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Sample records for enhances colony-stimulating factor-1-driven

  1. Enhanced and Secretory Expression of Human Granulocyte Colony Stimulating Factor by Bacillus subtilis SCK6

    PubMed Central

    Bashir, Shaista; Sadaf, Saima; Ahmad, Sajjad; Akhtar, Muhammad Waheed

    2015-01-01

    This study describes a simplified approach for enhanced expression and secretion of a pharmaceutically important human cytokine, that is, granulocyte colony stimulating factor (GCSF), in the culture supernatant of Bacillus subtilis SCK6 cells. Codon optimized GCSF and pNWPH vector containing SpymwC signal sequence were amplified by prolonged overlap extension PCR to generate multimeric plasmid DNA, which was used directly to transform B. subtilis SCK6 supercompetent cells. Expression of GCSF was monitored in the culture supernatant for 120 hours. The highest expression, which corresponded to 17% of the total secretory protein, was observed at 72 hours of growth. Following ammonium sulphate precipitation, GCSF was purified to near homogeneity by fast protein liquid chromatography on a QFF anion exchange column. Circular dichroism spectroscopic analysis showed that the secondary structure contents of the purified GCSF are similar to the commercially available GCSF. Biological activity, as revealed by the regeneration of neutrophils in mice treated with ifosfamine, was also similar to the commercial preparation of GCSF. This, to our knowledge, is the first study that reports secretory expression of human GCSF in B. subtilis SCK6 with final recovery of up to 96 mg/L of the culture supernatant, without involvement of any chemical inducer. PMID:26881203

  2. Human Granulocyte Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor Enhances Antibiotic Susceptibility of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Persister Cells

    PubMed Central

    Choudhary, Geetika S.; Yao, Xiangyu; Wang, Jing; Peng, Bo; Bader, Rebecca A.; Ren, Dacheng

    2015-01-01

    Bacterial persister cells are highly tolerant to antibiotics and cause chronic infections. However, little is known about the interaction between host immune systems with this subpopulation of metabolically inactive cells, and direct effects of host immune factors (in the absence of immune cells) on persister cells have not been studied. Here we report that human granulocyte macrophage-colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) can sensitize the persister cells of Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 and PDO300 to multiple antibiotics including ciprofloxacin, tobramycin, tetracycline, and gentamicin. GM-CSF also sensitized the biofilm cells of P. aeruginosa PAO1 and PDO300 to tobramycin in the presence of biofilm matrix degrading enzymes. The DNA microarray and qPCR results indicated that GM-CSF induced the genes for flagellar motility and pyocin production in the persister cells, but not the normal cells of P. aeruginosa PAO1. Consistently, the supernatants from GM-CSF treated P. aeruginosa PAO1 persister cell suspensions were found cidal to the pyocin sensitive strain P. aeruginosa PAK. Collectively, these findings suggest that host immune factors and bacterial persisters may directly interact, leading to enhanced susceptibility of persister cells to antibiotics. PMID:26616387

  3. Survival enhancement and hemopoietic regeneration following radiation exposure: therapeutic approach using glucan and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor

    SciTech Connect

    Patchen, M.L.; MacVittie, T.J.; Solberg, B.D.; Souza, L.M.

    1990-01-01

    C3H/HeN female mice were exposed to whole-body cobalt-60 radiation and administered soluble glucan (5 mg i.v. at 1 h following exposure), recombinant human granulocyte colony-stimulating factor or both agents. Treatments were evaluated for their ability to enhance hemopoietic regeneration, and to increase survival after radiation-induced myelosuppression. Both glucan and G-CSF enhanced hemopoietic regeneration alone; however, greater effects were observed in mice receiving both agents. For example, on day 17 following a sublethal 6.5-Gy radiation exposure, mice treated with saline, G-CSF, glucan, or both agents, respectively, exhibited 36%, 65%, 50%, and 78% of normal bone marrow cellularity, and 84%, 175%, 152%, and 212% of normal splenic cellularity.

  4. Enhanced activation of B cells in a granulocyte colony-stimulating factor-mobilized peripheral blood stem cell graft.

    PubMed

    Tayebi, H; Lapierre, V; Saas, P; Lienard, A; Sutton, L; Milpied, N; Attal, M; Cahn, J Y; Kuentz, M; Blaise, D; Hervé, P; Tiberghien, P; Robinet, E

    2001-09-01

    In a randomized study that compared human leucocyte antigen-identical allogeneic granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF)-mobilized peripheral blood stem cell (PBSC) versus bone marrow (BM) transplantation, the expression of activation markers, CD23, CD25 and CD45RO by B cells, was compared in blood before and after G-CSF mobilization and in PBSC versus BM grafts. The fractions of CD23+ and CD25+ B cells were higher in PBSC than in BM grafts. Moreover, we observed a G-CSF-induced increase in B-cell fractions in blood as well as in PBSC grafts when compared with BM grafts. Such an enhanced B-cell activation could contribute to the accelerated kinetics of immuno-haematological reconstitution, the occurrence of acute haemolysis in the ABO minor incompatibility setting, as well as the increased incidence of chronic graft-versus-host disease observed after PBSC transplantation.

  5. Intranasal Delivery of Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor Enhances Its Neuroprotective Effects Against Ischemic Brain Injury in Rats.

    PubMed

    Sun, Bao-liang; He, Mei-qing; Han, Xiang-yu; Sun, Jing-yi; Yang, Ming-feng; Yuan, Hui; Fan, Cun-dong; Zhang, Shuai; Mao, Lei-lei; Li, Da-wei; Zhang, Zong-yong; Zheng, Cheng-bi; Yang, Xiao-yi; Li, Yang V; Stetler, R Anne; Chen, Jun; Zhang, Feng

    2016-01-01

    Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) is a hematopoietic growth factor with strong neuroprotective properties. However, it has limited capacity to cross the blood-brain barrier and thus potentially limiting its protective capacity. Recent studies demonstrated that intranasal drug administration is a promising way in delivering neuroprotective agents to the central nervous system. The current study therefore aimed at determining whether intranasal administration of G-CSF increases its delivery to the brain and its neuroprotective effect against ischemic brain injury. Transient focal cerebral ischemia in rat was induced with middle cerebral artery occlusion. Our resulted showed that intranasal administration is 8-12 times more effective than subcutaneous injection in delivering G-CSF to cerebrospinal fluid and brain parenchyma. Intranasal delivery enhanced the protective effects of G-CSF against ischemic injury in rats, indicated by decreased infarct volume and increased recovery of neurological function. The neuroprotective mechanisms of G-CSF involved enhanced upregulation of HO-1 and reduced calcium overload following ischemia. Intranasal G-CSF application also promoted angiogenesis and neurogenesis following brain ischemia. Taken together, G-CSF is a legitimate neuroprotective agent and intranasal administration of G-CSF is more effective in delivery and neuroprotection and could be a practical approach in clinic.

  6. Survival enhancement and hemopoietic regeneration following radiation exposure: Therapeutic approach using glucan and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor

    SciTech Connect

    Patchen, M.L.; MacVittie, T.J.; Solberg, B.D.; Souza, L.M. )

    1990-10-01

    C3H/HeN female mice were exposed to whole-body cobalt-60 radiation and administered soluble glucan (5 mg i.v. at 1 h following exposure), recombinant human granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF; 2.5 micrograms/day s.c., days 3-12 following exposure), or both agents. Treatments were evaluated for their ability to enhance hemopoietic regeneration, and to increase survival after radiation-induced myelosuppression. Both glucan and G-CSF enhanced hemopoietic regeneration alone; however, greater effects were observed in mice receiving both agents. For example, on day 17 following a sublethal 6.5-Gy radiation exposure, mice treated with saline, G-CSF, glucan, or both agents, respectively, exhibited 36%, 65%, 50%, and 78% of normal bone marrow cellularity, and 84%, 175%, 152%, and 212% of normal splenic cellularity. At this same time, granulocyte-macrophage colony-forming cell (GM-CFC) values in saline, G-CSF, glucan, or combination-treated mice, respectively, were 9%, 46%, 26%, and 57% of normal bone marrow values, and 57%, 937%, 364%, and 1477% of normal splenic values. Endogenous spleen colony formation was also increased in all treatment groups, with combination-treated mice exhibiting the greatest effects. Likewise, although both glucan and G-CSF alone enhanced survival following an 8-Gy radiation exposure, greatest survival was observed in mice treated with both agents. These studies suggest that glucan, a macrophage activator, can synergize with G-CSF to further accelerate hemopoietic regeneration and increase survival following radiation-induced myelosuppression.

  7. Therapeutic administration of recombinant human granulocyte colony-stimulating factor accelerates hemopoietic regeneration and enhances survival in a murine model of radiation-induced myelosuppression

    SciTech Connect

    Patchen, M.L.; MacVittie, T.J.; Solberg, B.D.; Souza, L.M.

    1990-01-01

    The primary cause of death after radiation exposure is infection resulting from myelosuppression. Because granulocytes play a critical role in host defense against infection and because granulocyte proliferation and differentiation are enhanced by granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF), this agent was evaluated for the ability to accelerate hemopoietic regeneration and to enhance survival in irradiated mice. C3H/HeN mice were irradiated and G-CSF or saline was administered on days 3-12, 1-12 or 0-12 post-irradiation. Bone marrow, splenic and peripheral blood cellularity and bone marrow and splenic granulocyte-macrophage progenitor cell recoveries were evaluated in mice exposed to 6.5 Gy. Mice exposed to 8 Gy were evaluated for multipotent hemopoietic stem cell recovery (using endogenous spleen colony-forming units) and enhanced survival. Results demonstrated that therapeutic G-CSF (1) accelerates hemopoietic regeneration after radiation-induced myelosuppression, (2) enhances survival after potentially lethal irradiation and (3) is most effective when initiated 1 h following exposure.

  8. Therapeutic administration of recombinant human granulocyte colony-stimulating factor accelerates hemopoietic regeneration and enhances survival in a murine model of radiation-induced myelosuppression

    SciTech Connect

    Patchen, M.L.; MacVittie, T.J.; Solberg, B.D.; Souza, L.M. )

    1990-03-01

    The primary cause of death after radiation exposure is infection resulting from myelosuppression. Because granulocytes play a critical role in host defense against infection and because granulocyte proliferation and differentiation are enhanced by granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF), this agent was evaluated for the ability to accelerate hemopoietic regeneration and to enhance survival in irradiated mice. C3H/HeN mice were irradiated and G-CSF (2.5 micrograms/day, s.c.) or saline was administered on days 3-12, 1-12 or 0-12 post-irradiation. Bone marrow, splenic and peripheral blood cellularity, and bone marrow and splenic granulocyte-macrophage progenitor cell recoveries were evaluated in mice exposed to 6.5 Gy. Mice exposed to 8 Gy were evaluated for multipotent hemopoietic stem cell recovery (using endogenous spleen colony-forming units) and enhanced survival. Results demonstrated that therapeutic G-CSF (1) accelerates hemopoietic regeneration after radiation-induced myelosuppression, (2) enhances survival after potentially lethal irradiation and (3) is most effective when initiated 1 h following exposure.

  9. The colony-stimulating factors and cancer.

    PubMed

    Metcalf, Donald

    2013-12-01

    The colony-stimulating factors (CSFs) are the master regulators of granulocyte and macrophage populations. There are four different aspects of the connection between the CSFs and cancer: (a) the CSFs can accelerate the regeneration of protective white cells damaged by chemotherapy; (b) the CSFs can mobilize stem cells to the peripheral blood in convenient numbers for transplantation; (c) the CSFs can enhance anticancer immune responses and (d) the CSFs are potentially involved in the genesis of the myeloid leukemias.

  10. Incorporation of Glycosylphosphatidylinositol-Anchored Granulocyte- Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor or CD40 Ligand Enhances Immunogenicity of Chimeric Simian Immunodeficiency Virus-Like Particles▿

    PubMed Central

    Skountzou, Ioanna; Quan, Fu-Shi; Gangadhara, Sailaja; Ye, Ling; Vzorov, Andrei; Selvaraj, Periasamy; Jacob, Joshy; Compans, Richard W.; Kang, Sang-Moo

    2007-01-01

    The rapid worldwide spread of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) mandates the development of successful vaccination strategies. Since live attenuated HIV is not accepted as a vaccine due to safety concerns, virus-like particles (VLPs) offer an attractive safe alternative because they lack the viral genome yet they are perceived by the immune system as a virus particle. We hypothesized that adding immunostimulatory signals to VLPs would enhance their efficacy. To accomplish this we generated chimeric simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) VLPs containing either glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) or CD40 ligand (CD40L) and investigated their biological activity and ability to enhance immune responses in vivo. Immunization of mice with chimeric SIV VLPs containing GM-CSF induced SIV Env-specific antibodies as well as neutralizing activity at significantly higher levels than those induced by standard SIV VLPs, SIV VLPs containing CD40L, or standard VLPs mixed with soluble GM-CSF. In addition, mice immunized with chimeric SIV VLPs containing either GM-CSF or CD40L showed significantly increased CD4+- and CD8+-T-cell responses to SIV Env, compared to standard SIV VLPs. Taken together, these results demonstrate that the incorporation of immunostimulatory molecules enhances humoral and cellular immune responses. We propose that anchoring immunostimulatory molecules into SIV VLPs can be a promising approach to augmenting the efficacy of VLP antigens. PMID:17108046

  11. Controlled Release of Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor Enhances Osteoconductive and Biodegradable Properties of Beta-Tricalcium Phosphate in a Rat Calvarial Defect Model

    PubMed Central

    Minagawa, Tomohiro; Tabata, Yasuhiko; Oyama, Akihiko; Furukawa, Hiroshi; Yamao, Takeshi; Yamamoto, Yuhei

    2014-01-01

    Autologous bone grafts remain the gold standard for the treatment of congenital craniofacial disorders; however, there are potential problems including donor site morbidity and limitations to the amount of bone that can be harvested. Recent studies suggest that granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) promotes fracture healing or osteogenesis. The purpose of the present study was to investigate whether topically applied G-CSF can stimulate the osteoconductive properties of beta-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) in a rat calvarial defect model. A total of 27 calvarial defects 5 mm in diameter were randomly divided into nine groups, which were treated with various combinations of a β-TCP disc and G-CSF in solution form or controlled release system using gelatin hydrogel. Histologic and histomorphometric analyses were performed at eight weeks postoperatively. The controlled release of low-dose (1 μg and 5 μg) G-CSF significantly enhanced new bone formation when combined with a β-TCP disc. Moreover, administration of 5 μg G-CSF using a controlled release system significantly promoted the biodegradable properties of β-TCP. In conclusion, the controlled release of 5 μg G-CSF significantly enhanced the osteoconductive and biodegradable properties of β-TCP. The combination of G-CSF slow-release and β-TCP is a novel and promising approach for treating pediatric craniofacial bone defects. PMID:24829581

  12. A Chimeric HIV-1 Envelope Glycoprotein Trimer with an Embedded Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony-stimulating Factor (GM-CSF) Domain Induces Enhanced Antibody and T Cell Responses*

    PubMed Central

    van Montfort, Thijs; Melchers, Mark; Isik, Gözde; Menis, Sergey; Huang, Po-Ssu; Matthews, Katie; Michael, Elizabeth; Berkhout, Ben; Schief, William R.; Moore, John P.; Sanders, Rogier W.

    2011-01-01

    An effective HIV-1 vaccine should ideally induce strong humoral and cellular immune responses that provide sterilizing immunity over a prolonged period. Current HIV-1 vaccines have failed in inducing such immunity. The viral envelope glycoprotein complex (Env) can be targeted by neutralizing antibodies to block infection, but several Env properties limit the ability to induce an antibody response of sufficient quantity and quality. We hypothesized that Env immunogenicity could be improved by embedding an immunostimulatory protein domain within its sequence. A stabilized Env trimer was therefore engineered with the granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) inserted into the V1V2 domain of gp120. Probing with neutralizing antibodies showed that both the Env and GM-CSF components of the chimeric protein were folded correctly. Furthermore, the embedded GM-CSF domain was functional as a cytokine in vitro. Mouse immunization studies demonstrated that chimeric EnvGM-CSF enhanced Env-specific antibody and T cell responses compared with wild-type Env. Collectively, these results show that targeting and activation of immune cells using engineered cytokine domains within the protein can improve the immunogenicity of Env subunit vaccines. PMID:21515681

  13. Expression of granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) in male germ cells: GM-CSF enhances sperm motility.

    PubMed

    Vilanova, Lourdes T; Rauch, M Cecilia; Mansilla, Alejandra; Zambrano, Angara; Brito, Mónica; Werner, Enrique; Alfaro, Víctor; Cox, José F; Concha, Ilona I

    2003-10-01

    The granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) is a pleiotropic cytokine capable of stimulating proliferation, maturation and function of hematopoietic cells. Receptors for this cytokine are composed of two subunits, alpha and beta, and are expressed on myeloid progenitors and mature mononuclear phagocytes, monocytes, eosinophils and neutrophils, as well as in other nonhematopietic cells. We have recently demonstrated that bull spermatozoa express functional GM-CSF receptors that signal for increased glucose and Vitamin C uptake. In this study, we analyzed the expression of GM-CSF in bovine and human germ cells and its influence in bovine sperm motility. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), in situ hybridization and immunoblotting analysis demonstrated that adult bovine and human testes expressed GM-CSF. In addition, immunolocalization studies confirmed the presence of GM-CSF in the germ cell line in bovine and human testes. Computer-assisted evaluation of patterns of sperm motility demonstrated that the addition of GM-CSF enhances several parameters of sperm motility in the presence of glucose or fructose substrates.

  14. Enhancing toxic protein expression in Escherichia coli fed-batch culture using kinetic parameters: Human granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor as a model system.

    PubMed

    Khasa, Yogender Pal; Khushoo, Amardeep; Mukherjee, Krishna Jyoti

    2013-03-01

    The kinetics of recombinant human granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (hGM-CSF) expression was studied under the strong T7 promoter in continuous culture of Escherichia coli using complex medium to design an optimum feeding strategy for high cell density cultivation. Continuous culture studies were done at different dilution rates and the growth and product formation profiles were monitored post-induction. Recombinant protein expression was in the form of inclusion bodies with a maximum specific product formation rate (q(p)) of 63.5 mg g(-1) DCW h(-1) at a dilution rate (D) of 0.3 h(-1). The maximum volumetric product concentration achieved at this dilution rate was 474 mg l(-1), which translated a ~1.4 and ~1.75 folds increase than the values obtained at dilution rates of 0.2 h(-1) and 0.4 h(-1) respectively. The specific product yield (Y(P/x)) peaked at 138 mg g(-1) DCW, demonstrating a ~1.6 folds increase in the values obtained at other dilution rates. A drop in q(p) was observed within 5-6 h of induction at all the dilution rates, possibly due to protein toxicity and metabolic stress associated with protein expression. The data from the continuous culture studies allowed us to design an optimal feeding strategy and induction time in fed-batch cultures which resulted in a maximum product concentration of 3.95 g l(-1) with a specific hGM-CSF yield (Y(P/x)) of 107 mg g(-1) DCW.

  15. Immune-enhancing effect of nano-DNA vaccine encoding a gene of the prME protein of Japanese encephalitis virus and BALB/c mouse granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor

    PubMed Central

    ZHAI, YONGZHEN; ZHOU, YAN; LI, XIMEI; FENG, GUOHE

    2015-01-01

    Plasmid-encoded granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) is an adjuvant for genetic vaccines; however, how GM-CSF enhances immunogenicity remains to be elucidated. In the present study, it was demonstrated that injection of a plasmid encoding the premembrane (prM) and envelope (E) protein of Japanese encephalitis virus and mouse GM-CSF (pJME/GM-CSF) into mouse muscle recruited large and multifocal conglomerates of macrophages and granulocytes, predominantly neutrophils. During the peak of the infiltration, an appreciable number of immature dendritic cells (DCs) appeared, although no T and B-cells was detected. pJME/GM-CSF increased the number of splenic DCs and the expression of major histocompatibility complex class II (MHCII) on splenic DC, and enhanced the antigenic capture, processing and presentation functions of splenic DCs, and the cell-mediated immunity induced by the vaccine. These findings suggested that the immune-enhancing effect by pJME/GM-CSF was associated with infiltrate size and the appearance of integrin αx (CD11c)+cells. Chitosan-pJME/GM-CSF nanoparticles, prepared by coacervation via intramuscular injection, outperformed standard pJME/GM-CSF administrations in DC recruitment, antigen processing and presentation, and vaccine enhancement. This revealed that muscular injection of chitosan-pJME/GM-CSF nanoparticles may enhance the immunoadjuvant properties of GM-CSF. PMID:25738258

  16. The Gottingen Minipig Is a Model of the Hematopoietic Acute Radiation Syndrome: G-Colony Stimulating Factor Stimulates Hematopoiesis and Enhances Survival From Lethal Total-Body γ-Irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Moroni, Maria; Ngudiankama, Barbara F.; Christensen, Christine; Olsen, Cara H.; Owens, Rossitsa; Lombardini, Eric D.; Holt, Rebecca K.; Whitnall, Mark H.

    2013-08-01

    Purpose: We are characterizing the Gottingen minipig as an additional large animal model for advanced drug testing for the acute radiation syndrome (ARS) to enhance the discovery and development of novel radiation countermeasures. Among the advantages provided by this model, the similarities to human hematologic parameters and dynamics of cell loss/recovery after irradiation provide a convenient means to compare the efficacy of drugs known to affect bone marrow cellularity and hematopoiesis. Methods and Materials: Male Gottingen minipigs, 4 to 5 months old and weighing 9 to 11 kg, were used for this study. We tested the standard off-label treatment for ARS, rhG-CSF (Neupogen, 10 μg/kg/day for 17 days), at the estimated LD70/30 total-body γ-irradiation (TBI) radiation dose for the hematopoietic syndrome, starting 24 hours after irradiation. Results: The results indicated that granulocyte colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) enhanced survival, stimulated recovery from neutropenia, and induced mobilization of hematopoietic progenitor cells. In addition, the administration of G-CSF resulted in maturation of monocytes/macrophages. Conclusions: These results support continuing efforts toward validation of the minipig as a large animal model for advanced testing of radiation countermeasures and characterization of the pathophysiology of ARS, and they suggest that the efficacy of G-CSF in improving survival after total body irradiation may involve mechanisms other than increasing the numbers of circulating granulocytes.

  17. Granulocyte Colony Stimulating Factor and Physiotherapy after Stroke: Results of a Feasibility Randomised Controlled Trial: Stem Cell Trial of Recovery EnhanceMent after Stroke-3 (STEMS-3 ISRCTN16714730)

    PubMed Central

    Sprigg, Nikola; O’Connor, Rebecca; Woodhouse, Lisa; Krishnan, Kailash; England, Timothy J.; Connell, Louise A.; Walker, Marion F.; Bath, Philip M.

    2016-01-01

    Background Granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) mobilises endogenous haematopoietic stem cells and enhances recovery in experimental stroke. Recovery may also be dependent on an enriched environment and physical activity. G-CSF may have the potential to enhance recovery when used in combination with physiotherapy, in patients with disability late after stroke. Methods A pilot 2 x 2 factorial randomised (1:1) placebo-controlled trial of G-CSF (double-blind), and/or a 6 week course of physiotherapy, in 60 participants with disability (mRS >1), at least 3 months after stroke. Primary outcome was feasibility, acceptability and tolerability. Secondary outcomes included death, dependency, motor function and quality of life measured 90 and 365 days after enrolment. Results Recruitment to the trial was feasible and acceptable; of 118 screened patients, 92 were eligible and 32 declined to participate. 60 patients were recruited between November 2011 and July 2013. All participants received some allocated treatment. Although 29 out of 30 participants received all 5 G-CSF/placebo injections, only 7 of 30 participants received all 18 therapy sessions. G-CSF was well tolerated but associated with a tendency to more adverse events than placebo (16 vs 10 patients, p = 0.12) and serious adverse events (SAE) (9 vs 3, p = 0.10). On average, patients received 14 (out of 18 planned) therapy sessions, interquartile range [12, 17]. Only a minority (23%) of participants completed all physiotherapy sessions, a large proportion of sessions (114 of 540, 21%) were cancelled due to patient (94, 17%) and therapist factors (20, 4%). No significant differences in functional outcomes were detected in either the G-CSF or physiotherapy group at day 90 or 365. Conclusions Delivery of G-CSF is feasible in chronic stroke. However, the study failed to demonstrate feasibility for delivering additional physiotherapy sessions late after stroke therefore a definitive study using this trial design

  18. Substance P enhances tissue factor release from granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor-dependent macrophages via the p22phox/β-arrestin 2/Rho A signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, Rui; Yamamoto, Takatoshi; Sakamoto, Arisa; Ishimaru, Yasuji; Narahara, Shinji; Sugiuchi, Hiroyuki; Yamaguchi, Yasuo

    2016-03-01

    Granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) induces procoagulant activity of macrophages. Tissue factor (TF) is a membrane-bound glycoprotein and substance P (SP) is a pro-inflammatory neuropeptide involved in the formation of membrane blebs. This study investigated the role of SP in TF release by GM-CSF-dependent macrophages. SP significantly decreased TF levels in whole-cell lysates of GM-CSF-dependent macrophages. TF was detected in the culture supernatant by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay after stimulation of macrophages by SP. Aprepitant (an SP/neurokinin 1 receptor antagonist) reduced TF release from macrophages stimulated with SP. Pretreatment of macrophages with a radical scavenger(pyrrolidinedithiocarbamate) also limited the decrease of TF in whole-cell lysates after stimulation with SP. A protein kinase C inhibitor (rottlerin) partially blocked this macrophage response to SP, while it was significantly inhibited by a ROCK inhibitor (Y-27632) or a dynamin inhibitor (dinasore). An Akt inhibitor (perifosine) also partially blocked this response. Furthermore, siRNA targeting p22phox, β-arrestin 2, or Rho A, blunted the release of TF from macrophages stimulated with SP. In other experiments, visceral adipocytes derived from cryopreserved preadipocytes were found to produce SP. In conclusion, SP enhances the release of TF from macrophages via the p22phox/β-arrestin 2/Rho A signaling pathway.

  19. Succinate ester derivative of δ-tocopherol enhances the protective effects against 60Co γ-ray-induced hematopoietic injury through granulocyte colony-stimulating factor induction in mice

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zhong-Tang; Wang, Li-Mei; Yi, Li-Rong; Jia, Chao; Bai, Fan; Peng, Ren-Jun; Yu, Zu-Yin; Xiong, Guo-Lin; Xing, Shuang; Shan, Ya-Jun; Yang, Ri-Fang; Dong, Jun-Xing; Cong, Yu-Wen

    2017-01-01

    α-tocopherol succinate (α-TOS), γ-tocotrienol (GT3) and δ-tocotrienol (DT3) have drawn large attention due to their efficacy as radioprotective agents. α-TOS has been shown to act superior to α-tocopherol (α-TOH) in mice by reducing lethality following total body irradiation (TBI). Because α-TOS has been shown to act superior to α-tocopherol (α-TOH) in mice by reducing lethality following total body irradiation (TBI), we hypothesized succinate may be contribute to the radioprotection of α-TOS. To study the contributions of succinate and to identify stronger radioprotective agents, we synthesized α-, γ- and δ-TOS. Then, we evaluated their radioprotective effects and researched further mechanism of δ-TOS on hematological recovery post-irradiation. Our results demonstrated that the chemical group of succinate enhanced the effects of α-, γ- and δ-TOS upon radioprotection and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) induction, and found δ-TOS a higher radioprotective efficacy at a lower dosage. We further found that treatment with δ-TOS ameliorated radiation-induced pancytopenia, augmenting cellular recovery in bone marrow and the colony forming ability of bone marrow cells in sublethal irradiated mice, thus promoting hematopoietic stem and progenitor cell recovery following irradiation exposure. δ-TOS appears to be an attractive radiation countermeasure without known toxicity, but further exploratory efficacy studies are still required. PMID:28145432

  20. Co-expression of Japanese encephalitis virus prM-E-NS1 antigen with granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor enhances humoral and anti-virus immunity after DNA vaccination.

    PubMed

    Gao, Na; Chen, Wei; Zheng, Qun; Fan, Dong-ying; Zhang, Jun-lei; Chen, Hui; Gao, George F; Zhou, De-shan; An, Jing

    2010-03-10

    Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) is an agent of Japanese encephalitis, and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) is an attractive DNA vaccine adjuvant for its antigen presentation. In the present study, we have constructed DNA vaccines that carried JEV prM-E-NS1 genes with or without the GM-CSF gene. Immunization with the bicistronic plasmid pCAG-JEGM that co-expresses GM-CSF and viral prM-E-NS1, resulted in the highest IgG response and sufficient protection against virus-challenged BALB/c mice. However, much to our surprise, co-inoculation of the GM-CSF plasmid with the pCAG-JE plasmid expressing viral prM-E-NS1 lead to a low antibody titer and a relatively low survival rate. Moreover, anamnestic antibody-mediated protection played a dominant role in the mice JEV challenge model, according to the enhancement of post-challenge neutralizing antibody titers and further adoptive transfer experiments. Taken together, this study should encourage further development of JEV DNA vaccine strategies and caution against the use of cytokines as an adjuvant.

  1. The colony-stimulating factors and cancer.

    PubMed

    Metcalf, Donald

    2010-06-01

    The four colony-stimulating factors (CSFs) are glycoproteins that regulate the generation and some functions of infection-protective granulocytes and macrophages. Recombinant granulocyte-CSF (G-CSF) and granulocyte-macrophage-CSF (GM-CSF) have now been used to increase dangerously low white blood cell levels in many millions of cancer patients following chemotherapy. These CSFs also release haematopoietic stem cells to the peripheral blood, and these cells have now largely replaced bone marrow as more effective populations for transplantation to cancer patients who have treatment-induced bone marrow damage.

  2. Immunity to onchocerciasis: cells from putatively immune individuals produce enhanced levels of interleukin-5, gamma interferon, and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor in response to Onchocerca volvulus larval and male worm antigens.

    PubMed

    Turaga, P S; Tierney, T J; Bennett, K E; McCarthy, M C; Simonek, S C; Enyong, P A; Moukatte, D W; Lustigman, S

    2000-04-01

    Antigen-specific interleukin-5 (IL-5), gamma interferon (IFN-gamma), and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) responses in individuals living in an area of hyperendemicity for onchocerciasis in Cameroon were examined. The responses against antigens prepared from Onchocerca volvulus third-stage larvae (L3), molting L3 (mL3), and crude extract from adult males (M-OvAg) were compared to the responses against antigens from adult female worms and skin microfilariae. Cytokine responses for the putatively immune individuals (PI) and the infected individuals (INF) were compared. A differential cytokine profile of IL-5 (Th2 phenotype) and IFN-gamma (Th1 phenotype) was found in these individuals in response to the antigens. In both the PI and the INF, Th2 responses against all the antigens tested were dominant. However, in the PI group as a whole, there was an enhanced Th2 response against the larval antigens and the adult male and adult female antigens, and a Th1 response in a subgroup of the PI (27 to 54.5%) against L3, mL3, and M-OvAg antigens was present. While the PI produced significantly higher levels of GM-CSF against L3, mL3, and M-OvAg antigens than the INF, there was no difference in the GM-CSF responses of the groups against the other antigens. The present study indicated that, in comparison to the INF, the PI have distinct larva-specific and adult male-specific cytokine responses, thus supporting the premise that immunological studies of the PI would lead to the identification of immune mechanisms and the target genes that play a role in protective immunity.

  3. Local administration of granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor induces local accumulation of dendritic cells and antigen-specific CD8+ T cells and enhances dendritic cell cross-presentation.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sung-Jong; Song, Liwen; Yang, Ming-Chieh; Mao, Chih-Ping; Yang, Benjamin; Yang, Andrew; Jeang, Jessica; Peng, Shiwen; Wu, T-C; Hung, Chien-Fu

    2015-03-24

    Immunotherapy has emerged as a promising treatment strategy for the control of HPV-associated malignancies. Various therapeutic HPV vaccines have elicited potent antigen-specific CD8+ T cell mediated antitumor immune responses in preclinical models and are currently being tested in several clinical trials. Recent evidence indicates the importance of local immune activation, and higher number of immune cells in the site of lesion correlates with positive prognosis. Granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GMCSF) has been reported to posses the ability to induce migration of antigen presentation cells and CD8+ T cells. Therefore, in the current study, we employ a combination of systemic therapeutic HPV DNA vaccination with local GMCSF application in the TC-1 tumor model. We show that intramuscular vaccination with CRT/E7 DNA followed by GMCSF intravaginal administration effectively controls cervicovaginal TC-1 tumors in mice. Furthermore, we observe an increase in the accumulation of E7-specific CD8+ T cells and dendritic cells in vaginal tumors following the combination treatment. In addition, we show that GMCSF induces activation and maturation in dendritic cells and promotes antigen cross-presentation. Our results support the clinical translation of the combination treatment of systemic therapeutic vaccination followed by local GMCSF administration as an effective strategy for tumor treatment.

  4. Granulocyte macrophage colony stimulating factor therapy for pulmonary alveolar proteinosis.

    PubMed

    Shende, Ruchira P; Sampat, Bhavin K; Prabhudesai, Pralhad; Kulkarni, Satish

    2013-03-01

    We report a case of 58 year old female diagnosed with Pulmonary Alveolar Proteinosis (PAP) with recurrence of PAP after 5 repeated whole lung lavage, responding to subcutaneous injections of Granulocyte Macrophage Colony Stimulating Factor therapy (GM-CSF). Thus indicating that GM-CSF therapy is a promising alternative in those requiring repeated whole lung lavage

  5. Colony-stimulating factor 2 enhances the developmental competence of yak (Poephagus grunniens) preimplantation embryos by modulating the expression of heat shock protein 70 kDa 1A.

    PubMed

    Wen, Zexing; Pan, Yangyang; Cui, Yan; Peng, Xiumei; Chen, Ping; Fan, Jiangfeng; Li, Guyue; Zhao, Tian; Zhang, Jian; Qin, Shujian; Yu, Sijiu

    2017-04-15

    Colony-stimulating factor 2 (CSF2) is known to promote the development and survival of rodents and ruminants preimplantation embryos; however, the effect of CSF2 on yak embryos has not been reported. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of CSF2 on the developmental competence of yak embryos cultured in vitro in modified synthetic oviduct fluid (mSOF) medium and on the expression pattern of heat shock protein 70 kDa 1A (HSPA1A). In each experiment, cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs) were matured in vitro and fertilized with frozen-thawed semen. Zygotes were treated with varying concentrations of CSF2 (0, 10, 50, 100 ng/mL) until day 8 after fertilization. Embryo development was calculated as the percentage of oocytes that formed embryos at the 2-cell, 4-cell, 8-cell, 16-cell, morula and blastocyst stages. The total cell numbers (TCN) per blastocyst and their allocation to the inner cell mass (ICM) and trophectoderm (TE) lineages were determined using differential CDX2 staining. The expression of HSPA1A was examined by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) and immunochemistry to determine the mRNA and protein levels. The results showed that treatment with 50 ng/mL CSF2 significantly (P < 0.05) increased the rate of blastocyst formation (19.01% versus 9.93%) and the TCN per blastocyst (96.94 versus 81.41) compared to the control group. However, no significant differences were observed in the other stages of development. qRT-PCR analysis confirmed that treatment with 50 ng/mL CSF2 significantly (P < 0.05) inhibited the expression of HSPA1A mRNA in blastocysts cultured in vitro relative to the control group, but there were no significant differences between the other treatment groups. Immunocytochemical analysis confirmed that HSPA1A protein accumulation was gradually reduced in yak blastocysts cultured in 0, 10, 100 or 50 ng/mL CSF2, however, no significant differences were observed between the 10 and 100 ng/mL treatments (P > 0.05). In

  6. Macrophage colony-stimulating factor induces indirect angiogenesis in vivo.

    PubMed

    Phillips, G D; Aukerman, S L; Whitehead, R A; Knighton, D R

    1993-01-01

    The cytokine macrophage colony-stimulating factor was implanted in the rabbit cornea over a wide dose range (1 ng to 100 microg) to assay its angiogenic activity in vivo. Neovascularization occurred in a dose-dependent manner, and maximum angiogenesis occurred only with 100 microg. Histologic analysis revealed that the corneas were free of inflammation at the lower doses, but had slight inflammation at 50 and 100 microg. Nonspecific esterase staining of frozen sections and transmission electron microscopy revealed that the inflammatory cells were predominantly macrophages, with very few neutrophils present. This association of capillary formation with inflammation suggests an indirect mechanism of angiogenesis. The lack of neutrophils within the inflammatory cell infiltrate demonstrates that indirect angiogenesis can proceed without the local presence of neutrophils. This distinguishes macrophage colony-stimulating factor from other indirect-acting angiogenesis factors that have been identified to date.

  7. Suppression of granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor expression by glucocorticoids involves inhibition of enhancer function by the glucocorticoid receptor binding to composite NF-AT/activator protein-1 elements.

    PubMed

    Smith, P J; Cousins, D J; Jee, Y K; Staynov, D Z; Lee, T H; Lavender, P

    2001-09-01

    Increased expression of a number of cytokines including GM-CSF is associated with chronic inflammatory conditions such as bronchial asthma. Glucocorticoid therapy results in suppression of cytokine levels by a mechanism(s) not yet fully understood. We have examined regulation of GM-CSF expression by the synthetic glucocorticoid dexamethasone in human T cells. Transient transfection assays with reporter constructs revealed that dexamethasone inhibited the function of the GM-CSF enhancer, but had no effect on regulation of GM-CSF expression occurring through the proximal promoter. Activation of the GM-CSF enhancer involves cooperative interaction between the transcription factors NF-AT and AP-1. We demonstrate here that glucocorticoid-mediated inhibition of enhancer function involves glucocorticoid receptor (GR) binding to the NF-AT/AP-1 sites. These elements, which do not constitute recognizable glucocorticoid response elements, support binding of the GR, primarily as a dimer. This binding correlates with the ability of dexamethasone to inhibit enhancer activity of the NF-AT/AP-1 elements, suggesting a competition between NF-AT/AP-1 proteins and GR.

  8. Modulation of colony stimulating factor release and apoptosis in human colon cancer cells by anticancer drugs

    PubMed Central

    Calatayud, S; Warner, T D; Mitchell, J A

    2002-01-01

    Modulation of the immune response against tumour cells is emerging as a valuable approach for cancer treatment. Some experimental studies have shown that secretion of colony stimulating factors by cancer cells reduces their tumorigenicity and increases their immunogenicity probably by promoting the cytolitic and antigen presenting activities of leukocytes. We have observed that human colon cancer cells (HT-29) are able to secrete granulocyte-macrophage-colony stimulating factor, granulocyte-colony stimulating factor and macrophage-colony stimulating factor when stimulated with cytokines (IL-1β and TNF-α). In this study we assessed, for the first time, the effects of several anticancer drugs on colony stimulating factor release or apoptosis in HT-29 cells. Cytokine-induced release of granulocyte-macrophage-colony stimulating factor, granulocyte-colony stimulating factor and macrophage-colony stimulating factor was significantly increased by cisplatin and 6-mercaptopurine. Taxol only increased macrophage-colony stimulating factor release while reduced that of granulocyte-colony stimulating factor. No changes in colony stimulating factor secretion were observed after treatment with methotrexate. Only cisplatin and taxol induced apoptosis in these cells. Secretion of colony stimulating factors by colon cancer cells may contribute to the immune host response against them. Anticancer drugs such as cisplatin and 6-mercaptopurine increase colony stimulating factor secretion by cytokine stimulated cancer cells probably through mechanisms different to those leading to cell apoptosis, an effect that may contribute to their anti-neoplasic action. British Journal of Cancer (2002) 86, 1316–1321. DOI: 10.1038/sj/bjc/6600240 www.bjcancer.com © 2002 Cancer Research UK PMID:11953891

  9. Granulocyte, granulocyte–macrophage, and macrophage colony-stimulating factors can stimulate the invasive capacity of human lung cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Pei, X-H; Nakanishi, Y; Takayama, K; Bai, F; Hara, N

    1999-01-01

    We and other researchers have previously found that colony-stimulating factors (CSFs), which generally include granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF), granulocyte–macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) and macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF), promote invasion by lung cancer cells. In the present study, we studied the effects of these CSFs on gelatinase production, urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA) production and their activity in human lung cancer cells. Gelatin zymographs of conditioned media derived from human lung adenocarcinoma cell lines revealed two major bands of gelatinase activity at 68 and 92 kDa, which were characterized as matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and MMP-9 respectively. Treatment with CSFs increased the 68- and 92-kDa activity and converted some of a 92-kDa proenzyme to an 82-kDa enzyme that was consistent with an active form of the MMP-9. Plasminogen activator zymographs of the conditioned media from the cancer cells showed that CSF treatment resulted in an increase in a 48–55 kDa plasminogen-dependent gelatinolytic activity that was characterized as human uPA. The conditioned medium from the cancer cells treated with CSFs stimulated the conversion of plasminogen to plasmin, providing a direct demonstration of the ability of enhanced uPA to increase plasmin-dependent proteolysis. The enhanced invasive behaviour of the cancer cells stimulated by CSFs was well correlated with the increase in MMPs and uPA activities. These data suggest that the enhanced production of extracellular matrix-degrading proteinases by the cancer cells in response to CSF treatment may represent a biochemical mechanism which promotes the invasive behaviour of the cancer cells. © 1999 Cancer Research Campaign PMID:10408691

  10. Colony-Stimulating Factor-1 Signaling Suppresses Renal Crystal Formation

    PubMed Central

    Taguchi, Kazumi; Kitamura, Hiroshi; Yasui, Takahiro; Naiki, Taku; Hamamoto, Shuzo; Ando, Ryosuke; Mizuno, Kentaro; Kawai, Noriyasu; Tozawa, Keiichi; Asano, Kenichi; Tanaka, Masato; Miyoshi, Ichiro; Kohri, Kenjiro

    2014-01-01

    We recently reported evidence suggesting that migrating macrophages (Mϕs) eliminate renal crystals in hyperoxaluric mice. Mϕs can be inflammatory (M1) or anti-inflammatory (M2), and colony-stimulating factor-1 (CSF-1) mediates polarization to the M2Mϕ phenotype. M2Mϕs promote renal tissue repair and regeneration, but it is not clear whether these cells are involved in suppressing renal crystal formation. We investigated the role of M2Mϕs in renal crystal formation during hyperoxaluria using CSF-1–deficient mice, which lack M2Mϕs. Compared with wild-type mice, CSF-1–deficient mice had significantly higher amounts of renal calcium oxalate crystal deposition. Treatment with recombinant human CSF-1 increased the expression of M2-related genes and markedly decreased the number of renal crystals in both CSF-1–deficient and wild-type mice. Flow cytometry of sorted renal Mϕs showed that CSF-1 deficiency resulted in a smaller population of CD11b+F4/80+CD163+CD206hi cells, which represent M2-like Mϕs. Additionally, transfusion of M2Mϕs into CSF-1–deficient mice suppressed renal crystal deposition. In vitro phagocytosis assays with calcium oxalate monohydrate crystals showed a higher rate of crystal phagocytosis by M2-polarized Mϕs than M1-polarized Mϕs or renal tubular cells. Gene array profiling showed that CSF-1 deficiency resulted in disordered M2- and stone-related gene expressions. Collectively, our results provide compelling evidence for a suppressive role of CSF-1 signaling in renal crystal formation. PMID:24578130

  11. Colony-stimulating factor 1 potentiates lung cancer bone metastasis.

    PubMed

    Hung, Jaclyn Y; Horn, Diane; Woodruff, Kathleen; Prihoda, Thomas; LeSaux, Claude; Peters, Jay; Tio, Fermin; Abboud-Werner, Sherry L

    2014-04-01

    Colony-stimulating factor 1 (CSF1) is essential for osteoclastogenesis that mediates osteolysis in metastatic tumors. Patients with lung cancer have increased CSF1 in serum and high levels are associated with poor survival. Adenocarcinomas metastasize rapidly and many patients suffer from bone metastasis. Lung cancer stem-like cells sustain tumor growth and potentiate metastasis. The purpose of this study was to determine the role of CSF1 in lung cancer bone metastasis and whether inhibition of CSF1 ameliorates the disease. Human lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells were examined in vitro for CSF1/CSF1R. A549-luc cells were injected intracardiac in NOD/SCID mice and metastasis was assessed. To determine the effect of CSF1 knockdown (KD) in A549 cells on bone metastasis, cells were stably transfected with a retroviral vector containing short-hairpin CSF1 (KD) or empty vector (CT). Results showed that A549 cells express CSF1/CSF1R; CSF1 increased their proliferation and invasion, whereas soluble CSF1R inhibited invasion. Mice injected with A549-luc cells showed osteolytic bone lesions 3.5 weeks after injection and lesions increased over 5 weeks. Tumors recapitulated adenocarcinoma morphology and showed osteoclasts along the tumor/bone interface, trabecular, and cortical bone loss. Analyses of KD cells showed decreased CSF1 protein levels, reduced colony formation in soft agar assay, and decreased fraction of stem-like cells. In CSF1KD mice, the incidence of tumor metastasis was similar to controls, although fewer CSF1KD mice had metastasis in both hind limbs. KD tumors showed reduced CSF1 expression, Ki-67+ cells, and osteoclasts. Importantly, there was a low incidence of large tumors >0.1 mm(2) in CSF1KD mice compared with control mice (10% vs 62.5%). This study established a lung osteolytic bone metastasis model that resembles human disease and suggests that CSF1 is a key determinant of cancer stem cell survival and tumor growth. Results may lead to novel strategies to

  12. Highly metastatic 13762NF rat mammary adenocarcinoma cell clones stimulate bone marrow by secretion of granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor/interleukin-3 activity.

    PubMed

    McGary, C T; Miele, M E; Welch, D R

    1995-12-01

    Circulating neutrophil (polymorphonuclear leukocyte levels rise 50-fold in 13762NF tumor-bearing rats in proportion to the tumor's metastatic potential. Purified tumor-elicited neutrophils enhance metastasis of syngeneic tumor cells when co-injected intravenously; however, circulating and phorbol ester-activated polymorphonuclear neutrophils do not. The purpose of this study was to elucidate the source of tumor-elicited neutrophils in metastatic tumor-bearing rats. We examined the bone marrow in rats bearing tumors of poorly, moderately, and highly metastatic cell clones. Marrow from rats with highly metastatic tumors had increased cellularity (100%), myeloid to erythroid ratio (10:1), and megakaryocytes compared with control rats (cellularity, approximately 80%; myeloid to erythroid ratio, 5:1), with marrows from rats with moderately metastatic tumors having intermediate values. This suggested production of a colony-stimulating factor by the metastatic cells. To confirm this, bone marrow colony formation from control and tumor-bearing rats was compared. Colony number increased in proportion to the metastatic potential of the tumor. Conditioned medium from metastatic cells supported growth of the granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor/interleukin-3-dependent 32Dcl3 cell line, but media from nonmetastatic or moderately metastatic cells did not. Antibodies to murine granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor neutralized 32Dcl3 growth in tumor cell conditioned medium. These results suggest production of a granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor or interleukin-3-like activity by highly metastatic 13762NF clones and implicate a possible role for colony-stimulating factors in regulating the metastatic potential of mammary adenocarcinoma cell clones.

  13. Recovery from severe hematopoietic suppression using recombinant human granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor

    SciTech Connect

    Monroy, R.L.; Skelly, R.R.; Taylor, P.; Dubois, A.; Donahue, R.E.; MacVittie, T.J.

    1988-06-01

    The ability of recombinant human granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (rhGM-CSF) to enhance recovery of a radiation-suppressed hematopoietic system was evaluated in a nonuniform radiation exposure model using the rhesus monkey. Recombinant human GM-CSF treatment for 7 days after a lethal, nonuniform radiation exposure of 800 cGy was sufficient to enhance hematopoietic reconstitution, leading to an earlier recovery. Monkeys were treated with 72,000 U/kg/day of rhGM-CSF delivered continuously through an Alzet miniosmotic pump implanted subcutaneously on day 3. Treated monkeys demonstrated effective granulocyte and platelet levels in the peripheral blood, 4 and 7 days earlier, respectively, than control monkeys. Granulocyte-macrophage colony-forming unit (CFU-GM) activity in the bone marrow was monitored to evaluate the effect of rhGM-CSF on marrow recovery. Treatment with rhGM-CSF led to an early recovery of CFU-GM activity suggesting that rhGM-CSF acted on an earlier stem cell population to generate CFU-GM. Thus, the effect of rhGM-CSF on hematopoietic regeneration, granulocyte recovery, and platelet recovery are evaluated in this paper.

  14. Recovery from severe hematopoietic suppression using recombinant human granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor

    SciTech Connect

    Monroy, R.L.; Skelly, R.R.; Taylor, P.; Dubois, A.; Donahue, R.E.

    1988-01-01

    The ability of recombinant human granulocytemacrophage colony-stimulating factor (rhGM-CSF) to enhance recovery of a radiation-suppressed hematopoietic system was evaluated in a nonuniform radiation-exposure model using the rhesus monkey. Recombinant human GM-CSF treatment for 7 days after a lethal, nonuniform radiation exposure of 800 cGy was sufficient to enhance hematopoietic reconstitution, leading to an earlier recovery. Monkeys were treated with 72,000 U/kg/day of rhGm-CSF delivered continuously through an Alzet mini-osmotic pump implanted subcutaneously on day 3. Treated monkeys demonstrated effective granulocyte and platelet levels in the peripheral blood, 4 and 7 days earlier, respectively, than control monkeys. Granulocyte-macrophage colony-forming unit (CFU-GM) activity in the bone marrow was monitored to evaluate the effect of rhGM-CSF on marrow recovery. Treatment with rhGM-CSF led to an early recovery of CFU-GM activity suggesting that rhGM-CSF acted on an earlier stem cell population to generate CFU-GM. Thus, the effect of rhGM-CSF on hematopoietic regeneration, granulocyte recovery, and platelet recovery are evaluated.

  15. In vivo effect of human granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor on megakaryocytopoiesis

    SciTech Connect

    Aglietta, M.; Monzeglio, C.; Sanavio, F.; Apra, F.; Morelli, S.; Stacchini, A.; Piacibello, W.; Bussolino, F.; Bagnara, G.; Zauli, G. )

    1991-03-15

    The effect of granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) on megakaryocytopoiesis and platelet production was investigated in patients with normal hematopoiesis. Three findings indicated that GM-CSF plays a role in megakaryocytopoiesis. During treatment with GM-CSF (recombinant mammalian, glycosylated; Sandoz/Schering-Plough, 5.5 micrograms protein/kg/d, subcutaneously for 3 days) the percentage of megakaryocyte progenitors (megakaryocyte colony forming unit (CFU-Mk)) in S phase (evaluated by the suicide technique with high 3H-Tdr doses) increased from 31% +/- 16% to 88% +/- 11%; and the maturation profile of megakaryocytes was modified, with a relative increase in more immature stage I-III forms. Moreover, by autoradiography (after incubation of marrow cells with 125I-labeled GM-CSF) specific GM-CSF receptors were detectable on megakaryocytes. Nevertheless, the proliferative stimulus induced on the progenitors was not accompanied by enhanced platelet production (by contrast with the marked granulomonocytosis). It may be suggested that other cytokines are involved in the regulation of the intermediate and terminal stages of megakaryocytopoiesis in vivo and that their intervention is an essential prerequisite to turn the GM-CSF-induced proliferative stimulus into enhanced platelet production.

  16. Monocyte activation following systemic administration of granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor.

    PubMed

    Chachoua, A; Oratz, R; Hoogmoed, R; Caron, D; Peace, D; Liebes, L; Blum, R H; Vilcek, J

    1994-04-01

    Twenty-four patients with solid malignancies were treated with granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) on a Phase 1b trial. The objective of the study was to evaluate the effects of GM-CSF on peripheral blood monocyte activation. GM-CSF was administered by subcutaneous injection daily for 14 days. Immune parameters measured were monocyte cytotoxicity against the human colon carcinoma (HT29) cell line, serum tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha, interleukin (IL)-1 beta, and in vitro TNF-alpha and IL-1 beta induction. All patients were evaluable for toxicity. Fifteen patients were evaluable for immunologic response. Treatment with GM-CSF led to a statistically significant enhancement in direct monocyte cytotoxicity against HT29 cells. There was no increase in serum TNF-alpha or IL-1 beta and no consistent in vitro induction of TNF-alpha or IL-1 beta from monocytes posttreatment. Treatment was well tolerated overall. We conclude that treatment with GM-CSF can lead to enhanced monocyte cytotoxicity. Further studies are in progress to evaluate the effect of GM-CSF on other parameters of monocyte functions.

  17. Prostaglandin E2 regulates macrophage colony stimulating factor secretion by human bone marrow stromal cells.

    PubMed

    Besse, A; Trimoreau, F; Faucher, J L; Praloran, V; Denizot, Y

    1999-07-08

    Bone marrow stromal cells regulate marrow haematopoiesis by secreting growth factors such as macrophage colony stimulating factor (M-CSF) that regulates the proliferation, differentiation and several functions of cells of the mononuclear-phagocytic lineage. By using a specific ELISA we found that their constitutive secretion of M-CSF is enhanced by tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha). The lipid mediator prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) markedly reduces in a time- and dose-dependent manner the constitutive and TNF-alpha-induced M-CSF synthesis by bone marrow stromal cells. In contrast, other lipid mediators such as 12-HETE, 15-HETE, leukotriene B4, leukotriene C4 and lipoxin A4 have no effect. EP2/EP4 selective agonists (11-deoxy PGE1 and 1-OH PGE1) and EP2 agonist (19-OH PGE2) inhibit M-CSF synthesis by bone marrow stromal cells while an EP1/EP3 agonist (sulprostone) has no effect. Stimulation with PGE2 induces an increase of intracellular cAMP levels in bone marrow stromal cells. cAMP elevating agents (forskolin and cholera toxin) mimic the PGE2-induced inhibition of M-CSF production. In conclusion, PGE2 is a potent regulator of M-CSF production by human bone marrow stromal cells, its effects being mediated via cAMP and PGE receptor EP2/EP4 subtypes.

  18. Role of macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF) in human granulosa cells.

    PubMed

    Xu, Song; Zhang, Zhifen; Xia, Li-Xia; Huang, Jian

    2016-12-01

    Macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF) has been proved to have a positive role in the follicular development. We investigated its effect on human granulosa cells and found that M-CSF could stimulate the production of E2. The production of FSH receptors was enhanced by M-CSF in vitro in a dose-dependent manner with or without the addition of tamoxifen (p <0.05). Correspondingly, FSH was also able to coordinate the expression of M-CSF and its receptor (p <0.05). That maybe important to maintain the level of Nppc and the meiotic arrest of the oocyte. The protein p-JAK2 and p-STAT3 in JAK/STAT-signaling pathway elevated after the influence of M-CSF (p < 0.05). These results suggest that M-CSF has a role in regulating the response of granulosa cells to gonadotropins. Its function is associated with JAK/STAT-signaling pathway.

  19. Characterisation of a Novel Fc Conjugate of Macrophage Colony-stimulating Factor

    PubMed Central

    Gow, Deborah J; Sauter, Kristin A; Pridans, Clare; Moffat, Lindsey; Sehgal, Anuj; Stutchfield, Ben M; Raza, Sobia; Beard, Philippa M; Tsai, Yi Ting; Bainbridge, Graeme; Boner, Pamela L; Fici, Greg; Garcia-Tapia, David; Martin, Roger A; Oliphant, Theodore; Shelly, John A; Tiwari, Raksha; Wilson, Thomas L; Smith, Lee B; Mabbott, Neil A; Hume, David A

    2014-01-01

    We have produced an Fc conjugate of colony-stimulating factor (CSF) 1 with an improved circulating half-life. CSF1-Fc retained its macrophage growth-promoting activity, and did not induce proinflammatory cytokines in vitro. Treatment with CSF1-Fc did not produce adverse effects in mice or pigs. The impact of CSF1-Fc was examined using the Csf1r-enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) reporter gene in MacGreen mice. Administration of CSF1-Fc to mice drove extensive infiltration of all tissues by Csf1r-EGFP positive macrophages. The main consequence was hepatosplenomegaly, associated with proliferation of hepatocytes. Expression profiles of the liver indicated that infiltrating macrophages produced candidate mediators of hepatocyte proliferation including urokinase, tumor necrosis factor, and interleukin 6. CSF1-Fc also promoted osteoclastogenesis and produced pleiotropic effects on other organ systems, notably the testis, where CSF1-dependent macrophages have been implicated in homeostasis. However, it did not affect other putative CSF1 targets, notably intestine, where Paneth cell numbers and villus architecture were unchanged. CSF1 has therapeutic potential in regenerative medicine in multiple organs. We suggest that the CSF1-Fc conjugate retains this potential, and may permit daily delivery by injection rather than continuous infusion required for the core molecule. PMID:24962162

  20. Colony-Stimulating Factor-1 Promotes Kidney Growth and Repair via Alteration of Macrophage Responses

    PubMed Central

    Alikhan, Maliha A.; Jones, Christina V.; Williams, Timothy M.; Beckhouse, Anthony G.; Fletcher, Anne L.; Kett, Michelle M.; Sakkal, Samy; Samuel, Chrishan S.; Ramsay, Robert G.; Deane, James A.; Wells, Christine A.; Little, Melissa H.; Hume, David A.; Ricardo, Sharon D.

    2011-01-01

    Colony-stimulating factor (CSF)-1 controls the survival, proliferation, and differentiation of macrophages, which are recognized as scavengers and agents of the innate and the acquired immune systems. Because of their plasticity, macrophages are endowed with many other essential roles during development and tissue homeostasis. We present evidence that CSF-1 plays an important trophic role in postnatal organ growth and kidney repair. Notably, the injection of CSF-1 postnatally enhanced kidney weight and volume and was associated with increased numbers of tissue macrophages. Moreover, CSF-1 promotes postnatal renal repair in mice after ischemia-reperfusion injury by recruiting and influencing macrophages toward a reparative state. CSF-1 treatment rapidly accelerated renal repair with tubular epithelial cell replacement, attenuation of interstitial fibrosis, and functional recovery. Analysis of macrophages from CSF-1-treated kidneys showed increased expression of insulin-like growth factor-1 and anti-inflammatory genes that are known CSF-1 targets. Taken together, these data suggest that CSF-1 is important in kidney growth and the promotion of endogenous repair and resolution of inflammatory injury. PMID:21762674

  1. Characterisation of a novel Fc conjugate of macrophage colony-stimulating factor.

    PubMed

    Gow, Deborah J; Sauter, Kristin A; Pridans, Clare; Moffat, Lindsey; Sehgal, Anuj; Stutchfield, Ben M; Raza, Sobia; Beard, Philippa M; Tsai, Yi Ting; Bainbridge, Graeme; Boner, Pamela L; Fici, Greg; Garcia-Tapia, David; Martin, Roger A; Oliphant, Theodore; Shelly, John A; Tiwari, Raksha; Wilson, Thomas L; Smith, Lee B; Mabbott, Neil A; Hume, David A

    2014-09-01

    We have produced an Fc conjugate of colony-stimulating factor (CSF) 1 with an improved circulating half-life. CSF1-Fc retained its macrophage growth-promoting activity, and did not induce proinflammatory cytokines in vitro. Treatment with CSF1-Fc did not produce adverse effects in mice or pigs. The impact of CSF1-Fc was examined using the Csf1r-enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) reporter gene in MacGreen mice. Administration of CSF1-Fc to mice drove extensive infiltration of all tissues by Csf1r-EGFP positive macrophages. The main consequence was hepatosplenomegaly, associated with proliferation of hepatocytes. Expression profiles of the liver indicated that infiltrating macrophages produced candidate mediators of hepatocyte proliferation including urokinase, tumor necrosis factor, and interleukin 6. CSF1-Fc also promoted osteoclastogenesis and produced pleiotropic effects on other organ systems, notably the testis, where CSF1-dependent macrophages have been implicated in homeostasis. However, it did not affect other putative CSF1 targets, notably intestine, where Paneth cell numbers and villus architecture were unchanged. CSF1 has therapeutic potential in regenerative medicine in multiple organs. We suggest that the CSF1-Fc conjugate retains this potential, and may permit daily delivery by injection rather than continuous infusion required for the core molecule.

  2. Colony-stimulating factor-1 promotes kidney growth and repair via alteration of macrophage responses.

    PubMed

    Alikhan, Maliha A; Jones, Christina V; Williams, Timothy M; Beckhouse, Anthony G; Fletcher, Anne L; Kett, Michelle M; Sakkal, Samy; Samuel, Chrishan S; Ramsay, Robert G; Deane, James A; Wells, Christine A; Little, Melissa H; Hume, David A; Ricardo, Sharon D

    2011-09-01

    Colony-stimulating factor (CSF)-1 controls the survival, proliferation, and differentiation of macrophages, which are recognized as scavengers and agents of the innate and the acquired immune systems. Because of their plasticity, macrophages are endowed with many other essential roles during development and tissue homeostasis. We present evidence that CSF-1 plays an important trophic role in postnatal organ growth and kidney repair. Notably, the injection of CSF-1 postnatally enhanced kidney weight and volume and was associated with increased numbers of tissue macrophages. Moreover, CSF-1 promotes postnatal renal repair in mice after ischemia-reperfusion injury by recruiting and influencing macrophages toward a reparative state. CSF-1 treatment rapidly accelerated renal repair with tubular epithelial cell replacement, attenuation of interstitial fibrosis, and functional recovery. Analysis of macrophages from CSF-1-treated kidneys showed increased expression of insulin-like growth factor-1 and anti-inflammatory genes that are known CSF-1 targets. Taken together, these data suggest that CSF-1 is important in kidney growth and the promotion of endogenous repair and resolution of inflammatory injury.

  3. Granulocyte/macrophage colony-stimulating factor attenuates endothelial hyperpermeability after thermal injury.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jingling; Chen, Lei; Shu, Bin; Tang, Jinming; Zhang, Lijun; Xie, Julin; Liu, Xusheng; Xu, Yingbin; Qi, Shaohai

    2015-01-01

    Microvascular hyperpermeability followed by burn injury is the main cause of shock, and cardiovascular collapse can result if the condition is treated improperly. Our previous studies demonstrated that granulocyte/macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) clearly reduces microvascular permeability and protects microvessels against burn injury. However, the mechanism underlying the protective function of GM-CSF on burn-injured microvessels remains unknown. This study aimed to investigate the effect and mechanism of GM-CSF on endothelial cells after exposure to burn serum. We demonstrated that GM-CSF reduced post-burn endothelial "capillary leak" by inhibiting the activity of RhoA and maintaining the membrane localization of VE-cadherin. Membranous VE-cadherin enhances adherens junctions between endothelial cells and co-localizes with and activates VEGFR2, which protect cells from burn serum-induced apoptosis. Our findings suggest that the protective mechanism of GM-CSF on burn serum-injured endothelial monolayer hyperpermeability is achieved by strengthening cell adherens junctions and improving cell viability.

  4. Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor receptor expression on human transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder.

    PubMed Central

    Tachibana, M.; Miyakawa, A.; Uchida, A.; Murai, M.; Eguchi, K.; Nakamura, K.; Kubo, A.; Hata, J. I.

    1997-01-01

    Receptors for granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSFRs) have been confirmed on the cell surfaces of several non-haematopoietic cell types, including bladder cancer cells. This observation has naturally led to the hypothesis that the expression of G-CSFR on these cells may enhance their growth by G-CSF. In this study, the expression of G-CSFR was determined in both established human bladder cancer cell lines and primary bladder cancers. We studied five different human bladder cancer cell lines (KU-1, KU-7, T-24, NBT-2 and KK) and 26 newly diagnosed bladder tumours. G-CSFR mRNA expressions on cultured cell lines were determined using the reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) method. Furthermore, the G-CSFR binding experiments on the cultured cell lines were conducted using the Na(125)I-labelled G-CSF ligand-binding assay method. Moreover, the G-CSFR mRNA expressions on primary bladder tumour specimens were assessed using the in situ RT-PCR method. Three out of the five cultured cell lines (KU-1, NBT-2 and KK) exhibited G-CSFR mRNA signals when the RT-PCR method was used. The G-CSFR binding experiments showed an equilibrium dissociation constant (K[d]) of 490 pM for KU-1, 340 pM for NBT-2 and 103 pM for KK cells. With in situ RT-PCR, the tumour cells of 6 out of 26 primary bladder tumour specimens (23.1%) presented positive G-CSFR mRNA signals. Thus, in this study, G-CSFR expression was frequently observed on bladder cancer cells. Therefore, the clinical use of G-CSF for patients with bladder cancer should be selected with great care. Images Figure 1 Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:9166942

  5. Myeloid Engraftment in Humanized Mice: Impact of Granulocyte-Colony Stimulating Factor Treatment and Transgenic Mouse Strain.

    PubMed

    Coughlan, Alice M; Harmon, Cathal; Whelan, Sarah; O'Brien, Eóin C; O'Reilly, Vincent P; Crotty, Paul; Kelly, Pamela; Ryan, Michelle; Hickey, Fionnuala B; O'Farrelly, Cliona; Little, Mark A

    2016-04-01

    Poor myeloid engraftment remains a barrier to experimental use of humanized mice. Focusing primarily on peripheral blood cells, we compared the engraftment profile of NOD-scid-IL2Rγc(-/-) (NSG) mice with that of NSG mice transgenic for human membrane stem cell factor (hu-mSCF mice), NSG mice transgenic for human interleukin (IL)-3, granulocyte-macrophage-colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF), and stem cell factor (SGM3 mice). hu-mSCF and SGM3 mice showed enhanced engraftment of human leukocytes compared to NSG mice, and this was reflected in the number of human neutrophils and monocytes present in these strains. Importantly, discrete classical, intermediate, and nonclassical monocyte populations were identifiable in the blood of NSG and hu-mSCF mice, while the nonclassical population was absent in the blood of SGM3 mice. Granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (GCSF) treatment increased the number of blood monocytes in NSG and hu-mSCF mice, and neutrophils in NSG and SGM3 mice; however, this effect appeared to be at least partially dependent on the stem cell donor used to engraft the mice. Furthermore, GCSF treatment resulted in a preferential expansion of nonclassical monocytes in both NSG and hu-mSCF mice. Human tubulointerstitial CD11c(+) cells were present in the kidneys of hu-mSCF mice, while monocytes and neutrophils were identified in the liver of all strains. Bone marrow-derived macrophages prepared from NSG mice were most effective at phagocytosing polystyrene beads. In conclusion, hu-mSCF mice provide the best environment for the generation of human myeloid cells, with GCSF treatment further enhancing peripheral blood human monocyte cell numbers in this strain.

  6. Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor-based stem cell mobilization in patients with sickle cell disease.

    PubMed

    Rosenbaum, Cara; Peace, David; Rich, Elizabeth; Van Besien, Koen

    2008-06-01

    Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) has been reported to exacerbate vaso-occlusive crises in sickle cell disease. It has been recommended to avoid its use for stem cell mobilization in this population, yet autologous transplant is the standard of care and at times a life-saving treatment for patients with various hematologic malignancies such as relapsed aggressive lymphoma or multiple myeloma. We report 5 cases of patients with sickle cell disease and related hemoglobinopathies who underwent granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF)-mobilization of peripheral blood stem cells (PBSC). Three of them developed manageable vaso-occlusive pain symptoms requiring parenteral narcotics alone. The 2 others had no complications. These cases demonstrate that stem cell mobilization using G-CSF, although complicated and not without risk, is feasible in patients with sickle cell syndromes.

  7. The structure of granulocyte-colony-stimulating factor and its relationship to other growth factors.

    PubMed Central

    Hill, C P; Osslund, T D; Eisenberg, D

    1993-01-01

    We have determined the three-dimensional structure of recombinant human granulocyte-colony-stimulating factor by x-ray crystallography. Phases were initially obtained at 3.0-A resolution by multiple isomorphous replacement and were refined by solvent flattening and by averaging of the electron density of the three molecules in the asymmetric unit. The current R factor is 21.5% for all data between 6.0- and 2.2-A resolution. The structure is predominantly helical, with 104 of the 175 residues forming a four-alpha-helix bundle. The only other secondary structure is also helical. In the loop between the first two long helices a four-residue 3(10)-helix is immediately followed by a 6-residue alpha-helix. Three residues in the short connection between the second and third bundle helices form almost one turn of left-handed helix. The up-up-down-down connectivity with two long crossover connections has been reported previously for five other proteins, which like granulocyte-colony-stimulating factor are all signaling ligands: growth hormone, granulocyte/macrophage-colony-stimulating factor, interferon beta, interleukin 2, and interleukin 4. Structural similarity among these growth factors occurs despite the absence of similarity in their amino acid sequences. Conservation of this tertiary structure suggests that these different growth factors might all bind to their respective sequence-related receptors in an equivalent manner. Images Fig. 2 PMID:7685117

  8. Functional NF-IL6/CCAAT enhancer-binding protein is required for tumor necrosis factor alpha-inducible expression of the granulocyte colony- stimulating factor (CSF), but not the granulocyte/macrophage CSF or interleukin 6 gene in human fibroblasts [retracted by Adler G. In: J Exp Med 1997 Jul 7;186(1):171

    PubMed Central

    1995-01-01

    Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) alpha participates in the regulation of the acute-phase, immune, and inflammatory responses. Target genes known to be transcriptionally activated by TNF-alpha include the granulocyte (G)- colony-stimulating factor (CSF) gene, the granulocyte/macrophage (GM)- CSF gene, as well as the interleukin (IL) 6 gene. Functional nuclear factor (NF)-IL6 recognition sites have been identified in regulatory regions of these genes by transient transfection studies using deleted promoter constructs. In addition, NF-IL6 is known to form heterodimeric complexes with the NF-kappa B transcription factor, which is also engaged in the transcriptional regulation of these genes. The indispensable importance of NF-IL6 for regulating gene expression of proinflammatory cytokine genes in response to inflammatory stimuli in vivo remains, however, unclear. We here report, by using both antisense (AS) oligodesoxyribonucleotide (ODN) and ribozyme (RZ)-mediated specific elimination of NF-IL6 transcripts in human fibroblasts, that TNF-alpha-induced synthesis of G-CSF, but not of GM-CSF or IL-6, is abolished in the absence of functional NF-IL6 in vivo. Both AS ODN and RZ targeting of the NF-IL6 transcript eliminate NF-IL6 protein, as shown in Western blot analysis and electrophoretic mobility shift assays. Similarly, fibroblasts exposed to either the AS NF-IL6 ODN or the NF-IL6 RZ, but not to the sense or nonsense ODN or a mutated ribozyme, also failed to respond with functional activation of NF-IL6 as assayed in transient transfection studies using heterologous promoter constructs harboring the NF-IL6 recognition site. In contrast, protein synthesis, DNA-binding activity, and transcriptional activation capacity of the NF-kappa B transcription factor is not impaired upon exposure to either ODN or RZ. Fibroblasts that had been cultured in the presence of the AS NF-IL6 ODN or the NF-IL6RZ failed to synthesize G- CSF protein in response to TNF-alpha, while TNF

  9. The Granulocyte-colony stimulating factor has a dual role in neuronal and vascular plasticity

    PubMed Central

    Wallner, Stephanie; Peters, Sebastian; Pitzer, Claudia; Resch, Herbert; Bogdahn, Ulrich; Schneider, Armin

    2015-01-01

    Granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) is a growth factor that has originally been identified several decades ago as a hematopoietic factor required mainly for the generation of neutrophilic granulocytes, and is in clinical use for that. More recently, it has been discovered that G-CSF also plays a role in the brain as a growth factor for neurons and neural stem cells, and as a factor involved in the plasticity of the vasculature. We review and discuss these dual properties in view of the neuroregenerative potential of this growth factor. PMID:26301221

  10. Neuroprotective Activities of Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony Stimulating Factor Following Controlled Cortical Impact

    PubMed Central

    Kelso, Matthew L.; Elliott, Bret R.; Haverland, Nicole A.; Mosley, R. Lee; Gendelman, Howard E.

    2014-01-01

    Neurodegeneration after traumatic brain injury (TBI) is facilitated by innate and adaptive immunity and can be harnessed to effect brain repair. In mice subjected to controlled cortical impact (CCI) we show that treatment with granulocyte macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) affects regulatory T cell numbers coincident with decreased lesion volumes and increased cortical tissue sparing. This paralleled increases in neurofilament and diminished reactive microglial staining. Transcriptomic analysis showed that GM-CSF induces robust immune neuroprotective responses seven days following CCI. Together, these results support the therapeutic potential of GM-CSF for TBI. PMID:25468272

  11. Induction of megakaryocytic colony-stimulating activity in mouse skin by inflammatory agents and tumor promoters

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, D.A.; Dessypris, E.N.; Koury, M.J.

    1987-03-01

    The production of megakaryocytic colony-stimulating activity (MEG-CSA) was assayed in acetic acid extracts of skin from mice topically treated with inflammatory and tumor-promoting agents. A rapid induction of MEG-CSA was found in skin treated both with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA), a strong tumor promoter, and with mezerein, a weak tumor promoter, but no induction was found in untreated skin. The time course of induction of MEG-CSA following treatment of skin with PMA or mezerein was very similar to that previously demonstrated for the induction of granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating activity in mouse skin by these agents. The induced MEG-CSA was found in both the epidermis and the dermis. Pretreatment of the skin with US -methasone abrogated the MEG-CSA induction. The cell number response curve suggests that the MEG-CSA acts directly on the progenitor cells of the megakaryocyte colonies. That topical administration of diterpene esters results in the rapid, local induction of MEG-CSA which can be blocked by US -methasone pretreatment suggests a mechanism for the thrombocytosis associated with some inflammatory states. The indirect action in which diterpene esters induce in certain cells the production or release of growth regulatory factors for other cell types may also aid in understanding their carcinogenic properties.

  12. Mechanism of kinase activation in the receptor for colony-stimulating factor 1.

    PubMed Central

    Lee, A W; Nienhuis, A W

    1990-01-01

    Receptor tyrosine kinases remain dormant until activated by ligand binding to the extracellular domain. Two mechanisms have been proposed for kinase activation: (i) ligand binding to the external domain of a receptor monomer may induce a conformational change that is transmitted across the cell membrane (intramolecular model) or (ii) the ligand may facilitate oligomerization, thereby allowing interactions between the juxtaposed kinase domains (intermolecular model). The receptor for colony-stimulating factor 1 was used to test these models. Large insertions at the junction between the external and transmembrane domains of the receptor, introduced by site-directed mutagenesis of the cDNA, were positioned to isolate the external domain and prevent transmembrane conformational propagation while allowing for receptor oligomerization. Such mutant receptors were expressed on the cell surface, bound ligand with high affinity, exhibited ligand-stimulated autophosphorylation, and signaled mitogenesis and cellular proliferation in the presence of ligand. A second experimental strategy directly tested the intermolecular model of ligand activation. A hybrid receptor composed of the external domain of human glycophorin A and the transmembrane and cytoplasmic domains of the colony-stimulating factor 1 receptor exhibited anti-glycophorin antibody-induced kinase activity that supported mitogenesis. Our data strongly support a mechanism of receptor activation based on ligand-induced receptor oligomerization. Images PMID:2169623

  13. Macrophage colony-stimulating factor gene expression in vascular cells and in experimental and human atherosclerosis.

    PubMed Central

    Clinton, S. K.; Underwood, R.; Hayes, L.; Sherman, M. L.; Kufe, D. W.; Libby, P.

    1992-01-01

    The infiltration of monocytes into the vascular wall and their transformation into lipid-laden foam cells characterizes early atherogenesis. Macrophages are also present in more advanced human atherosclerotic plaques and can produce many mediators that may contribute to lesion formation and progression. Macrophage colony-stimulating factor (MCSF) enhances the proliferation and differentiation of monocyte progenitors and is required for the survival and activation of mature monocytes and macrophages. The authors therefore examined the expression of the MCSF gene in cultured human vascular endothelial (EC) and smooth muscle cells (SMC) as well as in atheromatous lesions from rabbits and humans. Growth arrested EC and SMC contain a low level of MCSF mRNA. Bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS), recombinant human interleukin-1 alpha (IL-1 alpha) or tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF alpha) induced MCSF mRNA accumulation in a concentration-dependent manner in both EC and SMC. These stimuli induced large increases in MCSF mRNA with peak induction between 4-8 hours after treatment. LPS, IL-1 alpha, and TNF alpha stimulated EC and SMC also showed increased fluorescent antibody staining for MCSF protein and released immunoreactive MCSF in a time-dependent manner. In contrast, phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) was a less potent inducer of MCSF gene expression and iron-oxidized low-density lipoproteins (ox-LDL) did not increase consistently MCSF mRNA or the synthesis and secretion of immunoreactive protein. Northern analysis of mRNA isolated from the atheromatous aorta of rabbits fed a 1% cholesterol diet for 10 weeks showed elevated MCSF mRNA compared with controls. Immunostaining of atheromatous arterial lesions of rabbits demonstrated MCSF protein in association with intimal SMC as well as macrophages. Furthermore, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis of MCSF mRNA in human atheromata showed higher levels than found in nonatherosclerotic arteries and veins. Since the

  14. Simplified Large-Scale Refolding, Purification, and Characterization of Recombinant Human Granulocyte-Colony Stimulating Factor in Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Chang Kyu; Lee, Chi Ho; Lee, Seung-Bae; Oh, Jae-Wook

    2013-01-01

    Granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) is a pleiotropic cytokine that stimulates the development of committed hematopoietic progenitor cells and enhances the functional activity of mature cells. Here, we report a simplified method for fed-batch culture as well as the purification of recombinant human (rh) G-CSF. The new system for rhG-CSF purification was performed using not only temperature shift strategy without isopropyl-l-thio-β-d-galactoside (IPTG) induction but also the purification method by a single step of prep-HPLC after the pH precipitation of the refolded samples. Through these processes, the final cell density and overall yield of homogenous rhG-CSF were obtained 42.8 g as dry cell weights, 1.75 g as purified active proteins, from 1 L culture broth, respectively. The purity of rhG-CSF was finally 99% since the isoforms of rhG-CSF could be separated through the prep-HPLC step. The result of biological activity indicated that purified rhG-CSF has a similar profile to the World Health Organization (WHO) 2nd International Standard for G-CSF. Taken together, our results demonstrate that the simple purification through a single step of prep-HPLC may be valuable for the industrial-scale production of biologically active proteins. PMID:24224041

  15. Growth of human hemopoietic colonies in response to recombinant gibbon interleukin 3: comparison with human recombinant granulocyte and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor

    SciTech Connect

    Messner, H.A.; Yamasaki, K.; Jamal, N.; Minden, M.M.; Yang, Y.C.; Wong, G.G.; Clark, S.C.

    1987-10-01

    Supernatants of COS-1 cells transfected with gibbon cDNA encoding interleukin 3 (IL-3) with homology to sequences for human IL-3 were tested for ability to promote growth of various human hemopoietic progenitors. The effect of these supernatants as a source of recombinant IL-3 was compared to that of recombinant human granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) as well as to that of medium conditioned by phytohemagglutinin-stimulated leukocytes. The frequency of multilineage colonies, erythroid bursts, and megakaryocyte colonies in cultures containing the COS-1 cell supernatant was equivalent to the frequency observed in the controls and significantly higher than found in cultures plated with recombinant GM-CSF. G-CSF did not support the formation of multilineage colonies, erythroid bursts, and megakaryocyte colonies. In contrast, growth of granulocyte-macrophage colonies was best supported with GM-CSF, while recombinant IL-3 yielded colonies at lower or at best equivalent frequency. The simultaneous addition of higher concentrations of GM-CSF to cultures containing IL-3 in optimal amounts did not enhance the formation of multilineage colonies, erythroid bursts, and megakaryocyte colonies. However, the frequency of such colonies and bursts increased with GM-CSF when cultures were plated with suboptimal concentrations of IL-3. Growth of colonies within the granulocyte-macrophage lineage is optimally supported by GM-CSF and does not increase with further addition of IL-3.

  16. Expression and purification of canine granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (cG-CSF).

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Akira; Iwata, Akira; Saito, Toshiki; Watanabe, Fumiko; Ueda, Susumu

    2009-08-15

    Canine granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (cG-CSF) with modification of cysteine at position 17 to serine was expressed in Brevibacillus choshinensis HPD31. cG-CSF secreted into the culture medium was purified by ammonium sulfate precipitation and consecutive column chromatography, using butyl sepharose and DEAE sepharose. Biological activity of the recombinant cG-CSF was 8.0 x 10(6) U/mg protein, as determined by its stimulatory effect on NFS-60 cell proliferation. Purified cG-CSF was subcutaneously administered once a day for two successive days to dogs (1, 5, 25, or 125 microg). Neutrophil count increased the following day in all dogs except those administered the lowest dose (1 microg). No severe side effects were observed in dogs after administration of cG-CSF.

  17. Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor in the treatment of acute radiation syndrome: a concise review.

    PubMed

    Hofer, Michal; Pospíšil, Milan; Komůrková, Denisa; Hoferová, Zuzana

    2014-04-16

    This article concisely summarizes data on the action of one of the principal and best known growth factors, the granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF), in a mammalian organism exposed to radiation doses inducing acute radiation syndrome. Highlighted are the topics of its real or anticipated use in radiation accident victims, the timing of its administration, the possibilities of combining G-CSF with other drugs, the ability of other agents to stimulate endogenous G-CSF production, as well as of the capability of this growth factor to ameliorate not only the bone marrow radiation syndrome but also the gastrointestinal radiation syndrome. G-CSF is one of the pivotal drugs in the treatment of radiation accident victims and its employment in this indication can be expected to remain or even grow in the future.

  18. A microassay for colony-stimulating factor based on thymidine incorporation.

    PubMed Central

    Prystowsky, M. B.; Naujokas, M. F.; Ihle, J. N.; Goldwasser, E.; Fitch, F. W.

    1984-01-01

    A variety of growth factors and lectins were tested; only colony-stimulating factors CSF-1, Interleukin 3, and a T-lymphocyte GM CSF induced colony formation in semisolid medium and stimulated thymidine incorporation in liquid culture. All other growth factors and lectins were inactive in both assays. Factor-stimulated thymidine incorporation was detectable 24 hours after stimulation and reached maximal levels 4-6 days after stimulation. A convenient microassay for measuring CSF activity has been developed, enabling a large number of samples to be screened qualitatively in 2 days and permitting CSF activity to be measured quantitatively in 4-5 days. This microassay can supplement the clonal-cell assay method and be especially useful as an initial screening assay for CSF activity. PMID:6606982

  19. Autopsy of anaplastic carcinoma of the pancreas producing granulocyte colony-stimulating factor.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Haruna; Eguchi, Noriaki; Sumimoto, Kyoku; Matsumoto, Kenta; Azakami, Takahiro; Sumida, Tomonori; Tamura, Tadamasa; Sumii, Masaharu; Uraoka, Naohiro; Shimamoto, Fumio

    2016-08-01

    A 50-year-old man presented to a nearby hospital with high fever and anorexia. An abdominal tumor was detected, and he was referred to our hospital. A pancreatic tumor was detected by computed tomography and abdominal ultrasonography. He had high fever, leukocytosis, and high serum granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF). We performed a tumor biopsy and histological examination revealed anaplastic carcinoma of the pancreas. Based on the diagnosis, we initiated chemotherapy using gemcitabine plus S-1. However, the tumor rapidly progressed and he deteriorated and died 123 days after admission. As immunohistochemical study showed positive staining for G-CSF in the tumor cell, we diagnosed the tumor producing G-CSF during autopsy. Anaplastic carcinoma of the pancreas producing G-CSF is very rare, with 10 cases, including ours, reported in the literature.

  20. Circulating macrophage colony-stimulating factor is not reduced in malignant osteopetrosis.

    PubMed

    Orchard, P J; Dahl, N; Aukerman, S L; Blazar, B R; Key, L L

    1992-01-01

    Malignant osteopetrosis is a disorder characterized by a deficiency in osteoclast number or function. In one animal model of osteopetrosis, the op/op mouse, macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF) is absent, and the administration of M-CSF corrects the defects. We evaluated the serum of 13 patients with malignant osteopetrosis by an M-CSF radioimmunoassay to determine if a quantitative M-CSF deficiency existed in these patients. All patients had M-CSF present in levels equal to or higher than control serum. In addition, serum from 6 osteopetrotic patients was tested in a bioassay to determine if the M-CSF present is biologically active, and in all cases there was demonstrable activity in these samples. We provide evidence that deficiency of circulating M-CSF is unlikely to be a major contributor to the etiologic basis for the majority of children with malignant osteopetrosis.

  1. Immunostimulation using granulocyte- and granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor in patients with severe sepsis and septic shock.

    PubMed

    Schefold, Joerg C

    2011-01-01

    Sepsis is associated with failure of multiple organs, including failure of the immune system. The resulting 'sepsis-associated immunosuppression' resembles a state of immunological anergy that is characterized by repeated 'infectious hits', prolonged multiple-organ failure, and death. As a consequence, adjunctive treatment approaches using measures of immunostimulation with colony-stimulating factors (CSFs) were tested in animal experiments and clinical trials. Herein, data from randomized clinical trials will be discussed in the context of a recently published meta-analysis investigating the effects of granulocyte- and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor therapy in patients with severe sepsis and septic shock.

  2. The effect of inhibition of leukotriene synthesis on the activity of interleukin-8 and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor

    PubMed Central

    Pizzey, A. R.; Linch, D. C.

    1993-01-01

    The cytokines interleukin-8 (IL-8) and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) enhanced the extracellular release of arachidonate metabolites from ionophore-stimulated neutrophils by 145 ± 10% (mean ± S.E.M., n = 13) and 182 ± 11% (n = 16), respectively. To determine whether enhanced leukotriene production mediates the effects of these cytokines on neutrophil activity, two different specific arachidonate 5-lipoxygenase (5-LO) inhibitors, piriprost and MK-886, were used to inhibit leukotriene synthesis. Neither inhibitor affected the upregulation of CD11b β2-integrin expression or priming of superoxide generation stimulated by IL-8 and GM-CSF. It is concluded that leukotrienes do not mediate either the direct or priming effects of these cytokines and that these classes of anti-inflammatory drugs are therefore unlikely to inhibit the effects of IL-8 and GM-CSF on neutrophil activation. PMID:18475524

  3. An interleukin-1 receptor antagonist blocks lipopolysaccharide-induced colony-stimulating factor production and early endotoxin tolerance.

