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Sample records for enhances memory formation

  1. dCREB2-Mediated Enhancement of Memory Formation

    PubMed Central

    Tubon, Thomas C.; Zhang, Jiabin; Friedman, Eugenia L.; Jin, Haining; Gonzales, Erin D.; Zhou, Hong; Drier, Diana; Gerstner, Jason R.; Paulson, Emily A.; Fropf, Robin; Yin, Jerry C. P.

    2013-01-01

    CREB-responsive transcription has an important role in adaptive responses in all cells and tissue. In the nervous system, it has an essential and well established role in long-term memory formation throughout a diverse set of organisms. Activation of this transcription factor correlates with long-term memory formation and disruption of its activity interferes with this process. Most convincingly, aug-menting CREB activity in a number of different systems enhances memory formation. In Drosophila, a sequence rearrangement in the original transgene used to enhance memory formation has been a source of confusion. This rearrangement prematurely terminates translation of the full-length protein, leaving the identity of the “enhancing molecule” unclear. In this report, we show that a naturally occurring, downstream, in-frame initiation codon is used to make a dCREB2 protein off of both transgenic and chromosomal substrates. This protein is a transcriptional activator and is responsible for memory enhancement. A number of parameters can affect enhancement, including the short-lived activity of the activator protein, and the time-of-day when induction and behavioral training occur. Our results reaffirm that overexpression of a dCREB2 activator can enhance memory formation and illustrate the complexity of this behavioral enhancement. PMID:23616553

  2. Brain polarization enhances the formation and retention of motor memories.

    PubMed

    Galea, Joseph M; Celnik, Pablo

    2009-07-01

    One of the first steps in the acquisition of a new motor skill is the formation of motor memories. Here we tested the capacity of transcranial DC stimulation (tDCS) applied over the motor cortex during motor practice to increase motor memory formation and retention. Nine healthy individuals underwent a crossover transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) study designed to test motor memory formation resulting from training. Anodal tDCS elicited an increase in the magnitude and duration of motor memories in a polarity-specific manner, as reflected by changes in the kinematic characteristics of TMS-evoked movements after anodal, but not cathodal or sham stimulation. This effect was present only when training and stimulation were associated and mediated by a differential modulation of corticomotor excitability of the involved muscles. These results indicate that anodal brain polarization can enhance the initial formation and retention of a new motor memory resulting from training. These processes may be the underlying mechanisms by which tDCS enhances motor learning.

  3. Epicatechin, a component of dark chocolate, enhances memory formation if applied during the memory consolidation period

    PubMed Central

    Fernell, Maria; Swinton, Cayley; Lukowiak, Ken

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Epicatechin (Epi), a flavanol found in foods such as dark chocolate has previously been shown to enhance memory formation in our model system, operant conditioning of aerial respiration in Lymnaea. In those experiments snails were trained in Epi. Here we ask whether snails exposed to Epi before training, during the consolidation period immediately following training, or 1 h after training would enhance memory formation. We report here that Epi is only able to enhance memory if snails are placed in Epi-containing pond water immediately after training. That is, Epi enhances memory formation if it is applied during the memory consolidation period as well as if snails are trained in Epi-containing pond water. PMID:27574544

  4. Epicatechin, a component of dark chocolate, enhances memory formation if applied during the memory consolidation period.

    PubMed

    Fernell, Maria; Swinton, Cayley; Lukowiak, Ken

    2016-01-01

    Epicatechin (Epi), a flavanol found in foods such as dark chocolate has previously been shown to enhance memory formation in our model system, operant conditioning of aerial respiration in Lymnaea. In those experiments snails were trained in Epi. Here we ask whether snails exposed to Epi before training, during the consolidation period immediately following training, or 1 h after training would enhance memory formation. We report here that Epi is only able to enhance memory if snails are placed in Epi-containing pond water immediately after training. That is, Epi enhances memory formation if it is applied during the memory consolidation period as well as if snails are trained in Epi-containing pond water.

  5. Emotional brain states carry over and enhance future memory formation.

    PubMed

    Tambini, Arielle; Rimmele, Ulrike; Phelps, Elizabeth A; Davachi, Lila

    2017-02-01

    Emotional arousal can produce lasting, vivid memories for emotional experiences, but little is known about whether emotion can prospectively enhance memory formation for temporally distant information. One mechanism that may support prospective memory enhancements is the carry-over of emotional brain states that influence subsequent neutral experiences. Here we found that neutral stimuli encountered by human subjects 9-33 min after exposure to emotionally arousing stimuli had greater levels of recollection during delayed memory testing compared to those studied before emotional and after neutral stimulus exposure. Moreover, multiple measures of emotion-related brain activity showed evidence of reinstatement during subsequent periods of neutral stimulus encoding. Both slow neural fluctuations (low-frequency connectivity) and transient, stimulus-evoked activity predictive of trial-by-trial memory formation present during emotional encoding were reinstated during subsequent neutral encoding. These results indicate that neural measures of an emotional experience can persist in time and bias how new, unrelated information is encoded and recollected.

  6. Overexpression of Protein Kinase Mζ in the Prelimbic Cortex Enhances the Formation of Long-Term Fear Memory

    PubMed Central

    Xue, Yan-Xue; Zhu, Zhen-Zhen; Han, Hai-Bin; Liu, Jian-Feng; Meng, Shi-Qiu; Chen, Chen; Yang, Jian-Li; Wu, Ping; Lu, Lin

    2015-01-01

    Neuroplasticity in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) after fear conditioning has been suggested to regulate the formation and expression of fear memory. Protein kinase Mζ (PKMζ), an isoform of protein kinase C with persistent activity, is involved in the formation and maintenance of memory. However, less is known about the role of PKMζ in the PFC in the formation of fear memory. We investigated whether the overexpression of PKMζ enhances the formation of auditory fear memory in rats. We found that microinfusion of lentiviral vector-expressing PKMζ into the prelimbic cortex (PrL) selectively enhanced the expression of PKMζ without influencing the expression of other isoforms of PKC. The overexpression of PKMζ in the PrL enhanced the formation of long-term fear memory without affecting short-term fear memory, whereas the overexpression of PKMζ in the infralimbic cortex had no effect on either short-term or long-term fear memory. The overexpression of PKMζ in the PrL had no effect on anxiety-like behavior or locomotor activity. We also found that PKMζ overexpression potentiated the fear conditioning-induced increase in the membrane levels of glutamate subunit 2 of AMPA receptors in the PrL. These results demonstrate that the overexpression of PKMζ in the PrL but not infralimbic cortex selectively enhanced the formation of long-term fear memory, and PKMζ in the PrL may be involved in the formation of fear memory. PMID:25722116

  7. Exchange Protein Activated by cAMP Enhances Long-Term Memory Formation Independent of Protein Kinase A

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ma, Nan; Abel, Ted; Hernandez, Pepe J.

    2009-01-01

    It is well established that cAMP signaling within neurons plays a major role in the formation of long-term memories--signaling thought to proceed through protein kinase A (PKA). However, here we show that exchange protein activated by cAMP (Epac) is able to enhance the formation of long-term memory in the hippocampus and appears to do so…

  8. Emotional Memory Formation Is Enhanced across Sleep Intervals with High Amounts of Rapid Eye Movement Sleep

    PubMed Central

    Wagner, Ullrich; Gais, Steffen; Born, Jan

    2001-01-01

    Recent studies indicated a selective activation during rapid eye movement (REM) sleep of the amygdala known to play a decisive role in the processing of emotional stimuli. This study compared memory retention of emotional versus neutral text material over intervals covering either early sleep known to be dominated by nonREM slow wave sleep (SWS) or late sleep, in which REM sleep is dominant. Two groups of men were tested across 3-h periods of early and late sleep (sleep group) or corresponding retention intervals filled with wakefulness (wake group). Sleep was recorded polysomnographically. Cortisol concentrations in saliva were monitored at acquisition and retrieval testing. As expected, the amount of REM sleep was about three times greater during late than during early retention sleep, whereas a reversed pattern was observed for SWS distribution (P < 0.001). Sleep improved retention, compared with the effects of wake intervals (P < 0.02). However, this effect was substantial only in the late night (P < 0.005), during which retention was generally worse than during the early night (P < 0.02). Late sleep particularly enhanced memory for emotional texts. This effect was highly significant in comparison with memory for neutral texts (P < 0.01) and in comparison with memory after late and early wake intervals (P < 0.001). Cortisol concentration differed between early and late retention intervals but not between sleep and wake conditions. Results are consonant with a supportive function of REM sleep predominating late sleep for the formation of emotional memory in humans. PMID:11274257

  9. Estradiol replacement enhances fear memory formation, impairs extinction and reduces COMT expression levels in the hippocampus of ovariectomized female mice.

    PubMed

    McDermott, Carmel M; Liu, Dan; Ade, Catherine; Schrader, Laura A

    2015-02-01

    Females experience depression, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and anxiety disorders at approximately twice the rate of males, but the mechanisms underlying this difference remain undefined. The effect of sex hormones on neural substrates presents a possible mechanism. We investigated the effect of ovariectomy at two ages, before puberty and in adulthood, and 17β-estradiol (E2) replacement administered chronically in drinking water on anxiety level, fear memory formation, and extinction. Based on previous studies, we hypothesized that estradiol replacement would impair fear memory formation and enhance extinction rate. Females, age 4 weeks and 10 weeks, were divided randomly into 4 groups; sham surgery, OVX, OVX+low E2 (200nM), and OVX+high E2 (1000nM). Chronic treatment with high levels of E2 significantly increased anxiety levels measured in the elevated plus maze. In both age groups, high levels of E2 significantly increased contextual fear memory but had no effect on cued fear memory. In addition, high E2 decreased the rate of extinction in both ages. Finally, catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) is important for regulation of catecholamine levels, which play a role in fear memory formation and extinction. COMT expression in the hippocampus was significantly reduced by high E2 replacement, implying increased catecholamine levels in the hippocampus of high E2 mice. These results suggest that estradiol enhanced fear memory formation, and inhibited fear memory extinction, possibly stabilizing the fear memory in female mice. This study has implications for a neurobiological mechanism for PTSD and anxiety disorders.

  10. Motor Skills Enhance Procedural Memory Formation and Protect against Age-Related Decline

    PubMed Central

    Müller, Nils C. J.; Genzel, Lisa; Konrad, Boris N.; Pawlowski, Marcel; Neville, David; Fernández, Guillén; Steiger, Axel

    2016-01-01

    The ability to consolidate procedural memories declines with increasing age. Prior knowledge enhances learning and memory consolidation of novel but related information in various domains. Here, we present evidence that prior motor experience–in our case piano skills–increases procedural learning and has a protective effect against age-related decline for the consolidation of novel but related manual movements. In our main experiment, we tested 128 participants with a sequential finger-tapping motor task during two sessions 24 hours apart. We observed enhanced online learning speed and offline memory consolidation for piano players. Enhanced memory consolidation was driven by a strong effect in older participants, whereas younger participants did not benefit significantly from prior piano experience. In a follow up independent control experiment, this compensatory effect of piano experience was not visible after a brief offline period of 30 minutes, hence requiring an extended consolidation window potentially involving sleep. Through a further control experiment, we rejected the possibility that the decreased effect in younger participants was caused by training saturation. We discuss our results in the context of the neurobiological schema approach and suggest that prior experience has the potential to rescue memory consolidation from age-related cognitive decline. PMID:27333186

  11. Repetition suppression and repetition enhancement underlie auditory memory-trace formation in the human brain: an MEG study.

    PubMed

    Recasens, Marc; Leung, Sumie; Grimm, Sabine; Nowak, Rafal; Escera, Carles

    2015-03-01

    The formation of echoic memory traces has traditionally been inferred from the enhanced responses to its deviations. The mismatch negativity (MMN), an auditory event-related potential (ERP) elicited between 100 and 250ms after sound deviation is an indirect index of regularity encoding that reflects a memory-based comparison process. Recently, repetition positivity (RP) has been described as a candidate ERP correlate of direct memory trace formation. RP consists of repetition suppression and enhancement effects occurring in different auditory components between 50 and 250ms after sound onset. However, the neuronal generators engaged in the encoding of repeated stimulus features have received little interest. This study intends to investigate the neuronal sources underlying the formation and strengthening of new memory traces by employing a roving-standard paradigm, where trains of different frequencies and different lengths are presented randomly. Source generators of repetition enhanced (RE) and suppressed (RS) activity were modeled using magnetoencephalography (MEG) in healthy subjects. Our results show that, in line with RP findings, N1m (~95-150ms) activity is suppressed with stimulus repetition. In addition, we observed the emergence of a sustained field (~230-270ms) that showed RE. Source analysis revealed neuronal generators of RS and RE located in both auditory and non-auditory areas, like the medial parietal cortex and frontal areas. The different timing and location of neural generators involved in RS and RE points to the existence of functionally separated mechanisms devoted to acoustic memory-trace formation in different auditory processing stages of the human brain.

  12. Mechanisms of Memory Enhancement

    PubMed Central

    Stern, Sarah A.

    2012-01-01

    The ongoing quest for memory enhancement is one that grows necessary as the global population increasingly ages. The extraordinary progress that has been made in the past few decades elucidating the underlying mechanisms of how long-term memories are formed has provided insight into how memories might also be enhanced. Capitalizing on this knowledge, it has been postulated that targeting many of the same mechanisms, including CREB activation, AMPA/NMDA receptor trafficking, neuromodulation (e.g. via dopamine, adrenaline, cortisol or acetylcholine) and metabolic processes (e.g. via glucose and insulin) may all lead to the enhancement of memory. These and other mechanisms and/or approaches have been tested via genetic or pharmacological methods in animal models, and several have been investigated in humans as well. In addition, a number of behavioral methods, including exercise and reconsolidation, may also serve to strengthen and enhance memories. By capitalizing on this knowledge and continuing to investigate these promising avenues, memory enhancement may indeed be achieved in the future. PMID:23151999

  13. Genetic Regulation of Fate Decisions in Therapeutic T Cells to Enhance Tumor Protection and Memory Formation.

    PubMed

    Veliça, Pedro; Zech, Mathias; Henson, Sian; Holler, Angelika; Manzo, Teresa; Pike, Rebecca; Santos E Sousa, Pedro; Zhang, Lei; Heinz, Niels; Schiedlmeier, Bernhard; Pule, Martin; Stauss, Hans; Chakraverty, Ronjon

    2015-07-01

    A key challenge in the field of T-cell immunotherapy for cancer is creating a suitable platform for promoting differentiation of effector cells while at the same time enabling self-renewal needed for long-term memory. Although transfer of less differentiated memory T cells increases efficacy through greater expansion and persistence in vivo, the capacity of such cells to sustain effector functions within immunosuppressive tumor microenvironments may still be limiting. We have therefore directly compared the impact of effector versus memory differentiation of therapeutic T cells in tumor-bearing mice by introducing molecular switches that regulate cell fate decisions via mTOR. Ectopic expression of RAS homolog enriched in brain (RHEB) increased mTORC1 signaling, promoted a switch to aerobic glycolysis, and increased expansion of effector T cells. By rapidly infiltrating tumors, RHEB-transduced T cells significantly reduced the emergence of immunoedited escape variants. In contrast, expression of proline-rich Akt substrate of 40 kDa (PRAS40) inhibited mTORC1, promoted quiescence, and blocked tumor infiltration. Fate mapping studies following transient expression of PRAS40 demonstrated that mTORC1(low) T cells made no contribution to initial tumor control but instead survived to become memory cells proficient in generating recall immunity. Our data support the design of translational strategies for generating heterogeneous T-cell immunity against cancer, with the appropriate balance between promoting effector differentiation and self-renewal. Unlike pharmacologic inhibitors, the genetic approach described here allows for upregulation as well as inhibition of the mTORC1 pathway and is highly selective for the therapeutic T cells without affecting systemic mTORC1 functions.

  14. Enhanced resistive switching phenomena using low-positive-voltage format and self-compliance IrOx/GdOx/W cross-point memories

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Enhanced resistive switching phenomena of IrOx/GdOx/W cross-point memory devices have been observed as compared to the via-hole devices. The as-deposited Gd2O3 films with a thickness of approximately 15 nm show polycrystalline that is observed using high-resolution transmission electron microscope. Via-hole memory device shows bipolar resistive switching phenomena with a large formation voltage of -6.4 V and high operation current of >1 mA, while the cross-point memory device shows also bipolar resistive switching with low-voltage format of +2 V and self-compliance operation current of <300 μA. Switching mechanism is based on the formation and rupture of conducting filament at the IrOx/GdOx interface, owing to oxygen ion migration. The oxygen-rich GdOx layer formation at the IrOx/GdOx interface will also help control the resistive switching characteristics. This cross-point memory device has also Repeatable 100 DC switching cycles, narrow distribution of LRS/HRS, excellent pulse endurance of >10,000 in every cycle, and good data retention of >104 s. This memory device has great potential for future nanoscale high-density non-volatile memory applications. PMID:24400888

  15. The effects of enhanced zinc on spatial memory and plaque formation in transgenic mice

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Linkous, D.H.; Adlard, P.A.; Wanschura, P.B.; Conko, K.M.; Flinn, J.M.

    2009-01-01

    There is considerable evidence suggesting that metals play a central role in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease. Reports suggest that elevated dietary metals may both precipitate and potentiate an Alzheimer's disease phenotype. Despite this, there remain few studies that have examined the behavioral consequences of elevated dietary metals in wild type and Alzheimer's disease animals. To further investigate this in the current study, two separate transgenic models of AD (Tg2576 and TgCRND8), together with wild type littermates were administered 10 ppm (0.153 mM) Zn. Tg2576 animals were maintained on a zinc-enriched diet both pre- and postnatally until 11 months of age, while TgCRND8 animals were treated for five months following weaning. Behavioral testing, consisting of "Atlantis" and "moving" platform versions of the Morris water maze, were conducted at the end of the study, and tissues were collected for immunohistochemical analysis of amyloid-β burden. Our data demonstrate that the provision of a zinc-enriched diet potentiated Alzheimer-like spatial memory impairments in the transgenic animals and was associated with reduced hippocampal amyloid-β plaque deposits. Zinc-related behavioral deficits were also demonstrated in wild type mice, which were sometimes as great as those present in the transgenic animals. However, zinc-related cognitive impairments in transgenic mice were greater than the summation of zinc effects in the wild type mice and the transgene effects.

  16. Sleep enhances explicit recollection in recognition memory.

    PubMed

    Drosopoulos, Spyridon; Wagner, Ullrich; Born, Jan

    2005-01-01

    Recognition memory is considered to be supported by two different memory processes, i.e., the explicit recollection of information about a previous event and an implicit process of recognition based on an acontextual sense of familiarity. Both types of memory supposedly rely on distinct memory systems. Sleep is known to enhance the consolidation of memories, with the different sleep stages affecting different types of memory. In the present study, we used the process-dissociation procedure to compare the effects of sleep on estimates of explicit (recollection) and implicit (familiarity) memory formation on a word-list discrimination task. Subjects studied two lists of words before a 3-h retention interval of sleep or wakefulness, and recognition was tested afterward. The retention intervals were positioned either in the early night when sleep is dominated by slow-wave sleep (SWS), or in the late night, when sleep is dominated by REM sleep. Sleep enhanced explicit recognition memory, as compared with wakefulness (P < 0.05), whereas familiarity was not affected by sleep. Moreover, explicit recognition was particularly enhanced after sleep in the early-night retention interval, and especially when the words were presented with the same contextual features as during learning, i.e., in the same font (P < 0.05). The data indicate that in a task that allows separating the contribution of explicit and implicit memory, sleep particularly supports explicit memory formation. The mechanism of this effect appears to be linked to SWS.

  17. Sleep enhances false memories depending on general memory performance.

    PubMed

    Diekelmann, Susanne; Born, Jan; Wagner, Ullrich

    2010-04-02

    Memory is subject to dynamic changes, sometimes giving rise to the formation of false memories due to biased processes of consolidation or retrieval. Sleep is known to benefit memory consolidation through an active reorganization of representations whereas acute sleep deprivation impairs retrieval functions. Here, we investigated whether sleep after learning and sleep deprivation at retrieval enhance the generation of false memories in a free recall test. According to the Deese, Roediger, McDermott (DRM) false memory paradigm, subjects learned lists of semantically associated words (e.g., "night", "dark", "coal", etc.), lacking the strongest common associate or theme word (here: "black"). Free recall was tested after 9h following a night of sleep, a night of wakefulness (sleep deprivation) or daytime wakefulness. Compared with memory performance after a retention period of daytime wakefulness, both post-learning nocturnal sleep as well as acute sleep deprivation at retrieval significantly enhanced false recall of theme words. However, these effects were only observed in subjects with low general memory performance. These data point to two different ways in which sleep affects false memory generation through semantic generalization: one acts during consolidation on the memory trace per se, presumably by active reorganization of the trace in the post-learning sleep period. The other is related to the recovery function of sleep and affects cognitive control processes of retrieval. Both effects are unmasked when the material is relatively weakly encoded.

