efficacy. In the present study, we synthesized novel folic acid-(FA) and hematoporphyrin (HP)-conjugated multifunctional magnetic nanoparticles (CoFe2O4-HPs-FAs), which were characterized as effective anticancer reagents for PDT, and evaluated the influence of incubation time and light exposure time on the photodynamic anticancer activities of CoFe2O4-HPs-FAs in prostate cancer cells (PC-3 cells). The results indicated that the same fluence at different exposure times resulted in changes in the anticancer activities on PC-3 cells as well as in reactive oxygen species formation. In addition, an increase of the fluence showed an improvement for cell photo-inactivation. Therefore, we have established optimized conditions for new multifunctional magnetic nanoparticles with direct application for improving PDT for cancer patients. PMID:28604596

  10. Photodynamic therapy in the treatment of basal cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Matei, C; Tampa, M; Poteca, T; Panea-Paunica, G; Georgescu, S R; Ion, R M; Popescu, S M; Giurcaneanu, C

    2013-03-15

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a medical procedure based on the activation of the molecules of various exogenous or endogenous chemical substances called photosensitizers by a light source emitting radiation of an adequate wavelength, usually situated in the visible spectrum; photosensitizers are chemical compounds bearing the capacity to selectively concentrate in the neoplastic cells. The energy captured by the molecules of these substances pervaded in the tumor cells is subsequently discharged in the surrounding tissue, triggering certain photodynamic reactions that result in the destruction of the tumor. The procedure is applicable in numerous medical fields. Skin basal cell carcinoma (BCC), the most frequent type of cancer of the human species, is a cutaneous tumor that responds very well to this innovative treatment method. By reviewing numerous recent studies in the field, this article aims to present the role and the indications of photodynamic therapy in the management of basal cell carcinoma, as well as the most important results achieved so far by this therapy in the field of dermato-oncology.

  11. Studies of lipid peroxidation of rat blood after in vivo photodynamic treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yanina, Irina Yu.; Navolokin, Nikita A.; Nikitina, Victoria V.; Bucharskaya, Alla B.; Maslyakova, Galina N.; Tuchin, Valery V.

    2011-10-01

    Lipid peroxidation (LP) of blood serum of laboratory animals after in vivo photodynamic treatment was investigated. To determine changes in LP the standard colorimetric test OXYSTAT was used. The results indicate an increase in the intensity of free radical generation in tissues induced by photodynamic treatment.

  12. Studies of lipid peroxidation of rat blood after in vivo photodynamic treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yanina, Irina Yu.; Navolokin, Nikita A.; Nikitina, Victoria V.; Bucharskaya, Alla B.; Maslyakova, Galina N.; Tuchin, Valery V.

    2012-03-01

    Lipid peroxidation (LP) of blood serum of laboratory animals after in vivo photodynamic treatment was investigated. To determine changes in LP the standard colorimetric test OXYSTAT was used. The results indicate an increase in the intensity of free radical generation in tissues induced by photodynamic treatment.

  13. Efficacy of 5-Aminolevulinic Acid Photodynamic Therapy in treatment of nasal inverted papilloma.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yunjie; Yang, Yuguang; Zou, Xianbiao

    2013-12-01

    Evaluate the efficacy of 5-Aminolevulinic Acid Photodynamic Therapy (PDT) in medical treatment of nasal inverted papilloma (NIP). Three patients with nasal inverted papilloma were treated with 5-Aminolevulinic Acid Photodynamic Therapy at our department from April to September 2012. The efficacy and adverse effects of 5-Aminolevulinic Acid Photodynamic Therapy were evaluated during 6-8 months of follow-up medical examination. After treated with 5-Aminolevulinic Acid Photodynamic Therapy, the nasal inverted papillomas were removed. No recurrence was found during the 6-8 months of follow-up medical examination. The major adverse effects were mild erosion, pain, and exudation. 5-Aminolevulinic Acid Photodynamic Therapy appears to be an effective treatment of nasal inverted papilloma. It can clear the papilloma lesions and is well tolerated by the patients. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Photodynamic effects of new silicon phthalocyanines: in vitro studies utilizing rat hepatic microsomes and human erythrocyte ghosts as model membrane sources.