    PubMed Central

    Henricson, B E; Neta, R; Vogel, S N

    1991-01-01

    In this report, administration of a recombinant interleukin-1 receptor antagonist protein to mice was found to inhibit induction of colony-stimulating factor as well as induction of early endotoxin tolerance by lipopolysaccharide. These findings provide direct evidence that interleukin-1 is an intermediate in these two lipopolysaccharide-induced phenomena. PMID:1825485

  4. The combination of stem cell factor and granulocyte-colony stimulating factor for chronic stroke treatment in aged animals

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Stroke occurs more frequently in the elderly population and presents the number one leading cause of persistent disability worldwide. Lack of effective treatment to enhance brain repair and improve functional restoration in chronic stroke, the recovery phase of stroke, is a challenging medical problem to be solved in stroke research. Our early study has revealed the therapeutic effects of stem cell factor (SCF) in combination with granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) (SCF+G-CSF) on chronic stroke in young animals. However, whether this treatment is effective and safe to the aged population remains to be determined. Methods Cortical brain ischemia was produced in aged C57BL mice or aged spontaneously hypertensive rats. SCF+G-CSF or equal volume of vehicle solution was subcutaneously injected for 7 days beginning at 3–4 months after induction of cortical brain ischemia. Using the approaches of biochemistry assays, flow cytometry, pathology, and evaluation of functional outcome, several doses of SCF+G-CSF have been examined for their safety and efficiency on chronic stroke in aged animals. Results All tested doses did not show acute or chronic toxicity in the aged animals. Additionally, SCF+G-CSF treatment in chronic stroke of aged animals mobilized bone marrow stem cells and improved functional outcome in a dose-dependent manner. Conclusions SCF+G-CSF treatment is a safe and effective approach to chronic stroke in the aged condition. This study provides important information needed for developing a new therapeutic strategy to improve the health of older adults with chronic stroke. PMID:23254113

  5. Granulocyte-Colony Stimulating Factor (G-CSF) for stroke: an individual patient data meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    England, Timothy J.; Sprigg, Nikola; Alasheev, Andrey M.; Belkin, Andrey A.; Kumar, Amit; Prasad, Kameshwar; Bath, Philip M.

    2016-01-01

    Granulocyte colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) may enhance recovery from stroke through neuroprotective mechanisms if administered early, or neurorepair if given later. Several small trials suggest administration is safe but effects on efficacy are unclear. We searched for randomised controlled trials (RCT) assessing G-CSF in patients with hyperacute, acute, subacute or chronic stroke, and asked Investigators to share individual patient data on baseline characteristics, stroke severity and type, end-of-trial modified Rankin Scale (mRS), Barthel Index, haematological parameters, serious adverse events and death. Multiple variable analyses were adjusted for age, sex, baseline severity and time-to-treatment. Individual patient data were obtained for 6 of 10 RCTs comprising 196 stroke patients (116 G-CSF, 80 placebo), mean age 67.1 (SD 12.9), 92% ischaemic, median NIHSS 10 (IQR 5–15), randomised 11 days (interquartile range IQR 4–238) post ictus; data from three commercial trials were not shared. G-CSF did not improve mRS (ordinal regression), odds ratio OR 1.12 (95% confidence interval 0.64 to 1.96, p = 0.62). There were more patients with a serious adverse event in the G-CSF group (29.6% versus 7.5%, p = 0.07) with no significant difference in all-cause mortality (G-CSF 11.2%, placebo 7.6%, p = 0.4). Overall, G-CSF did not improve stroke outcome in this individual patient data meta-analysis. PMID:27845349

  6. Administration of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor with radiotherapy promotes tumor growth by stimulating vascularization in tumor-bearing mice.

    PubMed

    Kim, Joong Sun; Son, Yeonghoon; Bae, Min Ji; Lee, Minyoung; Lee, Chang Geun; Jo, Wol Soon; Kim, Sung Dae; Yang, Kwangmo

    2015-07-01

    Although granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) is commonly used to support recovery from radiation-induced side-effects, the precise effects of G-CSF on colon cancer under radiotherapy remain poorly understood. In the present study, to investigate the effects of tumor growth following radiotherapy and G-CSF administration in a murine xenograft model of colon cancer, female BALB/c mice were injected with cells of a colon carcinoma cell line (CT26) with irradiation and G-CSF, alone or in combination. Mice received 2 Gy of focal radiation daily for 5 days and intraperitoneal injection of G-CSF (100 µg/kg/day) after irradiation for 7 days. Changes in the levels of myeloperoxidase (MPO), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), matrix metalloproteinase type 9 (MMP-9) and CD31 were assessed in the mouse cancer induced by injection of colon cancer cells. We observed that G-CSF increased the number of circulating neutrophils, but facilitated tumor growth. However, G-CSF treatment did not affect radiation-induced cytotoxicity and cell viability in CT26 cells in vitro. Increased levels of myeloperoxidase, a neutrophil marker and those of vascular endothelial growth factor were observed in tumors with G-CSF supplementation. In addition, we found that increased levels of CD31 and matrix metalloproteinase-9 were correlated with the enhanced tumor growth after G-CSF treatment. Therefore, these data suggest that G-CSF may contribute to tumor growth and decrease the antitumor effect of radiotherapy, possibly by promoting vascularization in cancer lesions.

  7. Macrophage colony-stimulating factor expressed in non-cancer tissues provides predictive powers for recurrence in hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Kono, Hiroshi; Fujii, Hideki; Furuya, Shinji; Hara, Michio; Hirayama, Kazuyoshi; Akazawa, Yoshihiro; Nakata, Yuuki; Tsuchiya, Masato; Hosomura, Naohiro; Sun, Chao

    2016-01-01

    AIM To investigate the role of macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF) in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) after surgery. METHODS Expression of M-CSF, distribution of M2 macrophages (MΦs), and angiogenesis were assessed in the liver, including tumors and peritumoral liver tissues. The prognostic power of these factors was assessed. Mouse isolated hepatic MΦs or monocytes were cultured with media containing M-CSF. The concentration of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in media was assessed. Furthermore, the role of the M-CSF-matured hepatic MΦs on proliferation of the vascular endothelial cell (VEC) was investigated. RESULTS A strong correlation between the expressions of M-CSF and CD163 was observed in the peritumoral area. Also, groups with high density of M-CSF, CD163 or CD31 showed a significantly shorter time to recurrence (TTR) than low density groups. Multivariate analysis revealed the expression of M-CSF or hepatic M2MΦs in the peritumoral area as the most crucial factor responsible for shorter TTR. Moreover, the expression of M-CSF and hepatic M2MΦs in the peritumoral area had better predictable power of overall survival. Values of VEGF in culture media were significantly greater in the hepatic MΦs compared with the monocytes. Proliferation of the VEC was greatest in the cells co-cultured with hepatic MΦs when M-CSF was present in media. CONCLUSION M-CSF increases hepatocarcinogenesis, most likely by enhancing an angiogenic factor derived from hepatic MΦ and could be a useful target for therapy against HCC. PMID:27818593

  8. Human granulocyte colony stimulating factor (hG-CSF): cloning, overexpression, purification and characterization

    PubMed Central

    Vanz, Ana LS; Renard, Gaby; Palma, Mario S; Chies, Jocelei M; Dalmora, Sérgio L; Basso, Luiz A; Santos, Diógenes S

    2008-01-01

    Background Biopharmaceutical drugs are mainly recombinant proteins produced by biotechnological tools. The patents of many biopharmaceuticals have expired, and biosimilars are thus currently being developed. Human granulocyte colony stimulating factor (hG-CSF) is a hematopoietic cytokine that acts on cells of the neutrophil lineage causing proliferation and differentiation of committed precursor cells and activation of mature neutrophils. Recombinant hG-CSF has been produced in genetically engineered Escherichia coli (Filgrastim) and successfully used to treat cancer patients suffering from chemotherapy-induced neutropenia. Filgrastim is a 175 amino acid protein, containing an extra N-terminal methionine, which is needed for expression in E. coli. Here we describe a simple and low-cost process that is amenable to scaling-up for the production and purification of homogeneous and active recombinant hG-CSF expressed in E. coli cells. Results Here we describe cloning of the human granulocyte colony-stimulating factor coding DNA sequence, protein expression in E. coli BL21(DE3) host cells in the absence of isopropyl-β-D-thiogalactopyranoside (IPTG) induction, efficient isolation and solubilization of inclusion bodies by a multi-step washing procedure, and a purification protocol using a single cationic exchange column. Characterization of homogeneous rhG-CSF by size exclusion and reverse phase chromatography showed similar yields to the standard. The immunoassay and N-terminal sequencing confirmed the identity of rhG-CSF. The biological activity assay, in vivo, showed an equivalent biological effect (109.4%) to the standard reference rhG-CSF. The homogeneous rhG-CSF protein yield was 3.2 mg of bioactive protein per liter of cell culture. Conclusion The recombinant protein expression in the absence of IPTG induction is advantageous since cost is reduced, and the protein purification protocol using a single chromatographic step should reduce cost even further for large

  9. Optimal induction of hepatitis C virus envelope-specific immunity by bicistronic plasmid DNA inoculation with the granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor gene.

    PubMed

    Lee, S W; Cho, J H; Sung, Y C

    1998-10-01

    In this study, we have constructed various DNA vaccine vectors that carried hepatitis C virus (HCV) envelope genes without and with the granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) gene in several different ways. In Buffalo rats that received plasmids carrying the HCV envelope genes, which encode envelope proteins E1 and E2, both antibody and lymphoproliferative responses against these proteins were induced. These responses were greatly enhanced by the codelivery of the GM-CSF gene. In particular, inoculation with a bicistronic plasmid that independently expressed the GM-CSF gene and the envelope genes in the same construct generated the highest antibody titers and significantly increased lymphoproliferative responses against these proteins. Moreover, strong antibody responses to homologous and heterologous hypervariable region 1 peptides were elicited in the immunized rats.

  10. Hematologic improvement in dogs with parvovirus infection treated with recombinant canine granulocyte-colony stimulating factor.

    PubMed

    Duffy, A; Dow, S; Ogilvie, G; Rao, S; Hackett, T

    2010-08-01

    Previously, dogs with canine parvovirus-induced neutropenia have not responded to treatment with recombinant human granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (rhG-CSF). However, recombinant canine G-CSF (rcG-CSF) has not been previously evaluated for treatment of parvovirus-induced neutropenia in dogs. We assessed the effectiveness of rcG-CSF in dogs with parvovirus-induced neutropenia with a prospective, open-label, nonrandomized clinical trial. Endpoints of our study were time to recovery of WBC and neutrophil counts, and duration of hospitalization. 28 dogs with parvovirus and neutropenia were treated with rcG-CSF and outcomes were compared to those of 34 dogs with parvovirus and neutropenia not treated with rcG-CSF. We found that mean WBC and neutrophil counts were significantly higher (P < 0.05) in the 28 dogs treated with rcG-CSF compared to disease-matched dogs not treated with rcG-CSF. In addition, the mean duration of hospitalization was reduced (P = 0.01) in rcG-CSF treated dogs compared to untreated dogs. However, survival times were decreased in dogs treated with rcG-CSF compared to untreated dogs. These results suggest that treatment with rcG-CSF was effective in stimulating neutrophil recovery and shortening the duration of hospitalization in dogs with parvovirus infection, but indicate the need for additional studies to evaluate overall safety of the treatment.

  11. Treatment of leg ischemia with biodegradable gelatin hydrogel microspheres incorporating granulocyte colony-stimulating factor.

    PubMed

    Kawamura, Itta; Takemura, Genzou; Tsujimoto, Akiko; Watanabe, Takatomo; Kanamori, Hiromitsu; Esaki, Masayasu; Kobayashi, Hiroyuki; Takeyama, Toshiaki; Kawaguchi, Tomonori; Goto, Kazuko; Maruyama, Rumi; Fujiwara, Takako; Fujiwara, Hisayoshi; Tabata, Yasuhiko; Minatoguchi, Shinya

    2011-04-01

    Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) is a potent angiogenic factor. We hypothesized that G-CSF-immersed gelatin hydrogel microspheres (G-CSF-GHMs) injected into the ischemic legs might continuously release a small amount of G-CSF to locally stimulate angiogenesis without unfavorable systemic effects. Just after ligation of the right femoral artery of BALB/c mice, recombinant human G-CSF (100-μg/kg)-immersed GHM was injected into the right hindlimb muscles; the controls included a saline-injected group, an intramuscularly injected G-CSF group, a subcutaneously injected G-CSG group, and an empty GHM-injected group. Eight weeks later, improvement of blood perfusion to the ischemic limb was significantly augmented in the G-CSF-GHM group compared with any of the control groups. Despite there being no increase in the serum concentration of G-CSF, in peripheral granulocytes, or in circulating endothelial progenitor cells, not only capillary but also arteriolar density was significantly increased in this group. Next, we started treatment with G-CSF-GHM 4 weeks after ligation to examine whether the treatment is effective if performed during the chronic stage of ischemia. The late treatment was also found to effectively improve blood flow in the ischemic leg. In conclusion, G-CSF-GHM administration is suggested to be a promising and readily usable approach to treating peripheral artery disease, applicable even during the chronic stage.

  12. Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor increases the platelet volume in peripheral stem cell apheresis donors.

    PubMed

    Ihara, Akihiro; Matsui, Keiko; Minami, Ryouta; Uchida, Shuzou; Ueda, Shuji; Nishiura, Tetsuo

    2008-01-01

    We investigated the short-term influence of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) administration on platelet counts and platelet indices in 12 donors (8 males and 4 females; median age 34 years, range 16-49) for peripheral stem cell transplantation using an automated blood cell analyzer. On day 3 (D3) compared with D0, 11 donors with normal laboratory and physical findings showed increases in platelet indices (chi(2) = 12.0, p = 0.0025). Furthermore, mean platelet volume (MPV) was significantly increased (p = 0.04). Also, platelet count decreased, and platelet distribution width and platelet-large cell ratio were increased, but these were not significant. On the contrary, 1 donor with abnormal laboratory findings who had large platelets (MPV 11.4 fl) before G-CSF administration showed decreases in platelet indices (MPV 10.3 fl) on D3, although platelet count (18.2 x 10(4)/microl) decreased after G-CSF administration. G-CSF administration induces an inflammatory process with endothelial cell activation. This is probably the reason why platelet volume increases after G-CSF use. This is the first report showing that G-CSF administration immediately induces increases in large platelets in peripheral stem cell transplant donors before harvest.

  13. Protective, restorative, and therapeutic properties of recombinant colony-stimulating factors

    SciTech Connect

    Talmadge, J.E.; Tribble, H.; Pennington, R.; Bowersox, O.; Schneider, M.A.; Castelli, P.; Black, P.L.; Abe, F. )

    1989-06-01

    Pretreatment of mice with recombinant murine (rM) colony-stimulating factor-granulocyte-macrophage (CSF-gm) or recombinant human (rH) CSF-g provides partial protection from the lethal effects of ionizing radiation or the alkylating agent cyclophosphamide (CTX). In addition, these agents can significantly prolong survival if administered following lethal doses of irradiation or CTX. To induce protective activity, cytokines were injected 20 hours before lethal irradiation or CTX administration. To accelerate recovery from lethal irradiation, the cytokines must be administered shortly following irradiation, and the induction of maximal levels of activity is dependent on chronic administration. In contrast, because of their longer half-lives, accelerated recovery from alkylating agents requires a delay of at least 24 to 48 hours to allow complete clearance of CTX before administration of a CSF. Studies quantitating peripheral blood leukocytes and bone marrow cellularity as well as colony-forming units per culture (CFU-C) frequency and CFU-C per femur revealed a significant correlation between these parameters and the ability to survive lethal irradiation.

  14. Endotoxin down-modulates granulocyte colony-stimulating factor receptor (CD114) on human neutrophils.

    PubMed

    Hollenstein, U; Homoncik, M; Stohlawetz, P J; Marsik, C; Sieder, A; Eichler, H G; Jilma, B

    2000-07-01

    During infection, the development of nonresponsiveness to granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) may be influenced by the down-modulation of G-CSF receptor (G-CSFR) by cytokines. This down-modulation was studied during experimental human endotoxemia. Healthy volunteers received either 2 ng/kg endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide [LPS], n=20) or placebo (n=10) in a randomized, controlled trial. Endotoxin infusion increased the mean fluorescence intensity of the neutrophil activation marker CD11b >300% after 1 h (P<.001 vs. placebo). LPS infusion down-modulated G-CSFR expression in as early as 60 min (-17%; P=.001 vs. placebo). Down-modulation was almost maximal at 90 min and persisted for 6 h (-50% from baseline; P<.0001 vs. placebo). Plasma levels of G-CSF started to increase only after G-CSFR down-modulation had occurred and peaked 37-fold above baseline at 4 h (P<.0001 vs. placebo). In conclusion, LPS down-modulates G-CSFR expression in humans, which may render neutrophils less responsive to the effects of G-CSF and, thereby, compromise host defense mechanisms.

  15. The use of granulocyte-colony-stimulating factor in volunteer unrelated hemopoietic stem cell donors.

    PubMed

    Pamphilon, Derwood; Nacheva, Elisabeth; Navarrete, Cristina; Madrigal, Alejandro; Goldman, John

    2008-07-01

    Granulocyte-colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) is used for the mobilization of hemopoietic stem cells in healthy donors. It has a number of common side effects such as bone pain, which resolve rapidly after administration is discontinued. Recent publications have raised concern that it might act as a trigger for the development of hematologic malignancy in susceptible individuals, possibly by causing genomic instability, but to date there is no evidence that healthy volunteer donors who receive G-CSF are at any increased risk. Ongoing studies aim to confirm whether or not G-CSF can cause chromosomal abnormalities in healthy donors. In the UK, the British Bone Marrow Registry and Anthony Nolan Trust give G-CSF to donors who have agreed to donate peripheral blood stem cells. It is recommended by the UK Registries at present that all stem cell donors are given updated information explaining the current uncertainties with regard to the use of G-CSF before they give informed consent to its administration. This information is based on a statement agreed by the World Marrow Donor Association for use by individual donor registries. Further, it is our current practice that all donors who have received G-CSF, as well as marrow donors who do not, should be under regular review for at least 10 years to allow the occurrence of any long-term adverse events to be documented.

  16. Neuroprotection of Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor for Early Stage Parkinson's Disease.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Sheng-Tzung; Chu, Sung-Chao; Liu, Shu-Hsin; Pang, Cheng-Yoong; Hou, Ting-Wen; Lin, Shinn-Zong; Chen, Shin-Yuan

    2017-03-13

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a slowly progressive neurodegenerative disease. Both medical and surgical choices provide symptomatic treatment. Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF), a conventional treatment for hematological diseases, has demonstrated its effectiveness in acute and chronic neurological diseases through its anti-inflammatory and antiapoptosis mechanisms. Based on previous in vitro and in vivo studies, we administered a lower dose (3.3 μg/kg) G-CSF injection for 5 days and six courses for 1 year in early-stage PD patients as a phase I trial. The four PD patient's mean unified PD rating scale motor scores in medication off status remained stable from 23 before the first G-CSF injection to 22 during the 2-year follow-up. 3,4-Dihydroxy-6-18F-fluoro-l-phenylalanine (18F-DOPA) positron emission tomography (PET) studies also revealed an annual 3.5% decrease in radiotracer uptake over the caudate nucleus and 7% in the putamen, both slower than those of previous reports of PD. Adverse effects included transient muscular-skeletal pain, nausea, vomiting, and elevated liver enzymes. Based on this preliminary report, G-CSF seems to alleviate disease deterioration for early stage PD patients. The effectiveness of G-CSF was possibly due to its amelioration of progressive dopaminergic neuron degeneration.

  17. Multipronged attenuation of macrophage-colony stimulating factor signaling by Epstein-Barr virus BARF1

    SciTech Connect

    Shim, Ann Hye-Ryong; Chang, Rhoda Ahn; Chen, Xiaoyan; Longnecker, Richard; He, Xiaolin

    2014-10-02

    The ubiquitous EBV causes infectious mononucleosis and is associated with several types of cancers. The EBV genome encodes an early gene product, BARF1, which contributes to pathogenesis, potentially through growth-altering and immune-modulating activities, but the mechanisms for such activities are poorly understood. We have determined the crystal structure of BARF1 in complex with human macrophage-colony stimulating factor (M-CSF), a hematopoietic cytokine with pleiotropic functions in development and immune response. BARF1 and M-CSF form a high-affinity, stable, ring-like complex in both solution and the crystal, with a BARF1 hexameric ring surrounded by three M-CSF dimers in triangular array. The binding of BARF1 to M-CSF dramatically reduces but does not completely abolish M-CSF binding and signaling through its cognate receptor FMS. A three-pronged down-regulation mechanism is proposed to explain the biological effect of BARF1 on M-CSF:FMS signaling. These prongs entail control of the circulating and effective local M-CSF concentration, perturbation of the receptor-binding surface of M-CSF, and imposition of an unfavorable global orientation of the M-CSF dimer. Each prong may reduce M-CSF:FMS signaling to a limited extent but in combination may alter M-CSF:FMS signaling dramatically. The downregulating mechanism of BARF1 underlines a viral modulation strategy, and provides a basis for understanding EBV pathogenesis.

  18. Granulocyte Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor-Activated Eosinophils Promote Interleukin-23 Driven Chronic Colitis.

    PubMed

    Griseri, Thibault; Arnold, Isabelle C; Pearson, Claire; Krausgruber, Thomas; Schiering, Chris; Franchini, Fanny; Schulthess, Julie; McKenzie, Brent S; Crocker, Paul R; Powrie, Fiona

    2015-07-21

    The role of intestinal eosinophils in immune homeostasis is enigmatic and the molecular signals that drive them from protective to tissue damaging are unknown. Most commonly associated with Th2 cell-mediated diseases, we describe a role for eosinophils as crucial effectors of the interleukin-23 (IL-23)-granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) axis in colitis. Chronic intestinal inflammation was characterized by increased bone marrow eosinopoiesis and accumulation of activated intestinal eosinophils. IL-5 blockade or eosinophil depletion ameliorated colitis, implicating eosinophils in disease pathogenesis. GM-CSF was a potent activator of eosinophil effector functions and intestinal accumulation, and GM-CSF blockade inhibited chronic colitis. By contrast neutrophil accumulation was GM-CSF independent and dispensable for colitis. In addition to TNF secretion, release of eosinophil peroxidase promoted colitis identifying direct tissue-toxic mechanisms. Thus, eosinophils are key perpetrators of chronic inflammation and tissue damage in IL-23-mediated immune diseases and it suggests the GM-CSF-eosinophil axis as an attractive therapeutic target.

  19. Biosimilar granulocyte-colony-stimulating factor for healthy donor stem cell mobilization: need we be afraid?

    PubMed

    Bonig, Halvard; Becker, Petra S; Schwebig, Arnd; Turner, Matthew

    2015-02-01

    Biosimilars are approved biologics with comparable quality, safety, and efficacy to a reference product. Unlike generics, which are chemically manufactured copies of small-molecule drugs with relatively simple chemical structures, the biosimilar designation is applied to drugs that are produced by living organisms, implying much more difficult to control manufacturing and purification procedures. To account for these complexities, the European Medicines Agency (EMA), the US Food and Drug Administration, the Australian Therapeutic Goods Administration, and other regulatory authorities have devised and implemented specific, markedly more demanding pathways for the evaluation and approval of biosimilars. To date, several biosimilars have been approved, including versions of somatropin, erythropoietin, and granulocyte-colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF), and several biosimilar monoclonal antibodies are currently in development. The reference G-CSF product (Neupogen, Amgen) has been used for many years for prevention and treatment of neutropenia and also for mobilization of peripheral blood stem cells (PBSCs). However, concerns have been raised about the safety and efficacy of biosimilar G-CSF during PBSC mobilization procedures, especially in healthy donors. This article reviews the available evidence on the use of biosimilar G-CSF in this setting. Aggregate clinical evidence supports the assessment by the EMA of biosimilar and originator G-CSF as highly biologically similar, with respect to desired and undesired effects.

  20. Requirement of Src kinase Lyn for induction of DNA synthesis by granulocyte colony-stimulating factor.

    PubMed

    Corey, S J; Dombrosky-Ferlan, P M; Zuo, S; Krohn, E; Donnenberg, A D; Zorich, P; Romero, G; Takata, M; Kurosaki, T

    1998-02-06

    Treatment of cells with granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) leads to tyrosine phosphorylation of cellular proteins. G-CSF stimulates both the activation of protein tyrosine kinases Lyn, Jak1, and Jak2 and the association of these enzymes with the G-CSF receptor. Wild-type, lyn-deficient, and syk-deficient chicken B lymphocyte cell lines were transfected with the human G-CSF receptor, and stable transfectants were studied. G-CSF-dependent tyrosyl phosphorylation of Jak1 and Jak2 occurred in all three cell lines. Wild-type and syk-deficient transfectants responded to G-CSF in a dose-responsive fashion with increased thymidine incorporation, but none of the clones of lyn-deficient transfectants did. Ectopic expression of Lyn, but not that of c-Src, in the lyn-deficient cells restored their mitogenic responsiveness to G-CSF. Ectopic expression in wild-type cells of the kinase-inactive form of Lyn, but not of the kinase-inactive form of Jak2, inhibited thymidine incorporation in response to G-CSF. These studies show that the absence of Lyn results in the loss of mitogenic signaling in the G-CSF signaling pathway and that activation of Jak1 or Jak2 is not sufficient to cause mitogenesis.

  1. Acetylation impacts Fli-1-driven regulation of granulocyte colony stimulating factor.

    PubMed

    Lennard Richard, Mara L; Brandon, Danielle; Lou, Ning; Sato, Shuzo; Caldwell, Tomika; Nowling, Tamara K; Gilkeson, Gary; Zhang, Xian K

    2016-10-01

    Fli-1 has emerged as a critical regulator of inflammatory mediators, including MCP-1, CCL5, and IL-6. The cytokine, granulocyte colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) regulates neutrophil precursor maturation and survival, and activates mature neutrophils. Previously, a significant decrease in neutrophil infiltration into the kidneys of Fli-1(+/-) lupus-prone mice was observed. In this study, a significant decrease in G-CSF protein expression was detected in stimulated murine and human endothelial cells when expression of Fli-1 was inhibited. The murine G-CSF promoter contains numerous putative Fli-1 binding sites and several regions within the proximal promoter are significantly enriched for Fli-1 binding. Transient transfection assays indicate that Fli-1 drives transcription from the G-CSF promoter and mutation of the Fli-1 DNA binding domain resulted in a 94% loss of transcriptional activation. Mutation of a known acetylation site, led to a significant increase in G-CSF promoter activation. The histone acetyltransferases p300/CBP and p300/CBP associated factor (PCAF) significantly decrease Fli-1 specific activation of the G-CSF promoter. Thus, acetylation appears to be an important mechanism behind Fli-1 driven activation of the G-CSF promoter. These results further support the theory that Fli-1 plays a major role in the regulation of several inflammatory mediators, ultimately affecting inflammatory disease pathogenesis.

  2. Adjunctive granulocyte colony-stimulating factor for treatment of septic shock due to melioidosis.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Allen C; Stephens, Dianne P; Anstey, Nicholas M; Currie, Bart J

    2004-01-01

    Melioidosis, caused by the intracellular pathogen Burkholderia pseudomallei, is endemic in northern Australia and Southeast Asia. Risk factors for this infection have also been associated with functional neutrophil defects. Because of this, granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) was adopted for use in patients with septic shock due to melioidosis in December 1998. We compared the mortality rates from before and after the introduction of G-CSF therapy at the Royal Darwin Hospital (Darwin, Australia) during the period of 1989-2002. The mortality rate decreased from 95% to 10% after the introduction of G-CSF. Risk factors, the duration of illness before presentation, and the severity of illness were similar in both groups. A smaller decrease in mortality among patients in the intensive care unit who did not have melioidosis was observed, suggesting that other changes in management did not account for the magnitude of the benefit seen. We conclude that G-CSF may have contributed to the reduction in the mortality rate among patients with septic shock due to melioidosis.

  3. In vivo stimulation of granulopoiesis by recombinant human granulocyte colony-stimulating factor

    SciTech Connect

    Cohen, A.M.; Zsebo, K.M.; Inoue, H.; Hines, D.; Boone, T.C.; Chazin, V.R.; Tsai, L.; Ritch, T.; Souza, L.M.

    1987-04-01

    Osmotic pumps containing Escherichia coli-derived recombinant human granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (rhG-CSF) were attached to indwelling jugular vein catheters and implanted subcutaneously into Golden Syrian hamsters. Within 3 days, peripheral granulocyte counts had increased > 10-fold with a concomitant 4-fold increase in total leukocytes. Microscopic examination of Wright-Giemsa-stained blood smears from rhG-CSF hamsters showed that only the neutrophil subpopulation of granulocytes had increased. After subcutaneous injection at /sup 35/S-labeled rhG-CSF doses of up to 10 ..mu..g x kg/sup -1/ x day/sup -1/ only granulocyte counts were affected. However, at higher dose levels, a transient thrombocytopenia was noted. Erythrocyte and lymphocyte/monocyte counts remained unaffected by rhG-CSF over the entire dose range studied. Total leukocyte counts increased 3-fold within 12 hr after a single s.c. injection of rhG-CSF. This early effect was associated with an increase in the total number of colony-forming cells and the percent of active cycling cells in the marrow. A sustained elevation of peripheral leukocyte and marrow progenitor counts was observed following seven daily s.c. injections of rhG-CSF. The ability of rhG-CSF to increase the production and release of granulocytes from the marrow may underlie the beneficial effect it produced on the restoration of peripheral leukocyte counts in hamsters made leukopenic by treatment with 5-fluorouracil.

  4. Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor Is Neuroprotective in Experimental Traumatic Brain Injury

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Xin L.; Wright, David K.; Liu, Shijie J.; Semple, Bridgette D.; Johnston, Leigh; Jones, Nigel C.; Cook, Andrew D.; Hamilton, John A.; O'Brien, Terence J.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is an international health concern with a complex pathogenesis resulting in major long-term neurological, neurocognitive, and neuropsychiatric outcomes. Although neuroinflammation has been identified as an important pathophysiological process resulting from TBI, the function of specific inflammatory mediators in the aftermath of TBI remains poorly understood. Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) is an inflammatory cytokine that has been reported to have neuroprotective effects in various animal models of neurodegenerative disease that share pathological similarities with TBI. The importance of GM-CSF in TBI has yet to be studied, however. We examined the role of GM-CSF in TBI by comparing the effects of a lateral fluid percussion (LFP) injury or sham injury in GM-CSF gene deficient (GM-CSF-/-) versus wild-type (WT) mice. After a 3-month recovery interval, mice were assessed using neuroimaging and behavioral outcomes. All mice given a LFP injury displayed significant brain atrophy and behavioral impairments compared with those given sham-injuries; however, this was significantly worse in the GM-CSF-/- mice compared with the WT mice. GM-CSF-/- mice given LFP injury also had reduced astrogliosis compared with their WT counterparts. These novel findings indicate that the inflammatory mediator, GM-CSF, may have significant protective properties in the chronic sequelae of experimental TBI and suggest that further research investigating GM-CSF and its potential benefits in the injured brain is warranted. PMID:24392832

  5. Differential processing of colony-stimulating factor 1 precursors encoded by two human cDNAs.

    PubMed Central

    Rettenmier, C W; Roussel, M F

    1988-01-01

    The biosynthesis of macrophage colony-stimulating factor 1 (CSF-1) was examined in mouse NIH-3T3 fibroblasts transfected with a retroviral vector expressing the 554-amino-acid product of a human 4-kilobase (kb) CSF-1 cDNA. Similar to results previously obtained with a 1.6-kb human cDNA that codes for a 256-amino-acid CSF-1 precursor, the results of the present study showed that NIH-3T3 cells expressing the product of the 4-kb clone produced biologically active human CSF-1 and were transformed by an autocrine mechanism when cotransfected with a vector containing a human c-fms (CSF-1 receptor) cDNA. The 4-kb CSF-1 cDNA product was synthesized as an integral transmembrane glycoprotein that was assembled into disulfide-linked dimers and rapidly underwent proteolytic cleavage to generate a soluble growth factor. Although the smaller CSF-1 precursor specified by the 1.6-kb human cDNA was stably expressed as a membrane-bound glycoprotein at the cell surface and was slowly cleaved to release the extracellular growth factor, the cell-associated product of the 4-kb clone was efficiently processed to the secreted form and was not detected on the plasma membrane. Digestion with glycosidic enzymes indicated that soluble CSF-1 encoded by the 4-kb cDNA contained both asparagine(N)-linked and O-linked carbohydrate chains, whereas the product of the 1.6-kb clone had only N-linked oligosaccharides. Removal of the carbohydrate indicated that the polypeptide chain of the secreted 4-kb cDNA product was longer than that of the corresponding form encoded by the smaller clone. These differences in posttranslational processing may reflect diverse physiological roles for the products of the two CSF-1 precursors in vivo. Images PMID:3264877

  6. Macrophage colony-stimulating factor induces prolactin expression in rat pituitary gland.

    PubMed

    Hoshino, Satoya; Kurotani, Reiko; Miyano, Yuki; Sakahara, Satoshi; Koike, Kanako; Maruyama, Minoru; Ishikawa, Fumio; Sakatai, Ichiro; Abe, Hiroyuki; Sakai, Takafumi

    2014-06-01

    We investigated the role of macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF) in the pituitary gland to understand the effect of M-CSF on pituitary hormones and the relationship between the endocrine and immune systems. When we attempted to establish pituitary cell lines from a thyrotropic pituitary tumor (TtT), a macrophage cell line, TtT/M-87, was established. We evaluated M-CSF-like activity in conditioned media (CM) from seven pituitary cell lines using TtT/M-87 cells. TtT/M-87 proliferation significantly increased in the presence of CM from TtT/GF cells, a pituitary folliculostellate (FS) cell line. M-CSF mRNA was detected in TtT/GF and MtT/E cells by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), and its expression in TtT/GF cells was increased in a lipopolysaccharide (LPS) dose-dependent manner. M-CSF mRNA expression was also increased in rat anterior pituitary glands by LPS. M-CSF receptor (M-CSFR) mRNA was only detected in TtT/ M-87 cells and increased in the LPS-stimulated rat pituitary glands. In rat pituitary glands, M-CSF and M-CSFR were found to be localized in FS cells and prolactin (PRL)-secreting cells, respectively, by immunohistochemistry. The PRL concentration in rat sera was significantly increased at 24 h after M-CSF administration, and mRNA levels significantly increased in primary culture cells of rat anterior pituitary glands. In addition, TNF-α mRNA was increased in the primary culture cells by M-CSF. These results revealed that M-CSF was secreted from FS cells and M-CSF regulated PRL expression in rat pituitary glands.

  7. Effect of thrombopoietin and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor on platelets and polymorphonuclear leukocytes.

    PubMed

    Schattner, M; Pozner, R G; Gorostizaga, A B; Lazzari, M A

    2000-07-15

    Thrombopoietin (TPO) and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) may be administered together in aplastic patients. We evaluated the effect of both cytokines alone or combined on platelets and polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) functional responses. TPO, G-CSF, or the combination of both cytokines, induced neither platelet nor PMN activation. TPO but not G-CSF synergized with threshold ADP concentrations to induce maximal aggregation and ATP release. The synergistic effect of TPO with ADP was not modified by the presence of G-CSF. Flow cytometry studies have shown that thrombin-induced loss of GPIb from platelet surface was significantly increased by pretreatment of platelets with TPO, G-CSF, or both cytokines. P-selectin expression induced by thrombin was augmented by TPO, but not by G-CSF. Coincubation of the cells with TPO and G-CSF did not modify the values obtained with TPO alone. Expression of CD11b on PMN surface was augmented by G-CSF or fMLP. G-CSF-treated PMN increased the effect of fMLP on CD11b expression. TPO did not modify either basal levels of CD11b or the increased expression induced by G-CSF or fMLP. Incubation of PMN with both cytokines showed no differences compared to G-CSF alone. Platelet-PMN aggregates induced by thrombin in whole blood were augmented by TPO. G-CSF alone neither synergized with thrombin nor changed the results observed with TPO. These data show that in vitro functional responses of platelets, or PMN induced by TPO or G-CSF alone, were neither further increased nor inhibited by treatment of the cells with both cytokines.

  8. Elevated levels of macrophage colony-stimulating factor in human fracture healing.

    PubMed

    Sarahrudi, Kambiz; Mousavi, Mehdi; Thomas, Anita; Eipeldauer, Stefan; Vécsei, Vilmos; Pietschmann, Peter; Aharinejad, Seyedhossein

    2010-05-01

    Macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF) plays a unique role in bone remodeling. However, to our knowledge, no data on the role of M-CSF in fracture healing in humans have been published so far. This study addressed this issue. One hundred and thirteen patients with long-bone fractures were included in the study and divided into two groups, according to their course of fracture healing. The first group contained 103 patients with normal fracture healing. Ten patients with impaired fracture healing formed the second group of the study. Volunteers donated blood samples as control. Serum samples were collected over a period of 6 months, following a standardized time schedule. In addition, M-CSF levels were measured in fracture hematoma and serum of 11 patients with bone fractures. M-CSF concentrations were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Fracture hematoma contained significantly higher M-CSF concentrations compared to M-CSF concentrations in patient's serum. M-CSF levels in fracture hematoma and in patient's serum were both significantly higher than M-CSF concentrations measured in serum of healthy controls. Highly elevated M-CSF serum concentrations were found in patients with physiological fracture healing over the entire observation period. Significant differences in the M-CSF serum concentration between patients with normal fracture healing and patients with impaired fracture healing were not observed. This study indicates, for the first time, to our knowledge, a possible local and systemic involvement of M-CSF in humans during fracture healing.

  9. Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor in repeated IVF failure, a randomized trial.

    PubMed

    Aleyasin, Ashraf; Abediasl, Zhila; Nazari, Atefeh; Sheikh, Mahdi

    2016-06-01

    Recent studies have revealed key roles for granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (GCSF) in embryo implantation process and maintenance of pregnancy, and some studies showed promising results by using local intrauterine infusion of GCSF in patients undergoing in vitro fertilization (IVF). This multicenter, randomized, controlled trial included 112 infertile women with repeated IVF failure to evaluate the efficacy of systemic single-dose subcutaneous GCSF administration on IVF success in these women. In this study, the Long Protocol of ovarian stimulation was used for all participants. Sealed, numbered envelopes assigned 56 patients to receive subcutaneous 300 µg GCSF before implantation and 56 in the control group. The implantation (number of gestational sacs on the total number of transferred embryos), chemical pregnancy (positive serum β-HCG), and clinical pregnancy (gestational sac and fetal heart) rates were compared between the two groups. This trial is registered at www.irct.ir (IRCT201503119568N11). The successful implantation (18% vs 7.2%, P=0.007), chemical pregnancy (44.6% vs 19.6%, P=0.005), and clinical pregnancy (37.5% vs 14.3%, P=0.005) rates were significantly higher in the intervention group than in the control group. After adjustment for participants' age, endometrial thickness, good-quality oocyte counts, number of transferred embryos, and anti-Mullerian hormone levels, GCSF treatment remained significantly associated with successful implantation (OR=2.63, 95% CI=1.09-6.96), having chemical pregnancy (OR= 2.74, 95% CI=1.11-7.38) and clinical pregnancy (OR=2.94, 95% CI=1.23-8.33). In conclusion, administration of single-dose systemic subcutaneous GCSF before implantation significantly increases the IVF success, implantation, and pregnancy rates in infertile women with repeated IVF failure.

  10. Macrophage colony-stimulating factor mRNA and protein in atherosclerotic lesions of rabbits and humans.

    PubMed Central

    Rosenfeld, M. E.; Ylä-Herttuala, S.; Lipton, B. A.; Ord, V. A.; Witztum, J. L.; Steinberg, D.

    1992-01-01

    In this study, the authors demonstrate the expression of mRNA and the presence of protein for macrophage colony-stimulating factor (MCSF) in atherosclerotic lesions from humans and rabbits. In situ hybridization of serial sections of human fatty streaks demonstrated expression of MCSF mRNA by cells dispersed throughout the lesions. Immunocytochemical staining with a panel of MCSF-specific antibodies showed extensive cell-associated staining of all of the cell types in the lesions. Immunocytochemical studies of atherosclerotic lesions from Watanabe heritable hyperlipidemic (WHHL) and cholesterol-fed rabbits demonstrated a similar cell-associated pattern of staining. There was no MCSF-specific staining of aortas from normal rabbits or of cultured aortic smooth muscle cells from either humans or rabbits. Macrophage-derived foam cells (MFC) were isolated from the aortas of ballooned, cholesterol-fed rabbits. A Northern blot demonstrated that RNA isolated from the MFC hybridized with a human cDNA probe for MCSF. RNA from alveolar macrophages isolated simultaneously from the same rabbits did not hybridize with the MCSF probe. Conditioned media from an 18- to 24-hour incubation of the MFC contained colony-stimulating activity as demonstrated in a mouse bone marrow culture assay. Most of this colony-stimulating activity was neutralized by preincubating the conditioned media with an MCSF-specific antibody. Images Figure 2 Figure 1 Figure 1 Figure 3 PMID:1739123

  11. Granulocyte Colony-stimulating Factor Producing Anaplastic Carcinoma of the Pancreas: Case Report and Review of the Literature.

    PubMed

    Vinzens, Sarah; Zindel, Joel; Zweifel, Martin; Rau, Tilman; Gloor, Beat; Wochner, Annette

    2017-01-01

    We report on the case of a 67-year-old man with granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) producing anaplastic carcinoma of the pancreas. Preoperative routine tests revealed an elevated white blood cell (WBC) count of 25.2 G/l, consisting almost exclusively of neutrophilic granulocytes (23.31 G/l) with a predominance of segmented neutrophils (78% of all neutrophilic granulocytes), and elevated levels of C-reactive protein at 87 mg/l. Upon surgery, local tumour infiltration was more extensive than expected from preoperative imaging. However, no peritoneal dissemination was found and curative resection was attempted. Only seven days after the operation, signs of relapse were seen upon computed tomograpy. Histology revealed an undifferentiated anaplastic carcinoma, on the basis of a poorly differentiated ductal adenocarcinoma. Immunohistochemistry demonstrated G-CSF and G-CSF-Receptor expression in some CD68-positive syncytial macrophages. Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) in serum was elevated at 5.6 pg/ml, which further raised to 43 pg/ml one week after FOLFIRINOX chemotherapy (oxaliplatin, irinotecan, 5-fluorouracil), while WBC decreased from 103.3 G/l to 59.3 G/l. Granulocyte macrophage-colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) in serum was normal (<0.5 pg/ml). The patient died on postoperative day 34.

  12. New Insight into Atherosclerosis in Hemodialysis Patients: Overexpression of Scavenger Receptor and Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor Genes

    PubMed Central

    Nishida, Miki; Ando, Minoru; Iwamoto, Yusuke; Tsuchiya, Ken; Nitta, Kosaku

    2016-01-01

    Background Scavenger receptors (SRs) play a pivotal role in atherogenesis. The mechanism of atherosclerosis, which is specific to hemodialysis (HD) patients, was studied on the basis of SR gene expressions. Methods The gene expressions of SR type A (SR-A) and CD36 were studied in peripheral monocytes by real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. Data were compared between HD (n = 30) and age-matched control subjects (n = 10). Serum levels of macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF) were measured with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to test its role in SR expression. The statistical differences and associations between two continuous variables were assessed using the Mann-Whitney U test and Pearson's correlation coefficient, respectively. Results The relative quantities of SR mRNAs were significantly greater in HD patients than in controls [median (interquartile range): SR-A, 1.67 (0.96-2.76) vs. 0.90 (0.60-1.04), p = 0.0060; CD36, 1.09 (0.88-1.74) vs. 0.74 (0.64-0.99), p = 0.0255]. The serum concentration of M-CSF was significantly higher in HD patients than in controls [1, 121 (999-1,342) vs. 176 (155-202) pg/ml, p < 0.0001]. In addition, the relative quantity of M-CSF mRNA was significantly greater in HD patients than in controls [0.79 (0.42-1.53) vs. 0.42 (0.28-0.66), p = 0.0392]. The serum M-CSF levels were positively correlated with both the relative quantity of SR-A mRNA (r2 = 0.1681, p = 0.0086) and that of CD36 mRNA (r2 = 0.1202, p = 0.0284) in all subjects (n = 40). Conclusion HD patients are predisposed to atherosclerosis as a consequence of their enhanced monocyte SR expressions. SRs and M-CSF are potential therapeutic targets for atherosclerosis in this high-risk population. PMID:27721822

  13. The effects of granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor on tumour-infiltrating lymphocytes from renal cell carcinoma.

    PubMed Central

    Steger, G. G.; Kaboo, R.; deKernion, J. B.; Figlin, R.; Belldegrun, A.

    1995-01-01

    It has been shown that granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) can induce specific and non-specific anti-tumour cytotoxicity and also stimulates the proliferation and function of peripheral lymphocytes and thymocytes. GM-CSF and interleukin 2 (IL-2) act synergistically on peripheral lymphocytes for the induction of a highly effective cytotoxic cell population. Thus, the goal of our investigation was to study the effects of GM-CSF upon expansion, proliferation and in vitro killing activity of tumour-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) from renal cell carcinoma (RCC). TILs from seven consecutive tumours were cultured with GM-CSF (500 or 1000 nmol ml-1) without IL-2 supplementation, with suboptimal doses of IL-2 (8 and 40 U ml-1) plus GM-CSF (1000 nmol ml-1), and with a dose of IL-2 (400 U ml-1) which sufficed alone to induce TIL development plus GM-CSF (500 or 1000 nmol ml-1). GM-CSF alone or together with suboptimal doses of IL-2 was not able to induce or facilitate TIL development in these cultures. When GM-CSF at both concentrations studied was added to optimal doses of IL-2 the resulting TIL populations proliferated significantly better and faster (+66%), resulting in a higher cell yield (+24%) at the time of maximal expansion of the TIL cultures. The length of the culture periods of TILs was not affected by GM-CSF when compared with the control cultures supplemented with IL-2 alone. In vitro killing activity of TIL populations stimulated with IL-2 and GM-CSF remained unspecific, but lysis of the autologous tumour targets as well as the allogeneic renal tumour targets was significantly enhanced (+138%) as compared with the corresponding control TILs stimulated with IL-2 alone. Lysis of the natural killer (NK)-sensitive control cell line K562 and the NK-resistant Daudi cell line remained unchanged even though FACS analysis of TILs cultured with IL-2 and 1000 nmol of GM-CSF demonstrated a significantly higher proportion of cells expressing the CD56

  14. Expression and function of the human granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor receptor alpha subunit.

    PubMed

    Jubinsky, P T; Laurie, A S; Nathan, D G; Yetz-Aldepe, J; Sieff, C A

    1994-12-15

    To determine the expression and function of the granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) receptor alpha chain (GMR alpha) during hematopoiesis and on leukemic cells, monoclonal antibodies were raised by immunizing mice with cells expressing high levels of human GMR alpha. A pool of five antibodies isolated from three different mice was used to characterize GMR alpha. This antibody pool (anti-GMR alpha) immunoprecipitated a protein with the expected molecular weight of GMR alpha from COS cells transiently transfected with the GMR alpha gene. In factor-dependent cells, GMR alpha existed as a phosphoprotein. However, its phosphorylation was not stimulated by the presence of GM-CSF. Anti-GMR alpha inhibited the GM-CSF-dependent growth of cell lines and normal bone marrow cells and inhibited the binding of iodinated GM-CSF to its receptor. Cell surface expression of GMR alpha was examined using anti-GMR alpha and flow cytometry. GMR alpha was readily detectable on both blood monocytes and neutrophils. In adherence-depleted normal bone marrow, two separate populations expressed GMR alpha. The most positive cells were predominantly macrophages, whereas the cells that expressed less GMR alpha were largely myelocytes and metamyelocytes. A small population of lin-CD34+ or CD34+CD38- cells also expressed GMR alpha, but they were not capable of significant growth in colony-forming assays. In contrast, the majority of lin-CD34+ and CD34+CD38- cells were GMR alpha-, yet they produced large numbers of myeloid and erythroid colonies in the same assay. Malignant cells from patients with leukemia were also tested for GMR alpha expression. All of the myeloid leukemias and only rare lymphoid leukemias surveyed tested positive for GMR alpha. These results show that anti-GMR alpha is useful for the functional characterization of the GMR alpha and for the detection of myeloid leukemia and that GMR alpha is expressed on certain lineages throughout hematopoietic

  15. Synergistic action of the benzene metabolite hydroquinone on myelopoietic stimulating activity of granulocyte/macrophage colony-stimulating factor in vitro

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Irons, R. D.; Stillman, W. S.; Colagiovanni, D. B.; Henry, V. A.; Clarkson, T. W. (Principal Investigator)

    1992-01-01

    The effects of in vitro pretreatment with benzene metabolites on colony-forming response of murine bone marrow cells stimulated with recombinant granulocyte/macrophage colony-stimulating factor (rGM-CSF) were examined. Pretreatment with hydroquinone (HQ) at concentrations ranging from picomolar to micromolar for 30 min resulted in a 1.5- to 4.6-fold enhancement in colonies formed in response to rGM-CSF that was due to an increase in granulocyte/macrophage colonies. The synergism equaled or exceeded that reported for the effects of interleukin 1, interleukin 3, or interleukin 6 with GM-CSF. Optimal enhancement was obtained with 1 microM HQ and was largely independent of the concentration of rGM-CSF. Pretreatment with other authentic benzene metabolites, phenol and catechol, and the putative metabolite trans, trans-muconaldehyde did not enhance growth factor response. Coadministration of phenol and HQ did not enhance the maximal rGM-CSF response obtained with HQ alone but shifted the optimal concentration to 100 pM. Synergism between HQ and rGM-CSF was observed with nonadherent bone marrow cells and lineage-depleted bone marrow cells, suggesting an intrinsic effect on recruitment of myeloid progenitor cells not normally responsive to rGM-CSF. Alterations in differentiation in a myeloid progenitor cell population may be of relevance in the pathogenesis of acute myelogenous leukemia secondary to drug or chemical exposure.

  16. Production and secretion of biologically active human granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor in transgenic tomato suspension cultures.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Tae-Ho; Kim, Young-Sook; Lee, Jae-Hwa; Yang, Moon-Sik

    2003-09-01

    A complementary DNA encoding human granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (hGM-CSF) was cloned and introduced into tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum cv. Seokwang) using Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Genomic PCR and Northern blot analysis demonstrated the integration of the construction into the plant nuclear genome and expression of the hGM-CSF in transgenic tomato. The cell suspension culture was established from leaf-derived calli of the transgenic tomato plants transformed with the hGM-CSF gene. Recombinant hGM-CSF was synthesized by the transgenic cell culture and secreted into the growth medium at 45 microg l(-1) after 10 d' cultivation.

  17. Defective Self-Renewal and Differentiation of GBA-Deficient Neural Stem Cells Can Be Restored By Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hyun; Bae, Jae-sung; Jin, Hee Kyung

    2015-01-01

    Gaucher disease (GD) is an autosomal recessive lysosomal storage disorder caused by mutations in the glucocerebrosidase gene (GBA), which encodes the lysosomal enzyme glucosylceramidase (GCase). Deficiency in GCase leads to characteristic visceral pathology and lethal neurological manifestations in some patients. Investigations into neurogenesis have suggested that neurodegenerative disorders, such as GD, could be overcome or at least ameliorated by the generation of new neurons. Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs) are potential candidates for use in the treatment of neurodegenerative disorders because of their ability to promote neurogenesis. Our objective was to examine the mechanism of neurogenesis by BM-MSCs in GD. We found that neural stem cells (NSCs) derived from a neuronopathic GD model exhibited decreased ability for self-renewal and neuronal differentiation. Co-culture of GBA-deficient NSCs with BM-MSCs resulted in an enhanced capacity for self-renewal, and an increased ability for differentiation into neurons or oligodendrocytes. Enhanced proliferation and neuronal differentiation of GBA-deficient NSCs was associated with elevated release of macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF) from BM-MSCs. Our findings suggest that soluble M-CSF derived from BM-MSCs can modulate GBA-deficient NSCs, resulting in their improved proliferation and neuronal differentiation. PMID:26282862

  18. The efficiency of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor in hemorrhagic mucositis and febrile neutropenia resulted from methotrexate toxicity.

    PubMed

    Ozkol, Hatice Uce; Toptas, Tayfur; Calka, Omer; Akdeniz, Necmettin

    2015-01-01

    Methotrexate (MTX) remains one of the most frequently used anti-metabolite agents in dermatology. MTX is an analog of folate that competitively and irreversibly inhibits dihydrofolate reductase. Oral mucositis is a common side effect of chemotherapy drugs and is characterized by erythema, pain, poor oral intake, pseudomembranous destruction, open ulceration and hemorrhage of the oral mucosa. In this paper, we report a 32-year-old female with a case of mucositis due to MTX intoxication that resulted from an overdose for rheumatoid arthritis. The patient had abdominal pain, vomiting, and nausea. During follow-up, the patient's white blood cell count was found to be 0.9 × 10(9)/L (4-10 × 10(9)/L). The patient developed fever exceeding 40 °C. The patient was consulted to the hematology service. They suggested using granulocyte colony-stimulating factor for febrile neutropenia. On the fifth day of treatment, the white blood cell count reached 5.3 × 10(9)/L and the patient's fever and mucositis started to resolve. Here, we presented a case of hemorrhagic mucositis and febrile neutropenia resulted from high-dose MTX that responded very well to granulocyte colony-stimulating factor treatment and we reviewed the literature.

  19. Granulocyte-Colony Stimulating Factor Increases Cerebral Blood Flow via a NO Surge Mediated by Akt/eNOS Pathway to Reduce Ischemic Injury

    PubMed Central

    Liew, Hock-Kean; Kuo, Jon-Son; Wang, Jia-Yi; Pang, Cheng-Yoong

    2015-01-01

    Granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) protects brain from ischemic/reperfusion (I/R) injury, and inhibition of nitric oxide (NO) synthases partially reduces G-CSF protection. We thus further investigated the effects of G-CSF on ischemia-induced NO production and its consequence on regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) and neurological deficit. Endothelin-1 (ET-1) microinfused above middle cerebral artery caused a rapid reduction of rCBF (ischemia) which lasted for 30 minutes and was followed by a gradual recovery of blood flow (reperfusion) within the striatal region. Regional NO concentration increased rapidly (NO surge) during ischemia and recovered soon to the baseline. G-CSF increased rCBF resulting in shorter ischemic duration and an earlier onset of reperfusion. The enhancement of the ischemia-induced NO by G-CSF accompanied by elevation of phospho-Akt and phospho-eNOS was noted, suggesting an activation of Akt/eNOS. I/R-induced infarct volume and neurological deficits were also reduced by G-CSF treatment. Inhibition of NO synthesis by L-NG-Nitroarginine Methyl Ester (L-NAME) significantly reduced the effects of G-CSF on rCBF, NO surge, infarct volume, and neurological deficits. We conclude that G-CSF increases rCBF through a NO surge mediated by Akt/eNOS, which partially contributes to the beneficial effect of G-CSF on brain I/R injury. PMID:26146654

  20. Granulocyte-Colony Stimulating Factor Increases Cerebral Blood Flow via a NO Surge Mediated by Akt/eNOS Pathway to Reduce Ischemic Injury.

    PubMed

    Liew, Hock-Kean; Kuo, Jon-Son; Wang, Jia-Yi; Pang, Cheng-Yoong

    2015-01-01

    Granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) protects brain from ischemic/reperfusion (I/R) injury, and inhibition of nitric oxide (NO) synthases partially reduces G-CSF protection. We thus further investigated the effects of G-CSF on ischemia-induced NO production and its consequence on regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) and neurological deficit. Endothelin-1 (ET-1) microinfused above middle cerebral artery caused a rapid reduction of rCBF (ischemia) which lasted for 30 minutes and was followed by a gradual recovery of blood flow (reperfusion) within the striatal region. Regional NO concentration increased rapidly (NO surge) during ischemia and recovered soon to the baseline. G-CSF increased rCBF resulting in shorter ischemic duration and an earlier onset of reperfusion. The enhancement of the ischemia-induced NO by G-CSF accompanied by elevation of phospho-Akt and phospho-eNOS was noted, suggesting an activation of Akt/eNOS. I/R-induced infarct volume and neurological deficits were also reduced by G-CSF treatment. Inhibition of NO synthesis by L-N(G)-Nitroarginine Methyl Ester (L-NAME) significantly reduced the effects of G-CSF on rCBF, NO surge, infarct volume, and neurological deficits. We conclude that G-CSF increases rCBF through a NO surge mediated by Akt/eNOS, which partially contributes to the beneficial effect of G-CSF on brain I/R injury.

  1. Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF): A saturated fatty acid-induced myokine with insulin-desensitizing properties in humans

    PubMed Central

    Ordelheide, Anna-Maria; Gommer, Nadja; Böhm, Anja; Hermann, Carina; Thielker, Inga; Machicao, Fausto; Fritsche, Andreas; Stefan, Norbert; Häring, Hans-Ulrich; Staiger, Harald

    2016-01-01

    Objective Circulating long-chain free fatty acids (FFAs) are important metabolic signals that acutely enhance fatty acid oxidation, thermogenesis, energy expenditure, and insulin secretion. However, if chronically elevated, they provoke inflammation, insulin resistance, and β-cell failure. Moreover, FFAs act via multiple signaling pathways as very potent regulators of gene expression. In human skeletal muscle cells differentiated in vitro (myotubes), we have shown in previous studies that the expression of CSF3, the gene encoding granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF), is markedly induced upon FFA treatment and exercise. Methods and results We now report that CSF3 is induced in human myotubes by saturated, but not unsaturated, FFAs via Toll-like receptor 4-dependent and -independent pathways including activation of Rel-A, AP-1, C/EBPα, Src, and stress kinases. Furthermore, we show that human adipocytes and myotubes treated with G-CSF become insulin-resistant. In line with this, a functional polymorphism in the CSF3 gene affects adipose tissue- and whole-body insulin sensitivity and glucose tolerance in human subjects with elevated plasma FFA concentrations. Conclusion G-CSF emerges as a new player in FFA-induced insulin resistance and thus may be of interest as a target for prevention and treatment of type 2 diabetes. PMID:27069870

  2. Drugs elevating extracellular adenosine promote regeneration of haematopoietic progenitor cells in severely myelosuppressed mice: their comparison and joint effects with the granulocyte colony-stimulating factor.

    PubMed

    Hofer, Michal; Pospísil, Milan; Znojil, Vladimír; Vacek, Antonín; Weiterova, Lenka; Holá, Jirina; Vácha, Jirí

    2002-01-01

    We tested capabilities of drugs elevating extracellular adenosine and of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) given alone or in combination to modulate regeneration from severe myelosuppression resulting from combined exposure of mice to ionizing radiation and carboplatin. Elevation of extracellular adenosine was induced by joint administration of dipyridamole (DP), a drug inhibiting the cellular uptake of adenosine, and adenosine monophosphate (AMP), serving as an adenosine prodrug. DP+AMP, G-CSF or all these drugs in combination were administered in a 4-d treatment regimen starting on day 3 after induction of myelosuppression. Comparable enhancements of haematopoietic regeneration due to elevation of extracellular adenosine or to action of G-CSF were demonstrated as shown by elevated numbers of haematopoietic progenitor cells for granulocytes/macrophages (GM-CFC) and erythrocytes (BFU-E) in the bone marrow and spleen in early time intervals after termination of the drug treatment, i.e. on days 7 and 10 after induction of myelosuppression. Coadministration of all the drugs further potentiated the restoration of progenitor cell pools in the haematopoietic organs. The effects of the drug treatments on progenitor cells were reflected in the peripheral blood in later time intervals of days 15 and 20 after induction of myelosuppression, especially as significantly elevated numbers of granulocytes and less pronounced elevation of lymphocytes and erythrocytes. The results substantiate the potential of drugs elevating extracellular adenosine for clinical utilization in myelosuppressive states, e.g. those accompanying oncological radio- and chemotherapy.

  3. High pH solubilization and chromatography-based renaturation and purification of recombinant human granulocyte colony-stimulating factor from inclusion bodies.

    PubMed

    Li, Ming; Fan, Hua; Liu, Jiahua; Wang, Minhong; Wang, Lili; Wang, Chaozhan

    2012-03-01

    Recombinant human granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (rhG-CSF) is a very efficient therapeutic protein drug which has been widely used in human clinics to treat cancer patients suffering from chemotherapy-induced neutropenia. In this study, rhG-CSF was solubilized from inclusion bodies by using a high-pH solution containing low concentration of urea. It was found that solubilization of the rhG-CSF inclusion bodies greatly depended on the buffer pH employed; alkalic pH significantly favored the solubilization. In addition, when small amount of urea was added to the solution at high pH, the solubilization was further enhanced. After solubilization, the rhG-CSF was renatured with simultaneous purification by using weak anion exchange, strong anion exchange, and hydrophobic interaction chromatography, separately. The results indicated that the rhG-CSF solubilized by the high-pH solution containing low concentration of urea had much higher mass recovery than the one solubilized by 8 M urea when using anyone of the three refolding methods employed in this work. In the case of weak anion exchange chromatography, the high pH solubilized rhG-CSF could get a mass recovery of 73%. The strategy of combining solubilization of inclusion bodies at high pH with refolding of protein using liquid chromatography may become a routine method for protein production from inclusion bodies.

  4. Administration of granulocyte colony stimulating factor after liver transplantation leads to an increased incidence and severity of ischemic biliary lesions in the rat model

    PubMed Central

    Dirsch, Olaf; Chi, Haidong; Ji, Yuan; Gu, Yan Li; Broelsch, Christoph E; Dahmen, Uta

    2006-01-01

    AIM: Recently it has been reported that granulocyte colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) can induce hypercoagulability in healthy bone marrow donors. It is conceivable that the induction of a prothrombotic state in a recipient of an organ graft with already impaired perfusion might cause further deterioration in the transplanted organ. This study evaluated whether G-CSF treatment worsens liver perfusion following liver transplantation in the rat model. METHODS: A non-arterialized rat liver transplantation model was employed to evaluate the effect of G-CSF treatment on the liver in a syngeneic and allogeneic strain combination. Study outcomes included survival time and liver damage as investigated by liver enzymes and liver histology. Observation times were 1 d, 1 wk and 12 wk. RESULTS: Rats treated with G-CSF had increased incidence and severity of biliary damage following liver transplantation. In these animals, hepatocellular necrosis was accentuated in the centrilobular region. These lesions are indicative of impaired perfusion in G-CSF treated animals. CONCLUSION: G-CSF should be used with caution in recipients of liver transplantation, as treatment might enhance preexisting, undetected perfusion problems and ultimately lead to ischemia induced biliary complications. PMID:16937499

  5. Granulocyte-Colony-Stimulating Factor Stimulation of Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stromal Cells Promotes CD34+ Cell Migration Via a Matrix Metalloproteinase-2-Dependent Mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Ponte, Adriana López; Ribeiro-Fleury, Tatiana; Chabot, Valérie; Gouilleux, Fabrice; Langonné, Alain; Hérault, Olivier; Charbord, Pierre

    2012-01-01

    Human hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells (HSPCs) can be mobilized into the circulation using granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF), for graft collection in view of hematopoietic transplantation. This process has been related to bone marrow (BM) release of serine proteases and of the matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9). Yet, the role of these mediators in HSC egress from their niches remains questionable, because they are produced by nonstromal cells (mainly neutrophils and monocytes/macrophages) that are not a part of the niche. We show here that the G-CSF receptor (G-CSFR) is expressed by human BM mesenchymal stromal/stem cells (MSCs), and that G-CSF prestimulation of MSCs enhances the in vitro trans-stromal migration of CD34+ cells. Zymography analysis indicates that pro-MMP-2 (but not pro-MMP-9) is expressed in MSCs, and that G-CSF treatment increases its expression and induces its activation at the cell membrane. We further demonstrate that G-CSF-stimulated migration depends on G-CSFR expression and is mediated by a mechanism that involves MMPs. These results suggest a molecular model whereby G-CSF infusion may drive, by the direct action on MSCs, HSPC egress from BM niches via synthesis and activation of MMPs. In this model, MMP-2 instead of MMP-9 is implicated, which constitutes a major difference with mouse mobilization models. PMID:22651889

  6. An early granulocyte colony-stimulating factor treatment attenuates neuropathic pain through activation of mu opioid receptors on the injured nerve

    PubMed Central

    Liao, Ming-Feng; Yeh, Shin-Rung; Lo, Ai-Lun; Chao, Po-Kuan; Lee, Yun-Lin; Hung, Yu-Hui; Lu, Kwok-Tung; Ro, Long-Sun

    2016-01-01

    Several studies have shown that the mu opioid receptor (MOR) located in the peripheral nerves can be activated after nerve injury and that it attenuates peripheral nociceptive signals to the spinal dorsal horn. Various cytokines and phosphorylated-p38 (p-p38) activation in the dorsal horn also play an important role in neuropathic pain development. Granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (GCSF) is a growth factor that can stimulate granulocyte formation and has been shown to exert an analgesic effect on neuropathic pain through recruiting opioid-containing leukocytes to the injured nerve. However, the underlying mechanisms are not well understood. Herein, the results of behavior tests in addition to MOR levels in the injured sciatic nerve and the levels of p-p38 and various cytokines in the spinal dorsal horn were studied in vehicle-treated or GCSF-treated chronic constriction injured (CCI) rats at different time points (i.e., 1, 3, and 7 days, respectively) after nerve injury. The results showed that a single early systemic GCSF treatment after nerve injury can up-regulate MORs in the injured nerve, which can decrease peripheral nociceptive signals. Thereafter, those changes suppress the pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-6 but enhance the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-4, followed by decreases in p-p38 in the dorsal horn, and thus further attenuate neuropathic pain. PMID:27180600

  7. Weekly CODE chemotherapy with recombinant human granulocyte colony-stimulating factor for relapsed or refractory small cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Sato, K; Tsuchiya, S; Minato, K; Sunaga, N; Ishihara, S I; Makimoto, T; Naruse, I; Hoshino, H; Watanabe, S; Saitoh, R; Mori, M

    2000-01-01

    We used cisplatin, vincristine, doxorubicin, and etoposide (CODE) plus recombinant human granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (rhG-CSF) weekly for salvage chemotherapy in relapsed or refractory small cell lung cancer (SCLC). We reviewed the medical charts of patients between January 1993 and December 1996 at the National Nishi-Gunma Hospital. Twenty patients were treated with salvage chemotherapy. The overall response rate was 55.0%. The median survival time of extensive disease patients from the start of CODE therapy was 23 weeks and the 1-year survival rate was 21.0%. Toxicities were severe, especially in myelosuppression. CODE could be selected as a salvage therapy for chemotherapy- relapsed SCLC cases.

  8. Fludarabine, cyclophosphamide and rituximab plus granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor as frontline treatment for patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Strati, Paolo; Ferrajoli, Alessandra; Lerner, Susan; O'Brien, Susan; Wierda, William; Keating, Michael J; Faderl, Stefan

    2014-04-01

    Fludarabine, cyclophosphamide and rituximab (FCR), the standard of care for the frontline treatment of patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), is associated with a high rate of neutropenia and infectious complications. Granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) reduces myelosuppression and can potentiate rituximab activity. We conducted a clinical trial combining GM-CSF with FCR for frontline treatment of 60 patients with CLL. Eighty-six percent completed all six courses and 18% discontinued GM-CSF for toxicity: grade 3-4 neutropenia was observed in 30% of cycles, and severe infections in 16% of cases. The overall response rate was 100%. Both median event-free survival (EFS) and overall survival (OS) have not been reached. Longer EFS was associated with favorable cytogenetics. GM-CSF led to a lower frequency of infectious complications than in the historical FCR group, albeit similar EFS and OS.

  9. Successful mobilization of peripheral blood stem cells in children with cancer using plerixafor (Mozobil) and granulocyte-colony stimulating factor.

    PubMed

    Avramova, Boryana E; Yordanova, Maya N; Konstantinov, Dobrin N; Bobev, Dragan G

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes the successful mobilization of peripheral blood stem cells for autologous transplantation in three children with malignant diseases by using plerixafor (Mozobil; Genzyme Corporation, Cambridge, MA) and granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) after failed previous mobilizations. A median sixfold increase in the number of circulating CD34+ cells after plerixafor treatment as compared with the baseline level was observed. An optimal CD34+ cell count for transplantation with one or two leukapheresis sessions was achieved. Mobilization using plerixafor was found to be safe with no adverse events. Therefore, the combination of G-CSF and plerixafor in children results in effective increases in peripheral CD34+ cell counts and reduces the risk of mobilization failure.

  10. Successful mobilization of peripheral blood stem cells in children with cancer using plerixafor (Mozobil™) and granulocyte-colony stimulating factor

    PubMed Central

    Avramova, Boryana E; Yordanova, Maya N; Konstantinov, Dobrin N; Bobev, Dragan G

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes the successful mobilization of peripheral blood stem cells for autologous transplantation in three children with malignant diseases by using plerixafor (Mozobil™; Genzyme Corporation, Cambridge, MA) and granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) after failed previous mobilizations. A median sixfold increase in the number of circulating CD34+ cells after plerixafor treatment as compared with the baseline level was observed. An optimal CD34+ cell count for transplantation with one or two leukapheresis sessions was achieved. Mobilization using plerixafor was found to be safe with no adverse events. Therefore, the combination of G-CSF and plerixafor in children results in effective increases in peripheral CD34+ cell counts and reduces the risk of mobilization failure. PMID:21966213

  11. Construction of recombinant Escherichia coli strains for secretory expression of artificial genes for human granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor

    SciTech Connect

    Petrovskaya, L.E.; Ruzin, A.V.; Shingarova, L.N.; Korobko, V.G.

    1995-11-01

    A number of recombinant plasmids for expression of artificial genes encoding human granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) were constructed. A hybrid gene was obtained that contains a sequence encoding the leader peptide and a tandem of two IgG-binding domains of protein A from Staphylococcus aureus coupled, through an enteropepdidase linker, to a synthetic gmcsf gene. The construction enables Escherichia coli to carry out biosynthesis of the hybrid protein and its subsequent transport into the periplasmic space of bacteria. Another hybrid gene, combining sequences for the signal peptide of the E. coli outer membrane protein OmpA and GM-CSF, was obtained using polymerase chain reaction. The localization of the mature protein produced by the hybrid gene was found to depend on the strength of the promoter used. 39 refs., 6 figs.

  12. Effect of Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor Immobilized by the Electron-Beam Synthesis Nanotechnology on Reparative Regeneration of Spermatogenous Tissue.

    PubMed

    Borovskaya, T G; Dygai, A M; Shchemerova, Yu A; Kamalova, S I; Mashanova, V A; Vychuzhanina, A V; Poluektova, M E; Madonov, P G; Kinsht, D N; Goldberg, V E

    2016-09-01

    Effectiveness of the granulocyte colony-stimulating factor immobilized by using electronbeam synthesis nanotechnology was investigated on the model of experimental testicular failure caused by the toxic effect on stem spermatogonia. Administration of the drug to experimental paclitaxel-treated animals increased the number of sources of the proliferative pool of spermatogenesis and its productivity. The effectiveness of immobilized granulocyte colony-stimulating factor was based on its ability to stimulate reparative regeneration of the spermatogenic tissue, which manifested in a decrease in spermatogenic layer maturity and increase in the number of microenvironment cells. Effectiveness of the immobilized form of the drug was superior to that of non-immobilized form.

  13. Identification and characterization of receptors for granulocyte colony-stimulating factor on human placenta and trophoblastic cells

    SciTech Connect

    Uzumaki, Hiroya; Okabe, Tetsuro; Sasaki, Norio; Hagiwara, Koichi; Takaku, Fumimaro; Tobita, Masahito; Yasukawa, Kaoru ); Ito, Seiga ); Umezawa, Yoshimi )

    1989-12-01

    Since radioiodination of human granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) is difficult, the authors synthesized a mutein of human G-CSF that retains full biological activity and receptor-binding capacity for at least 2 weeks after radioiodination. Receptors for human G-CSF were characterized in the plasma membrane fraction from the human term placenta (human placental membranes) and trophoblastic cells by using the {sup 125}I-labeled mutein of human G-CSF (KW-2228). The specific binding of {sup 125}I-labeled KW-2228 to placental membranes was pH-dependent, with maximal specific binding at pH 7.8; it increased linearly with protein to 3.7 mg of protein per ml and was both time- and temperature-dependent, with maximal binding at 4{degree}C after a 24-hr incubation. When the authors examined the ability of hematopoietic growth factors to inhibit {sup 125}I-labeled KW-2228 binding, they found that KW-2228 and intact human G-CSF ihibited {sup 125}I-labeled KW-2228 binding, whereas erythropoietin or granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor did not. Scatchard analysis revealed a single receptor type. The human G-CSF receptors on human placental membranes were shown to consist of two molecular species that could be specifically cross-linked to {sup 125}I-labeled KW-2228. Human trophoblastic cells, T3M-3, also possessed a single receptor for G-CSF. They have identified the receptor for human G-CSF on human placental membranes and trophoblastic cells.

  14. Induction of granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating activity in mouse skin by inflammatory agents and tumor promoters.

    PubMed Central

    Koury, M J; Balmain, A; Pragnell, I B

    1983-01-01

    The granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating activity (GM-CSA) was assayed in acetic acid extracts of skin from mice which were topically treated with inflammatory and tumor-promoting diterpene esters. Extremely large increases in GM-CSA were found in skin treated with the strongly tumor-promoting 12-O-tetradecanoyl-phorbol-13-acetate (TPA) and the weakly promoting mezerein, while only a very slight increase was found with the non-promoting 4-O-methyl-TPA (4-OMe-TPA). Untreated areas of skin had very little GM-CSA. In the treated skins, the elevated GM-CSA was noted within a few hours and lasted for greater than 24 h after treatment. Although the levels of GM-CSA induced in the skin correspond to the degree of inflammation elicited by the respective treatments, the leukocytes in the acute inflammatory infiltrate did not appear to be responsible for the increased GM-CSA. Both epidermis and dermis had increased GM-CSA following TPA treatment of skin. Treatment of fibroblast and epithelial continuous cell lines with diterpene esters resulted in a similar pattern of GM-CSA induction in their supernatant media as that noted in the skin extracts. A large majority of the colonies stimulated by the diterpene-ester induced GM-CSA were composed of only macrophages. The results demonstrate that the topical administration of an inflammatory diterpene ester results in a rapid, marked yet local GM-CSA induction in the skin of treated mice. This indirect action in which diterpene esters induce in certain cells a growth regulatory factor for other types of cells may be an important element in carcinogenesis. Images Fig. 2. PMID:6605850

  15. Chronic recurrent multifocal osteomyelitis with Crohn's disease exacerbation and vasculitis after granulocyte colony-stimulating factor therapy.

    PubMed

    Manners, P; Robbins, P

    2000-10-01

    Chronic recurrent multifocal osteomyelitis (CRMO), of unknown etiology, is characterized by recurring non-suppurative lesions of bone in multiple sites, and has been considered to be self-limiting. Reported therapies include prolonged antibiotics, corticosteroids and anti-inflammatory medications. This case is presented to illustrate the following: 1) CRMO may be severe, on-going, and unresponsive to treatment; 2) it may be associated with Crohns' disease; 3) the use of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) may be associated with severe gastrointestinal vasculitis. A male was treated from ages 11-20 years for CRMO (manifesting as multiple bone lesions), with therapies of variable efficacy (anti-inflammatories, antibiotics, corticosteroids, gammaglobulin and methotrexate). With increasing disruption to his life, a 10-day course of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) was given with benefit seen on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). With exacerbation of symptoms one month later, G-CSF was re-commenced but ceased after 3 weeks because of abdominal pain, rectal blood loss, and progression of bone lesions with subsequent removal of portions of ileum, colon and appendix, which showed vasculitis. Months later, a colonoscopy revealed perianastomotic ulcers and continuing gastroenterological ulceration not unlike Crohn's disease. With azathioprine, gut and bone symptoms improved. We conclude that 1) CRMO may adversely affect life for years; 2) proven treatments are unavailable; 3) gastroenterological vasculitis/ Crohn's may be associated with CRMO; 4) MRI is useful for monitoring CRMO; 5) In this patient, G-CSF seemed beneficial initially, but later, vasculitis (possibly Crohn's) manifested, leading to bowel resection; 6) Crohn's disease may have been present for years, masked by corticosteroid, and unmasked by reduction of steroids and use of G-CSF.

  16. Granulocyte/macrophage-colony stimulating factor produced by recombinant avian poxviruses enriches the regional lymph nodes with antigen-presenting cells and acts as an immunoadjuvant.

    PubMed

    Kass, E; Panicali, D L; Mazzara, G; Schlom, J; Greiner, J W

    2001-01-01

    Recombinant avian poxviruses [fowlpox and canarypox (ALVAC)], restricted for replication in nonavian cell substrates and expressing granulocyte/macrophage-colony stimulating factor (avipox-GM-CSF), were evaluated for their ability to enrich an immunization site with antigen-presenting cells (APCs) and, in turn, function as biological vaccine adjuvants. Avipox-GM-CSF administered as a single s.c. injection significantly enhanced the percentage and absolute number of APCs in the regional lymph nodes that drain the injection site. Both the magnitude and duration of the cellular and phenotypic increases within the lymph nodes induced by the avipox-GM-CSF viruses were significantly (P < 0.05) greater than those measured in mice treated with four daily injections of recombinant GM-CSF protein. Temporal studies revealed that the APC enrichment of regional lymph nodes was sustained for 21-28 days after injection of the recombinant avipox virus expressing GM-CSF and, moreover, three injections of the recombinant virus could be given without any appreciable loss of in vivo bioactivity. Mice expressing human carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) as a transgene (CEA.Tg) developed CEA-specific humoral and cell-mediated immunity after being immunized with avipox-CEA. The coadministration of recombinant avipox viruses expressing CEA and GM-CSF significantly enhanced CEA-specific host immunity with an accompanying immunotherapeutic response in tumor-bearing CEA.Tg mice. The optimal use of avipox-GM-CSF, in terms of dose and dose schedule, especially when used with different immunogens, remains to be determined. Nonetheless, the present findings demonstrate: (a) the effective delivery of GM-CSF to an immunization site using a recombinant avian poxvirus; (b) the compatibility of delivering an antigen and GM-CSF in replication-defective viruses to enhance antigen-specific immunity; and (c) the combined use of recombinant avipox viruses expressing CEA and GM-CSF to generate antitumor

  17. Phase Ib trial of granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor combined with murine monoclonal antibody R24 in patients with metastatic melanoma.

    PubMed

    Chachoua, A; Oratz, R; Liebes, L; Alter, R S; Felice, A; Peace, D; Vilcek, J; Blum, R H

    1994-08-01

    R24, a murine monoclonal antibody, has been shown to mediate complement- and antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) of melanoma tumor targets. We conducted a Phase Ib clinical trial using granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) and R24 in 20 patients with metastatic melanoma. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that treatment with GM-CSF could up-regulate monocyte and granulocyte ADCC and that the combination of GM-CSF plus R24, which mediates ADCC, would lead to enhanced anti-tumor activity in patients with melanoma. GM-CSF was administered by subcutaneous injection daily for 21 days at a dose of 150 micrograms/m2/day. R24 was administered by continuous intravenous infusion on days 8-15 at three dose levels: 0, 10, and 50 mg/m2/day. All 20 patients received one cycle of treatment only. Immune parameters measured were monocyte and granulocyte direct cytotoxicity and ADCC. All patients were evaluable for toxicity. Fifteen patients were evaluable for immune response. Treatment with GM-CSF alone was well tolerated. Toxicity from the combination of GM-CSF plus R24 included diffuse urticaria, nausea and vomiting, hypertension, and hypotension. Hypotension was the dose-limiting toxicity. Two patients on the 50-mg/m2/day dose level of R24 achieved a partial response lasting 2+ and 5+ months. Treatment with GM-CSF led to a statistically significant enhancement of monocyte and granulocyte direct cytotoxicity and ADCC. The maximally tolerated dose of R24 given at this schedule combined with GM-CSF is < 50 mg/m2/day. We conclude that GM-CSF given by subcutaneous injection at 150 micrograms/m2 x 21 days can enhance effector cell ADCC and direct cytotoxicity and that the combination of GM-CSF and R24 can be therapeutic.

  18. Anti-tumor effects of recombinant human macrophage colony-stimulating factor, alone or in combination with local irradiation, in mice inoculated with Lewis lung carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Lu, L; Shen, R N; Lin, Z H; Aukerman, S L; Ralph, P; Broxmeyer, H E

    1991-01-02

    Recombinant human (rhu) macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF) was evaluated for efficacy, either alone or in combination with local X-irradiation (LR), in mice inoculated subcutaneously (s.c.) with Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC) cells. The size of the primary tumor and numbers of lung metastases, 21 days after tumor inoculation and 15 days after the start of treatment, were reduced by 87% in tumor-bearing mice treated with 20 micrograms/dose M-CSF s.c. twice a day for 5 days. LR (800 cGy) to the tumor once a week for 2 weeks had a moderate anti-tumor effect and enhanced the anti-tumor effect of M-CSF. Hematological parameters, including nucleated cellularity in peripheral blood, femoral marrow, spleen and peritoneal exudate, as well as marrow and splenic granulocyte-macrophage progenitor cells, and numbers of splenic Thy 1.2+ cell and peritoneal mast cells, were perturbed in LLC-bearing mice, and were influenced by treatment with M-CSF and LR. Treatment with M-CSF plus LR, but not with either agent alone, was associated with a significant, although slight, enhancement in survival time for LLC-bearing mice. Inability to obtain a better survival-enhancing effect appeared to be related to the limited treatment, since the anti-tumor effects of M-CSF were more notable early on in disease progression and were related to the dose of M-CSF used. The effects of M-CSF were most probably indirect ones on the host immune system. M-CSF, in combination with LR, may be of benefit in the treatment of human tumors that have metastatic potential.

  19. Platelet lysate and granulocyte-colony stimulating factor serve safe and accelerated expansion of human bone marrow stromal cells for stroke therapy.

    PubMed

    Yamauchi, Tomohiro; Saito, Hisayasu; Ito, Masaki; Shichinohe, Hideo; Houkin, Kiyohiro; Kuroda, Satoshi

    2014-12-01

    Autologous human bone marrow stromal cells (hBMSCs) should be expanded in the animal serum-free condition within clinically relevant periods in order to secure safe and effective cell therapy for ischemic stroke. This study was aimed to assess whether the hBMSCs enhance their proliferation capacity and provide beneficial effect in the infarct brain when cultured with platelet lysate (PL) and granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF). The hBMSCs were cultured in the fetal calf serum (FCS)-, PL-, or PL/G-CSF-containing medium. Cell growth kinetics was analyzed. The hBMSCs-PL, hBMSC-PL/G-CSF, or vehicle was stereotactically transplanted into the ipsilateral striatum of the rats subjected to permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion 7 days after the insult. Motor function was assessed for 8 weeks, and the fate of transplanted hBMSCs was examined using immunohistochemistry. As the results, the hBMSCs-PL/G-CSF showed more enhanced proliferation than the hBMSCs-FCS and hBMSCs-PL. Transplantation of hBMSCs expanded with the PL- or PL/G-CSF-containing medium equally promoted functional recovery compared with the vehicle group. Histological analysis revealed that there were no significant differences in their migration, survival, and neural differentiation in the infarct brain between the hBMSCs-PL and hBMSCs-PL/G-CSF. These findings strongly suggest that the combination of PL and G-CSF may accelerate hBMSC expansion and serve safe cell therapy for patients with ischemic stroke at clinically relevant timing.

  20. Porcine granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) delivered via replication-defective adenovirus induces a sustained increase in circulating peripheral blood neutrophils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The use of immunomodulators is a promising area for biotherapeutic, prophylactic, and metaphylactic use to prevent and combat infectious disease, particularly during periods of peak disease incidence. Cytokines, including granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF), are one class of compounds that...

  1. Predicting erythroid response to recombinant erythropoietin plus granulocyte colony-stimulating factor therapy following a single subcutaneous bolus in patients with myelodysplasia.

    PubMed

    Bowen, David; Hyslop, Ann; Keenan, Norene; Groves, Michael; Culligan, Dominic; Johnson, Peter; Shaw, Ann; Geddes, Fiona; Evans, Patricia; Porter, John; Cavill, Ivor

    2006-05-01

    We randomized 21 patients with low-risk myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) to receive a single subcutaneous bolus of recombinant erythropoietin (epoietin) +/- granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF), or placebo and monitored erythropoietic response over 7 days. In this small study, the reticulocyte response at day 7 was highly predictive of subsequent response to a therapeutic trial of epoietin + G-CSF.

  2. Treatment of complete spinal cord injury patients by autologous bone marrow cell transplantation and administration of granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor.

    PubMed

    Park, Hyung Chun; Shim, Yoo Shik; Ha, Yoon; Yoon, Seung Hwan; Park, So Ra; Choi, Byung Hyune; Park, Hyun Seon

    2005-01-01

    Transplantation of bone marrow cells into the injured spinal cord has been found to improve neurologic functions in experimental animal studies. However, it is unclear whether bone marrow cells can similarly improve the neurologic functions of complete spinal cord injury (SCI) in human patients. To address this issue, we evaluated the therapeutic effects of autologous bone marrow cell transplantation (BMT) in conjunction with the administration of granulocyte macrophage-colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) in six complete SCI patients. BMT in the injury site (1.1 x 10(6) cells/microL in a total of 1.8 mL) and subcutaneous GM-CSF administration were performed on five patients. One patient was treated with GM-CSF only. The follow-up periods were from 6 to 18 months, depending on the patients. Sensory improvements were noted immediately after the operations. Sensory recovery in the sacral segment was noted mainly 3 weeks to 7 months postoperatively. Significant motor improvements were noted 3 to 7 months postoperatively. Four patients showed neurologic improvements in their American Spiral Injury Association Impairment Scale (AIS) grades (from A to C). One patient improved to AIS grade B from A and the last patient remained in AIS grade A. No immediate worsening of neurologic symptoms was found. Side effects of GMCSF treatment such as a fever (>38 degrees C) and myalgia were noted. Serious complications increasing mortality and morbidity were not found. The follow-up study with magnetic resonance imaging 4-6 months after injury showed slight enhancement within the zone of BMT. Syrinx formation was not definitely found. BMT and GM-CSF administration represent a safe protocol to efficiently manage SCI patients, especially those with acute complete injury. To demonstrate the full therapeutic value of this protocol, long-term and more comprehensive case-control clinical studies are required.

  3. Regulation of pluripotency of inner cell mass and growth and differentiation of trophectoderm of the bovine embryo by colony stimulating factor 2.