  18. Sleep Enhances Explicit Recollection in Recognition Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drosopoulos, Spyridon; Wagner, Ullrich; Born, Jan

    2005-01-01

    Recognition memory is considered to be supported by two different memory processes, i.e., the explicit recollection of information about a previous event and an implicit process of recognition based on a contextual sense of familiarity. Both types of memory supposedly rely on distinct memory systems. Sleep is known to enhance the consolidation of…

  19. D1/D5 dopamine receptors modulate spatial memory formation.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Weber C N; Köhler, Cristiano C; Radiske, Andressa; Cammarota, Martín

    2012-02-01

    We investigated the effect of the intra-CA1 administration of the D1/D5 receptor antagonist SCH23390 and the D1/D5 receptor agonist SKF38393 on spatial memory in the water maze. When given immediately, but not 3h after training, SCH23390 hindered long-term spatial memory formation without affecting non-spatial memory or the normal functionality of the hippocampus. On the contrary, post-training infusion of SKF38393 enhanced retention and facilitated the spontaneous recovery of the original spatial preference after reversal learning. Our findings demonstrate that hippocampal D1/D5 receptors play an essential role in spatial memory processing.

  20. Stochastic memory: memory enhancement due to noise.

    PubMed

    Stotland, Alexander; Di Ventra, Massimiliano

    2012-01-01

    There are certain classes of resistors, capacitors, and inductors that, when subject to a periodic input of appropriate frequency, develop hysteresis loops in their characteristic response. Here we show that the hysteresis of such memory elements can also be induced by white noise of appropriate intensity even at very low frequencies of the external driving field. We illustrate this phenomenon using a physical model of memory resistor realized by TiO(2) thin films sandwiched between metallic electrodes and discuss under which conditions this effect can be observed experimentally. We also discuss its implications on existing memory systems described in the literature and the role of colored noise.

  1. Stochastic memory: Memory enhancement due to noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stotland, Alexander; di Ventra, Massimiliano

    2012-01-01

    There are certain classes of resistors, capacitors, and inductors that, when subject to a periodic input of appropriate frequency, develop hysteresis loops in their characteristic response. Here we show that the hysteresis of such memory elements can also be induced by white noise of appropriate intensity even at very low frequencies of the external driving field. We illustrate this phenomenon using a physical model of memory resistor realized by TiO2 thin films sandwiched between metallic electrodes and discuss under which conditions this effect can be observed experimentally. We also discuss its implications on existing memory systems described in the literature and the role of colored noise.

  2. Associative memory cells: Formation, function and perspective

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jin-Hui; Cui, Shan

    2017-01-01

    Associative learning and memory are common activities in life, and their cellular infrastructures constitute the basis of cognitive processes. Although neuronal plasticity emerges after memory formation, basic units and their working principles for the storage and retrieval of associated signals remain to be revealed. Current reports indicate that associative memory cells, through their mutual synapse innervations among the co-activated sensory cortices, are recruited to fulfill the integration, storage and retrieval of multiple associated signals, and serve associative thinking and logical reasoning. In this review, we aim to summarize associative memory cells in their formation, features and functional impacts.

  3. Memory for Lectures: How Lecture Format Impacts the Learning Experience

    PubMed Central

    Varao-Sousa, Trish L.; Kingstone, Alan

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigated what impact the presentation style of a classroom lecture has on memory, mind wandering, and the subjective factors of interest and motivation. We examined if having a professor lecturing live versus on video alters the learning experience of the students in the classroom. During the lectures, students were asked to report mind wandering and later complete a memory test. The lecture format was manipulated such that all the students received two lectures, one live and one a pre-recorded video. Results indicate that lecture format affected memory performance but not mind wandering, with enhanced memory in the live lectures. Additionally, students reported greater interest and motivation in the live lectures. Given that a single change to the classroom environment, professor presence, impacted memory performance, as well as motivation and interest, the present results have several key implications for technology-based integrations into higher education classrooms. PMID:26561235

  4. Synaptic Plasticity and Memory Formation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-06-30

    the new drugs was then tested extensively in large numbers of rats across three learning tasks; as predicted, this compound produced substantial improvements in the encoding of short and long-term memories.

  5. Dopaminergic influences on formation of a motor memory.

    PubMed

    Flöel, Agnes; Breitenstein, Caterina; Hummel, Friedhelm; Celnik, Pablo; Gingert, Christian; Sawaki, Lumy; Knecht, Stefan; Cohen, Leonardo G

    2005-07-01

    The ability of the central nervous system to form motor memories, a process contributing to motor learning and skill acquisition, decreases with age. Dopaminergic activity, one of the mechanisms implicated in memory formation, experiences a similar decline with aging. It is possible that restoring dopaminergic function in elderly adults could lead to improved formation of motor memories with training. We studied the influence of a single oral dose of levodopa (100mg) administered preceding training on the ability to encode an elementary motor memory in the primary motor cortex of elderly and young healthy volunteers in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled design. Attention to the task and motor training kinematics were comparable across age groups and sessions. In young subjects, encoding a motor memory under placebo was more prominent than in older subjects, and the encoding process was accelerated by intake of levodopa. In the elderly group, diminished motor memory encoding under placebo was enhanced by intake of levodopa to levels present in younger subjects. Therefore, upregulation of dopaminergic activity accelerated memory formation in young subjects and restored the ability to form a motor memory in elderly subjects; possible mechanisms underlying the beneficial effects of dopaminergic agents on motor learning in neurorehabilitation.

  6. Enhancing Memory in Your Students: COMPOSE Yourself!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rotter, Kathleen M.

    2009-01-01

    The essence of teaching is, in fact, creating new memories for your students. The teacher's role is to help students store the correct information (memories) in ways that make recall and future access and use likely. Therefore, choosing techniques to enhance memory is possibly the most critical aspect of instructional design. COMPOSE is an acronym…

  7. Predicting episodic memory formation for movie events

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Hanlin; Singer, Jed; Ison, Matias J.; Pivazyan, Gnel; Romaine, Melissa; Frias, Rosa; Meller, Elizabeth; Boulin, Adrianna; Carroll, James; Perron, Victoria; Dowcett, Sarah; Arellano, Marlise; Kreiman, Gabriel

    2016-01-01

    Episodic memories are long lasting and full of detail, yet imperfect and malleable. We quantitatively evaluated recollection of short audiovisual segments from movies as a proxy to real-life memory formation in 161 subjects at 15 minutes up to a year after encoding. Memories were reproducible within and across individuals, showed the typical decay with time elapsed between encoding and testing, were fallible yet accurate, and were insensitive to low-level stimulus manipulations but sensitive to high-level stimulus properties. Remarkably, memorability was also high for single movie frames, even one year post-encoding. To evaluate what determines the efficacy of long-term memory formation, we developed an extensive set of content annotations that included actions, emotional valence, visual cues and auditory cues. These annotations enabled us to document the content properties that showed a stronger correlation with recognition memory and to build a machine-learning computational model that accounted for episodic memory formation in single events for group averages and individual subjects with an accuracy of up to 80%. These results provide initial steps towards the development of a quantitative computational theory capable of explaining the subjective filtering steps that lead to how humans learn and consolidate memories. PMID:27686330

  8. Covalent modification of DNA regulates memory formation.

    PubMed

    Miller, Courtney A; Sweatt, J David

    2007-03-15

    DNA methylation is a covalent chemical modification of DNA catalyzed by DNA methyltransferases (DNMTs). DNA methylation is associated with transcriptional silencing and has been studied extensively as a lifelong molecular information storage mechanism put in place during development. Here we report that DNMT gene expression is upregulated in the adult rat hippocampus following contextual fear conditioning and that DNMT inhibition blocks memory formation. In addition, fear conditioning is associated with rapid methylation and transcriptional silencing of the memory suppressor gene PP1 and demethylation and transcriptional activation of the synaptic plasticity gene reelin, indicating both methyltransferase and demethylase activity during consolidation. DNMT inhibition prevents the PP1 methylation increase, resulting in aberrant transcription of the gene during the memory-consolidation period. These results demonstrate that DNA methylation is dynamically regulated in the adult nervous system and that this cellular mechanism is a crucial step in memory formation.

  9. Synaptic Plasticity and Memory Formation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-06-14

    past year defined the cellular changes likely to be responsible for expression. The nootropic ("cognitive enhancing") drug aniracetam prolongs the open...as the substrate of LTP. Tests of this became possible with the discovery by Ito and co-workers Q’. Ph, si , 1990) that the nootropic drug aniracetam...plausible explanation for this is that LTP itself changes the receptors. Aniracetam as a "cognitive enhancer" The nootropic family of drugs to which

  10. Accounting for Immediate Emotional Memory Enhancement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Talmi, Deborah; McGarry, Lucy M.

    2012-01-01

    Memory for emotional events is usually very good even when tested shortly after study, before it is altered by the influence of emotional arousal on consolidation. Immediate emotion-enhanced memory may stem from the influence of emotion on cognitive processes at encoding and retrieval. Our goal was to test which cognitive factors are necessary and…

  11. Amyloid Beta Mediates Memory Formation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcia-Osta, Ana; Alberini, Cristina M.

    2009-01-01

    The amyloid precursor protein (APP) undergoes sequential cleavages to generate various polypeptides, including the amyloid [beta] (1-42) peptide (A[beta][1-42]), which is believed to play a major role in amyloid plaque formation in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Here we provide evidence that, in contrast with its pathological role when accumulated,…

  12. Epigenetic Regulation of Memory Formation and Maintenance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zovkic, Iva B.; Guzman-Karlsson, Mikael C.; Sweatt, J. David

    2013-01-01

    Understanding the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying the formation and maintenance of memories is a central goal of the neuroscience community. It is well regarded that an organism's ability to lastingly adapt its behavior in response to a transient environmental stimulus relies on the central nervous system's capability for structural…

  13. Emotionally negative pictures enhance gist memory.

    PubMed

    Bookbinder, S H; Brainerd, C J

    2017-02-01

    In prior work on how true and false memory are influenced by emotion, valence and arousal have often been conflated. Thus, it is difficult to say which specific effects are caused by valence and which are caused by arousal. In the present research, we used a picture-memory paradigm that allowed emotional valence to be manipulated with arousal held constant. Negatively valenced pictures elevated both true and false memory, relative to positive and neutral pictures. Conjoint recognition modeling revealed that negative valence (a) reduced erroneous suppression of true memories and (b) increased the familiarity of the semantic content of both true and false memories. Overall, negative valence impaired the verbatim side of episodic memory but enhanced the gist side, and these effects persisted even after a week-long delay. (PsycINFO Database Record

  14. Inhibiting corticosterone synthesis during fear memory formation exacerbates cued fear extinction memory deficits within the single prolonged stress model.

    PubMed

    Keller, Samantha M; Schreiber, William B; Stanfield, Briana R; Knox, Dayan

    2015-01-01

    Using the single prolonged stress (SPS) animal model of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), previous studies suggest that enhanced glucocorticoid receptor (GR) expression leads to cued fear extinction retention deficits. However, it is unknown how the endogenous ligand of GRs, corticosterone (CORT), may contribute to extinction retention deficits in the SPS model. Given that CORT synthesis during fear learning is critical for fear memory consolidation and SPS enhances GR expression, CORT synthesis during fear memory formation could strengthen fear memory in SPS rats by enhancing GR activation during fear learning. In turn, this could lead to cued fear extinction retention deficits. We tested the hypothesis that CORT synthesis during fear learning leads to cued fear extinction retention deficits in SPS rats by administering the CORT synthesis inhibitor metyrapone to SPS and control rats prior to fear conditioning, and observed the effect this had on extinction memory. Inhibiting CORT synthesis during fear memory formation in control rats tended to decrease cued freezing, though this effect never reached statistical significance. Contrary to our hypothesis, inhibiting CORT synthesis during fear memory formation disrupted extinction retention in SPS rats. This finding suggests that even though SPS exposure leads to cued fear extinction memory deficits, CORT synthesis during fear memory formation enhances extinction retention in SPS rats. This suggests that stress-induced CORT synthesis in previously stressed rats can be beneficial.

  15. DNA methylation in memory formation: Emerging insights

    PubMed Central

    Heyward, Frankie D.; Sweatt, J. David

    2016-01-01

    The establishment of synaptic plasticity and long-term memory requires lasting cellular and molecular modifications that, as a whole, must endure despite the rapid turnover of their constituent parts. Such a molecular feat must be mediated by a stable, self-perpetuating, cellular information storage mechanism. DNA methylation, being the archetypal cellular information storage mechanism, has been heavily implicated as being necessary for stable activity-dependent transcriptional alterations within the central nervous system (CNS). This review details the foundational discoveries from both gene-targeted, as well as whole-genome sequencing, studies that have successfully brought DNA methylation to our attention as a chief regulator of activity- and experience-dependent transcriptional alterations within the CNS. We present a hypothetical framework with which the disparate experimental findings dealing with distinct manipulations of the DNA methylation, and their effect on memory, might be resolved while taking into account the unique impact activity-dependent alterations in DNA methylation potentially have on both memory promoting and memory-suppressing gene expression. And last, we discuss potential avenues for future inquiry into the role of DNA methylation during remote memory formation. PMID:25832671

  16. Learning under stress impairs memory formation.

    PubMed

    Schwabe, Lars; Wolf, Oliver T

    2010-02-01

    Converging lines of evidence indicate that stress either before or after learning influences memory. Surprisingly little is known about how memory is affected when people learn while they are stressed. Here, we examined the impact of learning under stress in 48 healthy young men and women. Participants were exposed to stress (socially evaluated cold pressor test) or a control condition while they learned emotional words and neutral words that were either conceptually associated with or unrelated to the stressor. Memory was assessed in free recall and recognition tests 24h after learning. Learning under stress reduced both free recall and recognition performance, irrespective of the emotionality and the stress context relatedness of the words. While the effect of stress was comparable in men and women, women outperformed men in the free recall test. These findings show a memory impairing effect of learning under stress in humans and challenge some assumptions of current theories about the impact of stress around the time of learning on memory formation.

  17. Epigenetic regulation of memory formation and maintenance.

    PubMed

    Zovkic, Iva B; Guzman-Karlsson, Mikael C; Sweatt, J David

    2013-01-15

    Understanding the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying the formation and maintenance of memories is a central goal of the neuroscience community. It is well regarded that an organism's ability to lastingly adapt its behavior in response to a transient environmental stimulus relies on the central nervous system's capability for structural and functional plasticity. This plasticity is dependent on a well-regulated program of neurotransmitter release, post-synaptic receptor activation, intracellular signaling cascades, gene transcription, and subsequent protein synthesis. In the last decade, epigenetic markers like DNA methylation and post-translational modifications of histone tails have emerged as important regulators of the memory process. Their ability to regulate gene transcription dynamically in response to neuronal activation supports the consolidation of long-term memory. Furthermore, the persistent and self-propagating nature of these mechanisms, particularly DNA methylation, suggests a molecular mechanism for memory maintenance. In this review, we will examine the evidence that supports a role of epigenetic mechanisms in learning and memory. In doing so, we hope to emphasize (1) the widespread involvement of these mechanisms across different behavioral paradigms and distinct brain regions, (2) the temporal and genetic specificity of these mechanisms in response to upstream signaling cascades, and (3) the functional outcome these mechanisms may have on structural and functional plasticity. Finally, we consider the future directions of neuroepigenetic research as it relates to neuronal storage of information.

  18. Identification of Genes That Promote or Inhibit Olfactory Memory Formation in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Walkinshaw, Erica; Gai, Yunchao; Farkas, Caitlin; Richter, Daniel; Nicholas, Eric; Keleman, Krystyna; Davis, Ronald L.

    2015-01-01

    Genetic screens in Drosophila melanogaster and other organisms have been pursued to filter the genome for genetic functions important for memory formation. Such screens have employed primarily chemical or transposon-mediated mutagenesis and have identified numerous mutants including classical memory mutants, dunce and rutabaga. Here, we report the results of a large screen using panneuronal RNAi expression to identify additional genes critical for memory formation. We identified >500 genes that compromise memory when inhibited (low hits), either by disrupting the development and normal function of the adult animal or by participating in the neurophysiological mechanisms underlying memory formation. We also identified >40 genes that enhance memory when inhibited (high hits). The dunce gene was identified as one of the low hits and further experiments were performed to map the effects of the dunce RNAi to the α/β and γ mushroom body neurons. Additional behavioral experiments suggest that dunce knockdown in the mushroom body neurons impairs memory without significantly affecting acquisition. We also characterized one high hit, sickie, to show that RNAi knockdown of this gene enhances memory through effects in dopaminergic neurons without apparent effects on acquisition. These studies further our understanding of two genes involved in memory formation, provide a valuable list of genes that impair memory that may be important for understanding the neurophysiology of memory or neurodevelopmental disorders, and offer a new resource of memory suppressor genes that will aid in understanding restraint mechanisms employed by the brain to optimize resources. PMID:25644700

  19. Mindfulness Enhances Episodic Memory Performance: Evidence from a Multimethod Investigation

    PubMed Central

    Goodman, Robert J.; Ryan, Richard M.; Anālayo, Bhikkhu

    2016-01-01

    Training in mindfulness, classically described as a receptive attentiveness to present events and experiences, has been shown to improve attention and working memory. Both are key to long-term memory formation, and the present three-study series used multiple methods to examine whether mindfulness would enhance episodic memory, a key form of long-term memory. In Study 1 (N = 143), a self-reported state of mindful attention predicted better recognition performance in the Remember-Know (R-K) paradigm. In Study 2 (N = 93), very brief training in a focused attention form of mindfulness also produced better recognition memory performance on the R-K task relative to a randomized, well-matched active control condition. Study 3 (N = 57) extended these findings by showing that relative to randomized active and inactive control conditions the effect of very brief mindfulness training generalized to free-recall memory performance. This study also found evidence for mediation of the mindfulness training—episodic memory relation by intrinsic motivation. These findings indicate that mindful attention can beneficially impact motivation and episodic memory, with potential implications for educational and occupational performance. PMID:27115491

  20. Dynamics of Hippocampal Protein Expression During Long-term Spatial Memory Formation*

    PubMed Central

    Borovok, Natalia; Nesher, Elimelech; Levin, Yishai; Reichenstein, Michal; Pinhasov, Albert

    2016-01-01

    Spatial memory depends on the hippocampus, which is particularly vulnerable to aging. This vulnerability has implications for the impairment of navigation capacities in older people, who may show a marked drop in performance of spatial tasks with advancing age. Contemporary understanding of long-term memory formation relies on molecular mechanisms underlying long-term synaptic plasticity. With memory acquisition, activity-dependent changes occurring in synapses initiate multiple signal transduction pathways enhancing protein turnover. This enhancement facilitates de novo synthesis of plasticity related proteins, crucial factors for establishing persistent long-term synaptic plasticity and forming memory engrams. Extensive studies have been performed to elucidate molecular mechanisms of memory traces formation; however, the identity of plasticity related proteins is still evasive. In this study, we investigated protein turnover in mouse hippocampus during long-term spatial memory formation using the reference memory version of radial arm maze (RAM) paradigm. We identified 1592 proteins, which exhibited a complex picture of expression changes during spatial memory formation. Variable linear decomposition reduced significantly data dimensionality and enriched three principal factors responsible for variance of memory-related protein levels at (1) the initial phase of memory acquisition (165 proteins), (2) during the steep learning improvement (148 proteins), and (3) the final phase of the learning curve (123 proteins). Gene ontology and signaling pathways analysis revealed a clear correlation between memory improvement and learning phase-curbed expression profiles of proteins belonging to specific functional categories. We found differential enrichment of (1) neurotrophic factors signaling pathways, proteins regulating synaptic transmission, and actin microfilament during the first day of the learning curve; (2) transcription and translation machinery, protein

  1. Distributed Learning Enhances Relational Memory Consolidation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Litman, Leib; Davachi, Lila

    2008-01-01

    It has long been known that distributed learning (DL) provides a mnemonic advantage over massed learning (ML). However, the underlying mechanisms that drive this robust mnemonic effect remain largely unknown. In two experiments, we show that DL across a 24 hr interval does not enhance immediate memory performance but instead slows the rate of…

  2. Emotional memory formation under lower versus higher stress conditions.

    PubMed

    Kogan, Inna; Richter-Levin, Gal

    2010-01-01

    An exposure to stress can enhance memory for emotionally arousing experiences. The phenomenon is suggested to be amygdala-dependent and in accordance with that view the amygdala was found to modulate mnemonic processes in other brain regions. Previously, we illustrated increased amygdala activation and reduced activation of CA1 following spatial learning under higher versus lower stress conditions. When spatial learning was followed by reversal training interference, impaired retention was detected only under higher stress condition. Here we further evaluate the potential implications of the difference in the level of amygdala activation on the quality of the memory formed under these stress conditions. We attempted to affect spatial memory consolidation under lower or higher stress conditions by either introducing a foot shock interference following massed training in the water maze; by manipulating the threshold for acquisition employing either brief (3 trials) or full (12 trials) training sessions; or by employing a spaced training (over 3 days) rather than massed training protocol. The current findings reveal that under heightened emotionality, the process of consolidation seems to become less effective and more vulnerable to interference; however, when memory consolidation is not interrupted, retention is improved. These differential effects might underlie the complex interactions of stress, and, particularly, of traumatic stress with memory formation processes.