    PubMed

    Zaidi, S I; Agarwal, R; Eichler, G; Rihter, B D; Kenney, M E; Mukhtar, H

    1993-08-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) of cancer is a modality that relies upon the irradiation of tumors with visible light following selective uptake of a photosensitizer by the tumor tissue. There is considerable emphasis to define new photosensitizers suitable for PDT of cancer. In this study we evaluated six phthalocyanines (Pc) for their photodynamic effects utilizing rat hepatic microsomes and human erythrocyte ghosts as model membrane sources. Of the newly synthesized Pc, two showed significant destruction of cytochrome P-450 and monooxygenase activities, and enhancement of lipid peroxidation, when added to microsomal suspension followed by irradiation with approximately 675 nm light. These two Pc named SiPc IV (HOSiPcOSi[CH3]2[CH2]3N[CH3]2) and SiPc V (HOSiPc-OSi[CH3]2[CH2]3N[CH3]3+I-) showed dose-dependent photodestruction of cytochrome P-450 and monooxygenase activities in liver microsomes, and photoenhancement of lipid peroxidation, lipid hydroperoxide formation and lipid fluorescence in microsomes and erythrocyte ghosts. Compared to chloroaluminum phthalocyanine tetrasulfonate, SiPc IV and SiPc V produced far more pronounced photodynamic effects. Sodium azide, histidine, and 2,5-dimethylfuran, the quenchers of singlet oxygen, afforded highly significant protection against SiPc IV- and SiPc V-mediated photodynamic effects. However, to a lesser extent, the quenchers of superoxide anion, hydrogen peroxide and hydroxyl radical also showed some protective effects. These results suggest that SiPc IV and SiPc V may be promising photosensitizers for the PDT of cancer.

  15. Water-Insoluble Photosensitizer Nanocolloids Stabilized by Supramolecular Interfacial Assembly towards Photodynamic Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yamei; Ma, Kai; Jiao, Tifeng; Xing, Ruirui; Shen, Guizhi; Yan, Xuehai

    2017-01-01

    Nanoengineering of hydrophobic photosensitizers (PSs) is a promising approach for improved tumor delivery and enhanced photodynamic therapy (PDT) efficiency. A variety of delivery carriers have been developed for tumor delivery of PSs through the enhanced permeation and retention (EPR) effect. However, a high-performance PS delivery system with minimum use of carrier materials with excellent biocompatibility is highly appreciated. In this work, we utilized the spatiotemporal interfacial adhesion and assembly of supramolecular coordination to achieve the nanoengineering of water-insoluble photosensitizer Chlorin e6 (Ce6). The hydrophobic Ce6 nanoparticles are well stabilized in a aqueous medium by the interfacially-assembled film due to the coordination polymerization of tannic acid (TA) and ferric iron (Fe(III)). The resulting Ce6@TA-Fe(III) complex nanoparticles (referenced as Ce6@TA-Fe(III) NPs) significantly improves the drug loading content (~65%) and have an average size of 60 nm. The Ce6@TA-Fe(III) NPs are almost non-emissive as the aggregated states, but they can light up after intracellular internalization, which thus realizes low dark toxicity and excellent phototoxicity under laser irradiation. The Ce6@TA-Fe(III) NPs prolong blood circulation, promote tumor-selective accumulation of PSs, and enhanced antitumor efficacy in comparison to the free-carrier Ce6 in vivo evaluation. PMID:28230203

  16. Comparison of 5-aminolevulinic acid-encapsulated liposome versus ethosome for skin delivery for photodynamic therapy.

    PubMed

    Fang, Yi-Ping; Tsai, Yi-Hung; Wu, Pao-Chu; Huang, Yaw-Bin

    2008-05-22

    Topical photodynamic therapy (PDT) with 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) is an alternative therapy for many non-melanoma skin cancers. The major limitation of this therapy, however, is the low permeability of ALA through the stratum corneum (SC) of the skin. The objective of the present work was to characterize ethosomes containing ALA and to enhance the skin production of protoporphyrin IX (PpIX), compared to traditional liposomes. Results showed that the average particle sizes of the ethosomes were less than those of liposomes. Moreover, the entrapment efficiency of ALA in the ethosome formulations was 8-66% depending on the surfactant added. The particle size of the ethosomes was still approximately <200 nm after 32 days of storage. An in vivo animal study observed the presence of PpIX in the skin by confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). The results indicated that the penetration ability of ethosomes was greater than that of liposomes. The enhancements of all the formulations were ranging from 11- to 15-fold in contrast to that of control (ALA in an aqueous solution) in terms of PpIX intensity. In addition, colorimetry detected no erythema in the irradiated skin. The results demonstrated that the enhancement ratio of ethosome formulations did not significantly differ between the non-irradiated and irradiated groups except for PE/CH/SS, which may have been due to a photobleaching effect of the PDT-irradiation process.