    PubMed

    Dobbs, Kyle B; Khan, Firdous A; Sakatani, Miki; Moss, James I; Ozawa, Manabu; Ealy, Alan D; Hansen, Peter J

    2013-12-01

    Colony-stimulating factor 2 (CSF2) enhances competence of the bovine embryo to establish and maintain pregnancy after the embryo is transferred into a recipient. Mechanisms involved could include regulation of lineage commitment, growth, or differentiation of the inner cell mass (ICM) and trophectoderm (TE). Experiments were conducted to evaluate regulation by CSF2 of pluripotency of the ICM and differentiation and growth of the TE. Embryos were cultured with 10 ng/ml recombinant bovine CSF2 or a vehicle control from Days 5 to 7 or 6 to 8 postinsemination. CSF2 increased the number of putative zygotes that developed to blastocysts when the percent of embryos becoming blastocysts in the control group was low but decreased blastocyst yield when blastocyst development in controls was high. ICM isolated from blastocysts by lysing the trophectoderm using antibody and complement via immunosurgery were more likely to survive passage when cultured on mitomycin C-treated fetal fibroblasts if derived from blastocysts treated with CSF2 than if from control blastocysts. There was little effect of CSF2 on characteristics of TE outgrowths from blastocysts. The exception was a decrease in outgrowth size for embryos treated with CSF2 from Days 5 to 7 and an increase in expression of CDX2 when treatment was from Days 6 to 8. Expression of the receptor subunit gene CSF2RA increased from the zygote stage to the 9-16 cell stage before decreasing to the blastocyst stage. In contrast, CSF2RB was undetectable at all stages. In conclusion, CSF2 improves competence of the ICM to survive in a pluripotent state and alters TE outgrowths. Actions of CSF2 occur through a signaling pathway that is likely to be independent of CSF2RB.

  4. Effects of Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony-Stimulating (GM-CSF) Factor on Corneal Epithelial Cells in Corneal Wound Healing Model

    PubMed Central

    Rho, Chang Rae; Park, Mi-young; Kang, Seungbum

    2015-01-01

    Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) is a pleiotropic cytokine that activates granulocyte and macrophage cell lineages. It is also known to have an important function in wound healing. This study investigated the effect of GM-CSF in wound healing of human corneal epithelial cells (HCECs). We used human GM-CSF derived from rice cells (rice cell-derived recombinant human GM-CSF; rhGM-CSF). An in vitro migration assay was performed to investigate the migration rate of HCECs treated with various concentrations of rhGM-CSF (0.1, 1.0, and 10.0 μg/ml). MTT assay and flow cytometric analysis were used to evaluate the proliferative effect of rhGM-CSF. The protein level of p38MAPK was analyzed by western blotting. For in vivo analysis, 100 golden Syrian hamsters were divided into four groups, and their corneas were de-epithelialized with alcohol and a blade. The experimental groups were treated with 10, 20, or 50 μg/ml rhGM-CSF four times daily, and the control group was treated with phosphate-buffered saline. The corneal wound-healing rate was evaluated by fluorescein staining at the initial wounding and 12, 24, 36, and 48 hours after epithelial debridement. rhGM-CSF accelerated corneal epithelial wound healing both in vitro and in vivo. MTT assay and flow cytometric analysis revealed that rhGM-CSF treatment had no effects on HCEC proliferation. Western blot analysis demonstrated that the expression level of phosphorylated p38MAPK increased with rhGM-CSF treatment. These findings indicate that rhGM-CSF enhances corneal wound healing by accelerating cell migration. PMID:26376304

  5. Synergy of interleukin 1 and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor: in vivo stimulation of stem-cell recovery and hematopoietic regeneration following 5-fluorouracil treatment of mice

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, M.A.S.; Warren, D.J.

    1987-10-01

    The human bladder carcinoma cell line 5637 produces hematopoietic growth factors (granulocyte and granulocyte/macrophage colony-stimulating factors (G-CSF and GM-CSF)) and hemopoietin 1, which synergizes with CSFs to stimulate colony formation by primitive hematopoietic stem cells in 5-fluorouracil-treated mouse bone marrow. Molecular and functional properties of hemopoietin 1 identified it as identical to interleukin 1..cap alpha.. (IL-1..cap alpha..). When bone marrow cells from 5-fluorouracil-treated mice were cultured in suspension for 7 days with recombinant human IL-1..cap alpha.. and/or G-CSF, it was found that the two factors synergized to enhance recovery of myelopoietic cells and colony-forming cells of both high and low proliferative potential. G-CSF alone did not sustain these populations, but the combination had greater-than-additive stimulating capacity. In vivo, 5-fluorouracil (150 mg/kg) produced profound myelosuppression and delayed neutrophil regeneration for up to 2 weeks in C3H/HeJ mice. Daily administration of recombinant human G-CSF or human IL-1..cap alpha.. accelerated recovery of stem cells, progenitor cells, and blood neutrophils by up to 4 days in 5-fluorouracil-treated C3H/HeJ and B6D2F/sub 1/ mice. The combination of IL-1..cap alpha.. and G-CSF acted synergistically, reducing neutropenia and accelerating recovery of normal neutrophil numbers by up to 7 days. These results indicate the possible therapeutic potential of combination therapy with IL-1 and hematopoietic growth factors such as G-CSF in the treatment of chemotherapy- or radiation-induced myelosuppression.

  6. Granulocyte macrophage colony stimulating factor produced in lesioned peripheral nerves induces the up-regulation of cell surface expression of MAC-2 by macrophages and Schwann cells

    PubMed Central

    1996-01-01

    Peripheral nerve injury is followed by Wallerian degeneration which is characterized by cellular and molecular events that turn the degenerating nerve into a tissue that supports nerve regeneration. One of these is the removal, by phagocytosis, of myelin that contains molecules which inhibit regeneration. We have recently documented that the scavenger macrophage and Schwann cells express the galactose- specific lectin MAC-2 which is significant to myelin phagocytosis. In the present study we provide evidence for a mechanism leading to the augmented expression of cell surface MAC-2. Nerve lesion causes noneuronal cells, primarily fibroblasts, to produce the cytokine granulocyte macrophage-colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF). In turn, GM- CSF induces Schwann cells and macrophages to up-regulate surface expression of MAC-2. The proposed mechanism is based on the following novel observations. GM-CSF mRNA was detected by PCR in in vitro and in vivo degenerating nerves, but not in intact nerves. The GM-CSF molecule was detected by ELISA in medium conditioned by in vitro and in vivo degenerating peripheral nerves as of the 4th h after injury. GM-CSF activity was demonstrated by two independent bioassays, and repressed by activity blocking antibodies. Significant levels of GM-CSF were produced by nerve derived fibroblasts, but neither by Schwann cells nor by nerve derived macrophages. Mouse rGM-CSF enhanced MAC-2 production in nerve explants, and up-regulated cell surface expression of MAC-2 by Schwann cells and macrophages. Interleukin-1 beta up-regulated GM-CSF production thus suggesting that injury induced GM-CSF production may be mediated by interleukin-1 beta. Our findings highlight the fact that fibroblasts, by producing GM-CSF and thereby affecting macrophage and Schwann function, play a significant role in the cascade of molecular events and cellular interactions of Wallerian degeneration. PMID:8601605

  7. Effects of Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony-Stimulating (GM-CSF) Factor on Corneal Epithelial Cells in Corneal Wound Healing Model.

    PubMed

    Rho, Chang Rae; Park, Mi-young; Kang, Seungbum

    2015-01-01

    Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) is a pleiotropic cytokine that activates granulocyte and macrophage cell lineages. It is also known to have an important function in wound healing. This study investigated the effect of GM-CSF in wound healing of human corneal epithelial cells (HCECs). We used human GM-CSF derived from rice cells (rice cell-derived recombinant human GM-CSF; rhGM-CSF). An in vitro migration assay was performed to investigate the migration rate of HCECs treated with various concentrations of rhGM-CSF (0.1, 1.0, and 10.0 μg/ml). MTT assay and flow cytometric analysis were used to evaluate the proliferative effect of rhGM-CSF. The protein level of p38MAPK was analyzed by western blotting. For in vivo analysis, 100 golden Syrian hamsters were divided into four groups, and their corneas were de-epithelialized with alcohol and a blade. The experimental groups were treated with 10, 20, or 50 μg/ml rhGM-CSF four times daily, and the control group was treated with phosphate-buffered saline. The corneal wound-healing rate was evaluated by fluorescein staining at the initial wounding and 12, 24, 36, and 48 hours after epithelial debridement. rhGM-CSF accelerated corneal epithelial wound healing both in vitro and in vivo. MTT assay and flow cytometric analysis revealed that rhGM-CSF treatment had no effects on HCEC proliferation. Western blot analysis demonstrated that the expression level of phosphorylated p38MAPK increased with rhGM-CSF treatment. These findings indicate that rhGM-CSF enhances corneal wound healing by accelerating cell migration.

  8. pH responsive granulocyte colony-stimulating factor variants with implications for treating Alzheimer's disease and other central nervous system disorders.

    PubMed

    Heinzelman, Pete; Schoborg, Jennifer A; Jewett, Michael C

    2015-10-01

    Systemic injection of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) has yielded encouraging results in treating Alzheimer's Disease (AD) and other central nervous system (CNS) disorders. Making G-CSF a viable AD therapeutic will, however, require increasing G-CSF's ability to stimulate neurons within the brain. This objective could be realized by increasing transcytosis of G-CSF across the blood brain barrier (BBB). An established correlation between G-CSF receptor (G-CSFR) binding pH responsiveness and increased recycling of G-CSF to the cell exterior after endocytosis motivated development of G-CSF variants with highly pH responsive G-CSFR binding affinities. These variants will be used in future validation of our hypothesis that increased BBB transcytosis can enhance G-CSF therapeutic efficacy. Flow cytometric screening of a yeast-displayed library in which G-CSF/G-CSFR interface residues were mutated to histidine yielded a G-CSF triple His mutant (L109H/D110H/Q120H) with highly pH responsive binding affinity. This variant's KD, measured by surface plasmon resonance (SPR), increases ∼20-fold as pH decreases from 7.4 to below histidine's pKa of ∼6.0; an increase 2-fold greater than for previously reported G-CSF His mutants. Cell-free protein synthesis (CFPS) enabled expression and purification of soluble, bioactive G-CSF triple His variant protein, an outcome inaccessible via Escherichia coli inclusion body refolding. This purification and bioactivity validation will enable future identification of correlations between pH responsiveness and transcytosis in BBB cell culture model and animal experiments. Furthermore, the library screening and CFPS methods employed here could be applied to developing other pH responsive hematopoietic or neurotrophic factors for treating CNS disorders.

  9. The efficacy of intrauterine instillation of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor in infertile women with a thin endometrium: A pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Dayong; Jo, Jae Dong; Kim, Seul Ki; Kim, Seok Hyun

    2016-01-01

    Objective The study aimed to investigate the efficacy of intrauterine instillation of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) on the day of ovulation triggering or oocyte retrieval in infertile women with a thin endometrium. Methods Fifty women whose endometrial thickness (EMT) was ≤8 mm at the time of triggering during at least one previous in vitro fertilization (IVF) cycle and an index IVF cycle were selected. On the day of triggering (n=12) or oocyte retrieval (n=38), 300 µg of G-CSF was instilled into the uterine cavity. Results In the 50 index IVF cycles, the mean EMT was 7.2±0.6 mm on the triggering day and increased to 8.5±1.5 mm on the embryo transfer day (p<0.001). The overall clinical pregnancy rate was 22.0%, the implantation rate was 15.9%, and the ongoing pregnancy rate was 20%. The clinical pregnancy rate (41.7% vs. 15.8%), the implantation rate (26.7% vs. 11.7%), and the ongoing pregnancy rate (41.7% vs. 13.2%) were higher when G-CSF was instilled on the triggering day than when it was instilled on the retrieval day, although this tendency was likewise not statistically significant. Aspects of the stimulation process and mean changes in EMT were similar in women who became pregnant and women who did not. Conclusion Intrauterine instillation of G-CSF enhanced endometrial development and resulted in an acceptable pregnancy rate. Instillation of G-CSF on the triggering day showed better outcomes. G-CSF instillation should be considered as a strategy for inducing endometrial growth and good pregnancy results in infertile women with a thin endometrium. PMID:28090464

  10. Temporal adaptation of neutrophil oxidative responsiveness to n-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine. Acceleration by granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor.

    PubMed

    English, D; Broxmeyer, H E; Gabig, T G; Akard, L P; Williams, D E; Hoffman, R

    1988-10-01

    This investigation was undertaken to clarify the mechanism by which purified recombinant human granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) potentiates neutrophil oxidative responses triggered by the chemotactic peptide, FMLP. Previous studies have shown that GM-CSF priming of neutrophil responses to FMLP is induced relatively slowly, requiring 90 to 120 min of incubation in vitro, is not associated with increased levels of cytoplasmic free Ca2+, but is associated with up-regulation of cell-surface FMLP receptors. We have confirmed these findings and further characterized the process of GM-CSF priming. We found that the effect of GM-CSF on neutrophil oxidative responsiveness was induced in a temperature-dependent manner and was not reversed when the cells were washed extensively to remove the growth factor before stimulation with FMLP. Extracellular Ca2+ was not required for functional enhancement by GM-CSF and GM-CSF alone effected no detectable alteration in the 32P-labeled phospholipid content of neutrophils during incubation in vitro. Our data indicate that GM-CSF exerts its influence on neutrophils by accelerating a process that occurs spontaneously and results in up-regulation of both cell-surface FMLP receptors and oxidative responsiveness to FMLP. Thus, the results demonstrate that, with respect to oxidative activation, circulating endstage polymorphonuclear leukocytes are nonresponsive or hyporesponsive to FMLP; functional responsiveness increases dramatically as surface FMLP receptors are gradually deployed after the cells leave the circulation. Thus, as neutrophils mature, their responsiveness to FMLP changes in a manner which may be crucial for efficient host defense. At 37 degrees C, this process is markedly potentiated by GM-CSF. We conclude that endogenous GM-CSF, released systemically or at sites of infection and inflammation, potentially plays an important role in host defense by accelerating functional maturation of responding

  11. Renal epithelial cell-derived monocyte colony stimulating factor as a local informant of renal injury and means of monocyte activation.

    PubMed

    Singh, Kimberly A; Kampen, Robert L; Hoffmann, Steven C; Eldaif, Shady M; Kirk, Allan D

    2009-07-01

    Monocyte accumulation in renal allografts is associated with allograft dysfunction. As monocyte influx occurs acutely following reperfusion, we investigated the effect of ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) on monocyte colony stimulating factor (m-CSF), a key cytokine in monocyte recruitment. We hypothesized that renal tubule epithelial cells (RTECs) could produce m-CSF in response to IRI, which could in turn promote monocyte activation. Real time PCR was used to measure levels of intragraft m-CSF transcripts in patients during IRI and clinical rejection. Also, m-CSF production by RTECs following IRI simulation in vitro was measured using ELISA. Monocyte expression of CD40 and CD80 was then analyzed using flow cytometry following co-culture with supernatants of RTECs after IRI. Monocyte expression of CD40, CD80 and HLA-DR was then examined following treatment with rh-m-CSF (10, 36, and 100 ng/ml), as was monocyte size and granularity. We found that intragraft m-CSF transcription was significantly increased postreperfusion (P = 0.002) and during clinical rejection (P = 0.002). We also found that RTECs produced m-CSF in response to IRI in vitro (P = 0.036). Monocytes co-cultured with the supernatants of postischemic RTECs became activated as evidenced by increased expression of CD40 and CD80. Also, monocytes treated with recombinant m-CSF assumed an activated phenotype exhibiting increased size, granularity and expression of CD40, CD80, CD86, and HLA-DR, and demonstrating enhanced phagocytic activity. Taken together, we suggest that renal tubular cell derived m-CSF is a stimulus for monocyte activation and may be an important target for control of IRI-associated immune activation.

  12. Lipopolysaccharide-binding protein (LBP) blockade augments the protective effect of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) in a rat sepsis model.

    PubMed

    Liu, Anding; Weiss, Stefanie; Fang, Haoshu; Claus, Ralf A; Rödel, Jürgen; Dirsch, Olaf; Dahmen, Uta

    2015-05-01

    The effect of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) on sepsis is discussed controversially in clinical studies. We previously demonstrated that G-CSF treatment induced lipopolysaccharide (LPS) sensitization via up-regulation of LPS-binding protein (LBP). We hypothesized that the futile effect of G-CSF-treatment in sepsis might be due to its ability to up-regulate LBP. Therefore, blockade of LBP may attenuate the G-CSF-induced LPS sensitization and protect animals from polymicrobial sepsis. Endogenous LBP levels were up-regulated by pretreatment with G-CSF, and the LBP protein was blocked by administration of a specific blocking peptide-LBPK95A. Polymicrobial sepsis was induced by intraperitoneal injection of feces slurry. Rats were monitored every 3 up to 72 h to observe the survival rate. Tissue injury, bacterial infiltration, local inflammatory response, and neutrophil infiltration at 0, 2, and 12 h after the septic insult were analyzed. The survival benefit of G-CSF pretreatment was improved when combined with LBPK95A treatment (control vs. G-CSF vs. combi: 36% vs. 56% vs. 93%; P < 0.05). Combined treatment of G-CSF and LBPK95A was associated with the minimal tissue damage. Treatment with LBPK95A significantly inhibited the neutrophil infiltration without interfering with the bacterial clearance. The G-CSF-induced inflammatory sensitization effect was inhibited by LBPK95A, indicated by the decrease of cytokines expression, and the activation of nuclear factor kappa B and signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 signaling pathway. In conclusion, these results suggested that the effect of prophylactic augmentation of the host's response via G-CSF pretreatment was further enhanced by inhibition of the up-regulation of LBP.

  13. Macrophage colony stimulating factor regulation by nuclear factor kappa B: a relevant pathway in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infected macrophages.

    PubMed

    Kogan, Michael; Haine, Valerie; Ke, Yuxong; Wigdahl, Brian; Fischer-Smith, Tracy; Rappaport, Jay

    2012-03-01

    Macrophage colony stimulating factor (M-CSF) is a cytokine that promotes monocyte differentiation and survival. When overexpressed, M-CSF contributes to pathology in a wide variety of diseases, including osteoporosis, obesity, certain human cancers, and in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection, particularly with respect to monocyte/macrophage infection and the development of HIV-1 associated central nervous system disorders. In this study, our aim was to expand the current knowledge of M-CSF regulation, focusing on nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB), a transcription factor playing a prominent role during inflammation and HIV-1 infection. Our results suggest that tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) promotes M-CSF secretion in primary macrophages and activates the -1310/+48 bp M-CSF promoter in Mono-Mac 1 cells. Inhibitors of the NF-κB pathway diminish this response. We identified four putative NF-κB and four CCAAT-enhancer-binding protein beta binding sites within the M-CSF promoter. Our findings, using promoter constructs mutated at individual NF-κB sites within the M-CSF promoter region, suggest that these sites are redundant with respect to NF-κB regulation. TNF-α treatment promoted NF-κB p65 binding to the M-CSF promoter in phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) treated U937 cells chronically infected with HIV-1 (U1 cells), but not in PMA treated uninfected U937 cells, suggesting that the presence of HIV-1 increases the NF-κB response. In conclusion, our findings demonstrate that NF-κB induces M-CSF expression on a promoter level via multiple functional NF-κB binding sites and that this pathway is likely relevant in HIV-1 infection of macrophages.

  14. Cloning and expression of porcine Colony Stimulating Factor-1 (CSF-1) and Colony Stimulating Factor-1 Receptor (CSF-1R) and analysis of the species specificity of stimulation by CSF-1 and Interleukin 34

    PubMed Central

    Gow, Deborah J.; Garceau, Valerie; Kapetanovic, Ronan; Sester, David P.; Fici, Greg J.; Shelly, John A.; Wilson, Thomas L.; Hume, David A.

    2012-01-01

    Macrophage Colony Stimulating Factor (CSF-1) controls the survival, differentiation and proliferation of cells of the mononuclear phagocyte system. A second ligand for the CSF-1R, Interleukin 34 (IL-34), has been described, but its physiological role is not yet known. The domestic pig provides an alternative to traditional rodent models for evaluating potential therapeutic applications of CSF-1R agonists and antagonists. To enable such studies, we cloned and expressed active pig CSF-1. To provide a bioassay, pig CSF-1R was expressed in the factor-dependent Ba/F3 cell line. On this transfected cell line, recombinant porcine CSF-1 and human CSF-1 had identical activity. Mouse CSF-1 does not interact with the human CSF-1 receptor but was active on pig. By contrast, porcine CSF-1 was active on mouse, human, cat and dog cells. IL-34 was previously shown to be species-specific, with mouse and human proteins demonstrating limited cross-species activity. The pig CSF-1R was equally responsive to both mouse and human IL-34. Based upon the published crystal structures of CSF-1/CSF-1R and IL34/CSF-1R complexes, we discuss the molecular basis for the species specificity. PMID:22974529

  15. Cloning and expression of feline colony stimulating factor receptor (CSF-1R) and analysis of the species specificity of stimulation by colony stimulating factor-1 (CSF-1) and interleukin-34 (IL-34)

    PubMed Central

    Gow, Deborah J.; Garceau, Valerie; Pridans, Clare; Gow, Adam G.; Simpson, Kerry E.; Gunn-Moore, Danielle; Hume, David A.

    2013-01-01

    Colony stimulating factor (CSF-1) and its receptor, CSF-1R, have been previously well studied in humans and rodents to dissect the role they play in development of cells of the mononuclear phagocyte system. A second ligand for the CSF-1R, IL-34 has been described in several species. In this study, we have cloned and expressed the feline CSF-1R and examined the responsiveness to CSF-1 and IL-34 from a range of species. The results indicate that pig and human CSF-1 and human IL-34 are equally effective in cats, where both mouse CSF-1 and IL-34 are significantly less active. Recombinant human CSF-1 can be used to generate populations of feline bone marrow and monocyte derived macrophages that can be used to further dissect macrophage-specific gene expression in this species, and to compare it to data derived from mouse, human and pig. These results set the scene for therapeutic use of CSF-1 and IL-34 in cats. PMID:23260168

  16. Macrophage Colony Stimulating Factor Derived from CD4+ T Cells Contributes to Control of a Blood-Borne Infection

    PubMed Central

    de Melo, Gabrielly L.; Anidi, Chioma; Hamburger, Rebecca; Pham, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    Dynamic regulation of leukocyte population size and activation state is crucial for an effective immune response. In malaria, Plasmodium parasites elicit robust host expansion of macrophages and monocytes, but the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Here we show that myeloid expansion during P. chabaudi infection is dependent upon both CD4+ T cells and the cytokine Macrophage Colony Stimulating Factor (MCSF). Single-cell RNA-Seq analysis on antigen-experienced T cells revealed robust expression of Csf1, the gene encoding MCSF, in a sub-population of CD4+ T cells with distinct transcriptional and surface phenotypes. Selective deletion of Csf1 in CD4+ cells during P. chabaudi infection diminished proliferation and activation of certain myeloid subsets, most notably lymph node-resident CD169+ macrophages, and resulted in increased parasite burden and impaired recovery of infected mice. Depletion of CD169+ macrophages during infection also led to increased parasitemia and significant host mortality, confirming a previously unappreciated role for these cells in control of P. chabaudi. This work establishes the CD4+ T cell as a physiologically relevant source of MCSF in vivo; probes the complexity of the CD4+ T cell response during type 1 infection; and delineates a novel mechanism by which T helper cells regulate myeloid cells to limit growth of a blood-borne intracellular pathogen. PMID:27923070

  17. Effect of granulocyte colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) on IVF outcomes in infertile women: An RCT

    PubMed Central

    Eftekhar, Maryam; Hosseinisadat, Robabe; Baradaran, Ramesh; Naghshineh, Elham

    2016-01-01

    Background: Despite major advances in assisted reproductive techniques, the implantation rates remain relatively low. Some studies have demonstrated that intrauterine infusion of granulocyte colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) improves implantation in infertile women. Objective: To assess the G-CSF effects on IVF outcomes in women with normal endometrial thickness. Materials and methods: In this randomized controlled clinical trial, 100 infertile women with normal endometrial thickness who were candidate for IVF were evaluated in two groups. Exclusion criteria were positive history of repeated implantation failure (RIF), endocrine disorders, severe endometriosis, congenital or acquired uterine anomaly and contraindication for G-CSF (renal disease, sickle cell disease, or malignancy). In G-CSF group (n=50), 300 µg trans cervical intrauterine of G-CSF was administered at the oocyte retrieval day. Controls (n=50) were treated with standard protocol. Chemical, clinical and ongoing pregnancy rates, implantation rate, and miscarriage rate were compared between groups. Results: Number of total and mature oocytes (MII), two pronuclei (2PN), total embryos, transferred embryos, quality of transferred embryos, and fertilization rate did not differ significantly between two groups. So there were no significant differences between groups in chemical, clinical and ongoing pregnancy rate, implantation rate, and miscarriage rate Conclusion: our result showed in normal IVF patients with normal endometrial thickness, the intrauterine infusion of G-CSF did not improve pregnancy outcomes. PMID:27326420

  18. Efficacy of Intrauterine infusion of granulocyte colony stimulating factor on patients with history of implantation failure: A randomized control trial

    PubMed Central

    Eftekhar, Maryam; Miraj, Sepideh; Farid Mojtahedi, Maryam; Neghab, Nosrat

    2016-01-01

    Background: Although pregnancy rate in in vitro fertilization-embryo transfer (IVF-ET) cycles has been increased over the preceding years, but the majority of IVF-ET cycles still fail. Granulocyte colony stimulating factor (GCSF) is a glycoprotein that stimulates cytokine growth factor and induces immune system which may improve pregnancy rate in women with history of implantation failure. Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate GCSF ability to improve pregnancy rate in women with history of implantation failure Materials and Methods: 0.5 ml (300 µg/ml) GCSF was infused intrauterine in intervention group. Pregnancy outcomes were assessed based on clinical pregnancy. Results: The mean age of participants was 31.95±4.71 years old. There were no significant differences between demographic characteristics in two groups (p>0.05). The pregnancy outcome in GCSF group was improved significantly (p=0.043). Conclusion: GCSF can improve pregnancy outcome in patients with history of implantation failure. PMID:27981253

  19. Structure of macrophage colony stimulating factor bound to FMS: Diverse signaling assemblies of class III receptor tyrosine kinases

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Xiaoyan; Liu, Heli; Focia, Pamela J.; Shim, Ann Hye-Ryong; He, Xiaolin

    2009-06-12

    Macrophage colony stimulating factor (M-CSF), through binding to its receptor FMS, a class III receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK), regulates the development and function of mononuclear phagocytes, and plays important roles in innate immunity, cancer and inflammation. We report a 2.4 {angstrom} crystal structure of M-CSF bound to the first 3 domains (D1-D3) of FMS. The ligand binding mode of FMS is surprisingly different from KIT, another class III RTK, in which the major ligand-binding domain of FMS, D2, uses the CD and EF loops, but not the {beta}-sheet on the opposite side of the Ig domain as in KIT, to bind ligand. Calorimetric data indicate that M-CSF cannot dimerize FMS without receptor-receptor interactions mediated by FMS domains D4 and D5. Consistently, the structure contains only 1 FMS-D1-D3 molecule bound to a M-CSF dimer, due to a weak, hydrophilic M-CSF:FMS interface, and probably a conformational change of the M-CSF dimer in which binding to the second site is rendered unfavorable by FMS binding at the first site. The partial, intermediate complex suggests that FMS may be activated in two steps, with the initial engagement step distinct from the subsequent dimerization/activation step. Hence, the formation of signaling class III RTK complexes can be diverse, engaging various modes of ligand recognition and various mechanistic steps for dimerizing and activating receptors.

  20. [Signaling of granulocyte macrophage colony stimulating factor and its clinical application: host-defense and organ protection].

    PubMed

    Uchida, Kanji

    2013-03-01

    Granulocyte macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) is a cytokine with multipotent properties. It has not only an activity to generate both granulocyte and macrophage lineages in the bone marrow, but also is capable of inducing terminal maturation of alveolar macrophages that is central for pulmonary host defense and pulmonary surfactant homeostasis. GM-CSF can stimulate mature myeloid cells (i.e. neutrophils and monocytes) with a known mechanism called "priming" to efficiently eliminate invading pathogens. Several clinical trials to evaluate therapeutic efficacy of GM-CSF in patients with diseases related to functional impairment of mature myeloid cells were reported. Inhalation of GM-CSF improved clinical severity of pulmonary alveolar proteionosis. Administration of GM-CSF for patients with immune compromised situation such as sepsis showed marginal benefits so far. Several animal experiments indicated neuroprotective effect of GM-CSE In the clinical setting, establishing reliable biomarkers to distinguish patients who will have benefit by administering GM-CSF may maximize its clinical efficacy.

  1. Effects of a granulocyte colony stimulating factor, Neulasta, in mini pigs exposed to total body proton irradiation

    PubMed Central

    Sanzari, Jenine K.; Krigsfeld, Gabriel S.; Shuman, Anne L.; Diener, Antonia K.; Lin, Liyong; Mai, Wilfried; Kennedy, Ann R.

    2015-01-01

    Astronauts could be exposed to solar particle event (SPE) radiation, which is comprised mostly of proton radiation. Proton radiation is also a treatment option for certain cancers. Both astronauts and clinical patients exposed to ionizing radiation are at risk for white blood cell (WBC) loss, which are the body’s main defense against infection. In this report, the effect of Neulasta treatment, a granulocyte colony stimulating factor, after proton radiation exposure is discussed. Mini pigs exposed to total body proton irradiation at a dose of 2 Gy received 4 treatments of either Neulasta or saline injections. Peripheral blood cell counts and thromboelastography parameters were recorded up to 30 days post-irradiation. Neulasta significantly improved white blood cell (WBC), specifically neutrophil, loss in irradiated animals by approximately 60% three days after the first injection, compared to the saline treated irradiated animals. Blood cell counts quickly decreased after the last Neulasta injection, suggesting a transient effect on WBC stimulation. Statistically significant changes in hemostasis parameters were observed after proton radiation exposure in both the saline and Neulasta treated irradiated groups, as well internal organ complications such as pulmonary changes. In conclusion, Neulasta treatment temporarily alleviates proton radiation-induced WBC loss, but has no effect on altered hemostatic responses. PMID:25909052

  2. Macrophage-Colony Stimulating Factor Derived from Injured Primary Afferent Induces Proliferation of Spinal Microglia and Neuropathic Pain in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Okubo, Masamichi; Yamanaka, Hiroki; Kobayashi, Kimiko; Dai, Yi; Kanda, Hirosato; Yagi, Hideshi; Noguchi, Koichi

    2016-01-01

    Peripheral nerve injury induces proliferation of microglia in the spinal cord, which can contribute to neuropathic pain conditions. However, candidate molecules for proliferation of spinal microglia after injury in rats remain unclear. We focused on the colony-stimulating factors (CSFs) and interleukin-34 (IL-34) that are involved in the proliferation of the mononuclear phagocyte lineage. We examined the expression of mRNAs for macrophage-CSF (M-CSF), granulocyte macrophage-CSF (GM-CSF), granulocyte-CSF (G-CSF) and IL-34 in the dorsal root ganglion (DRG) and spinal cord after spared nerve injury (SNI) in rats. RT-PCR and in situ hybridization revealed that M-CSF and IL-34, but not GM- or G-CSF, mRNAs were constitutively expressed in the DRG, and M-CSF robustly increased in injured-DRG neurons. M-CSF receptor mRNA was expressed in naive rats and increased in spinal microglia following SNI. Intrathecal injection of M-CSF receptor inhibitor partially but significantly reversed the proliferation of spinal microglia and in early phase of neuropathic pain induced by SNI. Furthermore, intrathecal injection of recombinant M-CSF induced microglial proliferation and mechanical allodynia. Here, we demonstrate that M-CSF is a candidate molecule derived from primary afferents that induces proliferation of microglia in the spinal cord and leads to induction of neuropathic pain after peripheral nerve injury in rats. PMID:27071004

  3. Granulocyte Macrophage Colony Stimulating Factor Supplementation in Culture Media for Subfertile Women Undergoing Assisted Reproduction Technologies: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Siristatidis, Charalampos; Vogiatzi, Paraskevi; Salamalekis, George; Creatsa, Maria; Vrachnis, Nikos; Glujovsky, Demián; Iliodromiti, Zoe; Chrelias, Charalampos

    2013-01-01

    Granulocyte macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) is a cytokine/growth factor produced by epithelial cells that exerts embryotrophic effects during the early stages of embryo development. We performed a systematic review, and six studies that were performed in humans undergoing assisted reproduction technologies (ART) were located. We wanted to evaluate if embryo culture media supplementation with GM-CSF could improve success rates. As the type of studies and the outcome parameters investigated were heterogeneous, we decided not to perform a meta-analysis. Most of them had a trend favoring the supplementation with GM-CSF, when outcomes were measured in terms of increased percentage of good-quality embryos reaching the blastocyst stage, improved hatching initiation and number of cells in the blastocyst, and reduction of cell death. However, no statistically significant differences were found in implantation and pregnancy rates in all apart from one large multicenter trial, which reported favorable outcomes, in terms of implantation and live birth rates. We propose properly conducted and adequately powered randomized controlled trials (RCTs) to further validate and extrapolate the current findings with the live birth rate to be the primary outcome measure. PMID:23509457

  4. Role of granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) in the pathogenesis of adult pulmonary histiocytosis X.

    PubMed Central

    Tazi, A; Bonay, M; Bergeron, A; Grandsaigne, M; Hance, A J; Soler, P

    1996-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Pulmonary histiocytosis X is a disorder characterised by the presence of destructive granulomas preferentially involving distal bronchioles, that contain numerous activated Langerhans' cells. Recent studies have shown that granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF), which is produced by normal bronchiolar epithelium, may play an important part in the distribution and differentiation of Langerhans' cells. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of this factor in the pathogenesis of pulmonary histiocytosis X. METHODS: Four patients with pulmonary histiocytosis X were examined by immunohistochemical techniques for GM-CSF and CD1a surface molecules. RESULTS: In early lesions the epithelium of bronchioles affected by the disease was strongly positive for GM-CSF and infiltrated by numerous CD1a+ Langerhans' cells organised into granulomas. In contrast, the expression of GM-CSF was substantially lower in bronchioles not affected by the disease, and these bronchioles contained few Langerhans' cells. When destruction by histiocytosis X lesions was more advanced, only remnants of bronchiolar epithelium could occasionally be identified; these remained strongly reactive for GM-CSF. Langerhans' cells within granulomas also moderately expressed this cytokine. CONCLUSIONS: These results support the hypothesis that GM-CSF could be one of the factors responsible for the local accumulation of lymphostimulatory Langerhans' cells in early lesions of pulmonary histiocytosis X. Images PMID:8693443

  5. Production of mouse granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor by gateway technology and transgenic rice cell culture.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yu-Kuo; Huang, Li-Fen; Ho, Shin-Lon; Liao, Chun-Yu; Liu, Hsin-Yi; Lai, Ying-Hui; Yu, Su-May; Lu, Chung-An

    2012-05-01

    To establish a production platform for recombinant proteins in rice suspension cells, we first constructed a Gateway-compatible binary T-DNA destination vector. It provided a reliable and effective method for the rapid directional cloning of target genes into plant cells through Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. We used the approach to produce mouse granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (mGM-CSF) in a rice suspension cell system. The promoter for the αAmy3 amylase gene, which is induced strongly by sugar depletion, drove the expression of mGM-CSF. The resulting recombinant protein was fused with the αAmy3 signal peptide and was secreted into the culture medium. The production of rice-derived mGM-CSF (rmGM-CSF) was scaled up successfully in a 2-L bioreactor, in which the highest yield of rmGM-CSF was 24.6 mg/L. Due to post-translational glycosylation, the molecular weight of rmGM-CSF was larger than that of recombinant mGM-CSF produced in Escherichia coli. The rmGM-CSF was bioactive and could stimulate the proliferation of a murine myeloblastic leukemia cell line, NSF-60.

  6. Inhibition of colony-stimulating factor (CSF) production by postburn serum: negative feedback inhibition mediated by lactoferrin.

    PubMed

    Peterson, V M; Ambruso, D R; Emmett, M; Bartle, E J

    1988-11-01

    Fatal infections in severely burned patients are often preceded by a decline in the production of colony-stimulating factor (CSF) and the proliferation of granulocyte-macrophage stem cells (CFU-GM), and overwhelming sepsis is often associated with leukopenia. The underlying mechanisms accounting for these granulopoietic defects are poorly understood, but the fact that postburn serum has been shown to inhibit CSF production suggests that a humoral factor or factors may play a role. Previous work has demonstrated that plasma levels of lactoferrin (LF), a known inhibitor of CSF production, are elevated following burn injury. To determine if LF is responsible for serum-mediated inhibition of CSF production, serial plasma levels of LF were measured in 18 burn patients using an enzyme-linked immunoabsorbent assay (ELISA). LF was elevated within 24 hours of injury and was associated with an absolute granulocytosis which rapidly declined, reaching a nadir at postburn days 3 through 5. Postburn serum, especially when collected during the first 24 hours following burn injury, inhibited in vitro CSF production by normal human peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Pre-incubation of postburn serum with an LF antibody restored normal CSF production. These data suggest that LF may play an important role in the regulation of postburn granulopoiesis.

  7. Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) transiently suppresses mitogen-stimulated T-cell proliferative response

    PubMed Central

    Reyes, E; García-Castro, I; Esquivel, F; Hornedo, J; Cortes-Funes, H; Solovera, J; Alvarez-Mon, M

    1999-01-01

    Granulocyte colony-stimulation factor (G-CSF) is a cytokine that selectively promotes growth and maturation of neutrophils and may modulate the cytokine response to inflammatory stimuli. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of G-CSF on ex vivo peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) functions. Ten patients with breast cancer were included in a clinical trial in which r-metHuG-CSF was administrered daily for 5 days to mobilize peripheral blood stem cells. Ten healthy women were also included as controls. Our data show that G-CSF treatment induces an increase in peripheral blood leucocyte, neutrophil, lymphocyte and monocyte counts. We have found a modulation in the percentages of CD19+, CD45+CD14+, CD4+CD45RA+ and CD4+CD45RO+ cells in PBMC fractions during G-CSF treatment. We have also found a significant reduction in the proliferative response of PBMC to mitogenic stimulation that reverted 14 days after the fifth and the last dose of G-CSF. Furthermore, it was not associated with significant changes in the pattern of cytokine production. The mechanism of this immunoregulatory effect is probably indirect since G-CSF receptor has not been found in T lymphocytes. This mechanism and its potential clinical applications remain to be elucidated. © 1999 Cancer Research Campaign PMID:10390001

  8. Peripheral blood morphologic changes after high-dose antineoplastic chemotherapy and recombinant human granulocyte colony-stimulating factor administration.

    PubMed

    Kerrigan, D P; Castillo, A; Foucar, K; Townsend, K; Neidhart, J

    1989-09-01

    The peripheral blood morphologic findings in 17 patients with cancer who had received high-dose cytotoxic chemotherapy followed by recombinant human-granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (rh-GCSF) were reviewed and compared with a control group of patients who received only high-dose chemotherapy. Both groups showed dysmyelopoiesis (abnormal granulation and nuclear lobulation) in the granulocytic series during the period of bone marrow recovery that followed the cytotoxic chemotherapy. Most of these morphologic abnormalities were more prominent in the rh-GCSF-treated group. Monocytic cells in both groups showed prominent vacuolation and immature nuclei. The percentages and absolute numbers of large granular lymphocytes were increased in the rh-GCSF group compared with the control group. No quantitative or qualitative abnormalities of eosinophilic or basophilic granulocytes were detected in either group. Both groups showed nonspecific red blood cell abnormalities, and large platelets were present in half of the control group smears. This report provides the first detailed peripheral blood morphologic description in patients treated with rh-GCSF and high-dose chemotherapy.

  9. Soluble complement receptor 1 is increased in patients with leukemia and after administration of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor.

    PubMed

    Sadallah, S; Lach, E; Schwarz, S; Gratwohl, A; Spertini, O; Schifferli, J A

    1999-01-01

    Complement receptor type 1 is expressed by erythrocytes and most leukocytes. A soluble form is shed from the leukocytes and found in plasma (sCR1). sCR1 is a powerful inhibitor of complement. We report an increased sCR1 in the plasma of leukemia patients, up to levels producing measurable complement inhibition. Half of the 180 patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML), acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), and chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) had sCR1 levels above the normal range. The highest levels were observed in T-ALL (17 patients). The complement function of a T-ALL serum was improved by blocking sCR1 with a specific mAb (3D9). Measurements in 16 peripheral stein cell donors before and after granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) administration showed an increase in sCR1 (before, 43.8+/-15.4; at day 5, 118.3+/-44.7 ng/mL; P < 0.0001). This increase paralleled the increase in total leukocyte counts and was concomitant with de novo leukocyte mRNA CR1 expression in all three individuals tested. Whether pharmacological intervention may be used to up-regulate sCR1 so as to inhibit complement in vivo should be further investigated.

  10. Interleukin 1 stimulates fibroblasts to produce granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating activity and prostaglandin E2.

    PubMed Central

    Zucali, J R; Dinarello, C A; Oblon, D J; Gross, M A; Anderson, L; Weiner, R S

    1986-01-01

    Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating activity (GM-CSA) can be produced by a variety of normal cell types including mononuclear phagocytes, activated T lymphocytes, endothelial cells, and fibroblasts. Recent evidence shows that a major role of the monocyte-macrophage is the recruitment of environmental cells, i.e., fibroblasts, to produce GM-CSA. In this study we have identified interleukin 1 (IL-1) as a monokine that stimulates fibroblasts to produce and release GM-CSA and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2). Both purified human monocyte-derived IL-1 and human recombinant IL-1 (10(-10) M) can be substituted for monocyte-conditioned medium in stimulating fibroblast GM-CSA and PGE2 production. Both forms of IL-1 stimulate fibroblasts to produce GM-CSA and PGE2 in a dose-dependent fashion. The fibroblast-stimulating activity found in monocyte-conditioned medium was completely blocked by anti-IL-1. We conclude that monocytes produce IL-1, and that monocyte-derived IL-1 induces fibroblasts to produce GM-CSA and PGE2. PMID:3486886

  11. Antifungal activity of recombinant human macrophage colony-stimulating factor in models of acute and chronic candidiasis in the rat.

    PubMed

    Vitt, C R; Fidler, J M; Ando, D; Zimmerman, R J; Aukerman, S L

    1994-02-01

    Models of acute and chronic candidiasis were developed in Fischer 344 rats to evaluate the therapeutic efficacy of recombinant human macrophage colony-stimulating factor (rhM-CSF) alone and in combination with the antifungal agent fluconazole. In the acute model, rats were challenged by intravenous injection with 2 x 10(6) Candida albicans, approximately 4 times the LD50. Daily subcutaneous (sc) bolus injections of rhM-CSF for 10 days plus a single sc bolus dose of 0.3 mg/kg of fluconazole improved the median survival time from 5 days (32% survival) with fluconazole alone to > 30 days (88% survival) in the rhM-CSF- and fluconazole-treated rats. In the chronic model, daily sc bolus injections of rhM-CSF for 10 days plus a single sc bolus dose of 1.0 mg/kg of fluconazole decreased the median titer of C. albicans cultured from the kidneys by 10-fold at 15 and 30 days after infection. These studies showed that rhM-CSF treatment improved the therapeutic outcome in both the acute and chronic rat model of candidiasis when used with fluconazole, a standard fungistatic agent.

  12. Effects of a granulocyte colony stimulating factor, Neulasta, in mini pigs exposed to total body proton irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanzari, Jenine K.; Krigsfeld, Gabriel S.; Shuman, Anne L.; Diener, Antonia K.; Lin, Liyong; Mai, Wilfried; Kennedy, Ann R.

    2015-04-01

    Astronauts could be exposed to solar particle event (SPE) radiation, which is comprised mostly of proton radiation. Proton radiation is also a treatment option for certain cancers. Both astronauts and clinical patients exposed to ionizing radiation are at risk for loss of white blood cells (WBCs), which are the body's main defense against infection. In this report, the effect of Neulasta treatment, a granulocyte colony stimulating factor, after proton radiation exposure is discussed. Mini pigs exposed to total body proton irradiation at a dose of 2 Gy received 4 treatments of either Neulasta or saline injections. Peripheral blood cell counts and thromboelastography parameters were recorded up to 30 days post-irradiation. Neulasta significantly improved WBC loss, specifically neutrophils, in irradiated animals by approximately 60% three days after the first injection, compared to the saline treated, irradiated animals. Blood cell counts quickly decreased after the last Neulasta injection, suggesting a transient effect on WBC stimulation. Statistically significant changes in hemostasis parameters were observed after proton radiation exposure in both the saline and Neulasta treated irradiated groups, as well as internal organ complications such as pulmonary changes. In conclusion, Neulasta treatment temporarily alleviates proton radiation-induced WBC loss, but has no effect on altered hemostatic responses.

  13. Structure of the chromosomal gene for granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor: comparison of the mouse and human genes.

    PubMed Central

    Miyatake, S; Otsuka, T; Yokota, T; Lee, F; Arai, K

    1985-01-01

    A cDNA clone that expresses granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) activity in COS-7 cells has been isolated from a pcD library prepared from mRNA derived from concanavalin A-activated mouse helper T cell clones. Based on homology with the mouse GM-CSF cDNA sequence, the mouse GM-CSF gene was isolated. The human GM-CSF gene was also isolated based on homology with the human GM-CSF cDNA sequence. The nucleotide sequences determined for the genes and their flanking regions revealed that both the mouse and human GM-CSF genes are composed of three introns and four exons. The organization of the mouse and human GM-CSF genes are highly homologous and strong sequence homology between the two genes is found both in the coding and non-coding regions. A 'TATA'-like sequence was found 20-25 bp upstream from the transcription initiation site. In the 5'-flanking region, there is a highly homologous region extending 330 bp upstream of the putative TATA box. This sequence may play a role in regulation of expression of the GM-CSF gene. These structures are compared with those of different lymphokine genes and their regulatory regions. Images Fig. 2. Fig. 6. PMID:3876930

  14. Granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor: Evaluation of biopharmaceutical formulations by stability-indicating RP-LC method and bioassay.

    PubMed

    Leal, Diogo Paim; Souto, Ricardo Bizogne; Schutkoski, Renato; Bergamo, Ana Cláudia; Dalmora, Sérgio Luiz

    2011-07-01

    The granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) is a cytokine that regulates the proliferation and differentiation of hematopoietic cells and activates granulocytes and macrophages. A reversed-phase liquid chromatography (RP-LC) method was validated for the assessing of the stability of non-glycosylated recombinant rhGM-CSF (Molgramostim) in biopharmaceutical formulations. The RP-LC method was carried out on a Jupiter C(4) column (250 mm × 4.6 mm i.d.), maintained at 45 °C. The mobile phase A consisted of 0.1% TFA and the mobile phase B was acetonitrile with 0.1% TFA in acetonitrile, run at a flow rate of 1 mL/min, and using photodiode array (PDA) detection at 214 nm. Chromatographic separation was obtained with a retention time of 29.2 min, and was linear over the concentration range of 2-300 μg/mL (r(2) = 0.9992). Specificity was established in degradation studies. Moreover, the in vitro cytotoxicity test of the degraded products showed significant differences (p < 0.05). The method was applied to the assessment of rhGM-CSF and related proteins in biopharmaceutical dosage forms, and the results were correlated to those of a bioassay. It is concluded that the employment of RP-LC in conjunction with current methods allows a great improvement in monitoring stability, quality control and thereby assures the therapeutic efficacy.

  15. Receptor-Type Protein-Tyrosine Phosphatase ζ and Colony Stimulating Factor-1 Receptor in the Intestine: Cellular Expression and Cytokine- and Chemokine Responses by Interleukin-34 and Colony Stimulating Factor-1

    PubMed Central

    Zwicker, Stephanie; Bureik, Daniela; Bosma, Madeleen; Martinez, Gisele Lago; Almer, Sven

    2016-01-01

    Differential intestinal expression of the macrophage growth factors colony stimulating factor-1 (CSF-1), interleukin (IL)-34, and their shared CSF-1 receptor (CSF-1R) in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) has been shown. Diverse expression between CSF-1 and IL-34, suggest that IL-34 may signal via an alternate receptor. Receptor-type protein-tyrosine phosphatase ζ (PTPRZ1, RPTP-ζ), an additional IL-34 receptor, was recently identified. Here, we aimed to assess PTPRZ1 expression in IBD and non-IBD intestinal biopsies. Further, we aimed to investigate cellular PTPRZ1 and CSF-1R expression, and cytokine- and chemokine responses by IL-34 and CSF-1. The expression of PTPRZ1 was higher in non-IBD colon compared to ileum. PTPRZ1 expression was not altered with inflammation in IBD, however, correlated to IL34, CSF1, and CSF1R. The expression patterns of PTPRZ1 and CSF-1R differed in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), monocytes, macrophages, and intestinal epithelial cell line. PBMCs and monocytes of the same donors responded differently to IL-34 and CSF-1 with altered expression of tumor-necrosis factor α (TNF-α), IL-1β, interferon γ (IFN-γ), IL-13, IL-8, and monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1) levels. This study shows that PTPRZ1 was expressed in bowel tissue. Furthermore, CSF-1R protein was detected in an intestinal epithelial cell line and donor dependently in primary PBMCs, monocytes, and macrophages, and first hints also suggest an expression in these cells for PTPRZ1, which may mediate IL-34 and CSF-1 actions. PMID:27898738

  16. Receptor-Type Protein-Tyrosine Phosphatase ζ and Colony Stimulating Factor-1 Receptor in the Intestine: Cellular Expression and Cytokine- and Chemokine Responses by Interleukin-34 and Colony Stimulating Factor-1.

    PubMed

    Zwicker, Stephanie; Bureik, Daniela; Bosma, Madeleen; Martinez, Gisele Lago; Almer, Sven; Boström, Elisabeth A

    2016-01-01

    Differential intestinal expression of the macrophage growth factors colony stimulating factor-1 (CSF-1), interleukin (IL)-34, and their shared CSF-1 receptor (CSF-1R) in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) has been shown. Diverse expression between CSF-1 and IL-34, suggest that IL-34 may signal via an alternate receptor. Receptor-type protein-tyrosine phosphatase ζ (PTPRZ1, RPTP-ζ), an additional IL-34 receptor, was recently identified. Here, we aimed to assess PTPRZ1 expression in IBD and non-IBD intestinal biopsies. Further, we aimed to investigate cellular PTPRZ1 and CSF-1R expression, and cytokine- and chemokine responses by IL-34 and CSF-1. The expression of PTPRZ1 was higher in non-IBD colon compared to ileum. PTPRZ1 expression was not altered with inflammation in IBD, however, correlated to IL34, CSF1, and CSF1R. The expression patterns of PTPRZ1 and CSF-1R differed in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), monocytes, macrophages, and intestinal epithelial cell line. PBMCs and monocytes of the same donors responded differently to IL-34 and CSF-1 with altered expression of tumor-necrosis factor α (TNF-α), IL-1β, interferon γ (IFN-γ), IL-13, IL-8, and monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1) levels. This study shows that PTPRZ1 was expressed in bowel tissue. Furthermore, CSF-1R protein was detected in an intestinal epithelial cell line and donor dependently in primary PBMCs, monocytes, and macrophages, and first hints also suggest an expression in these cells for PTPRZ1, which may mediate IL-34 and CSF-1 actions.

  17. Vaccination with Irradiated Autologous Melanoma Cells Engineered to Secrete Human Granulocyte--Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor Generates Potent Antitumor Immunity in Patients with Metastatic Melanoma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soiffer, Robert; Lynch, Thomas; Mihm, Martin; Jung, Ken; Rhuda, Catherine; Schmollinger, Jan C.; Hodi, F. Stephen; Liebster, Laura; Lam, Prudence; Mentzer, Steven; Singer, Samuel; Tanabe, Kenneth K.; Benedict Cosimi, A.; Duda, Rosemary; Sober, Arthur; Bhan, Atul; Daley, John; Neuberg, Donna; Parry, Gordon; Rokovich, Joseph; Richards, Laurie; Drayer, Jan; Berns, Anton; Clift, Shirley; Cohen, Lawrence K.; Mulligan, Richard C.; Dranoff, Glenn

    1998-10-01

    We conducted a Phase I clinical trial investigating the biologic activity of vaccination with irradiated autologous melanoma cells engineered to secrete human granulocyte--macrophage colony-stimulating factor in patients with metastatic melanoma. Immunization sites were intensely infiltrated with T lymphocytes, dendritic cells, macrophages, and eosinophils in all 21 evaluable patients. Although metastatic lesions resected before vaccination were minimally infiltrated with cells of the immune system in all patients, metastatic lesions resected after vaccination were densely infiltrated with T lymphocytes and plasma cells and showed extensive tumor destruction (at least 80%), fibrosis, and edema in 11 of 16 patients examined. Antimelanoma cytotoxic T cell and antibody responses were associated with tumor destruction. These results demonstrate that vaccination with irradiated autologous melanoma cells engineered to secrete granulocyte--macrophage colony-stimulating factor stimulates potent antitumor immunity in humans with metastatic melanoma.

  18. Multimodal Approaches for Regenerative Stroke Therapies: Combination of Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor with Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cells is Not Superior to G-CSF Alone.

    PubMed

    Balseanu, Adrian Tudor; Buga, Ana-Maria; Catalin, Bogdan; Wagner, Daniel-Christoph; Boltze, Johannes; Zagrean, Ana-Maria; Reymann, Klaus; Schaebitz, Wolf; Popa-Wagner, Aurel

    2014-01-01

    Attractive therapeutic strategies to enhance post-stroke recovery of aged brains include methods of cellular therapy that can enhance the endogenous restorative mechanisms of the injured brain. Since stroke afflicts mostly the elderly, it is highly desirable to test the efficacy of cell therapy in the microenvironment of aged brains that is generally refractory to regeneration. In particular, stem cells from the bone marrow allow an autologous transplantation approach that can be translated in the near future to the clinical practice. Such a bone marrow-derived therapy includes the grafting of stem cells as well as the delayed induction of endogenous stem cell mobilization and homing by the stem cell mobilizer granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF). We tested the hypothesis that grafting of bone marrow-derived pre-differentiated mesenchymal cells (BM-MSCs) in G-CSF-treated animals improves the long-term functional outcome in aged rodents. To this end, G-CSF alone (50 μg/kg) or in combination with a single dose (10(6) cells) of rat BM MSCs was administered intravenously to Sprague-Dawley rats at 6 h after transient occlusion (90 min) of the middle cerebral artery. Infarct volume was measured by magnetic resonance imaging at 3 and 48 days post-stroke and additionally by immunhistochemistry at day 56. Functional recovery was tested during the entire post-stroke survival period of 56 days. Daily treatment for post-stroke aged rats with G-CSF led to a robust and consistent improvement of neurological function after 28 days. The combination therapy also led to robust angiogenesis in the formerly infarct core and beyond in the "islet of regeneration." However, G-CSF + BM MSCs may not impact at all on the spatial reference-memory task or infarct volume and therefore did not further improve the post-stroke recovery. We suggest that in a real clinical practice involving older post-stroke patients, successful regenerative therapies would have to be

  19. Efficient Process Development of Recombinant Human Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor (rh-GCSF) Production in Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Babaeipour, Valiollah; Khanchezar, Sirwan; Mofid, Mohammad Reza; Pesaran Hagi Abbas, Mahdi

    2015-01-01

    Background: The protein hormone granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (GCSF) stimulates the production of white blood cells and plays an important role in medical treatment of cancer patients. Methods: An efficient process was developed for heterologous expression of the human GCSF in E. coli BL21 (DE3). The feeding rate was adjusted to achieve the maximum attainable specific growth rate under critical value. In this method, specific growth rate was maintained at the maximum value of 0.55 h-1 at the beginning of feeding to 0.4 h-1 at the induction time. Recombinant human GCSF (rh-GCSF) was produced as inclusion body. At first, inclusion bodies were released by cell disruption and then washed, solubilized and refolded. Finally, the rh-GCSF was purified by cation exchange chromatography. Results: Obviouly, higher specific growth rate decreases process time and consequently increases productivity. The final concentration of biomass and GCSF was achieved 126 g DCW.l-1 and 32.1 g.l-1. Also, the final specific yield (YP/X) and total productivity of rh-GCSF were obtained 254 mg.g-1 DCW and 1.83 g.l-1.h-1, respectively. According to the available data, this is one of the highest YP/X and productivity that has been reported for any human protein which is expressed in E. coli. Recovery yield of purification process was %40 and purity of recombinant protein was over than 99%. The circular dichroism spectra of purified rh-GCSF, Neupogen® and PD-Grastim showed that all proteins have a similar secondary structure. Conclusion: Modified exponential feeding strategy for fed-batch cultivation of recombinant E. coli, results in minimum fed-batch duration and maximum productivity. PMID:25864815

  20. Role of macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF)-dependent macrophages in gastric ulcer healing in mice.

    PubMed

    Kawahara, Y; Nakase, Y; Isomoto, Y; Matsuda, N; Amagase, K; Kato, S; Takeuchi, K

    2011-08-01

    We examined the role of macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF)-dependent macrophages in the healing of gastric ulcers in mice. Male M-CSF-deficient (op/op) and M-CSF-expressing heterozygote (+/?) mice were used. Gastric ulcers were induced by thermal cauterization under ether anesthesia, and healing was observed for 14 days after ulceration. The numbers of macrophages and microvessels in the gastric mucosa were determined immunohistochemically with anti-CD68 and anti-CD31 antibodies, respectively. Expression of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, cyclooxygenase (COX)-2, and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) mRNA was determined via real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), and the mucosal content of prostaglandin (PG) E(2) was determined via enzyme immunoassay on day 10 after ulceration. The healing of gastric ulcers was significantly delayed in op/op mice compared with +/? mice. Further, significantly fewer macrophages were observed in the normal gastric mucosa of op/op mice than in +/? mice. Ulcer induction caused a marked accumulation of macrophages around the ulcer base in +/? mice, but this response was attenuated in op/op mice. The mucosal PGE(2) content as well as the expression of COX-2, VEGF, and TNF-α mRNA were all upregulated in the ulcerated area of +/? mice but significantly suppressed in op/op mice. The degree of vascularization in the ulcerated area was significantly lower in op/op mice than in +/? mice. Taken together, these results suggest that M-CSF-dependent macrophages play an important role in the healing of gastric ulcers, and that this action may be associated with angiogenesis promoted by upregulation of COX-2/PGE(2) production.

  1. Herbal medicine "sho-saiko-to" induces in vitro granulocyte colony-stimulating factor production on peripheral blood mononuclear cells.

    PubMed

    Yamashiki, M; Asakawa, M; Kayaba, Y; Kosaka, Y; Nishimura, A

    1992-01-01

    The herbal medicine "Sho-saiko-to (Xiao-Chai-Hu-Tang)" has been used in China for about 3000 years for the treatment of pyretic diseases. This medicine is now available as one of the prescribing drugs approved by the Ministry of Health and Welfare of Japan, and has also been widely used for patients with chronic viral liver disease as one of biological response modifiers in the field of Japan's Western Medicine. However, its mode of action has not been fully described. In the present in vitro study, we added "Sho-saiko-to" (TJ-9, Tsumura, Tokyo) to the culture of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) obtained from healthy volunteers, and observed a dose-dependent increase in the production of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF). The same experiment was conducted using other herbal medicines "Dai-saiko-to" (TJ-8) and "Saiko-keishi-to" (TJ-10) which showed similar effects, or "Sho-seiryu-to" (TJ-19) which consists of very different compounds and shows different efficacy. The increases of G-CSF production were similar when "Sho-saiko-to" (TJ-9) or one of the 2 reference drugs (TJ-8 and 10) was added, whereas the increase when the control drug "Sho-seiryu-to" (TJ-19) was added, was quite small. This result shows that G-CSF induction is not a common effect of herbal medicines, but a specific effect of TJ-8, 9, and 10. Among these 3 drugs the increase produced by "Sho-saiko-to" was the largest. Based on this result, we conclude that administration of "Sho-saiko-to" may be useful not only for the treatment of chronic liver disease, but also for malignant diseases and acute infectious diseases where G-CSF is efficacious.

  2. Adrenaline administration promotes the efficiency of granulocyte colony stimulating factor-mediated hematopoietic stem and progenitor cell mobilization in mice.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chong; Cao, Jiang; Song, Xuguang; Zeng, Lingyu; Li, Zhenyu; Li, Yong; Xu, Kailin

    2013-01-01

    A high dose of granulocyte colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) is widely used to mobilize hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPC), but G-CSF is relatively inefficient and may cause adverse effects. Recently, adrenaline has been found to play important roles in HSPC mobilization. In this study, we explored whether adrenaline combined with G-CSF could induce HSPC mobilization in a mouse model. Mice were treated with adrenaline and either a high or low dose of G-CSF alone or in combination. Peripheral blood HSPC counts were evaluated by flow cytometry. Levels of bone marrow SDF-1 were measured by ELISA, the transcription of CXCR4 and SDF-1 was measured by real-time RT-PCR, and CXCR4 protein was detected by Western blot. Our results showed that adrenaline alone fails to mobilize HSPCs into the peripheral blood; however, when G-CSF and adrenaline are combined, the WBC counts and percentages of HSPCs are significantly higher compared to those in mice that received G-CSF alone. The combined use of adrenaline and G-CSF not only accelerated HSPC mobilization, but also enabled the efficient mobilization of HSPCs into the peripheral blood at lower doses of G-CSF. Adrenaline/G-CSF treatment also extensively downregulated levels of SDF-1 and CXCR4 in mouse bone marrow. These results demonstrated that adrenaline combined with G-CSF can induce HSPC mobilization by down-regulating the CXCR4/SDF-1 axis, indicating that the use of adrenaline may enable the use of reduced dosages or durations of G-CSF treatment, minimizing G-CSF-associated complications.

  3. Biweekly docetaxel and vinorelbine with granulocyte colony-stimulating factor support for patients with anthracycline-resistant metastatic breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Bernal, Amalia; Cruz, Juan Jesús; Olaverri, Amaya; Arizcun, Alberto; Martín, Teresa; Rodríguez, Cesar A; Martín, Germán; Fonseca, Emilio; Sánchez, Pedro

    2005-01-01

    This phase II trial evaluated the efficacy and toxicity of vinorelbine 25 mg/m2 plus docetaxel 60 mg2/m administered on day 1, every 2 weeks with granulocyte colony-stimulating factor support (G-CSF, 5 microg/kg/day, days 3-7) as primary prophylaxis in patients with histologically confirmed metastatic breast cancer (MBC) and previously treated with anthracyclines in the adjuvant or in the first-line setting. A total of 48 patients received 352 cycles (median 8, range 2-10). All patients were included in the efficacy and safety evaluation on an intent-to-treat analysis. Eight patients (17%) showed a complete response and 14 patients (29%) showed a partial response. Overall response rate was 46% [95% confidence interval (CI) 33-60]. The median duration of response was 10.0 months. With a median follow-up of 18.0 months, the median time to progression was 11.9 months and the median overall survival was 27.1 months. The most frequently reported grade 3/4 hematological toxicity was neutropenia (19% of patients, 4% of cycles). Febrile neutropenia was reported in six patients (13%) and 7 cycles (2%), but no toxic deaths were reported. The most common grade 3/4 non-hematological toxicity was asthenia (17% of patients, 6% of cycles) and nail toxicity (15% of patients, 3% of cycles). In conclusion, biweekly docetaxel plus vinorelbine with G-CSF support is active and well tolerated as chemotherapy for patients with MBC resistant to anthracyclines. G-CSF support is recommended for lowering the incidence and severity of neutropenia and febrile neutropenia.

  4. Biologic Activity of Autologous, Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony Stimulating Factor Secreting Alveolar Soft Parts Sarcoma and Clear Cell Sarcoma Vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Goldberg, John; Fisher, David E.; Demetri, George D.; Neuberg, Donna; Allsop, Stephen A.; Fonseca, Catia; Nakazaki, Yukoh; Nemer, David; Raut, Chandrajit P.; George, Suzanne; Morgan, Jeffrey A.; Wagner, Andrew J.; Freeman, Gordon J.; Ritz, Jerome; Lezcano, Cecilia; Mihm, Martin; Canning, Christine; Hodi, F. Stephen; Dranoff, Glenn

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Alveolar soft parts sarcoma (ASPS) and clear cell sarcoma (CCS) are rare mesenchymal malignancies driven by chromosomal translocations that activate members of the microphthalmia transcription factor (MITF) family. However, in contrast to malignant melanoma, little is known about their immunogenicity. To learn more about the host response to ASPS and CCS, we conducted a phase I clinical trial of vaccination with irradiated, autologous sarcoma cells engineered by adenoviral mediated gene transfer to secrete granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF). Experimental Design Metastatic tumors from ASPS and CCS patients were resected, processed to single cell suspensions, transduced with a replication defective adenoviral vector encoding GM-CSF, and irradiated. Immunizations were administered subcutaneously and intradermally weekly times three and then every other week. Results Vaccines were successfully manufactured for 11 of the 12 enrolled patients. Eleven subjects received from 3 to 13 immunizations. Toxicities were restricted to grade 1–2 skin reactions at inoculation sites. Vaccination elicited local dendritic cell infiltrates and stimulated T cell mediated delayed type-hypersensitivity reactions to irradiated, autologous tumor cells. Antibody responses to tissue-type plasminogen activator (tTPA) and angiopoietins-1/2 were detected. Tumor biopsies showed programmed death-1 (PD-1) positive CD8+ T cells in association with PD ligand-1 (PD-L1) expressing sarcoma cells. No tumor regressions were observed. Conclusions Vaccination with irradiated, GM-CSF secreting autologous sarcoma cell vaccines is feasible, safe, and biologically active. Concurrent targeting of angiogenic cytokines and antagonism of the PD-1 negative regulatory pathway might intensify immune-mediated tumor destruction. PMID:25805798

  5. Stem cell factor and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor exhibit therapeutic effects in a mouse model of CADASIL.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiao-Yun; Gonzalez-Toledo, Maria E; Fagan, Austin; Duan, Wei-Ming; Liu, Yanying; Zhang, Siyuan; Li, Bin; Piao, Chun-Shu; Nelson, Lila; Zhao, Li-Ru

    2015-01-01

    Cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy (CADASIL), a Notch3 dominant mutation-induced cerebral small vascular disease, is characterized by progressive degeneration of vascular smooth muscle cells (vSMCs) of small arteries in the brain, leading to recurrent ischemic stroke, vascular dementia and death. To date, no treatment can stop or delay the progression of this disease. Herein, we determined the therapeutic effects of stem cell factor (SCF) in combination with granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) (SCF+G-CSF) in a mouse model of CADASIL carrying the human mutant Notch3 gene. SCF+G-CSF was subcutaneously administered for 5 days and repeated 4 times with 1-4 month intervals. We found through water maze testing that SCF+G-CSF treatment improved cognitive function. SCF+G-CSF also attenuated vSMC degeneration in small arteries, increased cerebral blood vascular density, and inhibited apoptosis in CADASIL mice. We also discovered that loss of cerebral capillary endothelial cells and neural stem cells/neural progenitor cells (NSCs/NPCs) occurred in CADASIL mice. SCF+G-CSF treatment inhibited the CADASIL-induced cell loss in the endothelia and NSCs/NPCs and promoted neurogenesis. In an in vitro model of apoptosis, SCF+G-CSF prevented apoptotic cell death in vSMCs through AKT signaling and by inhibiting caspase-3 activity. These data suggest that SCF+G-CSF restricts the pathological progression of CADASIL. This study offers new insights into developing therapeutic strategies for CADASIL.

  6. Effect of recombinant human macrophage colony-stimulating factor 1 on immunopathology of experimental brucellosis in mice.

    PubMed Central

    Doyle, A G; Halliday, W J; Barnett, C J; Dunn, T L; Hume, D A

    1992-01-01

    Brucella abortus injected into CBA mice replicated primarily in the spleen and liver, reaching a peak bacterial count in both organs about 7 days postinfection. The organism was eliminated from the liver but declined to a chronic phase in the spleen. The infection caused hepatosplenomegaly. An influx of macrophages into the two organs was monitored by quantitative Northern (RNA blot) analysis of the macrophage-specific marker lysozyme mRNA. Lysozyme mRNA was detectable in spleen and increased three- to fourfold during infection. In liver, lysozyme mRNA was initially undetectable, but at about the peak of infection it reached a level comparable to that in the spleen. Macrophage colony-stimulating factor 1 (CSF-1) has been reported to be elevated in the circulation of animals infected with B. abortus and is known to stimulate monocytopoiesis. To investigate the role of CSF-1 in pathogenesis, we studied the effect of further increasing the CSF-1 concentration by administration of recombinant human CSF-1. Since the infection is characterized by several distinct phases, recombinant human CSF-1 was administered at defined times relative to these phases. Pronounced effects were observed only when CSF-1 administration was begun during the developing acute phase. The consequences were decreased bacterial numbers in the spleen but an increase in the liver, reduced antibody generation, and increased hepatosplenomegaly. A feature of many chronic intracellular infections is immunosuppression. B. abortus caused a substantial diminution of responsiveness of spleen cells to T-cell mitogens, particularly concanavalin A. This action was mimicked by CSF-1 treatment of the animals prior to spleen cell isolation. The results suggest that CSF-1 plays a role in macrophage recruitment in brucellosis and that recruited macrophages contribute to the immunopathology and immunosuppression. PMID:1548070

  7. Kinetics of human hemopoietic cells after in vivo administration of granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor.

    PubMed Central

    Aglietta, M; Piacibello, W; Sanavio, F; Stacchini, A; Aprá, F; Schena, M; Mossetti, C; Carnino, F; Caligaris-Cappio, F; Gavosto, F

    1989-01-01

    The kinetic changes induced by granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) on hemopoietic cells were assessed in physiological conditions by administering GM-CSF (8 micrograms/kg per d) for 3 d to nine patients with solid tumors and normal bone marrow (BM), before chemotherapy. GM-CSF increased the number of circulating granulocytes and monocytes; platelets, erythrocytes, lymphocyte number, and subsets were unmodified. GM-CSF increased the percentage of BM S phase BFU-E (from 32 +/- 7 to 79 +/- 16%), day 14 colony-forming unit granulocyte-macrophage (CFU-GM) (from 43 +/- 20 to 82 +/- 11%) and day 7 CFU-GM (from 41 +/- 14 to 56 +/- 20%). The percentage of BM myeloblasts, promyelocytes, and myelocytes in S phase increased from 26 +/- 14 to 41 +/- 6%, and that of erythroblasts increased from 25 +/- 12 to 30 +/- 12%. This suggests that GM-CSF activates both erythroid and granulomonopoietic progenitors but that, among the morphologically recognizable BM precursors, only the granulomonopoietic lineage is a direct target of the molecule. GM-CSF increased the birth rate of cycling cells from 1.3 to 3.4 cells %/h and decreased the duration of the S phase from 14.3 to 9.1 h and the cell cycle time from 86 to 26 h. After treatment discontinuation, the number of circulating granulocytes and monocytes rapidly fell. The proportion of S phase BM cells dropped to values lower than pretreatment levels, suggesting a period of relative refractoriness to cell cycle-active antineoplastic agents. PMID:2643633

  8. Contribution of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor to the acute mobilization of endothelial precursor cells by vascular disrupting agents.

    PubMed

    Shaked, Yuval; Tang, Terence; Woloszynek, Jill; Daenen, Laura G; Man, Shan; Xu, Ping; Cai, Shi-Rong; Arbeit, Jeffrey M; Voest, Emile E; Chaplin, David J; Smythe, Jon; Harris, Adrian; Nathan, Paul; Judson, Ian; Rustin, Gordon; Bertolini, Francesco; Link, Daniel C; Kerbel, Robert S

    2009-10-01

    Vascular disrupting agents (VDA) cause acute shutdown of abnormal established tumor vasculature, followed by massive intratumoral hypoxia and necrosis. However, a viable rim of tumor tissue invariably remains from which tumor regrowth rapidly resumes. We have recently shown that an acute systemic mobilization and homing of bone marrow-derived circulating endothelial precursor (CEP) cells could promote tumor regrowth following treatment with either a VDA or certain chemotherapy drugs. The molecular mediators of this systemic reactive host process are unknown. Here, we show that following treatment of mice with OXi-4503, a second-generation potent prodrug derivative of combretastatin-A4 phosphate, rapid increases in circulating plasma vascular endothelial growth factor, stromal derived factor-1 (SDF-1), and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) levels are detected. With the aim of determining whether G-CSF is involved in VDA-induced CEP mobilization, mutant G-CSF-R(-/-) mice were treated with OXi-4503. We found that as opposed to wild-type controls, G-CSF-R(-/-) mice failed to mobilize CEPs or show induction of SDF-1 plasma levels. Furthermore, Lewis lung carcinomas grown in such mice treated with OXi-4503 showed greater levels of necrosis compared with tumors treated in wild-type mice. Evidence for rapid elevations in circulating plasma G-CSF, vascular endothelial growth factor, and SDF-1 were also observed in patients with VDA (combretastatin-A4 phosphate)-treated cancer. These results highlight the possible effect of drug-induced G-CSF on tumor regrowth following certain cytotoxic drug therapies, in this case using a VDA, and hence G-CSF as a possible therapeutic target.

  9. Total absence of colony-stimulating factor 1 in the macrophage-deficient osteopetrotic (op/op) mouse.

    PubMed

    Wiktor-Jedrzejczak, W; Bartocci, A; Ferrante, A W; Ahmed-Ansari, A; Sell, K W; Pollard, J W; Stanley, E R

    1990-06-01

    Osteopetrotic (op/op) mutant mice suffer from congenital osteopetrosis due to a severe deficiency of osteoclasts. Furthermore, the total number of mononuclear phagocytes is extremely low in affected mice. Serum, 11 tissues, and different cell and organ conditioned media from op/op mice were shown to be devoid of biologically active colony-stimulating factor 1 (CSF-1), whereas all of these preparations from littermate control +/+ and +/op mice contained the growth factor. The deficiency was specific for CSF-1 in that serum or conditioned media from op/op mice possessed elevated levels of at least three other macrophage growth factors. Partial correction of the op/op defect was observed following intraperitoneal implantation of diffusion chambers containing L929 cells, which in culture produce CSF-1 as their sole macrophage growth factor. No rearrangement of the CSF-1 gene in op/op mice was detected by Southern analysis. However, in contrast to control lung fibroblasts, which contained 4.6- and 2.3-kilobase CSF-1 mRNAs, only the 4.6-kilobase species was detected in op/op cells. An alteration in the CSF-1 gene is strongly implicated as the primary defect in op/op mice because they do not contain detectable CSF-1, their defect is correctable by administration of CSF-1, the op locus and the CSF-1 gene map within the same region of mouse chromosome 3, their CSF-1 mRNA biosynthesis is altered, and the op/op phenotype is consistent with the phenotype expected in a CSF-1 deficient mouse.

  10. Colony-stimulating factor-1 plays a major role in the development of reproductive function in male mice.

    PubMed

    Cohen, P E; Hardy, M P; Pollard, J W

    1997-10-01

    Colony-stimulating factor-1 (CSF-1) is the principal regulator of cells of the mononuclear phagocytic lineage that includes monocytes, tissue macrophages, microglia, and osteoclasts. Macrophages are found throughout the reproductive tract of both males and females and have been proposed to act as regulators of fertility at several levels. Mice homozygous for the osteopetrosis mutation (csfm[op]) lack CSF-1 and, consequently, have depleted macrophage numbers. Further analysis has revealed that male csfm(op)/csfm(op) mice have reduced mating ability, low sperm numbers, and 90% lower serum testosterone levels. The present studies show that this low serum testosterone is due to reduced testicular Leydig cell steroidogenesis associated with severe ultrastructural abnormalities characterized by disrupted intracellular membrane structures. In addition, the Leydig cells from csfm(op)/ csfm(op) males have diminished amounts of the steroidogenic enzyme proteins P450 side chain cleavage, 3beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase, and P450 17alpha-hydroxylase-lyase, with associated reductions in the activity of all these steroidogenic enzymes, as well as in 17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase. The CSF-1-deficient males also have reduced serum LH and disruption of the normal testosterone negative feedback response of the hypothalamus, as demonstrated by the failure to increase LH secretion in castrated males and their lack of response to exogenous testosterone. However, these males are responsive to GnRH and LH treatment. These studies have identified a novel role for CSF-1 in the development and/or regulation of the male hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis.

  11. Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor-producing pancreatic anaplastic carcinoma in ascitic fluid at initial diagnosis: A case report.

    PubMed

    Kubota, Nao; Naito, Yoshiki; Kawahara, Akihiko; Taira, Tomoki; Yamaguchi, Tomohiko; Yoshida, Tomoko; Abe, Hideyuki; Takase, Yorihiko; Fukumitsu, Chihiro; Murata, Kazuya; Ishida, Yusuke; Okabe, Yoshinobu; Kimura, Yoshizo; Tanigawa, Masahiko; Mihara, Yutaro; Nakayama, Masamichi; Yamaguchi, Rin; Akiba, Jun; Yano, Hirohisa

    2017-02-10

    Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF)-producing pancreatic tumors are extremely rare. These tumors have an aggressive clinical course and no established treatment. Here, we report an autopsy case of G-CSF-production in pancreatic anaplastic carcinoma (PAC). A 72-year-old woman presented with a large pancreatic head mass and multiple liver metastases. Laboratory data showed leukocytosis (leukocyte count 113.3 × 10(3) /µL) and high serum G-CSF levels (441 pg/mL; normal range: <39.0 pg/mL). The ascitic fluid was submitted to our pathology laboratory at initial diagnosis. Cytopathology showed that smears from the ascitic fluid were highly cellular and contained numerous malignant cells, mainly in loose groupings. Occasional pseudoglandular formations and giant cells were also present. The malignant cells were round, and no spindle-shaped cells were visible. The nuclei were round to ovoid with coarsely granular chromatin and large prominent nucleoli. Upon immunocytochemistry, tumor cells were positive for G-CSF and vimentin; there was no E-cadherin expression. Histopathological examination of the tumor showed a mixed composition of adenocarcinomatous and sarcomatous regions. Upon immunohistochemistry, both components were positive for G-CSF. Few CD34-positive myeloblasts were observed in the bone marrow. Thus, we diagnosed this as a case of G-CSF production in PAC with leukocytosis. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on G-CSF expression immunocytochemically confirmed in PAC. Diagn. Cytopathol. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Development and calibration of a standard for the protein content of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor products.

    PubMed

    Gao, Kai; Rao, Chunming; Tao, Lei; Han, Chunmei; Shi, Xinchang; Wang, Lan; Fan, Wenhong; Yu, Lei; Wang, Junzhi

    2012-03-01

    This collaborative study characterizes a homogeneous standard for the protein content determination of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) products with traceability of the measurement. The Kjeldahl method was used to determine the average protein content of G-CSF bulk as 2.505 mg/ml (95% C.I: 2.467-2.543 mg/ml, GCV 4.0%). Using G-CSF bulk as a traceability benchmark, the protein content of the final freeze-dried standard using reverse phase HPLC (RP-HPLC) was 215.4 μg protein per ampoule (95% C.I: 212.407-218.486 μg/ampoule, GCV 3.4%). A comparative study showed that there was no difference between using Filgrastim CRS (European Pharmacopeia G-CSF reference standard) and freeze-dried homogeneous standard when quantifying G-CSF protein content by RP-HPLC (P > 0.05). However, there were significant differences in the G-CSF protein content obtained using a serum albumin standard by Lowry assay and a G-CSF standard with RP-HPLC. Therefore, use of RP-HPLC with a freeze-dried homogeneous standard would eliminate the systematic errors introduced when using a serum albumin standard because of the differences in protein composition between the standard and the sample. It would also be helpful to use this method to compare the quality of G-CSF biosimilar products in situations where the protein content has been calibrated using various standards.

  13. Inhibition of the colony-stimulating-factor-1 receptor affects the resistance of lung cancer cells to cisplatin

    PubMed Central

    Pass, Harvey I.; Lavilla, Carmencita; Canino, Claudia; Goparaju, Chandra; Preiss, Jordan; Noreen, Samrah; Blandino, Giovanni; Cioce, Mario

    2016-01-01

    In the present work we show that multiple lung cancer cell lines contain cisplatin resistant cell subpopulations expressing the Colony-Stimulating-Factor-Receptor-1 (CSF-1R) and surviving chemotherapy-induced stress. By exploiting siRNA-mediated knock down in vitro and the use of an investigational CSF-1R TKI (JNJ-40346527) in vitro and in vivo, we show that expression and function of the receptor are required for the clonogenicity and chemoresistance of the cell lines. Thus, inhibition of the kinase activity of the receptor reduced the levels of EMT-associated genes, stem cell markers and chemoresistance genes. Additionally, the number of high aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) expressing cells was reduced, consequent to the lack of cisplatin-induced increase of ALDH isoforms. This affected the collective chemoresistance of the treated cultures. Treatment of tumor bearing mice with JNJ-40346527, at pharmacologically relevant doses, produced strong chemo-sensitizing effects in vivo. These anticancer effects correlated with a reduced number of CSF-1Rpos cells, in tumors excised from the treated mice. Depletion of the CD45pos cells within the treated tumors did not, apparently, play a major role in mediating the therapeutic response to the TKI. Thus, lung cancer cells express a functional CSF-1 and CSF-1R duo which mediates pro-tumorigenic effects in vivo and in vitro and can be targeted in a therapeutically relevant way. These observations complement the already known role for the CSF-1R at mediating the pro-tumorigenic properties of tumor-infiltrating immune components. PMID:27486763

  14. Efficacy of LL-37 and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor in a neutropenic murine sepsis due to Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Cirioni, Oscar; Ghiselli, Roberto; Tomasinsig, Linda; Orlando, Fiorenza; Silvestri, Carmela; Skerlavaj, Barbara; Riva, Alessandra; Rocchi, Marco; Saba, Vittorio; Zanetti, Margherita; Scalise, Giorgio; Giacometti, Andrea

    2008-10-01

    A promising therapeutic strategy for the management of severe Pseudomonas infection in neutropenic patients may result from the coadministration of colony-stimulating factors (CSFs) that help maintain immune competence and antimicrobial peptides, a novel generation of adjunctive therapeutic agents with antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory properties. A promising peptide with these properties is LL-37, the only member of the cathelicidin family of antimicrobial peptides found in humans. BALB/c male mice were rendered neutropenic by intraperitoneal administration of cyclophosphamide on days -4 and -2 preinfection. Septic shock was induced at time 0 by intraperitoneal injection of 2x10 colony-forming units of P. aeruginosa American Type Culture Collection (ATCC) 27853. All animals were randomized to receive intravenously isotonic sodium chloride solution, 1 mg/kg of LL-37, 20 mg/kg of imipenem, 0.1 mg/kg of granulocyte CSF (G-CSF), 1 mg/kg of LL-37+0.1 mg/kg of G-CSF, or 20 mg/kg of imipenem+0.1 mg/kg of G-CSF. Lethality and bacterial growth in blood, peritoneum, spleen, liver, and kidney were evaluated. All regimens were significantly superior to controls at reducing the mouse lethality rate and bacterial burden in organs. Particularly, the combination between LL-37 and G-CSF was the most effective in protecting neutropenic mice from the onset of sepsis and in vitro significantly reduced the apoptosis of neutrophils. Combination therapy between LL-37 and G-CSF is a promising therapeutic strategy for the management of severe Pseudomonas infection complicated by neutropenia.

  15. Granulocyte-colony stimulating factor improves Parkinson's disease associated with co-morbid depression: An experimental exploratory study

    PubMed Central

    Prakash, Ajay; Chopra, Kanwaljit; Medhi, Bikash

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: The present study was designed to evaluate the effect of granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) in the treatment of Parkinson's disease (PD), the second most common neurodegenerative disease characterized by muscle and movement disorder, often associated with depression. PD is very difficult to treat. Hence, the present study was aimed to evaluate the effect of G-CSF in PD associated with depression. Materials and Methods: Adult Wistar male rats weighing about 180-250 g were selected and divided into five groups in parallel designed method namely; control group (n = 5); sham operated group (n = 5); Vehicle group (n = 5); G-CSF group (70 μg/kg, s.c.) (n = 5) and L-DOPA group (n = 5). The rats were treated with 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) on day 0 and then treatment was continued for 14 day of L-DOPA/carbidopa, whereas G-CSF (70 μg/kg, s.c.) was given from day 1 to 6. Thereafter, adhesive removal and forced swim tests were conducted to evaluate the behavioral outcome of G-CSF treatment. The finding was correlated and analyzed with Nissl staining findings for the final conclusion. Results: The behavioral parameters were assessed and found to be ameliorate the symptoms of Parkinson's and reduced the depression like behavior in PD. The histological findings were supported the behavioral findings and showed pathological improvement. Conclusion: As a preliminary work, the present study first time suggested that G-CSF have a potential role in PD and associated depression. PMID:24347771

  16. Use of granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor in two children treated with cord blood transplantation.

    PubMed

    Vowels, M R; Tiedemann, K; Lam-Po-Tang, R; Tucker, D P

    1994-01-01

    Cord blood contains stem cells in amounts similar to or slightly less than those present in a bone marrow collection to be used for bone marrow transplantation (BMT). Too few cord blood transplants (CBT) have yet been performed to define the ability to achieve engraftment and the rate of engraftment. Two cord blood transplants have been performed using granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) to hasten engraftment. Two children, aged 5 and 6 years received a CBT using HLA-identical stem cells collected at the birth of a sibling. One child had X-linked lymphoproliferative disease (XLP), and the other, acute lymphoblastic leukemia in second complete remission. One had an ABO and one an Rh blood group mismatch. Conditioning therapy consisted of cyclophosphamide, melphalan, and antithymocyte globulin or busulphan and cyclophosphamide. Graft-versus-host disease prophylaxis was methotrexate and cyclosporine or cyclosporine. Both children were given GM-CSF at 5 micrograms/kg/day from day 1 until the absolute neutrophil count (ANC) reached 1.0 x 10(9)/L for 3 consecutive days. If this level was not reached by day 14, the dose of GM-CSF was doubled. Both children engrafted rapidly, with ANCs reaching 0.5 x 10(9)/L in 12 and 16 days. Engraftment was confirmed by blood group in both and sex chromosome typing in one. Both children developed mild GVHD localized to skin, which resolved with steroid therapy. The child with XLP was cured and has survived for 34 months; the second child has survived 27 months with normal marrow function but has had a relapse of leukemia.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  17. Production of colony-stimulating factors (CSFs) during infection: separate determinations of macrophage-, granulocyte-, granulocyte-macrophage-, and multi-CSFs.