  3. High Performance Polymer Memory and Its Formation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-04-26

    Std. Z39.18 Final Report to AFOSR High Performance Polymer Memory Device and Its Formation Fund No.: FA9550-04-1-0215 Prepared by Prof. Yang Yang...polystyrene (PS). The metal nanoparticles were prepared by the two-phase 10-5 (b) 10𔄁Polymer film 1a CC , 10, Glass 1 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 Bias (V) Fig. I...such as copper pthalocyanine (CuPc), 24 ൢ zinc pthalocyanine (ZnPc), 27󈧠 tetracene, 29 and pentacene 30 have been used as donors combined with

  4. A flavonol present in cocoa [(-)epicatechin] enhances snail memory.

    PubMed

    Fruson, Lee; Dalesman, Sarah; Lukowiak, Ken

    2012-10-15

    Dietary consumption of flavonoids (plant phytochemicals) may improve memory and neuro-cognitive performance, though the mechanism is poorly understood. Previous work has assessed cognitive effects in vertebrates; here we assess the suitability of Lymnaea stagnalis as an invertebrate model to elucidate the effects of flavonoids on cognition. (-)Epicatechin (epi) is a flavonoid present in cocoa, green tea and red wine. We studied its effects on basic snail behaviours (aerial respiration and locomotion), long-term memory (LTM) formation and memory extinction of operantly conditioned aerial respiratory behaviour. We found no significant effect of epi exposure (15 mg l(-1)) on either locomotion or aerial respiration. However, when snails were operantly conditioned in epi for a single 0.5 h training session, which typically results in memory lasting ~3 h, they formed LTM lasting at least 24 h. Snails exposed to epi also showed significantly increased resistance to extinction, consistent with the hypothesis that epi induces a more persistent LTM. Thus training in epi facilitates LTM formation and results in a more persistent and stronger memory. Previous work has indicated that memory-enhancing stressors (predator kairomones and KCl) act via sensory input from the osphradium and are dependent on a serotonergic (5-HT) signalling pathway. Here we found that the effects of epi on LTM were independent of osphradial input and 5-HT, demonstrating that an alternative mechanism of memory enhancement exists in L. stagnalis. Our data are consistent with the notion that dietary sources of epi can improve cognitive abilities, and that L. stagnalis is a suitable model with which to elucidate neuronal mechanisms.

  5. Post-encoding emotional arousal enhances consolidation of item memory, but not reality-monitoring source memory.

    PubMed

    Wang, Bo; Sun, Bukuan

    2017-03-01

    The current study examined whether the effect of post-encoding emotional arousal on item memory extends to reality-monitoring source memory and, if so, whether the effect depends on emotionality of learning stimuli and testing format. In Experiment 1, participants encoded neutral words and imagined or viewed their corresponding object pictures. Then they watched a neutral, positive, or negative video. The 24-hour delayed test showed that emotional arousal had little effect on both item memory and reality-monitoring source memory. Experiment 2 was similar except that participants encoded neutral, positive, and negative words and imagined or viewed their corresponding object pictures. The results showed that positive and negative emotional arousal induced after encoding enhanced consolidation of item memory, but not reality-monitoring source memory, regardless of emotionality of learning stimuli. Experiment 3, identical to Experiment 2 except that participants were tested only on source memory for all the encoded items, still showed that post-encoding emotional arousal had little effect on consolidation of reality-monitoring source memory. Taken together, regardless of emotionality of learning stimuli and regardless of testing format of source memory (conjunction test vs. independent test), the facilitatory effect of post-encoding emotional arousal on item memory does not generalize to reality-monitoring source memory.

  6. Sleep enhances memory consolidation in children.

    PubMed

    Ashworth, Anna; Hill, Catherine M; Karmiloff-Smith, Annette; Dimitriou, Dagmara

    2014-06-01

    Sleep is an active state that plays an important role in the consolidation of memory. It has been found to enhance explicit memories in both adults and children. However, in contrast to adults, children do not always show a sleep-related improvement in implicit learning. The majority of research on sleep-dependent memory consolidation focuses on adults; hence, the current study examined sleep-related effects on two tasks in children. Thirty-three typically developing children aged 6-12 years took part in the study. Actigraphy was used to monitor sleep. Sleep-dependent memory consolidation was assessed using a novel non-word learning task and the Tower of Hanoi cognitive puzzle, which involves discovering an underlying rule to aid completion. Children were trained on the two tasks and retested following approximately equal retention intervals of both wake and sleep. After sleep, children showed significant improvements in performance of 14% on the non-word learning task and 25% on the Tower of Hanoi task, but no significant change in score following the wake retention interval. Improved performance on the Tower of Hanoi may have been due to children consolidating explicit aspects of the task, for example rule-learning or memory of previous sequences; thus, we propose that sleep is necessary for consolidation of explicit memory in children. Sleep quality and duration were not related to children's task performance. If such experimental sleep-related learning enhancement is generalizable to everyday life, then it is clear that sleep plays a vital role in children's educational attainment.

  7. Enhanced memory persistence is blocked by a DNA methyltransferase inhibitor in the snail Lymnaea stagnalis.

    PubMed

    Lukowiak, Ken; Heckler, Benjamin; Bennett, Thomas E; Schriner, Ellen K; Wyrick, Kathryn; Jewett, Cynthia; Todd, Ryan P; Sorg, Barbara A

    2014-08-15

    Lymnaea stagnalis provides an excellent model system for studying memory because these snails have a well-described set of neurons, a single one of which controls expression of long-term memory of operantly conditioned respiratory behavior. We have shown that several different manipulations, including pre-training exposure to serotonin (5-HT) or methamphetamine, submersion of snails after training to prevent memory interference, and exposure to effluent from predatory crayfish (CE), enhance memory persistence. Changes in DNA methylation underlie formation of strong memories in mammals and 5-HT-enhanced long-term facilitation in Aplysia. Here we determined the impact of the DNA methyltransferase inhibitor, 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine (5-AZA; 87 μmol l(-1)), on enhanced memory persistence by all four manipulations. We found that 5-HT (100 μmol l(-1)) enhanced memory persistence, which was blocked by 5-AZA pretreatment. Snails pre-exposed to 3.3 μmol l(-1) Meth 4 h prior to training demonstrated memory 72 h later, which was not present in controls. This memory-enhancing effect was blocked by pre-treatment with 87 μmol l(-1) 5-AZA. Similarly, submersion to prevent interference learning as well as training in CE produced memory that was not present in controls, and these effects were blocked by pre-treatment with 87 μmol l(-1) 5-AZA. In contrast, 5-AZA injection did not alter expression of normal (non-enhanced) memory, suggesting that these four stimuli enhance memory persistence by increasing DNA methyltransferase activity, which, in turn, increases expression of memory-enhancing genes and/or inhibits memory suppressor genes. These studies lay important groundwork for delineating gene methylation changes that are common to persistent memory produced by different stimuli.

  8. Sex differences in stress effects on response and spatial memory formation.

    PubMed

    Guenzel, Friederike M; Wolf, Oliver T; Schwabe, Lars

    2014-03-01

    Stress and stress hormones are known to affect learning and memory processes. However, although effects of stress on hippocampus-dependent declarative learning and memory are well-documented, relatively little attention has been paid to the impact of stress on striatum-dependent stimulus-response (S-R) learning and memory. Recent evidence indicates that glucocorticoid stress hormones shortly after learning enhance S-R memory consolidation, whereas stress prior to retention testing impairs S-R memory retrieval. Whether stress affects also the acquisition of S-R memories in humans remains unclear. For this reason, we examined here the effects of acute stress on S-R memory formation and contrasted these stress effects with those on hippocampus-dependent spatial memory. Healthy men and women underwent a stressor (socially evaluated cold pressor test, SECPT) or a control manipulation before they completed an S-R task and two spatial learning tasks. Memory was assessed one week later. Our data showed that stress impaired S-R memory performance in men but not in women. Conversely, spatial memory was impaired by stress in women but not in men. These findings provide further evidence that stress may alter learning and memory processes beyond the hippocampus. Moreover, our data underline that participants' sex may play a critical role in the impact of stress on multiple memory systems.

  9. Memory formation during anaesthesia: plausibility of a neurophysiological basis.

    PubMed

    Veselis, R A

    2015-07-01

    As opposed to conscious, personally relevant (explicit) memories that we can recall at will, implicit (unconscious) memories are prototypical of 'hidden' memory; memories that exist, but that we do not know we possess. Nevertheless, our behaviour can be affected by these memories; in fact, these memories allow us to function in an ever-changing world. It is still unclear from behavioural studies whether similar memories can be formed during anaesthesia. Thus, a relevant question is whether implicit memory formation is a realistic possibility during anaesthesia, considering the underlying neurophysiology. A different conceptualization of memory taxonomy is presented, the serial parallel independent model of Tulving, which focuses on dynamic information processing with interactions among different memory systems rather than static classification of different types of memories. The neurophysiological basis for subliminal information processing is considered in the context of brain function as embodied in network interactions. Function of sensory cortices and thalamic activity during anaesthesia are reviewed. The role of sensory and perisensory cortices, in particular the auditory cortex, in support of memory function is discussed. Although improbable, with the current knowledge of neurophysiology one cannot rule out the possibility of memory formation during anaesthesia.

  10. Memory formation during anaesthesia: plausibility of a neurophysiological basis

    PubMed Central

    Veselis, R. A.

    2015-01-01

    As opposed to conscious, personally relevant (explicit) memories that we can recall at will, implicit (unconscious) memories are prototypical of ‘hidden’ memory; memories that exist, but that we do not know we possess. Nevertheless, our behaviour can be affected by these memories; in fact, these memories allow us to function in an ever-changing world. It is still unclear from behavioural studies whether similar memories can be formed during anaesthesia. Thus, a relevant question is whether implicit memory formation is a realistic possibility during anaesthesia, considering the underlying neurophysiology. A different conceptualization of memory taxonomy is presented, the serial parallel independent model of Tulving, which focuses on dynamic information processing with interactions among different memory systems rather than static classification of different types of memories. The neurophysiological basis for subliminal information processing is considered in the context of brain function as embodied in network interactions. Function of sensory cortices and thalamic activity during anaesthesia are reviewed. The role of sensory and perisensory cortices, in particular the auditory cortex, in support of memory function is discussed. Although improbable, with the current knowledge of neurophysiology one cannot rule out the possibility of memory formation during anaesthesia. PMID:25735711

  11. Emotional Arousal Does Not Enhance Association-Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madan, Christopher R.; Caplan, Jeremy B.; Lau, Christine S. M.; Fujiwara, Esther

    2012-01-01

    Emotionally arousing information is remembered better than neutral information. This enhancement effect has been shown for memory for items. In contrast, studies of association-memory have found both impairments and enhancements of association-memory by arousal. We aimed to resolve these conflicting results by using a cued-recall paradigm combined…

  12. Enhancement of fear memory by retrieval through reconsolidation

    PubMed Central

    Fukushima, Hotaka; Zhang, Yue; Archbold, Georgia; Ishikawa, Rie; Nader, Karim; Kida, Satoshi

    2014-01-01

    Memory retrieval is considered to have roles in memory enhancement. Recently, memory reconsolidation was suggested to reinforce or integrate new information into reactivated memory. Here, we show that reactivated inhibitory avoidance (IA) memory is enhanced through reconsolidation under conditions in which memory extinction is not induced. This memory enhancement is mediated by neurons in the amygdala, hippocampus, and medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) through the simultaneous activation of calcineurin-induced proteasome-dependent protein degradation and cAMP responsive element binding protein-mediated gene expression. Interestingly, the amygdala is required for memory reconsolidation and enhancement, whereas the hippocampus and mPFC are required for only memory enhancement. Furthermore, memory enhancement triggered by retrieval utilizes distinct mechanisms to strengthen IA memory by additional learning that depends only on the amygdala. Our findings indicate that reconsolidation functions to strengthen the original memory and show the dynamic nature of reactivated memory through protein degradation and gene expression in multiple brain regions. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.02736.001 PMID:24963141

  13. The Role of Actin Cytoskeleton in Memory Formation in Amygdala

    PubMed Central

    Lamprecht, Raphael

    2016-01-01

    The central, lateral and basolateral amygdala (BLA) nuclei are essential for the formation of long-term memories including emotional and drug-related memories. Studying cellular and molecular mechanisms of memory in amygdala may lead to better understanding of how memory is formed and of fear and addiction-related disorders. A challenge is to identify molecules activated by learning that subserve cellular changes needed for memory formation and maintenance in amygdala. Recent studies show that activation of synaptic receptors during fear and drug-related learning leads to alteration in actin cytoskeleton dynamics and structure in amygdala. Such changes in actin cytoskeleton in amygdala are essential for fear and drug-related memories formation. Moreover, the actin cytoskeleton subserves, after learning, changes in neuronal morphogenesis and glutamate receptors trafficking in amygdala. These cellular events are involved in fear and drug-related memories formation. Actin polymerization is also needed for the maintenance of drug-associated memories in amygdala. Thus, the actin cytoskeleton is a key mediator between receptor activation during learning and cellular changes subserving long-term memory (LTM) in amygdala. The actin cytoskeleton may serve as a target for pharmacological treatment of fear memory associated with fear and anxiety disorders and drug addiction to prevent the debilitating consequences of these diseases. PMID:27065800

  14. Differential effects of ongoing EEG beta and theta power on memory formation

    PubMed Central

    Scholz, Sebastian; Schneider, Signe Luisa

    2017-01-01

    Recently, elevated ongoing pre-stimulus beta power (13–17 Hz) at encoding has been associated with subsequent memory formation for visual stimulus material. It is unclear whether this activity is merely specific to visual processing or whether it reflects a state facilitating general memory formation, independent of stimulus modality. To answer that question, the present study investigated the relationship between neural pre-stimulus oscillations and verbal memory formation in different sensory modalities. For that purpose, a within-subject design was employed to explore differences between successful and failed memory formation in the visual and auditory modality. Furthermore, associative memory was addressed by presenting the stimuli in combination with background images. Results revealed that similar EEG activity in the low beta frequency range (13–17 Hz) is associated with subsequent memory success, independent of stimulus modality. Elevated power prior to stimulus onset differentiated successful from failed memory formation. In contrast, differential effects between modalities were found in the theta band (3–7 Hz), with an increased oscillatory activity before the onset of later remembered visually presented words. In addition, pre-stimulus theta power dissociated between successful and failed encoding of associated context, independent of the stimulus modality of the item itself. We therefore suggest that increased ongoing low beta activity reflects a memory promoting state, which is likely to be moderated by modality-independent attentional or inhibitory processes, whereas high ongoing theta power is suggested as an indicator of the enhanced binding of incoming interlinked information. PMID:28192459

  15. Memory formation under stress: quantity and quality.

    PubMed

    Schwabe, Lars; Wolf, Oliver T; Oitzl, Melly S

    2010-03-01

    Stress shapes memory. Depending on the timing of the stress exposure facilitating and impairing effects of stress are reported on how much is learned and remembered. Beyond such stress-induced changes in the quantity of memory, recent research suggests that stress also affects the contribution of multiple memory systems to performance. Under stress, rigid 'habit' memory gets favored over more flexible 'cognitive' memory. Thus, stress has an impact on the way we learn and remember, that is the quality of memory. This shift between different behavioral strategies on "environmental demands" may facilitate adaptive responses. Here, we review stress effects on both quantity and quality of memory and address possible implications of these effects for the understanding of stress-related psychiatric disorders.

  16. Memory formation, amnesia, improved memory and reversed amnesia: 5-HT role.

    PubMed

    Perez-Garcia, G; Meneses, A

    2008-12-16

    Traditionally, the search for memory circuits has been focused on examinations of amnesic and AD patients, cerebral lesions and neuroimaging. A complementary alternative has become the use of autoradiography with radioligands, aiming to identify neurobiological markers associated with memory formation, amnesia states and (more recently) recovery from memory deficits. Indeed, ex vivo autoradiographic studies offer the advantage of detecting functionally active receptors altered by pharmacological tools during memory formation, amnesia states and memory recovery. Moreover, serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) systems have become a pharmacological and genetic target in the treatment of memory disorders. Herein evidence from studies involving expression of 5-HT(1A), 5-HT(2A), 5-HT(4), and 5-HT(6) receptors in memory formation, amnesia conditions (e.g., pharmacological models or aging) and recovery of memory is reviewed. Thus, specific 5-HT receptors were expressed in trained animals relative to untrained in brain areas such as cortex, hippocampus and amygdala. However, relative to the control group, rats showing amnesia or recovered memory, showed in the hippocampus, region where explicit memory is formed, a complex pattern of 5-HT receptor expression. An intermediate expression occurred in amygdala, septum and some cortical areas in charge of explicit memory storage. Even in brain areas thought to be in charge of procedural memory such as basal ganglia, animals showing recovered memory displayed an intermediate expression, while amnesic groups, depending on the pharmacological amnesia model, showed up- or down-regulation. In conclusion, evidence indicates that autoradiography, by using specific radioligands, offers excellent opportunities to map dynamic changes in brain areas engaged in these cognitive processes. The 5-HT modulatory role strengthens or suppresses memory is critically depend on the timing of the memory formation.

  17. Post-Training Intrahippocampal Inhibition of Class I Histone Deacetylases Enhances Long-Term Object-Location Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawk, Joshua D.; Florian, Cedrick; Abel, Ted

    2011-01-01

    Long-term memory formation involves covalent modification of the histone proteins that package DNA. Reducing histone acetylation by mutating histone acetyltransferases impairs long-term memory, and enhancing histone acetylation by inhibiting histone deacetylases (HDACs) improves long-term memory. Previous studies using HDAC inhibitors to enhance…

  18. Fear memory formation can affect a different memory: fear conditioning affects the extinction, but not retrieval, of conditioned taste aversion (CTA) memory

    PubMed Central

    Joels, Gil; Lamprecht, Raphael

    2014-01-01

    The formation of fear memory to a specific stimulus leads to subsequent fearful response to that stimulus. However, it is not apparent whether the formation of fear memory can affect other memories. We study whether specific fearful experience leading to fear memory affects different memories formation and extinction. We revealed that cued fear conditioning, but not unpaired or naïve training, inhibited the extinction of conditioned taste aversion (CTA) memory that was formed after fear conditioning training in rats. Fear conditioning had no effect on retrieval of CTA memory but specifically impaired its extinction. Extinguished fear memory, after fear extinction training, had no effect on future CTA memory extinction. Fear conditioning had no effect on CTA memory extinction if CTA memory was formed before fear conditioning. Conditioned taste aversion had no effect on fear conditioning memory extinction. We conclude that active cued fear conditioning memory can affect specifically the extinction, but not the formation, of future different memory. PMID:25324744

  19. Reward Retroactively Enhances Memory Consolidation for Related Items

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patil, Anuya; Murty, Vishnu P.; Dunsmoor, Joseph E.; Phelps, Elizabeth A.; Davachi, Lila

    2017-01-01

    Reward motivation has been shown to modulate episodic memory processes in order to support future adaptive behavior. However, for a memory system to be truly adaptive, it should enhance memory for rewarded events as well as for neutral events that may seem inconsequential at the time of encoding but can gain importance later. Here, we investigated…

  20. Functional neuroanatomy of Drosophila olfactory memory formation

    PubMed Central

    Guven-Ozkan, Tugba

    2014-01-01

    New approaches, techniques and tools invented over the last decade and a half have revolutionized the functional dissection of neural circuitry underlying Drosophila learning. The new methodologies have been used aggressively by researchers attempting to answer three critical questions about olfactory memories formed with appetitive and aversive reinforcers: (1) Which neurons within the olfactory nervous system mediate the acquisition of memory? (2) What is the complete neural circuitry extending from the site(s) of acquisition to the site(s) controlling memory expression? (3) How is information processed across this circuit to consolidate early-forming, disruptable memories to stable, late memories? Much progress has been made and a few strong conclusions have emerged: (1) Acquisition occurs at multiple sites within the olfactory nervous system but is mediated predominantly by the γ mushroom body neurons. (2) The expression of long-term memory is completely dependent on the synaptic output of α/β mushroom body neurons. (3) Consolidation occurs, in part, through circuit interactions between mushroom body and dorsal paired medial neurons. Despite this progress, a complete and unified model that details the pathway from acquisition to memory expression remains elusive. PMID:25225297

  1. Insulin receptor substrate 2 is a negative regulator of memory formation

    PubMed Central

    Irvine, Elaine E.; Drinkwater, Laura; Radwanska, Kasia; Al-Qassab, Hind; Smith, Mark A.; O’Brien, Melissa; Kielar, Catherine; Choudhury, Agharul I; Krauss, Stefan; Cooper, Jonathan D.; Withers, Dominic J.; Giese, K. Peter

    2015-01-01

    Insulin has been shown to impact on learning and memory in both humans and animals, but the downstream signaling mechanisms involved are poorly characterized. Insulin receptor substrate-2 (Irs2) is an adaptor protein that couples activation of insulin- and insulin-like growth factor-1- receptors to downstream signaling pathways. Here, we have deleted Irs2, either in the whole brain or selectively in the forebrain, using the nestin Cre- or D6 Cre- deleter mouse lines respectively. We show that brain- and forebrain-specific Irs2 knockout mice have enhanced hippocampal spatial reference memory. Furthermore, NesCreIrs2KO mice have enhanced spatial working memory and contextual- and cued-fear memory. Deletion of Irs2 in the brain also increases PSD-95 expression and the density of dendritic spines in hippocampal area CA1, possibly reflecting an increase in the number of excitatory synapses per neuron in the hippocampus that can become activated during memory formation. This increase in activated excitatory synapses might underlie the improved hippocampal memory formation observed in NesCreIrs2KO mice. Overall, these results suggest that Irs2 acts as a negative regulator on memory formation by restricting dendritic spine generation. PMID:21597043

