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Sample records for enhances cyanobacterial blooms

  1. No enhancement of cyanobacterial bloom biomass decomposition by sediment microbial fuel cell (SMFC) at different temperatures.

    PubMed

    Ye, Tian-Ran; Song, Na; Chen, Mo; Yan, Zai-Sheng; Jiang, He-Long

    2016-11-01

    The sediment microbial fuel cell (SMFC) has potential application to control the degradation of decayed cyanobacterial bloom biomass (CBB) in sediment in eutrophic lakes. In this study, temperatures from 4 to 35 °C were investigated herein as the major impact on SMFC performance in CBB-amended sediment. Under low temperature conditions, the SMFC could still operate, and produced a maximum power density of 4.09 mW m(-2) at 4 °C. Coupled with the high substrate utilization, high output voltage was generated in SMFCs at high temperatures. The application of SMFC affected the anaerobic fermentation progress and was detrimental to the growth of methanogens. At the same time, organic matter of sediments in SMFC became more humified. As a result, the fermentation of CBB was not accelerated with the SMFC application, and the removal efficiency of the total organic matter was inhibited by 5% compared to the control. Thus, SMFC could operate well year round in sediments with a temperature ranging from 4 to 35 °C, and also exhibit practical value by inhibiting quick CBB decomposition in sediments in summer against the pollution of algae organic matter.

  2. Are cyanobacterial blooms trophic dead ends?

    PubMed

    Perga, Marie-Elodie; Domaizon, Isabelle; Guillard, Jean; Hamelet, Valérie; Anneville, Orlane

    2013-06-01

    Cyanobacterial blooms induce significant costs that are expected to increase in the near future. Cyanobacterial resistance to zooplankton grazing is one factor thought to promote bloom events. Yet, numerous studies on zooplankton ability to graze upon cyanobacteria have been producing contradictory results and such a puzzle might arise from the lack of direct observations in situ. Our objective was to track, using fatty acid (FA) and fatty acid stable isotope analyses (FA-SIA), the fate of cyanobacterial organic matter in the food web of a lake subjected to summer blooms of Planktothrix rubescens. A metalimnetic bloom of P. rubescens occurred in Lake Bourget (France) during the study period (May-November 2009). The bloom was especially rich in α-linolenic acid, 18:3(n-3), but none of the considered zooplankton taxa exhibited spiking content in this particular FA. FA-SIA revealed, however, that over a quarter of 18:3(n-3) in small zooplankton (<500 μm) was provided by P. rubescens while large cladocerans (>500 μm) did not benefit from it. P. rubescens 18:3(n-3) could be tracked up to perch (Perca fluviatilis) young of the year (YOY) to which it contributed to ~15 % of total 18:3(n-3). Although transferred with a much lower efficiency than micro-algal organic matter, the P. rubescens bloom supported a significant share of the pelagic secondary production and did not constitute, sensu stricto, a 'trophic dead end'. The cyanobacterial bloom also provided perch YOY with components of high nutritional values at a season when these are critical for their recruitment. This cyanobacterial bloom might thus be regarded as a significant dietary bonus for juvenile fish.

  3. Molecular Characterization of cyanobacterial blooms

    EPA Science Inventory

    Traditionally, the detection and identification of cyanobacteria implicated in harmful algal blooms has been conducted using microscopical techniques. Such conventional methods are time consuming and cumbersome, cannot discriminate between closely related taxa, and cannot discrim...

  4. Molecular Characterization of cyanobacterial blooms

    EPA Science Inventory

    Traditionally, the detection and identification of cyanobacteria implicated in harmful algal blooms has been conducted using microscopical techniques. Such conventional methods are time consuming and cumbersome, cannot discriminate between closely related taxa, and cannot discrim...

  5. Harmful cyanobacterial blooms: causes, consequences, and controls.

    PubMed

    Paerl, Hans W; Otten, Timothy G

    2013-05-01

    Cyanobacteria are the Earth's oldest oxygenic photoautotrophs and have had major impacts on shaping its biosphere. Their long evolutionary history (≈ 3.5 by) has enabled them to adapt to geochemical and climatic changes, and more recently anthropogenic modifications of aquatic environments, including nutrient over-enrichment (eutrophication), water diversions, withdrawals, and salinization. Many cyanobacterial genera exhibit optimal growth rates and bloom potentials at relatively high water temperatures; hence global warming plays a key role in their expansion and persistence. Bloom-forming cyanobacterial taxa can be harmful from environmental, organismal, and human health perspectives by outcompeting beneficial phytoplankton, depleting oxygen upon bloom senescence, and producing a variety of toxic secondary metabolites (e.g., cyanotoxins). How environmental factors impact cyanotoxin production is the subject of ongoing research, but nutrient (N, P and trace metals) supply rates, light, temperature, oxidative stressors, interactions with other biota (bacteria, viruses and animal grazers), and most likely, the combined effects of these factors are all involved. Accordingly, strategies aimed at controlling and mitigating harmful blooms have focused on manipulating these dynamic factors. The applicability and feasibility of various controls and management approaches is discussed for natural waters and drinking water supplies. Strategies based on physical, chemical, and biological manipulations of specific factors show promise; however, a key underlying approach that should be considered in almost all instances is nutrient (both N and P) input reductions; which have been shown to effectively reduce cyanobacterial biomass, and therefore limit health risks and frequencies of hypoxic events.

  6. Monitoring cyanobacterial blooms by satellite remote sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kutser, Tiit; Metsamaa, Liisa; Strömbeck, Niklas; Vahtmäe, Ele

    2006-03-01

    Cyanobacterial blooms are attracting the increasing attention of environment agencies, water authorities, and human and animal health organizations, since they can present a range of amenity, water quality ant treatment problems, and hazards to human and animal health. The problem is especially acute in the Baltic Sea where cyanobacterial blooms occur every summer covering areas of more than 100 000 km 2. It has been shown that quantitative mapping of cyanobacteria during bloom conditions is possible with hyperspectral instruments. These sensors, however, cannot provide synoptic spatial coverage and high revisit times needed for near real-time monitoring of potentially harmful blooms. The aim was to estimate whether spectral resolution of multispectral sensors, which can provide needed coverage, is adequate for quantitative mapping of cyanobacteria and whether it is possible to separate potentially harmful blooms of cyanobacteria from waters dominated by algae using ocean colour satellites. The modelling results show that multispectral sensors like ALI, Landsat or MODIS are not capable of separating waters dominated by cyanobacteria from waters dominated by other algae species, as their spectral band configuration does not allow detecting absorption features caused by phycocyanin (present primarily in cyanobacteria) or any other spectral features that are characteristic to cyanobacteria only. MERIS bands 6 and 7 allow detecting phycocyanin absorption feature near 630 nm and a small peak in reflectance spectra near 650 nm characteristic to only cyanobacteria. Thus, MERIS can be used in detecting cyanobacteria if they are present in relatively high quantities. Unfortunately it is not possible to use MERIS for early warning of emerging potentially harmful blooms as the minimum biomass needed to cause features in reflectance spectra typical to cyanobacteria is higher than the biomass already considered as a bloom in the Baltic Sea.

  7. Eutrophic urban ponds suffer from cyanobacterial blooms: Dutch examples.

    PubMed

    Waajen, Guido W A M; Faassen, Elisabeth J; Lürling, Miquel

    2014-01-01

    Ponds play an important role in urban areas. However, cyanobacterial blooms counteract the societal need for a good water quality and pose serious health risks for citizens and pets. To provide insight into the extent and possible causes of cyanobacterial problems in urban ponds, we conducted a survey on cyanobacterial blooms and studied three ponds in detail. Among 3,500 urban ponds in the urbanized Dutch province of North Brabant, 125 showed cyanobacterial blooms in the period 2009-2012. This covered 79% of all locations registered for cyanobacterial blooms, despite the fact that urban ponds comprise only 11% of the area of surface water in North Brabant. Dominant bloom-forming genera in urban ponds were Microcystis, Anabaena and Planktothrix. In the three ponds selected for further study, the microcystin concentration of the water peaked at 77 μg l(-1) and in scums at 64,000 μg l(-1), which is considered highly toxic. Microcystin-RR and microcystin-LR were the most prevalent variants in these waters and in scums. Cyanobacterial chlorophyll-a peaked in August with concentrations up to 962 μg l(-1) outside of scums. The ponds were highly eutrophic with mean total phosphorus concentrations between 0.16 and 0.44 mg l(-1), and the sediments were rich in potential releasable phosphorus. High fish stocks dominated by carp lead to bioturbation, which also favours blooms. As urban ponds in North Brabant, and likely in other regions, regularly suffer from cyanobacterial blooms and citizens may easily have contact with the water and may ingest cyanobacterial material during recreational activities, particularly swimming, control of health risk is of importance. Monitoring of cyanobacteria and cyanobacterial toxins in urban ponds is a first step to control health risks. Mitigation strategies should focus on external sources of eutrophication and consider the effect of sediment P release and bioturbation by fish.

  8. Satellite monitoring of cyanobacterial harmful algal bloom ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Cyanobacterial harmful algal blooms (cyanoHABs) cause extensive problems in lakes worldwide, including human and ecological health risks, anoxia and fish kills, and taste and odor problems. CyanoHABs are a particular concern because of their dense biomass and the risk of exposure to toxins in both recreational waters and drinking source waters. Successful cyanoHAB assessment by satellites may provide a first-line of defense indicator for human and ecological health protection. In this study, assessment methods were developed to determine the utility of satellite technology for detecting cyanoHAB occurrence frequency at locations of potential management interest. The European Space Agency's MEdium Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MERIS) was evaluated to prepare for the equivalent Sentinel-3 Ocean and Land Colour Imager (OLCI) launched in 2016. Based on the 2012 National Lakes Assessment site evaluation guidelines and National Hydrography Dataset, there were 275,897 lakes and reservoirs greater than 1 hectare in the 48 U.S. states. Results from this evaluation show that 5.6 % of waterbodies were resolvable by satellites with 300 m single pixel resolution and 0.7 % of waterbodies were resolvable when a 3x3 pixel array was applied based on minimum Euclidian distance from shore. Satellite data was also spatially joined to US public water surface intake (PWSI) locations, where single pixel resolution resolved 57% of PWSI and a 3x3 pixel array resolved 33% of

  9. Cyanobacterial bloom detection based on coherence between ferrybox observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Groetsch, Philipp M. M.; Simis, Stefan G. H.; Eleveld, Marieke A.; Peters, Steef W. M.

    2014-12-01

    Cyanobacterial bloom detection from flow-through optical sensors on ships-of-opportunity ('ferryboxes') is challenging in periods of strong stratification and due to varying cell physiology and phytoplankton community composition. Wavelet coherence analysis between ferrybox parameters (chlorophyll-a fluorescence, phycocyanin fluorescence, turbidity) was used to delineate blooms in a dataset of ten ferrybox transects, recorded during the 2005 cyanobacterial bloom season in the Baltic Sea. Independent wind speed and sea-surface temperature data were used to classify areas of cyanobacterial dominance as mixed, stratified, or surfacing bloom. These classified subsets of ferrybox observations were compared against remotely sensed chlorophyll-a concentrations, which resulted in a scheme for the interpretation of surface water phytoplankton biomass from multi-source observations. Ferrybox optical signals were significantly coherent from the onset until the end of the cyanobacterial bloom period under both stratified and mixed conditions. This suggests that the coherence analysis is sensitive to high-level community composition. Strongly stratified and suspected surfacing bloom was associated with unrealistically high remotely sensed chlorophyll-a estimates, indicating the need to flag stratified bloom areas when interpreting remote sensing imagery. The ferrybox fluorescence and turbidity signals at the 5-m sampling depth were, paradoxically, low under these conditions, suggesting that direct comparison between remote sensing and flow-through observations is not useful for stratified blooms. Correlations between ferrybox measurements and remotely sensed observations improved consistently when stratified or surfacing cyanobacterial bloom was excluded from the regression. It is discussed how coherence analysis of ferrybox observations can aid the interpretation of remotely sensed data in situations where meteorological observations suggest incomplete vertical mixing.

  10. Toxins produced in cyanobacterial water blooms – toxicity and risks

    PubMed Central

    Bláha, Luděk; Babica, Pavel; Maršálek, Blahoslav

    2009-01-01

    Cyanobacterial blooms in freshwaters represent a major ecological and human health problem worldwide. This paper briefly summarizes information on major cyanobacterial toxins (hepatotoxins, neurotoxins etc.) with special attention to microcystins-cyclic heptapeptides with high acute and chronic toxicities. Besides discussion of human health risks, microcystin ecotoxicology and consequent ecological risks are also highlighted. Although significant research attention has been paid to microcystins, cyanobacteria produce a wide range of currently unknown toxins, which will require research attention. Further research should also address possible additive, synergistic or antagonistic effects among different classes of cyanobacterial metabolites, as well as interactions with other toxic stressors such as metals or persistent organic pollutants. PMID:21217843

  11. Cyanobacterial bloom management through integrated monitoring and forecasting in large shallow eutrophic Lake Taihu (China).

    PubMed

    Qin, Boqiang; Li, Wei; Zhu, Guangwei; Zhang, Yunlin; Wu, Tingfeng; Gao, Guang

    2015-04-28

    The large shallow eutrophic Lake Taihu in China has long suffered from eutrophication and toxic cyanobacterial blooms. Despite considerable efforts to divert effluents from the watershed, the cyanobacterial blooms still reoccur and persist throughout summer. To mitigate cyanobacterial bloom pollution risk, a large scale integrated monitoring and forecasting system was developed, and a series of emergency response measures were instigated based on early warning. This system has been in place for 2009-2012. With this integrated monitoring system, it was found that the detectable maximum and average cyanobacterial bloom area were similar to that before drinking water crisis, indicating that poor eutrophic status and cyanobacterial bloom had persisted without significant alleviation. It also revealed that cyanobacterial bloom would occur after the intense storm, which may be associated with the increase in buoyance of cyanobacterial colonies. Although the cyanobacterial blooms had persisted during the monitoring period, there had been a reduction in frequency and intensity of the cyanobacterial bloom induced black water agglomerates (a phenomenon of algal bloom death decay to release a large amount black dissolved organic matter), and there have been no further drinking water crises. This monitoring and response strategy can reduce the cyanobacterial bloom pollution risk, but cannot reduce eutrophication and cyanobacterial blooms, problems which will take decades to resolve. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Toxicity of harmful cyanobacterial blooms to bream and roach.

    PubMed

    Trinchet, Isabelle; Cadel-Six, Sabrina; Djediat, Chakib; Marie, Benjamin; Bernard, Cécile; Puiseux-Dao, Simone; Krys, Sophie; Edery, Marc

    2013-09-01

    Aquatic ecosystems are facing increasing environmental pressures, leading to an increasing frequency of cyanobacterial Harmful Algal Blooms (cHABs) that have emerged as a worldwide concern due to their growing frequency and their potential toxicity to the fauna that threatens the functioning of ecosystems. Cyanobacterial blooms raise concerns due to the fact that several strains produce potent bioactive or toxic secondary metabolites, such as the microcystins (MCs), which are hepatotoxic to vertebrates. These strains of cyanobacteria may be potentially toxic to fish via gastrointestinal ingestion and also by direct absorption of the toxin MC from the water. The purpose of our study was to investigate toxic effects observed in fish taken from several lakes in the Ile-de-France region, where MCs-producing blooms occur. This study comprises histological studies and the measurement of MC concentrations in various organs. The histological findings are similar to those obtained following laboratory exposure of medaka fish to MCs: hepatic lesions predominate and include cell lysis and cell detachment. MC concentrations in the organs revealed that accumulation was particularly high in the digestive tract and the liver, which are known to be classical targets of MCs. In contrast concentrations were very low in the muscles. Differences in the accumulation of MC variants produced by blooms indicate that in order to more precisely evaluate the toxic potential of a specific bloom it is necessary not only to consider the concentration of toxins, but also the variants produced.

  13. Fenced cultivation of water hyacinth for cyanobacterial bloom control.

    PubMed

    Qin, Hongjie; Zhang, Zhiyong; Liu, Haiqin; Li, Dunhai; Wen, Xuezheng; Zhang, Yingying; Wang, Yan; Yan, Shaohua

    2016-09-01

    To achieve the goals of harmful cyanobacterial bloom control and nutrient removal, an eco-engineering project with water hyacinth planted in large-scale enclosures was conducted based on meteorological and hydrographical conditions in Lake Dianchi. Water quality, cyanobacteria distribution, and nutrient (TN, TP) bioaccumulation were investigated. Elevated concentrations of N and P and low Secchi depth (SD) were relevant to large amount of cyanobacteria trapped in regions with water hyacinth, where biomass of the dominant cyanobacteria Microcystis (4.95 × 10(10) cells L(-1)) was more than 30-fold compared with values of the control. A dramatic increase of TN and TP contents in the plants was found throughout the sampling period. Results from the present study confirmed the great potential to use water hyacinth for cyanobacterial bloom control and nutrient removal in algal lakes such as Lake Dianchi.

  14. Siderophores: The special ingredient to cyanobacterial blooms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Xue; Creed, Irena; Trick, Charles

    2013-04-01

    Freshwater lakes provide a number of significant ecological services including clean drinking water, habitat for aquatic biota, and economic benefits. The provision of these ecological services, as well as the health of these aquatic systems, is threatened by the excessive growth of algae, specifically, cyanobacteria. Historically, blooms have been linked to eutrophication but recent occurrences indicate that there are less dramatic changes that induce these blooms. Iron is an essential micronutrient required for specific essential metabolic pathways; however, the amount of biologically available iron in naturally occurring lake ranges from saturation to much lower than cell transport affinities. To assist in the modulation of iron availabilities, cyanobacteria in culture produce low molecular weight compounds that function in an iron binding and acquisition system; nevertheless, this has yet to be confirmed in naturally occurring lakes. This project explored the relationship of P, N and in particular, Fe, in the promotion of cyanobacteria harmful algal blooms in 30 natural freshwater lakes located in and around the Elk Island National Park, Alberta. It is hypothesized that cyanobacteria produce and utilize iron chelators called siderophores in low Fe and nitrogen (N) conditions, creating a competitive advantage over other algae in freshwater lakes. Lakes were selected to represent a range of iron availability to explore the nutrient composition of lakes that propagated cyanobacteria harmful algal blooms (cHABs) compared to lakes that did not. Lake water was analyzed for nutrients, microbial composition, siderophore concentration, and toxin concentration. Modifications were made to optimize the Czaky and Arnow tests for hydroxamate- and catecholate-type siderophores, respectively, for field conditions. Preliminary results indicate the presence of iron-binding ligands (0.11-2.34 mg/L) in freshwater lakes characterized by widely ranging Fe regimes (0.04-2.74 mg

  15. Microcystin in cyanobacterial blooms in a Chilean lake.

    PubMed

    Campos, V; Cantarero, S; Urrutia, H; Heinze, R; Wirsing, B; Neumann, U; Weckesser, J

    1999-05-01

    Cyanobacterial blooms dominated by Microcystis sp. occurred in lake Rocuant ("marisma", near Concepción/Chile) in February 1995 and 1996. In the bloom samples collected in both years the hepatotoxin microcystin was detected by RP-HPLC in both samples and in the sample of 1995 also by a toxicity assay using primary rat hepatocytes. In the bloom of 1995, the microcystin content of the dry bloom biomass was determined to be 130 micrograms/g on the basis of the RP-HPLC peak area and 800 micrograms/g on the basis of the rat hepatotoxicity assay, respectively. In the bloom of 1996, RP-HPLC analysis revealed a microcystin content of 8.13 micrograms/g bloom material dry weight. In this year no hepatotoxicity was measured using a concentration range up to 0.8 mg (d. w.) of bloom material per ml in the rat hepatotoxicity assay. This is the first report on the detection of microcystins in Chilean water bodies.

  16. High diversity of cultivable heterotrophic bacteria in association with cyanobacterial water blooms.

    PubMed

    Berg, Katri A; Lyra, Christina; Sivonen, Kaarina; Paulin, Lars; Suomalainen, Sini; Tuomi, Pirjo; Rapala, Jarkko

    2009-03-01

    Cyanobacterial mass occurrences (water blooms) cause ecological, economic and health problems worldwide. Still, little is known about heterotrophic bacteria associated with cyanobacteria and the interactions between those organisms. We isolated 460 bacterial strains from more than 40 lakes and rivers (151 samples), Baltic Sea (32 samples) and treated drinking water of seven treatment plants (29 samples). The water bodies and the raw water of the treatment plants were frequently dominated by high numbers of cyanobacteria. Various growth media were used to isolate the strains. Analysis of partial 16S rRNA gene fragments (701-905 bp for 358 strains and 413-497 bp for 102 strains) classified the isolated bacteria as Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Actinobacteria, Firmicutes and Deinococcus-Thermus. Some of these isolates represented possible new bacterial orders, families, genera or species. We isolated various potentially pathogenic bacteria, such as Aeromonas, Vibrio, Acinetobacter and Pseudomonas, that may cause adverse health effects in humans and animals and should be taken into consideration when assessing the risks caused by cyanobacterial blooms. Several strains also inhibited or enhanced the growth of cyanobacteria. Most of such strains had an enhancing effect on the cyanobacterial growth. Other isolates were affiliated with genera such as Sphingomonas or Flavobacterium, which include strains that are capable of degrading cyanobacterial toxins or other recalcitrant and problematic organic compounds. The isolated strains provide a large group of bacteria that could be used in assessing and controlling the harmful effects of cyanobacteria.

  17. Shifts in Cyanobacterial Strain Dominance during the Onset of Harmful Algal Blooms in Florida Bay, USA.

    PubMed

    Berry, Dianna L; Goleski, Jennifer A; Koch, Florian; Wall, Charles C; Peterson, Bradley J; Anderson, O Roger; Gobler, Christopher J

    2015-08-01

    Cyanobacteria are fundamental components of aquatic phytoplankton communities and some taxa can cause harmful blooms in coastal ecosystems. Harmful cyanobacterial blooms are typically comprised of multiple strains of a single genus or species that cannot be resolved microscopically. Florida Bay, USA, has experienced harmful cyanobacterial blooms that have been associated with the loss of eelgrass, spiny lobsters, and general food web disruption for more than two decades. To identify the strain or strains of cyanobacteria forming blooms in Florida Bay, samples were collected across the system over an annual cycle and analyzed via DNA sequencing using cyanobacterial-specific 16S rRNA gene primers, flow cytometry, and scanning electron microscopy. Analyses demonstrated that the onset of blooms in Florida Bay was coincident with a transformation of the cyanobacterial populations. When blooms were absent, the cyanobacterial population in Florida Bay was dominated by phycoerythrin-containing Synechococcus cells that were most similar to strains within Clade III. As blooms developed, the cyanobacterial community transitioned to dominance by phycocyanin-containing Synechococcus cells that were coated with mucilage, chain-forming, and genetically most similar to the coastal strains within Clade VIII. Clade VIII strains of Synechococcus are known to grow rapidly, utilize organic nutrients, and resist top-down control by protozoan grazers and viruses, all characteristics consistent with observations of cyanobacterial blooms in Florida Bay. Further, the strains of Synechococcus blooming in this system are genetically distinct from the species previously thought to cause blooms in Florida Bay, Synechococcus elongatus. Collectively, this study identified the causative organism of harmful cyanobacterial blooms in Florida Bay, demonstrates the dynamic nature of cyanobacterial stains within genera in an estuary, and affirms factors promoting Synechococcus blooms.

  18. Fungal parasitism: life cycle, dynamics and impact on cyanobacterial blooms.

    PubMed

    Gerphagnon, Mélanie; Latour, Delphine; Colombet, Jonathan; Sime-Ngando, Télesphore

    2013-01-01

    Many species of phytoplankton are susceptible to parasitism by fungi from the phylum Chytridiomycota (i.e. chytrids). However, few studies have reported the effects of fungal parasites on filamentous cyanobacterial blooms. To investigate the missing components of bloom ecosystems, we examined an entire field bloom of the cyanobacterium Anabaena macrospora for evidence of chytrid infection in a productive freshwater lake, using a high resolution sampling strategy. A. macrospora was infected by two species of the genus Rhizosiphon which have similar life cycles but differed in their infective regimes depending on the cellular niches offered by their host. R. crassum infected both vegetative cells and akinetes while R. akinetum infected only akinetes. A tentative reconstruction of the developmental stages suggested that the life cycle of R. crassum was completed in about 3 days. The infection affected 6% of total cells (and 4% of akinètes), spread over a maximum of 17% of the filaments of cyanobacteria, in which 60% of the cells could be parasitized. Furthermore, chytrids may reduce the length of filaments of Anabaena macrospora significantly by "mechanistic fragmentation" following infection. All these results suggest that chytrid parasitism is one of the driving factors involved in the decline of a cyanobacteria blooms, by direct mortality of parasitized cells and indirectly by the mechanistic fragmentation, which could weaken the resistance of A. macrospora to grazing.

  19. Fungal Parasitism: Life Cycle, Dynamics and Impact on Cyanobacterial Blooms

    PubMed Central

    Gerphagnon, Mélanie; Latour, Delphine; Colombet, Jonathan; Sime-Ngando, Télesphore

    2013-01-01

    Many species of phytoplankton are susceptible to parasitism by fungi from the phylum Chytridiomycota (i.e. chytrids). However, few studies have reported the effects of fungal parasites on filamentous cyanobacterial blooms. To investigate the missing components of bloom ecosystems, we examined an entire field bloom of the cyanobacterium Anabaena macrospora for evidence of chytrid infection in a productive freshwater lake, using a high resolution sampling strategy. A. macrospora was infected by two species of the genus Rhizosiphon which have similar life cycles but differed in their infective regimes depending on the cellular niches offered by their host. R. crassum infected both vegetative cells and akinetes while R. akinetum infected only akinetes. A tentative reconstruction of the developmental stages suggested that the life cycle of R. crassum was completed in about 3 days. The infection affected 6% of total cells (and 4% of akinètes), spread over a maximum of 17% of the filaments of cyanobacteria, in which 60% of the cells could be parasitized. Furthermore, chytrids may reduce the length of filaments of Anabaena macrospora significantly by “mechanistic fragmentation” following infection. All these results suggest that chytrid parasitism is one of the driving factors involved in the decline of a cyanobacteria blooms, by direct mortality of parasitized cells and indirectly by the mechanistic fragmentation, which could weaken the resistance of A. macrospora to grazing. PMID:23593345

  20. Influence of Cyanobacterial Bloom on Freshwater Biocoenosis. Use of Bioassays for Cyanobacterial Microcystins Toxicity Assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piontek, Marlena; Czyżewska, Wanda

    2017-03-01

    The issues presented in this study concern a very important problem of the occurrence of cyanobacterial blooms in surface water used for water supply purposes. The objective of this study was to analyze the occurrence of cyanotoxic risk in the catchment area of the Obrzyca River (including Sławskie lake which is the beginning of the river), which is a source of drinking water for the inhabitants of Zielona Góra. In order to evaluate toxicity of cyanobacterial bloom it was conducted toxicological testing using aquatic invertebrates (Daphnia magna, Dugesia tigrina) and heterotrophic bacteria (Escherichia coli, Enterococcus faecalis, Pseudomonas fluorescens). Test samples were collected from May to October, 2012. The most toxic was a sample collected from Lake Sławskie on 20th October when cyanobacteria bloom with a predominance of Microcystis aeruginosa occurred and the amount of microcystins was the largest. The methanol extract of the sample was toxic only above a concentration of 6·103 mg·dm-3. The lethal concentration (48-h LC 50) for Daphnia magna was 3.09·103 and for Dugesia tigrina (240-h LC 50) 1.51·103 mg·dm-3 of microcystins (MC-LR, MC-YR and MC-RR). The same extract stimulated growth of Escherichia coli and Enterococcus faecalis cells.

  1. UV-induced photochemical heterogeneity of dissolved and attached organic matter associated with cyanobacterial blooms in a eutrophic freshwater lake.

    PubMed

    Xu, Huacheng; Jiang, Helong

    2013-11-01

    Cyanobacterial blooms represent a significant ecological and human health problem worldwide. In aquatic environments, cyanobacterial blooms are actually surrounded by dissolved organic matter (DOM) and attached organic matter (AOM) that bind with algal cells. In this study, DOM and AOM fractionated from blooming cyanobacteria in a eutrophic freshwater lake (Lake Taihu, China) were irradiated with a polychromatic UV lamp, and the photochemical heterogeneity was investigated using fluorescence excitation-emission matrix (EEM)-parallel factor (PARAFAC) analysis and synchronous fluorescence (SF)-two dimensional correlation spectroscopy (2DCOS). It was shown that a 6-day UV irradiation caused more pronounced mineralization for DOM than AOM (59.7% vs. 41.9%). The EEM-PARAFAC analysis identified one tyrosine-, one humic-, and two tryptophan-like components in both DOM and AOM, and high component photodegradation rates were observed for DOM versus AOM (k > 0.554 vs. <0.519). Moreover, SF-2DCOS found that the photodegradation of organic matters followed the sequence of tyrosine-like > humic-like > tryptophan-like substances. Humic-like substances promoted the indirect photochemical reactions, and were responsible for the higher photochemical rate for DOM. The lower photodegradation of AOM benefited the integrality of cells in cyanobacterial blooms against the negative impact of UV irradiation. Therefore, the photochemical behavior of organic matter was related to the adaptation of enhanced-duration cyanobacterial blooms in aquatic environments.

  2. Separation of wind's influence on harmful cyanobacterial blooms.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hua; Zhang, Zhizhang; Liang, Dongfang; du, Hanbei; Pang, Yong; Hu, Kaimin; Wang, Jianjian

    2016-07-01

    Wind is an important physical factor involved in Harmful Cyanobacterial blooms (CyanoHABs). Its integrated influence was separated to three components: (a) Direct Disturbance Impact (DDI) on cyanbacterial proliferation, (b) Indirect Nutrient Impact (INI) by sediment release and (c) Direct Transportation Impact (DTI) by both gentle wind-induced surface drift and wave-generated Stokes drift. By the combination of field investigation, laboratory experiment and numerical simulation their individual contributions to the severe bloom event in May 2007 in Meiliang Bay, Lake Taihu, was explored. Wind synthetically made 10.5 percent promotion to the bloom on May 28, 2007, but the impact varied with locations. DTI was featured with the strongest contribution of wind's impacts on CyanoHABs, while INI stood at the lowest level and DDI played an intermediate role. From the point of whole Meiliang Bay, the influencing weights of DTI, DDI and INI were approximately 48.55%, 32.30% and 19.15% respectively. DTI exerted the higher promotion in the regions of middle-east (ME), southwest (SW) and southeast (SE), and its actual contribution rate on CyanoHABs ranged from 6.41% to 7.46%. Due to the background nutrient load, INI was characterized by a tiny effect with the contribution rate being 2.18% on average. From the south bay to the north, DDI was detected with a decreasing tendency, with the practical contribution rate generally falling from 4.13% to 2.7%.

  3. Estimating cyanobacterial bloom transport by coupling remotely sensed imagery and a hydrodynamic model.

    PubMed

    Wynne, Timothy T; Stumpf, Richard P; Tomlinson, Michelle C; Schwab, David J; Watabayashi, Glen Y; Christensen, John D

    2011-10-01

    The ability to forecast the transport of harmful cyanobacterial blooms in the Laurentian Great Lakes is beneficial to natural resource managers concerned with public health. This manuscript describes a method that improves the prediction of cyanobacterial bloom transport with the use of a preoperational hydrodynamic model and high temporal resolution satellite imagery. Two scenarios were examined from separate cyanobacterial blooms in western Lake Erie, USA. The first scenario modeled bloom position and extent over the span of 13 days. A geographic center, or centroid, was calculated and assigned to the bloom from observed satellite imagery. The bloom centroid was projected forward in time, and the projected position was compared to the final observed bloom centroid. Image pixels flagged as cyanobacterial bloom were compared between the initial image and the final image, and this was assumed as persistence. The second bloom scenario was modeled for a period of 12 days, and the results were framed in an ecological context in an effort to gain further understanding of cyanobacterial bloom dynamics. These modeling techniques can be incorporated into an operational forecasting system.

  4. How rising CO2 and global warming may stimulate harmful cyanobacterial blooms.

    PubMed

    Visser, Petra M; Verspagen, Jolanda M H; Sandrini, Giovanni; Stal, Lucas J; Matthijs, Hans C P; Davis, Timothy W; Paerl, Hans W; Huisman, Jef

    2016-04-01

    Climate change is likely to stimulate the development of harmful cyanobacterial blooms in eutrophic waters, with negative consequences for water quality of many lakes, reservoirs and brackish ecosystems across the globe. In addition to effects of temperature and eutrophication, recent research has shed new light on the possible implications of rising atmospheric CO2 concentrations. Depletion of dissolved CO2 by dense cyanobacterial blooms creates a concentration gradient across the air-water interface. A steeper gradient at elevated atmospheric CO2 concentrations will lead to a greater influx of CO2, which can be intercepted by surface-dwelling blooms, thus intensifying cyanobacterial blooms in eutrophic waters. Bloom-forming cyanobacteria display an unexpected diversity in CO2 responses, because different strains combine their uptake systems for CO2 and bicarbonate in different ways. The genetic composition of cyanobacterial blooms may therefore shift. In particular, strains with high-flux carbon uptake systems may benefit from the anticipated rise in inorganic carbon availability. Increasing temperatures also stimulate cyanobacterial growth. Many bloom-forming cyanobacteria and also green algae have temperature optima above 25°C, often exceeding the temperature optima of diatoms and dinoflagellates. Analysis of published data suggests that the temperature dependence of the growth rate of cyanobacteria exceeds that of green algae. Indirect effects of elevated temperature, like an earlier onset and longer duration of thermal stratification, may also shift the competitive balance in favor of buoyant cyanobacteria while eukaryotic algae are impaired by higher sedimentation losses. Furthermore, cyanobacteria differ from eukaryotic algae in that they can fix dinitrogen, and new insights show that the nitrogen-fixation activity of heterocystous cyanobacteria can be strongly stimulated at elevated temperatures. Models and lake studies indicate that the response of

  5. Cyanobacterial harmful algal blooms are a biological disturbance to Western Lake Erie bacterial communities.

    PubMed

    Berry, Michelle A; Davis, Timothy W; Cory, Rose M; Duhaime, Melissa B; Johengen, Thomas H; Kling, George W; Marino, John A; Den Uyl, Paul A; Gossiaux, Duane; Dick, Gregory J; Denef, Vincent J

    2017-03-01

    Human activities are causing a global proliferation of cyanobacterial harmful algal blooms (CHABs), yet we have limited understanding of how these events affect freshwater bacterial communities. Using weekly data from western Lake Erie in 2014, we investigated how the cyanobacterial community varied over space and time, and whether the bloom affected non-cyanobacterial (nc-bacterial) diversity and composition. Cyanobacterial community composition fluctuated dynamically during the bloom, but was dominated by Microcystis and Synechococcus OTUs. The bloom's progression revealed potential impacts to nc-bacterial diversity. Nc-bacterial evenness displayed linear, unimodal, or no response to algal pigment levels, depending on the taxonomic group. In addition, the bloom coincided with a large shift in nc-bacterial community composition. These shifts could be partitioned into components predicted by pH, chlorophyll a, temperature, and water mass movements. Actinobacteria OTUs showed particularly strong correlations to bloom dynamics. AcI-C OTUs became more abundant, while acI-A and acI-B OTUs declined during the bloom, providing evidence of niche partitioning at the sub-clade level. Thus, our observations in western Lake Erie support a link between CHABs and disturbances to bacterial community diversity and composition. Additionally, the short recovery of many taxa after the bloom indicates that bacterial communities may exhibit resilience to CHABs.

  6. Temperature and Cyanobacterial Bloom Biomass Influence Phosphorous Cycling in Eutrophic Lake Sediments

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Mo; Ye, Tian-Ran; Krumholz, Lee R.; Jiang, He-Long

    2014-01-01

    Cyanobacterial blooms frequently occur in freshwater lakes, subsequently, substantial amounts of decaying cyanobacterial bloom biomass (CBB) settles onto the lake sediments where anaerobic mineralization reactions prevail. Coupled Fe/S cycling processes can influence the mobilization of phosphorus (P) in sediments, with high releases often resulting in eutrophication. To better understand eutrophication in Lake Taihu (PRC), we investigated the effects of CBB and temperature on phosphorus cycling in lake sediments. Results indicated that added CBB not only enhanced sedimentary iron reduction, but also resulted in a change from net sulfur oxidation to sulfate reduction, which jointly resulted in a spike of soluble Fe(II) and the formation of FeS/FeS2. Phosphate release was also enhanced with CBB amendment along with increases in reduced sulfur. Further release of phosphate was associated with increases in incubation temperature. In addition, CBB amendment resulted in a shift in P from the Fe-adsorbed P and the relatively unreactive Residual-P pools to the more reactive Al-adsorbed P, Ca-bound P and organic-P pools. Phosphorus cycling rates increased on addition of CBB and were higher at elevated temperatures, resulting in increased phosphorus release from sediments. These findings suggest that settling of CBB into sediments will likely increase the extent of eutrophication in aquatic environments and these processes will be magnified at higher temperatures. PMID:24682039

  7. Contributions of meteorology to the phenology of cyanobacterial blooms: implications for future climate change.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Min; Duan, Hongtao; Shi, Xiaoli; Yu, Yang; Kong, Fanxiang

    2012-02-01

    Cyanobacterial blooms are often a result of eutrophication. Recently, however, their expansion has also been found to be associated with changes in climate. To elucidate the effects of climatic variables on the expansion of cyanobacterial blooms in Taihu, China, we analyzed the relationships between climatic variables and bloom events which were retrieved by satellite images. We then assessed the contribution of each climate variable to the phenology of blooms using multiple regression models. Our study demonstrates that retrieving ecological information from satellite images is meritorious for large-scale and long-term ecological research in freshwater ecosystems. Our results show that the phenological changes of blooms at an inter-annual scale are strongly linked to climate in Taihu during the past 23 yr. Cyanobacterial blooms occur earlier and last longer with the increase of temperature, sunshine hours, and global radiation and the decrease of wind speed. Furthermore, the duration increases when the daily averages of maximum, mean, and minimum temperature each exceed 20.3 °C, 16.7 °C, and 13.7 °C, respectively. Among these factors, sunshine hours and wind speed are the primary contributors to the onset of the blooms, explaining 84.6% of their variability over the past 23 yr. These factors are also good predictors of the variability in the duration of annual blooms and determined 58.9% of the variability in this parameter. Our results indicate that when nutrients are in sufficiently high quantities to sustain the formation of cyanobacterial blooms, climatic variables become crucial in predicting cyanobacterial bloom events. Climate changes should be considered when we evaluate how much the amount of nutrients should be reduced in Taihu for lake management. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Status, Alert System, and Prediction of Cyanobacterial Bloom in South Korea

    PubMed Central

    Srivastava, Ankita; Ahn, Chi-Yong; Asthana, Ravi Kumar; Lee, Hyung-Gwan; Oh, Hee-Mock

    2015-01-01

    Bloom-forming freshwater cyanobacterial genera pose a major ecological problem due to their ability to produce toxins and other bioactive compounds, which can have important implications in illnesses of humans and livestock. Cyanobacteria such as Microcystis, Anabaena, Oscillatoria, Phormidium, and Aphanizomenon species producing microcystins and anatoxin-a have been predominantly documented from most South Korean lakes and reservoirs. With the increase in frequency of such blooms, various monitoring approaches, treatment processes, and prediction models have been developed in due course. In this paper we review the field studies and current knowledge on toxin producing cyanobacterial species and ecological variables that regulate toxin production and bloom formation in major rivers (Han, Geum, Nakdong, and Yeongsan) and reservoirs in South Korea. In addition, development of new, fast, and high-throughput techniques for effective monitoring is also discussed with cyanobacterial bloom advisory practices, current management strategies, and their implications in South Korean freshwater bodies. PMID:25705675

  9. A method for examining temporal changes in cyanobacterial harmful algal bloom spatial extent using satellite remote sensing

    EPA Science Inventory

    Cyanobacterial harmful algal blooms (CyanoHAB) are thought to be increasing globally over the past few decades, but relatively little quantitative information is available about the spatial extent of blooms. Satellite remote sensing provides a potential technology for identifying...

  10. A method for examining temporal changes in cyanobacterial harmful algal bloom spatial extent using satellite remote sensing (Harmful Algae)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Cyanobacterial harmful algal blooms (CyanoHAB) are thought to be increasing globally over the past few decades, but relatively little quantitative information is available about the spatial extent of blooms. Satellite remote sensing provides a potential technology for identifying...

  11. A method for examining temporal changes in cyanobacterial harmful algal bloom spatial extent using satellite remote sensing..

    EPA Science Inventory

    Cyanobacterial harmful algal blooms (CyanoHAB) are thought to be increasing globally over the past few decades, but relatively little quantitative information is available about the spatial extent of blooms. Satellite remote sensing provides a potential technology for identifying...

  12. .A method for examining temporal changes in cyanobacterial harmful algal bloom spatial extent using satellite remote sensing

    EPA Science Inventory

    Cyanobacterial harmful algal blooms (CyanoHAB) are thought to be increasing globally over the past few decades, but relatively little quantitative information is available about the spatial extent of blooms. Satellite remote sensing provides a potential technology for identifying...

  13. A method for examining temporal changes in cyanobacterial harmful algal bloom spatial extent using satellite remote sensing.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Cyanobacterial harmful algal blooms (CyanoHAB) are thought to be increasing globally over the past few decades, but relatively little quantitative information is available about the spatial extent of blooms. Satellite remote sensing provides a potential technology for identifying...

  14. A method for examining temporal changes in cyanobacterial harmful algal bloom spatial extent using satellite remote sensing...

    EPA Science Inventory

    Cyanobacterial harmful algal blooms (CyanoHAB) are thought to be increasing globally over the past few decades, but relatively little quantitative information is available about the spatial extent of blooms. Satellite remote sensing provides a potential technology for identifying...

  15. Long-term influence of cyanobacterial bloom on the immune system of Litopenaeus vannamei.

    PubMed

    Gao, Jiefeng; Zuo, Hongliang; Yang, Linwei; He, Jian-Hui; Niu, Shengwen; Weng, Shaoping; He, Jianguo; Xu, Xiaopeng

    2017-02-01

    Cyanobacteria are ubiquitously distributed in water on the Earth. It has long been known that the cyanobacterial bloom in aquaculture ponds can cause acute and massive deaths of shrimp. However, the long-term and chronic effects of the cyanobacterial bloom on shrimp are still poorly understood. In this study, the immune state of white pacific shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei, surviving a naturally occurring cyanobacterial bloom was investigated and tracked for 70 d. Compared with the control, the growth of shrimp suffering high concentrations of cyanobacteria was obviously postponed. In these shrimp, the activities of the NF-κB, JAK/STAT and P38 MAPK immune signaling pathways and the expression of many antimicrobial peptide genes were down-regulated, whereas the expression of C-type lectins was significantly up-regulated. Although the mRNA level of lysozyme was reduced, the expression of the invertebrate-type lysozyme gene was increased. Furthermore, the concentration of hemocytes in hemolymph was greatly decreased, but the phagocytic activity of hemocytes was increased. These suggested that the cyanobacterial bloom has significant and complex influences on the immune system of shrimp, and in turn, alteration of the immune state could be a factor by which few shrimp can survive the cyanobacterial bloom. Thus, the current study could help further understand the interactions between the aquaculture water environment and the immune system of shrimp.

  16. Monitoring levels of cyanobacterial blooms using the visual cyanobacteria index (VCI) and floating algae index (FAI)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oyama, Yoichi; Fukushima, Takehiko; Matsushita, Bunkei; Matsuzaki, Hana; Kamiya, Koichi; Kobinata, Hisao

    2015-06-01

    Cyanobacterial bloom is a growing environmental problem in inland waters. In this study, we propose a method for monitoring levels of cyanobacterial blooms from Landsat/ETM+ images. The visual cyanobacteria index (VCI) is a simple index for in-situ visual interpretation of cyanobacterial blooms levels, by classifying them into six categories based on aggregation (e.g., subsurface blooms, surface scum). The floating algae index (FAI) and remote sensing reflectance in the red wavelength domain, which can be obtained from Landsat/ETM+ images, were related to the VCI for estimating cyanobacteria bloom levels from the Landsat/ETM+ images. Nine field campaigns were carried out at Lakes Nishiura and Kitaura (Lake Kasumigaura group), Japan, from June to August 2012. We also collected reflectance spectra at 20 stations for different VCI levels on August 3, 2012. The reflectance spectra were recalculated in correspondence to each ETM+ band, and used to calculate the FAI. The FAI values were then used to determine thresholds for classifying cyanobacterial blooms into different VCI levels. These FAI thresholds were validated using three Landsat/ETM+ images. Results showed that FAI values differed significantly at the respective VCI levels except between levels 1 and 2 (subsurface blooms) and levels 5 and 6 (surface scum and hyperscum). This indicated that the FAI was able to detect the high level of cyanobacteria that forms surface scum. In contrast, the Landsat/ETM+ band 3 reflectance could be used as an alternative index for distinguishing surface scum and hyperscum. Application of the thresholds for VCI classifications to three Landsat/ETM+ images showed that the volume of cyanobacterial blooms can be effectively classified into the six VCI levels.

  17. Mitigating Harmful Cyanobacterial Blooms in a Human- and Climatically-Impacted World

    PubMed Central

    Paerl, Hans W.

    2014-01-01

    Bloom-forming harmful cyanobacteria (CyanoHABs) are harmful from environmental, ecological and human health perspectives by outcompeting beneficial phytoplankton, creating low oxygen conditions (hypoxia, anoxia), and by producing cyanotoxins. Cyanobacterial genera exhibit optimal growth rates and bloom potentials at relatively high water temperatures; hence, global warming plays a key role in their expansion and persistence. CyanoHABs are regulated by synergistic effects of nutrient (nitrogen:N and phosphorus:P) supplies, light, temperature, vertical stratification, water residence times, and biotic interactions. In most instances, nutrient control strategies should focus on reducing both N and P inputs. Strategies based on physical, chemical (nutrient) and biological manipulations can be effective in reducing CyanoHABs; however, these strategies are largely confined to relatively small systems, and some are prone to ecological and environmental drawbacks, including enhancing release of cyanotoxins, disruption of planktonic and benthic communities and fisheries habitat. All strategies should consider and be adaptive to climatic variability and change in order to be effective for long-term control of CyanoHABs. Rising temperatures and greater hydrologic variability will increase growth rates and alter critical nutrient thresholds for CyanoHAB development; thus, nutrient reductions for bloom control may need to be more aggressively pursued in response to climatic changes globally. PMID:25517134

  18. Proteomic Analysis of Hepatic Tissue of Cyprinus carpio L. Exposed to Cyanobacterial Blooms in Lake Taihu, China

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Jinlin; Wang, Xiaorong; Shan, Zhengjun; Yang, Liuyan; Zhou, Junying; Bu, Yuanqin

    2014-01-01

    With the rapid development of industry and agriculture and associated pollution, the cyanobacterial blooms in Lake Taihu have become a major threat to aquatic wildlife and human health. In this study, the ecotoxicological effects of cyanobacterial blooms on cage-cultured carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) in Meiliang Bay of Lake Taihu were investigated. Microcystins (MCs), major cyanobacterial toxins, have been detected in carp cultured at different experimental sites of Meiliang Bay. We observed that the accumulation of MCs in carp was closely associated with several environmental factors, including temperature, pH value, and density of cyanobacterial blooms. The proteomic profile of carp liver exposed to cyanobacterial blooms was analyzed using two-dimensional difference in-gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE) and mass spectrometry. The toxic effects of cyanobacterial blooms on carp liver were similar to changes caused by MCs. MCs were transported into liver cells and induced the excessive production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). MCs and ROS inhibited protein phosphatase and aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH), directly or indirectly resulting in oxidative stress and disruption of the cytoskeleton. These effects further interfered with metabolic pathways in the liver through the regulation of series of related proteins. The results of this study indicated that cyanobacterial blooms pose a major threat to aquatic wildlife in Meiliang Bay in Lake Taihu. These results provided evidence of the molecular mechanisms underlying liver damage in carp exposed to cyanobacterial blooms. PMID:24558380

  19. Toxicity of cyanobacterial bloom in the eutrophic dam reservoir (Southeast Poland).

    PubMed

    Sierosławska, Anna; Rymuszka, Anna; Kalinowska, Renata; Skowroński, Tadeusz; Bownik, Adam; Pawlik-Skowrońska, Barbara

    2010-03-01

    Cyanobacterial bloom was observed in a highly eutrophic dam reservoir, Zemborzycki, near Lublin (SE Poland) over a warm period in the year 2007. The water bloom consisted of several cyanobacterial taxa: Anabaena circinalis, Anabaena spiroides, Anabaena flos-aquae, Planktothrix agardhii, Aphanizomenon flos-aquae, Aphanizomenon gracile, and Microcystis flos-aquae. Anabaena spp., and Aphanizomenon spp., potential producers of neurotoxic anatoxin-a, quantitatively predominated in the studied bloom. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis of surface scum sampled during Anabaena circinalis domination revealed the presence of anatoxin-a at a high concentration (1,035.59 microg per liter of surface scum). At the same time, neither gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) nor microcystin enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) test showed the presence of other frequently found cyanotoxins, microcystins. Toxicity of cyanobacterial bloom was assessed by the crustacean acute toxicity test Daphtoxkit F pulex using Daphnia pulex, and by the chronic toxicity test Protoxkit F with a ciliate protozoan Tetrahymena thermophila. The crude extract of cyanobacterial scum showed high toxicity for Daphnia pulex, with 24-h median effective concentration (EC50) value of 90.3 microg/L of anatoxin-a, which corresponded to the cyanobacterial density in the scum of 1.01 g dry weight/L. For Tetrahymena thermophila, 24-h EC50 was lower, evaluated to be 60.48 microg/L of anatoxin-a, which corresponded to a cyanobacterial density of 0.68 g dry weight/L of the scum. On the basis of evaluated toxicity units, the cyanobacterial extract was classified at class IV toxicity, which means high toxic hazard.

  20. Nutrient and other environmental controls of harmful cyanobacterial blooms along the freshwater-marine continuum.

    PubMed

    Paerl, Hans

    2008-01-01

    Nutrient and hydrologic conditions strongly influence harmful planktonic and benthic cyanobacterial bloom (CHAB) dynamics in aquatic ecosystems ranging from streams and lakes to coastal ecosystems. Urbanization, agricultural and industrial development have led to increased nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) discharge, which affect CHAB potentials of receiving waters. The amounts, proportions and chemical composition of N and P sources can influence the composition, magnitude and duration of blooms. This, in turn, has ramifications for food web dynamics (toxic or inedible CHABs), nutrient and oxygen cycling and nutrient budgets. Some CHABs are capable of N2 fixation, a process that can influence N availability and budgets. Certain invasive N2 fixing taxa (e.g., Cylindrospermopsis, Lyngbya) also effectively compete for fixed N during spring, N-enriched runoff periods, while they use N2 fixation to supplant their N needs during N-deplete summer months. Control of these taxa is strongly dependent on P supply. However, additional factors, such as molar N:P supply ratios, organic matter availability, light attenuation, freshwater discharge, flushing rates (residence time) and water column stability play interactive roles in determining CHAB composition (i.e. N2 fixing vs. non-N2 fixing taxa) and biomass. Bloom potentials of nutrient-impacted waters are sensitive to water residence (or flushing) time, temperatures (preference for > 15 degrees C), vertical mixing and turbidity. These physical forcing features can control absolute growth rates of bloom taxa. Human activities may affect "bottom up" physical-chemical modulators either directly, by controlling hydrologic, nutrient, sediment and toxic discharges, or indirectly, by influencing climate. Control and management of cyanobacterial and other phytoplankton blooms invariably includes nutrient input constraints, most often focused on N and/or P. While single nutrient input constraints may be effective in some water bodies

  1. THE TRPV1 RECEPTOR: THE INTERAGENCY, INTERNATION SYMPOSIUM ON CYANOBACTERIAL HARMFUL ALGAL BLOOMS.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background and Significance

    Evidence indicates that the frequency of occurrence of cyanobacterial harmful algal blooms (CHABs) is increasing in spatial and temporal extent in the US and worldwide. Cyanotoxins are among the most potent toxins known, causing death through ...

  2. THE TRPV1 RECEPTOR: THE INTERAGENCY, INTERNATION SYMPOSIUM ON CYANOBACTERIAL HARMFUL ALGAL BLOOMS.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background and Significance

    Evidence indicates that the frequency of occurrence of cyanobacterial harmful algal blooms (CHABs) is increasing in spatial and temporal extent in the US and worldwide. Cyanotoxins are among the most potent toxins known, causing death through ...

  3. Satellite monitoring of cyanobacterial harmful algal bloom frequency in recreational waters and drinking water sources

    EPA Science Inventory

    Cyanobacterial harmful algal blooms (cyanoHABs) cause extensive problems in lakes worldwide, including human and ecological health risks, anoxia and fish kills, and taste and odor problems. CyanoHABs are a particular concern because of their dense biomass and the risk of expos...

  4. The Role of Nitrogen Fixation in Cyanobacterial Bloom Toxicity in a Temperate, Eutrophic Lake

    PubMed Central

    Beversdorf, Lucas J.; Miller, Todd R.; McMahon, Katherine D.

    2013-01-01

    Toxic cyanobacterial blooms threaten freshwaters worldwide but have proven difficult to predict because the mechanisms of bloom formation and toxin production are unknown, especially on weekly time scales. Water quality management continues to focus on aggregated metrics, such as chlorophyll and total nutrients, which may not be sufficient to explain complex community changes and functions such as toxin production. For example, nitrogen (N) speciation and cycling play an important role, on daily time scales, in shaping cyanobacterial communities because declining N has been shown to select for N fixers. In addition, subsequent N pulses from N2 fixation may stimulate and sustain toxic cyanobacterial growth. Herein, we describe how rapid early summer declines in N followed by bursts of N fixation have shaped cyanobacterial communities in a eutrophic lake (Lake Mendota, Wisconsin, USA), possibly driving toxic Microcystis blooms throughout the growing season. On weekly time scales in 2010 and 2011, we monitored the cyanobacterial community in a eutrophic lake using the phycocyanin intergenic spacer (PC-IGS) region to determine population dynamics. In parallel, we measured microcystin concentrations, N2 fixation rates, and potential environmental drivers that contribute to structuring the community. In both years, cyanobacterial community change was strongly correlated with dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) concentrations, and Aphanizomenon and Microcystis alternated dominance throughout the pre-toxic, toxic, and post-toxic phases of the lake. Microcystin concentrations increased a few days after the first significant N2 fixation rates were observed. Then, following large early summer N2 fixation events, Microcystis increased and became most abundant. Maximum microcystin concentrations coincided with Microcystis dominance. In both years, DIN concentrations dropped again in late summer, and N2 fixation rates and Aphanizomenon abundance increased before the lake mixed in

  5. Cyanotoxin mixtures and taste-and-odor compounds in cyanobacterial blooms from the midwestern united states

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Graham, J.L.; Loftin, K.A.; Meyer, M.T.; Ziegler, A.C.

    2010-01-01

    The mixtures of toxins and taste-and-odor compounds present during cyanobacterial blooms are not well characterized and of particular concern when evaluating potential human health risks. Cyanobacterial blooms were sampled in twenty-three Midwestern United States lakes and analyzed for community composition, thirteen cyanotoxins by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry and immunoassay, and two taste-and-odor compounds by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Aphanizomenon, Cylindrospermopsis and/or Microcystis were dominant in most (96%) blooms, but community composition was not strongly correlated with toxin and taste-and-odor occurrence. Microcystins occurred in all blooms. Total microcystin concentrations measured by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry and immunoassay were linearly related (rs = 0.76, p < 0.01) and LC/MS/MS concentrations were lower than or similar to ELISA in most (85%) samples. Geosmin (87%), 2-methylisoborneol (39%), anatoxin-a (30%), saxitoxins (17%), cylindrospermopsins (9%), and nodularin-R (9%) also were present in these blooms. Multiple classes of cyanotoxins occurred in 48% of blooms and 95% had multiple microcystin variants. Toxins and taste-and-odor compounds frequently co-occurred (91% of blooms), indicating odor may serve as a warning that cyanotoxins likely are present. However, toxins occurred more frequently than taste-and-odor compounds, so odor alone does not provide sufficient warning to ensure human-health protection. ?? This article not subject to U.S. Copyright. Published 2010 by the American Chemical Society.

  6. Interactions between a cyanobacterial bloom ( Microcystis) and the submerged aquatic plant Ceratophyllum oryzetorum Kom.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Dunhai; Li, Genbao; Chen, Wuxiong; Liu, Yongding

    2009-02-01

    In aquatic ecosystems, macrophytes and phytoplankton are main primary producers, in which macrophyte plays an important role in maintaining clear water state, while phytoplankton often dominates in turbid waterbodies. In the present study, the growth and photosynthetic activity of the submerged aquatic plant Ceratophyllum oryzetorum Kom. in different cell densities of cyanobacterial bloom are studied. The results show that the plant length and fresh mass of C. oryzetorum are promoted by low cyanobacterial cell densities. Medium and high cyanobacterial cell densities, on the contrary, act as inhibitory. Furthermore, the photosynthetic activity of C. oryzetorum is strongly inhibited by high cyanobacterial cell densities. To a certain extent, the growth of cyanobacteria is inhibited by C. oryzetorum, but no significant effect is found in this study.

  7. Relation between primary liver cancer occurrence and freshwater Cyanobacterial blooms in Serbia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Svirčev, Z.; Miladinov-Mikov, M.; Simeunović, J.; Vidović, M.; Stojanović, D.

    2009-04-01

    Since 1980 cyanobacterial blooms occurred in a large number of reservoirs, lakes and running water ecosystems (rivers and channels) in Serbia. Among 49 reservoirs examined, 32 were found in blooming condition almost every year during last 2 decades. All natural lakes and 12 river and channel localities in Vojvodina province (agricultural part) proved to be sites with cyanobacterial proliferation. The part of Central Serbia is very problematic for ground water supply. For that reason 21 reservoirs serve as drinking water suppliers. Significant and persistant cyanobacterial blooms have been recognized in 9 of them. Samples for cyanotoxin analyses were taken during and after blooms in Celije Reservoir and in drinking water in Krusevac town 2 days later. Concentratins of Microcystin-LR were 460 µg•L-1 and for Microcystin-RR 170 µg•L-1. Drinking water contained 2 and 0.6 µg•L-1, respectively. Serbia consists of 30 administrative units, in three of which studies for Primary Liver Cancer (PLC) were conducted independently: Vojvodina, where drinking-water is supplied only from deep wells where 7 regions were studied, Kosovo with a few high mountain reservoirs for water supply without cyanobacterial proliferation where 6 regions were studied, and Central Serbia, where 17 regions were studied. Central Serbia showed 7 regions with extremly high PLC incidence and 8 regions with lower PLC incidence. In the two investigated periods, the high PLC mortality of 11.6 in 1980-1995 and extremely high PLC incidence of 26 in 2000 was observed in the regions affected by heavy cyanobacterial blooms. In contrast, the regions not affected by the blooms, PLC mortality and incidence rates were substantially lower: from 1980-1995 mortality rate ammounted to 2.7 in Kosovo, 7.6 in Vojvodina, and 8.5 in the non-affected regions of Central Serbia, and in 2000 incidence rate ammounted to 4.1 (Kosovo), 6.6 (Vojvodina), and 7.5 in the non-affected regions of Central Serbia. The uneven

  8. The profound effect of harmful cyanobacterial blooms: From food-web and management perspectives.

    PubMed

    Šulčius, Sigitas; Montvydienė, Danguolė; Mazur-Marzec, Hanna; Kasperovičienė, Jūratė; Rulevičius, Rokas; Cibulskaitė, Živilė

    2017-12-31

    Sustainable and effective water management plans must have a reliable risk assessment strategies for harmful cyanobacterial blooms (HABs) that would enable timely decisions to be made, thus avoiding the trespassing of ecological thresholds, leading to the collapse of ecosystem structure and function. Such strategies are usually based on cyanobacterial biomass and/or on the monitoring of known toxins, which may, however, in many cases, under- or over-represent the actual toxicity of the HAB. Therefore, in this study, by the application of growth-inhibition assays using different bacteria, algae, zooplankton and fish species, we assessed the toxicological potential of two cyanobacterial blooms that differed in total cyanobacterial biomass, species composition and cyanopeptide profiles. We demonstrated that neither cyanobacterial community composition nor its relative abundance, nor indeed concentrations of known toxins reflected the potential risk of HAB based on growth-inhibition assays. We discuss our findings in the context of food-web dynamics and ecosystem management, and suggest that toxicological tests should constitute a key element in the routine monitoring of water bodies so as to prevent under-/over-estimation of potential HAB risk for both ecosystem and public health. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Freshwater cyanobacterial blooms and primary liver cancer epidemiological studies in Serbia.

    PubMed

    Svircev, Zorica; Krstic, Svetislav; Miladinov-Mikov, Marica; Baltic, Vladimir; Vidovic, Milka

    2009-01-01

    A large part of Central Serbia experiences continual shortage of sufficient ground water resources. For that reason, more than 20 reservoirs serve as drinking water suppliers. Significant and persistent cyanobacterial "blooms" have been recognized in nine of them. Samples for cyanotoxin analyses were taken during and after "blooms" in Celije Reservoir and from Krusevac town-supplied tap water from that reservoir two days later. Concentration of microcystin-LR was 650 microg L(-1) in the reservoir, while the tap water contained 2.5 microg L(-1). In the two investigated periods, the high primary liver cancer (PLC) mortality of 11.6 from 1980-1990 and extremely high PLC incidence of 34.7 from 2000-2002 were observed in the regions affected by heavy cyanobacterial "blooms." In contrast, PLC mortality and incidence rates were substantially lower in the regions not affected by cyanobacterial blooms: in 1980-1990 the rate of PLC mortality amounted to 2.7 in Kosovo, 7.6 in Vojvodina, and 8.3 in the non-affected regions of Central Serbia; while in 2000-2002 PLC incidence amounted to 4.1 in Kosovo, 5.2 in Vojvodina, and 13.6 in the non- or less-affected regions of Central Serbia. Keeping in mind that the most affected PLC regions in Central Serbia (Toplicki, Niski, and Sumadijski regions) have the water supply systems based on six reservoirs found regularly in bloom during summer months and that some of the regions are also connected with two boundary "blooming" reservoirs, representing a total of eight of nine blooming reservoirs, it is easy to presume that the PLC incidence could be related to drinking water quality. The uneven geographic distribution of liver cancer in Serbia is conspicuous and hot spots could be related to drinking water supply. It is very clear that the high-risk regions for PLC occurrence correspond with drinking water reservoirs continually found with cyanobacterial blooms, and the low risk regions correspond with water supplies not affected by

  10. Periphyton effects on bacterial assemblages and harmful cyanobacterial blooms in a eutrophic freshwater lake: a mesocosm study.

    PubMed

    Cui, Yingshun; Jin, Long; Ko, So-Ra; Chun, Seong-Jun; Oh, Hyung-Seok; Lee, Chang Soo; Srivastava, Ankita; Oh, Hee-Mock; Ahn, Chi-Yong

    2017-08-10

    Periphyton comprises a broad range of autotrophic and heterotrophic organisms that grow on submerged surfaces in aquatic environments. To investigate the ecological roles of periphyton and their symbiotic bacterial assemblages related to the control of cyanobacterial blooms, mesocosm experiments were performed in a eutrophic lake that is usually infested with harmful cyanobacterial blooms. Our results showed that periphyton, together with their symbionts, reduced Chl-a concentrations (up to 94%), improved water clarity and effectively controlled cyanobacterial blooms in the treatment mesocosm. Planktonic bacterial compositions varied greatly in the pre-bloom/bloom/post-bloom periods in both mesocosms and were mainly influenced by total dissolved nitrogen (TDN) concentrations. The phylum Cyanobacteria was the major component in the water samples until bloom peak, but it was replaced by Actinobacteria in the post-bloom period. However, periphyton niches were dominated by Alphaproteobacteria throughout the experiments, Cyanobacteria proportion being lower. Overall, the results indicated that periphyton and their unique bacterial partners could effectively compete with cyanobacteria and improve water quality. Their underlying interaction mechanism was also suggested to explain how periphyton and their symbionts can reduce cyanobacterial blooms in eutrophic water.

  11. Global metabolome changes induced by cyanobacterial blooms in three representative fish species.

    PubMed

    Sotton, Benoît; Paris, Alain; Le Manach, Séverine; Blond, Alain; Lacroix, Gérard; Millot, Alexis; Duval, Charlotte; Qiao, Qin; Catherine, Arnaud; Marie, Benjamin

    2017-07-15

    Cyanobacterial blooms induce important ecological constraints for aquatic organisms and strongly impact the functioning of aquatic ecosystems. In the past decades, the effects of the cyanobacterial secondary metabolites, so called cyanotoxins, have been extensively studied in fish. However, many of these studies have used targeted approaches on specific molecules, which are thought to react to the presence of these specific cyanobacterial compounds. Since a few years, untargeted metabolomic approaches provide a unique opportunity to evaluate the global response of hundreds of metabolites at a glance. In this way, our study provides the first utilization of metabolomic analyses in order to identify the response of fish exposed to bloom-forming cyanobacteria. Three relevant fish species of peri-urban lakes of the European temperate regions were exposed for 96h either to a microcystin (MC)-producing or to a non-MC-producing strain of Microcystis aeruginosa and metabolome changes were characterized in the liver of fish. The results suggest that a short-term exposure to those cyanobacterial biomasses induces metabolome changes without any response specificity linked to the fish species considered. Candidate metabolites are involved in energy metabolism and antioxidative response, which could potentially traduce a stress response of fish submitted to cyanobacteria. These results are in agreement with the already known information and could additionally bring new insights about the molecular interactions between cyanobacteria and fish.

  12. Epidemiology of cancers in Serbia and possible connection with cyanobacterial blooms.

    PubMed

    Svirčev, Zorica; Drobac, Damjana; Tokodi, Nada; Lužanin, Zorana; Munjas, Ana Marija; Nikolin, Branislava; Vuleta, Dušan; Meriluoto, Jussi

    2014-01-01

    Cyanobacteria produce toxic metabolites known as cyanotoxins. These bioactive compounds can cause acute poisoning, and some of them may promote cancer through chronic exposure. Direct ingestion of and contact with contaminated water is one of the many exposure routes to cyanotoxins. The aim of this article was to review the incidence of 13 cancers during a 10-year period in Serbia and to assess whether there is a correlation between the cancer incidences and cyanobacterial bloom occurrence in reservoirs for drinking water supply. The types of cancers were chosen and subjected to epidemiological analyses utilizing previously published data. Based on the epidemiological and statistical analysis, the group of districts in which the incidences of cancers are significant, and may be considered as critical, include Nišavski, Toplički, and Šumadijski district. A significantly higher incidence of ten cancers was observed in the three critical districts as compared to the remaining 14 districts in Central Serbia. These elevated incidences of cancer include: brain cancer, heart, mediastinum and pleura cancer, ovary cancer, testicular cancer, gastric cancer, colorectal cancer, retroperitoneum and peritoneum cancer, leukemia, malignant melanoma of skin, and primary liver cancer. In addition, the mean incidence of five chosen cancers was the highest in the three critical regions, then in the rest of Central Serbia, while the lowest values were recorded in Vojvodina. Persistent and recurrent cyanobacterial blooms occur during summer months in reservoirs supplying water to waterworks in the three critical districts. People in Central Serbia mainly use surface water as water supply (but not all the water bodies are blooming) while in Vojvodina region (control region in this study) only groundwater is used. Among the 14 "noncritical" districts, reservoirs used for drinking water supply have been affected by recurrent cyanobacterial blooms in two districts (Rasinski and Zaje

  13. Nutrient reduction magnifies the impact of extreme weather on cyanobacterial bloom formation in large shallow Lake Taihu (China).

    PubMed

    Yang, Zhen; Zhang, Min; Shi, Xiaoli; Kong, Fanxiang; Ma, Ronghua; Yu, Yang

    2016-10-15

    Cyanobacterial bloom formation is dependent on nutrient levels and meteorological conditions. In this study, we elucidated the effects of extreme weather events (EWEs, heavy rainfall and strong winds) on the cyanobacterial blooms in Lake Taihu in recent years based on an analysis of the meteorological, nutrient, and bloom area data from 2007 to 2015. The levels of total phosphorus (TP) and total nitrogen (TN) decreased by 42.5% and 31.2%, respectively, in the water of Lake Taihu over the past nine years. However, the frequency and intensity of cyanobacterial blooms did not significantly decrease. A total of 50.5% of the extended blooms (>300 km(2)) were associated with EWEs from 2007 to 2015, 36.2% of which were due to heavy rainfall and 38.3% of which were due to strong winds (25.5% were due to both). Interestingly, the frequency of the EWE-induced extended blooms significantly increased after 2012. Principal component analysis (PCA) showed that this frequency correlated positively with EWE-induced nutrient increases in the water, indicating that the complement from nutrient increases induced by EWE allow cyanobacterial cells to reach high biomass under relatively low nutrient condition. Our results suggest that EWEs play a more important role in extended bloom formation after the nutrient levels in shallow lakes are reduced.

  14. Removal of cyanobacterial bloom from a biopond-wetland system and the associated response of zoobenthic diversity.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yonghong; Kerr, Philip G; Hu, Zhengyi; Yang, Linzhang

    2010-06-01

    Harmful cyanobacterial bloom in water bodies frequently occurs due to eutrophication, leading to the excessive growth of cyanobacteria which in turn may lead to a decrease in biodiversity. A biopond-wetland system to control cyanobacterial bloom and stabilize or even increase biodiversity is proposed and applied in a pond, Kunming, western China where cyanobacterial blooms frequently break out. The biopond-wetland system examined includes three main parts: filter-feeding fish, replanted pond macrophytes, and a terminal artificial wetland. When the hydraulic load of the biopond-wetland system was 500m(3)/d on non-rainy days, the system successfully decreased the level of chlorophyll-a (Chl-a). The declining levels of total nitrogen (TN), total phosphorus (TP) and ammonia in the water after establishing the biopond-wetland system also coincided with the disappearance of the cyanobacterial bloom. In the second summer, when the biopond-wetland system was in a relatively steady-state condition, the overall average nutrient removal efficiencies were as follows, Chl-a (83%), TN (57%), TP (70%) and ammonia (66%), while in the second winter, the overall average removal efficiencies were Chl-a (66%), TN (40%), TP (53%) and ammonia (49%). Simpson's diversity index of zoobenthos indicated that the system increased the zoobenthic diversity and improved the growth conditions of the zoobenthos habitat. The results demonstrated that the biopond-wetland system could control cyanobacterial blooms.

  15. Influence of alum on cyanobacterial blooms and water quality of earthen fish ponds.

    PubMed

    Dawah, Aida; Soliman, Ashraf; Abomohra, Abd El-Fatah; Battah, Mohamed; Anees, Doaa

    2015-11-01

    Eruption of blue-green algal blooms occurs frequently in eutrophic lakes and fish ponds, with associated unpleasant odor and horrid scums. In the present study, we conducted a pre-test experiment in 3 m(3) outdoor concrete ponds to determine the optimum concentration of aluminum sulfate (alum) required for reduction of the cyanobacterial blooms without negative effect on fish growth. As a consequence, 10 mg L(-1) alum was named as the optimum concentration that was applied in 1000 m(3) earthen fish ponds. Obtained results showed that Secchi disc values significantly increased from 10 to 24 cm after 14 days of alum application. Alum-treated ponds showed a reduction in total phytoplankton counts by 94 and 96% compared to the corresponding controls after 10 and 14 days, respectively. Abundance of blue-green algae in the treated ponds was decreased by 98% compared to the corresponding control after 14 days of alum application. Consequently, dissolved oxygen, pH, total phosphorus, orthophosphate, and chlorophyll "a" content declined significantly. Our study revealed that using 10 mg L(-1) of alum is an effective way to control cyanobacterial blooms in eutrophic waters, especially in fish ponds, without negative effect in water quality.

  16. Diel Variation in Gene Expression of the CO2-Concentrating Mechanism during a Harmful Cyanobacterial Bloom

    PubMed Central

    Sandrini, Giovanni; Tann, Robert P.; Schuurmans, J. Merijn; van Beusekom, Sebastiaan A. M.; Matthijs, Hans C. P.; Huisman, Jef

    2016-01-01

    Dense phytoplankton blooms in eutrophic waters often experience large daily fluctuations in environmental conditions. We investigated how this diel variation affects in situ gene expression of the CO2-concentrating mechanism (CCM) and other selected genes of the harmful cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa. Photosynthetic activity of the cyanobacterial bloom depleted the dissolved CO2 concentration, raised pH to 10, and caused large diel fluctuations in the bicarbonate and O2 concentration. The Microcystis population consisted of three Ci uptake genotypes that differed in the presence of the low-affinity and high-affinity bicarbonate uptake genes bicA and sbtA. Expression of the bicarbonate uptake genes bicA, sbtA, and cmpA (encoding a subunit of the high-affinity bicarbonate uptake system BCT1), the CCM transcriptional regulator gene ccmR and the photoprotection gene flv4 increased at first daylight and was negatively correlated with the bicarbonate concentration. In contrast, genes of the two CO2 uptake systems were constitutively expressed, whereas expression of the RuBisCO chaperone gene rbcX, the carboxysome gene ccmM, and the photoprotection gene isiA was highest at night and down-regulated during daytime. In total, our results show that the harmful cyanobacterium Microcystis is very responsive to the large diel variations in carbon and light availability often encountered in dense cyanobacterial blooms. PMID:27148233

  17. Field methods in the study of toxic cyanobacterial blooms: results and insights from Lake Erie research.

    PubMed

    Wilhelm, Steven W

    2008-01-01

    Sound field methodologies are an essential prerequisite in the development of a basic understanding of toxic cyanobacteria blooms. Sample collection, on-site processing, storage and transportation, and subsequent analysis and documentation are all critically dependent on a sound field program that allows the researcher to construct, with minimal uncertainty, linkages between bloom events and cyanotoxin production with the ecology of the studied system. Since 1999, we have collected samples in Lake Erie as part of the MELEE (Microbial Ecology of the Lake Erie Ecosystem) and MERHAB-LGL (Monitoring Event Responses for Harmful Algal Blooms in the Lower Great Lakes) research programs to develop appropriate tools and refine methods necessary to characterize the ecology of the reoccurring cyanobacterial blooms in the systems. Satellite imagery, large ship expeditions, classical and novel molecular tools have been combined to provide insight into both the cyanobacteria responsible for these events as well as into some of the environmental cues that may facilitate the formation of toxic blooms. This information, as well new directions in cyano-specific monitoring will be presented to highlight needs for field program monitoring and/or researching toxic freshwater cyanobacteria.