    PubMed Central

    Cheers, C; Haigh, A M; Kelso, A; Metcalf, D; Stanley, E R; Young, A M

    1988-01-01

    After infection of mice with Listeria monocytogenes, elevated levels of colony-stimulating factors (CSFs) in the serum were quantitated by six different assays: ability to stimulate colony formation, the proliferation of 2 suspension of bone marrow cells (both measuring total colony-stimulating activity), a radioimmunoassay for macrophage-CSF (CSF-1), the WEHI-3B differentiation assay for granulocyte-CSF, and proliferation of 32D-c1-3 and FDC-P1 cell lines (specific for multi-CSF and either multi- or granulocyte-macrophage-CSFs, respectively). The great bulk of serum colony-stimulating activity represented macrophage- and granulocyte-CSFs, with small but measurable amounts of granulocyte-macrophage-CSF. The degree of elevation of serum CSF depended on the infecting dose used and the numbers of bacteria growing in the spleens and livers of the two mouse strains compared, i.e., L. monocytogenes-resistant C57BL/10 and susceptible BALB/cJ. The increase in serum CSFs occurred before the peak in bone marrow granulocyte-macrophage progenitors and before the reduction in bacterial numbers which follows the onset of specific cell-mediated immunity. PMID:3257205

  18. Clinical effects of a chimeric anti-EpCAM monoclonal antibody in combination with granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor in patients with metastatic colorectal carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Liljefors, Maria; Nilsson, Bo; Fagerberg, Jan; Ragnhammar, Peter; Mellstedt, Håkan; Frödin, Jan-Erik

    2005-06-01

    The EpCAM antigen is highly expressed on colorectal carcinoma (CRC) cells. Murine anti-EpCAM MAb (anti-EpCAM mMAb) alone or in combination with cytokines may induce clinical responses including long-lasting complete remissions (CR) in patients with metastatic disease. The chimeric variant of anti-EpCAM MAb (anti-EpCAM cMAb) interacts more efficiently with human effector cells (ADCC) than the murine counterpart in the killing of colorectal carcinoma cells in vitro, an important mechanism of action for antibody in vivo. Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) augments immune effector cell functions in vivo and may enhance the therapeutic effect of MAbs. In this study, the therapeutic efficacy of the combination of anti-EpCAM cMAb and GM-CSF was evaluated in 24 patients with metastatic CRC. GM-CSF was given s.c. once daily for 10 consecutive days and on day 3, anti-EpCAM cMAb was given i.v. A treatment cycle was repeated every 4th week. Five patients achieved stable disease > 3 months (overall response rate 21%). Responding patients survived significantly longer than non-responding patients (p = 0.030). The frequency of patients with an immediate-type allergic reaction (ITAR) against anti-EpCAM cMAb at the 1st, 2nd, 3rd and 4th treatment cycles was as 13%, 29%, 25% and 19% respectively. Compared to a previous study where anti-EpCAM mMAb was used in a similar treatment regimen, the present protocol did not augment the overall or progression-free survival. The overall response rate was also similar to anti-EpCAM mMAb treated patients (6/22, 27%), but the anti-EpCAM mMAb treatment protocol induced two CR, one MR and three SD. Further studies are warranted to establish the role of EpCAM as a target for antibody therapy, specifically the significance of chimeric or humanized anti-EpCAM MAbs.

  19. Combination Therapy of Human Umbilical Cord Blood Cells and Granulocyte Colony Stimulating Factor Reduces Histopathological and Motor Impairments in an Experimental Model of Chronic Traumatic Brain Injury

    PubMed Central

    Acosta, Sandra A.; Tajiri, Naoki; Shinozuka, Kazutaka; Ishikawa, Hiroto; Sanberg, Paul R.; Sanchez-Ramos, Juan; Song, Shijie; Kaneko, Yuji; Borlongan, Cesar V.

    2014-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is associated with neuro-inflammation, debilitating sensory-motor deficits, and learning and memory impairments. Cell-based therapies are currently being investigated in treating neurotrauma due to their ability to secrete neurotrophic factors and anti-inflammatory cytokines that can regulate the hostile milieu associated with chronic neuroinflammation found in TBI. In tandem, the stimulation and mobilization of endogenous stem/progenitor cells from the bone marrow through granulocyte colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) poses as an attractive therapeutic intervention for chronic TBI. Here, we tested the potential of a combined therapy of human umbilical cord blood cells (hUCB) and G-CSF at the acute stage of TBI to counteract the progressive secondary effects of chronic TBI using the controlled cortical impact model. Four different groups of adult Sprague Dawley rats were treated with saline alone, G-CSF+saline, hUCB+saline or hUCB+G-CSF, 7-days post CCI moderate TBI. Eight weeks after TBI, brains were harvested to analyze hippocampal cell loss, neuroinflammatory response, and neurogenesis by using immunohistochemical techniques. Results revealed that the rats exposed to TBI treated with saline exhibited widespread neuroinflammation, impaired endogenous neurogenesis in DG and SVZ, and severe hippocampal cell loss. hUCB monotherapy suppressed neuroinflammation, nearly normalized the neurogenesis, and reduced hippocampal cell loss compared to saline alone. G-CSF monotherapy produced partial and short-lived benefits characterized by low levels of neuroinflammation in striatum, DG, SVZ, and corpus callosum and fornix, a modest neurogenesis, and a moderate reduction of hippocampal cells loss. On the other hand, combined therapy of hUCB+G-CSF displayed synergistic effects that robustly dampened neuroinflammation, while enhancing endogenous neurogenesis and reducing hippocampal cell loss. Vigorous and long-lasting recovery of motor function

  20. Cytokines in chronic inflammatory arthritis. II. Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor in rheumatoid synovial effusions.

    PubMed Central

    Xu, W D; Firestein, G S; Taetle, R; Kaushansky, K; Zvaifler, N J

    1989-01-01

    A liquid culture technique was used to study 23 synovial fluids (SF) (21 from inflammatory joint diseases and 2 noninflammatory SF) and supernatants of two cultured rheumatoid arthritis (RA) synovial tissues for colony-stimulating factor (CSF). The proliferative responses of human peripheral blood macrophage-depleted non-T cells treated with synovial fluids, supernatants of synovial tissue explants, and recombinant granulocyte-macrophage (rGM)-CSF were compared. Aggregates of cells that formed in long-term cultures (15 d) were similar for each applied agent and consisted of macrophages, eosinophils, and large blasts. Tritiated thymidine incorporation was proportional to the concentration of rGM-CSF and was accompanied by an increase in number and size of cellular aggregates formed in the cultures. CSF activity was observed in inflammatory SF, with tritiated thymidine uptake of 3,501 +/- 1,140 cpm in the presence of RA samples (n = 15) compared to 1,985 +/- 628 for non-RA inflammatory SF (n = 7) (P less than 0.05) and 583 +/- 525 for medium (n = 6) (P less than 0.01). The proliferative response to RA SF was often more apparent when the samples were diluted, because at higher concentrations the RA SF was inhibitory. Two RA SF were fractionated by Sephadex G100 column chromatography; low levels of CSF activity were detected in fractions corresponding to Mr of 70-100 kD, but the major CSF activity was found in the 20-24-kD fractions. A polyclonal rabbit anti-GM-CSF antibody eliminated the stimulating activity from both rGM-CSF and RA SF. Finally, a specific RIA identified significant levels of GM-CSF (40-140 U/ml) in the culture supernatants of 3 additional RA synovial tissues. These data document the local production of GM-CSF in rheumatoid synovitis and are the first description of this cytokine at a site of disease activity. Images PMID:2646320

  1. Targeting the colony stimulating factor 1 receptor alleviates two forms of Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease in mice.

    PubMed

    Klein, Dennis; Patzkó, Ágnes; Schreiber, David; van Hauwermeiren, Anemoon; Baier, Michaela; Groh, Janos; West, Brian L; Martini, Rudolf

    2015-11-01

    See Scherer (doi:10.1093/awv279) for a scientific commentary on this article.Charcot-Marie-Tooth type 1 neuropathies are inherited disorders of the peripheral nervous system caused by mutations in Schwann cell-related genes. Typically, no causative cure is presently available. Previous preclinical data of our group highlight the low grade, secondary inflammation common to distinct Charcot-Marie-Tooth type 1 neuropathies as a disease amplifier. In the current study, we have tested one of several available clinical agents targeting macrophages through its inhibition of the colony stimulating factor 1 receptor (CSF1R). We here show that in two distinct mouse models of Charcot-Marie-Tooth type 1 neuropathies, the systemic short- and long-term inhibition of CSF1R by oral administration leads to a robust decline in nerve macrophage numbers by ∼70% and substantial reduction of the typical histopathological and functional alterations. Interestingly, in a model for the dominant X-linked form of Charcot-Marie-Tooth type 1 neuropathy, the second most common form of the inherited neuropathies, macrophage ablation favours maintenance of axonal integrity and axonal resprouting, leading to preserved muscle innervation, increased muscle action potential amplitudes and muscle strengths in the range of wild-type mice. In another model mimicking a mild, demyelination-related Charcot-Marie-Tooth type 1 neuropathy caused by reduced P0 (MPZ) gene dosage, macrophage blockade causes an improved preservation of myelin, increased muscle action potential amplitudes, improved nerve conduction velocities and ameliorated muscle strength. These observations suggest that disease-amplifying macrophages can produce multiple adverse effects in the affected nerves which likely funnel down to common clinical features. Surprisingly, treatment of mouse models mimicking Charcot-Marie-Tooth type 1A neuropathy also caused macrophage blockade, but did not result in neuropathic or clinical improvements

  2. Antimetastatic effect of recombinant human macrophage-colony-stimulating factor against lung and liver metastatic B16 melanoma.

    PubMed

    Sakurai, T; Yamada, M; Simamura, S; Motoyoshi, K

    1997-03-01

    We studied the effect of recombinant human macrophage-colony-stimulating factor (rhM-CSF) on the formation of lung and liver metastases following the i.v. injection of the B16 melanoma subline (B16 LiLu) into mice. When rhM-CSF was administered before the B16 inoculation, the number of tumor metastases decreased in the lung and liver. However, the administration of rhM-CSF after B16 inoculation did not produce an antimetastatic effect in the lung, but did in the liver, B16 cells labeled with 5-[125I]-iodo-2'-deoxyuridine (125I-dUrd) were injected and the arrest of tumor cell emboli was examined in the capillary beds of the lung and liver of mice treated with either vehicle or rhM-CSF. In both groups, there were the same numbers of B16 cells in both the lung and the liver 3 minutes after the B16 injection, and almost all tumor cells died within 24 h. However, the number of cells surviving in the lung was decreased in mice injected with rhM-CSF (37%). There was no difference in the number of cells in the livers of mice treated either with vehicle or rhM-CSF in the first 24 h after tumor cell injection. The administration of rhM-CSF increased NK 1.1+ cells in the mouse spleen and facilitated NK activity in vivo. At the same time, the administration of an anti-NK 1.1 antibody blocked the antimetastatic effect of rhM-CSF in the lung but not in the liver. The antibody was effective only when it was injected before the B16 inoculation. These results suggest that the antimetastatic effect of rhM-CSF in the lung was mediated by NK 1.1+ cells within 24 h of B16 injection. In contrast, the antimetastatic effect of rhM-CSF in the liver was mediated not only by NK 1.1+ cells but also by other antimetastatic systems such as macrophages.

  3. Design of Recombinant Stem Cell Factor macrophage Colony Stimulating Factor Fusion Proteins and their Biological Activity In Vitro

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Tao; Yang, Jie; Wang, Yuelang; Zhan, Chenyang; Zang, Yuhui; Qin, Junchuan

    2005-05-01

    Stem cell factor (SCF) and macrophage colony stimulating factor (M-CSF) can act in synergistic way to promote the growth of mononuclear phagocytes. SCF-M-CSF fusion proteins were designed on the computer using the Homology and Biopolymer modules of the software packages InsightII. Several existing crystal structures were used as templates to generate models of the complexes of receptor with fusion protein. The structure rationality of the fusion protein incorporated a series of flexible linker peptide was analyzed on InsightII system. Then, a suitable peptide GGGGSGGGGSGG was chosen for the fusion protein. Two recombinant SCF-M-CSF fusion proteins were generated by construction of a plasmid in which the coding regions of human SCF (1-165aa) and M-CSF (1-149aa) cDNA were connected by this linker peptide coding sequence followed by subsequent expression in insect cell. The results of Western blot and activity analysis showed that these two recombinant fusion proteins existed as a dimer with a molecular weight of 84 KD under non-reducing conditions and a monomer of 42 KD at reducing condition. The results of cell proliferation assays showed that each fusion protein induced a dose-dependent proliferative response. At equimolar concentration, SCF/M-CSF was about 20 times more potent than the standard monomeric SCF in stimulating TF-1 cell line growth, while M-CSF/SCF was 10 times of monomeric SCF. No activity difference of M-CSF/SCF or SCF/M-CSF to M-CSF (at same molar) was found in stimulating the HL-60 cell linear growth. The synergistic effect of SCF and M-CSF moieties in the fusion proteins was demonstrated by the result of clonogenic assay performed with human bone mononuclear, in which both SCF/M-CSF and M-CSF/SCF induced much higher number of CFU-M than equimolar amount of SCF or M-CSF or that of two cytokines mixture.

  4. The role of individual cysteine residues in the processing, structure, and function of human macrophage colony-stimulating factor.

    PubMed

    Deng, P; Wang, Y L; Pattengale, P K; Rettenmier, C W

    1996-11-12

    The shortest form of human macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF alpha, CSF-1(256) is expressed on the cell surface as a homodimeric type I transmembrane glycoprotein. The seven cysteine residues in CSF-1(256) form three intrachain disulfide bonds (Cys7-Cys90, Cys48-Cys139, and Cys 102-Cys146), and one interchain disulfide bond (Cys31-Cys31). To examine the role of the seven cysteine residues in CSF-1(256), we replaced each half-cystine by a serine using site-directed mutagenesis, and stably expressed the mutated genes in mouse NIH 3T3 cells. We showed that each of the seven cysteines of CSF-1(256) is essential for its biological activity. Our data further show that substitution of Cys48 or Cys139 totally blocked dimer formation and cell surface expression of CSF-1(256), and that substitution of Cys102 and Cys146 severely impaired CSF-1 dimer formation and cell surface expression. In contrast, substitution of Cys7 or Cys90 affected CSF-1 dimer formation to a lesser degree but did not significantly affect cell surface expression of CSF-1. Furthermore, disruption of the interchain disulfide bond led to efficient cell surface expression of monomeric CSF-1. All of the cell surface expressed mutant CSF-1 proteins, either dimeric or monomeric, still underwent efficient ectodomain cleavage. The electrophoretic mobilities of the cleaved dimeric ectodomains of these mutant CSF-1 proteins on SDS-PAGE exhibited distinctly different patterns as compared with the wild type. Substitution of either Cys7 or Cys90 produced the same shift, while substitution of either Cys102 or Cys146 resulted in a shift distinct from that caused by substitution of Cys7 or Cys90. These data suggest that replacement of either of a pair of intrachain half-cystine residues results in similar conformational changes, and may provide a novel method for mapping intrachain disulfide bonds in dimeric proteins.

  5. Sustained in vivo activity of recombinant bovine granulocyte colony stimulating factor (rbG-CSF) using HEPES buffer.

    PubMed

    Kasraian, K; Kuzniar, A; Earley, D; Kamicker, B J; Wilson, G; Manion, T; Hong, J; Reiber, C; Canning, P

    2001-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a long-acting injectable formulation of bG-CSF for veterinary use. However, in order to achieve sustained in vivo activity it was first necessary to stabilize the protein at the injection site. Preformulation studies, as well as literature, suggest that bG-CSF aggregates at neutral pH ranges (i.e., pH 6-8) and at temperatures of approximately 40 degrees C. Therefore, bG-CSF will not retain its activity for an extended period of time at the injection site. During this study we determined that HEPES buffer has a very significant impact on protein stability as well as on biological performance. Recombinant bovine granulocyte colony stimulating factor (rbG-CSF) was formulated in 1 M HEPES buffer for subcutaneous injection into cows. bG-CSF formulated in 1 M HEPES buffer resulted in sustained in vivo activity of bG-CSF compared to the "control" formulation (control formulation: 5% mannitol, 10 mM acetate buffer, 0.004% tween-80, pH 4). White blood cell (WBC) count was used as a marker to evaluate in vivo activity of the formulation. WBC numbers remained above a threshold value for only 24-30 h for the control formula. However, when bG-CSF was formulated in 1 M HEPES, the WBC remained above threshold for 3 days or 72 h. Formulating bG-CSF in 1 M HEPES at pH 7.5 also resulted in greater solution stability. This was surprising since bG-CSF is intrinsically not stable at neutral pH. The effect of 1 M HEPES on the T(M) (temperature at maximum heat flow on calorimetry scan) of bG-CSF was determined by microcalorimetry. In the absence of 1 M HEPES buffer the T(M) was 48 degrees C (onset approximately 40 degrees C), while bG-CSF formulated in 1 M HEPES buffer has a T(M) of 59 degrees C (onset approximately 50 degrees C). Similar organic buffers, such as MOPS, HEPPS, TES, and tricine, also resulted in improved solution stability as well as in sustained in vivo activity. The dramatic effect of these buffers on stability and biological

  6. Pegylated granulocyte colony-stimulating factor conveys long-term neuroprotection and improves functional outcome in a model of Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Frank, Tobias; Klinker, Florian; Falkenburger, Björn H; Laage, Rico; Lühder, Fred; Göricke, Bettina; Schneider, Armin; Neurath, Hartmud; Desel, Herbert; Liebetanz, David; Bähr, Mathias; Weishaupt, Jochen H

    2012-06-01

    Recent proof-of-principle data showed that the haematopoietic growth factor granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (filgrastim) mediates neuroprotection in rodent models of Parkinson's disease. In preparation for future clinical trials, we performed a preclinical characterization of a pegylated derivative of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (pegfilgrastim) in the mouse 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine model of Parkinson's disease. We determined serum and cerebrospinal fluid drug levels after subcutaneous injection. A single injection of pegfilgrastim was shown to achieve stable levels of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor in both serum and cerebrospinal fluid with substantially higher levels compared to repetitive filgrastim injections. Leucocyte blood counts were only transiently increased after repeated injections. We demonstrated substantial dose-dependent long-term neuroprotection by pegfilgrastim in both young and aged mice, using bodyweight-adjusted doses that are applicable in clinical settings. Importantly, we found evidence for the functionally relevant preservation of nigrostriatal projections by pegfilgrastim in our model of Parkinson's disease, which resulted in improved motor performance. The more stable levels of pegylated neuroprotective proteins in serum and cerebrospinal fluid may represent a general advantage in the treatment of chronic neurodegenerative diseases and the resulting longer injection intervals are likely to improve patient compliance. In summary, we found that pegylation of a neuroprotective growth factor improved its pharmacokinetic profile over its non-modified counterpart in an in vivo model of Parkinson's disease. As the clinical safety profile of pegfilgrastim is already established, these data suggest that evaluation of pegfilgrastim in further Parkinson's disease models and ultimately clinical feasibility studies are warranted.

  7. NF-kappaB inhibitor dehydroxymethylepoxyquinomicin suppresses osteoclastogenesis and expression of NFATc1 in mouse arthritis without affecting expression of RANKL, osteoprotegerin or macrophage colony-stimulating factor.

    PubMed

    Kubota, Tetsuo; Hoshino, Machiko; Aoki, Kazuhiro; Ohya, Keiichi; Komano, Yukiko; Nanki, Toshihiro; Miyasaka, Nobuyuki; Umezawa, Kazuo

    2007-01-01

    Inhibition of NF-kappaB is known to be effective in reducing both inflammation and bone destruction in animal models of arthritis. Our previous study demonstrated that a small cell-permeable NF-kappaB inhibitor, dehydroxymethylepoxyquinomicin (DHMEQ), suppresses expression of proinflammatory cytokines and ameliorates mouse arthritis. It remained unclear, however, whether DHMEQ directly affects osteoclast precursor cells to suppress their differentiation to mature osteoclasts in vivo. The effect of DHMEQ on human osteoclastogenesis also remained elusive. In the present study, we therefore examined the effect of DHMEQ on osteoclastogenesis using a mouse collagen-induced arthritis model, and using culture systems of fibroblast-like synovial cells obtained from patients with rheumatoid arthritis, and of osteoclast precursor cells from peripheral blood of healthy volunteers. DHMEQ significantly suppressed formation of osteoclasts in arthritic joints, and also suppressed expression of NFATc1 along the inner surfaces of bone lacunae and the eroded bone surface, while serum levels of soluble receptor activator of NF-kappaB ligand (RANKL), osteoprotegerin and macrophage colony-stimulating factor were not affected by the treatment. DHMEQ also did not suppress spontaneous expression of RANKL nor of macrophage colony-stimulating factor in culture of fibroblast-like synovial cells obtained from patients with rheumatoid arthritis. These results suggest that DHMEQ suppresses osteoclastogenesis in vivo, through downregulation of NFATc1 expression, without significantly affecting expression of upstream molecules of the RANKL/receptor activator of NF-kappaB/osteoprotegerin cascade, at least in our experimental condition. Furthermore, in the presence of RANKL and macrophage colony-stimulating factor, differentiation and activation of human osteoclasts were also suppressed by DHMEQ, suggesting the possibility of future application of NF-kappaB inhibitors to rheumatoid arthritis

  8. Sulodexide down-regulates the release of cytokines, chemokines, and leukocyte colony stimulating factors from human macrophages: role of glycosaminoglycans in inflammatory pathways of chronic venous disease.

    PubMed

    Mannello, Ferdinando; Ligi, Daniela; Canale, Matteo; Raffetto, Joseph D

    2014-01-01

    Chronic venous disease (CVeD) is a debilitating condition that affects millions of individuals worldwide. The condition can result in varicose veins, or advance to severe skin changes and venous ulceration. The fundamental basis for CVeD is inflammation within the venous circulation and that it is subjected to increased hydrostatic pressure resulting in increased ambulatory venous pressure. The inflammation involves leukocytes, in particular macrophages and monocytes, inflammatory modulators and chemokines, cytokine expression, growth factors, metalloproteinase (MMP) activity, and many regulatory pathways that perpetuate inflammation. Sulodexide (SDX) is a glycosaminoglycan with pro-fibrinolytic and anti-thrombotic properties. We have previously demonstrated that SDX inhibits the secretion of pro-zymogen MMP-9 from human leukocytes without displacing high molecular complexes of MMP-9. The anti-inflammatory properties of SDX on activated leukocytes have not been well established. We hypothesized that SDX will reduce the secretion of inflammatory mediators from lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated macrophages. Therefore, we evaluated the effects of SDX on LPS-stimulated macrophage secretion of various inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines, chemokines, and colony stimulating factors. We used microplatebased multiplex immunoassays. LPS-stimulated macrophages in vitro caused a substantial increase of interleukins, tumor necrosis factor, interferon, chemokines and colony stimulating factors. The addition of SDX caused both a dose-dependent and dose-independent decrease in nearly all of the inflammatory cytokines, chemokines and colony stimulating factors. These findings suggest that SDX has a significant effect on the release of inflammatory mediators from macrophages, and may be useful in the treatment of early and advanced CVeD.

  9. Adherent cells in granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor-induced bone marrow-derived dendritic cell culture system are qualified dendritic cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Gong-Bo; Lu, Guang-Xiu

    2010-01-01

    A widely-used method for generating dendritic cell (DC) is to culture bone marrow cells in granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF)-containing medium for 6-10 days. Usually, non-adherent cells are used as qualified dendritic cells while the adherent ones are discarded as "non-dendritic cells" or macrophages. In this study, we show that the adherent cells are nearly identical to the non-adherent cells in both dendritic cell surface markers expression and main dendritic cell-related functions, hence to prove that these "junk cells" are actually qualified dendritic cells.

  10. Bacillus cereus brain abscesses occurring in a severely neutropenic patient: successful treatment with antimicrobial agents, granulocyte colony-stimulating factor and surgical drainage.

    PubMed

    Sakai, C; Iuchi, T; Ishii, A; Kumagai, K; Takagi, T

    2001-07-01

    Multiple brain and liver abscesses developed immediately after Bacillus cereus bacteremia in a neutropenic patient with acute lymphoblastic leukemia. After even 8 weeks of antimicrobial chemotherapy together with administration of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor, every infectious process disappeared but the patient's headache has still persisted. Because the wall of one brain abscess became thin and was in danger of rupturing into the ventricle, surgical drainage was performed, resulting in disappearance of headache and resolution of brain abscess. The present case indicates that a combined medical and surgical approach is mandatory to treat patients with brain abscesses.

  11. PU.1 (Spi-1) and C/EBP alpha regulate expression of the granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor receptor alpha gene.

    PubMed Central

    Hohaus, S; Petrovick, M S; Voso, M T; Sun, Z; Zhang, D E; Tenen, D G

    1995-01-01

    Growth factor receptors play an important role in hematopoiesis. In order to further understand the mechanisms directing the expression of these key regulators of hematopoiesis, we initiated a study investigating the transcription factors activating the expression of the granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) receptor alpha gene. Here, we demonstrate that the human GM-CSF receptor alpha promoter directs reporter gene activity in a tissue-specific fashion in myelomonocytic cells, which correlates with its expression pattern as analyzed by reverse transcription PCR. The GM-CSF receptor alpha promoter contains an important functional site between positions -53 and -41 as identified by deletion analysis of reporter constructs. We show that the myeloid and B cell transcription factor PU.1 binds specifically to this site. Furthermore, we demonstrate that a CCAAT site located upstream of the PU.1 site between positions -70 and -54 is involved in positive-negative regulation of the GM-CSF receptor alpha promoter activity. C/EBP alpha is the major CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein (C/EBP) form binding to this site in nuclear extracts of U937 cells. Point mutations of either the PU.1 site or the C/EBP site that abolish the binding of the respective factors result in a significant decrease of GM-CSF receptor alpha promoter activity in myelomonocytic cells only. Furthermore, we demonstrate that in myeloid and B cell extracts, PU.1 forms a novel, specific, more slowly migrating complex (PU-SF) when binding the GM-CSF receptor alpha promoter PU.1 site. This is the first demonstration of a specific interaction with PU.1 on a myeloid PU.1 binding site. The novel complex is distinct from that described previously as binding to B cell enhancer sites and can be formed by addition of PU.1 to extracts from certain nonmyeloid cell types which do not express PU.1, including T cells and epithelial cells, but not from erythroid cells. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the PU

  12. Antibodies binding granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor produced by cord blood-derived B cell lines immortalized by Epstein-Barr virus in vitro.

    PubMed

    Revoltella, R P; Laricchia Robbio, L; Liberati, A M; Reato, G; Foa, R; Funaro, A; Vinante, F; Pizzolo, G

    2000-09-15

    We detected natural antibodies (auto-Abs) binding human granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) in umbilical cord blood (CB) (23 of 94 samples screened) and peripheral blood of women at the end of pregnancy (6 of 42 samples tested). To demonstrate that Abs detected in CB were produced by the fetus, CB mononuclear cells were infected with Epstein-Barr virus in vitro. Ten cell lines producing constitutively anti-recombinant human GM-CSF (rhGM-CSF) Abs were isolated and characterized. These cells displayed a male karyotype, an early activated B cell phenotype, coexpressed surface IgM and IgD, and secreted only IgM with prevailing lambda clonal restriction. Specific cell surface binding of biotinylated rhGM-CSF and high-level anti-rhGM-CSF IgM Ab production were typical features of early cell cultures. In late cell passages the frequency of more undifferentiated B cells increased. Serum Abs of either maternal or fetal origin or Abs produced in culture did not affect the granulocyte and macrophage colony stimulating activity of rhGM-CSF from bone marrow progenitors in soft agar, suggesting that the Abs produced were nonneutralizing.

  13. Administration of colony stimulating factor-1 corrects some macrophage, dental, and skeletal defects in an osteopetrotic mutation (toothless, tl) in the rat.

    PubMed

    Marks, S C; Wojtowicz, A; Szperl, M; Urbanowska, E; MacKay, C A; Wiktor-Jedrzejczak, W; Stanley, E R; Aukerman, S L

    1992-01-01

    The toothless (tl/tl) mutation in the rat results in a paucity of osteoclasts and osteopetrosis that cannot be corrected by bone marrow transplantation. In the present study we demonstrate that tl/tl rats also have profound deficiencies of femoral, peritoneal, and pleural cavity macrophages. Furthermore, the macrophage colony stimulating activity of post-endotoxin sera from tl/tl rats is substantially reduced, suggesting that, as in the case of the op mutation in mice, the basis of the tl mutation is a deficiency of the macrophage growth factor, colony stimulating factor-1 (CSF-1). Consistent with this suggestion, treatment of tl/tl rats from birth for up to six weeks with CSF-1 reduced the osteopetrosis, increased body weight, and permitted tooth eruption. In addition, CSF-1 treatment induced large numbers of osteoclasts in tl/tl bones and macrophages in the peritoneal cavity and bone marrow. Persistence of metaphyseal sclerosis, however, indicated that the disease was not totally corrected by this treatment. These studies indicate that the basis of the tl mutation is most likely another CSF-1 deficiency, and further emphasize the role of this growth factor in osteoclast differentiation.

  14. A randomised study comparing granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) with G-CSF plus thymostimulin in the treatment of haematological toxicity in patients with advanced breast cancer after high dose mitoxantrone therapy.

    PubMed

    Sanchiz, F; Milla, A

    1996-01-01

    54 patients with advanced breast cancer were randomised into a prospective, non-blinded, controlled trial to receive: mitoxantrone 28 mg/m2 intravenous day 1 and granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) 5 micrograms/kg/day subcutaneously days 2 to 16 (n = 27) or the same regimen plus thymostimulin (TS) 50 mg/day intramuscular at days 2 to 16 (n = 27). The median time to reach a neutrophil count greater than 0.5 x 10(9)/l was lower in the G-CSF+TS treated group (9.13 versus 3.24 days; P < 0.0005). More patients experienced neutropenic fever in the G-CSF group than in the G-CSF+TS group (59.3% versus 22.2%, P = 0.0119). The incidence, duration and severity of clinically or bacteriologically documented infection were lower in patients who received TS. 16 patients (59.3%) in the G-CSF group contracted infection, and 4 patients (14.8%) receiving G-CSF+TS (P = 0.0016). These data indicate that the combination of G-CSF and TS is well-tolerated and may enhance haematological recovery following myelosuppressive chemotherapy in patients with advanced breast cancer.

  15. A Safety and Feasibility Study of an Allogeneic Colon Cancer Cell Vaccine Administered with a Granulocyte–Macrophage Colony Stimulating Factor–Producing Bystander Cell Line in Patients with Metastatic Colorectal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Lei; Edil, Barish H.; Soares, Kevin C.; El-Shami, Khaled; Uram, Jennifer N.; Judkins, Carol; Zhang, Zhe; Onners, Beth; Laheru, Daniel; Pardoll, Drew; Jaffee, Elizabeth M.; Schulick, Richard D.

    2014-01-01

    Background Despite recent advances in earlier detection and improvements in chemotherapy, the 5-year survival rate of patients with metastatic colorectal carcinoma remains poor. Immunotherapy is a potentially effective therapeutic approach to the treatment of colorectal carcinoma. Preclinical studies have supported the antitumor activity of immunization with a granulocyte–macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) producing murine colon tumor cell vaccine. Methods A novel colorectal cancer vaccine composed of irradiated, allogeneic human colon cancer cells and GM-CSF-producing bystander cells was developed and tested in combination with a single intravenous low dose of cyclophosphamide in a phase 1 study of patients with metastatic colorectal cancer. Results A total of nine patients were enrolled onto and treated in this study. Six patients had a history of colorectal adenocarcinoma hepatic metastases and underwent curative metastasectomy, while three other patients had unresectable stage IV disease. This study demonstrates the safety and feasibility of this vaccine administered in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer. At last follow-up, the six patients who underwent curative metastasectomy survived longer than 36 months, and four of these six patients were without disease recurrence. Immunologic correlate results suggest that the GM-CSF-producing colon cancer vaccine enhances the production of anti-MUC1 antibodies. Conclusions This vaccine is feasible and safe. Future investigation of the efficacy and antitumor immunity of this vaccine is warranted. PMID:24943235

  16. Aortic endothelial cells regulate proliferation of human monocytes in vitro via a mechanism synergistic with macrophage colony-stimulating factor. Convergence at the cyclin E/p27(Kip1) regulatory checkpoint.

    PubMed

    Antonov, A S; Munn, D H; Kolodgie, F D; Virmani, R; Gerrity, R G

    1997-06-15

    Monocyte-derived macrophages (Mphis) are pivotal participants in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. Evidence from both animal and human plaques indicates that local proliferation may contribute to accumulation of lesion Mphis, and the major Mphi growth factor, macrophage colony stimulating factor (MCSF), is present in atherosclerotic plaques. However, most in vitro studies have failed to demonstrate that human monocytes/Mphis possess significant proliferative capacity. We now report that, although human monocytes cultured in isolation showed only limited MCSF-induced proliferation, monocytes cocultured with aortic endothelial cells at identical MCSF concentrations underwent enhanced (up to 40-fold) and prolonged (21 d) proliferation. In contrast with monocytes in isolation, this was optimal at low seeding densities, required endothelial cell contact, and could not be reproduced by coculture with smooth muscle cells. Intimal Mphi isolated from human aortas likewise showed endothelial cell contact-dependent, MCSF-induced proliferation. Consistent with a two-signal mechanism governing Mphi proliferation, the cell cycle regulatory protein, cyclin E, was rapidly upregulated by endothelial cell contact in an MCSFindependent fashion, but MCSF was required for successful downregulation of the cell cycle inhibitory protein p27(Kip1) before cell cycling. Thus endothelial cells and MCSF differentially and synergistically regulate two Mphi genes critical for progression through the cell cycle.

  17. Mobilization and collection of CD34+ cells for autologous transplantation of peripheral blood hematopoietic progenitor cells in children: analysis of two different granulocyte-colony stimulating factor doses

    PubMed Central

    Eid, Kátia Aparecida de Brito; Miranda, Eliana Cristina Martins; Aguiar, Simone dos Santos

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The use of peripheral hematopoietic progenitor cells (HPCs) is the cell choice in autologous transplantation. The classic dose of granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) for mobilization is a single daily dose of 10 μg/kg of patient body weight. There is a theory that higher doses of granulocyte-colony stimulating factor applied twice daily could increase the number of CD34+ cells collected in fewer leukapheresis procedures. Objective The aim of this study was to compare a fractionated dose of 15 μg G-CSF/kg of body weight and the conventional dose of granulocyte-colony stimulating factor in respect to the number of leukapheresis procedures required to achieve a minimum collection of 3 × 106 CD34+ cells/kg body weight. Methods Patients were divided into two groups: Group 10 – patients who received a single daily dose of 10 μg G-CSF/kg body weight and Group 15 – patients who received a fractioned dose of 15 μg G-CSF/kg body weight daily. The leukapheresis procedure was carried out in an automated cell separator. The autologous transplantation was carried out when a minimum number of 3 × 106 CD34+ cells/kg body weight was achieved. Results Group 10 comprised 39 patients and Group 15 comprised 26 patients. A total of 146 apheresis procedures were performed: 110 (75.3%) for Group 10 and 36 (24.7%) for Group 15. For Group 10, a median of three (range: 1–7) leukapheresis procedures and a mean of 8.89 × 106 CD34+ cells/kg body weight (±9.59) were collected whereas for Group 15 the corresponding values were one (range: 1–3) and 5.29 × 106 cells/kg body weight (±4.95). A statistically significant difference was found in relation to the number of apheresis procedures (p-value <0.0001). Conclusions To collect a minimum target of 3 × 106 CD34+ cells/kg body weight, the administration of a fractionated dose of 15 μg G-CSF/kg body weight significantly decreased the number of leukapheresis procedures performed. PMID:26041417

  18. Pyrido[2,3-d]pyrimidin-5-ones: A Novel Class of Antiinflammatory Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor-1 Receptor Inhibitors

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Hui; Hutta, Daniel A.; Rinker, James M.; Hu, Huaping; Parsons, William H.; Schubert, Carsten; DesJarlais, Renee L.; Crysler, Carl S.; Chaikin, Margery A.; Donatelli, Robert R.; Chen, Yanmin; Cheng, Deping; Zhou, Zhao; Yurkow, Edward; Manthey, Carl L.; Player, Mark R.

    2010-10-01

    A series of pyrido[2,3-d]pyrimidin-5-ones has been synthesized and evaluated as inhibitors of the kinase domain of macrophage colony-stimulating factor-1 receptor (FMS). FMS inhibitors may be useful in treating rheumatoid arthritis and other chronic inflammatory diseases. Structure-based optimization of the lead amide analogue 10 led to hydroxamate analogue 37, which possessed excellent potency and an improved pharmacokinetic profile. During the chronic phase of streptococcal cell wall-induced arthritis in rats, compound 37 (10, 3, and 1 mg/kg) was highly effective at reversing established joint swelling. In an adjuvant-induced arthritis model in rats, 37 prevented joint swelling partially at 10 mg/kg. In this model, osteoclastogenesis and bone erosion were prevented by low doses (1 or 0.33 mg/kg) that had minimal impact on inflammation. These data underscore the potential of FMS inhibitors to prevent erosions and reduce symptoms in rheumatoid arthritis.

  19. Granulocyte colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) can allow treatment with clozapine in a patient with severe benign ethnic neutropaenia (BEN): a case report.

    PubMed

    Spencer, Benjamin W J; Williams, Hugh R J; Gee, Siobhan H; Whiskey, Eromona; Rodrigues, Joseph P; Mijovic, Aleksandar; MacCabe, James H

    2012-09-01

    Clozapine is the treatment of choice for treatment-resistant schizophrenia, but it is associated with a risk of neutropaenia and agranulocytosis. Clozapine use is regulated by mandatory blood monitoring in the UK, requiring cessation of treatment should the absolute neutrophil count (ANC) drop below specified values. Benign reductions in the ANC in non-white populations are common, and this can preclude a patient from receiving treatment with clozapine. A diagnosis of benign ethnic neutropaenia can reduce these treatment restrictions (UK specific), but the degree of neutropaenia can be significant enough to still prevent treatment. In this report, we show that response to granulocyte colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) may be quite variable and difficult to predict, but with careful monitoring it can be used to increase the ANC count and allow continued treatment with clozapine.

  20. Administration of recombinant human granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (rhG-CSF) for the intracranial hemorrhage in two dogs: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Kang, M. H.; Park, H. M.

    2016-01-01

    Two dogs with generalized seizures were evaluated. The dogs were diagnosed with traumatic intracranial hemorrhages based on the history, neurological examinations, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain. Treatment was started with oxygen, prednisolone and anticonvulsant agents. No further seizure activity was observed after treatment in both dogs, however cushing reflex was detected in case 1 and a left-sided hemi-paresis was detected in case 2. Further supportive treatment with recombinant human granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (rhG-CSF) was attempted. No abnormal signs were noted in either of the dogs and no recurrence was noted 16 and 14 months later, in case 1 and 2, respectively. These cases indicate that a combination of rhG-CSF treatment with previous therapy could be used in dogs with traumatic brain injury. PMID:27656233

  1. Dissociation of LPS-induced monocytic ex vivo production of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) and TNF-alpha in patients with septic shock.

    PubMed

    Weiss, M; Fischer, G; Barth, E; Boneberg, E; Schneider, E M; Georgieff, M; Hartung, T

    2001-01-07

    Over a 6 month period, in 192 patients admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU), a longitudinal analysis of whole blood lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced ex vivo cytokine production was performed on a daily basis until discharge from the ICU or death. Twenty-one patients with proven infections were in septic shock for the first time and for at least 3 days' duration. Ex vivo LPS-inducible release of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) was upregulated and that of TNF-alpha was downregulated in patients with septic shock, regardless whether they survived or died. In conclusion, LPS-induced ex vivo TNF-alpha and G-CSF cytokine release by monocytes is regulated differentially in patients with septic shock. Since upregulation of LPS-induced production of G-CSF occurred earlier in survivors than in non-survivors, rapidly elevated and sustained G-CSF responsiveness may contribute to survival in septic shock.

  2. [A case of bladder cancer producing granulocyte colony-stimulating factor and interleukin-6 causing respiratory failure treated with neoadjuvant systemic chemotherapy along with sivelestat].

    PubMed

    Matsuzaki, Kyosuke; Okumi, Masayoshi; Kishimoto, Nozomu; Yazawa, Koji; Miyagawa, Yasushi; Uchida, Kinya; Nonomura, Norio

    2013-07-01

    A 67-year-old man visited an urological clinic with a chief complaint of urination pain. Cystourethroscopy and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) examination revealed a bladder tumor (cT3bN0M0). Marked leukocytosis and respiratory distress with pleural effusion appeared. Pulse steroid therapy improved the general condition partially. The patient was sent to our hospital for further examination. Serum granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) were high and the pathological findings of bladder tumor obtained by transurethral resection (TUR) revealed an urothelial carcinoma that produced G-CSF and IL-6. Neoadjuvant systemic chemotherapy was performed along with use of steroid and sivelestat, which ameliorated the respiratory distress. After three courses of systemic chemotherapy, serum G-CSF and IL-6 normalized and cystoprostatectomy was performed. The patient has been in good health at 20 months after the surgery with no evidence of recurrence.

  3. Colony-stimulating factors for the treatment of the hematopoietic component of the acute radiation syndrome (H-ARS): a review.

    PubMed

    Singh, Vijay K; Newman, Victoria L; Seed, Thomas M

    2015-01-01

    One of the greatest national security threats to the United States is the detonation of an improvised nuclear device or a radiological dispersal device in a heavily populated area. As such, this type of security threat is considered to be of relatively low risk, but one that would have an extraordinary high impact on health and well-being of the US citizenry. Psychological counseling and medical assessments would be necessary for all those significantly impacted by the nuclear/radiological event. Direct medical interventions would be necessary for all those individuals who had received substantial radiation exposures (e.g., >1 Gy). Although no drugs or products have yet been specifically approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration (US FDA) to treat the effects of acute radiation syndrome (ARS), granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF), granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), and pegylated G-CSF have been used off label for treating radiation accident victims. Recent threats of terrorist attacks using nuclear or radiologic devices makes it imperative that the medical community have up-to-date information and a clear understanding of treatment protocols using therapeutically effective recombinant growth factors and cytokines such as G-CSF and GM-CSF for patients exposed to injurious doses of ionizing radiation. Based on limited human studies with underlying biology, we see that the recombinants, G-CSF and GM-CSF appear to have modest, but significant medicinal value in treating radiation accident victims. In the near future, the US FDA may approve G-CSF and GM-CSF as ‘Emergency Use Authorization’ (EUA) for managing radiation-induced aplasia, an ARS-related pathology. In this article, we review the status of growth factors for the treatment of radiological/nuclear accident victims.

  4. T Cell–Derived Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor Contributes to Dry Eye Disease Pathogenesis by Promoting CD11b+ Myeloid Cell Maturation and Migration

    PubMed Central

    Dohlman, Thomas H.; Ding, Julia; Dana, Reza; Chauhan, Sunil K.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Growing evidence suggests that granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) contributes to T helper 17 (Th17) cell–associated immunoinflammatory diseases. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of T cell–derived GM-CSF on CD11b+ myeloid cell function in dry eye disease (DED). Methods In a murine model of DED, quantitative real-time PCR and ELISA were used to measure GM-CSF expression at the ocular surface, and flow cytometry was used to enumerate GM-CSF producing Th17 cells. A granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor neutralizing antibody was used topically in vivo and in an in vitro culture system to evaluate the role of GM-CSF in recruiting and maturing CD11b+ cells. Clinical disease severity was evaluated after topical administration of GM-CSF neutralizing antibody. Results In dry eye disease, GM-CSF is significantly upregulated at the ocular surface and the frequency of GM-CSF producing Th17 cells is significantly increased in the draining lymph nodes. In vitro neutralization of GM-CSF from CD4+ T cells derived from DED mice suppresses major histocompatibility complex II expression by CD11b+ cells and CD11b+ cell migration. Topical neutralization of GM-CSF in a murine model of DED suppresses CD11b+ maturation and migration, as well as Th17 cell induction, yielding a reduction in clinical signs of disease. Conclusions T helper 17 cell–derived GM-CSF contributes to DED pathogenesis by promoting CD11b+ cell activation and migration to the ocular surface. PMID:28241321

  5. Plerixafor and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor for first-line steady-state autologous peripheral blood stem cell mobilization in lymphoma and multiple myeloma: results of the prospective PREDICT trial

    PubMed Central

    Russell, Nigel; Douglas, Kenny; Ho, Anthony D.; Mohty, Mohamad; Carlson, Kristina; Ossenkoppele, G.J.; Milone, Giuseppe; Pareja, Macarena Ortiz; Shaheen, Daniel; Willemsen, Arnold; Whitaker, Nicky; Chabannon, Christian

    2013-01-01

    In Europe, the combination of plerixafor + granulocyte colony-stimulating factor is approved for the mobilization of hematopoietic stem cells for autologous transplantation in patients with lymphoma and myeloma whose cells mobilize poorly. The purpose of this study was to further assess the safety and efficacy of plerixafor + granulocyte colony-stimulating factor for front-line mobilization in European patients with lymphoma or myeloma. In this multicenter, open label, single-arm study, patients received granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (10 μg/kg/day) subcutaneously for 4 days; on the evening of day 4 they were given plerixafor (0.24 mg/kg) subcutaneously. Patients underwent apheresis on day 5 after a morning dose of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor. The primary study objective was to confirm the safety of mobilization with plerixafor. Secondary objectives included assessment of efficacy (apheresis yield, time to engraftment). The combination of plerixafor + granulocyte colony-stimulating factor was used to mobilize hematopoietic stem cells in 118 patients (90 with myeloma, 25 with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, 3 with Hodgkin's disease). Treatment-emergent plerixafor-related adverse events were reported in 24 patients. Most adverse events occurred within 1 hour after injection, were grade 1 or 2 in severity and included gastrointestinal disorders or injection-site reactions. The minimum cell yield (≥2×106 CD34+ cells/kg) was harvested in 98% of patients with myeloma and in 80% of those with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma in a median of one apheresis. The optimum cell dose (≥5×106 CD34+ cells/kg for non-Hodgkin's lymphoma or ≥6×106 CD34+ cells/kg for myeloma) was harvested in 89% of myeloma patients and 48% of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma patients. In this prospective, multicenter European study, mobilization with plerixafor + granulocyte colony-stimulating factor allowed the majority of patients with myeloma or non-Hodgkin's lymphoma to undergo transplantation with

  6. Granulocyte macrophage colony stimulating factor is elevated in alveolar macrophages from sheep naturally infected with maedi-visna virus and stimulates maedi-visna virus replication in macrophages in vitro.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Z; Harkiss, G D; Hopkins, J; Woodall, C J

    2002-08-01

    Infection by maedi-visna virus, a lentivirus of sheep, leads to chronic inflammatory reactions of various tissues. In this report we have analysed the role of specific cytokines in the disease process. A significant increase in expression of interleukin-6, interleukin-10, granulocyte macrophage-colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) and transforming growth factor-beta1 mRNA was observed in alveolar macrophages isolated from the lungs of naturally infected animals when compared with lungs of seronegative controls. Levels of GM-CSF mRNA expression in alveolar macrophages correlated with the presence of lung lesions, but there was no correlation of interleukin-10, interleukin-6, tumour necrosis factor-alpha and transforming growth factor-beta1 mRNA levels in alveolar macrophages from animals with pulmonary lesions. In vitro investigation showed that GM-CSF in the range 0.1-10 ng/ml induced a significant increase in viral p25 production after 7 days in acutely infected blood monocyte-derived macrophages. The production of p25 peaked between 7 and 14 days exposure to 10 ng/ml of GM-CSF. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction showed that the level of viral DNA in monocyte-derived macrophages was dose-dependent following GM-CSF treatment in the range 0.1-100 ng/ml after 7 days. Viral mRNA expression was also enhanced. These findings indicate a role for GM-CSF in the pathogenesis of lymphoid interstitial pneumonia in infected animals.

  7. Delivery of granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor in bioadhesive hydrogel stimulates migration of dendritic cells in models of human papillomavirus-associated (pre)neoplastic epithelial lesions.

    PubMed

    Hubert, Pascale; Evrard, Brigitte; Maillard, Catherine; Franzen-Detrooz, Elizabeth; Delattre, Luc; Foidart, Jean-Michel; Noël, Agnes; Boniver, Jacques; Delvenne, Philippe

    2004-11-01

    Because of the central role of dendritic cells and/or Langerhans cells(DC/LC) in the induction of cellular immune responses, pharmacological agents that modulate the recruitment of these cells might have a clinical interest. The present study was designed to evaluate the capacity of several pharmaceutical formulations to topically deliver granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) on human papillomavirus (HPV)-associated genital (pre)neoplastic lesions. The formulations were evaluated for their bioactivity and for their potential to recruit DC in organotypic cultures of HPV-transformed keratinocytes. We found that a bioadhesive polycarbophil gel (Noveon) at pH 5.5 is able to maintain the bioactivity of GM-CSF at 4 or 37 degrees C for at least 7 days, whereas a decreased activity of GM-CSF was observed when the molecule is included in other polymer gels. GM-CSF incorporated in the polycarbophil gel was also a potent factor in enhancing the colonization of DC into organotypic cultures of HPV-transformed keratinocytes since the infiltration of DC in the in vitro-formed (pre)neoplastic epithelium was very low under basal conditions and dramatically increased in the presence of GM-CSF gel. We next demonstrated that GM-CSF incorporated in polycarbophil gel induces the recruitment of human DC in a human (pre)neoplastic epithelium grafted into NOD/SCID mice. The efficacy of GM-CSF in this formulation was equivalent to that observed with liquid GM-CSF. These results suggest that GM-CSF incorporated in polycarbophil gel could play an important role in the recruitment of DC/LC in mucosal surfaces and be useful as a new immunotherapeutic approach for genital HPV-associated (pre)neoplastic lesions.

  8. Expression of the human granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (hGM-CSF) gene under control of the 5'-regulatory sequence of the goat alpha-S1-casein gene with and without a MAR element in transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Burkov, I A; Serova, I A; Battulin, N R; Smirnov, A V; Babkin, I V; Andreeva, L E; Dvoryanchikov, G A; Serov, O L

    2013-10-01

    Expression of the human granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (hGM-CSF) gene under the control of the 5'-regulatory sequence of the goat alpha-S1-casein gene with and without a matrix attachment region (MAR) element from the Drosophila histone 1 gene was studied in four and eight transgenic mouse lines, respectively. Of the four transgenic lines carrying the transgene without MAR, three had correct tissues-specific expression of the hGM-CSF gene in the mammary gland only and no signs of cell mosaicism. The concentration of hGM-CSF in the milk of transgenic females varied from 1.9 to 14 μg/ml. One line presented hGM-CSF in the blood serum, indicating ectopic expression. The values of secretion of hGM-CSF in milk of 6 transgenic lines carrying the transgene with MAR varied from 0.05 to 0.7 μg/ml, and two of these did not express hGM-CSF. Three of the four examined animals from lines of this group showed ectopic expression of the hGM-CSF gene, as determined by RT-PCR and immunofluorescence analyses, as well as the presence of hGM-CSF in the blood serum. Mosaic expression of the hGM-CSF gene in mammary epithelial cells was specific to all examined transgenic mice carrying the transgene with MAR but was never observed in the transgenic mice without MAR. The mosaic expression was not dependent on transgene copy number. Thus, the expected "protective or enhancer effect" from the MAR element on the hGM-CSF gene expression was not observed.

  9. Roles of tumor necrosis factor alpha, granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor, platelet-activating factor, and arachidonic acid metabolites in interleukin-1-induced resistance to infection in neutropenic mice.

    PubMed Central

    Vogels, M T; Hermsen, C C; Huys, H L; Eling, W M; van der Meer, J W

    1994-01-01

    Treatment with a single low dose (80 to 800 ng) of interleukin-1 (IL-1) 24 h before a lethal bacterial challenge in granulocytopenic and in normal mice enhances nonspecific resistance. The mechanism behind this protection has only partially been elucidated. Since IL-1 induces production of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha), granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), platelet-activating factor (PAF), and arachidonic acid metabolites, we investigated the potential role of these substances in IL-1-induced protection. Low doses of murine TNF-alpha but not of human TNF-alpha enhanced survival, suggesting an effect via the type II TNF receptor rather than the type I TNF receptor, which has little species specificity. In line with this TNF-alpha-induced protection from infection, pretreatment with a low dose of a rat anti-murine TNF-alpha monoclonal antibody tended to inhibit IL-1-induced protection, suggesting a role of TNF-alpha as a mediator of IL-1-induced enhanced resistance to infection. Pretreatment with higher doses of anti-TNF-alpha, however, showed a dose-related protective effect per se, which could be further enhanced by a suboptimal dose of IL-1. A combination of optimal doses of anti-TNF-alpha and IL-1 produced an increase in survival similar to that produced by separate pretreatments. This lack of further enhancement of survival by combined optimal pretreatments suggests a similar mechanism of protection, most likely attenuation of deleterious effects of overproduced proinflammatory cytokines like TNF-alpha during lethal infection. Pretreatment with different doses of GM-CSF before a lethal Pseudomonas aeruginosa challenge in neutropenic mice did not enhance survival. Different doses of WEB 2170, a selective PAF receptor antagonist, of MK-886, a selective inhibitor of leukotriene biosynthesis, or of several cyclooxygenase inhibitors did not reduce the protective effect of IL-1 pretreatment. We conclude that IL-1-induced nonspecific

  10. Antitumor protection from the murine T-cell leukemia/lymphoma EL4 by the continuous subcutaneous coadministration of recombinant macrophage-colony stimulating factor and interleukin-2.

    PubMed

    Vallera, D A; Taylor, P A; Aukerman, S L; Blazar, B R

    1993-09-15

    Combined continuous s.c. coadministration of macrophage-colony stimulating factor (M-CSF) plus interleukin-2 (IL-2) by osmotic pump protected mice given i.v. injections of a lethal dose of EL4 T-cell leukemia/lymphoma. Antitumor protection was significantly greater than that afforded by treatment with either cytokine alone. Since neither IL-2 receptors nor M-CSF receptors were expressed on EL4, the antitumor effect was likely attributed to murine effector cells. To determine how M-CSF+IL-2 provided this effect, we performed immunophenotypic and functional analyses as well as in vivo depletion studies of putative antitumor effector cells. Splenic phenotyping experiments revealed that the highest levels of macrophages and natural killer cells were observed in mice given the cytokine combination rather than either M-CSF or IL-2 alone. In vivo depletion of natural killer cells ablated the antitumor protective effect of M-CSF and IL-2. T-cells were also important for M-CSF+IL-2 efficacy, since adult thymectomy/T-cell depletion significantly inhibited the ability of cytokine coadministration to protect against EL4. Coadministration of the 2 cytokines significantly elevated in vivo levels of CD3+CD4+, CD3+CD8+, CD3+NK1.1+ T-cells, and CD3+CD25+ (activated) T-cells, and elevated anti-EL4 cytotoxic T-cell activity measured in vitro. Although WBC counts and fluorescence-activated cell sorter studies showed that M-CSF+IL-2 treatment significantly elevated neutrophils, s.c. delivery of granulocyte-colony stimulating factor at doses sufficient to induce neutrophilia was unable to confer anti-EL4 protection. These studies indicate that macrophages, T-cells, and natural killer cells are all important in the M-CSF+IL-2 anti-EL4 response. The superior antitumor effect of this cytokine combination along with the ability of M-CSF to diminish the toxicity of IL-2 in this model suggests that further investigations into the clinical potential of this combination treatment are warranted.

  11. Proteomic Analysis Reveals Distinct Metabolic Differences Between Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony Stimulating Factor (GM-CSF) and Macrophage Colony Stimulating Factor (M-CSF) Grown Macrophages Derived from Murine Bone Marrow Cells*

    PubMed Central

    Na, Yi Rang; Hong, Ji Hye; Lee, Min Yong; Jung, Jae Hun; Jung, Daun; Kim, Young Won; Son, Dain; Choi, Murim; Kim, Kwang Pyo; Seok, Seung Hyeok

    2015-01-01

    Macrophages are crucial in controlling infectious agents and tissue homeostasis. Macrophages require a wide range of functional capabilities in order to fulfill distinct roles in our body, one being rapid and robust immune responses. To gain insight into macrophage plasticity and the key regulatory protein networks governing their specific functions, we performed quantitative analyses of the proteome and phosphoproteome of murine primary GM-CSF and M-CSF grown bone marrow derived macrophages (GM-BMMs and M-BMMs, respectively) using the latest isobaric tag based tandem mass tag (TMT) labeling and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Strikingly, metabolic processes emerged as a major difference between these macrophages. Specifically, GM-BMMs show significant enrichment of proteins involving glycolysis, the mevalonate pathway, and nitrogen compound biosynthesis. This evidence of enhanced glycolytic capability in GM-BMMs is particularly significant regarding their pro-inflammatory responses, because increased production of cytokines upon LPS stimulation in GM-BMMs depends on their acute glycolytic capacity. In contrast, M-BMMs up-regulate proteins involved in endocytosis, which correlates with a tendency toward homeostatic functions such as scavenging cellular debris. Together, our data describes a proteomic network that underlies the pro-inflammatory actions of GM-BMMs as well as the homeostatic functions of M-BMMs. PMID:26229149

  12. Stimulation of human monocytes with macrophage colony-stimulating factor induces a Grb2-mediated association of the focal adhesion kinase pp125FAK and dynamin.

    PubMed Central

    Kharbanda, S; Saleem, A; Yuan, Z; Emoto, Y; Prasad, K V; Kufe, D

    1995-01-01

    Macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF) is required for the growth and differentiation of mononuclear phagocytes. In the present studies using human monocytes, we show that M-CSF induces interaction of the Grb2 adaptor protein with the focal adhesion kinase pp125FAK. The results demonstrate that tyrosine-phosphorylated pp125FAK directly interacts with the SH2 domain of Grb2. The findings indicate that a pYENV site at Tyr-925 in pp125FAK is responsible for this interaction. We also demonstrate that the Grb2-FAK complex associates with the GTPase dynamin. Dynamin interacts with the SH3 domains of Grb2 and exhibits M-CSF-dependent tyrosine phosphorylation in association with pp125FAK. These findings suggest that M-CSF-induced signaling involves independent Grb2-mediated pathways, one leading to Ras activation and another involving pp125FAK and a GTPase implicated in receptor internalization. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 PMID:7597091

  13. Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor mobilized CFU-F can be found in the peripheral blood but have limited expansion potential.

    PubMed

    Lund, Troy C; Tolar, Jakub; Orchard, Paul J

    2008-06-01

    Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells are multipotent cells found lining the bone marrow cavity supporting the growth and differentiation of hematologic progenitors. There is growing evidence that these cells can, under the right circumstances, enter the peripheral circulation. We show that granulocyte colony-stimulating factor mobilized peripheral blood contains cells which form colonies and have a similar fibroblastic morphology (termed CFU-F) to bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells. These cells were found at a very low incidence (0.0002%). Mobilized peripheral blood CFU-F were successfully differentiated into osteogenic and adipogenic lineages. FACS analysis showed that the cells had a similar profile to bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells. Importantly, mobilized peripheral blood CFU-F had limited expansion potential and became senescent 20-25 days after isolation. Mobilized peripheral blood CFU-F also did not have any telomerase activity and displayed significant telomere shortening. The rarity of CFU-F in mobilized peripheral blood and the subsequent pressure to divide in cell culture probably contribute to early cellular senescence. Their potential for use in transplant or gene therapy is, therefore, limited.

  14. Effects of tumor vaccine expressing Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony Stimulating Factor and interleukin-18 fusion on cancer cells and its possible application for cancer immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sang Rok; Park, Young Kyu; Shin, Boo Ahn; Park, Hae-Ryoung

    2017-01-01

    To access antitumor effects of a combined Granulocyte Macrophage-Colony Stimulating Factor (GM-CSF) and interleukin-18 (IL-18), cDNA fusion of murine GM-CSF and mature IL-18 (GMIL-18) was constructed and transfected in mammalian cells. GMIL-18 fusion protein was highly secreted and displayed bifunctional activities, possessing immune response initiation and cytokine roles, including IFN-γ induction in mouse splenocytes and increased proliferation of GM-CSF-dependent cells, M-NSF-60. The GMIL-18 secreting tumor vaccine was generated and it strongly stimulated differentiation of dendrite cells (DCs) and effusive CD8(+) and CD4(+) cell infiltration into tumor mice. Moreover, growth of CT26 mouse colon cancer cells was significantly retarded by GMIL-18 (CT26GMIL-18), but not by CT26GM-CSF- or CT26IL-18. The efficiency of prophylactic vaccination was greater than that of therapeutic vaccination in terms of tumor size and its inhibitory role in proliferation. In micrometastasis analysis of tumor models, γ-ray irradiated GMIL-18 tumor vaccine showed a smaller number of liver-meta tumor nodules in mouse liver cells. We concluded that bifunctional GMIL-18 fusion protein could be applied as an immune therapy for cancer treatments.

  15. Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor Induces Osteoblast Inhibition by B Lymphocytes and Osteoclast Activation by T Lymphocytes during Hematopoietic Stem/Progenitor Cell Mobilization.

    PubMed

    Li, Sidan; Li, Tianshou; Chen, Yongbing; Nie, Yinchao; Li, Changhong; Liu, Lanting; Li, Qiaochuan; Qiu, Lugui

    2015-08-01

    In the bone marrow (BM), hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) reside in specialized niches near osteoblast cells at the endosteum. HSPCs that egress to peripheral blood are widely used for transplant, and mobilization is most commonly performed with recombinant human granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF). However, the cellular targets of G-CSF that initiate the mobilization cascade and bone remodeling are not completely understood. Here, we examined whether T and B lymphocytes modulate the bone niche and influence HSPC mobilization. We used T and B defective mice to show that G-CSF-induced mobilization of HSPCs correlated with B lymphocytes but poorly with T lymphocytes. In addition, we found that defective B lymphocytes prevent G-CSF-mediated osteoblast disruption, and further study showed BM osteoblasts were reduced coincident with mobilization, induced by elevated expression of dickkopf1 of BM B lymphocytes. BM T cells were also involved in G-CSF-induced osteoclast activation by regulating the Receptor Activator of Nuclear Factor-κ B Ligand/Osteoprotegerin (RANKL/OPG) axis. These data provide evidence that BM B and T lymphocytes play a role in G-CSF-induced HSPC mobilization by regulating bone remodeling.

  16. Low-dose cytarabine, aclarubicin and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor priming regimen versus idarubicin plus cytarabine regimen as induction therapy for older patients with acute myeloid leukemia.

    PubMed

    Jin, Jie; Chen, Jian; Suo, Shanshan; Qian, Wenbin; Meng, Haitao; Mai, Wenyuan; Tong, Hongyan; Huang, Jian; Yu, Wenjuan; Wei, Juyin; Lou, Yinjun

    2015-06-01

    With limited data available on the low-dose cytarabine, aclarubicin and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (CAG) regimen in newly diagnosed older patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML), this study aimed at comparing the efficacy and toxicity of CAG with idarubicin plus cytarabine (IA) remission induction therapy in these patients. A total of 154 consecutive patients (52 with CAG and 102 with IA) were retrospectively analyzed. The patients in the CAG group had a higher median age (68 vs. 65 years, p = 0.002) and a higher proportion of previous myelodysplastic syndrome (25.0% vs. 2.9%, p < 0.0001) compared to those in the IA group. The complete remission rates with the CAG and IA regimens were 55.8% and 52.9% (p = 0.864). The median overall survival (12.1 vs. 11.7 months, p = 0.650) and 3-year disease-free survival rates (29.6% vs. 48.6%, p = 0.657) were not statistically different in the two groups. The CAG regimen might be an alternative to conventional chemotherapy in older patients with AML.

  17. Just-in-time rescue plerixafor in combination with chemotherapy and granulocyte-colony stimulating factor for peripheral blood progenitor cell mobilization

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Veronica R.; Popat, Uday; Ciurea, Stefan; Nieto, Yago; Anderlini, Paolo; Rondon, Gabriela; Alousi, Amin; Qazilbash, Muzaffar; Kebriaei, Partow; Khouri, Issa; de Lima, Marcos; Champlin, Richard; Hosing, Chitra

    2014-01-01

    Plerixafor, a recently approved peripheral blood progenitor cell mobilizing agent, is often added to granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) to mobilize peripheral blood progenitor cells in patients with lymphoma or myeloma who cannot mobilize enough CD34+ cells with G-CSF alone to undergo autologous stem cell transplantation. However, data are lacking regarding the feasibility and efficacy of just-in-time plerixafor in combination with chemotherapy and G-CSF. We reviewed the peripheral blood stem cell collection data of 38 consecutive patients with lymphoma (Hodgkin’s and non-Hodgkin’s) and multiple myeloma who underwent chemomobilization and high-dose G-CSF and just-in-time plerixafor to evaluate the efficacy of this treatment combination. All patients with multiple myeloma and all but 1 patient with lymphoma collected the minimum required number of CD34+ cells to proceed with autologous stem cell transplantation (>2 × 106/kilogram of body weight). The median CD34+ cell dose collected in patients with non-Hodgkin lymphoma was 4.93 × 106/kilogram of body weight. The median CD34+ cell dose collected for patients with multiple myeloma was 8.81 × 106/kilogram of body weight. Plerixafor was well tolerated; no grade 2 or higher non- hematologic toxic effects were observed. PMID:23749720

  18. Just-in-time rescue plerixafor in combination with chemotherapy and granulocyte-colony stimulating factor for peripheral blood progenitor cell mobilization.

    PubMed

    Smith, Veronica R; Popat, Uday; Ciurea, Stefan; Nieto, Yago; Anderlini, Paolo; Rondon, Gabriela; Alousi, Amin; Qazilbash, Muzaffar; Kebriaei, Partow; Khouri, Issa; de Lima, Marcos; Champlin, Richard; Hosing, Chitra

    2013-09-01

    Plerixafor, a recently approved peripheral blood progenitor cell mobilizing agent, is often added to granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) to mobilize peripheral blood progenitor cells in patients with lymphoma or myeloma who cannot mobilize enough CD34+ cells with G-CSF alone to undergo autologous stem cell transplantation. However, data are lacking regarding the feasibility and efficacy of just-in-time plerixafor in combination with chemotherapy and G-CSF. We reviewed the peripheral blood stem cell collection data of 38 consecutive patients with lymphoma (Hodgkin's and non-Hodgkin's) and multiple myeloma who underwent chemomobilization and high-dose G-CSF and just-in-time plerixafor to evaluate the efficacy of this treatment combination. All patients with multiple myeloma and all but one patient with lymphoma collected the minimum required number of CD34+ cells to proceed with autologous stem cell transplantation (>2 × 10(6) /kg of body weight). The median CD34+ cell dose collected in patients with non-Hodgkin lymphoma was 4.93 × 10(6) /kg of body weight. The median CD34+ cell dose collected for patients with multiple myeloma was 8.81 × 10(6) /kg of body weight. Plerixafor was well tolerated; no grade 2 or higher non-hematologic toxic effects were observed.

  19. Case Report: Combination Therapy with Mesenchymal Stem Cells and Granulocyte-Colony Stimulating Factor in a Case of Spinal Cord Injury

    PubMed Central

    Derakhshanrad, Nazi; Saberi, Hooshang; Tayebi Meybodi, Keyvan; Taghvaei, Mohammad; Arjmand, Babak; Aghayan, Hamid Reza; Kohan, Amir Hassan; Haghpanahi, Mohammad; Rahmani, Shahrokh

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Various neuroregenerative procedures have been recently employed along with neurorehabilitation programs to promote neurological function after Spinal Cord Injury (SCI), and recently most of them have focused on the acute stage of spinal cord injury. In this report, we present a case of acute SCI treated with neuroprotective treatments in conjunction with conventional rehabilitation program. Methods: A case of acute penetrative SCI (gunshot wound), 40 years old, was treated with intrathecal bone marrow derived stem cells and parenteral Granulocyte-Colony Stimulating Factor (G-CSF) along with rehabilitation program. The neurological outcomes as well as safety issues have been reported. Results: Assessment with American Spinal Injury Association (ASIA), showed neurological improvement, meanwhile he reported neuropathic pain, which was amenable to oral medication. Discussion: In the acute setting, combination therapy of G-CSF and intrathecal Mesenchymal Stem Cells (MSCs) was safe in our case as an adjunct to conventional rehabilitation programs. Further controlled studies are needed to find possible side effects, and establish net efficacy. PMID:26649168

  20. Evaluating the effects of buffer conditions and extremolytes on thermostability of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor using high-throughput screening combined with design of experiments.

    PubMed

    Ablinger, Elisabeth; Hellweger, Monika; Leitgeb, Stefan; Zimmer, Andreas

    2012-10-15

    In this study, we combined a high-throughput screening method, differential scanning fluorimetry (DSF), with design of experiments (DoE) methodology to evaluate the effects of several formulation components on the thermostability of granulocyte colony stimulating factor (G-CSF). First we performed a primary buffer screening where we tested thermal stability of G-CSF in different buffers, pH values and buffer concentrations. The significance of each factor and the two-way interactions between them were studied by multivariable regression analysis. pH was identified as most critical factor regarding thermal stability. The most stabilizing buffer, sodium glutamate, and sodium acetate were determined for further investigations. Second we tested the effect of 6 naturally occurring extremolytes (trehalose, sucrose, ectoine, hydroxyectoine, sorbitol, mannitol) on the thermal stability of G-CSF, using a central composite circumscribed design. At low pH (3.8) and low buffer concentration (5 mM) all extremolytes led to a significant increase in thermal stability except the addition of ectoine which resulted in a strong destabilization of G-CSF. Increasing pH and buffer concentration led to an increase in thermal stability with all investigated extremolytes. The described systematic approach allowed to create a ranking of stabilizing extremolytes at different buffer conditions.

  1. Effect of Periodic Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor Administration on Endothelial Progenitor Cells and Different Monocyte Subsets in Pediatric Patients with Muscular Dystrophies

    PubMed Central

    Sienkiewicz, Dorota; Grubczak, Kamil; Okurowska-Zawada, Bożena; Paszko-Patej, Grażyna; Miklasz, Paula; Singh, Paulina; Radzikowska, Urszula; Kulak, Wojciech

    2016-01-01

    Muscular dystrophies (MD) are heterogeneous group of diseases characterized by progressive muscle dysfunction. There is a large body of evidence indicating that angiogenesis is impaired in muscles of MD patients. Therefore, induction of dystrophic muscle revascularization should become a novel approach aimed at diminishing the extent of myocyte damage. Recently, we and others demonstrated that administration of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) resulted in clinical improvement of patients with neuromuscular disorders. To date, however, the exact mechanisms underlying these beneficial effects of G-CSF have not been fully understood. Here we used flow cytometry to quantitate numbers of CD34+ cells, endothelial progenitor cells, and different monocyte subsets in peripheral blood of pediatric MD patients treated with repetitive courses of G-CSF administration. We showed that repetitive cycles of G-CSF administration induced efficient mobilization of above-mentioned cells including cells with proangiogenic potential. These findings contribute to better understanding the beneficial clinical effects of G-CSF in pediatric MD patients. PMID:26770204

  2. Bovine alpha s1-casein gene sequences direct high level expression of human granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor in the milk of transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Uusi-Oukari, M; Hyttinen, J M; Korhonen, V P; Västi, A; Alhonen, L; Jänne, O A; Jänne, J

    1997-01-01

    The generation is reported of transgenic mice expressing human granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) or human erythropoietin (EPO) under the control of bovine alpha s1-casein regulatory sequences. GM-CSF expression was specific to the mammary gland, and levels of human GM-CSF in transgenic mouse milk were in the range of mg ml-1. The specific activity of the milk GM-CSF was similar to that of the recombinant protein produced in Escherichia coli, and the glycosylation-derived size heterogeneity corresponded to that of the native human protein. In spite of the identical bovine regulatory sequences of the fusion genes, the levels of human EPO in transgenic mouse milk were 10(3)-10(6) times lower than those of GM-CSF, ranging from 0.003 to 3 micrograms ml-1. There appeared to be a positive correlation between the amount of EPO in the milk of lactating females and blood haematocrit values. In view of this, other type of constructs should be used to achieve more efficient EPO expression and to circumvent concomitantly-occurring adverse effects. In contrast, the high-level production of recombinant GM-CSF, its resemblance to the native mammalian protein, and mild adverse consequences of transgene expression imply that the current construct could be used for generation of larger GM-CSF transgenic animals to produce this protein in quantities sufficient for therapeutic purposes.

  3. Pretransplant mobilization with granulocyte colony-stimulating factor improves B-cell reconstitution by lentiviral vector gene therapy in SCID-X1 mice.

    PubMed

    Huston, Marshall W; Riegman, Adriaan R A; Yadak, Rana; van Helsdingen, Yvette; de Boer, Helen; van Til, Niek P; Wagemaker, Gerard

    2014-10-01

    Hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) gene therapy is a demonstrated effective treatment for X-linked severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID-X1), but B-cell reconstitution and function has been deficient in many of the gene therapy treated patients. Cytoreductive preconditioning is known to improve HSC engraftment, but in general it is not considered for SCID-X1 since the poor health of most of these patients at diagnosis and the risk of toxicity preclude the conditioning used in standard bone marrow stem cell transplantation. We hypothesized that mobilization of HSC by granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) should create temporary space in bone marrow niches to improve engraftment and thereby B-cell reconstitution. In the present pilot study supplementing our earlier preclinical evaluation (Huston et al., 2011), Il2rg(-/-) mice pretreated with G-CSF were transplanted with wild-type lineage negative (Lin(-)) cells or Il2rg(-/-) Lin(-) cells transduced with therapeutic IL2RG lentiviral vectors. Mice were monitored for reconstitution of lymphocyte populations, level of donor cell chimerism, and antibody responses as compared to 2 Gy total body irradiation (TBI), previously found effective in promoting B-cell reconstitution. The results demonstrate that G-CSF promotes B-cell reconstitution similar to low-dose TBI and provides proof of principle for an alternative approach to improve efficacy of gene therapy in SCID patients without adverse effects associated with cytoreductive conditioning.

  4. Modulation of MHC class II transport and lysosome distribution by macrophage-colony stimulating factor in human dendritic cells derived from monocytes.

    PubMed

    Baron, C; Raposo, G; Scholl, S M; Bausinger, H; Tenza, D; Bohbot, A; Pouillart, P; Goud, B; Hanau, D; Salamero, J

    2001-03-01

    The macrophage-colony stimulating factor (M-CSF) has been already shown to affect the function of dendritic cells (DC). Therefore, the differentiation of dendritic cells into macrophages (M(PHI)) might represent a pathway which could inhibit the immune response initiated by DC. Because Major Histocompatibility Complex class II molecules (MHC-II) are crucial for DC function, we asked whether M-CSF may influence the intracellular transport of MHC-II in monocyte derived DC. We found that, at early stages, M-CSF induced first a rapid redistribution of MHC-II from the MHC-II containing compartments (MIIC) to the plasma membrane and second an increase in MHC-II synthesis as observed with LPS or TNF-(alpha). These processes were associated with the sorting of MHC-II from lysosomal membranes which underwent a drastic structural reorganization. However, in contrast to tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-(alpha) or lipopolysaccharide (LPS), M-CSF neither potentiated the allostimulatory function of DC nor allowed the stabilization of MHC-II at the cell surface, but rather increased MHC-II turnover. We conclude that the rapid modulation of MHC-II transport and distribution may participate in the inhibitory effect of M-CSF on DC function and differentiation.

  5. Oncostatin M is a member of a cytokine family that includes leukemia-inhibitory factor, granulocyte colony-stimulating factor, and interleukin 6.

    PubMed Central

    Rose, T M; Bruce, A G

    1991-01-01

    Oncostatin M (OSM), a glycoprotein of Mr approximately 28,000 produced by activated monocyte and T-lymphocyte cell lines, was previously identified by its ability to inhibit the growth of cells from melanoma and other solid tumors. We have detected significant similarities in the primary amino acid sequences and predicted secondary structures of OSM, leukemia-inhibitory factor (LIF), granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF), and interleukin 6 (IL-6). Analysis of the genes encoding these proteins revealed a shared exon organization, suggesting evolutionary descent from a common ancestral gene. Using a panel of DNAs from somatic cell hybrids, we have shown that OSM, like LIF, is located on human chromosome 22. We have also demonstrated that OSM has the ability to inhibit the proliferation of murine M1 myeloid leukemic cells and can induce their differentiation into macrophage-like cells, a function shared by LIF, G-CSF, and IL-6. We propose that OSM, LIF, G-CSF, and IL-6 are structurally related members of a cytokine family that have in common the ability to modulate differentiation of a variety of cell types. Images PMID:1717982

  6. Proximal tubule-derived Colony Stimulating Factor-1 mediates polarization of renal macrophages and dendritic cells, and recovery in acute kidney injury

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yinqiu; Chang, Jian; Yao, Bing; Niu, Aolei; Kelly, Emily; Breeggemann, Matthew C.; Abboud Werner, Sherry L.; Harris, Raymond C.; Zhang, Ming-Zhi

    2015-01-01

    Infiltrating cells play an important role in both the development of and recovery from acute kidney injury (AKI). Macrophages and renal dendritic cells are of particular interest because they can exhibit distinctly different functional phenotypes, broadly characterized as proinflammatory (M1) or tissue reparative (M2). Resident renal macrophages and dendritic cells participate in recovery from AKI in response to either ischemia/reperfusion or a model of selective proximal tubule injury induced by diphtheria toxin-induced apoptosis in transgenic mice expressing the human diphtheria toxin receptor on proximal tubule cells. Colony Stimulating Factor-1 (CSF-1) is an important factor mediating the recovery from AKI, and CSF-1 can stimulate macrophage and dendritic cell proliferation and polarization during the recovery phase of AKI. The kidney, and specifically the proximal tubule, is a major source of intrarenal CSF-1 production in response to AKI. We induced selective deletion of proximal tubule CSF-1 to determine its role in expansion and proliferation of renal macrophages and dendritic cells and in recovery from AKI. In both models of AKI, there was decreased M2 polarization, delayed functional and structural recovery and increased tubulointerstitial fibrosis. Thus, intrarenal CSF-1 is an important mediator of macrophage/dendritic cell polarization and recovery from AKI. PMID:26422503

  7. Human granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor DNA cationic-lipid complexed autologous tumour cell vaccination in the treatment of canine B-cell multicentric lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Turek, M M; Thamm, D H; Mitzey, A; Kurzman, I D; Huelsmeyer, M K; Dubielzig, R R; Vail, D M

    2007-12-01

    This study describes the development of an human granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor DNA cationic-lipid complexed autologous tumour cell vaccine (hGM-CSF CLDC ATCV) and its implementation, following a chemotherapy treatment protocol, in a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blinded clinical trial in pet dogs with naturally occurring lymphoma. We hypothesized that the use of this vaccine would result in an antitumour immune response leading to improved first remission duration and overall survival in dogs with B-cell lymphoma when compared with chemotherapy alone. Immune stimulation generated by hGM-CSF CLDC ATCV was assessed by means of surrogate in vivo analysis (delayed-type hypersensitivity [DTH]) as well as an ex vivo cellular assay (lymphocyte proliferation assay). The vaccine approach considered in the current report did not result in clinically improved outcomes. A small measure of immunomodulation was documented by DTH and several modifications to the approach are suggested. This report illustrates the feasibility of clinical trials with vaccine strategies using companion animals with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma.

  8. Macrophage colony-stimulating factor (CSF1) controls monocyte production and maturation and the steady-state size of the liver in pigs

    PubMed Central

    Sauter, Kristin A.; Waddell, Lindsey A.; Lisowski, Zofia M.; Young, Rachel; Lefevre, Lucas; Davis, Gemma M.; Clohisey, Sara M.; McCulloch, Mary; Magowan, Elizabeth; Mabbott, Neil A.; Summers, Kim M.

    2016-01-01

    Macrophage colony-stimulating factor (CSF1) is an essential growth and differentiation factor for cells of the macrophage lineage. To explore the role of CSF1 in steady-state control of monocyte production and differentiation and tissue repair, we previously developed a bioactive protein with a longer half-life in circulation by fusing pig CSF1 with the Fc region of pig IgG1a. CSF1-Fc administration to pigs expanded progenitor pools in the marrow and selectively increased monocyte numbers and their expression of the maturation marker CD163. There was a rapid increase in the size of the liver, and extensive proliferation of hepatocytes associated with increased macrophage infiltration. Despite the large influx of macrophages, there was no evidence of liver injury and no increase in circulating liver enzymes. Microarray expression profiling of livers identified increased expression of macrophage markers, i.e., cytokines such as TNF, IL1, and IL6 known to influence hepatocyte proliferation, alongside cell cycle genes. The analysis also revealed selective enrichment of genes associated with portal, as opposed to centrilobular regions, as seen in hepatic regeneration. Combined with earlier data from the mouse, this study supports the existence of a CSF1-dependent feedback loop, linking macrophages of the liver with bone marrow and blood monocytes, to mediate homeostatic control of the size of the liver. The results also provide evidence of safety and efficacy for possible clinical applications of CSF1-Fc. PMID:27445344

  9. Macrophage production during murine listeriosis: colony-stimulating factor 1 (CSF-1) and CSF-1-binding cells in genetically resistant and susceptible mice.

    PubMed Central

    Cheers, C; Stanley, E R

    1988-01-01

    The concentration of the macrophage-specific colony-stimulating factor (CSF-1) and the numbers of bone marrow and spleen cells with specific receptors for that factor have been investigated in a number of mouse strains under normal conditions and after infection with the facultative intracellular bacterium Listeria monocytogenes. The CSF-1 concentration in serum and tissue was markedly elevated in infected mice, the degree of stimulation reflecting the dose of L. monocytogenes. The CSF-1 titer did not correlate with genetic resistance or susceptibility of the mice to L. monocytogenes. In contrast to the effect of lipopolysaccharide, Listeria infection was able to increase the level of CSF-1 in the lipopolysaccharide nonresponder strain C3H/HeJ. In line with earlier findings on colony-forming cells, cells bearing receptors for CSF-1 in uninfected susceptible BALB/cJ mice were only half those in resistant C57BL/6J mice. After infection the majority of these cells disappeared from the bone marrow and spleen cells of both resistant and susceptible mice. The number of CSF-1 receptor-bearing cells in the normal bone marrow may determine the degree of resistance to L. monocytogenes. PMID:3262588

  10. Evaluation of a biosimilar granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (filgrastim XM02) for peripheral blood stem cell mobilization and transplantation: a single center experience in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Yoshimura, Hideaki; Hotta, Masaaki; Nakanishi, Takahisa; Fujita, Shinya; Nakaya, Aya; Satake, Atsushi; Ito, Tomoki; Ishii, Kazuyoshi; Nomura, Shosaku

    2017-01-01

    Background Biosimilar granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) has recently been introduced into clinical practice. G-CSFs are used to mobilize CD34+ cells and accelerate engraftment after transplantation. However, in Asia, particularly in Japan, data for peripheral blood stem cell (PBSC) mobilization by this biosimilar G-CSF are currently lacking. Therefore, the clinical efficacy and safety of biosimilar G-CSF for hematopoietic stem cell transplantation needs to be evaluated in a Japanese context. Materials and methods The subjects included two groups of patients with malignant lymphoma and multiple myeloma. All patients received chemotherapy priming for the mobilization of PBSCs. All patients were treated with chemotherapy followed by the administration of either the biosimilar G-CSF, filgrastim XM02 (FBNK), or the originators, filgrastim, or lenograstim. Results There were no significant differences among FBNK, filgrastim, and lenograstim treatments in the numbers of CD34+ cells in harvested PBSCs, the scores for granulocyte/macrophage colony forming units, or for malignant lymphoma and multiple myeloma patients evaluated as separate or combined cohorts. In addition, there were no significant differences in safety, side effects, complications, or the time to engraftment after autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Conclusion Biosimilar FBNK shows the same efficacy and safety as originator G-CSFs for facilitating bone marrow recovery in Japanese malignant lymphoma and multiple myeloma patients undergoing stem cell transplantation. In addition, it is less expensive than the originators, reducing hospitalization costs. PMID:28182150

  11. An Epstein-Barr Virus Encoded Inhibitor of Colony Stimulating Factor-1 Signaling Is an Important Determinant for Acute and Persistent EBV Infection

    PubMed Central

    Ohashi, Makoto; Fogg, Mark H.; Orlova, Nina; Quink, Carol; Wang, Fred

    2012-01-01

    Acute Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection is the most common cause of Infectious Mononucleosis. Nearly all adult humans harbor life-long, persistent EBV infection which can lead to development of cancers including Hodgkin Lymphoma, Burkitt Lymphoma, nasopharyngeal carcinoma, gastric carcinoma, and lymphomas in immunosuppressed patients. BARF1 is an EBV replication-associated, secreted protein that blocks Colony Stimulating Factor 1 (CSF-1) signaling, an innate immunity pathway not targeted by any other virus species. To evaluate effects of BARF1 in acute and persistent infection, we mutated the BARF1 homologue in the EBV-related herpesvirus, or lymphocryptovirus (LCV), naturally infecting rhesus macaques to create a recombinant rhLCV incapable of blocking CSF-1 (ΔrhBARF1). Rhesus macaques orally challenged with ΔrhBARF1 had decreased viral load indicating that CSF-1 is important for acute virus infection. Surprisingly, ΔrhBARF1 was also associated with dramatically lower virus setpoints during persistent infection. Normal acute viral load and normal viral setpoints during persistent rhLCV infection could be restored by Simian/Human Immunodeficiency Virus-induced immunosuppression prior to oral inoculation with ΔrhBARF1 or infection of immunocompetent animals with a recombinant rhLCV where the rhBARF1 was repaired. These results indicate that BARF1 blockade of CSF-1 signaling is an important immune evasion strategy for efficient acute EBV infection and a significant determinant for virus setpoint during persistent EBV infection. PMID:23300447

  12. Diagnostic Power of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor and Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor in Breast Cancer Patients Based on ROC Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Głażewska, Edyta Katarzyna; Będkowska, Grażyna Ewa; Chorąży, Przemysław; Szmitkowski, Maciej; Ławicki, Sławomir

    2016-01-01

    Breast cancer (BC) is the most common malignancy in women. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) has been described as an important regulator of angiogenesis which plays a vital role in the progression of tumor. Macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF) is a cytokine whose functions include regulation of hematopoietic lineages cells growth, proliferation, and differentiation. We investigated the diagnostic significance of these parameters in comparison to CA15-3 in BC patients and in relation to the control group (benign breast tumor and healthy women). Plasma levels of the tested parameters were determined by ELISA and CA15-3 was determined by CMIA. VEGF was shown to be comparable to CA15-3 values of sensitivity in BC group and, what is more important, higher values in early stages of BC. VEGF was also the only parameter which has statistically significant AUC in all stages of cancer. M-CSF has been shown to be comparable to CA15-3 and VEGF, specificity, and AUC values only in stages III and IV of BC. These results indicate the usefulness and high diagnostic power of VEGF in the detection of BC. Also, it occurred to be the best candidate for cancer diagnostics in stages I and II of BC and in the differentiation between BC and benign cases. PMID:27445439

  13. Immunotherapy against metastatic bladder cancer by combined administration of granulocyte macrophage-colony stimulating factor and interleukin-2 surface modified MB49 bladder cancer stem cells vaccine.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chun-Yan; Hua, Rui; Liu, Li; Zhan, Xiaomin; Chen, Simei; Quan, Song; Chu, Qing-Jun; Zhu, Yong-Tong

    2017-02-16

    In previous studies, it has been shown that the granulocyte macrophage-colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) or interleukin-2 (IL-2) surface modified MB49 bladder cancer stem cells (MCSCs) vaccine could induce a specific antitumor immunity and against bladder cancer in mice model respectively. However, whether combined administration of GM-CSF and IL-2 could produce specific immune responses to cancer stem cells (CSCs) was uncertain. MCSCs were established and characterized. GM-CSF and IL-2 MCSCs vaccines were prepared and bioactivity was evaluated. The therapeutic, protective, specific, and memorial immune response animal experiments were designed. Tumor-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes assay, enzyme linked immunosorbent assay, flow cytometry assay were performed to indentify whether vaccine caused an antitumor immunity. Streptavidin (SA)-GM-CSF and SA-IL-2 MCSCs vaccines were prepared successfully. Such vaccines inhibited the volume of tumor and prolonged the survival of the mice in animal experiments. The express of IgG or IFN-c, the portion of dendritic cells, CD8(+) and CD4(+) T cells were highest in the combined vaccines group than the SA-GM-CSF vaccine group, the SA-IL-2 vaccine group, the MCSCs group and the PBS group. The combined of GM-CSF and IL-2 vaccines could induce better antitumor immunity than a vaccine alone.