  2. The Role of Sleep in False Memory Formation

    PubMed Central

    Payne, Jessica D.; Schacter, Daniel L.; Propper, Ruth; Huang, Li-Wen; Wamsley, Erin; Tucker, Matthew A.; Walker, Matthew P.; Stickgold, Robert

    2009-01-01

    Memories are not stored as exact copies of our experiences. As a result, remembering is subject not only to memory failure, but to inaccuracies and distortions as well. Although such distortions are often retained or even enhanced over time, sleep’s contribution to the development of false memories is unknown. Here, we report that a night of sleep increases both veridical and false recall in the Deese-Roediger-McDermott (DRM) paradigm, compared to an equivalent period of daytime wakefulness. But while veridical memory deteriorates across both wake and sleep, false memories are preferentially preserved by sleep, actually showing a non-significant improvement. The same selectivity of false over veridical memories was observed in a follow-up nap study. Unlike previous studies implicating deep, slow-wave sleep (SWS) in declarative memory consolidation, here veridical recall correlated with decreased SWS, a finding that was observed in both the overnight and nap studies. These findings lead to two counterintuitive conclusions – that under certain circumstances sleep can promote false memories over veridical ones, and SWS can be associated with impairment rather than facilitation of declarative memory consolidation. While these effects produce memories that are less accurate after sleep, these memories may, in the end, be more useful. PMID:19348959

  3. Neural and Cellular Mechanisms of Fear and Extinction Memory Formation

    PubMed Central

    Orsini, Caitlin A.; Maren, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    Over the course of natural history, countless animal species have evolved adaptive behavioral systems to cope with dangerous situations and promote survival. Emotional memories are central to these defense systems because they are rapidly acquired and prepare organisms for future threat. Unfortunately, the persistence and intrusion of memories of fearful experiences are quite common and can lead to pathogenic conditions, such as anxiety and phobias. Over the course of the last thirty years, neuroscientists and psychologists alike have attempted to understand the mechanisms by which the brain encodes and maintains these aversive memories. Of equal interest, though, is the neurobiology of extinction memory formation as this may shape current therapeutic techniques. Here we review the extant literature on the neurobiology of fear and extinction memory formation, with a strong focus on the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying these processes. PMID:22230704

  4. Stress, epigenetic control of gene expression and memory formation.

    PubMed

    Trollope, Alexandra F; Gutièrrez-Mecinas, María; Mifsud, Karen R; Collins, Andrew; Saunderson, Emily A; Reul, Johannes M H M

    2012-01-01

    Making memories of a stressful life event is essential for an organism's survival as it allows it to adapt and respond in a more appropriate manner should the situation occur again. However, it may be envisaged that extremely stressful events can lead to formation of traumatic memories that are detrimental to the organism and lead to psychiatric disorders such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The neurotransmitter glutamate and the ERK MAPK signaling pathway play a principal role in learning and memory. Glucocorticoid hormones acting via the glucocorticoid receptor have been shown to strengthen the consolidation of memories of stressful events. The ERK MAPK signaling pathway and glucocorticoid receptor-mediated actions have recently been shown to drive epigenetic modifications and conformational changes in the chromatin, stimulating the expression of neuroplasticity-related genes involved in stress-related learning and memory processes. The main epigenetic regulatory mechanisms are histone modifications and DNA (de-)methylation. Recently, studies have demonstrated that these processes are acting together in concert to regulate gene expression required for memory consolidation. This review explores the role of stress in learning and memory paradigms and the participating signaling pathways and epigenetic mechanisms and the enzymes that control these modifications during the consolidation process of memory formation.

  5. Functional Neuroanatomy of "Drosophila" Olfactory Memory Formation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guven-Ozkan, Tugba; Davis, Ronald L.

    2014-01-01

    New approaches, techniques and tools invented over the last decade and a half have revolutionized the functional dissection of neural circuitry underlying "Drosophila" learning. The new methodologies have been used aggressively by researchers attempting to answer three critical questions about olfactory memories formed with appetitive…

  6. The differential role of cortical protein synthesis in taste memory formation and persistence

    PubMed Central

    Levitan, David; Gal-Ben-Ari, Shunit; Heise, Christopher; Rosenberg, Tali; Elkobi, Alina; Inberg, Sharon; Sala, Carlo; Rosenblum, Kobi

    2016-01-01

    The current dogma suggests that the formation of long-term memory (LTM) is dependent on protein synthesis but persistence of the memory trace is not. However, many of the studies examining the effect of protein synthesis inhibitors (PSIs) on LTM persistence were performed in the hippocampus, which is known to have a time-dependent role in memory storage, rather than the cortex, which is considered to be the main structure to store long-term memories. Here we studied the effect of PSIs on LTM formation and persistence in male Wistar Hola (n ≥ 5) rats by infusing the protein synthesis inhibitor, anisomycin (100 μg, 1 μl), into the gustatory cortex (GC) during LTM formation and persistence in conditioned taste aversion (CTA). We found that local anisomycin infusion to the GC before memory acquisition impaired LTM formation (P = 8.9E − 5), but had no effect on LTM persistence when infused 3 days post acquisition (P = 0.94). However, when we extended the time interval between treatment with anisomycin and testing from 3 days to 14 days, LTM persistence was enhanced (P = 0.01). The enhancement was on the background of stable and non-declining memory, and was not recapitulated by another amnesic agent, APV (10 μg, 1 μl), an N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor antagonist (P = 0.54). In conclusion, CTA LTM remains sensitive to the action of PSIs in the GC even 3 days following memory acquisition. This sensitivity is differentially expressed between the formation and persistence of LTM, suggesting that increased cortical protein synthesis promotes LTM formation, whereas decreased protein synthesis promotes LTM persistence. PMID:27721985

  7. The differential role of cortical protein synthesis in taste memory formation and persistence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levitan, David; Gal-Ben-Ari, Shunit; Heise, Christopher; Rosenberg, Tali; Elkobi, Alina; Inberg, Sharon; Sala, Carlo; Rosenblum, Kobi

    2016-05-01

    The current dogma suggests that the formation of long-term memory (LTM) is dependent on protein synthesis but persistence of the memory trace is not. However, many of the studies examining the effect of protein synthesis inhibitors (PSIs) on LTM persistence were performed in the hippocampus, which is known to have a time-dependent role in memory storage, rather than the cortex, which is considered to be the main structure to store long-term memories. Here we studied the effect of PSIs on LTM formation and persistence in male Wistar Hola (n⩾5) rats by infusing the protein synthesis inhibitor, anisomycin (100 μg, 1 μl), into the gustatory cortex (GC) during LTM formation and persistence in conditioned taste aversion (CTA). We found that local anisomycin infusion to the GC before memory acquisition impaired LTM formation (P=8.9E-5), but had no effect on LTM persistence when infused 3 days post acquisition (P=0.94). However, when we extended the time interval between treatment with anisomycin and testing from 3 days to 14 days, LTM persistence was enhanced (P=0.01). The enhancement was on the background of stable and non-declining memory, and was not recapitulated by another amnesic agent, APV (10 μg, 1 μl), an N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonist (P=0.54). In conclusion, CTA LTM remains sensitive to the action of PSIs in the GC even 3 days following memory acquisition. This sensitivity is differentially expressed between the formation and persistence of LTM, suggesting that increased cortical protein synthesis promotes LTM formation, whereas decreased protein synthesis promotes LTM persistence.

  8. Enhance, delete, incept: manipulating hippocampus-dependent memories.

    PubMed

    Spiers, Hugo J; Bendor, Daniel

    2014-06-01

    Here we provide a brief overview of recent research on memory manipulation. We focus primarily on memories for which the hippocampus is thought to be required due to its central importance in the study of memory. The repertoire of methods employed is expanding and includes optogenetics, transcranial stimulation, deep brain stimulation, cued reactivation during sleep and the use of pharmacological agents. In addition, the possible mechanisms underlying these memory changes have been investigated using techniques such as single unit recording and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'Memory enhancement'.

  9. Level of processing modulates the neural correlates of emotional memory formation.

    PubMed

    Ritchey, Maureen; LaBar, Kevin S; Cabeza, Roberto

    2011-04-01

    Emotion is known to influence multiple aspects of memory formation, including the initial encoding of the memory trace and its consolidation over time. However, the neural mechanisms whereby emotion impacts memory encoding remain largely unexplored. The present study used a levels-of-processing manipulation to characterize the impact of emotion on encoding with and without the influence of elaborative processes. Participants viewed emotionally negative, neutral, and positive scenes under two conditions: a shallow condition focused on the perceptual features of the scenes and a deep condition that queried their semantic meaning. Recognition memory was tested 2 days later. Results showed that emotional memory enhancements were greatest in the shallow condition. fMRI analyses revealed that the right amygdala predicted subsequent emotional memory in the shallow more than deep condition, whereas the right ventrolateral PFC demonstrated the reverse pattern. Furthermore, the association of these regions with the hippocampus was modulated by valence: the amygdala-hippocampal link was strongest for negative stimuli, whereas the prefrontal-hippocampal link was strongest for positive stimuli. Taken together, these results suggest two distinct activation patterns underlying emotional memory formation: an amygdala component that promotes memory during shallow encoding, especially for negative information, and a prefrontal component that provides extra benefits during deep encoding, especially for positive information.

  10. Memory Transformation Enhances Reinforcement Learning in Dynamic Environments.

    PubMed

    Santoro, Adam; Frankland, Paul W; Richards, Blake A

    2016-11-30

    Over the course of systems consolidation, there is a switch from a reliance on detailed episodic memories to generalized schematic memories. This switch is sometimes referred to as "memory transformation." Here we demonstrate a previously unappreciated benefit of memory transformation, namely, its ability to enhance reinforcement learning in a dynamic environment. We developed a neural network that is trained to find rewards in a foraging task where reward locations are continuously changing. The network can use memories for specific locations (episodic memories) and statistical patterns of locations (schematic memories) to guide its search. We find that switching from an episodic to a schematic strategy over time leads to enhanced performance due to the tendency for the reward location to be highly correlated with itself in the short-term, but regress to a stable distribution in the long-term. We also show that the statistics of the environment determine the optimal utilization of both types of memory. Our work recasts the theoretical question of why memory transformation occurs, shifting the focus from the avoidance of memory interference toward the enhancement of reinforcement learning across multiple timescales.

  11. Synaptic clustering within dendrites: an emerging theory of memory formation

    PubMed Central

    Kastellakis, George; Cai, Denise J.; Mednick, Sara C.; Silva, Alcino J.; Poirazi, Panayiota

    2015-01-01

    It is generally accepted that complex memories are stored in distributed representations throughout the brain, however the mechanisms underlying these representations are not understood. Here, we review recent findings regarding the subcellular mechanisms implicated in memory formation, which provide evidence for a dendrite-centered theory of memory. Plasticity-related phenomena which affect synaptic properties, such as synaptic tagging and capture, synaptic clustering, branch strength potentiation and spinogenesis provide the foundation for a model of memory storage that relies heavily on processes operating at the dendrite level. The emerging picture suggests that clusters of functionally related synapses may serve as key computational and memory storage units in the brain. We discuss both experimental evidence and theoretical models that support this hypothesis and explore its advantages for neuronal function. PMID:25576663

  12. Optogenetic Stimulation of Prefrontal Glutamatergic Neurons Enhances Recognition Memory

    PubMed Central

    Barker, Gareth R. I.; Stuart, Sarah A.; Roloff, Eva v. L.; Teschemacher, Anja G.; Warburton, E. Clea

    2016-01-01

    Finding effective cognitive enhancers is a major health challenge; however, modulating glutamatergic neurotransmission has the potential to enhance performance in recognition memory tasks. Previous studies using glutamate receptor antagonists have revealed that the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) plays a central role in associative recognition memory. The present study investigates short-term recognition memory using optogenetics to target glutamatergic neurons within the rodent mPFC specifically. Selective stimulation of glutamatergic neurons during the online maintenance of information enhanced associative recognition memory in normal animals. This cognitive enhancing effect was replicated by local infusions of the AMPAkine CX516, but not CX546, which differ in their effects on EPSPs. This suggests that enhancing the amplitude, but not the duration, of excitatory synaptic currents improves memory performance. Increasing glutamate release through infusions of the mGluR7 presynaptic receptor antagonist MMPIP had no effect on performance. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT These results provide new mechanistic information that could guide the targeting of future cognitive enhancers. Our work suggests that improved associative-recognition memory can be achieved by enhancing endogenous glutamatergic neuronal activity selectively using an optogenetic approach. We build on these observations to recapitulate this effect using drug treatments that enhance the amplitude of EPSPs; however, drugs that alter the duration of the EPSP or increase glutamate release lack efficacy. This suggests that both neural and temporal specificity are needed to achieve cognitive enhancement. PMID:27147648

  13. Pharmacological enhancement of mGluR5 facilitates contextual fear memory extinction.

    PubMed

    Sethna, Ferzin; Wang, Hongbing

    2014-12-01

    Behavioral exposure therapy, which involves extinction of the previously acquired fear, has been used to treat anxiety-related symptoms such as post-traumatic stress disorder. It has been hypothesized that proextinction pharmacotherapeutics may enhance the efficacy of exposure therapy. Systemic administration of the metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 (mGluR5)-positive allosteric modulator 3-cyano-N-(1,3-diphenyl-1H-pyrazol-5-yl)benzamide (CDPPB) facilitated the extinction of contextual fear memory. Notably, CDPPB also enhanced the initial fear memory formation, and had no effect on memory retrieval. Our data suggest that positive regulation of mGluR5 may offer a new method to enhance exposure therapy through facilitating extinction without adversely affecting other aspects of memory process.

  14. Hebbian and neuromodulatory mechanisms interact to trigger associative memory formation

    PubMed Central

    Johansen, Joshua P.; Diaz-Mataix, Lorenzo; Hamanaka, Hiroki; Ozawa, Takaaki; Ycu, Edgar; Koivumaa, Jenny; Kumar, Ashwani; Hou, Mian; Deisseroth, Karl; Boyden, Edward S.; LeDoux, Joseph E.

    2014-01-01

    A long-standing hypothesis termed “Hebbian plasticity” suggests that memories are formed through strengthening of synaptic connections between neurons with correlated activity. In contrast, other theories propose that coactivation of Hebbian and neuromodulatory processes produce the synaptic strengthening that underlies memory formation. Using optogenetics we directly tested whether Hebbian plasticity alone is both necessary and sufficient to produce physiological changes mediating actual memory formation in behaving animals. Our previous work with this method suggested that Hebbian mechanisms are sufficient to produce aversive associative learning under artificial conditions involving strong, iterative training. Here we systematically tested whether Hebbian mechanisms are necessary and sufficient to produce associative learning under more moderate training conditions that are similar to those that occur in daily life. We measured neural plasticity in the lateral amygdala, a brain region important for associative memory storage about danger. Our findings provide evidence that Hebbian mechanisms are necessary to produce neural plasticity in the lateral amygdala and behavioral memory formation. However, under these conditions Hebbian mechanisms alone were not sufficient to produce these physiological and behavioral effects unless neuromodulatory systems were coactivated. These results provide insight into how aversive experiences trigger memories and suggest that combined Hebbian and neuromodulatory processes interact to engage associative aversive learning. PMID:25489081

  15. Phosphorylation of K+ channels at single residues regulates memory formation

    PubMed Central

    Vernon, Jeffrey; Irvine, Elaine E.; Peters, Marco; Jeyabalan, Jeshmi

    2016-01-01

    Phosphorylation is a ubiquitous post-translational modification of proteins, and a known physiological regulator of K+ channel function. Phosphorylation of K+ channels by kinases has long been presumed to regulate neuronal processing and behavior. Although circumstantial evidence has accumulated from behavioral studies of vertebrates and invertebrates, the contribution to memory of single phosphorylation sites on K+ channels has never been reported. We have used gene targeting in mice to inactivate protein kinase A substrate residues in the fast-inactivating subunit Kv4.2 (T38A mutants), and in the small-conductance Ca2+-activated subunit SK1 (S105A mutants). Both manipulations perturbed a specific form of memory, leaving others intact. T38A mutants had enhanced spatial memory for at least 4 wk after training, whereas performance in three tests of fear memory was unaffected. S105A mutants were impaired in passive avoidance memory, sparing fear, and spatial memory. Together with recent findings that excitability governs the participation of neurons in a memory circuit, this result suggests that the memory type supported by neurons may depend critically on the phosphorylation of specific K+ channels at single residues. PMID:26980786

  16. Prefrontal inputs to the amygdala instruct fear extinction memory formation

    PubMed Central

    Bukalo, Olena; Pinard, Courtney R.; Silverstein, Shana; Brehm, Christina; Hartley, Nolan D.; Whittle, Nigel; Colacicco, Giovanni; Busch, Erica; Patel, Sachin; Singewald, Nicolas; Holmes, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Persistent anxiety after a psychological trauma is a hallmark of many anxiety disorders. However, the neural circuits mediating the extinction of traumatic fear memories remain incompletely understood. We show that selective, in vivo stimulation of the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC)–amygdala pathway facilitated extinction memory formation, but not retrieval. Conversely, silencing the vmPFC-amygdala pathway impaired extinction formation and reduced extinction-induced amygdala activity. Our data demonstrate a critical instructional role for the vmPFC-amygdala circuit in the formation of extinction memories. These findings advance our understanding of the neural basis of persistent fear, with implications for posttraumatic stress disorder and other anxiety disorders. PMID:26504902

  17. Repetitive peptide boosting progressively enhances functional memory CTLs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Induction of functional memory CTLs holds promise for fighting critical infectious diseases through vaccination, but so far, no effective regime has been identified. We show here that memory CTLs can be enhanced progressively to high levels by repetitive intravenous boosting with peptide and adjuvan...

  18. Money Enhances Memory Consolidation--But Only for Boring Material

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murayama, Kou; Kuhbandner, Christof

    2011-01-01

    Money's ability to enhance memory has received increased attention in recent research. However, previous studies have not directly addressed the time-dependent nature of monetary effects on memory, which are suggested to exist by research in cognitive neuroscience, and the possible detrimental effects of monetary rewards on learning interesting…

  19. How To Create and Conduct a Memory Enhancement Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyer, Genevieve R.; Ober-Reynolds, Sharman

    This report describes Memory Enhancement Group workshops which have been conducted at the Senior Health and Peer Counseling Center in Santa Monica, California and gives basic data regarding outcomes of the workshops. It provides a model of memory as a three-step process of registration or becoming aware, consolidation, and retrieval. It presents…

  20. Brief, pre-learning stress reduces false memory production and enhances true memory selectively in females.

    PubMed

    Zoladz, Phillip R; Peters, David M; Kalchik, Andrea E; Hoffman, Mackenzie M; Aufdenkampe, Rachael L; Woelke, Sarah A; Wolters, Nicholas E; Talbot, Jeffery N

    2014-04-10

    Some of the previous research on stress-memory interactions has suggested that stress increases the production of false memories. However, as accumulating work has shown that the effects of stress on learning and memory depend critically on the timing of the stressor, we hypothesized that brief stress administered immediately before learning would reduce, rather than increase, false memory production. In the present study, participants submerged their dominant hand in a bath of ice cold water (stress) or sat quietly (no stress) for 3 min. Then, participants completed a short-term memory task, the Deese-Roediger-McDermott paradigm, in which they were presented with 10 different lists of semantically related words (e.g., candy, sour, sugar) and, after each list, were tested for their memory of presented words (e.g., candy), non-presented unrelated "distractor" words (e.g., hat), and non-presented semantically related "critical lure" words (e.g., sweet). Stress, overall, significantly reduced the number of critical lures recalled (i.e., false memory) by participants. In addition, stress enhanced memory for the presented words (i.e., true memory) in female, but not male, participants. These findings reveal that stress does not unequivocally enhance false memory production and that the timing of the stressor is an important variable that could mediate such effects. Such results could have important implications for understanding the dependability of eyewitness accounts of events that are observed following stress.

  1. Role of 5-HT6 receptors in memory formation.

    PubMed

    Meneses, A

    2001-09-01

    Mice lacking the 5-HT(6) receptor presented neither gross anatomical or behavioral abnormalities nor obvious changes in microscopic brain morphology, and their performance in rotarod, open field and novel object testing paradigms revealed no differences compared with wild-type animals. Nevertheless, an association between the 5-HT(6) receptor polymorphism C267T and Alzheimer's disease has been reported. Interestingly, the 5-HT(6) antisense oligonucleotide decreased 5-HT(6) gene expression and enhanced spatial learning acquisition in the water maze. Similarly, injection of the 5-HT(6) receptor antagonist Ro-04-6790 improved learning consolidation in an autoshaping task, while mCPP, scopolamine and dizocilpine decreased performance. The effect induced by scopolamine or dizocilpine, but not that induced by mCPP, was completely or partially reversed by Ro-04-6790. Ro-04-6790 did not modify the 8-OH-DPAT facilitatory effects on learning consolidation. Since Ro-04-6790 facilitatory effect was unaffected by 5-HT(1A), 5-HT(2A/2B/2C), 5-HT(3), 5-HT(4) or 5-HT(7) receptor blockade, the facilitatory effect induced by Ro-04-6790 involved specifically 5-HT6 receptors. Similarly, the 5-HT(6) receptor antagonist SB-271046 improved retention in the water maze and produced a significant performance improvement in aged rats in an operant-delayed alternation task. A series of Ro-04-6790 analogues that penetrate the brain and specifically bind to 5-HT(6) receptors reversed scopolamine-induced retention deficit in a passive avoidance learning test. Collectively, these data provide further support to the notion that 5-HT systems, via 5-HT(6) receptors, also play a significant role in memory formation under normal and dysfunctional memory conditions.