  18. An overview of the interagency, International Symposium on Cyanobacterial Harmful Algal Blooms (ISOC-HAB): advancing the scientific understanding of freshwater harmful algal blooms.

    PubMed

    Hudnell, H Kenneth; Dortch, Quay; Zenick, Harold

    2008-01-01

    There is growing evidence that the spatial and temporal incidence of harmful algal blooms is increasing, posing potential risks to human health and ecosystem sustainability. Currently there are no US Federal guidelines, Water Quality Criteria and Standards, or regulations concerning the management of harmful algal blooms. Algal blooms in freshwater are predominantly cyanobacteria, some of which produce highly potent cyanotoxins. The US Congress mandated a Scientific Assessment of Freshwater Harmful Algal Blooms in the 2004 reauthorization of the Harmful Algal Blooms and Hypoxia Research and Control Act. To further the scientific understanding of freshwater harmful algal blooms, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) established an interagency committee to organize the Interagency, International Symposium on Cyanobacterial Harmful Algal Blooms (ISOC-HAB). A theoretical framework to define scientific issues and a systems approach to implement the assessment and management of cyanobacterial harmful algal blooms were developed as organizing themes for the symposium. Seven major topic areas and 23 subtopics were addressed in Workgroups and platform sessions during the symposium. The primary charge given to platform presenters was to describe the state of the science in the subtopic areas, whereas the Workgroups were charged with identifying research that could be accomplished in the short- and long-term to reduce scientific uncertainties. The proceedings of the symposium, published in this monograph, are intended to inform policy determinations and the mandated Scientific Assessment by describing the scientific knowledge and areas of uncertainty concerning freshwater harmful algal blooms.

  19. "Non-toxic" cyclic peptides induce lysis of cyanobacteria-an effective cell population density control mechanism in cyanobacterial blooms.

    PubMed

    Sedmak, B; Carmeli, S; Elersek, Tina

    2008-08-01

    The presence of planktopeptin BL1125, anabaenopeptin B and anabaenopeptin F, two types of "non-toxic" cyclic peptide produced in bloom forming cyanobacteria, can provoke lysis of different non-axenic Microcystis aeruginosa cell lines via the induction of virus-like particles. The resulting particles are also able to infect the axenic M. aeruginosa cell line without lytic effects. Nevertheless, the presence of "non-toxic" cyclic peptides of cyanobacterial origin can induce lysis of these previously infected cells. This effect implies that a possible role of these peptides in the natural environment is the control of cyanobacterial population density. Lysogenic cyanobacteria can consequently act as hot-spots that, in the presence of cyanobacterial cyclic peptides, release numerous infectious particles. The process can be self-augmented with the simultaneous release of additional cyclic peptides from the producing lysogens, starting a forest fire effect that ends in collapse of cyanobacterial blooms.

  20. Predicting the vulnerability of reservoirs to poor water quality and cyanobacterial blooms.

    PubMed

    Leigh, Catherine; Burford, Michele A; Roberts, David T; Udy, James W

    2010-08-01

    Cyanobacterial blooms in drinking water reservoirs present a major ecosystem functioning and human health issue. The ability to predict reservoir vulnerability to these blooms would provide information critical for decision making, hazard prevention and management. We developed a new, comparative index of vulnerability based on simple measures of reservoir and catchment characteristics, rather than water quality data, which were instead used to test the index's effectiveness. Testing was based on water quality data collected over a number of seasons and years from 15 drinking water reservoirs in subtropical, southeast Queensland. The index correlated significantly and strongly with algal cell densities, including potentially toxic cyanobacteria, as well as with the proportions of cyanobacteria in summer months. The index also performed better than each of the measures of reservoir and catchment characteristics alone, and as such, was able to encapsulate the physical characteristics of subtropical reservoirs, and their catchments, into an effective indicator of the vulnerability to summer blooms. This was further demonstrated by calculating the index for a new reservoir to be built within the study region. Under planned dimensions and land use, a comparatively high level of vulnerability was reached within a few years. However, the index score and the number of years taken to reach a similar level of vulnerability could be reduced simply by decreasing the percentage of grazing land cover via revegetation within the catchment. With climate change, continued river impoundment and the growing demand for potable water, our index has potential decision making benefits when planning future reservoirs to reduce their vulnerability to cyanobacterial blooms.

  1. The dual role of nitrogen supply in controlling the growth and toxicity of cyanobacterial blooms.

    PubMed

    Gobler, Christopher J; Burkholder, JoAnn M; Davis, Timothy W; Harke, Matthew J; Johengen, Tom; Stow, Craig A; Van de Waal, Dedmer B

    2016-04-01

    Historically, phosphorus (P) has been considered the primary limiting nutrient for phytoplankton assemblages in freshwater ecosystems. This review, supported by new findings from Lake Erie, highlights recent molecular, laboratory, and field evidence that the growth and toxicity of some non-diazotrophic blooms of cyanobacteria can be controlled by nitrogen (N). Cyanobacteria such as Microcystis possess physiological adaptations that allow them to dominate low-P surface waters, and in temperate lakes, cyanobacterial densities can be controlled by N availability. Beyond total cyanobacterial biomass, N loading has been shown to selectively promote the abundance of Microcystis and Planktothrix strains capable of synthesizing microcystins over strains that do not possess this ability. Among strains of cyanobacteria capable of synthesizing the N-rich microcystins, cellular toxin quotas have been found to depend upon exogenous N supplies. Herein, multi-year observations from western Lake Erie are presented demonstrating that microcystin concentrations peak in parallel with inorganic N, but not orthophosphate, concentrations and are significantly lower (p<0.01) during years of reduced inorganic nitrogen loading and concentrations. Collectively, this information underscores the importance of N as well as P in controlling toxic cyanobacteria blooms. Furthermore, it supports the premise that management actions to reduce P in the absence of concurrent restrictions on N loading may not effectively control the growth and/or toxicity of non-diazotrophic toxic cyanobacteria such as the cosmopolitan, toxin-producing genus, Microcystis.

  2. Bloom of Firmicutes of order Bacillales underlies wet-up response of a cyanobacterial biocrust chronosequence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karaoz, U.; Couradeau, E.; da Rocha, U. N.; Chien Lim, H.; Garcia-Pichel, F.; Northen, T.; Brodie, E.

    2016-12-01

    Biological soil crusts (biocrusts), critical components of dryland ecosystem, successionally develop to deliver a suite of ecosystem services. Biocrust assemblages are extremely well adapted to survive desiccation and then take advantage of pulses of precipitation typical of arid climate, yet we know little about how these microbial communities of different developmental stages respond to wetup. Here we focus on the wetup response of incipient cyanobacterial crusts as they progress from "light" to "dark". We sampled a cyanobacterial biocrust chronosequence pre- (dry) and post-wetup within a day, and used high-throughput 16S rRNA sequencing to decipher wetup response of microbial communities. Overall, changes in phylogenetic beta-diversity attributable to crust successional stage were at least as large as those for wetup. Notably, more mature crusts showed significantly higher resistance to pulse hydration. Taxonomically, a drastic bloom of handful Firmicutes taxa, primarily from Bacillales order was apparent 18 hrs. after wetup. The wetup response of filamentous cyanobacteria was variable across the successional gradient, with populations collapsing in less developed light crusts but rising in dark crusts. Strong phylogenetic clustering that significantly increased with crust development and wetup suggested conservation and an evolutionary basis for the response of biocrust microbial communities to wetup. The consistent Bacillales bloom accompanied by the variable collapse of the Microcoleus we documented across the successional gradient suggests that the cumulative effects of increased precipitation frequencies on C cycling will depend on crust maturity.

  3. Rehabilitating the cyanobacteria - niche partitioning, resource use efficiency and phytoplankton community structure during diazotrophic cyanobacterial blooms.

    PubMed

    Olli, Kalle; Klais, Riina; Tamminen, Timo

    2015-09-01

    Blooms of nitrogen-fixing cyanobacteria are recurrent phenomena in marine and freshwater habitats, and their supplying role in aquatic biogeochemical cycles is generally considered vital. The objective of this study was to analyse whether an increasing proportion of nitrogen-fixing cyanobacteria affects (i) the composition of the non-diazotrophic component of ambient phytoplankton communities and (ii) resource use efficiency (RUE; ratio of Chl a to total nutrients) - an important ecosystem function. We hypothesize that diazotrophs increase community P use and decrease N use efficiencies, as new N is brought into the system, relaxing N, and concomitantly aggravating P limitation. We test this by analysing an extensive data set from the Baltic Sea (> 3700 quantitative phytoplankton samples), known to harbour conspicuous and recurrent blooms of Nodularia spumigena and Aphanizomenon sp.System-level phosphorus use efficiency (RUEP) was positively related to high proportion of diazotrophic cyanobacteria, suggesting aggravation of phosphorus limitation. However, concomitant decrease of nitrogen use efficiency (RUEN) was not observed. Nodularia spumigena, a dominant diazotroph and a notorious toxin producer, had a significantly stronger relationship with RUEP, compared to the competing non-toxic Aphanizomenon sp., confirming niche differentiation in P acquisition strategies between the major bloom-forming cyanobacterial species in the Baltic Sea. Nodularia occurrences were associated with stronger temperature stratification in more offshore environments, indicating higher reliance on in situ P regeneration.By using constrained and unconstrained ordination, permutational multivariate analysis of variance and local similarity analysis, we show that diazotrophic cyanobacteria explained no more than a few percentage of the ambient phytoplankton community variation. The analyses furthermore yielded rather evenly distributed negative and positive effects on individual co

  4. Quantifying Phycocyanin Concentration in Cyanobacterial Algal Blooms from Remote Sensing Reflectance-A Quasi Analytical Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishra, S.; Mishra, D. R.; Tucker, C.

    2011-12-01

    Cyanobacterial harmful algal blooms (CHAB) are notorious for depleting dissolved oxygen level, producing various toxins, causing threats to aquatic life, altering the food-web dynamics and the overall ecosystem functioning in inland lakes, estuaries, and coastal waters. Most of these algal blooms produce various toxins that can damage cells, tissues and even cause mortality of living organisms. Frequent monitoring of water quality in a synoptic scale has been possible by the virtue of remote sensing techniques. In this research, we present a novel technique to monitor CHAB using remote sensing reflectance products. We have modified a multi-band quasi analytical algorithm that determines phytoplankton absorption coefficients from above surface remote sensing reflectance measurements using an inversion method. In situ hyperspectral remote sensing reflectance data were collected from several highly turbid and productive aquaculture ponds. A novel technique was developed to further decompose the phytoplankton absorption coefficients at 620 nm and obtain phycocyanin absorption coefficient at the same wavelength. An empirical relationship was established between phycocyanin absorption coefficients at 620 nm and measured phycocyanin concentrations. Model calibration showed strong relationship between phycocyanin absorption coefficients and phycocyanin pigment concentration (r2=0.94). Validation of the model in a separate dataset produced a root mean squared error of 167 mg m-3 (phycocyanin range: 26-1012 mg m-3). Results demonstrate that the new approach will be suitable for quantifying phycocyanin concentration in cyanobacteria dominated turbid productive waters. Band architecture of the model matches with the band configuration of the Medium Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MERIS) and assures that MERIS reflectance products can be used to quantify phycocyanin in cyanobacterial harmful algal blooms in optically complex waters.

  5. Practices that Prevent the Formation of Cyanobacterial Blooms in Water Resources and remove Cyanotoxins during Physical Treatment of Drinking Water

    EPA Science Inventory

    This book chapter presents findings of different studies on the prevention and elimination of cyanobacterial blooms in raw water resources as well as the removal of cyanotoxins during water treatment with physical processes. Initially,treatments that can be applied at the source ...

  6. Practices that Prevent the Formation of Cyanobacterial Blooms in Water Resources and remove Cyanotoxins during Physical Treatment of Drinking Water

    EPA Science Inventory

    This book chapter presents findings of different studies on the prevention and elimination of cyanobacterial blooms in raw water resources as well as the removal of cyanotoxins during water treatment with physical processes. Initially,treatments that can be applied at the source ...

  7. Incorporation of different N sources and light response curves of nitrogenase and photosynthesis by cyanobacterial blooms from rice fields.

    PubMed

    Ariosa, Yoanna; Carrasco, David; Quesada, Antonio; Fernández-Valiente, Eduardo

    2006-04-01

    In this work, we estimate the contributions of the different sources of N incorporated by two N(2)-fixing cyanobacterial blooms (Anabaena sp. and Microchaete sp.) in the rice fields of Valencia (Spain) during the crop cycles of 1999 and 2000, and evaluate the response of nitrogenase and C assimilation activities to changing irradiances. Our results show that, far from the generally assumed idea that the largest part of the N incorporated by N(2)-fixing cyanobacterial blooms in rice fields comes from N(2) fixation, both cyanobacterial blooms incorporated about three times more N from dissolved combined compounds than from N(2) fixation (only about 33-41% of the N incorporated came from N(2) fixation). Our results on the photodependence of C and N(2) fixation indicate that in both cyanobacterial blooms, N(2) fixation showed a steeper initial slope (alpha) and was saturated with less irradiance than C fixation, suggesting that N(2) fixation was more efficient than photosynthesis under conditions of light limitation. At saturating light, N(2) fixation and C fixation differed depending on the bloom and on the environmental conditions created by rice plant growth. Carbon assimilation but not nitrogenase activity appeared photoinhibited in the Anabaena but not in the Microchaete bloom in August 1999, when the plants were tall and the canopy was important, and there was no limitation of dissolved inorganic carbon. The opposite was found in the Microchaete bloom of June 2000, when plants were small and produced little shade, and dissolved inorganic carbon was very low.

  8. Epidemiology of primary liver cancer in Serbia and possible connection with cyanobacterial blooms.

    PubMed

    Svirčev, Zorica; Drobac, Damjana; Tokodi, Nada; Vidović, Milka; Simeunović, Jelica; Miladinov-Mikov, Marica; Baltić, Vladimir

    2013-01-01

    Today, the occurrence of harmful cyanobacterial blooms is a common phenomenon and a potential global health problem. Cyanobacteria can produce metabolites highly toxic to humans. More than 80% of reservoirs used for water supply in Central Serbia have bloomed over the past 80 years. A 10-year epidemiological study showed a significant increase in the incidence of primary liver cancer (PLC) in the regions where water from the blooming reservoirs was used for human consumption. At the same time, no correlation was found between the incidence of PLC and other risk factors, such as cirrhosis and hepatitis viruses. Given the strong association with PLC induction and various known possible mechanisms of carcinogenic action, it is highly possible that, cyanotoxins--acting as initiator and promoter--may be the major risk factor that acts synergistically with other risk factors to cause increased incidence of PLC. However, at present, it is still not certain whether cyanotoxins alone were sufficient to induce PLC. Therefore, additional assessment of the health risks that may arise from human exposure to cyanotoxins is advisable.

  9. Mitigating cyanobacterial harmful algal blooms in aquatic ecosystems impacted by climate change and anthropogenic nutrients.

    PubMed

    Paerl, Hans W; Gardner, Wayne S; Havens, Karl E; Joyner, Alan R; McCarthy, Mark J; Newell, Silvia E; Qin, Boqiang; Scott, J Thad

    2016-04-01

    Mitigating the global expansion of cyanobacterial harmful blooms (CyanoHABs) is a major challenge facing researchers and resource managers. A variety of traditional (e.g., nutrient load reduction) and experimental (e.g., artificial mixing and flushing, omnivorous fish removal) approaches have been used to reduce bloom occurrences. Managers now face the additional effects of climate change on watershed hydrologic and nutrient loading dynamics, lake and estuary temperature, mixing regime, internal nutrient dynamics, and other factors. Those changes favor CyanoHABs over other phytoplankton and could influence the efficacy of control measures. Virtually all mitigation strategies are influenced by climate changes, which may require setting new nutrient input reduction targets and establishing nutrient-bloom thresholds for impacted waters. Physical-forcing mitigation techniques, such as flushing and artificial mixing, will need adjustments to deal with the ramifications of climate change. Here, we examine the suite of current mitigation strategies and the potential options for adapting and optimizing them in a world facing increasing human population pressure and climate change. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Dynamics of cyanobacterial bloom formation during short-term hydrodynamic fluctuation in a large shallow, eutrophic, and wind-exposed Lake Taihu, China.

    PubMed

    Wu, Tingfeng; Qin, Boqiang; Zhu, Guangwei; Luo, Liancong; Ding, Yanqing; Bian, Geya

    2013-12-01

    Short-term hydrodynamic fluctuations caused by extreme weather events are expected to increase worldwide because of global climate change, and such fluctuations can strongly influence cyanobacterial blooms. In this study, the cyanobacterial bloom disappearance and reappearance in Lake Taihu, China, in response to short-term hydrodynamic fluctuations, was investigated by field sampling, long-term ecological records, high-frequency sensors and MODIS satellite images. The horizontal drift caused by the dominant easterly wind during the phytoplankton growth season was mainly responsible for cyanobacterial biomass accumulation in the western and northern regions of the lake and subsequent bloom formation over relatively long time scales. The cyanobacterial bloom changed slowly under calm or gentle wind conditions. In contrast, the short-term bloom events within a day were mainly caused by entrainment and disentrainment of cyanobacterial colonies by wind-induced hydrodynamics. Observation of a westerly event in Lake Taihu revealed that when the 30 min mean wind speed (flow speed) exceeded the threshold value of 6 m/s (5.7 cm/s), cyanobacteria in colonies were entrained by the wind-induced hydrodynamics. Subsequently, the vertical migration of cyanobacterial colonies was controlled by hydrodynamics, resulting in thorough mixing of algal biomass throughout the water depth and the eventual disappearance of surface blooms. Moreover, the intense mixing can also increase the chance for forming larger and more cyanobacterial colonies, namely, aggregation. Subsequently, when the hydrodynamics became weak, the cyanobacterial colonies continuously float upward without effective buoyancy regulation, and cause cyanobacterial bloom explosive expansion after the westerly. Furthermore, the results of this study indicate that the strong wind happening frequently during April and October can be an important cause of the formation and expansion of cyanobacterial blooms in Lake Taihu.

  11. Cyanobacterial harmful algal blooms and U.S. Geological Survey science capabilities

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Graham, Jennifer L.; Dubrovsky, Neil M.; Eberts, Sandra M.

    2016-09-29

    Cyanobacterial harmful algal blooms (CyanoHABs) are increasingly a global concern because CyanoHABs pose a threat to human and aquatic ecosystem health and cause economic damages. Despite advances in scientific understanding of cyanobacteria and associated compounds, many unanswered questions remain about occurrence, environmental triggers for toxicity, and the ability to predict the timing, duration, and toxicity of CyanoHABs. U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) scientists are leading a diverse range of studies to address CyanoHAB issues in water bodies throughout the United States, using a combination of traditional methods and emerging technologies, and in collaboration with numerous partners. By providing practical applications of cutting edge CyanoHAB research, USGS studies have advanced scientific understanding, enabling the development of approaches to help protect ecological and human health.

  12. Toxic Cyanobacterial Bloom Triggers in Missisquoi Bay, Lake Champlain, as Determined by Next-Generation Sequencing and Quantitative PCR

    PubMed Central

    Fortin, Nathalie; Munoz-Ramos, Valentina; Bird, David; Lévesque, Benoît; Whyte, Lyle G.; Greer, Charles W.

    2015-01-01

    Missisquoi Bay (MB) is a temperate eutrophic freshwater lake that frequently experiences toxic Microcystis-dominated cyanobacterial blooms. Non-point sources are responsible for the high concentrations of phosphorus and nitrogen in the bay. This study combined data from environmental parameters, E. coli counts, high-throughput sequencing of 16S rRNA gene amplicons, quantitative PCR (16S rRNA and mcyD genes) and toxin analyses to identify the main bloom-promoting factors. In 2009, nutrient concentrations correlated with E. coli counts, abundance of total cyanobacterial cells, Microcystis 16S rRNA and mcyD genes and intracellular microcystin. Total and dissolved phosphorus also correlated significantly with rainfall. The major cyanobacterial taxa were members of the orders Chroococcales and Nostocales. The genus Microcystis was the main mcyD-carrier and main microcystin producer. Our results suggested that increasing nutrient concentrations and total nitrogen:total phosphorus (TN:TP) ratios approaching 11:1, coupled with an increase in temperature, promoted Microcystis-dominated toxic blooms. Although the importance of nutrient ratios and absolute concentrations on cyanobacterial and Microcystis dynamics have been documented in other laboratories, an optimum TN:TP ratio for Microcystis dominance has not been previously observed in situ. This observation provides further support that nutrient ratios are an important determinant of species composition in natural phytoplankton assemblages. PMID:25984732

  13. Microcystin-producing and non-producing cyanobacterial blooms collected from the Central India harbor potentially pathogenic Vibrio cholerae.

    PubMed

    Chaturvedi, Prashant; Kumar Agrawal, Manish; Nath Bagchi, Suvendra

    2015-05-01

    On the basis of relative abundance, frequency and biovolume, the important value index ranks were assigned to individual cyanobacteria in phytoplankton samples collected from fourteen water resources of Central India. The mcyABDE genes were detected in all the blooms with Microcystis (-aeruginosa, -viridis, -panniformis, -botrys) as being the major constituent morphospecies. On the other hand, blooms composed of primarily Oscillatoria (-limosa,-agardhii, -laetevirens) along with Anabaena, Nostoc, Phormidium and Spirulina as sub-dominant forms exhibited quite a patchy distribution of one or the other mcy genes. Fifty percent of Microcystis- but none of the Oscillatoria dominant blooms produced microcystins-RR and desmethyl-RR at 0.03-0.41mgg(-1) bloom dry mass. Traces of dissolved microcystin was detected in lake water, which is well below the WHO guideline. Irrespective of cyanobacterial composition and microcystin production ability, during the study period 43-64% of the cyanobacterial bloom samples exhibited association of viable but nonculturable forms of Vibrio cholerae O1 and O139, as evident from amplification of the antigen genes. We believe that spread of endemic cholera is the major threat associated with harmful algal blooms.

  14. A Multiscale Mapping Assessment of Lake Champlain Cyanobacterial Harmful Algal Blooms

    PubMed Central

    Torbick, Nathan; Corbiere, Megan

    2015-01-01

    Lake Champlain has bays undergoing chronic cyanobacterial harmful algal blooms that pose a public health threat. Monitoring and assessment tools need to be developed to support risk decision making and to gain a thorough understanding of bloom scales and intensities. In this research application, Landsat 8 Operational Land Imager (OLI), Rapid Eye, and Proba Compact High Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (CHRIS) images were obtained while a corresponding field campaign collected in situ measurements of water quality. Models including empirical band ratio regressions were applied to map chlorophyll-a and phycocyanin concentrations; all sensors performed well with R2 and root-mean-square error (RMSE) ranging from 0.76 to 0.88 and 0.42 to 1.51, respectively. The outcomes showed spatial patterns across the lake with problematic bays having phycocyanin concentrations >25 µg/L. An alert status metric tuned to the current monitoring protocol was generated using modeled water quality to illustrate how the remote sensing tools can inform a public health monitoring system. Among the sensors utilized in this study, Landsat 8 OLI holds the most promise for providing exposure information across a wide area given the resolutions, systematic observation strategy and free cost. PMID:26389930

  15. Cyanobacterial chassis engineering for enhancing production of biofuels and chemicals.

    PubMed

    Gao, Xinyan; Sun, Tao; Pei, Guangsheng; Chen, Lei; Zhang, Weiwen

    2016-04-01

    To reduce dependence on fossil fuels and curb greenhouse effect, cyanobacteria have emerged as an important chassis candidate for producing biofuels and chemicals due to their capability to directly utilize sunlight and CO2 as the sole energy and carbon sources, respectively. Recent progresses in developing and applying various synthetic biology tools have led to the successful constructions of novel pathways of several dozen green fuels and chemicals utilizing cyanobacterial chassis. Meanwhile, it is increasingly recognized that in order to enhance productivity of the synthetic cyanobacterial systems, optimizing and engineering more robust and high-efficient cyanobacterial chassis should not be omitted. In recent years, numerous research studies have been conducted to enhance production of green fuels and chemicals through cyanobacterial chassis modifications involving photosynthesis, CO2 uptake and fixation, products exporting, tolerance, and cellular regulation. In this article, we critically reviewed recent progresses and universal strategies in cyanobacterial chassis engineering to make it more robust and effective for bio-chemicals production.

  16. Microcystis genotype succession and related environmental factors in Lake Taihu during cyanobacterial blooms.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xingyu; Sun, Mengjia; Wang, Jinmei; Yang, Letian; Luo, Lan; Li, Pengfu; Kong, Fanxiang

    2012-11-01

    From spring to autumn, heavy Microcystis blooms always occur in Lake Taihu, although environmental conditions vary markedly. We speculated that Microcystis genotype succession could play an important role in adaptation to environmental changes and long-term maintenance of the high Microcystis biomass. In this study, we investigated Microcystis genotype succession pattern and the related environmental variables in Lake Taihu during cyanobacterial blooms. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) of polymerase chain reaction -amplified the genus-specific cpcBA and mcyJ gene fragments was used to monitor the variations of Microcystis genotype and potential microcystin (MC)-producing Microcystis genotype compositions during blooms biweekly in three sites (Meiliang Bay, lake center, and Gonghu Bay) and CANOCO 4.5 for Windows were used for the multivariate statistical analysis of their relationships to environmental variables. DGGE patterns indicated that the number of dominant cpcBA genotype per sample increased from spring to autumn. Principal component analysis ordination plots of DGGE profiles showed clear temporal distribution pattern, but not spatial distribution pattern based on both cpcBA and mcyJ genotype compositions. These results indicated there were relatively gradual successions of Microcystis cpcBA and mcyJ genotype compositions in each site, and no distinct spatial difference among the three sites. Redundancy analyses of the gel patterns showed that, in all the three sites, three environmental factors (nitrate, pH, and chemical oxygen demand) were correlated significantly to successions of both cpcBA and mcyJ genotypes except for mcyJ genotype in the lake center. Spearman's correlations indicated that the three environmental variables were also strongly correlated with chl a and MC concentrations. These results suggested that the environmental factors affecting succession of Microcystis community composition might also influence the growth of

  17. Microbial profiles of a drinking water resource based on different 16S rRNA V regions during a heavy cyanobacterial bloom in Lake Taihu, China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Junyi; Zhu, Congming; Guan, Rui; Xiong, Zhipeng; Zhang, Wen; Shi, Junzhe; Sheng, Yi; Zhu, Bingchuan; Tu, Jing; Ge, Qinyu; Chen, Ting; Lu, Zuhong

    2017-03-31

    Understanding of the bacterial community structure in drinking water resources helps to enhance the security of municipal water supplies. In this study, bacterial communities were surveyed in water and sediment during a heavy cyanobacterial bloom in a drinking water resource of Lake Taihu, China. A total of 325,317 high-quality sequences were obtained from different 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) regions (V3, V4, and V6) using the Miseq sequencing platform. A notable difference was shown between the water and sediment samples, as predominated by Cyanobacteria, Proteobacteria, and Actinobacteria in the water and Proteobacteria, Chloroflexi, and Verrucomicrobia in the sediment, respectively. The LD12 family dominated the water surface and was tightly associated with related indicators of cyanobacterial propagation, indicating involvement in the massive proliferation of cyanobacterial blooms. Alternatively, the genus Nitrospira dominated the sediment samples, which indicates that nitrite oxidation was very active in the sediment. Although pathogenic bacteria were not detected in a large amount, some genera such as Mycobacterium, Acinetobacter, and Legionella were still identified but in very low abundance. In addition, the effects of different V regions on bacterial diversity survey were evaluated. Overall, V4 and V3 were proven to be more promising V regions for bacterial diversity survey in water and sediment samples during heavy water blooms in Lake Taihu, respectively. As longer, cheaper, and faster DNA sequencing technologies become more accessible, we expect that bacterial community structures based on 16S rRNA amplicons as an indicator could be used alongside with physical and chemical indicators, to conduct comprehensive assessments for drinking water resource management.

  18. Role of environmental factors and toxic genotypes in the regulation of microcystins-producing cyanobacterial blooms.

    PubMed

    Gągała, Ilona; Izydorczyk, Katarzyna; Jurczak, Tomasz; Pawełczyk, Jakub; Dziadek, Jarosław; Wojtal-Frankiewicz, Adrianna; Jóźwik, Adam; Jaskulska, Aleksandra; Mankiewicz-Boczek, Joanna

    2014-02-01

    The aim of this study was to understand: (1) how environmental conditions can contribute to formation of Microcystis-dominated blooms in lowland, dam reservoirs in temperate climate-with the use of quantitative molecular monitoring, and (2) what is the role of toxic Microcystis genotypes in the bloom functioning. Monitoring of the Sulejow Reservoir in 2009 and 2010 in two sites Tresta (TR) and Bronislawow BR), which have different morphometry, showed that physicochemical conditions were always favorable for cyanobacterial bloom formation. In 2009, the average biomass of cyanobacteria reached 13 mg L(-1) (TR) and 8 mg L(-1) (BR), and in the second year, it decreased to approximately 1 mg L(-1) (TR and BR). In turns, the mean number of toxic Microcystis genotypes in the total Microcystis reached 1% in 2009, both in TR and BR, and in 2010, the number increased to 70% in TR and 14 % in BR. Despite significant differences in the biomass of cyanobacteria in 2009 and 2010, the mean microcystins (MCs) concentration and toxicity stayed at a similar level of approximately 1 μg L(-1). Statistical analysis indicated that water retention time was a factor that provided a significant difference between the two monitoring seasons and was considered a driver of the changes occurring in the Sulejow Reservoir. Hydrologic differences, which occurred between two studied years due to heavy flooding in Poland in 2010, influenced the decrease in number of Microcystis biomass by causing water disturbances and by lowering water temperature. Statistical analysis showed that Microcystis aeruginosa biomass and 16S rRNA gene copy number representing Microcystis genotypes in both years of monitoring could be predicted on the basis of total and dissolved phosphorus concentrations and water temperature. In present study, the number of mcyA gene copies representing toxic Microcystis genotypes could be predicted based on the biomass of M. aeruginosa. Moreover, MCs toxicity and concentration could

  19. Community Composition, Toxigenicity, and Environmental Conditions during a Cyanobacterial Bloom Occurring along 1,100 Kilometers of the Murray River

    PubMed Central

    Al-Tebrineh, Jamal; Merrick, Chester; Ryan, David; Humpage, Andrew; Bowling, Lee

    2012-01-01

    A cyanobacterial bloom impacted over 1,100 km of the Murray River, Australia, and its tributaries in 2009. Physicochemical conditions in the river were optimal to support a bloom at the time. The data suggest that at least three blooms occurred concurrently in different sections of the river, with each having a different community composition and associated cyanotoxin profile. Microscopic and genetic analyses suggested the presence of potentially toxic Anabaena circinalis, Microcystis flos-aquae, and Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii at many locations. Low concentrations of saxitoxins and cylindrospermopsin were detected in Anabaena and Cylindrospermopsis populations. A multiplex quantitative PCR was used, employing novel oligonucleotide primers and fluorescent TaqMan probes, to examine bloom toxigenicity. This single reaction method identified the presence of the major cyanotoxin-producing species present in these environmental samples and also quantified the various toxin biosynthesis genes. A large number of cells present throughout the bloom were not potential toxin producers or were present in numbers below the limit of detection of the assay and therefore not an immediate health risk. Potential toxin-producing cells, possessing the cylindrospermopsin biosynthesis gene (cyrA), predominated early in the bloom, while those possessing the saxitoxin biosynthesis gene (sxtA) were more common toward its decline. In this study, the concentrations of cyanotoxins measured via enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) correlated positively with the respective toxin gene copy numbers, indicating that the molecular method may be used as a proxy for bloom risk assessment. PMID:22081581

  20. N-β-Methylamino-L-Alanine and Its Naturally Occurring Isomers in Cyanobacterial Blooms in Lake Winnipeg.

    PubMed

    Bishop, Stephanie L; Kerkovius, Jeff K; Menard, Frederic; Murch, Susan J

    2017-09-30

    Cyanobacterial blooms have affected Lake Winnipeg since the mid-1990s due to an increased phosphorus loading into the lake, which has been exacerbated by stressors such as climate change and eutrophication. Aquatic ecosystems involving cyanobacteria have been found to contain N-β-methylamino-L-alanine (BMAA) and 2,4-diaminobutyric acid (DAB), non-protein amino acids that are associated with neurodegenerative disease, as well as two of the naturally occurring isomers, N-2(amino)ethylglycine (AEG) and β-amino-N-methylalanine (BAMA). We hypothesized that the cyanobacterial bloom in Lake Winnipeg produces BMAA and/or its naturally occurring isomers. Samples of cyanobacteria were collected by the Lake Winnipeg Research Consortium from standard sampling stations and blooms in July and September of 2016 and were analyzed for BMAA, DAB, AEG, and BAMA using previously published validated analytical methods. BMAA and BAMA were found in the highest concentration in the center of the north basin, the deepest and lowest-nitrogen zone of the lake, at an average concentration of 4 μg/g (collected in July and September 2016) and 1.5 mg/g (collected in July 2016), respectively. AEG and DAB were found in the highest concentration in cyanobacterial blooms from the nearshore region of the north basin, the slightly shallower and more nitrogen-rich zone of the lake, at 2.1 mg/g (collected in July 2016) and 0.2 mg/g (collected in July and September 2016), respectively. These findings indicate that the production of non-protein amino acids varies with the depth and nutrient contents of the bloom. It is important to note that we did not measure food or water samples directly and further study of the Lake Winnipeg food web is required to determine whether BMAA bioaccumulation represents an increased risk factor for neurodegenerative disease in the region.

  1. Secondary metabolite gene expression and interplay of bacterial functions in a tropical freshwater cyanobacterial bloom

    PubMed Central

    Penn, Kevin; Wang, Jia; Fernando, Samodha C; Thompson, Janelle R

    2014-01-01

    Cyanobacterial harmful algal blooms (cyanoHABs) appear to be increasing in frequency on a global scale. The Cyanobacteria in blooms can produce toxic secondary metabolites that make freshwater dangerous for drinking and recreation. To characterize microbial activities in a cyanoHAB, transcripts from a eutrophic freshwater reservoir in Singapore were sequenced for six samples collected over one day-night period. Transcripts from the Cyanobacterium Microcystis dominated all samples and were accompanied by at least 533 genera primarily from the Cyanobacteria, Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes and Actinobacteria. Within the Microcystis population, abundant transcripts were from genes for buoyancy, photosynthesis and synthesis of the toxin microviridin, suggesting that these are necessary for competitive dominance in the Reservoir. During the day, Microcystis transcripts were enriched in photosynthesis and energy metabolism while at night enriched pathways included DNA replication and repair and toxin biosynthesis. Microcystis was the dominant source of transcripts from polyketide and non-ribosomal peptide synthase (PKS and NRPS, respectively) gene clusters. Unexpectedly, expression of all PKS/NRPS gene clusters, including for the toxins microcystin and aeruginosin, occurred throughout the day-night cycle. The most highly expressed PKS/NRPS gene cluster from Microcystis is not associated with any known product. The four most abundant phyla in the reservoir were enriched in different functions, including photosynthesis (Cyanobacteria), breakdown of complex organic molecules (Proteobacteria), glycan metabolism (Bacteroidetes) and breakdown of plant carbohydrates, such as cellobiose (Actinobacteria). These results provide the first estimate of secondary metabolite gene expression, functional partitioning and functional interplay in a freshwater cyanoHAB. PMID:24646695

  2. Cyanobacterial blooms in stratified and destratified eutrophic reservoirs in semi-arid region of Brazil.

    PubMed

    Dantas, Enio W; Moura, Ariadne N; Bittencourt-Oliveira, Maria do Carmo

    2011-12-01

    This study investigated the dynamics of cyanobacteria in two deep, eutrophic reservoirs in a semi-arid region of Brazil during periods of stratification and destratification. Four collections were carried out at each reservoir at two depths at three-month intervals. The following abiotic variables were analyzed: water temperature, dissolved oxygen, pH, turbidity, water transparency, total phosphorus, total dissolved phosphorus, orthophosphate and total nitrogen. Phytoplankton density was quantified for the determination of the biomass of cyanobacteria. The data were analyzed using CCA. Higher mean phytoplankton biomass values (29.8 mm(3).L(-1)) occurred in the period of thermal stratification. A greater similarity in the phytoplankton communities also occurred in this period and was related to the development of cyanobacteria, mainly Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii (>3.9 mm(3).L(-1)). During the period of thermal destratification, this species co-dominated the environment with Planktothrix agardhii, Geitlerinema amphibium, Microcystis aeruginosa and Merismopedia tenuissima, as well as with diatoms and phytoflagellates. Environmental instability and competition among algae hindered the establishment of blooms more during the mixture period than during the stratification period. Thermal changes in the water column caused by climatologic events altered other physiochemical conditions of the water, leading to changes in the composition and biomass of the cyanobacterial community in tropical reservoirs.

  3. A novel remote sensing algorithm to quantify phycocyanin in cyanobacterial algal blooms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishra, S.; Mishra, D. R.

    2014-11-01

    We present a novel three-band algorithm (PC3) to retrieve phycocyanin (PC) pigment concentration in cyanobacteria laden inland waters. The water sample and remote sensing reflectance data used for PC3 calibration and validation were acquired from highly turbid productive catfish aquaculture ponds. Since the characteristic PC absorption feature at 620 nm is contaminated with residual chlorophyll-a (Chl-a) absorption, we propose a coefficient (ψ) for isolating the PC absorption component at 620 nm. Results show that inclusion of the model coefficient relating Chl-a absorption at 620 nm-665 nm enables PC3 to compensate for the confounding effect of Chl-a at the PC absorption band and considerably increases the accuracy of the PC prediction algorithm. In the current dataset, PC3 produced the lowest mean relative error of prediction among all PC algorithms considered in this research. Moreover, PC3 eliminates the nonlinear sensitivity issue of PC algorithms particularly at high PC range (>100 μg L-1). Therefore, introduction of PC3 will have an immediate positive impact on studies monitoring inland and coastal cyanobacterial harmful algal blooms.

  4. Necessity of screening water chestnuts for microcystins after cyanobacterial blooms break out.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Fu-Gang; Zhao, Xiao-Lian; Tang, Jian; Gu, Xiao-Hong; Zhang, Jing-Ping; Niu, Wei-Min

    2009-08-01

    Water chestnut is one of the most popular vegetables in Asian countries that grows in shallow water. Eighteen water chestnut samples were collected from Lake Tai and six samples were bought at markets in Wuxi, China, in October 2007. Extraction solution of water chestnut was cleaned up with a solid phase extraction column and immunoaffinity chromatography cartridges, then the microcystin (MC) level was detected by indirect competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). The results of ELISA showed that there were six samples collected from Lake Tai which contained MCs; the highest level of total MCs was 7.02 ng/g. The results of LC-MS confirmed that MC-LR and MC-RR were present in five samples. The highest level of MC-LR was 1.02 ng/g and that of MC-RR was 4.44 ng/g. Heavy cyanobacterial blooms had occurred, and MCs were detected in water at the points in Lake Tai where MCs occurred in water chestnuts collected in 2007. MCs were not detected in the six samples bought at Wuxi markets. The results suggest that MCs can accumulate in water chestnuts, which is a potential hazard for human health.

  5. The influence of changes in wind patterns on the areal extension of surface cyanobacterial blooms in a large shallow lake in China.

    PubMed

    Wu, Tingfeng; Qin, Boqiang; Brookes, Justin D; Shi, Kun; Zhu, Guangwei; Zhu, Mengyuan; Yan, Wenming; Wang, Zhen

    2015-06-15

    It has been hypothesized that climate change will induce the areal extension of cyanobacterial blooms. However, this hypothesis lacks field-based observation. In the present study both long-term historical data and short-term field measurement were used to identify the importance of changes in wind patterns on the cyanobacterial bloom in Lake Taihu (China), a large, shallow, eutrophic lake located in a subtropical zone. The cyanobacterial bloom mainly composed of Microcystis spp. recurred frequently throughout the year. The regression analysis of multi-year satellite image data extracted by the Floating Algae Index revealed that both the annual mean monthly maximum cyanobacterial bloom area (MMCBA) increased year by year from 2000 to 2011, while the contemporaneous cyanobacterial biomass showed no significant change. However, the correlation analysis shows that MMCBA was negatively correlated with wind speed. Our short-term field measurements indicated that the influence of wind on surface cyanobacterial blooms is that the Chlorophyll-a (Chla) concentration is fully mixing throughout the water column when the wind speed exceed 7 m s(-1). At lower wind speeds, there was vertical stratification of Chla with high surface concentrations and an increase in bloom area. The regression analysis of wind speed indicates that the climate has changed over the last decade. Lake Taihu has become increasingly calm, with the decrease of strong wind frequency between 2000 and 2011, corresponding to the increase in the MMCBA over time. Therefore, we conclude that changes in wind patterns related to climate change have favored the increase of cyanobacterial blooms in Lake Taihu. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  6. A synopsis of research needs identified at the Interagency, International Symposium on Cyanobacterial Harmful Algal Blooms (ISOC-HAB).

    PubMed

    Hudnell, H Kenneth; Dortch, Quay

    2008-01-01

    Evidence indicates that the incidence of cyanobacterial harmful algal blooms (CHABs) is increasing in spatial extent and temporal frequency worldwide. Cyanobacterial blooms produce highly potent toxins and huge, noxious biomasses in surface Waters used for recreation, commerce, and as drinking water sources. The Interagency, International Symposium on Cyanobacterial Harmful Algal Blooms (ISOC-HAB) characterized the state of the science and identified research needed to address the risks posed by CHABs to human health and ecosystem sustainability. This chapter provides a synopsis of CHAB research needs that were identified by workgroups that addressed charges in major topic areas. The research and infrastructure needed are listed under nine categories: 1) Analytical Methods; 2) CHAB Occurrence; 3) CHAB Causes; 4) Human Health; 5) Ecosystem Sustainability; 6) CHAB Prevention; 7) CHAB Control and Mitigation; 8) Risk Assessment and; 9) Infrastructure. A number of important issues must be addressed to successfully confront the health, ecologic, and economic challenges presented by CHABs. Near-term research goals include the development of field-ready tests to identify and quantify cells and toxins, the production of certified reference standards and bulk toxins, formal assessments of CHAB incidence, improved understanding of toxin effects, therapeutic interventions, ecologically benign means to prevent and control CHABs, supplemental drinking water treatment techniques, and the development of risk assessment and management strategies. Long-term goals include the assimilation of CHAB databases into emerging U.S. and international observing systems, the development of quantitative models to predict CHAB occurrence, effects, and management outcomes, and economic analyses of CAHB costs and management benefits. Accomplishing further infrastructure development and freshwater HAB research is discussed in relationship to the Harmful Algal Blooms and Hypoxia Research and Control

  7. Rainfall-enhanced blooming in typhoon wakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Y.-C.; Oey, L.-Y.

    2016-08-01

    Strong phytoplankton blooming in tropical-cyclone (TC) wakes over the oligotrophic oceans potentially contributes to long-term changes in global biogeochemical cycles. Yet blooming has traditionally been discussed using anecdotal events and its biophysical mechanics remain poorly understood. Here we identify dominant blooming patterns using 16 years of ocean-color data in the wakes of 141 typhoons in western North Pacific. We observe right-side asymmetric blooming shortly after the storms, attributed previously to sub-mesoscale re-stratification, but thereafter a left-side asymmetry which coincides with the left-side preference in rainfall due to the large-scale wind shear. Biophysical model experiments and observations demonstrate that heavier rainfall freshens the near-surface water, leading to stronger stratification, decreased turbulence and enhanced blooming. Our results suggest that rainfall plays a previously unrecognized, critical role in TC-induced blooming, with potentially important implications for global biogeochemical cycles especially in view of the recent and projected increases in TC-intensity that harbingers stronger mixing and heavier rain under the storm.

  8. Rainfall-enhanced blooming in typhoon wakes

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Y.-C.; Oey, L.-Y.

    2016-01-01

    Strong phytoplankton blooming in tropical-cyclone (TC) wakes over the oligotrophic oceans potentially contributes to long-term changes in global biogeochemical cycles. Yet blooming has traditionally been discussed using anecdotal events and its biophysical mechanics remain poorly understood. Here we identify dominant blooming patterns using 16 years of ocean-color data in the wakes of 141 typhoons in western North Pacific. We observe right-side asymmetric blooming shortly after the storms, attributed previously to sub-mesoscale re-stratification, but thereafter a left-side asymmetry which coincides with the left-side preference in rainfall due to the large-scale wind shear. Biophysical model experiments and observations demonstrate that heavier rainfall freshens the near-surface water, leading to stronger stratification, decreased turbulence and enhanced blooming. Our results suggest that rainfall plays a previously unrecognized, critical role in TC-induced blooming, with potentially important implications for global biogeochemical cycles especially in view of the recent and projected increases in TC-intensity that harbingers stronger mixing and heavier rain under the storm. PMID:27545899

  9. Structural Diversity of Bacterial Communities Associated with Bloom-Forming Freshwater Cyanobacteria Differs According to the Cyanobacterial Genus

    PubMed Central

    Louati, Imen; Pascault, Noémie; Debroas, Didier; Bernard, Cécile; Humbert, Jean-François; Leloup, Julie

    2015-01-01

    The factors and processes driving cyanobacterial blooms in eutrophic freshwater ecosystems have been extensively studied in the past decade. A growing number of these studies concern the direct or indirect interactions between cyanobacteria and heterotrophic bacteria. The presence of bacteria that are directly attached or immediately adjacent to cyanobacterial cells suggests that intense nutrient exchanges occur between these microorganisms. In order to determine if there is a specific association between cyanobacteria and bacteria, we compared the bacterial community composition during two cyanobacteria blooms of Anabaena (filamentous and N2-fixing) and Microcystis (colonial and non-N2 fixing) that occurred successively within the same lake. Using high-throughput sequencing, we revealed a clear distinction between associated and free-living communities and between cyanobacterial genera. The interactions between cyanobacteria and bacteria appeared to be based on dissolved organic matter degradation and on N recycling, both for N2-fixing and non N2-fixing cyanobacteria. Thus, the genus and potentially the species of cyanobacteria and its metabolic capacities appeared to select for the bacterial community in the phycosphere. PMID:26579722

  10. Decrease of NH4+-N by bacterioplankton accelerated the removal of cyanobacterial blooms in aerated aquatic ecosystem.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xi; Xie, Ping; Ma, Zhimei; Wang, Qing; Fan, Huihui; Shen, Hong

    2013-11-01

    We used aerated systems to assess the influence of the bacterioplankton community on cyanobacterial blooms in algae/post-bloom of Lake Taihu, China. Bacterioplankton community diversity was evaluated by polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) fingerprinting. Chemical analysis and nitrogen dynamic changes illustrated that NH4+-N was nitrified to NO2--N and NO3--N by bacterioplankton. Finally, NH4+-N was exhausted and NO3--N was denitrified to NO2--N, while the accumulation of NO2--N indicated that bacterioplankton with completely aerobic denitrification ability were lacking in the water samples collected from Lake Taihu. We suggested that adding completely aerobic denitrification bacteria (to denitrify NO2--N to N2) would improve the water quality. PCR-DGGE and sequencing results showed that more than1/3 of the bacterial species were associated with the removal of nitrogen, and Acidovorax temperans was the dominant one. PCR-DGGE, variation of nitrogen, removal efficiencies of chlorophyll-a and canonical correspondence analysis indicated that the bacterioplanktonsignificantly influenced the physiological and biochemical changes of cyanobacteria. Additionally, the unweighted pair-group method with arithmetic means revealed there was no obvious harm to the microecosystem from aeration. The present study demonstrated that bacterioplankton can play crucial roles in aerated ecosystems, which could control the impact of cyanobacterial blooms in eutrophicated fresh water systems.

  11. Satellite Monitoring of Cyanobacterial Harmful Algal Bloom Frequency in Recreational Waters and Drinking Water Sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, John M.; Schaeffer, Blake A.; Darling, John A.; Urquhart, Erin A.; Johnston, John M.; Ignatius, Amber R.; Myer, Mark H.; Loftin, Keith A.; Werdell, P. Jeremy; Stumpf, Richard P.

    2017-01-01

    Cyanobacterial harmful algal blooms (cyanoHAB) cause extensive problems in lakes worldwide, including human and ecological health risks, anoxia and sh kills, and taste and odor problems. CyanoHABs are a particular concern in both recreational waters and drinking water sources because of their dense biomass and the risk of exposure to toxins. Successful cyanoHAB assessment using satellites may provide an indicator for human and ecological health protection. In this study, methods were developed to assess the utility of satellite technology for detecting cyanoHAB frequency of occurrence at locations of potential management interest. The European Space Agency's MEdium Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MERIS) was evaluated to prepare for the equivalent series of Sentinel-3 Ocean and Land Colour Imagers (OLCI) launched in 2016 as part of the Copernicus program. Based on the 2012 National Lakes Assessment site evaluation guidelines and National Hydrography Dataset, the continental United States contains 275,897 lakes and reservoirs greater than 1 ha in area. Results from this study show that 5.6% of waterbodies were resolvable by satellites with 300 m single-pixel resolution and 0.7% of waterbodies were resolvable when a three by three pixel (3 x 3-pixel) array was applied based on minimum Euclidian distance from shore. Satellite data were spatially joined to U.S. public water surface intake (PWSI) locations, where single-pixel resolution resolved 57% of the PWSI locations and a 3 x 3-pixel array resolved 33% of the PWSI locations. Recreational and drinking water sources in Florida and Ohio were ranked from 2008 through 2011 by cyanoHAB frequency above the World Health Organizations (WHO) high threshold for risk of 100,000 cells m/L. The ranking identified waterbodies with values above the WHO high threshold, where Lake Apopka, FL (99.1%) and Grand Lake St. Marys, OH (83%) had the highest observed bloom frequencies per region. The method presented here may indicate

  12. Watershed management strategies to prevent and control cyanobacterial harmful algal blooms.

    PubMed

    Piehler, Michael F

    2008-01-01

    The tenets of watershed management--a focus on the land area linked to the water body, the incorporation of sound scientific information into the decision-making process and stakeholder involvement throughout the process--are well-suited for the management of cyanobacterial harmful algal blooms (C-HABs). The management of C-HABs can be viewed as having two main areas of focus. First, there is mitigation--control and/or removal of the bloom. This type of crisis response is an important component to managing active C-HABs and there are several techniques that have been successfully utilized, including the application of algicides, physical removal of surface scums and the mechanical mixing of the water column. While these methods are valuable because they address the immediate problem, they do not address the conditions that exist in the system that promote and maintain C-HABs. Thus, the second component of a successful C-HAB management strategy would include a focus on prevention. C-HABs require nutrients to fuel their growth and are often favored in longer-residence time systems with vertical stratification of the water column. Consequently, nutrients and hydrology are the two factors most commonly identified as the targets for prevention of C-HABs. Management strategies to control the sources, transformation and delivery of the primary growth-limiting nutrients have been applied with success in many areas. The most effective of these include controlling land use, maintaining the integrity of the landscape and applying best management practices. In the past, notable successes in managing C-HABs have relied on the reduction of nutrients from point-sources. Because many point sources are now well-managed, current efforts are focused on non-point source nutrient reduction, such as runoff from agricultural and urban areas. Non-point sources present significant challenges due to their diffuse nature. Regardless of which techniques are utilized, effective watershed

  13. Phytoestrogens and sterols in waters with cyanobacterial blooms - Analytical methods and estrogenic potencies.

    PubMed

    Procházková, Tereza; Sychrová, Eliška; Javůrková, Barbora; Večerková, Jaroslava; Kohoutek, Jiří; Lepšová-Skácelová, Olga; Bláha, Luděk; Hilscherová, Klára

    2017-03-01

    Compounds with estrogenic potencies and their adverse effects in surface waters have received much attention. Both anthropogenic and natural compounds contribute to overall estrogenic activity in freshwaters. Recently, estrogenic potencies were also found to be associated with cyanobacteria and their blooms in surface waters. The present study developed and compared the solid phase extraction and LC-MS/MS analytical approaches for determination of phytoestrogens (8 flavonoids - biochanin A, coumestrol, daidzein, equol, formononetin, genistein, naringenin, apigenin - and 5 sterols - ergosterol, β-sitosterol, stigmasterol, campesterol, brassicasterol) and cholesterol in water. The method was used for analyses of samples collected in stagnant water bodies dominated by different cyanobacterial species. Concentrations of individual flavonoids ranged from below the limit of detection to 3.58 ng/L. Sterols were present in higher amounts up to 2.25 μg/L. Biological potencies of these phytoestrogens in vitro were characterized using the hERα-HeLa-9903 cell line. The relative estrogenic potencies (compared to model estrogen - 17β-estradiol) of flavonoids ranged from 2.25E-05 to 1.26E-03 with coumestrol being the most potent. None of the sterols elicited estrogenic response in the used bioassay. Estrogenic activity was detected in collected field water samples (maximum effect corresponding to 2.07 ng/L of 17β-estradiol equivalents, transcriptional assay). At maximum phytoestrogens accounted for only 1.56 pg/L of 17β-estradiol equivalents, contributing maximally 8.5% of the total estrogenicity of the water samples. Other compounds therefore, most likely of anthropogenic origin such as steroid estrogens, are probably the major drivers of total estrogenic effects in these surface waters. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Utilization of water chestnut for reclamation of water environment and control of cyanobacterial blooms.

    PubMed

    Akao, Satoshi; Hosoi, Yoshihiko; Fujiwara, Taku

    2014-02-01

    Overgrowth of water chestnut (Trapa spp.) is a regional problem throughout Asia and North America because of waterway blockage and water fouling upon decomposition. In the present study, we investigated the potential of water chestnut to control cyanobacterial blooms, via a high content of phenolic compounds. In addition, we assessed the impact of biomass harvesting and crude extract application on nutrient balance. We showed that the floating parts of water chestnut contained high concentrations of total phenolics (89.2 mg g(-1) dry weight) and exhibited strong antioxidant activity (1.31 mmol g(-1) dry weight). Methanol-extracted phenolics inhibited growth of Microcystis aeruginosa; the half maximal effective concentration (EC50) of the extracted phenolics was 5.8 mg L(-1), which was obtained from only 103 mg L(-1) of dry biomass (the floating and submerged parts). However, the crude extracts also added important quantities of nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium (1.49, 1.05, and 16.3 mg g(-1), respectively; extracted dry biomass weight basis); therefore, in practice, nutrient removal before and/or after the extraction is essential. On the other hand, biomass harvesting enables recovery of nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium from the water environment (23.1, 2.9, and 18.7 mg g(-1), respectively; dry biomass weight basis). Our findings indicate that water chestnut contains high concentrations of phenolics and exhibits strong antioxidant activity. Utilization of these resources, including nutrients, will contribute to reclamation of the water environment, and also to disposal of wet biomass.

  15. Seasonal changes in phosphorus competition and allelopathy of a benthic microbial assembly facilitate prevention of cyanobacterial blooms.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yonghong; Wang, Fengwu; Xiao, Xi; Liu, Junzhuo; Wu, Chenxi; Chen, Hong; Kerr, Philip; Shurin, Jonathan

    2017-06-01

    Interactions among microbes determine the prevalence of harmful algal blooms that threaten water quality. These interactions can be indirectly mediated by shared resources or consumers, or through interference by the production of allelochemicals. Allelopathic interactions and resource competition have been shown to occur among algae and associated microbes. However, little work has considered seasonal influences on ecosystem structure and function. Here, we report results of our investigations on seasonal changes in the interactions between benthic microbial assemblies and the bloom forming cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa. We show that phosphorus (P) competition and allelopathy by the microbial assembly vary seasonally and inhibit growth of M. aeruginosa. The interactions per unit biomass of the microbial assembly are stronger under winter than summer conditions and inhibit the recruitment of the cyanobacteria, thereby preventing the reoccurrence of cyanobacterial blooms in the following summer. The seasonality of these interactions correlates with changes in composition, metabolic activity and functional diversity of the microbial assembly. Our findings highlight the importance of competitive and allelopathic interactions in regulating the occurrence of harmful algal blooms. Our results also imply that seasonal variation of competition and allelopathy of the microbial assembly might be beneficial to adjust aquatic ecosystem structure and function. © 2017 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Characterization of dominant and cellulolytic bacterial communities along the gut of silver carp Hypophthalmichthys molitrix during cyanobacterial blooms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Congqiang; Yi, Chunlong; Ni, Leyi; Guo, Longgen

    2017-05-01

    Silver carp is one of the most important planktivorous fish in Chinese aquaculture and plays a significant role controlling cyanobacterial blooms. A balanced gut microbiota is crucial for growth and health of the host because of its important roles in immune defense, digestion of complex carbohydrates, and production of enterocytes. In our study, the dominant bacterial and cellulolytic bacterial ( Clostridium I, Clostridium III, Clostridium XIVab, and Fibrobacter) communities in the contents and mucus of the silver carp gut (foregut, midgut, and hindgut) were analyzed by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) analyses. The results revealed that the dominant and cellulolytic bacterial communities were significantly different among gut regions as well as in contents and mucus. Bacterial diversity and richness in contents and mucus increased along the gut and were higher in contents than those in local mucus. A sequence analysis of gut samples exhibited the conservative phylotypes of Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, and Firmicutes. The gut of silver carp harbored an abundance of cellulolytic bacteria, particularly Clostridium XIV ab. The foregut segment had the highest proportions of the four cellulolytic bacteria, followed by the midgut and hindgut. However, the proportions of cellulolytic species in the silver carp gut was much lower than those in the terrestrial vertebrate gastrointestinal tract. We conclude that gut bacteria could help silver carp obtain energy from cyanobacteria, which may be why silver carp can maintain high growth rates during cyanobacterial blooms.

  17. Stocks and dynamics of particulate and dissolved organic matter in a large, shallow eutrophic lake (Taihu, China) with dense cyanobacterial blooms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Limei; Huang, Yaxin; Lu, Yaping; Chen, Feizhou; Zhang, Min; Yu, Yang; Kong, Fanxiang

    2017-08-01

    Cyanobacterial blooms occur in eutrophic lakes worldwide, and greatly impair these ecosystems. To explore influences of cyanobacterial blooms on dynamics of both particulate organic matter (POM) and dissolved organic matter (DOM), which are at the base of the food chain, an investigation was conducted from December 2014 to November 2015 that included various stages of the seasonal cyanobacterial blooms (dominated by Microcystis) in a large-shallow eutrophic Chinese lake (Taihu Lake). Data from eight sites of the lake are compiled into a representative seasonal cycle to assess general patterns of POM and DOM dynamics. Compared to December, 5-fold and 3.5-fold increases were observed in July for particulate organic carbon (POC, 3.05-15.37 mg/L) and dissolved organic carbon (DOC, 5.48-19.25 mg/L), respectively, with chlorophyll a (Chl a) concentrations varying from 8.2 to 97.7 μg/L. Approximately 40% to 76% of total organic carbon was partitioned into DOC. All C, N, and P in POM and DOC were significantly correlated with Chl a. POC:Chl a ratios were low, whereas proportions of the estimated phytoplankton-derived organic matter in total POM were high during bloom seasons. These results suggested that contributions of cyanobacterial blooms to POM and DOC varied seasonally. Seasonal average C:P ratios in POM and DOM varied from 79 to 187 and 299 to 2 175, respectively. Both peaked in July and then sharply decreased. Redundancy analysis revealed that Chl a explained most of the variations of C:N:P ratios in POM, whereas temperature was the most explanatory factor for DOM. These findings suggest that dense cyanobacterial blooms caused both C-rich POM and DOM, thereby providing clues for understanding their influence on ecosystems.

  18. Mining Metatranscriptomic Data of a Cyanobacterial Bloom for Patterns of Secondary Metabolism Gene Expression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Penn, K.; Wang, J.; Thompson, J. R.

    2012-12-01

    The secondary metabolism of bacterial cells produces small molecules that can have both medicinal properties and toxigenic effects. This study focuses on mining metatranscriptomes from a tropical eutrophic water reservoir in Singapore experiencing a cyanobacterial Harmful Algal Bloom dominated by Microcystis, to identify the types of secondary metabolites genes being expressed and by what taxa. A phylogenomic approach as implemented in the online tool Natural Product Domain Seeker (NaPDoS) was used. NaPDoS was recently developed to classify ketosynthase and condensation domains from polyketide synthases and non-ribosomal peptide synthetases, respectively, to provide insight into potential types of pathway products. Water samples from the reservoir were collected six times over a day/night cycle. Total RNA was extracted and subjected to ribosomal depletion followed by cDNA synthesis and next-generation Illumina DNA sequencing, generating 493,468 to 678,064 95-101 base pairs post-quality control reads per sample. Evidence for expression of PKS and NRPS type genes based on identification of a ketosynthase and condensation domains are present in all time points. KS domains fall into to two main phylogenetic groups, type I and type II, within the type II group of domains are domains for fatty acid biosynthesis (fab), which is considered a part of primary metabolism. Type I KS domains are part of the classic PKS natural product biosynthetic genes that make things such as antibiotics and other toxins such as microcystin. 2849 KS domains were detected in the combined reservoir samples, of these 1141 were likely from fatty acid biosynthesis and 1708 were related to secondary metabolism type KS domains. The most abundant KS domains (485) besides the fab genes are closely related to a KS domain that is not currently experimentally linked to a known secondary metabolite but the domain is found in four Microcystis genomes along with two other species of cyanobacteria. The three

  19. A method for examining temporal changes in cyanobacterial harmful algal bloom spatial extent using satellite remote sensing.

    PubMed

    Urquhart, Erin A; Schaeffer, Blake A; Stumpf, Richard P; Loftin, Keith A; Werdell, P Jeremy

    2017-07-01

    Cyanobacterial harmful algal blooms (CyanoHAB) are thought to be increasing globally over the past few decades, but relatively little quantitative information is available about the spatial extent of blooms. Satellite remote sensing provides a potential technology for identifying cyanoHABs in multiple water bodies and across geo-political boundaries. An assessment method was developed using MEdium Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MERIS) imagery to quantify cyanoHAB surface area extent, transferable to different spatial areas, in Florida, Ohio, and California for the test period of 2008 to 2012. Temporal assessment was used to evaluate changes in satellite resolvable inland waterbodies for each state of interest. To further assess cyanoHAB risk within the states, the World Health Organization's (WHO) recreational guidance level thresholds were used to categorize surface area of cyanoHABs into three risk categories: low, moderate, and high-risk bloom area. Results showed that in Florida, the area of cyanoHABs increased largely due to observed increases in high-risk bloom area. California exhibited a slight decrease in cyanoHAB extent, primarily attributed to decreases in Northern California. In Ohio (excluding Lake Erie), little change in cyanoHAB surface area was observed. This study uses satellite remote sensing to quantify changes in inland cyanoHAB surface area across numerous water bodies within an entire state. The temporal assessment method developed here will be relevant into the future as it is transferable to the Ocean Land Colour Instrument (OLCI) on Sentinel-3A/3B missions. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Structural Dynamics of Community Gene Expression In a Freshwater Cyanobacterial Bloom Over a Day-Night Cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, J.; Fernando, S.; Thompson, J. R.

    2011-12-01

    Cyanobacterial blooms are a major problem in eutrophic lakes and reservoirs, negatively impacting the ecology of the water body through oxygen depletion upon bloom decay and in some cases through production of toxins. Waterborne cyanobacterial toxins pose a public health threat through drinking and recreational exposure. The frequency of harmful cyanobacterial blooms (cyanoHABs) is predicted to increase due to warming regional climates (Paerl et.al, 2011) and increases in non-point source pollution due to urban expansion (Novotny, 2011). CyanoHABs represent complex consortia of cyanobacteria that live in association with diverse assemblages of heterotrophic and anoxygenic photosynthetic bacteria. A better understanding of the structure, function, and interaction between members of the complex microbial communities that support the proliferation of toxigenic cyanobacteria will improve our ability to prevent and control cyanoHABs. Studies of community gene expression, or metatranscriptomics, provide a powerful approach for quantifying changes in both the taxonomic composition (structure) and activity (function) of complex microbial systems in response to dynamic environmental conditions. We have used next-generation Illumina sequencing to characterize the metatranscriptome of a tropical eutrophic drinking water reservoir dominated by the toxigenic cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa over a day/night cycle. Bacterioplankton sampling was carried out at six time points over a 24 hour period to capture variability associated with changes in the balance between phototrophic and heterotrophic activity. Total RNA was extracted and subjected to ribosomal depletion followed by cDNA synthesis and sequencing, generating 493,468 to 678,064 95-101 bp post-quality control reads per sample. Hierarchical Clustering of transcriptional profiles supported sorting of samples into two clusters corresponding to "day" and "night" collection times. Annotation of reads through the MG

  1. Effect of crude extracts from cyanobacterial blooms in Lake Texcoco (Mexico) on the population growth of Brachionus calyciflorus (Rotifera).

    PubMed

    Barrios, Cesar Alejandro Zamora; Nandini, S; Sarma, S S S

    2017-09-25

    Unlike temperate regions, tropical ecosystems are characterized by high temperatures (>18 °C) all year, promoting blooms of cyanobacteria which often produce secondary metabolites toxic to zooplankton. Nabor Carillo and the Recreational Lake are part of the saline, Lake Texcoco, in Central Mexico which is filled nowadays with treated waste water. Both water bodies are dominated by Planktothrix, Anabaenopsis, Spirulina and Microcystis. In this study we present the concentration of microcystins in these waterbodies over an annual cycle. We also evaluated the chronic effects of cyanobacterial crude extracts from both lakes on two clones of the rotifer Brachionus calyciflorus, one from Nabor Carrillo Lake and the other from a canal in the shallow, Lake Xochimilco. The experiments on population growth were performed, beginning with 10 individuals per container for each of the following treatments: control (no crude extract), concentrated crude extract, and diluted crude extract (50:50) with moderately hard water and Chlorella vulgaris in a concentration of 0.5 × 10(6) cells ml(-1). The cyanotoxin levels were measured using an ELISA test and ranged between 0.20 and 2.4 μg L(-1) in the lake water. The results showed that the Recreational Lake extracts were more toxic, killing the rotifers in less than five days. The r values ranged from -1.74 to 0.48 in the presence of the crude extracts and 0.16 and 0.24 in the controls. The results have been discussed with emphasis on the importance of conducting regular studies to test ecotoxicological impacts of cyanobacterial blooms in tropical waters. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Health-Based Cyanotoxin Guideline Values Allow for Cyanotoxin-Based Monitoring and Efficient Public Health Response to Cyanobacterial Blooms

    PubMed Central

    Farrer, David; Counter, Marina; Hillwig, Rebecca; Cude, Curtis

    2015-01-01

    Human health risks from cyanobacterial blooms are primarily related to cyanotoxins that some cyanobacteria produce. Not all species of cyanobacteria can produce toxins. Those that do often do not produce toxins at levels harmful to human health. Monitoring programs that use identification of cyanobacteria genus and species and enumeration of cyanobacterial cells as a surrogate for cyanotoxin presence can overestimate risk and lead to unnecessary health advisories. In the absence of federal criteria for cyanotoxins in recreational water, the Oregon Health Authority (OHA) developed guideline values for the four most common cyanotoxins in Oregon’s fresh waters (anatoxin-a, cylindrospermopsin, microcystins, and saxitoxins). OHA developed three guideline values for each of the cyanotoxins found in Oregon. Each of the guideline values is for a specific use of cyanobacteria-affected water: drinking water, human recreational exposure and dog recreational exposure. Having cyanotoxin guidelines allows OHA to promote toxin-based monitoring (TBM) programs, which reduce the number of health advisories and focus advisories on times and places where actual, rather than potential, risks to health exist. TBM allows OHA to more efficiently protect public health while reducing burdens on local economies that depend on water recreation-related tourism. PMID:25664510

  3. Health-based cyanotoxin guideline values allow for cyanotoxin-based monitoring and efficient public health response to cyanobacterial blooms.

    PubMed

    Farrer, David; Counter, Marina; Hillwig, Rebecca; Cude, Curtis

    2015-02-05

    Human health risks from cyanobacterial blooms are primarily related to cyanotoxins that some cyanobacteria produce. Not all species of cyanobacteria can produce toxins. Those that do often do not produce toxins at levels harmful to human health. Monitoring programs that use identification of cyanobacteria genus and species and enumeration of cyanobacterial cells as a surrogate for cyanotoxin presence can overestimate risk and lead to unnecessary health advisories. In the absence of federal criteria for cyanotoxins in recreational water, the Oregon Health Authority (OHA) developed guideline values for the four most common cyanotoxins in Oregon's fresh waters (anatoxin-a, cylindrospermopsin, microcystins, and saxitoxins). OHA developed three guideline values for each of the cyanotoxins found in Oregon. Each of the guideline values is for a specific use of cyanobacteria-affected water: drinking water, human recreational exposure and dog recreational exposure. Having cyanotoxin guidelines allows OHA to promote toxin-based monitoring (TBM) programs, which reduce the number of health advisories and focus advisories on times and places where actual, rather than potential, risks to health exist. TBM allows OHA to more efficiently protect public health while reducing burdens on local economies that depend on water recreation-related tourism.

  4. Biology in Bloom: Implementing Bloom's Taxonomy to Enhance Student Learning in Biology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crowe, Alison; Dirks, Clarissa; Wenderoth, Mary Pat

    2008-01-01

    We developed the Blooming Biology Tool (BBT), an assessment tool based on Bloom's Taxonomy, to assist science faculty in better aligning their assessments with their teaching activities and to help students enhance their study skills and metacognition. The work presented here shows how assessment tools, such as the BBT, can be used to guide and…

  5. Analysis of factors affecting the ratio of microcystin to chlorophyll-a in cyanobacterial blooms using real-time polymerase chain reaction.

    PubMed

    Ha, Joo H; Hidaka, Taira; Tsuno, Hiroshi

    2011-02-01

    Chlorophyll-a concentration has been used as an indicator to estimate microcystin levels in water bodies. This study examined the microcystin to chlorophyll-a ratio in a fishpond in Japan. The ratio varied spatially and temporally during the six-month field survey, which is consistent with reports by other researchers. We investigated the causes of the variability of the ratio by quantifying microcystin synthetase (mcy) A gene with real-time PCR, so as to observe the growth of microcystin-producing cyanobacteria and Microcystis strains in natural cyanobacterial blooms. The application of real-time PCR enabled corroboration of the relationship between the toxigenicity and the toxicity of the blooms. The microcystin to chlorophyll-a ratio was influenced by the combined effects of the durability of the toxic bloom, and the quantity of microcystin-producing cyanobacteria carrying the mcy A gene, especially toxic Microcystis strains. Cyanobacterial blooms produced more microcystin when high concentrations of microcystin-producing Microcystis aggregated in a stationary state with low growth rates. The variable toxicity of blooms needs to be reflected in accurate and efficient alert systems for toxic cyanobacteria and cyanotoxins.

  6. Cyanobacterial blooms: carbon and nitrogen limitation have opposite effects on the buoyancy of oscillatoria.

    PubMed

    Klemer, A R; Feuillade, J; Feuillade, M

    1982-03-26

    Gas vacuolation in Oscillatoria rubescens decreased with increased nitrogen limitation and increased with transitions from nitrogen to inorganic carbon limitation. Gas vacuoles consist of protein vesicles that can accumulate in carbon- limited but not in unenriched nitrogen-limited cells. Nitrogen limitation is a factor in the formation of deep population maxima; carbon limitation can promote surface blooms.

  7. The influence of a toxic cyanobacterial bloom and water hydrology on algal populations and macroinvertebrate abundance in the upper littoral zone of Lake Krugersdrift, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Oberholster, Paul J; Botha, Anna-Maria; Ashton, Peter J

    2009-01-01

    The biological interactions and the physical and chemical properties of the littoral zone of Lake Krugersdrift were studied for a 4-month period when a dense, toxic cyanobacterial bloom dominated by Microcystis aeruginosa was present in the main lake basin. The presence of a toxic strain of M. aeruginosa was confirmed through the use of ELISA and molecular markers that detect the presence of the mcyB and mcyD genes of the mcy gene cluster that synthesizes microcystin. An increase in Microcystis toxicity at sites dominated by the cyanobacterial scum was accompanied by an increase in total abundance of the macroinvertebrate families Hirudinae, Chironomidae, and Tubificidae. Sites located away from the cyanobacterial scum had a lower abundance but a higher diversity of macroinvertebrates. The water quality under the Microcystis scum was characterized by low pH values, low concentrations of dissolved oxygen, and lower total alkalinity values. The periphytic alga Ulothrix zonata was absent in areas dominated by the cyanobacterial scum, possibly as a result of overshadowing by the scum or direct toxic allelopathic effects on growth and photosynthesis. The diatom Diatoma vulgare dominated the benthic algal flora beneath the cyanobacterial scum.

  8. Abundant iron and sulfur oxidizers in the stratified sediment of a eutrophic freshwater reservoir with annual cyanobacterial blooms.

    PubMed

    Jin, Long; Lee, Chang Soo; Ahn, Chi-Yong; Lee, Hyung-Gwan; Lee, Sanghyup; Shin, Hyeon Ho; Lim, Dhongil; Oh, Hee-Mock

    2017-03-07

    The microbial community in eutrophic freshwater sediment was investigated from a 67-cm-deep sediment core collected from the Daechung Reservoir in South Korea, where cyanobacterial blooms have occurred annually for the past 30 years. The majority of core sediments were characterized by dark-grayish, fine-grained mud with abundant gas-escaped and thinly laminated layers. Intervals of summer and winter seasons were represented by periodic peaks of geochemical profiles of parameters such as grain size and relative carbon mass ratios to various nutrients such as nitrogen, sulfur, and phosphorus. In bacteria, Proteobacteria (66.6%) was the most prevalent phylum, followed by Chloroflexi (8.9%), Bacteroidetes (5.1%), and Spirochaetes (2.6%). Archaea were also abundant, representing approximately half of the total prokaryotes in the sediments. Notably, three Bacteria (Sulfuricurvum, Sideroxydans, and Gallionella) and one Archaea (Thermoplasmata) accounted for 43.4% and 38.4% of the total bacteria and archaea, respectively, implying that iron and sulfur oxidizing microorganisms dominate in this eutrophic freshwater sediment. These results indicate that 1) eutrophic freshwater lakes in monsoon climates undergo a stratified sedimentary process with seasonal and annual variations in geochemical and microbial profiles, and 2) the microbial oxidative metabolism of iron and sulfur is notably active in sediments from a eutrophic lake.