  14. Chronic pain and impaired glial glutamate transporter function in lupus-prone mice are ameliorated by blocking macrophage colony-stimulating factor-1 receptors.

    PubMed

    Yan, Xisheng; Maixner, Dylan W; Li, Fen; Weng, Han-Rong

    2017-03-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a multi-organ disease of unknown etiology in which the normal immune responses are directed against the body's own healthy tissues. Patients with SLE often suffer from chronic pain. Currently, no animal studies have been reported about the mechanisms underlying pain in SLE. In this study, the development of chronic pain in MRL lupus-prone (MRL/lpr) mice, a well-established lupus mouse model, was characterized for the first time. We found that female MRL/lpr mice developed thermal hyperalgesia at the age of 13 weeks, and mechanical allodynia at the age of 16 weeks. MRL/lpr mice with chronic pain had activation of microglia and astrocytes, over-expression of macrophage colony-stimulating factor-1 (CSF-1) and interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β), as well as suppression of glial glutamate transport function in the spinal cord. Intrathecal injection of either the CSF-1 blocker or IL-1 inhibitor attenuated thermal hyperalgesia in MRL/lpr mice. We provide evidence that the suppressed activity of glial glutamate transporters in the spinal dorsal horn in MRL/lpr mice is caused by activation of the CSF-1 and IL-1β signaling pathways. Our findings suggest that targeting the CSF-1 and IL-1β signaling pathways or the glial glutamate transporter in the spinal cord is an effective approach for the management of chronic pain caused by SLE.

  15. Macrophage colony-stimulating factor (CSF1) controls monocyte production and maturation and the steady-state size of the liver in pigs.

    PubMed

    Sauter, Kristin A; Waddell, Lindsey A; Lisowski, Zofia M; Young, Rachel; Lefevre, Lucas; Davis, Gemma M; Clohisey, Sara M; McCulloch, Mary; Magowan, Elizabeth; Mabbott, Neil A; Summers, Kim M; Hume, David A

    2016-09-01

    Macrophage colony-stimulating factor (CSF1) is an essential growth and differentiation factor for cells of the macrophage lineage. To explore the role of CSF1 in steady-state control of monocyte production and differentiation and tissue repair, we previously developed a bioactive protein with a longer half-life in circulation by fusing pig CSF1 with the Fc region of pig IgG1a. CSF1-Fc administration to pigs expanded progenitor pools in the marrow and selectively increased monocyte numbers and their expression of the maturation marker CD163. There was a rapid increase in the size of the liver, and extensive proliferation of hepatocytes associated with increased macrophage infiltration. Despite the large influx of macrophages, there was no evidence of liver injury and no increase in circulating liver enzymes. Microarray expression profiling of livers identified increased expression of macrophage markers, i.e., cytokines such as TNF, IL1, and IL6 known to influence hepatocyte proliferation, alongside cell cycle genes. The analysis also revealed selective enrichment of genes associated with portal, as opposed to centrilobular regions, as seen in hepatic regeneration. Combined with earlier data from the mouse, this study supports the existence of a CSF1-dependent feedback loop, linking macrophages of the liver with bone marrow and blood monocytes, to mediate homeostatic control of the size of the liver. The results also provide evidence of safety and efficacy for possible clinical applications of CSF1-Fc.

  16. Therapeutic applications of macrophage colony-stimulating factor-1 (CSF-1) and antagonists of CSF-1 receptor (CSF-1R) signaling.

    PubMed

    Hume, David A; MacDonald, Kelli P A

    2012-02-23

    Macrophage-colony stimulating factor (CSF-1) signaling through its receptor (CSF-1R) promotes the differentiation of myeloid progenitors into heterogeneous populations of monocytes, macrophages, dendritic cells, and bone-resorbing osteoclasts. In the periphery, CSF-1 regulates the migration, proliferation, function, and survival of macrophages, which function at multiple levels within the innate and adaptive immune systems. Macrophage populations elicited by CSF-1 are associated with, and exacerbate, a broad spectrum of pathologies, including cancer, inflammation, and bone disease. Conversely, macrophages can also contribute to immunosuppression, disease resolution, and tissue repair. Recombinant CSF-1, antibodies against the ligand and the receptor, and specific inhibitors of CSF-1R kinase activity have been each been tested in a range of animal models and in some cases, in patients. This review examines the potential clinical uses of modulators of the CSF-1/CSF-1R system. We conclude that CSF-1 promotes a resident-type macrophage phenotype. As a treatment, CSF-1 has therapeutic potential in tissue repair. Conversely, inhibition of CSF-1R is unlikely to be effective in inflammatory disease but may have utility in cancer.

  17. Severe Hypoxemia in a Healthy Donor for Allogeneic Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation after Only the First Administration of Granulocyte-Colony Stimulating Factor

    PubMed Central

    Yamamoto, Keita; Doki, Noriko; Senoo, Yasushi; Najima, Yuho; Kobayashi, Takeshi; Kakihana, Kazuhiko; Haraguchi, Kyoko; Okuyama, Yoshiki; Sakamaki, Hisashi; Ohashi, Kazuteru

    2016-01-01

    Background Granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) is widely used to mobilize peripheral blood stem cells (PBSCs) in healthy donors. A few reports have shown that some healthy donors developed acute respiratory distress syndrome or capillary leak syndrome after more than several rounds of G-CSF administration or leukapheresis. Case Report We report the case of a healthy donor for allogeneic stem cell transplantation who developed severe hypoxemia 1 h after only the first administration of G-CSF. The donor was administered 10 μg/kg G-CSF (lenograstim) subcutaneously for PBSC mobilization. 1 h after the first administration of G-CSF, the donor suddenly presented with dry cough and dyspnea. The oxygen saturation by pulse oximetry (SpO2) in the room air was 88%. An electrocardiogram and chest radiography revealed no abnormalities. We excluded other causes of severe hypoxemia and diagnosed the donor with hypoxemia due to G-CSF administration, which was subsequently terminated. The donor was administered 2 l/min oxygen via a nasal cannula and 100 mg hydrocortisone intravenously. He subsequently recovered, and SpO2 in the room air returned to 98% 10 h after hypoxemia. Conclusion These respiratory symptoms might be related to anaphylactoid or hypersensitivity reaction. The donors should be observed for at least 1 h after the first administration of G-CSF. PMID:27994532

  18. Co-inhibition of colony stimulating factor-1 receptor and BRAF oncogene in mouse models of BRAF(V600E) melanoma.

    PubMed

    Ngiow, Shin Foong; Meeth, Katrina M; Stannard, Kimberley; Barkauskas, Deborah S; Bollag, Gideon; Bosenberg, Marcus; Smyth, Mark J

    2016-03-01

    The presence of colony stimulating factor-1 (CSF1)/CSF1 receptor (CSF1R)-driven tumor-infiltrating macrophages and myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) is shown to promote targeted therapy resistance. In this study, we demonstrate the superior effect of a combination of CSF1R inhibitor, PLX3397 and BRAF inhibitor, PLX4720, in suppressing primary and metastatic mouse BRAF(V600E) melanoma. Using flow cytometry to assess SM1WT1 melanoma-infiltrating leukocytes immediately post therapy, we found that PLX3397 reduced the recruitment of CD11b(+) Gr1(lo) and CD11b(+) Gr1(int) M2-like macrophages, but this was accompanied by an accumulation of CD11b(+) Gr1(hi) cells. PDL1 expression on remaining myeloid cells potentially dampened the antitumor efficacy of PLX3397 and PLX4720 in combination, since PD1/PDL1 axis blockade improved outcome. We also reveal a role for PLX3397 in reducing tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes, and interestingly, this feature was rescued by the co-administration of PLX4720. Our findings, from three different mouse models of BRAF-mutated melanoma, support clinical approaches that co-target BRAF oncogene and CSF1R.

  19. Macrophage colony-stimulating factor-induced macrophage differentiation promotes regrowth in atrophied skeletal muscles and C2C12 myotubes.

    PubMed

    Dumont, Nicolas A; Frenette, Jérôme

    2013-02-01

    Skeletal muscle injury and regeneration are closely associated with an inflammatory reaction that is usually characterized by sequential recruitment of neutrophils and monocytes or macrophages. Selective macrophage depletion models have shown that macrophages are essential for complete regeneration of muscle fibers after freeze injuries, toxin injuries, ischemia-reperfusion, and hindlimb unloading and reloading. Although there is growing evidence that macrophages possess major myogenic capacities, it is not known whether the positive effects of macrophages can be optimized to stimulate muscle regrowth. We used in vivo and in vitro mouse models of atrophy to investigate the effects of stimulating macrophages with macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF) on muscle regrowth. When atrophied soleus muscles were injected intramuscularly with M-CSF, we observed a 1.6-fold increase in macrophage density and a faster recovery in muscle force (20%), combined with an increase in muscle fiber diameter (10%), after 7 days of reloading, compared with PBS-injected soleus muscles. Furthermore, coculture of atrophied myotubes with or without bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDM) and/or M-CSF revealed that the combination of BMDMs and M-CSF was required to promote myotube growth (15%). More specifically, M-CSF promoted the anti-inflammatory macrophage phenotype, which in turn decreased protein degradation and MuRF-1 expression by 25% in growing myotubes. These results indicate that specific macrophage subsets can be stimulated to promote muscle cell regrowth after atrophy.

  20. Use of mice tolerant to lipopolysaccharide to demonstrate requirement of cooperation between macrophages and lymphocytes to generate lipopolysaccharide-induced colony-stimulating factor in vivo.

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Z; Hertogs, C F; Pluznik, D H

    1983-01-01

    Injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) into mice was followed by a rapid elevation of colony-stimulating factor (CSF) in the serum. A second, challenging injection of LPS given 3 to 4 days later failed to induce elevated levels of CSF in the serum. Such mice tolerant to LPS were used as an experimental tool to identify the CSF-producing cells which respond to LPS. We observed that generation of LPS-induced CSF in mice tolerant to LPS could be restored by an intraperitoneal injection of spleen cells 24 h before the challenging injection of LPS. Depletion of the adherent cells from the spleen cells reduced the ability of the splenic lymphocytes to restore the capacity of the mice tolerant to LPS to generate serum CSF. Reconstitution of the splenic lymphocytes with 5% thioglycolate-elicited peritoneal macrophages, however, reestablished the restorative capacity of these cells, whereas almost no restoration was observed after direct injection of elicited peritoneal macrophages. These data suggest that the spleen cells are active in generating CSF, provided that macrophages are present and can interact with the splenic lymphocytes to generate LPS-induced CSF in the serum. PMID:6602767

  1. Assaying the granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) as a mitogen of immature cells in fetal blood cultures.

    PubMed

    Costa, D; Borrell, A; Jou, J M; Besón, I; Soler, A; Carrió, A; Margarit, E; Caballín, R; Ballesta, F; Fortuny, A

    1999-01-01

    Based on the presence of immature cells in fetal blood, and in an attempt to shorten the cytogenetic reporting time, three simultaneous one-day culture regimes were established in 23 fetal blood samples: (a) the standard phytohemagglutinin (PHA)-stimulated lymphocytes culture, (b) a culture using the granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) as an alternative mitogen, and (c) an unstimulated culture. Diagnostic success rates achieved by these three methods were as follows: 43 per cent (95 per cent CI: 23-64) (GM-CSF), 30 per cent (95 per cent CI: 12-49) (PHA) and 9 per cent (unstimulated). These three regimes were also assayed in three-day cultures giving 100 per cent diagnostic success rate for the PHA and GM-CSF, and 62 per cent (95 per cent CI: 41-83) for the unstimulated. A moderate correlation was found between the initial concentration of cultured erythroblasts and the metaphase count in one-day GM-CSF-stimulated (r=0.43, p=0.01) and unstimulated (r=0.35, p=0.05) cultures, suggesting that erythroblasts may be in part responsible for the mitotic index observed in these two regime cultures. In conclusion, our experience suggests that immature cells in fetal blood may be successfully cultured for diagnostic purposes.

  2. Pegfilgrastim and daily granulocyte colony-stimulating factor: patterns of use and neutropenia-related outcomes in cancer patients in Spain--results of the LEARN Study.

    PubMed

    Almenar, D; Mayans, J; Juan, O; Bueno, J M Garcia; Lopez, J I Jalon; Frau, A; Guinot, M; Cerezuela, P; Buscalla, E Garcia; Gasquet, J A; Sanchez, J

    2009-05-01

    Daily granulocyte colony-stimulating factors [(G-CSFs); e.g. filgrastim, lenograstim] are frequently used to reduce the duration of chemotherapy-induced neutropenia (CIN) and the incidence of febrile neutropenia (FN) in cancer patients. A pegylated formulation of filgrastim, pegfilgrastim, which is administered once per cycle, was introduced in Spain in 2003. LEARN was a multi-centre, retrospective, observational study in Spain comparing patterns of use of daily G-CSF and pegfilgrastim, and CIN-related outcomes in adults with non-myeloid malignancies receiving myelosuppressive chemotherapy. Outcome measures were the percentage of patients receiving G-CSF for primary prophylaxis versus secondary prophylaxis/treatment, duration of treatment with G-CSF and incidence of CIN-related complications. Medical records from consecutive patients with documented pegfilgrastim (n = 75) or daily G-CSF (n = 111) use during 2003 were included. The proportion of patients receiving primary or secondary prophylaxis was comparable between the pegfilgrastim (39 and 48% respectively) and daily G-CSF (40 and 48% respectively) groups. However, there was a trend towards less frequent use to treat a neutropenic event such as FN or neutropenia in the pegfilgrastim group (17 versus 30% with daily G-CSF). Chemotherapy-induced neutropenia-related complications were less frequent in patients receiving pegfilgrastim (e.g. FN 11 versus 24% with daily G-CSF). This is the first study to show the potential benefits of pegfilgrastim over daily G-CSF in Spanish clinical practice.

  3. Pretransplant Mobilization with Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor Improves B-Cell Reconstitution by Lentiviral Vector Gene Therapy in SCID-X1 Mice

    PubMed Central

    Huston, Marshall W.; Riegman, Adriaan R.A.; Yadak, Rana; van Helsdingen, Yvette; de Boer, Helen; van Til, Niek P.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) gene therapy is a demonstrated effective treatment for X-linked severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID-X1), but B-cell reconstitution and function has been deficient in many of the gene therapy treated patients. Cytoreductive preconditioning is known to improve HSC engraftment, but in general it is not considered for SCID-X1 since the poor health of most of these patients at diagnosis and the risk of toxicity preclude the conditioning used in standard bone marrow stem cell transplantation. We hypothesized that mobilization of HSC by granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) should create temporary space in bone marrow niches to improve engraftment and thereby B-cell reconstitution. In the present pilot study supplementing our earlier preclinical evaluation (Huston et al., 2011), Il2rg−/− mice pretreated with G-CSF were transplanted with wild-type lineage negative (Lin−) cells or Il2rg−/− Lin− cells transduced with therapeutic IL2RG lentiviral vectors. Mice were monitored for reconstitution of lymphocyte populations, level of donor cell chimerism, and antibody responses as compared to 2 Gy total body irradiation (TBI), previously found effective in promoting B-cell reconstitution. The results demonstrate that G-CSF promotes B-cell reconstitution similar to low-dose TBI and provides proof of principle for an alternative approach to improve efficacy of gene therapy in SCID patients without adverse effects associated with cytoreductive conditioning. PMID:25222508

  4. Expression cloning of a human granulocyte colony-stimulating factor receptor: a structural mosaic of hematopoietin receptor, immunoglobulin, and fibronectin domains

    PubMed Central

    1990-01-01

    We report the isolation from a placental library, of two cDNAs that can encode high affinity receptors for granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) when expressed in COS-7 cells. The cDNAs are predicted to encode integral membrane proteins of 759 and 812 amino acids in length. The predicted extracellular and membrane spanning sequences of the two clones are identical, as are the first 96 amino acids of their respective cytoplasmic regions. Different COOH termini of 34 or 87 residues are predicted for the two cDNAs, due apparently to alternate splicing. The receptor with the longer cytoplasmic domain is the closest human homologue of the murine G-CSF receptor recently described by Fukunaga et al. (Fukunaga, R., E. Ishizaka-Ikeda, Y. Seto, and S. Nagata. 1990. Cell. 61:341). A hybridization probe derived from the placental G-CSF receptor cDNA detects a approximately 3-kb transcript in RNAs isolated from placenta and a number of lymphoid and myeloid cells. The extracellular region of the G-CSF receptors is composed of four distinct types of structural domains, previously recognized in other cell surface proteins. In addition to the two domains of the HP receptor family-defining region (Patthy, L. 1990. Cell. 61:13) it incorporates one NH2-terminal Ig-like domain, and three additional repeats of fibronectin type III-like domains. The presence of both an NH2-terminal Ig-like domain and multiple membrane-proximal FN3-like domains suggests that the G-CSF receptor may be derived from an ancestral NCAM-like molecule and that the G-CSF receptor may function in some adhesion or recognition events at the cell surface in addition to the binding of G-CSF. PMID:2147944

  5. Macrophage colony-stimulating factor gene transduction into human lung cancer cells differentially regulates metastasis formations in various organ microenvironments of natural killer cell-depleted SCID mice.

    PubMed

    Yano, S; Nishioka, Y; Nokihara, H; Sone, S

    1997-02-15

    We investigated whether local production of macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF), responsible for migration and activation of monocytes/macrophages at a tumor growth site, affected the metastatic pattern of lung cancer. For this, highly metastatic human squamous (RERF-LC-AI) or small (H69/VP) cell lung carcinoma cells were transduced with the human M-CSF gene inserted into pRc/CMV-MCSF to establish M-CSF-producing clones (MCSF-AI-9-18, MCSF-AI-9-24, and MCSF-VP-5). M-CSF gene transduction had no effect on the expression of surface antigen or on in vitro proliferation. After s.c. injection into SCID mice, the growth rates of M-CSF-producing cells were slower than those of parent or mock-transduced cells. In the metastatic model in SCID mice depleted of natural killer cells, RERF-LC-AI cells formed metastases mainly in the liver and kidneys, whereas H69/VP cells metastasized mainly to the liver and systemic lymph nodes. The numbers of metastatic colonies of MCSF-AI-9-18 and MCSF-AI-9-24 cells in the liver but not the kidneys were significantly reduced. The development of lymph node metastases of MCSF-VP-5 cells was also less than that of parent or mock-transduced cells. Treatment of SCID mice with anti-human M-CSF antibody resulted in a significant increase in liver metastases of their M-CSF gene transfectants. No significant differences were observed in the distributions in mice or in the in vitro invasive potentials of MCSF-AI-9-18 cells and Neo-AI-3 cells. These findings indicate that the antimetastatic effect of M-CSF may be specific to particular organs, suggesting the influence of heterogeneity of organ microenvironments on the metastasis of lung cancer.

  6. Development of a colon delivery capsule and the pharmacological activity of recombinant human granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (rhG-CSF) in beagle dogs.

    PubMed

    Takaya, T; Ikeda, C; Imagawa, N; Niwa, K; Takada, K

    1995-06-01

    A peroral dosage form was examined to deliver recombinant human granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (rhG-CSF) to the colon in beagle dogs. A new gelatin capsule with its inside surface coated with ethylcellulose was prepared for this purpose. RhG-CSF was dissolved with propylene glycol and was filled in the capsule. Several kinds of ethylcellulose-gelatin capsules with an ethylcellulose layer of thickness 46 to 221 mm were used. The capsule was filled with propylene glycol solution containing fluorescein as an absorption marker, castor oil derivative and citric acid. The hardness of the capsule was tested after the gelatin layer was dissolved using a hardness tester and was dependent on the thickness of the ethylcellulose layer of the capsule. The time, Tmax, at which plasma fluorescein level reaches its maximum following oral administration of ethylcellulose capsules was used as a parameter for the in-vivo disintegration time of the ethylcellulose capsule into the colon. Capsules of thickness 84 mm with a Tmax of 4-6 h were filled with rhG-CSF solution containing fluorescein and were administered to dogs. After administration, blood samples were collected for 96 h and the blood total leucocyte (BTL) counts were measured as a pharmacological index of rhG-CSF. The maximum BTL count appeared at 10 h then gradually decreased and returned to its normal level at 48 h. These results suggest the usefulness of ethylcellulose capsules for the delivery of rhG-CSF to the colon and the possibility of a new oral rhG-CSF dosage form has been elucidated.

  7. Colony-stimulating Factor 2 Acts from Days 5 to 7 of Development to Modify Programming of the Bovine Conceptus at Day 86 of Gestation.

    PubMed

    Siqueira, L G; Tribulo, P; Chen, Z; Denicol, A C; Ortega, M S; Negrón-Pérez, V M; Kannampuzha-Francis, J; Pohler, K G; Rivera, R M; Hansen, P J

    2017-03-31

    Colony-stimulating factor 2 (CSF2) is an embryokine that improves competence of the embryo to establish pregnancy and which may participate in developmental programming. We tested whether culture of bovine embryos with CSF2 alters fetal development and alleviates abnormalities associated with in vitro production (IVP) of embryos. Pregnancies were established by artificial insemination (AI), transfer of an IVP embryo (IVP) or transfer of an IVP embryo treated with 10 ng/ml CSF2 from day 5 to 7 of development (CSF2). Pregnancies were produced using X-sorted semen from a single sire. Female singleton conceptuses were collected on day 86 of gestation. There were few morphological differences between groups although IVP and CSF2 fetuses were heavier than AI fetuses. Bicarbonate concentration in allantoic fluid was lower for IVP than for AI or CSF2. Expression of 92 genes in liver, placenta, and muscle was determined by RT-qPCR. The general pattern for liver and placenta was for IVP to alter expression and for CSF2 to sometimes reverse this effect. For muscle, CSF2 affected gene expression but did not generally reverse effects of IVP. Levels of methylation for each of the three tissues at 12 loci in the promoter of IGF2 and five in the promoter of GRB10 were unaffected by treatment except for CSF2 effects on two CpG for IGF2 in placenta and muscle. In conclusion, CSF2 can act as a developmental programming agent but alone is not able to abolish the adverse effects of in vitro production on fetal characteristics.

  8. Induction of Monocyte Chemoattractant Proteins in Macrophages via the Production of Granulocyte/Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor by Breast Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Yoshimura, Teizo; Imamichi, Tomozumi; Weiss, Jonathan M.; Sato, Miwa; Li, Liangzhu; Matsukawa, Akihiro; Wang, Ji Ming

    2016-01-01

    Monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1)/CCL2 plays an important role in the initiation and progression of cancer. We previously reported that in 4T1 murine breast cancer, non-tumor stromal cells, including macrophages, were the major source of MCP-1. In the present study, we analyzed the potential mechanisms by which MCP-1 is upregulated in macrophages infiltrating 4T1 tumors. We found that cell-free culture supernatants of 4T1 cells (4T1-sup) markedly upregulated MCP-1 production by peritoneal inflammatory macrophages. 4T1-sup also upregulated other MCPs, such as MCP-3/CCL7 and MCP-5/CCL12, but modestly upregulated neutrophil chemotactic chemokines, such as KC/CXCL1 or MIP-2/CXCL2. Physicochemical analysis indicated that an approximately 2–3 kDa 4T1 cell product was responsible for the capacity of 4T1-sup to upregulate MCP-1 expression by macrophages. A neutralizing antibody against granulocyte/macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), but not macrophage CSF, almost completely abrogated MCP-1-inducing activity of 4T1-sup, and recombinant GM-CSF potently upregulated MCP-1 production by macrophages. The expression levels of GM-CSF in 4T1 tumors in vivo were higher than other tumors, such as Lewis lung carcinoma. Treatment of mice with anti-GM-CSF antibody significantly reduced the growth of 4T1 tumors at the injection sites but did not reduce MCP-1 production or lung metastasis in tumor-bearing mice. These results indicate that 4T1 cells have the capacity to directly upregulate MCP-1 production by macrophages by releasing GM-CSF; however, other mechanisms are also involved in increased MCP-1 levels in the 4T1 tumor microenvironment. PMID:26834744

  9. Characterization of the microheterogeneities of PIXY321, a genetically engineered granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor/interleukin-3 fusion protein expressed in yeast.

    PubMed

    Balland, A; Krasts, D A; Hoch, K L; Gerhart, M J; Stremler, K E; Waugh, S M

    1998-02-01

    PIXY321, a human cytokine analog genetically engineered by the fusion of granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) and interleukin-3 (IL-3), was expressed in yeast under the control of the alcohol dehydrogenase 2 (ADH2) promoter and the alpha-mating factor expression system. To provide the material necessary for the evaluation of PIXY321 in clinical trials, the production was scaled up to the 1200-1 scale and the PIXY321 molecule isolated by four successive steps of ion-exchange chromatography. Multiple heterogeneities, due to the presence of different patterns of glycosylation as well as multiple amino acid sequences at both N and C termini, were characterized on the purified molecule using complementary analytical techniques including electrophoresis, liquid chromatography and electrospray mass spectrometry. Four different N-terminal sequences were identified but simplified to a reproducible ratio of two sequences, the mature form and a form starting at Ala3, by adjustment of the process conditions. Molecules lacking 1-6 residues at the C-terminus were identified and their relative frequencies quantified. Amino acid modifications, such as three oxidized Met residues at positions 79, 141 and 187 and one deamidated Asn residue at position 176, were detected at low level. Microheterogeneities in glycosylation were characterized on four different sites, one located in the GM-CSF portion and three in the IL-3 portion of the molecule. The sites were shown to be differentially occupied and to carry 0-10 mannose residues according to their location in the sequence. Precise measurement of the heterogeneities at the molecular level were used to tune the process conditions and ensure reproducibility of the clinical product between lots.

  10. Neuroprotective and Angiogenic Effects of Bone Marrow Transplantation Combined With Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor in a Mouse Model of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Ohta, Yasuyuki; Nagai, Makiko; Miyazaki, Kazunori; Tanaka, Nobuhito; Kawai, Hiromi; Mimoto, Takafumi; Morimoto, Nobutoshi; Kurata, Tomoko; Ikeda, Yoshio; Matsuura, Tohru; Abe, Koji

    2011-01-01

    Bone marrow (BM) cells from amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) patients show significantly reduced expression of several neurotrophic factors. Monotherapy with either wild-type (WT) BM transplantation (BMT) or granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (GCSF) has only a small clinical therapeutic effect in an ALS mouse model, due to the phenomenon of neuroprotection. In this study, we investigated the clinical benefits of combination therapy using BMT with WT BM cells, plus GCSF after disease onset in ALS mice [transgenic mice expressing human Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD1) bearing a G93A mutation]. Combined treatment with BMT and GCSF delayed disease progression and prolonged the survival of G93A mice, whereas BMT or GCSF treatment alone did not. Histological study of the ventral horns of lumbar cords from G93A mice treated with BMT and GCSF showed a reduction in motor neuron loss coupled with induced neuronal precursor cell proliferation, increased expression of neurotrophic factors (glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor, brain-derived neurotrophic factor, vascular endothelial growth factor and angiogenin), and neovascularization compared with controls (vehicle only). Compared with G93A microglial cells, most BM-derived WT cells differentiated into microglial cells and strongly expressed neurotrophic factors, combined BMT and GCSF treatment led to the replacement of G93A microglial cells with BM-derived WT cells. These results indicate combined treatment with BMT and GCSF has potential neuroprotective and angiogenic effects in ALS mice, induced by the replacement of G93A microglial cells with BM-derived WT cells. Furthermore, this is the first report showing the effects of combined BMT and GCSF treatment on blood vessels in ALS. PMID:26998403

  11. Crystallization of a 2:2 complex of granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (GCSF) with the ligand-binding region of the GCSF receptor

    SciTech Connect

    Honjo, Eijiro; Tamada, Taro; Maeda, Yoshitake; Koshiba, Takumi; Matsukura, Yasuko; Okamoto, Tomoyuki; Ishibashi, Matsujiro; Tokunaga, Masao; Kuroki, Ryota

    2005-08-01

    A 2:2 complex of highly purified GCSF receptor (Ig-CRH) with GCSF was crystallized. The crystal diffracted to 2.8 Å resolution with sufficient quality for further structure determination. The granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (GCSF) receptor receives signals for regulating the maturation, proliferation and differentiation of the precursor cells of neutrophilic granulocytes. The signalling complex composed of two GCSFs (GCSF, 19 kDa) and two GCSF receptors (GCSFR, 34 kDa) consisting of an Ig-like domain and a cytokine-receptor homologous (CRH) domain was crystallized. A crystal of the complex was grown in 1.0 M sodium formate and 0.1 M sodium acetate pH 4.6 and belongs to space group P4{sub 1}2{sub 1}2 (or its enantiomorph P4{sub 3}2{sub 1}2), with unit-cell parameters a = b = 110.1, c = 331.8 Å. Unfortunately, this crystal form did not diffract beyond 5 Å resolution. Since the heterogeneity of GCSF receptor appeared to prevent the growth of good-quality crystals, the GCSF receptor was fractionated by anion-exchange chromatography. Crystals of the GCSF–fractionated GCSF receptor complex were grown as a new crystal form in 0.2 M ammonium phosphate. This new crystal form diffracted to beyond 3.0 Å resolution and belonged to space group P3{sub 1}21 (or its enantiomorph P3{sub 2}21), with unit-cell parameters a = b = 134.8, c = 105.7 Å.

  12. The effect of ammonia on the O-linked glycosylation of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor produced by chinese hamster ovary cells

    SciTech Connect

    Andersen, D.C.; Goochee, C.F.

    1995-07-05

    Ammonium ion concentrations ranging from 0 to 10 mM are shown to significantly reduce the sialylation of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) produced by recombinant Chinese hamster ovary cells. Specifically, the degree of completion of the final reaction in the O-linked glycosylation pathway, the addition of sialic acid in an {alpha}(2,6) linkage to N-acetylgalactosamine, is reduced by NH{sub 4}{sup +} concentrations of as low as 2 mM. The effect of ammonia on sialylation is rapid, sustained, and does not affect the secretion rate of G-CSF. Additionally, the effect can be mimicked using the weak base chloroquine, suggesting that the effect is related to the weak base characteristics of ammonia. In support of this hypothesis, experiments using brefeldin A suggest that the addition of sialic acid in an {alpha}(2,6) linkage to N-acetylgalactosamine occurs in the trans-Golgi compartment prior to the trans-Golgi network, which would be expected under normal conditions to have a slightly acidic pH in the range from 6.5 to 6.75. Ammonium ion concentrations of 10mM would be expected to reduce significantly the differences in pH between acidic intracellular compartments and the cytoplasm. The pH-activity profile for the CHO O-linked {alpha}(2,6)sialytransferase using monosialylated G-CSF as a substrate reveals a twofold decrease in enzymatic activity across the pH range from 6.75 to 7.0. Mathematical modeling of this sialylation reaction supports the hypothesis that this twofold decrease in sialyltransferase activity resulting from an ammonia-induced increase in trans-Golgi pH could produce the observed decrease in G-CSF sialylation.

  13. Combinatorial and Computational Approaches to Identify Interactions of Macrophage Colony-stimulating Factor (M-CSF) and Its Receptor c-FMS*

    PubMed Central

    Rosenfeld, Lior; Shirian, Jason; Zur, Yuval; Levaot, Noam; Shifman, Julia M.; Papo, Niv

    2015-01-01

    The molecular interactions between macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF) and the tyrosine kinase receptor c-FMS play a key role in the immune response, bone metabolism, and the development of some cancers. Because no x-ray structure is available for the human M-CSF·c-FMS complex, the binding epitope for this complex is largely unknown. Our goal was to identify the residues that are essential for binding of the human M-CSF to c-FMS. For this purpose, we used a yeast surface display (YSD) approach. We expressed a combinatorial library of monomeric M-CSF (M-CSFM) single mutants and screened this library to isolate variants with reduced affinity for c-FMS using FACS. Sequencing yielded a number of single M-CSFM variants with mutations both in the direct binding interface and distant from the binding site. In addition, we used computational modeling to map the identified mutations onto the M-CSFM structure and to classify the mutations into three groups as follows: those that significantly decrease protein stability; those that destroy favorable intermolecular interactions; and those that decrease affinity through allosteric effects. To validate the YSD and computational data, M-CSFM and three variants were produced as soluble proteins; their affinity and structure were analyzed; and very good correlations with both YSD data and computational predictions were obtained. By identifying the M-CSFM residues critical for M-CSF·c-FMS interactions, we have laid down the basis for a deeper understanding of the M-CSF·c-FMS signaling mechanism and for the development of target-specific therapeutic agents with the ability to sterically occlude the M-CSF·c-FMS binding interface. PMID:26359491

  14. Expression of murine and human granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factors in S. cerevisiae: mutagenesis of the potential glycosylation sites.

    PubMed Central

    Miyajima, A; Otsu, K; Schreurs, J; Bond, M W; Abrams, J S; Arai, K

    1986-01-01

    Murine (m) and human (h) granulocyte--macrophage colony-stimulating factors (GM-CSF) have been expressed in large quantities in Saccharomyces cerevisiae using a secretion vector containing the promoter and leader sequences of the mating pheromone alpha-factor. Functionally active mGM-CSF was identified by a proliferation assay with a factor-dependent cell line and by a granulocyte--macrophage colony formation assay using bone marrow cells. The activity of hGM-CSF was confirmed by stimulation of granulocyte--macrophage colony formation using human cord blood cells. Murine GM-CSF with various apparent mol. wts (13, 18, 24, 34 and 40 kd, as well as a smear of higher mol. wts) was detected in yeast culture medium by protein blotting using a rat monoclonal antibody specific for the mGM-CSF N-terminal region peptide. Protein blotting using a rat monoclonal antibody specific for the hGM-CSF N-terminal region demonstrated that a 15.6-kd and higher mol. wt heterogeneous species were secreted. Mutations introduced at each of the two potential N-linked glycosylation sites in mGM-CSF showed that the 13-kd protein is not glycosylated and the major 18-kd protein is mainly glycosylated at the more C-terminal site, whereas the heterogeneous higher mol. wt species were not affected by the mutations. The N-terminal amino acid of the 13-kd protein was shown to be Ser which was four amino acids in the C-terminal direction from the fusion point. Images Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 6. Fig. 7. PMID:3525148

  15. Identification of Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor and Interleukin-6 as Candidate Biomarkers of CBLB502 Efficacy as a Medical Radiation Countermeasure

    PubMed Central

    Krivokrysenko, Vadim I.; Shakhov, Alexander N.; Singh, Vijay K.; Bone, Frederick; Kononov, Yevgeniy; Shyshynova, Inna; Cheney, Alec; Maitra, Ratan K.; Purmal, Andrei; Whitnall, Mark H.; Feinstein, Elena

    2012-01-01

    Given an ever-increasing risk of nuclear and radiological emergencies, there is a critical need for development of medical radiation countermeasures (MRCs) that are safe, easily administered, and effective in preventing and/or mitigating the potentially lethal tissue damage caused by acute high-dose radiation exposure. Because the efficacy of MRCs for this indication cannot be ethically tested in humans, development of such drugs is guided by the Food and Drug Administration's Animal Efficacy Rule. According to this rule, human efficacious doses can be projected from experimentally established animal efficacious doses based on the equivalence of the drug's effects on efficacy biomarkers in the respective species. Therefore, identification of efficacy biomarkers is critically important for drug development under the Animal Efficacy Rule. CBLB502 is a truncated derivative of the Salmonella flagellin protein that acts by triggering Toll-like receptor 5 (TLR5) signaling and is currently under development as a MRC. Here, we report identification of two cytokines, granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) and interleukin-6 (IL-6), as candidate biomarkers of CBLB502's radioprotective/mitigative efficacy. Induction of both G-CSF and IL-6 by CBLB502 1) is strictly TLR5-dependent, 2) occurs in a CBLB502 dose-dependent manner within its efficacious dose range in both nonirradiated and irradiated mammals, including nonhuman primates, and 3) is critically important for the ability of CBLB502 to rescue irradiated animals from death. After evaluation of CBLB502 effects on G-CSF and IL-6 levels in humans, these biomarkers will be useful for accurate prediction of human efficacious CBLB502 doses, a key step in the development of this prospective radiation countermeasure. PMID:22837010

  16. Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor increases the infectivity of Leishmania amazonensis by protecting promastigotes from heat-induced death.

    PubMed Central

    Barcinski, M A; Schechtman, D; Quintao, L G; Costa, D de A; Soares, L R; Moreira, M E; Charlab, R

    1992-01-01

    We have studied the effect of granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) on the infectivity of promastigotes of Leishmania amazonensis, an obligate intramacrophage parasite. We measured the capacity of the promastigotes to infect macrophages after preincubation at different temperatures (28, 34, and 37 degrees C) with recombinant murine GM-CSF, as well as the effect of an anti-murine GM-CSF antibody on the in vitro and in vivo infectivity of the parasite. GM-CSF increases the capacity of the promastigotes to infect cells when preincubated at 34 and 37 degrees C, whereas the anti-GM-CSF antibody exerts the opposite effect: it decreases the internalization rate and the progression of infection in macrophage cultures and slows the growth of the lesion in infected BALB/c mice. Neither of the described effects were observed when the in vitro and in vivo infections were made with amastigotes. Promastigotes die in a time-dependent manner when incubated at temperatures higher than 28 degrees C in the absence of GM-CSF. They are protected from this heat-induced death by incubation with the recombinant hormone. Our interpretation of these data is that the increase in the infectivity of promastigotes when incubated with GM-CSF at the temperatures at which infection occurs (34 and 37 degrees C) is due to the larger number of surviving forms within the infecting population. The decrease in infectivity when they are incubated with the antibody is due to inhibition of the protection conferred by the GM-CSF produced by the macrophages during the in vitro and in vivo infections. PMID:1500159

  17. Low-dose granulocyte colony-stimulating factor overcomes neutropenia in the treatment of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma with higher cost-effectiveness.

    PubMed

    Hara, Takeshi; Tsurumi, Hisashi; Kasahara, Senji; Kanemura, Nobuhiro; Yoshikawa, Takeshi; Goto, Naoe; Kojima, Yasushi; Yamada, Toshiki; Sawada, Michio; Takahashi, Takeshi; Oyama, Masami; Tomita, Eiichi; Moriwaki, Hisataka

    2005-12-01

    To facilitate more economical medical care, we carried out a prospective study of whether a THP-COP regimen (cyclophosphamide, pirarubicin, vincristine, and prednisolone) with low-dose granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) would effectively treat non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL). From April 2003 through March 2004, we enrolled 19 consecutive patients with newly diagnosed NHL treated at our hospital. The patients were divided into young and elderly groups. Each patient underwent chemotherapy with 8 courses of a THP-COP regimen with a 50-microg dose of lenograstim. Age- and sex-matched historical control patients (n = 141) received NHL diagnoses between 1998 and 2003. Each patient in the control group underwent the same chemotherapy and received a 100-microg dose of lenograstim. The mean (+/-SD) total amounts of G-CSF per cycle of chemotherapy were 332 +/- 103 microg (young patients) and 345 +/- 128 microg (elderly patients) in the low-dose group and 594 +/- 439 microg (young) and 730 +/- 551 microg (elderly) in the control group. The duration of fever in 1 cycle of chemotherapy was 0.3 +/- 1.0 days (young) and 0.1 +/- 0.8 days (elderly) in the low-dose group and 0.5 +/- 1.3 days (young) and 0.8 +/- 2.0 days (elderly) in the control group. A THP-COP regimen with low-dose G-CSF could be administered to NHL patients with safety. Administration of a 50-microg dose of lenograstim is sufficient and recommended for the treatment of NHL.

  18. Granulocyte Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor in 66 Patients with Myeloid or Lymphoid Neoplasms and Recipients of Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation with Invasive Fungal Disease

    PubMed Central

    Safdar, Amar; Rodriguez, Gilhen; Zuniga, Jorge; Akhrass, Fadi Al; Georgescu, Georgia; Pande, Anupam

    2013-01-01

    Background/Aims Adding granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) may improve the response to antifungal therapy in immunosuppressed patients with invasive fungal disease (IFD). Methods We retrospectively assessed 66 patients in whom GM-CSF was given during antifungal therapy. Results Severe neutropenia (77%) and refractory/relapsed cancer (65%) were common in the group. Prior to GM-CSF therapy, 15% of patients received high-dose corticosteroids for a median of 30 ± 16 days (median cumulative dose [c.d.], 1184 ± 1019 mg), and 9 received steroids during GM-CSF therapy for a median of 16 ± 12 days (median c.d., 230 ± 1314 mg). Mild toxic effects were noted in 9% of patients; there were no cases of cardiopulmonary toxicity. All cause deaths were observed in 68% and 48% of patients died of progressive IFD. High-dose corticosteroids prior to GM-CSF (OR, 24; 95% CI, 2.21–264.9; P ≤ 0.009), GM-CSF started in the intensive care unit (OR, 10; 95% CI, 1.66–63.8; P ≤ 0.01), concurrent granulocyte transfusions (OR, 5; 95% CI, 1.27–16.8; P ≤ 0.02), and proven/probable IFD (OR, 4; 95% CI, 1–16.2; P ≤ 0.05) predicted antifungal treatment failure. Conclusions GM-CSF adjuvant therapy was tolerated without serous toxicity and antifungal treatment failure remained a challenge in patients treated with high-dose systemic corticosteroids. PMID:23038157

  19. Immunomodulation of Bu-Zhong-Yi-Qi-Tang on in vitro granulocyte colony-stimulating-factor and tumor necrosis factor-alpha production by peripheral blood mononuclear cells.

    PubMed

    Kao, S T; Yang, S L; Hsieh, C C; Yang, M D; Wang, T F; Lin, J G

    2000-11-01

    Bu-Zhong-Yi-Qi-Tang (BZYQT) is a Chinese medicine, and has been used for the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients. At present, we still do not fully understand the effects of BZYQT on the cellular physiology. Present in vitro study demonstrated that BZYQT is capable of increasing granulocyte colony-stimulating-factor (G-CSF) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) production by peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) in healthy volunteers and patients with HCC. The productions of G-CSF and TNF-alpha by PBMC of volunteers were significantly stimulated by more than 125 microg/ml of BZYQT. G-CSF levels stimulated by PBMC of healthy volunteers were higher than in PBMC of the HCC patients when more than 625 microg/ml of BZYQT was administrated. The reason may be due to the impaired immunologic reactivity of mononuclear cells in HCC patients. However, the production levels of TNF-alpha in HCC patients can be stimulated to levels as high as those in healthy volunteers. When adding high concentration (3.125 mg/ml) of BZYQT to the cultured PBMC, the increments of G-CSF and TNF-alpha production decreased although there were no obvious changes in the number of metabolic active PBMC changed. TNF-alpha andG-CSF are known to play important roles in the biological defensive mechanism. These findings show that BZYQT is a unique formula for the stimulation of PBMC to produce G-CSF and TNF-alpha. Administration of BZYQT may be beneficial for patients with HCC to modulate these cytokines.

  20. A randomised trial of granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor for neonatal sepsis: childhood outcomes at 5 years

    PubMed Central

    Marlow, Neil; Morris, Timothy; Brocklehurst, Peter; Carr, Robert; Cowan, Frances; Patel, Nishma; Petrou, Stavros; Redshaw, Margaret; Modi, Neena; Doré, Caroline J

    2015-01-01

    Objective We performed a randomised trial in very preterm, small for gestational age (SGA) babies to determine if prophylaxis with granulocyte macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) improves outcomes (the PROGRAMS trial). GM-CSF was associated with improved neonatal neutrophil counts, but no change in other neonatal or 2-year outcomes. As subtle benefits in outcome may not be ascertainable until school age we performed an outcome study at 5 years. Patients and methods 280 babies born at 31 weeks of gestation or less and SGA were entered into the trial. Outcomes were assessed at 5 years to determine neurodevelopmental and general health status and educational attainment. Results We found no significant differences in cognitive, general health or educational outcomes between 83 of 106 (78%) surviving children in the GM-CSF arm compared with 81 of 110 (74%) in the control arm. Mean mental processing composite (equivalent to IQ) at 5 years were 94 (SD 16) compared with 95 (SD 15), respectively (difference in means −1 (95%CI −6 to 4), and similar proportions were in receipt of special educational needs support (41% vs 35%; risk ratio 1.2 (95% CI 0.8 to 1.9)). Performance on Kaufmann-ABC subscales and components of NEPSY were similar. The suggestion of worse respiratory outcomes in the GM-CSF group at 2 years was replicated at 5 years. Conclusions The administration of GM-CSF to very preterm SGA babies is not associated with improved or more adverse neurodevelopmental, general health or educational outcomes at 5 years. Trial registration number ISRCTN42553489. PMID:25922190

  1. Stem cell mobilisation by granulocyte-colony stimulating factor in patients with acute myocardial infarction. Long-term results of the REVIVAL-2 trial.

    PubMed

    Steppich, Birgit; Hadamitzky, Martin; Ibrahim, Tareq; Groha, Philip; Schunkert, Heribert; Laugwitz, Karl-Ludwig; Kastrati, Adnan; Ott, Ilka

    2016-04-01

    Treatment with granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) mobilises cells from the bone marrow to the peripheral blood. Previous preclinical and early clinical trials may suggest that treatment with G-CSF leads to improved myocardial perfusion and function in acute or chronic ischaemic heart disease. In the REVIVAL-2 study we found that stem cell mobilisation by G-CSF does not influence infarct size, left ventricular function and coronary restenosis in patients with acute myocardial infarction (MI) that underwent successful percutaneous coronary intervention. The objective of the present analysis was to assess the impact of G-CSF treatment on seven-year clinical outcomes from the REVIVAL-2 trial. In the randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled REVIVAL-2 study, 114 patients with the diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction were enrolled five days after successful reperfusion by percutaneous coronary intervention. Patients were assigned to receive 10 µg/kg G-CSF (n=56) or placebo (n=58) for five days. The primary endpoint for this long-term outcome analysis was the composite of death, myocardial infarction or stroke seven years after randomisation. The endpoint occurred in 14.3 % of patients in the G-CSF group versus 17.2 % assigned to placebo (p=0.67). The combined incidence of death or myocardial infarction occurred in 14.3 % of the patients assigned to G-CSF and 15.5 % of the patients assigned to placebo (p=0.85). In conclusion, these long-term follow-up data show that G-CSF does not improve clinical outcomes of patients with acute myocardial infarction.

  2. G(AnH)MTetra, a naturally occurring 1,6-anhydro muramyl dipeptide, induces granulocyte colony-stimulating factor expression in human monocytes: a molecular analysis.

    PubMed Central

    Dokter, W H; Dijkstra, A J; Koopmans, S B; Mulder, A B; Stulp, B K; Halie, M R; Keck, W; Vellenga, E

    1994-01-01

    N-Acetylglucosaminyl-1,6-anhydro-N-acetylmuramyl-L-alanyl-D-isoglutam yl-m- diaminopimelyl-D-alanine [G (Anh)MTetra], a naturally occurring breakdown product of peptidoglycan from bacterial cell walls, was studied for its ability to induce granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) mRNA and protein expression in human adherent monocytes. Resting monocytes did not express G-CSF mRNA or secrete G-CSF protein. In contrast, monocytes exposed to G(Anh)MTetra showed a dose-dependent increase in G-CSF mRNA accumulation, which correlates with the secretion of G-CSF protein. Maximal levels of G-CSF mRNA were reached within 2 h of activation. Expression of G-CSF was mediated by an increase in the stability of G-CSF transcripts rather than by an increase in the transcription rate of the G-CSF gene. Experiments with the protein synthesis inhibitor cycloheximide revealed that G(Anh)MTetra-induced G-CSF mRNA expression was independent of new protein synthesis. Furthermore, it was shown that the effect of G(Anh)MTetra was regulated by a protein kinase C-dependent pathway, whereas protein kinase A and tyrosine kinases were not involved. Finally, it was shown that G(Anh)MTetra also induced G-CSF mRNA expression in human endothelial cells. The data indicate that, besides lipopolysaccharide, other naturally occurring bacterial cell wall components are able to induce G-CSF expression in different hematopoietic cells. Images PMID:7516314

  3. Attitudes of physicians toward assessing risk and using granulocyte colony-stimulating factor as primary prophylaxis in patients receiving chemotherapy associated with an intermediate risk of febrile neutropenia.

    PubMed

    Freyer, Gilles; Kalinka-Warzocha, Ewa; Syrigos, Konstantinos; Marinca, Mihai; Tonini, Giuseppe; Ng, Say Liang; Wong, Zee Wan; Salar, Antonio; Steger, Guenther; Abdelsalam, Mahmoud; DeCosta, Lucy; Szabo, Zsolt

    2015-10-01

    Febrile neutropenia (FN) is a potentially fatal complication of chemotherapy. This prospective, observational study describes physicians' approaches toward assessing FN risk in patients receiving chemotherapy regimens with an intermediate (10-20 %) FN risk. In the baseline investigator assessment, physicians selected factors considered important when assessing overall FN risk and deciding on granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) primary prophylaxis (PP). Physicians then completed patient assessments using the same lists of factors. The final FN risk scores and whether G-CSF PP was planned were reported. The final analysis included 165 physicians and 944 patients. The most frequently considered factor in both assessments was chemotherapy agents in the backbone (88 % of investigator and 93 % of patient assessments). History of FN (83 %), baseline laboratory values (76 %) and age (73 %) were commonly selected at baseline, whereas tumor type (72 %), guidelines (62 %) and tumor stage (43 %) were selected most during patient assessments. Median investigator-reported FN risk threshold for G-CSF PP was 20 % (range 10-85 %). G-CSF PP was planned in 82 % of patients with an FN risk at or above this threshold; therefore, almost one-fifth of qualifying patients would not receive G-CSF PP. Physicians generally follow guidelines, but also consider individual patient characteristics when assessing FN risk and deciding on G-CSF PP. A standardized FN risk assessment may optimize the use of G-CSF PP, which may minimize the incidence of FN in patients undergoing chemotherapy with an intermediate FN risk. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01813721.

  4. Plasma Levels and Diagnostic Utility of Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor, Matrix Metalloproteinase-9, and Tissue Inhibitor of Metalloproteinases-1 as New Biomarkers of Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Głażewska, Edyta Katarzyna; Sobolewska, Monika; Będkowska, Grażyna Ewa; Szmitkowski, Maciej

    2016-01-01

    Background Macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF), matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9), and its specific tissue inhibitor - tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-1 (TIMP-1) may play an important role in the pathogenesis and spread of cancer. We investigated the plasma levels of M-CSF, MMP-9, and TIMP-1 in comparison with a commonly accepted tumor marker CA 15-3 in breast cancer patients and in control groups. Methods The cohort included 110 breast cancer patients in groups at stages I-IV. The control group consisted of 50 healthy volunteers and 50 benign tumor patients. Plasma levels of M-CSF, MMP-9, and TIMP-1 were determined by using ELISA, while CA 15-3 concentrations were determined by using chemiluminescent microparticle immunoassay (CMIA). Results The results showed significant differences in concentrations of the analyzed parameters and in levels of CA 15-3 between the groups of breast cancer patients and the two control groups. Diagnosis using these markers was equal to that using CA 15-3 in terms of sensitivity, predictive values of positive and negativetest results (PPV, NPV) and area under the ROC curve (AUC) in the studied groups. The diagnostic specificities of MMP-9, TIMP-1, M-CSF, and CA 15-3 showed equally high values (95%). The combined use of all tested parameters with CA 15-3 resulted in increased sensitivity, NPV, and AUC, especially in the combination of M-CSF with tumor markers (76%, 64%, and 0.8653). Conclusions These findings suggest the tested parameters are useful in the diagnosis of breast cancer patients (except stage I), when combined with CA 15-3. PMID:26915610

  5. Incidence of chemotherapy-induced neutropenia and current practice of prophylaxis with granulocyte colony-stimulating factors in cancer patients in Spain: a prospective, observational study.

    PubMed

    Jolis, L; Carabantes, F; Pernas, S; Cantos, B; López, A; Torres, P; Funes, C; Caballero, D; Benedit, P; Salar, A

    2013-07-01

    We aimed to describe the incidence of neutropenia in breast cancer and lymphoma patients and granulocyte colony-stimulating factors (G-CSF) use in clinical practice. We conducted a multicentre, prospective, observational study including breast cancer and lymphoma patients initiating chemotherapy (≥ 10% febrile neutropenia risk). We included 734 patients with breast cancer and 291 with lymphoma. Over the first four chemotherapy cycles, patients had an incidence of 11.0% grade 3-4 neutropenia (absolute neutrophil count <1.0 × 10(9) /L) and 4.3% febrile neutropenia (absolute neutrophil count <0.5 × 10(9) /L and fever ≥ 38 °C) in the breast cancer cohort, and 40.5% and 14.8% in the lymphoma cohort. Full dose on schedule (>85% of planned chemotherapy dose and ≤ 3 days delay) was achieved by 85.6% of breast cancer and 68.9% of lymphoma patients. Hospitalisation due to febrile neutropenia was required in 2.0% and 12.0% of breast cancer and lymphoma patients respectively. G-CSF was administered to 70.0% of breast cancer and 83.8% of lymphoma patients, and initiated from the first chemotherapy cycle (primary prophylaxis) in 60.6% and 64.2% of cases. Severe neutropenia affects approximately one in 10 breast cancer patients and one in two lymphoma patients receiving chemotherapy with moderate or greater risk of febrile neutropenia. Most patients received treatment with G-CSF in Spanish clinical practice.

  6. Four-Week Repeated Intravenous Dose Toxicity and Toxicokinetic Study of TS-DP2, a Novel Human Granulocyte Colony Stimulating Factor in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Lee, JooBuom; Lee, Kyungsun; Choe, Keunbum; Jung, Hyunseob; Cho, Hyunseok; Choi, Kiseok; Kim, Taegon; Kim, Seojin; Lee, Hyeong-Seok; Cha, Mi-Jin; Song, Si-Whan; Lee, Chul Kyu; Chun, Gie-Taek

    2015-01-01

    TS-DP2 is a recombinant human granulocyte colony stimulating factor (rhG-CSF) manufactured by TS Corporation. We conducted a four-week study of TS-DP2 (test article) in repeated intravenous doses in male and female Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats. Lenograstim was used as a reference article and was administered intravenously at a dose of 1000 μg/kg/day. Rats received TS-DP2 intravenously at doses of 250, 500, and 1000 μg/kg/day once daily for 4 weeks, and evaluated following a 2-week recovery period. Edema in the hind limbs and loss of mean body weight and body weight gain were observed in both the highest dose group of TS-DP2 and the lenograstim group in male rats. Fibro-osseous lesions were observed in the lenograstim group in both sexes, and at all groups of TS-DP2 in males, and at doses of TS-DP2 500 μg/kg/day and higher in females. The lesion was considered a toxicological change. Therefore, bone is the primary toxicological target of TS-DP2. The lowest observed adverse effect level (LOAEL) in males was 250 μg/kg/day, and no observed adverse effect level (NOAEL) in females was 250 μg/kg/day in this study. In the toxicokinetic study, the serum concentrations of G-CSF were maintained until 8 hr after administration. The systemic exposures (AUC0-24h and C0) were not markedly different between male and female rats, between the administration periods, or between TS-DP2 and lenograstim. In conclusion, TS-DP2 shows toxicological similarity to lenograstim over 4-weeks of repeated doses in rats. PMID:26877840

  7. Alteration of mineral crystallinity and collagen cross-linking of bones in osteopetrotic toothless (tl/tl) rats and their improvement after treatment with colony stimulating factor-1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wojtowicz, A.; Dziedzic-Goclawska, A.; Kaminski, A.; Stachowicz, W.; Wojtowicz, K.; Marks, S. C. Jr; Yamauchi, M.

    1997-01-01

    A common feature of various types of mammalian osteopetroses is a marked increase in bone mass accompanied by spontaneous bone fractures. The toothless (tl/tl) rat osteopetrotic mutation is characterized by drastically reduced bone resorption due to a profound deficiency of osteoclasts and their precursors. An altered bone morphology has also been observed. The mutants cannot be cured by bone marrow transplantation, but skeletal defects are greatly reduced after treatment with colony stimulating factor 1 (CSF-1). The objectives of this study were to characterize mineral and collagen matrices in cancellous and compact bone isolated from long bones of 6-week-old normal littermates, tl/tl osteopetrotic mutants and mutants (tl/tl) treated with CSF-1. There were no differences in bone mineral content, but a significant decrease in the crystallinity of mineral evaluated by the method based on electron paramagnetic resonance spectrometry was observed in all bones of tl/tl mutants as compared to that of controls. Within the collagen matrix, slight decreases in the labile cross-links, but significant increases in the content of the stable cross-links, pyridinoline, and deoxypyridinoline, were observed in both cancellous and compact bone of osteopetrotic mutants. In tl/tl mutants treated with human recombinant CSF-1, the normalization of the crystallinity of bone mineral as well as collagen cross-links was found. Our results indicate that remodeling of bone matrix in tl/tl mutants is highly suppressed, but that after treatment with CSF-1, this activity recovers significantly. Taken together, these data provide further support for the hypothesis that CSF-1 is an essential factor for normal osteoclast differentiation and bone remodelling.

  8. Subcutaneous versus intravenous granulocyte colony stimulating factor for the treatment of neutropenia in hospitalized hemato-oncological patients: randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Paul, Mical; Ram, Ron; Kugler, Eitan; Farbman, Laura; Peck, Anat; Leibovici, Leonard; Lahav, Meir; Yeshurun, Moshe; Shpilberg, Ofer; Herscovici, Corina; Wolach, Ofir; Itchaki, Gilad; Bar-Natan, Michal; Vidal, Liat; Gafter-Gvili, Anat; Raanani, Pia

    2014-03-01

    Intravenous (IV) granulocyte colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) might be safer and more convenient than subcutaneous (SC) administration to hospitalized hemato-oncological patients receiving chemotherapy. To compare IV vs. SC G-CSF administration, we conducted a randomized, open-label trial. We included inpatients receiving chemotherapy for acute myeloid leukemia, acute lymphoblastic leukemia, lymphoma or multiple myeloma, and allogeneic or autologous hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT). Patients were randomized to 5 mcg/kg single daily dose of IV bolus versus SC filgrastim given for its clinical indications. Patients were crossed-over to the alternate study arm on the subsequent chemotherapy course. The primary outcomes were time from initiation of filgrastim to recovery of stable neutrophil count of >500 cells/µL and a composite clinical outcome of infection or death assessed for the first course post-randomization. The study was stopped on the second interim analysis. Of 120 patients randomized, 118 were evaluated in the first treatment course. The mean time to neutropenia resolution was longer with IV G-CSF [7.9 days, 95% confidence interval (CI) 6.6-9.1] compared with SC G-CSF (5.4 days, 95% CI 4.6-6.2), log-rank P = 0.001. Longer neutropenia duration was observed in all patient subgroups, except for patients undergoing autologous HCT. There was no significant difference between groups in the occurrence of infection or death, but more deaths were observed with IV (4/57, 7%) versus SC (1/61, 1.6%) G-CSF administration, P = 0.196. Similar results were observed when all 158 courses following cross-over were analyzed. Patients reported similar pain and satisfaction scores in both groups. Bolus IV administration of G-CSF results in longer neutropenia duration than SC administration, with no difference in clinical or quality-of-life measures.

  9. Expression of interleukin-34 and colony stimulating factor-1 in the stimulated periodontal ligament cells with tumor necrosis factor-α.

    PubMed

    Kawabe, Mutsuki; Ohyama, Hideki; Kato-Kogoe, Nahoko; Yamada, Naoko; Yamanegi, Koji; Nishiura, Hiroshi; Hirano, Hirotugu; Kishimoto, Hiromitsu; Nakasho, Keiji

    2015-09-01

    Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) directly and indirectly plays a crucial role in osteoclastogenesis. However, the indirect effects of TNF-α on colony-stimulating factor-1 receptor (CSF-1R)-mediated osteoclastogenesis achieved via periodontal ligament (PDL) cells are not fully understood. We herein examined the potency of osteoclast differentiation and maturation induced by fivefold supernatants in the stimulated human PDL cells with a physiologically high concentration (10 ng/mL) of recombinant TNF-α to human peripheral blood monocytes/macrophages in the simultaneous presence of the receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand. The number of tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase-positive cells with multiple nuclei, but not those with a single nucleus, was decreased by approximately 50% by neutralization with rabbit IgG against either interleukin-34 (IL-34) or CSF-1. Small and large amounts of IL34 and CSF1 transcripts were measured in the stimulated PDL cells using real-time polymerase chain reaction. The corresponding amounts of proteins to IL34 and CSF1 transcripts were observed in the stimulated PDL cells on immunohistochemical staining or Western blotting. Moreover, 0.13 ng/mL of IL-34 and 5.0 ng/mL of CSF-1 were measured in the supernatants of the stimulated PDL cells using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. IL-34 derived from the stimulated PDL cells with TNF-α appeared to synergistically function with CSF-1 in the CSF-1R-mediated maturation of osteoclastogenesis.

  10. Relationship between native-state solubility and non-native aggregation of recombinant human granulocyte colony stimulating factor: practical implications for protein therapeutic development.

    PubMed

    Banks, Douglas D; Zhang, Jun; Siska, Christine C

    2014-10-06

    Prescreening methods are needed in the biotechnology industry for rapid selection of protein therapeutic candidates and formulations of low aggregation propensity. In recent reports solubility measurements have shown promise as one such method, although the connection between protein solubility and non-native aggregation is not well understood. In the present investigation, recombinant human granulocyte colony stimulating factor (rhGCSF) was used to explore this relationship since it was previously shown to rapidly undergo non-native aggregation/precipitation under physiological conditions in a reaction attenuated by the addition of sucrose [Krishnan, S.; et al. Biochemistry 2002, 41, 6422-6431]. Strong correlations were found between rhGCSF non-native aggregation and both solubility and thermal stability as a function of sucrose concentration. We believe these results make sense in the context of an rhGCSF aggregation mechanism where loss of monomer to insoluble aggregate is limited by association to an observable dimer from a less soluble (and aggregation competent) intermediate species that exists in a temperature sensitive pre-equilibrium with the native monomer. Both solubility and measures of conformational stability report on the position of this equilibrium and therefore the concentration of reactive intermediate. Interestingly, aggregation also correlated with rhGCSF solubility as a function of salting-in concentrations of phosphate since both are dependent on the colloidal stability of the reactive intermediate but not with conformational stability. In lieu of a complete understanding of the aggregation processes that limit protein therapeutic shelf life, these results highlight the potential of using simple solubility measurements as an additional tool in the biotechnology prescreening repertoire.

  11. The effects of colony-stimulating factor-1 on tooth eruption in the toothless (osteopetrotic) rat in relation to the critical periods for bone resorption during tooth eruption.

    PubMed

    Iizuka, T; Cielinski, M; Aukerman, S L; Marks, S C

    1992-08-01

    The toothless (tl) rat is an osteopetrotic mutation characterized by a generalized skeletal sclerosis, reduced bone resorption, few osteoclasts and a total absence of erupted teeth. This mutation is not cured by bone marrow transplants from normal littermates. It is known that the skeletal defects in tl rats are greatly improved after treatment with colony-stimulating factor-1 (CSF-1). This investigation concerns the effects of CSF-1 on the development and eruption of the dentition of tl rats. Untreated tl rats had no erupted teeth by 56 days after birth, and the roots of incisors and molars were severely distorted by compression against bone. The apex of the mandibular incisor did not extend past the first molar and continued growth of its apical end produced odontoma-like masses consisting of distorted dentine and enamel matrices. In addition, few osteoclasts were seen on alveolar bone surfaces surrounding the developing teeth. Mutants given CSF-1 were characterized by delayed eruption of all molars and sometimes incisors. The incidence of incisor eruption was related inversely to the age at which CSF-1 treatment began. Molars of treated tl rats had well-developed roots similar to those in normal rats. Treated mutants had numerous osteoclasts in alveolar bone and well-developed haemopoietic marrow spaces in the mandible. Histochemical staining for both tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase and tartrate-resistant acid ATPase was reduced or negligible in osteoclasts of untreated tl rats, heavy in normal osteoclasts and of intermediate intensity in CSF-1-treated mutants.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  12. Stromal derived factor‐1 and granulocyte‐colony stimulating factor treatment improves regeneration of Pax7−/− mice skeletal muscles

    PubMed Central

    Kowalski, Kamil; Archacki, Rafał; Archacka, Karolina; Stremińska, Władysława; Paciorek, Anna; Gołąbek, Magdalena; Ciemerych, Maria A.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background The skeletal muscle has the ability to regenerate after injury. This process is mediated mainly by the muscle specific stem cells, that is, satellite cells. In case of extensive damage or under pathological conditions, such as muscular dystrophy, the process of muscle reconstruction does not occur properly. The aim of our study was to test whether mobilized stem cells, other than satellite cells, could participate in skeletal muscle reconstruction. Methods Experiments were performed on wild‐type mice and mice lacking the functional Pax7 gene, that is, characterized by the very limited satellite cell population. Gastrocnemius mice muscles were injured by cardiotoxin injection, and then the animals were treated by stromal derived factor‐1 (Sdf‐1) with or without granulocyte‐colony stimulating factor (G‐CSF) for 4 days. The muscles were subjected to thorough assessment of the tissue regeneration process using histological and in vitro methods, as well as evaluation of myogenic factors' expression at the transcript and protein levels. Results Stromal derived factor‐1 alone and Sdf‐1 in combination with G‐CSF significantly improved the regeneration of Pax7−/− skeletal muscles. The Sdf‐1 and G‐CSF treatment caused an increase in the number of mononucleated cells associated with muscle fibres. Further analysis showed that Sdf‐1 and G‐CSF treatment led to the rise in the number of CD34+ and Cxcr4+ cells and expression of Cxcr7. Conclusions Stromal derived factor‐1 and G‐CSF stimulated regeneration of the skeletal muscles deficient in satellite cells. We suggest that mobilized CD34+, Cxcr4+, and Cxcr7+ cells can efficiently participate in the skeletal muscle reconstruction and compensate for the lack of satellite cells. PMID:27239402

  13. Increased susceptibility to liver injury after hemorrhagic shock in rats chronically fed ethanol: role of nuclear factor-kappa B, interleukin-6, and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor.

    PubMed

    Ono, Masafumi; Yu, Bi; Hardison, Edith G; Mastrangelo, Mary-Ann A; Tweardy, David J

    2004-06-01

    Chronic ethanol use preceding severe trauma and hemorrhagic shock (HS) is associated with an increased incidence of multiorgan failure (MOF) and death; however, the molecular basis for this increased susceptibility is unknown. We previously demonstrated that production of interleukin-6 (IL-6) and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF), mediated by nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-kappa B), each make essential contributions to organ injury and inflammation in a rodent model of controlled HS, and we proposed in this study to examine the hypothesis that the increased susceptibility to MOF after shock/trauma in the setting of chronic ethanol use is due to an exaggerated activation of NF-kappa B and production of these proinflammatory cytokines. We observed increased HS-induced liver injury 4 h after resuscitation in rats fed the ethanol-containing Lieber-DeCarli liquid diet for 8 weeks compared with rats fed the control liquid diet (3-fold increase in serum alanine aminotransferase [ALT], P = 0.008, and 2-fold increase in focal liver necrosis, P = 0.005). The increased liver injury in the ethanol-fed HS rats was accompanied by a 70% increase in liver NF-kappa B activation (P < 0.05), a 3- to 5-fold increase in hepatocyte and Kupffer cell production of IL-6 and G-CSF (P < 0.05 for each), and a 2-fold increase in neutrophil infiltration (P < 0.005) compared with the control diet-fed HS rats. Thus, increased susceptibility to HS-induced liver injury in the setting of chronic ethanol use may be mediated, at least in part, by increased NF-kappa B activation resulting in increased local production of IL-6 and G-CSF and increased infiltration of neutrophils, which can damage liver cells directly and contribute to impaired sinusoidal blood flow.

  14. Acute exposure to cadmium induces prolonged neutrophilia along with delayed induction of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor in the livers of mice.

    PubMed

    Horiguchi, Hyogo; Oguma, Etsuko

    2016-12-01

    Acute exposure to cadmium (Cd), a toxic heavy metal, causes systemic inflammation characterized by neutrophilia. To elucidate the mechanism of neutrophilia induced by Cd, we investigated the induction of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF), which regulates neutrophil production, in mice with acute Cd toxicity, and compared it with mice injected with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) as an inducer of general inflammatory responses. We injected BALB/c mice with Cd at 2.5 mg/kg i.p. or LPS at 0.5 mg/kg i.p. and sampled the peripheral blood and organs at time points up to 24 h. In Cd-treated mice, the peripheral neutrophil count increased steadily up to 24 h, whereas LPS-treated mice showed a more rapid increase with a peak at 12 h. The serum G-CSF level increased gradually to reach a plateau at 12-18 h in Cd-treated mice, but LPS-treated mice showed a marked increase, reaching a peak at 2-3 h. A gradual elevation of G-CSF mRNA expression up to 24 h was detected by real-time PCR in the livers of Cd-treated mice, but in LPS-treated mice its highest expression was observed in the liver with a rapid increase at 2 h. By in situ hybridization using G-CSF RNA probes, hepatic Kupffer cells were identified as G-CSF-producing cells in the liver. These results indicated that Cd has a characteristic effect of delayed induction of G-CSF in the liver, causing systemic inflammation accompanied by prolonged neutrophilia.

  15. Neurons and astroglia govern microglial endotoxin tolerance through macrophage colony-stimulating factor receptor-mediated ERK1/2 signals

    PubMed Central

    Chu, Chun-Hsien; Wang, Shijun; Li, Chia-Ling; Chen, Shih-Heng; Hu, Chih-Fen; Chung, Yi-Lun; Chen, Shiou-Lan; Wang, Qingshan; Lu, Ru-Band; Gao, Hui-Ming; Hong, Jau-Shyong

    2016-01-01

    Endotoxin tolerance (ET) is a reduced responsiveness of innate immune cells like macrophages/monocytes to an endotoxin challenge following a previous encounter with the endotoxin. Although ET in peripheral systems has been well studied, little is known about ET in the brain. The present study showed that brain immune cells, microglia, being different from peripheral macrophages, displayed non-cell autonomous mechanisms in ET formation. Specifically, neurons and astroglia were indispensable for microglial ET. Macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF) secreted from these non-immune cells was essential for governing microglial ET. Neutralization of M-CSF deprived the neuron-glia conditioned medium of its ability to enable microglia to form ET when microglia encountered two lipopolysaccharide (LPS) treatments. Recombinant M-CSF protein rendered enriched microglia refractory to the second LPS challenge leading to microglial ET. Activation of microglial M-CSF receptor (M-CSFR; also known as CSF1R) and the downstream ERK1/2 signals was responsible for M-CSF-mediated microglial ET. Endotoxin-tolerant microglia in neuron-glia cultures displayed M2-like polarized phenotypes, as shown by upregulation of M2 marker Arg-1, elevated production of anti-inflammatory cytokine interleukin 10, and decreased secretion of pro-inflammatory mediators (tumor necrosis factor α, nitric oxide, prostaglandin E2 and interleukin 1β). Endotoxin-tolerant microglia protected neurons against LPS-elicited inflammatory insults, as shown by reduced neuronal damages in LPS pre-treatment group compared with the group without LPS pre-treatment. Moreover, while neurons and astroglia became injured during chronic neuroinflammation, microglia failed to form ET. Thus, this study identified a distinct non-cell autonomous mechanism of microglial ET. Interactions of M-CSF secreted by neurons and astroglia with microglial M-CSFR programed microglial ET. Loss of microglial ET could be an important

  16. Tyrosine 569 in the c-Fms juxtamembrane domain is essential for kinase activity and macrophage colony-stimulating factor-dependent internalization.

    PubMed Central

    Myles, G M; Brandt, C S; Carlberg, K; Rohrschneider, L R

    1994-01-01

    The receptor (Fms) for macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF) is a member of the tyrosine kinase class of growth factor receptors. It maintains survival, stimulates growth, and drives differentiation of the macrophage lineage of hematopoietic cells. Fms accumulates on the cell surface and becomes activated for signal transduction after M-CSF binding and is then internalized via endocytosis for eventual degradation in lysosomes. We have investigated the mechanism of endocytosis as part of the overall signaling process of this receptor and have identified an amino acid segment near the cytoplasmic juxtamembrane region surrounding tyrosine 569 that is important for internalization. Mutation of tyrosine 569 to alanine (Y569A) eliminates ligand-induced rapid endocytosis of receptor molecules. The mutant Fms Y569A also lacks tyrosine kinase activity; however, tyrosine kinase activity is not essential for endocytosis because the kinase inactive receptor Fms K614A does undergo ligand-induced endocytosis, albeit at a reduced rate. Mutation of tyrosine 569 to phenylalanine had no effect on the M-CSF-induced endocytosis of Fms, and a four-amino-acid sequence containing Y-569 could support endocytosis when transferred into the cytoplasmic juxtamembrane region of a glycophorin A construct. These results indicate that tyrosine 569 within the juxtamembrane region of Fms is part of a signal recognition sequence for endocytosis that does not require tyrosine phosphorylation at this site and that this domain also influences the kinase activity of the receptor. These results are consistent with a ligand-dependent step in recognition of the potential cryptic internalization signal. Images PMID:8007983

  17. Expression of mRNA encoding the macrophage colony-stimulating factor receptor (c-fms) is controlled by a constitutive promoter and tissue-specific transcription elongation.

    PubMed Central

    Yue, X; Favot, P; Dunn, T L; Cassady, A I; Hume, D A

    1993-01-01

    The gene encoding the receptor for macrophage colony-stimulating factor 1 (CSF-1), the c-fms protooncogene, is selectively expressed in immature and mature mononuclear phagocytes and trophoblasts. Exon 1 is expressed only in trophoblasts. Isolation and sequencing of genomic DNA flanking exon 2 of the murine c-fms gene revealed a TATA-less promoter with significant homology to human c-fms. Reverse transcriptase primer extension analysis using exon 2 primers identified multiple clustered transcription initiation sites. Their position was confirmed by RNase protection. The same primer extension products were detected in equal abundance from macrophage or nonmacrophage sources of RNA. c-fms mRNA is acutely down-regulated in primary macrophages by CSF-1, bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS), and phorbol myristate acetate (PMA). Each of these agents reduced the abundance of c-fms RNA detectable by primer extension using an exon 3 primer without altering the abundance of presumptive short c-fms transcripts detected with exon 2 primers. Primer extension analysis with an intron 2 primer detected products at greater abundance in nonmacrophages. Templates detected with the intronic primer were induced in macrophages by LPS, PMA, and CSF-1, suggesting that each of the agents caused a shift from full-length c-fms mRNA production to production of unspliced, truncated transcripts. The c-fms promoter functioned constitutively in the RAW264 macrophage cell line, the B-cell line MOPC.31C, and several nonhematopoietic cell lines. Macrophage-specific expression and responsiveness to selective repression by LPS and PMA was achieved by the incorporation of intron 2 into the c-fms promoter-reporter construct. The results suggest that expression of the c-fms gene in macrophages is controlled by sequences in intron 2 that act by regulating transcription elongation. Images PMID:8497248

  18. Plerixafor on-demand combined with chemotherapy and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor: significant improvement in peripheral blood stem cells mobilization and harvest with no increase in costs.

    PubMed

    Milone, Giuseppe; Martino, Massimo; Spadaro, Andrea; Leotta, Salvatore; Di Marco, Annalia; Scalzulli, Potito; Cupri, Alessandra; Di Martina, Valentina; Schinocca, Elena; Spina, Eleonora; Tripepi, Giovanni

    2014-01-01

    To date, no prospective study on Plerixafor 'on-demand' in combination with chemotherapy and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) has been reported. We present an interim analysis of the first prospective study in which Plerixafor was administered on-demand in patients affected by multiple myeloma and lymphoma who received high dose cyclophosphamide or DHAP (dexamethasone, cytarabine, cisplatin) plus G-CSF to mobilize peripheral blood stem cells (PBSC). One hundred and two patients were evaluable for response. A cohort of 240 patients receiving the same mobilizing chemotherapy was retrospectively studied. Failure to mobilize CD34(+) cells in peripheral blood was reduced by 'on-demand' strategy compared to conventional mobilization; from 13·0 to 3·0% (P = 0·004). Failure to harvest CD34(+) cells 2 × 10(6) /kg decreased from 20·9 to 4·0% (P = 0·0001). The on-demand Plerixafor strategy also resulted in a lower rate of mobilization failure (P = 0·03) and harvest failure (P = 0·0008) when compared to a 'bias-adjusted set of controls'. Evaluation of economic costs of the two strategies showed that the overall cost of the two treatments were comparable when salvage mobilizations were taken into account. When in combination with cyclophosphamide or DHAP plus G-CSF, the 'on-demand' use of Plerixafor showed, in comparison to conventionally treated patients, a significant improvement in mobilization of PBSC with no increase in overall cost.

  19. Induction of cytokine granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor and chemokine macrophage inflammatory protein 2 mRNAs in macrophages by Legionella pneumophila or Salmonella typhimurium attachment requires different ligand-receptor systems.

    PubMed Central

    Yamamoto, Y; Klein, T W; Friedman, H

    1996-01-01

    The attachment of bacteria to macrophages is mediated by different ligands and receptors and induces various intracellular molecular responses. In the present study, induction of cytokines and chemokines, especially granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) and macrophage inflammatory protein 2 (MIP-2), was examined, following bacterial attachment, with regard to the ligand-receptor systems involved. Attachment of Legionella pneumophila or Salmonella typhimurium to cultured mouse peritoneal macrophages increased the steady-state levels of cellular mRNAs for the cytokines interleukin 1beta (IL-1beta), IL-6, and GM-CSF as well as the chemokines MIP-1beta, MIP-2, and KC. However, when macrophages were treated with alpha-methyl-D-mannoside (alphaMM), a competitor of glycopeptide ligands, induction of cytokine mRNAs was inhibited, but the levels of chemokine mRNAs were not. Pretreatment of the bacteria with fresh mouse serum enhanced the level of GM-CSF mRNA but not the level of MIP-2 mRNA. In addition, serum treatment reduced the inhibitory effect of alphaMM on GM-CSF mRNA. These results indicate that bacterial attachment increases the steady-state levels of the cytokine and chemokine mRNAs tested by at least two distinct receptor-ligand systems, namely, one linked to cytokine induction and involving mannose or other sugar residues and the other linked to chemokine induction and relatively alphaMM insensitive. Furthermore, opsonization with serum engages other pathways in the cytokine response which are relatively independent of the alphaMM-sensitive system. Regarding bacterial surface ligands involved in cytokine mRNA induction, evidence is presented that the flagellum may be important in stimulating cytokine GM-CSF message but not chemokine MIP-2 message. Analysis of cytokine GM-CSF and chemokine MIP-2 signaling pathways with protein kinase inhibitors revealed the involvement of calmodulin and myosin light-chain kinase in GM-CSF but not MIP-2 m

  20. Combination treatment of biomechanical support and targeted intra-arterial infusion of peripheral blood stem cells mobilized by granulocyte-colony stimulating factor for the osteonecrosis of the femoral head: a randomized controlled clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Mao, Qiang; Wang, Weidong; Xu, Taotao; Zhang, Shanxing; Xiao, Luwei; Chen, Di; Jin, Hongting; Tong, Peijian

    2015-04-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the benefits of combination treatment with mechanical support and targeted intra-arterial infusion of peripheral blood stem cells (PBSCs) mobilized by granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) via the medial circumflex femoral artery on the progression of osteonecrosis of the femoral head (ONFH). Fifty-five patients (89 hips) with early and intermediate stage ONFH were recruited and randomly assigned to combination treatment or mechanical support treatment (control group). All hips received mechanical support treatment (porous tantalum rod implantation). Then, hips in the combination treatment group were performed targeted intra-arterial infusion of PBSCs. At each follow-up, Harris hip score (HHS) and Association Research Circulation Osseous (ARCO) classification were used to evaluate the symptoms and progression of osteonecrosis. Total hip arthroplasty (THA) was assessed as an endpoint at each follow-up. At 36 months, 9 of the 41 hips (21.95%) in the control group progressed to clinical failure and underwent THA whereas only 3 of the 48 hips (6.25%) in the combination treatment group required THA (p = 0.031). Kaplan-Meier survival analysis showed a significant difference in the survival time between the two groups (log-rank test; p = 0.025). Compared to the control group, combination treatment significantly improved the HHS at 36 months (p = 0.003). At the final follow-up examination, radiological progression was noted in 13 of 41 hips (31.71%) for the control group, but in only 4 of 48 hips (8.33%) for the combination treatment group (p = 0.005). The overall collapse rates were 15.15% (5/33 hips) and 8.11% (3/37 hips) in the control and combination treatment groups, respectively. Targeted intra-arterial infusion of PBSCs is capable of enhancing the efficacy of biomechanical support in the treatment of ONFH. This clinical trial confirmed that the combination treatment might be a safe and feasible

  1. Optimization of gene transfer into primitive human hematopoietic cells of granulocyte-colony stimulating factor-mobilized peripheral blood using low-dose cytokines and comparison of a gibbon ape leukemia virus versus an RD114-pseudotyped retroviral vector.

    PubMed

    van der Loo, Johannes C M; Liu, B L; Goldman, A I; Buckley, S M; Chrudimsky, K S

    2002-07-20

    Primitive human hematopoietic cells in granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF)-mobilized peripheral blood (MPB) are more difficult to transduce compared to cells from umbilical cord blood. Based on the hypothesis that MPB cells may require different stimulation for efficient retroviral infection, we compared several culture conditions known to induce cycling of primitive hematopoietic cells. MPB-derived CD34(+) cells were stimulated in the presence or absence of the murine fetal liver cell line AFT024 in trans-wells with G-CSF, stem cell factor (SCF), and thrombopoietin (TPO) (G/S/T; 100 ng/ml) or Flt3-L, SCF, interleukin (IL)-7, and TPO (F/S/7/T; 10-20 ng/ml), and transduced using a GaLV-pseudotyped retroviral vector expressing the enhanced green fluorescence protein (eGFP). Compared to cultures without stroma, the presence of AFT024 increased the number of transduced colony-forming cells (CFC) by 3.5-fold (with G/S/T), long-term culture-initiating cells (LTC-IC) by 4.6-fold (with F/S/7/T), and nonobese diabetic/severe immunodeficiency disease (NOD/SCID)-repopulating cells (SRC) by 6.8-fold (with F/S/7/T). Similar numbers of long-term culture-initiating cells (LTC-IC) and SRC could be transduced using AFT024-conditioned medium (AFT-CM) or a defined medium that had been supplemented with factors identified in AFT-CM. Finally, using our best condition based on transduction with the gibbon ape leukemia virus (GaLV)-pseudotyped vector, we demonstrate a 33-fold higher level of gene transfer (p < 0.001) in SRC using an RD114-pseudotyped vector. In summary, using an optimized protocol with low doses of cytokines, and transduction with an RD114 compared to a GaLV-pseudotyped retroviral vector, the overall number of transduced cells in NOD/SCID mice could be improved 144-fold, with a gene-transfer efficiency in SRC of 16.3% (13.3-19.9; n = 6).

  2. Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor inhibits CXCR4/SDF-1α signaling and overcomes stromal-mediated drug resistance in the HL-60 cell line.

    PubMed

    Sheng, Xianfu; Zhong, Hua; Wan, Haixia; Zhong, Jihua; Chen, Fangyuan

    2016-07-01

    Combining cytarabine, aclarubicin and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) has demonstrated marked efficacy in the treatment of elderly and relapsed/refractory patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML); however, the role of G-CSF remains poorly understood. The present study aimed to investigate the ability of G-CSF to overcome stromal-mediated drug resistance and the underlying molecular mechanism. Two types of co-culture models were established in the HS-5 human bone marrow/stromal and HL-60 human promyelocytic leukemia cell lines, in order to imitate the interactions between stromal and leukemia cells in vitro, which is mediated by the stromal cell-derived factor (SDF)-1α signaling axis. In the present study, HL-60 cells were attracted and adhered to HS-5 cells using migration assay and flow cytometry, respectively; however, these interactions were inhibited by treatment with G-CSF and/or the C-X-C chemokine receptor type 4 (CXCR4) antagonist, AMD3100. Co-culture with HS-5 cells, including direct and indirect contact, protected HL-60 cells against spontaneous apoptosis or drug-induced apoptosis; however, these protective effects were disrupted by treatment with G-CSF and/or AMD3100. Notably, G-CSF and/or AMD3100 did not alter cell viability or apoptosis when HL-60 cells were cultured with medium alone. In addition, G-CSF significantly reduced the expression levels of surface CXCR4 protein, total CXCR4 protein and CXCR4 mRNA, and significantly upregulated the expression of microRNA (miR)-146a. Conversely, AMD3100 significantly reduced surface CXCR4 expression levels, but not the total CXCR4, CXCR4 mRNA or miR-146a expression levels. The results of the present study suggested that interfering with the CXCR4/SDF-1α signaling axis via G-CSF inhibited the migration and adhesion of HL-60 cells to HS-5 cells and eliminated HS5 cell-mediated protective effects. Furthermore, G-CSF administration reduced CXCR4 expression levels by upregulating the expression of

  3. The effects of vitamin D binding protein-macrophage activating factor and colony-stimulating factor-1 on hematopoietic cells in normal and osteopetrotic rats.