  2. Exercise enhances memory consolidation in the aging brain.

    PubMed

    Snigdha, Shikha; de Rivera, Christina; Milgram, Norton W; Cotman, Carl W

    2014-01-01

    Exercise has been shown to reduce age-related losses in cognitive function including learning and memory, but the mechanisms underlying this effect remain poorly understood. Memory formation occurs in stages that include an initial acquisition phase, an intermediate labile phase, and then a process of consolidation which leads to long-term memory formation. An effective way to examine the mechanism by which exercise improves memory is to introduce the intervention (exercise), post-acquisition, making it possible to selectively examine memory storage and consolidation. Accordingly we evaluated the effects of post-trial exercise (10 min on a treadmill) on memory consolidation in aged canines both right after, an hour after, and 24 h after acute exercise training in concurrent discrimination, object location memory (OLM), and novel object recognition tasks. Our study shows that post-trial exercise facilitates memory function by improving memory consolidation in aged animals in a time-dependent manner. The improvements were significant at 24 h post-exercise and not right after or 1 h after exercise. Aged animals were also tested following chronic exercise (10 min/day for 14 consecutive days) on OLM or till criterion were reached (for reversal learning task). We found improvements from a chronic exercise design in both the object location and reversal learning tasks. Our studies suggest that mechanisms to improve overall consolidation and cognitive function remain accessible even with progressing age and can be re-engaged by both acute and chronic exercise.

  3. The formation and extinction of fear memory in tree shrews

    PubMed Central

    Shang, Shujiang; Wang, Cong; Guo, Chengbing; Huang, Xu; Wang, Liecheng; Zhang, Chen

    2015-01-01

    Fear is an emotion that is well-studied due to its importance for animal survival. Experimental animals, such as rats and mice, have been widely used to model fear. However, higher animals such as nonhuman primates have rarely been used to study fear due to ethical issues and high costs. Tree shrews are small mammals that are closely related to primates; they have been used to model human-related psychosocial conditions such as stress and alcohol tolerance. Here, we describe an experimental paradigm to study the formation and extinction of fear memory in tree shrews. We designed an experimental apparatus of a light/dark box with a voltage foot shock. We found that tree shrews preferred staying in the dark box in the daytime without stimulation and showed avoidance to voltage shocks applied to the footplate in a voltage-dependent manner. Foot shocks applied to the dark box for 5 days (10 min per day) effectively reversed the light–dark preference of the tree shrews, and this memory lasted for more than 50 days without any sign of memory decay (extinction) in the absence of further stimulation. However, this fear memory was reversed with 4 days of reverse training by applying the same stimulus to the light box. When reducing the stimulus intensity during the training period, a memory extinction and subsequently reinstatement effects were observed. Thus, our results describe an efficient method of monitoring fear memory formation and extinction in tree shrews. PMID:26283941

  4. The formation and extinction of fear memory in tree shrews.

    PubMed

    Shang, Shujiang; Wang, Cong; Guo, Chengbing; Huang, Xu; Wang, Liecheng; Zhang, Chen

    2015-01-01

    Fear is an emotion that is well-studied due to its importance for animal survival. Experimental animals, such as rats and mice, have been widely used to model fear. However, higher animals such as nonhuman primates have rarely been used to study fear due to ethical issues and high costs. Tree shrews are small mammals that are closely related to primates; they have been used to model human-related psychosocial conditions such as stress and alcohol tolerance. Here, we describe an experimental paradigm to study the formation and extinction of fear memory in tree shrews. We designed an experimental apparatus of a light/dark box with a voltage foot shock. We found that tree shrews preferred staying in the dark box in the daytime without stimulation and showed avoidance to voltage shocks applied to the footplate in a voltage-dependent manner. Foot shocks applied to the dark box for 5 days (10 min per day) effectively reversed the light-dark preference of the tree shrews, and this memory lasted for more than 50 days without any sign of memory decay (extinction) in the absence of further stimulation. However, this fear memory was reversed with 4 days of reverse training by applying the same stimulus to the light box. When reducing the stimulus intensity during the training period, a memory extinction and subsequently reinstatement effects were observed. Thus, our results describe an efficient method of monitoring fear memory formation and extinction in tree shrews.

  5. Consistency of Handedness, Regardless of Direction, Predicts Baseline Memory Accuracy and Potential for Memory Enhancement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyle, Keith B.; Hanaver-Torrez, Shelley D.; Hacklander, Ryan P.; Edlin, James M.

    2012-01-01

    Research has shown that consistently right-handed individuals have poorer memory than do inconsistently right- or left-handed individuals under baseline conditions but more reliably exhibit enhanced memory retrieval after making a series of saccadic eye movements. From this it could be that consistent versus inconsistent handedness, regardless of…

  6. Memory formation and memory alterations: 5-HT6 and 5-HT7 receptors, novel alternative.

    PubMed

    Meneses, Alfredo

    2014-01-01

    Agonists and antagonists of the 5-hydroxytryptamine (serotonin) receptor6 (5-HT6) or receptor7 (5-HT7) might improve memory and/or reverse amnesia, although the mechanisms involved are poorly understood. Hence, the current work summarizes recent reviews and findings involving these receptors. Evidence indicates that diverse 5-HT6 receptor antagonists produce promnesic and/or antiamnesic effect in conditions, such as memory formation, age-related cognitive impairments and memory deficit in preclinical studies, as well as in diseases such as schizophrenia, Parkinson's, and Alzheimer's disease (AD). Memory, aging, and AD modify 5-HT6 receptors and signaling cascades; likewise, the modulation of 5-HT6 drugs on memory seems to be accompanied with neural changes. Moreover, 5-HT7 receptors are localized in brain areas mediating memory, including the cortex, hippocampus (e.g., Zola-Morgan and Squire, 1993) and raphe nuclei; however, the role of these receptors on memory has yet to be fully explored. Hence, findings and reviews are summarized in this work. Evidence suggests that both 5-HT7 receptor agonists and antagonists might have promnesic and anti-amnesic effects. These effects seem to be dependent on the basal level of performance, i.e., normal or impaired. Available evidence suggests that a potential utility of 5-HT6 and 5-HT7 receptor in mild-to-moderate AD patients and other memory dysfunctions as therapeutic targets.

  7. Stress enhances reconsolidation of declarative memory.

    PubMed

    Bos, Marieke G N; Schuijer, Jantien; Lodestijn, Fleur; Beckers, Tom; Kindt, Merel

    2014-08-01

    Retrieval of negative emotional memories is often accompanied by the experience of stress. Upon retrieval, a memory trace can temporarily return into a labile state, where it is vulnerable to change. An unresolved question is whether post-retrieval stress may affect the strength of declarative memory in humans by modulating the reconsolidation process. Here, we tested in two experiments whether post-reactivation stress may affect the strength of declarative memory in humans. In both experiments, participants were instructed to learn neutral, positive and negative words. Approximately 24h later, participants received a reminder of the word list followed by exposure to the social evaluative cold pressor task (reactivation/stress group, nexp1=20; nexp2=18) or control task (reactivation/no-stress group, nexp1=23; nexp2=18). An additional control group was solely exposed to the stress task, without memory reactivation (no-reactivation/stress group, nexp1=23; nexp2=21). The next day, memory performance was tested using a free recall and a recognition task. In the first experiment we showed that participants in the reactivation/stress group recalled more words than participants in the reactivation/no-stress and no-reactivation/stress group, irrespective of valence of the word stimuli. Furthermore, participants in the reactivation/stress group made more false recognition errors. In the second experiment we replicated our observations on the free recall task for a new set of word stimuli, but we did not find any differences in false recognition. The current findings indicate that post-reactivation stress can improve declarative memory performance by modulating the process of reconsolidation. This finding contributes to our understanding why some memories are more persistent than others.

  8. Enhancing quantum sensing sensitivity by a quantum memory.

    PubMed

    Zaiser, Sebastian; Rendler, Torsten; Jakobi, Ingmar; Wolf, Thomas; Lee, Sang-Yun; Wagner, Samuel; Bergholm, Ville; Schulte-Herbrüggen, Thomas; Neumann, Philipp; Wrachtrup, Jörg

    2016-08-10

    In quantum sensing, precision is typically limited by the maximum time interval over which phase can be accumulated. Memories have been used to enhance this time interval beyond the coherence lifetime and thus gain precision. Here, we demonstrate that by using a quantum memory an increased sensitivity can also be achieved. To this end, we use entanglement in a hybrid spin system comprising a sensing and a memory qubit associated with a single nitrogen-vacancy centre in diamond. With the memory we retain the full quantum state even after coherence decay of the sensor, which enables coherent interaction with distinct weakly coupled nuclear spin qubits. We benchmark the performance of our hybrid quantum system against use of the sensing qubit alone by gradually increasing the entanglement of sensor and memory. We further apply this quantum sensor-memory pair for high-resolution NMR spectroscopy of single (13)C nuclear spins.

  9. Enhancing quantum sensing sensitivity by a quantum memory

    PubMed Central

    Zaiser, Sebastian; Rendler, Torsten; Jakobi, Ingmar; Wolf, Thomas; Lee, Sang-Yun; Wagner, Samuel; Bergholm, Ville; Schulte-Herbrüggen, Thomas; Neumann, Philipp; Wrachtrup, Jörg

    2016-01-01

    In quantum sensing, precision is typically limited by the maximum time interval over which phase can be accumulated. Memories have been used to enhance this time interval beyond the coherence lifetime and thus gain precision. Here, we demonstrate that by using a quantum memory an increased sensitivity can also be achieved. To this end, we use entanglement in a hybrid spin system comprising a sensing and a memory qubit associated with a single nitrogen-vacancy centre in diamond. With the memory we retain the full quantum state even after coherence decay of the sensor, which enables coherent interaction with distinct weakly coupled nuclear spin qubits. We benchmark the performance of our hybrid quantum system against use of the sensing qubit alone by gradually increasing the entanglement of sensor and memory. We further apply this quantum sensor-memory pair for high-resolution NMR spectroscopy of single 13C nuclear spins. PMID:27506596

  10. Test Expectation Enhances Memory Consolidation across Both Sleep and Wake

    PubMed Central

    Wamsley, Erin J.; Hamilton, Kelly; Graveline, Yvette; Manceor, Stephanie; Parr, Elaine

    2016-01-01

    Memory consolidation benefits from post-training sleep. However, recent studies suggest that sleep does not uniformly benefit all memory, but instead prioritizes information that is important to the individual. Here, we examined the effect of test expectation on memory consolidation across sleep and wakefulness. Following reports that information with strong “future relevance” is preferentially consolidated during sleep, we hypothesized that test expectation would enhance memory consolidation across a period of sleep, but not across wakefulness. To the contrary, we found that expectation of a future test enhanced memory for both spatial and motor learning, but that this effect was equivalent across both wake and sleep retention intervals. These observations differ from those of least two prior studies, and fail to support the hypothesis that the “future relevance” of learned material moderates its consolidation selectively during sleep. PMID:27760193

  11. Test Expectation Enhances Memory Consolidation across Both Sleep and Wake.

    PubMed

    Wamsley, Erin J; Hamilton, Kelly; Graveline, Yvette; Manceor, Stephanie; Parr, Elaine

    2016-01-01

    Memory consolidation benefits from post-training sleep. However, recent studies suggest that sleep does not uniformly benefit all memory, but instead prioritizes information that is important to the individual. Here, we examined the effect of test expectation on memory consolidation across sleep and wakefulness. Following reports that information with strong "future relevance" is preferentially consolidated during sleep, we hypothesized that test expectation would enhance memory consolidation across a period of sleep, but not across wakefulness. To the contrary, we found that expectation of a future test enhanced memory for both spatial and motor learning, but that this effect was equivalent across both wake and sleep retention intervals. These observations differ from those of least two prior studies, and fail to support the hypothesis that the "future relevance" of learned material moderates its consolidation selectively during sleep.

  12. Inhibition and enhancement of contextual fear memory destabilization

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jonathan L. C.; Flavell, Charlotte R.

    2014-01-01

    The reactivation of a memory can result in its destabilization, necessitating a process of memory reconsolidation to maintain its persistence. Here we show that the destabilization of a contextual fear memory is potentiated by the cannabinoid CB1 receptor agonist Arachidonyl-2-chloroethylamide (ACEA). Co-infusion of ACEA and the IkappaB kinase (IKK) inhibitor sulfasalazine (Sulf) into the dorsal hippocampus impaired contextual fear memory reconsolidation. This observation was achieved under behavioral conditions that, by themselves, did not result in a reconsolidation impairment by Sulf alone. Moreover, we show that the destabilization of a contextual fear memory is dependent upon neuronal activity in the dorsal hippocampus, but not memory expression per se. The effect on contextual fear memory destabilization of intra-hippocampal ACEA was replicated by systemic injections, allowing an amnestic effect of MK-801. These results indicate that memory expression and destabilization, while being independent from one another, are both dependent upon memory reactivation. Moreover, memory destabilization can be enhanced pharmacologically, which may be of therapeutic potential. PMID:24808841

  13. Regulation of Memory Formation by the Transcription Factor XBP1.

    PubMed

    Martínez, Gabriela; Vidal, René L; Mardones, Pablo; Serrano, Felipe G; Ardiles, Alvaro O; Wirth, Craig; Valdés, Pamela; Thielen, Peter; Schneider, Bernard L; Kerr, Bredford; Valdés, Jose L; Palacios, Adrian G; Inestrosa, Nibaldo C; Glimcher, Laurie H; Hetz, Claudio

    2016-02-16

    Contextual memory formation relies on the induction of new genes in the hippocampus. A polymorphism in the promoter of the transcription factor XBP1 was identified as a risk factor for Alzheimer's disease and bipolar disorders. XBP1 is a major regulator of the unfolded protein response (UPR), mediating adaptation to endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. Using a phenotypic screen, we uncovered an unexpected function of XBP1 in cognition and behavior. Mice lacking XBP1 in the nervous system showed specific impairment of contextual memory formation and long-term potentiation (LTP), whereas neuronal XBP1s overexpression improved performance in memory tasks. Gene expression analysis revealed that XBP1 regulates a group of memory-related genes, highlighting brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), a key component in memory consolidation. Overexpression of BDNF in the hippocampus reversed the XBP1-deficient phenotype. Our study revealed an unanticipated function of XBP1 in cognitive processes that is apparently unrelated to its role in ER stress.

  14. 5-HT systems: emergent targets for memory formation and memory alterations.

    PubMed

    Meneses, Alfredo

    2013-01-01

    Drugs acting through 5-hydroxytryptamine (serotonin or 5-HT) systems modulate memory and its alterations, although the mechanisms involved are poorly understood. 5-HT drugs may present promnesic and/or antiamnesic (or even being amnesic) effects. Key questions regarding 5-HT markers include whether receptors directly or indirectly participate and/or contribute to the physiological and pharmacological basis of memory and its pathogenesis; hence, the major aim of this article was to examine recent advances in emergent targets of the 5-HT systems for memory formation and memory alterations. Recent reviews and findings are summarized, mainly in the context of the growing notion of memory deficits in brain disorders (e.g., posttraumatic stress disorder, mild cognitive impairment, consumption of drugs, poststroke cognitive dysfunctions, schizophrenia, Parkinson disease, and infection-induced memory impairments). Mainly, mammalian and (some) human data were the focus. At least agonists and antagonists for 5-HT1A/1B, 5-HT2A/2B/2C, 5-HT3, 5-HT4, 5-HT6, and 5-HT7 receptors as well as serotonin uptake inhibitors seem to have a promnesic and/or antiamnesic effect in different conditions and 5-HT markers seem to be associated to neural changes. Available evidence offers clues about the possibilities, but the exact mechanisms remain unclear. For instance, 5-HT transporter expression seems to be a reliable neural marker related to memory mechanisms and its alterations.

  15. Memory formation: from network structure to neural dynamics.

    PubMed

    Feldt, Sarah; Wang, Jane X; Hetrick, Vaughn L; Berke, Joshua D; Zochowski, Michal

    2010-05-13

    Understanding the neural correlates of brain function is an extremely challenging task, since any cognitive process is distributed over a complex and evolving network of neurons that comprise the brain. In order to quantify observed changes in neuronal dynamics during hippocampal memory formation, we present metrics designed to detect directional interactions and the formation of functional neuronal ensembles. We apply these metrics to both experimental and model-derived data in an attempt to link anatomical network changes with observed changes in neuronal dynamics during hippocampal memory formation processes. We show that the developed model provides a consistent explanation of the anatomical network modifications that underlie the activity changes observed in the experimental data.

  16. Enhancing the production effect in memory.

    PubMed

    Quinlan, Chelsea K; Taylor, Tracy L

    2013-01-01

    The production effect is the finding that subsequent memory is better for words that are produced than for words that are not produced. Whereas the current literature demonstrates that reading aloud is the most effective form of production, the distinctiveness account used to explain the production effect predicts that there is nothing special about reading aloud per se: Other forms of vocal production that include an additional distinct element should produce even greater subsequent memory benefits than reading aloud. To test this, we presented participants with study words that they were instructed to read aloud loudly, read aloud, or read silently (Experiment 1); sing, read aloud, or read silently (Experiment 2); and sing, read aloud loudly, read aloud, or read silently (Experiment 3). We observed that both reading items aloud loudly (Experiments 1 and 3) and singing items (Experiments 2 and 3) at study resulted in greater subsequent recognition than reading items aloud in a normal voice; singing had a larger memory benefit than reading aloud loudly (Experiment 3). Our findings support the distinctiveness hypothesis by demonstrating that there are other forms of production, such as singing and reading aloud loudly that have a more pronounced effect on memory than reading aloud.

  17. Joint Attention Enhances Visual Working Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gregory, Samantha E. A.; Jackson, Margaret C.

    2017-01-01

    Joint attention--the mutual focus of 2 individuals on an item--speeds detection and discrimination of target information. However, what happens to that information beyond the initial perceptual episode? To fully comprehend and engage with our immediate environment also requires working memory (WM), which integrates information from second to…

  18. Familiarity Enhances Visual Working Memory for Faces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Margaret C.; Raymond, Jane E.

    2008-01-01

    Although it is intuitive that familiarity with complex visual objects should aid their preservation in visual working memory (WM), empirical evidence for this is lacking. This study used a conventional change-detection procedure to assess visual WM for unfamiliar and famous faces in healthy adults. Across experiments, faces were upright or…

  19. Adaptive Memory: Survival Processing Enhances Retention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nairne, James S.; Thompson, Sarah R.; Pandeirada, Josefa N. S.

    2007-01-01

    The authors investigated the idea that memory systems might have evolved to help us remember fitness-relevant information--specifically, information relevant to survival. In 4 incidental learning experiments, people were asked to rate common nouns for their survival relevance (e.g., in securing food, water, or protection from predators); in…

  20. Enhancing Memory Access for Less Skilled Readers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Emily R.; O'Brien, Edward J.

    2016-01-01

    Less skilled readers' comprehension often suffers because they have an impoverished representation of text in long-term memory; this, in turn, increases the difficulty of gaining access to backgrounded information necessary for maintaining coherence. The results of four experiments demonstrated that providing less skilled readers with additional…

  1. Cavity-Enhanced Room-Temperature Broadband Raman Memory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saunders, D. J.; Munns, J. H. D.; Champion, T. F. M.; Qiu, C.; Kaczmarek, K. T.; Poem, E.; Ledingham, P. M.; Walmsley, I. A.; Nunn, J.

    2016-03-01

    Broadband quantum memories hold great promise as multiplexing elements in future photonic quantum information protocols. Alkali-vapor Raman memories combine high-bandwidth storage, on-demand readout, and operation at room temperature without collisional fluorescence noise. However, previous implementations have required large control pulse energies and have suffered from four-wave-mixing noise. Here, we present a Raman memory where the storage interaction is enhanced by a low-finesse birefringent cavity tuned into simultaneous resonance with the signal and control fields, dramatically reducing the energy required to drive the memory. By engineering antiresonance for the anti-Stokes field, we also suppress the four-wave-mixing noise and report the lowest unconditional noise floor yet achieved in a Raman-type warm vapor memory, (15 ±2 )×10-3 photons per pulse, with a total efficiency of (9.5 ±0.5 )%.

  2. Circuit Mechanisms Underlying Motor Memory Formation in the Cerebellum

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Ka Hung; Mathews, Paul J.; Reeves, Alexander M.B.; Choe, Katrina Y.; Jami, Shekib A.; Serrano, Raul E.; Otis, Thomas S.