  17. Water-Insoluble Photosensitizer Nanocolloids Stabilized by Supramolecular Interfacial Assembly towards Photodynamic Therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yamei; Ma, Kai; Jiao, Tifeng; Xing, Ruirui; Shen, Guizhi; Yan, Xuehai

    2017-02-01

    Nanoengineering of hydrophobic photosensitizers (PSs) is a promising approach for improved tumor delivery and enhanced photodynamic therapy (PDT) efficiency. A variety of delivery carriers have been developed for tumor delivery of PSs through the enhanced permeation and retention (EPR) effect. However, a high-performance PS delivery system with minimum use of carrier materials with excellent biocompatibility is highly appreciated. In this work, we utilized the spatiotemporal interfacial adhesion and assembly of supramolecular coordination to achieve the nanoengineering of water-insoluble photosensitizer Chlorin e6 (Ce6). The hydrophobic Ce6 nanoparticles are well stabilized in a aqueous medium by the interfacially-assembled film due to the coordination polymerization of tannic acid (TA) and ferric iron (Fe(III)). The resulting Ce6@TA-Fe(III) complex nanoparticles (referenced as Ce6@TA-Fe(III) NPs) significantly improves the drug loading content (~65%) and have an average size of 60 nm. The Ce6@TA-Fe(III) NPs are almost non-emissive as the aggregated states, but they can light up after intracellular internalization, which thus realizes low dark toxicity and excellent phototoxicity under laser irradiation. The Ce6@TA-Fe(III) NPs prolong blood circulation, promote tumor-selective accumulation of PSs, and enhanced antitumor efficacy in comparison to the free-carrier Ce6 in vivo evaluation.

  18. Nanostructured lipid carrier in photodynamic therapy for the treatment of basal-cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Qidwai, Afreen; Khan, Saba; Md, Shadab; Fazil, Mohammad; Baboota, Sanjula; Narang, Jasjeet K; Ali, Javed

    2016-05-01

    Topical photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a promising alternative for malignant skin diseases such as basal-cell carcinoma (BCC), due to its simplicity, enhanced patient compliance, and localization of the residual photosensitivity to the site of application. However, insufficient photosensitizer penetration into the skin is the major issue of concern with topical PDT. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to enable penetration of photosensitizer to the different strata of the skin using a lipid nanocarrier system. We have attempted to develop a nanostructured lipid carrier (NLC) for the topical delivery of second-generation photosensitizer, 5-amino levulinic acid (5-ALA), whose hydrophilicity and charge characteristic limit its percutaneous absorption. The microemulsion technique was used for preparing 5-ALA-loaded NLC. The mean particle size, polydispersity index, and entrapment efficiency of the optimized NLC of 5-ALA were found to be 185.2 ± 1.20, 0.156 ± 0.02, and 76.8 ± 2.58%, respectively. The results of in vitro release and in vitro skin permeation studies showed controlled drug release and enhanced penetration into the skin, respectively. Confocal laser scanning microscopy and cell line studies respectively demonstrated that encapsulation of 5-ALA in NLC enhanced its ability to reach deeper skin layers and consequently, increased cytotoxicity.

  19. Photodynamic inactivation of microorganisms present on complete dentures. A clinical investigation. Photodynamic disinfection of complete dentures.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Daniela Garcia; Pavarina, Ana Cláudia; Dovigo, Lívia Nordi; Mima, Ewerton Garcia de Oliveira; Machado, Ana Lucia; Bagnato, Vanderlei Salvador; Vergani, Carlos Eduardo

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of photodynamic therapy (PDT) for the disinfection of complete dentures. Biofilm samples were collected from dentures of 60 denture users who were randomly divided into four experimental groups (n = 15 each): subjects whose maxillary dentures were sprayed with 50 and 100 mg/l of Photogem® suspension (groups P50S and P100S) and patients whose maxillary dentures were treated with 50 and 100 mg/l of Photogem® gel (groups P50G and P100G). Dentures with photosensitizers were left in the dark for 30 min (pre-irradiation time) and then irradiated with blue LED light at 37.5 J/cm(2) (26 min). Denture samples were taken with sterile cotton swab before (left side surfaces) and after (right side surfaces) PDT. All microbial material was diluted and plated on selective media for Candida spp., Staphylococcus mutans spp., streptococci and a non-selective media. After incubation (48 h/37°C), the number of colony-forming units (cfu/ml) was counted. Microorganisms grown on selective media were identified using biochemical methods before and after PDT. The data were submitted to McNemar and Kruskal-Wallis tests (α = 0.05). No growth after PDT was observed in 60, 53, 47, and 40% of dentures from P100G, P50G, P100S, and P50S groups, respectively. When evidence of microorganisms' growth was observed, PDT regimens eliminated over 90% of microorganisms on dentures. This clinical study showed that PDT was effective for disinfecting dentures.

  20. Increased efficacy of photodynamic therapy of R3230AC mammary adenocarcinoma by intratumoral injection of Photofrin II.

    PubMed Central

    Gibson, S. L.; van der Meid, K. R.; Murant, R. S.; Hilf, R.