    PubMed

    Benis, K A; Schneider, G B

    1996-10-15

    Osteopetrosis is a heterogeneous group of bone disorders characterized by the failure of osteoclasts to resorb bone and by several immunological defects including macrophage dysfunction. Two compounds, colony-stimulating factor-1 (CSF-1) and vitamin D-binding protein-macrophage activating factor (DBP-MAF) were used in the present study to evaluate their effects on the peritoneal population of cells and on cells within the bone marrow microenvironment in normal and incisors absent (ia) osteopetrotic rats. Previous studies in this laboratory have demonstrated that administration of DBP-MAF to newborn ia animals results in a substantial increase in bone marrow cavity size due to upregulated osteoclast function. To study the effects of these compounds on the macrophage/osteoclast precursors, DBP-MAF, CSF-1, and the combination of these compounds were given to newborn ia and normal littermate animals. Both the normal and mutant phenotypes responded similarly when treated with these compounds. Rats exhibited a profound shift toward the macrophage lineage from the neutrophil lineage when compared with vehicle-treated control animals after treatment with these compounds. In the in vivo peritoneal lavage study, animals received injections of CSF-1, DBP-MAF or DBP-MAF/CSF-1 over a 4-week period. The various types of cells in the peritoneal cavity were then enumerated. The in vitro study consisted of cells isolated from the bone marrow microenvironment and cultured on feeder layers of CSF-1, DBP-MAF, or DBP-MAF/CSF-1 for colony enumeration. The increase in macrophage numbers at the expense of neutrophil numbers could be seen in both the in vivo and in vitro experiments. The macrophage/osteoclast and neutrophil lineages have a common precursor, the granulocyte/macrophage colony-forming cell (GM-CFC). With the addition of CSF-1, the GM-CFC precursor may be induced into the macrophage/osteoclast lineage rather than the granulocyte lineage. This increased pool of cells in the

  4. Immunogenicity of granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) products in patients undergoing combination therapy with GM-CSF.

    PubMed

    Wadhwa, M; Skog, A L; Bird, C; Ragnhammar, P; Lilljefors, M; Gaines-Das, R; Mellstedt, H; Thorpe, R

    1999-06-01

    In this study, we have assessed the development of neutralizing and nonneutralizing granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) antibodies in two groups of patients with metastatic colorectal carcinoma receiving two different GM-CSF products. Three clinical trials were carried out, and a combination of GM-CSF and a colon carcinoma-reactive antibody was used in the absence of any concomitant chemotherapy. Two different GM-CSF products, both rDNA-derived and produced in Escherichia coli, were used. Patients in Trial 1 received product X, and those in Trials 2 and 3 received product Y. Patients in Trial 2 also received interleukin 2 in an attempt to potentiate immune responses. After the first cycle of treatment, no GM-CSF antibodies were detected, but on subsequent therapy, 28 of the 38 patients tested receiving product Y (Trials 2 and 3) developed antibodies that bound to the GM-CSF product used for therapy. However, none of the patients developed antibodies that neutralized the biological activity of GM-CSF, as assessed using an in vitro bioassay. Furthermore, there was no in vivo impairment in GM-CSF-induced expansion of leukocytes, neutrophils, and eosinophils in the patients. In contrast, 19 of the 20 patients given product X (Trial 1) developed GM-CSF binding antibodies, and 9 of these patients were shown to develop antibodies that neutralized the biological activity of GM-CSF. The presence of the latter was associated with a significant reduction in GM-CSF-induced expansion of leukocytes, neutrophils, and eosinophils in patients. Therefore, product X appears to be more immunogenic than product Y. Immunochemical characterization confirmed that the specificity of the antibody responses varied depending on the product used for therapy. Whereas sera from Trial 1 patients treated with product X showed the presence of antibodies with strong recognition of GM-CSF proteins, sera from patients treated with product Y showed varied recognition of GM

  5. Effects of recombinant human granulocyte colony-stimulating factor on central and peripheral T lymphocyte reconstitution after sublethal irradiation in mice

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Hongxia; Guo, Mei; Sun, Xuedong; Sun, Wanjun; Hu, Hailan; Wei, Li; Ai, Huisheng

    2013-01-01

    Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) is one of the most critical cytokines used for the treatment of acute radiation syndrome (ARS). In addition to the hematopoietic effects of G-CSF on the differentiation and proliferation of myeloid progenitor cells, G-CSF is also known to have immunomodulatory effects. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether G-CSF could accelerate central and peripheral T lymphocyte recovery after a sublethal dose of irradiation. Female BALB/c mice were subjected to 6 Gy of total body irradiation and then were treated with either 100 μg/kg G-CSF or an equal volume of PBS once daily for 14 days. Percentages of thymocyte subpopulations including CD4 − CD8 − , CD4 + CD8 + , CD4 + CD8− and CD4 − CD8+ T cells, peripheral CD3 + , CD4+ and CD8+ cells were analyzed by flow cytometry. Recent thymic emigrants (RTEs) were assessed by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using primers specific to the 257-bp T cell receptor rearrangement excision circles (sjTRECs). The proliferative capacity of splenic mononuclear cells upon exposure to ConA was measured by using the Cell Count Kit-8 (CCK-8). G-CSF treatment promoted thymocyte regeneration, accelerated the recovery of CD4 + CD8+ cells and increased the frequency of thymocyte sjTRECs. These effects were more prominent at early time points (Day 28) after irradiation. G-CSF also increased the rate of recovery of peripheral CD3 + , CD4+ and CD8+ cells and shortened the period of severe lymphopenia following irradiation. G-CSF also increased the splenic mononuclear cell mitotic responsiveness to ConA more than control-treated cells. Our results show that G-CSF accelerates T cell recovery through both thymic-dependent and thymic-independent pathways, which could be used to increase the rate of immune reconstitution after sublethal irradiation. PMID:23001765

  6. Randomized Prospective Controlled Trial of Recombinant Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor as Adjunctive Therapy for Limb-Threatening Diabetic Foot Infection

    PubMed Central

    de Lalla, Fausto; Pellizzer, Giampietro; Strazzabosco, Marco; Martini, Zeno; Du Jardin, Giovanni; Lora, Luciano; Fabris, Paolo; Benedetti, Paolo; Erle, Giuseppe

    2001-01-01

    Adult diabetic patients admitted to our Diabetes Center from September 1996 to January 1998 for severe, limb-threatening foot infection were consecutively enrolled in a prospective, randomized, controlled clinical study aimed at assessing the safety and efficacy of recombinant human granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) (lenograstim) as an adjunctive therapy for the standard treatment of diabetic foot infection. Forty patients, all of whom displayed evidence of osteomyelitis and long-standing ulcer infection, were randomized 1:1 to receive either conventional treatment (i.e., antimicrobial therapy plus local treatment) or conventional therapy plus 263 μg of G-CSF subcutaneously daily for 21 days. The empiric antibiotic treatment (a combination of ciprofloxacin plus clindamycin) was further adjusted, when necessary, according to the results of cultures and sensitivity testing. Microbiologic assessment of foot ulcers was performed by both deep-tissue biopsy and swab cultures, performed at enrollment and on days 7 and 21 thereafter. Patients were monitored for 6 months; the major endpoints (i.e., cure, improvement, failure, and amputation) were blindly assessed at weeks 3 and 9. At enrollment, both patient groups were comparable in terms of both demographic and clinical data. None of the G-CSF-treated patients experienced either local or systemic adverse effects. At the 3- and 9-week assessments, no significant differences between the two groups could be observed concerning the number of patients either cured or improved, the number of patients displaying therapeutic failure, or the species and number of microorganisms previously yielded from cultures at day 7 and day 21. Conversely, among this small series of patients the cumulative number of amputations observed after 9 weeks of treatment appeared to be lower in the G-CSF arm; in fact, only three patients (15%) in this group had required amputation, whereas nine patients (45%) in the other group had

  7. Increased presence of anti-HLA antibodies early after allogeneic granulocyte colony-stimulating factor-mobilized peripheral blood hematopoietic stem cell transplantation compared with bone marrow transplantation.

    PubMed

    Lapierre, Valérie; Aupérin, Anne; Tayebi, Hakim; Chabod, Jacqueline; Saas, Philippe; Michalet, Mauricette; François, Sylvie; Garban, Frédéric; Giraud, Christine; Tramalloni, Dominique; Oubouzar, Nadia; Blaise, Didier; Kuentz, Matthieu; Robinet, Eric; Tiberghien, Pierre

    2002-08-15

    We have recently shown that the use of allogeneic granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF)-mobilized peripheral blood hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (PBHSCT), as compared with bone marrow transplantation (BMT), is associated with increased titers of antibodies (Abs) directed against red blood cell ABO antigens. To further evaluate the influence of a G-CSF-mobilized PBHSCT graft on alloimmune Ab responses, we examined the frequency of anti-HLA Abs after transplantation in the setting of the same randomized study, comparing PBHSCT with BMT in adults. Anti-HLA Ab presence was determined by complement-dependent cytotoxicity assay (CDC) and flow cytometry in the recipient before and 30 days after transplantation as well as in the donor before graft donation. The use of PBHSCT was significantly associated with increased detection of anti-HLA immunoglobulin G (IgG) Abs early after transplantation as evidenced by flow cytometry (11 of 24 versus 4 of 27 transplant recipients, P =.03) and, less so, by CDC (5 of 24 versus 1 of 27 transplant recipients, P =.09). The difference between PBHSCT and BMT was further heightened when analysis was restricted to anti-HLA IgG Ab-negative donor/recipient pairs. In such a setting, early anti-HLA Ab was never detected after BMT but was repeatedly detected after PBHSCT (flow cytometry, 6 of 18 versus 0 of 17 transplant recipients, P =.02; CDC, 4 of 23 versus 0 of 26 transplant recipients, P =.04). Importantly, the PBHSCT-associated increase in anti-HLA Ab detection was observed despite a reduction in the median number of platelet-transfusion episodes per patient in PBHSC transplant versus BM transplant recipients (3 platelet-transfusion episodes [range, 1-21] in PBHSCT group vs 6 platelet-transfusion episodes [range, 3-33] in the BMT group; P =.02). In conclusion, this study strongly suggests that G-CSF-mobilized PBHSCT results in an increased incidence of circulating anti-HLA Abs and further confirms that the use of such a

  8. Calcineurin potentiates activation of the granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor gene in T cells: involvement of the conserved lymphokine element 0.

    PubMed Central

    Tsuboi, A; Masuda, E S; Naito, Y; Tokumitsu, H; Arai, K; Arai, N

    1994-01-01

    Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) and interleukin-2 (IL-2) are produced by stimulation with phorbol-12-myristate acetate (PMA) and calcium ionophore (A23187) in human T cell leukemia Jurkat cells. The expression of GM-CSF and IL-2 is inhibited by immunosuppressive drugs such as cyclosporin A (CsA) and FK506. Earlier studies on the IL-2 gene expression showed that overexpression of calcineurin (CN), a Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein phosphatase, can stimulate transcription from the IL-2 promoter through the NF-AT-binding site. In this study, we obtained evidence that transfection of the cDNAs for CN A (catalytic) and CN B (regulatory) subunits also augments transcription from the GM-CSF promoter and recovers the transcription inhibited by CsA. The constitutively active type of the CN A subunit, which lacks the auto-inhibitory and calmodulin-binding domains, acts in synergy with PMA to activate transcription from the GM-CSF promoter. We also found that the active CN partially replaces calcium ionophore in synergy with PMA to induce expression of endogenous GM-CSF and IL-2. By multimerizing the regulatory elements of the GM-CSF promoter, we found that one of the target sites for the CN action is the conserved lymphokine element 0 (CLE0), located at positions between -54 and -40. Mobility shift assays showed that the CLE0 sequence has an AP1-binding site and is associated with an NF-AT-like factor, termed NF-CLE0 gamma. NF-CLE0 gamma binding is induced by PMA/A23187 and is inhibited by treatment with CsA. These results suggest that CN is involved in the coordinated induction of the GM-CSF and IL-2 genes and that the CLE0 sequence of the GM-CSF gene is a functional analogue of the NF-AT-binding site in the IL-2 promoter, which mediates signals downstream of T cell activation. Images PMID:8186461

  9. Soluble prokaryotic overexpression and purification of bioactive human granulocyte colony-stimulating factor by maltose binding protein and protein disulfide isomerase.

    PubMed

    Do, Bich Hang; Ryu, Han-Bong; Hoang, Phuong; Koo, Bon-Kyung; Choe, Han

    2014-01-01

    Human granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (hGCSF), a neutrophil-promoting cytokine, is an effective therapeutic agent for neutropenia patients who have undergone several cancer treatments. Efficient production of hGCSF using E. coli is challenging because the hormone tends to aggregate and forms inclusion bodies. This study examined the ability of seven different N-terminal fusion tags to increase expression of soluble hGCSF in E. coli. Four tag proteins, namely maltose-binding protein (MBP), N-utilization substance protein A, protein disulfide isomerase (PDI), and the b'a' domain of PDI (PDIb'a'), increased the solubility of hGCSF under normal conditions. Lowering the expression temperature from 30°C to 18°C also increased the solubility of thioredoxin-tagged and glutathione S-transferase-tagged hGCSF. By contrast, hexahistidine-tagged hGCSF was insoluble at both temperatures. Simple conventional chromatographic methods were used to purify hGCSF from the overexpressed PDIb'a'-hGCSF and MBP-hGCSF proteins. In total, 11.3 mg or 10.2 mg of pure hGCSF were obtained from 500 mL cultures of E. coli expressing PDIb'a'-hGCSF or MBP-hGCSF, respectively. SDS-PAGE analysis and silver staining confirmed high purity of the isolated hGCSF proteins, and the endotoxin levels were less than 0.05 EU/µg of protein. Subsequently, the bioactivity of the purified hGCSF proteins similar to that of the commercially available hGCSF was confirmed using the mouse M-NFS-60 myelogenous leukemia cell line. The EC50s of the cell proliferation dose-response curves for hGCSF proteins purified from MBP-hGCSF and PDIb'a'-hGCSF were 2.83±0.31 pM, and 3.38±0.41 pM, respectively. In summary, this study describes an efficient method for the soluble overexpression and purification of bioactive hGCSF in E. coli.

  10. Granulocyte colony stimulating factor reduces brain injury in a cardiopulmonary bypass-circulatory arrest model of ischemia in a newborn piglet

    PubMed Central

    Pastuszko, Peter; Schears, Gregory J.; Greeley, William J.; Kubin, Joanna; Wilson, David F.; Pastuszko, Anna

    2014-01-01

    Background Ischemic brain injury continues to be of major concern in patients undergoing cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) surgery for congenital heart disease. Striatum and hippocampus are particularly vulnerable to injury during these processes. Our hypothesis is that the neuronal injury resulting from CPB and the associated circulatory arrest can be at least partly ameliorated by pre-treatment with granulocyte colony stimulating factor (G-CSF). Material and Methods Fourteen male newborn piglets were assigned to three groups: deep hypothermic circulatory arrest (DHCA), DHCA with G-CSF, and sham-operated. The first two groups were placed on CPB, cooled to 18°C, subjected to 60 min of DHCA, re-warmed and recovered for 8-9 hrs. At the end of experiment, the brains were perfused, fixed and cut into 10 μm transverse sections. Apoptotic cells were visualized by in-situ DNA fragmentation assay (TUNEL), with the density of injured cells expressed as a mean number ± SD per mm2. Results The number of injured cells in the striatum and CA1 and CA3 regions of the hippocampus increased significantly following DHCA. In the striatum, the increase was from 0.46±0.37 to 3.67±1.57 (p=0.002); in the CA1, from 0.11±0.19 to 5.16±1.57 (p=0.001), and in the CA3, from 0.28±0.25 to 2.98±1.82 (p=0.040). Injection of G-CSF prior to bypass significantly reduced the number of injured cells in the striatum and CA1 region, by 51% and 37%, respectively. In the CA3 region, injured cell density did not differ between the G-CSF and control group. Conclusion In a model of hypoxic brain insult associated with CPB, G-CSF significantly reduces neuronal injury in brain regions important for cognitive functions, suggesting it can significantly improve neurological outcomes from procedures requiring DHCA. PMID:25082120

  11. Colony-stimulating factor-1 and c-fms expression in human endometrial tissues and placenta during the menstrual cycle and early pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Kauma, S W; Aukerman, S L; Eierman, D; Turner, T

    1991-10-01

    Colony-stimulating factor-1 (CSF-1), a growth factor produced by monocytes, macrophages, fibroblasts, and endothelial cells, has been implicated in the functional regulation and growth of the murine placenta through the presence of the CSF-1 receptor, c-fms, found in this tissue. In this study we examined the tissue levels of CSF-1 by RIA and the relative expression of CSF-1 and c-fms mRNA by Northern blot analysis in human endometrial, decidual, and placental tissues during the normal menstrual cycle and early pregnancy. All endometrial, decidual, and placental tissues demonstrated extractable immunoreactive CSF-1 and expressed the 4.0-kilobase CSF-1 mRNA species. First trimester decidual tissue expressed higher levels of CSF-1 mRNA than proliferative (3.2-fold higher; P less than 0.01) or secretory (2.4-fold higher; P less than 0.01) endometrial tissues, whereas proliferative and secretory endometrial tissues expressed similar levels of CSF-1 mRNA. Tissue extractable levels of immunoreactive CSF-1 were 3.2-fold (P less than 0.05) higher in first trimester decidual tissue and 2.9-fold (P less than 0.05) higher in secretory endometrial tissue compared to levels in proliferative endometrial tissue, whereas first trimester decidua and secretory endometrial tissues had similar levels of immunoreactive CSF-1. There was expression of c-fms mRNA in all endometrial and first trimester decidual tissue samples, with little change during the menstrual cycle and early pregnancy. In placenta, there was a positive correlation of increasing CSF-1 and c-fms mRNA expression with increasing gestational age. These results suggest that there is increased local production of CSF-1 in tissues found at the maternal-fetal interface during the time of implantation and early pregnancy. This increased production of CSF-1 may play a role in decidual function and placental growth through the presence of c-fms in these tissues.

  12. Enhancement of innate immunity with granulocyte colony-stimulating factor did not mitigate disease in pigs infected with a highly pathogenic Chinese PRRSV strain

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is responsible for one of the most economically important diseases in swine worldwide. It causes reproductive failure in sows and pneumonia in pigs that predisposes them to secondary bacterial infections. Methods to control PRRSV and/or lim...

  13. Enhancement of innate immunity with granulocyte colony-stimulating factor did not prevent disease in pigs infected with a highly pathogenic Chinese PRRSV strain

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Chinese highly pathogenic PRRSV (HP-PRRSV) strain JXwn06 has been shown to produce high fevers, loss of body condition, respiratory distress and death in pigs. Necropsy reveals extensive interstitial pneumonia, multi-systemic pathology and a high occurrence of secondary bacterial infections. The ful...

  14. Anti-granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor autoantibodies are a risk factor for central nervous system infection by Cryptococcus gattii in otherwise immunocompetent patients.

    PubMed

    Saijo, Tomomi; Chen, Jianghan; Chen, Sharon C-A; Rosen, Lindsey B; Yi, Jin; Sorrell, Tania C; Bennett, John E; Holland, Steven M; Browne, Sarah K; Kwon-Chung, Kyung J

    2014-03-18

    Cryptococcosis is caused by either Cryptococcus neoformans or C. gattii. While cryptococcal meningoencephalitis is caused mostly by C. neoformans in immunocompromised patients, the risk factors remain unclear for patients with no known immune defect. Recently, anti-granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) autoantibodies were detected in the plasma of seven "immunocompetent" cryptococcosis patients, and the cryptococcal strains from these patients were reported as C. neoformans (three strains), C. gattii (one strain), and Cryptococcus (three strains not identified to the species level). We identified all three strains that had not been identified to the species level as C. gattii. Notably, the three strains that were reported as C. neoformans but were unavailable for species confirmation originated from Sothern California and Thailand where C. gattii is endemic. Most clinical laboratories designate C. neoformans without distinguishing between the two species; hence, these three strains could have been C. gattii. Since C. gattii infects more immunocompetent patients than C. neoformans, we pursued the possibility that this antibody may be more prevalent in patients infected with C. gattii than in those infected with C. neoformans. We screened the plasma of 20 healthy controls and 30 "immunocompetent" patients with cryptococcal meningoencephalitis from China and Australia (multiple ethnicities). Anti-GM-CSF autoantibodies were detected only in the plasma of seven patients infected by C. gattii and one healthy volunteer and in none infected by C. neoformans. While plasma from these C. gattii patients completely prevented GM-CSF-induced p-STAT5 in normal human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), plasma from one healthy volunteer positive for anti-GM-CSF autoantibodies caused only partial blockage. Our results suggest that anti-GM-CSF autoantibodies may predispose otherwise immunocompetent individuals to meningoencephalitis caused by C. gattii but

  15. Effect of recombinant human macrophage colony-stimulating factor in irradiated murine recipients of T-cell-depleted allogeneic or non-depleted syngeneic bone marrow transplants.

    PubMed

    Blazar, B R; Aukerman, S L; Vallera, D A

    1992-03-15

    Recombinant macrophage colony-stimulating factor (rM-CSF), which reacts exclusively with cells of monocyte lineage, was evaluated in the murine bone marrow (BM) transplant setting for in vivo effects on recipient survival, hematologic recovery, and engraftment. Two types of fully allogeneic donors were selected based on the expression (BALB/c), or lack of expression (DBA/1), of hybrid hematopoietic histocompatibility (Hh1) antigens. These antigens are established targets for monocyte and/or natural killer (NK) cell-mediated graft rejection. Irradiated C57BL/6 mice were used as recipients for all experiments. Recipients of T-cell-depleted (TCD) BALB/c BM and a 14-day continuous subcutaneous infusion of 16.8 micrograms/d rM-CSF (n = 30) showed a significant decrease in donor cell engraftment as compared with recipients of donor BM administered pumps delivering saline. These mice administered rM-CSF also displayed significantly reduced levels of circulating leukocytes (predominantly lymphocytes) on day 14 posttransplant (compared with saline controls). Neither engraftment effects nor leukocyte effects were observed when C57BL/6 recipients were administered Hh1 nonexpressing TCD DBA/1 BM cells (n = 30), suggesting that the monocyte/macrophage population is important in long-term alloengraftment in certain donor-recipient strain combinations in which donor Hh1 antigens can serve as target antigens for host effector cells, but are not important in strain combinations in which they are not recognized. Circulating tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF alpha) levels measured at two time periods during rM-CSF infusion were not elevated. Thus, the reduction in alloengraftment is not likely to be directly related to TNF alpha. However, in vivo elimination of NK cells in the BALB/c into C57BL/6 model prevented the impairment of engraftment mediated by rM-CSF. Thus, rM-CSF-mediated inhibition of alloengraftment is contingent on the presence of host NK cells with antidonor reactivity

  16. The pros and cons of split-dose granulocyte colony-stimulating factor alone rather than a single high dose for hematopoietic progenitor cell mobilization in small children (< 15 kg) with solid tumors.

    PubMed

    Merlin, Etienne; Piguet, Christophe; Auvrignon, Anne; Rubie, Hervé; Deméocq, François; Kanold, Justyna

    2006-07-01

    Hematopoietic progenitor cells were mobilized in 34 children with solid tumors weighing < or = 15 kg using granulocyte colony-stimulating factor alone at the doses of 10, 20 or 2 x 12 microg/kg/day. The mobilization with 2 x 12 microg/kg/day was more efficient than that with 10 mg/kg/day. Although the superiority of the split-dose compared to the single, high daily dose (20 microg/kg/day) was not statistically significant, our results suggest that the 2 x 12 microg/kg/day regimen is interesting.

  17. Transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI) induced by donor-derived anti-HLA antibodies in aplastic anemia: possible priming effect of granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) on the recipient neutrophils.

    PubMed

    Hishizawa, Masakatsu; Mitsuhashi, Ryuichi; Ohno, Tatsuharu

    2009-01-01

    Transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI) is currently the leading cause of transfusion-related death. A 67-year-old man with severe aplastic anemia developed TRALI, consisting of acute respiratory insufficiency with severe hypoxia and diffuse pulmonary infiltration 2 hours after the transfusion of platelet concentrates. Although he required intensive respiratory support, he promptly recovered within 4 days. The presence of anti-HLA antibody (anti-HLA B52) in the donated blood product was demonstrated, and a lymphocytotoxicity test disclosed antibody-mediated cytotoxicity against the patient's cells. Furthermore, administration of granulocyte-colony stimulating factor was suggested to predispose the patient to TRALI by priming the neutrophils.

  18. Combination of stem cell factor and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor mobilizes the highest number of primitive haemopoietic progenitors as shown by pre-colony-forming unit (pre-CFU) assay.

    PubMed

    Horsfall, M J; Hui, C H; To, L B; Begley, C G; Basser, R L; Simmons, P J

    2000-06-01

    Fifty-two patients with poor prognosis carcinoma of the breast underwent peripheral blood stem cell (PBSC) mobilization using five different regimens. The yields of primitive haemopoietic progenitors were quantified by a recently described pre-colony-forming unit (pre-CFU) assay using limiting dilution analysis (LDA). Results of days 14 and 35 pre-CFU were also correlated with conventional CD34+ cell enumeration, CFU-GM (granulocyte-macrophage) and long-term culture-initiating cell (LTCIC) assays. The yield of pre-CFUs with the combination of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) and stem cell factor (SCF) was significantly higher than with G-CSF alone, cyclophosphamide (Cyclo) and granulocyte-monocyte colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), interleukin (IL)-3 and GM-CSF, or Cyclo alone. No significant correlation between neutrophil engraftment and pre-CFU could be demonstrated. Furthermore, CFU-GM was shown to bear a stronger correlation with pre-CFU and LTCIC than CD34+ cell measurement; thus, CFU-GM remains a useful biological tool for haemopoietic stem cell assay. We conclude that the combination of G-CSF and SCF mobilizes the highest number of pre-CFUs as measured by functional pre-CFU assay, which provides an alternative measurement of primitive haemopoietic progenitors to the LTCIC assay.

  19. Isolation and characterization of a resistant core peptide of recombinant human granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF); confirmation of the GM-CSF amino acid sequence by mass spectrometry.

    PubMed Central

    Tsarbopoulos, A.; Pramanik, B. N.; Labdon, J. E.; Reichert, P.; Gitlin, G.; Patel, S.; Sardana, V.; Nagabhushan, T. L.; Trotta, P. P.

    1993-01-01

    A trypsin-resistant core peptide of recombinant human granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (rhGM-CSF) was isolated and analyzed by high-energy Cs+ liquid secondary-ion (LSI) mass spectrometric analysis. This analysis provided successful detection of the high-mass disulfide-linked core peptide as well as information confirming the existence of disulfide pairing. Similarly, LSI mass spectrometric analysis of the peptide fragments isolated chromatographically from a Staphylococcus aureus V8 protease digest of rhGM-CSF provided rapid confirmation of the cDNA-derived sequence and determination of the existing disulfide bonds between cysteine residues 54-96 and 88-121. Electrospray ionization mass spectrometry was employed to measure the molecular weight of the intact protein and to determine the number of the disulfide bonds in the protein molecule by comparative analysis of the protein before and after reduction with beta-mercaptoethanol. PMID:8268804

  20. Cytokines in chronic inflammatory arthritis. V. Mutual antagonism between interferon-gamma and tumor necrosis factor-alpha on HLA-DR expression, proliferation, collagenase production, and granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor production by rheumatoid arthritis synoviocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Alvaro-Gracia, J M; Zvaifler, N J; Firestein, G S

    1990-01-01

    The effects of a broad array of cytokines, individually and in combination, were determined on separate functions (proliferation, collagenase production, and granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor [GM-CSF] production) and phenotype (expression of class II MHC antigens) of cultured fibroblast-like RA synoviocytes. The following recombinant cytokines were used: IL-1 beta, IL-2, IL-3, IL-4, IFN-gamma, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha, GM-CSF, and macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF). Only IFN-gamma induced HLA-DR (but not HLA-DQ) expression. TNF-alpha inhibited IFN-gamma-mediated HLA-DR expression (46.7 +/- 4.1% inhibition) and HLA-DR mRNA accumulation. This inhibitory effect was also observed in osteoarthritis synoviocytes. Only TNF-alpha and IL-1 increased synoviocyte proliferation (stimulation index 3.60 +/- 1.03 and 2.31 +/- 0.46, respectively). IFN-gamma (but none of the other cytokines) inhibited TNF-alpha-induced proliferation (70 +/- 14% inhibition) without affecting the activity of IL-1. Only IL-1 beta and TNF-alpha induced collagenase production (from less than 0.10 U/ml to 1.10 +/- 0.15 and 0.72 +/- 0.24, respectively). IFN-gamma decreased TNF-alpha-mediated collagenase production (69 +/- 19% inhibition) and GM-CSF production but had no effect on the action of IL-1. These data demonstrate mutual antagonism between IFN-gamma and TNF-alpha on fibroblast-like synoviocytes and suggest a novel homeostatic control mechanism that might be defective in RA where very little IFN-gamma is produced. Images PMID:2174906

  1. Keratinocyte growth factor administration attenuates murine pulmonary mycobacterium tuberculosis infection through granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF)-dependent macrophage activation and phagolysosome fusion.

    PubMed

    Pasula, Rajamouli; Azad, Abul K; Gardner, Jason C; Schlesinger, Larry S; McCormack, Francis X

    2015-03-13

    Augmentation of innate immune defenses is an appealing adjunctive strategy for treatment of pulmonary Mycobacterium tuberculosis infections, especially those caused by drug-resistant strains. The effect of intranasal administration of keratinocyte growth factor (KGF), an epithelial mitogen and differentiation factor, on M. tuberculosis infection in mice was tested in prophylaxis, treatment, and rescue scenarios. Infection of C57BL6 mice with M. tuberculosis resulted in inoculum size-dependent weight loss and mortality. A single dose of KGF given 1 day prior to infection with 10(5) M. tuberculosis bacilli prevented weight loss and enhanced pulmonary mycobacterial clearance (compared with saline-pretreated mice) for up to 28 days. Similar effects were seen when KGF was delivered intranasally every third day for 15 days, but weight loss and bacillary growth resumed when KGF was withdrawn. For mice with a well established M. tuberculosis infection, KGF given every 3 days beginning on day 15 postinoculation was associated with reversal of weight loss and an increase in M. tuberculosis clearance. In in vitro co-culture experiments, M. tuberculosis-infected macrophages exposed to conditioned medium from KGF-treated alveolar type II cell (MLE-15) monolayers exhibited enhanced GM-CSF-dependent killing through mechanisms that included promotion of phagolysosome fusion and induction of nitric oxide. Alveolar macrophages from KGF-treated mice also exhibited enhanced GM-CSF-dependent phagolysosomal fusion. These results provide evidence that administration of KGF promotes M. tuberculosis clearance through GM-CSF-dependent mechanisms and enhances host defense against M. tuberculosis infection.

  2. Early measurement of CD34+ cells in peripheral blood after cyclophosphamide and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor treatment predicts later CD34+ mobilisation failure and is a possible criterion for guiding “on demand” use of plerixafor

    PubMed Central

    Milone, Giuseppe; Tripepi, Giovanni; Martino, Massimo; Ancora, Flavia; Bartolozzi, Benedetta; Spadaro, Andrea; Nozzoli, Chiara; La Fauci, Alessia; Amico, Irene; Leotta, Salvatore; Poidomani, Massimo; Irrera, Giuseppe; Iacopino, Pasquale; Saccardi, Riccardo; Guidi, Stefano; Bosi, Alberto

    2013-01-01

    Background Early identification of predictive factors of failure to mobilise CD34+ cells could enable rational use of plerixafor during first mobilisation, avoiding the need for a second mobilisation course. However, “on demand” administration of plerixafor needs to be driven by established parameters to avoid inappropriate use. Materials and methods To address this issue, we studied the value of the peripheral blood CD34+ count, measured early (on days +10, +11, +12 and +13), in predicting the mobilisation outcome in the ensuing days. We retrospectively collected data from three Italian centres on 233 patients affected by multiple myeloma or lymphoma who underwent a first or second attempt at mobilisation with cyclophosphamide 4 g/m2 and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor. To assess the diagnostic value of peripheral blood white blood cell and CD34+ cell counts with respect to “mobilisation failure”, we considered failed mobilisation as “disease” and the CD34+ cell count in peripheral blood, on a specific day, as a “diagnostic test”. For various thresholds, we measured sensitivity, false positive rate, specificity and positive predictive value (PPV) as well as the area under the receiver-operating characteristic curves (AUC). Results A CD34+ cell count <10×106/L on day 13 had high sensitivity (1.00) and high specificity (1.00) for predicting subsequent mobilisation failure, with an AUC of 1.0. However, good prediction was also obtained using a lower threshold (CD34+ cell count: <6×106/L) at an earlier time (day 12). The PPV of the day 13 threshold was 1.00 while that of the day 12 one was 0.87. Discussion We propose that patients with <6×106/L CD34+ cells in peripheral blood on day 12 and <10×106/L on day 13 following mobilisation with cyclophosphamide 4 g/m2 and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor are candidates for “on demand” use of plerixafor, making the administration of this expensive agent more efficient and avoiding its

  3. E-ring 8-isoprostanes are agonists at EP2- and EP4-prostanoid receptors on human airway smooth muscle cells and regulate the release of colony-stimulating factors by activating cAMP-dependent protein kinase.

    PubMed

    Clarke, Deborah L; Belvisi, Maria G; Hardaker, Elizabeth; Newton, Robert; Giembycz, Mark A

    2005-02-01

    8-Isoprostanes are bioactive lipid mediators formed via the nonenzymatic peroxidation of arachidonic acid by free radicals and reactive oxygen species. However, their cognate receptors, biological actions, and signaling pathways are poorly studied. Here, we report the effect of a variety of E- and Falpha-ring 8-isoprostanes on the release of granulocyte/macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) from human airway smooth muscle (HASM) cells stimulated with interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta). The elaboration of GM-CSF and G-CSF by IL-1beta was inhibited and augmented, respectively, in a concentration-dependent manner by 8-iso-prostaglandin (PG) E(1) and 8-iso-PGE(2), but not by 8-iso-PGF(1alpha), 8-iso-PGF(2alpha), and 8-iso-PGF(3)alpha. AH 6809 (6-isopropoxy-9-oxoxanthine-2-carboxylic acid), an EP(1)-/EP(2)-/DP-receptor blocking drug, antagonized the inhibitory effect of 8-iso-PGE(1) and 8-iso-PGE(2) on GM-CSF output with an affinity consistent with an interaction at prostanoid receptors of the EP(2)-subtype. In contrast, the facilitation by 8-iso-PGE(1) and 8-iso-PGE(2) of G-CSF release was unaffected by AH 6809 and the selective EP(4)-receptor antagonist L-161,982 [4'-[3-butyl-5-oxo-1-(2-trifluoromethyl-phenyl)-1,5-dihydro-[1,2,4]triazol-4-ylmethyl]-biphenyl-2-sulfonic acid (3-methyl-thiophene-2-carbonyl)-amide]. However, when used in combination, AH 6809 and L-161,982 displaced 5-fold to the right the 8-iso-PGE and 8-iso-PGE concentration-response curves. The opposing (1)effect of E-ring (2)8-isoprostanes on GM-CSF and G-CSF release was mimicked by 8-bromo-cAMP and abolished in cells infected with an adenovirus vector encoding an inhibitor protein of cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA). Together, these data demonstrate that E-ring 8-isoprostanes regulate the secretion of GM-CSF and G-CSF from HASM cells by a cAMP- and PKA-dependent mechanism. Moreover, antagonist studies revealed that 8-iso-PGE(1) and 8-iso-PGE(2

  4. Breast cancer cells induce osteoclast formation by stimulating host IL-11 production and downregulating granulocyte/macrophage colony-stimulating factor.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Hayley; Tumber, Anthony; Hill, Peter A

    2004-05-01

    Breast cancer cells frequently metastasize to the skeleton, where they induce OCL formation and activity, resulting in extensive bone destruction. However, the mechanisms by which breast cancer cells mediate increased osteolysis remain unclear. To elucidate this point, we investigated how 3 human breast cancer cell lines, MDA-MB-231, MDA-MB-435 and MCF-7, induce OCL formation using a murine osteoblast-spleen cell coculture system and compared their effects with a human colorectal cancer cell line, HCT-15; a human lung cancer cell line, HT-1080; and a normal human breast cell line, HME. The breast cancer cell lines supported OCL formation only when osteoblasts were present in spleen cell cocultures, whilst the non-breast cancer cell lines and the normal breast cell line, HME, had no effect. Fractionation of BCCM by ultrafiltration established that osteoclastogenic activity was associated with factors having m.w. >3 kDa. Breast cancer cell lines produced primarily PTHrP, with lesser amounts of IL-6, IL-11 and TNF-alpha. The effect of BCCM on OCL formation in osteoblast-spleen cell cocultures was partially prevented by a neutralising antibody to human PTHrP and completely prevented by a neutralising antibody to either murine IL-11 or the murine IL-11 receptor; neutralising antibodies to human IL-6, IL-11 or TNF-alpha were without effect. BCCM or human PTHrP induced an increase in murine osteoblast IL-11 mRNA and protein production, effects that were prevented in the presence of a neutralising antibody to human PTHrP. The osteoclastogenic activity of IL-11 was mediated by enhancing osteoblast production of PGE(2) effects, which were abrogated by an inhibitor of cyclooxygenase. PGE(2) apparently enhanced OCL formation by downregulating GM-CSF production by spleen cells since recombinant murine GM-CSF inhibited OCL formation and a neutralising antibody to murine GM-CSF blocked these inhibitory effects. We conclude that breast cancer cells induce OCL formation by

  5. A low-dose cytarabine, aclarubicin and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor priming regimen versus a daunorubicin plus cytarabine regimen as induction therapy for older patients with acute myeloid leukemia: A propensity score analysis.

    PubMed

    Minakata, Daisuke; Fujiwara, Shin-ichiro; Ito, Shoko; Mashima, Kiyomi; Umino, Kento; Nakano, Hirofumi; Kawasaki, Yasufumi; Sugimoto, Miyuki; Yamasaki, Ryoko; Yamamoto, Chihiro; Ashizawa, Masahiro; Hatano, Kaoru; Okazuka, Kiyoshi; Sato, Kazuya; Oh, Iekuni; Ohmine, Ken; Suzuki, Takahiro; Muroi, Kazuo; Kanda, Yoshinobu

    2016-03-01

    This retrospective analysis compared the efficacy of intensive induction therapy consisting of daunorubicin and cytarabine (DNR-AraC) to that of less-intensive therapy including low-dose cytarabine, aclarubicin and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor priming (CAG). Patients aged 60 years or older who were newly diagnosed as acute myeloid leukemia (AML) were analyzed. Sixty-four and 48 patients were treated with DNR-AraC and CAG, respectively. The complete remission rates, 3-year overall survival and event-free survival in the DNR-AraC group were significantly superior to those in the CAG group (65.6% vs. 29.2%, p<0.001, 38.4% vs. 12.3%, p=0.0033, and 20.3% vs. 7.8%, p=0.0030, respectively), although these differences were not statistically significant in multivariate analyses. Next, we calculated a propensity score for selecting the CAG regimen from six factors. The DNR-AraC regimen was associated with better survival than the CAG regimen in a low propensity score group, but there was no difference in survival between regimens in a high propensity score group. Intensive therapy should be performed for patients with sufficient general and comorbid conditions, but less-intensive therapy may be sufficient for patients with higher age, myelodysplasia-related changes, and lower white blood cell counts, which were relevant factors in the propensity score calculation.

  6. Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor-producing undifferentiated carcinoma of the colon mimicking a pulmonary giant cell carcinoma: a case showing overexpression of CD44 along with highly proliferating nestin-positive tumor vessels.

    PubMed

    Tajima, Shogo; Waki, Michihiko; Tsuchiya, Tomonori; Hoshi, Shoji

    2014-01-01

    Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF)-producing tumors are known for their aggressive behavior. Only four cases of G-CSF-producing colorectal carcinoma have been previously reported. Herein, we present a case of an undifferentiated carcinoma of the descending colon showing G-CSF production and giant cell carcinoma morphology in a 93-year-old woman. A tumor with a diameter of 80 mm was identified in the descending colon via computed tomography. Descending colectomy was performed involving the abdominal wall where tumor invasion was observed. The white blood cell count, which was elevated before resection, decreased to normal levels after intervention. However, local recurrence at the resected site was detected 39 days after surgery. Upon recurrence, increased white blood cell counts and serum G-CSF were seen. The patient died because of respiratory failure 98 days after colectomy. By using immunohistochemistry, G-CSF expression was detected in tumor cells in the resected specimen, along with overexpression of CD44 and highly proliferating nestin-positive tumor vessels. The poor clinical outcome of this patient is consistent with previous reports that the expression of these three molecules predict poor prognosis. While G-CSF can be a therapeutic target considering its auto/paracrine function to induce tumor growth via the G-CSF receptor, CD44 and nestin may also be possible candidate therapeutic targets. Further studies are required to assess the efficacy of treatments targeting these three molecules.

  7. Sequential mutations in the interleukin-3 (IL3)/granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor/IL5 receptor beta-subunit genes are necessary for the complete conversion to growth autonomy mediated by a truncated beta C subunit.

    PubMed

    Hannemann, J; Hara, T; Kawai, M; Miyajima, A; Ostertag, W; Stocking, C

    1995-05-01

    An amino-terminally truncated beta C receptor (beta C-R) subunit of the interleukin-3 (IL3)/granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor/IL5 receptor complex mediates factor-independent and tumorigenic growth in two spontaneous mutants of a promyelocytic cell line. The constitutive activation of the JAK2 protein kinase in these mutants confirms that signaling occurs through the truncated receptor protein. Noteworthily, in addition to a 10-kb deletion in the beta C-R subunit gene encoding the truncated receptor, several secondary and independent mutations that result in the deletion or functional inactivation of the allelic beta C-R subunit and the closely related beta IL3-R subunit genes were observed in both mutants, suggesting that such mutations are necessary for the full oncogenic penetrance of the truncated beta C-R subunit. Reversion of these mutations by the expression of the wild-type beta C-R in the two mutants resulted in a fivefold decrease in cloning efficiency of the mutants in the absence of IL3, confirming a functional interaction between the wild-type and truncated proteins. Furthermore, expression of the truncated beta C-R subunit in factor-dependent myeloid cells did not immediately render the cells autonomous but increased the spontaneous frequency to factor-independent growth by 4 orders of magnitude. Implications for both leukemogenic progression and receptor-subunit interaction and signaling are discussed.

  8. An immunodominant epitope in a functional domain near the N-terminus of human granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor identified by cross-reaction of synthetic peptides with neutralizing anti-protein and anti-peptide antibodies.

    PubMed

    Beffy, P; Rovero, P; Di Bartolo, V; Laricchia Robbio, L; Dané, A; Pegoraro, S; Bertolero, F; Revoltella, R P

    1994-12-01

    We produced polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) against recombinant human (rh) granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) and performed studies of epitope mapping by ELISA, using five synthetic peptides corresponding to sequences along this molecule. Additionally, anti-peptide MAbs were generated. The antibody ability to inhibit rhGM-CSF activity was determined using as bioassay the MO7e cell line, which is dependent on hGM-CSF for growth in vitro. An immunodominant epitope able to induce the highest neutralization antibody titers was identified near the N terminus of hGM-CSF. A synthetic peptide 14-24, homologous to a sequence including part of the first alpha-helix of the molecule, was recognized by neutralizing anti-protein antibodies. Similarly, MAbs anti- 14-24 cross-reacted with rhGM-CSF and specifically blocked its function. Replacement of Val16 or Asn17 with alanine greatly reduced the antibody-binding capacity to peptide 14-24, whereas substitution of Gln20 or Glu21 was less critical. Monoclonal antibodies generated against residues 30-41 (corresponding to an intrahelical loop) and 79-91 (homologous to a sequence including part of the third alpha-helix) or its analog [Ala88](79-91)beta Ala-Cys, were conformation dependent and nonneutralizing: they failed to react or bound poorly to rhGM-CSF in ELISA, but readily recognized the homologous sequence in the denatured protein, by Western blotting.

  9. Effects of macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF) on the development, differentiation, and maturation of marginal metallophilic macrophages and marginal zone macrophages in the spleen of osteopetrosis (op) mutant mice lacking functional M-CSF activity.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, K; Umeda, S; Shultz, L D; Hayashi, S; Nishikawa, S

    1994-05-01

    Immunohistochemical techniques using an anti-mouse panmacrophage monoclonal antibody and anti-mouse monoclonal antibodies specific for marginal metallophilic macrophages or marginal zone macrophages were used to detect red pulp macrophages, marginal metallophilic macrophages, and marginal zone macrophages in the spleen of op/op mice. In the mutant mice, the red pulp macrophages were reduced to about 60% of those in the normal littermates and the marginal metallophilic macrophages and marginal zone macrophages were absent. After administration of recombinant human macrophage colony-stimulating factor (rhM-CSF), numbers of red pulp macrophages increased rapidly, reaching levels found in normal littermates 1 week later. In contrast, the marginal metallophilic macrophages as well as the marginal zone macrophages appeared slowly after rhM-CSF administration and their numbers were less than half of the baseline level of normal littermates even at 12 weeks of administration. The distribution of marginal metallophilic macrophages and marginal zone macrophages appearing after M-CSF administration was irregular in the spleen of the op/op mice. These splenic macrophage subpopulations differed in their responses to rhM-CSF, suggesting that distinct mechanisms may be involved in their development and differentiation. The splenic red pulp macrophages present in unmanipulated op/op mice are an M-CSF-independent macrophage population. Although the marginal metallophilic macrophages and marginal zone macrophages are thought to be M-CSF-dependent, their development and differentiation appear to be influenced by locally produced M-CSF or other cytokines.

  10. Nicotine can skew the characterization of the macrophage type-1 (M{Phi}1) phenotype differentiated with granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor to the M{Phi}2 phenotype

    SciTech Connect

    Yanagita, Manabu; Kobayashi, Ryohei; Murakami, Shinya

    2009-10-09

    Macrophages (M{Phi}s) exhibit functional heterogeneity and plasticity in the local microenvironment. Recently, it was reported that M{Phi}s can be divided into proinflammatory M{Phi}s (M{Phi}1) and anti-inflammatory M{Phi}s (M{Phi}2) based on their polarized functional properties. Here, we report that nicotine, the major ingredient of cigarette smoke, can modulate the characteristics of M{Phi}1. Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor-driven M{Phi}1 with nicotine (Ni-M{Phi}1) showed the phenotypic characteristics of M{Phi}2. Like M{Phi}2, Ni-M{Phi}1 exhibited antigen-uptake activities. Ni-M{Phi}1 suppressed IL-12, but maintained IL-10 and produced high amounts of MCP-1 upon lipopolysaccharide stimulation compared with M{Phi}1. Moreover, we observed strong proliferative responses of T cells to lipopolysaccharide-stimulated M{Phi}1, whereas Ni-M{Phi}1 reduced T cell proliferation and inhibited IFN-{gamma} production by T cells. These results suggest that nicotine can change the functional characteristics of M{Phi} and skew the M{Phi}1 phenotype to M{Phi}2. We propose that nicotine is a potent regulator that modulates immune responses in microenvironments.

  11. Precursor frequency analysis of lymphokine-secreting alloreactive T lymphocytes. Dissociation of subsets producing interleukin 2, macrophage-activating factor, and granulocyte-macrophage colony- stimulating factor on the basis of Lyt-2 phenotype

    PubMed Central

    1982-01-01

    The frequencies of precursors of C57BL/6 T lymphocytes that respond to DBA/2 alloantigens by secreting the lymphokines interleukin 2 (IL-2), macrophage-activating factor (MAF), and granulocyte-macrophage colony- stimulating factor (GM-CSF) have been directly compared with cytolytic T lymphocyte precursor (CTL-P) frequencies in limiting dilution microcultures established from spleen cells positively or negatively selected on the basis of Lyt-2 phenotype. A clear dichotomy was observed between CTL-P, which were contained in the Lyt-2+ fraction, and precursors of IL-2-secreting cells, which were detected almost exclusively in the Lyt-2- population. In contrast, precursors of cells secreting MAF and GM-CSF were found in both populations: almost all responding cells from the Lyt-2- fraction produced both these factors, whereas the precursor frequency of MAF-secreting and GM-CSF-secreting cells was three- to fourfold lower in the Lyt-2+ population. These frequency data were consistent with quantitative differences observed in the average production of these lymphokines by Lyt-2+ and Lyt-2- populations. PMID:6752327

  12. Establishment of a retinoic acid-resistant human acute promyelocytic leukaemia (APL) model in human granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (hGM-CSF) transgenic severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) mice.

    PubMed Central

    Fukuchi, Y.; Kizaki, M.; Kinjo, K.; Awaya, N.; Muto, A.; Ito, M.; Kawai, Y.; Umezawa, A.; Hata, J.; Ueyama, Y.; Ikeda, Y.

    1998-01-01

    To understand the mechanisms and identify novel approaches to overcoming retinoic acid (RA) resistance in acute promyelocytic leukaemia (APL), we established the first human RA-resistant APL model in severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) mice. UF-1 cells, an RA-resistant APL cell line established in our laboratory, were transplanted into human granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF)-producing SCID (hGMTg SCID) mice and inoculated cells formed subcutaneous tumours in all hGMTg SCID mice, but not in the non-transgenic control SCID mice. Single-cell suspensions (UF-1/GMTg SCID cells) were similar in morphological, immunological, cytogenetic and molecular genetic features to parental UF-1 cells. All-trans RA did not change the morphological features of cells or their expression of CD11b. RA did not alter the growth curve of cells as determined by MTT assay, suggesting that UF-1/GMTg SCID cells are resistant to RA. These results demonstrate that this is the first RA-resistant APL animal model that may be useful for investigating the biology of this myeloid leukaemia in vivo, as well as for evaluating novel therapeutic approaches including patients with RA-resistant APL. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:9764578

  13. Nerve growth factor and brain-derived neurotrophic factor but not granulocyte colony-stimulating factor, nimodipine and dizocilpine, require ATP for neuroprotective activity after oxygen-glucose deprivation of primary neurons.

    PubMed

    Ferenz, Katja B; Gast, Ronald E; Rose, Karsten; Finger, Indra E; Hasche, Anja; Krieglstein, Josef

    2012-04-11

    In previous work, we have demonstrated by radiolabeling, mass spectrometry and site-directed mutagenesis that nerve growth factor (NGF) as well as brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2) are capable of ATP-binding and that this binding appears to be essential for their neuroprotective activity. In this study, we attempted to shed some light on the question whether ATP is a general prerequisite for neuroprotection. Therefore, we used the non-ATP-binding granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (GCSF), the calcium antagonist nimodipine and the NMDA antagonist dizocilpine to find out whether they need ATP for neuroprotection comparable to NGF and BDNF. However, ATP was not necessary for the neuroprotective effects of GCSF, nimodipine and dizocilpine on primary cultures of rat cortical neurons damaged by oxygen-glucose deprivation whereas neuroprotection was demonstrable for NGF and BDNF only when ATP was present in the culture medium at a concentration higher than ca. 0.4nmol/l. In circular dichroism studies ATP caused changes of the secondary structure of NGF but not of GCSF. Taken together, we suggest that ATP is not a general prerequisite for neuroprotectivity but some growth factors like NGF and BDNF can stimulate their receptors only if they have bound ATP.

  14. Randomized study of granulocyte colony stimulating factor for childhood B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma: a report from the Japanese pediatric leukemia/lymphoma study group B-NHL03 study.

    PubMed

    Tsurusawa, Masahito; Watanabe, Tomoyuki; Gosho, Masahiko; Mori, Tetsuya; Mitsui, Tetsuo; Sunami, Shosuke; Kobayashi, Ryoji; Fukano, Reiji; Tanaka, Fumiko; Fujita, Naoto; Inada, Hiroko; Sekimizu, Masahiro; Koh, Katsuyoshi; Kosaka, Yoshiyuki; Komada, Yoshihiro; Saito, Akiko M; Nakazawa, Atsuko; Horibe, Keizo

    2016-07-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the impact of the primary prophylaxis of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) in the management of childhood B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma (B-NHL). Patients with advanced-stage mature B-NHL were randomized to receive prophylactic G-CSF (G-CSF+) or not receive G-CSF (G-CSF-) based on protocols of the B-NHL03 study. The G-CSF group received 5 μg/kg/d Lenograstim from day 2 after each course of six chemotherapy courses. Fifty-eight patients were assessable, 29 G-CSF + and 29 G-CSF-. G-CSF + patients showed a positive impact on the meantime to neutrophil recovery and hospital stay. On the other hand, they had no impact in the incidences of febrile neutropenia, serious infections, stomatitis and total cost. Our study showed that administration of prophylactic G-CSF through all six chemotherapy courses for childhood B-NHL showed no clinical and economic benefits for the management of childhood B-NHL treatment.

  15. Impaired tumor growth in colony-stimulating factor 1 (CSF-1)-deficient, macrophage-deficient op/op mouse: evidence for a role of CSF-1-dependent macrophages in formation of tumor stroma.

    PubMed

    Nowicki, A; Szenajch, J; Ostrowska, G; Wojtowicz, A; Wojtowicz, K; Kruszewski, A A; Maruszynski, M; Aukerman, S L; Wiktor-Jedrzejczak, W

    1996-01-03

    Macrophages have been suggested to play a major role in the immune response to cancer. They have also been suggested to stimulate the formation of tumor stroma and to promote tumor vascularization. The availability of the op/op mouse, which has no endogenous colony-stimulating factor 1 (CSF-1) and which possesses a profound macrophage deficiency, provides a new model to verify these notions. Subcutaneous growth of transplantable Lewis lung cancer (LLC) is markedly impaired in the op/op mice compared with normal littermates. Treatment of tumor-bearing op/op mice with human recombinant CSF-1 corrects this impairment. Histological analysis of tumors grown in op/op and normal mice revealed marked differences. Tumors grown in op/op mice display a decreased mitotic index and pronounced necrosis, particularly hemorrhagic. Moreover, particularly in the op/op tumors, peculiar sinusoid-like abortive vessels (not filled with blood) have been observed. These tumors, in contrast to tumors grown in normal mice, are almost deprived of regular arteries and veins. In contrast to tumors grown in normal mice, they exhibit almost no Sirius red-stained collagenous fibers and Gomori silver-stained reticular fibers. Our data suggest that the CSF-1-dependent macrophage subpopulation missing in op/op mice plays a primary role in supporting tumor stroma formation and tumor vascularization in murine LLC tumors.

  16. Effect of Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor-Combined Conditioning in Cord Blood Transplantation for Myelodysplastic Syndrome and Secondary Acute Myeloid Leukemia: A Retrospective Study in Japan.

    PubMed

    Konuma, Takaaki; Takahashi, Satoshi; Uchida, Naoyuki; Kuwatsuka, Yachiyo; Yamasaki, Satoshi; Aoki, Jun; Onishi, Yasushi; Aotsuka, Nobuyuki; Ohashi, Kazuteru; Mori, Takehiko; Masuko, Masayoshi; Nakamae, Hirohisa; Miyamura, Kouichi; Kato, Koji; Atsuta, Yoshiko; Kato, Seiko; Asano, Shigetaka; Takami, Akiyoshi; Miyazaki, Yasushi

    2015-09-01

    Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) increases the susceptibility of dormant malignant or nonmalignant hematopoietic cells to cytarabine arabinoside (Ara-C) through the induction of cell cycle entry. Therefore, G-CSF-combined conditioning before allogeneic stem cell transplantation might positively contribute to decreased incidences of relapse and graft failure without having to increase the dose of cytotoxic drugs. We conducted a retrospective nationwide study of 336 adult patients with myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) and secondary acute myeloid leukemia (sAML) after single-unit cord blood transplantation (CBT) who underwent 4 different kinds of conditioning regimens: total body irradiation (TBI) ≥ 8 Gy + Ara-C/G-CSF + cyclophosphamide (CY) (n = 65), TBI ≥ 8 Gy + Ara-C + CY (n = 119), TBI ≥ 8 Gy + other (n = 104), or TBI < 8 Gy or non-TBI (n = 48). The TBI ≥ 8 Gy + Ara-C/G-CSF + CY regimen showed significantly higher incidence of neutrophil engraftment (hazard ratio, 1.52; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.10 to 2.08; P = .009) and lower overall mortality (hazard ratio, .46; 95% CI, .26 to .82; P = .008) rates compared with those without a G-CSF regimen. This retrospective study shows that the G-CSF-combined conditioning regimen provides better engraftment and survival results in CBT for adults with MDS and sAML.

  17. Role of Serum Amyloid A, Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor, and Bone Marrow Granulocyte-Monocyte Precursor Expansion in Segmented Filamentous Bacterium-Mediated Protection from Entamoeba histolytica

    PubMed Central

    Burgess, Stacey L.; Saleh, Mahmoud; Cowardin, Carrie A.; Buonomo, Erica; Noor, Zannatun; Watanabe, Koji; Abhyankar, Mayuresh; Lajoie, Stephane; Wills-Karp, Marsha

    2016-01-01

    Intestinal segmented filamentous bacteria (SFB) protect from ameba infection, and protection is transferable with bone marrow dendritic cells (BMDCs). SFB cause an increase in serum amyloid A (SAA), suggesting that SAA might mediate SFB's effects on BMDCs. Here we further explored the role of bone marrow in SFB-mediated protection. Transient gut colonization with SFB or SAA administration alone transiently increased the H3K27 histone demethylase Jmjd3, persistently increased bone marrow Csf2ra expression and granulocyte monocyte precursors (GMPs), and protected from ameba infection. Pharmacologic inhibition of Jmjd3 H3K27 demethylase activity during SAA treatment or blockade of granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) signaling in SFB-colonized mice prevented GMP expansion, decreased gut neutrophils, and blocked protection from ameba infection. These results indicate that alteration of the microbiota and systemic exposure to SAA can influence myelopoiesis and susceptibility to amebiasis via epigenetic mechanisms. Gut microbiota-marrow communication is a previously unrecognized mechanism of innate protection from infection. PMID:27456830

  18. Stability-indicating capillary zone electrophoresis method for the assessment of recombinant human granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor and its correlation with reversed-phase liquid chromatography method and bioassay.

    PubMed

    Dalmora, Sergio Luiz; Butzge, Cairo dos Santos; Machado, Francine Trevisan; Walter, Maurício Elesbão; Dalmora, Maria Elisabeth de Ávila; Souto, Ricardo Bizogne

    2012-05-30

    A stability-indicating capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE) method was validated for the analysis of granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (rhGM-CSF) using leuprorelin acetate (LA), as internal standard (IS). A fused-silica capillary (75 μm i.d.; effective length, 72 cm) was used at 25 °C; the applied voltage was 12 kV. The background electrolyte solution consisted of 50mM di-sodium hydrogen phosphate solution at pH 8.8. Injections were performed using a pressure mode at 50 mbar for 9s, with detection by photodiode array detector set at 200 nm. Specificity and stability-indicating capability were established in degradation studies, which also showed that there was no interference of the excipients. The method was linear over the concentration range of 2.5-200 μg mL(-1) (r(2)=0.9995) and the limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantitation (LOQ) were 0.79 μg mL(-1) and 2.5 μg mL(-1), respectively. The accuracy was 99.14% with bias lower than 1.40%. The method was applied to the quantitative analysis of biopharmaceutical formulations, and the results were correlated to those of a validated reversed-phase LC method (RP-LC), and an in vitro bioassay, showing non-significant differences (p>0.05).

  19. Targeting myeloid-derived suppressor cells with colony stimulating factor-1 receptor blockade can reverse immune resistance to immunotherapy in indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase-expressing tumors

    PubMed Central

    Holmgaard, Rikke B.; Zamarin, Dmitriy; Lesokhin, Alexander; Merghoub, Taha; Wolchok, Jedd D.

    2016-01-01

    Tumor indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) promotes immunosuppression by direct action on effector T cells and Tregs and through recruitment, expansion and activation of myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs). Targeting of MDSCs is clinically being explored as a therapeutic strategy, though optimal targeting strategies and biomarkers predictive of response are presently unknown. Maturation and tumor recruitment of MDSCs are dependent on signaling through the receptor tyrosine kinase CSF-1R on myeloid cells. Here, we show that MDSCs are the critical cell population in IDO-expressing B16 tumors in mediating accelerated tumor outgrowth and resistance to immunotherapy. Using a clinically relevant drug, we show that inhibition of CSF-1R signaling can functionally block tumor-infiltrating MDSCs and enhance anti-tumor T cell responses. Furthermore, inhibition of CSF-1R sensitizes IDO-expressing tumors to immunotherapy with T cell checkpoint blockade, and combination of CSF-1R blockade with IDO inhibitors potently elicits tumor regression. These findings provide evidence for a critical and functional role for MDSCs on the in vivo outcome of IDO-expressing tumors. PMID:27211548

  20. Early risk prognosis of free-flap transplant failure by quantitation of the macrophage colony-stimulating factor in patient plasma using 2-dimensional liquid-chromatography multiple reaction monitoring-mass spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Jingzhi; Finke, Juliane C.; Yang, Juncong; Percy, Andrew J.; von Fritschen, Uwe; Borchers, Christoph H.; Glocker, Michael O.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Although great success of microvascular free-flap transplantation surgery has been achieved in recent years, between 1.5% and 15% of flaps are still lost due to vascular occlusion. The clinical challenge remains to salvage a transplant in the case of vascular complications. Since flap loss is devastating for the patient, it is of utmost importance to detect signs of complications or of conspicuities as soon as possible. Rescue success rates highly depend on early revision. In this study, we collected blood samples during transplantation surgery from either the contributory artery or the effluent vein of the flap and applied a targeted mass spectrometry-based approach to quantify 24 acute phase proteins, cytokines, and growth factors in 63 plasma samples from 21 hospitalized patients, generating a dataset with 9450 protein concentration values. Biostatistical analyses of the targeted plasma protein concentrations in all 63 plasma samples showed that venous concentrations of macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF) provided the highest accuracy for discriminating patients with either clinical conspicuities or complications from control individuals. Using 21.33 ng/mL of M-CSF as the diagnostic threshold when analyzing venous blood plasma samples, the assay obtained a sensitivity of 0.93 and a specificity of 0.85 with an area under the curve value of 0.902 in the receiver operating characteristic analysis. Overall, our results indicate that M-CSF is a potential molecular marker for early risk prognosis of free-flap transplant failure. PMID:27684807

  1. Septoclast Deficiency Accompanies Postnatal Growth Plate Chondrodysplasia in the Toothless (tl) Osteopetrotic, Colony-Stimulating Factor-1 (CSF-1)-Deficient Rat and Is Partially Responsive to CSF-1 Injections

    PubMed Central

    Gartland, Alison; Mason-Savas, April; Yang, Meiheng; MacKay, Carole A.; Birnbaum, Mark J.; Odgren, Paul R.

    2009-01-01

    The septoclast is a specialized, cathepsin B-rich, perivascular cell type that accompanies invading capillaries on the metaphyseal side of the growth plate during endochondral bone growth. The putative role of septoclasts is to break down the terminal transverse septum of growth plate cartilage and permit capillaries to bud into the lower hypertrophic zone. This process fails in osteoclast-deficient, osteopetrotic animal models, resulting in a progressive growth plate dysplasia. The toothless rat is severely osteopetrotic because of a frameshift mutation in the colony-stimulating factor-1 (CSF-1) gene (Csf1tl). Whereas CSF-1 injections quickly restore endosteal osteoclast populations, they do not improve the chondrodysplasia. We therefore investigated septoclast populations in Csf1tl/Csf1tl rats and wild-type littermates, with and without CSF-1 treatment, at 2 weeks, before the dysplasia is pronounced, and at 4 weeks, by which time it is severe. Tibial sections were immunolabeled for cathepsin B and septoclasts were counted. Csf1tl/Csf1tl mutants had significant reductions in septoclasts at both times, although they were more pronounced at 4 weeks. CSF-1 injections increased counts in wild-type and mutant animals at both times, restoring mutants to normal levels at 2 weeks. In all of the mutants, septoclasts seemed misoriented and had abnormal ultrastructure. We conclude that CSF-1 promotes angiogenesis at the chondroosseous junction, but that, in Csf1tl/Csf1tl rats, septoclasts are unable to direct their degradative activity appropriately, implying a capillary guidance role for locally supplied CSF-1. PMID:19893052

  2. Pharmacological administration of granulocyte/macrophage-colony-stimulating factor is of significant importance for the induction of a strong humoral and cellular response in patients immunized with recombinant carcinoembryonic antigen.

    PubMed

    Samanci, A; Yi, Q; Fagerberg, J; Strigård, K; Smith, G; Rudén, U; Wahren, B; Mellstedt, H

    1998-11-01

    Eighteen colorectal carcinoma patients without macroscopic disease after surgery were immunized using recombinant (r) human (h) carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) with (n=9) or without (n=9) the addition of soluble granulocyte/macrophage-colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF). The dose of rhCEA per immunization was 100 microg (n=6), 316 microg (n=6) or 1000 microg (n=6). rhCEA was given s.c. on day 1 and 80 microg/day of GM-CSF s.c. on days 1-4. The schedule was repeated six times during a period of 9 months. All patients in the GM-CSF group developed a strong rhCEA-dose-dependent IgG antibody response while only one-third of the non-GM-CSF patients mounted a weak antibody response. All patients (9/9) in the GM-CSF group developed a strong rhCEA-specific proliferative T cell response as well as type I T cells (interferon gamma secretion). In 45% of the patients also a weak type II T cell response (interleukin-4 secretion) was evoked. Both MHC-class-I- and -II restricted rhCEA-specific T cells were noted. A specific cellular response (proliferation and/or cytokine secretion) against native hCEA could be found in 8/9 patients in the GM-CSF group, although at a significantly lower level than against rhCEA. In the non-GM-CSF group a weak rhCEA-specific T cell response was induced. Three patients had a proliferative response, 4 patients type I T cells and 6 patients type II T cells. No signs of autoimmune reactions were noted. Local pharmacological administration of GM-CSF seemed to be a prerequisite for the induction of a strong immunity against baculovirus-produced hCEA protein. However, the cellular response against native CEA was of a significantly lower magnitude.

  3. Increasing aclarubicin dosage of the conventional CAG (low-dose cytarabine and aclarubicin in combination with granulocyte colony-stimulating factor) regimen is more efficacious as a salvage therapy than CAG for relapsed/refractory acute myeloid leukemia.

    PubMed

    Qu, Qi; Liu, Limin; Zhang, Yanming; Li, Xiaoli; Wu, Depei

    2015-12-01

    The efficacy and safety of a modified CAG (low-dose cytarabine and aclarubicin in combination with granulocyte colony-stimulating factor) regimen with an increased aclarubicin dosage [high-dose (HD)-CAG] were observed in 145 patients with relapsed/refractory (R/R) acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and compared to the results of 172 patients treated with a conventional CAG regimen. The HD-CAG regimen showed both a higher complete remission (CR) rate (60.7% vs. 46.5%, P=0.013) and overall response (OR) rate (74.5% vs. 63.4%, P=0.039) than CAG. For patients aged <60 years, HD-CAG manifested an efficacy advantage over the CAG regimen (62.6% vs. 47.4%, P=0.015). The 4-year overall survival (OS) rate was 30.3%±13.2% with a median survival time of 19.0±5.4 months for patients re-induced with the HD-CAG regimen, which showed no significant difference compared to the CAG regimen (with a 4-year OS rate of 18.2%±5.3% and a median survival time of 16.0±3.6 months, P=0.485). The main adverse effect was myelosuppression; platelet recovery over 50×10(9)/L was extended by the HD-CAG regimen (15 days vs. 10 days of the CAG regimen, P=0.003), which was tolerable and manageable. HD-CAG can safely improve efficacy compared to the CAG regimen and thus serves as an alternative treatment for R/R AML.

  4. trans activation of granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor and the interleukin-2 receptor in transgenic mice carrying the human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 tax gene.

    PubMed

    Green, J E; Begley, C G; Wagner, D K; Waldmann, T A; Jay, G

    1989-11-01

    Three lines of transgenic mice carrying the human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 tax gene have previously been reported to develop neurofibromas composed of perineural fibroblasts (S. H. Hinrichs, M. Nerenberg, R. K. Reynolds, G. Khoury, and G. Jay, Science 237:1340-1343, 1987; M. Nerenberg, S. H. Hinrichs, R. K. Reynolds, G. Khoury, and G. Jay, Science 237:1324-1329, 1987). Tumors from these mice and tumor cell lines derived from them expressed high levels of tax RNA and protein. They also expressed high levels of the granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) gene as measured by proliferative responses of FD-CP1 target cells using conditioned media from tumor cells and by Northern (RNA) blot analysis of RNA from tumors and tumor cell lines. Although other tissues, such as salivary glands and muscles, in the transgenic mice also expressed high levels of tax, they did not express the gene for GM-CSF. This indicates that tissue-specific cellular factors, in addition to tax, are required for GM-CSF gene expression. Systemic effects of excessive GM-CSF production were demonstrated by infiltration of polymorphonuclear leukocytes into tumor tissues which are not necrotic, by peripheral granulocytosis, and by splenomegaly resulting from myeloid hyperplasia. The interleukin-2 (IL-2) receptor was also found to be expressed by the tumors and tumor cell lines as measured by IL-2-binding and cross-linking studies. This is the first demonstration that the IL-2 receptor can be activated by tax in a nonlymphoid cell type. These in vivo findings are consistent with other reports which have demonstrated in vitro cis-regulatory elements within the 5'-flanking regions of the genes for GM-CSF and the IL-2 receptor which are responsive to trans activation by the tax gene.

  5. Late reperfusion of a totally occluded infarct-related artery increases granulocyte-colony stimulation factor and reduces stroma-derived factor-1alpha blood levels in patients with ongoing ischemia after acute myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Li-Tang; Chen, Shih-Jen; Cherng, Wen-Jin; Yang, Ning-I; Lee, Chen-Chin; Cheng, Chi-Wen; Verma, Subodh; Wang, Chao-Hung

    2009-07-01

    After acute myocardial infarction (AMI), reopening of a totally occluded infarct-related artery (IRA) at a subacute stage is still controversial in symptom-free patients. However, in patients with persistent ischemic symptoms and inadequate collaterals to the infarct area, recanalization is thought to provide beneficial effects. In addition to augmenting myocardial perfusion, we hypothesized that the benefit of recanalization involves the manipulation of circulating stem cell-mobilizing cytokines. This study included 30 patients with a totally occluded IRA and ongoing ischemic symptoms (the study group) and 30 patients with a partially occluded IRA (the control group). All patients underwent successful angioplasty and/or stenting. Before and immediately after the coronary intervention, blood granulocyte-colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF), stem-cell factor (SCF), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and stroma-derived factor-1 (SDF-1alpha) were measured. After recanalization, G-CSF levels significantly increased in the study group compared to the control group (P=0.03). SDF-1alpha levels in the study group decreased relative to the controls (P=0.02). However, no significant changes in VEGF or SCF levels between the two groups were found. In the multivariate analysis, reopening of a totally occluded IRA was independently and significantly associated with changes in G-CSF and SDF-1alpha levels after recanalization. In conclusion, our data suggest that the benefits of late reperfusion of a totally occluded IRA in patients with ongoing myocardial ischemia may involve mechanisms associated with stem cell-mobilizing and plaque-stabilizing cytokines. This study provides the rationale to investigate serial changes in cytokines and the numbers of circulating progenitors after reperfusion in the future.

  6. DT388-GM-CSF, a novel fusion toxin consisting of a truncated diphtheria toxin fused to human granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor, prolongs host survival in a SCID mouse model of acute myeloid leukemia.

    PubMed

    Hall, P D; Willingham, M C; Kreitman, R J; Frankel, A E

    1999-04-01

    Despite significant advances in the treatment of acute myeloid leukemia (AML), the majority of patients will succumb to drug-resistant AML. To overcome this resistance, we have developed a novel fusion toxin consisting of the catalytic and translocation subunits of diphtheria toxin (DT388) linked to human granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF). In vitro, DT388-GM-CSF demonstrated significant activity against numerous AML cell lines and fresh AML blasts. To determine its in vivo efficacy, we developed an in vivo model of human AML in severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) mice injected intravenously with 1 x 10(7) HL-60 cells (AML-M2 cell line). The SCID mice developed abdominal masses, infiltration of the liver and bone marrow, and peripheral blasts with a median survival of 42.5 days. We tested DT388-GM-CSF, ara-C, human GM-CSF, and DAB389IL-2, which were injected intraperitoneally on days 2-6 in this model. DT3-GM-CSF significantly improved survival of the SCID mice over Ara-C, DAB389IL-2, or control (P < 0.001). DT388-GM-CSF-treated mice who developed leukemia exhibited no difference in the number of GM-CSF receptors (P = 0.39), ligand affinity (P = 0.77), or sensitivity (P = 0.56) to DT388-GM-CSF as compared to the controls. Frank leukemia in DT388-GM-CSF-treated mice may be due to incomplete penetration of drug into tissues rather than cellular resistance. DT388-GM-CSF is an active therapeutic agent in our SCID mouse model of AML with a unique mechanism of action and differing toxicities than current cytotoxic agents.

  7. The impact of concurrent granulocyte macrophage-colony stimulating factor on radiation-induced mucositis in head and neck cancer patients: A double-blind placebo-controlled prospective Phase III study by Radiation Therapy Oncology Group 9901

    SciTech Connect

    Ryu, Janice K. . E-mail: janice.ryu@ucdmc.ucdavis.edu; Swann, Suzanne; LeVeque, Francis; Johnson, Darlene J.; Chen, Allan; Fortin, Andre; Kim, Harold; Ang, Kian K.

    2007-03-01

    Purpose: Based on early clinical evidence of potential mucosal protection by granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF), the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group conducted a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized study to test the efficacy and safety of GM-CSF in reducing the severity and duration of mucosal injury and pain (mucositis) associated with curative radiotherapy (RT) in head-and-neck cancer patients. Methods and Materials: Eligible patients included those with head-and-neck cancer with radiation ports encompassing >50% of oral cavity and/or oropharynx. Standard RT ports were used to cover the primary tumor and regional lymphatics at risk in standard fractionation to 60-70 Gy. Concurrent cisplatin chemotherapy was allowed. Patients were randomized to receive subcutaneous injection of GM-CSF 250 {mu}g/m{sup 2} or placebo 3 times a week. Mucosal reaction was assessed during the course of RT using the National Cancer Institute Common Toxicity Criteria and the protocol-specific scoring system. Results: Between October 2000 and September 2002, 130 patients from 36 institutions were accrued. Nine patients (7%) were excluded from the analysis, 3 as a result of drug unavailability. More than 80% of the patients participated in the quality-of-life endpoint of this study. The GM-CSF did not cause any increase in toxicity compared with placebo. There was no statistically significant difference in the average mean mucositis score in the GM-CSF and placebo arms by a t test (p = 0.4006). Conclusion: This placebo-controlled, randomized study demonstrated no significant effect of GM-CSF given concurrently compared with placebo in reducing the severity or duration of RT-induced mucositis in patients undergoing definitive RT for head-and-neck cancer.

  8. PyNTTTTGT and CpG Immunostimulatory Oligonucleotides: Effect on Granulocyte/Monocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor (GM-CSF) Secretion by Human CD56+ (NK and NKT) Cells

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez, Juan M.; Marchicio, José; López, Mariela; Ziblat, Andrea; Elias, Fernanda; Fló, Juan; López, Ricardo A.; Horn, David; Zorzopulos, Jorge; Montaner, Alejandro D.

    2015-01-01

    CD56+ cells have been recognized as being involved in bridging the innate and acquired immune systems. Herein, we assessed the effect of two major classes of immunostimulatory oligonucleotides (ODNs), PyNTTTTGT and CpG, on CD56+ cells. Incubation of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (hPBMC) with some of these ODNs led to secretion of significant amounts of interferon gamma (IFN-γ), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and granulocyte/monocyte colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), but only if interleukin 2 (IL2) was present. IMT504, the prototype of the PyNTTTTGT ODN class, was the most active. GM-CSF secretion was very efficient when non-CpG ODNs with high T content and PyNTTTTGT motifs lacking CpGs were used. On the other hand, CpG ODNs and IFNα inhibited this GM-CSF secretion. Selective cell type removal from hPBMC indicated that CD56+ cells were responsible for GM-CSF secretion and that plasmacytoid dendritic cells (PDCs) regulate this process. In addition, PyNTTTTGT ODNs inhibited the IFNα secretion induced by CpG ODNs in PDCs by interference with the TLR9 signaling pathway. Since IFNα is essential for CD56+ stimulation by CpG ODNs, there is a reciprocal interference of CpG and PyNTTTTGT ODNs when acting on this cell population. This suggests that these synthetic ODNs mimic different natural alarm signals for activation of the immune system. PMID:25706946

  9. Hydrogen/deuterium exchange and mass spectrometric analysis of a protein containing multiple disulfide bonds: Solution structure of recombinant macrophage colony stimulating factor-beta (rhM-CSFbeta).

    PubMed

    Yan, Xuguang; Zhang, Heidi; Watson, Jeffrey; Schimerlik, Michael I; Deinzer, Max L

    2002-09-01

    Studies with the homodimeric recombinant human macrophage colony-stimulating factor beta (rhM-CSFbeta), show for the first time that a large number (9) of disulfide linkages can be reduced after amide hydrogen/deuterium (H/D) exchange, and the protein digested and analyzed successfully for the isotopic composition by electrospray mass spectrometry. Analysis of amide H/D after exchange-in shows that in solution the conserved four-helix bundle of (rhM-CSFbeta) has fast and moderately fast exchangeable sections of amide hydrogens in the alphaA helix, and mostly slow exchanging sections of amide hydrogens in the alphaB, alphaC, and alphaD helices. Most of the amide hydrogens in the loop between the beta1 and beta4 sheets exhibited fast or moderately fast exchange, whereas in the amino acid 63-67 loop, located at the interface of the two subunits, the exchange was slow. Solvent accessibility as measured by H/D exchange showed a better correlation with the average depth of amide residues calculated from reported X-ray crystallographic data for rhM-CSFalpha than with the average B-factor. The rates of H/D exchange in rhM-CSFbeta appear to correlate well with the exposed surface calculated for each amino acid residue in the crystal structure except for the alphaD helix. Fast hydrogen isotope exchange throughout the segment amino acids 150-221 present in rhM-CSFbeta, but not rhM-CSFalpha, provides evidence that the carboxy-terminal region is unstructured. It is, therefore, proposed that the anomalous behavior of the alphaD helix is due to interaction of the carboxy-terminal tail with this helical segment.

  10. Influence of Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor or Influenza Vaccination on HLA-DR, Infection and Delirium Days in Immunosuppressed Surgical Patients: Double Blind, Randomised Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Lachmann, Gunnar; Renius, Markus; von Haefen, Clarissa; Wernecke, Klaus-Dieter; Bahra, Marcus; Schiemann, Alexander; Paupers, Marco; Meisel, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Surgical patients are at high risk for developing infectious complications and postoperative delirium. Prolonged infections and delirium result in worse outcome. Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) and influenza vaccination are known to increase HLA-DR on monocytes and improve immune reactivity. This study aimed to investigate whether GM-CSF or vaccination reverses monocyte deactivation. Secondary aims were whether it decreases infection and delirium days after esophageal or pancreatic resection over time. Methods In this prospective, randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, double dummy trial setting on an interdisciplinary ICU of a university hospital 61 patients with immunosuppression (monocytic HLA-DR [mHLA-DR] <10,000 monoclonal antibodies [mAb] per cell) on the first day after esophageal or pancreatic resection were treated with either GM-CSF (250 μg/m2/d), influenza vaccination (Mutagrip 0.5 ml/d) or placebo for a maximum of 3 consecutive days if mHLA-DR remained below 10,000 mAb per cell. HLA-DR on monocytes was measured daily until day 5 after surgery. Infections and delirium were followed up for 9 days after surgery. Primary outcome was HLA-DR on monocytes, and secondary outcomes were duration of infection and delirium. Results mHLA-DR was significantly increased compared to placebo (p < 0.001) and influenza vaccination (p < 0.001) on the second postoperative day. Compared with placebo, GM-CSF-treated patients revealed shorter duration of infection (p < 0.001); the duration of delirium was increased after vaccination (p = 0.003). Conclusion Treatment with GM-CSF in patients with postoperative immune suppression was safe and effective in restoring monocytic immune competence. Furthermore, therapy with GM-CSF reduced duration of infection in immune compromised patients. However, influenza vaccination increased duration of delirium after major surgery. Trial Registration www.controlled-trials.com ISRCTN27114642 PMID

  11. Persistent Activation of Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases p42 and p44 and ets-2 Phosphorylation in Response to Colony-Stimulating Factor 1/c-fms Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Fowles, Lindsay F.; Martin, Michele L.; Nelsen, Lori; Stacey, Katryn J.; Redd, Douglas; Clark, Ying Mei; Nagamine, Yoshikune; McMahon, Martin; Hume, David A.; Ostrowski, Michael C.

    1998-01-01

    An antibody that specifically recognized phosphothreonine 72 in ets-2 was used to determine the phosphorylation status of endogenous ets-2 in response to colony-stimulating factor 1 (CSF-1)/c-fms signaling. Phosphorylation of ets-2 was detected in primary macrophages, cells that normally express c-fms, and in fibroblasts engineered to express human c-fms. In the former cells, ets-2 was a CSF-1 immediate-early response gene, and phosphorylated ets-2 was detected after 2 to 4 h, coincident with expression of ets-2 protein. In fibroblasts, ets-2 was constitutively expressed and rapidly became phosphorylated in response to CSF-1. In both cell systems, ets-2 phosphorylation was persistent, with maximal phosphorylation detected 8 to 24 h after CSF-1 stimulation, and was correlated with activation of the CSF-1 target urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA) gene. Kinase assays that used recombinant ets-2 protein as a substrate demonstrated that mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases p42 and p44 were constitutively activated in both cell types in response to CSF-1. Immune depletion experiments and the use of the MAP kinase kinase inhibitor PD98059 indicate that these two MAP kinases are the major ets-2 kinases activated in response to CSF-1/c-fms signaling. In the macrophage cell line RAW264, conditional expression of raf kinase induced ets-2 expression and phosphorylation, as well as uPA mRNA expression. Transient assays mapped ets/AP-1 response elements as critical for basal and CSF-1-stimulated uPA reporter gene activity. These results indicate that persistent activation of the raf/MAP kinase pathway by CSF-1 is necessary for both ets-2 expression and posttranslational activation in macrophages. PMID:9710599

  12. Proteolytic enzyme levels are increased during granulocyte colony-stimulating factor-induced hematopoietic stem cell mobilization in human donors but do not predict the number of mobilized stem cells.

    PubMed

    van Os, R; van Schie, M L J; Willemze, R; Fibbe, W E

    2002-06-01

    Previous studies from our laboratory indicate that functional, mature neutrophils are essential for interleukin-8 (IL-8)-induced stem cell mobilization. To study a possible role of neutrophils in granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) induced hematopoietic mobilization, we assessed the number of circulating CD34+ cells in healthy allogeneic stem cell donors on days 3, 4, and 5 of mobilization for comparison with the number of peripheral blood neutrophils and the plasma levels of IL-8, Flt3 ligand (FL), matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9), and human neutrophil elastase (HNE). Thirty-seven of 45 donors required 1 day of apheresis to obtain 5 x 10(6) CD34+/kg recipient body weight (high responders), the remaining 8 donors required 1 extra day of apheresis on day 6 (low responders). On day 5, CD34+ numbers in the blood were significantly highe in high responders (116 x 10(3) +/- 10.4/ml) than in low responders (54.1 x 10(3) +/- 10.3, p < 0.001). In all donors, MMP-9 and HNE levels were increased compared to nonmobilized individuals, but in high responders, plasma MMP-9 levels on days 3-5 of mobilization were substantially higher than in low responders (p < or = 0.02 for MMP-9 and p = 0.89, p = 0.05 and p = 0.52 for HNE on days 3, 4, and 5, respectively). These results are in accordance with the hypothesis that neutrophils play a role in G-CSF-induced mobilization through the release of proteases such as MMP-9 and elastase. No change in plasma levels of IL-8 or Flt3 ligand was observed, suggesting that these cytokines do not play a role in stem cell mobilization. However, because stem cell numbers could not be predicted by proteolytic enzyme levels and/or neutrophil numbers, other undefined factors may be more important.

  13. Propofol pretreatment attenuates LPS-induced granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor production in cultured hepatocytes by suppressing MAPK/ERK activity and NF-{kappa}B translocation

    SciTech Connect

    Jawan, Bruno; Kao, Y.-H.; Goto, Shigeru; Pan, M.-C.; Lin, Y.-C.; Hsu, L.-W.; Nakano, Toshiaki; Lai, C.-Y.; Sun, C.-K.; Cheng, Y.-F.; Tai, M.-H.

    2008-06-15

    Propofol (PPF), a widely used intravenous anesthetic for induction and maintenance of anesthesia during surgeries, was found to possess suppressive effect on host immunity. This study aimed at investigating whether PPF plays a modulatory role in the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammatory cytokine expression in a cell line of rat hepatocytes. Morphological observation and viability assay showed that PPF exhibits no cytotoxicity at concentrations up to 300 {mu}M after 48 h incubation. Pretreatment with 100 {mu}M PPF for 24 h prior to LPS stimulation was performed to investigate the modulatory effect on LPS-induced inflammatory gene production. The results of semi-quantitative RT-PCR demonstrated that PPF pretreatment significantly suppressed the LPS-induced toll-like receptor (TLR)-4, CD14, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-{alpha}, and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) gene expression. Western blotting analysis showed that PPF pretreatment potentiated the LPS-induced TLR-4 downregulation. Flow cytometrical analysis revealed that PPF pretreatment showed no modulatory effect on the LPS-upregulated CD14 expression on hepatocytes. In addition, PPF pretreatment attenuated the phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinase/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (MAPK/ERK) and I{kappa}B{alpha}, as well as the nuclear translocation of NF-{kappa}B primed by LPS. Moreover, addition of PD98059, a MAPK kinase inhibitor, significantly suppressed the LPS-induced NF-{kappa}B nuclear translocation and GM-CSF production, suggesting that the PPF-attenuated GM-CSF production in hepatocytes may be attributed to its suppressive effect on MAPK/ERK signaling pathway. In conclusion, PPF as an anesthetic may clinically benefit those patients who are vulnerable to sepsis by alleviating sepsis-related inflammatory response in livers.