  9. Abundant iron and sulfur oxidizers in the stratified sediment of a eutrophic freshwater reservoir with annual cyanobacterial blooms

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Long; Lee, Chang Soo; Ahn, Chi-Yong; Lee, Hyung-Gwan; Lee, Sanghyup; Shin, Hyeon Ho; Lim, Dhongil; Oh, Hee-Mock

    2017-01-01

    The microbial community in eutrophic freshwater sediment was investigated from a 67-cm-deep sediment core collected from the Daechung Reservoir in South Korea, where cyanobacterial blooms have occurred annually for the past 30 years. The majority of core sediments were characterized by dark-grayish, fine-grained mud with abundant gas-escaped and thinly laminated layers. Intervals of summer and winter seasons were represented by periodic peaks of geochemical profiles of parameters such as grain size and relative carbon mass ratios to various nutrients such as nitrogen, sulfur, and phosphorus. In bacteria, Proteobacteria (66.6%) was the most prevalent phylum, followed by Chloroflexi (8.9%), Bacteroidetes (5.1%), and Spirochaetes (2.6%). Archaea were also abundant, representing approximately half of the total prokaryotes in the sediments. Notably, three Bacteria (Sulfuricurvum, Sideroxydans, and Gallionella) and one Archaea (Thermoplasmata) accounted for 43.4% and 38.4% of the total bacteria and archaea, respectively, implying that iron and sulfur oxidizing microorganisms dominate in this eutrophic freshwater sediment. These results indicate that 1) eutrophic freshwater lakes in monsoon climates undergo a stratified sedimentary process with seasonal and annual variations in geochemical and microbial profiles, and 2) the microbial oxidative metabolism of iron and sulfur is notably active in sediments from a eutrophic lake. PMID:28266642

  10. To prevent the occurrence of black water agglomerate through delaying decomposition of cyanobacterial bloom biomass by sediment microbial fuel cell.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yan-Li; Jiang, He-Long; Cai, Hai-Yuan

    2015-04-28

    Settlement of cyanobacterial bloom biomass (CBB) into sediments in eutrophic lakes often induced the occurrence of black water agglomerate and then water quality deterioration. This study investigated the effect of sediment microbial fuel cell (SMFC) on CBB removal in sediments and related water pollution. Sediment bulking and subsequent black water from decomposition of settled CBB happened without SMFC, but were not observed over 100-day experiments with SMFC employment. While CBB in sediments improved power production from SMFC, the removal efficiency of organic matters in CBB-amended sediments with SMFC was significantly lower than that without SMFC. Pyrosequencing analysis showed higher abundances of the fermentative Clostridium and acetoclastic methanogen in CBB-amended bulk sediments without SMFC than with SMFC at the end of experiments. Obviously, SMFC operation changed the microbial community in CBB-amended sediments, and delayed the CBB degradation against sediment bulking. Thus, SMFC could be potentially applied as pollution prevention in CBB-settled and sensitive zones in shallow lakes.

  11. Abundant iron and sulfur oxidizers in the stratified sediment of a eutrophic freshwater reservoir with annual cyanobacterial blooms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Long; Lee, Chang Soo; Ahn, Chi-Yong; Lee, Hyung-Gwan; Lee, Sanghyup; Shin, Hyeon Ho; Lim, Dhongil; Oh, Hee-Mock

    2017-03-01

    The microbial community in eutrophic freshwater sediment was investigated from a 67-cm-deep sediment core collected from the Daechung Reservoir in South Korea, where cyanobacterial blooms have occurred annually for the past 30 years. The majority of core sediments were characterized by dark-grayish, fine-grained mud with abundant gas-escaped and thinly laminated layers. Intervals of summer and winter seasons were represented by periodic peaks of geochemical profiles of parameters such as grain size and relative carbon mass ratios to various nutrients such as nitrogen, sulfur, and phosphorus. In bacteria, Proteobacteria (66.6%) was the most prevalent phylum, followed by Chloroflexi (8.9%), Bacteroidetes (5.1%), and Spirochaetes (2.6%). Archaea were also abundant, representing approximately half of the total prokaryotes in the sediments. Notably, three Bacteria (Sulfuricurvum, Sideroxydans, and Gallionella) and one Archaea (Thermoplasmata) accounted for 43.4% and 38.4% of the total bacteria and archaea, respectively, implying that iron and sulfur oxidizing microorganisms dominate in this eutrophic freshwater sediment. These results indicate that 1) eutrophic freshwater lakes in monsoon climates undergo a stratified sedimentary process with seasonal and annual variations in geochemical and microbial profiles, and 2) the microbial oxidative metabolism of iron and sulfur is notably active in sediments from a eutrophic lake.

  12. Identification of microcystins in a Lake Victoria cyanobacterial bloom using LC-MS with thiol derivatization.

    PubMed

    Miles, Christopher O; Sandvik, Morten; Nonga, Hezron E; Rundberget, Thomas; Wilkins, Alistair L; Rise, Frode; Ballot, Andreas

    2013-08-01

    Microcystins are cyclic heptapeptides from cyanobacteria which are responsible for poisonings of livestock and humans. Cyanobacteria also produce a range of peptides and other compounds that can result in complex chromatograms when samples are analysed by LC-MS. Thiol derivatization of the α,β-unsaturated amide present in most microcystins was recently shown to simplify analysis of LC-MS chromatograms of a Microcystis culture, making it easier to identify peaks corresponding to microcystins in complex mixtures. This method was applied to analysis of extracts taken from a natural cyanobacteria bloom in Mwanza Gulf, Lake Victoria, Tanzania, in 2010, revealing the presence of numerous putative microcystin analogues in the sample. Results were verified using LC-MS², LC-MS/MS with precursor-ion scanning, and LC-HRMS, leading to identification of 8 major and 17 minor microcystins in the sample, including analogues of microcystin-RY, -RL and -RA. Microcystin-YR (2), -RR (3), and -RY (9) were isolated from bloom material from Lake Victoria, and the structure of 9 was confirmed by NMR spectroscopic analysis and NMR spectral comparison with 2 and 3. Confirmation of the structure of MC-RY (9) facilitated detailed analysis of its MS² spectrum, thereby supporting the structures of related analogues tentatively established on the basis of MS analyses. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Predicting blooms of toxic cyanobacteria in eutrophic lakes with diverse cyanobacterial communities.

    PubMed

    Bukowska, Aleksandra; Kaliński, Tomasz; Koper, Michał; Kostrzewska-Szlakowska, Iwona; Kwiatowski, Jan; Mazur-Marzec, Hanna; Jasser, Iwona

    2017-08-21

    We investigated possibility of predicting whether blooms, if they occur, would be formed of microcystin-producing cyanobacteria. DGGE analysis of 16S-ITS and mcyA genes revealed that only Planktothrix and Microcystis possessed mcy-genes and Planktothrix was the main microcystin producer. qPCR analysis revealed that the proportion of cells with mcy-genes in Planktothrix populations was almost 100%. Microcystin concentration correlated with the number of potentially toxic and total Planktothrix cells and the proportion of Planktothrix within all cyanobacteria, but not with the proportion of cells with mcy-genes in total Planktothrix. The share of Microcystis cells with mcy-genes was low and variable in time. Neither the number of mcy-possessing cells, nor the proportion of these cells in total Microcystis, correlated with the concentration of microcystins. This suggests that it is possible to predict whether the bloom in the Masurian Lakes will be toxic based on Planktothrix occurrence. Two species of toxin producing Planktothrix, P. agardhii and P. rubescens, were identified by phylogenetic analysis of 16S-ITS. Based on morphological and ecological features, the toxic Planktothrix was identified as P. agardhii. However, the very high proportion of cells with mcy-genes suggests P. rubescens. Our study reveals the need of universal primers for mcyA genes from environment.

  14. Electrochemical inactivation of cyanobacteria and microcystin degradation using a boron-doped diamond anode - A potential tool for cyanobacterial bloom control.

    PubMed

    Meglič, Andrej; Pecman, Anja; Rozina, Tinkara; Leštan, Domen; Sedmak, Bojan

    2017-03-01

    Cyanobacterial blooms are global phenomena that can occur in calm and nutrient-rich (eutrophic) fresh and marine waters. Human exposure to cyanobacteria and their biologically active products is possible during water sports and various water activities, or by ingestion of contaminated water. Although the vast majority of harmful cyanobacterial products are confined to the interior of the cells, these are eventually released into the surrounding water following natural or artificially induced cell death. Electrochemical oxidation has been used here to damage cyanobacteria to halt their proliferation, and for microcystin degradation under in-vitro conditions. Partially spent Jaworski growth medium with no addition of supporting electrolytes was used. Electrochemical treatment resulted in the cyanobacterial loss of cell-buoyancy regulation, cell proliferation arrest, and eventual cell death. Microcystin degradation was studied separately in two basic modes of treatment: batch-wise flow, and constant flow, for electrolytic-cell exposure. Batch-wise exposure simulates treatment under environmental conditions, while constant flow is more appropriate for the study of boron-doped diamond electrode efficacy under laboratory conditions. The effectiveness of microcystin degradation was established using high-performance liquid chromatography-photodiode array detector analysis, while the biological activities of the products were estimated using a colorimetric protein phosphatase-1 inhibition assay. The results indicate potential for the application of electro-oxidation methods for the control of bloom events by taking advantage of specific intrinsic ecological characteristics of bloom-forming cyanobacteria. The applicability of the use of boron-doped diamond electrodes in remediation of water exposed to cyanobacteria bloom events is discussed.

  15. Soil-based treatments of mechanically collected cyanobacterial blooms from Lake Taihu: efficiencies and potential risks.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wei; Jia, Yunlu; Li, Enhua; Zhao, Shuang; Zhou, Qichao; Liu, Liming; Song, Lirong

    2012-12-18

    In China, mechanical collection of cyanoblooms followed by soil-based treatments has been widely used as emergency strategies in many eutrophicated freshwaters. This study was to evaluate both efficiencies and potential risks of typical soil-based technologies. Results from this study indicated that over 90% of cyanobacterial biomass and 96% of dissolved microcystins (MCs) could be restrained in soils via three-level systems, which were much better than single-level systems. High concentrations of MCs, ranged from 65 to 276 ng g⁻¹ and from 2.12 to 6.6 ng g⁻¹, were found in soils around treatment systems and croplands, respectively. In the soil solutions, MCs ranged from 0.35 to 2.0 μg L⁻¹, showing a potentially high leaching risk. In the samples from shallow groundwater near the treatment systems, MC concentrations were detected as high as 1.2 μg L⁻¹. Moreover, bioaccumulations of MCs varied between 22 and 365 μg kg⁻¹, and 19-222 μg kg⁻¹ were found in 13 kinds of crops and 7 kinds of wild grass, respectively. Our results indicated for the first time that current soil-based technologies were effective but could pose potential environmental, ecological, and public health risks. Further improvements of these technologies were also proposed based on our findings.

  16. Cyanobacterial blooms and biomagnification of the neurotoxin BMAA in South Florida coastal waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brand, L.; Mash, D.

    2008-12-01

    Blooms of cyanobacteria have developed in Florida Bay, Biscayne Bay and other coastal waters of South Florida. It has recently been shown that virtually all cyanobacteria produce the potent neurotoxin, beta-N- methylamino-L-alanine (BMAA). Studies in Guam indicate that BMAA can biomagnify up the food chain from cyanobacteria to human food and humans. Recent studies in Guam and on human brains in North America suggest an association between BMAA and neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, and Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS). A variety of organisms from South Florida coastal waters are being analyzed for BMAA content to determine if BMAA is biomagnifying in these food chains and if it is a potential human health hazard. Some have extremely high concentrations of BMAA.

  17. Sentinel Animals in a One Health Approach to Harmful Cyanobacterial and Algal Blooms

    PubMed Central

    Backer, Lorraine C.; Miller, Melissa

    2016-01-01

    People, domestic animals, and wildlife are all exposed to numerous environmental threats, including harmful algal blooms (HABs). However, because animals exhibit wide variations in diet, land use and biology, they are often more frequently or heavily exposed to HAB toxins than are people occupying the same habitat, making them sentinels for human exposures. Historically, we have taken advantage of unique physiological characteristics of animals, such as the sensitivity of canaries to carbon monoxide, to more quickly recognize threats and help protect human health. As HAB events become more severe and widespread worldwide, exposure and health outcome data for animals can be extremely helpful to predict, prevent, and evaluate human exposures and health outcomes. Applying a One Health approach to investigation of HABs means that lessons learned from animal sentinels can be applied to protect people, animals and our shared environment. PMID:27152315

  18. Analytical insight into degradation processes of aminopolyphosphonates as potential factors that induce cyanobacterial blooms.

    PubMed

    Drzyzga, Damian; Lipok, Jacek

    2017-09-10

    Aminopolyphosphonates (AAPs) are commonly used industrial complexones of metal ions, which upon the action of biotic and abiotic factors undergo a breakdown and release their substructures. Despite the low toxicity of AAPs towards vertebrates, products of their transformations, especially those that contain phosphorus and nitrogen, can affect algal communities. To verify whether such chemical entities are present in water ecosystems, much effort has been made in developing fast, inexpensive, and reliable methods for analyzing phosphonates. However, unfortunately, the methods described thus far require time-consuming sample pretreatment and offer relatively high values of the limit of detection (LOD). The aim of this study was to develop an analytical approach to study the environmental fate of AAPs. Four phosphonic acids, N,N-bis(phosphonomethyl)glycine (GBMP), aminotris(methylenephosphonic) acid (ATMP), hexamethylenediamine-N,N,N',N'-tetrakis(methylphosphonic) acid (HDTMP), and diethylenetriamine penta(methylenephosphonic) acid (DTPMP) were selected and examined in a water matrix. In addition, the susceptibility of these compounds to biotransformations was tested in colonies of five freshwater cyanobacteria-microorganisms responsible for the so-called blooms in the water. Our efforts to track the AAP decomposition were based on derivatization of N-alkyl moieties with p-toluenesulfonyl chloride (tosylation) followed by chromatographic (HPLC-UV) separation of derivatives. This approach allowed us to determine seven products of the breakdown of popular phosphonate chelators, in nanomolar concentrations and in one step. It should be noted that the LOD of four of those products, aminemethylphosphonic acid (AMPA), N-phosphomethyl glycine (NPMG), N-(methyl)aminemethanephosphonic acid (MAMPA), and N-(methyl) glycine (SAR), was set below the concentration of 50 nM. Among those substances, N-(methylamino)methanephosphonic acid (MAMPA) was identified for the first time as

  19. Biology in bloom: implementing Bloom's Taxonomy to enhance student learning in biology.

    PubMed

    Crowe, Alison; Dirks, Clarissa; Wenderoth, Mary Pat

    2008-01-01

    We developed the Blooming Biology Tool (BBT), an assessment tool based on Bloom's Taxonomy, to assist science faculty in better aligning their assessments with their teaching activities and to help students enhance their study skills and metacognition. The work presented here shows how assessment tools, such as the BBT, can be used to guide and enhance teaching and student learning in a discipline-specific manner in postsecondary education. The BBT was first designed and extensively tested for a study in which we ranked almost 600 science questions from college life science exams and standardized tests. The BBT was then implemented in three different collegiate settings. Implementation of the BBT helped us to adjust our teaching to better enhance our students' current mastery of the material, design questions at higher cognitive skills levels, and assist students in studying for college-level exams and in writing study questions at higher levels of Bloom's Taxonomy. From this work we also created a suite of complementary tools that can assist biology faculty in creating classroom materials and exams at the appropriate level of Bloom's Taxonomy and students to successfully develop and answer questions that require higher-order cognitive skills.

  20. Phosphorus mobility among sediments, water and cyanobacteria enhanced by cyanobacteria blooms in eutrophic Lake Dianchi.

    PubMed

    Cao, Xin; Wang, Yiqi; He, Jian; Luo, Xingzhang; Zheng, Zheng

    2016-12-01

    This study was focused on the phosphorus mobility among sediments, water and cyanobacteria in eutrophic Lake Dianchi. Four conditions lake water, water and algae, water and sediments, and three objects together were conducted to investigate the effects of cyanobacteria growth on the migration and transformation of phosphorus. Results showed a persistent correlation between the development of cyanobacterial blooms and the increase of soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP) in the lake water under the condition of three objects together. Time-course assays measuring different forms of phosphorus in sediments indicated that inorganic phosphorus (IP) and NaOH-P were relatively more easier to migrate out of sediment to the water and cyanobacteria. Further studies on phosphorus mobility showed that up to 70.2% of the released phosphorus could be absorbed by cyanobacteria, indicating that sediment is a major source of phosphorus when external loading is reduced. Time-course assays also showed that the development of cyanobacterial blooms promoted an increase in pH and a decrease in the redox potential of the lake water. The structure of the microbial communities in sediments was also significantly changed, revealed a great impaction of cyanobacterial blooms on the microbial communities in sediments, which may contribute to phosphorus release. Our study simulated the cyanobacterial blooms of Lake Dianchi and revealed that the cyanobacterial blooms is a driving force for phosphorus mobility among sediments, water and cyanobacteria. The outbreak of algal blooms caused deterioration in water quality. The P in the sediments represented a significant supply for the growth of cyanobacteria. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Controlling cyanobacterial blooms in hypertrophic Lake Taihu, China: will nitrogen reductions cause replacement of non-N2 fixing by N2 fixing taxa?

    PubMed

    Paerl, Hans W; Xu, Hai; Hall, Nathan S; Zhu, Guangwei; Qin, Boqiang; Wu, Yali; Rossignol, Karen L; Dong, Linghan; McCarthy, Mark J; Joyner, Alan R

    2014-01-01

    Excessive anthropogenic nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) inputs have caused an alarming increase in harmful cyanobacterial blooms, threatening sustainability of lakes and reservoirs worldwide. Hypertrophic Lake Taihu, China's third largest freshwater lake, typifies this predicament, with toxic blooms of the non-N2 fixing cyanobacteria Microcystis spp. dominating from spring through fall. Previous studies indicate N and P reductions are needed to reduce bloom magnitude and duration. However, N reductions may encourage replacement of non-N2 fixing with N2 fixing cyanobacteria. This potentially counterproductive scenario was evaluated using replicate, large (1000 L), in-lake mesocosms during summer bloom periods. N+P additions led to maximum phytoplankton production. Phosphorus enrichment, which promoted N limitation, resulted in increases in N2 fixing taxa (Anabaena spp.), but it did not lead to significant replacement of non-N2 fixing with N2 fixing cyanobacteria, and N2 fixation rates remained ecologically insignificant. Furthermore, P enrichment failed to increase phytoplankton production relative to controls, indicating that N was the most limiting nutrient throughout this period. We propose that Microcystis spp. and other non-N2 fixing genera can maintain dominance in this shallow, highly turbid, nutrient-enriched lake by outcompeting N2 fixing taxa for existing sources of N and P stored and cycled in the lake. To bring Taihu and other hypertrophic systems below the bloom threshold, both N and P reductions will be needed until the legacy of high N and P loading and sediment nutrient storage in these systems is depleted. At that point, a more exclusive focus on P reductions may be feasible.

  2. Controlling Cyanobacterial Blooms in Hypertrophic Lake Taihu, China: Will Nitrogen Reductions Cause Replacement of Non-N2 Fixing by N2 Fixing Taxa?

    PubMed Central

    Paerl, Hans W.; Xu, Hai; Hall, Nathan S.; Zhu, Guangwei; Qin, Boqiang; Wu, Yali; Rossignol, Karen L.; Dong, Linghan; McCarthy, Mark J.; Joyner, Alan R.

    2014-01-01

    Excessive anthropogenic nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) inputs have caused an alarming increase in harmful cyanobacterial blooms, threatening sustainability of lakes and reservoirs worldwide. Hypertrophic Lake Taihu, China’s third largest freshwater lake, typifies this predicament, with toxic blooms of the non-N2 fixing cyanobacteria Microcystis spp. dominating from spring through fall. Previous studies indicate N and P reductions are needed to reduce bloom magnitude and duration. However, N reductions may encourage replacement of non-N2 fixing with N2 fixing cyanobacteria. This potentially counterproductive scenario was evaluated using replicate, large (1000 L), in-lake mesocosms during summer bloom periods. N+P additions led to maximum phytoplankton production. Phosphorus enrichment, which promoted N limitation, resulted in increases in N2 fixing taxa (Anabaena spp.), but it did not lead to significant replacement of non-N2 fixing with N2 fixing cyanobacteria, and N2 fixation rates remained ecologically insignificant. Furthermore, P enrichment failed to increase phytoplankton production relative to controls, indicating that N was the most limiting nutrient throughout this period. We propose that Microcystis spp. and other non-N2 fixing genera can maintain dominance in this shallow, highly turbid, nutrient-enriched lake by outcompeting N2 fixing taxa for existing sources of N and P stored and cycled in the lake. To bring Taihu and other hypertrophic systems below the bloom threshold, both N and P reductions will be needed until the legacy of high N and P loading and sediment nutrient storage in these systems is depleted. At that point, a more exclusive focus on P reductions may be feasible. PMID:25405474

  3. Diversity and temporal shifts of the bacterial community associated with a toxic cyanobacterial bloom: An interplay between microcystin producers and degraders.

    PubMed

    Lezcano, María Ángeles; Velázquez, David; Quesada, Antonio; El-Shehawy, Rehab

    2017-08-13

    The biodegradation of microcystins (MCs) by bacteria constitutes an important process in freshwater ecosystems to prevent the accumulation of toxins. However, little is known about the diversity and the seasonal dynamics of the bacterial community composition (BCC) involved in the degradation of MCs in nature. To explore these BCC shifts, high-throughput sequencing was used to analyse the 16S rRNA, mcyE and mlrA genes during a year in a freshwater reservoir with a toxic cyanobacterial bloom episode. The analysis of the mcyE and mlrA genes from water samples revealed the coexistence of different MC-producing and MC-degrading genotypes, respectively. The patchy temporal distribution of the mlrA genotypes (from the families Sphingomonadaceae and Xanthomonadaceae) suggests their dissimilar response to environmental conditions and the influence of other factors besides the MCs that may control their presence and relative abundance. During the maximum toxic cyanobacterial biomass and cell lysis, other bacterial taxa that lack mlr genes increased their relative abundance. Among these bacteria, those with a recognized role in the degradation of xenobiotic and other complex organic compounds (e.g., orders Myxococcales, Ellin6067, Spirobacillales and Cytophagales) were the most representative and suggest their possible involvement in the removal of MCs in the environment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Impact of Toxic Cyanobacterial Blooms on Eurasian Perch (Perca fluviatilis): Experimental Study and In Situ Observations in a Peri-Alpine Lake

    PubMed Central

    Sotton, Benoît; Guillard, Jean; Bony, Sylvie; Devaux, Alain; Domaizon, Isabelle; Givaudan, Nicolas; Crespeau, François; Huet, Hélène; Anneville, Orlane

    2012-01-01

    Due to the importance of young-of-the-year (YOY) perch in the peri-alpine regions where they are consumed, the microcystin (MC) contamination of YOY perch was analysed both in field (Lake Bourget, France) and experimentally using force-feeding protocols with pure MCs. In-situ, schools of YOY perch present in the epilimnion of the lake were never found in direct contact with the P. rubescens blooms that were present in the metalimnion. However, MCs were detected in the muscles and liver of the fish and were thus assumed to reach YOY perch through dietary routes, particularly via the consumption of MC-containing Daphnia. Force-feeding experiment demonstrates the existence of MC detoxification/excretion processes and suggests that in situ, YOY perch could partly detoxify and excrete ingested MCs, thereby limiting the potential negative effects on perch populations under bloom conditions. However, because of chronic exposure these processes could not allow for the complete elimination of MCs. In both experimental and in situ studies, no histological change was observed in YOY perch, indicating that MC concentrations that occurred in Lake Bourget in 2009 were too low to cause histological damage prone to induce mortality. However, Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) damages were observed for both the high and low experimental MC doses, suggesting that similar effects could occur in situ and potentially result in perch population disturbance during cyanobacterial blooms. Our results indicate the presence of MCs in wild perch, the consumption of this species coming from Lake Bourget is not contested but more analyses are needed to quantify the risk. PMID:23272228

  5. Local nutrient regimes determine site-specific environmental triggers of cyanobacterial and microcystin variability in urban lakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinang, S. C.; Reichwaldt, E. S.; Ghadouani, A.

    2014-10-01

    Toxic cyanobacterial blooms in urban lakes present serious health hazards to humans and animals and require effective management strategies. In the management of toxic cyanobacteria blooms, understanding the roles of environmental factors is crucial. To date, a range of environmental factors have been proposed as potential triggers for the spatiotemporal variability of cyanobacterial biomass and microcystins in freshwater systems. However, the environmental triggers of cyanobacteria and microcystin variability remain a subject of debate due to contrasting findings. This issue has raised the question if the environmental triggers are site-specific and unique between water bodies. In this study, we investigated the site-specificity of environmental triggers for cyanobacterial bloom and cyanotoxins dynamics. Our study suggests that cyanobacterial dominance and cyanobacterial microcystin content variability were significantly correlated to phosphorus and iron concentrations. However, the correlations between phosphorus and iron with cyanobacterial biomass and microcystin variability were not consistent between lakes, thus suggesting a site specificity of these environmental factors. The discrepancies in the correlations could be explained by differences in local nutrient concentration and the cyanobacterial community in the systems. The findings of this study suggest that identification of site-specific environmental factors under unique local conditions is an important strategy to enhance positive outcomes in cyanobacterial bloom control measures.

  6. The efficiency of combined coagulant and ballast to remove harmful cyanobacterial blooms in a tropical shallow system.

    PubMed

    Miranda, Marcela; Noyma, Natália; Pacheco, Felipe S; de Magalhães, Leonardo; Pinto, Ernani; Santos, Suzan; Soares, Maria Fernanda A; Huszar, Vera L; Lürling, Miquel; Marinho, Marcelo M

    2017-05-01

    We tested the hypothesis that a combination of coagulant and ballast could be efficient for removal of positively buoyant harmful cyanobacteria in shallow tropical waterbodies, and will not promote the release of cyanotoxins. This laboratory study examined the efficacy of coagulants [polyaluminium chloride (PAC) and chitosan (made of shrimp shells)] alone, and combined with ballast (lanthanum modified bentonite, red soil or gravel) to remove the natural populations of cyanobacteria collected from a shallow eutrophic urban reservoir with alternating blooms of Cylindrospermopsis and Microcystis. PAC combined with ballast was effective in settling blooms dominated by Microcystis or Cylindrospermopsis. Contrary to our expectation, chitosan combined with ballast was only effective in settling Cylindrospermopsis-dominated blooms at low pH, whereas at pH≥8 no effective flocculation and settling could be evoked. Chitosan also had a detrimental effect on Cylindrospermopsis causing the release of saxitoxins. In contrast, no detrimental effect on Microcystis was observed and all coagulant-ballast treatments were effective in not only settling the Microcystis dominated bloom, but also lowering dissolved microcystin concentrations. Our data show that the best procedure for biomass reduction also depends on the dominant species. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Pilot Phase To Evaluate Efficacy Of Silica Dosing To Stimulate Diatom Growth In a Hypereutrophic Lake Impacted By Cyanobacterial Blooms

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation describes measurements made and data collected during an experiment intended to increase silica concentration in a hyper-eutrophic lake impacted by cyanobacteria blooms. Silica was added to the water column in the hopes of encouraging diatom phytoplankton speci...

  8. Pilot Phase To Evaluate Efficacy Of Silica Dosing To Stimulate Diatom Growth In a Hypereutrophic Lake Impacted By Cyanobacterial Blooms

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation describes measurements made and data collected during an experiment intended to increase silica concentration in a hyper-eutrophic lake impacted by cyanobacteria blooms. Silica was added to the water column in the hopes of encouraging diatom phytoplankton speci...

  9. Bioaccumulation of microcystins by fish associated with a persistent cyanobacterial bloom in Lago de Patzcuaro (Michoacan, Mexico).

    PubMed

    Berry, John P; Lee, Elisha; Walton, Katherine; Wilson, Alan E; Bernal-Brooks, Fernando

    2011-07-01

    Lago de Patzcuaro is a historically important freshwater fishery in Mexico. The lake is presently characterized by a persistent bloom of cyanobacteria, specifically dominated by recognized producers of toxic microcystins (MCYSTs). We evaluated MCYSTs in sestonic and dissolved fractions of the water column, as well as representative fish species (silversides, Chirostoma spp.; Goodea sp.; and carp, Cyprinus carpio) obtained from local markets and small commercial catches during the bloom. Samples were evaluated primarily by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and secondarily by protein phosphatase (PPase) inhibition assay and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). Sestonic MCYST concentration (0.02-0.36 µg/L) generally correlated inversely with distance from the bloom, supporting the bloom as the source of the toxin. Several MCYST variants, including MC-LR, -LA and -LY, as well as didemethyl variants, were identified by LC-MS/MS analysis. All three species of fish bioaccumulated MCYSTs in relevant tissues, and toxin content correlated with trophic level, with highest and lowest levels measured in phytoplanktivorous and zooplanktivorous representatives, respectively. Detection of MCYST in silversides and Goodea sp. is particularly relevant because both are consumed in their entirety, including viscera (e.g., liver) known to primarily accumulate MCYST. These results indicate that Lago de Patzcuaro is indeed characterized by a toxigenic bloom, and that commercially important fish species from the lake accumulate toxic MCYST in tissues relevant to human consumption. As such, this system may represent an ideal model of the trophic transfer of MCYSTs and its relevance to human and environmental health.

  10. Simulation of advection and vertical distribution of buoyant cyanobacterial colonies in Lake Erie with a Lagrangian particle model for short-term forecasts of harmful algal blooms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rowe, M. D.; Anderson, E. J.; Wynne, T.; Stumpf, R. P.; Fanslow, D. L.; Vanderploeg, H. A.

    2016-02-01

    Cyanobacterial harmful algal blooms (CHABs), primarily Microcystis, are a recurring problem in western Lake Erie. Short-term forecasts of CHABs are important to water treatment plant operators, anglers, recreational boaters, and beach users. NOAA NCCOS and NOAA GLERL have developed experimental forecast products that indicate the present location and extent of CHABs from satellite imagery, then predict the movement of the CHAB five days into the future using forecast meteorology. These products use Lagrangian particle tracking models to forecast CHAB transport, forced by currents from a hydrodynamic model. Western Lake Erie is a shallow (< 11 m) freshwater system. CHABs occur during the months of July to October, a time when the water column is intermittently stratified or mixed to the bottom in response to wind and surface heating or cooling. Microcystis colonies may be mixed through the water column or concentrated in surface scums, depending on the balance between buoyancy and turbulent mixing. Present forecast models do not simulate the vertical distribution of buoyant cyanobacterial colonies, which detracts from model skill when mixing events cause large changes in surface concentration. We evaluated model skill in a 2011 hindcast using a Lagrangian particle model that included vertical mixing and buoyancy by comparison to satellite imagery and in-situ observations. Turbulent diffusivity and 3D currents were provided by the Finite Volume Coastal Ocean Model (FVCOM). Random-walk vertical mixing schemes may produce artifacts in simulated concentration profiles in the presence of diffusivity gradients. We evaluated several random-walk numerical schemes and time step criteria to determine conditions under which artifact formation could be avoided. Inclusion of vertical mixing with buoyancy enabled the model to simulate observed changes in surface chlorophyll concentration in response to variable mixing conditions, which improved model skill statistics.

  11. Physiological and biochemical defense reactions of Vicia faba L.-Rhizobium symbiosis face to chronic exposure to cyanobacterial bloom extract containing microcystins.

    PubMed

    Lahrouni, Majida; Oufdou, Khalid; El Khalloufi, Fatima; Baz, Mohamed; Lafuente, Alejandro; Dary, Mohammed; Pajuelo, Eloisa; Oudra, Brahim

    2013-08-01

    The presence of cyanotoxins, mainly microcystins (MCs), in surface freshwater represents a serious health risk to aquatic organisms living in the water body, as well as terrestrial animals and plants that are in contact with contaminated water. Consequently, the use of MCs contaminated water for irrigation represents a hazard for cultivated plants and could induce severe economical losses due to crops' yield reduction. The experimental approach undertaken in this work was exposing Vicia faba seedlings (inoculated with a Rhizobium strain resistant to MCs), to water supplemented with cyanobacterial crude extract containing total microcystins at a concentration of 50 and 100 μg/L (environmental relevant concentrations of MCs dissolved in the raw irrigation water from Lalla Takerkoust Lake-Marrakesh region). After chronic MCs exposure (2 months), biological and physiological parameters (plant growth, nitrogen uptake, mineral assimilation, and oxidative defense mechanisms) were evaluated. The results obtained showed evidence that chronic exposure to cyanobacterial bloom extract containing MCs strongly affected the physiological and biological plants activities; reduction of dry matter, photosynthetic activity, nodule number, and nitrogen assimilation. At the same time, an increase of oxidative stress was observed, as deduced from a significant increase of the activities of peroxidase, catalase, polyphenoloxidase, and phenylalanine ammonia lyase in leaves, roots, and nodules of faba bean plants exposed to cyanotoxins, especially at 100 μg/L of MCs. This experimentation constitutes a simulation of the situation related to cyanotoxins chronic exposure of seedlings-plants via the contaminated irrigation water. For this reason, once should take into consideration the possibility of contamination of agricultural crops and the quality of irrigation water should be by the way monitored for cyanotoxins biohazard.

  12. Large plasmonic fluorescence enhancement of cyanobacterial photosystem I coupled to silver island films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Czechowski, N.; Lokstein, H.; Kowalska, D.; Ashraf, K.; Cogdell, R. J.; Mackowski, S.

    2014-07-01

    A large, two-orders-of-magnitude enhancement of fluorescence emission from cyanobacterial Photosystem I (PSI) coupled to plasmonic excitations in silver island films was observed. Such a high value has not been reported for metal-enhanced fluorescence of photosynthetic pigment-protein complexes before. The dramatic enhancement of the PSI emission occurs when PSI is excited resonantly into the Qx and Qy bands of chlorophyll a. In contrast, excitation in the carotenoid absorption band yields ten times lower enhancement factors. We attribute these large values of enhancement factor to plasmon-induced activation of excitation and emission channels absent for isolated PSI complexes.

  13. Controlling cyanobacterial blooms through effective flocculation and sedimentation with combined use of flocculants and phosphorus adsorbing natural soil and modified clay.

    PubMed

    Noyma, Natalia Pessoa; de Magalhães, Leonardo; Furtado, Luciana Lima; Mucci, Maíra; van Oosterhout, Frank; Huszar, Vera L M; Marinho, Marcelo Manzi; Lürling, Miquel

    2016-06-15

    Eutrophication often results in blooms of toxic cyanobacteria that hamper the use of lakes and reservoirs. In this paper, we experimentally evaluated the efficacy of a metal salt (poly-aluminium chloride, PAC) and chitosan, alone and combined with different doses of the lanthanum modified bentonite Phoslock(®) (LMB) or local red soil (LRS) to sediment positively buoyant cyanobacteria from Funil Reservoir, Brazil, (22°30'S, 44°45'W). We also tested the effect of calcium peroxide (CaO2) on suspended and settled cyanobacterial photosystem efficiency, and evaluated the soluble reactive P (SRP) adsorbing capacity of both LMB and LRS under oxic and anoxic conditions. Our data showed that buoyant cyanobacteria could be flocked and effectively precipitated using a combination of PAC or chitosan with LMB or LRS. The SRP sorption capacity of LMB was higher than that of LRS. The maximum P adsorption was lowered under anoxic conditions especially for LRS ballast. CaO2 addition impaired photosystem efficiency at 1 mg L(-1) or higher and killed precipitated cyanobacteria at 4 mg L(-1) or higher. A drawback was that oxygen production from the peroxide gave positive buoyancy again to the settled flocs. Therefore, further experimentations with slow release pellets are recommended.

  14. In situ studies on growth, oxidative stress responses, and gene expression of juvenile bighead carp (Hypophthalmichthys nobilis) to eutrophic lake water dominated by cyanobacterial blooms.

    PubMed

    Sun, Hongjie; Wang, Wenqian; Geng, Linlin; Chen, Yafen; Yang, Zhou

    2013-09-01

    Cyanobacterial blooms have received increasing attention as a public biohazard for human and animal health. To assess the effect of cyanobacteria-dominant lake water on juvenile fish, we measured the responses of specific growth rate, condition factor, body weight and body length, oxidative stress, and related gene expression of juvenile bighead carp Hypophthalmichthys nobilis exposed to in situ eutrophic lake (Chl a was around 7.0μgL(-1)). Results showed in situ cyanobacteria-dominant lake water had no effect on the growth performance, but significantly elevated the contents of malondialdehyde, the expression of heat shock protein 70, and the activity of superoxide dismutase, indicating that oxidative stress occurred. Meanwhile in situ lake water significantly decreased the expression of catalase and glutathione S-transferase genes. We conclude that in situ cyanobacteria-dominated lake water was harmful to juvenile bighead carp based on the oxidative stress and changes in the related gene expression levels. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Controlling cyanobacterial blooms by managing nutrient ratio and limitation in a large hyper-eutrophic lake: Lake Taihu, China.

    PubMed

    Ma, Jianrong; Qin, Boqiang; Wu, Pan; Zhou, Jian; Niu, Cheng; Deng, Jianming; Niu, Hailin

    2015-01-01

    Excessive nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) loading of aquatic ecosystems is a leading cause of eutrophication and harmful algal blooms worldwide, and reducing nutrient levels in water has been a primary management objective. To provide a rational protection strategy and predict future trends of eutrophication in eutrophic lakes, we need to understand the relationships between nutrient ratios and nutrient limitations. We conducted a set of outdoor bioassays at the shore of Lake Taihu. It showed that N only additions induced phytoplankton growth but adding only P did not. Combined N plus P additions promoted higher phytoplankton biomass than N only additions, which suggested that both N and P were deficient for maximum phytoplankton growth in this lake (TN:TP=18.9). When nutrients are present at less than 7.75-13.95 mg/L TN and 0.41-0.74 mg/L TP, the deficiency of either N or P or both limits the growth of phytoplankton. N limitation then takes place when the TN:TP ratio is less than 21.5-24.7 (TDN:TDP was 34.2-44.3), and P limitation occurs above this. Therefore, according to this ratio, controlling N when N limitation exists and controlling P when P deficiency is present will prevent algal blooms effectively in the short term. But for the long term, a persistent dual nutrient (N and P) management strategy is necessary. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  16. Investigation of a Microcystis aeruginosa cyanobacterial freshwater harmful algal bloom associated with acute microcystin toxicosis in a dog.

    PubMed

    van der Merwe, Deon; Sebbag, Lionel; Nietfeld, Jerome C; Aubel, Mark T; Foss, Amanda; Carney, Edward

    2012-07-01

    Microcystin poisoning was diagnosed in a dog exposed to a Microcystis aeruginosa-dominated, freshwater, harmful algal bloom at Milford Lake, Kansas, which occurred during the summer of 2011. Lake water microcystin concentrations were determined at intervals during the summer, using competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays, and indicated extremely high, localized microcystin concentrations of up to 126,000 ng/ml. Multiple extraction and analysis techniques were used in the determination of free and total microcystins in vomitus and liver samples from the poisoned dog. Vomitus and liver contained microcystins, as determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays, and the presence of microcystin-LR was confirmed in vomitus and liver samples using liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry. Major toxic effects in a dog presented for treatment on the day following exposure included fulminant liver failure and coagulopathy. The patient deteriorated rapidly despite aggressive treatment and was euthanized. Postmortem lesions included diffuse, acute, massive hepatic necrosis and hemorrhage, as well as acute necrosis of the renal tubular epithelium. A diagnosis of microcystin poisoning was based on the demonstration of M. aeruginosa and microcystin-LR in the lake water, as well as in vomitus produced early in the course of the poisoning; the presence of microcystin-LR in liver tissue; and a typical clinical course including gastroenteritis and fulminant liver failure.

  17. Effects of Climate Change on Stratification-Destratification Cycles and Resulting Cyanobacterial Blooms in Shallow Lakes of the North Temperate Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King, A. T.; Schaffner, L. R.; Gilman, B.; Gronwall, T. R.; Gronwall, D.; Dietz, E. R.; Hairston, N., Jr.

    2016-12-01

    "Harmful Algal Blooms" of cyanobacteria (cyanoHABs) have become more frequent and larger in extent for inland waters across the globe. Honeoye Lake, the shallowest of the New York State Finger Lakes (9 m max depth, 7 km long), has experienced recent problematic blooms. We use this lake as a model system for understanding the effects of climate change on cyanoHABs in shallow lakes. Cyanobacteria thrive in warm waters with high phosphorus concentrations. While high P is often caused by external nutrient loading via surface runoff, it can also result from internal loading when P-rich sediment is exposed to anoxic/reducing conditions in a lake's hypolimnion after prolonged stratification. In deep lakes, hypolimnetic water remains isolated from the epilimnion throughout the summer with the dissolved P separated from illuminated surface water; in very shallow lakes where the entire water column remains oxygenated/oxidizing, P is bound in insoluble inorganic complexes. However, in lakes of intermediate depth, hypolimnetic water high in soluble reactive P may mix into the photic zone if sufficiently strong winds occur, stimulating a cyanoHAB. We suggest that repeated cycles of stratification, hypolimnetic anoxia, and subsequent mixing may result in "phosphorus pumping" with recurrent cyanoHABs throughout summer. Climate change is causing stronger thermal stratification in lakes through increased surface warming but also causing more frequent storms that can break down stratification in a shallow lake. We use Honeoye Lake as a model system for understanding the extent to which P-pumping occurs and the likely effects of climate change on cyanoHABs. Field data collected in summer 2016 were used to calibrate the publically available General Lake Model (GLM) to predict Honeoye's discontinuous polymictic pattern of stratification punctuated by overturn events and spikes in epilimnetic P and cyanobacterial biomass. We use the calibrated model to determine cyanoHAB incidence as a

  18. Local nutrient regimes determine site-specific environmental triggers of cyanobacterial and microcystin variability in urban lakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinang, S. C.; Reichwaldt, E. S.; Ghadouani, A.

    2015-05-01

    Toxic cyanobacterial blooms in urban lakes present serious health hazards to humans and animals and require effective management strategies. Managing such blooms requires a sufficient understanding of the controlling environmental factors. A range of them has been proposed in the literature as potential triggers for cyanobacterial biomass development and cyanotoxin (e.g. microcystin) production in freshwater systems. However, the environmental triggers of cyanobacteria and microcystin variability remain a subject of debate due to contrasting findings. This issue has raised the question of whether the relevance of environmental triggers may depend on site-specific combinations of environmental factors. In this study, we investigated the site-specificity of environmental triggers for cyanobacterial bloom and microcystin dynamics in three urban lakes in Western Australia. Our study suggests that cyanobacterial biomass, cyanobacterial dominance and cyanobacterial microcystin content variability were significantly correlated to phosphorus and iron concentrations. However, the correlations were different between lakes, thus suggesting a site-specific effect of these environmental factors. The discrepancies in the correlations could be explained by differences in local nutrient concentration. For instance, we found no correlation between cyanobacterial fraction and total phosphorous (TP) in the lake with the highest TP concentration, while correlations were significant and negative in the other two lakes. In addition, our study indicates that the difference of the correlation between total iron (TFe) and the cyanobacterial fraction between lakes might have been a consequence of differences in the cyanobacterial community structure, specifically the presence or absence of nitrogen-fixing species. In conclusion, our study suggests that identification of significant environmental factors under site-specific conditions is an important strategy to enhance successful outcomes

  19. Determination of the neurotoxins BMAA (beta-N-methylamino-L-alanine) and DAB (alpha-,gamma-diaminobutyric acid) by LC-MSMS in Dutch urban waters with cyanobacterial blooms.

    PubMed

    Faassen, Elisabeth J; Gillissen, Frits; Zweers, Hans A J; Lürling, Miquel

    2009-01-01

    We aimed to determine concentrations of the neurotoxic amino acids beta-N-methylamino-L-alanine (BMAA) and alpha-,gamma-diaminobutyric acid (DAB) in mixed species scum material from Dutch urban waters that suffer from cyanobacterial blooms. BMAA and DAB were analysed in scum material without derivatization by LC-MSMS (liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry) using hydrophilic interaction chromatography (HILIC). Our method showed high selectivity, good recovery of added compounds after sample extraction (86% for BMAA and 85% for DAB), acceptable recovery after sample hydrolysation (70% for BMAA and 56% for DAB) and acceptable precision. BMAA and DAB could be detected at an injected amount of 0.34 pmol. Free BMAA was detected in nine of the 21 sampled locations with a maximum concentration of 42 microg/g DW. Free DAB was detected in two locations with a maximum concentration of 4 microg/g DW. No protein-associated forms were detected. This study is the first to detect underivatized BMAA in cyanobacterial scum material using LC-MSMS. Ubiquity of BMAA in cyanobacteria scums of Dutch urban waters could not be confirmed, where BMAA and DAB concentrations were relatively low; however, co-occurrence with other cyanobacterial neurotoxins might pose a serious health risk including chronic effects from low-level doses.

  20. Enhancement of Chlorophyll Concentration and Growing Harmful Algal Bloom Along the California Coast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aceves, Joselyn; Singh, Ramesh

    2016-07-01

    We have carried out detailed analysis of satellite and ground data at different locations, Cal Poly, Goleta, Newport, Santa Monica, and Scripps piers and Monterey, Stearns and Santa Cruz wharfs along the California coast for the period 2008-2015. The sea surface temperature and chlorophyll concentrations derived from satellite data are analyzed together with ground observations of nitrogen, phosphorus, domoic acids and harmful algal blooms. The frequency of harmful algal blooms are found to increase in recent years depending upon the enhancement of chlorophyll concentrations and the discharges along the coast and dynamics of the sea surface temperature. The frequency of harmful algal blooms is higher in the northern California compared to southern California. The anthropogenic activities along the coast have increased which are associated with the forest fires and long range transport of dusts from Asia. The aerosol optical depth derived from satellite data during summer months seems to play an important role in the frequency of harmful algal blooms.

  1. A Review of Cyanobacterial Odorous and Bioactive Metabolites: Impacts and Management Alternatives in Aquaculture

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    An increased demand has pushed extensive aquaculture towards intensively operated production systems, commonly resulting in eutrophic conditions and cyanobacterial blooms. This review summarizes cyanobacterial secondary metabolites that can cause undesirable tastes and odors (odorous metabolites) o...

  2. Global solutions to regional problems: Collecting global expertise to address the problem of harmful cyanobacterial blooms. A Lake Erie case study.

    PubMed

    Bullerjahn, George S; McKay, Robert M; Davis, Timothy W; Baker, David B; Boyer, Gregory L; D'Anglada, Lesley V; Doucette, Gregory J; Ho, Jeff C; Irwin, Elena G; Kling, Catherine L; Kudela, Raphael M; Kurmayer, Rainer; Michalak, Anna M; Ortiz, Joseph D; Otten, Timothy G; Paerl, Hans W; Qin, Boqiang; Sohngen, Brent L; Stumpf, Richard P; Visser, Petra M; Wilhelm, Steven W

    2016-04-01

    In early August 2014, the municipality of Toledo, OH (USA) issued a 'do not drink' advisory on their water supply directly affecting over 400,000 residential customers and hundreds of businesses (Wilson, 2014). This order was attributable to levels of microcystin, a potent liver toxin, which rose to 2.5μgL(-1) in finished drinking water. The Toledo crisis afforded an opportunity to bring together scientists from around the world to share ideas regarding factors that contribute to bloom formation and toxigenicity, bloom and toxin detection as well as prevention and remediation of bloom events. These discussions took place at an NSF- and NOAA-sponsored workshop at Bowling Green State University on April 13 and 14, 2015. In all, more than 100 attendees from six countries and 15 US states gathered together to share their perspectives. The purpose of this review is to present the consensus summary of these issues that emerged from discussions at the Workshop. As additional reports in this special issue provide detailed reviews on many major CHAB species, this paper focuses on the general themes common to all blooms, such as bloom detection, modeling, nutrient loading, and strategies to reduce nutrients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Global solutions to regional problems: collecting global expertise to address the problem of harmful cyanobacterial blooms. A Lake Erie case study

    PubMed Central

    Bullerjahn, George S.; McKay, Robert M.; Davis, Timothy W.; Baker, David B.; Boyer, Gregory L.; D’Anglada, Lesley V.; Doucette, Gregory J.; Ho, Jeff C.; Irwin, Elena G.; Kling, Catherine L.; Kudela, Raphael M.; Kurmayer, Rainer; Michalak, Anna M.; Ortiz, Joseph D.; Otten, Timothy G.; Paerl, Hans W.; Qin, Boqiang; Sohngen, Brent L.; Stumpf, Richard P.; Visser, Petra M.; Wilhelm, Steven W.

    2016-01-01

    In early August 2014, the municipality of Toledo, OH (USA) issued a ‘do not drink’ advisory on their water supply directly affecting over 400,000 residential customers and hundreds of businesses (Wilson, 2014). This order was attributable to levels of microcystin, a potent liver toxin, which rose to 2.5 μg L-1 in finished drinking water. The Toledo crisis afforded an opportunity to bring together scientists from around the world to share ideas regarding factors that contribute to bloom formation and toxigenicity, bloom and toxin detection as well as prevention and remediation of bloom events. These discussions took place at an NSF- and NOAA-sponsored workshop at Bowling Green State University on April 13 and 14, 2015. In all, more than 100 attendees from six countries and 15 US states gathered together to share their perspectives. The purpose of this review is to present the consensus summary of these issues that emerged from discussions at the Workshop. As additional reports in this special issue provide detailed reviews on many major CHAB species, this paper focuses on the general themes common to all blooms, such as bloom detection, modeling, nutrient loading, and strategies to reduce nutrients. PMID:28073479

  4. Dispersion/dilution enhances phytoplankton blooms in low-nutrient waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lehahn, Yoav; Koren, Ilan; Sharoni, Shlomit; D'Ovidio, Francesco; Vardi, Assaf; Boss, Emmanuel

    2017-03-01

    Spatial characteristics of phytoplankton blooms often reflect the horizontal transport properties of the oceanic turbulent flow in which they are embedded. Classically, bloom response to horizontal stirring is regarded in terms of generation of patchiness following large-scale bloom initiation. Here, using satellite observations from the North Pacific Subtropical Gyre and a simple ecosystem model, we show that the opposite scenario of turbulence dispersing and diluting fine-scale (~1-100 km) nutrient-enriched water patches has the critical effect of regulating the dynamics of nutrients-phytoplankton-zooplankton ecosystems and enhancing accumulation of photosynthetic biomass in low-nutrient oceanic environments. A key factor in determining ecological and biogeochemical consequences of turbulent stirring is the horizontal dilution rate, which depends on the effective eddy diffusivity and surface area of the enriched patches. Implementation of the notion of horizontal dilution rate explains quantitatively plankton response to turbulence and improves our ability to represent ecological and biogeochemical processes in oligotrophic oceans.

  5. Enhancing soybean photosynthetic CO2 assimilation using a cyanobacterial membrane protein, ictB.

    PubMed

    Hay, William T; Bihmidine, Saadia; Mutlu, Nedim; Hoang, Khang Le; Awada, Tala; Weeks, Donald P; Clemente, Tom E; Long, Stephen P

    2017-02-16

    Soybean C3 photosynthesis can suffer a severe loss in efficiency due to photorespiration and the lack of a carbon concentrating mechanism (CCM) such as those present in other plant species or cyanobacteria. Transgenic soybean (Glycine max cv. Thorne) plants constitutively expressing cyanobacterial ictB (inorganic carbon transporter B) gene were generated using Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Although more recent data suggest that ictB does not actively transport HCO3-/CO2, there is nevertheless mounting evidence that transformation with this gene can increase higher plant photosynthesis. The hypothesis that expression of the ictB gene would improve photosynthesis, biomass production and seed yield in soybean was tested, in two independent replicated greenhouse and field trials. Results showed significant increases in photosynthetic CO2 uptake (Anet) and dry mass in transgenic relative to wild type (WT) control plants in both the greenhouse and field trials. Transgenic plants also showed increased photosynthetic rates and biomass production during a drought mimic study. The findings presented herein demonstrate that ictB, as a single-gene, contributes to enhancement in various yield parameters in a major commodity crop and point to the significant role that biotechnological approaches to increasing photosynthetic efficiency can play in helping to meet increased global demands for food.

  6. Bioreactor study employing bacteria with enhanced activity toward cyanobacterial toxins microcystins.

    PubMed

    Dziga, Dariusz; Lisznianska, Magdalena; Wladyka, Benedykt

    2014-08-13

    An important aim of white (grey) biotechnology is bioremediation, where microbes are employed to remove unwanted chemicals. Microcystins (MCs) and other cyanobacterial toxins are not industrial or agricultural pollutants; however, their occurrence as a consequence of human activity and water reservoir eutrophication is regarded as anthropogenic. Microbial degradation of microcystins is suggested as an alternative to chemical and physical methods of their elimination. This paper describes a possible technique of the practical application of the biodegradation process. The idea relies on the utilization of bacteria with a significantly enhanced MC-degradation ability (in comparison with wild strains). The cells of an Escherichia coli laboratory strain expressing microcystinase (MlrA) responsible for the detoxification of MCs were immobilized in alginate beads. The degradation potency of the tested bioreactors was monitored by HPLC detection of linear microcystin LR (MC-LR) as the MlrA degradation product. An open system based on a column filled with alginate-entrapped cells was shown to operate more efficiently than a closed system (alginate beads shaken in a glass container). The maximal degradation rate calculated per one liter of carrier was 219.9 µg h-1 of degraded MC-LR. A comparison of the efficiency of the described system with other biological and chemo-physical proposals suggests that this new idea presents several advantages and is worth investigating in future studies.

  7. Eutrophication and Warming Boost Cyanobacterial Biomass and Microcystins

    PubMed Central

    Lürling, Miquel; van Oosterhout, Frank; Faassen, Elisabeth

    2017-01-01

    Eutrophication and warming are key drivers of cyanobacterial blooms, but their combined effects on microcystin (MC) concentrations are less studied. We tested the hypothesis that warming promotes cyanobacterial abundance in a natural plankton community and that eutrophication enhances cyanobacterial biomass and MC concentrations. We incubated natural seston from a eutrophic pond under normal, high, and extreme temperatures (i.e., 20, 25, and 30 °C) with and without additional nutrients added (eutrophication) mimicking a pulse as could be expected from projected summer storms under climate change. Eutrophication increased algal- and cyanobacterial biomass by 26 and 8 times, respectively, and led to 24 times higher MC concentrations. This effect was augmented with higher temperatures leading to 45 times higher MC concentrations at 25 °C, with 11 times more cyanobacterial chlorophyll-a and 25 times more eukaryote algal chlorophyll-a. At 30 °C, MC concentrations were 42 times higher, with cyanobacterial chlorophyll-a being 17 times and eukaryote algal chlorophyll-a being 24 times higher. In contrast, warming alone did not yield more cyanobacteria or MCs, because the in situ community had already depleted the available nutrient pool. MC per potential MC producing cell declined at higher temperatures under nutrient enrichments, which was confirmed by a controlled experiment with two laboratory strains of Microcystis aeruginosa. Nevertheless, MC concentrations were much higher at the increased temperature and nutrient treatment than under warming alone due to strongly promoted biomass, lifting N-imitation and promotion of potential MC producers like Microcystis. This study exemplifies the vulnerability of eutrophic urban waters to predicted future summer climate change effects that might aggravate cyanobacterial nuisance. PMID:28208670

  8. Enhancing soybean photosynthetic CO2 assimilation using a cyanobacterial membrane protein, ictB

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Soybean C3 photosynthesis can suffer a severe loss in efficiency due to photorespiration and the lack of a carbon concentrating mechanism (CCM) such as those present in other plant species or cyanobacteria. Transgenic soybean (Glycine max cv. Thorne) plants constitutively expressing cyanobacterial i...

  9. Cyanobacterial Blooms and the Occurrence of the neurotoxin beta-N-methylamino-L-alanine (BMAA) in South Florida Aquatic Food Webs.

    PubMed

    Brand, Larry E; Pablo, John; Compton, Angela; Hammerschlag, Neil; Mash, Deborah C

    2010-09-01

    Recent studies demonstrate that most cyanobacteria produce the neurotoxin beta-N-methylamino-L-alanine (BMAA) and that it can biomagnify in at least one terrestrial food chain. BMAA has been implicated as a significant environmental risk in the development of neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS). We examined several blooms of cyanobacteria in South Florida, and the BMAA content of resident animals, including species used as human food. A wide range of BMAA concentrations were found, ranging from below assay detection limits to approximately 7000 μg/g, a concentration associated with a potential long-term human health hazard.

  10. Microwave-enhanced pyrolysis of natural algae from water blooms.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Rui; Li, Linling; Tong, Dongmei; Hu, Changwei

    2016-07-01

    Microwave-enhanced pyrolysis (MEP) of natural algae under different reaction conditions was carried out. The optimal conditions for bio-oil production were the following: algae particle size of 20-5 mesh, microwave power of 600W, and 10% of activated carbon as microwave absorber and catalyst. The maximum liquid yield obtained under N2, 10% H2/Ar, and CO2 atmosphere was 49.1%, 51.7%, and 54.3% respectively. The energy yield of bio-products was 216.7%, 236.9% and 208.7% respectively. More long chain fatty acids were converted into hydrocarbons by hydrodeoxygenation under 10% H2/Ar atmosphere assisted by microwave over activated carbon containing small amounts of metals. Under CO2 atmosphere, carboxylic acids (66.6%) were the main products in bio-oil because the existence of CO2 vastly inhibited the decarboxylation. The MEP of algae was quick and efficient for bio-oil production, which provided a way to not only ameliorate the environment but also obtain fuel or chemicals at the same time.

  11. Cyanobacterial Blooms and the Occurrence of the neurotoxin beta-N-methylamino-L-alanine (BMAA) in South Florida Aquatic Food Webs

    PubMed Central

    Brand, Larry E.; Pablo, John; Compton, Angela; Hammerschlag, Neil; Mash, Deborah C.

    2010-01-01

    Recent studies demonstrate that most cyanobacteria produce the neurotoxin beta-N-methylamino-L-alanine (BMAA) and that it can biomagnify in at least one terrestrial food chain. BMAA has been implicated as a significant environmental risk in the development of neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, and Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS). We examined several blooms of cyanobacteria in South Florida, and the BMAA content of resident animals, including species used as human food. A wide range of BMAA concentrations were found, ranging from below assay detection limits to approximately 7000 μg/g, a concentration associated with a potential long-term human health hazard. PMID:21057660

  12. Enhancing Alkane Production in Cyanobacterial Lipid Droplets: A ModeFl Platform for Industrially Relevant Compound Production

    PubMed Central

    Peramuna, Anantha; Morton, Ray; Summers, Michael L.

    2015-01-01

    Cyanobacterial lipid droplets (LDs) are packed with hydrophobic energy-dense compounds and have great potential for biotechnological expression and the compartmentalization of high value compounds. Nostoc punctiforme normally accumulates LDs containing neutral lipids, and small amounts of heptadecane, during the stationary phase of growth. In this study, we further enhanced heptadecane production in N. punctiforme by introducing extrachromosomal copies of aar/adc genes, and report the discovery of a putative novel lipase encoded by Npun_F5141, which further enhanced alkane production. Extra copies of all three genes in high light conditions resulted in a 16-fold higher accumulation of heptadecane compared to the wild type strain in the exponential phase. LD accumulation during exponential phase also increased massively to accommodate the heptadecane production. A large number of small, less fluorescent LDs were observed at the cell periphery in exponential growth phase, whereas fewer number of highly fluorescent, much larger LDs were localized towards the center of the cell in the stationary phase. These advances demonstrate that cyanobacterial LDs are an ideal model platform to make industrially relevant compounds, such as alkanes, during exponential growth, and provide insight into LD formation in cyanobacteria. PMID:25821934

  13. Harmful algal bloom smart device application: using image analysis and machine learning techniques for early classification of harmful algal blooms (SETAC presentation)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Reports of toxic cyanobacterial blooms, also known as Harmful Algal Blooms (HABS) have increased drastically in recent years. HABS impact human health from causing mild allergies to liver damage and death. The Ecological Stewardship Institute (ESI) at Northern Kentucky Universi...

  14. Harmful algal bloom smart device application: using image analysis and machine learning techniques for early classification of harmful algal blooms (SETAC presentation)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Reports of toxic cyanobacterial blooms, also known as Harmful Algal Blooms (HABS) have increased drastically in recent years. HABS impact human health from causing mild allergies to liver damage and death. The Ecological Stewardship Institute (ESI) at Northern Kentucky Universi...

  15. Dispersion/dilution enhances phytoplankton blooms in low-nutrient waters

    PubMed Central

    Lehahn, Yoav; Koren, Ilan; Sharoni, Shlomit; d'Ovidio, Francesco; Vardi, Assaf; Boss, Emmanuel

    2017-01-01

    Spatial characteristics of phytoplankton blooms often reflect the horizontal transport properties of the oceanic turbulent flow in which they are embedded. Classically, bloom response to horizontal stirring is regarded in terms of generation of patchiness following large-scale bloom initiation. Here, using satellite observations from the North Pacific Subtropical Gyre and a simple ecosystem model, we show that the opposite scenario of turbulence dispersing and diluting fine-scale (∼1–100 km) nutrient-enriched water patches has the critical effect of regulating the dynamics of nutrients–phytoplankton–zooplankton ecosystems and enhancing accumulation of photosynthetic biomass in low-nutrient oceanic environments. A key factor in determining ecological and biogeochemical consequences of turbulent stirring is the horizontal dilution rate, which depends on the effective eddy diffusivity and surface area of the enriched patches. Implementation of the notion of horizontal dilution rate explains quantitatively plankton response to turbulence and improves our ability to represent ecological and biogeochemical processes in oligotrophic oceans. PMID:28361926

  16. Engineering Cyanobacterial Cell Morphology for Enhanced Recovery and Processing of Biomass.

    PubMed

    Jordan, Adam; Chandler, Jenna; MacCready, Joshua S; Huang, Jingcheng; Osteryoung, Katherine W; Ducat, Daniel C

    2017-05-01

    Cyanobacteria are emerging as alternative crop species for the production of fuels, chemicals, and biomass. Yet, the success of these microbes depends on the development of cost-effective technologies that permit scaled cultivation and cell harvesting. Here, we investigate the feasibility of engineering cell morphology to improve biomass recovery and decrease energetic costs associated with lysing cyanobacterial cells. Specifically, we modify the levels of Min system proteins in Synechococcus elongatus PCC 7942. The Min system has established functions in controlling cell division by regulating the assembly of FtsZ, a tubulin-like protein required for defining the bacterial division plane. We show that altering the expression of two FtsZ-regulatory proteins, MinC and Cdv3, enables control over cell morphology by disrupting FtsZ localization and cell division without preventing continued cell growth. By varying the expression of these proteins, we can tune the lengths of cyanobacterial cells across a broad dynamic range, anywhere from an ∼20% increased length (relative to the wild type) to near-millimeter lengths. Highly elongated cells exhibit increased rates of sedimentation under low centrifugal forces or by gravity-assisted settling. Furthermore, hyperelongated cells are also more susceptible to lysis through the application of mild physical stress. Collectively, these results demonstrate a novel approach toward decreasing harvesting and processing costs associated with mass cyanobacterial cultivation by altering morphology at the cellular level.IMPORTANCE We show that the cell length of a model cyanobacterial species can be programmed by rationally manipulating the expression of protein factors that suppress cell division. In some instances, we can increase the size of these cells to near-millimeter lengths with this approach. The resulting elongated cells have favorable properties with regard to cell harvesting and lysis. Furthermore, cells treated in this

  17. Antioxidative response of the three macrophytes Ceratophyllum demersum, Egeria densa, and Hydrilla verticillata to a time dependent exposure of cell-free crude extracts containing three microcystins from cyanobacterial blooms of Lake Amatitlán, Guatemala.

    PubMed

    Romero-Oliva, Claudia Suseth; Contardo-Jara, Valeska; Pflugmacher, Stephan

    2015-06-01

    Microcystins (MCs) produced by cyanobacteria in natural environments are a potential risk to the integrity of ecosystems. In this study, the effects of cyanobacterial cell-free crude extracts from a Microcystis aeruginosa bloom containing three MC-congeners MC-LR, -RR, and -YR at environmental relevant concentrations of 49.3±2.9, 49.8±5.9, and 6.9±3.8μg/L, respectively, were evaluated on Ceratophyllum demersum (L.), Egeria densa (Planch.), and Hydrilla verticillata (L.f.). Effects on photosynthetic pigments (total chlorophyll (chl), chl a, chl b, and carotenoids), enzymatic defense led by catalase (CAT), peroxidase (POD) and glutathione reductase (GR), and biotransformation enzyme glutathione S-transferase (GST) were measured after 1, 4, and 8h and after 1, 3, 7, and 14 days of exposure. Results show that in all exposed macrophytes, photosynthetic pigments were negatively affected. While chl a and total chl decreased with increasing exposure time, a parallel increase in chl b was observed after 8h. Concomitant increase of ∼5, 16, and 34% of antioxidant carotenoid concentration in exposed C. demersum, E. densa, and H. verticillata, respectively, was also displayed. Enzymatic antioxidant defense systems in all exposed macrophytes were initiated within the first hour of exposure. In exposed E. densa, highest values of CAT and GR activities were observed after 4 and 8h, respectively, while in exposed H. verticillata highest value of POD activity was observed after 8h. An early induction with a significant increase of biotransformation enzyme GST was observed in E. densa after 4h and in C. demersum and H. verticillata after 8h. These results are the first to show rapid induction of stress and further possible MC biotransformation (based on the activation of GST enzymatic activity included in MC metabolization during the biotransformation mechanism) in macrophytes exposed to crude extract containing a mixture of MCs.

  18. A Novel approach for monitoring cyanobacterial blooms using an ensemble based system from MODIS imagery downscaled to 250 metres spatial resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El Alem, A.; Chokmani, K.; Laurion, I.; El-Adlouni, S. E.

    2014-12-01

    In reason of inland freshwaters sensitivity to Harmful algae blooms (HAB) development and the limits coverage of standards monitoring programs, remote sensing data have become increasingly used for monitoring HAB extension. Usually, HAB monitoring using remote sensing data is based on empirical and semi-empirical models. Development of such models requires a great number of continuous in situ measurements to reach an acceptable accuracy. However, Ministries and water management organizations often use two thresholds, established by the World Health Organization, to determine water quality. Consequently, the available data are ordinal «semi-qualitative» and they are mostly unexploited. Use of such databases with remote sensing data and statistical classification algorithms can produce hazard management maps linked to the presence of cyanobacteria. Unlike standard classification algorithms, which are generally unstable, classifiers based on ensemble systems are more general and stable. In the present study, an ensemble based classifier was developed and compared to a standard classification method called CART (Classification and Regression Tree) in a context of HAB monitoring in freshwaters using MODIS images downscaled to 250 spatial resolution and ordinal in situ data. Calibration and validation data on cyanobacteria densities were collected by the Ministère du Développement durable, de l'Environnement et de la Lutte contre les changements climatiques on 22 waters bodies between 2000 and 2010. These data comprise three density classes: waters poorly (< 20,000 cells mL-1), moderately (20,000 - 100,000 cells mL-1), and highly (> 100,000 cells mL-1) loaded in cyanobacteria. Results were very interesting and highlighted that inland waters exhibit different spectral response allowing them to be classified into the three above classes for water quality monitoring. On the other, even if the accuracy (Kappa-index = 0.86) of the proposed approach is relatively lower

  19. Formation and Control of Cyanobacterial Toxins

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation will cover the formation of harmful algal blooms and the control of their toxins. Data will be presented from current ORD projects on the treatment of cyanobacterial toxins through drinking water treatment facilities. The results will demonstrate that current c...

  20. Harmful freshwater algal blooms, with an emphasis on cyanobacteria.

    PubMed

    Paerl, H W; Fulton, R S; Moisander, P H; Dyble, J

    2001-04-04

    to further up the food chain. Both N2- and non-N2-fixing genera participate in mutualistic and symbiotic associations with microorganisms, higher plants, and animals. These associations appear to be of great benefit to their survival and periodic dominance. In this review, we address the ecological impacts and environmental controls of harmful blooms, with an emphasis on the ecology, physiology, and management of cyanobacterial bloom taxa. Combinations of physical, chemical, and biotic features of natural waters function in a synergistic fashion to determine the sensitivity of water bodies. In waters susceptible to blooms, human activities in water- and airsheds have been linked to the extent and magnitudes of blooms. Control and management of cyanobacterial and other phytoplankton blooms invariably includes nutrient input constraints, most often focused on nitrogen (N) and/or phosphorus (P). The types and amount of nutrient input constraints depend on hydrologic, climatic, geographic, and geologic factors, which interact with anthropogenic and natural nutrient input regimes. While single nutrient input constraints may be effective in some water bodies, dual N and P input reductions are usually required for effective long-term control and management of harmful blooms. In some systems where hydrologic manipulations (i.e., plentiful water supplies) are possible, reducing the water residence time by enhanced flushing and artificial mixing (in conjunction with nutrient input constraints) can be particularly effective alternatives. Implications of various management strategies, based on combined ecophysiological and environmental considerations, are discussed.

  1. Global warming and cyanobacterial harmful algal blooms.

    PubMed

    Paul, Valerie J

    2008-01-01

    The Earth and the oceans have warmed significantly over the past four decades, providing evidence that the Earth is undergoing long-term climate change. Increasing temperatures and changing rainfall patterns have been documented. Cyanobacteria have a long evolutionary history, with their first occurrence dating back at least 2.7 billion years ago. Cyanobacteria often dominated the oceans after past mass extinction events. They evolved under anoxic conditions and are well adapted to environmental stress including exposure to UV, high solar radiation and temperatures, scarce and abundant nutrients. These environmental conditions favor the dominance of cyanobacteria in many aquatic habitats, from freshwater to marine ecosystems. A few studies have examined the ecological consequences of global warming on cyanobacteria and other phytoplankton over the past decades in freshwater, estuarine, and marine environments, with varying results. The responses of cyanobacteria to changing environmental patterns associated with global climate change are important subjects for future research. Results of this research will have ecological and biogeochemical significance as well as management implications.

  2. Enhancement of plant growth and yields in Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) through novel cyanobacterial and biofilmed inoculants.

    PubMed

    Bidyarani, Ngangom; Prasanna, Radha; Babu, Santosh; Hossain, Firoz; Saxena, Anil Kumar

    2016-01-01

    The use of Rhizobium inoculants in chickpea is well established; however, meagre efforts have been directed towards the use of other microbial supplements for improving nutrient uptake and yields. A set of novel cyanobacterial and biofilmed inoculants were evaluated in chickpea under field conditions. A significant two-fold enhancement in leghaemoglobin content of nodules and plant biomass was recorded with Anabaena laxa treatment. The inoculants - Anabaena laxa and Anabaena - Rhizobium biofilmed formulation proved to be the top-ranking treatments. Soil chlorophyll, nitrogen-fixation and available N possessed high positive direct effects on grain yield through positive - correlations and - high direct effects and also had high positive indirect effects through other component traits. The cumulative effect of improved plant growth and nutrient uptake exhibited a positive correlation with microbiological activity, especially nitrogen fixation, soil chlorophyll and soil available nitrogen. This may account for the significantly higher yield parameters in the A. laxa treatment, which recorded 50% higher grain yield (1724kgha(-1)) as compared to control (847kgha(-1)). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  3. Friend or Foe: Variability in How Sea Ice Can Both Hinder and Enhance Phytoplankton Blooms Across the Southern Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rohr, T.

    2016-02-01

    Globally, a suite of physical and biogeochemical controls govern the structure, size, and timing of seasonal phytoplankton blooms. In the Southern Ocean, the introduction of seasonal sea ice provides an additional constraining factor. From a bottom-up perspective, a reduction in sea ice can both enhance bloom development by permitting greater levels of surface PAR uninhibited by ice and suppress a bloom when reduced fresh melt-water inputs and increased vulnerability to wind stress combine to create deeper mixed layers and decrease depth integrated light availability. Regions along the Western Antarctic Peninsula have already seen a contradictory response to reduced ice cover, with enhanced summertime chlorophyll concentrations in the South, and large declines to the North. This dichotomy is thought to arise from differences in the interannual mean sea ice state, with extensively ice covered regions benefiting from reduced coverage and more sparsely covered regions hindered by further reductions. The questions arises: 1) At what threshold does a reduction in sea ice transition from amplifying blooms to suppressing them? 2) How do additional environmental considerations such as nutrient availability and trophic interactions complicate this transition? Here, we combine remote sensing observations and in-situ data (from PAL LTER) with a hierarchy of 1-D water column and global general circulation (CESM) models to access the variability in how regional differences in mean ice state combine with other environmental forcings to dictate how interannual variability (or long term trends) in ice coverage will affect bloom structure, size and dynamics. In doing so we will gain a better understanding of how predicted changes in sea ice will effect Southern Ocean productivity, which of course will have important consequences in the global carbon cycle and sustainability of healthy marine ecosystems.

  4. DETOXIFICATION OF CYANOBACTERIAL TOXIN - CONTAMINATED WATER USING TIO2 PHOTOCATALYTIC FILMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Cyanobacterial harmfal algal blooms (CyanoHABs) often produce undesirable color, odor and taste and more importantly, potent toxins that can cause chronic, acute and acute letha poisonings to wild and domestic animals and humans

  5. Oxidative stress responses in the animal model, Daphnia pulex exposed to a natural bloom extract versus artificial cyanotoxin mixtures.