    1990-01-01

    Photodynamic therapy consists of the systemic administration of a derivative of haematoporphyrin (Photofrin II) followed 24-72 h later by exposure of malignant lesions to photoradiation. We investigated the efficacy of this treatment after direct intratumoral injection of Photofrin II. This direct treatment regimen resulted in higher rates of inhibition of mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase (5.13% J-1 cm-2 x 10(-1) and succinate dehydrogenase (3.14% J-1 cm-2 x 10(-1] in vitro at 2 h after intratumoral injection compared to rates of inhibition obtained after intraperitoneal drug administration: 0.51 and 0.42% J-1 cm-2 x 10(-1), respectively. A significant delay in tumour growth in vivo was observed in animals that received intratumoral injections 2 h before photoradiation compared to animals injected intraperitoneally at either 2 or 24 h before photoradiation. The treatment protocols were compared with control groups, consisting of Photofrin II administration intratumorally or intraperitoneally without photoradiation, or photoradiation in the absence of Photofrin II. These data indicate that the intratumoral injection regimen with Photofrin II enhanced the efficacy of photodynamic therapy. The greater delay in tumour growth observed after intratumoral administration of Photofrin II suggests a mechanism favouring direct cell damage. PMID:2139578

  1. Routine experimental system for defining conditions used in photodynamic therapy and fluorescence photodetection of (non-) neoplastic epithelia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lange, Norbert; Vaucher, Laurent; Marti, Alexandre; Etter, Anne-Lise; Gerber, Patrick; van den Bergh, Hubert; Jichlinski, Patrice; Kucera, Pavel

    2001-04-01

    A common method to induce enhanced short-term endogenous porphyrin synthesis and accumulation in cell is the topical, systemic application of 5-aminolevulinic acid or one of its derivatives. This circumvents the intravenous administration of photosensitizers normally used for photodynamic therapy (PDT) of fluorescence photodetection. However, in the majority of potential medical indications, optimal conditions with respect to the porphyrin precursor or its pharmaceutical formulation have not yet been found. Due to ethical restrictions and animal right directives, the number of available test objects is limited. Hence, definition and use of nonanimal test methods are needed. Tissue and organ cultures are a promising approach in replacing cost intensive animal models in early stages of drug development. In this paper, we present a tissue culture, which can among others be used routinely to answer specific questions emerging in the field of photodynamic therapy and fluorescence photodetection. This technique uses mucosae excised from sheep paranasal sinuses or pig bladder, which is cultured under controlled conditions. It allows quasiquantative testing of different protoporphyrin IX precursors with respect to dose-response curves and pharmacokinetics, as well as the evaluation of different incubation conditions and/or different drug formulations. Furthermore, this approach, when combined with the use of electron microscopy and fluorescence-based methods, can be used to quantitatively determine the therapeutic outcome following protoporphyrin IX-mediated PDT.

  2. Apoptosis induced by methylene-blue-mediated photodynamic therapy in melanomas and the involvement of mitochondrial dysfunction revealed by proteomics.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yongjun; Zheng, Wei; Li, Yingqian; Zhong, Jieying; Ji, Jianguo; Shen, Pingping

    2008-10-01

    Methylene blue (MB) is a widely studied agent currently under investigation for its properties relating to photodynamic therapy (PDT). Recent studies have demonstrated that MB exhibits profound phototoxicity affecting a variety of tumor cell lines. However, the mechanistic explanation for methylene-blue-mediated photodynamic therapy (MB-PDT) in the context of melanoma therapy is still obscure. In the present study, B16F1 melanoma cells were treated by MB-PDT under different conditions, and thereafter subjected to cell viability detection assays. MB-PDT could induce intense apoptotic cell death through a series of steps beginning with the photochemical generation of reactive oxygen species that activate the caspase-9/caspase-3 apoptosis pathway. Blocking activation of caspase-3 and induction of oxidative stress by caspase inhibitor and by glutathione, respectively, markedly reduced apoptotic cell death in vitro. Importantly, proteomics study defining altered protein expression in treated cells suggests the involvement of several mitochondrial proteins playing important roles in electron transfer chain, implying mitochondrial dysfunction during the treatment. Furthermore, a transplantable mouse melanoma model was utilized to estimate the effectiveness of MB-PDT in vivo. The treated mice displayed decreased tumor size and prolonged survival days, which was associated with enhanced apoptotic cell death. These results, offering solid evidence of the induction of mitochondria-related apoptosis in tumor cells, reveal new aspects of MB-PDT having potential to be a palliative treatment of melanoma.

  3. Light source is critical to induce glioblastoma cell death by photodynamic therapy using chloro-aluminiumphtalocyanine albumin-based nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Davanzo, Nathalia Nossi; Pellosi, Diogo Silva; Franchi, Leonardo Pereira; Tedesco, Antônio Cláudio

    2017-09-01

    Selection of an efficient light source is fundamental in the development of photodynamic therapy (PDT) protocols. However, few studies provide a comparison of different light sources with regard to phototoxic effects. Here, we compared the cell death induced by photoactivation of chloro-aluminiumphtalocyanine (AlClPc)-loaded human serum albumin nan