  14. Efficacy and safety of talimogene laherparepvec versus granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor in patients with stage IIIB/C and IVM1a melanoma: subanalysis of the Phase III OPTiM trial

    PubMed Central

    Harrington, Kevin J; Andtbacka, Robert HI; Collichio, Frances; Downey, Gerald; Chen, Lisa; Szabo, Zsolt; Kaufman, Howard L

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Talimogene laherparepvec is the first oncolytic immunotherapy to receive approval in Europe, the USA and Australia. In the randomized, open-label Phase III OPTiM trial (NCT00769704), talimogene laherparepvec significantly improved durable response rate (DRR) versus granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) in 436 patients with unresectable stage IIIB–IVM1c melanoma. The median overall survival (OS) was longer versus GM-CSF in patients with earlier-stage melanoma (IIIB–IVM1a). Here, we report a detailed subgroup analysis of the OPTiM study in patients with IIIB–IVM1a disease. Patients and methods The patients were randomized (2:1 ratio) to intralesional talimogene laherparepvec or subcutaneous GM-CSF and were evaluated for DRR, overall response rate (ORR), OS, safety, benefit–risk and numbers needed to treat. Descriptive statistics were used for subgroup comparisons. Results Among 249 evaluated patients with stage IIIB–IVM1a melanoma, DRR was higher with talimogene laherparepvec compared with GM-CSF (25.2% versus 1.2%; P<0.0001). ORR was also higher in the talimogene laherparepvec arm (40.5% versus 2.3%; P<0.0001), and 27 patients in the talimogene laherparepvec arm had a complete response, compared with none in GM-CSF-treated patients. The incidence rates of exposure-adjusted adverse events (AE) and serious AEs were similar with both treatments. Conclusion The subgroup of patients with stage IIIB, IIIC and IVM1a melanoma (57.1% of the OPTiM intent-to-treat population) derived greater benefit in DRR and ORR from talimogene laherparepvec compared with GM-CSF. Talimogene laherparepvec was well tolerated. PMID:27895500

  15. Evaluation of a DNA vaccine candidate expressing prM-E-NS1 antigens of dengue virus serotype 1 with or without granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) in immunogenicity and protection.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Qun; Fan, Dongying; Gao, Na; Chen, Hui; Wang, Juan; Ming, Ying; Li, Jieqiong; An, Jing

    2011-01-17

    Dengue is one of the most important mosquito-borne viral diseases. In past years, although considerable effort has been put into the development of a vaccine, there is currently no licensed dengue vaccine. In this study, we constructed DNA vaccines that carried the prM-E-NS1 genes of dengue virus serotype 1 (DV1) with or without the granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) gene, an attractive DNA vaccine adjuvant. Immunization with the plasmid pCAG-DV1/E/NS1, which expresses viral prM-E-NS1, or the bicistronic plasmid pCAG-DV1-GM, which co-expresses viral prM-E-NS1 and GM-CSF, resulted in long-term IgG response, high levels of splenocyte-secreted interferon-γ and interleukin-2, strong cytotoxic T lymphocyte activity and sufficient protection in the DV1-challenged mice. This suggested that both humoral and cellular immune responses were induced by the immunizations and that they played important roles in protection against the DV1 challenge. Interestingly, the magnitude, quality and protective capacity of the immune responses induced by immunization with pCAG-DV1/E/NS1 or pCAG-DV1-GM seemed stronger than those induced by pCAG-DV1/E (expressing viral prM-E alone). Taken together, we demonstrated that prM/E plus NS1 would be a suitable solution for the development of a DNA vaccine against DV.

  16. Treatment with granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor is associated with reduced indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase activity and kynurenine pathway catabolites in patients with severe sepsis and septic shock.

    PubMed

    Schefold, Joerg C; Zeden, Jan-Philip; Pschowski, Rene; Hammoud, Ben; Fotopoulou, Christina; Hasper, Dietrich; Fusch, Gerhard; Von Haehling, Stephan; Volk, Hans-Dieter; Meisel, Christian; Schütt, Christine; Reinke, Petra

    2010-03-01

    The immunoregulatory enzyme indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) controls tryptophan metabolism and is induced by pro-inflammatory stimuli. We investigated whether immunostimulatory treatment with granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) influences IDO activity and tryptophan metabolism in sepsis. Thirty-six patients with severe sepsis/septic shock and sepsis-associated immunosuppression (assessed using monocytic human leukocyte antigen-DR (mHLA-DR) expression) were assessed in a controlled trial of GM-CSF or placebo treatment for 8 days. Using tandem mass spectrometry, levels of tryptophan, kynurenine, kynurenic acid, quinolinic acid, 5-hydroxytryptophan, serotonin, and estimated IDO activity were determined in a blinded fashion over a 9-day interval. At baseline, tryptophan and metabolite levels did not differ between the study groups. Although tryptophan levels were unchanged in both groups over the treatment interval (all p>0.8), IDO activity was markedly reduced after GM-CSF treatment (35.4 +/- 21.0 vs 21.6 +/-9.9 (baseline vs day 9), p = 0.02). IDO activity differed significantly between the 2 groups after therapy (p = 0.03). Metabolites downstream of IDO (kynurenine, quinolinic acid, kynurenic acid) were all induced in sepsis and declined in the GM-CSF group, but not in controls. Serotonin pathway metabolites remained unchanged in both groups (all p>0.15). Moreover, IDO activity correlated with procalcitonin (p< 0.0001, r = 0.56) and mHLA-DR levels (p = 0.005, r = -0.28) in the overall samples group. Thus, GM-CSF therapy is associated with decreased IDO activity and reduced kynurenine pathway catabolites in sepsis. This may be due to an improved antibacterial defence.

  17. Living T9 glioma cells expressing membrane macrophage colony-stimulating factor produce immediate tumor destruction by polymorphonuclear leukocytes and macrophages via a "paraptosis"-induced pathway that promotes systemic immunity against intracranial T9 gliomas.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yijun; Douglass, Thomas; Jeffes, Edward W B; Xu, Qingcheng; Williams, Christopher C; Arpajirakul, Neary; Delgado, Christina; Kleinman, Michael; Sanchez, Ramon; Dan, Qinghong; Kim, Ronald C; Wepsic, H Terry; Jadus, Martin R

    2002-08-15

    Cloned T9-C2 glioma cells transfected with membrane macrophage colony-stimulating factor (mM-CSF) never formed subcutaneous tumors when implanted into Fischer rats, whereas control T9 cells did. The T9-C2 cells were completely killed within 1 day through a mechanism that resembled paraptosis. Vacuolization of the T9-C2 cell's mitochondria and endoplasmic reticulum started within 4 hours after implantation. By 24 hours, the dead tumor cells were swollen and terminal deoxynucleotide transferase-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL)-positive. Bcl2-transduced T9-C2 cells failed to form tumors in rats. Both T9 and T9-C2 cells produced cytokine-induced neutrophil chemoattractant that recruited the granulocytes into the tumor injection sites, where they interacted with the tumor cells. Freshly isolated macrophages killed the T9-C2 cells in vitro by a mechanism independent of phagocytosis. Nude athymic rats treated with antiasialo GM1 antibody formed T9-C2 tumors, whereas rats treated with a natural killer cell (NK)-specific antibody failed to form tumors. When treated with antipolymorphonuclear leukocyte (anti-PMN) and antimacrophage antibodies, 80% of nude rats formed tumors, whereas only 40% of the rats developed a tumor when a single antibody was used. This suggests that both PMNs and macrophages are involved in the killing of T9-C2 tumor cells. Immunocompetent rats that rejected the living T9-C2 cells were immune to the intracranial rechallenge with T9 cells. No vaccinating effect occurred if the T9-C2 cells were freeze-thawed, x-irradiated, or treated with mitomycin-C prior to injection. Optimal tumor immunization using mM-CSF-transduced T9 cells requires viable tumor cells. In this study optimal tumor immunization occurred when a strong inflammatory response at the injection of the tumor cells was induced.

  18. Generation of human innate immune responses towards membrane macrophage colony stimulating factor (mM-CSF) expressing U251 glioma cells within immunodeficient (NIH-nu/beige/xid) mice.

    PubMed

    Delgado, Christina; Hoa, Neil; Callahan, Linda L; Schiltz, Patric M; Jahroudi, Reza Alipanah; Zhang, Jian Gang; Wepsic, H Terry; Jadus, Martin R

    2007-06-01

    The response of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) to cloned human HLA-A2+ U251 glioma cells (U251-2F11/TK) expressing membrane macrophage colony stimulating factor (mM-CSF) was investigated in vitro and in vivo. Enriched human monocytes derived from cancer patients produced a respiratory burst following 20min of interaction with mM-CSF expressing U251 glioma cells. This respiratory burst response was not observed in the enriched human monocytes following similar exposure to the viral vector control U251 (U251-VV) cells. Reactive oxygen species such as H(2)O(2) and HOCl produced death of the U251 cells. The U251-2F11/TK cells failed to grow in severely compromised combined immunodeficient (NIH-bg-nu-xidBR) mice that were depleted of murine monocyte/macrophages then reconstituted with human HLA-A2+ PBMC. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) were produced by PBMC, both in vitro and in vivo in response tomM-CSF expressing U251 cells. U251-2F11/TK cells failed to form subcutaneous tumors in macrophage depleted mice reconstituted with human PBMC; whereas, progressive growth of such tumors was observed with the U251-VV cells. U251-2F11/TK tumors formed if the initial inoculums of PBMC were depleted of monocytes. From this work it can be concluded that mM-CSF transduced U251-2F11/TK glioma cells can safely stimulate human innate immune responses in vivo.

  19. A DNA vaccine encoding the 42 kDa C-terminus of merozoite surface protein 1 of Plasmodium falciparum induces antibody, interferon-gamma and cytotoxic T cell responses in rhesus monkeys: immuno-stimulatory effects of granulocyte macrophage-colony stimulating factor.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Sanjai; Villinger, Francois; Oakley, Miranda; Aguiar, Joao C; Jones, Trevor R; Hedstrom, Richard C; Gowda, Kalpana; Chute, John; Stowers, Anthony; Kaslow, David C; Thomas, Elaine K; Tine, John; Klinman, Dennis; Hoffman, Stephen L; Weiss, Walter W

    2002-04-01

    We have constructed a DNA plasmid vaccine encoding the C-terminal 42-kDa region of the merozoite surface protein 1 (pMSP1(42)) from the 3D7 strain of Plasmodium falciparum (Pf3D7). This plasmid expressed recombinant MSP1(42) after in vitro transfection in mouse VM92 cells. Rhesus monkeys immunized with pMSP1(42) produced antibodies reactive with Pf3D7 infected erythrocytes by IFAT, and by ELISA against yeast produced MSP1(19) (yMSP1(19)). Immunization also induced antigen specific T cell responses as measured by interferon-gamma production, and by classical CTL chromium release assays. In addition, immunization with pMSP1(42) primed animals for an enhanced antibody response to a subsequent boost with the recombinant yMSP1(19). We also evaluated Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor (GM-CSF) as an adjuvant for pMSP1(42.) We tested both rhesus GM-CSF expressed from a DNA plasmid, and E. coli produced recombinant human GM-CSF. Plasmids encoding rhesus GM-CSF (prhGM-CSF) and human GM-CSF (phuGM-CSF) were constructed; these plasmids expressed bio-active recombinant GMCSF. Co-immunization with a mixture of prhGM-CSF and pMSP1(42) induced higher specific antibody responses after the first dose of plasmid, but after three doses of DNA monkeys immunized with or without prhGM-CSF had the same final antibody titers and T cell responses. In comparison, rhuGM-CSF protein did not lead to accelerated antibody production after the first DNA dose. However, antibody titers were maintained at a slightly higher level in monkeys receiving GM-CSF protein, and they had a higher response to boosting with recombinant MSP1(19). The GM-CSF plasmid or protein appears to be less potent as an adjuvant in rhesus monkeys than each is in mice, and more work is needed to determine if GM-CSF can be a useful adjuvant in DNA vaccination of primates.

  20. Murine Anti-GD2 Monoclonal Antibody 3F8 Combined With Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor and 13-Cis-Retinoic Acid in High-Risk Patients With Stage 4 Neuroblastoma in First Remission

    PubMed Central

    Cheung, Nai-Kong V.; Cheung, Irene Y.; Kushner, Brian H.; Ostrovnaya, Irina; Chamberlain, Elizabeth; Kramer, Kim; Modak, Shakeel

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Anti-GD2 monoclonal antibody (MoAb) combined with granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) has shown efficacy against neuroblastoma (NB). Prognostic variables that could influence clinical outcome were explored. Patients and Methods One hundred sixty-nine children diagnosed with stage 4 NB (1988 to 2008) were enrolled onto consecutive anti-GD2 murine MoAb 3F8 ± GM-CSF ± 13-cis-retinoic acid (CRA) protocols after achieving first remission (complete remission/very good partial remission). Patients enrolled in regimen A (n = 43 high-risk [HR] patients) received 3F8 alone; regimen B (n = 41 HR patients), 3F8 + intravenous GM-CSF + CRA, after stem-cell transplantation (SCT); and regimen C (n = 85), 3F8 + subcutaneous GM-CSF + CRA, 46 of 85 after SCT, whereas 28 of 85 required additional induction therapy and were deemed ultra high risk (UHR). Marrow minimal residual disease (MRD) was measured by quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. Survival probability was calculated by the Kaplan-Meier method, and prognostic variables were analyzed by multivariate Cox regression model. Results At 5 years from the start of immunotherapy, progression-free survival (PFS) improved from 44% for HR patients receiving regimen A to 56% and 62% for those receiving regimens B and C, respectively. Overall survival (OS) was 49%, 61%, and 81%, respectively. PFS and OS of UHR patients were 36% and 75%, respectively. Relapse was mostly at isolated sites. Independent adverse prognostic factors included UHR (PFS) and post–cycle two MRD (PFS and OS), whereas the prognostic factors for improved outcome were missing killer immunoglobulin-like receptor ligand (PFS and OS), human antimouse antibody response (OS), and regimen C (OS). Conclusion Retrospective analysis of consecutive trials from a single center demonstrated that MoAb 3F8 + GM-CSF + CRA is effective against chemotherapy-resistant marrow MRD. Its positive impact on long-term survival can only

  1. The toothless osteopetrotic rat has a normal vitamin D-binding protein-macrophage activating factor (DBP-MAF) cascade and chondrodysplasia resistant to treatments with colony stimulating factor-1 (CSF-1) and/or DBP-MAF.

    PubMed

    Odgren, P R; Popoff, S N; Safadi, F F; MacKay, C A; Mason-Savas, A; Seifert, M F; Marks, S C

    1999-08-01

    The osteopetrotic rat mutation toothless (tl) is characterized by little or no bone resorption, few osteoclasts and macrophages, and chondrodysplasia at the growth plates. Short-term treatment of tl rats with colony-stimulating factor-1 (CSF-1) has been shown to increase the number of osteoclasts and macrophages, producing dramatic resolution of skeletal sclerosis at some, but not all, sites. Defects in production of vitamin D-binding protein-macrophage activating factor (DBP-MAF) have been identified in two other independent osteopetrotic mutations of the rat (op and ia), and two in the mouse (op and mi), in which macrophages and osteoclasts can be activated by the administration of exogenous DBP-MAF. The present studies were undertaken to examine the histology and residual growth defects in tl rats following longer CSF-1 treatments, to investigate the possibility that exogenous DBP-MAF might act synergistically with CSF-1 to improve the tl phenotype, and to assess the integrity of the endogenous DBP-MAF pathway in this mutation. CSF-1 treatment-with or without DBP-MAF-induced resorption of metaphyseal bone to the growth plate on the marrow side, improved slightly but did not normalize long bone growth, and caused no improvement in the abnormal histology of the growth plate. Injections of lysophosphatidylcholine (lyso-Pc) to prime macrophage activation via the DBP-MAF pathway raised superoxide production to similar levels in peritoneal macrophages from both normal and mutant animals, indicating no defect in the DBP-MAF pathway in tl rats. Interestingly, pretreatments with CSF-1 alone also increased superoxide production, although the mechanism for this remains unknown. In summary, we find that, unlike other osteopetrotic mutations investigated to date, the DBP-MAF pathway does not appear to be defective in the tl rat; that additional DBP-MAF does not augment the beneficial skeletal effects seen with CSF-1 alone; and that the growth plate chondrodystrophy seen in

  2. Anti-EpCAM monoclonal antibody (MAb17-1A) based treatment combined with alpha-interferon, 5-fluorouracil and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor in patients with metastatic colorectal carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Liljefors, Maria; Ragnhammar, Peter; Nilsson, Bo; Ullenhag, Gustav; Mellstedt, Håkan; Frödin, Jan-Erik

    2004-09-01

    Monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) have different modes of action and toxicity profile compared to chemotherapeutics, which makes it interesting to combine these drugs. Addition of cytokines to MAb therapy may also augment immune effector functions utilized by MAb. In an effort to improve the therapeutic effect of a MAb-based regimen in colorectal carcinoma (CRC) patients, the effects of a combination of alpha-interferon (alpha-IFN), 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) and mouse MAb17-1A was evaluated in 27 patients with metastatic disease. alpha-IFN was given s.c. once daily for 5 consecutive days and at days 4 and 5, 5-FU was administered as a daily i.v. bolus injection. After 2 days rest, GM-CSF was given s.c. once daily, days 8-14 and on day 10, MAb17-1A was given i.v. The treatment cycle was repeated every 4th week. One patient achieved a partial remission and 13 patients showed a minor response or stable disease >3 months, inducing an overall response rate of 54%. Responding patients survived significantly longer than non-responding patients (p=0.021). Median overall survival time for all patients was 75 weeks and progression-free survival time 15 weeks. Adverse events related to alpha-IFN, GM-CSF and 5-FU were as expected. The frequency of patients with an immediate-type allergic reaction (ITAR) against MAb17-1A at the 1st, 2nd, 3rd and 4th treatment cycles was 11%, 52%, 62% and 64% respectively. The planned MAb17-1A dose had to be reduced by repeated infusions. No patient received full dose of MAb17-1A from the 3rd cycle and onward. Compared to historical control patients treated with MAb17-1A alone, the present combination regimen seemed to improve the response rate (54% vs 15%) as well as progression-free survival (15 vs 7 weeks; p<0.05).

  3. Early applications of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) can stabilize the blood-optic-nerve barrier and ameliorate inflammation in a rat model of anterior ischemic optic neuropathy (rAION).

    PubMed

    Wen, Yao-Tseng; Huang, Tzu-Lun; Huang, Sung-Ping; Chang, Chung-Hsing; Tsai, Rong-Kung

    2016-10-01

    Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) was reported to have a neuroprotective effect in a rat model of anterior ischemic optic neuropathy (rAION model). However, the therapeutic window and anti-inflammatory effects of G-CSF in a rAION model have yet to be elucidated. Thus, this study aimed to determine the therapeutic window of G-CSF and investigate the mechanisms of G-CSF via regulation of optic nerve (ON) inflammation in a rAION model. Rats were treated with G-CSF on day 0, 1, 2 or 7 post-rAION induction for 5 consecutive days, and a control group were treated with phosphate-buffered saline (PBS). Visual function was assessed by flash visual evoked potentials at 4 weeks post-rAION induction. The survival rate and apoptosis of retinal ganglion cells were determined by FluoroGold labeling and TUNEL assay, respectively. ON inflammation was evaluated by staining of ED1 and Iba1, and ON vascular permeability was determined by Evans Blue extravasation. The type of macrophage polarization was evaluated using quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). The protein levels of TNF-α and IL-1β were analyzed by western blotting. A therapeutic window during which G-CSF could rescue visual function and retinal ganglion cell survival was demonstrated at day 0 and day 1 post-infarct. Macrophage infiltration was reduced by 3.1- and 1.6-fold by G-CSF treatment starting on day 0 and 1 post-rAION induction, respectively, compared with the PBS-treated group (P<0.05). This was compatible with 3.3- and 1.7-fold reductions in ON vascular permeability after G-CSF treatment compared with PBS treatment (P<0.05). Microglial activation was increased by 3.8- and 3.2-fold in the early (beginning treatment at day 0 or 1) G-CSF-treated group compared with the PBS-treated group (P<0.05). Immediate (within 30 mins of infarct) treatment with G-CSF also induced M2 microglia/macrophage activation. The cytokine levels were lower in the group that received immediate G-CSF treatment compared to

  4. Effect of low-dose cytarabine, homoharringtonine and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor priming regimen on patients with advanced myelodysplastic syndrome or acute myeloid leukemia transformed from myelodysplastic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Wu, Lingyun; Li, Xiao; Su, Jiying; Chang, Chunkang; He, Qi; Zhang, Xi; Xu, Li; Song, Luxi; Pu, Quan

    2009-09-01

    A total of 32 patients (25 with advanced MDS and 7 with t-AML) were enrolled in this study to evaluate the efficacy and toxicity of the low-dose cytarabine and homoharringtonine in combination with granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) (CHG protocol) in patients with advanced myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) or MDS-transformed acute myeloid leukemia (t-AML). All the patients were administered the CHG regimen comprising low-dose cytarabine (25 mg/day, intravenous continuous infusion, days 1-14), homoharringtonine (1 mg/day, intravenous continuous infusion, days 1-14), and G-CSF (300 microg/day, subcutaneous injection, days 0-14, interrupted when the peripheral white blood cell count reached >20 x 10(9)/L). The overall response rate was 71.9% after the administration of one course of the CHG regimen. Of the 32 patients, 15 (46.9%) achieved complete remission (CR) and 8 (25%) achieved partial remission (PR). This regimen was followed by a post-remission therapy that included conventional chemotherapy, when CR was achieved. Of the patients with CR who just received post-remission regimens as homoharringtonine and cytarabine (HA) and daunorubicin and cytarabine (DA) 6 relapsed rapidly and just had a mean 6.1 months of CR. Otherwise, the other 8 out of 14 patients with CR alternatively received subsequent chemotherapy, which combined mitoxantrone, idarubicin, pirarubicin, or aclarubicin with cytarabine. The mean CR duration of the 8 patients had reached 10.6 months, and 5 of the 8 still kept a continuous CR. The median overall survival (OS) was 18.2 months. There were no statistically significant differences for CR, PR, and OS when the patients were grouped by age, blasts in bone marrow, and karyotypes, respectively. No treatment-related deaths were observed. Myelosuppression was mild to moderate, and no severe non-hematological toxicity was observed. Thus, a CHG priming regimen as an induction therapy was well tolerated and effective in patients with advanced MDS

  5. Effects of priming with recombinant human granulocyte colony-stimulating factor on conditioning regimen for high-risk acute myeloid leukemia patients undergoing human leukocyte antigen-haploidentical hematopoietic stem cell transplantation: a multicenter randomized controlled study in southwest China.

    PubMed

    Gao, Lei; Wen, Qin; Chen, Xinghua; Liu, Yao; Zhang, Cheng; Gao, Li; Kong, Peiyan; Zhang, Yanqi; Li, Yunlong; Liu, Jia; Wang, Qingyu; Su, Yi; Wang, Chunsen; Wang, Sanbin; Zeng, Yun; Sun, Aihua; Du, Xin; Zeng, Dongfeng; Liu, Hong; Peng, Xiangui; Zhang, Xi

    2014-12-01

    HLA-haploidentical hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (haplo-HSCT) is an effective and immediate treatment for high-risk acute myeloid leukemia (HR-AML) patients lacking matched donors. Relapse remains the leading cause of death for HR-AML patients after haplo-HSCT. Accordingly, the prevention of relapse remains a challenge in the treatment of HR-AML. In a multicenter randomized controlled trial in southwestern China, 178 HR-AML patients received haplo-HSCT with conditioning regimens involving recombinant human granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (rhG-CSF) or non-rhG-CSF. The cumulative incidences of relapse and graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), 2-year leukemia-free survival (LFS), and overall survival (OS) were evaluated. HR-AML patients who underwent the priming conditioning regimen with rhG-CSF had a lower relapse rate than those who were treated with non-rhG-CSF (38.2%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 28.1% to 48.3% versus 60.7%, 95% CI, 50.5% to 70.8%; P < .01). The cumulative incidences of acute GVHD, chronic GVHD, transplantation-related toxicity, and infectious complications appeared to be equivalent. In total, 53 patients in the rhG-CSF-priming group and 31 patients in the non-rhG-CSF-priming group were still alive at the median follow-up time of 42 months (range, 24 to 80 months). The 2-year probabilities of LFS and OS in the rhG-CSF-priming and non-rhG-CSF-priming groups were 55.1% (95% CI, 44.7% to 65.4%) versus 32.6% (95% CI, 22.8% to 42.3%) (P < .01) and 59.6% (95% CI, 49.4% to 69.7%) versus 34.8% (95% CI, 24.9% to 44.7%) (P < .01), respectively. Multivariate analyses indicated that the 2-year probability of LFS of patients who achieved complete remission (CR) before transplantation was better than that of patients who did not achieve CR. The 2-year probability of LFS of patients with no M4/M5/M6 subtype was better than that of patients with the M4/M5/M6 subtype in the G-CSF-priming group (67.4%; 95% CI, 53.8% to 80.9% versus 41.9%; 95% CI, 27

  6. Optimization of a potent class of arylamide colony-stimulating factor-1 receptor inhibitors leading to anti-inflammatory clinical candidate 4-cyano-N-[2-(1-cyclohexen-1-yl)-4-[1-[(dimethylamino)acetyl]-4-piperidinyl]phenyl]-1H-imidazole-2-carboxamide (JNJ-28312141).

    PubMed

    Illig, Carl R; Manthey, Carl L; Wall, Mark J; Meegalla, Sanath K; Chen, Jinsheng; Wilson, Kenneth J; Ballentine, Shelley K; Desjarlais, Renee L; Schubert, Carsten; Crysler, Carl S; Chen, Yanmin; Molloy, Christopher J; Chaikin, Margery A; Donatelli, Robert R; Yurkow, Edward; Zhou, Zhao; Player, Mark R; Tomczuk, Bruce E

    2011-11-24

    A class of potent inhibitors of colony-stimulating factor-1 receptor (CSF-1R or FMS), as exemplified by 8 and 21, was optimized to improve pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties and potential toxicological liabilities. Early stage absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion assays were employed to ensure the incorporation of druglike properties resulting in the selection of several compounds with good activity in a pharmacodynamic screening assay in mice. Further investigation, utilizing the type II collagen-induced arthritis model in mice, culminated in the selection of anti-inflammatory development candidate JNJ-28312141 (23, FMS IC(50) = 0.69 nM, cell assay IC(50) = 2.6 nM). Compound 23 also demonstrated efficacy in rat adjuvant and streptococcal cell wall-induced models of arthritis and has entered phase I clinical trials.

  7. The addition of granulocyte-colony stimulating factor shifts the dose limiting toxicity and markedly increases the maximum tolerated dose and activity of the kinesin spindle protein inhibitor SB-743921 in patients with relapsed or refractory lymphoma: results of an international, multicenter phase I/II study.

    PubMed

    O'Connor, Owen A; Gerecitano, John; Van Deventer, Henrik; Hainsworth, John; Zullo, Kelly M; Saikali, Khalil; Seroogy, Joseph; Wolff, Andrew; Escandón, Rafael

    2015-01-01

    This was a phase I study of SB-743921 (SB-921) in patients with relapsed/refractory lymphoma. Previous studies established that neutropenia was the only dose limiting toxicity (DLT). The primary objective was to determine the DLT, maximum tolerated dose (MTD) and efficacy of SB-921 with and without granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF). Sixty-eight patients were enrolled, 42 without G-CSF, 26 with G-CSF. In the cohort without G-CSF, SB-921 doses ranged from 2 to 7 mg/m(2), with 6 mg/m(2) being the MTD. In the cohort with G-CSF support, doses of 6-10 mg/m(2) were administered, with 9 mg/m(2) being the MTD, representing a 50% increase in dose density. Fifty-six patients were evaluable for efficacy. Four of 55 patients experienced a partial response (three in Hodgkin lymphoma and one in non-Hodgkin lymphoma, all at doses ≥ 6 mg/m(2)); 19 patients experienced stable disease, 33 patients developed progression of disease. G-CSF shifted the DLT from neutropenia to thrombocytopenia, allowing for a 50% increase in dose density. Responses were seen at higher doses with G-CSF support.

  8. Human U251MG glioma cells expressing the membrane form of macrophage colony-stimulating factor (mM-CSF) are killed by human monocytes in vitro and are rejected within immunodeficient mice via paraptosis that is associated with increased expression of three different heat shock proteins.

    PubMed

    Jadus, Martin R; Chen, Yijun; Boldaji, Mehrdokht Tarbiyat; Delgado, Christina; Sanchez, Ramon; Douglass, Thomas; Al-Atar, Usama; Schulz, William; Lloyd, Cheri; Wepsic, H Terry

    2003-05-01

    Human U251MG glioma cells retrovirally transduced with the human gene for the membrane form of macrophage colony-stimulating factor (mM-CSF) were investigated. The clones, MG-2F11 and MG-2C4, that expressed the most mM-CSF, but not the viral vector or the parental U251MG cells, were killed by both murine and human monocyte/macrophages in cytotoxicity assays. MG-2F11 cells failed to form subcutaneous tumors in either nude or NIH-bg-nu-xidBR mice, while mice inoculated with the U251MG viral vector (MG-VV) cells developed tumors. Electron microscopy studies showed that 4 hours after subcutaneous injection, the mM-CSF-transduced cells began dying of a process that resembled paraptosis. The dying tumor cells were swollen and had extensive vacuolization of their mitochondria and endoplasm reticulum. This killing process was complete within 24 hours. Macrophage-like cells were immediately adjacent to the killed MG-2F11 cells. Immunohistological staining for the heat shock proteins HSP60, HSP70 and GRP94 (gp96) showed that 18 hours after inoculation into nude mice, the MG-2F11 injection site was two to four times more intensely stained than the MG-VV cells. This study shows that human gliomas transduced with mM-CSF have the potential to be used as a safe live tumor cell vaccine.

  9. CD11b/CD18 (Mac-1) is required for degranulation of human eosinophils induced by human recombinant granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor and platelet-activating factor.

    PubMed

    Horie, S; Kita, H

    1994-06-01

    Recent evidence suggests adhesion molecules play an important role in the function of leukocytes. Because human eosinophils are known to express beta 2 integrins, we hypothesized that these adhesion molecules mediate the effector function of eosinophils. Normal human eosinophils incubated in albumin-coated polystyrene plates released granule protein and produced superoxide anion when stimulated with human recombinant granulocyte-macrophage CSF (rGM-CSF), platelet-activating factor (PAF), or PMA. Simultaneous monitoring of eosinophil adhesion and degranulation showed that degranulation was always preceded by cellular adhesion regardless of stimuli. Furthermore, eosinophil degranulation induced by human rGM-CSF and PAF was abolished in suspension culture of the cells when the cell suspensions were gently stirred. To identify the molecules involved in this adhesion-dependent degranulation, we have investigated the effects of mAbs (mAb) against beta 2 integrins. mAb reactive with CD18 markedly inhibited the eosinophil adhesion and degranulation induced by PAF and human rGM-CSF. mAb reactive with CD11b also moderately inhibited the adhesion and degranulation. In contrast, mAb reactive with CD11a slightly enhanced or showed no effect on the adhesion and degranulation by human rGM-CSF or PAF. Superoxide production induced by human rGM-CSF and PAF was also abolished by the treatment of cells with anti-CD18 mAb. mAb against CD11b and CD18 had little effect on degranulation and superoxide production induced by PMA. These results indicate that CD11b/CD18 (Mac-1)-dependent cellular adhesion plays an important role in the degranulation and superoxide production of eosinophils induced by human rGM-CSF and PAF, and that these mechanisms may be employed in vivo where eosinophils contact with stromal cells and/or proteins.

  10. A 3,387 bp 5'-flanking sequence of the goat alpha-S1-casein gene provides correct tissue-specific expression of human granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (hG-CSF) in the mammary gland of transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Serova, Irina A; Dvoryanchikov, Gennady A; Andreeva, Ludmila E; Burkov, Ivan A; Dias, Luciene P B; Battulin, Nariman R; Smirnov, Alexander V; Serov, Oleg L

    2012-06-01

    A new expression vector containing the 1,944 bp 5'-flanking regulatory region together with exon 1 and intron 1 of the goat alpha-S1-casein gene (CSN1S1), the full-sized human granulocyte colony-stimulating factor gene (hGCSF) and the 3'-flanking sequence of the bovine CSN1S1, was created. The vector DNA was used for generation of four mouse transgenic lines. The transgene was integrated into chromosomes 8 and 12 of two founders as 2 and 5 copies, respectively. Tissue-specific secretion of hG-CSF into the milk of transgenic mice was in the range of 19-40 μg/ml. RT-PCR analysis of various tissues of the transgenic mice demonstrated that expression of hGCSF was detected in only the mammary gland in the progeny of all founders. Moreover, cells were shown to be positive for hG-CSF by immunofluorescent analysis in the mammary glands but not in any other tissues. There were no signs of mosaic expression in the mammary gland. Trace amounts of hG-CSF were detected in the serum of females of two transgenic lines during lactation only. However, no transgenic mice showed any changes in hematopoiesis based on the number of granulocytes in blood. Immunoblotting of hG-CSF in the milk of transgenic mice revealed two forms, presumably the glycosylated and non-glycosylated forms. The hematopoietic activity of hG-CSF in the milk of transgenic females is comparable to that of recombinant G-CSF. In general, the data obtained in this study show that the new expression vector is able to provide correct tissue-specific expression of hG-CSF with high biological activity in transgenic mice.

  11. Prognostic factors for re-mobilization using plerixafor and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) in patients with malignant lymphoma or multiple myeloma previously failing mobilization with G-CSF with or without chemotherapy: the Korean multicenter retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jin Seok; Yoon, Dok Hyun; Park, Seonyang; Yoon, Sung-Soo; Cho, Seok-Goo; Min, Chang-Ki; Lee, Je-Jung; Yang, Deok-Hwan; Kwak, Jae-Yong; Eom, Hyeon-Seok; Kim, Won Seog; Kim, Hawk; Do, Young Rok; Moon, Joon Ho; Lee, Jihye; Suh, Cheolwon

    2016-03-01

    Plerixafor in combination with granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) has been shown to improve the rates of successful peripheral blood stem cell (PBSC) mobilization in patients with malignant lymphoma or multiple myeloma (MM) who experienced prior failure of PBSC mobilization. We evaluated the mobilization results of re-mobilization using plerixafor and G-CSF in insufficiently mobilizing patients. Forty-four patients with lymphoma (n = 29) or MM (n = 15) were included in the study. The median age was 50 (range, 24-64) years. Previous mobilization regimens were chemotherapy with G-CSF (n = 28), including cyclophosphamide with G-CSF (n = 15), and G-CSF only (n = 16). All patients with lymphoma achieved at least partial response (PR) before the mobilization, including 13 complete responses (CRs). Eleven patients with MM achieved at least PR and four patients with MM were in stable disease before mobilization. The median number of apheresis was 3 (range, 1-6). The median yield of PBSC collections was 3.41 (0.13-38.11) × 10(6) CD34(+) cells/kg. Thirty-four (77.3 %) patients had successful collections defined as at least 2 × 10(6) CD34(+) cells/kg. The rate of successful collections was not different between the two underlying diseases (79.3 % in lymphoma and 73.3 % in MM). Of the entire cohort, 38 (86.4 %) of patients went on to receive an autologous transplant. Previous long-term use of high-risk drugs (>4 cycles use of alkylating agents, platinum-containing agents, or thalidomide) (HR 10.8, 95 % CI 1.1-110.0, P = 0.043) and low platelet count (<100 × 10(9)/L) 1 day before the first apheresis (HR 27.9, 95 % CI 2.9-273.7, P = 0.004) were independent prognostic factors for predicting failure of PBSC re-mobilization using plerixafor and G-CSF. In conclusion, re-mobilization using plerixafor and G-CSF showed a success rate of 77.3 % in patients with lymphoma or MM who experienced prior failure of PBSC

  12. Constitutively expressed Siglec-9 inhibits LPS-induced CCR7, but enhances IL-4-induced CD200R expression in human macrophages.

    PubMed

    Higuchi, Hiroshi; Shoji, Toru; Iijima, Shinji; Nishijima, Ken-Ichi

    2016-06-01

    Siglecs recognize the sialic acid moiety and regulate various immune responses. In the present study, we compared the expression levels of Siglecs in human monocytes and macrophages using a quantitative real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analysis. The differentiation of monocytes into macrophages by macrophage colony-stimulating factor or granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor enhanced the expression of Siglec-7 and Siglec-9. The differentiated macrophages were stimulated by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) plus interferon (IFN)-γ or interleukin (IL)-4. The expression of Siglec-10 was enhanced by IL-4, whereas that of Siglec-7 was reduced by LPS plus IFN-γ. The expression of Siglec-9 was not affected by these stimuli. The knockdown of Siglec-9 enhanced the expression of CCR7 induced by the LPS or the LPS plus IFN-γ stimulation, and decreased the IL-4-induced expression of CD200R. These results suggest that Siglec-9 is one of the main Siglecs in human blood monocytes/macrophages and modulates innate immunity.

  13. Randomized, Placebo-Controlled, Phase III Trial of Yeast-Derived Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor (GM-CSF) Versus Peptide Vaccination Versus GM-CSF Plus Peptide Vaccination Versus Placebo in Patients With No Evidence of Disease After Complete Surgical Resection of Locally Advanced and/or Stage IV Melanoma: A Trial of the Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group–American College of Radiology Imaging Network Cancer Research Group (E4697)

    PubMed Central

    Lawson, David H.; Lee, Sandra; Zhao, Fengmin; Tarhini, Ahmad A.; Margolin, Kim A.; Ernstoff, Marc S.; Atkins, Michael B.; Cohen, Gary I.; Whiteside, Theresa L.; Butterfield, Lisa H.; Kirkwood, John M.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose We conducted a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial to evaluate the effect of granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) and peptide vaccination (PV) on relapse-free survival (RFS) and overall survival (OS) in patients with resected high-risk melanoma. Patients and Methods Patients with completely resected stage IV or high-risk stage III melanoma were grouped by human leukocyte antigen (HLA) -A2 status. HLA-A2–positive patients were randomly assigned to receive GM-CSF, PV, both, or placebo; HLA-A2–negative patients, GM-CSF or placebo. Treatment lasted for 1 year or until recurrence. Efficacy analyses were conducted in the intent-to-treat population. Results A total of 815 patients were enrolled. There were no significant improvements in OS (stratified log-rank P = .528; hazard ratio, 0.94; 95% repeated CI, 0.77 to 1.15) or RFS (P = .131; hazard ratio, 0.88; 95% CI, 0.74 to 1.04) in the patients assigned to GM-CSF (n = 408) versus those assigned to placebo (n = 407). The median OS times with GM-CSF versus placebo treatments were 69.6 months (95% CI, 53.4 to 83.5 months) versus 59.3 months (95% CI, 44.4 to 77.3 months); the 5-year OS probability rates were 52.3% (95% CI, 47.3% to 57.1%) versus 49.4% (95% CI, 44.3% to 54.3%), respectively. The median RFS times with GM-CSF versus placebo were 11.4 months (95% CI, 9.4 to 14.8 months) versus 8.8 months (95% CI, 7.5 to 11.2 months); the 5-year RFS probability rates were 31.2% (95% CI, 26.7% to 35.9%) versus 27.0% (95% CI, 22.7% to 31.5%), respectively. Exploratory analyses showed a trend toward improved OS in GM-CSF–treated patients with resected visceral metastases. When survival in HLA-A2–positive patients who received PV versus placebo was compared, RFS and OS were not significantly different. Treatment-related grade 3 or greater adverse events were similar between GM-CSF and placebo groups. Conclusion Neither adjuvant GM-CSF nor PV significantly improved RFS or OS in patients with high

  14. CD14-dependent monocyte isolation enhances phagocytosis of listeria monocytogenes by proinflammatory, GM-CSF-derived macrophages.

    PubMed

    Neu, Caroline; Sedlag, Anne; Bayer, Carina; Förster, Sabine; Crauwels, Peter; Niess, Jan-Hendrik; van Zandbergen, Ger; Frascaroli, Giada; Riedel, Christian U

    2013-01-01

    Macrophages are an important line of defence against invading pathogens. Human macrophages derived by different methods were tested for their suitability as models to investigate Listeria monocytogenes (Lm) infection and compared to macrophage-like THP-1 cells. Human primary monocytes were isolated by either positive or negative immunomagnetic selection and differentiated in the presence of granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) or macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF) into pro- or anti-inflammatory macrophages, respectively. Regardless of the isolation method, GM-CSF-derived macrophages (GM-Mφ) stained positive for CD206 and M-CSF-derived macrophages (M-Mφ) for CD163. THP-1 cells did not express CD206 or CD163 following incubation with PMA, M- or GM-CSF alone or in combination. Upon infection with Lm, all primary macrophages showed good survival at high multiplicities of infection whereas viability of THP-1 was severely reduced even at lower bacterial numbers. M-Mφ generally showed high phagocytosis of Lm. Strikingly, phagocytosis of Lm by GM-Mφ was markedly influenced by the method used for isolation of monocytes. GM-Mφ derived from negatively isolated monocytes showed low phagocytosis of Lm whereas GM-Mφ generated from positively selected monocytes displayed high phagocytosis of Lm. Moreover, incubation with CD14 antibody was sufficient to enhance phagocytosis of Lm by GM-Mφ generated from negatively isolated monocytes. By contrast, non-specific phagocytosis of latex beads by GM-Mφ was not influenced by treatment with CD14 antibody. Furthermore, phagocytosis of Lactococcus lactis, Escherichia coli, human cytomegalovirus and the protozoan parasite Leishmania major by GM-Mφ was not enhanced upon treatment with CD14 antibody indicating that this effect is specific for Lm. Based on these observations, we propose macrophages derived by ex vivo differentiation of negatively selected human primary monocytes as the most suitable model

  15. Priming of human monocytes for enhanced lipopolysaccharide responses: expression of alpha interferon, interferon regulatory factors, and tumor necrosis factor.

    PubMed Central

    Hayes, M P; Zoon, K C

    1993-01-01

    Culture of human monocytes with either granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor or gamma interferon (IFN-gamma) results in a primed state, during which these cells express heightened responses to bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS). The production of IFN-alpha in response to LPS by human monocytes has an absolute requirement for priming. Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) expression is also greatly enhanced in primed monocytes after LPS stimulation, but unlike IFN-alpha, TNF is readily expressed in unprimed monocytes as well. In an effort to determine the molecular events associated with IFN-alpha induction in this system, freshly isolated human monocytes were primed by culture with either IFN-gamma or granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor and then treated with LPS; expression of IFN-alpha subtype 2 (IFN-alpha 2), IFN regulatory factors (IRFs), and TNF was assessed by Northern (RNA blot) analysis. IRF-1 mRNA is expressed at high levels in monocytes and is regulated by both LPS and priming cytokines, but its expression alone does not correlate with the induction of IFN-alpha 2 expression. IRF-2 mRNA is expressed in a more gradual manner following LPS stimulation, implying a possible feedback mechanism for inhibiting IFN-alpha expression. However, nuclear run-on analysis indicates that IFN-alpha 2 is not transcriptionally modulated in this system, in striking contrast to TNF, which is clearly regulated at the transcriptional level. In addition, IFN-alpha 2 mRNA accumulation is superinduced when primed monocytes are treated with LPS plus cycloheximide, while TNF mRNA is relatively unaffected. The results demonstrate that priming can affect subsequent LPS-induced gene expression at different levels in human monocytes. Images PMID:8335353

  16. Paclitaxel enhances early dendritic cell maturation and function through TLR4 signaling in mice.

    PubMed

    Pfannenstiel, Lukas W; Lam, Samuel S K; Emens, Leisha A; Jaffee, Elizabeth M; Armstrong, Todd D

    2010-01-01

    Subclinical doses of Paclitaxel (PTX) given 1day prior to a HER-2/neu (neu)-targeted, granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF)-secreting whole-cell vaccine enhances neu-specific T cell responses and slows neu(+) tumor growth in tolerized HER-2/neu (neu-N) mice. We demonstrate that co-administration of PTX and Cyclophosphamide (CY) synergizes to slow tumor growth, and that in vitro, DC precursors exposed to PTX before LPS maturation results in greater co-stimulatory molecule expression, IL-12 production, and the ability to induce CD8(+) T cells with enhanced lytic activity against neu(+) tumors. PTX treatment also enhances maturation marker expression on CD11c(+) DCs isolated from vaccine-draining lymph nodes. Ex vivo, these DCs activate CD8(+) T cells with greater lytic capability than DC's from vaccine alone-treated neu-N mice. Finally, PTX treatment results in enhanced antigen-specific, IFN-gamma-secreting CD8(+) T cells in vivo. Thus, administration of PTX with a tumor vaccine improves T cell priming through enhanced maturation of DC.

  17. Sex differences in response of the bovine embryo to colony-stimulating factor 2

    PubMed Central

    Siqueira, Luiz G B

    2016-01-01

    We tested whether gene expression of the bovine morula is modified by CSF2 in a sex-dependent manner and if sex determines the effect of CSF2 on competence of embryos to become blastocysts. Embryos were produced in vitro using X- or Y-sorted semen and treated at Day 5 of culture with 10 ng/mL bovine CSF2 or control. In experiment 1, morulae were collected at Day 6 and biological replicates (n = 8) were evaluated for transcript abundance of 90 genes by RT-qPCR using the Fluidigm Delta Gene assay. Expression of more than one-third (33 of 90) of genes examined was affected by sex. The effect of CSF2 on gene expression was modified by sex (P < 0.05) for five genes (DDX3Y/DDX3X-like, NANOG, MYF6, POU5F1 and RIPK3) and tended (P < 0.10) to be modified by sex for five other genes (DAPK1, HOXA5, PPP2R3A, PTEN and TNFSF8). In experiment 2, embryos were treated at Day 5 with control or CSF2 and blastocysts were collected at Day 7 for immunolabeling to determine the number of inner cell mass (ICM) and trophectoderm (TE) cells. CSF2 increased the percent of putative zygotes that became blastocysts for females, but did not affect the development of males. There was no effect of CSF2 or interaction of CSF2 with sex on the total number of blastomeres in blastocysts or in the number of inner cell mass or trophectoderm cells. In conclusion, CSF2 exerted divergent responses on gene expression and development of female and male embryos. These results are evidence of sexually dimorphic responses of the preimplantation embryo to this embryokine. PMID:27601717

  18. Induction of monocyte migration by recombinant macrophage colony-stimulating factor.

    PubMed

    Wang, J M; Griffin, J D; Rambaldi, A; Chen, Z G; Mantovani, A

    1988-07-15

    Human recombinant macrophage-CSF (M-CSF) induced migration across polycarbonate or nitrocellulose filters of human peripheral blood monocytes. Checkerboard analysis of M-CSF-induced migration, performed by seeding different cytokine concentrations above and below the filter, revealed that the locomotory response involved chemotaxis, though some gradient-independent augmentation of migration occurred. Polymixin B did not affect M-CSF chemotaxis and M-CSF was active on monocytes from the LPS-unresponsive mouse strain C3H/HeJ. These findings rule out a contribution of minute endotoxin contamination, below the sensitivity of the Limulus assay, in M-CSF chemotaxis. Rabbit anti-M-CSF antibodies inhibited the chemotactic activity of recombinant M-CSF, thus further indicating that the M-CSF molecule was indeed responsible for chemotaxis. M-CSF preparations encoded by 224 or 522 amino acid cDNA clones were equally effective in inducing monocyte migration. Recombinant M-CSF did not elicit a migratory response in large granular lymphocytes and in endothelial cells under conditions in which appropriate reference attractants were active. A modest stimulation of migration of polymorphonuclear leukocytes, inhibitable by antibodies, was observed at high cytokine concentrations (10 to 100 times higher than those required for monocyte locomotion). The maximal polymorphonuclear leukocytes response evoked by M-CSF was small compared to that evoked by reference chemoattractants or to that evoked by the same cytokine in monocytes. Hence, M-CSF is a potent chemoattractant for mononuclear phagocytes and exerts its action preferentially on cells of the monocyte-macrophage lineage. M-CSF, produced locally by activated macrophages, may play a role in the selective recruitment from the blood compartment of mononuclear phagocytes to amplify resistance against certain noxious agents.

  19. Reduced salmonella fecal shedding in swine administered porcine granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Salmonella colonization of food animals is a concern for animal health, food safety and public health. Key objectives of pre-harvest food safety programs are to detect asymptomatic Salmonella carriage in food animals, reduce colonization, and prevent transmission of Salmonella to other animals and ...

  20. Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor: More Than a Hemopoietin

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-01-01

    functional activities of peripheral blood neutrophils, eosinophils , and monocytes/macrophages. In addi- tion. GM-CSF induces several key inflammatory...containing GM-CSF formed predominantly monocyte/macrophage colonies with an increased frequency of eosinophil colo- nies (16). At higher doses of GM-CSF...other pe- ripheral blood leukocytes. Absolute monocyte, eosinophil , and lymphocyte counts are increased in response to treatment. In the primate, the

  1. Effects of Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor in Burn Patients

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-01-01

    aber- Although the specific cause of the immune dysfunction rant response was associated with a relative failure of granu - following thermal iriury is...during tended to have an increased percentage of band forms and postbum week 4 when treated patients had significantly fewer granu - myelocytes during...cell production of neutrophils, monocytes, cyte stem cells in nonsurviving patients with large burns, and eosinophils . Significant increases in

  2. The discovery, development and clinical applications of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor.

    PubMed Central

    Dale, D. C.

    1998-01-01

    The story of the discovery, development and applications of G-CSF illustrates many of the best features of modern laboratory and clinical investigation. The initial discovery of the CSFs was somewhat serendipitous. The pathway to understanding the cellular and molecular base for the action of these substances was long, but fruitful and exciting for those who pursued it tirelessly. The power of modern molecular biology is illustrated by the rapid advances which followed the cloning of the G-CSF gene. Major advances in our understanding of the regulation of neutrophil production and deployment have followed, together with many important clinical observations. To date hundreds of thousands of patients have been treated with G-CSF and some individuals with severe chronic neutropenia have received daily therapy for more than ten years. Results of recent studies suggest that there will be many more interesting and important clinical applications for G-CSF. PMID:9601125

  3. Heterogeneity Within Macrophage Populations: A Possible Role for Colony Stimulating Factors

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-04-04

    1978). Most of the early work ·which lea to an association of specific functional or topographical markers with different stages along the activation... Veterinary Medicine, Boston, MA). These cells served as a source of constitutive Ia message which was included as a positive control for Ia mRNA...definition of functional or topographical association with different states of activation involved examination of heterogeneous populations of

  4. Interleukin 18 inhibits osteoclast formation via T cell production of granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor.

    PubMed Central

    Horwood, N J; Udagawa, N; Elliott, J; Grail, D; Okamura, H; Kurimoto, M; Dunn, A R; Martin, T; Gillespie, M T

    1998-01-01

    IL-18 inhibits osteoclast (OCL) formation in vitro independent of IFN-gamma production, and this was abolished by the addition of neutralizing antibodies to GM-CSF. We now establish that IL-18 was unable to inhibit OCL formation in cocultures using GM-CSF-deficient mice (GM-CSF -/-). Reciprocal cocultures using either wild-type osteoblasts with GM-CSF -/- spleen cells or GM-CSF -/- osteoblasts with wild-type spleen cells were examined. Wild-type spleen cells were required to elicit a response to IL-18 indicating that cells of splenic origin were the IL-18 target. As T cells comprise a large proportion of the spleen cell population, the role of T cells in osteoclastogenesis was examined. Total T cells were removed and repleted in various combinations. Addition of wild-type T cells to a GM-CSF -/- coculture restored IL-18 inhibition of osteoclastogenesis. Major subsets of T cells, CD4+ and CD8+, were also individually depleted. Addition of either CD4+ or CD8+ wild-type T cells restored IL-18 action in a GM-CSF -/- background, while IL-18 was ineffective when either CD4+ or CD8+ GM-CSF -/- T cells were added to a wild-type coculture. These results highlight the involvement of T cells in IL-18-induced OCL inhibition and provide evidence for a new OCL inhibitory pathway whereby IL-18 inhibits OCL formation due to action upon T cells promoting the release of GM-CSF, which in turn acts upon OCL precursors. PMID:9449693

  5. Anti-granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor autoantibodies in patients with cryptococcal meningitis

    PubMed Central

    Rosen, Lindsey B.; Freeman, Alexandra F.; Yang, Lauren M.; Jutivorakool, Kamonwan; Olivier, Kenneth N.; Angkasekwinai, Nasikarn; Suputtamongkol, Yupin; Bennett, John E.; Pyrgos, Vasilios; Williamson, Peter R.; Ding, Li; Holland, Steven M.; Browne, Sarah K.

    2013-01-01

    Background Cryptococcal meningitis has been described in immunocompromised patients as well as in those for whom no immune defect has been identified. GM-CSF regulates the function of phagocytes and pulmonary alveolar macrophages, critical elements in cryptococcal control. Methods We performed clinical histories, immunological evaluation, and anticytokine autoantibody screening in 4 current patients with cryptococcal meningitis, and identified and tested 103 archived plasma/CSF samples from patients with cryptococcal meningitis. We assessed the ability of anti-GM-CSF autoantibody containing plasmas to inhibit GM-CSF signaling. Results We recognized anti-GM-CSF autoantibodies in an otherwise healthy female with cryptococcal meningitis who later developed pulmonary alveolar proteinosis. Her diagnosis prompted screening of patients with cryptococcal meningitis for anticytokine autoantibodies. We identified 7 HIV uninfected patients with cryptococcal meningitis who tested positive for high-titer anti-GM-CSF autoantibodies. Two of the 7 later developed evidence of PAP. Plasma from all patients prevented GM-CSF-induced STAT-5 phosphorylation and MIP-1α production in normal PBMC. This effect was limited to their IgG fraction. Conclusions Anti-GM-CSF autoantibodies are associated with some cases of cryptococcal meningitis in otherwise immunocompetent patients. These cases need not have associated pulmonary alveolar proteinosis. PMID:23509356

  6. Cannabidiol (CBD) enhances lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced pulmonary inflammation in C57BL/6 mice.

    PubMed

    Karmaus, Peer W F; Wagner, James G; Harkema, Jack R; Kaminski, Norbert E; Kaplan, Barbara L F

    2013-01-01

    Cannabidiol (CBD) is a plant-derived cannabinoid that has been predominantly characterized as anti-inflammatory. However, it is clear that immune effects of cannabinoids can vary with cannabinoid concentration, or type or magnitude of immune stimulus. The present studies demonstrate that oral administration of CBD enhanced lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced pulmonary inflammation in C57BL/6 mice. The enhanced inflammatory cell infiltrate as observed in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) was comprised mainly of neutrophils, with some monocytes. Concomitantly, CBD enhanced pro-inflammatory cytokine mRNA production, including tumor necrosis factor-α (Tnfa), interleukins (IL)-5 and -23 (Il6, Il23), and granulocyte colony stimulating factor (Gcsf). These results demonstrate that the CBD-mediated enhancement of LPS-induced pulmonary inflammation is mediated at the level of transcription of a variety of pro-inflammatory genes. The significance of these studies is that CBD is part of a therapeutic currently in use for spasticity and pain in multiple sclerosis patients, and therefore it is important to further understand mechanisms by which CBD alters immune function.

  7. Cannabidiol (CBD) Enhances Lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-Induced Pulmonary Inflammation in C57BL/6 Mice

    PubMed Central

    Karmaus, Peer W. F.; Wagner, James G.; Harkema, Jack R.; Kaminski, Norbert E.; Kaplan, Barbara L.F.

    2012-01-01

    Cannabidiol (CBD) is a plant-derived cannabinoid that has been predominantly characterized as anti-inflammatory. However, it is clear that immune effects of cannabinoids can vary with cannabinoid concentration, or type or magnitude of immune stimulus. The present studies demonstrate that oral administration of CBD enhanced lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced pulmonary inflammation in C57BL/6 mice. The enhanced inflammatory cell infiltrate as observed in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) was comprised mainly of neutrophils, with some monocytes. Concomitantly, CBD enhanced pro-inflammatory cytokine mRNA production, including tumor necrosis factor-α (Tnfa), interleukins (IL) 6 and 23 (Il6, Il23), and granulocyte colony stimulating factor (Gcsf). These results demonstrate that the CBD-mediated enhancement of LPS-induced pulmonary inflammation is mediated at the level of transcription of a variety of pro-inflammatory genes. The significance of these studies is that CBD is part of a therapeutic currently in use for spasticity and pain in multiple sclerosis patients, and therefore it is important to further understand mechanisms by which CBD alters immune function. PMID:23173851

  8. Effect of hypertransfusion on bone marrow regeneration in sublethally irradiated mice. I. Enhanced granulopoietic recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, P.J.; Jackson, C.W.; Dow, L.W.; Edwards, C.C.; Whidden, M.A.

    1980-07-01

    Hypertransfusion can enhance recovery from neutropenia in certain clinical and experimental situations. We have studied the pattern of myeloid recovery in mice hypertransfused after receiving 350 rads whole body irradiation. Both hypertransfused and control groups showed the degenerative phase, abortive rise, and regenerative phase that has been described following sublethal irradiation. The blood granulocyte counts in the hypertransfused group returned to normal more rapidly and were maintained at a significantly higher level during the regenerative phase. This difference is not the result of a shift in granulocytes from the marrow granulocyte reserve or marginal granulocyte pool to the circulating pool, but is associated with significantly enhanced bone marrow granulopoiesis. While the total bone marrow cellularity of the hypertransfused mice is less than that of the control mice, the hypertransfused group contains more CFU-GM and myeloid cells during the regenerative phase. The enhanced granulopoiesis is not due to increased colony-stimulating activity (CSA) levels in the hypertransfused mice, as the CSA levels were significantly lower in this group compared to the controls prior to and during the initial phase of granulopoietic recovery. This study suggests that hypertransfusion increases the rate of recovery of myelopoiesis by increasing the number of precursors available for myeloid differentiation from an earlier stem cell compartment.

  9. Strategies to enhance immune function in hematopoietic transplantation recipients who have fungal infections.

    PubMed

    Safdar, A

    2006-09-01

    The challenges in the treatment of systemic fungal infections after HSCT include: (1) changing epidemiology as less drug-susceptible saprophytic fungi are increasingly associated with human disease; (2) the difficulty of early and correct diagnosis, even with the new generation of enzymatic immunoassays; (3) the inability to reduce or eliminate predisposing factors, especially severe immune suppression in most transplant patients with these infections and (4) the uncertain role of antifungal drug combinations and risk of drug antagonism complicating effective empiric-pre-emptive therapy. Current, developing and future immune enhancement strategies including recombinant granulocyte- and granulocyte macrophage-colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF), interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma), adjuvant pro-inflammatory cytokine therapy during mobilized donor granulocyte transfusions, therapeutic potential of pentraxin, adaptive immune transfer and dendritic cell fungal vaccines. Improved understanding of the molecular pathogenesis of fungal infections and of the complexity of host antifungal immune responses has provided the critical information to readdress existing treatment paradigms and further evaluate the role of GM-CSF and IFN-gamma early in the course of therapy against life-threatening fungal infections in high-risk patients following stem cell transplantation.

  10. Low Frequency Magnetic Fields Enhance Antitumor Immune Response against Mouse H22 Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Nie, Yunzhong; Chen, Yueqiu; Mou, Yongbin; Weng, Leihua; Xu, Zhenjun; Du, Youwei; Wang, Wenmei; Hou, Yayi; Wang, Tingting

    2013-01-01

    Objective Many studies have shown that magnetic fields (MF) inhibit tumor growth and influence the function of immune system. However, the effect of MF on mechanism of immunological function in tumor-bearing mice is still unclear. Methods In this study, tumor-bearing mice were prepared by subcutaneously inoculating Balb/c mice with hepatocarcinoma cell line H22. The mice were then exposed to a low frequency MF (0.4 T, 7.5 Hz) for 30 days. Survival rate, tumor growth and the innate and adaptive immune parameters were measured. Results MF treatment could prolong survival time (n = 28, p<0.05) and inhibit tumor growth (n = 9, p<0.01) in tumor-bearing mice. Moreover, this MF suppressed tumor-induced production of cytokines including interleukin-6 (IL-6), granulocyte colony- stimulating factor (G-CSF) and keratinocyte-derived chemokine (KC) (n = 9–10, p<0.05 or 0.01). Furthermore, MF exposure was associated with activation of macrophages and dendritic cells, enhanced profiles of CD4+ T and CD8+ T lymphocytes, the balance of Th17/Treg and reduced inhibitory function of Treg cells (n = 9–10, p<0.05 or 0.01) in the mice model. Conclusion The inhibitory effect of MF on tumor growth was related to the improvement of immune function in the tumor-bearing mice. PMID:24278103

  11. Murine embryonic stem cells secrete cytokines/growth modulators that enhance cell survival/anti-apoptosis and stimulate colony formation of murine hematopoietic progenitor cells.

    PubMed

    Guo, Ying; Graham-Evans, Barbara; Broxmeyer, Hal E

    2006-04-01

    Stromal cell-derived factor (SDF)-1/CXCL12, released by murine embryonic stem (ES) cells, enhances survival, chemotaxis, and hematopoietic differentiation of murine ES cells. Conditioned medium (CM) from murine ES cells growing in the presence of leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) was generated while the ES cells were in an undifferentiated Oct-4 expressing state. ES cell-CM enhanced survival of normal murine bone marrow myeloid progenitors (CFU-GM) subjected to delayed growth factor addition in vitro and decreased apoptosis of murine bone marrow c-kit(+)lin- cells. ES CM contained interleukin (IL)-1alpha, IL-10, IL-11, macrophage-colony stimulating factor (CSF), oncostatin M, stem cell factor, vascular endothelial growth factor, as well as a number of chemokines and other proteins, some of which are known to enhance survival/anti-apoptosis of progenitors. Irradiation of ES cells enhanced release of some proteins and decreased release of others. IL-6, FGF-9, and TNF-alpha, not detected prior to irradiation was found after ES cells were irradiated. ES cell CM also stimulated CFU-GM colony formation. Thus, undifferentiated murine ES cells growing in the presence of LIF produce/release a number of biologically active interleukins, CSFs, chemokines, and other growth modulatory proteins, results which may be of physiological and/or practical significance.

  12. 4T1 Murine Mammary Carcinoma Cells Enhance Macrophage-Mediated Innate Inflammatory Responses

    PubMed Central

    Madera, Laurence; Greenshields, Anna; Coombs, Melanie R. Power; Hoskin, David W.

    2015-01-01

    Tumor progression and the immune response are intricately linked. While it is known that cancers alter macrophage inflammatory responses to promote tumor progression, little is known regarding how cancers affect macrophage-dependent innate host defense. In this study, murine bone-marrow-derived macrophages (BMDM) were exposed to murine carcinoma-conditioned media prior to assessment of the macrophage inflammatory response. BMDMs exposed to 4T1 mammary carcinoma-conditioned medium demonstrated enhanced production of pro-inflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor α, interleukin-6, and CCL2 in response to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) while production of interleukin-10 remained unchanged. The increased LPS-induced production of pro-inflammatory cytokines was transient and correlated with enhanced cytokine production in response to other Toll-like receptor agonists, including peptidoglycan and flagellin. In addition, 4T1-conditioned BMDMs exhibited strengthened LPS-induced nitric oxide production and enhanced phagocytosis of Escherichia coli. 4T1-mediated augmentation of macrophage responses to LPS was partially dependent on the NFκB pathway, macrophage-colony stimulating factor, and actin polymerization, as well as the presence of 4T1-secreted extracellular vesicles. Furthermore, peritoneal macrophages obtained from 4T1 tumor-bearing mice displayed enhanced pro-inflammatory cytokine production in response to LPS. These results suggest that uptake of 4T1-secreted factors and actin-mediated ingestion of 4T1-secreted exosomes by macrophages cause a transient enhancement of innate inflammatory responses. Mammary carcinoma-mediated regulation of innate immunity may have significant implications for our understanding of host defense and cancer progression. PMID:26177198

  13. Incorporation of GM-CSF or CD40L Enhances the Immunogenicity of Hantaan Virus-Like Particles

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Lin-Feng; Wang, Fang; Zhang, Liang; Yu, Lan; Ye, Wei; Liu, Zi-Yu; Ying, Qi-Kang; Wu, Xing-An; Xu, Zhi-Kai; Zhang, Fang-Lin

    2016-01-01

    A safe and effective Hantaan virus (HTNV) vaccine is highly desirable because HTNV causes an acute and often fatal disease (hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome, HFRS). Since the immunity of the inactivated vaccine is weak and the safety is poor, HTNV virus-like particles (VLPs) offer an attractive and safe alternative. These particles lack the viral genome but are perceived by the immune system as virus particles. We hypothesized that adding immunostimulatory signals to VLPs would enhance their efficacy. To accomplish this enhancement, we generated chimeric HTNV VLPs containing glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) or CD40 ligand (CD40L) and investigated their biological activity in vitro. The immunization of mice with chimeric HTNV VLPs containing GM-CSF or CD40L induced stronger humoral immune responses and cellular immune responses compared to the HTNV VLPs and Chinese commercial inactivated hantavirus vaccine. Chimeric HTNV VLPs containing GM-CSF or CD40L also protected mice from an HTNV challenge. Altogether, our results suggest that anchoring immunostimulatory molecules into HTNV VLPs can be a potential approach for the control and prevention of HFRS. PMID:28066721

  14. Interferon-γ enhances both the anti-bacterial and the pro-inflammatory response of human mast cells to Staphylococcus aureus

    PubMed Central

    Swindle, Emily J; Brown, Jared M; Rådinger, Madeleine; DeLeo, Frank R; Metcalfe, Dean D

    2015-01-01

    Human mast cells (huMCs) are involved in both innate and adaptive immune responses where they release mediators including amines, reactive oxygen species (ROS), eicosanoids and cytokines. We have reported that interferon-γ (IFN-γ) enhances FcγR-dependent ROS production. The aim of this study was to extend these observations by investigating the effect of IFN-γ on the biological responses of huMCs to Staphylococcus aureus. We found that exposure of huMCs to S. aureus generated intracellular and extracellular ROS, which were enhanced in the presence of IFN-γ. IFN-γ also promoted bacteria killing, β-hexosaminidase release and eicosanoid production. Interferon-γ similarly increased expression of mRNAs encoding CCL1 to CCL4, granulocyte–macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), tumour necrosis factor-α and CXCL8 in S. aureus-stimulated huMCs. The ability of IFN-γ to increase CXCL8 and GM-CSF protein levels was confirmed by ELISA. Fibronectin or a β1 integrin blocking antibody completely abrogated IFN-γ-dependent S. aureus binding and reduced S. aureus-dependent CXCL8 secretion. These data demonstrate that IFN-γ primes huMCs for enhanced anti-bacterial and pro-inflammatory responses to S. aureus, partially mediated by β1 integrin. PMID:26288256

  15. Inhalation of diesel exhaust enhances allergen-related eosinophil recruitment and airway hyperresponsiveness in mice.

    PubMed

    Takano, H; Ichinose, T; Miyabara, Y; Shibuya, T; Lim, H B; Yoshikawa, T; Sagai, M

    1998-06-01

    We have previously shown that intratracheal instillation of suspension of diesel exhaust particles enhances allergen-related eosinophilic airway inflammation, airway hyperresponsiveness, and local expression of interleukin (IL)-5 and granulocyte macrophage-colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) in mice. The present study was designed to elucidate the effects of daily inhalation of diesel exhaust (DE) on the allergen-related respiratory disease. ICR mice were exposed for 40 weeks to clean air or DE at a soot concentration of 0.3, 1.0, or 3.0 mg/m3 with aerosol allergen challenges (1% ovalbumin in isotonic saline for 6 min) at 3-week intervals during the last 24 weeks of exposures. Exposure to DE enhanced allergen-related eosinophil recruitment to the submucosal layers of the airways and to the bronchoalveolar space, and increased protein levels of GM-CSF and IL-5 in the lung in a dose-dependent manner compared to exposure to clean air. There were strong correlations between the number of eosinophils in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid and IL-5 concentrations in BAL supernatants and lung tissue supernatants. In addition, the increases in eosinophil recruitment and local cytokine expression were accompanied by goblet cell proliferation in the bronchial epithelium and airway hyperresponsiveness to inhaled acetylcholine. In contrast, the control mice exposed for 40 weeks to clean air or DE at a soot concentration of 0.3, 1.0, or 3.0 mg/m3 without allergen provocation showed no eosinophil recruitment to the submucosal layers of the airways nor to the bronchoalveolar space and few goblet cells in the bronchial epithelium. The present study provides experimental evidence that daily inhalation of DE can enhance allergen-related respiratory diseases such as allergic asthma. This effect may be mediated by the enhanced local expression of IL-5 and GM-CSF. Increased ambient levels of DE may be implicated in the increasing prevalence of bronchial asthma in recent years.

  16. Exacerbation of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis in ceramide synthase 6 knockout mice is associated with enhanced activation/migration of neutrophils.

    PubMed

    Eberle, Max; Ebel, Philipp; Mayer, Christoph A; Barthelmes, Julia; Tafferner, Nadja; Ferreiros, Nerea; Ulshöfer, Thomas; Henke, Marina; Foerch, Christian; de Bazo, Anika Männer; Grösch, Sabine; Geisslinger, Gerd; Willecke, Klaus; Schiffmann, Susanne

    2015-10-01

    Ceramides are mediators of inflammatory processes. In experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), an animal model of multiple sclerosis (MS), we observed that CerS6 mRNA expression was upregulated 15-fold in peripheral blood leukocytes before the onset of EAE symptoms. In peripheral blood leukocytes from MS patients, a 3.9-fold upregulation was found. Total genetic deletion of CerS6 and the selective deletion of CerS6 in peripheral blood leucocytes exacerbated the progression of clinical symptoms in EAE mice. This was associated with enhanced leukocyte, predominantly neutrophil infiltration and enhanced demyelination in the lumbar spinal cord of EAE mice. Interferon-gamma/tumor necrosis factor alpha (IFN-γ/TNF-α) and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) both drive EAE development and induce expression of the integrin CD11b and the chemokine receptor C-X-C motif chemokine receptor 2 (CXCR2), and we found they also induce CerS6 expression. In vivo, the genetic deletion of CerS6 enhanced the activation/migration of neutrophils, as reflected by an enhanced upregulation of CD11b and CXCR2. In vitro, the genetic deletion of CerS6 enhanced the activation status of IFN-γ/TNF-α-stimulated neutrophils, as shown by increased expression of nitric oxide and CD11b and an increased adhesion capacity. In G-CSF-stimulated neutrophils, the migration status was enhanced, as reflected by an elevated level of CXCR2 and an increased migration capacity. These data suggest that CerS6/C16-Cer mediates feedback regulation by inhibiting the formation of CD11b and CXCR2, which are induced either by IFN-γ/TNF-α or by G-CSF, respectively. We conclude that CerS6/C16-Cer mediates anti-inflammatory effects during the development of EAE and MS possibly by suppressing the migration and deactivation of neutrophils.

  17. Enhanced inflammation in aged mice following infection with Streptococcus pneumoniae is associated with decreased IL-10 and augmented chemokine production.

    PubMed

    Williams, Andrew E; José, Ricardo J; Brown, Jeremy S; Chambers, Rachel C

    2015-03-15

    Streptococcus pneumoniae is the most common cause of severe pneumonia in the elderly. However, the impact of aging on the innate inflammatory response to pneumococci is poorly defined. We compared the innate immune response in old vs. young adult mice following infection with S. pneumoniae. The accumulation of neutrophils recovered from bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and lung homogenates was increased in aged compared with young adult mice, although bacterial outgrowth was similar in both age groups, as were markers of microvascular leak. Aged mice had similar levels of IL-1β, TNF, IFN-γ, IL-17, and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor following S. pneumoniae infection, compared with young mice, but increased levels of the chemokines CXCL9, CXCL12, CCL3, CCL4, CCL5, CCL11, and CCL17. Moreover, levels of IL-10 were significantly lower in aged animals. Neutralization of IL-10 in infected young mice was associated with increased neutrophil recruitment but no decrease in bacterial outgrowth. Furthermore, IL-10 neutralization resulted in increased levels of CCL3, CCL5, and CXCL10. We conclude that aging is associated with enhanced inflammatory responses following S. pneumoniae infection as a result of a compromised immunomodulatory cytokine response.

  18. GM-CSF Enhances Macrophage Glycolytic Activity In Vitro and Improves Detection of Inflammation In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Parmanand; González-Ramos, Silvia; Mojena, Marina; Rosales-Mendoza, César Eduardo; Emami, Hamed; Swanson, Jeffrey; Morss, Alex; Fayad, Zahi A.; Rudd, James H.F.; Gelfand, Jeffrey; Paz-García, Marta; Martín-Sanz, Paloma; Boscá, Lisardo

    2016-01-01

    18F-FDG accumulates in glycolytically active tissues and is known to concentrate in tissues that are rich in activated macrophages. In this study, we tested the hypotheses that human granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), a clinically used cytokine, increases macrophage glycolysis and deoxyglucose uptake in vitro and acutely enhances 18F-FDG uptake within inflamed tissues such as atherosclerotic plaques in vivo. Methods: In vitro experiments were conducted on human macrophages whereby inflammatory activation and uptake of radiolabeled 2-deoxyglucose was assessed before and after GM-CSF exposure. In vivo studies were performed on mice and New Zealand White rabbits to assess the effect of GM-CSF on 18F-FDG uptake in normal versus inflamed arteries, using PET. Results: Incubation of human macrophages with GM-CSF resulted in increased glycolysis and increased 2-deoxyglucose uptake (P < 0.05). This effect was attenuated by neutralizing antibodies against tumor necrosis factor–α or after silencing or inhibition of 6-phosphofructo-2-kinase. In vivo, in mice and in rabbits, intravenous GM-CSF administration resulted in a 70% and 73% increase (P < 0.01 for both), respectively, in arterial 18F-FDG uptake in atherosclerotic animals but not in nonatherosclerotic controls. Histopathologic analysis demonstrated a significant correlation between in vivo 18F-FDG uptake and macrophage staining (R = 0.75, P < 0.01). Conclusion: GM-CSF substantially augments glycolytic flux in vitro (via a mechanism dependent on ubiquitous type 6-phosphofructo-2-kinase and tumor necrosis factor–α) and increases 18F-FDG uptake within inflamed atheroma in vivo. These findings demonstrate that GM-CSF can be used to enhance detection of inflammation. Further studies should explore the role of GM-CSF stimulation to enhance the detection of inflammatory foci in other disease states. PMID:27081166

  19. Enhancement of macrophage survival and DNA synthesis by oxidized-low-density-lipoprotein (LDL)-derived lipids and by aggregates of lightly oxidized LDL.

    PubMed Central

    Hamilton, J A; Jessup, W; Brown, A J; Whitty, G

    2001-01-01

    Human atherosclerotic plaque contains a partially characterized range of normal and oxidized lipids formed mainly from free and esterified cholesterol and phospholipids, some of which can be located in macrophage-derived "foam" cells. Oxidation of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) is often considered as an important event leading to subsequent foam-cell development, which may also include enhanced cell survival and/or proliferation. The active component(s) in oxidized LDL (ox.LDL) causing macrophage proliferation is debated. We report here that the lipid component of ox.LDL can promote macrophage survival and DNA synthesis, the latter response showing a synergistic effect in the presence of low concentrations of macrophage colony-stimulating factor. 7-Ketocholesterol showed some stimulation of macrophage DNA synthesis whereas hypochlorite-oxidized (i.e. apolipoprotein B-oxidized) LDL did not. Plaque-derived lipids could enhance macrophage survival. It has not been proven that LDL in lesions is oxidized sufficiently to be the dominant source of sterols in vivo or to be able to induce macrophage growth in vitro or in vivo; it has been suggested that aggregation of modified LDL in vivo is an important step in the deposition of intracellular lipid. We found that aggregation of lightly oxidized LDL potentiated dramatically its ability to stimulate macrophage DNA synthesis, indicating that extensive oxidation of LDL is not required for this response in vitro and perhaps in vivo. PMID:11256965

  20. Assessing blood granulocyte colony-stimulating factor as a potential biomarker of acute traumatic brain injury in mice and humans.

    PubMed

    Banks, William A; Dohi, Kenji; Hansen, Kim; Thompson, Hilaire J

    2016-02-01

    Previous work has found that serum G-CSF was acutely elevated in mice 24h but not one week after controlled cortical impact (CCI). The purpose of this study was to investigate whether blood G-CSF correlates with the elevated brain cytokines in mice after CCI and also if it correlates with traumatic brain injury (TBI) in humans. Here, we found in mice undergoing CCI, a procedure that induces direct injury to the brain, that serum G-CSF correlated directly or indirectly with several brain cytokines, indicating it is a useful marker for the neuroinflammation of TBI. A pilot study in humans (phase I, n=19) confirmed that plasma G-CSF is acutely elevated on day 1 (p<0.001) of TBI and has returned to baseline by one week. In a second human sample (phase II) (n=80), we found plasma G-CSF peaks about 12h after arriving in the emergency department (41.6+/-5.4 pg/ml). Aging was weakly associated (p<0.05) with a less robust elevation in serum G-CSF, but there was no difference with gender. ISS, a measure of total severity of injury, correlated with the degree of elevation in serum G-CSF (r=.419; p<0.05), but severity of head injury (via AIS) did not. The latter may have been because of the statistically narrow range of head injuries among our cases and the high number of cases diagnosed with closed head injury (a non-codable diagnosis). In conclusion, plasma G-CSF may be a useful biomarker of TBI, correlating with neuroinflammation in the animal model and in the human studies with time since injury and total severity of injury. As such, it may be useful in determining whether TBI has occurred within the last 24h.

  1. Alterations in T cell-derived colony-stimulating factors associated with GVH-induced immune deficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Hakim, F.T.; Pluznik, D.H.; Shearer, G.M. )

    1990-04-01

    Injection of parental C57BL/10 spleen cells into unirradiated immune-competent (B10 x B10.BR)F1 hosts has been demonstrated to produce a graft-vs.-host-induced immune deficiency in T cell-mediated functions, including mitogen or alloantigen stimulated proliferation or cytotoxic T cell generation. The production of T cell-derived lymphokines affecting hematopoiesis was also altered during GVH. During the first two weeks of GVH, IL-3 and particularly GM-CSF were produced spontaneously; in subsequent weeks, the spontaneous production dropped to normal or subnormal levels. CSF content in concanavalin A-stimulated splenic supernatants was reduced at weeks 1-2, and declined to less than 5% of normal levels by 3-4 weeks of GVH. This decline in CSF content was correlated with a decrease in immune function as assessed by concanavalin A-stimulated IL-2 production and by generation of cytotoxic T lymphocytes. Concurrent with the recovery of immune function during GVH weeks 8-15, mitogen-stimulated production of CSF returned to normal levels. In addition to the decrease in CSF production identified in acute suppressive GVH, CSF content in concanavalin A-stimulated splenic supernatants was also decreased in chronic stimulatory GVH, generated in the strain combination (B6 x B6bm1)F1----(B6bm1 x B6bm12)F1. This decrease in CSF production correlated with a decrease in self-restricted T helper cell function. Finally, a decrease in both immune function and CSF production capacity was observed in the acute GVH following allogeneic (minor histocompatibility loci) bone marrow transplantation into irradiated hosts.

  2. Sunlight Triggers Cutaneous Lupus through a Colony Stimulating Factor-1 (CSF-1) Dependent Mechanism in MRL-Faslpr mice

    PubMed Central

    Menke, Julia; Hsu, Mei-Yu; Byrne, Katelyn T.; Lucas, Julie A.; Rabacal, Whitney A.; Croker, Byron P.; Zong, Xiao-Hua; Stanley, E. Richard; Kelley, Vicki R.

    2008-01-01

    Sunlight (UVB) triggers cutaneous (CLE) and systemic lupus through an unknown mechanism. We tested the hypothesis that UVB triggers CLE through a CSF-1-dependent, macrophage (Mø) -mediated mechanism in MRL-Faslpr mice. By constructing mutant MRL-Faslpr strains expressing varying levels of CSF-1 (high, intermediate, none), and use of an ex-vivo gene transfer to deliver CSF-1 intra-dermally, we determined that CSF-1 induces CLE in lupus-susceptible, MRL-Faslpr mice, but not in lupus-resistant, BALB/c mice. Notably, UVB incites an increase in Mø, apoptosis in the skin and CLE in MRL-Faslpr, but not in CSF-1-deficient MRL-Faslpr mice. Furthermore, UVB did not induce CLE in BALB/c mice. Probing further, UVB stimulates CSF-1 expression by keratinocytes leading to recruitment and activation of Mø that, in turn, release mediators, which induce apoptosis in keratinocytes. Thus, sunlight triggers a CSF-1-dependent, Mø-mediated destructive inflammation in the skin leading to CLE in lupus-susceptible MRL-Faslpr, but not lupus-resistant BALB/c mice. Taken together, we envision CSF-1 as the “match” and lupus-susceptibility as the “tinder” leading to CLE. PMID:18981160

  3. Abnormal Responses of Myeloid Progenitor Cells to GM-CSF (Granulocyte-Macrophage-Colony-Stimulating Factor) in Human Cyclic Neutropenia

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-04-01

    Continut on reverse if necessar and jentify by bi).nrbe,; FIELD GROUP SUBG ROUP Ne utropen ia, granu Iocyte-macrop ae ofnyS imu £ating factor (GM...be _3 eosinophilic were also detected occasionally (< 5% of total col- , onies) among CFU-GM grown with > 1.0 nmol/liter rhGM- CSF. Whereas the clonal

  4. Could mucin 16 and colony-stimulating factor 2-receptor beta possible graft versus host disease biomarkers? Medical hypotheses.

    PubMed

    Souza, Milena Monteiro de; de Paula, Fabiana Martins; Hsieh, Ricardo; Macedo, Maria Cristina Martins Almeida; Corral, Marcelo Andreetta; Nunes, Thaís Borguezan; De Paula, Fernanda; Lourenço, Silvia Vanessa

    2017-03-01

    Graft versus host disease (GVHD) occurs after bone marrow transplantation and is one of the most important causes of death worldwide. Reviews demonstrated GVHD patients with involvement of various tissues and organs, such as salivary glands. The diagnosis of acute GVHD has been the biopsies and the histopathologic evaluation of tissue from an involved organ. These procedures are invasive. Saliva proteins as possible biomarker for GVHD could facilitate the management and diagnosis accuracy. For support the proposed hypotheses, in this pilot study we collected whole saliva samples from patients with undergoing allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) and from healthy subjects. Samples were collected prospectively between pre-transplant, thirty days, one hundred and, two hundred days after transplant. The proteomic profile was analyzed using SDS-PAGE and LCMS-ESI-IT-TOF mass spectrometry. The relevant personal data, past medical history were also recorded. The most relevant proteins found exclusively in GVHD patients were: CSF2RB, Protocadherin (Pcdh) Fat 2 precursor, protein capicua homolog isoform CIC-S, MUC16 and RGPD8_HUMAN RANBP2. This study aims to conduct an initial evaluation of the possible presence of such biomarkers in saliva from GVHD patients, and suggested a potential application of proteomics analysis as a alternative method to diagnose GVHD.

  5. Mobilization of hematopoietic progenitor cells with granulocyte colony stimulating factors for autologous transplant in hematologic malignancies: a single center experience

    PubMed Central

    Gabús, Raul; Borelli, Gabriel; Ferrando, Martín; Bódega, Enrique; Citrín, Estela; Jiménez, Constanza Olivera; Álvarez, Ramón

    2011-01-01

    Background In 2006 the Hematology Service of Hospital Maciel published its experience with peripheral blood progenitor cell harvesting for autologous stem cell transplantation using Filgen JP (Clausen Filgrastim). After mobilization with a mean filgrastim dose of 78 mcg/Kg, 4.7 x 106 CD34+ cells/Kg were obtained by apheresis. Age above 50, multiple myeloma as underlying disease and a malignancy that was not in remission were identified as frequent characteristics among patients showing complex mobilization. Objective The aim of this study was to compare stem cell mobilization using different brands of filgrastim. Methods One hundred and fifty-seven mobilizations performed between 1997 and 2006 were analyzed. This retrospective analysis comparative two groups of patients: those mobilized with different brands of filgrastim (Group A) and those who received Filgen JP (Clausen Filgrastim) as mobilizing agent (Group B). A cluster analysis technique was used to identify four clusters of individuals with different behaviors differentiated by age, total dose of filgrastim required, number of apheresis and harvested CD34+ cells. Results The mean total dose of filgrastim administered was 105 mcg/Kg, the median number of apheresis was 2 procedures and the mean number of harvested stem cells was 4.98 x 106 CD34+ cells/Kg. No significant differences were observed between Groups A and B regarding the number of apheresis, harvested CD34+ cells and number of mobilization failures, however the total dose of filgrastim was significantly lower in Group B. Conclusions Among other factors, the origin of the cytokine used as mobilizing agent is an element to be considered when evaluating CD34+ cell mobilization results. PMID:23049356

  6. Divergent antiviral roles of amphibian (Xenopus laevis) macrophages elicited by colony-stimulating factor-1 and interleukin-34.

    PubMed

    Grayfer, Leon; Robert, Jacques

    2014-12-01

    Macrophages are integral to amphibian immunity against RVs, as well as to the infection strategies of these pathogens. Although CSF-1 was considered to be the principal mediator of macrophage development, the IL-34 cytokine, which shares no sequence identity with CSF-1, is now believed to contribute to vertebrate monopoiesis. However, the respective roles of CSF-1- and IL-34-derived macrophages are still poorly understood. To delineate the contribution of these macrophage populations to amphibian immunity against the RV FV3, we identified the Xenopus laevis IL-34 and transcriptionally and functionally compared this cytokine with the previously identified X. laevis CSF-1. The X. laevis CSF-1 and IL-34 displayed strikingly nonoverlapping developmental and tissue-specific gene-expression patterns. Furthermore, only CSF-1 but not IL-34 was up-regulated in the kidneys of FV3-challenged tadpoles. Intriguingly, recombinant forms of these cytokines (rXlCSF-1, rXlIL-34) elicited morphologically distinct tadpole macrophages, and whereas rXlCSF-1 pretreatment decreased the survival of FV3-infected tadpoles, rXlIL-34 administration significantly prolonged FV3-challenged animal survival. Compared with rXlIL-34-elicited macrophages, macrophages derived by rXlCSF-1 were more phagocytic but also significantly more susceptible to in vitro FV3 infections. By contrast, rXlIL-34-derived macrophages exhibited significantly greater in vitro antiranaviral activity and displayed substantially more robust gene expression of the NADPH oxidase components (p67(phox), gp91(phox)) and type I IFN. Moreover, FV3-challenged, rXlIL-34-derived macrophages exhibited several orders of magnitude greater up-regulation of the type I IFN gene expression. This marks the first report of the disparate roles of CSF-1 and IL-34 in vertebrate antiviral immunity.