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY The cerebellum stores associative motor memories essential for properly timed movement; however, the mechanisms by which these memories form and are acted upon remain unclear. To determine how cerebellar activity relates to movement and motor learning, we used optogenetics to manipulate spontaneously firing Purkinje neurons (PNs) in mouse simplex lobe. Using high-speed videography and motion tracking, we found that altering PN activity produced rapid forelimb movement. PN inhibition drove movements time-locked to stimulus onset, whereas PN excitation drove delayed movements time-locked to stimulus offset. Pairing either PN inhibition or excitation with sensory stimuli triggered the formation of robust, associative motor memories; however, PN excitation led to learned movements whose timing more closely matched training intervals. These findings implicate inhibition of PNs as a teaching signal, consistent with a model whereby learning leads first to reductions in PN firing that subsequently instruct circuit changes in the cerebellar nucleus. PMID:25843404

  3. Stress at learning facilitates memory formation by regulating AMPA receptor trafficking through a glucocorticoid action.

    PubMed

    Conboy, Lisa; Sandi, Carmen

    2010-02-01

    Stress and glucocorticoids (GCs) can facilitate memory formation. However, the molecular mechanisms mediating their effects are largely unknown. Alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) receptor (AMPAR) trafficking has been implicated in the changes in synaptic strength at central glutamatergic synapses associated with memory formation. In cell cultures, corticosterone has been shown to condition the synaptic trafficking of the AMPAR GluA2 subunit. In this study, we investigated the involvement of GluA2 trafficking in the facilitation of learning by stress. Using the water maze spatial task involving different stress levels, mice trained under more stressful conditions (water at 22 degrees C) showed better learning and memory, and higher post-training corticosterone levels, than mice trained under lower stress (water at 30 degrees C). Strikingly, this facilitated learning by stress was accompanied by enhanced synaptic expression of GluA2 AMPARs that was not observed in mice trained under less stressful conditions. Interfering with GC actions by injecting the GC synthesis inhibitor, metyrapone, blocked both the memory facilitation and the enhanced GluA2 trafficking induced by stressful learning. Intracerebroventricular infusion of the peptide, pep2m, that blocks GluA2 synaptic trafficking by interfering with the interaction between N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor and GluA2, impaired immediate performance at learning as well as long-term memory retrieval, supporting a causal role for GluA2 trafficking in stress-induced facilitation of spatial learning and memory. Evidence for the involvement of the neural cell adhesion molecule N-cadherin in interaction with GluA2 is also provided. These findings underscore a new mechanism whereby stress can improve memory function.

  4. Prospection and emotional memory: how expectation affects emotional memory formation following sleep and wake.

    PubMed

    Cunningham, Tony J; Chambers, Alexis M; Payne, Jessica D

    2014-01-01

    Successful prospective memory is necessarily driven by an expectation that encoded information will be relevant in the future, leading to its preferential placement in memory storage. Like expectation, emotional salience is another type of cue that benefits human memory formation. Although separate lines of research suggest that both emotional information and information explicitly expected to be important in the future benefit memory consolidation, it is unknown how expectation affects the processing of emotional information and whether sleep, which is known to maximize memory consolidation, plays a critical role. The purpose of this study was to investigate how expectation would impact the consolidation of emotionally salient content, and whether this impact would differ across delays of sleep and wake. Participants encoded scenes containing an emotionally charged negative or neutral foreground object placed on a plausible neutral background. After encoding, half of the participants were informed they would later be tested on the scenes (expected condition), while the other half received no information about the test (unexpected condition). At recognition, following a 12-h delay of sleep or wakefulness, the scene components (objects and backgrounds) were presented separately and one at a time, and participants were asked to determine if each component was old or new. Results revealed a greater disparity for memory of negative objects over their paired neutral backgrounds for both the sleep and wake groups when the memory test was expected compared to when it was unexpected, while neutral memory remained unchanged. Analyzing each group separately, the wake group showed a threefold increase in the magnitude of this object/background trade-off for emotional scenes when the memory test was expected compared to when it was unexpected, while those who slept performed similarly across conditions. These results suggest that emotional salience and expectation cues

  5. Brain computer interface to enhance episodic memory in human participants

    PubMed Central

    Burke, John F.; Merkow, Maxwell B.; Jacobs, Joshua; Kahana, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    Recent research has revealed that neural oscillations in the theta (4–8 Hz) and alpha (9–14 Hz) bands are predictive of future success in memory encoding. Because these signals occur before the presentation of an upcoming stimulus, they are considered stimulus-independent in that they correlate with enhanced memory encoding independent of the item being encoded. Thus, such stimulus-independent activity has important implications for the neural mechanisms underlying episodic memory as well as the development of cognitive neural prosthetics. Here, we developed a brain computer interface (BCI) to test the ability of such pre-stimulus activity to modulate subsequent memory encoding. We recorded intracranial electroencephalography (iEEG) in neurosurgical patients as they performed a free recall memory task, and detected iEEG theta and alpha oscillations that correlated with optimal memory encoding. We then used these detected oscillatory changes to trigger the presentation of items in the free recall task. We found that item presentation contingent upon the presence of pre-stimulus theta and alpha oscillations modulated memory performance in more sessions than expected by chance. Our results suggest that an electrophysiological signal may be causally linked to a specific behavioral condition, and contingent stimulus presentation has the potential to modulate human memory encoding. PMID:25653605

  6. Nicotine enhances contextual fear memory reconsolidation in rats.

    PubMed

    Tian, Shaowen; Huang, Fulian; Li, Peng; Li, Zhenbang; Zhou, Shouhong; Deng, Haifeng; Yang, Yufeng

    2011-01-10

    There is increasing evidence that nicotine is involved in learning and memory. However, there remains no study that has explored the relationship between nicotine and memory reconsolidation. At present study, we tested the effects of nicotine on the reconsolidation of contextual fear memory in rats. Behavior procedure involved four training phases: habituation (Day 0), fear conditioning (Day 1), reactivation (Day 2) and test (Day 3). Rats were injected saline or nicotine (0.25, 0.5 and 1.0mg/kg) immediately after reactivation. Percent of time spent freezing was used to measure conditioned fear response. Results showed that compared with saline rats, rats with nicotine at 1.0mg/kg presented a significant increase of freezing response on Day 3. Nicotine at 1.0mg/kg was ineffective when injected 6h after reactivation. Further results showed that the enhancement of freezing response induced by nicotine at 1.0mg/kg was dependent on fear memory reconsolidation, and was not attributed to an enhancement of the nonspecific freezing response 24h after nicotine administration. The results suggest that nicotine administration immediately after reactivation enhances contextual fear memory reconsolidation. Our present finding extends previous research on the nicotinic effects on learning and memory.

  7. Self-Imagining Enhances Recognition Memory in Memory-Impaired Individuals with Neurological Damage

    PubMed Central

    Grilli, Matthew D.; Glisky, Elizabeth L.

    2010-01-01

    Objective The ability to imagine an elaborative event from a personal perspective relies on a number of cognitive processes that may potentially enhance subsequent memory for the event, including visual imagery, semantic elaboration, emotional processing, and self-referential processing. In an effort to find a novel strategy for enhancing memory in memory-impaired individuals with neurological damage, the present study investigated the mnemonic benefit of a method we refer to as “self-imagining” – or the imagining of an event from a realistic, personal perspective. Method Fourteen individuals with neurologically-based memory deficits and fourteen healthy control participants intentionally encoded neutral and emotional sentences under three instructions: structural-baseline processing, semantic processing, and self-imagining. Results Findings revealed a robust “self-imagination effect” as self-imagination enhanced recognition memory relative to deep semantic elaboration in both memory-impaired individuals, F (1, 13) = 32.11, p < .001, η2 = .71, and healthy controls, F (1, 13) = 5.57, p < .05, η2 = .30. In addition, results indicated that mnemonic benefits of self-imagination were not limited by severity of the memory disorder nor were they related to self-reported vividness of visual imagery, semantic processing, or emotional content of the materials. Conclusions The findings suggest that the self-imagination effect may depend on unique mnemonic mechanisms possibly related to self-referential processing, and that imagining an event from a personal perspective makes that event particularly memorable even for those individuals with severe memory deficits. Self-imagining may thus provide an effective rehabilitation strategy for individuals with memory impairment. PMID:20873930

  8. Cognitive Processes Supporting Episodic Memory Formation in Childhood: The Role of Source Memory, Binding, and Executive Functioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raj, Vinaya; Bell, Martha Ann

    2010-01-01

    Episodic memories contain various forms of contextual detail (e.g., perceptual, emotional, cognitive details) that need to become integrated. Each of these contextual features can be used to attribute a memory episode to its source, or origin of information. Memory for source information is one critical component in the formation of episodic…

  9. Olfactory memory formation in Drosophila: from molecular to systems neuroscience.

    PubMed

    Davis, Ronald L

    2005-01-01

    The olfactory nervous system of insects and mammals exhibits many similarities, which suggests that the mechanisms for olfactory learning may be shared. Molecular genetic investigations of Drosophila learning have uncovered numerous genes whose gene products are essential for olfactory memory formation. Recent studies of the products of these genes have continued to expand the range of molecular processes known to underlie memory formation. Recent research has also broadened the neuroanatomical areas thought to mediate olfactory learning to include the antennal lobes in addition to a previously accepted and central role for the mushroom bodies. The roles for neurons extrinsic to the mushroom body neurons are becoming better defined. Finally, the genes identified to participate in Drosophila olfactory learning have conserved roles in mammalian organisms, highlighting the value of Drosophila for gene discovery.

  10. Histone Deacetylase Inhibition via RGFP966 Releases the Brakes on Sensory Cortical Plasticity and the Specificity of Memory Formation.

    PubMed

    Bieszczad, Kasia M; Bechay, Kiro; Rusche, James R; Jacques, Vincent; Kudugunti, Shashi; Miao, Wenyan; Weinberger, Norman M; McGaugh, James L; Wood, Marcelo A

    2015-09-23

    Research over the past decade indicates a novel role for epigenetic mechanisms in memory formation. Of particular interest is chromatin modification by histone deacetylases (HDACs), which, in general, negatively regulate transcription. HDAC deletion or inhibition facilitates transcription during memory consolidation and enhances long-lasting forms of synaptic plasticity and long-term memory. A key open question remains: How does blocking HDAC activity lead to memory enhancements? To address this question, we tested whether a normal function of HDACs is to gate information processing during memory formation. We used a class I HDAC inhibitor, RGFP966 (C21H19FN4O), to test the role of HDAC inhibition for information processing in an auditory memory model of learning-induced cortical plasticity. HDAC inhibition may act beyond memory enhancement per se to instead regulate information in ways that lead to encoding more vivid sensory details into memory. Indeed, we found that RGFP966 controls memory induction for acoustic details of sound-to-reward learning. Rats treated with RGFP966 while learning to associate sound with reward had stronger memory and additional information encoded into memory for highly specific features of sounds associated with reward. Moreover, behavioral effects occurred with unusually specific plasticity in primary auditory cortex (A1). Class I HDAC inhibition appears to engage A1 plasticity that enables additional acoustic features to become encoded in memory. Thus, epigenetic mechanisms act to regulate sensory cortical plasticity, which offers an information processing mechanism for gating what and how much is encoded to produce exceptionally persistent and vivid memories. Significance statement: Here we provide evidence of an epigenetic mechanism for information processing. The study reveals that a class I HDAC inhibitor (Malvaez et al., 2013; Rumbaugh et al., 2015; RGFP966, chemical formula C21H19FN4O) alters the formation of auditory memory by

  11. Social relevance enhances memory for impressions in older adults.

    PubMed

    Cassidy, Brittany S; Gutchess, Angela H

    2012-01-01

    Previous research has demonstrated that older adults have difficulty retrieving contextual material over items alone. Recent research suggests this deficit can be reduced by adding emotional context, allowing for the possibility that memory for social impressions may show less age-related decline than memory for other types of contextual information. Two studies investigated how orienting to social or self-relevant aspects of information contributed to the learning and retrieval of impressions in young and older adults. Participants encoded impressions of others in conditions varying in the use of self-reference (Experiment 1) and interpersonal meaningfulness (Experiment 2), and completed memory tasks requiring the retrieval of specific traits. For both experiments, age groups remembered similar numbers of impressions. In Experiment 1 using more self-relevant encoding contexts increased memory for impressions over orienting to stimuli in a non-social way, regardless of age. In Experiment 2 older adults had enhanced memory for impressions presented in an interpersonally meaningful relative to a personally irrelevant way, whereas young adults were unaffected by this manipulation. The results provide evidence that increasing social relevance ameliorates age differences in memory for impressions, and enhances older adults' ability to successfully retrieve contextual information.

  12. Hippocampal Processing of Ambiguity Enhances Fear Memory.

    PubMed

    Amadi, Ugwechi; Lim, Seh Hong; Liu, Elizabeth; Baratta, Michael V; Goosens, Ki A

    2017-02-01

    Despite the ubiquitous use of Pavlovian fear conditioning as a model for fear learning, the highly predictable conditions used in the laboratory do not resemble real-world conditions, in which dangerous situations can lead to unpleasant outcomes in unpredictable ways. In the current experiments, we varied the timing of aversive events after predictive cues in rodents and discovered that temporal ambiguity of aversive events greatly enhances fear. During fear conditioning with unpredictably timed aversive events, pharmacological inactivation of the dorsal hippocampus or optogenetic silencing of cornu ammonis 1 cells during aversive negative prediction errors prevented this enhancement of fear without affecting fear learning for predictable events. Dorsal hippocampal inactivation also prevented ambiguity-related enhancement of fear during auditory fear conditioning under a partial-reinforcement schedule. These results reveal that information about the timing and occurrence of aversive events is rapidly acquired and that unexpectedly timed or omitted aversive events generate hippocampal signals to enhance fear learning.

  13. Critical Period of Memory Enhancement during Taste Avoidance Conditioning in Lymnaea stagnalis

    PubMed Central

    Sunada, Hiroshi; Lukowiak, Ken; Sakakibara, Manabu

    2013-01-01

    The present study investigated the optimal training procedure leading to long-lasting taste avoidance behavior in Lymnaea. A training procedure comprising 5 repeated pairings of a conditional stimulus (CS, sucrose), with an unconditional stimulus (US, a tactile stimulation to the animal’s head), over a 4-day period resulted in an enhanced memory formation than 10 CS-US repeated pairings over a 2-day period or 20 CS-US repeated pairings on a single day. Backward conditioning (US-CS) pairings did not result in conditioning. Thus, this taste avoidance conditioning was CS-US pairing specific. Food avoidance behavior was not observed following training, however, if snails were immediately subjected to a cold-block (4°C for 10 min). It was critical that the cold-block be applied within 10 min to block long-term memory (LTM) formation. Further, exposure to the cold-block 180 min after training also blocked both STM and LTM formation. The effects of the cold-block on subsequent learning and memory formation were also examined. We found no long lasting effects of the cold-block on subsequent memory formation. If protein kinase C was activated before the conditioning paradigm, snails could still acquire STM despite exposure to the cold-block. PMID:24098373

  14. STAT1 negatively regulates spatial memory formation and mediates the memory-impairing effect of Aβ.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Wei-Lun; Ma, Yun-Li; Hsieh, Ding-You; Liu, Yen-Chen; Lee, Eminy Hy

    2014-02-01

    Signal transducer and activator of transcription-1 (STAT1) has an important role in inflammation and the innate immune response, but its role in the central nervous system is less well understood. Here, we examined the role of STAT1 in spatial learning and memory, and assessed the involvement of STAT1 in mediating the memory-impairing effect of amyloid-beta (Aβ). We found that water maze training downregulated STAT1 expression in the rat hippocampal CA1 area, and spatial learning and memory function was enhanced in Stat1-knockout mice. Conversely, overexpression of STAT1 impaired water maze performance. STAT1 strongly upregulated the expression of the extracellular matrix protein laminin β1 (LB1), which also impaired water maze performance in rats. Furthermore, Aβ impaired spatial learning and memory in association with a dose-dependent increase in STAT1 and LB1 expression, but knockdown of STAT1 and LB1 both reversed this effect of Aβ. This Aβ-induced increase in STAT1 and LB1 expression was also associated with a decrease in the expression of the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) subunits, NR1, and NR2B. Overexpression of NR1 or NR2B or exogenous application of NMDA reversed Aβ-induced learning and memory deficits as well as Aβ-induced STAT1 and LB1 expression. Our results demonstrate that STAT1 negatively regulates spatial learning and memory through transcriptional regulation of LB1 expression. We also identified a novel mechanism for Aβ pathogenesis through STAT1 induction. Notably, impairment of spatial learning and memory by this STAT1-mediated mechanism is independent of cAMP responsive element-binding protein signaling.

  15. State of the art on targeted memory reactivation: Sleep your way to enhanced cognition.

    PubMed

    Schouten, Daphne I; Pereira, Sofia I R; Tops, Mattie; Louzada, Fernando M

    2017-04-01

    Targeted memory reactivation is a fairly simple technique that has the potential to influence the course of memory formation through application of cues during sleep. Studies have shown that cueing memory during sleep can lead to either an enhanced or decreased representation of the information encoded in the targeted networks, depending on experimental variations. The effects have been associated with sleep parameters and accompanied by activation of memory related brain areas. The findings suggest a causal role of neuronal replay in memory consolidation and provide evidence for the active system consolidation hypothesis. However, the observed inconsistencies across studies suggest that further research is warranted regarding the underlying neural mechanisms and optimal conditions for the application of targeted memory reactivation. The goal of the present review is to integrate the currently available experimental data and to provide an overview of this technique's limitations and pitfalls, as well as its potential applications in everyday use and clinical treatment. Exploring the open questions herein identified should lead to insight into safer and more effective ways of adjusting memory representations to better suit individual needs.

  16. Caffeine in floral nectar enhances a pollinator's memory of reward.

    PubMed

    Wright, G A; Baker, D D; Palmer, M J; Stabler, D; Mustard, J A; Power, E F; Borland, A M; Stevenson, P C

    2013-03-08

    Plant defense compounds occur in floral nectar, but their ecological role is not well understood. We provide evidence that plant compounds pharmacologically alter pollinator behavior by enhancing their memory of reward. Honeybees rewarded with caffeine, which occurs naturally in nectar of Coffea and Citrus species, were three times as likely to remember a learned floral scent as were honeybees rewarded with sucrose alone. Caffeine potentiated responses of mushroom body neurons involved in olfactory learning and memory by acting as an adenosine receptor antagonist. Caffeine concentrations in nectar did not exceed the bees' bitter taste threshold, implying that pollinators impose selection for nectar that is pharmacologically active but not repellent. By using a drug to enhance memories of reward, plants secure pollinator fidelity and improve reproductive success.

  17. Utility of Nutraceutical Products Marketed for Cognitive and Memory Enhancement

    PubMed Central

    McDougall, Graham J.; Austin-Wells, Vonnette; Zimmerman, Teena

    2008-01-01

    This article identifies a convenience sample of 14 memory-enhancing herbal products that were found to be available commercially, examines their active ingredients, states their claims, and evaluates the available evidence to determine their efficacy. The analyses identified four problematic areas. First, a majority of the products use cognitive terminology, which leads consumers to anticipate an intended cognitive benefit. Second, some ingredients are completely homeopathic and contain components not known outside of the homeopathic field. Third, the evidence of treatment efficacy is often contradictory, because products are recommended for purposes other than cognitive or memory loss. Finally, the manufacturers of the product have usually conducted the research on individual products. Until more research is available, it is suggested that holistic nursing professionals exercise caution in recommending nutraceuticals to their patients/clients for the use of cognitive improvement or memory enhancement. PMID:16251490

  18. Chronic Corticosterone Exposure Persistently Elevates the Expression of Memory-Related Genes in the Lateral Amygdala and Enhances the Consolidation of a Pavlovian Fear Memory

    PubMed Central

    Monsey, Melissa S.; Boyle, Lara M.; Zhang, Melinda L.; Nguyen, Caroline P.; Kronman, Hope G.; Ota, Kristie T.; Duman, Ronald S.; Taylor, Jane R.; Schafe, Glenn E.

    2014-01-01

    Chronic exposure to stress has been widely implicated in the development of anxiety disorders, yet relatively little is known about the long-term effects of chronic stress on amygdala-dependent memory formation. Here, we examined the effects of a history of chronic exposure to the stress-associated adrenal steroid corticosterone (CORT) on the consolidation of a fear memory and the expression of memory-related immediate early genes (IEGs) in the lateral nucleus of the amygdala (LA). Rats received chronic exposure to CORT (50 μg/ml) in their drinking water for 2 weeks and were then titrated off the CORT for an additional 6 days followed by a 2 week ‘wash-out’ period consisting of access to plain water. Rats were then either sacrificed to examine the expression of memory-related IEG expression in the LA or given auditory Pavlovian fear conditioning. We show that chronic exposure to CORT leads to a persistent elevation in the expression of the IEGs Arc/Arg3.1 and Egr-1 in the LA. Further, we show that rats with a history of chronic CORT exposure exhibit enhanced consolidation of a fear memory; short-term memory (STM) is not affected, while long-term memory (LTM) is significantly enhanced. Treatment with the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) fluoxetine following the chronic CORT exposure period was observed to effectively reverse both the persistent CORT-related increases in memory-related IEG expression in the LA and the CORT-related enhancement in fear memory consolidation. Our findings suggest that chronic exposure to CORT can regulate memory-related IEG expression and fear memory consolidation processes in the LA in a long-lasting manner and that treatment with fluoxetine can reverse these effects. PMID:24618807

  19. Enhanced memory for emotional material following stress-level cortisol treatment in humans.

    PubMed

    Buchanan, T W; Lovallo, W R

    2001-04-01

    Memory tends to be better for emotionally arousing information than for neutral information. Evidence from animal studies indicates that corticosteroids may be necessary for this memory enhancement to occur. We extend these findings to human memory performance. Following administration of cortisol (20 mg) or placebo, participants were exposed to pictures varying in emotional arousal. Incidental memory for the pictures was assessed one week later. We show that elevated cortisol levels during memory encoding enhances the long-term recall performance of emotionally arousing pictures relative to neutral pictures. These results extend previous work on corticosteroid enhancement of memory and suggest that high cortisol levels during arousing events result in enhanced memory in humans.