    PubMed

    Esterhuizen-Londt, Maranda; von Schnehen, Marie; Kühn, Sandra; Pflugmacher, Stephan

    2016-10-01

    In the natural environment, Daphnia spp. are constantly exposed to a complex matrix of biomolecules, especially during cyanobacterial bloom events. When cyanobacterial cells decay, not only are toxic secondary metabolites known as cyanotoxins released, but also multiple other secondary metabolites, some of which act as enzyme inhibitors. The present study examined the effects of such a natural toxin matrix (crude extract from a bloom) versus artificial toxin mixtures in terms of oxidative stress in Daphnia pulex. The results indicate that there is no significant effect on the survival of D. pulex. However, exposure to the bloom extract resulted in increased lipid peroxidation over a shorter exposure period and reduced antioxidative enzyme activities when compared to the artificial mixtures. The daphnids also needed a longer recovery time to reduce the increased cellular hydrogen peroxide concentration associated with the exposure to the crude extract than with the artificial mixtures. The results indicate a significant difference between the bloom crude extract and the two synthetic mixtures for all stress markers tested, indicating enhanced toxicity of the bloom extract.

  6. Engineering the Cyanobacterial Carbon Concentrating Mechanism for Enhanced CO2 Capture and Fixation

    SciTech Connect

    Sandh, Gustaf; Cai, Fei; Shih, Patrick; Kinney, James; Axen, Seth; Salmeen, Annette; Zarzycki, Jan; Sutter, Markus; Kerfeld, Cheryl

    2011-06-02

    In cyanobacteria CO2 fixation is localized in a special proteinaceous organelle, the carboxysome. The CO2 fixation enzymes are encapsulated by a selectively permeable protein shell. By structurally and functionally characterizing subunits of the carboxysome shell and the encapsulated proteins, we hope to understand what regulates the shape, assembly and permeability of the shell, as well as the targeting mechanism and organization of the encapsulated proteins. This knowledge will be used to enhance CO2 fixation in both cyanobacteria and plants through synthetic biology. The same strategy can also serve as a template for the production of modular synthetic bacterial organelles. Our research is conducted using a variety of techniques such as genomic sequencing and analysis, transcriptional regulation, DNA synthesis, synthetic biology, protein crystallization, Small Angle X-ray Scattering (SAXS), protein-protein interaction assays and phenotypic characterization using various types of cellular imaging, e.g. fluorescence microscopy, Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), and Soft X-ray Tomography (SXT).

  7. Cyanobacterial toxins: risk management for health protection

    SciTech Connect

    Codd, Geoffrey A.; Morrison, Louise F.; Metcalf, James S

    2005-03-15

    This paper reviews the occurrence and properties of cyanobacterial toxins, with reference to the recognition and management of the human health risks which they may present. Mass populations of toxin-producing cyanobacteria in natural and controlled waterbodies include blooms and scums of planktonic species, and mats and biofilms of benthic species. Toxic cyanobacterial populations have been reported in freshwaters in over 45 countries, and in numerous brackish, coastal, and marine environments. The principal toxigenic genera are listed. Known sources of the families of cyanobacterial toxins (hepato-, neuro-, and cytotoxins, irritants, and gastrointestinal toxins) are briefly discussed. Key procedures in the risk management of cyanobacterial toxins and cells are reviewed, including derivations (where sufficient data are available) of tolerable daily intakes (TDIs) and guideline values (GVs) with reference to the toxins in drinking water, and guideline levels for toxigenic cyanobacteria in bathing waters. Uncertainties and some gaps in knowledge are also discussed, including the importance of exposure media (animal and plant foods), in addition to potable and recreational waters. Finally, we present an outline of steps to develop and implement risk management strategies for cyanobacterial cells and toxins in waterbodies, with recent applications and the integration of Hazard Assessment Critical Control Point (HACCP) principles.

  8. Motility enhancement through surface modification is sufficient for cyanobacterial community organization during phototaxis.

    PubMed

    Ursell, Tristan; Chau, Rosanna Man Wah; Wisen, Susanne; Bhaya, Devaki; Huang, Kerwyn Casey

    2013-01-01

    The emergent behaviors of communities of genotypically identical cells cannot be easily predicted from the behaviors of individual cells. In many cases, it is thought that direct cell-cell communication plays a critical role in the transition from individual to community behaviors. In the unicellular photosynthetic cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803, individual cells exhibit light-directed motility ("phototaxis") over surfaces, resulting in the emergence of dynamic spatial organization of multicellular communities. To probe this striking community behavior, we carried out time-lapse video microscopy coupled with quantitative analysis of single-cell dynamics under varying light conditions. These analyses suggest that cells secrete an extracellular substance that modifies the physical properties of the substrate, leading to enhanced motility and the ability for groups of cells to passively guide one another. We developed a biophysical model that demonstrates that this form of indirect, surface-based communication is sufficient to create distinct motile groups whose shape, velocity, and dynamics qualitatively match our experimental observations, even in the absence of direct cellular interactions or changes in single-cell behavior. Our computational analysis of the predicted community behavior, across a matrix of cellular concentrations and light biases, demonstrates that spatial patterning follows robust scaling laws and provides a useful resource for the generation of testable hypotheses regarding phototactic behavior. In addition, we predict that degradation of the surface modification may account for the secondary patterns occasionally observed after the initial formation of a community structure. Taken together, our modeling and experiments provide a framework to show that the emergent spatial organization of phototactic communities requires modification of the substrate, and this form of surface-based communication could provide insight into the behavior

  9. Motility Enhancement through Surface Modification Is Sufficient for Cyanobacterial Community Organization during Phototaxis

    PubMed Central

    Bhaya, Devaki; Huang, Kerwyn Casey

    2013-01-01

    The emergent behaviors of communities of genotypically identical cells cannot be easily predicted from the behaviors of individual cells. In many cases, it is thought that direct cell-cell communication plays a critical role in the transition from individual to community behaviors. In the unicellular photosynthetic cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803, individual cells exhibit light-directed motility (“phototaxis”) over surfaces, resulting in the emergence of dynamic spatial organization of multicellular communities. To probe this striking community behavior, we carried out time-lapse video microscopy coupled with quantitative analysis of single-cell dynamics under varying light conditions. These analyses suggest that cells secrete an extracellular substance that modifies the physical properties of the substrate, leading to enhanced motility and the ability for groups of cells to passively guide one another. We developed a biophysical model that demonstrates that this form of indirect, surface-based communication is sufficient to create distinct motile groups whose shape, velocity, and dynamics qualitatively match our experimental observations, even in the absence of direct cellular interactions or changes in single-cell behavior. Our computational analysis of the predicted community behavior, across a matrix of cellular concentrations and light biases, demonstrates that spatial patterning follows robust scaling laws and provides a useful resource for the generation of testable hypotheses regarding phototactic behavior. In addition, we predict that degradation of the surface modification may account for the secondary patterns occasionally observed after the initial formation of a community structure. Taken together, our modeling and experiments provide a framework to show that the emergent spatial organization of phototactic communities requires modification of the substrate, and this form of surface-based communication could provide insight into the

  10. CYANOBACTERIAL TOXINS AND 2005 ISOCHAB EXPOSURE ASSESSMENT WORKGROUP

    EPA Science Inventory

    The US EPA, Office of Research and Development, in collaboration with other US federal agencies, is leading the organization of an International Symposium on Cyanobacterial Harmful Algal Blooms on 6-10 September, 2005. The goal of this symposium is to develop a comprehensive nat...

  11. CYANOBACTERIAL TOXINS AND 2005 ISOCHAB EXPOSURE ASSESSMENT WORKGROUP

    EPA Science Inventory

    The US EPA, Office of Research and Development, in collaboration with other US federal agencies, is leading the organization of an International Symposium on Cyanobacterial Harmful Algal Blooms on 6-10 September, 2005. The goal of this symposium is to develop a comprehensive nat...

  12. Ecotoxicological effects of selected cyanobacterial secondary metabolites a short review

    SciTech Connect

    Wiegand, C. . E-mail: cwiegand@igb-berlin.de; Pflugmacher, S. . E-mail: pflugmacher@igb-berlin.de

    2005-03-15

    Cyanobacteria are one of the most diverse groups of gram-negative photosynthetic prokaryotes. Many of them are able to produce a wide range of toxic secondary metabolites. These cyanobacterial toxins can be classified in five different groups: hepatotoxins, neurotoxins, cytotoxins, dermatotoxins, and irritant toxins (lipopolysaccharides). Cyanobacterial blooms are hazardous due to this production of secondary metabolites and endotoxins, which could be toxic to animals and plants. Many of the freshwater cyanobacterial blooms include species of the toxigenic genera Microcystis, Anabaena, or Plankthotrix. These compounds differ in mechanisms of uptake, affected organs, and molecular mode of action. In this review, the main focus is the aquatic environment and the effects of these toxins to the organisms living there. Some basic toxic mechanisms will be discussed in comparison to the mammalian system.

  13. Linking Cascading Effects of Fish Predation and Zooplankton Grazing to Reduced Cyanobacterial Biomass and Toxin Levels Following Biomanipulation

    PubMed Central

    Ekvall, Mattias K.; Urrutia-Cordero, Pablo; Hansson, Lars-Anders

    2014-01-01

    Eutrophication has been one of the largest environmental problems in aquatic ecosystems during the past decades, leading to dense, and often toxic, cyanobacterial blooms. In a way to counteract these problems many lakes have been subject to restoration through biomanipulation. Here we combine 13 years of monitoring data with experimental assessment of grazing efficiency of a naturally occurring zooplankton community and a, from a human perspective, desired community of large Daphnia to assess the effects of an altered trophic cascade associated with biomanipulation. Lake monitoring data show that the relative proportion of Daphnia spp. grazers in June has increased following years of biomanipulation and that this increase coincides with a drop in cyanobacterial biomass and lowered microcystin concentrations compared to before the biomanipulation. In June, the proportion of Daphnia spp. (on a biomass basis) went from around 3% in 2005 (the first year of biomanipulation) up to around 58% in 2012. During months when the proportion of Daphnia spp. remained unchanged (July and August) no effect on lower trophic levels was observed. Our field grazing experiment revealed that Daphnia were more efficient in controlling the standing biomass of cyanobacteria, as grazing by the natural zooplankton community never even compensated for the algal growth during the experiment and sometimes even promoted cyanobacterial growth. Furthermore, although the total cyanobacterial toxin levels remained unaffected by both grazer communities in the experimental study, the Daphnia dominated community promoted the transfer of toxins to the extracellular, dissolved phase, likely through feeding on cyanobacteria. Our results show that biomanipulation by fish removal is a useful tool for lake management, leading to a top-down mediated trophic cascade, through alterations in the grazer community, to reduced cyanobacterial biomass and lowered cyanobacterial toxin levels. This improved water

  14. Diatom resting spore ecology drives enhanced carbon export from a naturally iron-fertilized bloom in the Southern Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salter, Ian; Kemp, Alan E. S.; Moore, C. Mark; Lampitt, Richard S.; Wolff, George A.; Holtvoeth, Jens

    2012-03-01

    Southern Ocean Island systems sustain phytoplankton blooms induced by natural iron fertilization that are important for the uptake of atmospheric carbon dioxide and serve as analogues for past and future climate change. We present data on diatom flux assemblages and the biogeochemical properties of sinking particles to explain the enhanced particulate organic carbon (POC) export fluxes observed in response to natural iron supply in the Crozet Islands region (CROZeX). Moored deep-ocean sediment traps (>2000 m) were located beneath a naturally fertilized island bloom and beneath an adjacent High Nutrient Low Chlorophyll (HNLC) control site. Deep-ocean carbon flux from the naturally-fertilized bloom area was tightly correlated (R = 0.83, n = 12, P < 0.0006) with the resting spore flux of a single island-associated diatom species,Eucampia antarctica var. antarctica. The unusually well preserved state of the Eucampia-associated carbon flux, determined by amino acid studies of organic matter degradation, was likely influenced by their ecology, since diatom resting spores are adapted to settle rapidly out of the surface ocean preserving viable cells. The naturally fertilized bloom enhanced carbon flux and the resulting Si/C and Si/N ratios were 2.0-3.4-fold and 2.2-3.5-fold lower than those measured in the adjacent HNLC control area. The enhanced carbon export and distinctive stoichiometry observed in naturally fertilized systems is therefore largely not attributable to iron relief of open ocean diatoms, but rather to the advection and growth of diatom species characteristic of island systems and the subsequent flux of resting spores. Carbon export estimates from current natural iron fertilization studies therefore represent a highly specific response of the island systems chosen as natural laboratories and may not be appropriate analogues for the larger Southern Ocean response. The broader implications of our results emphasize the role of phytoplankton diversity and

  15. Effects of the Distribution of a Toxic Microcystis Bloom on the Small Scale Patchiness of Zooplankton

    PubMed Central

    Reichwaldt, Elke S.; Song, Haihong; Ghadouani, Anas

    2013-01-01

    Toxic cyanobacterial blooms can strongly affect freshwater food web structures. However, little is known about how the patchy occurrence of blooms within systems affects the spatial distribution of zooplankton communities. We studied this by analysing zooplankton community structures in comparison with the spatially distinct distribution of a toxic Microcystis bloom in a small, shallow, eutrophic lake. While toxic Microcystis was present at all sites, there were large spatial differences in the level of cyanobacterial biomass and in the zooplankton communities; sites with persistently low cyanobacterial biomass displayed a higher biomass of adult Daphnia and higher zooplankton diversity than sites with persistently high cyanobacterial biomass. While wind was the most likely reason for the spatially distinct occurrence of the bloom, our data indicate that it was the differences in cyanobacterial biomass that caused spatial differences in the zooplankton community structures. Overall, our study suggests that even in small systems with extensive blooms ‘refuge sites’ exist that allow large grazers to persist, which can be an important mechanism for a successful re-establishment of the biodiversity in an ecosystem after periods of cyanobacterial blooms. PMID:23840516

  16. Use of three monitoring approaches to manage a major Chrysosporum ovalisporum bloom in the Murray River, Australia, 2016.

    PubMed

    Crawford, Adam; Holliday, Jon; Merrick, Chester; Brayan, John; van Asten, Mark; Bowling, Lee

    2017-04-01

    An unusual bloom of Chrysosporum ovalisporum (basionym Aphanizomenon ovalisporum) occurred for the first time in the Murray River and distributary rivers in New South Wales, Australia, from mid-February to early June 2016. At its greatest extent, it contaminated a combined river length of ca. 2360 km. Chrysosporum ovalisporum usually comprised >99% of the total bloom biovolume at most locations sampled, which at times exceeded 40 mm(3) l(-1). The origins of the bloom were most likely reservoirs on the upper Murray River, with cyanobacterial-infested water released from them contaminating the river systems downstream. An integrated approach using three analytical methods: (1) identification and enumeration by microscopy, (2) multiplex quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), and (3) toxin analysis, was used to obtain data for the assessment of risk to water users and management of the bloom. qPCR indicated some cyrA and stxA genes responsible for cylindrospermopsin and saxitoxin biosynthesis respectively were present, but mostly below the level of quantification. No mcyE genes for microcystin biosynthesis were detected. Toxin analysis also revealed that cylindrospermopsin, saxitoxin and microcystin were all below detection. Lack of measurable toxicity in a species usually considered a cylindrospermopsin producer elsewhere meant the possibility of relaxing management guidelines; however, high (Red) alerts needed to be maintained due to risk to water users from other biohazards potentially produced by the cyanobacteria such as contact irritants. A three-tiered monitoring strategy is suggested for monitoring cyanobacterial blooms to provide enhanced data for bloom management.

  17. Assessment of in situ fluorometry to measure cyanobacterial presence in water bodies with diverse cyanobacterial populations.

    PubMed

    Bowling, Lee C; Zamyadi, Arash; Henderson, Rita K

    2016-11-15

    A YSI EXO2 water quality sonde fitted with fluorometric sensors for chlorophyll-a (Chl-a) and phycocyanin (CPC) was used to determine its applicability in cyanobacterial quantification in three small urban ponds in Sydney, Australia displaying considerable variations in cyanobacterial community composition and abundance, as well as eukaryotic algae, turbidity and chromophoric dissolved organic matter. CPC and Chl-a measured in situ with the instrument was compared against laboratory measures of cyanobacterial biovolume over two summer sampling periods. A good correlation was found between CPC and total cyanobacterial biovolume in two of the three ponds. The poor correlation in the third was due to the frequent dominance of picoplanktonic sized cyanobacteria. CPC did not correlate well with cell counts, and Chl-a was a poor measure of cyanobacterial presence. The relationship between CPC measured by fluorometry varied according to the dominant cyanobacterial taxa present in the ponds at any one time. Fluorometry has good potential for use in environmental monitoring of cyanobacterial biovolume, but may need to be based on predetermined relations applicable to local water bodies. Management guidelines based on CPC concentrations would also enhance the usefulness of in situ CPC measurements.

  18. A New Bloom: Transforming Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cochran, David; Conklin, Jack

    2007-01-01

    This article discusses a new design for the classic Bloom's Taxonomy developed by Anderson, L. W. & Krathwohl, D. (2001), which can be used to evaluate learners' technology-enhanced experience in more powerful and critical ways. The New Bloom's Taxonomy incorporates contemporary research on learning and human cognition into its model. The…

  19. Algal blooms and "Marine snow": Mechanisms that enhance preservation of organic carbon in ancient fine-grained sediments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Macquaker, J.H.S.; Keller, M.A.; Davies, S.J.

    2010-01-01

    sediment nor were the bottom waters persistently anoxic. In addition, the presence of thin lags and sharp-based beds suggests that the seafloor was being episodically reworked during deposition. These fabrics indicate that conditions in the water columns and at the seafloors while these rocks were being deposited were very dynamic, and episodic fluxes of high concentrations of organic carbon to the seafloor, during phytoplankton blooms, likely enhanced preservation of organic carbon. Copyright ?? 2010, SEPM (Society for Sedimentary Geology).

  20. Cyanobacterial NADPH dehydrogenase complexes

    SciTech Connect

    Ogawa, Teruo; Mi, Hualing

    2007-07-01

    Cyanobacteria possess functionally distinct multiple NADPH dehydrogenase (NDH-1) complexes that are essential to CO2 uptake, photosystem-1 cyclic electron transport and respiration. The unique nature of cyanobacterial NDH-1 complexes is the presence of subunits involved in CO2 uptake. Other than CO2 uptake, chloroplastic NDH-1 complex has similar role as cyanobacterial NDH-1 complexes in photosystem-1 cyclic electron transport and respiration (chlororespiration). In this mini-review we focus on the structure and function of cyanobacterial NDH-1 complexes and their phylogeny. The function of chloroplastic NDH-1 complex and characteristics of plants defective in NDH-1 are also described forcomparison.

  1. Modelling green macroalgal blooms on the coasts of Brittany, France to enhance water quality management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perrot, Thierry; Rossi, Nadège; Ménesguen, Alain; Dumas, Franck

    2014-04-01

    First recorded in the 1970s, massive green macroalgal blooms have since become an annual recurrence in Brittany, France. Eutrophication (in particular to anthropogenic nitrogen input) has been identified as the main factor controlling Ulva ‘green tide' events. In this study, we modelled Ulva proliferation using a two-dimensional model by coupling hydrodynamic and biological models (coined ‘MARS-Ulves') for five sites along the Brittany coastline (La Fresnaye Bay, Saint-Brieuc Bay, Lannion Bay, Guissény Bay and Douarnenez Bay). Calibration of the biological model was mainly based on the seasonal variation of the maximum nitrogen uptake rate (VmaxN) and the half-saturation constant for nitrogen (KN) to reproduce the internal nutrient quotas measured in situ for each site. In each bay, model predictions were in agreement with observed algal coverage converted into biomass. A numerical tracking method was implemented to identify the contribution of the rivers that empty into the study bays, and scenarios of decreases in nitrate concentration in rivers were simulated. Results from numerical nitrogen tracking highlighted the main nitrogen sources of green tides and also showed that each river contributes locally to green tides. In addition, dynamic modelling showed that the nitrate concentrations in rivers must be limited to between 5 and 15 mg l- 1, depending on the bay, to reduce Ulva biomass by half on the coasts. The three-step methodology developed in this study (analysing total dissolved inorganic nitrogen flux from rivers, tracking nitrogen sources in Ulva and developing scenarios for reducing nitrogen) provides qualitative and quantitative guidelines for stakeholders to define specific nitrogen reduction targets for better environmental management of water quality.

  2. Nitrogen Forms Influence Microcystin Concentration and Composition via Changes in Cyanobacterial Community Structure

    PubMed Central

    Monchamp, Marie-Eve; Pick, Frances R.; Beisner, Beatrix E.; Maranger, Roxane

    2014-01-01

    The eutrophication of freshwaters is a global health concern as lakes with excess nutrients are often subject to toxic cyanobacterial blooms. Although phosphorus is considered the main element regulating cyanobacterial biomass, nitrogen (N) concentration and more specifically the availability of different N forms may influence the overall toxicity of blooms. In this study of three eutrophic lakes prone to cyanobacterial blooms, we examined the effects of nitrogen species and concentrations and other environmental factors in influencing cyanobacterial community structure, microcystin (MC) concentrations and MC congener composition. The identification of specific MC congeners was of particular interest as they vary widely in toxicity. Different nitrogen forms appeared to influence cyanobacterial community structure leading to corresponding effects on MC concentrations and composition. Total MC concentrations across the lakes were largely explained by a combination of abiotic factors: dissolved organic nitrogen, water temperature and ammonium, but Microcystis spp. biomass was overall the best predictor of MC concentrations. Environmental factors did not appear to affect MC congener composition directly but there were significant associations between specific MC congeners and particular species. Based on redundancy analyses (RDA), the relative biomass of Microcystis aeruginosa was associated with MC-RR, M. wesenbergii with MC-LA and Aphanizomenon flos-aquae with MC-YR. The latter two species are not generally considered capable of MC production. Total nitrogen, water temperature, ammonium and dissolved organic nitrogen influenced the cyanobacterial community structure, which in turn resulted in differences in the dominant MC congener and the overall toxicity. PMID:24427318

  3. Nitrogen forms influence microcystin concentration and composition via changes in cyanobacterial community structure.

    PubMed

    Monchamp, Marie-Eve; Pick, Frances R; Beisner, Beatrix E; Maranger, Roxane

    2014-01-01

    The eutrophication of freshwaters is a global health concern as lakes with excess nutrients are often subject to toxic cyanobacterial blooms. Although phosphorus is considered the main element regulating cyanobacterial biomass, nitrogen (N) concentration and more specifically the availability of different N forms may influence the overall toxicity of blooms. In this study of three eutrophic lakes prone to cyanobacterial blooms, we examined the effects of nitrogen species and concentrations and other environmental factors in influencing cyanobacterial community structure, microcystin (MC) concentrations and MC congener composition. The identification of specific MC congeners was of particular interest as they vary widely in toxicity. Different nitrogen forms appeared to influence cyanobacterial community structure leading to corresponding effects on MC concentrations and composition. Total MC concentrations across the lakes were largely explained by a combination of abiotic factors: dissolved organic nitrogen, water temperature and ammonium, but Microcystis spp. biomass was overall the best predictor of MC concentrations. Environmental factors did not appear to affect MC congener composition directly but there were significant associations between specific MC congeners and particular species. Based on redundancy analyses (RDA), the relative biomass of Microcystis aeruginosa was associated with MC-RR, M. wesenbergii with MC-LA and Aphanizomenon flos-aquae with MC-YR. The latter two species are not generally considered capable of MC production. Total nitrogen, water temperature, ammonium and dissolved organic nitrogen influenced the cyanobacterial community structure, which in turn resulted in differences in the dominant MC congener and the overall toxicity.

  4. Remote sensing as a tool for monitoring water quality parameters for Mediterranean Lakes of European Union water framework directive (WFD) and as a system of surveillance of cyanobacterial harmful algae blooms (SCyanoHABs).

    PubMed

    Gómez, José Antonio Domínguez; Alonso, Covadonga Alonso; García, Ana Alonso

    2011-10-01

    Remote sensing has been used from the 1980s to study inland water quality. However, it was not until the beginning of the twenty-first century that CHRIS (an experimental multi-angle sensor with good spectral and spatial resolutions) and MERIS (with good temporal and spectral resolutions) started to acquire imagery with very good resolutions, which allowed to develop a reliable imagery acquisition system so as to consider remote sensing as an inland water management tool. This paper presents the methodology developed, from the field data acquisition with which to build a freshwater spectral library and the study of different atmospheric correction systems for CHRIS mode 2 and MERIS images, to the development of algorithms to determine chlorophyll-a and phycocyanin concentrations and bloom sites. All these algorithms allow determining water eutrophic and ecological states, apart from generating surveillance maps of toxic cyanobacteria with the main objective of Assessment of the Water Quality as it was used for Monitoring Ecological Water Quality in smallest Mediterranean Reservoirs integrated in the Intercalibration Exercise of European Union Water Framework Directive (WFD). We keep on using it to monitor the Ecological Quality Ratio (EQR) in Spain inland water.

  5. Examining Technology-Enhanced Coursework in Rehabilitation Counselor Education Using Bloom's Taxonomy of Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tansey, Timothy N.; Schopieray, Scott; Boland, Elizabeth; Lane, Frank; Pruett, Steven R.

    2009-01-01

    The use of technology-enhanced coursework by rehabilitation counselor educators has increased dramatically over the last decade. In many cases, educators are using new technologies to support traditional modes of teaching and learning. Research conducted in technology-enhanced coursework has primarily focused on the cognitive and psychomotor…

  6. Examining Technology-Enhanced Coursework in Rehabilitation Counselor Education Using Bloom's Taxonomy of Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tansey, Timothy N.; Schopieray, Scott; Boland, Elizabeth; Lane, Frank; Pruett, Steven R.

    2009-01-01

    The use of technology-enhanced coursework by rehabilitation counselor educators has increased dramatically over the last decade. In many cases, educators are using new technologies to support traditional modes of teaching and learning. Research conducted in technology-enhanced coursework has primarily focused on the cognitive and psychomotor…

  7. Harmful Algal Blooms and Drinking Water Treatment Research

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA has been conducting algal bloom research at multiple facilities around Lake Erie over the past few years to help communities confront the challenge of keeping cyanobacterial toxins from reaching consumers’ taps, while minimizing the financial burden. The first goal of this re...

  8. Harmful Algal Blooms and Drinking Water Treatment Research

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA has been conducting algal bloom research at multiple facilities around Lake Erie over the past few years to help communities confront the challenge of keeping cyanobacterial toxins from reaching consumers’ taps, while minimizing the financial burden. The first goal of this re...

  9. Charismatic microfauna alter cyanobacterial production through a trophic cascade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geange, S. W.; Stier, A. C.

    2010-06-01

    The trophic ecology of cyanobacterial blooms is poorly understood on coral reefs. Blooms of toxic cyanobacteria, Lyngbya majuscula, can quickly form large mats. The herbivorous sea hare, Stylocheilus striatus, and the predatory nudibranch, Gymnodoris ceylonica, often associate with these blooms, forming a linear food chain: nudibranch—sea hare—cyanobacteria. Using laboratory studies, this study quantified (1) the functional response of nudibranchs, (2) the effect of sea hare size on predation rates, and (3) the strength of the indirect effect of sea hare predation on cyanobacteria (i.e., a trophic cascade). Nudibranchs consumed on average 2.4 sea hares d-1, with the consumption of small sea hares 22 times greater than the consumption of large sea hares. Predation of sea hares reduced herbivory. Cyanobacterial biomass was 1.5 times greater when nudibranchs were present relative to when nudibranchs were absent. Although sea hare grazing can substantially reduce cyanobacterial biomass, predation of sea hares may mitigate grazing pressure, and therefore increase the abundance of cyanobacteria.

  10. Long-term MODIS observations of cyanobacterial dynamics in Lake Taihu: Responses to nutrient enrichment and meteorological factors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Kun; Zhang, Yunlin; Zhou, Yongqiang; Liu, Xiaohan; Zhu, Guangwei; Qin, Boqiang; Gao, Guang

    2017-01-01

    We developed and validated an empirical model for estimating chlorophyll a concentrations (Chla) in Lake Taihu to generate a long-term Chla and algal bloom area time series from MODIS-Aqua observations for 2003 to 2013. Then, based on the long-term time series data, we quantified the responses of cyanobacterial dynamics to nutrient enrichment and climatic conditions. Chla showed substantial spatial and temporal variability. In addition, the annual mean cyanobacterial surface bloom area exhibited an increasing trend across the entire lake from 2003 to 2013, with the exception of 2006 and 2007. High air temperature and phosphorus levels in the spring can prompt cyanobacterial growth, and low wind speeds and low atmospheric pressure levels favor cyanobacterial surface bloom formation. The sensitivity of cyanobacterial dynamics to climatic conditions was found to vary by region. Our results indicate that temperature is the most important factor controlling Chla inter-annual variability followed by phosphorus and that air pressure is the most important factor controlling cyanobacterial surface bloom formation followed by wind speeds in Lake Taihu.

  11. Long-term MODIS observations of cyanobacterial dynamics in Lake Taihu: Responses to nutrient enrichment and meteorological factors.

    PubMed

    Shi, Kun; Zhang, Yunlin; Zhou, Yongqiang; Liu, Xiaohan; Zhu, Guangwei; Qin, Boqiang; Gao, Guang

    2017-01-11

    We developed and validated an empirical model for estimating chlorophyll a concentrations (Chla) in Lake Taihu to generate a long-term Chla and algal bloom area time series from MODIS-Aqua observations for 2003 to 2013. Then, based on the long-term time series data, we quantified the responses of cyanobacterial dynamics to nutrient enrichment and climatic conditions. Chla showed substantial spatial and temporal variability. In addition, the annual mean cyanobacterial surface bloom area exhibited an increasing trend across the entire lake from 2003 to 2013, with the exception of 2006 and 2007. High air temperature and phosphorus levels in the spring can prompt cyanobacterial growth, and low wind speeds and low atmospheric pressure levels favor cyanobacterial surface bloom formation. The sensitivity of cyanobacterial dynamics to climatic conditions was found to vary by region. Our results indicate that temperature is the most important factor controlling Chla inter-annual variability followed by phosphorus and that air pressure is the most important factor controlling cyanobacterial surface bloom formation followed by wind speeds in Lake Taihu.

  12. Long-term MODIS observations of cyanobacterial dynamics in Lake Taihu: Responses to nutrient enrichment and meteorological factors

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Kun; Zhang, Yunlin; Zhou, Yongqiang; Liu, Xiaohan; Zhu, Guangwei; Qin, Boqiang; Gao, Guang

    2017-01-01

    We developed and validated an empirical model for estimating chlorophyll a concentrations (Chla) in Lake Taihu to generate a long-term Chla and algal bloom area time series from MODIS-Aqua observations for 2003 to 2013. Then, based on the long-term time series data, we quantified the responses of cyanobacterial dynamics to nutrient enrichment and climatic conditions. Chla showed substantial spatial and temporal variability. In addition, the annual mean cyanobacterial surface bloom area exhibited an increasing trend across the entire lake from 2003 to 2013, with the exception of 2006 and 2007. High air temperature and phosphorus levels in the spring can prompt cyanobacterial growth, and low wind speeds and low atmospheric pressure levels favor cyanobacterial surface bloom formation. The sensitivity of cyanobacterial dynamics to climatic conditions was found to vary by region. Our results indicate that temperature is the most important factor controlling Chla inter-annual variability followed by phosphorus and that air pressure is the most important factor controlling cyanobacterial surface bloom formation followed by wind speeds in Lake Taihu. PMID:28074871

  13. Effects of cyanobacterial-driven pH increases on sediment nutrient fluxes and coupled nitrification-denitrification in a shallow fresh water estuary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Y.; Cornwell, J. C.; Stoecker, D. K.; Owens, M. S.

    2012-07-01

    Summer cyanobacterial blooms caused an elevation in pH (9 to ~10.5) that lasted for weeks in the shallow and tidal-fresh region of the Sassafras River, a tributary of Chesapeake Bay (USA). Elevated pH promoted desorption of sedimentary inorganic phosphorus and facilitated conversion of ammonium (NH4+) to ammonia (NH3). In this study, we investigated pH effects on exchangeable NH4+ desorption, pore water diffusion and the flux rates of NH4+, soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP) and nitrate (NO3-), nitrification, denitrification, and oxygen consumption. Elevated pH enhanced desorption of exchangeable NH4+ through NH3 formation from both pore water and adsorbed NH4+ pools. Progressive penetration of high pH from the overlying water into sediment promoted the mobility of SRP and the release of total ammonium (NH4+ and NH3) into the pore water. At elevated pH levels, high sediment-water effluxes of SRP and total ammonium were associated with reduction of nitrification, denitrification and oxygen consumption rates. Alkaline pH and the toxicity of NH3 may inhibit nitrification in the thin aerobic zone, simultaneously constraining coupled nitrification-denitrification with limited NO3- supply and high pH penetration into the anaerobic zone. Geochemical feedbacks to pH elevation, such as enhancement of dissolved nutrient effluxes and reduction in N2 loss via denitrification, may enhance the persistence of cyanobacterial blooms in shallow water ecosystems.

  14. Community Biological Ammonium Demand: A Conceptual Model for Cyanobacteria Blooms in Eutrophic Lakes.

    PubMed

    Gardner, Wayne S; Newell, Silvia E; McCarthy, Mark J; Hoffman, Daniel K; Lu, Kaijun; Lavrentyev, Peter J; Hellweger, Ferdi L; Wilhelm, Steven W; Liu, Zhanfei; Bruesewitz, Denise A; Paerl, Hans W

    2017-07-18

    Cyanobacterial harmful algal blooms (CyanoHABs) are enhanced by anthropogenic pressures, including excessive nutrient (nitrogen, N, and phosphorus, P) inputs and a warming climate. Severe eutrophication in aquatic systems is often manifested as non-N2-fixing CyanoHABs (e.g., Microcystis spp.), but the biogeochemical relationship between N inputs/dynamics and CyanoHABs needs definition. Community biological ammonium (NH4(+)) demand (CBAD) relates N dynamics to total microbial productivity and NH4(+) deprivation in aquatic systems. A mechanistic conceptual model was constructed by combining nutrient cycling and CBAD observations from a spectrum of lakes to assess N cycling interactions with CyanoHABs. Model predictions were supported with CBAD data from a Microcystis bloom in Maumee Bay, Lake Erie, during summer 2015. Nitrogen compounds are transformed to reduced, more bioavailable forms (e.g., NH4(+) and urea) favored by CyanoHABs. During blooms, algal biomass increases faster than internal NH4(+) regeneration rates, causing high CBAD values. High turnover rates from cell death and remineralization of labile organic matter consume oxygen and enhance denitrification. These processes drive eutrophic systems to NH4(+) limitation or colimitation under warm, shallow conditions and support the need for dual nutrient (N and P) control.

  15. Effects of cyanobacterial-driven pH increases on sediment nutrient fluxes and coupled nitrification-denitrification in a shallow fresh water estuary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Y.; Cornwell, J. C.; Stoecker, D. K.; Owens, M. S.

    2012-01-01

    Summer cyanobacterial blooms caused an elevation in pH (9 to ~10.5) that lasted for weeks in the shallow and tidal-fresh region of the Sassafras River, a tributary of Chesapeake Bay (USA). Elevated pH promoted desorption of sedimentary inorganic phosphorus and facilitated conversion of ammonium (NH4+) to ammonia (NH3). In this study, we investigated pH effects on exchangeable NH4+ desorption, nutrient pore water diffusion and flux rates of NH4+, soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP), nitrate (NO3-), nitrification, denitrification, and oxygen consumption. pH elevation enhanced the desorption of exchangeable NH4+ because of NH3 formation from both pore water and adsorbed NH4+ pools. Progressive penetration of high pH from the overlying water into sediment promoted the release of SRP and total ammonium (NH4+ and NH3) into pore water. At elevated pH, high sediment-water effluxes of SRP and total ammonium were associated with reduction in nitrification, denitrification and oxygen consumption rates. Alkaline pH and the toxicity of NH3 may inhibit nitrification in the thin aerobic zone, simultaneously constraining coupled nitrification-denitrification with limited NO3- supply and high pH penetration into the anaerobic zone. Geochemical feedbacks to pH elevation, such as enhancement of dissolved nutrient effluxes and reduction in N2 loss via denitrification, may be responsible for the persistence of cyanobacterial blooms in shallow water ecosystems.

  16. Quantifying cyanobacterial phycocyanin concentration in turbid productive waters: a quasi-analytical approach

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In this research, we present a novel technique to monitor cyanobacterial algal bloom using remote sensing measurements. We have used a multi-band quasi analytical algorithm that determines phytoplankton absorption coefficients, aF('), from above-surface remote sensing reflectance, Rrs('). In situ da...

  17. Enhanced, fast-running scaling law model of thermal blooming and turbulence effects on high energy laser propagation.

    PubMed

    Van Zandt, Noah R; Fiorino, Steven T; Keefer, Kevin J

    2013-06-17

    A new scaling law model is presented to rapidly simulate thermal blooming and turbulence effects on high energy laser propagation, producing results approaching the quality normally only available using wave-optics code, but at much faster speed. The model convolves irradiance patterns originating from two distinct scaling law models, one with a proficiency in thermal blooming effects and the other in turbulence. To underscore the power of the new model, results are verified for typical, realistic scenarios by direct comparison with wave optics simulation.

  18. Harmful algal bloom removal and eutrophic water remediation by commercial nontoxic polyamine-co-polymeric ferric sulfate-modified soils.

    PubMed

    Dai, Guofei; Zhong, Jiayou; Song, Lirong; Guo, Chunjing; Gan, Nanqin; Wu, Zhenbin

    2015-07-01

    Harmful algal bloom has posed great threat to drinking water safety worldwide. In this study, soils were combined with commercial nontoxic polyamine poly(epichlorohydrin-dimethylamine) (PN) and polymeric ferric sulfate (PFS) to obtain PN-PFS soils for Microcystis removal and eutrophic water remediation under static laboratory conditions. High pH and temperature in water could enhance the function of PN-PFS soil. Algal removal efficiency increased as soil particle size decreased or modified soil dose increased. Other pollutants or chemicals (such as C, P, and organic matter) in eutrophic water could participate and promote algal removal by PN-PFS soil; these pollutants were also flocculated. During PN-PFS soil application in blooming field samples, the removal efficiency of blooming Microcystis cells exceeded 99 %, the cyanotoxin microcystins reduced by 57 %. Water parameters (as TP, TN, SS, and SPC) decreased by about 90 %. CODMn, PO4-P, and NH4-N also sharply decreased by >45 %. DO and ORP in water improved. Netting and bridging effects through electrostatic attraction and complexation reaction could be the two key mechanisms of Microcystis flocculation and pollutant purification. Considering the low cost of PN-PFS soil and its nontoxic effect on the environment, we proposed that this soil combination could be applied to remove cyanobacterial bloom and remediate eutrophic water in fields.

  19. Global change feed-back inhibits cyanobacterial photosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Walter Helbling, E; Banaszak, Anastazia T; Villafañe, Virginia E

    2015-09-29

    Cyanobacteria are an important component of aquatic ecosystems, with a proliferation of massive cyanobacterial blooms predicted worldwide under increasing warming conditions. In addition to temperature, other global change related variables, such as water column stratification, increases in dissolved organic matter (DOM) discharge into freshwater systems and greater wind stress (i.e., more opaque and mixed upper water column/epilimnion) might also affect the responses of cyanobacteria. However, the combined effects of these variables on cyanobacterial photosynthesis remain virtually unknown. Here we present evidence that this combination of global-change conditions results in a feed-back mechanism by which, fluctuations in solar ultraviolet radiation (UVR, 280-400 nm) due to vertical mixing within the epilimnion act synergistically with increased DOM to impair cyanobacterial photosynthesis as the water column progressively darkens. The main consequence of such a feed-back response is that these organisms will not develop large blooms in areas of latitudes higher than 30°, in both the Northern and Southern Hemispheres, where DOM inputs and surface wind stress are increasing.

  20. Global change feed-back inhibits cyanobacterial photosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    Walter Helbling, E.; Banaszak, Anastazia T.; Villafañe, Virginia E.

    2015-01-01

    Cyanobacteria are an important component of aquatic ecosystems, with a proliferation of massive cyanobacterial blooms predicted worldwide under increasing warming conditions. In addition to temperature, other global change related variables, such as water column stratification, increases in dissolved organic matter (DOM) discharge into freshwater systems and greater wind stress (i.e., more opaque and mixed upper water column/epilimnion) might also affect the responses of cyanobacteria. However, the combined effects of these variables on cyanobacterial photosynthesis remain virtually unknown. Here we present evidence that this combination of global-change conditions results in a feed-back mechanism by which, fluctuations in solar ultraviolet radiation (UVR, 280–400 nm) due to vertical mixing within the epilimnion act synergistically with increased DOM to impair cyanobacterial photosynthesis as the water column progressively darkens. The main consequence of such a feed-back response is that these organisms will not develop large blooms in areas of latitudes higher than 30°, in both the Northern and Southern Hemispheres, where DOM inputs and surface wind stress are increasing. PMID:26415603

  1. Cyanobacterial Toxic and Bioactive Peptides in Freshwater Bodies of Greece: Concentrations, Occurrence Patterns, and Implications for Human Health.

    PubMed

    Gkelis, Spyros; Lanaras, Thomas; Sivonen, Kaarina

    2015-10-12

    Cyanobacterial harmful algal blooms represent one of the most conspicuous waterborne microbial hazards in aquatic environments mostly due to the production of toxic secondary metabolites, mainly microcystins (MCs). Other bioactive peptides are frequently found in cyanobacterial blooms, yet their concentration and ecological relevance is still unknown. In this paper we studied the presence and concentration of cyanobacterial peptides (microcystins, anabaenopeptins, anabaenopeptilides) in 36 Greek freshwater bodies, using HPLC-DAD, ELISA, and PP1IA. Microcystins were found in more than 90% of the samples investigated, indicating that microcystin-producing strains seem to also occur in lakes without blooms. Microcystins MC-RR, MC-LR, and MC-YR were the main toxin constituents of the bloom samples. Anabaenopeptin A and B were predominant in some samples, whereas anabaenopeptolide 90A was the only peptide found in Lake Mikri Prespa. The intracellular concentrations of anabaenopeptins produced by cyanobacterial bloom populations are determined for the first time in this study; the high (>1000 µg·L(-1)) anabaenopeptin concentration found indicates there may be some impacts, at least on the ecology and the food web structure of the aquatic ecosystems. The maximum intracellular MC values measured in Lakes Kastoria and Pamvotis, exceeding 10,000 µg·L(-1), are among the highest reported.

  2. Verification and Validation of NASA-Supported Enhancements to the Near Real Time Harmful Algal Blooms Observing System (HABSOS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spruce, Joseph P.; Hall, Calllie; McPherson, Terry; Spiering, Bruce; Brown, Richard; Estep, Lee; Lunde, Bruce; Guest, DeNeice; Navard, Andy; Pagnutti, Mary; hide

    2006-01-01

    This report discusses verification and validation (V&V) assessment of Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) ocean data products contributed by the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) and Applied Coherent Technologies (ACT) Corporation to National Oceanic Atmospheric Administration s (NOAA) Near Real Time (NRT) Harmful Algal Blooms Observing System (HABSOS). HABSOS is a maturing decision support tool (DST) used by NOAA and its partners involved with coastal and public health management.

  3. Blooming gelatin: an individual additive for enhancing nanoapatite precipitation, physical properties, and osteoblastic responses of nanostructured macroporous calcium phosphate bone cements.

    PubMed

    Orshesh, Ziba; Hesaraki, Saeed; Khanlarkhani, Ali

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, there has been a great interest in using natural polymers in the composition of calcium phosphate bone cements to enhance their physical, mechanical, and biological performance. Gelatin is a partially hydrolyzed form of collagen, a natural component of bone matrix. In this study, the effect of blooming gelatin on the nanohydroxyapatite precipitation, physical and mechanical properties, and cellular responses of a calcium phosphate bone cement (CPC) was investigated. Various concentrations of blooming gelatin (2, 5, and 8 wt.%) were used as the cement liquid and an equimolar mixture of tetracalcium phosphate and dicalcium phosphate was used as solid phase. The CPC without any gelatin additive was also evaluated as a control group. The results showed that gelatin accelerated hydraulic reactions of the cement paste, in which the reactants were immediately converted into nanostructured apatite precipitates after hardening. Gelatin molecules induced 4%-10% macropores (10-300 μm) into the cement structure, decreased initial setting time by ~190%, and improved mechanical strength of the as-set cement. Variation in the above-mentioned properties was influenced by the gelatin concentration and progressed with increasing the gelatin content. The numbers of the G-292 osteoblastic cells on gelatin-containing CPCs were higher than the control group at entire culture times (1-14 days), meanwhile better alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity was determined using blooming gelatin additive. The observation of cell morphologies on the cement surfaces revealed an appropriate cell attachment with extended cell membranes on the cements. Overall, adding gelatin to the composition of CPC improved the handling characteristics such as setting time and mechanical properties, enhanced nanoapatite precipitation, and augmented the early cell proliferation rate and ALP activity.

  4. Blooming gelatin: an individual additive for enhancing nanoapatite precipitation, physical properties, and osteoblastic responses of nanostructured macroporous calcium phosphate bone cements

    PubMed Central

    Orshesh, Ziba; Hesaraki, Saeed; Khanlarkhani, Ali

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, there has been a great interest in using natural polymers in the composition of calcium phosphate bone cements to enhance their physical, mechanical, and biological performance. Gelatin is a partially hydrolyzed form of collagen, a natural component of bone matrix. In this study, the effect of blooming gelatin on the nanohydroxyapatite precipitation, physical and mechanical properties, and cellular responses of a calcium phosphate bone cement (CPC) was investigated. Various concentrations of blooming gelatin (2, 5, and 8 wt.%) were used as the cement liquid and an equimolar mixture of tetracalcium phosphate and dicalcium phosphate was used as solid phase. The CPC without any gelatin additive was also evaluated as a control group. The results showed that gelatin accelerated hydraulic reactions of the cement paste, in which the reactants were immediately converted into nanostructured apatite precipitates after hardening. Gelatin molecules induced 4%–10% macropores (10–300 μm) into the cement structure, decreased initial setting time by ~190%, and improved mechanical strength of the as-set cement. Variation in the above-mentioned properties was influenced by the gelatin concentration and progressed with increasing the gelatin content. The numbers of the G-292 osteoblastic cells on gelatin-containing CPCs were higher than the control group at entire culture times (1–14 days), meanwhile better alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity was determined using blooming gelatin additive. The observation of cell morphologies on the cement surfaces revealed an appropriate cell attachment with extended cell membranes on the cements. Overall, adding gelatin to the composition of CPC improved the handling characteristics such as setting time and mechanical properties, enhanced nanoapatite precipitation, and augmented the early cell proliferation rate and ALP activity. PMID:28176961

  5. Blooms of cyanobacteria in a temperate Australian lagoon system post and prior to European settlement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cook, P. L. M.; Jennings, M.; Holland, D. P.; Beardall, J.; Briles, C.; Zawadzki, A.; Doan, P.; Mills, K.; Gell, P.

    2015-11-01

    Blooms of noxious N2 fixing cyanobacteria such as Nodularia spumigena are a recurring problem in some estuaries. Here we report the results of a palaeoecological study on a temperate Australian lagoon system (The Gippsland Lakes) where we used stable isotopes and pigment biomarkers in dated cores as proxies for eutrophication and blooms of cyanobacteria. Pigment proxies show a clear signal, with an increase in cyanobacterial pigments (echinenone, canthaxanthin and zeaxanthin) in the period coinciding with recent blooms. Another excursion in these proxies was observed prior to the opening of an artificial entrance to the lakes in 1889, which markedly increased the salinity of the Gippsland Lakes. A coincident increase in the sediment organic carbon content in the period prior to the opening of the artificial entrance suggests the bottom waters of the lakes were increasingly stratified and hypoxic, which would have led to an increase in the recycling of phosphorus. After the opening of the artificial entrance there was a ~ 60 year period with low values for the cyanobacterial proxies as well as a low sediment organic carbon content suggesting a period of low bloom activity associated with the increased salinity of the lakes. During the 1940s, the current period of re-eutrophication commenced as indicated by a steadily increasing sediment organic carbon content and cyanobacterial pigments. We suggest increasing nitrogen inputs from the catchment led to the return of hypoxia and increased phosphorus release from the sediment, which drove the re-emergence of cyanobacterial blooms.

  6. Effect of Environmental Factors on Cyanobacterial Abundance and Cyanotoxins Production in Natural and Drinking Water, Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Affan, Abu; Khomavis, Hisham S; Al-Harbi, Salim Marzoog; Haque, Mahfuzul; Khan, Saleha

    2015-02-01

    Cyanobacterial blooms commonly appear during the summer months in ponds, lakes and reservoirs in Bangladesh. In these areas, fish mortality, odorous water and fish and human skin irritation and eye inflammation have been reported. The influence of physicochemical factors on the occurrence of cyanobacteria and its toxin levels were evaluated in natural and drinking water in Bangladesh. A highly sensitive immunosorbent assay was used to detect microcystins (MCs). Cyanobacteria were found in 22 of 23 samples and the dominant species were Microcystis aeruginosa, followed by Microcystisflosaquae, Anabeana crassa and Aphanizomenon flosaquae. Cyanobacterial abundance varied from 39 to 1315 x 10(3) cells mL(-1) in natural water and 31 to 49 x 10(3) cells mL(-1) in tap water. MC concentrations were 25-82300 pg mL(-1) with the highest value measured in the fish research pond, followed by Ishakha Lake. In tap water, MC concentrations ranged from 30-32 pg mL(-1). The correlation between nitrate-nitrogen (NO3-N) concentration and cyanobacterial cell abundance was R2 = 0.62 while that between cyanobacterial abundance and MC concentration was R2 = 0.98. The increased NO3-N from fish feed, organic manure, poultry and dairy farm waste and fertilizer from agricultural land eutrophicated the water bodies and triggered cyanobacterial bloom formation. The increased amount of cyanobacteria produced MCs, subsequently reducing the water quality.

  7. Application of cellular biosensors for detection of atypical toxic bioactivity in microcystin-containing cyanobacterial extracts.

    PubMed

    Mankiewicz-Boczek, Joanna; Karwaciak, Iwona; Ratajewski, Marcin; Gągała, Ilona; Jurczak, Tomasz; Zalewski, Maciej; Pułaski, Łukasz

    2015-11-01

    Despite the focus of most ecotoxicological studies on cyanobacteria on a select group of cyanotoxins, especially microcystins, a growing body of evidence points to the involvement of other cyanobacterial metabolites in deleterious health effects. In the present study, original, self-developed reporter gene-based cellular biosensors, detecting activation of the main human xenobiotic stress response pathways, PXR and NFkappaB, were applied to detect novel potentially toxic bioactivities in extracts from freshwater microcystin-producing cyanobacterial blooms. Crude and purified extracts from cyanobacteria containing varying levels of microcystins, and standard microcystin-LR were tested. Two cellular biosensor types applied in this study, called NHRTOX (detecting PXR activation) and OXIBIOS (detecting NFkappaB activation), successfully detected potentially toxic or immunomodulating bioactivities in cyanobacterial extracts. The level of biosensor activation was comparable to control cognate environmental toxins. Despite the fact that extracts were derived from microcystin-producing cyanobacterial blooms and contained active microcystins, biosensor-detected bioactivities were shown to be unrelated to microcystin levels. Experimental results suggest the involvement of environmental toxins (causing a response in NHRTOX) and lipopolysaccharides (LPS) or other cell wall components (causing a response in OXIBIOS) in the potentially harmful bioactivity of investigated extracts. These results demonstrate the need for further identification of cyanobacterial metabolites other than commonly studied cyanotoxins as sources of health risk, show the usefulness of cellular biosensors for this purpose and suggest a novel, more holistic approach to environmental monitoring.

  8. Green algal over cyanobacterial dominance promoted with nitrogen and phosphorus additions in a mesocosm study at Lake Taihu, China.

    PubMed

    Ma, Jianrong; Qin, Boqiang; Paerl, Hans W; Brookes, Justin D; Wu, Pan; Zhou, Jian; Deng, Jianming; Guo, Jinsong; Li, Zhe

    2015-04-01

    Enrichment of waterways with nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) has accelerated eutrophication and promoted cyanobacterial blooms worldwide. An understanding of whether cyanobacteria maintain their dominance under accelerated eutrophication will help predict trends and provide rational control measures. A mesocosm experiment was conducted under natural light and temperature conditions in Lake Taihu, China. It revealed that only N added to lake water promoted growth of colonial and filamentous cyanobacteria (Microcystis, Pseudoanabaena and Planktothrix) and single-cell green algae (Cosmarium, Chlorella, and Scenedesmus). Adding P alone promoted neither cyanobacteria nor green algae significantly. N plus P additions promoted cyanobacteria and green algae growth greatly. The higher growth rates of green algae vs. cyanobacteria in N plus P additions resulted in the biomass of green algae exceeding that of cyanobacteria. This indicates that further enrichment with N plus P in eutrophic water will enhance green algae over cyanobacterial dominance. However, it does not mean that eutrophication problems will cease. On the contrary, the risk will increase due to increasing total phytoplankton biomass.

  9. Subchronic effects of cyanobacterial cells on the transcription of antioxidant enzyme genes in tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus).

    PubMed

    Puerto, María; Gutiérrez-Praena, Daniel; Prieto, Ana Isabel; Pichardo, Silvia; Jos, Angeles; Miguel-Carrasco, José Luis; Vazquez, Carmen M; Cameán, Ana M

    2011-03-01

    The increasing occurrence of toxic cyanobacterial blooms in eutrophic water bodies is nowadays of worldwide concern due to their ability to produce toxins such as microcystins (MCs). These cyanobacterial toxins have been shown to affect aquatic organisms such as fish, resulting in oxidative stress. Among the antioxidant enzymes, glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and soluble glutathione-S-transferases (sGST) play an important role in the detoxification of MCs. In the present work tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) were orally exposed to cyanobacterial cells containing MCs and non-containing MCs for 21 days. The activity and relative mRNA expression by real-time PCR of both enzymes and the GST protein abundance by Western blot analysis were evaluated in liver and kidney. Also the induction of lipid peroxidation (LPO) was assayed. MCs containing cyanobacterial cells induced an increase of LPO products in both organs, and MCs containing and MCs non-containing cyanobacterial cells altered the activity, gene expression and protein abundance of the enzymes, indicating the importance of GPx and sGST in MCs detoxification. Moreover, liver, the main organ involved in biodegradation and biotransformation, experienced an adaptative response to the toxic insult. These results show for the first time that the subchronic exposure to cyanobacterial cells causes changes in antioxidant and detoxification enzymes and that GPx and GST gene expression are good markers of these alterations in tilapia.

  10. Harmful Algal Bloom Webinar

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The problem is complex. Excessive nitrogen and phosphorous levels can cause harmful algal blooms. Different algal/cyanobacteria strains bloom under different conditions. Different strains produce different toxins at varying amounts.

  11. A method for examining temporal changes in cyanobacterial ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Cyanobacterial harmful algal blooms (CyanoHAB) are thought to be increasing globally over the past few decades, but relatively little quantitative information is available about the spatial extent of blooms. Satellite remote sensing provides a potential technology for identifying cyanoHABs in multiple water bodies and across geo-political boundaries. An assessment method was developed using MEdium Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MERIS) imagery to quantify cyanoHAB surface area extent, transferable to different spatial areas, in Florida, Ohio, and California for the test period of 2008 to 2012. Temporal assessment was used to evaluate changes in satellite resolvable inland waterbodies for each state of interest. To further assess cyanoHAB risk within the states, the World Health Organization’s (WHO) recreational guidance level thresholds were used to categorize surface area of cyanoHABs into three risk categories: low, moderate, and high-risk bloom area. Results showed that in Florida, the area of cyanoHABs increased largely due to observed increases in high-risk bloom area. California exhibited a slight decrease in cyanoHAB extent, primarily attributed to decreases in Northern California. In Ohio (excluding Lake Erie), little change in cyanoHAB surface area was observed. This study uses satellite remote sensing to quantify changes in inland cyanoHAB surface area across numerous water bodies within an entire state. The temporal assessment method developed here

  12. Satellite Remote Sensing and Crowd Sourcing to Monitor and Predict Cyanobacteria Blooms

    EPA Science Inventory

    Cyanobacterial blooms occur worldwide and are associated with human respiratory irritation, undesirable taste and odor of potable water, increased drinking water treatment costs, loss of revenue from recreational use, and human illness as a result of ingestion or skin exposure du...

  13. Satellite Remote Sensing and Crowd Sourcing to Monitor and Predict Cyanobacteria Blooms

    EPA Science Inventory

    Cyanobacterial blooms occur worldwide and are associated with human respiratory irritation, undesirable taste and odor of potable water, increased drinking water treatment costs, loss of revenue from recreational use, and human illness as a result of ingestion or skin exposure du...

  14. Genotoxicity of cyanobacterial extracts containing microcystins from Polish water reservoirs as determined by SOS chromotest and comet assay.

    PubMed

    Mankiewicz, Joanna; Walter, Zofia; Tarczynska, Malgorzata; Palyvoda, Olena; Wojtysiak-Staniaszczyk, Magdalena; Zalewski, Maciej

    2002-01-01

    Toxicity of cyanobacterial blooms, an increasing problem around the world, is connected to the increase in bloom samples containing microcystins, caused by excessive eutrophication of drinking- and recreational water reservoirs. Microcystins are the most common group of cyanobacterial hepatotoxins. In Poland they are produced mainly by the Microcystis genus. The toxicity of microcystins has been well documented, but investigation into their genotoxicity has been insufficient relative to the study of their overall toxicity. Therefore, the aim of this study was the estimation and comparison of the genotoxicity of cyanobacterial extracts with microcystins (CEMs) using the SOS chromotest (bacterial test) with Escherichia coli PQ37 and the comet assay with human lymphocytes. Cyanobacterial bloom samples were collected in the summer months from two Polish water reservoirs, one at Sulejów and one at Jeziorsko. The SOS chromotest, which used prokaryotic cells (without metabolic activation), and the comet assay, which used eukaryotic cells, both indicated the potential genotoxic effect of CEMs. Cyanobacterial extracts caused DNA damage in human lymphocytes in vitro. The maximum level of DNA damage was observed after 12 h incubation with CEMs. The bacterial test indicated a dependence of the degree of CEM genotoxicity, the composition, and the concentration of microcystins in each bloom sample examined with the time of exposure. Differences between the genotoxicity of cyanobacterial extract and the standard microcystin-LR were noticeable. This was probably caused by the interaction of different microcystin variants. The results showed that CEMs from Polish water reservoirs were genotoxic, which was reflected by the stimulation of the SOS repair system in bacterial cells (SOS chromotest) and by the damage induced in DNA in human lymphocytes (comet assay).

  15. A pair of chiral flavonolignans as novel anti-cyanobacterial allelochemicals derived from barley straw (Hordeum vulgare): characterization and comparison of their anti-cyanobacterial activities.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Xi; Huang, Haomin; Ge, Zhiwei; Rounge, Trine B; Shi, Jiyan; Xu, Xinhua; Li, Ruobing; Chen, Yingxu

    2014-05-01

    The inhibitory effect of barley straw (Hordeum vulgare) on cyanobacteria has been observed in many field and laboratory studies for over 30 years, although the compounds responsible for this anti-cyanobacterial effect have remained unknown. In this study, a pair of chiral flavonolignans were isolated from barley straw extract using a bioassay-guided isolation procedure against Microcystis sp. The structures of the allelopathic compounds were elucidated by NMR (nuclear magnetic resonance) and HPLC-MS (high performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry), and turned out to be salcolin A and B. The enantiomers differ in their anti-cyanobacterial abilities. Both enantiomers exhibited inhibitory effects on Microcystis sp., and the EC50 (concentration for 50% of maximal effect) of salcolin A and B were 6.02 × 10(-5) and 9.60 × 10(-5 ) mol l(-1) , respectively. Furthermore, the modes of actions of the enantiomers were investigated and compared at a single cell level by flow cytometry. Salcolin A was found to induce an increase on cyanobacterial intracellular ROS (reactive oxygen species) levels and to inhibit esterase activity, whereas salcolin B caused leakages of cyanobacterial cytoplasms. Thus, salcolin A was more 'algistatic', and salcolin B was more 'algicidal'. This study suggests that salcolin is the key allelochemical in barley straw's inhibitory effect on cyanobacteria and could be used as an agent in the future control of cyanobacterial harmful algae blooms.

  16. Synergistic algicidal effect and mechanism of two diketopiperazines produced by Chryseobacterium sp. strain GLY-1106 on the harmful bloom-forming Microcystis aeruginosa

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Xingliang; Liu, Xianglong; Pan, Jianliang; Yang, Hong

    2015-01-01

    A potent algicidal bacterium isolated from Lake Taihu, Chryseobacterium sp. strain GLY-1106, produces two algicidal compounds: 1106-A (cyclo(4-OH-Pro-Leu)) and 1106-B (cyclo(Pro-Leu)). Both diketopiperazines showed strong algicidal activities against Microcystis aeruginosa, the dominant bloom-forming cyanobacterium in Lake Taihu. Interestingly, these two algicidal compounds functioned synergistically. Compared with individual treatment, combined treatment with cyclo(4-OH-Pro-Leu) and cyclo(Pro-Leu) significantly enhanced algicidal activity, accelerated the increase in intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels in M. aeruginosa, and further decreased the activities of antioxidases, effective quantum yield and maximal electron transport rate of M. aeruginosa. The results also showed that the algicidal characteristics of cyclo(4-OH-Pro-Leu) are distinct from those of cyclo(Pro-Leu). Cyclo(4-OH-Pro-Leu) mainly interrupted the flux of electron transport in the cyanobacterial photosynthetic system, whereas cyclo(Pro-Leu) mainly inhibited the activity of cyanobacterial intracellular antioxidases. A possible algicidal mechanism for the synergism between cyclo(4-OH-Pro-Leu) and cyclo(Pro-Leu) is proposed, which is in accordance with their distinct algicidal characteristics in individual and combined treatment. These findings suggest that synergism between algicidal compounds might be used as an effective strategy for the future control of Microcystis blooms. PMID:26423356

  17. Tracking cyanobacteria blooms: Do different monitoring approaches tell the same story?

    PubMed

    Bertani, Isabella; Steger, Cara E; Obenour, Daniel R; Fahnenstiel, Gary L; Bridgeman, Thomas B; Johengen, Thomas H; Sayers, Michael J; Shuchman, Robert A; Scavia, Donald

    2017-01-01

    Cyanobacteria blooms are a major environmental issue worldwide. Our understanding of the biophysical processes driving cyanobacterial proliferation and the ability to develop predictive models that inform resource managers and policy makers rely upon the accurate characterization of bloom dynamics. Models quantifying relationships between bloom severity and environmental drivers are often calibrated to an individual set of bloom observations, and few studies have assessed whether differences among observing platforms could lead to contrasting results in terms of relevant bloom predictors and their estimated influence on bloom severity. The aim of this study was to assess the degree of coherence of different monitoring methods in (1) capturing short- and long-term cyanobacteria bloom dynamics and (2) identifying environmental drivers associated with bloom variability. Using western Lake Erie as a case study, we applied boosted regression tree (BRT) models to long-term time series of cyanobacteria bloom estimates from multiple in-situ and remote sensing approaches to quantify the relative influence of physico-chemical and meteorological drivers on bloom variability. Results of BRT models showed remarkable consistency with known ecological requirements of cyanobacteria (e.g., nutrient loading, water temperature, and tributary discharge). However, discrepancies in inter-annual and intra-seasonal bloom dynamics across monitoring approaches led to some inconsistencies in the relative importance, shape, and sign of the modeled relationships between select environmental drivers and bloom severity. This was especially true for variables characterized by high short-term variability, such as wind forcing. These discrepancies might have implications for our understanding of the role of different environmental drivers in regulating bloom dynamics, and subsequently for the development of models capable of informing management and decision making. Our results highlight the need

  18. The Languages Spoken in the Water Body (or the Biological Role of Cyanobacterial Toxins)

    PubMed Central

    Kaplan, Aaron; Harel, Moshe; Kaplan-Levy, Ruth N.; Hadas, Ora; Sukenik, Assaf; Dittmann, Elke

    2012-01-01

    Although intensification of toxic cyanobacterial blooms over the last decade is a matter of growing concern due to bloom impact on water quality, the biological role of most of the toxins produced is not known. In this critical review we focus primarily on the biological role of two toxins, microcystins and cylindrospermopsin, in inter- and intra-species communication and in nutrient acquisition. We examine the experimental evidence supporting some of the dogmas in the field and raise several open questions to be dealt with in future research. We do not discuss the health and environmental implications of toxin presence in the water body. PMID:22529842

  19. Sedimentary DNA Reveals Cyanobacterial Community Diversity over 200 Years in Two Perialpine Lakes

    PubMed Central

    Walser, Jean-Claude; Pomati, Francesco; Spaak, Piet

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT We reconstructed cyanobacterial community structure and phylogeny using DNA that was isolated from layers of stratified sediments spanning 200 years of lake history in the perialpine lakes Greifensee and Lake Zurich (Switzerland). Community analysis based on amplification and sequencing of a 400-nucleotide (nt)-long 16S rRNA fragment specific to Cyanobacteria revealed operational taxonomic units (OTUs) capturing the whole phylum, including representatives of a newly characterized clade termed Melainabacteria, which shares common ancestry with Cyanobacteria and has not been previously described in lakes. The reconstruction of cyanobacterial richness and phylogenetic structure was validated using a data set consisting of 40 years of pelagic microscopic counts from each lake. We identified the OTUs assigned to common taxa known to be present in Greifensee and Lake Zurich and found a strong and significant relationship (adjusted R2 = 0.89; P < 0.001) between pelagic species richness in water and OTU richness in the sediments. The water-sediment richness relationship varied between cyanobacterial orders, indicating that the richness of Chroococcales and Synechococcales may be underestimated by microscopy. PCR detection of the microcystin synthetase gene mcyA confirmed the presence of potentially toxic cyanobacterial taxa over recent years in Greifensee and throughout the last century in Lake Zurich. The approach presented in this study demonstrates that it is possible to reconstruct past pelagic cyanobacterial communities in lakes where the integrity of the sedimentary archive is well preserved and to explore changes in phylogenetic and functional diversity over decade-to-century timescales. IMPORTANCE Cyanobacterial blooms can produce toxins that affect water quality, especially under eutrophic conditions, which are a consequence of human-induced climate warming and increased nutrient availability. Lakes worldwide have suffered from regular cyanobacterial

  20. Gene expression and activity of digestive proteases in Daphnia: effects of cyanobacterial protease inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The frequency of cyanobacterial blooms has increased worldwide, and these blooms have been claimed to be a major factor leading to the decline of the most important freshwater herbivores, i.e. representatives of the genus Daphnia. This suppression of Daphnia is partly attributed to the presence of biologically active secondary metabolites in cyanobacteria. Among these metabolites, protease inhibitors are found in almost every natural cyanobacterial bloom and have been shown to specifically inhibit Daphnia's digestive proteases in vitro, but to date no physiological responses of these serine proteases to cyanobacterial protease inhibitors in Daphnia have been reported in situ at the protein and genetic levels. Results Nine digestive proteases were detected in D. magna using activity-stained SDS-PAGE. Subsequent analyses by LC-MS/MS and database search led to the identification of respective protease genes. D. magna responded to dietary protease inhibitors by up-regulation of the expression of these respective proteases at the RNA-level and by the induction of new and less sensitive protease isoforms at the protein level. The up-regulation in response to dietary trypsin- and chymotrypsin-inhibitors ranged from 1.4-fold to 25.6-fold. These physiological responses of Daphnia, i.e. up-regulation of protease expression and the induction of isoforms, took place even after feeding on 20% cyanobacterial food for only 24 h. These physiological responses proved to be independent from microcystin effects. Conclusion Here for the first time it was shown in situ that a D. magna clone responds physiologically to dietary cyanobacterial protease inhibitors by phenotypic plasticity of the targets of these specific inhibitors, i.e. Daphnia gut proteases. These regulatory responses are adaptive for D. magna, as they increase the capacity for protein digestion in the presence of dietary protease inhibitors. The type and extent of these responses in protease expression might

  1. Massive fish mortality and Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii bloom in Aleksandrovac Lake.

    PubMed

    Svirčev, Zorica; Obradović, Vesna; Codd, Geoffrey A; Marjanović, Prvoslav; Spoof, Lisa; Drobac, Damjana; Tokodi, Nada; Petković, Anđelka; Nenin, Tanja; Simeunović, Jelica; Važić, Tamara; Meriluoto, Jussi

    2016-09-01

    This paper presents a case study of a massive fish mortality during a Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii bloom in Aleksandrovac Lake, Serbia in mid-December 2012. According to a preliminary investigation of the samples taken on November 6 before the fish mortalities and to extended analyses of samples taken on November 15, no values of significant physicochemical parameters emerged to explain the cause(s) of the fish mortality. No industrial pollutants were apparent at this location, and results excluded the likelihood of bacterial infections. Even after freezing, the dissolved oxygen concentration in the water was sufficient for fish survival. High concentrations of chlorophyll a and phaeophytin occurred in the lake, and phytoplankton bloom samples were lethal in Artemia salina bioassays. A bloom of the cyanobacterium C. raciborskii was recorded during November. Although the A. salina bioassays indicated the presence of toxic compounds in the cyanobacterial cells, the cyanotoxins, microcystins, cylindrospermopsin and saxitoxin were not detected.

  2. Effects of Lyngbya majuscula blooms on the seagrass Halodule wrightii and resident invertebrates.

    PubMed

    Tiling, Kathryn; Proffitt, C Edward

    2017-02-01

    Cyanobacterial blooms have been increasing worldwide due to increased nutrients associated with urban, industrial, and agricultural development. Blooms that occur in the Indian River Lagoon (IRL), Florida may be increased by nutrient-laden runoff from storm water and non-point sewage pollution due to alterations to the watershed. In the IRL, during the summer of 2006, extensive blooms of the marine cyanobacterium, Lyngbya majuscula, were observed forming mats throughout beds of the seagrass Halodule wrightii in Fort Pierce, Florida. The effects of cyanobacterial blooms were compared to artificial shading of H. wrightii to assess the shading potential of L. majuscula. The combined effects of L. majuscula removal and artificial shading showed increases in the below ground biomass of H. wrightii. However, leaf length increased in the presence of L. majuscula. In response to artificial shading, H. wrightii decreased in density, but showed similar leaf elongation. A common bivalve in our study area, Macoma constricta, increased in density when L. majuscula was removed. Therefore, when L. majuscula blooms occur, light limitation is one of the mechanisms altering H. wrightii density and leaf lengths in the IRL. Loss of H. wrightii biomass due to shading from cyanobacterial mats may further damage the diversity and habitat value of the IRL. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Could the presence of larger fractions of non-cyanobacterial species be used as a predictor of microcystin production under variable nutrient regimes?

    PubMed

    Sinang, Som Cit; Reichwaldt, Elke S; Ghadouani, Anas

    2015-07-01

    The occurrence of cyanobacteria and microcystin is highly dynamic in natural environments and poses one of the biggest challenges to water resource management. While a number of drivers are known to be responsible for the occurrence of cyanobacterial blooms, the drivers of microcystin production are not adequately known. This study aims to quantify the effects of the changes in the structures of phytoplankton and cyanobacterial communities on the dynamics of microcystin production under highly variable nutrient concentration. In our study, nutrient variability could explain 64% of the variability in microcystin production. When changes in the fractions of non-cyanobacteria versus cyanobacteria genera were additionally included, 80% of the variability in microcystin production could be explained; under high nutrient concentrations, non-cyanobacterial phytoplankton groups were dominant over cyanobacteria and cyanobacteria produced more toxins. In contrast, changes in the cyanobacterial community structures could only explain a further 4% of the dynamics of microcystin production. As such, the dominance of non-cyanobacterial groups appears to be a useful factor to explain microcystin occurrence in addition to traditionally used factors such as absolute cyanobacterial cell numbers, especially when the nutrient regime is taken into account. This information could help to further refine the risk assessment frameworks which are currently used to manage the risk posed by cyanobacterial blooms.

  4. Effect of ozonation on the removal of cyanobacterial toxins during drinking water treatment.

    PubMed Central

    Hoeger, Stefan J; Dietrich, Daniel R; Hitzfeld, Bettina C

    2002-01-01

    Water treatment plants faced with toxic cyanobacteria have to be able to remove cyanotoxins from raw water. In this study we investigated the efficacy of ozonation coupled with various filtration steps under different cyanobacterial bloom conditions. Cyanobacteria were ozonated in a laboratory-scale batch reactor modeled on a system used by a modern waterworks, with subsequent activated carbon and sand filtration steps. The presence of cyanobacterial toxins (microcystins) was determined using the protein phosphatase inhibition assay. We found that ozone concentrations of at least 1.5 mg/L were required to provide enough oxidation potential to destroy the toxin present in 5 X 10(5 )Microcystis aeruginosa cells/mL [total organic carbon (TOC), 1.56 mg/L]. High raw water TOC was shown to reduce the efficiency of free toxin oxidation and destruction. In addition, ozonation of raw waters containing high cyanobacteria cell densities will result in cell lysis and liberation of intracellular toxins. Thus, we emphasize that only regular and simultaneous monitoring of TOC/dissolved organic carbon and cyanobacterial cell densities, in conjunction with online residual O(3) concentration determination and efficient filtration steps, can ensure the provision of safe drinking water from surface waters contaminated with toxic cyanobacterial blooms. PMID:12417484

  5. Effect of ozonation on the removal of cyanobacterial toxins during drinking water treatment.

    PubMed

    Hoeger, Stefan J; Dietrich, Daniel R; Hitzfeld, Bettina C

    2002-11-01

    Water treatment plants faced with toxic cyanobacteria have to be able to remove cyanotoxins from raw water. In this study we investigated the efficacy of ozonation coupled with various filtration steps under different cyanobacterial bloom conditions. Cyanobacteria were ozonated in a laboratory-scale batch reactor modeled on a system used by a modern waterworks, with subsequent activated carbon and sand filtration steps. The presence of cyanobacterial toxins (microcystins) was determined using the protein phosphatase inhibition assay. We found that ozone concentrations of at least 1.5 mg/L were required to provide enough oxidation potential to destroy the toxin present in 5 X 10(5 )Microcystis aeruginosa cells/mL [total organic carbon (TOC), 1.56 mg/L]. High raw water TOC was shown to reduce the efficiency of free toxin oxidation and destruction. In addition, ozonation of raw waters containing high cyanobacteria cell densities will result in cell lysis and liberation of intracellular toxins. Thus, we emphasize that only regular and simultaneous monitoring of TOC/dissolved organic carbon and cyanobacterial cell densities, in conjunction with online residual O(3) concentration determination and efficient filtration steps, can ensure the provision of safe drinking water from surface waters contaminated with toxic cyanobacterial blooms.