  7. Divergent antiviral roles of amphibian (Xenopus laevis) macrophages elicited by colony-stimulating factor-1 and interleukin-34

    PubMed Central

    Grayfer, Leon; Robert, Jacques

    2014-01-01

    Macrophages are integral to amphibian immunity against RVs, as well as to the infection strategies of these pathogens. Although CSF-1 was considered to be the principal mediator of macrophage development, the IL-34 cytokine, which shares no sequence identity with CSF-1, is now believed to contribute to vertebrate monopoiesis. However, the respective roles of CSF-1- and IL-34-derived macrophages are still poorly understood. To delineate the contribution of these macrophage populations to amphibian immunity against the RV FV3, we identified the Xenopus laevis IL-34 and transcriptionally and functionally compared this cytokine with the previously identified X. laevis CSF-1. The X. laevis CSF-1 and IL-34 displayed strikingly nonoverlapping developmental and tissue-specific gene-expression patterns. Furthermore, only CSF-1 but not IL-34 was up-regulated in the kidneys of FV3-challenged tadpoles. Intriguingly, recombinant forms of these cytokines (rXlCSF-1, rXlIL-34) elicited morphologically distinct tadpole macrophages, and whereas rXlCSF-1 pretreatment decreased the survival of FV3-infected tadpoles, rXlIL-34 administration significantly prolonged FV3-challenged animal survival. Compared with rXlIL-34-elicited macrophages, macrophages derived by rXlCSF-1 were more phagocytic but also significantly more susceptible to in vitro FV3 infections. By contrast, rXlIL-34-derived macrophages exhibited significantly greater in vitro antiranaviral activity and displayed substantially more robust gene expression of the NADPH oxidase components (p67phox, gp91phox) and type I IFN. Moreover, FV3-challenged, rXlIL-34-derived macrophages exhibited several orders of magnitude greater up-regulation of the type I IFN gene expression. This marks the first report of the disparate roles of CSF-1 and IL-34 in vertebrate antiviral immunity. PMID:25190077

  8. [Recombinant granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (filgrastim): optimization of conditions of isolation and purification from inclusion body].

    PubMed

    Kononova, N V; Iakovlev, A V; Zhuravko, A M; Pankeev, N N; Minaev, S V; Bobruskin, A I; Mart'ianov, V A

    2014-01-01

    We developed a unified process platform for two recombinant human GCSF medicines--one with the non-prolonged and the other with prolonged action. This unified technology led to a simpler and cheaper production while introduction of the additional pegylation stage to the technological line eased obtaining of the medicines with different action and allowed to standardize technological process documenting according to GMP requirements.

  9. Enhancing immune responses of EV71 VP1 DNA vaccine by co-inoculating plasmid IL-12 or GM-CSF expressing vector in mice.

    PubMed

    Peng, X; Fang, X; Li, J; Kong, L; Li, B; Ding, X

    2016-04-30

    Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is a major causative viral agent for large outbreaks of hand, foot, and mouth disease in children and infants, yet there is no vaccine or effective antiviral treatment for severe EV71 infection. The immunogenicity of EV71 VP1 DNA vaccine and the immunoregulatory activity of interleukin-12 (IL-12) or granulocyte-monocyte colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) were investigated. DNA vaccine plasmids, pcDNA-VP1, pcDNA-IL-12 and pcDNA-GM-CSF were constructed and inoculated into BALB/c mice with or without pcDNA-IL-12 or pcDNA-GM-CSF by intramuscular injection. Cellular and humoral immune responses were assessed by indirect ELISA, lymphocyte proliferation assays, cytokine release assay and FACS. The VP1 DNA vaccine had good immunogenicity and can induce specific humoral and cellular immunity in BALB/c mice, while IL-2 or GM-CSF plays an immunoadjuvant role and enhances specific immune responses. This study provides a frame of reference for the design of DNA vaccines against EV71.

  10. Manganese-Enhanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging for Detection of Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide Receptor 2 Agonist Therapy in a Model of Parkinson's Disease.

    PubMed

    Olson, Katherine E; Bade, Aditya N; Schutt, Charles R; Dong, Jingdong; Shandler, Scott J; Boska, Michael D; Mosley, R Lee; Gendelman, Howard E; Liu, Yutong

    2016-07-01

    Neuroprotective immunity is defined by transformation of T-cell polarity for therapeutic gain. For neurodegenerative disorders and specifically for Parkinson's disease (PD), granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor or vasoactive intestinal peptide receptor 2 (VIPR2) agonists elicit robust anti-inflammatory microglial responses leading to neuronal sparing in 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-intoxicated mice. While neurotherapeutic potential was demonstrated for PD, there remain inherent limitations in translating these inventions from the laboratory to patients. One obstacle in translating such novel neurotherapeutics centers on the availability of suitable noninvasive methods to track disease progression and therapeutic efficacy. To this end, we developed manganese-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MEMRI) assays as a way to track a linkage between glial activation and VIPR2 agonist (LBT-3627)-induced neuroprotective immunity for MPTP-induced nigrostriatal degeneration. Notably, LBT-3627-treated, MPTP-intoxicated mice show reduced MEMRI brain signal intensities. These changes paralleled reduced astrogliosis and resulted in sparing of nigral tyrosine hydroxylase neurons. Most importantly, the data suggest that MEMRI can be developed as a biomarker tool to monitor neurotherapeutic responses that are relevant to common neurodegenerative disorders used to improve disease outcomes.

  11. Enhancement of intracellular signaling associated with hematopoietic progenitor cell survival in response to SDF-1/CXCL12 in synergy with other cytokines.

    PubMed

    Lee, Younghee; Gotoh, Akihiko; Kwon, Hyung-Joo; You, Minute; Kohli, Lisa; Mantel, Charlie; Cooper, Scott; Hangoc, Giao; Miyazawa, Keisuke; Ohyashiki, Kazuma; Broxmeyer, Hal E

    2002-06-15

    Stromal cell-derived factor 1 (SDF-1/CXCL12) is a multifunctional cytokine. We previously reported that myelopoiesis was enhanced in SDF-1 alpha transgenic mice, probably due in part to SDF-1 alpha enhancement of myeloid progenitor cell (MPC) survival. To understand signaling pathways involved in this activity, we studied the effects on factor-dependent cell line MO7e cells incubated with SDF-1 alpha alone or in combination with other cytokines. SDF-1 alpha induced transient activation of extracellular stress-regulated kinase (ERK1/2), ribosomal S6 kinase (p90RSK) and Akt, molecules implicated in cell survival. Moreover, ERK1/2, p90RSK, and Akt were synergistically activated by SDF-1 alpha in combination with granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), Steel factor (SLF), or thrombopoietin (TPO). Similar effects were seen after pretreatment of MO7e cells with SDF-1 alpha followed by stimulation with the other cytokines, suggesting a priming effect of SDF-1 alpha. Nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-kappa B) did not appear to be involved in SDF-1 alpha actions, alone or in combination with other cytokines. These intracellular effects were consistent with enhanced myeloid progenitor cell survival by SDF-1 alpha after delayed addition of growth factors. SDF-1 alpha alone supported survival of highly purified human cord blood CD34(+++) cells, less purified human cord blood, and MO7e cells; this effect was synergistically enhanced when SDF-1 alpha was combined with low amounts of other survival-promoting cytokines (GM-CSF, SLF, TPO, and FL). SDF-1 may contribute to maintenance of MPCs in bone marrow by enhancing cell survival alone and in combination with other cytokines.

  12. Engineering of double recombinant vaccinia virus with enhanced oncolytic potential for solid tumor virotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Kochneva, Galina; Sivolobova, Galina; Tkacheva, Anastasiya; Grazhdantseva, Antonina; Troitskaya, Olga; Nushtaeva, Anna; Tkachenko, Anastasiya; Kuligina, Elena; Richter, Vladimir; Koval, Olga

    2016-01-01

    Vaccinia virus (VACV) oncolytic therapy has been successful in a number of tumor models. In this study our goal was to generate a double recombinant vaccinia virus (VV-GMCSF-Lact) with enhanced antitumor activity that expresses exogenous proteins: the antitumor protein lactaptin and human granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF). Lactaptin has previously been demonstrated to act as a tumor suppressor in mouse hepatoma as well as MDA-MB-231 human adenocarcinoma cells grafted into SCID mice. VV-GMCSF-Lact was engineered from Lister strain (L-IVP) vaccinia virus and has deletions of the viral thymidine kinase and vaccinia growth factor genes. Cell culture experiments revealed that engineered VV-GMCSF-Lact induced the death of cultured cancer cells more efficiently than recombinant VACV coding only GM-CSF (VV-GMCSF-dGF). Normal human MCF-10A cells were resistant to both recombinants up to 10 PFU/cell. The selectivity index for breast cancer cells measured in pair cultures MCF-7/MCF-10A was 200 for recombinant VV-GMCSF-Lact coding lactaptin and 100 for VV-GMCSF-dGF. Using flow cytometry we demonstrated that both recombinants induced apoptosis in treated cells but that the rate in the cells with active caspase −3 and −7 was higher after treatment with VV-GMCSF-Lact than with VV-GMCSF-dGF. Tumor growth inhibition and survival outcomes after VV-GMCSF-Lact treatment were estimated using immunodeficient and immunocompetent mice models. We observed that VV-GMCSF-Lact efficiently delays the growth of sensitive and chemoresistant tumors. These results demonstrate that recombinant VACVs coding an apoptosis-inducing protein have good therapeutic potential against chemoresistant tumors. Our data will also stimulate further investigation of coding lactaptin double recombinant VACV in clinical settings. PMID:27708236

  13. Recombinant Mycobacterium bovis BCG secreting functional interleukin-2 enhances gamma interferon production by splenocytes.

    PubMed Central

    O'Donnell, M A; Aldovini, A; Duda, R B; Yang, H; Szilvasi, A; Young, R A; DeWolf, W C

    1994-01-01

    Mycobacterium bovis BCG was genetically engineered to express and secrete mouse interleukin-2 (IL-2) and rat IL-2. Genes encoding IL-2 were inserted into an Escherichia coli-BCG shuttle plasmid under the control of the BCG HSP60 promoter. To facilitate study of proteins produced in this system, the IL-2 gene product was expressed (i) alone, (ii) with the mycobacterial alpha-antigen secretion signal sequence at the amino terminus, (iii) with an influenza virus hemagglutinin epitope tag at the amino terminus, and (iv) with both the secretion signal sequence and the epitope tag. When expressed with the alpha-antigen signal sequence, biologically active IL-2 was secreted into the extracellular medium. Western blot (immunoblot) analysis of the intracellular IL-2 and extracellular IL-2 revealed that the secretion signal was appropriately cleaved from the recombinant lymphokine upon secretion. To assess the ability of recombinant BCG to stimulate cytokine production in a splenocyte population, mouse splenocytes were cultured together with wild-type or IL-2-producing BCG. IL-2-secreting BCG clones stimulated substantial increases in gamma interferon production, which could be reproduced by the addition of exogenous IL-2 to BCG. Levels of IL-6, IL-10, tumor necrosis factor alpha, and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor were not significantly changed, while IL-4 and IL-5 remained undetectable (less than 50 pg/ml). The enhanced production of gamma interferon in response to IL-2-secreting BCG was strain independent. Recombinant BCG expressing mammalian cytokines provides a novel means to deliver cytokines and may augment the immunostimulatory properties of BCG in immunization and cancer therapy. Images PMID:8188376

  14. Moral Enhancement

    PubMed Central

    Douglas, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    Opponents of biomedical enhancement often claim that, even if such enhancement would benefit the enhanced, it would harm others. But this objection looks unpersuasive when the enhancement in question is a moral enhancement — an enhancement that will expectably leave the enhanced person with morally better motives than she had previously. In this article I (1) describe one type of psychological alteration that would plausibly qualify as a moral enhancement, (2) argue that we will, in the medium-term future, probably be able to induce such alterations via biomedical intervention, and (3) defend future engagement in such moral enhancements against possible objections. My aim is to present this kind of moral enhancement as a counter-example to the view that biomedical enhancement is always morally impermissible. PMID:19132138

  15. Autophagy is required for CSF-1-induced macrophagic differentiation and acquisition of phagocytic functions.

    PubMed

    Jacquel, Arnaud; Obba, Sandrine; Boyer, Laurent; Dufies, Maeva; Robert, Guillaume; Gounon, Pierre; Lemichez, Emmanuel; Luciano, Frederic; Solary, Eric; Auberger, Patrick

    2012-05-10

    Autophagy is the process by which superfluous or damaged macromolecules or organelles are degraded by the lysosome. Pharmacologic and genetic evidence indicates that autophagy plays pleiotropic functions in cellular homeostasis, development, survival, and differentiation. The differentiation of human blood monocytes into macrophages is a caspase-dependent process when triggered ex vivo by colony stimulating factor-1. We show here, using pharmacologic inhibitors, siRNA approaches, and Atg7-/- mice, that autophagy initiated by ULK1 is required for proper colony stimulating factor-1-driven differentiation of human and murine monocytes. We also unravel a role for autophagy in macrophage acquisition of phagocytic functions. Collectively, these findings highlight an unexpected and essential role of autophagy during monocyte differentiation and acquisition of macrophage functions.

  16. The interaction between Siglec-15 and tumor-associated sialyl-Tn antigen enhances TGF-β secretion from monocytes/macrophages through the DAP12-Syk pathway.

    PubMed

    Takamiya, Rina; Ohtsubo, Kazuaki; Takamatsu, Shinji; Taniguchi, Naoyuki; Angata, Takashi

    2013-02-01

    We previously demonstrated that Siglec-15, a member of the Siglec family of glycan-recognition proteins, is expressed on a subset of macrophages and preferentially recognizes the sialyl-Tn (sTn) antigen, a tumor-associated glycan structure. In this study, we report on the biological significance of the Siglec-15-mediated interaction between monocytes/macrophages and cancer cells. Siglec-15 is expressed on tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) in various human tumor tissues. We further demonstrated that its expression is substantially elevated in macrophage colony-stimulating factor-induced M2-like macrophages, which produced more transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) in response to sTn-positive cells than to negative cells. We designed a co-culture model of THP-1 (human monocytic leukemia) cells and H157 (human lung carcinoma) cells mimicking the interaction between monocytes/macrophages and cancer cells that recapitulated the enhanced TGF-β production in Siglec-15 expressing THP-1 cells by the cellular interaction with sTn expressing H157 cells. The enhanced TGF-β production required a direct interaction between the two cell lines through sialic acids. Siglec-15 associates with adaptor protein DNAX activation protein of 12 kDa (DAP12) at the binding determinant Lys(274) in the transmembrane domain and transduces a signal to spleen tyrosine kinase (Syk). The enhanced TGF-β secretion was significantly attenuated by Syk inhibitor treatment of THP-1 cells or by substitution of the Siglec-15 Lys(274) to Ala, which disrupts the molecular interaction between Siglec15 and DAP12. These findings indicate that Siglec-15 recognizes the tumoral sTn antigen and transduces a signal for enhanced TGF-β secretion in TAMs and further suggest that Siglec-15 on macrophages may contribute to tumor progression by the TGF-β-mediated modulation of intratumoral microenvironments.

  17. Messenger RNA encoding constitutively active Toll-like receptor 4 enhances effector functions of human T cells

    PubMed Central

    Pato, A; Eisenberg, G; Machlenkin, A; Margalit, A; Cafri, G; Frankenburg, S; Merims, S; Peretz, T; Lotem, M; Gross, G

    2015-01-01

    Adoptive T cell therapy of cancer employs a large number of ex-vivo-propagated T cells which recognize their targets either by virtue of their endogenous T cell receptor (TCR) or via genetic reprogramming. However, both cell-extrinsic and intrinsic mechanisms often diminish the in-vivo potency of these therapeutic T cells, limiting their clinical efficacy and broader use. Direct activation of human T cells by Toll-like receptor (TLR) ligands induces T cell survival and proliferation, boosts the production of proinflammatory cytokines and augments resistance to regulatory T cell (Treg) suppression. Removal of the TLR ligand-binding region results in constitutive signalling triggered by the remaining cytosolic Toll/interleukin-1 receptor (TIR) domain. The use of such TIR domains therefore offers an ideal means for equipping anti-tumour T cells with the arsenal of functional attributes required for improving current clinical protocols. Here we show that constitutively active (ca)TLR-4 can be expressed efficiently in human T cells using mRNA electroporation. The mere expression of caTLR-4 mRNA in polyclonal CD8 and CD4 T cells induced the production of interferon (IFN)-γ, triggered the surface expression of CD25, CD69 and 4-1BB and up-regulated a panel of cytokines and chemokines. In tumour-infiltrating lymphocytes prepared from melanoma patients, caTLR-4 induced robust IFN-γ secretion in all samples tested. Furthermore, caTLR-4 enhanced the anti-melanoma cytolytic activity of tumour-infiltrating lymphocytes and augmented the secretion of IFN-γ, tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α and granulocyte–macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) for at least 4 days post-transfection. Our results demonstrate that caTLR-4 is capable of exerting multiple T cell-enhancing effects and can potentially be used as a genetic adjuvant in adoptive cell therapy. PMID:26212048

  18. Synergistic enhancement of cytokine-induced human monocyte matrix metalloproteinase-1 by C-reactive protein and oxidized LDL through differential regulation of monocyte chemotactic protein-1 and prostaglandin E2.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yahong; Wahl, Larry M

    2006-01-01

    C-reactive protein (CRP) and oxidized LDL (ox-LDL) are associated with inflammatory lesions, such as coronary artery disease, in which monocytes and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) may play a major role in the rupture of atherosclerotic plaques. Monocytes are recruited to inflammation sites by monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), which may also participate in the activation of monocytes. The objective of this study was to compare the individual and combined effect of CRP and ox-LDL on human monocyte MMP-1 and the role of MCP-1 in this effect. Although CRP or ox-LDL failed to induce MMP-1 in control monocytes, these molecules enhanced MMP-1 production induced by tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) and granulocyte macrophage-colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) with a synergistic increase in MMP-1 occurring in the presence of both mediators. Enhancement of MMP-1 by CRP and ox-LDL was attributable to a differential increase in MCP-1 and prostaglandin E2(PGE2). CRP, at physiological concentrations, induced high levels of MCP-1 and relatively low levels of PGE2, whereas ox-LDL caused a significant enhancement of PGE2 with little affect on MCP-1. Accordingly, CRP- and ox-LDL-induced MMP-1 production by monocytes was inhibited by anti-MCP-1 antibodies and indomethacin, respectively. Moreover, addition of exogenous MCP-1 or PGE2 enhanced MMP-1 production by TNF-alpha- and GM-CSF-stimulated monocytes. These results show that the combination of CRP and ox-LDL can cause a synergistic enhancement of the role of monocytes in inflammation, first, by increasing MCP-1, which attracts more monocytes and directly enhances MMP-1 production by activated monocytes, and second, by elevating PGE2 production, which also leads to higher levels of MMP-1.

  19. Enhanced but hypofunctional osteoclastogenesis in an autosomal dominant osteopetrosis type II case carrying a c.1856C>T mutation in CLCN7

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xiang; Zhang, Kun; Hock, Janet; Wang, Chunyu; Yu, Xijie

    2016-01-01

    Type II autosomal dominant osteopetrosis (ADO2), which is the most common form of osteopetrosis, is caused by heterozygous mutations in the chloride channel 7 (CLCN7) gene. The osteopetrosis of ADO2 has been attributed to hypofunctional osteoclasts. The mechanism underlying the abnormality in osteoclast function remains largely unknown. This study was designed to investigate gene mutations and osteoclast function in a case that was clinically diagnosed as ADO2. Genomic DNA was extracted from blood samples of this patient, and the 25 exons of CLCN7 were amplified. Peripheral blood from the ADO2 subject and a healthy age- and sex-matched control was used to evaluate osteoclastogenesis, osteoclast morphology, and bone resorption. Analysis of DNA from the patient showed a germline heterozygous missense mutation, c.1856C>T (p.P619L), in exon 20 of CLCN7. A similar homozygous mutation at this site was previously reported in a patient with autosomal recessive osteopetrosis. When cultured, the peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from the ADO2 patient spontaneously differentiated into mature osteoclasts in vitro. The ADO2 patient’s PBMCs formed enhanced, but heterogeneous, osteoclasts in both the presence and absence of macrophage-colony stimulating factor, and nuclear factor-ĸB ligand. Bone resorption was reduced in the ADO2 patient’s osteoclasts, which exhibited aberrant morphology and abnormal distribution of integrin avβ3. Gene analysis found increased c-fos expression and reduced RhoA and integrin beta 3 expression in ADO2 cells. In conclusion, our data suggest that enhanced, heterogeneous osteoclast induction may be an intrinsic characteristic of ADO2. PMID:27990310

  20. Biocatalyst Enhancement

    EPA Science Inventory

    The increasing availability of enzyme collections has assisted attempts by pharmaceutical producers to adopt green chemistry approaches to manufacturing. A joint effort between an enzyme producer and a pharmaceutical manufacturer has been enhanced over the past three years by ena...

  1. 5-AED enhances survival of irradiated mice in a G-CSF-dependent manner, stimulates innate immune cell function, reduces radiation-induced DNA damage and induces genes that modulate cell cycle progression and apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Grace, Marcy B.; Singh, Vijay K.; Rhee, Juong G.; Jackson, William E.; Kao, Tzu-Cheg; Whitnall, Mark H.

    2012-01-01

    The steroid androst-5-ene-3ß,17ß-diol (5-androstenediol, 5-AED) elevates circulating granulocytes and platelets in animals and humans, and enhances survival during the acute radiation syndrome (ARS) in mice and non-human primates. 5-AED promotes survival of irradiated human hematopoietic progenitors in vitro through induction of Nuclear Factor-κB (NFκB)-dependent Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor (G-CSF) expression, and causes elevations of circulating G-CSF and interleukin-6 (IL-6). However, the in vivo cellular and molecular effects of 5-AED are not well understood. The aim of this study was to investigate the mechanisms of action of 5-AED administered subcutaneously (s.c.) to mice 24 h before total body γ- or X-irradiation (TBI). We used neutralizing antibodies, flow cytometric functional assays of circulating innate immune cells, analysis of expression of genes related to cell cycle progression, DNA repair and apoptosis, and assessment of DNA strand breaks with halo-comet assays. Neutralization experiments indicated endogenous G-CSF but not IL-6 was involved in survival enhancement by 5-AED. In keeping with known effects of G-CSF on the innate immune system, s.c. 5-AED stimulated phagocytosis in circulating granulocytes and oxidative burst in monocytes. 5-AED induced expression of both bax and bcl-2 in irradiated animals. Cdkn1a and ddb1, but not gadd45a expression, were upregulated by 5-AED in irradiated mice. S.c. 5-AED administration caused decreased DNA strand breaks in splenocytes from irradiated mice. Our results suggest 5-AED survival enhancement is G-CSF-dependent, and that it stimulates innate immune cell function and reduces radiation-induced DNA damage via induction of genes that modulate cell cycle progression and apoptosis. PMID:22843381

  2. 5-AED enhances survival of irradiated mice in a G-CSF-dependent manner, stimulates innate immune cell function, reduces radiation-induced DNA damage and induces genes that modulate cell cycle progression and apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Grace, Marcy B; Singh, Vijay K; Rhee, Juong G; Jackson, William E; Kao, Tzu-Cheg; Whitnall, Mark H

    2012-11-01

    The steroid androst-5-ene-3ß,17ß-diol (5-androstenediol, 5-AED) elevates circulating granulocytes and platelets in animals and humans, and enhances survival during the acute radiation syndrome (ARS) in mice and non-human primates. 5-AED promotes survival of irradiated human hematopoietic progenitors in vitro through induction of Nuclear Factor-κB (NFκB)-dependent Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor (G-CSF) expression, and causes elevations of circulating G-CSF and interleukin-6 (IL-6). However, the in vivo cellular and molecular effects of 5-AED are not well understood. The aim of this study was to investigate the mechanisms of action of 5-AED administered subcutaneously (s.c.) to mice 24 h before total body γ- or X-irradiation (TBI). We used neutralizing antibodies, flow cytometric functional assays of circulating innate immune cells, analysis of expression of genes related to cell cycle progression, DNA repair and apoptosis, and assessment of DNA strand breaks with halo-comet assays. Neutralization experiments indicated endogenous G-CSF but not IL-6 was involved in survival enhancement by 5-AED. In keeping with known effects of G-CSF on the innate immune system, s.c. 5-AED stimulated phagocytosis in circulating granulocytes and oxidative burst in monocytes. 5-AED induced expression of both bax and bcl-2 in irradiated animals. Cdkn1a and ddb1, but not gadd45a expression, were upregulated by 5-AED in irradiated mice. S.c. 5-AED administration caused decreased DNA strand breaks in splenocytes from irradiated mice. Our results suggest 5-AED survival enhancement is G-CSF-dependent, and that it stimulates innate immune cell function and reduces radiation-induced DNA damage via induction of genes that modulate cell cycle progression and apoptosis.

  3. Silencing of Foxp3 enhances the antitumor efficacy of GM-CSF genetically modified tumor cell vaccine against B16 melanoma

    PubMed Central

    Miguel, Antonio; Sendra, Luis; Noé, Verónica; Ciudad, Carles J; Dasí, Francisco; Hervas, David; Herrero, María José; Aliño, Salvador F

    2017-01-01

    The antitumor response after therapeutic vaccination has a limited effect and seems to be related to the presence of T regulatory cells (Treg), which express the immunoregulatory molecules CTLA4 and Foxp3. The blockage of CTLA4 using antibodies has shown an effective antitumor response conducing to the approval of the human anti-CTLA4 antibody ipilimumab by the US Food and Drug Administration. On the other hand, Foxp3 is crucial for Treg development. For this reason, it is an attractive target for cancer treatment. This study aims to evaluate whether combining therapeutic vaccination with CTLA4 or Foxp3 gene silencing enhances the antitumor response. First, the “in vitro” cell entrance and gene silencing efficacy of two tools, 2′-O-methyl phosphorotioate-modified oligonucleotides (2′-OMe-PS-ASOs) and polypurine reverse Hoogsteen hairpins (PPRHs), were evaluated in EL4 cells and cultured primary lymphocytes. Following B16 tumor transplant, C57BL6 mice were vaccinated with irradiated B16 tumor cells engineered to produce granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) and were intraperitoneally treated with CTLA4 and Foxp3 2′-OMe-PS-ASO before and after vaccination. Tumor growth, mice survival, and CTLA4 and Foxp3 expression in blood cells were measured. The following results were obtained: 1) only 2′-OMe-PS-ASO reached gene silencing efficacy “in vitro”; 2) an improved survival effect was achieved combining both therapeutic vaccine and Foxp3 antisense or CTLA4 antisense oligonucleotides (50% and 20%, respectively); 3) The blood CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ (Treg) and CD4+CTLA4+ cell counts were higher in mice that developed tumor on the day of sacrifice. Our data showed that tumor cell vaccine combined with Foxp3 or CTLA4 gene silencing can increase the efficacy of therapeutic antitumor vaccination. PMID:28176947

  4. Administration of an immunomodulatory azaspirane, SK F 105685, or human recombinant interleukin 1 stimulates myelopoiesis and enhances survival from lethal irradiation in C57Bl/6 mice

    SciTech Connect

    King, A.G.; Badger, A.M. )

    1991-08-01

    The immunomodulatory azaspirane SK F 105685 has immunosuppressive activity in animal models of autoimmune disease such as adjuvant-induced arthritis and experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. The mechanism of SK F 105685 appears to be the induction of nonspecific suppressor cell (SC) activity. SC appear to be null cells, that is, cells that lack specific cell surface markers of mature B cells, T cells, natural killer (NK) cells, or macrophages. Because the authors hypothesized that the induction of SC was associated with enhanced hematopoiesis, they sought to determine the hematopoietic potential of SK F 105685. Recombinant interleukin 1 alpha (rIL-1) was included as a positive control for hematopoietic stimulation in their studies. They demonstrate here that administration of SK F 105685 increases the number of granulocyte-macrophage colony-forming units (CFU-GM) within the bone marrow 24 h after injection in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, the percentage of CFU-GM in S-phase of the cell cycle was significantly increased, as was colony-stimulating activity (CSA) present in the serum of treated animals. In their experiments IL-1 did not increase marrow CFU-GM; however, splenic CFU-GM, the proportion of CFU-GM in S-phase of the cell cycle, and serum CSA were all increased 24 h after a single treatment. Administration of SK F 105685 24 h prior to lethal irradiation resulted in a dose-related increase in the number of surviving mice. These results demonstrate that SK F 105685 and rIL-1 stimulate myelopoiesis in vivo and suggest a mechanism by which prophylactic treatment with these agents protects mice from otherwise lethal irradiation.

  5. Case Report. Prevention of Clozapine-Induced Granulocytopenia/Agranulocytosis with Granulocyte-Colony Stimulating Factor (G-CSF) in an Intellectually Disabled Patient with Schizophrenia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rajagopal, G.; Graham, J. G.; Haut, F. F. A.

    2007-01-01

    Background: While clozapine is an effective treatment for refractory schizophrenia, its use is limited by haematological side effects. Treatment options that allow continued prescription of clozapine by tackling these side effects will greatly aid patients for whom this medication is all too often their only hope of recovery. Method: In this case…

  6. Favorable effect of priming with granulocyte colony-stimulating factor in remission induction of acute myeloid leukemia restricted to dose escalation of cytarabine.

    PubMed

    Pabst, Thomas; Vellenga, Edo; van Putten, Wim; Schouten, Harry C; Graux, Carlos; Vekemans, Marie-Christiane; Biemond, Bart; Sonneveld, Peter; Passweg, Jakob; Verdonck, Leo; Legdeur, Marie-Cecile; Theobald, Matthias; Jacky, Emanuel; Bargetzi, Mario; Maertens, Johan; Ossenkoppele, Gert Jan; Löwenberg, Bob

    2012-06-07

    The clinical value of chemotherapy sensitization of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) with G-CSF priming has remained controversial. Cytarabine is a key constituent of remission induction chemotherapy. The effect of G-CSF priming has not been investigated in relationship with variable dose levels of cytarabine. We randomized 917 AML patients to receive G-CSF (456 patients) or no G-CSF (461 patients) at the days of chemotherapy. In the initial part of the study, 406 patients were also randomized between 2 cytarabine regimens comparing conventional-dose (199 patients) versus escalated-dose (207 patients) cytarabine in cycles 1 and 2. We found that patients after induction chemotherapy plus G-CSF had similar overall survival (43% vs 40%, P = .88), event-free survival (37% vs 31%, P = .29), and relapse rates (34% vs 36%, P = .77) at 5 years as those not receiving G-CSF. However, patients treated with the escalated-dose cytarabine regimen benefited from G-CSF priming, with improved event-free survival (P = .01) and overall survival (P = .003), compared with patients without G-CSF undergoing escalated-dose cytarabine treatment. A significant survival advantage of sensitizing AML for chemotherapy with G-CSF was not apparent in the entire study group, but it was seen in patients treated with escalated-dose cytarabine during remission induction. The HOVON-42 study is registered under The Netherlands Trial Registry (www.trialregister.nl) as #NTR230.

  7. Analytical techniques and bioactivity assays to compare the structure and function of filgrastim (granulocyte-colony stimulating factor) therapeutics from different manufacturers.

    PubMed

    Levy, Michaella J; Gucinski, Ashley C; Sommers, Cynthia D; Ghasriani, Houman; Wang, Bo; Keire, David A; Boyne, Michael T

    2014-10-01

    The FDA has approved more than 100 protein and peptide drugs with hundreds more in the pipeline (Lanthier et al. in Nat Rev Drug Discov 7(9):733-737, 2008). Many of these originator biologic products are now coming off patent and are being manufactured by alternate methods than the innovator as follow-on drugs. Because changes to the production method often lead to subtle differences (e.g., degradation products, different posttranslational modifications or impurities) in the therapeutic (Schiestl et al. in Nat Biotechnol 29(4):310-312, 2011), there is a critical need to define techniques to test and insure the quality of these drugs. In addition, the emergence of protein therapeutics manufactured by unapproved methodologies presents an ongoing and growing regulatory challenge. In this work, high-resolution mass spectrometry was used to determine the presence or absence of posttranslational modifications for one FDA-approved and three foreign-sourced, unapproved filgrastim products. Circular dichroism (CD) was used to compare the secondary structure and probe the temperature stability of these products. Native 2D (1)H,(15)N-heteronuclear singular quantum coherence (HSQC) NMR test was applied to these samples to compare the higher-order structure of the four products. Finally, a cell proliferation assay was performed on the filgrastims to compare their bioactivity, and stressed filgrastim was tested in the bioassay to better understand the effects of changes in protein structure on activity. The results showed that orthogonal approaches are capable of characterizing the physiochemical properties of this protein drug and assessing the impact of structural changes on filgrastim purity and potency.

  8. Production of neutralizing granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) antibodies in carcinoma patients following GM-CSF combination therapy.

    PubMed

    Wadhwa, M; Bird, C; Fagerberg, J; Gaines-Das, R; Ragnhammar, P; Mellstedt, H; Thorpe, R

    1996-05-01

    In this study, the development of neutralizing and non-neutralizing GM-CSF antibodies and the clinical consequences related to the induction of these antibodies were analysed in 20 patients with metastatic colorectal carcinoma receiving a combination therapy of Escherichia coli-derived GM-CSF and a colon carcinoma-reactive MoAb in the absence of any concomitant chemotherapy. The recombinant human GM-CSF was administered subcutaneously for 10 days every month for 4 months. Following the first cycle of treatment, no GM-CSF antibodies were detected, but during subsequent therapy, 19 of the 20 patients studied developed GM-CSF binding antibodies. However, only a proportion (40%) of the 19 antibody-positive patients developed antibodies that neutralized the biological activity of GM-CSF in an in vitro bioassay. The presence of GM-CSF neutralizing antibodies was associated with a significant reduction in GM-CSF-induced expansion of leucocytes, neutrophils and eosinophils. Such clinical effects were not apparent in patients with non-neutralizing antibodies. Further characterization of sera from patients with neutralizing antibodies showed that, in most cases, the antibodies neutralized the biological activity of GM-CSF preparations derived using different expression systems (Chinese hamster ovary cells and yeast), suggesting that these antibodies may have the potential to cross-react with endogenously produced GM-CSF. These effects should be considered before therapeutic use of cytokines, particularly in patients who are not immunosuppressed, and therefore capable of mounting an effective immune response. Our results indicate that assessment of production of neutralizing antibodies induced during cytokine therapy can be used to predict diminished clinical response to further therapy.

  9. The Colony Stimulating Factor 3 Receptor T640N mutation is oncogenic, sensitive to JAK inhibition, and mimics T618I

    PubMed Central

    Maxson, Julia E.; Luty, Samuel B.; MacManiman, Jason D.; Paik, Jason C.; Gotlib, Jason; Greenberg, Peter; Bahamadi, Swaleh; Savage, Samantha L.; Abel, Melissa L.; Eide, Christopher A.; Loriaux, Marc M.; Stevens, Emily A.; Tyner, Jeffrey W.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose CSF3R mutations have been identified in the majority of chronic neutrophilic leukemia (CNL) and a smaller percentage of atypical chronic myeloid leukemia (aCML) cases. Although CSF3R point mutations (e.g. T618I) are emerging as key players in CNL/aCML, the significance of rarer CSF3R mutations is unknown. In this study we assess the importance of the CSF3R T640N mutation as a marker of CNL/aCML and potential therapeutic target. Experimental Design Sanger sequencing of leukemia samples was performed to identify CSF3R mutations in CNL and aCML. The oncogenicity of the CSF3R T640N mutation relative to the T618I mutation was assessed by cytokine independent growth assays and by mouse bone marrow transplant. Receptor dimerization and O-glycosylation of the mutants was assessed by western blot, and JAK inhibitor sensitivity was assessed by colony assay. Results Here we identify a CSF3R T640N mutation in two patients with CNL/aCML, one of whom was originally diagnosed with MDS and acquired the T640N mutation upon evolution of disease to aCML. The T640N mutation is oncogenic in cellular transformation assays and an in vivo mouse bone marrow transplantation model. It exhibits many similar phenotypic features to T618I, including ligand independence and altered patterns of O-glycosylation – despite the transmembrane location of T640 preventing access by GalNAc transferase enzymes. Cells transformed by the T640N mutation are sensitive to JAK kinase inhibition to a similar degree as cells transformed by CSF3R T618I. Conclusions Due to its similarities to CSF3R T618I, the T640N mutation likely has diagnostic and therapeutic relevance in CNL/aCML. PMID:26475333

  10. GRANULOCYTE COLONY-STIMULATING FACTOR (G-CSF) UPREGULATES β1 INTEGRIN AND INCREASES MIGRATION OF HUMAN TROPHOBLAST SWAN 71 CELLS VIA PI3K AND MAPK ACTIVATION

    PubMed Central

    Furmento, Verónica A.; Marino, Julieta; Blank, Viviana C.; Cayrol, María Florencia; Cremaschi, Graciela A.; Aguilar, Rubén C.; Roguin, Leonor P.

    2017-01-01

    Multiple cytokines and growth factors expressed at the fetal-maternal interface are involved in the regulation of trophoblast functions and placental growth, but the role of G-CSF has not been completely established. Based on our previous study showing that G-CSF increases the activity of matrix metalloproteinase-2 and the release of vascular endothelial growth factor in Swan 71 human trophoblast cells, in this work we explore the possible contribution of G-CSF to cell migration and the G-CSF-triggered signaling pathway. We found that G-CSF induced morphological changes on actin cytoskeleton consistent with a migratory cell phenotype. G-CSF also up-regulated the expression levels of β1 integrin and promoted Swan 71 cell migration. By using selective pharmacological inhibitors and dominant negative mutants we showed that PI3K, Erk 1/2 and p38 pathways are required for promoting Swan 71 cell motility. It was also demonstrated that PI3K behaved as an upstream regulator of Erk 1/2 and p38 MAPK. In addition, the increase of β1 integrin expression was dependent on PI3K activation. In conclusion, our results indicate that G-CSF stimulates β1 integrin expression and Swan 71 cell migration by activating PI3K and MAPK signaling pathways, suggesting that G-CSF should be considered as an additional regulatory factor that contributes to a successful embryo implantation and to the placenta development. PMID:26992288

  11. Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) upregulates β1 integrin and increases migration of human trophoblast Swan 71 cells via PI3K and MAPK activation.

    PubMed

    Furmento, Verónica A; Marino, Julieta; Blank, Viviana C; Cayrol, María Florencia; Cremaschi, Graciela A; Aguilar, Rubén C; Roguin, Leonor P

    2016-03-15

    Multiple cytokines and growth factors expressed at the fetal-maternal interface are involved in the regulation of trophoblast functions and placental growth, but the role of G-CSF has not been completely established. Based on our previous study showing that G-CSF increases the activity of matrix metalloproteinase-2 and the release of vascular endothelial growth factor in Swan 71 human trophoblast cells, in this work we explore the possible contribution of G-CSF to cell migration and the G-CSF-triggered signaling pathway. We found that G-CSF induced morphological changes on actin cytoskeleton consistent with a migratory cell phenotype. G-CSF also up-regulated the expression levels of β1 integrin and promoted Swan 71 cell migration. By using selective pharmacological inhibitors and dominant negative mutants we showed that PI3K, Erk 1/2 and p38 pathways are required for promoting Swan 71 cell motility. It was also demonstrated that PI3K behaved as an upstream regulator of Erk 1/2 and p38 MAPK. In addition, the increase of β1 integrin expression was dependent on PI3K activation. In conclusion, our results indicate that G-CSF stimulates β1 integrin expression and Swan 71 cell migration by activating PI3K and MAPK signaling pathways, suggesting that G-CSF should be considered as an additional regulatory factor that contributes to a successful embryo implantation and to the placenta development.

  12. Response to recombinant erythropoietin alpha, without the adjunct of granulocyte-colony stimulating factor, is associated with a longer survival in patients with transfusion-dependent myelodysplastic syndromes.

    PubMed

    Musto, Pellegrino; Villani, Oreste; Martorelli, Maria Carmen; Pietrantuono, Giuseppe; Guariglia, Roberto; Mansueto, Giovanna; D'Auria, Fiorella; Grieco, Vitina; Bianchino, Gabriella; Sparano, Anna; Zonno, Antonia; Lerose, Rosa; Sanpaolo, Grazia; Falcone, Antonietta

    2010-08-01

    This was a retrospective, comparative study focused on the extended follow-up of 192 transfusion-dependent patients with myelodysplastic syndromes treated (n. 83) or not treated (n. 109) with recombinant erythropoietin alpha (r-EPO) as single agent during the course of their disease. The results supported the safety of this treatment in the long term and also showed a significant survival advantage (median 52 months vs. 31 months, p<0.0095) in responding patients as compared to non-responding ones or to subjects never treated with r-EPO. At multivariate analysis, response to r-EPO maintained an independent prognostic value on OS.

  13. Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) positive effects on muscle fiber degeneration and gait recovery after nerve lesion in MDX mice

    PubMed Central

    Simões, Gustavo F; Benitez, Suzana U; Oliveira, Alexandre L R

    2014-01-01

    Background G-CSF has been shown to decrease inflammatory processes and to act positively on the process of peripheral nerve regeneration during the course of muscular dystrophy. Aims The aims of this study were to investigate the effects of treatment of G-CSF during sciatic nerve regeneration and histological analysis in the soleus muscle in MDX mice. Methods Six-week-old male MDX mice underwent left sciatic nerve crush and were G-CSF treated at 7 days prior to and 21 days after crush. Ten and twenty-one days after surgery, the mice were euthanized, and the sciatic nerves were processed for immunohistochemistry (anti-p75NTR and anti-neurofilament) and transmission electron microscopy. The soleus muscles were dissected out and processed for H&E staining and subsequent morphologic analysis. Motor function analyses were performed at 7 days prior to and 21 days after sciatic crush using the CatWalk system and the sciatic nerve index. Results Both groups treated with G-CSF showed increased p75NTR and neurofilament expression after sciatic crush. G-CSF treatment decreased the number of degenerated and regenerated muscle fibers, thereby increasing the number of normal muscle fibers. Conclusions The reduction in p75NTR and neurofilament indicates a decreased regenerative capacity in MDX mice following a lesion to a peripheral nerve. The reduction in motor function in the crushed group compared with the control groups may reflect the cycles of muscle degeneration/regeneration that occur postnatally. Thus, G-CSF treatment increases motor function in MDX mice. Nevertheless, the decrease in baseline motor function in these mice is not reversed completely by G-CSF. PMID:25328849

  14. The anti-inflammatory role of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor in macrophage-dendritic cell crosstalk after Lactobacillus rhamnosus GR-1 exposure.

    PubMed

    Martins, Andrew J; Spanton, Sarah; Sheikh, Haroon I; Kim, Sung Ouk

    2011-06-01

    MΦs are important sensory cells of the innate immune system and regulate immune responses through releasing different combinations of cytokines. In this study, we examined whether cytokines released by MΦs in response to the probiotic bacterial strain GR-1 modulate the responses of DCs. The cytokine profile released by GR-1-treated MΦs was characterized by low levels of TNF-α, GM-CSF, IL-6, and IL-12 but very high levels of G-CSF. GR-1 CM did not induce expression of the shared p40 subunit of IL-12 and IL-23 and costimulatory molecules CD80 or CD86 or increase T cell stimulatory capacity in DCs. However, in G-CSFR-deficient DCs or after antibody-mediated neutralization of G-CSF, GR-1 CM induced IL-12/23 p40 production significantly, indicating that G-CSF within the GR-1 CM inhibits IL-12/23 p40 production induced by other CM components. GR-1 CM and rG-CSF also inhibited LPS-induced IL-12 production at the mRNA and protein levels. The inhibition of IL-12 production by G-CSF was at least in part mediated through inhibition of JNK activation. Finally, splenic DCs of GR-1-injected mice produced less IL-12/23 p40 than those of PBS-injected mice in response to LPS ex vivo, and this was at least partially dependent on exposure to GR-1-induced G-CSF in vivo. Altogether, these results suggest that G-CSF modulates the IL-12/23 p40 response of DCs in the context of the probiotic GR-1 through MΦ-DC crosstalk.

  15. A role for granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor in the regulation of CD8{sup +} T cell responses to rabies virus

    SciTech Connect

    Wanjalla, Celestine N.; Goldstein, Elizabeth F.; Wirblich, Christoph; Schnell, Matthias J.

    2012-05-10

    Inflammatory cytokines have a significant role in altering the innate and adaptive arms of immune responses. Here, we analyzed the effect of GM-CSF on a RABV-vaccine vector co-expressing HIV-1 Gag. To this end, we immunized mice with RABV expressing HIV-1 Gag and GM-CSF and analyzed the primary and recall CD8{sup +} T cell responses. We observed a statistically significant increase in antigen presenting cells (APCs) in the spleen and draining lymph nodes in response to GM-CSF. Despite the increase in APCs, the primary and memory anti HIV-1 CD8{sup +} T cell response was significantly lower. This was partly likely due to lower levels of proliferation in the spleen. Animals treated with GM-CSF neutralizing antibodies restored the CD8{sup +} T cell response. These data define a role of GM-CSF expression, in the regulation of the CD8{sup +} T cell immune responses against RABV and has implications in the use of GM-CSF as a molecular adjuvant in vaccine development.

  16. History of chronic comorbidity and risk of chemotherapy-induced febrile neutropenia in patients with non-Hodgkin lymphoma not receiving granulocyte colony-stimulating factor prophylaxis.

    PubMed

    Chao, Chun; Rodriguez, Roberto; Page, John H; Yang, Su-Jau; Huynh, Julie; Chia, Victoria M

    2015-01-01

    We conducted a cohort study to examine the association between a wide variety of chronic comorbidities and risk of febrile neutropenia (FN) in patients with non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) from 2000 to 2009 treated with chemotherapy at Kaiser Permanente Southern California. History of comorbidities and FN events were identified using electronic medical records. Cox model adjusting for propensity score was used to determine the association between a comorbid condition and FN. Models that additionally adjusted for cancer stage, baseline absolute neutrophil count, chemotherapy regimen and dose reduction were also evaluated. A total of 2480 patients with NHL were included, and 60% received CHOP/R-CHOP (cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, prednisone, with or without rituximab). In total, 236 (9.5%) patients developed FN in the first chemotherapy cycle. Anemia (adjusted hazard ratio [HR] = 1.6, 95% confidence interval [1.2-2.2]), HIV infection (HR = 3.8 [2.0-6.7]) and rheumatoid diseases (HR = 2.4 [1.3-4.0]) were associated with significantly increased risk of FN. These results provide evidence that chronic comorbidity increases the risk of FN.

  17. The skeletal effects of colony-stimulating factor-1 in toothless (osteopetrotic) rats: persistent metaphyseal sclerosis and the failure to restore subepiphyseal osteoclasts.

    PubMed

    Marks, S C; Mackay, C A; Jackson, M E; Larson, E K; Cielinski, M J; Stanley, E R; Aukerman, S L

    1993-01-01

    Toothless (tl), one of four osteopetrotic mutations in the rat, is characterized by few osteoclasts, undetectable bone resorption, and failure of correction by bone marrow transplantation. We recently reported that CSF-1 treatment improves these skeletal problems but that metaphyseal sclerosis persists. In the present study we demonstrate that optimal reduction of the skeletal sclerosis in tl rats following CSF-1 treatment has lower and upper dosage thresholds and that skeletal sclerosis returns after CSF-1 withdrawal. Osteoclasts increase significantly in tl rats after CSF-1 treatment, but compared to untreated normal littermates, histochemical staining for characteristic enzymes and osteoclast number is reduced and no osteoclasts appear in the subepiphyseal areas of long bones. These data are interpreted to mean that there are dosage limits to the beneficial skeletal effects of CSF-1, that persistent sclerosis is related to the failure to restore subepiphyseal osteoclasts, that osteoclast or progenitor populations may be deficient or differ in their responses to CSF-1, and that the defect in tl rats is not merely lack of a circulating, biologically active form of CSF-1.

  18. Acute iritis induced by granulocyte colony-stimulating factor used for mobilization in a volunteer unrelated peripheral blood progenitor cell donor.

    PubMed

    Parkkali, T; Volin, L; Sirén, M K; Ruutu, T

    1996-03-01

    We describe a volunteer unrelated peripheral blood progenitor cell donor with previously diagnosed dermatitis herpetiformis in whom the administration of G-CSF for the mobilization of precursor cells induced acute iritis. G-CSF has been administered to healthy people with minimal side-effects but when used in patients with autoimmune disorders worsening of symptoms or new manifestations may be a potential concern.

  19. Key Role of MicroRNA in the Regulation of Granulocyte Macrophage Colony-stimulating Factor Expression in Murine Alveolar Epithelial Cells during Oxidative Stress*

    PubMed Central

    Sturrock, Anne; Mir-Kasimov, Mustafa; Baker, Jessica; Rowley, Jesse; Paine, Robert

    2014-01-01

    GM-CSF is an endogenous pulmonary cytokine produced by normal alveolar epithelial cells (AEC) that is a key defender of the alveolar space. AEC GM-CSF expression is suppressed by oxidative stress through alternations in mRNA turnover, an effect that is reversed by treatment with recombinant GM-CSF. We hypothesized that specific microRNA (miRNA) would play a key role in AEC GM-CSF regulation. A genome-wide miRNA microarray identified 19 candidate miRNA altered in primary AEC during oxidative stress with reversal by treatment with GM-CSF. Three of these miRNA (miR 133a, miR 133a*, and miR 133b) are also predicted to bind the GM-CSF 3′-untranslated region (UTR). PCR for the mature miRNA confirmed induction during oxidative stress that was reversed by treatment with GM-CSF. Experiments using a GM-CSF 3′-UTR reporter construct demonstrated that miR133a and miR133b effects on GM-CSF expression are through interactions with the GM-CSF 3′-UTR. Using lentiviral transduction of specific mimics and inhibitors in primary murine AEC, we determined that miR133a and miR133b suppress GM-CSF expression and that their inhibition both reverses oxidant-induced suppression of GM-CSF expression and increases basal expression of GM-CSF in cells in normoxia. In contrast, these miRNAs are not active in regulation of GM-CSF expression in murine EL4 T cells. Thus, members of the miR133 family play key roles in regulation of GM-CSF expression through effects on mRNA turnover in AEC during oxidative stress. Increased understanding of GM-CSF gene regulation may provide novel miRNA-based interventions to augment pulmonary innate immune defense in lung injury. PMID:24371146

  20. Enhancing bioremediation

    SciTech Connect

    Koenigsberg, S.

    1997-02-01

    Oxygen is often the limiting factor in aerobic bioremediation. Without adequate oxygen, contaminant degradation will either cease or proceed by highly inefficient anaerobic processes. Researchers at Regenesis Bioremediation Products recently develope a technology to combat this problem, Oxygen Release Compound (ORC) a unique formulation of magnesium peroxide release oxygen slowly when hydrated. ORC is idea for supporting bioremediation of underground storage tank releases. ORC treatment represents a low intensity approach to remediation - simple, passive, low-cost, long term enhancement of a natural attenuation. 1 fig.

  1. EDITORIAL: Enhancing nanolithography Enhancing nanolithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demming, Anna

    2012-01-01

    Lithography was invented in late 18th century Bavaria by an ambitious young playwright named Alois Senefelder. Senefelder experimented with stone, wax, water and ink in the hope of finding a way of reproducing text so that he might financially gain from a wider distribution of his already successful scripts. His discovery not only facilitated the profitability of his plays, but also provided the world with an affordable printing press that would ultimately democratize the dissemination of art, knowledge and literature. Since Senefelder, experiments in lithography have continued with a range of innovations including the use of electron beams and UV that allow increasingly higher-resolution features [1, 2]. Applications for this have now breached the limits of paper printing into the realms of semiconductor and microelectronic mechanical systems technology. In this issue, researchers demonstrate a technique for fabricating periodic features in poly(3,4-ethylene dioxythiophene)-poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT-PSS) [3]. Their method combines field enhancements from silica nanospheres with laser-interference lithography to provide a means of patterning a polymer that has the potential to open the market of low-end, high-volume microelectronics. Laser-interference lithography has already been used successfully in patterning. Researchers in Korea used laser-interference lithography to generate stamps for imprinting a two-dimensional photonic crystal structure into green light emitting diodes (LEDs) [4]. The imprinted patterns comprised depressions 100 nm deep and 180 nm wide with a periodicity of 295 nm. In comparison with unpatterned LEDs, the intensity of photoluminescence was enhanced by a factor of seven in the LEDs that had the photonic crystal structures imprinted in them. The potential of exploiting field enhancements around nanostructures for new technologies has also attracted a great deal of attention. Researchers in the USA and Australia have used the field

  2. Enhancement in Sport, and Enhancement outside Sport

    PubMed Central

    Douglas, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    Sport is one of the first areas in which enhancement has become commonplace. It is also one of the first areas in which the use of enhancement technologies has been heavily regulated. Some have thus seen sport as a testing ground for arguments about whether to permit enhancement. However, I argue that there are fairness-based objections to enhancement in sport that do not apply as strongly in some other areas of human activity. Thus, I claim that there will often be a stronger case for permitting enhancement outside of sport than for permitting enhancement in sport. I end by considering some methodological implications of this conclusion. PMID:19750128

  3. Genetic enhancements and expectations.

    PubMed

    Sorensen, K

    2009-07-01

    Some argue that genetic enhancements and environmental enhancements are not importantly different: environmental enhancements such as private schools and chess lessons are simply the old-school way to have a designer baby. I argue that there is an important distinction between the two practices--a distinction that makes state restrictions on genetic enhancements more justifiable than state restrictions on environmental enhancements. The difference is that parents have no settled expectations about genetic enhancements.

  4. Autonomy and Enhancement.

    PubMed

    Schaefer, G Owen; Kahane, Guy; Savulescu, Julian

    2014-01-01

    Some have objected to human enhancement on the grounds that it violates the autonomy of the enhanced. These objections, however, overlook the interesting possibility that autonomy itself could be enhanced. How, exactly, to enhance autonomy is a difficult problem due to the numerous and diverse accounts of autonomy in the literature. Existing accounts of autonomy enhancement rely on narrow and controversial conceptions of autonomy. However, we identify one feature of autonomy common to many mainstream accounts: reasoning ability. Autonomy can then be enhanced by improving people's reasoning ability, in particular through cognitive enhancement; given how valuable autonomy is usually taken to be, this gives us extra reason to pursue such cognitive enhancements. Moreover, autonomy-based objections will be especially weak against such enhancements. As we will argue, those who are worried that enhancements will inhibit people's autonomy should actually embrace those enhancements that will improve autonomy.

  5. Cognitive Enhancement and Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buchanan, Allen

    2011-01-01

    Cognitive enhancement--augmenting normal cognitive capacities--is not new. Literacy, numeracy, computers, and the practices of science are all cognitive enhancements. Science is now making new cognitive enhancements possible. Biomedical cognitive enhancements (BCEs) include the administration of drugs, implants of genetically engineered or…

  6. Enhancement and Civic Virtue

    PubMed Central

    Jefferson, Will; Douglas, Thomas; Kahane, Guy; Savulescu, Julian

    2014-01-01

    Opponents of biomedical enhancement frequently adopt what Allen Buchanan has called the Personal Goods Assumption. On this assumption, the benefits of biomedical enhancement will accrue primarily to those individuals who undergo enhancements, not to wider society. Buchanan has argued that biomedical enhancements might in fact have substantial social benefits by increasing productivity. We outline another way in which enhancements might benefit wider society: by augmenting civic virtue and thus improving the functioning of our political communities. We thus directly confront critics of biomedical enhancement who argue that it will lead to a loss of social cohesion and a breakdown in political life. PMID:24882886

  7. Chemical penetration enhancers.

    PubMed

    Newton, Stephen J

    2013-01-01

    Chemical penetration enhancers are utilized in topical preparations as a method for enhancing permeation of drugs across the skin. In particular, they are utilized for transdermal delivery of medications in an attempt to produce a systemic response, to avoid first-pass metabolism, and to decrease the gastrointestinal transit time observed with oral medications. A review of the selection of chemical penetration enhancers, their mechanism of action, the most common chemical penetration enhancers in each class, and alternatives will be discussed in detail.

  8. Smart Image Enhancement Process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jobson, Daniel J. (Inventor); Rahman, Zia-ur (Inventor); Woodell, Glenn A. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    Contrast and lightness measures are used to first classify the image as being one of non-turbid and turbid. If turbid, the original image is enhanced to generate a first enhanced image. If non-turbid, the original image is classified in terms of a merged contrast/lightness score based on the contrast and lightness measures. The non-turbid image is enhanced to generate a second enhanced image when a poor contrast/lightness score is associated therewith. When the second enhanced image has a poor contrast/lightness score associated therewith, this image is enhanced to generate a third enhanced image. A sharpness measure is computed for one image that is selected from (i) the non-turbid image, (ii) the first enhanced image, (iii) the second enhanced image when a good contrast/lightness score is associated therewith, and (iv) the third enhanced image. If the selected image is not-sharp, it is sharpened to generate a sharpened image. The final image is selected from the selected image and the sharpened image.

  9. Credit Enhancement Overview Guide

    SciTech Connect

    Financing Solutions Working Group

    2014-01-01

    Provides considerations for state and local policymakers and energy efficiency program administrators designing and implementing successful credit enhancement strategies for residential and commercial buildings.

  10. CSF1 Is a Novel p53 Target Gene Whose Protein Product Functions in a Feed-Forward Manner to Suppress Apoptosis and Enhance p53-Mediated Growth Arrest

    PubMed Central

    Azzam, Gregory; Wang, Xuting; Bell, Douglas; Murphy, Maureen E.

    2013-01-01

    The p53 tumor suppressor gene has a common polymorphism at codon 72 that alters its function. We previously reported that the proline 72 polymorphic variant of p53 (P72) demonstrates increased ability to transactivate a subset of genes, relative to arginine 72 (R72); one of these genes is macrophage colony stimulating factor (CSF1). At present, the mechanism(s) underlying the increased transcriptional activity of P72 toward genes like CSF1 have not been completely elucidated. Additionally, the consequences of increased transcription of genes like CSF1 by the P72 variant to the downstream p53 pathway are unknown. In this report, we address these issues. We show that the CSF1 gene contains a conserved binding site for p53, and interestingly that the P72 variant shows increased ability to bind to this site. Moreover, we show that increased CSF1/CSF1R signaling in P72 cells feeds back on the p53 pathway to enhance p53 phosphorylation, levels, and transactivation of target genes, particularly the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21 (CDKN1A). This leads to an increase in p53-mediated growth arrest, along with a concomitant decrease in apoptosis. Notably, the CSF1/CSF1R signaling axis is overexpressed in several epithelial cancers, and there is clinical evidence that this pathway plays a role in radio-resistance of some cancers. We show that cells expressing CSF1 and CSF1R are indeed radio-resistant, and further, that this effect requires p53. These combined data are the first to implicate the CSF1/CSF1R pathway in the decision between p53-mediated growth arrest and apoptosis. They are also the first to highlight a cytokine as influential in cell fate determined by p53 in epithelial cells. Finally, these data may explain the association of the P72 variant and the CSF1/CSF1R pathway with increased senescence and radio-resistance in some epithelial tumor types. PMID:24019961

  11. Enhanced oil recovery update

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, R.V

    1989-03-01

    Technology continues to grow in the realm of enhanced oil recovery. Since 1950 several processes have proven economic for oil recovery. Others are still in their infancy and must be custom designed for each reservoir. This paper gives a general overview of these processes. The author focuses on the latest technology and the outlook for enhanced oil recovery operations.

  12. Enhancing Drug Court Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deschenes, Elizabeth Piper; Ireland, Connie; Kleinpeter, Christine B.

    2009-01-01

    This study evaluates the impact of enhanced drug court services in a large county in Southern California. These enhanced services, including specialty counseling groups, educational/employment resources, and increased Residential Treatment (RT) beds, were designed to increase program retention and successful completion (graduation) of drug court.…

  13. EDITORIAL: Nano-enhanced! Nano-enhanced!

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demming, Anna

    2010-08-01

    In the early 19th century, a series of engineering and scientific breakthroughs by Nicolas Léonard Sadi Carnot, James Watt and many others led to the foundations of thermodynamics and a new pedigree of mechanical designs that reset the standards of engineering efficiency. The result was the industrial revolution. In optical- and electronics- based nanotechnology research, a similarly subtle bargain is being made; we cannot alter the fact that systems have a finite response to external excitations, but what we can do is enhance that response. The promising attributes of ZnO have long been recognised; its large band gap and high exciton binding energy lend it to a number of applications from laser diodes, LEDs, optical waveguides and switches, and acousto-optic applications to sun cream. When this material is grown into nanowires and nanorods, the material gains a whole new dimension, as quantum confinement effects come into play. Discovery of the enhanced radiative recombination, which has potential for exploitation in many optical and opto-electronic applications, drove intensive research into investigating these structures and into finding methods to synthesise them with optimised properties. This research revealed further subtleties in the properties of these materials. One example is the work by researchers in the US reporting synthesis procedures that produced a yield—defined as the weight ratio of ZnO nanowires to the original graphite flakes—of 200%, and which also demonstrated, through photoluminescence analysis of nanowires grown on graphite flakes and substrates, that graphite induces oxygen vacancies during annealing, which enhances the deep-level to near-band-edge emission ratio [1]. Other one-dimensional materials that provide field emission enhancements include carbon nanotubes, and work has been performed to find ways of optimising the emission efficiency from these structures, such as through control of the emitter density [2]. One of the

  14. Fluorescent viscoelastic enhancement.

    PubMed

    Smith, K D; Burt, W L

    1992-11-01

    By inserting an Erreger 485 exciter filter into the operating microscope, translucent yellow Healon (sodium hyaluronate) transforms into a brilliant opaque green viscoelastic. We have developed this technique and termed it "fluorescent viscoelastic enhancement." Using the technique, we demonstrated that the time required to remove Healon from the anterior chamber after intraocular lens insertion varies. Healon is usually aspirated quickly, in less than 17 seconds. Otherwise it traps behind the intraocular lens and requires more time for irrigation/aspiration (I/A) and manipulation of the I/A tip. Fluorescent viscoelastic enhancement minimized I/A time, reducing excess turbulence and manipulation in the anterior chamber, and thus may reduce corneal endothelial cell loss. This study also demonstrated that fluorescent viscoelastic enhancement prevented postoperative intraocular pressure rise, compared to the conventional removal of clear Healon. Fluorescent viscoelastic enhancement assures the surgeon that a large amount of Healon is not left behind.

  15. Enhanced metabolite generation

    DOEpatents

    Chidambaram, Devicharan [Middle Island, NY

    2012-03-27

    The present invention relates to the enhanced production of metabolites by a process whereby a carbon source is oxidized with a fermentative microbe in a compartment having a portal. An electron acceptor is added to the compartment to assist the microbe in the removal of excess electrons. The electron acceptor accepts electrons from the microbe after oxidation of the carbon source. Other transfers of electrons can take place to enhance the production of the metabolite, such as acids, biofuels or brewed beverages.

  16. MORAL ENHANCEMENT AND FREEDOM

    PubMed Central

    Harris, John

    2011-01-01

    This paper identifies human enhancement as one of the most significant areas of bioethical interest in the last twenty years. It discusses in more detail one area, namely moral enhancement, which is generating significant contemporary interest. The author argues that so far from being susceptible to new forms of high tech manipulation, either genetic, chemical, surgical or neurological, the only reliable methods of moral enhancement, either now or for the foreseeable future, are either those that have been in human and animal use for millennia, namely socialization, education and parental supervision or those high tech methods that are general in their application. By that is meant those forms of cognitive enhancement that operate across a wide range of cognitive abilities and do not target specifically ‘ethical’ capacities. The paper analyses the work of some of the leading contemporary advocates of moral enhancement and finds that in so far as they identify moral qualities or moral emotions for enhancement they have little prospect of success. PMID:21133978

  17. NAMPT is essential for the G-CSF-induced myeloid differentiation via a NAD+-sirtuin-1-dependent pathway

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We identified nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (NAMPT), also known as pre-B cell colony enhancing factor (PBEF), as an essential enzyme mediating granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF)-triggered granulopoiesis in healthy individuals and in individuals with severe congenital neutropenia....

  18. G-CSF Analogue Treatment Increases Peripheral Neutrophil Numbers in Pigs - a Potential Alternative for In-Feed Antibiotics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Immunomodulators is a promising area for therapeutic, prophylactic, and metaphylactic use to prevent and combat infectious disease during periods of peak disease incidence. Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) enhances neutrophil production and release from the bone marrow and is already li...

  19. Enhanced endotoxin sensitivity in fps/fes-null mice with minimal defects in hematopoietic homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Zirngibl, Ralph A; Senis, Yotis; Greer, Peter A

    2002-04-01

    The fps/fes proto-oncogene encodes a cytoplasmic protein tyrosine kinase implicated in growth factor and cytokine receptor signaling and thought to be essential for the survival and terminal differentiation of myeloid progenitors. Fps/Fes-null mice were healthy and fertile, displayed slightly reduced numbers of bone marrow myeloid progenitors and circulating mature myeloid cells, and were more sensitive to lipopolysaccharide (LPS). These phenotypes were rescued using a fps/fes transgene. This confirmed that Fps/Fes is involved in, but not required for, myelopoiesis and that it plays a role in regulating the innate immune response. Bone marrow-derived Fps/Fes-null macrophages showed no defects in granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor-, interleukin 6 (IL-6)-, or IL-3-induced activation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (Stat3) and Stat5A or LPS-induced degradation of I kappa B or activation of p38, Jnk, Erk, or Akt.

  20. Enhanced nurse call systems.

    PubMed

    2001-04-01

    This Evaluation focuses on high-end computerized nurse call systems--what we call enhanced systems. These are highly flexible systems that incorporate microprocessor and communications technologies to expand the capabilities of the nurse call function. Enhanced systems, which vary in configuration from one installation to the next, typically consist of a basic system that provides standard nurse call functionality and a combination of additional enhancements that provide the added functionality the facility desires. In this study, we examine the features that distinguish enhanced nurse call systems from nonenhanced systems, focusing on their application and benefit to healthcare facilities. We evaluated seven systems to determine how well they help (1) improve patient care, as well as increase satisfaction with the care provided, and (2) improve caregiver efficiency, as well as increase satisfaction with the work environment. We found that all systems meet these objectives, but not all systems perform equally well for all implementations. Our ratings will help facilities identify those systems that offer the most effective features for their intended use. The study also includes a Technology Management Guide to help readers (1) determine whether they'll benefit from the capabilities offered by enhanced systems and (2) target a system for purchase and equip the system for optimum performance and cost-effective operation.

  1. Mechanisms of Memory Enhancement

    PubMed Central

    Stern, Sarah A.

    2012-01-01

    The ongoing quest for memory enhancement is one that grows necessary as the global population increasingly ages. The extraordinary progress that has been made in the past few decades elucidating the underlying mechanisms of how long-term memories are formed has provided insight into how memories might also be enhanced. Capitalizing on this knowledge, it has been postulated that targeting many of the same mechanisms, including CREB activation, AMPA/NMDA receptor trafficking, neuromodulation (e.g. via dopamine, adrenaline, cortisol or acetylcholine) and metabolic processes (e.g. via glucose and insulin) may all lead to the enhancement of memory. These and other mechanisms and/or approaches have been tested via genetic or pharmacological methods in animal models, and several have been investigated in humans as well. In addition, a number of behavioral methods, including exercise and reconsolidation, may also serve to strengthen and enhance memories. By capitalizing on this knowledge and continuing to investigate these promising avenues, memory enhancement may indeed be achieved in the future. PMID:23151999

  2. Rituals enhance consumption.

    PubMed

    Vohs, Kathleen D; Wang, Yajin; Gino, Francesca; Norton, Michael I

    2013-09-01

    Four experiments tested the novel hypothesis that ritualistic behavior potentiates and enhances ensuing consumption--an effect found for chocolates, lemonade, and even carrots. Experiment 1 showed that participants who engaged in ritualized behavior, compared with those who did not, evaluated chocolate as more flavorful, valuable, and deserving of behavioral savoring. Experiment 2 demonstrated that random gestures do not boost consumption as much as ritualistic gestures do. It further showed that a delay between a ritual and the opportunity to consume heightens enjoyment, which attests to the idea that ritual behavior stimulates goal-directed action (to consume). Experiment 3 found that performing a ritual oneself enhances consumption more than watching someone else perform the same ritual, suggesting that personal involvement is crucial for the benefits of rituals to emerge. Finally, Experiment 4 provided direct evidence of the underlying process: Rituals enhance the enjoyment of consumption because of the greater involvement in the experience that they prompt.

  3. Surface Enhanced Quantum Control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rangan, Chitra

    2013-05-01

    Miniaturization of quantum technologies have led to physics that require the marriage of atomic physics and nanomaterials science. Some of the resulting areas of research are hybrid quantum devices, single-molecule spectroscopies, table-top intense field generators, etc. I will present an area of research that I dub ``Surface-enhanced quantum control'' that is an exciting way of controlling light and nanomatter. By combining the electromagnetic enhancement properties of plasmonic nanomaterials with the modification of the atomic properties, we can achieve an unprecedented level of control over quantum dynamics. I will present examples of surface-enhanced state purification, in which quantum states near metal nanostructures can be rapidly purified by the application of a weak near-resonant control field. We gratefully acknowledge support from the NSERC Discovery Grant Program and the NSERC Strategic Network for Bioplasmonic Systems.

  4. Degraded document image enhancement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agam, G.; Bal, G.; Frieder, G.; Frieder, O.

    2007-01-01

    Poor quality documents are obtained in various situations such as historical document collections, legal archives, security investigations, and documents found in clandestine locations. Such documents are often scanned for automated analysis, further processing, and archiving. Due to the nature of such documents, degraded document images are often hard to read, have low contrast, and are corrupted by various artifacts. We describe a novel approach for the enhancement of such documents based on probabilistic models which increases the contrast, and thus, readability of such documents under various degradations. The enhancement produced by the proposed approach can be viewed under different viewing conditions if desired. The proposed approach was evaluated qualitatively and compared to standard enhancement techniques on a subset of historical documents obtained from the Yad Vashem Holocaust museum. In addition, quantitative performance was evaluated based on synthetically generated data corrupted under various degradation models. Preliminary results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach.

  5. Christian Self-Enhancement.

    PubMed

    Gebauer, Jochen E; Sedikides, Constantine; Schrade, Alexandra

    2017-02-16

    People overestimate themselves in domains that are central to their self-concept. Critically, the psychological status of this "self-centrality principle" remains unclear. One view regards the principle as an inextricable part of human nature and, thus, as universal and resistant to normative pressure. A contrasting view regards the principle as liable to pressure (and subsequent modification) from self-effacement norms, thus questioning its universality. Advocates of the latter view point to Christianity's robust self-effacement norms, which they consider particularly effective in curbing self-enhancement, and ascribe Christianity an ego-quieting function. Three sets of studies examined the self-centrality principle among Christians. Studies 1A and 1B (N = 2,118) operationalized self-enhancement as better-than-average perceptions on the domains of commandments of faith (self-centrality: Christians ≫ nonbelievers) and commandments of communion (self-centrality: Christians > nonbelievers). Studies 2A-2H (N = 1,779) operationalized self-enhancement as knowledge overclaiming on the domains of Christianity (self-centrality: Christians ≫ nonbelievers), communion (self-centrality: Christians > nonbelievers), and agency (self-centrality: Christians ≈ nonbelievers). Studies 3A-3J (N = 1,956) operationalized self-enhancement as grandiose narcissism on the domains of communion (self-centrality: Christians > nonbelievers) and agency (self-centrality: Christians ≈ nonbelievers). The results converged across studies, yielding consistent evidence for Christian self-enhancement. Relative to nonbelievers, Christians self-enhanced strongly in domains central to the Christian self-concept. The results also generalized across countries with differing levels of religiosity. Christianity does not quiet the ego. The self-centrality principle is resistant to normative pressure, universal, and rooted in human nature. (PsycINFO Database Record

  6. Enhancing Shear Thickening

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madraki, Fatemeh; Hormozi, Sarah; Ovarlez, Guillaume; Guazzelli, Elisabeth; Pouliquen, Olivier

    2016-11-01

    A cornstarch suspension is the quintessential particulate system that exhibits shear thickening. By adding large non-Brownian spheres to a cornstarch suspension, we show that shear thickening can be significantly enhanced. More precisely, the shear thickening transition is found to be increasingly shifted to lower critical shear rates. This enhancement is found to be mainly controlled by the concentration of the large particles. ANR(ANR-13-IS09-0005-01), ANR(ANR-11-LABX-0092), MIDEX (ANR-11-IDEX-0001-02), NSF (CBET-1554044-CAREER).

  7. Biomedical enhancements as justice.

    PubMed

    Nam, Jeesoo

    2015-02-01

    Biomedical enhancements, the applications of medical technology to make better those who are neither ill nor deficient, have made great strides in the past few decades. Using Amartya Sen's capability approach as my framework, I argue in this article that far from being simply permissible, we have a prima facie moral obligation to use these new developments for the end goal of promoting social justice. In terms of both range and magnitude, the use of biomedical enhancements will mark a radical advance in how we compensate the most disadvantaged members of society.

  8. Mast Cell Growth Factor (C-Kit Ligand) in Combination with Granulocytemacrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor and Interleukin-3: In Vivo Hemopoietic Effects in Irradiated Mice Compared to in Vitro Effects

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-01-01

    Johnson MJ, Parker VP, CSF plus IL-3 in sublethally irradiated mice, and Flores JC, Patel AC, Fischer EF, EriJavec HO, Herrera that these responses...53: 492-7. 296: 171-9. 20. Ebbe S, Phalen E, Stohlman FJ. Abnormal megakary- 33. Schulz J, Almond PR, Cunningham JR, Holt JG, ocytopoiesis in Sl/S1 d

  9. Granulocyte macrophage-colony stimulating factor stimulates both association and activation of phosphoinositide 3OH-kinase and src-related tyrosine kinase(s) in human myeloid derived cells.

    PubMed Central

    Corey, S; Eguinoa, A; Puyana-Theall, K; Bolen, J B; Cantley, L; Mollinedo, F; Jackson, T R; Hawkins, P T; Stephens, L R

    1993-01-01

    The signalling pathways used by the GM-CSF receptor are currently unknown. Here we show that in human myeloid derived cells GM-CSF can stimulate; (i) the accumulation of PtdIns(3,4,5)P3; (ii) increases in p53/p56lyn and p62c-yes directed protein tyrosine kinase activities in anti-lyn and anti-c-yes antibody directed immunoprecipitates, respectively and; (iii) increases in phosphoinositide 3OH-kinase activity in antiphosphotyrosine, anti-p53/p56lyn and anti-p62c-yes antibody directed immunoprecipitates. These results suggest that GM-CSF can stimulate formation of protein tyrosine kinase co-ordinated signalling complexes, that contain p53/p56lyn, p62c-yes and an activated PtdInsP2 directed phosphoinositide 3OH-kinase, which can drive the accumulation of the putative second-messenger PtdIns(3,4,5)P3. Images PMID:8392933

  10. THE IMPACT OF CONCURRENT GRANULOCYTE MACROPHAGE-COLONY STIMULATING FACTOR ON QUALITY OF LIFE IN HEAD AND NECK CANCER PATIENTS: RESULTS OF THE RANDOMIZED, PLACEBO-CONTROLED RADIATION THERAPY ONCOLOGY GROUP 9901 TRIAL

    PubMed Central

    Hoffman, Karen E.; Pugh, Stephanie; James, Jennifer L.; Scarantino, Charles; Movsas, Benjamin; Valicenti, Richard K.; Fortin, Andre; Pollock, JonDavid; Kim, Harold; Brachman, David G.; Berk, Lawrence B.; Bruner, Deborah Watkins; Kachnic, Lisa A.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) conducted a randomized, placebo-controlled, trial evaluating the efficacy of GM-CSF in reducing mucosal injury and symptom burden from curative radiotherapy for head-and-neck (H&N) cancer. Methods Eligible patients with H&N cancer receiving radiation encompassing ≥ 50% of the oral cavity or oropharynx received subcutaneous GM-CSF or placebo. Quality of life (QoL) was assessed using the RTOG modified University of Washington H&N symptom questionnaire at baseline, 4, 13, 26 and 48 weeks from radiation initiation. Results Of 125 eligible patients, 114 were evaluable for QoL (58 GM-CSF, 56 placebo). Patient demographics, clinical characteristics, and baseline symptom scores were well balanced between the treatment arms. At the end of the acute period (13 weeks) patients in both arms reported negative change in total symptom score indicating increase in symptom burden relative to baseline (mean −18.4 GM-CSF, −20.8 placebo). There was no difference in change in total symptom score (p>0.05) or change in mucous, pain, eating, or activity domain scores (p>0.01) between patients in the GM-CSF and placebo arms. Analysis limited to patients treated per protocol or with an acceptable protocol deviation also found no difference in change in total symptom score (p>0.05) or change in domain scores (p>0.01) between treatment arms. Provider assessment of acute mucositis during treatment did not correlate with patient-reported mucous domain and total symptom scores (p>0.05) Conclusion GM-CSF administered concurrently during head-and-neck radiation does not appear to significantly improve patient-reported QoL symptom burden. PMID:24492945

  11. Comparative effect of recombinant IL-1, -2, -3, -4, and -6, IFN-gamma, granulocyte-macrophage-colony-stimulating factor, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, and histamine-releasing factors on the secretion of histamine from basophils

    SciTech Connect

    Alam, R.; Welter, J.B.; Forsythe, P.A.; Lett-Brown, M.A.; Grant, J.A. )

    1989-05-15

    Most cytokines possess multiple biologic activities. This study was undertaken to investigate the effect of rIL-1 beta, -2, -3, -4 and -6, IFN-gamma, TNF-alpha, and granulocyte-macrophage (GM)-CSF on basophils from 16 donors and the amount of histamine released was compared with that by partially purified mononuclear cell-derived histamine-releasing factor (HRF) and anti-IgE. We found that only IL-3 and GM-CSF at relatively high doses (50 to 500 ng/ml) released small amounts of histamine (3 to 14%) from two allergic donors. In contrast, both HRF and anti-IgE released significant amounts of histamine from all donors. Other cytokines did not release any measurable quantity of histamine. Simultaneous addition of several cytokines to the basophils also failed to release histamine. IL-3, GM-CSF, and IL-1 can also release histamine at lower concentrations (less than 5 ng/ml) when incubated with basophils in the presence of D{sub 2}O. Basophils from 6 out of 13 allergic donors released histamine in response to IL-3, whereas three donors responded to IL-1 beta and two responded to GM-CSF. The results of this study demonstrated that although IL-3 and GM-CSF release small amounts of histamine only from a select group of allergic patients, mononuclear cell-derived HRF is more potent in their action and release histamine from normals as well as allergic patients.

  12. Prophylactic administration of vector-encoded porcine granulocyte-colony stimulating factor reduces Salmonella shedding,tonsil colonization,& microbiota alterations of the gastrointestinal tract in Salmonella-challenged swine

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Salmonella colonization of food animals is a concern for animal health and public health as a food safety risk. Various obstacles impede the effort to reduce asymptomatic Salmonella carriage in food animals, including the existence of numerous serovars and the ubiquitous nature of Salmonella. To d...

  13. Immune Response to Hepatitis B Vaccine in HIV-Infected Subjects Using Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor (GM-CSF) as a Vaccine Adjuvant: ACTG Study 5220

    PubMed Central

    Overton, ET; Kang, M; Peters, MG; Umbleja, T; Alston-Smith, BL; Bastow, B; Demarco-Shaw, D; Koziel, MJ; Mong-Kryspin, L; Sprenger, HL; Yu, JY; Aberg, JA

    2010-01-01

    HIV-infected persons are at risk for HBV co-infection which is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Unfortunately, protective immunity following HBV vaccination in HIV-infected persons is poor. This randomized, phase II, open label study aimed to evaluate efficacy and safety of 40 mcg HBV vaccine with or without 250 mcg GM-CSF administered at day 0, weeks 4 and 12. HIV-infected individuals ≥18 years of age, CD4 count ≥200 cells/mm3, seronegative for HBV and HCV, and naïve to HBV vaccination were eligible. Primary endpoints were quantitative HBsAb titers and adverse events. The study enrolled 48 subjects. Median age and baseline CD4 were 41 years and 446 cells/mm3, 37 were on ART, and 26 subjects had undetectable VL. Vaccination was well tolerated. Seven subjects in the GM-CSF group reported transient Grade ≥2 signs/symptoms (six Grade 2, one Grade 3), mostly aches and nausea. GM-CSF had no significant effect on VL or CD4. Four weeks after vaccination, 26 subjects (59%) developed a protective antibody response (HBsAb ≥10mIU/mL; 52% in the GM-CSF arm and 65% in the control arm) without improved Ab titer in the GM-CSF versus control arm (median 11 mIU/mL vs. 92 mIU/mL, respectively). Response was more frequent in those with CD4 ≥350 cells/mm3 (64%) than with CD4 <350 cells/mm3 (50%), though not statistically significant. GM-CSF as an adjuvant did not improve the Ab titer or the development of protective immunity to HBV vaccination in those receiving an accelerated vaccine schedule. Given the common routes of transmission for HIV and HBV, additional HBV vaccine research is warranted. PMID:20600512

  14. Idarubicin, intermediate-dose cytarabine, etoposide, and granulocyte-colony-stimulating factor are able to recruit CD34+/HLA-DR- cells during early hematopoietic recovery in accelerated and chronic phases of chronic myeloid leukemia.

    PubMed

    Carella, A M; Frassoni, F; Podestá, M; Pungolino, E; Pollicardo, N; Ferrero, R; Soracco, M

    1994-01-01

    A group of 46 patients with chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) [chronic phase (CP), 24 patients; accelerated phase (AP), 22 patients] ineligible for allogeneic bone marrow transplantation were given an intensive chemotherapy regimen consisting of idarubicin, intermediate-dose cytarabine, and etoposide. All patients had previously received interferon-alpha and only 2 had shown a partial cytogenetic response. During early recovery from chemotherapy-induced aplasia, peripheral blood progenitor cells (PBPC) were harvested by leukapheresis. All metaphases were found to be Philadelphia chromosome (Ph) negative in the collection from 17 of 46 (37%) patients [CP, 12 of 24 (50%); AP, 5 of 22 (23%)], and a decrease to less than 50% Ph-positive metaphases was seen in an additional 6 (CP, 3 patients; AP, 3 patients). The percentage of patients showing complete Ph disappearance was 64% in those receiving this procedure within the first year of diagnosis. In vitro studies were performed to assess the behavior of the Ph-negative PBPC. In clonogenic cultures they responded to stem cell factor and were able to grow as mixed colonies. Moreover, long-term culture initiating cells (LTCIC) were present in many Ph-negative collections but rarely in Ph-positive PBPC. In 4 females, clonality was studied by analyzing X chromosome inactivation and methylation patterns of the DXS255 locus with the probe M27 beta. Hematopoiesis was polyclonal in all 4 patients tested. Thus far, the Ph-negative collections have been used for autografting in 16 patients (CP, 11 patients; PA, 5 patients) after conditioning with total-body irradiation, etoposide, and cyclophosphamide or idarubicin.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  15. Investigations into Character Enhancement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartoonian, H. Michael

    2001-01-01

    Presents six different investigations of character enhancement that attempts to answer three questions: (1) who are you; (2) what is your destination; and (3) who is your captain? Intends to build relationships among ideas such as perspective taking, seeing and making connections with the other, and understanding more about ethical development.…

  16. Enhancing Workgroup Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1998

    This document contains four papers from a symposium on enhancing workgroup performance in human resource development (HRD). "Formation of Cross-Cultural Global Teams: Making Informed Choices on Team Composition" (Robert L. Dilworth) describes how a mixed class of U.S. and international students identified their cultural and learning…

  17. Measuring and Enhancing Creativity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahboub, Kamyar C.; Portillo, Margaret B.; Liu, Yinhui; Chandraratna, Susantha

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess ways by which creativity may be enhanced in a design-oriented course. In order to demonstrate the validity of the approach, a statistically based study was employed. Additionally, the experiment was replicated in two design-oriented fields at the University of Kentucky. These fields were civil engineering…

  18. Enhancing Employee Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1999

    This document contains four symposium papers on enhancing employee skills. "The Effect of Study Skills Training Intervention on United States Air Force Aeromedical Apprentices" (John C. Griffith) demonstrates how study skills intervention resulted in a significant increase in the end-of-course scores of a sample of 90 randomly selected Air Force…

  19. Cognition-Enhancing Drugs

    PubMed Central

    Mehlman, Maxwell J

    2004-01-01

    New drugs that enhance cognition in cognitively healthy individuals present difficult public policy challenges. While their use is not inherently unethical, steps must be taken to ensure that they are safe, that they are widely available to promote equality of opportunity, and that individuals are free to decide whether or not to use them. PMID:15330974

  20. Teaching to Enhance Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harland, Tony

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, I present a conceptual argument for "teaching-led research" in which university lecturers construct courses that directly and positively influence their research, while at the same time, safeguard and enhance the student experience. A research-pedagogy for higher education considers the link between teaching and research,…

  1. Simulations of Enhanced Confinement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dorland, W.; Kotschenreuther, M.; Liu, Q. P.; Jones, C. S.; Beer, M. A.; Hammett, G. W.

    1996-11-01

    Most existing tokamaks routinely achieve enhanced confinement regimes. Designs for new, larger tokamaks therefore are typically predicated upon reliable enhanced confinement performance. However, most enhanced confinement regimes rely (to some degree) upon sheared E×B flows to stabilize the turbulence that otherwise limits the confinement. For example, the pedestal H-mode transport barrier is typically attributed to shear stabilization [Biglari, Diamond and Terry, Phys. Fl. B, 2 1 (1990)]. Unfortunately, it is easily shown that sheared E×B stabilization of microinstabilities such as the ITG mode does not scale favorably with machine size. Here, using nonlinear gyrofluid simulations in general geometry, we attempt to quantify the confinement enhancement that can be expected from velocity shear stabilization for conventional reactor plasmas. We also consider other microinstability stabilization mechanisms(See related presentations by Beer, Kotschenreuther, Manickam, and Ramos, this conference.) (strong density peaking, Shafranov shift stabilization, dots) and unconventional reactor configurations.^2 Experimental datasets from JET, DIII-D, C-Mod and TFTR are analyzed, and ITER operation is considered.

  2. Microcavity Enhanced Raman Scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrak, Benjamin J.

    Raman scattering can accurately identify molecules by their intrinsic vibrational frequencies, but its notoriously weak scattering efficiency for gases presents a major obstacle to its practical application in gas sensing and analysis. This work explores the use of high finesse (≈50 000) Fabry-Perot microcavities as a means to enhance Raman scattering from gases. A recently demonstrated laser ablation method, which carves out a micromirror template on fused silica--either on a fiber tip or bulk substrates-- was implemented, characterized, and optimized to fabricate concave micromirror templates ˜10 mum diameter and radius of curvature. The fabricated templates were coated with a high-reflectivity dielectric coating by ion-beam sputtering and were assembled into microcavities ˜10 mum long and with a mode volume ˜100 mum 3. A novel gas sensing technique that we refer to as Purcell enhanced Raman scattering (PERS) was demonstrated using the assembled microcavities. PERS works by enhancing the pump laser's intensity through resonant recirculation at one longitudinal mode, while simultaneously, at a second mode at the Stokes frequency, the Purcell effect increases the rate of spontaneous Raman scattering by a change to the intra-cavity photon density of states. PERS was shown to enhance the rate of spontaneous Raman scattering by a factor of 107 compared to the same volume of sample gas in free space scattered into the same solid angle subtended by the cavity. PERS was also shown capable of resolving several Raman bands from different isotopes of CO2 gas for application to isotopic analysis. Finally, the use of the microcavity to enhance coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) from CO2 gas was demonstrated.

  3. Piezoelectrically Enhanced