  20. Enhancing Mobile Working Memory Training by Using Affective Feedback

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaaff, Kristina

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to propose a novel approach to enhance working memory (WM) training for mobile devices by using information about the arousal level of a person. By the example of an adaptive n-back task, we combine methodologies from different disciplines to tackle this challenge: mobile learning, affective computing and cognitive…

  1. Sleep in Children Enhances Preferentially Emotional Declarative But Not Procedural Memories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prehn-Kristensen, Alexander; Goder, Robert; Chirobeja, Stefania; Bressman, Inka; Ferstl, Roman; Baving, Lioba

    2009-01-01

    Although the consolidation of several memory systems is enhanced by sleep in adults, recent studies suggest that sleep supports declarative memory but not procedural memory in children. In the current study, the influence of sleep on emotional declarative memory (recognition task) and procedural memory (mirror tracing task) in 20 healthy children…

  2. Ascorbic Acid: a promising memory-enhancer in mice.

    PubMed

    Parle, Milind; Dhingra, Dinesh

    2003-10-01

    Alzheimer's disease is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder characterized by a gradual decline in memory. The occurrence of Alzheimer's disease is commonplace among the Asian population, particularly among senior citizens. The present study was undertaken to assess the potential of ascorbic acid as a memory-enhancer. Swiss mice of either sex were employed in the present investigation. Elevated plus-maze and passive-avoidance apparatus served as the exteroceptive behavioral models, and diazepam-, scopolamine-, and aging-induced amnesia served as the interoceptive behavioral models. Ascorbic acid (60, 120 mg/kg) injected for 3 and 8 consecutive days improved learning and memory of aged mice as indicated by decreased transfer-latency and increased step-down latency. Furthermore, ascorbic acid provided protection to the young animals from scopolamine- and diazepam-induced impairment of memory. Ascorbic acid was found to be more potent than piracetam as reflected by the smaller dose, more pronounced effect, and quicker onset of action. Ascorbic acid has shown promise as a powerful memory-improving agent particularly effective in aged animals. Hence, ascorbic acid might prove to be a useful memory-restorative agent in the treatment of dementia seen in elderly individuals. The underlying mechanism of action of ascorbic acid may be attributed to its antioxidant property.

  3. Inverse Relationship between Basal Pacemaker Neuron Activity and Aversive Long-Term Memory Formation in Lymnaea stagnalis

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Nancy; Feng, Zhong-Ping

    2017-01-01

    Learning and memory formation are essential physiological functions. While quiescent neurons have long been the focus of investigations into the mechanisms of memory formation, there is increasing evidence that spontaneously active neurons also play key roles in this process and possess distinct rules of activity-dependent plasticity. In this study, we used a well-defined aversive learning model of aerial respiration in the mollusk Lymnaea stagnalis (L. stagnalis) to study the role of basal firing activity of the respiratory pacemaker neuron Right Pedal Dorsal 1 (RPeD1) as a determinant of aversive long-term memory (LTM) formation. We investigated the relationship between basal aerial respiration behavior and RPeD1 firing activity, and examined aversive LTM formation and neuronal plasticity in animals exhibiting different basal aerial respiration behavior. We report that animals with higher basal aerial respiration behavior exhibited early responses to operant conditioning and better aversive LTM formation. Early behavioral response to the conditioning procedure was associated with biphasic enhancements in the membrane potential, spontaneous firing activity and gain of firing response, with an early phase spanning the first 2 h after conditioning and a late phase that is observed at 24 h. Taken together, we provide the first evidence suggesting that lower neuronal activity at the time of learning may be correlated with better memory formation in spontaneously active neurons. Our findings provide new insights into the diversity of cellular rules of plasticity underlying memory formation. PMID:28101006

  4. Can Survival Processing Enhance Story Memory? Testing the Generalizability of the Adaptive Memory Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seamon, John G.; Bohn, Justin M.; Coddington, Inslee E.; Ebling, Maritza C.; Grund, Ethan M.; Haring, Catherine T.; Jang, Sue-Jung; Kim, Daniel; Liong, Christopher; Paley, Frances M.; Pang, Luke K.; Siddique, Ashik H.

    2012-01-01

    Research from the adaptive memory framework shows that thinking about words in terms of their survival value in an incidental learning task enhances their free recall relative to other semantic encoding strategies and intentional learning (Nairne, Pandeirada, & Thompson, 2008). We found similar results. When participants used incidental…

  5. Juvenile obesity enhances emotional memory and amygdala plasticity through glucocorticoids.

    PubMed

    Boitard, Chloé; Maroun, Mouna; Tantot, Frédéric; Cavaroc, Amandine; Sauvant, Julie; Marchand, Alain; Layé, Sophie; Capuron, Lucile; Darnaudery, Muriel; Castanon, Nathalie; Coutureau, Etienne; Vouimba, Rose-Marie; Ferreira, Guillaume

    2015-03-04

    In addition to metabolic and cardiovascular disorders, obesity is associated with adverse cognitive and emotional outcomes. Its growing prevalence during adolescence is particularly alarming since recent evidence indicates that obesity can affect hippocampal function during this developmental period. Adolescence is a decisive period for maturation of the amygdala and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) stress axis, both required for lifelong cognitive and emotional processing. However, little data are available on the impact of obesity during adolescence on amygdala function. Herein, we therefore evaluate in rats whether juvenile high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity alters amygdala-dependent emotional memory and whether it depends on HPA axis deregulation. Exposure to HFD from weaning to adulthood, i.e., covering adolescence, enhances long-term emotional memories as assessed by odor-malaise and tone-shock associations. Juvenile HFD also enhances emotion-induced neuronal activation of the basolateral complex of the amygdala (BLA), which correlates with protracted plasma corticosterone release. HFD exposure restricted to adulthood does not modify all these parameters, indicating adolescence is a vulnerable period to the effects of HFD-induced obesity. Finally, exaggerated emotional memory and BLA synaptic plasticity after juvenile HFD are alleviated by a glucocorticoid receptor antagonist. Altogether, our results demonstrate that juvenile HFD alters HPA axis reactivity leading to an enhancement of amygdala-dependent synaptic and memory processes. Adolescence represents a period of increased susceptibility to the effects of diet-induced obesity on amygdala function.

  6. Sleep Spindles as Facilitators of Memory Formation and Learning.

    PubMed

    Ulrich, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Over the past decades important progress has been made in understanding the mechanisms of sleep spindle generation. At the same time a physiological role of sleep spindles is starting to be revealed. Behavioural studies in humans and animals have found significant correlations between the recall performance in different learning tasks and the amount of sleep spindles in the intervening sleep. Concomitant neurophysiological experiments showed a close relationship between sleep spindles and other sleep related EEG rhythms as well as a relationship between sleep spindles and synaptic plasticity. Together, there is growing evidence from several disciplines in neuroscience for a participation of sleep spindles in memory formation and learning.

  7. ACOUSTIC FORMING FOR ENHANCED DEWATERING AND FORMATION

    SciTech Connect

    Cyrus K Aidun

    2007-11-30

    The next generation of forming elements based on acoustic excitation to increase drainage and enhances formation both with on-line control and profiling capabilities has been investigated in this project. The system can be designed and optimized based on the fundamental experimental and computational analysis and investigation of acoustic waves in a fiber suspension flow and interaction with the forming wire.

  8. Instrumental learning: an animal model for sleep dependent memory enhancement.

    PubMed

    Leenaars, Cathalijn H C; Girardi, Carlos E N; Joosten, Ruud N J M A; Lako, Irene M; Ruimschotel, Emma; Hanegraaf, Maaike A J; Dematteis, Maurice; Feenstra, Matthijs G P; Van Someren, Eus J W

    2013-07-15

    The relationship between learning and sleep is multifaceted; learning influences subsequent sleep characteristics, which may in turn influence subsequent memory. Studies in humans indicate that sleep may not only prevent degradation of acquired memories, but even enhance performance without further practice. In a rodent instrumental learning task, individual differences occur in how fast rats learn to associate lever pressing with food reward. Rats habitually sleep between learning sessions, and may differ in this respect. The current study assessed if the instrumental leaning paradigm could serve as a model to study sleep-dependent memory enhancement. Male Wistar rats performed 2 sessions of instrumental learning per day for 1-3 days. Electroencephalography was recorded both before and after the sessions. Sleep deprivation (3 h) was applied between the first and second session in a subgroup of rats. Measurements comprised the number of lever presses in each session, slow wave sleep (SWS) duration, Rapid Eye Movement Sleep (REMS) duration and sleep spindles. Baseline sleep parameters were similar for fast and slow learning rats. Task-exposure increased REMS-duration. The increase in REMS-duration was observed specifically after sessions in which learning occurred, but not after a later session. Sleep deprivation during the 3h period between the initial two sessions interfered with performance enhancement, but did not prevent this in all rats. Our considered movement control protocol induced partial sleep deprivation and also interfered with performance enhancement. The classic instrumental learning task provides a practical model for animal studies on sleep-dependent memory enhancement.

  9. Failure of working memory training to enhance cognition or intelligence.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Todd W; Waskom, Michael L; Garel, Keri-Lee A; Cardenas-Iniguez, Carlos; Reynolds, Gretchen O; Winter, Rebecca; Chang, Patricia; Pollard, Kiersten; Lala, Nupur; Alvarez, George A; Gabrieli, John D E

    2013-01-01

    Fluid intelligence is important for successful functioning in the modern world, but much evidence suggests that fluid intelligence is largely immutable after childhood. Recently, however, researchers have reported gains in fluid intelligence after multiple sessions of adaptive working memory training in adults. The current study attempted to replicate and expand those results by administering a broad assessment of cognitive abilities and personality traits to young adults who underwent 20 sessions of an adaptive dual n-back working memory training program and comparing their post-training performance on those tests to a matched set of young adults who underwent 20 sessions of an adaptive attentional tracking program. Pre- and post-training measurements of fluid intelligence, standardized intelligence tests, speed of processing, reading skills, and other tests of working memory were assessed. Both training groups exhibited substantial and specific improvements on the trained tasks that persisted for at least 6 months post-training, but no transfer of improvement was observed to any of the non-trained measurements when compared to a third untrained group serving as a passive control. These findings fail to support the idea that adaptive working memory training in healthy young adults enhances working memory capacity in non-trained tasks, fluid intelligence, or other measures of cognitive abilities.

  10. Dietary ketosis enhances memory in mild cognitive impairment

    PubMed Central

    Krikorian, Robert; Shidler, Marcelle D; Dangelo, Krista; Couch, Sarah C; Benoit, Stephen C; Clegg, Deborah J

    2010-01-01

    We randomly assigned 23 older adults with Mild Cognitive Impairment to either a high carbohydrate or very low carbohydrate diet. Following the six-week intervention period, we observed improved verbal memory performance for the low carbohydrate subjects (p = 0.01) as well as reductions in weight (p < 0.0001), waist circumference (p < 0.0001), fasting glucose (p = 0.009), and fasting insulin (p = 0.005). Level of depressive symptoms was not affected. Change in calorie intake, insulin level, and weight were not correlated with memory performance for the entire sample, although a trend toward a moderate relationship between insulin and memory was observed within the low carbohydrate group. Ketone levels were positively correlated with memory performance (p = 0.04). These findings indicate that very low carbohydrate consumption, even in the short-term, can improve memory function in older adults with increased risk for Alzheimer’s disease. While this effect may be attributable in part to correction of hyperinsulinemia, other mechanisms associated with ketosis such as reduced inflammation and enhanced energy metabolism also may have contributed to improved neurocognitive function. Further investigation of this intervention is warranted to evaluate its preventive potential and mechanisms of action in the context of early neurodegeneration. PMID:21130529

  11. Failure of Working Memory Training to Enhance Cognition or Intelligence

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Todd W.; Waskom, Michael L.; Garel, Keri-Lee A.; Cardenas-Iniguez, Carlos; Reynolds, Gretchen O.; Winter, Rebecca; Chang, Patricia; Pollard, Kiersten; Lala, Nupur; Alvarez, George A.; Gabrieli, John D. E.

    2013-01-01

    Fluid intelligence is important for successful functioning in the modern world, but much evidence suggests that fluid intelligence is largely immutable after childhood. Recently, however, researchers have reported gains in fluid intelligence after multiple sessions of adaptive working memory training in adults. The current study attempted to replicate and expand those results by administering a broad assessment of cognitive abilities and personality traits to young adults who underwent 20 sessions of an adaptive dual n-back working memory training program and comparing their post-training performance on those tests to a matched set of young adults who underwent 20 sessions of an adaptive attentional tracking program. Pre- and post-training measurements of fluid intelligence, standardized intelligence tests, speed of processing, reading skills, and other tests of working memory were assessed. Both training groups exhibited substantial and specific improvements on the trained tasks that persisted for at least 6 months post-training, but no transfer of improvement was observed to any of the non-trained measurements when compared to a third untrained group serving as a passive control. These findings fail to support the idea that adaptive working memory training in healthy young adults enhances working memory capacity in non-trained tasks, fluid intelligence, or other measures of cognitive abilities. PMID:23717453

  12. Deep brain stimulation for enhancement of learning and memory.

    PubMed

    Suthana, Nanthia; Fried, Itzhak

    2014-01-15

    Deep brain stimulation (DBS) has emerged as a powerful technique to treat a host of neurological and neuropsychiatric disorders from Parkinson's disease and dystonia, to depression, and obsessive compulsive disorder (Benabid et al., 1987; Lang and Lozano, 1998; Davis et al., 1997; Vidailhet et al., 2005; Mayberg et al., 2005; Nuttin et al., 1999). More recently, results suggest that DBS can enhance memory for facts and events that are dependent on the medial temporal lobe (MTL), thus raising the possibility for DBS to be used as a treatment for MTL- related neurological disorders (e.g. Alzheimer's disease, temporal lobe epilepsy, and MTL injuries). In the following review, we summarize key results that show the ability of DBS or cortical surface stimulation to enhance memory. We also discuss current knowledge regarding the temporal specificity, underlying neurophysiological mechanisms of action, and generalization of stimulation's effects on memory. Throughout our discussion, we also propose several future directions that will provide the necessary insight into if and how DBS could be used as a therapeutic treatment for memory disorders.

  13. Divided attention can enhance memory encoding: the attentional boost effect in implicit memory.

    PubMed

    Spataro, Pietro; Mulligan, Neil W; Rossi-Arnaud, Clelia

    2013-07-01

    Distraction during encoding has long been known to disrupt later memory performance. Contrary to this long-standing result, we show that detecting an infrequent target in a dual-task paradigm actually improves memory encoding for a concurrently presented word, above and beyond the performance reached in the full-attention condition. This absolute facilitation was obtained in 2 perceptual implicit tasks (lexical decision and word fragment completion) but not in a conceptual implicit task (semantic classification). In the case of recognition memory, the facilitation was relative, bringing accuracy in the divided attention condition up to the level of accuracy in the full attention condition. The findings follow from the hypothesis that the attentional boost effect reflects enhanced visual encoding of the study stimulus consequent to the transient orienting response to the dual-task target.

  14. Signs of enhanced sleep and sleep-associated memory processing following the anti-inflammatory antibiotic minocycline in men.

    PubMed

    Besedovsky, Luciana; Schmidt, Eva-Maria; Linz, Barbara; Diekelmann, Susanne; Lange, Tanja; Born, Jan

    2017-02-01

    Pro-inflammatory cytokines can promote sleep and neuronal processes underlying memory formation. However, this has mainly been revealed in animal studies. In this double-blind, placebo-controlled within-subject designed study, we examined how changes in the balance between pro- and anti-inflammatory signalling affect sleep and sleep-associated memory consolidation in humans. After learning declarative memory tasks (word pairs, texts) and a procedural memory task (finger tapping) in the evening, 21 healthy young men orally received either 200 mg of the anti-inflammatory antibiotic minocycline or placebo shortly before nocturnal sleep. Sleep was allowed between 23:00 and 07:00 h and recorded polysomnographically. Retrieval of memories was tested two days later. Because of outliers or missing data, final sample size was reduced to n = 14-19. Our data suggest that rather than weakening sleep as expected based on animal studies, the anti-inflammatory agent promoted sleep and memory consolidation. Specifically, minocycline increased slow-wave activity (0.68-4.0 Hz) during non-rapid eye movement sleep stage 2 and selectively enhanced episodic aspects in memory (i.e. memory for the temporal order of events in the texts). In combination with previous results, our findings indicate that, in humans, reducing pro-inflammatory signalling can act towards deepening non-rapid eye movement sleep and enhancing its memory forming efficacy.

  15. Acoustic vibration can enhance bacterial biofilm formation.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Mark F; Edwards, Thomas; Hobbs, Glyn; Shepherd, Joanna; Bezombes, Frederic

    2016-12-01

    This paper explores the use of low-frequency-low-amplitude acoustic vibration on biofilm formation. Biofilm development is thought to be governed by a diverse range of environmental signals and much effort has gone into researching the effects of environmental factors including; nutrient availability, pH and temperature on the growth of biofilms. Many biofilm-forming organisms have evolved to thrive in mechanically challenging environments, for example soil yet, the effects of the physical environment on biofilm formation has been largely ignored. Exposure of Pseudomonas aeruginosa to vibration at 100, 800 and 1600 Hz for 48 h, resulted in a significant increase in biofilm formation compared with the control, with the greatest growth seen at 800 Hz vibration. The results also show that this increase in biofilm formation is accompanied with an increase in P. aeruginosa cell number. Acoustic vibration was also found to regulate the spatial distribution of biofilm formation in a frequency-dependent manner. Exposure of Staphylococcus aureus to acoustic vibration also resulted in enhanced biofilm formation with the greatest level of biofilm being formed following 48 h exposure at 1600 Hz. These results show that acoustic vibration can be used to control biofilm formation and therefore presents a novel and potentially cost effective means to manipulate the development and yield of biofilms in a range of important industrial and medical processes.

  16. Molecular Mechanisms Underlying Formation of Long-Term Reward Memories and Extinction Memories in the Honeybee ("Apis Mellifera")

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eisenhardt, Dorothea

    2014-01-01

    The honeybee ("Apis mellifera") has long served as an invertebrate model organism for reward learning and memory research. Its capacity for learning and memory formation is rooted in the ecological need to efficiently collect nectar and pollen during summer to ensure survival of the hive during winter. Foraging bees learn to associate a…

  17. Memory Enhancement by Targeting Cdk5 Regulation of NR2B

    PubMed Central

    Plattner, Florian; Hernandéz, Adan; Kistler, Tara M.; Pozo, Karine; Zhong, Ping; Yuen, Eunice Y.; Tan, Chunfeng; Hawasli, Ammar H.; Cooke, Sam F.; Nishi, Akinori; Guo, Ailan; Wiederhold, Thorsten; Yan, Zhen; Bibb, James A.

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Many psychiatric and neurological disorders are characterized by learning and memory deficits, for which cognitive enhancement is considered a valid treatment strategy. The N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) is a prime target for the development of cognitive enhancers due to its fundamental role in learning and memory. In particular, the NMDAR subunit NR2B improves synaptic plasticity and memory when over-expressed in neurons. However, NR2B regulation is not well understood and no therapies potentiating NMDAR function have been developed. Here, we show that serine 1116 of NR2B is phosphorylated by cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (Cdk5). Cdk5-dependent NR2B phosphorylation is regulated by neuronal activity and controls the receptor’s cell surface expression. Disrupting NR2B-Cdk5 interaction using a small interfering peptide (siP) increases NR2B surface levels, facilitates synaptic transmission, and improves memory formation in vivo. Our results reveal a novel regulatory mechanism critical to NR2B function that can be targeted for the development of cognitive enhancers. PMID:24607229

  18. Memory-enhancing effect of Mori Fructus via induction of nerve growth factor.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyo Geun; Oh, Myung Sook

    2013-07-14

    Fruits rich in phytochemicals have been shown to improve memory by protecting or enhancing neuronal functions mediated by neurotrophic factors, such as nerve growth factor (NGF), in the hippocampus. Mori Fructus (Morus alba L., Moraceae), also called mulberry, is used as a food, dietary supplement and an anti-ageing agent in traditional Oriental medicine. It is also known to contain abundant flavonoid compounds and to exhibit various pharmacological effects. The present study was performed to evaluate the memory-enhancing effect of Mori Fructus extract (ME) in mice, with a focus on NGF regulation. ME (20, 100 and 500 mg/kg per d for 7 d, per os) dose-dependently promoted NGF release in the mouse hippocampus, leading to phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinases and cyclic AMP response element-binding protein. ME significantly increased pre- and post-synapse formation, acetylcholine synthesisation, neuronal cell differentiation, neurite outgrowth and neuronal cell proliferation in the mouse hippocampus. Furthermore, ME significantly increased latency time in the passive avoidance task (P< 0·001) and recognition time of novel objects in the object recognition test (P< 0·05), indicating improvements in learning and memory. Taken together, these data suggest that ME exhibits a memory-enhancing effect via up-regulation of NGF.