  6. A novel single-parameter approach for forecasting algal blooms.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Xi; He, Junyu; Huang, Haomin; Miller, Todd R; Christakos, George; Reichwaldt, Elke S; Ghadouani, Anas; Lin, Shengpan; Xu, Xinhua; Shi, Jiyan

    2017-01-01

    Harmful algal blooms frequently occur globally, and forecasting could constitute an essential proactive strategy for bloom control. To decrease the cost of aquatic environmental monitoring and increase the accuracy of bloom forecasting, a novel single-parameter approach combining wavelet analysis with artificial neural networks (WNN) was developed and verified based on daily online monitoring datasets of algal density in the Siling Reservoir, China and Lake Winnebago, U.S.A. Firstly, a detailed modeling process was illustrated using the forecasting of cyanobacterial cell density in the Chinese reservoir as an example. Three WNN models occupying various prediction time intervals were optimized through model training using an early stopped training approach. All models performed well in fitting historical data and predicting the dynamics of cyanobacterial cell density, with the best model predicting cyanobacteria density one-day ahead (r = 0.986 and mean absolute error = 0.103 × 10(4) cells mL(-1)). Secondly, the potential of this novel approach was further confirmed by the precise predictions of algal biomass dynamics measured as chl a in both study sites, demonstrating its high performance in forecasting algal blooms, including cyanobacteria as well as other blooming species. Thirdly, the WNN model was compared to current algal forecasting methods (i.e. artificial neural networks, autoregressive integrated moving average model), and was found to be more accurate. In addition, the application of this novel single-parameter approach is cost effective as it requires only a buoy-mounted fluorescent probe, which is merely a fraction (∼15%) of the cost of a typical auto-monitoring system. As such, the newly developed approach presents a promising and cost-effective tool for the future prediction and management of harmful algal blooms. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Blooms of cyanobacteria in a temperate Australian lagoon system post and prior to European settlement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cook, Perran L. M.; Jennings, Miles; Holland, Daryl P.; Beardall, John; Briles, Christy; Zawadzki, Atun; Doan, Phuong; Mills, Keely; Gell, Peter

    2016-06-01

    Blooms of noxious N2 fixing cyanobacteria such as Nodularia spumigena are a recurring problem in some estuaries; however, the historic occurrence of such blooms in unclear in many cases. Here we report the results of a palaeoecological study on a temperate Australian lagoon system (the Gippsland Lakes) where we used stable isotopes and pigment biomarkers in dated cores as proxies for eutrophication and blooms of cyanobacteria. Pigment proxies show a clear signal, with an increase in cyanobacterial pigments (echinenone, canthaxanthin and zeaxanthin) in the period coinciding with recent blooms. Another excursion in these proxies was observed prior to the opening of an artificial entrance to the lakes in 1889, which markedly increased the salinity of the Gippsland Lakes. A coincident increase in the sediment organic-carbon content in the period prior to the opening of the artificial entrance suggests that the bottom waters of the lakes were more stratified and hypoxic, which would have led to an increase in the recycling of phosphorus. After the opening of the artificial entrance, there was a ˜ 60-year period with low values for the cyanobacterial proxies as well as a low sediment organic-carbon content suggesting a period of low bloom activity associated with the increased salinity of the lakes. During the 1940s, the current period of re-eutrophication commenced, as indicated by a steadily increasing sediment organic-carbon content and cyanobacterial pigments. We suggest that increasing nitrogen inputs from the catchment led to the return of hypoxia and increased phosphorus release from the sediment, which drove the re-emergence of cyanobacterial blooms.

  8. Ship-of-opportunity based phycocyanin fluorescence monitoring of the filamentous cyanobacteria bloom dynamics in the Baltic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seppälä, J.; Ylöstalo, P.; Kaitala, S.; Hällfors, S.; Raateoja, M.; Maunula, P.

    2007-07-01

    Distribution of cyanobacteria cannot be evaluated using chlorophyll a (Chl a) in vivo fluorescence, as most of their Chl a is located in non-fluorescing photosystem I. Phycobilin fluorescence, in turn, is noted as a useful tool in the detection of cyanobacterial blooms. We applied phycocyanin (PC) fluorometer in the monitoring of the filamentous cyanobacterial bloom in the Baltic Sea. For the bloom forming filamentous cyanobacteria Aphanizomenon flos-aquae and Nodularia spumigena, PC fluorescence maximum was identified using the excitation-emission fluorescence matrix. Consequently, the optical setup of our instrument was noted to be appropriate for the detection of PC, and with minor or no interference from Chl a and phycoerythrin fluorescence, respectively. During summer 2005, the instrument was installed on a ferryboat commuting between Helsinki (Finland) and Travemünde (Germany), and data were collected during 32 transects providing altogether 200 000 fluorescence records. PC in vivo fluorescence was compared with Chl ain vivo fluorescence and turbidity measured simultaneously, and with Chl a concentration and biomass of the bloom forming filamentous cyanobacteria determined from discrete water samples. PC fluorescence showed a linear relation to the biomass of the bloom forming filamentous cyanobacteria, and the other sources of PC fluorescence are considered minor in the open Baltic Sea. Estimated by PC fluorescence, cyanobacterial bloom initiated late June at the Northern Baltic Proper, rapidly extended to the central Baltic Proper and the Gulf of Finland, and peaked in the mid-July with values up to 10 mg l -1 (fresh weight). In late July, bloom vanished in most areas. During single transects, or for the whole summer, the variability in Chl a concentrations was explained more by PC fluorescence than by Chl a fluorescence. Thus, filamentous cyanobacteria dominated the overall variability in phytoplankton biomass. Consequently, we show that during the

  9. Temporal shifts in cyanobacterial communities at different sites on the Nakdong River in Korea.

    PubMed

    Hur, Moonsuk; Lee, Injung; Tak, Bo-Mi; Lee, Hae Jin; Yu, Jae Jeong; Cheon, Se Uk; Kim, Bong-Soo

    2013-12-01

    The studies of cyanobacterial blooms resulting from eutrophication or climate change and investigation of changes in the cyanobacterial community in freshwater environments are critical for the management of drinking water. Therefore, we investigated the cyanobacterial communities at 6 sites along the Nakdong River in South Korea from May 2012 to October 2012 by using high-throughput sequencing techniques and studied their relationship with various geochemical factors at sampling sites. Diverse genera (total of 175 genera) were detected within the cyanobacteria, and changes in their compositions were analyzed. The genus Prochlorococcus predominated in the May samples, especially in those obtained from the upstream part of the river, whereas the relative abundance of Microcystis and Anabaena increased with increase in water temperature. The relationship between the cyanobacterial community and environmental factors was analyzed by canonical correlation analysis, and the correlation between harmful cyanobacteria and chemical factors was analyzed by nonmetric multidimensional scaling ordination. Various environmental factors such as dissolved oxygen, pH, electric conductivity, temperature were found to affect the cyanobacterial communities in the river. The results of this study could help in the management of freshwater environments and in maintenance of drinking water quality.

  10. Variable Cyanobacterial Toxin and Metabolite Profiles across Six Eutrophic Lakes of Differing Physiochemical Characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Beversdorf, Lucas J.; Weirich, Chelsea A.; Bartlett, Sarah L.; Miller, Todd. R.

    2017-01-01

    Future sustainability of freshwater resources is seriously threatened due to the presence of harmful cyanobacterial blooms, and yet, the number, extent, and distribution of most cyanobacterial toxins—including “emerging” toxins and other bioactive compounds—are poorly understood. We measured 15 cyanobacterial compounds—including four microcystins (MC), saxitoxin (SXT), cylindrospermopsin (CYL), anatoxin-a (ATX) and homo-anatoxin-a (hATX), two anabaenopeptins (Apt), three cyanopeptolins (Cpt), microginin (Mgn), and nodularin (NOD)—in six freshwater lakes that regularly experience noxious cHABs. MC, a human liver toxin, was present in all six lakes and was detected in 80% of all samples. Similarly, Apt, Cpt, and Mgn were detected in all lakes in roughly 86%, 50%, and 35% of all samples, respectively. Despite being a notable brackish water toxin, NOD was detected in the two shallowest lakes—Wingra (4.3 m) and Koshkonong (2.1 m). All compounds were highly variable temporally, and spatially. Metabolite profiles were significantly different between lakes suggesting lake characteristics influenced the cyanobacterial community and/or metabolite production. Understanding how cyanobacterial toxins are distributed across eutrophic lakes may shed light onto the ecological function of these metabolites, provide valuable information for their remediation and removal, and aid in the protection of public health. PMID:28208628

  11. Enhanced viral production and virus-mediated mortality of bacterioplankton in a natural iron-fertilized bloom event above the Kerguelen Plateau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malits, A.; Christaki, U.; Obernosterer, I.; Weinbauer, M. G.

    2014-07-01

    Above the Kerguelen Plateau in the Southern Ocean natural iron fertilization sustains a large phytoplankton bloom over three months during austral summer. During the KEOPS1 project (KErguelen Ocean and Plateau compared Study1) we sampled this phytoplankton bloom during its declining phase along with the surrounding HNLC waters to study the effect of natural iron fertilization on the role of viruses in the microbial food web. Bacterial and viral abundances were 1.7 and 2.1 times, respectively, higher within the bloom than in HNLC waters. Viral production and virus-mediated mortality of bacterioplankton was 4.1 and 4.9 times, respectively, higher in the bloom, while the fraction of infected cells (FIC) and the fraction of lysogenic cells (FLC) showed no significant differences between environments. The present study suggests viruses to be more important for bacterial mortality within the bloom and dominate over protozoan grazing during the late bloom phase. As a consequence, at least at a late bloom stage, viral lysis shunts part of the photosynthetically fixed carbon in iron-fertilized regions into the dissolved organic matter (DOM) pool with potentially less particulate organic carbon transfered to larger members of the food web or exported.

  12. Enhanced viral production and virus-mediated mortality of bacterioplankton in a natural iron-fertilized bloom event above the Kerguelen Plateau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malits, A.; Christaki, U.; Obernosterer, I.; Weinbauer, M. G.

    2014-12-01

    Above the Kerguelen Plateau in the Southern Ocean natural iron fertilization sustains a large phytoplankton bloom over 3 months during austral summer. During the KEOPS1 project (KErguelen Ocean and Plateau compared Study1) we sampled this phytoplankton bloom during its declining phase along with the surrounding high-nutrient-low-chlorophyll (HNLC) waters to study the effect of natural iron fertilization on the role of viruses in the microbial food web. Bacterial and viral abundances were 1.7 and 2.1 times, respectively, higher within the bloom than in HNLC waters. Viral production and virus-mediated mortality of bacterioplankton were 4.1 and 4.9 times, respectively, higher in the bloom, while the fraction of infected cells (FIC) and the fraction of lysogenic cells (FLC) showed no significant differences between environments. The present study suggests viruses to be more important for bacterial mortality within the bloom and dominate over grazing of heterotrophic nanoflagellates (HNFs) during the late bloom phase. As a consequence, at least at a late bloom stage, viral lysis shunts part of the photosynthetically fixed carbon in iron-fertilized regions into the dissolved organic matter (DOM) pool with potentially less particulate organic carbon transferred to larger members of the food web or exported.

  13. Organic matter degradation drives benthic cyanobacterial mat abundance on Caribbean coral reefs.

    PubMed

    Brocke, Hannah J; Polerecky, Lubos; de Beer, Dirk; Weber, Miriam; Claudet, Joachim; Nugues, Maggy M

    2015-01-01

    Benthic cyanobacterial mats (BCMs) are impacting coral reefs worldwide. However, the factors and mechanisms driving their proliferation are unclear. We conducted a multi-year survey around the Caribbean island of Curaçao, which revealed highest BCM abundance on sheltered reefs close to urbanised areas. Reefs with high BCM abundance were also characterised by high benthic cover of macroalgae and low cover of corals. Nutrient concentrations in the water-column were consistently low, but markedly increased just above substrata (both sandy and hard) covered with BCMs. This was true for sites with both high and low BCM coverage, suggesting that BCM growth is stimulated by a localised, substrate-linked release of nutrients from the microbial degradation of organic matter. This hypothesis was supported by a higher organic content in sediments on reefs with high BCM coverage, and by an in situ experiment which showed that BCMs grew within days on sediments enriched with organic matter (Spirulina). We propose that nutrient runoff from urbanised areas stimulates phototrophic blooms and enhances organic matter concentrations on the reef. This organic matter is transported by currents and settles on the seabed at sites with low hydrodynamics. Subsequently, nutrients released from the organic matter degradation fuel the growth of BCMs. Improved management of nutrients generated on land should lower organic loading of sediments and other benthos (e.g. turf and macroalgae) to reduce BCM proliferation on coral reefs.

  14. Organic Matter Degradation Drives Benthic Cyanobacterial Mat Abundance on Caribbean Coral Reefs

    PubMed Central

    Brocke, Hannah J.; Polerecky, Lubos; de Beer, Dirk; Weber, Miriam; Claudet, Joachim; Nugues, Maggy M.

    2015-01-01

    Benthic cyanobacterial mats (BCMs) are impacting coral reefs worldwide. However, the factors and mechanisms driving their proliferation are unclear. We conducted a multi-year survey around the Caribbean island of Curaçao, which revealed highest BCM abundance on sheltered reefs close to urbanised areas. Reefs with high BCM abundance were also characterised by high benthic cover of macroalgae and low cover of corals. Nutrient concentrations in the water-column were consistently low, but markedly increased just above substrata (both sandy and hard) covered with BCMs. This was true for sites with both high and low BCM coverage, suggesting that BCM growth is stimulated by a localised, substrate-linked release of nutrients from the microbial degradation of organic matter. This hypothesis was supported by a higher organic content in sediments on reefs with high BCM coverage, and by an in situ experiment which showed that BCMs grew within days on sediments enriched with organic matter (Spirulina). We propose that nutrient runoff from urbanised areas stimulates phototrophic blooms and enhances organic matter concentrations on the reef. This organic matter is transported by currents and settles on the seabed at sites with low hydrodynamics. Subsequently, nutrients released from the organic matter degradation fuel the growth of BCMs. Improved management of nutrients generated on land should lower organic loading of sediments and other benthos (e.g. turf and macroalgae) to reduce BCM proliferation on coral reefs. PMID:25941812

  15. Evaluating the effectiveness of copper sulphate, chlorine, potassium permanganate, hydrogen peroxide and ozone on cyanobacterial cell integrity.

    PubMed

    Fan, Jiajia; Ho, Lionel; Hobson, Peter; Brookes, Justin

    2013-09-15

    Cyanobacterial blooms are continuously critical challenges in drinking water systems which can have various negative impacts such as production of taste, odour and toxic compounds. Furthermore, the intracellular metabolites could be released into surrounding waters when the cyanobacterial membranes are destroyed. Although a variety of techniques have been developed to control cyanobacterial blooms and remove cyanobacterial cells or metabolites in water treatment processes, the effect of these treatments on the membrane integrity of cyanobacterial cells have not been systematically studied and compared. This study evaluated the effectiveness of copper sulphate (CuSO4), chlorine, potassium permanganate (KMnO4), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and ozone on the cell integrity and densities of Microcystis aeruginosa. All of these technologies can compromise the cell membrane of cyanobacteria to varying degrees. Chlorine showed the strongest ability to impair the cell integrity with a majority (≥ 88%) of the cells compromised within the first minute and with the cell lysis rates ranging of 0.640-3.82 h(-1) during 1-60 min. Ozone dose of 6 mg L(-1) also could induce 90% lysis of the cyanobacterial cells in 5 min and the cell lysis rate of KMnO4 (10 mg L(-1)) was 0.829 h(-1). CuSO4 and H2O2 could not only destroy the viability of cyanobacterial cells but also showed algistatic potential over the 7 day treatment. The potential of all the oxidants (chlorine, KMnO4, H2O2 and ozone) considered as algicides were discussed in this study. The benefits and drawbacks of these control and water treatment options were assessed as well.

  16. Health risk assessment of cyanobacterial (blue-green algal) toxins in drinking water.

    PubMed

    Falconer, Ian R; Humpage, Andrew R

    2005-04-01

    Cyanobacterial toxins have caused human poisoning in the Americas, Europe and Australia. There is accumulating evidence that they are present in treated drinking water supplies when cyanobacterial blooms occur in source waters. With increased population pressure and depleted groundwater reserves, surface water is becoming more used as a raw water source, both from rivers and lakes/reservoirs. Additional nutrients in water which arise from sewage discharge, agricultural run-off or storm water result in overabundance of cyanobacteria, described as a 'water bloom'. The majority of cyanobacterial water-blooms are of toxic species, producing a diversity of toxins. The most important toxins presenting a risk to the human population are the neurotoxic alkaloids (anatoxins and paralytic shellfish poisons), the cyclic peptide hepatotoxins (microcystins) and the cytotoxic alkaloids (cylindrospermopsins). At the present time the only cyanobacteral toxin family that have been internationally assessed for health risk by the WHO are the microcystins, which cause acute liver injury and are active tumour promoters. Based on sub-chronic studies in rodents and pigs, a provisional Guideline Level for drinking water of 1 microg/L of microcystin-LR has been determined. This has been adopted in legislation in countries in Europe, South America and Australasia. This may be revised in the light of future teratogenicity, reproductive toxicity and carcinogenicity studies. The other cyanobacterial toxin which has been proposed for detailed health risk assessment is cylindrospermopsin, a cytotoxic compound which has marked genotoxicity, probable mutagenicity, and is a potential carcinogen. This toxin has caused human poisoning from drinking water, and occurs in water supplies in the USA, Europe, Asia, Australia and South America. An initial health risk assessment is presented with a proposed drinking water Guideline Level of 1 microg/L. There is a need for both increased monitoring data for

  17. Bloom Dynamics of Cyanobacteria and Their Toxins: Environmental Health Impacts and Mitigation Strategies

    PubMed Central

    Rastogi, Rajesh P.; Madamwar, Datta; Incharoensakdi, Aran

    2015-01-01

    Cyanobacteria are ecologically one of the most prolific groups of phototrophic prokaryotes in both marine and freshwater habitats. Both the beneficial and detrimental aspects of cyanobacteria are of considerable significance. They are important primary producers as well as an immense source of several secondary products, including an array of toxic compounds known as cyanotoxins. Abundant growth of cyanobacteria in freshwater, estuarine, and coastal ecosystems due to increased anthropogenic eutrophication and global climate change has created serious concern toward harmful bloom formation and surface water contamination all over the world. Cyanobacterial blooms and the accumulation of several cyanotoxins in water bodies pose severe ecological consequences with high risk to aquatic organisms and global public health. The proper management for mitigating the worldwide incidence of toxic cyanobacterial blooms is crucial for maintenance and sustainable development of functional ecosystems. Here, we emphasize the emerging information on the cyanobacterial bloom dynamics, toxicology of major groups of cyanotoxins, as well as a perspective and integrative approach to their management. PMID:26635737

  18. Bloom Dynamics of Cyanobacteria and Their Toxins: Environmental Health Impacts and Mitigation Strategies.

    PubMed

    Rastogi, Rajesh P; Madamwar, Datta; Incharoensakdi, Aran

    2015-01-01

    Cyanobacteria are ecologically one of the most prolific groups of phototrophic prokaryotes in both marine and freshwater habitats. Both the beneficial and detrimental aspects of cyanobacteria are of considerable significance. They are important primary producers as well as an immense source of several secondary products, including an array of toxic compounds known as cyanotoxins. Abundant growth of cyanobacteria in freshwater, estuarine, and coastal ecosystems due to increased anthropogenic eutrophication and global climate change has created serious concern toward harmful bloom formation and surface water contamination all over the world. Cyanobacterial blooms and the accumulation of several cyanotoxins in water bodies pose severe ecological consequences with high risk to aquatic organisms and global public health. The proper management for mitigating the worldwide incidence of toxic cyanobacterial blooms is crucial for maintenance and sustainable development of functional ecosystems. Here, we emphasize the emerging information on the cyanobacterial bloom dynamics, toxicology of major groups of cyanotoxins, as well as a perspective and integrative approach to their management.

  19. Destruction of cyanobacterial toxin cylindrospermopsin by hydroxyl radicals and sulfate radicals using UV-254 nm activation of hydrogen peroxide, persulfate and peroxymonosulfate

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract: With increasing worldwide incidence of toxic cyanobacterial blooms in bodies of water, cylindrospermopsin (CYN) has become a significant concern to public health and water management officials. In this study, the removal of CYN by UV-254 nm-mediated advanced oxidation ...

  20. Destruction of cyanobacterial toxin cylindrospermopsin by hydroxyl radicals and sulfate radicals using UV-254 nm activation of hydrogen peroxide, persulfate and peroxymonosulfate

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract: With increasing worldwide incidence of toxic cyanobacterial blooms in bodies of water, cylindrospermopsin (CYN) has become a significant concern to public health and water management officials. In this study, the removal of CYN by UV-254 nm-mediated advanced oxidation ...

  1. Physiological interaction of Daphnia and Microcystis with regard to cyanobacterial secondary metabolites.

    PubMed

    Sadler, Thomas; von Elert, Eric

    2014-11-01

    Cyanobacterial blooms in freshwater ecosystems are a matter of high concern with respect to human health and ecosystem services. Investigations on the role of cyanobacterial secondary metabolites have largely been confined to microcystins, although cyanobacteria produce a huge variety of toxic or inhibitory secondary metabolites. Mass occurrences of toxic cyanobacteria strongly impact freshwater zooplankton communities; especially the unselective filter feeder Daphnia. Daphnids have been shown to successfully suppress bloom formation. However, the opposite situation, i.e. the suppression of Daphnia populations by cyanobacteria can be observed as well. To understand these contradictory findings the elucidation of the underlying physiological mechanisms that help daphnids to cope with cyanotoxins is crucial. We fed Daphnia magna with the cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa PCC7806 for 24h and used high-resolution LCMS analytics to analyze the Microcystis cells, the Daphnia tissue and the surrounding medium in order to investigate the fate of seven investigated cyanobacterial compounds (cyanopeptolins A-C, microcyclamide 7806A and aerucyclamides B-D). For none of these bioactive compounds evidence for biotransformation or biodegradation by Daphnia were found. Instead feeding and subsequent release experiments point at the importance of transport mechanisms in Daphnia with regard to the cyanopeptolins A and C and microcyclamide 7806A. In addition we found hints for new inducible defense mechanism in Microcystis against predation by Daphnia. These putative defense mechanisms include the elevated production of toxic compounds other than microcystins, as could be demonstrated here for aerucyclamide B and D, cyanopoeptolin B and microcyclamide 7806A. Moreover, our data demonstrate the elevated active export of at least one cyanobacterial compound (microcyclamide 7806A) into the surrounding medium as a response to grazer presence, which might constitute an entirely new

  2. Extraction and applications of cyanotoxins and other cyanobacterial secondary metabolites.

    PubMed

    Haque, Fatima; Banayan, Sara; Yee, Josephine; Chiang, Yi Wai

    2017-09-01

    The rapid proliferation of cyanobacteria in bodies of water has caused cyanobacterial blooms, which have become an increasing cause of concern, largely due to the presence of toxic secondary metabolites (or cyanotoxins). Cyanotoxins are the toxins produced by cyanobacteria that may be harmful to surrounding wildlife. They include hepatotoxins, neurotoxins and dermatotoxins, and are classified based on the organs they affect. There are also non-toxic secondary metabolites that include chelators and UV-absorbing compounds. This paper summarizes the optimal techniques for secondary metabolite extraction and the possible useful products that can be obtained from cyanobacteria, with additional focus given to products derived from secondary metabolites. It becomes evident that the potential for their use as biocides, chelators, biofuels, biofertilizers, pharmaceuticals, food and feed, and cosmetics has not yet been comprehensively studied or extensively implemented. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Efficient assimilation of cyanobacterial nitrogen by water hyacinth.

    PubMed

    Qin, Hongjie; Zhang, Zhiyong; Liu, Minhui; Wang, Yan; Wen, Xuezheng; Yan, Shaohua; Zhang, Yingying; Liu, Haiqin

    2017-10-01

    A (15)N labeling technique was used to study nitrogen transfer from cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa to water hyacinth. (15)N atom abundance in M. aeruginosa peaked (15.52%) after cultivation in (15)N-labeled medium for 3weeks. Over 87% of algal nitrogen was transferred into water hyacinth after the 4-week co-cultivation period. The nitrogen quickly super-accumulated in the water hyacinth roots, and the labeled nitrogen was re-distributed to different organs (i.e., roots, stalks, and leaves). This study provides a new strategy for further research on cyanobacterial bloom control, nitrogen migration, and nitrogen cycle in eutrophic waters. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. The decline process and major pathways of Microcystis bloom in Taihu Lake, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhicong; Li, Guowen; Li, Genbao; Li, Dunhai

    2012-01-01

    Eutrophication has become a serious concern in many lakes, resulting in cyanobacterial blooms. However, the mechanism and pathways of cyanobacteria decline are less understood. To identify and define the growth and decline of Microcystis blooms in Taihu Lake of China, and to illuminate the destination of surface floating blooms, we investigated the biomass distribution and variations in colony size, morphology, and floating velocity from October 2008 to September 2009. The results showed that the Microcystis bloom declined in response to biomass decrease, colony disaggregation, buoyancy reduction, and increased phytoplankton biodiversity, and these indicative parameters could be applied for recognition of the development phases of the bloom. Three major decline pathways were proposed to describe the bloom decline process, colony disaggregation (Pathway I), colony settlement (Pathway II), and cell lysis in colonies (Pathway III). We proposed a strategy to define the occurrence and decline of Microcystis blooms, to evaluate the survival state under different stress conditions, and to indicate the efficiency of controlling countermeasures against algal blooms.

  5. Application of Multispectral and Hyperspectral Remote Sensing For Detection of Freshwater Harmful Algal Blooms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kudela, R. M.; Accorsi, E.; Austerberry, D.; Palacios, S. L.

    2013-12-01

    Freshwater Cyanobacterial Harmful algal blooms (CHABs) represent a pressing and apparently increasing threat to both human and environmental health. In California, toxin producing blooms of several species, including Aphanizomenon, Microcystis, Lyngbya, and Anabaena are common; toxins from these blooms have been linked to impaired drinking water, domestic and wild animal deaths, and increasing evidence for toxin transfer to coastal marine environments, including the death of several California sea otters, a threatened marine species. California scientists and managers are under increasing pressure to identify and mitigate these potentially toxic blooms, but point-source measurements and grab samples have been less than effective. There is increasing awareness that these toxic events are both spatially widespread and ephememeral, leading to the need for better monitoring methods applicable to large spatial and temporal scales. Based on monitoring in several California water bodies, it appears that Aphanizomenon blooms frequently precede dangerous levels of toxins from Microcystis. We are exploring new detection methods for identifying CHABs and potentially distinguishing between blooms of the harmful cyanobacteria Aphanizomenon and Microcystis using remote sensing reflectance from a variety of airborne and satellite sensors. We suggest that Aphanizomenon blooms could potentially be used as an early warning of more highly toxic subsequent blooms, and that these methods, combined with better toxin monitoring, can lead to improved understanding and prediction of CHABs by pinpointing problematic watersheds.

  6. Microcystins and two new micropeptin cyanopeptides produced by unprecedented Microcystis aeruginosa blooms in North Carolina's Cape Fear River.

    PubMed

    Isaacs, Justin D; Strangman, Wendy K; Barbera, Amy E; Mallin, Michael A; McIver, Matthew R; Wright, Jeffrey L C

    2014-01-01

    The Cape Fear River is the largest river system in North Carolina. It is heavily used as a source of drinking water for humans and livestock as well as a source of irrigation water for crops, and production water for industry. It also serves as a major fishery for both commercial and recreational use. In recent years, possibly related to increased eutrophication of the river, massive blooms of cyanobacteria, identified as Microcystis aeruginosa have been observed. Bloom samples collected in 2009 and 2012 were chemically analyzed to determine if they contained cyanobacterial toxins known as microcystins. Both blooms were found to produce microcystins in high yields. Microcystins are potent hepatotoxins that can be bio-accumulated in the food chain. Recent biological studies have also shown a host of other potentially harmful effects of low level microcystin exposure. Detailed chemical analysis of these blooms led us to discover that these blooms produce an additional family of cyanobacterial peptides know as the micropeptins, including two new members named micropeptins 1106 and 1120. The biological activities of these new molecules have not yet been determined, although protease activity has been well documented for this peptide group. These data indicate a need for thorough monitoring of toxin levels especially during bloom events in addition to additional biological testing of other cyanopeptides present in blooms. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Biodegradation of multiple cyanobacterial metabolites in drinking water supplies.

    PubMed

    Ho, Lionel; Tang, Tim; Monis, Paul T; Hoefel, Daniel

    2012-06-01

    The fate of multiple cyanobacterial metabolites was assessed in two Australian source waters. The saxitoxins were the only metabolites shown to be non-biodegradable in Myponga Reservoir water, while microcystin-LR (MCLR) and geosmin were biodegradable in this water source. Likewise, cylindrospermopsin (CYN) was shown to be biodegradable in River Murray water. The order of ease of biodegradability followed the trend: MCLR>CYN>geosmin>saxitoxins. Biodegradation of the metabolites was affected by temperature and seasonal variations with more rapid degradation at 24°C and during autumn compared with 14°C and during winter. A microcystin-degrading bacterium was isolated and shown to degrade four microcystin variants within 4 h. This bacterium, designated as TT25, was shown to be 99% similar to a Sphingopyxis sp. based on a 16S rRNA gene fragment. Isolate TT25 was shown to contain a homologue of the mlrA gene; the sequence of which was 99% similar to that of a previously reported microcystin-degrader. Furthermore, isolate TT25 could degrade the microcystins in the presence of copper sulphate (0.5 mg L(-1) as Cu(2+)) which is advantageous for water authorities dosing such algicides into water bodies to control cyanobacterial blooms. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. The Evolution of Educational Objectives: Bloom's Taxonomy and beyond

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fallahi, Carolyn R.; LaMonaca, Frank H., Jr.

    2009-01-01

    It is crucial for teachers to communicate effectively about educational objectives to students, colleagues, and others in education. In 1956, Bloom developed a cognitive learning taxonomy to enhance communication between college examiners. The Bloom taxonomy consists of 6 hierarchical levels of learning (knowledge, comprehension, application,…

  9. The Evolution of Educational Objectives: Bloom's Taxonomy and beyond

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fallahi, Carolyn R.; LaMonaca, Frank H., Jr.

    2009-01-01

    It is crucial for teachers to communicate effectively about educational objectives to students, colleagues, and others in education. In 1956, Bloom developed a cognitive learning taxonomy to enhance communication between college examiners. The Bloom taxonomy consists of 6 hierarchical levels of learning (knowledge, comprehension, application,…

  10. North Pacific Bloom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Many images are made of relatively bright phytoplankton blooms. However, not all such blooms reflect more light than they absorb. SeaWiFS collected this image of a patch in the north Pacific that had been darkened because the photosynthetic pigments of the phytoplankton living there had absorbed more of the incoming solar radiation than the relatively phytoplankton-poor surrounding waters. The Hawaiian islands can be seen through the clouds about 1000 kilometers to the southwest of the patch.

  11. North Pacific Bloom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Many images are made of relatively bright phytoplankton blooms. However, not all such blooms reflect more light than they absorb. SeaWiFS collected this image of a patch in the north Pacific that had been darkened because the photosynthetic pigments of the phytoplankton living there had absorbed more of the incoming solar radiation than the relatively phytoplankton-poor surrounding waters. The Hawaiian islands can be seen through the clouds about 1000 kilometers to the southwest of the patch.

  12. Dog Poisonings Associated with a Microcystis aeruginosa Bloom in the Netherlands

    PubMed Central

    Lürling, Miquel; Faassen, Elisabeth J.

    2013-01-01

    In early autumn 2011, three dogs died after they had been exposed to a Microcystis aeruginosa bloom on Lake Amstelmeer, The Netherlands. The cyanobacterial scum from the lake contained up to 5.27 × 103μg g−1 dry-weight microcystin, the vomit of one of the dogs contained on average 94 µg microcystin g−1 dry-weight. In both cases, microcystin-LR was the most abundant variant. This is the first report of dog deaths associated with a Microcystis bloom and microcystin poisoning in The Netherlands. PMID:23493170

  13. Predicting cyanobacterial abundance, microcystin, and geosmin in a eutrophic drinking-water reservoir using a 14-year dataset

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harris, Ted D.; Graham, Jennifer

    2017-01-01

    Cyanobacterial blooms degrade water quality in drinking water supply reservoirs by producing toxic and taste-and-odor causing secondary metabolites, which ultimately cause public health concerns and lead to increased treatment costs for water utilities. There have been numerous attempts to create models that predict cyanobacteria and their secondary metabolites, most using linear models; however, linear models are limited by assumptions about the data and have had limited success as predictive tools. Thus, lake and reservoir managers need improved modeling techniques that can accurately predict large bloom events that have the highest impact on recreational activities and drinking-water treatment processes. In this study, we compared 12 unique linear and nonlinear regression modeling techniques to predict cyanobacterial abundance and the cyanobacterial secondary metabolites microcystin and geosmin using 14 years of physiochemical water quality data collected from Cheney Reservoir, Kansas. Support vector machine (SVM), random forest (RF), boosted tree (BT), and Cubist modeling techniques were the most predictive of the compared modeling approaches. SVM, RF, and BT modeling techniques were able to successfully predict cyanobacterial abundance, microcystin, and geosmin concentrations <60,000 cells/mL, 2.5 µg/L, and 20 ng/L, respectively. Only Cubist modeling predicted maxima concentrations of cyanobacteria and geosmin; no modeling technique was able to predict maxima microcystin concentrations. Because maxima concentrations are a primary concern for lake and reservoir managers, Cubist modeling may help predict the largest and most noxious concentrations of cyanobacteria and their secondary metabolites.

  14. Metatranscriptomic Evidence for Co-Occurring Top-Down and Bottom-Up Controls on Toxic Cyanobacterial Communities

    PubMed Central

    Steffen, Morgan M.; Belisle, B. Shafer; Watson, Sue B.; Boyer, Gregory L.; Bourbonniere, Richard A.

    2015-01-01

    Little is known about the molecular and physiological function of co-occurring microbes within freshwater cyanobacterial harmful algal blooms (cHABs). To address this, community metatranscriptomes collected from the western basin of Lake Erie during August 2012 were examined. Using sequence data, we tested the hypothesis that the activity of the microbial community members is independent of community structure. Predicted metabolic and physiological functional profiles from spatially distinct metatranscriptomes were determined to be ≥90% similar between sites. Targeted analysis of Microcystis aeruginosa, the historical causative agent of cyanobacterial harmful algal blooms over the past ∼20 years, as well as analysis of Planktothrix agardhii and Anabaena cylindrica, revealed ongoing transcription of genes involved in microcystin toxin synthesis as well as the acquisition of both nitrogen and phosphorus, nutrients often implicated as independent bottom-up drivers of eutrophication in aquatic systems. Transcription of genes involved in carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration and metabolism also provided support for the alternate hypothesis that high-pH conditions and dense algal biomass result in CO2-limiting conditions that further favor cyanobacterial dominance. Additionally, the presence of Microcystis-specific cyanophage sequences provided preliminary evidence of possible top-down virus-mediated control of cHAB populations. Overall, these data provide insight into the complex series of constraints associated with Microcystis blooms that dominate the western basin of Lake Erie during summer months, demonstrating that multiple environmental factors work to shape the microbial community. PMID:25662977

  15. Lake Level Fluctuations Boost Toxic Cyanobacterial “Oligotrophic Blooms”

    PubMed Central

    Callieri, Cristiana; Bertoni, Roberto; Contesini, Mario; Bertoni, Filippo

    2014-01-01

    Global warming has been shown to strongly influence inland water systems, producing noticeable increases in water temperatures. Rising temperatures, especially when combined with widespread nutrient pollution, directly favour the growth of toxic cyanobacteria. Climate changes have also altered natural water level fluctuations increasing the probability of extreme events as dry periods followed by heavy rains. The massive appearance of Dolichospermum lemmermannii ( = planktonic Anabaena), a toxic species absent from the pelagic zone of the subalpine oligotrophic Lake Maggiore before 2005, could be a consequence of the unusual fluctuations of lake level in recent years. We hypothesized that these fluctuations may favour the cyanobacterium as result of nutrient pulses from the biofilms formed in the littoral zone when the lake level is high. To help verify this, we exposed artificial substrates in the lake, and evaluated their nutrient enrichment and release after desiccation, together with measurements of fluctuations in lake level, precipitation and D.lemmermannii population. The highest percentage of P release and the lowest C∶P molar ratio of released nutrients coincided with the summer appearance of the D.lemmermannii bloom. The P pulse indicates that fluctuations in level counteract nutrient limitation in this lake and it is suggested that this may apply more widely to other oligotrophic lakes. In view of the predicted increase in water level fluctuations due to climate change, it is important to try to minimize such fluctuations in order to mitigate the occurrence of cyanobacterial blooms. PMID:25295866

  16. Anti-cyanobacterial activity of Moringa oleifera seeds.

    PubMed

    Lürling, Miquel; Beekman, Wendy

    2010-08-01

    Filtrates from crushed Moringa oleifera seeds were tested for their effects on growth and Photosystem II efficiency of the common bloom-forming cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa. M. aeruginosa populations exhibited good growth in controls and treatments with 4- and 8-mg crushed Moringa seeds per liter, having similar growth rates of 0.50 (+/-0.01) per day. In exposures of 20- to 160-mg crushed Moringa seeds L(-1), growth rates were negative and on average -0.23 (+/-0.05) .day(-1). Presumably, in the higher doses of 20- to 160-mg crushed seeds per liter, the cyanobacteria died, which was supported by a rapid drop in the Photosystem II efficiency (Phi(PSII)), while the Phi(PSII) was high and unaffected in 0, 4, and 8 mg L(-1). High-density populations of M. aeruginosa (chlorophyll-a concentrations of approximately 270 microg L(-1)) were reduced to very low levels within 2 weeks of exposure to >/=80-mg crushed seeds per liter. At the highest dosage of 160 mg L(-1), the Phi(PSII) dropped to zero rapidly and remained nil during the course of the experiment (14 days). Hence, under laboratory conditions, a complete wipeout of the bloom could be achieved. This is the first study that yielded evidence for cyanobactericidal activity of filtrate from crushed Moringa seeds, suggesting that Moringa seed extracts might have a potential as an effect-oriented measure lessening cyanobacterial nuisance.

  17. Cell density-dependent oligopeptide production in cyanobacterial strains.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Daniel A; Giani, Alessandra

    2014-04-01

    Cyanobacteria can form blooms and in these situations they dominate the phytoplanktonic community, reaching extremely high densities. In the domain Bacteria, high population densities can stimulate a phenomenon known as quorum sensing, which may produce several modifications in the cell physiology. Very little is known about quorum sensing in Cyanobacteria. Because of their planktonic way of life, quorum sensing should be more evident during a bloom event. In this work, we tested whether cell density could shape the production of bioactive compounds produced by Cyanobacteria. The experiments consisted of two treatments, where cultures of Cyanobacteria were maintained at low and high cellular densities through a semi-continuous set-up. Analyses were performed by HPLC-PDA and MALDI-TOF MS. Seventeen peptides were detected and 14 identified, including microcystins, aeruginosins, cyanopeptolins and microviridins. The results showed that cellular density seems to have a significant effect on the peptides production. Most of the compounds had significantly higher cellular quotas in the higher-density treatment, although microviridins and an unknown peptide were produced only at low density. These results may hint at a possible role for quorum sensing in triggering the production of several cyanobacterial peptides. © 2014 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Improvement of cyanobacterial-killing biologically derived substances (BDSs) using an ecologically safe and cost-effective naphthoquinone derivative.

    PubMed

    Joo, Jae-Hyoung; Wang, Pengbin; Park, Bum Soo; Byun, Jeong-Hwan; Choi, Hye Jeong; Kim, Seong Hun; Han, Myung-Soo

    2017-07-01

    In previous studies, naphthoquinone (NQ) compounds have been shown to be effective, selective, and ecologically safe algicides for controlling harmful algal blooming species (HABs) or winter bloom species, such as Stephanodiscus hantzschii. However, there are no reports on NQ-based algicides for use with cyanobacterial blooming species. In this study, we developed 31 NQ compounds to investigate algicides for mitigating cyanobacterial blooms. In addition, to better apply these compounds in the field, we reduced the number of production steps to develop a cost-effective algicide. In preliminary testing, we screened NQ compounds that showed the best algicidal activity on target cyanobacteria, including Aphanizomenon, Dolichospermum, Microcystis, Oscillatoria, and Nostoc species. The compound NQ 2-0 showed the highest algicidal activity (90%) at a low concentration (≥1μM) on target algae. These were very limiting algicidal effects of 1µM NQ 2-0 observed against non-target algae, such as diatoms (Stephanodiscus hantzschii, Cyclotella meneghiniana, Synedra acus, and Aulacoseira granulata) or green algae (Cosmarium bioculatum and Scenedesmus quadricauda), and the effect did not exceed 15-25% (except against S. quadricauda). NQ 2-0 (1μM) showed no eco-toxicity, as represented by the survival rates of Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata (100%), Daphnia magna (100%), and Danio rerio (100%). Additionally, a chronic eco-toxicity assessment showed no toxicity toward the survival, growth or reproduction of D. magna. Moreover, NQ 2-0 quickly dissipated from field water samples and had a half-life of approximately 3.2 days. These results suggest that NQ 2-0 could be a selective and ecologically safe algicide to mitigate harmful cyanobacterial blooms. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  19. Health Risk Assessment of Cyanobacterial (Blue-green Algal) Toxins in Drinking Water

    PubMed Central

    Falconer, Ian R.; Humpage, Andrew R.

    2005-01-01

    Cyanobacterial toxins have caused human poisoning in the Americas, Europe and Australia. There is accumulating evidence that they are present in treated drinking water supplies when cyanobacterial blooms occur in source waters. With increased population pressure and depleted groundwater reserves, surface water is becoming more used as a raw water source, both from rivers and lakes/reservoirs. Additional nutrients in water which arise from sewage discharge, agricultural run-off or storm water result in overabundance of cyanobacteria, described as a ‘water bloom’. The majority of cyanobacterial water-blooms are of toxic species, producing a diversity of toxins. The most important toxins presenting a risk to the human population are the neurotoxic alkaloids (anatoxins and paralytic shellfish poisons), the cyclic peptide hepatotoxins (microcystins) and the cytotoxic alkaloids (cylindrospermopsins). At the present time the only cyanobacteral toxin family that have been internationally assessed for health risk by the WHO are the microcystins, which cause acute liver injury and are active tumour promoters. Based on sub-chronic studies in rodents and pigs, a provisional Guideline Level for drinking water of 1μg/L of microcystin-LR has been determined. This has been adopted in legislation in countries in Europe, South America and Australasia. This may be revised in the light of future teratogenicity, reproductive toxicity and carcinogenicity studies. The other cyanobacterial toxin which has been proposed for detailed health risk assessment is cylindrospermopsin, a cytotoxic compound which has marked genotoxicity, probable mutagenicity, and is a potential carcinogen. This toxin has caused human poisoning from drinking water, and occurs in water supplies in the USA, Europe, Asia, Australia and South America. An initial health risk assessment is presented with a proposed drinking water Guideline Level of 1μg/L. There is a need for both increased monitoring data for

  20. Molecular mechanisms of tolerance to cyanobacterial protease inhibitors revealed by clonal differences in Daphnia magna.

    PubMed

    Schwarzenberger, Anke; Kuster, Christian J; Von Elert, Eric

    2012-10-01

    Protease inhibitors of primary producers are a major food quality constraint for herbivores. In nutrient-rich freshwater ecosystems, the interaction between primary producers and herbivores is mainly represented by Daphnia and cyanobacteria. Protease inhibitors have been found in many cyanobacterial blooms. These inhibitors have been shown (both in vitro and in situ) to inhibit the most important group of digestive proteases in the daphnid's gut, that is, trypsins and chymotrypsins. In this study, we fed four different Daphnia magna genotypes with the trypsin-inhibitor-containing cyanobacterial strain Microcystis aeruginosa PCC 7806 Mut. Upon exposure to dietary trypsin inhibitors, all D. magna genotypes showed increased gene expression of digestive trypsins and chymotrypsins. Exposure to dietary trypsin inhibitors resulted in increased activity of chymotrypsins and reduced activity of trypsin. Strong intraspecific differences in tolerance of the four D. magna genotypes to the dietary trypsin inhibitors were found. The degree of tolerance depended on the D. magna genotype. The genotypes' tolerance was positively correlated with the residual trypsin activity and the different IC(50) values of the trypsins. On the genetic level, the different trypsin loci varied between the D. magna genotypes. The two tolerant Daphnia genotypes that both originate from the same lake, which frequently produces cyanobacterial blooms, clustered in a neighbour-joining phylogenetic tree based on the three trypsin loci. This suggests that the genetic variability of trypsin loci was an important cause for the observed intraspecific variability in tolerance to cyanobacterial trypsin inhibitors. Based on these findings, it is reasonable to assume that such genetic variability can also be found in natural populations and thus constitutes the basis for local adaptation of natural populations to dietary protease inhibitors.

  1. Comparative Metagenomics of Toxic Freshwater Cyanobacteria Bloom Communities on Two Continents

    SciTech Connect

    Steffen, Morgan M; Li, Zhou; Effler, Chad; Hauser, Loren John; Boyer, Gergory; Wilhelm, Steven W

    2012-01-01

    Toxic cyanobacterial blooms have persisted in freshwater systems around the world for centuries and appear to be globally increasing in frequency and severity. Toxins produced by bloom-associated cyanobacteria can have drastic impacts on the ecosystem and surrounding communities, and bloom biomass can disrupt aquatic food webs and act as a driver for hypoxia. Little is currently known regarding the genomic content of the Microcystis strains that form blooms or the companion heterotrophic community associated with bloom events. To address these issues, we examined the bloomassociated microbial communities in single samples from Lake Erie (North America), Lake Tai (Taihu, China), and Grand Lakes St. Marys (OH, USA) using comparative metagenomics. Together the Cyanobacteria and Proteobacteria comprised .90% of each bloom bacterial community sample, although the dominant phylum varied between systems. Relative to the existing Microcystis aeruginosa NIES 843 genome, sequences from Lake Erie and Taihu revealed a number of metagenomic islands that were absent in the environmental samples. Moreover, despite variation in the phylogenetic assignments of bloomassociated organisms, the functional potential of bloom members remained relatively constant between systems. This pattern was particularly noticeable in the genomic contribution of nitrogen assimilation genes. In Taihu, the genetic elements associated with the assimilation and metabolism of nitrogen were predominantly associated with Proteobacteria, while these functions in the North American lakes were primarily contributed to by the Cyanobacteria. Our observations build on an emerging body of metagenomic surveys describing the functional potential of microbial communities as more highly conserved than that of their phylogenetic makeup within natural systems.

  2. A niche model to predict Microcystis bloom decline in Chaohu Lake, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhicong; Li, Zhongjie; Li, Dunhai

    2012-07-01

    Cyanobacterial blooms occur frequently in lakes due to eutrophication. Although a number of models have been proposed to forecast algal blooms, a good and applicable method is still lacking. This study explored a simple and effective mathematical-ecological model to evaluate the growth status and predict the population dynamics of Microcystis blooms. In this study, phytoplankton were collected and identified from 8 sampling sites in Chaohu Lake every month from July to October, 2010. The niche breadth and niche overlap of common species were calculated using standard equations, and the potential relative growth rates of Microcystis were calculated as a weighted-value of niche overlap. In July, the potential relative growth rate was 2.79 (a.u., arbitrary units) but then rapidly declined in the following months to -3.99 a.u. in September. A significant correlation ( R =0.998, P <0.01) was found in the model between the net-increase in biomass of Microcystis in the field and the predicted values calculated by the niche model, we concluded that the niche model is suitable for forecasting the dynamics of Microcystis blooms. Redundancy analysis indicated that decreases in water temperature, dissolved oxygen and total dissolved phosphorus might be major factors underlying bloom decline. Based on the theory of community succession being caused by resource competition, the growth and decline of blooms can be predicted from a community structure. This may provide a basis for early warning and control of algal blooms.

  3. The bloom of nitrogen-fixing cyanobacteria in the northern Baltic Proper stimulates summer production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Svedén, Jennie B.; Walve, Jakob; Larsson, Ulf; Elmgren, Ragnar

    2016-11-01

    In the northern Baltic Sea Proper, total nitrogen (TN) increases during the summer bloom of filamentous heterocystous cyanobacteria. To follow the fate of the nitrogen they fix, we studied several N fractions during the bloom. We measured cyanobacterial biomass, TN, particulate organic N (PON, two size fractions), dissolved organic N (DON), and PON sedimentation in two areas in 2011. TN increased mainly due to increasing PON, but also to DON. Cyanobacteria contributed about 20% of the PON increase and ~ 10% of the TN increase. About half the PON changes (increase, then decrease) could be explained by the sum of cyanobacteria, other autotrophs (> 2 μm) and zooplankton, indicating that the bloom stimulates primary and secondary production. TN decreased after the bloom mainly due to declining PON > 10 μm, but sedimentation rates did not increase and could explain little of the post-bloom N-loss. There was little settling of undecomposed cyanobacteria. The seasonal development of Aphanizomenon sp. and N pools was similar among stations and areas. For Nodularia spumigena between-station variability increased once patchy surface accumulations developed. A brief Dolichospermum spp. bloom indicated that sampling frequency may be more important than spatial resolution for capturing dynamics of this bloom.

  4. Weather variability, sunspots, and the blooms of cyanobacteria.

    PubMed

    Hu, Wenbiao; Connell, Des; Mengersen, Kerrie; Tong, Shilu

    2009-03-01

    The roles of weather variability and sunspots in the occurrence of cyanobacteria blooms, were investigated using cyanobacteria cell data collected from the Fred Haigh Dam, Queensland, Australia. Time series generalized linear model and classification and regression tree (CART) model were used in the analysis. Data on notified cell numbers of cyanobacteria and weather variables over the periods 2001 and 2005 were provided by the Australian Department of Natural Resources and Water, and Australian Bureau of Meteorology, respectively. The results indicate that monthly minimum temperature (relative risk [RR]: 1.13, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.02-1.25) and rainfall (RR: 1.11; 95% CI: 1.03-1.20) had a positive association, but relative humidity (RR: 0.94; 95% CI: 0.91-0.98) and wind speed (RR: 0.90; 95% CI: 0.82-0.98) were negatively associated with the cyanobacterial numbers, after adjustment for seasonality and auto-correlation. The CART model showed that the cyanobacteria numbers were best described by an interaction between minimum temperature, relative humidity, and sunspot numbers. When minimum temperature exceeded 18 degrees C and relative humidity was under 66%, the number of cyanobacterial cells rose by 2.15-fold. We conclude that weather variability and sunspot activity may affect cyanobacteria blooms in dams.

  5. Bacterial Communities Associated with Four Cyanobacterial Genera Display Structural and Functional Differences: Evidence from an Experimental Approach

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Lin; Zancarini, Anouk; Louati, Imen; De Cesare, Silvia; Duval, Charlotte; Tambosco, Kevin; Bernard, Cécile; Debroas, Didier; Song, Lirong; Leloup, Julie; Humbert, Jean-François

    2016-01-01

    To overcome the limitations associated with studying the interactions between bacterial communities (BCs) and cyanobacteria in natural environments, we compared the structural and functional diversities of the BCs associated with 15 non-axenic cyanobacterial strains in culture and two natural BCs sampled during cyanobacterial blooms. No significant differences in richness and diversity were found between the natural and cultivated BCs, although some of the cyanobacterial strains had been isolated 11 years earlier. Moreover, these BCs shared some similar characteristics, such as a very low abundance of Actinobacteria, but they display significant differences at the operational taxonomic unit (OTU) level. Overall, our findings suggest that BCs associated with cyanobacteria in culture are good models to better understand the interactions between heterotrophic bacteria and cyanobacteria. Additionally, BCs associated with heterocystous cyanobacterial strains cultivated in Z8X culture medium without nitrate (Aphanizomenon–Dolichospermum) demonstrated significant differences compared to BCs associated with non-heterocystous strains cultivated in Z8 culture medium (Planktothrix–Microcystis) in terms of their composition and their ability to utilize different carbon sources, suggesting the potential influence of cyanobacterial metabolism and/or culture media on associated BCs. Finally, half of the dominant OTUs in these BCs were specifically associated with cyanobacteria or other phytoplankton, whereas the remaining OTUs were generally associated with ecosystems containing high organic matter content, such as sludge or intestines. PMID:27822204

  6. From Research to Operations: Transitioning Noaa's Lake Erie Harmful Algal Bloom Forecast System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kavanaugh, K. E.; Stumpf, R. P.

    2016-02-01

    A key priority of NOAA's Harmful Algal Bloom Operational Forecast System (HAB-OFS) is to leverage the Ecological Forecasting Roadmap to systematically transition to operations scientifically mature HAB forecasts in regions of the country where there is a strong user need identified and an operational framework can be supported. While in the demonstration phase, the Lake Erie HAB forecast has proven its utility. Over the next two years, NOAA will be transitioning the Lake Erie HAB forecast to operations with an initial operating capability established in the HAB OFS' operational infrastructure by the 2016 bloom season. Blooms of cyanobacteria are a recurring problem in Lake Erie, and the dominant bloom forming species, Microcystis aeruginosa, produces a toxin called microcystin that is poisonous to humans, livestock and pets. Once the toxins have contaminated the source water used for drinking water, it is costly for public water suppliers to remove them. As part of the Lake Erie HAB forecast demonstration, NOAA has provided information regarding the cyanobacterial blooms in a biweekly Experimental HAB Bulletin, which includes information about the current and forecasted distribution, toxicity, potential for vertical mixing or scum formation, mixing of the water column, and predictions of bloom decline. Coastal resource managers, public water suppliers and public health officials use the Experimental HAB Bulletins to respond to and mitigate the impacts of cyanobacterial blooms. The transition to operations will benefit stakeholders through ensuring that future Lake Erie HAB forecast products are sustained, systematic, reliable, and robust. Once operational, the forecasts will continue to be assessed and improvements will be made based on the results of emerging scientific research. In addition, the lessons learned from the Lake Erie transition will be used to streamline the process for future HAB forecasts presently in development.

  7. Cyanobacterial evolution during the Precambrian

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schirrmeister, Bettina E.; Sanchez-Baracaldo, Patricia; Wacey, David

    2016-07-01

    Life on Earth has existed for at least 3.5 billion years. Yet, relatively little is known of its evolution during the first two billion years, due to the scarceness and generally poor preservation of fossilized biological material. Cyanobacteria, formerly known as blue green algae were among the first crown Eubacteria to evolve and for more than 2.5 billion years they have strongly influenced Earth's biosphere. Being the only organism where oxygenic photosynthesis has originated, they have oxygenated Earth's atmosphere and hydrosphere, triggered the evolution of plants -being ancestral to chloroplasts- and enabled the evolution of complex life based on aerobic respiration. Having such a strong impact on early life, one might expect that the evolutionary success of this group may also have triggered further biosphere changes during early Earth history. However, very little is known about the early evolution of this phylum and ongoing debates about cyanobacterial fossils, biomarkers and molecular clock analyses highlight the difficulties in this field of research. Although phylogenomic analyses have provided promising glimpses into the early evolution of cyanobacteria, estimated divergence ages are often very uncertain, because of vague and insufficient tree-calibrations. Results of molecular clock analyses are intrinsically tied to these prior calibration points, hence improving calibrations will enable more precise divergence time estimations. Here we provide a review of previously described Precambrian microfossils, biomarkers and geochemical markers that inform upon the early evolution of cyanobacteria. Future research in micropalaeontology will require novel analyses and imaging techniques to improve taxonomic affiliation of many Precambrian microfossils. Consequently, a better understanding of early cyanobacterial evolution will not only allow for a more specific calibration of cyanobacterial and eubacterial phylogenies, but also provide new dates for the tree

  8. The effects of cyanobacterial exudates on bacterial growth and biodegradation of organic contaminants.

    PubMed

    Kirkwood, A E; Nalewajko, C; Fulthorpe, R R

    2006-01-01

    The pulp and paper industry largely depends on the biodegradation activities of heterotrophic bacteria to remove organic contaminants in wastewater prior to discharge. Our recent discovery of extensive cyanobacterial communities in pulp and paper waste treatment systems led us to investigate the potential impacts of cyanobacterial exudates on growth and biodegradation efficiency of three bacterial heterotrophs. Each of the three assessed bacteria represented different taxa commonly found in pulp and paper waste treatment systems: a fluorescent Pseudomonad, an Ancylobacter aquaticus strain, and a Ralstonia eutropha strain. They were capable of utilizing phenol, dichloroacetate (DCA), or 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D), respectively. Exudates from all 12 cyanobacterial strains studied supported the growth of each bacterial strain to varying degrees. Maximum biomass of two bacterial strains positively correlated with the total organic carbon content of exudate treatments. The combined availability of exudate and a known growth substrate (i.e., phenol, DCA, or 2,4-D) generally had a synergistic affect on the growth of the Ancylobacter strain, whereas mixed effects were seen on the other two strains. Exudates from four representative cyanobacterial strains were assessed for their impacts on phenol and DCA biodegradation by the Pseudomonas and Ancylobacter strains, respectively. Exudates from three of the four cyanobacterial taxa repressed phenol biodegradation, but enhanced DCA biodegradation. These dissimilar impacts of cyanobacterial exudates on bacterial degradation of contaminants suggest a species-specific association, as well as a significant role for cyanobacteria during the biological treatment of wastewaters.

  9. Allan Bloom's Quarrel with History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, James

    1988-01-01

    Responds to Allan Bloom's "The Closing of the American Mind." Concludes that despite cranky comments about bourgeois culture, the focus of Bloom's attack is on historicism, which undercuts his nostalgic vision of a prosperous and just America. Condemns Bloom's exclusion of Blacks, Hispanics, and women from America's cultural heritage.…

  10. Harmful Algal Blooms Research

    EPA Science Inventory

    This project represents the Agency’s first effort to unify harmful algal blooms (HABs) research that had been previously carried out in isolation within various laboratories. A unified program is the most efficient way generate useful results for the Agency’s decision...

  11. Harmful Algal Blooms Research

    EPA Science Inventory

    This project represents the Agency’s first effort to unify harmful algal blooms (HABs) research that had been previously carried out in isolation within various laboratories. A unified program is the most efficient way generate useful results for the Agency’s decision...

  12. Simultaneous removal of harmful algal blooms and microcystins using microorganism- and chitosan-modified local soil.

    PubMed

    Li, Hong; Pan, Gang

    2015-05-19

    Cyanobacterial harmful algal blooms (cyano-HAB) and microcystins (MCs) can cause a potential threat to public health. Here, a method for simultaneous removal of cyano-HAB and MCs was developed using chitosan-modified local soil (MLS) flocculation plus microorganism-modified soil capping. The experiment was conducted in simulated columns containing algal water collected from Lake Taihu (China). More than 90% of algal cells and intracellular MCs were flocculated and removed from water using chitosan-MLS and the sunken flocs were treated by different capping materials including Pseudomonas sp. An18 modified local soil. During 40 days of incubation, dissolved MC-LR and MC-RR showed 10-fold increase in the flocculation-only system. The increase of MC-LR and MC-RR in water was reduced by 30 and 70% in soil capping treatments; however, the total content of MCs in the sediment-water column remained similar to that in the control and flocculation only systems. In contrast, both dissolved MCs and total MCs were reduced by 90% in Pseudomonas sp. An18 modified soil capping treatment. The high performance of toxin decomposition was due to the combined effects of flocculation and MC-degrading bacteria that embedded in the capping material, which prevents dilution of bacteria biomass, concentrates algal cells, confines released toxins, and enhances toxin biodegradation.

  13. The cyanobacterial nitrogen fixation paradox in natural waters.

    PubMed

    Paerl, Hans

    2017-01-01

    Nitrogen fixation, the enzymatic conversion of atmospheric N (N 2) to ammonia (NH 3), is a microbially mediated process by which "new" N is supplied to N-deficient water bodies. Certain bloom-forming cyanobacterial species are capable of conducting N 2 fixation; hence, they are able to circumvent N limitation in these waters. However, this anaerobic process is highly sensitive to oxygen, and since cyanobacteria produce oxygen in photosynthesis, they are faced with a paradoxical situation, where one critically important (for supporting growth) biochemical process is inhibited by another. N 2-fixing cyanobacterial taxa have developed an array of biochemical, morphological, and ecological adaptations to minimize the "oxygen problem"; however, none of these allows N 2 fixation to function at a high enough efficiency so that it can supply N needs at the ecosystem scale, where N losses via denitrification, burial, and advection often exceed the inputs of "new" N by N 2 fixation. As a result, most marine and freshwater ecosystems exhibit chronic N limitation of primary production. Under conditions of perpetual N limitation, external inputs of N from human sources (agricultural, urban, and industrial) play a central role in determining ecosystem fertility and, in the case of N overenrichment, excessive primary production or eutrophication. This points to the importance of controlling external N inputs (in addition to traditional phosphorus controls) as a means of ensuring acceptable water quality and safe water supplies. Nitrogen fixation, the enzymatic conversion of atmospheric N 2 to ammonia (NH 3) is a  microbially-mediated process by which "new" nitrogen is supplied to N-deficient water bodies.  Certain bloom-forming cyanobacterial species are capable of conducting N 2 fixation; hence they are able to circumvent nitrogen limitation in these waters. However, this anaerobic process is highly sensitive to oxygen, and since cyanobacteria produce oxygen in photosynthesis

  14. The cyanobacterial nitrogen fixation paradox in natural waters

    PubMed Central

    Paerl, Hans

    2017-01-01

    Nitrogen fixation, the enzymatic conversion of atmospheric N (N 2) to ammonia (NH 3), is a microbially mediated process by which “new” N is supplied to N-deficient water bodies. Certain bloom-forming cyanobacterial species are capable of conducting N 2 fixation; hence, they are able to circumvent N limitation in these waters. However, this anaerobic process is highly sensitive to oxygen, and since cyanobacteria produce oxygen in photosynthesis, they are faced with a paradoxical situation, where one critically important (for supporting growth) biochemical process is inhibited by another. N 2-fixing cyanobacterial taxa have developed an array of biochemical, morphological, and ecological adaptations to minimize the “oxygen problem”; however, none of these allows N 2 fixation to function at a high enough efficiency so that it can supply N needs at the ecosystem scale, where N losses via denitrification, burial, and advection often exceed the inputs of “new” N by N 2 fixation. As a result, most marine and freshwater ecosystems exhibit chronic N limitation of primary production. Under conditions of perpetual N limitation, external inputs of N from human sources (agricultural, urban, and industrial) play a central role in determining ecosystem fertility and, in the case of N overenrichment, excessive primary production or eutrophication. This points to the importance of controlling external N inputs (in addition to traditional phosphorus controls) as a means of ensuring acceptable water quality and safe water supplies. Nitrogen fixation, the enzymatic conversion of atmospheric N 2 to ammonia (NH 3) is a  microbially-mediated process by which “new” nitrogen is supplied to N-deficient water bodies.  Certain bloom-forming cyanobacterial species are capable of conducting N 2 fixation; hence they are able to circumvent nitrogen limitation in these waters. However, this anaerobic process is highly sensitive to oxygen, and since cyanobacteria produce oxygen in

  15. Field and laboratory guide to freshwater cyanobacteria harmful algal blooms for Native American and Alaska Native communities

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rosen, Barry H.; Ann St. Amand,

    2015-09-14

    Cyanobacteria can produce toxins and form harmful algal blooms. The Native American and Alaska Native communities that are dependent on subsistence fishing have an increased risk of exposure to these cyanotoxins. It is important to recognize the presence of an algal bloom in a waterbody and to distinguish a potentially toxic harmful algal bloom from a non-toxic bloom. This guide provides field images that show cyanobacteria blooms, some of which can be toxin producers, as well as other non-toxic algae blooms and floating plants that might be confused with algae. After recognition of a potential toxin-producing cyanobacterial bloom in the field, the type(s) of cyanobacteria present needs to be identified. Species identification, which requires microscopic examination, may help distinguish a toxin-producer from a non-toxin producer. This guide also provides microscopic images of the common cyanobacteria that are known to produce toxins, as well as images of algae that form blooms but do not produce toxins.

  16. Cyanobacterial-based approaches to improving photosynthesis in plants.

    PubMed

    Zarzycki, Jan; Axen, Seth D; Kinney, James N; Kerfeld, Cheryl A

    2013-01-01

    Plants rely on the Calvin-Benson (CB) cycle for CO(2) fixation. The key carboxylase of the CB cycle is ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (RubisCO). Efforts to enhance carbon fixation in plants have traditionally focused on RubisCO or on approaches that can help to remedy RubisCO's undesirable traits: its low catalytic efficiency and photorespiration. Towards reaching the goal of improving plant photosynthesis, cyanobacteria may be instrumental. Because of their evolutionary relationship to chloroplasts, they represent ideal model organisms for photosynthesis research. Furthermore, the molecular understanding of cyanobacterial carbon fixation provides a rich source of strategies that can be exploited for the bioengineering of chloroplasts. These strategies include the cyanobacterial carbon concentrating mechanism (CCM), which consists of active and passive transporter systems for inorganic carbon and a specialized organelle, the carboxysome. The carboxysome encapsulates RubisCO together with carbonic anhydrase in a protein shell, resulting in an elevated CO(2) concentration around RubisCO. Moreover, cyanobacteria differ from plants in the isoenzymes involved in the CB cycle and the photorespiratory pathways as well as in mechanisms that can affect the activity of RubisCO. In addition, newly available cyanobacterial genome sequence data from the CyanoGEBA project, which has more than doubled the amount of genomic information available for cyanobacteria, increases our knowledge on the CCM and the occurrence and distribution of genes of interest.

  17. Appearance of Planktothrix rubescens bloom with [D-Asp3, Mdha7]MC-RR in gravel pit pond of a shallow lake-dominated area.

    PubMed

    Vasas, Gábor; Farkas, Oszkár; Borics, Gábor; Felföldi, Tamás; Sramkó, Gábor; Batta, Gyula; Bácsi, István; Gonda, Sándor

    2013-12-12

    Blooms of toxic cyanobacteria are well-known phenomena in many regions of the world. Microcystin (MC), the most frequent cyanobacterial toxin, is produced by entirely different cyanobacteria, including unicellular, multicellular filamentous, heterocytic, and non-heterocytic bloom-forming species. Planktothrix is one of the most important MC-producing genera in temperate lakes. The reddish color of cyanobacterial blooms viewed in a gravel pit pond with the appearance of a dense 3 cm thick layer (biovolume: 28.4 mm(3) L(-1)) was an unexpected observation in the shallow lake-dominated alluvial region of the Carpathian Basin. [D-Asp(3), Mdha(7)]MC-RR was identified from the blooms sample by MALDI-TOF and NMR. Concentrations of [D-Asp(3), Mdha(7)]MC-RR were measured by capillary electrophoresis to compare the microcystin content of the field samples and the isolated, laboratory-maintained P. rubescens strain. In analyzing the MC gene cluster of the isolated P. rubescens strain, a deletion in the spacer region between mcyE and mcyG and an insertion were located in the spacer region between mcyT and mcyD. The insertion elements were sequenced and partly identified. Although some invasive tropical cyanobacterial species have been given a great deal of attention in many recent studies, our results draw attention to the spread of the alpine organism P. rubescens as a MC-producing, bloom-forming species.

  18. Appearance of Planktothrix rubescens Bloom with [D-Asp3, Mdha7]MC–RR in Gravel Pit Pond of a Shallow Lake-Dominated Area

    PubMed Central

    Vasas, Gábor; Farkas, Oszkár; Borics, Gábor; Felföldi, Tamás; Sramkó, Gábor; Batta, Gyula; Bácsi, István; Gonda, Sándor

    2013-01-01

    Blooms of toxic cyanobacteria are well-known phenomena in many regions of the world. Microcystin (MC), the most frequent cyanobacterial toxin, is produced by entirely different cyanobacteria, including unicellular, multicellular filamentous, heterocytic, and non-heterocytic bloom-forming species. Planktothrix is one of the most important MC-producing genera in temperate lakes. The reddish color of cyanobacterial blooms viewed in a gravel pit pond with the appearance of a dense 3 cm thick layer (biovolume: 28.4 mm3 L−1) was an unexpected observation in the shallow lake-dominated alluvial region of the Carpathian Basin. [d-Asp3, Mdha7]MC–RR was identified from the blooms sample by MALDI-TOF and NMR. Concentrations of [d-Asp3, Mdha7]MC–RR were measured by capillary electrophoresis to compare the microcystin content of the field samples and the isolated, laboratory-maintained P. rubescens strain. In analyzing the MC gene cluster of the isolated P. rubescens strain, a deletion in the spacer region between mcyE and mcyG and an insertion were located in the spacer region between mcyT and mcyD. The insertion elements were sequenced and partly identified. Although some invasive tropical cyanobacterial species have been given a great deal of attention in many recent studies, our results draw attention to the spread of the alpine organism P. rubescens as a MC-producing, bloom-forming species. PMID:24351711

  19. Comparative metagenomics of toxic freshwater cyanobacteria bloom communities on two continents.

    PubMed

    Steffen, Morgan M; Li, Zhou; Effler, T Chad; Hauser, Loren J; Boyer, Gregory L; Wilhelm, Steven W

    2012-01-01

    Toxic cyanobacterial blooms have persisted in freshwater systems around the world for centuries and appear to be globally increasing in frequency and severity. Toxins produced by bloom-associated cyanobacteria can have drastic impacts on the ecosystem and surrounding communities, and bloom biomass can disrupt aquatic food webs and act as a driver for hypoxia. Little is currently known regarding the genomic content of the Microcystis strains that form blooms or the companion heterotrophic community associated with bloom events. To address these issues, we examined the bloom-associated microbial communities in single samples from Lake Erie (North America), Lake Tai (Taihu, China), and Grand Lakes St. Marys (OH, USA) using comparative metagenomics. Together the Cyanobacteria and Proteobacteria comprised >90% of each bloom bacterial community sample, although the dominant phylum varied between systems. Relative to the existing Microcystis aeruginosa NIES 843 genome, sequences from Lake Erie and Taihu revealed a number of metagenomic islands that were absent in the environmental samples. Moreover, despite variation in the phylogenetic assignments of bloom-associated organisms, the functional potential of bloom members remained relatively constant between systems. This pattern was particularly noticeable in the genomic contribution of nitrogen assimilation genes. In Taihu, the genetic elements associated with the assimilation and metabolism of nitrogen were predominantly associated with Proteobacteria, while these functions in the North American lakes were primarily contributed to by the Cyanobacteria. Our observations build on an emerging body of metagenomic surveys describing the functional potential of microbial communities as more highly conserved than that of their phylogenetic makeup within natural systems.

  20. Appendages of the cyanobacterial cell.

    PubMed

    Schuergers, Nils; Wilde, Annegret

    2015-03-04

    Extracellular non-flagellar appendages, called pili or fimbriae, are widespread in gram-negative bacteria. They are involved in many different functions, including motility, adhesion, biofilm formation, and uptake of DNA. Sequencing data for a large number of cyanobacterial genomes revealed that most of them contain genes for pili synthesis. However, only for a very few cyanobacteria structure and function of these appendages have been analyzed. Here, we review the structure and function of type IV pili in Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 and analyze the distribution of type IV pili associated genes in other cyanobacteria. Further, we discuss the role of the RNA-chaperone Hfq in pilus function and the presence of genes for the chaperone-usher pathway of pilus assembly in cyanobacteria.

  1. Gasification of cyanobacterial in supercritical water.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Huiwen; Zhu, Wei; Xu, Zhirong; Gong, Miao

    2014-01-01

    Cyanobacterial collected from eutrophic freshwater lakes constituted intractable waste with a rich algae biomass content. Supercritical water gasification (SCWG) was proposed to treat the cyanobacterial and to produce hydrogen for energy. The H 2 yield reached 2.92 mol/kg at reaction conditions of 500 °C, 30 min and 22 MPa; this yield accounted for 26% of the total gaseous products. Abundant ammonia and dissolved reactive phosphorous were concentrated in the liquid product, which could be recovered and used as a liquid fertilizer. Solid residue, which accounted only for about 1% of the wet weight, was mainly composed of coke and ash. The efficiency of H 2 production was better than that from other biomass, because of the abundant organic matter in cyanobacterial. Thus, cyanobacterial are an ideal biomass feedstock for H 2 production from SCWG.

  2. Harmful Algal Blooms

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Graham, Jennifer L.

    2007-01-01

    What are Harmful Algal Blooms (HABs)? Freshwater and marine harmful algal blooms (HABs) can occur anytime water use is impaired due to excessive accumulations of algae. HAB occurrence is affected by a complex set of physical, chemical, biological, hydrological, and meteorological conditions making it difficult to isolate specific causative environmental factors. Potential impairments include reduction in water quality, accumulation of malodorous scums in beach areas, algal production of toxins potent enough to poison both aquatic and terrestrial organisms, and algal production of taste-and-odor compounds that cause unpalatable drinking water and fish. HABs are a global problem, and toxic freshwater and (or) marine algae have been implicated in human and animal illness and death in over 45 countries worldwide and in at least 27 U.S. States (Yoo and others, 1995; Chorus and Bartram, 1999; Huisman and others, 2005).

  3. Trophic state and geographic gradients influence planktonic cyanobacterial diversity and distribution in New Zealand lakes.

    PubMed

    Wood, Susanna A; Maier, Marcia Y; Puddick, Jonathan; Pochon, Xavier; Zaiko, Anastasija; Dietrich, Daniel R; Hamilton, David P

    2017-02-01

    Cyanobacteria are commonly associated with eutrophic lakes, where they often form blooms and produce toxins. However, they are a ubiquitous component of phytoplankton in lakes of widely varying trophic status. We hypothesised that cyanobacterial diversity would vary among lakes of differing trophic status, but that the relative importance of geographical and hydromorphological characteristics driving these patterns would differ across trophic groups. DNA from 143 New Zealand lakes that spanned a range of geographic, hydromorphological and trophic gradients was analysed using automated rRNA intergenic spacer analysis and screened for genes involved in cyanotoxin production. Statistical analysis revealed significant delineation among cyanobacterial communities from different trophic classes. Multivariate regression indicated that geographical features (latitude, longitude and altitude) were significant in driving cyanobacterial community structure; however, partitioning of their effects varied among trophic categories. High-throughput sequencing was undertaken on selected samples to investigate their taxonomic composition. The most abundant and diverse (71 operational taxonomic units) taxon across all lake types was the picocyanobacteria genus Synechococcus Cyanotoxins (microcystins n = 23, anatoxins n = 1) were only detected in eutrophic lowland lakes. Collectively, these data infer that increasing eutrophication of lakes will have broad-scale impacts on planktonic cyanobacteria diversity and the prevalence of cyanotoxins.

  4. Phytoplankton bloom off Newfoundland

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-09-28

    NASA image acquired August 9, 2010 Phytoplankton are microscopic organisms that live in watery environments. When conditions are right, phytoplankton undergo explosive population growth, creating blooms visible from space. Such a bloom occurred in the North Atlantic Ocean, off the coast of Newfoundland in early August 2010. The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on NASA’s Terra satellite captured this natural-color image on August 9, 2010. The paisley pattern of peacock blue owes its color to phytoplankton. Phytoplankton thrive at high latitudes, especially in the spring and summer when abundant sunlight spurs photosynthesis, and relatively calm seas allow the tiny organisms to congregate in sunlit waters. Blooms can last for weeks even though an individual phytoplankton lifespan may be just a few days. NASA/GSFC/Jeff Schmaltz/MODIS Land Rapid Response Team Click here to see more images from MODIS NASA Goddard Space Flight Center is home to the nation's largest organization of combined scientists, engineers and technologists that build spacecraft, instruments and new technology to study the Earth, the sun, our solar system, and the universe. Follow us on Twitter Join us on Facebook

  5. Structure and Effects of Cyanobacterial Lipopolysaccharides

    PubMed Central

    Durai, Prasannavenkatesh; Batool, Maria; Choi, Sangdun

    2015-01-01

    Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is a component of the outer membrane of mainly Gram-negative bacteria and cyanobacteria. The LPS molecules from marine and terrestrial bacteria show structural variations, even among strains within the same species living in the same environment. Cyanobacterial LPS has a unique structure, since it lacks heptose and 3-deoxy-d-manno-octulosonic acid (also known as keto-deoxyoctulosonate (KDO)), which are present in the core region of common Gram-negative LPS. In addition, the cyanobacterial lipid A region lacks phosphates and contains odd-chain hydroxylated fatty acids. While the role of Gram-negative lipid A in the regulation of the innate immune response through Toll-like Receptor (TLR) 4 signaling is well characterized, the role of the structurally different cyanobacterial lipid A in TLR4 signaling is not well understood. The uncontrolled inflammatory response of TLR4 leads to autoimmune diseases such as sepsis, and thus the less virulent marine cyanobacterial LPS molecules can be effective to inhibit TLR4 signaling. This review highlights the structural comparison of LPS molecules from marine cyanobacteria and Gram-negative bacteria. We discuss the potential use of marine cyanobacterial LPS as a TLR4 antagonist, and the effects of cyanobacterial LPS on humans and marine organisms. PMID:26198237

  6. Structure and Effects of Cyanobacterial Lipopolysaccharides.

    PubMed

    Durai, Prasannavenkatesh; Batool, Maria; Choi, Sangdun

    2015-07-07

    Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is a component of the outer membrane of mainly Gram-negative bacteria and cyanobacteria. The LPS molecules from marine and terrestrial bacteria show structural variations, even among strains within the same species living in the same environment. Cyanobacterial LPS has a unique structure, since it lacks heptose and 3-deoxy-d-manno-octulosonic acid (also known as keto-deoxyoctulosonate (KDO)), which are present in the core region of common Gram-negative LPS. In addition, the cyanobacterial lipid A region lacks phosphates and contains odd-chain hydroxylated fatty acids. While the role of Gram-negative lipid A in the regulation of the innate immune response through Toll-like Receptor (TLR) 4 signaling is well characterized, the role of the structurally different cyanobacterial lipid A in TLR4 signaling is not well understood. The uncontrolled inflammatory response of TLR4 leads to autoimmune diseases such as sepsis, and thus the less virulent marine cyanobacterial LPS molecules can be effective to inhibit TLR4 signaling. This review highlights the structural comparison of LPS molecules from marine cyanobacteria and Gram-negative bacteria. We discuss the potential use of marine cyanobacterial LPS as a TLR4 antagonist, and the effects of cyanobacterial LPS on humans and marine organisms.

  7. Termination of a toxic Alexandrium bloom with hydrogen peroxide.

    PubMed

    Burson, Amanda; Matthijs, Hans C P; de Bruijne, Wilco; Talens, Renee; Hoogenboom, Ron; Gerssen, Arjen; Visser, Petra M; Stomp, Maayke; Steur, Kees; van Scheppingen, Yvonne; Huisman, Jef

    2014-01-01

    The dinoflagellate Alexandrium ostenfeldii is a well-known harmful algal species that can potentially cause paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP). Usually A. ostenfeldii occurs in low background concentrations only, but in August of 2012 an exceptionally dense bloom of more than 1millioncellsL(-1) occurred in the brackish Ouwerkerkse Kreek in The Netherlands. The A. ostenfeldii bloom produced both saxitoxins and spirolides, and is held responsible for the death of a dog with a high saxitoxin stomach content. The Ouwerkerkse Kreek routinely discharges its water into the adjacent Oosterschelde estuary, and an immediate reduction of the bloom was required to avoid contamination of extensive shellfish grounds. Previously, treatment of infected waters with hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) successfully suppressed cyanobacterial blooms in lakes. Therefore, we adapted this treatment to eradicate the Alexandrium bloom using a three-step approach. First, we investigated the required H2O2 dosage in laboratory experiments with A. ostenfeldii. Second, we tested the method in a small, isolated canal adjacent to the Ouwerkerkse Kreek. Finally, we brought 50mgL(-1) of H2O2 into the entire creek system with a special device, called a water harrow, for optimal dispersal of the added H2O2. Concentrations of both vegetative cells and pellicle cysts declined by 99.8% within 48h, and PSP toxin concentrations in the water were reduced below local regulatory levels of 15μgL(-1). Zooplankton were strongly affected by the H2O2 treatment, but impacts on macroinvertebrates and fish were minimal. A key advantage of this method is that the added H2O2 decays to water and oxygen within a few days, which enables rapid recovery of the system after the treatment. This is the first successful field application of H2O2 to suppress a marine harmful algal bloom, although Alexandrium spp. reoccurred at lower concentrations in the following year. The results show that H2O2 treatment provides an effective emergency

  8. Anti-cyanobacterial activity of Moringa oleifera seeds

    PubMed Central

    Beekman, Wendy

    2009-01-01

    Filtrates from crushed Moringa oleifera seeds were tested for their effects on growth and Photosystem II efficiency of the common bloom-forming cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa. M. aeruginosa populations exhibited good growth in controls and treatments with 4- and 8-mg crushed Moringa seeds per liter, having similar growth rates of 0.50 (±0.01) per day. In exposures of 20- to 160-mg crushed Moringa seeds L−1, growth rates were negative and on average −0.23 (±0.05) .day−1. Presumably, in the higher doses of 20- to 160-mg crushed seeds per liter, the cyanobacteria died, which was supported by a rapid drop in the Photosystem II efficiency (ΦPSII), while the ΦPSII was high and unaffected in 0, 4, and 8 mg L−1. High-density populations of M. aeruginosa (chlorophyll-a concentrations of ∼270 µg L−1) were reduced to very low levels within 2 weeks of exposure to ≥80-mg crushed seeds per liter. At the highest dosage of 160 mg L−1, the ΦPSII dropped to zero rapidly and remained nil during the course of the experiment (14 days). Hence, under laboratory conditions, a complete wipeout of the bloom could be achieved. This is the first study that yielded evidence for cyanobactericidal activity of filtrate from crushed Moringa seeds, suggesting that Moringa seed extracts might have a potential as an effect-oriented measure lessening cyanobacterial nuisance. PMID:20676212

  9. Inhibition of gap-junctional intercellular communication and activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases by cyanobacterial extracts--indications of novel tumor-promoting cyanotoxins?

    PubMed

    Bláha, Ludĕk; Babica, Pavel; Hilscherová, Klára; Upham, Brad L

    2010-01-01

    Toxicity and liver tumor promotion of cyanotoxins microcystins have been extensively studied. However, recent studies document that other metabolites present in the complex cyanobacterial water blooms may also have adverse health effects. In this study we used rat liver epithelial stem-like cells (WB-F344) to examine the effects of cyanobacterial extracts on two established markers of tumor promotion, inhibition of gap-junctional intercellular communication (GJIC) and activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) - ERK1/2. Extracts of cyanobacteria (laboratory cultures of Microcystis aeruginosa and Aphanizomenon flos-aquae and water blooms dominated by these species) inhibited GJIC and activated MAPKs in a dose-dependent manner (effective concentrations ranging 0.5-5mgd.w./mL). Effects were independent of the microcystin content and the strongest responses were elicited by the extracts of Aphanizomenon sp. Neither pure microcystin-LR nor cylindrospermopsin inhibited GJIC or activated MAPKs. Modulations of GJIC and MAPKs appeared to be specific to cyanobacterial extracts since extracts from green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, heterotrophic bacterium Klebsiella terrigena, and isolated bacterial lipopolysaccharides had no comparable effects. Our study provides the first evidence on the existence of unknown cyanobacterial toxic metabolites that affect in vitro biomarkers of tumor promotion, i.e. inhibition of GJIC and activation of MAPKs.

  10. Inhibition of gap-junctional intercellular communication and activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases by cyanobacterial extracts - indications of novel tumor promoting cyanotoxins?

    PubMed Central

    Bláha, Luděk; Babica, Pavel; Hilscherová, Klára; Upham, Brad L.

    2009-01-01

    Toxicity and liver tumor promotion of cyanotoxins microcystins have been extensively studied. However, recent studies document that other metabolites present in the complex cyanobacterial water blooms may also have adverse health effects. In this study we used rat liver epithelial stem-like cells (WB-F344) to examine the effects of cyanobacterial extracts on two established markers of tumor promotion, inhibition of gap-junctional intercellular communication (GJIC) and activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) – ERK1/2. Extracts of cyanobacteria (laboratory cultures of Microcystis aeruginosa and Aphanizomenon flos-aquae and water blooms dominated by these species) inhibited GJIC and activated MAPKs in a dose-dependent manner (effective concentrations ranging 0.5 - 5 mg d.w./mL). Effects were independent of the microcystin content and the strongest responses were elicited by the extracts of Aphanizomenon sp. Neither pure microcystin-LR nor cylindrospermopsin inhibited GJIC or activated MAPKs. Modulations of GJIC and MAPKs appeared to be specific to cyanobacterial extracts since extracts from green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, heterotrophic bacterium Klebsiella terrigena, and isolated bacterial lipopolysaccharides had no comparable effects. Our study provides the first evidence on the existence of unknown cyanobacterial toxic metabolites that affect in vitro biomarkers of tumor promotion, i.e. inhibition of GJIC and activation of MAPKs. PMID:19619572

  11. Phytoplankton Bloom Off Portugal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Turquoise and greenish swirls marked the presence of a large phytoplankton bloom off the coast of Portugal on April 23, 2002. This true-color image was acquired by the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), flying aboard NASA's Terra satellite. There are also several fires burning in northwest Spain, near the port city of A Coruna. Please note that the high-resolution scene provided here is 500 meters per pixel. For a copy of this scene at the sensor's fullest resolution, visit the MODIS Rapidfire site.

  12. Phytoplankton Bloom Off Portugal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Turquoise and greenish swirls marked the presence of a large phytoplankton bloom off the coast of Portugal on April 23, 2002. This true-color image was acquired by the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), flying aboard NASA's Terra satellite. There are also several fires burning in northwest Spain, near the port city of A Coruna. Please note that the high-resolution scene provided here is 500 meters per pixel. For a copy of this scene at the sensor's fullest resolution, visit the MODIS Rapidfire site.

  13. Chytrid parasitism facilitates trophic transfer between bloom-forming cyanobacteria and zooplankton (Daphnia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agha, Ramsy; Saebelfeld, Manja; Manthey, Christin; Rohrlack, Thomas; Wolinska, Justyna

    2016-10-01

    Parasites are rarely included in food web studies, although they can strongly alter trophic interactions. In aquatic ecosystems, poorly grazed cyanobacteria often dominate phytoplankton communities, leading to the decoupling of primary and secondary production. Here, we addressed the interface between predator-prey and host-parasite interactions by conducting a life-table experiment, in which four Daphnia galeata genotypes were maintained on quantitatively comparable diets consisting of healthy cyanobacteria or cyanobacteria infected by a fungal (chytrid) parasite. In four out of five fitness parameters, at least one Daphnia genotype performed better on parasitised cyanobacteria than in the absence of infection. Further treatments consisting of purified chytrid zoospores and heterotrophic bacteria suspensions established the causes of improved fitness. First, Daphnia feed on chytrid zoospores which trophically upgrade cyanobacterial carbon. Second, an increase in heterotrophic bacterial biomass, promoted by cyanobacterial decay, provides an additional food source for Daphnia. In addition, chytrid infection induces fragmentation of cyanobacterial filaments, which could render cyanobacteria more edible. Our results demonstrate that chytrid parasitism can sustain zooplankton under cyanobacterial bloom conditions, and exemplify the potential of parasites to alter interactions between trophic levels.

  14. Chytrid parasitism facilitates trophic transfer between bloom-forming cyanobacteria and zooplankton (Daphnia)

    PubMed Central

    Agha, Ramsy; Saebelfeld, Manja; Manthey, Christin; Rohrlack, Thomas; Wolinska, Justyna

    2016-01-01

    Parasites are rarely included in food web studies, although they can strongly alter trophic interactions. In aquatic ecosystems, poorly grazed cyanobacteria often dominate phytoplankton communities, leading to the decoupling of primary and secondary production. Here, we addressed the interface between predator-prey and host-parasite interactions by conducting a life-table experiment, in which four Daphnia galeata genotypes were maintained on quantitatively comparable diets consisting of healthy cyanobacteria or cyanobacteria infected by a fungal (chytrid) parasite. In four out of five fitness parameters, at least one Daphnia genotype performed better on parasitised cyanobacteria than in the absence of infection. Further treatments consisting of purified chytrid zoospores and heterotrophic bacteria suspensions established the causes of improved fitness. First, Daphnia feed on chytrid zoospores which trophically upgrade cyanobacterial carbon. Second, an increase in heterotrophic bacterial biomass, promoted by cyanobacterial decay, provides an additional food source for Daphnia. In addition, chytrid infection induces fragmentation of cyanobacterial filaments, which could render cyanobacteria more edible. Our results demonstrate that chytrid parasitism can sustain zooplankton under cyanobacterial bloom conditions, and exemplify the potential of parasites to alter interactions between trophic levels. PMID:27733762

  15. Phytotoxic effects of a natural bloom extract containing microcystins on Lycopersicon esculentum.

    PubMed

    El Khalloufi, Fatima; El Ghazali, Issam; Saqrane, Sana; Oufdou, Khalid; Vasconcelos, Vitor; Oudra, Brahim

    2012-05-01

    The cyanobacterial toxins microcystins (MC) are known to affect many processes in plants. Their presence in the water used for irrigation may have considerable impact on the survivorship, growth and development of plants. In this study, a crude extract of a toxic cyanobacterial bloom from "Lalla Takerkoust" reservoir (Morocco) was used to study the effects of extract containing MC on tomato plants (Lycopersicon esculentum). Five MC variants: MC-LR, MC-FR, MC-LY, MC-(H4)-YR and DMC-LR were identified by HPLC in the cyanobacterial extract. Exposure of the seeds to the crude extract (containing 22.24 μg MC mL(-1)) caused a reduction of germination up to 85%. Experiments showed that 30 days exposure of plant to the cyanobacterial extract containing MC caused inhibition of L. esculentum growth and productivity, as well as harmful effects on photosystem II activity, measured by Fv/Fm fluorescence. An accumulation of nutrients Na(+), K(+) and Ca(2+) was also registered. The activity of peroxidase and phenolic content indicated that the extract caused an oxidative stress. The tissue necrosis of leaves was also a consequence of MC exposure indicating a disorder in the exposed plant metabolism. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. [Usage of flocculation in emergent control of algal bloom in drinking water supplying reservoir].

    PubMed

    Xiao, Li-juan; Han, Bo-ping; Lin, Qiu-qi; Lei, La-mei

    2007-10-01

    An Anabaena circinalis bloom appeared in a reservoir for supplying drinking water in the south of China, in April 2006. Phytoplankton scums gathered and floated on the surface of the whole reservoir especially on the area of water intake, and the cell density of phytoplankton, cyanobacteria and Anabaena circinalis was as high as 7.3 x 10(7), 7.2 x 10(7), 4.1 x 10(7) cells x L(-1) respectively. To maintain drinking water supplying, an emergency program was initiated to control the cyanobacterial bloom. The zone immediately adjacent to the water intake was divided into two small zones by fishing nets and waterproof curtains to modify the water flow. Iron-based flocculants were then applied to control the algal bloom. As a result, the density of the phytoplankton decreased greatly, and at the first day the cell densities of phytoplankton, cyanobacterial, Anabaena circinalis decreased to 5.3 x 10(6), 4.7 x 10(6), 2 x 10(6) cells x L(-1) respectively, and the removal of them reached up to 93%, 94%, 95% respectively. The average of phytoplankton cell density was 1.2 x 10(7) cells x L(-1) and a highest density was 2.0 x 10(7) cells x L(-1) during the treatment from 22 to 30 April, while Chlorophyta and Bacillariophyta slightly increased. These encouraging results suggest that the flocculants used are efficient at removing Cyanobacteria.

  17. The trophic state of lake water regulates spatial-temporal variations of bloom-forming Microcystis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yinxia; Liu, Bibo; Liu, Shuaixia; Li, Dunhai

    2016-05-01

    Although biomass variations in Microcystis and microcystin have been widely reported, few studies have addressed whether different trophic states of natural lake water affect the spatial-temporal variations in abundances of microcystin-producing Microcystis in a given bloom. In this study, we used a harmful algal bloom in Chaohu Lake, eastern China, as an example to investigate the mutual relationship between different nutrient states and environmental factors, and the impact on Microcystis. Overall, cyanobacteria and Microcystis were more abundant in the middle and western parts of the lake under high nutrients levels, while in the eastern part, nutrient concentrations were low enough to limit biomass, and their fluctuations affected the contents of toxic Microcystis. Moreover, microcystin concentration was correlated positively to nutrient levels and Microcystis biomass during bloom developing in 2013 from June to August. Temporally, the cellular content of total microcystin was lowest when the bloom peaked in intensity. Our results suggest that lake eutrophication not only results in cyanobacterial blooms, but may also increase the proportion of toxic Microcystis species and their cell-bound MCs contents (i.e. microcystin cell quotas) under mild eutrophication. The present investigation provided molecular evidence for the selection of MC-producing and non-MC-producing genotypes. The current study provides new evidence advocating the monitoring of partitions of large lakes when studying cyanobacteria and toxin-contaminated freshwaters, which will be beneficial for both water agencies and water researchers.

  18. Strong effects of amoebae grazing on the biomass and genetic structure of a Microcystis bloom (Cyanobacteria).

    PubMed

    Van Wichelen, Jeroen; Van Gremberghe, Ineke; Vanormelingen, Pieter; Debeer, Ann-Eline; Leporcq, Bruno; Menzel, Diana; Codd, Geoffrey A; Descy, Jean-Pierre; Vyverman, Wim

    2010-10-01

    Despite its importance for bloom toxicity, the factors determining the population structure of cyanobacterial blooms are poorly understood. Here, we report the results of a two-year field survey of the population dynamics of Microcystis blooms in a small hypertrophic urban pond. Microscopic enumeration of Microcystis and its predators and parasites was combined with pigment and microcystin analysis and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis of the ITS rDNA region to assess population dynamics and structure. Two main Microcystis morpho- and ITS types were revealed, corresponding to M. aeruginosa and M. viridis. In both years, high population densities of naked amoebae grazing on Microcystis coincided with rapid decreases in Microcystis biomass. In one year, there was a shift from heavily infested M. aeruginosa to the less-infested M. viridis, allowing the bloom to rapidly recover. The preference of amoebae for M. aeruginosa was confirmed by grazing experiments, in which several amoeba strains were capable of grazing down a strain of M. aeruginosa, but not of M. viridis. Zooplankton and chytrid parasites appeared to be of minor importance for these strong and fast reductions in Microcystis biomass. These findings demonstrate a strong impact of small protozoan grazers on the biomass and genetic structure of Microcystis blooms.

  19. Recreational exposure to microcystins during algal blooms in two California lakes.

    PubMed

    Backer, Lorraine C; McNeel, Sandra V; Barber, Terry; Kirkpatrick, Barbara; Williams, Christopher; Irvin, Mitch; Zhou, Yue; Johnson, Trisha B; Nierenberg, Kate; Aubel, Mark; LePrell, Rebecca; Chapman, Andrew; Foss, Amanda; Corum, Susan; Hill, Vincent R; Kieszak, Stephanie M; Cheng, Yung-Sung

    2010-05-01

    We conducted a study of recreational exposure to microcystins among 81 children and adults planning recreational activities on either of three California reservoirs, two with significant, ongoing blooms of toxin-producing cyanobacteria, including Microcystis aeruginosa (Bloom Lakes), and one without a toxin-producing algal bloom (Control Lake). We analyzed water samples for algal taxonomy, microcystin concentrations, and potential respiratory viruses (adenoviruses and enteroviruses). We measured microcystins in personal air samples, nasal swabs, and blood samples. We interviewed study participants for demographic and health symptoms information. We found highly variable microcystin concentrations in Bloom Lakes (<10 microg/L to >500 microg/L); microcystin was not detected in the Control Lake. We did not detect adenoviruses or enteroviruses in any of the lakes. Low microcystin concentrations were found in personal air samples (<0.1 ng/m(3) [limit of detection]-2.89 ng/m(3)) and nasal swabs (<0.1 ng [limit of detection]-5 ng). Microcystin concentrations in the water-soluble fraction of all plasma samples were below the limit of detection (1.0 microg/L). Our findings indicate that recreational activities in water bodies that experience toxin-producing cyanobacterial blooms can generate aerosolized cyanotoxins, making inhalation a potential route of exposure. Future studies should include collecting nasal swabs to assess upper respiratory tract deposition of toxin-containing aerosols droplets.

  20. The trophic state of lake water regulates spatial-temporal variations of bloom-forming Microcystis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yinxia; Liu, Bibo; Liu, Shuaixia; Li, Dunhai

    2017-03-01

    Although biomass variations in Microcystis and microcystin have been widely reported, few studies have addressed whether different trophic states of natural lake water affect the spatial-temporal variations in abundances of microcystin-producing Microcystis in a given bloom. In this study, we used a harmful algal bloom in Chaohu Lake, eastern China, as an example to investigate the mutual relationship between different nutrient states and environmental factors, and the impact on Microcystis. Overall, cyanobacteria and Microcystis were more abundant in the middle and western parts of the lake under high nutrients levels, while in the eastern part, nutrient concentrations were low enough to limit biomass, and their fluctuations affected the contents of toxic Microcystis. Moreover, microcystin concentration was correlated positively to nutrient levels and Microcystis biomass during bloom developing in 2013 from June to August. Temporally, the cellular content of total microcystin was lowest when the bloom peaked in intensity. Our results suggest that lake eutrophication not only results in cyanobacterial blooms, but may also increase the proportion of toxic Microcystis species and their cell-bound MCs contents (i.e. microcystin cell quotas) under mild eutrophication. The present investigation provided molecular evidence for the selection of MC-producing and non-MC-producing genotypes. The current study provides new evidence advocating the monitoring of partitions of large lakes when studying cyanobacteria and toxin-contaminated freshwaters, which will be beneficial for both water agencies and water researchers.

  1. North Atlantic Bloom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    Reminiscent of the distinctive swirls in a Van Gogh painting, millions of microscopic plants color the waters of the North Atlantic with strokes of blue, turquoise, green, and brown. Fed by nutrients that have built up during the winter and the long, sunlit days of late spring and early summer, the cool waters of the North Atlantic come alive every year with a vivid display of color. The microscopic plants, called phytoplankton, that give the water this color are the base of the marine food chain. Some species of phytoplankton are coated with scales of calcium (chalk), which turn the water electric blue. Chlorophyll and other light-capturing pigments in others give the water a deep green hue. The proliferation of many different species in various stages of growth and decay provides many nuances of color in this concentrated bloom. The bloom stretches across hundreds of kilometers, well beyond the edges of this photo-like image, captured on June 23, 2007, by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) flying aboard NASA's Aqua satellite. The upper left edge of the image is bounded by Greenland. Iceland is in the upper right. Plumes of dust are blowing off the island, probably adding nutrients to the surface waters to its south. NASA image courtesy Norman Kuring, Ocean Color Group at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center

  2. North Atlantic Bloom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    Reminiscent of the distinctive swirls in a Van Gogh painting, millions of microscopic plants color the waters of the North Atlantic with strokes of blue, turquoise, green, and brown. Fed by nutrients that have built up during the winter and the long, sunlit days of late spring and early summer, the cool waters of the North Atlantic come alive every year with a vivid display of color. The microscopic plants, called phytoplankton, that give the water this color are the base of the marine food chain. Some species of phytoplankton are coated with scales of calcium (chalk), which turn the water electric blue. Chlorophyll and other light-capturing pigments in others give the water a deep green hue. The proliferation of many different species in various stages of growth and decay provides many nuances of color in this concentrated bloom. The bloom stretches across hundreds of kilometers, well beyond the edges of this photo-like image, captured on June 23, 2007, by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) flying aboard NASA's Aqua satellite. The upper left edge of the image is bounded by Greenland. Iceland is in the upper right. Plumes of dust are blowing off the island, probably adding nutrients to the surface waters to its south. NASA image courtesy Norman Kuring, Ocean Color Group at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center

  3. Phytoplankton bloom off Iceland

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-09-27

    A massive phytoplankton bloom stained the waters of the Atlantic Ocean north of Iceland with brilliant jewel tones in late summer, 2014. The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) aboard NASA’s Aqua satellite captured this true-color image on August 2. Huge colonies of the floating, plant-like organisms create swirls of green, teal and turquoise and cover over 80% of the visible ocean off the northeast coast of Iceland. Marine phytoplankton require just the right amount of sunlight, dissolved nutrients and water temperatures which are not too hot, nor too cold to spark explosive reproduction and result in blooms which can cover hundreds of square kilometers. Phytoplankton form the base of the marine food chain, and are a rich food source for zooplankton, fish and other marine species. Some species, however, can deplete the water of oxygen and may become toxic to marine life. Credit: NASA/GSFC/Jeff Schmaltz/MODIS Land Rapid Response Team NASA image use policy. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center enables NASA’s mission through four scientific endeavors: Earth Science, Heliophysics, Solar System Exploration, and Astrophysics. Goddard plays a leading role in NASA’s accomplishments by contributing compelling scientific knowledge to advance the Agency’s mission. Follow us on Twitter Like us on Facebook Find us on Instagram

  4. Estimating the risk of cyanobacterial occurrence using an index integrating meteorological factors: application to drinking water production.

    PubMed

    Ndong, Mouhamed; Bird, David; Nguyen-Quang, Tri; de Boutray, Marie-Laure; Zamyadi, Arash; Vinçon-Leite, Brigitte; Lemaire, Bruno J; Prévost, Michèle; Dorner, Sarah

    2014-06-01

    The sudden appearance of toxic cyanobacteria (CB) blooms is still largely unpredictable in waters worldwide. Many post-hoc explanations for CB bloom occurrence relating to physical and biochemical conditions in lakes have been developed. As potentially toxic CB can accumulate in drinking water treatment plants and disrupt water treatment, there is a need for water treatment operators to determine whether conditions are favourable for the proliferation and accumulation of CB in source waters in order to adjust drinking water treatment accordingly. Thus, a new methodology with locally adaptable variables is proposed in order to have a single index, f(p), related to various environmental factors such as temperature, wind speed and direction. The index is used in conjunction with real time monitoring data to determine the probability of CB occurrence in relation to meteorological factors, and was tested at a drinking water intake in Missisquoi Bay, a shallow transboundary bay in Lake Champlain, Québec, Canada. These environmental factors alone were able to explain a maximum probability of 68% that a CB bloom would occur at the drinking water treatment plant. Nutrient limitation also influences CB blooms and intense blooms only occurred when the dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) to total phosphorus (TP) mass ratio was below 3. Additional monitoring of DIN and TP could be considered for these source waters prone to cyanobacterial blooms to determine periods of favourable growth. Real time monitoring and the use of the index could permit an adequate and timely response to CB blooms in drinking water sources. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. BASIC: Baltic Sea cyanobacteria. An investigation of the structure and dynamics of water blooms of cyanobacteria in the Baltic Sea—responses to a changing environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stal, Lucas J.; Albertano, Patrizia; Bergman, Birgitta; Bröckel, Klaus von; Gallon, John R.; Hayes, Paul K.; Sivonen, Kaarina; Walsby, Anthony E.

    2003-11-01

    The blooms of cyanobacteria that develop each summer in the Baltic Sea are composed of two functional groups, namely the small-sized picocyanobacteria ( Synechococcus sp.) and the larger, colony-forming, filamentous N 2-fixing cyanobacteria. The former encompassed both red (phycoerythrin-rich) and blue-green (phycocyanin-rich) species. The majority of the picocyanobacteria measured less than 1 μm and this size fraction comprised as much as 80% of the total cyanobacterial biomass and contributed as much as 50% of the total primary production of a cyanobacterial bloom. The picocyanobacteria are incapable of fixing N 2, do not possess gas vesicles and are not toxic. However, a small filamentous Pseudanabaena sp. that could potentially fix N 2 was isolated from the picocyanobacteria fraction. The larger cyanobacteria may form surface scums because they possess gas vesicles that make them buoyant. Although their biomass was less than the picocyanobacteria, they therefore form the more conspicuous and nuisance-forming part of the bloom. The larger cyanobacteria were composed mainly of three different species: Nodularia spumigena, Aphanizomenon flos-aquae and Anabaena sp. These all belong to the heterocystous, N 2-fixing cyanobacteria. N. spumigena and A. flos-aquae were the dominant species; only N. spumigena was toxic. Although individual Nodularia filaments showed a range of different phenotypes, they all belong to one species as judged from 16S rDNA sequencing. Through determination of the genotypes of many individual Nodularia filaments, it was shown that this population was not clonal and that horizontal exchange of genetic information occurs. N. spumigena and A. flos-aquae were different with respect to their photosynthetic and N 2-fixing potentials. Depending on prevailing environmental conditions, these differences would promote the proliferation of one species over the other and hence would determine overall the toxicity of a bloom. Daily integrals of photon

  6. Modelling coccolithophorids blooms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasquer, B.; Laruelle, G.; Levu, B.; Lancelot, C.

    2003-04-01

    Conditions (light, temperature, nutrients) which prevail for coccolithophorids blooms and related export production in marine waters are investigated with a mechanistic model integrated to the existing two-phytotaxons (diatoms and nanoflagellates) SWAMCO model. Based on the analysis of existing physiological laboratory and field data, the added module describes explicitly the growth and calcification processes as well as the sinking export of CaCO_3. Basically, coccolithophorids cells are divided into organic and inorganic pools represented respectively by three (functional cellular constituents, monomeric substrates and reserve products) and two (attached and free coccoliths) state variables. Temperature, light and nutrients regulate biomass production with optimal specific rate of photosynthesis set to 0.14 per hour and maximum specific growth rate to 1.9 per day. Calcification, considered as a temperature dependant process, is directly dependent to the energetic status of the cell and thus indirectly linked to photosynthesis. The number of coccoliths per cell is limited up to a maximum of 20 coccoliths which corresponds to one layer. Coccoliths in excess are released as free liths in the ambient. The three phytoplankton groups are distinguished on the base of their iron requirements and loss processes. Coccolithophorids loss is due to grazing by microzooplankton while both coccolithophorids and liths are involved in the aggregation process. Values adopted for half-saturation constant of iron uptake and Fe:C-F ratio (in functional cellular constituent) are 0.74 μM per cubic meters and 30 μmole per mole respectively. The model is calibrated throughout application to sites where coccolithophorids are blooming. Additional model scenarios allow to determine where and when coccolithophorids are expected to grow.

  7. Cyanobacterial KnowledgeBase (CKB), a Compendium of Cyanobacterial Genomes and Proteomes

    PubMed Central

    Mohandass, Shylajanaciyar; Varadharaj, Sangeetha; Thilagar, Sivasudha; Abdul Kareem, Kaleel Ahamed; Dharmar, Prabaharan; Gopalakrishnan, Subramanian; Lakshmanan, Uma

    2015-01-01

    Cyanobacterial KnowledgeBase (CKB) is a free access database that contains the genomic and proteomic information of 74 fully sequenced cyanobacterial genomes belonging to seven orders. The database also contains tools for sequence analysis. The Species report and the gene report provide details about each species and gene (including sequence features and gene ontology annotations) respectively. The database also includes cyanoBLAST, an advanced tool that facilitates comparative analysis, among cyanobacterial genomes and genomes of E. coli (prokaryote) and Arabidopsis (eukaryote). The database is developed and maintained by the Sub-Distributed Informatics Centre (sponsored by the Department of Biotechnology, Govt. of India) of the National Facility for Marine Cyanobacteria, a facility dedicated to marine cyanobacterial research. CKB is freely available at http://nfmc.res.in/ckb/index.html. PMID:26305368

  8. Molecular Insights Into a Dinoflagellate Bloom Imply Bacterial Cultivation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, W.; Hall, N.; Schruth, D.; Paerl, H. W.; Marchetti, A.

    2016-02-01

    In coastal waters, an increase in frequency and intensity of algal blooms worldwide has recently been observed primarily due to eutrophication, with further increases predicted as a consequence of climate change. In many marine habitats most impacted by human activities, efforts have been made to prevent conditions that promote harmful algal blooms, or HABs, although progress is limited, due in part to our current lack of understanding of the environmental and cellular processes that promote and propagate these blooms. Comparative metatranscriptomics was used to investigate the underlying molecular mechanisms associated with a dinoflagellate bloom in a highly eutrophied estuarine system. Here we show that under bloom conditions, there is increased expression of metabolic pathways indicative of rapidly growing cells, including energy production, carbon metabolism, transporters and synthesis of nucleic acids and cellular membrane components. In addition, there is a prominence of highly expressed genes involved in synthesis of membrane-associated molecules, including those for the production of glycosaminoglycans (GAGs), which may serve roles in nutrient acquisition and/or cell surface adhesion. Biotin and thiamine synthesis genes also increased expression along with several cobalamin biosynthesis-associated genes that suggests processing of B12 intermediates by dinoflagellates. The patterns in gene expression observed are consistent with bloom-forming dinoflagellates eliciting a cellular response to facilitate interactions with their surrounding bacterial consortium, possibly in an effort to cultivate for enhancement of vitamin and nutrient exchanges and/or direct consumption. Our findings provide potential molecular targets for HAB detection and remediation efforts.

  9. Late Blooming or Language Problem?

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Swallowing / Disorders and Diseases Late Blooming or Language Problem? Parents are smart. They listen to their ... or not their child is developing speech and language at a normal rate. If parents think that ...

  10. Further Verification of Bloom's Taxonomy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Nancy

    1976-01-01

    Tests a curriculum designed to teach fifth and sixth grade students system dynamics thinking, an orientation that is congruent with the fourth and fifth levels of Bloom's "Taxonomy of Educational Objectives: Cognitive Domain".

  11. Chlorophyll Blooms in the Oligotropic Gyres: Ocean oases?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, C.; Maximenko, N.

    2005-12-01

    Ocean color images from the SeaWiFS satellite have revealed that large blooms of chlorophyll sometimes develop in late summer northeast of Hawaii in the oligotrophic Pacific. While these blooms are a recurrent feature, appearing almost every year, their existence was only recently discovered from satellite imagery of ocean color. They have been observed in 11 of 16 years of satellite ocean color data (CZCS, OCTS and SeaWiFS), can last up to 4-5 months, and can get as big as the state of California. Since the blooms have never been purposely sampled, it remains uncertain what species they are composed of, what mechanisms supply nutrients to support the elevated biomass, and what their impacts are on higher trophic levels. However, conventional scenarios of upwelled nutrients or enhanced mixing deepening the mixed layer into the nutricline do not seem to be operable. Instead, research has suggested that the source of new nutrients is biologically mediated, either by nitrogen fixing organisms, or by the vertical migration of diatom mats below the nutricline. Physical dynamics affect the blooms on a basin-wide scale. The blooms only appear in the eastern gyre of the Pacific, a closed anticyclonic gyre that has enhanced convergence relative to the rest of the Pacific, suggesting that blooms develop in part from a large-scale aggregation of the buoyant organisms proposed to be associated with them. While these proposed biological and physical dynamics are speculative, if similar blooms appear in other oceans, analysis of the common features of their physical environments will help to better pinpoint the physical forcings involved. Analysis of the global fields of SeaWiFS satellite chlorophyll shows that while not nearly as common as in the North Pacific, potentially similar blooms occur in the North and South Atlantic, and the North Indian Oceans, but not in the S. Pacific. However, unlike in the N. Pacific, these blooms are not always associated with strong convergence

  12. Effects of increasing nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations on phytoplankton community growth and toxicity during Planktothrix blooms in Sandusky Bay, Lake Erie.

    PubMed

    Davis, Timothy W; Bullerjahn, George S; Tuttle, Taylor; McKay, Robert Michael; Watson, Susan B

    2015-06-16

    Sandusky Bay experiences annual toxic cyanobacterial blooms dominated by Planktothrix agardhii/suspensa. To further understand the environmental drivers of these events, we evaluated changes in the growth response and toxicity of the Planktothrix-dominated blooms to nutrient amendments with orthophosphate (PO4) and inorganic and organic forms of dissolved nitrogen (N; ammonium (NH4), nitrate (NO3) and urea) over the bloom season (June - October). We complemented these with a metagenomic analysis of the planktonic microbial community. Our results showed that bloom growth and microcystin (MC) concentrations responded more frequently to additions of dissolved N than PO4, and that the dual addition of NH4 + PO4 and Urea + PO4 yielded the highest MC concentrations in 54% of experiments. Metagenomic analysis confirmed that P. agardhii/suspensa was the primary MC producer. The phylogenetic distribution of nifH revealed that both heterocystous cyanobacteria and heterotrophic proteobacteria had the genetic potential for N2 fixation in Sandusky Bay. These results suggest that as best management practices are developed for P reductions in Sandusky Bay, managers must be aware of the negative implications of not managing N loading into this system as N may significantly impact cyanobacterial bloom size and toxicity.

  13. First Report of a Toxic Nodularia spumigena (Nostocales/ Cyanobacteria) Bloom in Sub-Tropical Australia. I. Phycological and Public Health Investigations

    PubMed Central

    McGregor, Glenn B.; Stewart, Ian; Sendall, Barbara C.; Sadler, Ross; Reardon, Karen; Carter, Steven; Wruck, Dan; Wickramasinghe, Wasa

    2012-01-01

    Cyanobacterial blooms represent one of the most conspicuous and widespread waterborne microbial hazards to human and ecosystem health. Investigation of a cyanobacterial bloom in a shallow brackish water recreational cable ski lake in south-eastern Queensland, Australia revealed the dominance of the toxigenic species Nodularia spumigena. The bloom spanned three months, during which time cell concentrations exceeded human guideline thresholds for recreational risk, and concentrations of the hepatotoxic cyanotoxin nodularin exceeded 200 µg L−1. Cyanotoxin origin and identification was confirmed by amplification of the ndaF-specific PCR product and sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. From the limited data available leading up to, and throughout the bloom, it was not possible to establish the set of causative factors responsible for its occurrence. However a combination of factors including salinity, hydraulic retention time and nutrient status associated with an extended period of drought are likely to have contributed. This was the first known occurrence of this species in bloom proportions from sub-tropical Australia and as such represents a hitherto uncharacterized risk to human and ecosystem health. It highlights the need for adaptive monitoring regimes to ensure a comprehensive understanding of the potentially toxic cyanobacteria likely to inhabit any given region. Such monitoring needs to recognize that cyanobacteria have a significant capacity for range expansion that has been facilitated by recent changes in global climate. PMID:22851951

  14. Black Sea in Bloom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This true-color image shows bright, turquoise-colored swirls across the surface of the Black Sea, signifying the presence of a large phytoplankton bloom. Scientists have observed similar blooms recurring annually, roughly this same time of year. The Sea of Azov, which is the smaller body of water located just north of the Black Sea in this image, also shows a high level of biological activity currently ongoing. The brownish pixels in the Azov are probably sediments carried in from high waters upstream. This scene was acquired by the Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS), flying aboard the OrbView-2 satellite, on May 4, 2002. According to the Black Sea Environment Programme's Marine Hydrophysical Institute, the Black Sea is 'one of the marine areas of the world most damaged by human activities.' The coastal zone around these Eastern European inland water bodies is densely populated-supporting a permanent population of roughly 16 million people and another 4 million tourists each year. Six countries border with the Black Sea, including Ukraine to the north, Russia and Georgia to the east, Turkey to the south, and Bulgaria and Romania to the west. Because it is isolated from the world's oceans, and because there is an extensive drainage network of rivers that empty into it, the Black Sea has a unique and delicate water balance which is very important for supporting its marine ecosystem. Of particular concern to scientists is the salinity, water level, and nutrient levels of the Black Sea's waters, all of which are, unfortunately, being impacted by human activities. Within the last three decades the combination of increased nutrient loads from human sources together with pollution and over-harvesting of fisheries has resulted in a sharp decline in water quality. Scientists from each of the Black Sea's bordering nations are currently working together to study the issues and formulate a joint, international strategy for saving this unique marine ecosystem

  15. UVB Radiation as a Potential Selective Factor Favoring Microcystin Producing Bloom Forming Cyanobacteria

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Yi; Song, Lirong; Sedmak, Bojan

    2013-01-01

    Due to the stratospheric ozone depletion, several organisms will become exposed to increased biologically active UVB (280–320 nm) radiation, not only at polar but also at temperate and tropical latitudes. Bloom forming cyanobacteria are exposed to UVB radiation on a mass scale, particularly during the surface bloom and scum formation that can persist for long periods of time. All buoyant species of cyanobacteria are at least periodically exposed to higher irradiation during their vertical migration to the surface that usually occurs several times a day. The aim of this study is to assess the influence on cyanobacteria of UVB radiation at realistic environmental intensities. The effects of two UVB intensities of 0.5 and 0.99 W/m2 in up to 0.5 cm water depth were studied in vitro on Microcystis aeruginosa strains, two microcystin producing and one non-producing. After UVB exposure their ability to proliferate was estimated by cell counting, while cell fitness and integrity were evaluated using light microscopy, autofluorescence and immunofluorescence. Gene damage was assessed by TUNEL assay and SYBR Green staining of the nucleoide area. We conclude that UVB exposure causes damage to the genetic material, cytoskeletal elements, higher sedimentation rates and consequent cell death. In contrast to microcystin producers (PCC7806 and FACHB905), the microcystin non-producing strain PCC7005 is more susceptible to the deleterious effects of radiation, with weak recovery ability. The ecological relevance of the results is discussed using data from eleven years’ continuous UVB radiation measurements within the area of Ljubljana city (Slovenia, Central Europe). Our results suggest that increased solar radiation in temperate latitudes can have its strongest effect during cyanobacterial bloom formation in spring and early summer. UVB radiation in this period may significantly influence strain composition of cyanobacterial blooms in favor of microcystin producers. PMID

  16. UVB radiation as a potential selective factor favoring microcystin producing bloom forming Cyanobacteria.

    PubMed

    Ding, Yi; Song, Lirong; Sedmak, Bojan

    2013-01-01

    Due to the stratospheric ozone depletion, several organisms will become exposed to increased biologically active UVB (280-320 nm) radiation, not only at polar but also at temperate and tropical latitudes. Bloom forming cyanobacteria are exposed to UVB radiation on a mass scale, particularly during the surface bloom and scum formation that can persist for long periods of time. All buoyant species of cyanobacteria are at least periodically exposed to higher irradiation during their vertical migration to the surface that usually occurs several times a day. The aim of this study is to assess the influence on cyanobacteria of UVB radiation at realistic environmental intensities. The effects of two UVB intensities of 0.5 and 0.99 W/m(2) in up to 0.5 cm water depth were studied in vitro on Microcystis aeruginosa strains, two microcystin producing and one non-producing. After UVB exposure their ability to proliferate was estimated by cell counting, while cell fitness and integrity were evaluated using light microscopy, autofluorescence and immunofluorescence. Gene damage was assessed by TUNEL assay and SYBR Green staining of the nucleoide area. We conclude that UVB exposure causes damage to the genetic material, cytoskeletal elements, higher sedimentation rates and consequent cell death. In contrast to microcystin producers (PCC7806 and FACHB905), the microcystin non-producing strain PCC7005 is more susceptible to the deleterious effects of radiation, with weak recovery ability. The ecological relevance of the results is discussed using data from eleven years' continuous UVB radiation measurements within the area of Ljubljana city (Slovenia, Central Europe). Our results suggest that increased solar radiation in temperate latitudes can have its strongest effect during cyanobacterial bloom formation in spring and early summer. UVB radiation in this period may significantly influence strain composition of cyanobacterial blooms in favor of microcystin producers.

  17. Distinguishing the cyanobacterial neurotoxin β-N-methylamino-L-alanine (BMAA) from other diamino acids.

    PubMed

    Banack, S A; Metcalf, J S; Spáčil, Z; Downing, T G; Downing, S; Long, A; Nunn, P B; Cox, P A

    2011-04-01

    β-N-methylamino-L-alanine (BMAA) is produced by diverse taxa of cyanobacteria, and has been detected by many investigators who have searched for it in cyanobacterial blooms, cultures and collections. Although BMAA is distinguishable from proteinogenic amino acids and its isomer 2,4-DAB using standard chromatographic and mass spectroscopy techniques routinely used for the analysis of amino acids, we studied whether BMAA could be reliably distinguished from other diamino acids, particularly 2,6-diaminopimelic acid which has been isolated from the cell walls of many bacterial species. We used HPLC-FD, UHPLC-UV, UHPLC-MS, and triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) to differentiate BMAA from the diamino acids 2,6-diaminopimelic acid, N-2(amino)ethylglycine, lysine, ornithine, 2,4-diaminosuccinic acid, homocystine, cystine, tryptophan, as well as other amino acids including asparagine, glutamine, and methionine methylsulfonium.

  18. [Analysis of Phytoplankton in Tsimlyansk Reservoir (RUSSIA) for the Presence of Cyanobacterial Hepato- and Neurotoxins].

    PubMed

    Sidelev, S I; Golokolenova, T B; Chernova, E N; Russkikh, I V

    2015-01-01

    Although the water bodies of southern Russia experience the most extreme effects of cyanobacterial blooms, molecular genetic data on the composition of toxigenic cyanobacteria in this region have been absent. Screening for the genes responsible for the synthesis of hepatotoxins (microcystins and cylindrospermopsin) and neurotoxins (anatoxin-a and saxitoxins) in cyanobacteria from the Tsimlyansk reservoir on the Don River was carried out. The presence of microcystin-producing Microcystis and Planktothrix populations, as well as of cyanobacteria capable of synthesis of a neurotoxin anatoxin-a was revealed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). A hypothesis of the presence of anatoxin-a-producing Planktothrix rubescens population in the phytoplankton of the Tsimlyansk reservoir is proposed. The obtained PCR data were confirmed by the results of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and liquid chromatography/mass-spectrometry (LC/MS). Anatoxin-a and five microcystin variants were identified in the phytoplankton biomass.

  19. Influence of climate changes on the blooms and toxin production of cyanobacteria in the lakes of Latvia (north-eastern Baltic Sea region)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Briede, Linda; Barda, Ieva; Purina, Ingrida

    2016-04-01

    Global climate changes have influenced lakes ecosystems resulting in prolonged vegetation season. Long term data shows the earlier warming of water in spring and later cooling in autumn. These modifications are promoting the changes of phytoplankton community from diatom and chrysophytes dominated communities towards cyanobacteria dominated communities. Cyanobacteria are well known as procariotic ancient organisms involved in the production of oxygen, however nowadays they are better known as producers of potent toxins. Long term dynamic of cyanobacterial communities were investigated in lakes Burtnieku and Aluksnes (northern Latvia). Most common cyanobacterial genus were Aphanizomenon, Anabaena, Microcystis, Planktothrix as well as Gloeotrichia known to produce hepatotoxins and neurotoxins. Seasonal toxin production of cyanobacteria was screened using ELISA kits in year 2015. Implications of prolonged cyanobacterial blooms and toxin production on lakes ecosystem are discussed.

  20. Metabolic changes in Medaka fish induced by cyanobacterial exposures in mesocosms: an integrative approach combining proteomic and metabolomic analyses.

    PubMed

    Sotton, Benoît; Paris, Alain; Le Manach, Séverine; Blond, Alain; Lacroix, Gérard; Millot, Alexis; Duval, Charlotte; Huet, Hélène; Qiao, Qin; Labrut, Sophie; Chiapetta, Giovanni; Vinh, Joelle; Catherine, Arnaud; Marie, Benjamin

    2017-06-22

    Cyanobacterial blooms pose serious threats to aquatic organisms and strongly impact the functioning of aquatic ecosystems. Due to their ability to produce a wide range of potentially bioactive secondary metabolites, so called cyanotoxins, cyanobacteria have been extensively studied in the past decades. Proteomic and metabolomic analyses provide a unique opportunity to evaluate the global response of hundreds of proteins and metabolites at a glance. In this study, we provide the first combined utilization of these methods targeted to identify the response of fish to bloom-forming cyanobacteria. Medaka fish (Oryzias latipes) were exposed for 96 hours either to a MC-producing or to a non-MC-producing strain of Microcystis aeruginosa and cellular, proteome and metabolome changes following exposure to cyanobacteria were characterized in the fish livers. The results suggest that a short-term exposure to cyanobacteria, producing or not MCs, induces sex-dependent molecular changes in medaka fish, without causing any cellular alterations. Globally, molecular entities involved in stress response, lipid metabolism and developmental processes exhibit the most contrasted changes following a cyanobacterial exposure. Moreover, it appears that proteomic and metabolomic analyses are useful tools to verify previous information and to additionally bring new horizons concerning molecular effects of cyanobacteria on fish.

  1. Kinetics of reactions between chlorine and the cyanobacterial toxins microcystins.

    PubMed

    Acero, Juan L; Rodriguez, Eva; Meriluoto, Jussi

    2005-04-01

    Blooms of cyanobacteria can give rise to the production of toxins which contaminate drinking water sources. Among the oxidants and disinfectants typically applied in waterworks, chlorine has been found to be effective for the degradation of microcystins. In the present study, unknown second-order rate constants for the reactions of microcystin-LR (MC-LR), -RR and -YR with chlorine were determined over a wide pH range. It was found that an increase of pH has a negative effect on the microcystin degradation rate. Apparent second-order rate constant for the chlorination of MC-LR at 20 degrees C varied from 475 M(-1)s(-1) at pH 4.8 to 9.8 M(-1)s(-1) at pH 8.8. From these apparent second-order rate constants, rate constants for the reactions of MC-LR with hypochlorous acid (HOCl) and hypochlorite (ClO-) were evaluated. Half-life times ranged from minutes at pH 6 to 1 h at pH 8 for a constant residual chlorine concentration of 1.0-0.5 mgl(-1), typical of oxidation pre-treatment and final disinfection. Similar reactivity with chlorine was found for MC-RR and MC-YR. Therefore, chlorination is a feasible option for microcystin degradation during oxidation and disinfection processes, and can be applied in drinking water treatment in case of cyanobacterial toxin risk if the pH is kept below 8.

  2. Specific strains of probiotic bacteria are efficient in removal of several different cyanobacterial toxins from solution.

    PubMed

    Nybom, Sonja M K; Salminen, Seppo J; Meriluoto, Jussi A O

    2008-08-01

    The ability of specific strains of probiotic bacteria to remove the pure cyanobacterial peptide toxins microcystin-LR, -RR, -LF, and a combination of microcystins from the cyanobacterial extracts Microcystis PCC 7820 and NIES 107, as well as the cyanobacterial cytotoxin cylindrospermopsin, from aqueous solutions was assessed. The probiotic bacterial strains studied were Lactobacillus rhamnosus strains GG and LC-705, Bifidobacterium lactis strains 420 and Bb12 and Bifidobacterium longum 46, all previously shown to be effective in toxin removal. The maximum removal of microcystin-LR, 60.3%, was observed with L. rhamnosus GG, of microcystin-RR, 62.8%, and microcystin-LF, 77.4%, with L. rhamnosus LC-705, and of cylindrospermopsin, 31.6%, with B. longum 46 (toxin concentration 100mugL(-1), 37 degrees C, 24h). Several microcystins could be removed simultaneously as observed by removal of microcystins present in the cyanobacterial extracts. A combination of three probiotic strains enhanced their removal ability as compared to the removal properties of the individual strains. We conclude that specific strains of probiotic bacteria are effective in elimination of different cyanotoxins from solution.

  3. Avian vacuolar myelinopathy linked to exotic aquatic plants and a novel cyanobacterial species.

    PubMed

    Wilde, Susan B; Murphy, Thomas M; Hope, Charlotte P; Habrun, Sarah K; Kempton, Jason; Birrenkott, Anna; Wiley, Faith; Bowerman, William W; Lewitus, Alan J

    2005-06-01

    Invasions of exotic species have created environmental havoc through competition and displacement of native plants and animals. The introduction of hydrilla (Hydrilla verticillata) into the United States in the 1960s has been detrimental to navigation, power generation, water intake, and water quality (McCann et al., 1996). Our field surveys and feeding studies have now implicated exotic hydrilla and associated epiphytic cyanobacterial species as a link to avian vacuolar myelinopathy (AVM), an emerging avian disease affecting herbivorous waterbirds and their avian predators. AVM, first reported in 1994, has caused the death of at least 100 bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) and thousands of American coots (Fulica americana) at 11 sites from Texas to North Carolina (Thomas et al., 1998; Rocke et al., 2002). Our working hypothesis is that the agent of this disease is an uncharacterized neurotoxin produced by a novel cyanobacterial epiphyte of the order Stigonematales. This undescribed species covers up to 95% of the surface area of leaves in reservoirs where bird deaths have occurred from the disease. In addition, this species is rare or not found on hydrilla collected at sites where AVM disease has not been diagnosed. Laboratory feeding trials and a sentinel bird study using naturally occurring blooms of cyanobacteria on hydrilla leaves and farm-raised mallard ducks (Anas platyrhynchos) induced the disease experimentally. Since 1994 AVM has been diagnosed in additional sites from Texas to North Carolina. Specific site characteristics that produce the disjunct distribution of AVM are unknown, but it is probable that the incidence of this disease will increase with the introduction of hydrilla and associated cyanobacterial species into additional ponds, lakes, and reservoirs.

  4. Monitoring Algal Blooms in a Southwestern U.S. Reservoir System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarrant, Philip; Neuer, Susanne

    2009-02-01

    In recent years, several studies have explored the potential of higher-resolution sensor data for monitoring phytoplankton primary production in coastal areas and lakes. Landsat data have been used to monitor algal blooms [Chang et al., 2004; Vincent et al., 2004], and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) 250-meter and Medium Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MERIS) full-resolution (300-meter) bands have been utilized to detect cyanobacterial blooms [Reinart and Kutser, 2006] as well as to monitor water quality [Koponen et al., 2004]. Field sampling efforts and MODIS 250-meter data are now being combined to develop a cost-effective method for monitoring water quality in a southwestern U.S. reservoir system. In the Phoenix, Ariz., metropolitan area, the Salt River reservoirs supply more than 3.5 million people, a population expected to rise to more than 6 million by 2030. Given that reservoir capacities have physical limitations, maintaining water quality will become critical as the population expands. Potentially noxious algal blooms that can release toxins and may affect water quality by modifying taste and odor have become a major concern in recent years. While frequent field sampling regimes are expensive, satellite imagery can be applied cost-effectively to monitor algal biomass trends remotely, and this information could provide early warning of blooms in these reservoirs.

  5. Sucrose in bloom-forming cyanobacteria: loss and gain of genes involved in its biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Kolman, María A; Salerno, Graciela L

    2016-02-01

    Bloom-forming cyanobacteria are widely distributed in freshwater ecosystems. To cope with salinity fluctuations, cyanobacteria synthesize compatible solutes, such as sucrose, to maintain the intracellular osmotic balance. The screening of cyanobacterial genomes revealed that homologues to sucrose metabolism-related genes only occur in few bloom-forming strains, mostly belonging to Nostocales and Stigonematales orders. Remarkably, among Chroococcales and Oscillatoriales strains, homologues were only found in M. aeruginosa PCC 7806 and Leptolyngbya boryana PCC 6306, suggesting a massive loss of sucrose metabolism in bloom-forming strains of these orders. After a complete functional characterization of sucrose genes in M. aeruginosa PCC 7806, we showed that sucrose metabolism depends on the expression of a gene cluster that defines a transcriptional unit, unique among all sucrose-containing cyanobacteria. It was also demonstrated that the expression of the encoding genes of sucrose-related proteins is stimulated by salt. In view of its ancestral origin in cyanobacteria, the fact that most bloom-forming strains lack sucrose metabolism indicates that the genes involved might have been lost during evolution. However, in a particular strain, like M. aeruginosa PCC 7806, sucrose synthesis genes were probably regained by horizontal gene transfer, which could be hypothesized as a response to salinity fluctuations. © 2015 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Remote Sensing as a Tool to Track Algal Blooms in the Great Salt Lake, Utah, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bradt, S. R.; Wurtsbaugh, W. A.; Naftz, D.; Moore, T.; Haney, J.

    2006-12-01

    The Great Salt Lake is a large hypersaline, terminal water body in northern Utah, USA. The lake has both a significant economic importance to the local community as a source of brine shrimp and mineral resources, as well as, an ecological importance to large numbers of migratory waterfowl. Due to nutrient input from sewage treatment plants, sections of the Great Salt Lake are subjected to highly eutrophic conditions. One of the main tributaries, Farmington Bay, experiences massive blooms of cyanobacteria which can reach concentrations in excess of 300 mg l-1 in the bay. Effects of these blooms can be observed stretching into the rest of the lake. The detrimental outcomes of the blooms include unsightly scums, foul odor and the danger of cyanobacterial toxins. While the blooms have an obvious effect on Farmington Bay, it is quite possible that the cyanobacteria impact a much wider area of the lake as currents move eutrophic water masses. Of particular interest is the reaction of brine shrimp to the plumes of cyanobacteria-rich water leaving Farmington Bay. We are employing remote sensing as a tool to map the distribution of algae throughout the lake and produce lake-wide maps of water quality on a regular basis. On-lake reflectance measurements have been coupled with MODIS satellite imagery to produce a time series of maps illustrating changes in algal distribution. The successes and shortcomings of our remote sensing technique will be a central topic of this presentation.

  7. Eco-epidemiological and pathological features of wildlife mortality events related to cyanobacterial bio-intoxication in the Kruger National Park, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Bengis, Roy; Govender, Danny; Lane, Emily; Myburgh, Jan; Oberholster, Paul; Buss, Peter; Prozesky, Leon; Keet, Dewald

    2016-10-31

    Over the past decade, several clustered, multispecies, wildlife mortality events occurred in the vicinity of two man-made earthen dams in the southern and south central regions of the Kruger National Park, South Africa. On field investigation, heavy cyanobacterial blooms were visible in these impoundments and analysis of water samples showed the dominance of Microcystis spp. (probably Microcystis aeruginosa). Macroscopic lesions seen at necropsy and histopathological lesions were compatible with a diagnosis of cyanobacterial intoxication. Laboratory toxicity tests and assays also confirmed the presence of significant levels of microcystins in water from the two dams. These outbreaks occurred during the dry autumn and early winter seasons when water levels in these dams were dropping, and a common feature was that all the affected dams were supporting a large number of hippopotamuses (Hippopotamus amphibius). It is hypothesised that hippopotamus' urine and faeces, together with agitation of the sediments, significantly contributed to internal loading of phosphates and nitrogen - leading to eutrophication of the water in these impoundments and subsequent cyanobacterial blooms. A major cause for concern was that a number of white rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum) were amongst the victims of these bio-intoxication events. This publication discusses the eco-epidemiology and pathology of these clustered mortalities, as well as the management options considered and eventually used to address the problem.

  8. Transfer of a cyanobacterial neurotoxin within a temperate aquatic ecosystem suggests pathways for human exposure.

    PubMed

    Jonasson, Sara; Eriksson, Johan; Berntzon, Lotta; Spácil, Zdenek; Ilag, Leopold L; Ronnevi, Lars-Olof; Rasmussen, Ulla; Bergman, Birgitta

    2010-05-18

    beta-methylamino-L-alanine (BMAA), a neurotoxic nonprotein amino acid produced by most cyanobacteria, has been proposed to be the causative agent of devastating neurodegenerative diseases on the island of Guam in the Pacific Ocean. Because cyanobacteria are widespread globally, we hypothesized that BMAA might occur and bioaccumulate in other ecosystems. Here we demonstrate, based on a recently developed extraction and HPLC-MS/MS method and long-term monitoring of BMAA in cyanobacterial populations of a temperate aquatic ecosystem (Baltic Sea, 2007-2008), that BMAA is biosynthesized by cyanobacterial genera dominating the massive surface blooms of this water body. BMAA also was found at higher concentrations in organisms of higher trophic levels that directly or indirectly feed on cyanobacteria, such as zooplankton and various vertebrates (fish) and invertebrates (mussels, oysters). Pelagic and benthic fish species used for human consumption were included. The highest BMAA levels were detected in the muscle and brain of bottom-dwelling fishes. The discovery of regular biosynthesis of the neurotoxin BMAA in a large temperate aquatic ecosystem combined with its possible transfer and bioaccumulation within major food webs, some ending in human consumption, is alarming and requires attention.

  9. Transfer of a cyanobacterial neurotoxin within a temperate aquatic ecosystem suggests pathways for human exposure

    PubMed Central

    Jonasson, Sara; Eriksson, Johan; Berntzon, Lotta; Spáčil, Zdenĕk; Ilag, Leopold L.; Ronnevi, Lars-Olof; Rasmussen, Ulla; Bergman, Birgitta

    2010-01-01

    β-methylamino-L-alanine (BMAA), a neurotoxic nonprotein amino acid produced by most cyanobacteria, has been proposed to be the causative agent of devastating neurodegenerative diseases on the island of Guam in the Pacific Ocean. Because cyanobacteria are widespread globally, we hypothesized that BMAA might occur and bioaccumulate in other ecosystems. Here we demonstrate, based on a recently developed extraction and HPLC-MS/MS method and long-term monitoring of BMAA in cyanobacterial populations of a temperate aquatic ecosystem (Baltic Sea, 2007–2008), that BMAA is biosynthesized by cyanobacterial genera dominating the massive surface blooms of this water body. BMAA also was found at higher concentrations in organisms of higher trophic levels that directly or indirectly feed on cyanobacteria, such as zooplankton and various vertebrates (fish) and invertebrates (mussels, oysters). Pelagic and benthic fish species used for human consumption were included. The highest BMAA levels were detected in the muscle and brain of bottom-dwelling fishes. The discovery of regular biosynthesis of the neurotoxin BMAA in a large temperate aquatic ecosystem combined with its possible transfer and bioaccumulation within major food webs, some ending in human consumption, is alarming and requires attention. PMID:20439734

  10. CYANOCHIP: an antibody microarray for high-taxonomical-resolution cyanobacterial monitoring.

    PubMed

    Blanco, Yolanda; Quesada, Antonio; Gallardo-Carreño, Ignacio; Aguirre, Jacobo; Parro, Victor

    2015-02-03

    Cyanobacteria are Gram-negative photosynthetic prokaryotes that are widespread on Earth. Eutrophication and global warming make some aquatic ecosystems behave as bioreactors that trigger rapid and massive cyanobacterial growth with remarkable economic and health consequences. Rapid and efficient early warning systems are required to support decisions by water body authorities. We have produced 17 specific antibodies to the most frequent cyanobacterial strains blooming in freshwater ecosystems, some of which are toxin producers. A sandwich-type antibody microarray immunoassay (CYANOCHIP) was developed for the simultaneous testing of any of the 17 strains, or other closely related strains, in field samples from different habitats (water, rocks, and sediments). We titrated and tested all of the antibodies in succession using a fluorescent sandwich microarray immunoassay. Although most showed high specificity, we applied a deconvolution method based on graph theory to disentangle the few existing cross-reactions. The CYANOCHIP sensitivity ranged from 10(2) to 10(4) cells mL(-1), with most antibodies detecting approximately 10(2) cells mL(-1). We validated the system by testing multiple isolates and crude natural samples from freshwater reservoirs and rocks, both in the laboratory and by in situ testing in the field. The results demonstrated that CYANOCHIP is a valuable tool for the sensitive and reliable detection of cyanobacteria for early warning and research purposes.

  11. Treatment of Cyanobacterial (Microcystin) Toxicosis Using Oral Cholestyramine: Case Report of a Dog from Montana

    PubMed Central

    Rankin, Kelly A.; Alroy, Karen A.; Kudela, Raphael M.; Oates, Stori C.; Murray, Michael J.; Miller, Melissa A.

    2013-01-01

    A two and a half year old spayed female Miniature Australian Shepherd presented to a Montana veterinary clinic with acute onset of anorexia, vomiting and depression. Two days prior, the dog was exposed to an algal bloom in a community lake. Within h, the animal became lethargic and anorexic, and progressed to severe depression and vomiting. A complete blood count and serum chemistry panel suggested acute hepatitis, and a severe coagulopathy was noted clinically. Feces from the affected dog were positive for the cyanobacterial biotoxin, microcystin-LA (217 ppb). The dog was hospitalized for eight days. Supportive therapy consisted of fluids, mucosal protectants, vitamins, antibiotics, and nutritional supplements. On day five of hospitalization, a bile acid sequestrant, cholestyramine, was administered orally. Rapid clinical improvement was noted within 48 h of initiating oral cholestyramine therapy. At 17 days post-exposure the dog was clinically normal, and remained clinically normal at re-check, one year post-exposure. To our knowledge, this is the first report of successful treatment of canine cyanobacterial (microcystin) toxicosis. Untreated microcystin intoxication is commonly fatal, and can result in significant liver damage in surviving animals. The clinical success of this case suggests that oral administration of cholestyramine, in combination with supportive therapy, could significantly reduce hospitalization time, cost-of-care and mortality for microcystin-poisoned animals. PMID:23888515

  12. Toxic cyanobacterial breakthrough and accumulation in a drinking water plant: a monitoring and treatment challenge.

    PubMed

    Zamyadi, Arash; MacLeod, Sherri L; Fan, Yan; McQuaid, Natasha; Dorner, Sarah; Sauvé, Sébastien; Prévost, Michèle

    2012-04-01

    The detection of cyanobacteria and their associated toxins has intensified in recent years in both drinking water sources and the raw water of drinking water treatment plants (DWTPs). The objectives of this study were to: 1) estimate the breakthrough and accumulation of toxic cyanobacteria in water, scums and sludge inside a DWTP, and 2) to determine whether chlorination can be an efficient barrier to the prevention of cyanotoxin breakthrough in drinking water. In a full scale DWTP, the fate of cyanobacteria and their associated toxins was studied after the addition of coagulant and powdered activated carbon, post clarification, within the clarifier sludge bed, after filtration and final chlorination. Elevated cyanobacterial cell numbers (4.7 × 10(6)cells/mL) and total microcystins concentrations (up to 10 mg/L) accumulated in the clarifiers of the treatment plant. Breakthrough of cells and toxins in filtered water was observed. Also, a total microcystins concentration of 2.47 μg/L was measured in chlorinated drinking water. Cyanobacterial cells and toxins from environmental bloom samples were more resistant to chlorination than results obtained using laboratory cultured cells and dissolved standard toxins. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Microcystin accumulation and biochemical responses in the edible clam Corbiculaleana P. exposed to cyanobacterial crude extract.

    PubMed

    Pham, Thanh-Luu; Shimizu, Kazuya; Kanazawa, Ayako; Gao, Yu; Dao, Thanh-Son; Utsumi, Motoo

    2016-06-01

    We investigated the accumulation and effects of cyanobacterial crude extract (CCE) containing microcystins (MCs) on the edible clam Corbiculaleana P. Toxic effects were evaluated through the activity of antioxidant and detoxification enzymes: catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and glutathione-S-transferases (GSTs) from gills, foot, mantle and remaining soft tissues. Clams were exposed to CCE containing 400μg MC-LReq/L for 10days and were then kept in toxin-free water for 5days. Clam accumulated MCs (up to 3.41±0.63μg/g dry weight (DW) of unbound MC and 0.31±0.013μg/g DW of covalently bound MC). Detoxification and antioxidant enzymes in different organs responded differently to CCE during the experiment. The activity of SOD, CAT, and GST in the gills and mantle increased in MC-treated clams. In contrast, CAT and GST activity was significantly inhibited in the foot and mostly only slightly changed in the remaining tissues. The responses of biotransformation, antioxidant enzyme activity to CCE and the fast elimination of MCs during depuration help to explain how the clam can survive for long periods (over a week) during the decay of toxic cyanobacterial blooms in nature. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. Use of in vivo phycocyanin fluorescence to monitor potential microcystin-producing cyanobacterial biovolume in a drinking water source.

    PubMed

    McQuaid, N; Zamyadi, A; Prévost, M; Bird, D F; Dorner, S

    2011-02-01

    The source water of a drinking water treatment plant prone to blooms, dominated by potential microcystin-producing cyanobacteria, was monitored for two seasons in 2007-2008. In the 2008 season, the median value for potential microcystin-producing cyanobacterial biovolume was 87% of the total phytoplankton biovolume in the untreated water of the plant. Depth profiles taken above the plant's intake identified three sampling days at high risk for the contamination of the plant's raw water with potentially toxic cyanobacteria. Chlorophyceae and Bacillariophyceae caused false positive values to be generated by the phycocyanin probe when cyanobacteria represented a small fraction of the total phytoplanktonic biovolume present. However, there was little interference with the phycocyanin probe readings by other algal species when potential microcystin-producing cyanobacteria dominated the phytoplankton of the plant's untreated water. A two-tiered method for source water monitoring, using in vivo phycocyanin fluorescence, is proposed based on (1) a significant relationship between in vivo phycocyanin fluorescence and cyanobacterial biovolume and (2) the calculated maximum potential microcystin concentration produced by dominant Microcystis sp. biovolume. This method monitors locally-generated threshold values for cyanobacterial biovolume and microcystin concentrations using in vivo phycocyanin fluorescence.

  15. Spatiotemporal Molecular Analysis of Cyanobacteria Blooms Reveals Microcystis-Aphanizomenon Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Todd R.; Beversdorf, Lucas; Chaston, Sheena D.; McMahon, Katherine D.

    2013-01-01

    Spatial and temporal variability in cyanobacterial community composition (CCC) within and between eutrophic lakes is not well-described using culture independent molecular methods. We analyzed CCC across twelve locations in four eutrophic lakes and within-lake locations in the Yahara Watershed, WI, on a weekly basis, for 5 months. Taxa were discriminated by length of MspI-digested cpcB/A intergenic spacer gene sequences and identified by comparison to a PCR-based clone library. CCC across all stations was spatially segregated by depth of sampling locations (ANOSIM R = 0.23, p < 0.001). Accordingly, CCC was correlated with thermal stratification, nitrate and soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP, R = 0.2-0.3). Spatial variability in CCC and temporal trends in taxa abundances were rarely correlative between sampling locations in the same lake indicating significant within lake spatiotemporal heterogeneity. Across all stations, a total of 37 bloom events were observed based on distinct increases in phycocyanin. Out of 97 taxa, a single Microcystis, and two different Aphanizomenon taxa were the dominant cyanobacteria detected during bloom events. The Microcystis and Aphanizomenon taxa rarely bloomed together and were significantly anti-correlated with each other at 9 of 12 stations with Pearson R values of -0.6 to -0.9 (p < 0.001). Of all environmental variables measured, nutrients, especially nitrate were significantly greater during periods of Aphanizomenon dominance while the nitrate+nitrite:SRP ratio was lower. This study shows significant spatial variability in CCC within and between lakes structured by depth of the sampling location. Furthermore, our study reveals specific genotypes involved in bloom formation. More in-depth characterization of these genotypes should lead to a better understanding of factors promoting bloom events in these lakes and more reliable bloom prediction models. PMID:24086400

  16. Role for Atlantic inflows and sea ice loss on shifting phytoplankton blooms in the Barents Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oziel, L.; Neukermans, G.; Ardyna, M.; Lancelot, C.; Tison, J.-L.; Wassmann, P.; Sirven, J.; Ruiz-Pino, D.; Gascard, J.-C.

    2017-06-01

    Phytoplankton blooms in the Barents Sea are highly sensitive to seasonal and interannual changes in sea ice extent, water mass distribution, and oceanic fronts. With the ongoing increase of Atlantic Water inflows, we expect an impact on these blooms. Here, we use a state-of-the-art collection of in situ hydrogeochemical data for the period 1998-2014, which includes ocean color satellite-derived proxies for the biomass of calcifying and noncalcifying phytoplankton. Over the last 17 years, sea ice extent anomalies were evidenced having direct consequences for the spatial extent of spring blooms in the Barents Sea. In years of minimal sea ice extent, two spatially distinct blooms were clearly observed: one along the ice edge and another in ice-free water. These blooms are thought to be triggered by different stratification mechanisms: heating of the surface layers in ice-free waters and melting of the sea ice along the ice edge. In years of maximal sea ice extent, no such spatial delimitation was observed. The spring bloom generally ended in June when nutrients in the surface layer were depleted. This was followed by a stratified and oligotrophic summer period. A coccolithophore bloom generally developed in August, but was confined only to Atlantic Waters. In these same waters, a late summer bloom of noncalcifying algae was observed in September, triggered by enhanced mixing, which replenishes surface waters with nutrients. Altogether, the 17 year time-series revealed a northward and eastward shift of the spring and summer phytoplankton blooms.

  17. Comparison of Quantitative PCR and Droplet Digital PCR Multiplex Assays for Two Genera of Bloom-Forming Cyanobacteria, Cylindrospermopsis and Microcystis.

    PubMed

    Te, Shu Harn; Chen, Enid Yingru; Gin, Karina Yew-Hoong

    2015-08-01

    The increasing occurrence of harmful cyanobacterial blooms, often linked to deteriorated water quality and adverse public health effects, has become a worldwide concern in recent decades. The use of molecular techniques such as real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) has become increasingly popular in the detection and monitoring of harmful cyanobacterial species. Multiplex qPCR assays that quantify several toxigenic cyanobacterial species have been established previously; however, there is no molecular assay that detects several bloom-forming species simultaneously. Microcystis and Cylindrospermopsis are the two most commonly found genera and are known to be able to produce microcystin and cylindrospermopsin hepatotoxins. In this study, we designed primers and probes which enable quantification of these genera based on the RNA polymerase C1 gene for Cylindrospermopsis species and the c-phycocyanin beta subunit-like gene for Microcystis species. Duplex assays were developed for two molecular techniques-qPCR and droplet digital PCR (ddPCR). After optimization, both qPCR and ddPCR assays have high linearity and quantitative correlations for standards. Comparisons of the two techniques showed that qPCR has higher sensitivity, a wider linear dynamic range, and shorter analysis time and that it was more cost-effective, making it a suitable method for initial screening. However, the ddPCR approach has lower variability and was able to handle the PCR inhibition and competitive effects found in duplex assays, thus providing more precise and accurate analysis for bloom samples.

  18. Comparison of Quantitative PCR and Droplet Digital PCR Multiplex Assays for Two Genera of Bloom-Forming Cyanobacteria, Cylindrospermopsis and Microcystis

    PubMed Central

    Te, Shu Harn; Chen, Enid Yingru

    2015-01-01

    The increasing occurrence of harmful cyanobacterial blooms, often linked to deteriorated water quality and adverse public health effects, has become a worldwide concern in recent decades. The use of molecular techniques such as real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) has become increasingly popular in the detection and monitoring of harmful cyanobacterial species. Multiplex qPCR assays that quantify several toxigenic cyanobacterial species have been established previously; however, there is no molecular assay that detects several bloom-forming species simultaneously. Microcystis and Cylindrospermopsis are the two most commonly found genera and are known to be able to produce microcystin and cylindrospermopsin hepatotoxins. In this study, we designed primers and probes which enable quantification of these genera based on the RNA polymerase C1 gene for Cylindrospermopsis species and the c-phycocyanin beta subunit-like gene for Microcystis species. Duplex assays were developed for two molecular techniques—qPCR and droplet digital PCR (ddPCR). After optimization, both qPCR and ddPCR assays have high linearity and quantitative correlations for standards. Comparisons of the two techniques showed that qPCR has higher sensitivity, a wider linear dynamic range, and shorter analysis time and that it was more cost-effective, making it a suitable method for initial screening. However, the ddPCR approach has lower variability and was able to handle the PCR inhibition and competitive effects found in duplex assays, thus providing more precise and accurate analysis for bloom samples. PMID:26025892

  19. The integration of nutrients, cyanobacterial biomass and ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This presentation is an integrated evaluation of cyanobacterial growth and toxin production, from a reservoir through drinking water treatment - where biomass and toxin removal are achieved. Data is generated by a variety of methods: online instrumentation for chlorophyll, dissolved oxygen, temperature and pH; enzyme linked immune substrate (ELISA) and liquid chromatography/mass spectrometric (LC/MS) methods for toxin analysis; microscopic methods for species identification; quantitative PCR methods for species identification; and bench-scale engineering studies for removal of toxins and biomass through drinking water treatment. This presentation is an integrated evaluation of cyanobacterial growth and toxin production, from a reservoir through drinking water treatment. The content will be useful for EPA regional office staff, state primacy personnel, state and local health personnel, drinking water treatment managers and consulting engineers.

  20. Cyanobacterial genomics for ecology and biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Hess, Wolfgang R

    2011-10-01

    Cyanobacteria are the only prokaryotes that directly convert solar energy and CO(2) into organic matter by oxygenic photosynthesis, explaining their relevance for primary production in many ecosystems and the increasing interest for biotechnology. At present, there are more than 60 cyanobacteria for which a total genome sequence is publicly available. These cyanobacteria belong to different lifestyles and origins, coming from marine and freshwater aquatic environments, as well as terrestrial and symbiotic habitats. Genome sizes vary by a factor of six, from 1.44 Mb to 9.05 Mb, with the number of reported genes ranging from 1241 to 8462. Several studies have demonstrated how these sequences could be used to successfully infer important ecological, physiological and biotechnologically relevant characteristics. However, sequences of cyanobacterial origin also comprise a significant portion of certain metagenomes. Moreover, genome analysis has been employed for culture-independent approaches and for resequencing mutant strains, a very recent tool in cyanobacterial research.

  1. Engineered Transcriptional Systems for Cyanobacterial Biotechnology

    PubMed Central

    Camsund, Daniel; Lindblad, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Cyanobacteria can function as solar-driven biofactories thanks to their ability to perform photosynthesis and the ease with which they are genetically modified. In this review, we discuss transcriptional parts and promoters available for engineering cyanobacteria. First, we go through special cyanobacterial characteristics that may impact engineering, including the unusual cyanobacterial RNA polymerase, sigma factors and promoter types, mRNA stability, circadian rhythm, and gene dosage effects. Then, we continue with discussing component characteristics that are desirable for synthetic biology approaches, including decoupling, modularity, and orthogonality. We then summarize and discuss the latest promoters for use in cyanobacteria regarding characteristics such as regulation, strength, and dynamic range and suggest potential uses. Finally, we provide an outlook and suggest future developments that would advance the field and accelerate the use of cyanobacteria for renewable biotechnology. PMID:25325057

  2. Proteomic approaches in research of cyanobacterial photosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Battchikova, Natalia; Angeleri, Martina; Aro, Eva-Mari

    2015-10-01

    Oxygenic photosynthesis in cyanobacteria, algae, and plants is carried out by a fabulous pigment-protein machinery that is amazingly complicated in structure and function. Many different approaches have been undertaken to characterize the most important aspects of photosynthesis, and proteomics has become the essential component in this research. Here we describe various methods which have been used in proteomic research of cyanobacteria, and demonstrate how proteomics is implemented into on-going studies of photosynthesis in cyanobacterial cells.

  3. Eukaryotes in Arctic and Antarctic cyanobacterial mats.

    PubMed

    Jungblut, Anne D; Vincent, Warwick F; Lovejoy, Connie

    2012-11-01

    Cyanobacterial mats are commonly found in freshwater ecosystems throughout the polar regions. Most mats are multilayered three-dimensional structures with the filamentous cyanobacteria embedded in a gel-like matrix. Although early descriptions mentioned the presence of larger organisms including metazoans living in the mats, there have been few studies specifically focused on the microbial eukaryotes, which are often small cells with few morphological features suitable for identification by microscopy. Here, we applied 18S rRNA gene clone library analysis to identify eukaryotes in cyanobacterial mat communities from both the Antarctic and the extreme High Arctic. We identified 39 ribotypes at the level of 99% sequence similarity. These consisted of taxa within algal and other protist groups including Chlorophyceae, Prasinophyceae, Ulvophyceae, Trebouxiophyceae, Bacillariophyceae, Chrysophyceae, Ciliophora, and Cercozoa. Fungi were also recovered, as were 21 metazoan ribotypes. The eukaryotic taxa appeared habitat-specific with little overlap between lake, pond, and ice shelf communities. Some ribotypes were common to both Arctic and Antarctic mats, suggesting global dispersal of these taxa and similarity in the environmental filters acting on protist communities. Many of these eukaryotic taxa likely benefit from protected, nutrient-rich microhabitats within the cyanobacterial mat environment.

  4. Thermal blooming on laser propagation in an aspirating pipe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Fuyin; Wang, Jihong; Ren, Ge; Tan, Yufeng; Zhu, Nengbing; Ai, Zhiwei

    2016-10-01

    Thermal blooming effect of gas on laser propagation can seriously degrade performance of far-field beam quality and energy distribution. Numerical simulation is carried out to study the influences of thermal blooming on laser propagation in line pipes. A physical model of thermal blooming effect of gas on laser propagation in an aspirating pipe is established. Axial flow and suction in the outlet are used to attenuate the thermal blooming effect. Based on the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) software, stable calculation of flow field is carried out first, then the optical field and the fluent field is coupling calculated by means of user defined function (UDF). The results show that radial flow is enhanced in the aspirating pipe and the index of refraction gradient caused by thermal blooming effect is decreased. It is indicated that the beam quality of the outlet is improved compared with the pipe model without aspirating. The optical path difference (OPD) distribution of the outlet is analyzed and decomposed by Zernike polynomials. It is shown that the defocus item of 4m aspirating pipe is decreased more than an order of magnitude compared with the 4m pipe without aspirating.

  5. Mesozooplankton response to iron enrichment during the diatom bloom and bloom decline in SERIES (NE Pacific)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsuda, Atsushi; Saito, Hiroaki; Nishioka, Jun; Ono, Tsuneo; Noiri, Yoshifumi; Kudo, Isao

    2006-10-01

    A mesoscale iron-fertilization experiment was carried out in the eastern subarctic Pacific during summer 2002. The iron patch was traced for 26 days after the enrichment, and the abundance and behavior of mesozooplankton was compared with those outside of the patch during the first half of the experiment (days 2-18) by Sastri and Dower [2006. Mesozooplankton community response during the SERIES iron enrichment experiment in the subarctic NE Pacific. Deep-Sea Research Part II.) and during the post-enrichment diatom bloom and its period of decline (days 15-26; this paper). The surface chlorophyll- a concentration in the patch was high between days 15 and 17 (6 mg m -3) and decreased to 1.4 mg m -3 at the end of the observation. Dominant zooplankton species in the upper 200 m were copepods: Eucalanus bungii, Pseudocalanus spp., Neocalanus plumchrus, N. cristatus, and Metridia pacifica. Species composition did not change significantly in the patch over the observation period. However, shallower distribution depths of E. bungii, N. cristatus and M. pacifica were observed in the patch during and after the diatom bloom. Especially, E. bungii was mainly distributed in the subsurface layer outside of the patch, but it was mainly in the surface mixed layer inside the patch, where it also had an enhanced development rate and increased biomass. We also propose the accumulation mechanism of zooplankton in the patch due to the upward immigration. Moreover, the abundance of the first copepodite stage of E. bungii and calyptopis larvae of euphausiids increased several fold in the patch compared to the densities outside the patch. The increases in both species are considered to be due to lowered mortality during the egg and naupliar stages, which was caused by lowered relative importance of eggs and nauplii in the diets of the suspension-feeding omnivores in the patch due to increased diatom abundance during the diatom bloom. Gut-pigment contents of dominant copepods in the patch

  6. A Zoogloea sp. associated with blooms of Anabaena flos-aquae.

    PubMed

    Caldwell, D E; Caldwell, S J

    1978-08-01

    Bacteria were found attached to the heterocysts of Aphanizomenon flos-aquae and embedded within the mucilage of both anabaena flos-aquae and Microcystis aeruginosa in freshwater plankton. Electron microscopy of thin sections preceding the peak of an Anabaena flos-aquae bloom showed that the density of bacterial cells was 7.4 X 10(5) cells/ml in the planktonic macroenvironment and 2.6 X 10(11) cells/ml within the microenvironment of cyanobacterial mucilage. The bacteria occurred in aggregates and isolation required that these be dispersed by homogenizing at 50 000 rpm with glass beads. This procedure yielded a single bacterial isolate from blooms of Anabaena flos-aquae during 2 consecutive years. The isolate was flagellated, catalase- and oxidase-positive. Gram-negative, and rod-shaped to pleomorphic. Observation that the isolate required a pH greater than 8 for consistent growth, could not grow alone on liquid media but could grow alone on the corresponding solid media, could grow in liquid media only in the presence of Anabaena, formed tough mucilagenous colonies on solid media only in the presence of Anabaena extract, and rapidly assimilated but did not respire extracellular 14C-labelled organic matter produced by Anabaena suggested that the occurrence of the bacterium in cyanobacterial mucilage was not coincidental but reflected an obligatory bacterial requirement for the biological or physicochemical microenvironment of the mucilage. The bacterial isolate occurred in three growth forms. Either as a planktonic swarmer cell (which showed a positive chemotactic response to the cyanobacterium) embedded in cyanobacterial mucilage, or embedded in its own mucilage derived, in part, from a low molecular weight (below 1300) carbohydrate secreted by the cyanobacterium. These cultural, biochemical, and ecological characteristics suggest that the isolate is a new species in the genus Zoogloea and of potential importance in phytoplankton ecology.

  7. Bloom syndrome with lung involvement.

    PubMed

    Nair, Girija; Lobo, Ivona; Jayalaksmi, T K; Uppe, Abhay; Jindal, Savita; Chandra, Abhishek; Swami, Shivani

    2009-07-01

    We report a case of a 24-year old male presented with cough and breathlessness with diabetes mellitus and diagnosed as a case of bloom syndrome. He was a product of consanguineous marriage, having short stature, dolicocephaly, polydactyly, prominent nose with telangiectasia face. The respiratory system examination revealed bilateral coarse crepitations and wheezes and the chest X-ray revealed emphysema with right middle zone inhomogenous opacity. Also, CT thorax examination revealed bilateral cystic bronchiectasis with bronchiolitis obliterans. Bloom's syndrome was diagnosed on the basis of clinical features.

  8. Blooms of cyanobacteria on the potomac river.

    PubMed

    Krogmann, D W; Butalla, R; Sprinkle, J

    1986-03-01

    Blooms of cyanobacteria have appeared on the Potomac River near Washington, DC in years of drought and low river volume. The location of the bloom may be related to tidal activity. In 1983, the bloom of Microcystis aeruginosa used ammonia as its nitrogen source and contained low levels of toxic peptides. Cells collected from this bloom proved to be homogeneous and were an excellent source material for the isolation of proteins involved in photosynthesis.

  9. Bloom, Neatby, and the Lung Fishes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Auer, John W.

    1991-01-01

    Discusses Allan Bloom's "The Closing of the American Mind" from a Canadian point of view, contending that Bloom's angry, irrational book on failures in U.S. society and higher education does not raise interesting or important ideas. Similarities and differences between Bloom and author Hilda Neatby are noted. (SM)

  10. Modulation of gap-junctional intercellular communication by a series of cyanobacterial samples from nature and laboratory cultures.

    PubMed

    Nováková, Kateřina; Babica, Pavel; Adamovský, Ondřej; Bláha, Luděk

    2011-07-01

    Cyanobacterial extracts have been recently shown to alter two in vitro biomarkers of tumor promotion, namely to cause inhibition of gap-junctional intercellular communication (GJIC) and activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (Blaha et al., 2010a). In the present study, we investigated GJIC-inhibitory potencies of 10 laboratory strains representing common water bloom-forming cyanobacteria (Anabaena, Aphanizomenon, Cylindrospermopsis, Microcystis and Planktothrix) and six natural water bloom samples (dominated by Aphanizomenon sp. or Microcystis). The most pronounced inhibitions of GJIC in a model rat liver epithelial cell line WB-F344 were caused by methanolic extracts of Anabaena flos-aquae UTEX 1444, Aphanizomenon flos-aquae SAG 31.87, Aphanizomenon gracile RCX 06, Microcystis aeruginosa PCC 7806, Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii SAG 1.97, Planktothrix agardhii CCALA 159 and SAG 32.79, whereas weaker effects were induced by Aphanizomenon klebahnii CCALA 009 and no inhibition was induced by extracts of Aph. flos-aquae PCC 7905 and Aph. gracile SAG 31.79. Exudates of the laboratory cultured strains concentrated by solid phase extraction also induced species-specific inhibitory effects, but they did not necessarily correlate with the inhibitory potencies of extracts from the corresponding species. Interestingly, the GJIC-inhibitory effects may not be restricted to cyanobacteria, since exudates of two green alga species also affected GJIC, although their extracts caused no effects. The extracts from different natural water blooms inhibited GJIC with different potencies without apparent relation to bloom-species composition. Since the observed effects on GJIC did not correlate with the content of cyanotoxins microcystins and cylindrospermopsin in the tested samples, they were most likely induced by unknown compound(s). Our results indicate that putative tumor promoting compound(s) could be associated with different species of bloom-forming cyanobacteria, but

  11. Use of a Generalized Additive Model to Investigate Key Abiotic Factors Affecting Microcystin Cellular Quotas in Heavy Bloom Areas of Lake Taihu

    PubMed Central

    Tao, Min; Xie, Ping; Chen, Jun; Qin, Boqiang; Zhang, Dawen; Niu, Yuan; Zhang, Meng; Wang, Qing; Wu, Laiyan

    2012-01-01

    Lake Taihu is the third largest freshwater lake in China and is suffering from serious cyanobacterial blooms with the associated drinking water contamination by microcystin (MC) for millions of citizens. So far, most studies on MCs have been limited to two small bays, while systematic research on the whole lake is lacking. To explain the variations in MC concentrations during cyanobacterial bloom, a large-scale survey at 30 sites across the lake was conducted monthly in 2008. The health risks of MC exposure were high, especially in the northern area. Both Microcystis abundance and MC cellular quotas presented positive correlations with MC concentration in the bloom seasons, suggesting that the toxic risks during Microcystis proliferations were affected by variations in both Microcystis density and MC production per Microcystis cell. Use of a powerful predictive modeling tool named generalized additive model (GAM) helped visualize significant effects of abiotic factors related to carbon fixation and proliferation of Microcystis (conductivity, dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC), water temperature and pH) on MC cellular quotas from recruitment period of Microcystis to the bloom seasons, suggesting the possible use of these factors, in addition to Microcystis abundance, as warning signs to predict toxic events in the future. The interesting relationship between macrophytes and MC cellular quotas of Microcystis (i.e., high MC cellular quotas in the presence of macrophytes) needs further investigation. PMID:22384128

  12. Use of a generalized additive model to investigate key abiotic factors affecting microcystin cellular quotas in heavy bloom areas of Lake Taihu.

    PubMed

    Tao, Min; Xie, Ping; Chen, Jun; Qin, Boqiang; Zhang, Dawen; Niu, Yuan; Zhang, Meng; Wang, Qing; Wu, Laiyan

    2012-01-01

    Lake Taihu is the third largest freshwater lake in China and is suffering from serious cyanobacterial blooms with the associated drinking water contamination by microcystin (MC) for millions of citizens. So far, most studies on MCs have been limited to two small bays, while systematic research on the whole lake is lacking. To explain the variations in MC concentrations during cyanobacterial bloom, a large-scale survey at 30 sites across the lake was conducted monthly in 2008. The health risks of MC exposure were high, especially in the northern area. Both Microcystis abundance and MC cellular quotas presented positive correlations with MC concentration in the bloom seasons, suggesting that the toxic risks during Microcystis proliferations were affected by variations in both Microcystis density and MC production per Microcystis cell. Use of a powerful predictive modeling tool named generalized additive model (GAM) helped visualize significant effects of abiotic factors related to carbon fixation and proliferation of Microcystis (conductivity, dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC), water temperature and pH) on MC cellular quotas from recruitment period of Microcystis to the bloom seasons, suggesting the possible use of these factors, in addition to Microcystis abundance, as warning signs to predict toxic events in the future. The interesting relationship between macrophytes and MC cellular quotas of Microcystis (i.e., high MC cellular quotas in the presence of macrophytes) needs further investigation.

  13. Alaska and Bering Sea Bloom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Alaska was relatively clear as was part of the Bering Sea where the aquamarine bloom is still visible in this SeaWiFS image. Credit: Provided by the SeaWiFS Project, NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, and ORBIMAGE

  14. Allan Bloom, America, and Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    West, Thomas

    2000-01-01

    Refutes the claims of Allan Bloom that the source of the problem with today's universities is modern philosophy, that the writings and ideas of Hobbes and Locke planted the seeds of relativism in American culture, and that the cure is Great Books education. Suggests instead that America's founding principles are the only solution to the failure of…

  15. Allan Bloom, America, and Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    West, Thomas

    2000-01-01

    Refutes the claims of Allan Bloom that the source of the problem with today's universities is modern philosophy, that the writings and ideas of Hobbes and Locke planted the seeds of relativism in American culture, and that the cure is Great Books education. Suggests instead that America's founding principles are the only solution to the failure of…

  16. Expression profiling of the bloom-forming cyanobacterium Nodularia CCY9414 under light and oxidative stress conditions

    PubMed Central

    Kopf, Matthias; Möke, Fred; Bauwe, Hermann; Hess, Wolfgang R; Hagemann, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Massive blooms of toxic cyanobacteria frequently occur in the central Baltic Sea during the summer. In the surface scum, cyanobacterial cells are exposed to high light (HL) intensity, high oxygen partial pressure and other stresses. To mimic these conditions, cultures of Nodularia spumigena CCY9414, which is a strain isolated from a cyanobacterial summer bloom in the Baltic Sea, were incubated at a HL intensity of 1200 μmol photons m−2 s−1 or a combination of HL and increased oxygen partial pressure. Using differential RNA sequencing, we compared the global primary transcriptomes of control and stressed cells. The combination of oxidative and light stresses induced the expression of twofold more genes compared with HL stress alone. In addition to the induction of known stress-responsive genes, such as psbA, ocp and sodB, Nodularia cells activated the expression of genes coding for many previously unknown light- and oxidative stress-related proteins. In addition, the expression of non-protein-coding RNAs was found to be stimulated by these stresses. Among them was an antisense RNA to the phycocyanin-encoding mRNA cpcBAC and the trans-encoded regulator of photosystem I, PsrR1. The large genome capacity allowed Nodularia to harbor more copies of stress-relevant genes such as psbA and small chlorophyll-binding protein genes, combined with the coordinated induction of these and many additional genes for stress acclimation. Our data provide a first insight on how N. spumigena became adapted to conditions relevant for a cyanobacterial bloom in the Baltic Sea. PMID:25689027

  17. Harmful Algal Bloom Hotspots Really Are Hot: A Case Study from Monterey Bay, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kudela, R. M.; Anderson, C.; Birch, J. M.; Bowers, H.; Caron, D. A.; Chao, Y.; Doucette, G.; Farrara, J. D.; Gellene, A. G.; Negrey, K.; Howard, M. D.; Ryan, J. P.; Scholin, C. A.; Smith, J.; Sukhatme, G.

    2015-12-01

    Monterey Bay, California is one of several recognized hotspots for harmful algal blooms along the US west coast, particularly for the toxigenic diatom Pseudo-nitzschia, which produces domoic acid and is responsible for Amnesic Shellfish Poisoning. Historical observations have linked bloom activity to anomalously warm conditions with weak and sporadic upwelling. In particular, blooms appear to be associated with El Niño conditions. Monterey, as with much of the US west coast, experienced unusual warm conditions in spring and summer 2014, leading to multiple ecosystem effects including massive algal blooms, concentration of apex predators nearshore, and unusually high levels of domoic acid. As the warm anomalies continued and strengthened into 2015, Monterey (and much of the west coast) has been experiencing the largest and most toxic algal bloom recorded in the last 15 years, as well as unprecedented coccolithophore blooms associated with warm, nutrient-depleted waters. With the strengthening El Niño conditions developing in summer 2015, it is possible that 2016 will result in a third consecutive year of unusually toxic algal blooms. Using a combination of historical observations, intensive field studies, and predictive models we explore the hypothesis that these warm anomalies lead to shifts in the typical upwelling-dominated food web leading to a collapse of the ecosystem towards the coast, unusual algal blooms, and enhanced trophic transfer of toxins, resulting in magnified negative impacts to wildlife and, potentially, humans.

  18. Response of copepod grazing and reproduction to different taxa of spring bloom phytoplankton in the Southern Yellow Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Chaolun; Yang, Guang; Ning, Juan; Sun, Jun; Yang, Bo; Sun, Song

    2013-12-01

    The responses of copepod grazing and reproduction to the spring phytoplankton bloom were studied in the temperate shelf water of the Southern Yellow Sea in March-April, 2009. Two different algal blooms were found during the cruises. A diatom-dominated bloom at Station Z11, and a dinoflagellate-dominated bloom at Station Z4. The gut pigment contents indicated that different sized copepods exhibited different responses to different-species phytoplankton blooms. Large copepods (LC: body size larger than 1000 μm) and medium copepods (MC: body size ranging from 500 to 1000 μm), grazed actively on diatom blooms, but inactively on dinoflagellate blooms, although the chlorophyll-a concentrations of dinoflagellate blooms were twice as high as than those of the diatom blooms. For small copepods (SC: body size smaller than 500 μm), however, there was no significant difference in gut pigment contents between the two different algal blooms. Among the three size groups, LCs were the major grazers on the diatom bloom, while SCs were major grazers on the dinoflagellate bloom. Grazing impacts of copepod assemblages on phytoplankton blooms were low, only being equivalent to 1% day-1, or less, of the chlorophyll-a standing stock. The egg production rates of a large copepod, Calanus sinicus, were on average, 11.3 egg ind.-1 day-1, which was among the higher levels recorded in the study area, especially at the two stations where phytoplankton was blooming (21.8 and 14.9 egg ind.-1 day-1 at Stations Z11 and Z4, respectively). However, C. sinicus could only obtain sufficient food to support this high reproduction from the diatom bloom, but could not if relying only on the apparently unpalatable dinoflagellate bloom. Our analysis of copepod grazing and reproduction suggests that, although the spring blooms do enhance the reproduction of copepods, the taxa changed during spring blooms from large diatoms to small dinoflagellates would change the pathway of primary production. This would

  19. MODIS observations of cyanobacterial risks in a eutrophic lake: Implications for long-term safety evaluation in drinking-water source.

    PubMed

    Duan, Hongtao; Tao, Min; Loiselle, Steven Arthur; Zhao, Wei; Cao, Zhigang; Ma, Ronghua; Tang, Xiaoxian

    2017-10-01

    The occurrence and related risks from cyanobacterial blooms have increased world-wide over the past 40 years. Information on the abundance and distribution of cyanobacteria is fundamental to support risk assessment and management activities. In the present study, an approach based on Empirical Orthogonal Function (EOF) analysis was used to estimate the concentrations of chlorophyll a (Chla) and the cyanobacterial biomarker pigment phycocyanin (PC) using data from the MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) in Lake Chaohu (China's fifth largest freshwater lake). The approach was developed and tested using fourteen years (2000-2014) of MODIS images, which showed significant spatial and temporal variability of the PC:Chla ratio, an indicator of cyanobacterial dominance. The results had unbiased RMS uncertainties of <60% for Chla ranging between 10 and 300 μg/L, and unbiased RMS uncertainties of <65% for PC between 10 and 500 μg/L. Further analysis showed the importance of nutrient and climate conditions for this dominance. Low TN:TP ratios (<29:1) and elevated temperatures were found to influence the seasonal shift of phytoplankton community. The resultant MODIS Chla and PC products were then used for cyanobacterial risk mapping with a decision tree classification model. The resulting Water Quality Decision Matrix (WQDM) was designed to assist authorities in the identification of possible intake areas, as well as specific months when higher frequency monitoring and more intense water treatment would be required if the location of the present intake area remained the same. Remote sensing cyanobacterial risk mapping provides a new tool for reservoir and lake management programs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Blooming Seas West of Ireland

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    For several weeks in May and early June, daily satellite images of the North Atlantic Ocean west of Ireland have captured partial glimpses of luxuriant blooms of microscopic marine plants between patches of clouds. On June 4, 2007, the skies over the ocean cleared, displaying the sea's spring bloom in brilliant color. A bright blue bloom stretches north from the Mouth of the River Shannon and tapers off like a plume of blue smoke north of Clare Island. (In the large image, a second bloom is visible to the north, wrapping around County Donegal, on the island's northwestern tip.) The image was captured by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on NASA's Terra satellite. Cold, nutrient-stocked water often wells up to the surface from the deeper ocean along coastal shelves and at the edges of ocean currents. When it does, it delivers a boost of nutrients that fuel large blooms of single-celled plants collectively known as phytoplankton. The plants are the foundation of the marine food web, and their proliferation in this area of the North Atlantic explains why the waters of western Ireland support myriad fisheries and populations of large mammals like seals, whales, and dolphins. Like plants on land, phytoplankton make their food through photosynthesis, harnessing sunlight for energy using chlorophyll and other light-capturing pigments. The pigments change the way light reflects off the surface water, appearing as colorful swirls of turquoise and green against the darker blue of the ocean. Though individually tiny, collectively these plants play a big role in Earth's carbon and climate cycles; worldwide, they remove about as much carbon dioxide from the atmosphere during photosynthesis as land plants do. Satellites are the only way to map the occurrence of phytoplankton blooms across the global oceans on a regular basis. That kind of information is important not only to scientists who model carbon and climate, but also to biologists and fisheries

  1. Blooming Seas West of Ireland

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    For several weeks in May and early June, daily satellite images of the North Atlantic Ocean west of Ireland have captured partial glimpses of luxuriant blooms of microscopic marine plants between patches of clouds. On June 4, 2007, the skies over the ocean cleared, displaying the sea's spring bloom in brilliant color. A bright blue bloom stretches north from the Mouth of the River Shannon and tapers off like a plume of blue smoke north of Clare Island. (In the large image, a second bloom is visible to the north, wrapping around County Donegal, on the island's northwestern tip.) The image was captured by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on NASA's Terra satellite. Cold, nutrient-stocked water often wells up to the surface from the deeper ocean along coastal shelves and at the edges of ocean currents. When it does, it delivers a boost of nutrients that fuel large blooms of single-celled plants collectively known as phytoplankton. The plants are the foundation of the marine food web, and their proliferation in this area of the North Atlantic explains why the waters of western Ireland support myriad fisheries and populations of large mammals like seals, whales, and dolphins. Like plants on land, phytoplankton make their food through photosynthesis, harnessing sunlight for energy using chlorophyll and other light-capturing pigments. The pigments change the way light reflects off the surface water, appearing as colorful swirls of turquoise and green against the darker blue of the ocean. Though individually tiny, collectively these plants play a big role in Earth's carbon and climate cycles; worldwide, they remove about as much carbon dioxide from the atmosphere during photosynthesis as land plants do. Satellites are the only way to map the occurrence of phytoplankton blooms across the global oceans on a regular basis. That kind of information is important not only to scientists who model carbon and climate, but also to biologists and fisheries

  2. Bloom in the Ross Sea

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-09-28

    NASA image acquired January 22, 2011 To see a detail of this image go to: www.flickr.com/photos/gsfc/5398237910 Every southern spring and summer, after the Sun has risen into its 24-hour circuit around the skies of Antarctica, the Ross Sea bursts with life. Floating, microscopic plants, known as phytoplankton, soak up the sunlight and the nutrients stirring in the Southern Ocean and grow into prodigious blooms. Those blooms become a great banquet for krill, fish, penguins, whales, and other marine species who carve out a living in the cool waters of the far south. This true-color image captures such a bloom in the Ross Sea on January 22, 2011, as viewed by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on NASA’s Aqua satellite. Bright greens of plant-life have replaced the deep blues of open ocean water. The Ross Sea is a relatively shallow bay in the Antarctic coastline and due south from New Zealand. As the spring weather thaws the sea ice around Antarctica, areas of open water surrounded by ice—polynyas—open up on the continental shelf. In this open water, sunlight provides the fuel and various current systems provide nutrients from deeper waters to form blooms that can stretch 100 to 200 kilometers (60 to 120 miles). These blooms are among the largest in extent and abundance in the world. Scientists have hypothesized that the Modified Circumpolar Deep Water is the engine behind the blooms, stirring up just the right mix of trace metals and minerals from the deep to sustain plankton growth. This month, researchers aboard the U.S. icebreaking ship Nathaniel B. Palmer are cruising in the Ross Sea in search of the signatures of this current system. NASA image courtesy Norman Kuring, Ocean Color Team at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. Caption by Mike Carlowicz, with information from Hugh Powell, COSEE-NOW. Instrument: Aqua - MODIS Credit: NASA Earth Observatory earthobservatory.nasa.gov/IOTD/view.php?id=48949 NASA Goddard Space Flight Center

  3. Bloom in the Ross Sea

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-09-28

    NASA image acquired January 22, 2011 Every southern spring and summer, after the Sun has risen into its 24-hour circuit around the skies of Antarctica, the Ross Sea bursts with life. Floating, microscopic plants, known as phytoplankton, soak up the sunlight and the nutrients stirring in the Southern Ocean and grow into prodigious blooms. Those blooms become a great banquet for krill, fish, penguins, whales, and other marine species who carve out a living in the cool waters of the far south. This true-color image captures such a bloom in the Ross Sea on January 22, 2011, as viewed by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on NASA’s Aqua satellite. Bright greens of plant-life have replaced the deep blues of open ocean water. The Ross Sea is a relatively shallow bay in the Antarctic coastline and due south from New Zealand. As the spring weather thaws the sea ice around Antarctica, areas of open water surrounded by ice—polynyas—open up on the continental shelf. In this open water, sunlight provides the fuel and various current systems provide nutrients from deeper waters to form blooms that can stretch 100 to 200 kilometers (60 to 120 miles). These blooms are among the largest in extent and abundance in the world. Scientists have hypothesized that the Modified Circumpolar Deep Water is the engine behind the blooms, stirring up just the right mix of trace metals and minerals from the deep to sustain plankton growth. This month, researchers aboard the U.S. icebreaking ship Nathaniel B. Palmer are cruising in the Ross Sea in search of the signatures of this current system. NASA image courtesy Norman Kuring, Ocean Color Team at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. Caption by Mike Carlowicz, with information from Hugh Powell, COSEE-NOW. Instrument: Aqua - MODIS Go here to download the full high res file: earthobservatory.nasa.gov/IOTD/view.php?id=48949 Credit: NASA Earth Observatory NASA image use policy. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center enables NASA

  4. High phosphate availability as a possible cause for massive cyanobacterial production of oxygen in the Paleoproterozoic atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papineau, Dominic; Purohit, Ritesh; Fogel, Marilyn L.; Shields-Zhou, Graham A.

    2013-01-01

    The deposition of major Precambrian phosphorites was restricted to times of global change and atmospheric oxygenation at both ends of the Proterozoic. Phosphorites formed after highly positive carbon isotope excursions in carbonates deposited during the Paleoproterozoic Lomagundi-Jatuli event and the Neoproterozoic Cryogenian and Ediacaran periods. The correlative step-wise rise in atmospheric oxygen over the Proterozoic has been linked to changes in the carbon cycle. However, the postulated relations between carbon isotope events, phosphorites, and atmospheric oxygenation remain unexplained. Paleoproterozoic carbonates of the Aravalli Supergroup, India, preserve evidence for cyanobacterial blooms in the form of tightly packed stromatolitic columns in the world's oldest significant sedimentary phosphate deposit. Restricted basins of the Lower Aravalli Group with stromatolitic phosphorites in Jhamarkotra, Udaipur, Jhabua, and Sallopat exhibit near-zero δ13Ccarb values and large ranges of δ13Corg values between -33.3‰ and -10.1‰, indicative of a complex carbon cycle. Because phosphate accumulates primarily in oxic sediments, these eutrophic microbial ecosystems likely developed within the photic zone of the shallow, oxygenated marine realm. This is consistent with deposition during the time of increasingly more oxidizing conditions, after the Great Oxidation Event (GOE). Approximately contemporaneous basins without phosphate deposits from Ghasiar, Karouli, Negadia, Umra, and Babarmal exhibit a range of positive δ13Ccarb excursions, some with values up to +11.2‰, that suggest high rates of organic carbon burial, and others with moderately high δ13Ccarb values around +6‰ or +3‰, that suggest smaller carbon cycle perturbations. The δ15N values of all these rocks vary between -0.7‰ and +3.4‰, and are consistent with the predominance of nitrogen fixation during cyanobacterial blooms in all basin types. Such low nitrogen isotope values are interpreted to

  5. The plasticity of cyanobacterial carbon metabolism.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Wei; Cano, Melissa; Wang, Bo; Douchi, Damien; Yu, Jianping

    2017-09-28

    This opinion article aims to raise awareness of a fundamental issue which governs sustainable production of biofuels and bio-chemicals from photosynthetic cyanobacteria. Discussed is the plasticity of carbon metabolism, by which the cyanobacterial cells flexibly distribute intracellular carbon fluxes towards target products and adapt to environmental/genetic alterations. This intrinsic feature in cyanobacterial metabolism is being understood through recent identification of new biochemical reactions and engineering on low-throughput pathways. We focus our discussion on new insights into the nature of metabolic plasticity in cyanobacteria and its impact on hydrocarbons (e.g. ethylene and isoprene) production. We discuss approaches that need to be developed to rationally rewire photosynthetic carbon fluxes throughout primary metabolism. We outline open questions about the regulatory mechanisms of the metabolic network that remain to be answered, which might shed light on photosynthetic carbon metabolism and help optimize design principles in order to improve the production of fuels and chemicals in cyanobacteria. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Transcriptional and posttranscriptional regulation of cyanobacterial photosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Wilde, Annegret; Hihara, Yukako

    2016-03-01

    Cyanobacteria are well established model organisms for the study of oxygenic photosynthesis, nitrogen metabolism, toxin biosynthesis, and salt acclimation. However, in comparison to other model bacteria little is known about regulatory networks, which allow cyanobacteria to acclimate to changing environmental conditions. The current work has begun to illuminate how transcription factors modulate expression of different photosynthetic regulons. During the past few years, the research on other regulatory principles like RNA-based regulation showed the importance of non-protein regulators for bacterial lifestyle. Investigations on modulation of photosynthetic components should elucidate the contributions of all factors within the context of a larger regulatory network. Here, we focus on regulation of photosynthetic processes including transcriptional and posttranscriptional mechanisms, citing examples from a limited number of cyanobacterial species. Though, the general idea holds true for most species, important differences exist between various organisms, illustrating diversity of acclimation strategies in the very heterogeneous cyanobacterial clade. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Organization and dynamics of bioenergetic systems in bacteria, edited by Prof Conrad Mullineaux. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Molecular biology of cyanobacterial salt acclimation.

    PubMed

    Hagemann, Martin

    2011-01-01

    High and changing salt concentrations represent major abiotic factors limiting the growth of microorganisms. During their long evolution, cyanobacteria have adapted to aquatic habitats with various salt concentrations. High salt concentrations in the medium challenge the cell with reduced water availability and high contents of inorganic ions. The basic mechanism of salt acclimation involves the active extrusion of toxic inorganic ions and the accumulation of compatible solutes, including sucrose, trehalose, glucosylglycerol, and glycine betaine. The kinetics of these physiological processes has been exceptionally well studied in the model Synechocystis 6803, leading to the definition of five subsequent phases in reaching a new salt acclimation steady state. Recent '-omics' technologies using the advanced model Synechocystis 6803 have revealed a comprehensive picture of the dynamic process of salt acclimation involving the differential expression of hundreds of genes. However, the mechanisms involved in sensing specific salt stress signals are not well resolved. In the future, analysis of cyanobacterial salt acclimation will be directed toward defining the functions of the many unknown proteins upregulated in salt-stressed cells, identifying specific salt-sensing mechanisms, using salt-resistant strains of cyanobacteria for the production of bioenergy, and applying cyanobacterial stress genes to improve the salt tolerance of sensitive organisms.

  8. Dangerous jellyfish blooms are predictable

    PubMed Central

    Gershwin, Lisa-ann; Condie, Scott A.; Mansbridge, Jim V.; Richardson, Anthony J.

    2014-01-01

    The potentially fatal Irukandji syndrome is relatively common in tropical waters throughout the world. It is caused by the sting of the Irukandji jellyfish, a family of box jellyfish that are almost impossible to detect in the water owing to their small size and transparency. Using collated medical records of stings and local weather conditions, we show that the presence of Irukandji blooms in coastal waters can be forecast on the basis of wind conditions. On the Great Barrier Reef, blooms largely coincide with relaxation of the prevailing southeasterly trade winds, with average conditions corresponding to near zero alongshore wind on the day prior to the sting. These conditions are consistent with hypotheses long held by local communities and provide a basis for designing management interventions that have the potential to eliminate the majority of stings. PMID:24829278

  9. Phytoplankton bloom off South Africa

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-09-28

    NASA image acquired December 26, 2011 Off the coast of South Africa, near where the South Atlantic meets the Southern Indian Ocean, a massive summer phytoplankton bloom colored the waters with a swirl of turquoise, green and white in late December 2011. Although this circular bloom has the appearance of a precious antique gaming marble, it is actually the result of millions of tiny plant-like organisms (phytoplankton) which are growing where nutrient-rich waters mix together. Each spring and summer, lengthening sunshine comes to the southern oceans, providing light to spur the growth of these microscopic plants. The lengthening light also melts sea ice, which can release additional nutrients into the sea. Blooms such as this one become a banquet for krill, fish and other marine species which survive in these cool waters. The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) aboard NASA’s Terra satellite captured this true-color image on December 26, 2011 as it passed over the region. Credit: NASA/GSFC/Jeff Schmaltz/MODIS Land Rapid Response Team NASA image use policy. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center enables NASA’s mission through four scientific endeavors: Earth Science, Heliophysics, Solar System Exploration, and Astrophysics. Goddard plays a leading role in NASA’s accomplishments by contributing compelling scientific knowledge to advance the Agency’s mission. Follow us on Twitter Like us on Facebook Find us on Instagram

  10. Algal Bloom Detection from HICO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amin, Ruhul; Gould, Richard

    2014-05-01

    Ocean color satellites provide daily, global views of marine bio-optical properties in the upper ocean at various spatial scales. The most productive area of the global ocean is the coastal zone which is heavily impacted by urban and agricultural runoff, transportation, recreation, and oil and gas production. In recent years, harmful algal blooms (HABs) have become one of the serious environmental problems in the coastal areas on a global scale. The global nature of the problem has expanded in its frequency, severity, and extent over the last several decades. Human activities and population increases have contributed to an increase in various toxic and noxious algal species in the coastal regions worldwide. Eutrophication in estuaries and coastal waters is believed to be the major factor causing HABs. In this study, we assess the applicability of the Red Band Difference (RBD) HAB detection algorithm on data from the Hyperspectral Imager for the Coastal Ocean (HICO). Our preliminary results show that due to various uncertainties such as atmospheric correction, calibration and possibly also the relatively low signal-to-noise ratio of HICO for fluorescence detection, it is difficult to extract the fluorescence portion of the reflectance spectrum that RBD uses for bloom detection. We propose an improved bloom detection technique for HICO using red and NIR bands. Our results are validated using other space-borne and ground based measurements.

  11. Detection of macroalgae blooms by complex SAR imagery.

    PubMed

    Shen, Hui; Perrie, William; Liu, Qingrong; He, Yijun

    2014-01-15

    Increased frequency and enhanced damage to the marine environment and to human society caused by green macroalgae blooms demand improved high-resolution early detection methods. Conventional satellite remote sensing methods via spectra radiometers do not work in cloud-covered areas, and therefore cannot meet these demands for operational applications. We present a methodology for green macroalgae bloom detection based on RADARSAT-2 synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images. Green macroalgae patches exhibit different polarimetric characteristics compared to the open ocean surface, in both the amplitude and phase domains of SAR-measured complex radar backscatter returns. In this study, new index factors are defined which have opposite signs in green macroalgae-covered areas, compared to the open water surface. These index factors enable unsupervised detection from SAR images, providing a high-resolution new tool for detection of green macroalgae blooms, which can potentially contribute to a better understanding of the mechanisms related to outbreaks of green macroalgae blooms in coastal areas throughout the world ocean.

  12. Rising CO2 levels will intensify phytoplankton blooms in eutrophic and hypertrophic lakes.

    PubMed

    Verspagen, Jolanda M H; Van de Waal, Dedmer B; Finke, Jan F; Visser, Petra M; Van Donk, Ellen; Huisman, Jef

    2014-01-01

    Harmful algal blooms threaten the water quality of many eutrophic and hypertrophic lakes and cause severe ecological and economic damage worldwide. Dense blooms often deplete the dissolved CO2 concentration and raise pH. Yet, quantitative prediction of the feedbacks between phytoplankton growth, CO2 drawdown and the inorganic carbon chemistry of aquatic ecosystems has received surprisingly little attention. Here, we develop a mathematical model to predict dynamic changes in dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC), pH and alkalinity during phytoplankton bloom development. We tested the model in chemostat experiments with the freshwater cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa at different CO2 levels. The experiments showed that dense blooms sequestered large amounts of atmospheric CO2, not only by their own biomass production but also by inducing a high pH and alkalinity that enhanced the capacity for DIC storage in the system. We used the model to explore how phytoplankton blooms of eutrophic waters will respond to rising CO2 levels. The model predicts that (1) dense phytoplankton blooms in low- and moderately alkaline waters can deplete the dissolved CO2 concentration to limiting levels and raise the pH over a relatively wide range of atmospheric CO2 conditions, (2) rising atmospheric CO2 levels will enhance phytoplankton blooms in low- and moderately alkaline waters with high nutrient loads, and (3) above some threshold, rising atmospheric CO2 will alleviate phytoplankton blooms from carbon limitation, resulting in less intense CO2 depletion and a lesser increase in pH. Sensitivity analysis indicated that the model predictions were qualitatively robust. Quantitatively, the predictions were sensitive to variation in lake depth, DIC input and CO2 gas transfer across the air-water interface, but relatively robust to variation in the carbon uptake mechanisms of phytoplankton. In total, these findings warn that rising CO2 levels may result in a marked intensification of

  13. Rising CO2 Levels Will Intensify Phytoplankton Blooms in Eutrophic and Hypertrophic Lakes

    PubMed Central

    Verspagen, Jolanda M. H.; Van de Waal, Dedmer B.; Finke, Jan F.; Visser, Petra M.; Van Donk, Ellen; Huisman, Jef

    2014-01-01

    Harmful algal blooms threaten the water quality of many eutrophic and hypertrophic lakes and cause severe ecological and economic damage worldwide. Dense blooms often deplete the dissolved CO2 concentration and raise pH. Yet, quantitative prediction of the feedbacks between phytoplankton growth, CO2 drawdown and the inorganic carbon chemistry of aquatic ecosystems has received surprisingly little attention. Here, we develop a mathematical model to predict dynamic changes in dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC), pH and alkalinity during phytoplankton bloom development. We tested the model in chemostat experiments with the freshwater cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa at different CO2 levels. The experiments showed that dense blooms sequestered large amounts of atmospheric CO2, not only by their own biomass production but also by inducing a high pH and alkalinity that enhanced the capacity for DIC storage in the system. We used the model to explore how phytoplankton blooms of eutrophic waters will respond to rising CO2 levels. The model predicts that (1) dense phytoplankton blooms in low- and moderately alkaline waters can deplete the dissolved CO2 concentration to limiting levels and raise the pH over a relatively wide range of atmospheric CO2 conditions, (2) rising atmospheric CO2 levels will enhance phytoplankton blooms in low- and moderately alkaline waters with high nutrient loads, and (3) above some threshold, rising atmospheric CO2 will alleviate phytoplankton blooms from carbon limitation, resulting in less intense CO2 depletion and a lesser increase in pH. Sensitivity analysis indicated that the model predictions were qualitatively robust. Quantitatively, the predictions were sensitive to variation in lake depth, DIC input and CO2 gas transfer across the air-water interface, but relatively robust to variation in the carbon uptake mechanisms of phytoplankton. In total, these findings warn that rising CO2 levels may result in a marked intensification of

  14. Calcification of cyanobacterial mats in Solar Lake, Sinai

    SciTech Connect

    Lyons, W.B.; Long, D.T.; Hines, M.E.; Gaudette, H.E.; Armstrong, P.B.

    1984-10-01

    Pore-water samples were obtained from the shallow-water part of Solar Lake (Sinai) where luxurious cyanobacterial mats grow. These samples were analyzed for Ca/sup 2 +/, Mg/sup 2 +/, Sr/sup 2 +/, Cl/sup -/, SO/sub 4//sup 2 -/, and titration alkalinity (TA) to determine the role of cyanobacterial growth and degradation on the calcification of the mats. The data are modeled thermodynamically to predict mineral-pore-water equilibria. The data support earlier bacterial and sedimentological studies suggesting that the degradation of the cyanobacterial mat via sulfate reduction is of major importance in the calcification process. 34 references, 1 figure, 2 tables.

  15. Climate Change and Algal Blooms =

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Shengpan

    Algal blooms are new emerging hazards that have had important social impacts in recent years. However, it was not very clear whether future climate change causing warming waters and stronger storm events would exacerbate the algal bloom problem. The goal of this dissertation was to evaluate the sensitivity of algal biomass to climate change in the continental United States. Long-term large-scale observations of algal biomass in inland lakes are challenging, but are necessary to relate climate change to algal blooms. To get observations at this scale, this dissertation applied machine-learning algorithms including boosted regression trees (BRT) in remote sensing of chlorophyll-a with Landsat TM/ETM+. The results show that the BRT algorithm improved model accuracy by 15%, compared to traditional linear regression. The remote sensing model explained 46% of the total variance of the ground-measured chlorophyll- a in the first National Lake Assessment conducted by the US Environmental Protection Agency. That accuracy was ecologically meaningful to study climate change impacts on algal blooms. Moreover, the BRT algorithm for chlorophyll- a would not have systematic bias that is introduced by sediments and colored dissolved organic matter, both of which might change concurrently with climate change and algal blooms. This dissertation shows that the existing atmospheric corrections for Landsat TM/ETM+ imagery might not be good enough to improve the remote sensing of chlorophyll-a in inland lakes. After deriving long-term algal biomass estimates from Landsat TM/ETM+, time series analysis was used to study the relations of climate change and algal biomass in four Missouri reservoirs. The results show that neither temperature nor precipitation was the only factor that controlled temporal variation of algal biomass. Different reservoirs, even different zones within the same reservoir, responded differently to temperature and precipitation changes. These findings were further

  16. Dynamic metabolic profiling of cyanobacterial glycogen biosynthesis under conditions of nitrate depletion

    PubMed Central

    Hasunuma, Tomohisa; Kikuyama, Fumi; Matsuda, Mami; Aikawa, Shimpei; Izumi, Yoshihiro; Kondo, Akihiko

    2013-01-01

    Cyanobacteria represent a globally important biomass because they are responsible for a substantial proportion of primary production in the hydrosphere. Arthrospira platensis is a fast-growing halophilic cyanobacterium capable of accumulating glycogen and has the potential to serve as a feedstock in the fermentative production of third-generation biofuels. Accordingly, enhancing cyanobacterial glycogen production is a promising biofuel production strategy. However, the regulatory mechanism of glycogen metabolism in cyanobacteria is poorly understood. The aim of the present study was to determine the metabolic flux of glycogen biosynthesis using a dynamic metabolomic approach. Time-course profiling of widely targeted cyanobacterial metabolic intermediates demonstrated a global metabolic reprogramming that involves transient increases in the levels of some amino acids during the glycogen production phase induced by nitrate depletion. Also, in vivo labelling with NaH13CO3 enabled direct measurement of metabolic intermediate turnover in A. platensis, revealing that under conditions of nitrate depletion glycogen is biosynthesized with carbon derived from amino acids released from proteins via gluconeogenesis. This dynamic metabolic profiling approach provided conclusive evidence of temporal alterations in the metabolic profile in cyanobacterial cells. PMID:23658429

  17. Dynamic metabolic profiling of cyanobacterial glycogen biosynthesis under conditions of nitrate depletion.

    PubMed

    Hasunuma, Tomohisa; Kikuyama, Fumi; Matsuda, Mami; Aikawa, Shimpei; Izumi, Yoshihiro; Kondo, Akihiko

    2013-07-01

    Cyanobacteria represent a globally important biomass because they are responsible for a substantial proportion of primary production in the hydrosphere. Arthrospira platensis is a fast-growing halophilic cyanobacterium capable of accumulating glycogen and has the potential to serve as a feedstock in the fermentative production of third-generation biofuels. Accordingly, enhancing cyanobacterial glycogen production is a promising biofuel production strategy. However, the regulatory mechanism of glycogen metabolism in cyanobacteria is poorly understood. The aim of the present study was to determine the metabolic flux of glycogen biosynthesis using a dynamic metabolomic approach. Time-course profiling of widely targeted cyanobacterial metabolic intermediates demonstrated a global metabolic reprogramming that involves transient increases in the levels of some amino acids during the glycogen production phase induced by nitrate depletion. Also, in vivo labelling with NaH(13)CO3 enabled direct measurement of metabolic intermediate turnover in A. platensis, revealing that under conditions of nitrate depletion glycogen is biosynthesized with carbon derived from amino acids released from proteins via gluconeogenesis. This dynamic metabolic profiling approach provided conclusive evidence of temporal alterations in the metabolic profile in cyanobacterial cells.

  18. Rapid development of cyanobacterial crust in the field for combating desertification.

    PubMed

    Park, Chan-Ho; Li, Xin Rong; Zhao, Yang; Jia, Rong Liang; Hur, Jae-Seoun

    2017-01-01

    Desertification is currently a major concern, and vast regions have already been devastated in the arid zones of many countries. Combined application of cyanobacteria with soil fixing chemicals is a novel method of restoring desertified areas. Three cyanobacteria, Nostoc sp. Vaucher ex Bornet & Flahault, Phormidium sp. Kützing ex Gomont and Scytonema arcangeli Bornet ex Flahault were isolated and tested in this study. Tacki-SprayTM (TKS7), which consists of bio-polysaccharides and tackifiers, was used as a soil fixing agent. In addition, superabsorbent polymer (SAP) was applied to the soil as a water-holding material and nutrient supplement. Application of cyanobacteria with superabsorbent polymer and TKS7 (CST) remarkably improved macro-aggregate stability against water and erodibility against wind after 12 months of inoculation when compared to the control soil. The mean weight diameter and threshold friction velocity of the CST treated soil were found to be 75% and 88% of those of the approximately 20-year-old natural cyanobacterial crust (N-BSC), respectively, while these values were 68% and 73% of those of the N-BSC soil after a single treatment of cyanobacteria alone (CY). Interestingly, biological activities of CST were similar to those of CY. Total carbohydrate contents, cyanobacterial biomass, microbial biomass, soil respiration, carbon fixation and effective quantum yield of CST treated soil were enhanced by 50-100% of the N-BSC, while those of control soil were negligible. Our results suggest that combined application of cyanobacteria with soil fixing chemicals can rapidly develop cyanobacterial crust formation in the field within 12 months. The physical properties and biological activities of the inoculated cyanobacterial crust were stable during the study period. The novel method presented herein serves as another approach for combating desertification in arid regions.

  19. Rapid development of cyanobacterial crust in the field for combating desertification

    PubMed Central

    Park, Chan-Ho; Li, Xin Rong; Zhao, Yang; Jia, Rong Liang; Hur, Jae-Seoun

    2017-01-01

    Desertification is currently a major concern, and vast regions have already been devastated in the arid zones of many countries. Combined application of cyanobacteria with soil fixing chemicals is a novel method of restoring desertified areas. Three cyanobacteria, Nostoc sp. Vaucher ex Bornet & Flahault, Phormidium sp. Kützing ex Gomont and Scytonema arcangeli Bornet ex Flahault were isolated and tested in this study. Tacki-SprayTM (TKS7), which consists of bio-polysaccharides and tackifiers, was used as a soil fixing agent. In addition, superabsorbent polymer (SAP) was applied to the soil as a water-holding material and nutrient supplement. Application of cyanobacteria with superabsorbent polymer and TKS7 (CST) remarkably improved macro-aggregate stability against water and erodibility against wind after 12 months of inoculation when compared to the control soil. The mean weight diameter and threshold friction velocity of the CST treated soil were found to be 75% and 88% of those of the approximately 20-year-old natural cyanobacterial crust (N-BSC), respectively, while these values were 68% and 73% of those of the N-BSC soil after a single treatment of cyanobacteria alone (CY). Interestingly, biological activities of CST were similar to those of CY. Total carbohydrate contents, cyanobacterial biomass, microbial biomass, soil respiration, carbon fixation and effective quantum yield of CST treated soil were enhanced by 50–100% of the N-BSC, while those of control soil were negligible. Our results suggest that combined application of cyanobacteria with soil fixing chemicals can rapidly develop cyanobacterial crust formation in the field within 12 months. The physical properties and biological activities of the inoculated cyanobacterial crust were stable during the study period. The novel method presented herein serves as another approach for combating desertification in arid regions. PMID:28644849

  20. Different physiological and photosynthetic responses of three cyanobacterial strains to light and zinc.

    PubMed

    Xu, Kui; Juneau, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    Zinc pollution of freshwater aquatic ecosystems is a problem in many countries, although its specific effects on phytoplankton may be influenced by other environmental factors. Light intensity varies continuously under natural conditions depending on the cloud cover and the season, and the response mechanisms of cyanobacteria to high zinc stress under different light conditions are not yet well understood. We investigated the effects of high zinc concentrations on three cyanobacterial strains (Microcystis aeruginosa CPCC299, M. aeruginosa CPCC632, and Synechocystis sp. FACHB898) grown under two light regimes. Under high light condition (HL), the three cyanobacterial strains increased their Car/Chl a ratios and non-photochemical quenching (NPQ), with CPCC299 showing the highest growth rate-suggesting a greater ability to adapt to those conditions as compared to the other two strains. Under high zinc concentrations the values of maximal (ФM) and operational (Ф'M) photosystem II quantum yields, photosystem I quantum yield [Y(I)], and NPQ decreased. The following order of sensitivity to high zinc was established for the three strains studied: CPCC299>CPCC632>FACHB898. These different sensitivities can be partly explained by the higher internal zinc content observed in CPCC299 as compared to the other two strains. HL increased cellular zinc content and therefore increased zinc toxicity in both M. aeruginosa strains, although to a greater extent in CPCC299 than in CPCC632. Car/Chl a ratios decreased with high zinc concentrations under HL only in CPCC299, but not under low light (LL) conditions for all the studied strains, suggesting that the three strains have different response mechanisms to high zinc stress when grown under different light regimes. We demonstrated that interactions between light intensity and zinc need to be considered when studying the bloom dynamics of cyanobacteria in freshwater ecosystems.

  1. Coccolithophorid blooms in the global ocean

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Christopher W.; Yoder, James A.

    1994-01-01

    The global distribution pattern of coccolithophrid blooms was mapped in order to ascertain the prevalence of these blooms in the world's oceans and to estimate their worldwide production of CaCO3 and dimethyl sulfide (DMS). Mapping was accomplished by classifying pixels of 5-day global composites of coastal zone color scanner imagery into bloom and nonbloom classes using a supervised, multispectral classification scheme. Surface waters with the spectral signature of coccolithophorid blooms annually covered an average of 1.4 x 10(exp 6) sq km in the world oceans from 1979 to 1985, with the subpolar latitudes accounting for 71% of this surface area. Classified blooms were most extensive in the Subartic North Atlantic. Large expanses of the bloom signal were also detected in the North Pacific, on the Argentine shelf and slope, and in numerous lower latitude marginal seas and shelf regions. The greatest spatial extent of classified blooms in subpolar oceanic regions occurred in the months from summer to early autumn, while those in lower latitude marginal seas occurred in midwinter to early spring. Though the classification scheme was effcient in separating bloom and nonbloom classes during test simulations, and biogeographical literature generally confirms the resulting distribution pattern of blooms in the subpolar regions, the cause of the bloom signal is equivocal in some geographic areas, particularly on shelf regions at lower latitudes. Standing stock estimates suggest that the presumed Emiliania huxleyi blooms act as a significant source of calcite carbon and DMS sulfur on a regional scale. On a global scale, however, the satellite-detected coccolithophorid blooms are estimated to play only a minor role in the annual production of these two compounds and their flux from the surface mixed layer.

  2. Influences of the Gulf of Maine intrusion on the Massachusetts Bay spring bloom: A comparison between 1998 and 2000

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Mingshun; Zhou, Meng; Libby, Scott; Hunt, Carlton D.

    2007-11-01

    The Boston Harbor, Massachusetts Bay and Cape Cod Bay system (MBS) is a semi-enclosed coastal embayment located in the western Gulf of Maine (GOM). The strength of the spring bloom in the MBS varies dramatically and the underlying mechanisms are not well understood. It has been hypothesized that the weak (or missing) 1998 spring bloom was due to increased zooplankton grazing pressure after a relatively warmer winter that led to earlier development of zooplankton populations. However, chlorophyll concentrations were low in the entire GOM region during the spring bloom period of 1998. These low chlorophyll waters would enter the MBS by persistent intrusion from the GOM and affect the MBS spring bloom by reducing the accumulation of phytoplankton biomass, suggesting an alternative explanation for the missing bloom. In this study, the influences of the intruding GOM waters on the MBS spring bloom are examined using numerical simulations and observations to compare two contrasting spring blooms (a weak bloom in 1998 versus a strong bloom in 2000). The results indicate that intruding waters from the GOM significantly reduced the strength of spring bloom in 1998, but enhanced the spring bloom in 2000. A theoretical analysis suggests that the influence of the intrusion on the MBS spring bloom is mostly limited to the northern portion of the MBS, and the impact area is determined by local net growth, velocity of intruding flow and horizontal mixing. The intrusion of GOM waters carries the signal of long-term variability in the GOM region and thus may be an important oceanic pathway for climate changes to impact the MBS ecosystem.

  3. Combined physical, chemical and biological factors shape Alexandrium ostenfeldii blooms in The Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Brandenburg, Karen M; Domis, Lisette N de Senerpont; Wohlrab, Sylke; Krock, Bernd; John, Uwe; van Scheppingen, Yvonne; van Donk, Ellen; Van de Waal, Dedmer B

    2017-03-01

    Harmful algal blooms (HABs) are globally expanding, compromising water quality worldwide. HAB dynamics are determined by a complex interplay of abiotic and biotic factors, and their emergence has often been linked to eutrophication, and more recently to climate change. The dinoflagellate Alexandrium is one of the most widespread HAB genera and its success is based on key functional traits like allelopathy, mixotrophy, cyst formation and nutrient retrieval migrations. Since 2012, dense Alexandrium ostenfeldii blooms (up to 4500cellsmL(-1)) have recurred annually in a creek located in the southwest of the Netherlands, an area characterized by intense agriculture and aquaculture. We investigated how physical, chemical and biological factors influenced A. ostenfeldii bloom dynamics over three consecutive years (2013-2015). Overall, we found a decrease in the magnitude of the bloom over the years that could largely be linked to changing weather conditions during summer. More specifically, low salinities due to excessive rainfall and increased wind speed corresponded to a delayed A. ostenfeldii bloom with reduced population densities in 2015. Within each year, highest population densities generally corresponded to high temperatures, low DIN:DIP ratios and low grazer densities. Together, our results demonstrate an important role of nutrient availability, absence of grazing, and particularly of the physical environment on the magnitude and duration of A. ostenfeldii blooms. Our results suggest that predicted changes in the physical environment may enhance bloom development in future coastal waters and embayments. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Summertime phytoplankton blooms and surface cooling in the western south equatorial Indian Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, Xiaomei; Du, Yan; Zhan, Haigang; Shi, Ping; Wang, Jia

    2014-11-01

    Chlorophyll-a (Chla) concentration derived from the Sea viewing Wide field of View sensor (SeaWiFS) data (January 1998 to December 2010) shows phytoplankton blooms in the western south equatorial Indian Ocean (WSEIO) during the summer monsoon. The mechanism that sustains the blooms is investigated with the high-resolution Ocean General Circulation Model for the Earth Simulator (OFES) products. The summer blooms in the WSEIO are separated from the coast; they occur in June, reach their maximum in August, and decay in October. With summer monsoon onset, cross-equatorial wind induces open-ocean upwelling in the WSEIO, uplifting the nutricline. The mixed layer heat budget analysis reveals that both thermal forcing and ocean processes are important for the seasonal variations of SST, especially wind-driven entrainment plays a significant role in cooling the WSEIO. These processes cause nutrient enrichment in the surface layer and trigger the phytoplankton blooms. As the summer monsoon develops, the strong wind deepens the mixed layer; the entrainment thus increases the nutrient supply and enhances the bloom. Horizontal advection associated with the Southern Gyre might also be an important process that sustains the bloom. This large clockwise gyre could advect nutrient-rich water along its route, allowing Chla to bloom in a larger area.

  5. Massive phytoplankton blooms under Arctic sea ice.

    PubMed

    Arrigo, Kevin R; Perovich, Donald K; Pickart, Robert S; Brown, Zachary W; van Dijken, Gert L; Lowry, Kate E; Mills, Matthew M; Palmer, Molly A; Balch, William M; Bahr, Frank; Bates, Nicholas R; Benitez-Nelson, Claudia; Bowler, Bruce; Brownlee, Emily; Ehn, Jens K; Frey, Karen E; Garley, Rebecca; Laney, Samuel R; Lubelczyk, Laura; Mathis, Jeremy; Matsuoka, Atsushi; Mitchell, B Greg; Moore, G W K; Ortega-Retuerta, Eva; Pal, Sharmila; Polashenski, Chris M; Reynolds, Rick A; Schieber, Brian; Sosik, Heidi M; Stephens, Michael; Swift, James H

    2012-06-15

    Phytoplankton blooms over Arctic Ocean continental shelves are thought to be restricted to waters free of sea ice. Here, we document a massive phytoplankton bloom beneath fully consolidated pack ice far from the ice edge in the Chukchi Sea, where light transmission has increased in recent decades because of thinning ice cover and proliferation of melt ponds. The bloom was characterized by high diatom biomass and rates of growth and primary production. Evidence suggests that under-ice phytoplankton blooms may be more widespread over nutrient-rich Arctic continental shelves and that satellite-based estimates of annual primary production in these waters may be underestimated by up to 10-fold.

  6. Degradation of cyanobacterial biosignatures by ionizing radiation.

    PubMed

    Dartnell, Lewis R; Storrie-Lombardi, Michael C; Mullineaux, Conrad W; Ruban, Alexander V; Wright, Gary; Griffiths, Andrew D; Muller, Jan-Peter; Ward, John M

    2011-12-01

    Primitive photosynthetic microorganisms, either dormant or dead, may remain today on the martian surface, akin to terrestrial cyanobacteria surviving endolithically in martian analog sites on Earth such as the Antarctic Dry Valleys and the Atacama Desert. Potential markers of martian photoautotrophs include the red edge of chlorophyll reflectance spectra or fluorescence emission from systems of light-harvesting pigments. Such biosignatures, however, would be modified and degraded by long-term exposure to ionizing radiation from the unshielded cosmic ray flux onto the martian surface. In this initial study into this issue, three analytical techniques--absorbance, reflectance, and fluorescence spectroscopy--were employed to determine the progression of the radiolytic destruction of cyanobacteria. The pattern of signal loss for chlorophyll reflection and fluorescence from several biomolecules is characterized and quantified after increasing exposures to ionizing gamma radiation. This allows estimation of the degradation rates of cyanobacterial biosignatures on the martian surface and the identification of promising detectable fluorescent break-down products.

  7. Cyanobacterial Tintenstrich Communities and their Ecology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lüttge, Ulrich

    Tintenstrich communities receive their name from the black strips on rocks, which are particularly spectacular on the background of white limestone and dolomite. They are dominated by cyanobacteria, green photosynthesizing procaryotes. However, cyanobacterial crusts are ubiquitous and much more widespread. On bare substratum on walls and rocks in temperate, arid, and tropical zones they are subject to severe stress by insolation, heat, and either too little or too much water. An array of ecophysiological traits allow them to endure this multifactorial stress. Particular features of their photosynthetic membranes may facilitate dissipation of surplus photosynthetically active radiation; special sun-screen pigments protect them from UV radiation, they are desiccation tolerant, concentrate inorganic carbon for photosynthetic fixation, and assimilate atmospheric dinitrogen. With their own success on bare substratum they become pioneers for other organisms.

  8. Impacts of Rac- and S-metolachlor on cyanobacterial cell integrity and release of microcystins at different nitrogen levels.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jia; Zhang, Lijuan; Fan, Jiajia; Wen, Yuezhong

    2017-08-01

    Pesticide residues and nitrogen overload (which caused cyanobacteria blooms) have been two serious environmental concerns. In particular, chiral pesticides with different structures may have various impacts on cyanobacteria. Nitrogen may affect the behavior between pesticides and cyanobacteria (e.g., increase the adverse effects of pesticides on cyanobacteria). This study evaluated the impacts of Rac- and S-metolachlor on the cell integrity and toxin release of Microcystis aeruginosa cells at different nitrogen levels. The results showed that (both of the configurations: Rac-, S-) metolachlor could inhibit M. aeruginosa cell growth under most conditions, and the inhibition rates were increased with the growing concentrations of nitrogen and metolachlor. However, cyanobacterial growth was promoted in 48 h under environmental relevant condition (1 mg/L metolachlor and 0.15 mg/L nitrogen). Therefore, the water authorities should adjust the treatment parameters to remove possible larger numbers of cyaonbacteria under that condition. On the other hand, the inhibition degree of M. aeruginosa cell growth by S-metolachlor treatments was obviously larger than Rac-metolachlor treatments. S-metolachlor also had a stronger ability in compromising M. aeruginosa cells than Rac-metolachlor treatments. Compared to control samples, more extracellular toxins (12%-86% increases) were detected after 5 mg/L S-metolachlor treatment for 72 h at different nitrogen levels, but the variations of extracellular toxins caused by 5 mg/L Rac-metolachlor addition could be neglected. Consequently, higher concentrations of metolachlor in source waters are harmful to humans, but it may prevent cyanobacterial blooms. However, the potential risks (e.g. build-up of extracellular toxins) should be considered. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Comparing Band Ratio, Semi-Empirical, and Modified Gaussian Models in Predicting Cyanobacterial Pigments in Eutrophic Inland Waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robertson, A. L.; Lin, L.; Tedesco, L.; Wilson, J.; Soyeux, E.

    2008-12-01

    Cyanobacteria are known to produce toxins harmful to humans and compounds that alter the taste/odor of water. Monitoring cyanobacteria is of interest to surface water managers because eutrophication of these surface water bodies are common thus increasing the chances of cyanobacterial blooms. Traditionally cyanobacteria are remotely sensed using the spectral properties of the two pigments: chlorophyll a (Chl-a), indicative of all algal and cyanobacteria species, and phycocyanin (PC), specific to cyanobacteria in most freshwater systems. Initial algorithms identifying cyanobacterial pigments used ratios of reflectance at specific wavelengths. In an effort to increase transferability between different systems researchers have included optical properties of water and water constituents to build semi-empirical models. Recently researchers have applied a curve-fitting, modified Gaussian model (MGM), to predict these cyanobacterial pigments. To determine the best performing algorithm this study compares the performance of 4 band ratio, 4 semi-empirical, and 2 modified Gaussian models in predicting PC and Chl-a on three central Indiana reservoirs (Eagle Creek, Geist, Morse). For each of these reservoirs, spectral data were collected with three different sensors (boat-based: ASD Fieldspec, Ocean Optics USB4000; Ariel: AISA Eagle) over a three year period (2005-2007), and water samples concomitant with these spectra were analyzed for concentration of the two pigments and other water constituents. Comparison shows that a model using the MGM strength at 620 nm from a 2005 Morse Reservoir ASD Fieldspec data set shows that the MGM has the best transferability to a 2006 Morse Reservoir ASD Fieldspec data set in predicting phycocyanin (R2 = 0.77; RMSE= 52.45 ppb), and a band ratio model published by Mittenzwey et al. 1991 has the best transferability in predicting chlorophyll a (R2 = 0.74; RMSE 16.31=ppb).

  10. Seasonal variation and principle of cyanobacterial biomass and forms in the water source area of Chaohu City, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Xiangen; Ke, Fan; Li, Wenchao; Feng, Muhua; Shang, Lixia; Fan, Fan; He, Yanzhao

    2016-01-01

    We investigated seasonal variations in cyanobacterial biomass and the forms of its dominant population ( M. aeruginosa) and their correlation with environmental factors in the water source area of Chaohu City, China from December 2011 to October 2012. The results show that species belonging to the phylum Cyanophyta occupied the maximum proportion of phytoplankton biomass, and that the dominant population in the water source area of Chaohu City was M. aeruginosa. The variation in cyanobacterial biomass from March to August 2012 was well fitted to the logistic growth model. The growth rate of cyanobacteria was the highest in June, and the biomass of cyanobacteria reached a maximum in August. From February to March 2012, the main form of M. aeruginosa was the single-cell form; M. aeruginosa colonies began to appear from April, and blooms appeared on the water surface in May. The maximum diameter of the colonies was recorded in July, and then gradually decreased from August. The diameter range of M. aeruginosa colonies was 18.37-237.77 μm, and most of the colonies were distributed in the range 20-200 μm, comprising 95.5% of the total number of samples. Temperature and photosynthetically active radiation may be the most important factors that influenced the annual variation in M. aeruginosa biomass and forms. The suitable temperature for cyanobacterial growth was in the range of 15-30°C. In natural water bodies, photosynthetically active radiation had a significant positive influence on the colonial diameter of M. aeruginosa ( P <0.01).

  11. Cyanobacterial lipopolysaccharides and human health – a review

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, Ian; Schluter, Philip J; Shaw, Glen R

    2006-01-01

    Cyanobacterial lipopolysaccharide/s (LPS) are frequently cited in the cyanobacteria literature as toxins responsible for a variety of heath effects in humans, from skin rashes to gastrointestinal, respiratory and allergic reactions. The attribution of toxic properties to cyanobacterial LPS dates from the 1970s, when it was thought that lipid A, the toxic moiety of LPS, was structurally and functionally conserved across all Gram-negative bacteria. However, more recent research has shown that this is not the case, and lipid A structures are now known to be very different, expressing properties ranging from LPS agonists, through weak endotoxicity to LPS antagonists. Although cyanobacterial LPS is widely cited as a putative toxin, most of the small number of formal research reports describe cyanobacterial LPS as weakly toxic compared to LPS from the Enterobacteriaceae. We systematically reviewed the literature on cyanobacterial LPS, and also examined the much lager body of literature relating to heterotrophic bacterial LPS and the atypical lipid A structures of some photosynthetic bacteria. While the literature on the biological activity of heterotrophic bacterial LPS is overwhelmingly large and therefore difficult to review for the purposes of exclusion, we were unable to find a convincing body of evidence to suggest that heterotrophic bacterial LPS, in the absence of other virulence factors, is responsible for acute gastrointestinal, dermatological or allergic reactions via natural exposure routes in humans. There is a danger that initial speculation about cyanobacterial LPS may evolve into orthodoxy without basis in research findings. No cyanobacterial lipid A structures have been described and published to date, so a recommendation is made that cyanobacteriologists should not continue to attribute such a diverse range of clinical symptoms to cyanobacterial LPS without research confirmation. PMID:16563160

  12. Bloom's Idiosyncratic History of the University.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawler, Peter Augustine

    1989-01-01

    Analyzes "The Idiosyncratic History of the University," a chapter in Allan Bloom's "The Closing of the American Mind". Focuses on Bloom's history of the university as explained through Socrates' philosophy. Concentrates on the role of philosophers in society past and present. Discusses the Enlightenment, Existentialism,…

  13. Bloom's Idiosyncratic History of the University.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawler, Peter Augustine

    1989-01-01

    Analyzes "The Idiosyncratic History of the University," a chapter in Allan Bloom's "The Closing of the American Mind". Focuses on Bloom's history of the university as explained through Socrates' philosophy. Concentrates on the role of philosophers in society past and present. Discusses the Enlightenment, Existentialism,…

  14. The Cartesian Heritage of Bloom's Taxonomy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bertucio, Brett

    2017-01-01

    This essay seeks to contribute to the critical reception of "Bloom's Taxonomy of Educational Objectives" by tracing the Taxonomy's underlying philosophical assumptions. Identifying Bloom's work as consistent with the legacy of Cartesian thought, I argue that its hierarchy of behavioral objectives provides a framework for certainty and…

  15. Pharmacological studies confirm neurotoxic metabolite(s) produced by the bloom-forming Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii in Hungary.

    PubMed

    Vehovszky, Á; Kovács, A W; Farkas, A; Győri, J; Szabó, H; Vasas, G

    2015-05-01

    A rapid cyanobacterial bloom of Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii (3.2 × 10(4) filaments/mL) was detected early November, 2012, in the Fancsika pond (East Hungary). The strong discoloration of water was accompanied by a substantial fish mortality (even dead cats were seen on the site), raising the possibility of some toxic metabolites in the water produced by the bloom-forming cyanobacteria (C. raciborskii). The potential neuronal targets of the toxic substances in the bloom sample were studied on identified neurons (RPas) in the central nervous system of Helix pomatia. The effects of the crude aqueous extracts of the Fancsika bloom sample (FBS) and the laboratory isolate of C. raciborskii from the pond (FLI) were compared with reference samples: C. raciborskii ACT 9505 (isolated in 1995 from Lake Balaton, Hungary), the cylindrospermopsin producer AQS, and the neurotoxin (anatoxin-a, homoanatoxin-a) producer Oscillatoria sp. (PCC 6506) strains. Electrophysiological tests showed that both FBS and FLI samples as well the ACT 9505 extracts modulate the acetylcholine receptors (AChRs) of the neurons, evoking ACh agonist effects, then inhibiting the ACh-evoked neuronal responses. Dose-response data suggested about the same range of toxicity of FBS and FLI samples (EC50  = 0.397 mg/mL and 0.917 mg/mL, respectively) and ACT 9505 extracts (EC50  = 0.734 mg/mL). The extract of the neurotoxin-producing PCC 6506 strain, however, proved to be the strongest inhibitor of the ACh responses on the same neurons (EC50  = 0.073 mg/mL). The presented results demonstrated an anatoxin-a-like cholinergic inhibitory effects of cyanobacterial extracts (both the environmental FBS sample, and the laboratory isolate, FLI) by some (yet unidentified) toxic components in the matrix of secondary metabolites. Previous pharmacological studies of cyanobacterial samples collected in other locations (Balaton, West Hungary) resulted in similar conclusions; therefore, we cannot exclude that

  16. A coastal ocean extreme bloom incubator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryan, John P.; Gower, James F. R.; King, Stephanie A.; Bissett, W. Paul; Fischer, Andrew M.; Kudela, Raphael M.; Kolber, Zbigniew; Mazzillo, Fernanda; Rienecker, Erich V.; Chavez, Francisco P.

    2008-06-01

    Novel remote sensing methods and in situ observations reveal that intense dinoflagellate blooms occur frequently in Monterey Bay, California. Blooms can contain surface chlorophyll concentrations exceeding 500 μg l-1 and occupy ~5 to 80 km2. They occur primarily during August through November and can persist for > 1 month. Maximum bloom frequency and mean intensity are in a shallow (< 25 m depth) area of the northeastern bay, in coincidence with the warmest surface water, low wind stress, and retentive circulation. These conditions favor dinoflagellates, which can vertically migrate to acquire nutrients in the thermocline and aggregate as "red tide" near the surface. Bloom incubation areas, also indicated in other coastal upwelling systems, may disproportionately influence regional bloom ecology.

  17. The isolation and characterization of lipopolysaccharides from Microcystis aeruginosa, a prominent toxic water bloom forming cyanobacteria.

    PubMed

    Bláhová, Lucie; Adamovský, Ondřej; Kubala, Lukáš; Švihálková Šindlerová, Lenka; Zounková, Radka; Bláha, Luděk

    2013-12-15

    Massive toxic blooms of cyanobacteria represent a major threat to water supplies worldwide, yet serious gaps exist in understanding their complex toxic effects, including the role of lipopolysaccharides (LPS). The present comparative study focused on the levels and biological activities of LPS isolated from Microcystis aeruginosa, which is one of the most globally distributed toxic species. Using hot phenol extraction, LPS was isolated from 3 laboratory cultures and 11 natural water blooms. It formed 0.2-0.7% of the original dry biomass of the cyanobacteria, based on gravimetry. Additional analyses by commercial anti-LPS ELISA were correlated with gravimetry but showed concentrations that were about 7-times lower, which indicated either impurities in isolated LPS or the poor cross-reactivity of the antibodies used. LPS isolates from M. aeruginosa were potent pyrogens in the traditional Limulus amebocyte lysate (LAL)-test, but comparison with the PyroGene test demonstrated the limited selectivity of LAL with several interferences. The determined pyrogenicity (endotoxin units, EU) ranged from very low values in laboratory cultures (less than 0.003 up to 0.008-EU per 100 pg LPS) to higher values in complex bloom samples (0.01-0.078 EU per 100 pg of LPS), which suggested the role of bloom-associated bacteria in the overall effects. Potent pro-inflammatory effects of the studied LPS from both cultures and bloom samples were observed in a highly-relevant ex vivo human blood model by studying reactive oxygen species production in phagocytes as well as increased productions of interleukin 8, IL-8, and tumor necrosis factor α, TNF-α. LPS from M. aeruginosa seem to modulate several pathways involved in the regulation of both innate immunity and specific responses. In comparison to the standard pathogenic bacterial LPS (World Health Organization Escherichia coli O113:10 endotoxin; activity 1 EU per 100 pg), the studied cyanobacterial samples had pyrogenicity potencies

  18. The Revised Bloom's Taxonomy: implications for educating nurses.

    PubMed

    Su, Whei Ming; Osisek, Paul J

    2011-07-01

    One of the essential goals for continuing education in nursing is to enhance nurses' ability to improve patient care outcomes. Toward this goal, learners need to transfer learned knowledge to actual practice. Achieving effective transfer requires knowledge of thinking paradigms in relation to specific subject content. Educators can facilitate knowledge transfer by developing instructional designs that incorporate subject content and cognitive processes related to the use of the subject content. However, it is difficult to develop such instructional designs. The Revised Bloom's Taxonomy provides a framework for meeting this educational need. In this article, the authors establish the relevance of the Revised Bloom's Taxonomy to continuing education and describe how to use the taxonomy to plan an educational session with an emphasis on promoting knowledge transfer.

  19. Effect of arsenic and cyanobacterial co-exposure on pathological, haematological and immunological parameters of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

    PubMed

    Palikova, Miroslava; Papezikova, Ivana; Kopp, Radovan; Mares, Jan; Markova, Zdenka; Navratil, Stanislav; Adamovsky, Ondrej; Kohoutek, Jiri; Navratil, Lukas; Blaha, Ludek

    2015-01-01

    Under environmental conditions, fish are simultaneously exposed to multiple stressors. This study provides new knowledge on the effects of controlled exposure to multiple stressors, namely cyanobacterial biomass and food contaminated with arsenic. Rainbow trout were divided into six groups of 25 fish and exposed to different contaminant combinations for 30 days: 1) control group, 2) cyanobacterial biomass, 3 & 4) two groups exposed to arsenic at concentrations of 5 mg.kg(-1) and 50 mg.kg(-1) fish feed, and 5 & 6) two groups exposed to cyanobacterial biomass and arsenic combined. We then evaluated pathological, haematological and immunological parameters at 10, 20 and 30 days after exposure. Marked gross pathological findings were present in groups exposed to arsenic and arsenic/cyanobacteria after 30 days. A strong decrease in haemoglobin concentration was observed in all experimental groups receiving arsenic after 10 days exposure. Total leukocyte count increased markedly in fish exposed to cyanobacterial biomass, and to higher arsenic concentrations by the end of the experiment. Neutrophils decreased significantly at the end of exposure. Similarly, exposure to cyanobacteria and/or arsenic led to suppression of opsonised zymosan particle-induced neutrophil respiratory bursts. Our results demonstrate that the effects of exposure to toxic cyanobacterial biomass and arsenic on fish are enhanced when the contaminants are combined. In particular, long-term exposure led to disturbances in the white blood-cell count. Modulation of phagocytosis, which is the first line of defence against invading pathogens, suggests that the combined action leads to a decreased ability to control infection.

  20. Lifestyle evolution in cyanobacterial symbionts of sponges.

    PubMed

    Burgsdorf, Ilia; Slaby, Beate M; Handley, Kim M; Haber, Markus; Blom, Jochen; Marshall, Christopher W; Gilbert, Jack A; Hentschel, Ute; Steindler, Laura

    2015-06-02

    The "Candidatus Synechococcus spongiarum" group includes different clades of cyanobacteria with high 16S rRNA sequence identity (~99%) and is the most abundant and widespread cyanobacterial symbiont of marine sponges. The first draft genome of a "Ca. Synechococcus spongiarum" group member was recently published, providing evidence of genome reduction by loss of genes involved in several nonessential functions. However, "Ca. Synechococcus spongiarum" includes a variety of clades that may differ widely in genomic repertoire and consequently in physiology and symbiotic function. Here, we present three additional draft genomes of "Ca. Synechococcus spongiarum," each from a different clade. By comparing all four symbiont genomes to those of free-living cyanobacteria, we revealed general adaptations to life inside sponges and specific adaptations of each phylotype. Symbiont genomes shared about half of their total number of coding genes. Common traits of "Ca. Synechococcus spongiarum" members were a high abundance of DNA modification and recombination genes and a reduction in genes involved in inorganic ion transport and metabolism, cell wall biogenesis, and signal transduction mechanisms. Moreover, these symbionts were characterized by a reduced number of antioxidant enzymes and low-weight peptides of photosystem II compared to their free-living relatives. Variability within the "Ca. Synechococcus spongiarum" group was mostly related to immune system features, potential for siderophore-mediated iron transport, and dependency on methionine from external sources. The common absence of genes involved in synthesis of residues, typical of the O antigen of free-living Synechococcus species, suggests a novel mechanism utilized by these symbionts to avoid sponge predation and phage attack. While the Synechococcus/Prochlorococcus-type cyanobacteria are widely distributed in the world's oceans, a subgroup has established its niche within marine sponge tissues. Recently, the first

  1. Monitoring of ocean surface algal blooms in coastal and oceanic waters around India.

    PubMed

    Tholkapiyan, Muniyandi; Shanmugam, Palanisamy; Suresh, T

    2014-07-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) sensor MODIS-Aqua provides an important tool for reliable observations of the changing ocean surface algal bloom paradigms in coastal and oceanic waters around India. A time series of the MODIS-Aqua-derived OSABI (ocean surface algal bloom index) and its seasonal composite images report new information and comprehensive pictures of these blooms and their evolution stages in a wide variety of events occurred at different times of the years from 2003 to 2011, providing the first large area survey of such phenomena around India. For most of the years, the results show a strong seasonal pattern of surface algal blooms elucidated by certain physical and meteorological conditions. The extent of these blooms reaches a maximum in winter (November-February) and a minimum in summer (June-September), especially in the northern Arabian Sea. Their spatial distribution and retention period are also significantly increased in the recent years. The increased spatial distribution and intensity of these blooms in the northern Arabian Sea in winter are likely caused by enhanced cooling, increased convective mixing, favorable winds, and atmospheric deposition of the mineral aerosols (from surrounding deserts) of the post-southwest monsoon period. The southward Oman coastal current and southwestward winds become apparently responsible for their extension up to the central Arabian Sea. Strong upwelling along this coast further triggers their initiation and growth. Though there is a warming condition associated with increased sea surface height anomalies along the coasts of India and Sri Lanka in winter, surface algal bloom patches are still persistent along these coasts due to northeast monsoonal winds, enhanced precipitation, and subsequent nutrient enrichment in these areas. The occurrence of the surface algal blooms in the northern Bay of Bengal coincides with a region of the well-known Ganges-Brahmaputra Estuarine Frontal

  2. Transgenic tobacco plants with improved cyanobacterial Rubisco expression but no extra assembly factors grow at near wild-type rates if provided with elevated CO2.

    PubMed

    Occhialini, Alessandro; Lin, Myat T; Andralojc, P John; Hanson, Maureen R; Parry, Martin A J

    2016-01-01

    Introducing a carbon-concentrating mechanism and a faster Rubisco enzyme from cyanobacteria into higher plant chloroplasts may improve photosynthetic performance by increasing the rate of CO2 fixation while decreasing losses caused by photorespiration. We previously demonstrated that tobacco plants grow photoautotrophically using Rubisco from Synechococcus elongatus, although the plants exhibited considerably slower growth than wild-type and required supplementary CO2 . Because of concerns that vascular plant assembly factors may not be adequate for assembly of a cyanobacterial Rubisco, prior transgenic plants included the cyanobacterial chaperone RbcX or the carboxysomal protein CcmM35. Here we show that neither RbcX nor CcmM35 is needed for assembly of active cyanobacterial Rubisco. Furthermore, by altering the gene regulatory sequences on the Rubisco transgenes, cyanobacterial Rubisco expression was enhanced and the transgenic plants grew at near wild-type growth rates, although still requiring elevated CO2 . We performed detailed kinetic characterization of the enzymes produced with and without the RbcX and CcmM35 cyanobacterial proteins. These transgenic plants exhibit photosynthetic characteristics that confirm the predicted benefits of introduction of non-native forms of Rubisco with higher carboxylation rate constants in vascular plants and the potential nitrogen-use efficiency that may be achieved provided that adequate CO2 is available near the enzyme.

  3. Allelopathic potential and ecotoxicity evaluation of gallic and nonanoic acids to prevent cyanobacterial growth in lentic systems: A preliminary mesocosm study.

    PubMed

    Techer, Didier; Fontaine, Pascal; Personne, Aline; Viot, Sandrine; Thomas, Marielle

    2016-03-15

    The increase in anthropogenic nutrient loading affecting many freshwater ecosystems combined with global warming may lead to cyanobacterial blooms on an increasingly frequent basis. Among the various physicochemical and biological methods which have been proposed to rapidly control blue-green algae growth, the use of plant-derived substances such as allelochemicals has gained great interest as an environment-friendly approach. The primary aim of this work was to evaluate the efficiency of gallic and nonanoic acid application to preemptively inhibit cyanobacterial growth in lentic hydrosystems. In order to address the process feasibility under realistic exposure scenarios, thirteen outdoor freshwater mesocosms (unit volume: 3m(3)) were designed, each containing phytoplankton (including local blue-green algae species) and various non-target organisms from higher trophic levels (Physa, Lymnaea, Gammarus, and Scardinius erythrophthalmus). After an 8-week mesocosm stabilization period, a full factorial design based on the presence/absence of gallic acid (GA) and nonanoic acid (NA) (including a control group) was implemented into the exposure tanks. Regular monitoring of major phytoplankton taxa was conducted during a 28-day experiment using an on-line fluorometer. The main results suggested that gallic acid was more efficient than nonanoic acid at limiting cyanobacterial growth at concentrations as low as 1 mg L(-1). Successive gallic acid applications (at 1, 2 and 4 mg L(-1)) at the early stages of cyanobacterial growth did not allow the complete elimination of blue-green algae from the mesocosms. However, the specificity of the allelopathic effect of gallic acid towards cyanobacteria was compatible with the maintenance of a primary productivity in the treated tanks as indicated by the photoautotrophic growth of other algal taxa. Finally, no biomarker induction signal could be reported in non-target species. Further gallic acid application trials in lentic systems such

  4. Spatial heterogeneity of cyanobacterial communities and genetic variation of microcystis populations within large, shallow eutrophic lakes (Lake Taihu and Lake Chaohu, China).

    PubMed

    Cai, Yuanfeng; Kong, Fanxiang; Shi, Limei; Yu, Yang

    2012-01-01

    Cyanobacteria, specifically Microcystis, usually form massive blooms in eutrophic freshwater lakes. Cyanobacterial samples were collected from eight sites of both Lake Taihu and Lake Chaohu in late summer to determine the diversity and distribution pattern of cyanobacteria and Microcystis in large, shallow, entropic lakes with significant spatial heterogeneity and long-term Microcystis bloom. Molecular methods based on denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and clone library analysis were used. A similar heterogeneous distribution pattern of cyanobacteria in both lakes was observed. Most parts of these two lakes with high trophic level were dominated by Microcystis. However, in the regions with low trophic levels as well as low concentrations of chlorophyll a, Synechococcus occupied a considerable percentage. Different morphospecies and genotypes dominated the bloom-forming Microcystis populations in these two lakes. Microcystis viridis and Microcystis novacekii were dominant in Lake Chaohu, whereas Microcystis flos-aquae was dominant in Lake Taihu. Only 2 of thel3 Microcystis operational taxonomic units were shared between these two lakes. Analysis of molecular variance based on 16S to 23S internal transcribed spacer sequences indicated the significAnt genetic differentiation of Microcystis between these two lakes (F(ST) = 0.19, p < 0.001). However, only 19.46% of the genetic variability was explained by the population variation between lakes, whereas most (80.54%) of the genetic variability occurred within the lakes. Phylogenetic analysis revealed no phylogeographic structure of Microcystis population in these two lakes, as illustrated by their cosmopolitan nature. Our results revealed that spatial heterogeneity within lakes has more impact on the cyanobacterial diversity than geographical isolation in a local scale.

  5. Cyanobacterial toxins: removal during drinking water treatment, and human risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Hitzfeld, B C; Höger, S J; Dietrich, D R

    2000-03-01

    Cyanobacteria (blue-green algae) produce toxins that may present a hazard for drinking water safety. These toxins (microcystins, nodularins, saxitoxins, anatoxin-a, anatoxin-a(s), cylindrospermopsin) are structurally diverse and their effects range from liver damage, including liver cancer, to neurotoxicity. The occurrence of cyanobacteria and their toxins in water bodies used for the production of drinking water poses a technical challenge for water utility managers. With respect to their removal in water treatment procedures, of the more than 60 microcystin congeners, microcystin-LR (L, L-leucine; R, L-arginine) is the best studied cyanobacterial toxin, whereas information for the other toxins is largely lacking. In response to the growing concern about nonlethal acute and chronic effects of microcystins, the World Health Organization has recently set a new provisional guideline value for microcystin-LR of 1.0 microg/L drinking water. This will lead to further efforts by water suppliers to develop effective treatment procedures to remove these toxins. Of the water treatment procedures discussed in this review, chlorination, possibly micro-/ultrafiltration, but especially ozonation are the most effective in destroying cyanobacteria and in removing microcystins. However, these treatments may not be sufficient during bloom situations or when a high organic load is present, and toxin levels should therefore be monitored during the water treatment process. In order to perform an adequate human risk assessment of microcystin exposure via drinking water, the issue of water treatment byproducts will have to be addressed in the future.

  6. Cyanobacterial Toxins of the Laurentian Great Lakes, Their Toxicological Effects, and Numerical Limits in Drinking Water

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Todd R.; Beversdorf, Lucas J.; Weirich, Chelsea A.; Bartlett, Sarah L.

    2017-01-01

    Cyanobacteria are ubiquitous phototrophic bacteria that inhabit diverse environments across the planet. Seasonally, they dominate many eutrophic lakes impacted by excess nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) forming dense accumulations of biomass known as cyanobacterial harmful algal blooms or cyanoHABs. Their dominance in eutrophic lakes is attributed to a variety of unique adaptations including N and P concentrating mechanisms, N2 fixation, colony formation that inhibits predation, vertical movement via gas vesicles, and the production of toxic or otherwise bioactive molecules. While some of these molecules have been explored for their medicinal benefits, others are potent toxins harmful to humans, animals, and other wildlife known as cyanotoxins. In humans these cyanotoxins affect various tissues, including the liver, central and peripheral nervous system, kidneys, and reproductive organs among others. They induce acute effects at low doses in the parts-per-billion range and some are tumor promoters linked to chronic diseases such as liver and colorectal cancer. The occurrence of cyanoHABs and cyanotoxins in lakes presents challenges for maintaining safe recreational aquatic environments and the production of potable drinking water. CyanoHABs are a growing problem in the North American (Laurentian) Great Lakes basin. This review summarizes information on the occurrence of cyanoHABs in the Great Lakes, toxicological effects of cyanotoxins, and appropriate numerical limits on cyanotoxins in finished drinking water. PMID:28574457

  7. The non-protein amino acid β-N-methylamino-L-alanine in Portuguese cyanobacterial isolates.

    PubMed

    Cervantes Cianca, Rosa C; Baptista, Mafalda S; Lopes, Viviana R; Vasconcelos, Vitor M

    2012-06-01

    The tailor made amino acid β-N-methyl-amino-L-alanine (BMAA) is a neurotoxin produced by cyanobacteria. It has been associated with certain forms of progressive neurodegenerative disease, including sporadic Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis and Alzheimer's disease. Some different reports of BMAA in cyanobacterial blooms from lakes, reservoirs, and other water resources have been made by different investigators. We here report the detection of BMAA of both free and protein-bound produced by cyanobacteria, belonging to the Chroococcales, Oscillatoriales and Nostocales ordered. We use a rapid and sensitive HPLC-FD method that utilizes methanol elution and the Waters AQC Tag chemistry. On other hand, we have used three different assay procedures for BMAA extraction from cyanobacteria: Trichloroacetic acid (TCA), Methanol/Acetone and hydrochloric acid (HCl). All assays let successfully detect BMAA in all cyanobacteria samples analyzed. Nevertheless, with TCA and HCl extraction procedures the highest BMAA values, for free as well as protein-bound BMAA were detected. BMAA content could not be related to the taxonomy of the isolates or to their geographical origin, and no correlation between free and protein-bound BMAA concentrations were observed within or between taxonomic groups. These data offer confirmation of the taxonomic and geographic ubiquity of BMAA from naturally occurring populations of cyanobacteria, for the first time reported for estuaries.

  8. Microwave oven and boiling waterbath extraction of hepatotoxins from cyanobacterial cells.

    PubMed

    Metcalf, J S; Codd, G A

    2000-03-15

    Low-cost, straightforward methods for the extraction of microcystins and nodularins from cyanobacterial cells were developed using a microwave oven and boiling waterbath. The use of organic solvents, such as methanol, which can interfere with sensitive analytical procedures, e.g. immunoassays, can thus be avoided. Analysis by protein phosphatase inhibition assay and high performance liquid chromatography indicated that purified microcystin-LR was unaffected by the microwave oven and boiling waterbath treatments. Four microcystins of differing hydrophobicities were successfully extracted from Microcystis PCC 7813 by both treatments at yields equivalent to those obtained by longer protocols using methanol. Assessment of the microwave oven and boiling waterbath extraction methods with laboratory strains and environmental samples of cyanobacteria showed good correlation with results from lyophilisation and methanol extraction, when extracts were analysed by high performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection (R(2)>/=0.92). The microwave and boiling waterbath extraction methods also sterilised the environmental bloom samples, as evidenced by the abolition of heterotrophic bacterial growth.

  9. Trophic transfer of cyanobacterial toxins from zooplankton to planktivores: consequences for pike larvae and mysid shrimps.

    PubMed

    Karjalainen, Miina; Reinikainen, Marko; Spoof, Lisa; Meriluoto, Jussi A O; Sivonen, Kaarina; Viitasalo, Markku

    2005-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the potentially harmful effects of zooplankton preexposed to cyanobacteria on two planktivorous animals: a fish larva (pike, Esox lucius) and a mysid shrimp (Neomysis integer). The planktivores were fed zooplankton from a natural community that had been preexposed to cell-free extract or to purified toxin (nodularin) of the cyanobacterium Nodularia spumigena, and the growth, feeding, and pellet production of the planktivores, as well as the toxin content of the pellets, were measured. In addition, radiolabeled nodularin ((3)H-dihydronodularin) was used in separate experiments to measure the vector transfer of nodularin from zooplankton to their predators. During 11-day exposures, dissolved nodularin was transferred to pike larvae and N. integer via zooplankton at very low rates of accumulation. Treatment with N. spumigena extract decreased the ingestion and feces production rates of pike larvae. With purified nodularin alone, no such effect could be observed. No effect on molting cycle length, fecal pellet production, C:N ratio, or growth of N. integer was detected. The results suggest that dissolved cyanobacterial toxins released during bloom decay can have a negative impact on feeding and, hence, on the growth of fish larvae via zooplankton, even without direct contact between cyanobacteria and the fish.

  10. Molecular Diffusion through Cyanobacterial Septal Junctions.

    PubMed

    Nieves-Morión, Mercedes; Mullineaux, Conrad W; Flores, Enrique

    2017-01-03

    Heterocyst-forming cyanobacteria grow as filaments in which intercellular molecular exchange takes place. During the differentiation of N2-fixing heterocysts, regulators are transferred between cells. In the diazotrophic filament, vegetative cells that fix CO2 through oxygenic photosynthesis provide the heterocysts with reduced carbon and heterocysts provide the vegetative cells with fixed nitrogen. Intercellular molecular transfer has been traced with fluorescent markers, including calcein, 5-carboxyfluorescein, and the sucrose analogue esculin, which are observed to move down their concentration gradient. In this work, we used fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) assays in the model heterocyst-forming cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. strain PCC 7120 to measure the temperature dependence of intercellular transfer of fluorescent markers. We find that the transfer rate constants are directly proportional to the absolute temperature. This indicates that the "septal junctions" (formerly known as "microplasmodesmata") linking the cells in the filament allow molecular exchange by simple diffusion, without any activated intermediate state. This constitutes a novel mechanism for molecular transfer across the bacterial cytoplasmic membrane, in addition to previously characterized mechanisms for active transport and facilitated diffusion. Cyanobacterial septal junctions are functionally analogous to the gap junctions of metazoans.

  11. Cyanobacterial Neurotoxin BMAA and Mercury in Sharks.

    PubMed

    Hammerschlag, Neil; Davis, David A; Mondo, Kiyo; Seely, Matthew S; Murch, Susan J; Glover, William Broc; Divoll, Timothy; Evers, David C; Mash, Deborah C

    2016-08-16

    Sharks have greater risk for bioaccumulation of marine toxins and mercury (Hg), because they are long-lived predators. Shark fins and cartilage also contain β-N-methylamino-l-alanine (BMAA), a ubiquitous cyanobacterial toxin linked to neurodegenerative diseases. Today, a significant number of shark species have found their way onto the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) Red List of Threatened Species. Many species of large sharks are threatened with extinction due in part to the growing high demand for shark fin soup and, to a lesser extent, for shark meat and cartilage products. Recent studies suggest that the consumption of shark parts may be a route to human exposure of marine toxins. Here, we investigated BMAA and Hg concentrations in fins and muscles sampled in ten species of sharks from the South Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. BMAA was detected in all shark species with only seven of the 55 samples analyzed testing below the limit of detection of the assay. Hg concentrations measured in fins and muscle samples from the 10 species ranged from 0.05 to 13.23 ng/mg. These analytical test results suggest restricting human consumption of shark meat and fins due to the high frequency and co-occurrence of two synergistic environmental neurotoxic compounds.

  12. Molecular Diffusion through Cyanobacterial Septal Junctions

    PubMed Central

    Nieves-Morión, Mercedes

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Heterocyst-forming cyanobacteria grow as filaments in which intercellular molecular exchange takes place. During the differentiation of N2-fixing heterocysts, regulators are transferred between cells. In the diazotrophic filament, vegetative cells that fix CO2 through oxygenic photosynthesis provide the heterocysts with reduced carbon and heterocysts provide the vegetative cells with fixed nitrogen. Intercellular molecular transfer has been traced with fluorescent markers, including calcein, 5-carboxyfluorescein, and the sucrose analogue esculin, which are observed to move down their concentration gradient. In this work, we used fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) assays in the model heterocyst-forming cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. strain PCC 7120 to measure the temperature dependence of intercellular transfer of fluorescent markers. We find that the transfer rate constants are directly proportional to the absolute temperature. This indicates that the “septal junctions” (formerly known as “microplasmodesmata”) linking the cells in the filament allow molecular exchange by simple diffusion, without any activated intermediate state. This constitutes a novel mechanism for molecular transfer across the bacterial cytoplasmic membrane, in addition to previously characterized mechanisms for active transport and facilitated diffusion. Cyanobacterial septal junctions are functionally analogous to the gap junctions of metazoans. PMID:28049144

  13. Cyanobacterial Neurotoxin BMAA and Mercury in Sharks

    PubMed Central

    Hammerschlag, Neil; Davis, David A.; Mondo, Kiyo; Seely, Matthew S.; Murch, Susan J.; Glover, William Broc; Divoll, Timothy; Evers, David C.; Mash, Deborah C.

    2016-01-01

    Sharks have greater risk for bioaccumulation of marine toxins and mercury (Hg), because they are long-lived predators. Shark fins and cartilage also contain β-N-methylamino-l-alanine (BMAA), a ubiquitous cyanobacterial toxin linked to neurodegenerative diseases. Today, a significant number of shark species have found their way onto the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) Red List of Threatened Species. Many species of large sharks are threatened with extinction due in part to the growing high demand for shark fin soup and, to a lesser extent, for shark meat and cartilage products. Recent studies suggest that the consumption of shark parts may be a route to human exposure of marine toxins. Here, we investigated BMAA and Hg concentrations in fins and muscles sampled in ten species of sharks from the South Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. BMAA was detected in all shark species with only seven of the 55 samples analyzed testing below the limit of detection of the assay. Hg concentrations measured in fins and muscle samples from the 10 species ranged from 0.05 to 13.23 ng/mg. These analytical test results suggest restricting human consumption of shark meat and fins due to the high frequency and co-occurrence of two synergistic environmental neurotoxic compounds. PMID:27537913

  14. Algal blooms and public health

    SciTech Connect

    Epstein, P.R. . Harvard Medical School)

    1993-06-01

    Alterations in coastal ecology are expanding the geographic extent, frequency, magnitude, and species complexity'' of algal blooms throughout the world, increasing the threat of fish and shellfish poisonings, anoxia in marine nurseries, and of cholera. The World Health Organization and members of the medical profession have described the potential health effects of global climate change. They warn of the consequences of increased ultraviolet-B (UV-B) rays and of warming: the possible damage to agriculture and nutrition, and the impact on habitats which may alter the distribution of vector-borne and water-based infectious diseases. Algal growth due to increased nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) and warming are already affecting marine microflora and aquatic plants; and there is now clear evidence that marine organisms are a reservoir for enteric pathogens. The pattern of cholera in the Western Hemisphere suggests that environmental changes have already begun to influence the epidemiology of this infectious disease. 106 refs.

  15. Phytoplankton bloom in Persian Gulf

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    There is a large amount of sediment clearly visible in the true-color image of the Persian Gulf, acquired on November 1, 2001, by MODIS. Carried by the confluence of the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers (at center), the sediment-laden waters appear light brown where they enter the northern end of the Persian Gulf and then gradually dissipate into turquoise swirls as they drift southward. The nutrients these sediments carry are helping to support a phytoplankton bloom in the region, which adds some darker green hues in the rich kaleidoscope of colors on the surface (see the high resolution image). The confluence of the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers marks the southernmost boundary between Iran (upper right) and Iraq (upper left). South of Iraq are the countries of Kuwait and Saudi Arabia. The red dots indicate the probable locations of fires burning at oil refineries. Thin black plumes of smoke can be seen streaming away from several of these.

  16. The high resilience of the bacterioplankton community in the face of a catastrophic disturbance by a heavy Microcystis bloom.

    PubMed

    Li, Huabing; Xing, Peng; Wu, Qinglong L

    2012-10-01

    The accumulation and breakdown of cyanobacterial blooms often causes catastrophic changes in the aquatic fauna of lakes. Recovery from these changes is always prolonged. However, little is known about the resilience and recovery of the bacterioplankton community composition (BCC) after this type of disturbance. In this study, we examined the resistance and resilience of the BCC following a Microcystis bloom disturbance with in situ mesocosm experiments with varying levels of Microcystis biomass ranging from 75 to 13 012 μg L(-1) , as measured by the chlorophyll-a concentration, over 13 days. The BCC was assessed with denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis of 16S rRNA genes, followed by cloning and sequencing of the selected samples. We observed a strong shift of the BCC from the control on the first day of the bloom disturbance. The most dramatic change in the BCC occurred in the mesocosm with the highest Microcystis biomass, in which the dissolved oxygen varied strongly. However, we observed a rapid recovery of the BCC from day 7, when most of the investigated environmental factors had also recovered. On day 12, the BCC in the different mesocosms resembled the control at day 0 to a greater extent than during the accumulation and breakdown of the Microcystis bloom. Our study indicated that although the resistance of the BCC is low, the resilience is high, even following a catastrophic disturbance by a Microcystis bloom in a freshwater lake. © 2012 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Climate warming and cyanobacteria blooms: Looks at their relationships from a new perspective.

    PubMed

    Yan, Xingcheng; Xu, Xiaoguang; Wang, Mingyue; Wang, Guoxiang; Wu, Songjun; Li, Zhichun; Sun, Hao; Shi, Ao; Yang, Yunhao

    2017-09-06

    Climate warming and eutrophication are regarded as two important contributors to the occurrence of cyanobacteria blooms in aquatic ecosystems. However, the feedback of cyanobacteria blooms to climate warming and eutrophication is not fully clear. In this study, a microcosm system was established to simulate the decomposition processes of cyanobacteria blooms. It was observed that a large amount of nitrogen and phosphorus was released into the overlying water, and the concentrations of nitrogen and phosphorus were increased with the amount of added cyanobacteria bloom biomass addition. Subsequently, these released nutrients became available for primary production and intensified the eutrophic state of freshwater lakes. During the decomposition of cyanobacteria blooms, the microenvironment acquired low DO, low pH, and reductive conditions. Together with abundant organic matter in the water column and sediment, a large amount of CH4 and CO2 produced through organic matter mineralization, in which CH4 was the dominant fraction, occupied 50%-92% in mass of emitted carbon. Furthermore, a certain amount of N2O, probably underestimated, was produced with a strong greenhouse effect, even though its magnitude was small. These observations clarify that the feedbacks among cyanobacteria blooms formation and climate warming as well as the eutrophication of freshwater lakes are not unidirectional, but bidirectional. Given that climate warming enhanced the occurrence of cyanobacteria blooms, it was proposed that there are two vicious loops between cyanobacteria blooms, lake eutrophication and climate warming, which should be considered in the future management of aquatic ecosystems. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Green macroalgae blooms in the Yellow Sea during the spring and summer of 2008

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Wei; Wang, Menghua

    2009-12-01

    During the spring and summer of 2008, a large-scale green macroalgae (Enteromorpha prolifera) bloom broke out in the Yellow Sea. The bloom eventually aggregated in the coastal region off Qingdao in China, significantly affecting the city's preparations for the 2008 Summer Olympic sailing games. An algorithm using the Normalized Difference Algae Index, in combination with the shortwave infrared (SWIR) based water optical signature retrievals over macroalgae coverage, was developed with measurements from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on Aqua to reveal the start, evolvement, coverage, and aggregation density of this bloom. The bloom started in the southern Yellow Sea during mid May of 2008, moved to the north with the ocean currents, reached its peak in late June with bloom areal coverage of ˜4000 km2 on 25 June, then gradually died down in late July. The SWIR atmospheric correction algorithm has been used to study the optical features of the green macroalgae patches during this event and quantify the macroalgae aggregation in the coastal region. The optical spectra of the bloom are characterized with significantly enhanced ocean surface-leaving radiance at the near-infrared wavelength with a maximum value exceeding ˜5 mW cm-2μm-1 sr-1 at the wavelength of 859 nm off the Qingdao coastal region in late June. In contrast, the optical spectra of macroalgae show little difference from the clear ocean waters in the visible band. The causes of the macroalgae bloom are also discussed and attributed to the eutrophication and bloom-favorable physical conditions (e.g., sea surface temperature, winds, ocean current, etc.) in the Yellow Sea.

  19. Inhibition effect of engineered silver nanoparticles to bloom forming cyanobacteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thuy Duong, Thi; Son Le, Thanh; Thu Huong Tran, Thi; Kien Nguyen, Trung; Ho, Cuong Tu; Hien Dao, Trong; Phuong Quynh Le, Thi; Chau Nguyen, Hoai; Dang, Dinh Kim; Thu Huong Le, Thi; Thu Ha, Phuong

    2016-09-01

    Silver nanoparticle (AgNP) has a wide range antibacterial effect and is extensively used in different aspects of medicine, food storage, household products, disinfectants, biomonitoring and environmental remediation etc. In the present study, we examined the growth inhibition effect of engineered silver nanoparticles against bloom forming cyanobacterial M. aeruginosa strain. AgNPs were synthesized by a chemical reduction method at room temperature and UV-Vis spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscope (TEM) showed that they presented a maximum absorption at 410 nm and size range between 10 and 18 nm. M. aeruginosa cells exposed during 10 d to AgNPs to a range of concentrations from 0 to 1 mg l-1. The changes in cell density and morphology were used to measure the responses of the M. aeruginosa to AgNPs. The control and treatment units had a significant difference in terms of cell density and growth inhibition (p < 0.05). Increasing the concentration of AgNPs, a reduction of the cell growths in all treatment was observed. The inhibition efficiency was reached 98.7% at higher concentration of AgNPs nanoparticles. The term half maximal effective concentration (EC50) based on the cell growth measured by absorbance at 680 nm (A680) was 0.0075 mg l-1. The inhibition efficiency was 98.7% at high concentration of AgNPs (1 mg l-1). Image of SEM and TEM reflected a shrunk and damaged cell wall indicating toxicity of silver nanoparticles toward M. aeruginosa.

  20. Groundwater contamination by microcystin from toxic cyanobacteria blooms in Lake Chaohu, China.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zhen; Kong, Fanxiang; Zhang, Min

    2016-05-01

    Lake Chaohu is a eutrophic lake that experiences massive cyanobacterial blooms. The high concentrations of microcystin observed in this lake are the result of the bloom's high proportion of toxic cyanobacteria strains. Groundwater is the important source of water for drinking, washing, and irrigation in the watershed of Lake Chaohu. This study examines the space-time distribution of microcystins and related environmental factors in wells near Lake Chaohu. All collected groundwater samples from the Lake Chaohu region had detectable concentrations of microcystins. The highest concentration of microcystins, 1.07 μg L(-1), occurred in a well hundreds of meters from the western coast of the lake in September. The distance from the lake shore to the well was significantly and positively correlated with the microcystin concentration in the groundwater. Moreover, a correlation analysis shows that the microcystin concentration in the groundwater was positively correlated with the total dissolved phosphorus (TDP) and microcystin concentration of the nearby lake water. Therefore, the microcystin in the groundwater likely originates from penetration by nearby lake water. Our results suggest that the groundwater near Lake Chaohu poses a significant health risk for the local residents when used for drinking water.

  1. Switching toxin production on and off: intermittent microcystin synthesis in a Microcystis bloom.

    PubMed

    Wood, Susie A; Rueckert, Andreas; Hamilton, David P; Cary, S Craig; Dietrich, Daniel R

    2011-02-01

    Toxic cyanobacterial blooms are increasing in prevalence. Microcystins are the most commonly produced cyanotoxin. Despite extensive research the variables regulating microcystin production remain unclear. Using a RT-QPCR assay that allowed the precise measurement of mcyE transcriptional gene expression and an ELISA that enabled small changes in total microcystin concentrations to be monitored, we demonstrate for the first time that microcystin production is not always constitutive and that significant up- and downregulation in microcystin synthesis can occur on time scales of 2-6 h. Samples were collected over 3 days from a small eutrophic lake during a dense microcystin-producing Microcystis bloom. McyE gene transcripts were detected in only four out of 14 samples. Vicissitudes in both microcystin quotas and extracellular microcystin levels corresponded with changes in mcyE expression. During the period of exalted microcystin synthesis Microcystis sp. cell concentrations increased from 70 000 cells ml(-1) to 4 000 000 cells ml(-1) . These data provide compelling evidence that changes in Microcystis cell concentrations influence microcystin production.

  2. Lysogeny and lytic viral production during a bloom of the cyanobacterium Synechococcus spp.

    PubMed

    Ortmann, A C; Lawrence, J E; Suttle, C A

    2002-03-01

    Lytic viral production and lysogeny were investigated in cyanobacteria and heterotrophic bacteria during a bloom of Synechococcus spp. in a pristine fjord in British Columbia, Canada. Triplicate seawater samples were incubated with and without mitomycin C and the abundances of heterotrophic bacteria, cyanobacteria, total viruses and infectious cyanophage were followed over 24 h. Addition of mitomycin C led to increases in total viral abundance as well as the abundance of cyanophages infecting Synechococcus strain DC2. Given typical estimates of burst size, these increases were consistent with 80% of the heterotrophic bacteria and 0.6% of Synechococcus cells being inducible by the addition of mitomycin C. This is the highest percentage of lysogens reported for a natural microbial community and demonstrates induction in a marine Synechococcus population. It is likely that the cyanophage production following the addition of mitomycin C was much higher than that titered against a single strain of Synechococcus; hence this estimate is a minimum. In untreated seawater samples, lytic viral production was estimated to remove ca. 27% of the gross heterotrophic bacterial production, and a minimum of 1.0% of the gross cyanobacterial production. Our results demonstrate very high levels of lysogeny in the heterotrophic bacterial community, outside of an oligotrophic environment, and the presence of inducible lysogens in Synechococcus spp. during a naturally occurring bloom. These data emphasize the need for further examination of the factors influencing lytic and lysogenic viral infection in natural microbial communities.

  3. Life cycle strategies of bloom-forming, filamentous cyanobacteria in the Baltic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suikkanen, Sanna; Kaartokallio, Hermanni; Hällfors, Seija; Huttunen, Maija; Laamanen, Maria

    2010-02-01

    Late-summer blooms of the Nostocalean cyanobacteria Nodularia spumigena, Aphanizomenon flos-aquae and Anabaena spp., occur annually over vast areas of the Baltic Sea. Apart from the planktonic bloom period, the annual cycle of these cyanobacteria is poorly known. With a combination of pelagial monitoring, sedimentation traps and germination experiments, we studied the annual cycle of formation, sedimentation and germination of cyanobacterial akinetes (resting stages) in the northern Baltic Sea during 2005-2006. Akinetes were only rarely encountered in the fall plankton, but they were abundant in the near-bottom sedimentation trap from the middle of July to August. All three taxa formed akinetes, but the numbers of A. flos-aquae akinetes were generally low. Of the three taxa, only Anabaena spp. were regularly found to germinate from the sediment samples. Estimates of Anabaena viable seed bank size ranged from 205 to 1913 akinetes g -1 (ww) of sediment. Aphanizomenon flos-aquae never germinated, and N. spumigena did so only occasionally. It is concluded that the three co-occurring taxa probably have different life cycle strategies, A. flos-aquae being holoplanktonic and Anabaena spp. planktonic during summer, but overwintering as akinetes in the bottom. Summer populations of N. spumigena may originate from both sedimented akinetes and trichomes that overwinter in the water column.

  4. Microorganisms and typical organic matter responsible for lacustrine "black bloom".

    PubMed

    Feng, Ziyan; Fan, Chengxin; Huang, Weiyi; Ding, Shiming

    2014-02-01

    Identifying the causation of the black substance in lacustrine "black bloom" is of great significance for forecasting and preventing black bloom in many waters of the world. In this research, an array of black bloom was simulated in a laboratory to investigate how microorganisms and organic matter affect black bloom. Sulphate-reducing bacteria (SRB) are the main biological factor, and protein is the key organic factor contributing to lacustrine black bloom. The black colour of black bloom is strongly associated with a relatively high SRB population density. Hydrogen sulphide concentration can serve as a predictor of black bloom. © 2013.

  5. Cyanobacterial Polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB): Screening, Optimization and Characterization.

    PubMed

    Ansari, Sabbir; Fatma, Tasneem

    2016-01-01

    In modern life petroleum-based plastic has become indispensable due to its frequent use as an easily available and a low cost packaging and moulding material. However, its rapidly growing use is causing aquatic and terrestrial pollution. Under these circumstances, research and development for biodegradable plastic (bioplastics) is inevitable. Polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB), a type of microbial polyester that accumulates as a carbon/energy storage material in various microorganisms can be a good alternative. In this study, 23 cyanobacterial strains (15 heterocystous and 8 non-heterocystous) were screened for PHB production. The highest PHB (6.44% w/w of dry cells) was detected in Nostoc muscorum NCCU- 442 and the lowest in Spirulina platensis NCCU-S5 (0.51% w/w of dry cells), whereas no PHB was found in Cylindrospermum sp., Oscillatoria sp. and Plectonema sp. Presence of PHB granules in Nostoc muscorum NCCU- 442 was confirmed microscopically with Sudan black B and Nile red A staining. Pretreatment of biomass with methanol: acetone: water: dimethylformamide [40: 40: 18: 2 (MAD-I)] with 2 h magnetic bar stirring followed by 30 h continuous chloroform soxhlet extraction acted as optimal extraction conditions. Optimized physicochemical conditions viz. 7.5 pH, 30°C temperature, 10:14 h light:dark periods with 0.4% glucose (as additional carbon source), 1.0 gl-1 sodium chloride and phosphorus deficiency yielded 26.37% PHB on 7th day instead of 21st day. Using FTIR, 1H NMR and GC-MS, extracted polymer was identified as PHB. Thermal properties (melting temperature, decomposition temperatures etc.) of the extracted polymer were determined by TGA and DSC. Further, the polymer showed good tensile strength and young's modulus with a low extension to break ratio comparable to petrochemical plastic. Biodegradability potential tested as weight loss percentage showed efficient degradation (24.58%) of PHB within 60 days by mixed microbial culture in comparison to petrochemical plastic.

  6. Lifestyle Evolution in Cyanobacterial Symbionts of Sponges

    SciTech Connect

    Burgsdorf, Ilia; Slaby, Beate M.; Handley, Kim M.; Haber, Markus; Blom, Jochen; Marshall, Christopher W.; Gilbert, Jack A.; Hentschel, Ute; Steindler, Laura

    2015-06-02

    The “Candidatus Synechococcus spongiarum” group includes different clades of cyanobacteria with high 16S rRNA sequence identity (~99%) and is the most abundant and widespread cyanobacterial symbiont of marine sponges. The first draft genome of a “Ca. Synechococcus spongiarum” group member was recently published, providing evidence of genome reduction by loss of genes involved in several nonessential functions. However, “Ca. Synechococcus spongiarum” includes a variety of clades that may differ widely in genomic repertoire and consequently in physiology and symbiotic function. Here, we present three additional draft genomes of “Ca. Synechococcus spongiarum,” each from a different clade. By comparing all four symbiont genomes to those of free-living cyanobacteria, we revealed general adaptations to life inside sponges and specific adaptations of each phylotype. Symbiont genomes shared about half of their total number of coding genes. Common traits of “Ca. Synechococcus spongiarum” members were a high abundance of DNA modification and recombination genes and a reduction in genes involved in inorganic ion transport and metabolism, cell wall biogenesis, and signal transduction mechanisms. Moreover, these symbionts were characterized by a reduced number of antioxidant enzymes and low-weight peptides of photosystem II compared to their free-living relatives. Variability within the “Ca. Synechococcus spongiarum” group was mostly related to immune system features, potential for siderophore-mediated iron transport, and dependency on methionine from external sources. The common absence of genes involved in synthesis of residues, typical of the O antigen of free-living Synechococcus species, suggests a novel mechanism utilized by these symbionts to avoid sponge predation and phage attack.

  7. Lifestyle Evolution in Cyanobacterial Symbionts of Sponges

    DOE PAGES

    Burgsdorf, Ilia; Slaby, Beate M.; Handley, Kim M.; ...

    2015-06-02

    The “Candidatus Synechococcus spongiarum” group includes different clades of cyanobacteria with high 16S rRNA sequence identity (~99%) and is the most abundant and widespread cyanobacterial symbiont of marine sponges. The first draft genome of a “Ca. Synechococcus spongiarum” group member was recently published, providing evidence of genome reduction by loss of genes involved in several nonessential functions. However, “Ca. Synechococcus spongiarum” includes a variety of clades that may differ widely in genomic repertoire and consequently in physiology and symbiotic function. Here, we present three additional draft genomes of “Ca. Synechococcus spongiarum,” each from a different clade. By comparing all fourmore » symbiont genomes to those of free-living cyanobacteria, we revealed general adaptations to life inside sponges and specific adaptations of each phylotype. Symbiont genomes shared about half of their total number of coding genes. Common traits of “Ca. Synechococcus spongiarum” members were a high abundance of DNA modification and recombination genes and a reduction in genes involved in inorganic ion transport and metabolism, cell wall biogenesis, and signal transduction mechanisms. Moreover, these symbionts were characterized by a reduced number of antioxidant enzymes and low-weight peptides of photosystem II compared to their free-living relatives. Variability within the “Ca. Synechococcus spongiarum” group was mostly related to immune system features, potential for siderophore-mediated iron transport, and dependency on methionine from external sources. The common absence of genes involved in synthesis of residues, typical of the O antigen of free-living Synechococcus species, suggests a novel mechanism utilized by these symbionts to avoid sponge predation and phage attack.« less

  8. Screening of Cyanobacterial Species for Calcification

    SciTech Connect

    Brady D. Lee; William A. Apel; Michelle R. Walton

    2004-07-01

    Species of cyanobacteria in the genera Synechococcus and Synechocystis are known to be the catalysts of a phenomenon called "whitings", which is the formation and precipitation of fine-grained CaCO3 particles. Whitings occur when the cyanobacteria fix atmospheric CO2 through the formation of CaCO3 on their cell surfaces, which leads to precipitation to the ocean floor and subsequent entombment in mud. Whitings represent one potential mechanism for CO2 sequestration. Research was performed to determine the ability of various strains of Synechocystis and Synechococcus to calcify when grown in microcosms amended with 2.5 mM HCO3- and 3.4 mM Ca2+. Results indicated that although all strains tested have the ability to calcify, only two Synechococcus species, strains PCC 8806 and PCC 8807, were able to calcify to the extent that a CaCO3 precipitate was formed. Enumeration of the cyanobacterial cultures during testing indicated that cell density did not appear to have a direct effect on calcification. Factors that had the greatest effect on calcification were CO2 removal and subsequent generation of alkaline pH. Whereas cell density was similar for all strains tested, differences in maximum pH were demonstrated. As CO2 was removed, growth medium pH increased and soluble Ca2+ was removed from solution. The largest increases in growth medium pH occurred when CO2 levels dropped below 400 ppmv. Research presented demonstrates that, under the conditions tested, many species of cyanobacteria in the genera Synechocystis and Synechococcus are able to calcify but only two species of Synechococcus were able to calcify to an extent that led to the precipitation of calcium carbonate.

  9. Lifestyle Evolution in Cyanobacterial Symbionts of Sponges

    PubMed Central

    Burgsdorf, Ilia; Slaby, Beate M.; Handley, Kim M.; Haber, Markus; Blom, Jochen; Marshall, Christopher W.; Gilbert, Jack A.; Hentschel, Ute

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The “Candidatus Synechococcus spongiarum” group includes different clades of cyanobacteria with high 16S rRNA sequence identity (~99%) and is the most abundant and widespread cyanobacterial symbiont of marine sponges. The first draft genome of a “Ca. Synechococcus spongiarum” group member was recently published, providing evidence of genome reduction by loss of genes involved in several nonessential functions. However, “Ca. Synechococcus spongiarum” includes a variety of clades that may differ widely in genomic repertoire and consequently in physiology and symbiotic function. Here, we present three additional draft genomes of “Ca. Synechococcus spongiarum,” each from a different clade. By comparing all four symbiont genomes to those of free-living cyanobacteria, we revealed general adaptations to life inside sponges and specific adaptations of each phylotype. Symbiont genomes shared about half of their total number of coding genes. Common traits of “Ca. Synechococcus spongiarum” members were a high abundance of DNA modification and recombination genes and a reduction in genes involved in inorganic ion transport and metabolism, cell wall biogenesis, and signal transduction mechanisms. Moreover, these symbionts were characterized by a reduced number of antioxidant enzymes and low-weight peptides of photosystem II compared to their free-living relatives. Variability within the “Ca. Synechococcus spongiarum” group was mostly related to immune system features, potential for siderophore-mediated iron transport, and dependency on methionine from external sources. The common absence of genes involved in synthesis of residues, typical of the O antigen of free-living Synechococcus species, suggests a novel mechanism utilized by these symbionts to avoid sponge predation and phage attack. PMID:26037118

  10. Compensatory growth induced in zebrafish larvae after pre-exposure to a Microcystis aeruginosa natural bloom extract containing microcystins.

    PubMed

    Ghazali, Issam El; Saqrane, Sanaa; Carvalho, Antonio Paulo; Ouahid, Youness; Oudra, Brahim; Del Campo, Francisca Fernandez; Vasconcelos, Vitor

    2009-01-01

    Early life stage tests with zebrafish (Danio rerio) were used to detect toxic effects of compounds from a Microcystis aeruginosa natural bloom extract on their embryolarval development. We carried out the exposure of developing stages of fish to complex cyanobacterial blooms containing hepatotoxic molecules - microcystins. Fish embryo tests performed with the bloom extract containing 3 mg.L(-1) Eq microcystin-LR showed that after 24 h of exposure all fish embryos died. The same tests performed with other diluted extracts (containing 0.3, 0.1 and 0.03 mg.L(-1) Eq microcystin-LR) were shown to have an influence on zebrafish development and a large number of embryos showed malformation signs (edema, bent and curving tail). After hatching the larvae were transferred to a medium without toxins to follow the larval development under the new conditions. The specific growth of the pre-exposed larvae was significantly more important than that of the control larvae. This may represent a compensatory growth used to reduce the difference in size with the control fish noted after hatching.

  11. Discovery of anabaenopeptin 679 from freshwater algal bloom material: Insights into the structure-activity relationship of anabaenopeptin protease inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Harms, Henrik; Kurita, Kenji L; Pan, Li; Wahome, Paul G; He, Haiyin; Kinghorn, A Douglas; Carter, Guy T; Linington, Roger G

    2016-10-15

    Cyanobacteria possess a unique capacity for the production of structurally novel secondary metabolites compared to the biosynthetic abilities of other environmental prokaryotes such as bacteria of the genus Streptomyces. Two different strategies to explore cyanobacteria-derived natural products have been explored previously: (1) cultivation of single cyanobacterial strains, in bioreactors for example; (2) bulk collections from the environment of so called 'algal blooms' that are dominated by cyanobacteria. In this study a new environmentally friendly collection technique for obtaining large quantities of algal bloom biomass was utilized. Algal biomass derived from eight million liters of lake water was concentrated using a novel continuous countercurrent filtration system. Analysis of this freshwater algal bloom from Grand Lake-Saint Marys, Ohio led to the discovery of anabaenopeptin 679 (1), as well as the known anabaenopeptins B, F, H and 908. Anabaenopeptin 679 is unusual in that it possesses the classical anabaenopeptin-like cyclic pentapeptide core, but lacks the typical sidechain attached to the constitutive ureido group. Screening of all anabaenopeptin derivatives in an enzymatic assay for inhibitory activity toward carboxypeptidase A identified anabaenopeptin 679 as a strong inhibitor of carboxypeptidase A with an IC50 value of 4.6μg/mL. This result defines a new minimal core structure for carboxypeptidase activity among the anabaenopeptin class, and provides further insight into the structure-activity relationship of anabaenopeptin-like carboxypeptidase A inhibitors. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Phylogenetic and Chemical Diversity of Three Chemotypes of Bloom-Forming Lyngbya Species (Cyanobacteria: Oscillatoriales) from Reefs of Southeastern Florida▿

    PubMed Central

    Sharp, Koty; Arthur, Karen E.; Gu, Liangcai; Ross, Cliff; Harrison, Genelle; Gunasekera, Sarath P.; Meickle, Theresa; Matthew, Susan; Luesch, Hendrik; Thacker, Robert W.; Sherman, David H.; Paul, Valerie J.

    2009-01-01

    The cyanobacterial genus Lyngbya includes free-living, benthic, filamentous cyanobacteria that form periodic nuisance blooms in lagoons, reefs, and estuaries. Lyngbya spp. are prolific producers of biologically active compounds that deter grazers and help blooms persist in the marine environment. Here, our investigations reveal the presence of three distinct Lyngbya species on nearshore reefs in Broward County, FL, sampled in 2006 and 2007. With a combination of morphological measurements, molecular biology techniques, and natural products chemistry, we associated these three Lyngbya species with three distinct Lyngbya chemotypes. One species, identified as Lyngbya cf. confervoides via morphological measurements and 16S rRNA gene sequencing, produces a diverse array of bioactive peptides and depsipeptides. Our results indicate that the other two Lyngbya species produce either microcolins A and B or curacin D and dragonamides C and D. Results from screening for the biosynthetic capacity for curacin production among the three Lyngbya chemotypes in this study correlated that capacity with the presence of curacin D. Our work on these bloom-forming Lyngbya species emphasizes the significant phylogenetic and chemical diversity of the marine cyanobacteria on southern Florida reefs and identifies some of the genetic components of those differences. PMID:19270119

  13. Factsheet: Climate Change and Harmful Algal Blooms

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Climate change is predicted to change many environmental conditions that could affect the properties of fresh and marine waters. These changes could favor the growth of harmful algal blooms and habitat changes.

  14. High Frequency Monitoring for Harmful Algal Blooms

    EPA Science Inventory

    Harmful algal blooms (HABs) are increasingly becoming a significant ecologic, economic, and social driver in the use of water resources. Cyanobacteria and their toxins play an important role in management decisions for drinking water utilities and public health officials. Online ...

  15. Climate Adaptation and Harmful Algal Blooms

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA supports local, state and tribal efforts to maintain water quality. A key element of its efforts is to reduce excess nutrient pollution and the resulting adverse impacts, including harmful algal blooms.

  16. High Frequency Monitoring for Harmful Algal Blooms

    EPA Science Inventory

    Harmful algal blooms (HABs) are increasingly becoming a significant ecologic, economic, and social driver in the use of water resources. Cyanobacteria and their toxins play an important role in management decisions for drinking water utilities and public health officials. Online ...

  17. Bloom's taxonomy of cognitive learning objectives.

    PubMed

    Adams, Nancy E

    2015-07-01

    Information professionals who train or instruct others can use Bloom's taxonomy to write learning objectives that describe the skills and abilities that they desire their learners to master and demonstrate. Bloom's taxonomy differentiates between cognitive skill levels and calls attention to learning objectives that require higher levels of cognitive skills and, therefore, lead to deeper learning and transfer of knowledge and skills to a greater variety of tasks and contexts.

  18. Health Risk Assessment for Cyanobacterial Toxins in Seafood

    PubMed Central

    Mulvenna, Vanora; Dale, Katie; Priestly, Brian; Mueller, Utz; Humpage, Andrew; Shaw, Glen; Allinson, Graeme; Falconer, Ian

    2012-01-01

    Cyanobacteria (blue-green algae) are abundant in fresh, brackish and marine waters worldwide. When toxins produced by cyanobacteria are present in the aquatic environment, seafood harvested from these waters may present a health hazard to consumers. Toxicity hazards from seafood have been internationally recognised when the source is from marine algae (dinoflagellates and diatoms), but to date few risk assessments for cyanobacterial toxins in seafood have been presented. This paper estimates risk from seafood contaminated by cyanobacterial toxins, and provides guidelines for safe human consumption. PMID:22690165

  19. Centers for Oceans and Human Health: a unified approach to the challenge of harmful algal blooms

    PubMed Central

    Erdner, Deana L; Dyble, Julianne; Parsons, Michael L; Stevens, Richard C; Hubbard, Katherine A; Wrabel, Michele L; Moore, Stephanie K; Lefebvre, Kathi A; Anderson, Donald M; Bienfang, Paul; Bidigare, Robert R; Parker, Micaela S; Moeller, Peter; Brand, Larry E; Trainer, Vera L

    2008-01-01

    Background Harmful algal blooms (HABs) are one focus of the national research initiatives on Oceans and Human Health (OHH) at NIEHS, NOAA and NSF. All of the OHH Centers, from the east coast to Hawaii, include one or more research projects devoted to studying HAB problems and their relationship to human health. The research shares common goals for understanding, monitoring and predicting HAB events to protect and improve human health: understanding the basic biology of the organisms; identifying how chemistry, hydrography and genetic diversity influence blooms; developing analytical methods and sensors for cells and toxins; understanding health effects of toxin exposure; and developing conceptual, empirical and numerical models of bloom dynamics. Results In the past several years, there has been significant progress toward all of the common goals. Several studies have elucidated the effects of environmental conditions and genetic heterogeneity on bloom dynamics. New methods have been developed or implemented for the detection of HAB cells and toxins, including genetic assays for Pseudo-nitzschia and Microcystis, and a biosensor for domoic acid. There have been advances in predictive models of blooms, most notably for the toxic dinoflagellates Alexandrium and Karenia. Other work is focused on the future, studying the ways in which climate change may affect HAB incidence, and assessing the threat from emerging HABs and toxins, such as the cyanobacterial neurotoxin β-N-methylamino-L-alanine. Conclusion Along the way, many challenges have been encountered that are common to the OHH Centers and also echo those of the wider HAB community. Long-term field data and basic biological information are needed to develop accurate models. Sensor development is hindered by the lack of simple and rapid assays for algal cells and especially toxins. It is also critical to adequately understand the human health effects of HAB toxins. Currently, we understand best the effects of acute

  20. Bloom-Forming Cyanobacteria Support Copepod Reproduction and Development in the Baltic Sea

    PubMed Central

    Hogfors, Hedvig; Motwani, Nisha H.; Hajdu, Susanna; El-Shehawy, Rehab; Holmborn, Towe; Vehmaa, Anu; Engström-Öst, Jonna; Brutemark, Andreas; Gorokhova, Elena

    2014-01-01

    It is commonly accepted that summer cyanobacterial blooms cannot be efficiently utilized by grazers due to low nutritional quality and production of toxins; however the evidence for such effects in situ is often contradictory. Using field and experimental observations on Baltic copepods and bloom-forming diazotrophic filamentous cyanobacteria, we show that cyanobacteria may in fact support zooplankton production during summer. To highlight this side of zooplankton-cyanobacteria interactions, we conducted: (1) a field survey investigating linkages between cyanobacteria, reproduction and growth indices in the copepod Acartia tonsa; (2) an experiment testing relationships between ingestion of the cyanobacterium Nodularia spumigena (measured by molecular diet analysis) and organismal responses (oxidative balance, reproduction and development) in the copepod A. bifilosa; and (3) an analysis of long term (1999–2009) data testing relationships between cyanobacteria and growth indices in nauplii of the copepods, Acartia spp. and Eurytemora affinis, in a coastal area of the northern Baltic proper. In the field survey, N. spumigena had positive effects on copepod egg production and egg viability, effectively increasing their viable egg production. By contrast, Aphanizomenon sp. showed a negative relationship with egg viability yet no significant effect on the viable egg production. In the experiment, ingestion of N. spumigena mixed with green algae Brachiomonas submarina had significant positive effects on copepod oxidative balance, egg viability and development of early nauplial stages, whereas egg production was negatively affected. Finally, the long term data analysis identified cyanobacteria as a significant positive predictor for the nauplial growth in Acartia spp. and E. affinis. Taken together, these results suggest that bloom forming diazotrophic cyanobacteria contribute to feeding and reproduction of zooplankton during summer and create a favorable growth

  1. Bloom-forming cyanobacteria support copepod reproduction and development in the Baltic Sea.

    PubMed

    Hogfors, Hedvig; Motwani, Nisha H; Hajdu, Susanna; El-Shehawy, Rehab; Holmborn, Towe; Vehmaa, Anu; Engström-Öst, Jonna; Brutemark, Andreas; Gorokhova, Elena

    2014-01-01

    It is commonly accepted that summer cyanobacterial blooms cannot be efficiently utilized by grazers due to low nutritional quality and production of toxins; however the evidence for such effects in situ is often contradictory. Using field and experimental observations on Baltic copepods and bloom-forming diazotrophic filamentous cyanobacteria, we show that cyanobacteria may in fact support zooplankton production during summer. To highlight this side of zooplankton-cyanobacteria interactions, we conducted: (1) a field survey investigating linkages between cyanobacteria, reproduction and growth indices in the copepod Acartia tonsa; (2) an experiment testing relationships between ingestion of the cyanobacterium Nodularia spumigena (measured by molecular diet analysis) and organismal responses (oxidative balance, reproduction and development) in the copepod A. bifilosa; and (3) an analysis of long term (1999-2009) data testing relationships between cyanobacteria and growth indices in nauplii of the copepods, Acartia spp. and Eurytemora affinis, in a coastal area of the northern Baltic proper. In the field survey, N. spumigena had positive effects on copepod egg production and egg viability, effectively increasing their viable egg production. By contrast, Aphanizomenon sp. showed a negative relationship with egg viability yet no significant effect on the viable egg production. In the experiment, ingestion of N. spumigena mixed with green algae Brachiomonas submarina had significant positive effects on copepod oxidative balance, egg viability and development of early nauplial stages, whereas egg production was negatively affected. Finally, the long term data analysis identified cyanobacteria as a significant positive predictor for the nauplial growth in Acartia spp. and E. affinis. Taken together, these results suggest that bloom forming diazotrophic cyanobacteria contribute to feeding and reproduction of zooplankton during summer and create a favorable growth

  2. Diurnal variations of dissolved and colloidal organic carbon and trace metals in a boreal lake during summer bloom.

    PubMed

    Pokrovsky, O S; Shirokova, L S

    2013-02-01

    This work describes variation of element concentration in surface water of a subarctic organic-rich lake during the diurnal cycle of photosynthesis. An unusually hot summer 2010 in European part of subarctic Russia produced elevated surface water temperature (28-30 °C) and caused massive cyanobacterial bloom. Diurnal variation of ~40 dissolved macro and trace elements and organic carbon were recorded in the humic Lake Svyatoe in the White Sea drainage basin. Two days continuous measurements with 3 h sampling steps at the surface (0.5 m) allowed tracing cyanobacterial activity via pH and O₂ measurement and revealed constant concentrations (within ±20-30%) of all major elements (Na, Mg, Cl, SO₄, K, Ca), organic and inorganic carbon and most trace elements (Li, B, Sc, Ti, Ni, Cu, Ga, As, Rb, Sr, Y, Zr, Mo, Sb, medium and heavy REEs, Hf, Pb, Th, U). The concentration of Mn demonstrated a factor of 3 decrease during the day following Mn adsorption onto cyanobacterial cells due to ~1 pH unit raise during the photosynthesis and Mn release during the night due to desorption from the cell surface. The role of Mn(II) photo-oxidation by reactive oxygen species could be also pronounced, although its contribution to Mn diurnal variation was much smaller than the adsorption at the cell surfaces. Similar pattern, but with much lesser variations (c.a., 10-20%), was recorded for Ba and Fe. On-site ultrafiltration technique allowed to distinguish between low molecular weight (LMW) complexes (<1 kDa) and high molecular weight (HMW) colloids (1 kDa-0.22 μm) and to assess their diurnal pattern. Colloidal Al and Fe were the highest during the night, when the contribution of HMW allochthonous colloids was maximal. Typical insoluble trivalent and tetravalent elements exhibited constant complexation (>80-90%) with HMW allochthonous organics, independent on the diel photosynthetic cycle. Finally, biologically-relevant metals (Cu, Co, Cr, V, and Ni) demonstrated significant variations

  3. Cyanobacterial toxins: biosynthetic routes and evolutionary roots.

    PubMed

    Dittmann, Elke; Fewer, David P; Neilan, Brett A

    2013-01-01

    Cyanobacteria produce an unparalleled variety of toxins that can cause severe health problems or even death in humans, and wild or domestic animals. In the last decade, biosynthetic pathways have been assigned to the majority of the known toxin families. This review summarizes current knowledge about the enzymatic basis for the production of the hepatotoxins microcystin and nodularin, the cytotoxin cylindrospermopsin, the neurotoxins anatoxin and saxitoxin, and the dermatotoxin lyngbyatoxin. Elucidation of the biosynthetic pathways of the toxins has paved the way for the development of molecular techniques for the detection and quantification of the producing cyanobacteria in different environments. Phylogenetic analyses of related clusters from a large number of strains has also allowed for the reconstruction of the evolutionary scenarios that have led to the emergence, diversification, and loss of such gene clusters in different strains and genera of cyanobacteria. Advances in the understanding of toxin biosynthesis and evolution have provided new methods for drinking-water quality control and may inspire the development of techniques for the management of bloom formation in the future. © 2012 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Using high-throughput DNA sequencing, genetic fingerprinting, and quantitative PCR as tools for monitoring bloom-forming and toxigenic cyanobacteria in Upper Klamath Lake, Oregon, 2013 and 2014

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Caldwell Eldridge, Sara L.; Driscoll, Conner; Dreher, Theo W.

    2017-06-05

    Monitoring the community structure and metabolic activities of cyanobacterial blooms in Upper Klamath Lake, Oregon, is critical to lake management because these blooms degrade water quality and produce toxic microcystins that are harmful to humans, domestic animals, and wildlife. Genetic tools, such as DNA fingerprinting by terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) analysis, high-throughput DNA sequencing (HTS), and real-time, quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), provide more sensitive and rapid assessments of bloom ecology than traditional techniques. The objectives of this study were (1) to characterize the microbial community at one site in Upper Klamath Lake and determine changes in the cyanobacterial community through time using T-RFLP and HTS in comparison with traditional light microscopy; (2) to determine relative abundances and changes in abundance over time of toxigenic Microcystis using qPCR; and (3) to determine relative abundances and changes in abundance over time of Aphanizomenon, Microcystis, and total cyanobacteria using qPCR. T-RFLP analysis of total cyanobacteria showed a dominance of only one or two distinct genotypes in samples from 2013, but results of HTS in 2013 and 2014 showed more variations in the bloom cycle that fit with the previous understanding of bloom dynamics in Upper Klamath Lake and indicated that potentially toxigenic Microcystis was more prevalent in 2014 than in years prior. The qPCR-estimated copy numbers of all target genes were higher in 2014 than in 2013, when microcystin concentrations also were higher. Total Microcystis density was shown with qPCR to be a better predictor of late-season increases in microcystin concentrations than the relative proportions of potentially toxigenic cells. In addition, qPCR targeting Aphanizomenon at one site in Upper Klamath Lake indicated a moderate bloom of this species (corresponding to chlorophyll a concentrations between approximately 75 and 200 micrograms

  5. Cyanobacterial Polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB): Screening, Optimization and Characterization

    PubMed Central

    Ansari, Sabbir; Fatma, Tasneem

    2016-01-01

    In modern life petroleum-based plastic has become indispensable due to its frequent use as an easily available and a low cost packaging and moulding material. However, its rapidly growing use is causing aquatic and terrestrial pollution. Under these circumstances, research and development for biodegradable plastic (bioplastics) is inevitable. Polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB), a type of microbial polyester that accumulates as a carbon/energy storage material in various microorganisms can be a good alternative. In this study, 23 cyanobacterial strains (15 heterocystous and 8 non-heterocystous) were screened for PHB production. The highest PHB (6.44% w/w of dry cells) was detected in Nostoc muscorum NCCU- 442 and the lowest in Spirulina platensis NCCU-S5 (0.51% w/w of dry cells), whereas no PHB was found in Cylindrospermum sp., Oscillatoria sp. and Plectonema sp. Presence of PHB granules in Nostoc muscorum NCCU- 442 was confirmed microscopically with Sudan black B and Nile red A staining. Pretreatment of biomass with methanol: acetone: water: dimethylformamide [40: 40: 18: 2 (MAD-I)] with 2 h magnetic bar stirring followed by 30 h continuous chloroform soxhlet extraction acted as optimal extraction conditions. Optimized physicochemical conditions viz. 7.5 pH, 30°C temperature, 10:14 h light:dark periods with 0.4% glucose (as additional carbon source), 1.0 gl-1 sodium chloride and phosphorus deficiency yielded 26.37% PHB on 7th day instead of 21st day. Using FTIR, 1H NMR and GC-MS, extracted polymer was identified as PHB. Thermal properties (melting temperature, decomposition temperatures etc.) of the extracted polymer were determined by TGA and DSC. Further, the polymer showed good tensile strength and young’s modulus with a low extension to break ratio comparable to petrochemical plastic. Biodegradability potential tested as weight loss percentage showed efficient degradation (24.58%) of PHB within 60 days by mixed microbial culture in comparison to petrochemical plastic

  6. Blooming Idiots: Educational Objectives, Learning Taxonomies and the Pedagogy of Benjamin Bloom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doughty, Howard A.

    2006-01-01

    This article offers a skeletal critique of the pedagogical theory and the teaching practices arising from the work of educational innovator, Benjamin Bloom. Professor Bloom's theory and method have overtly and covertly insinuated themselves into North American educational practice over the past half-century. Their impact and influence have been…