  19. Video Game Training Enhances Visuospatial Working Memory and Episodic Memory in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Toril, Pilar; Reales, José M.; Mayas, Julia; Ballesteros, Soledad

    2016-01-01

    In this longitudinal intervention study with experimental and control groups, we investigated the effects of video game training on the visuospatial working memory (WM) and episodic memory of healthy older adults. Participants were 19 volunteer older adults, who received 15 1-h video game training sessions with a series of video games selected from a commercial package (Lumosity), and a control group of 20 healthy older adults. The results showed that the performance of the trainees improved significantly in all the practiced video games. Most importantly, we found significant enhancements after training in the trained group and no change in the control group in two computerized tasks designed to assess visuospatial WM, namely the Corsi blocks task and the Jigsaw puzzle task. The episodic memory and short-term memory of the trainees also improved. Gains in some WM and episodic memory tasks were maintained during a 3-month follow-up period. These results suggest that the aging brain still retains some degree of plasticity, and that video game training might be an effective intervention tool to improve WM and other cognitive functions in older adults. PMID:27199723

  20. Video Game Training Enhances Visuospatial Working Memory and Episodic Memory in Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Toril, Pilar; Reales, José M; Mayas, Julia; Ballesteros, Soledad

    2016-01-01

    In this longitudinal intervention study with experimental and control groups, we investigated the effects of video game training on the visuospatial working memory (WM) and episodic memory of healthy older adults. Participants were 19 volunteer older adults, who received 15 1-h video game training sessions with a series of video games selected from a commercial package (Lumosity), and a control group of 20 healthy older adults. The results showed that the performance of the trainees improved significantly in all the practiced video games. Most importantly, we found significant enhancements after training in the trained group and no change in the control group in two computerized tasks designed to assess visuospatial WM, namely the Corsi blocks task and the Jigsaw puzzle task. The episodic memory and short-term memory of the trainees also improved. Gains in some WM and episodic memory tasks were maintained during a 3-month follow-up period. These results suggest that the aging brain still retains some degree of plasticity, and that video game training might be an effective intervention tool to improve WM and other cognitive functions in older adults.

  1. Pharmacological enhancement of memory or cognition in normal subjects

    PubMed Central

    Lynch, Gary; Cox, Conor D.; Gall, Christine M.

    2014-01-01

    The possibility of expanding memory or cognitive capabilities above the levels in high functioning individuals is a topic of intense discussion among scientists and in society at large. The majority of animal studies use behavioral endpoint measures; this has produced valuable information but limited predictability for human outcomes. Accordingly, several groups are pursuing a complementary strategy with treatments targeting synaptic events associated with memory encoding or forebrain network operations. Transcription and translation figure prominently in substrate work directed at enhancement. Notably, the question of why new proteins would be needed for a now-forming memory given that learning-driven synthesis presumably occurred throughout the immediate past has been largely ignored. Despite this conceptual problem, and some controversy, recent studies have reinvigorated the idea that selective gene manipulation is a plausible route to enhancement. Efforts to improve memory by facilitating synaptic encoding of information have also progressed, in part due of breakthroughs on mechanisms that stabilize learning-related, long-term potentiation (LTP). These advances point to a reductionistic hypothesis for a diversity of experimental results on enhancement, and identify under-explored possibilities. Cognitive enhancement remains an elusive goal, in part due to the difficulty of defining the target. The popular view of cognition as a collection of definable computations seems to miss the fluid, integrative process experienced by high functioning individuals. The neurobiological approach obviates these psychological issues to directly test the consequences of improving throughput in networks underlying higher order behaviors. The few relevant studies testing drugs that selectively promote excitatory transmission indicate that it is possible to expand cortical networks engaged by complex tasks and that this is accompanied by capabilities not found in normal animals

  2. 17β-estradiol enhances memory duration in the main olfactory bulb in CD-1 mice.

    PubMed

    Dillon, T Samuel; Fox, Laura C; Han, Crystal; Linster, Christiane

    2013-12-01

    Rodents rely heavily on odor detection, discrimination, and memory to locate food, find mates, care for pups, and avoid predators. Estrogens have been shown to increase memory retention in rodents performing spatial memory and object placement tasks. Here we evaluate the extent to which 17β-estradiol modulates memory formation and duration in the olfactory system. Adult CD-1 mice were gonadectomized and given either systemic 17β-estradiol replacement, local 17β-estradiol in the main olfactory bulb, or no replacement. Before performing the behavioral task the mice were given saline or PHTPP (an estrogen receptor β [ER-β] antagonist) via bilateral infusion into the main olfactory bulb. As the beta-type estrogen receptor (ER-β) is more abundant than the alpha-type estrogen receptor in the murine main olfactory bulb, the current study focuses on 17β-estradiol and its interactions with ERβ. Habituation, a simple, nonassociative learning task in which an animal is exposed to the same odor over successive presentations, was used to evaluate the animals' ability to detect odors and form an olfactory memory. To evaluate memory duration, we added a final trial of intertrial interval time (30 or 60 min) in which we presented the habituated odor. Neither surgical nor drug manipulation affected the ability of mice to detect or habituate to an odor. After habituation, gonadectomized 17β-estradiol-treated mice retained memory of an odor for 30 min, whereas non-estradiol-treated, 17β-estradiol+ERβ antagonist (PHTPP), and untreated male mice did not remember an odor 30 min after habituation. The results show that both systemic and local bulbar infusions of 17β-estradiol enhance odor memory duration in mice.

  3. Methamphetamine enhances memory of operantly conditioned respiratory behavior in the snail Lymnaea stagnalis.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, Colin D; Houmes, Stephen W; Wyrick, Katherine L; Kammerzell, Samuel M; Lukowiak, Ken; Sorg, Barbara A

    2010-06-15

    Amphetamines have been used as cognitive enhancers to promote learning and memory. Amphetamines are also drugs of abuse that may promote the initiation of strong memories that ultimately lead to addiction. To understand how methamphetamine (Meth) may be augmenting learning and memory, we chose a relatively simple system, the pond snail, Lymnaea stagnalis. We studied the effects of Meth exposure on the long-term memory (LTM), extinction and reinstatement of operantly conditioned aerial respiratory behavior in Lymnaea. We first determined doses of Meth that would acutely alter respiratory behavior. Next, we measured the impact of training snails in Meth solution or water (control group) using a training procedure that produces LTM (>6 h) in control conditions. Meth exposure impaired the expression of LTM 21 h after two training sessions, but this appeared to be a context-dependent effect only. However, snails exposed to 3.3 mumol l(-1) Meth during training had a decreased rate of extinction of the operantly conditioned memory. We then tested whether this decreased ability of snails to extinguish memory was due to enhanced LTM or impaired extinction of that memory. Snails were operantly conditioned in water and exposed to Meth 16 h after their last trial but 4-5 h prior to extinction. Meth produced an increase rather than a decrease in extinction rate. Thus, Meth impaired extinction only when snails were exposed to Meth during training. Last, we tested the effect of Meth on the ability to form LTM using a single training procedure that is suboptimal for LTM formation. Control snails did not demonstrate LTM, as expected, but pre-exposure of snails to 3.3 micromol l(-1) Meth 24 h prior to the single training session produced LTM 24 h later, indicating that Meth pre-exposure primed snails for LTM formation. Taken together, our studies suggest that LTM is strengthened by Meth such that extinction training is less effective. Lymnaea provides a simple and useful model

  4. DISK FORMATION ENABLED BY ENHANCED RESISTIVITY

    SciTech Connect

    Krasnopolsky, Ruben; Shang Hsien; Li Zhiyun

    2010-06-20

    Disk formation in magnetized cloud cores is hindered by magnetic braking. Previous work has shown that for realistic levels of core magnetization, the magnetic field suppresses the formation of rotationally supported disks during the protostellar mass accretion phase of low-mass star formation both in the ideal MHD limit and in the presence of ambipolar diffusion for typical rates of cosmic-ray ionization. Additional effects, such as ohmic dissipation, the Hall effect, and protostellar outflow, are needed to weaken the magnetic braking and enable the formation of persistent, rotationally supported, protostellar disks. In this paper, we first demonstrate that the classic microscopic resistivity is not large enough to enable disk formation by itself. We then experiment with a set of enhanced values for the resistivity in the range {eta} = 10{sup 17}-10{sup 22} cm{sup 2} s{sup -1}. We find that a value of order 10{sup 19} cm{sup 2} s{sup -1} is needed to enable the formation of a 10{sup 2} AU scale Keplerian disk; the value depends somewhat on the degree of core magnetization. The required resistivity is a few orders of magnitude larger than the classic microscopic values. Whether it can be achieved naturally during protostellar collapse remains to be determined.

  5. NF-κB mediates Gadd45β expression and DNA demethylation in the hippocampus during fear memory formation

    PubMed Central

    Jarome, Timothy J.; Butler, Anderson A.; Nichols, Jessica N.; Pacheco, Natasha L.; Lubin, Farah D.

    2015-01-01

    Gadd45-mediated DNA demethylation mechanisms have been implicated in the process of memory formation. However, the transcriptional mechanisms involved in the regulation of Gadd45 gene expression during memory formation remain unexplored. NF-κB (nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells) controls transcription of genes in neurons and is a critical regulator of synaptic plasticity and memory formation. In silico analysis revealed several NF-κB (p65/RelA and cRel) consensus sequences within the Gadd45β gene promoter. Whether NF-κB activity regulates Gadd45 expression and associated DNA demethylation in neurons during memory formation is unknown. Here, we found that learning in a fear conditioning paradigm increased Gadd45β gene expression and brain-derivedneurotrophic factor (BDNF) DNA demethylation in area CA1 of the hippocampus, both of which were prevented with pharmacological inhibition of NF-κB activity. Further experiments found that conditional mutations in p65/RelA impaired fear memory formation but did not alter changes in Gadd45β expression. The learning-induced increases in Gadd45β mRNA levels, Gadd45β binding at the BDNF gene and BDNF DNA demethylation were blocked in area CA1 of the c-rel knockout mice. Additionally, local siRNA-mediated knockdown of c-rel in area CA1 prevented fear conditioning-induced increases in Gadd45β expression and BDNF DNA demethylation, suggesting that c-Rel containing NF-κB transcription factor complex is responsible for Gadd45β regulation during memory formation. Together, these results support a novel transcriptional role for NF-κB in regulation of Gadd45β expression and DNA demethylation in hippocampal neurons during fear memory. PMID:26441517

  6. Sleep in children enhances preferentially emotional declarative but not procedural memories.

    PubMed

    Prehn-Kristensen, Alexander; Göder, Robert; Chirobeja, Stefania; Bressmann, Inka; Ferstl, Roman; Baving, Lioba

    2009-09-01

    Although the consolidation of several memory systems is enhanced by sleep in adults, recent studies suggest that sleep supports declarative memory but not procedural memory in children. In the current study, the influence of sleep on emotional declarative memory (recognition task) and procedural memory (mirror tracing task) in 20 healthy children (10-13 years of age) was examined. After sleep, children showed an improvement in declarative memory. Separate analysis with respect to the emotional stimulus content revealed that sleep enhances the recognition of emotional stimuli (p>.001) rather than neutral stimuli (p=.084). In the procedural task, however, no sleep-enhanced memory improvement was observed. The results indicate that sleep in children, comparable to adults, enhances predominantly emotional declarative memory; however, in contrast to adults, it has no effect on the consolidation of procedural memory.

  7. General and emotion-specific neural effects of ketamine during emotional memory formation.

    PubMed

    Becker, Benjamin; Steffens, Maria; Zhao, Zhiying; Kendrick, Keith M; Neumann, Claudia; Weber, Bernd; Schultz, Johannes; Mehta, Mitul A; Ettinger, Ulrich; Hurlemann, Rene

    2017-04-15

    Animal studies suggest that N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) dependent signalling in limbic and prefrontal regions is critically involved in both cognitive and emotional functions. In humans, ketamine-induced transient, and disorder associated chronic NMDAR hypofunction (i.e. in schizophrenia) has been associated with deficient performance in the domains of memory and higher-order emotional functioning, as well as altered neural activity in the underlying limbic-prefrontal circuits. To model the effects of NMDAR hypofunction on the integration of emotion and cognition the present pharmacological fMRI study applied the NMDAR antagonist ketamine (target plasma level=100ng/ml) to 21 healthy volunteers in a within-subject placebo-controlled crossover design during encoding of neutral, positive and negative pictures. Our results show that irrespective of emotion, ketamine suppressed parahippocampal and medial prefrontal activity. In contrast, ketamine selectively increased amygdala and orbitofrontal activity during successful encoding of negative stimuli. On the network level ketamine generally increased medial prefrontal-parahippocampal coupling while specifically decreasing amygdala-orbitofrontal interplay during encoding of negative stimuli. On the behavioural level, ketamine produced generally decreased memory performance and abolished the emotional enhancement of memory after a wash-out period of 5 days. The present findings suggest that ketamine produces general as well as valence-specific effects during emotional memory formation. The pattern partly overlaps with alterations previously observed in patients with schizophrenia.

  8. Conditions for enhancing the encoding of an elementary motor memory by rTMS

    PubMed Central

    Buetefisch, C. M.; Howard, C.; Korb, C.; Haut, M.W.; Shuster, L.; Pergami, P.; Smith, C.; Hobbs, G.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Motor learning results in changes of movement representation in primary motor cortex (M1) a process involving long-term potentiation (LTP). Pairing motor training with repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) of M1 enhances the formation of a motor memory. Here we determined the effect of pairing M1 stimulation and the execution of training movements at different times and frequencies on the formation of a motor memory. Methods Formation of a motor memory was defined as increases in motor evoked potentials (MEP) of the training agonist (extensor carpi ulnaris muscle, ECU) and increases in peak acceleration of the trained movements that last more than 60 min. Training consisted of auditory-paced ballistic wrist extension movements (30 min, 0.5 Hz) paired with 0.1, 0.25 or 0.5 Hz subthreshold rTMS. The rTMS pulse was applied at either the onset, 100ms prior to or 300ms after the onset of training movement related increases in electromyographic (EMG) activity of ECU. This was compared to a sham condition. Results Only 0.1 Hz rTMS applied at the onset of the training related increase in ECU-EMG activity resulted in increases in MEP amplitudes and peak acceleration when compared to the sham. Conclusions The formation of motor memory is enhanced above the naïve level by co-administration of low frequency rTMS at the time of execution of training movements. Significance These results indicate the importance of time and frequency of rTMS in these settings and should be considered in the design of rehabilitation treatment strategies using rTMS. PMID:25113275

  9. Selective memories: infants' encoding is enhanced in selection via suppression.

    PubMed

    Markant, Julie; Amso, Dima

    2013-11-01

    The present study examined the hypothesis that inhibitory visual selection mechanisms play a vital role in memory by limiting distractor interference during item encoding. In Experiment 1a we used a modified spatial cueing task in which 9-month-old infants encoded multiple category exemplars in the contexts of an attention orienting mechanism involving suppression (i.e. inhibition of return, IOR) versus one that does not (i.e. facilitation). At test, infants in the IOR condition showed both item-specific learning and abstraction of broader category information. In contrast, infants in the facilitation condition did not discriminate across novel and familiar test items. Experiment 1b confirmed that the learning observed in the IOR condition was specific to spatial cueing of attention and was not due to timing differences across the IOR and facilitation conditions. In Experiment 2, we replicated the results of Experiment 1, using a within-subjects design to explicitly examine learning and memory encoding in the context of concurrent suppression. These data show that developing inhibitory selective attention enhances efficacy of memory encoding for subsequent retrieval. Furthermore, these results highlight the importance of considering interactions between developing attention and memory systems.

  10. The substrates of memory: defects, treatments, and enhancement.

    PubMed

    Lynch, Gary; Rex, Christopher S; Chen, Lulu Y; Gall, Christine M

    2008-05-06

    Recent work has added strong support to the long-standing hypothesis that the stabilization of both long-term potentiation and memory requires rapid reorganization of the spine actin cytoskeleton. This development has led to new insights into the origins of cognitive disorders, and raised the possibility that a diverse array of memory problems, including those associated with diabetes, reflect disturbances to various components of the same mechanism. In accord with this argument, impairments to long-term potentiation in mouse models of Huntington's disease and in middle-aged rats have both been linked to problems with modulatory factors that control actin polymerization in spine heads. Complementary to the common mechanism hypothesis is the idea of a single treatment for addressing seemingly unrelated memory diseases. First tests of the point were positive: Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF), a potent activator of actin signaling cascades in adult spines, rescued potentiation in Huntington's disease mutant mice, middle-aged rats, and a mouse model of Fragile-X syndrome. A similar reversal of impairments to long-term potentiation was obtained in middle-aged rats by up-regulating BDNF production with brief exposures to ampakines, a class of drugs that positively modulate AMPA-type glutamate receptors. Work now in progress will test if chronic elevation of BDNF enhances memory in normal animals.

  11. Level of Processing Modulates the Neural Correlates of Emotional Memory Formation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ritchey, Maureen; LaBar, Kevin S.; Cabeza, Roberto

    2011-01-01

    Emotion is known to influence multiple aspects of memory formation, including the initial encoding of the memory trace and its consolidation over time. However, the neural mechanisms whereby emotion impacts memory encoding remain largely unexplored. The present study used a levels-of-processing manipulation to characterize the impact of emotion on…

  12. Neurosteroids Involvement in the Epigenetic Control of Memory Formation and Storage

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Memory is our ability to store and remember past experiences; it is the result of changes in neuronal circuits of specific brain areas as the hippocampus. During memory formation, neurons integrate their functions and increase the strength of their connections, so that synaptic plasticity is improved and consolidated. All these processes recruit several proteins at the synapses, whose expression is highly regulated by DNA methylation and histone tails posttranslational modifications. Steroids are known to influence memory process, and, among them, neurosteroids are implicated in neurodegenerative disease related to memory loss and cognitive impairment. The epigenetic control of neurosteroids involvement in memory formation and maintenance could represent the basis for neuroregenerative therapies. PMID:28090360

  13. Hippocampal metaplasticity is required for the formation of temporal associative memories.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jian; Antion, Marcia D; Nomura, Toshihiro; Kraniotis, Stephen; Zhu, Yongling; Contractor, Anis

    2014-12-10

    Metaplasticity regulates the threshold for modification of synaptic strength and is an important regulator of learning rules; however, it is not known whether these cellular mechanisms for homeostatic regulation of synapses contribute to particular forms of learning. Conditional ablation of mGluR5 in CA1 pyramidal neurons resulted in the inability of low-frequency trains of afferent activation to prime synapses for subsequent theta burst potentiation. Priming-induced metaplasticity requires mGluR5-mediated mobilization of endocannabinoids during the priming train to induce long-term depression of inhibition (I-LTD). Mice lacking priming-induced plasticity had no deficit in spatial reference memory tasks, but were impaired in an associative task with a temporal component. Conversely, enhancing endocannabinoid signaling facilitated temporal associative memory acquisition and, after training animals in these tasks, ex vivo I-LTD was partially occluded and theta burst LTP was enhanced. Together, these results suggest a link between metaplasticity mechanisms in the hippocampus and the formation of temporal associative memories.

  14. The Impact of Testing on the Formation of Children's and Adults' False Memories.

    PubMed

    Brackmann, Nathalie; Otgaar, Henry; Sauerland, Melanie; Howe, Mark L

    2016-01-01

    Witnesses are frequently questioned immediately following a crime. The effects of such testing on false recall are inconclusive: Testing may inoculate against subsequent misinformation or enhance false memory formation. We examined whether different types of processing can account for these discrepancies. Drawing from Fuzzy-trace and Associative-activation theories, immediate questions that trigger the processing of the global understanding of the event can heighten false memory rates. However, questions that trigger the processing of specific details can inoculate memories against subsequent misinformation. These effects were hypothesized to be more pronounced in children than in adults. Seven/eight-, 11/12-, 14/15-year-olds, and adults (N = 220) saw a mock-theft film and were tested immediately with meaning or item-specific questions. Test results on the succeeding day replicated classic misinformation and testing effects, although our processing hypothesis was not supported. Only adults who received meaning questions benefited from immediate testing and, across all ages, testing led to retrieval-enhanced suggestibility. © 2016 The Authors. Applied Cognitive Psychology Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Spatial working memory is enhanced in children by differential outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Esteban, Laura; Vivas, Ana B.; Fuentes, Luis J.; Estévez, Angeles F.

    2015-01-01

    Working memory (WM) is essential to academic achievement. Any enhancement of WM abilities may improve children’s school performance. We tested the usefulness of the differential outcomes procedure (DOP) to enhance typically developing children’s performance on a spatial WM task. The DOP involves a conditional discriminative learning task in which a correct choice response to a specific stimulus-stimulus association is reinforced with a particular reinforcer (outcome). We adapted a spatial memory task to be used with the DOP. Participants had to learn and retain in their WM four target locations of eight possible locations where a shape could be presented. Two groups of 5- and 7-year-old children performed the low-attentional version of the spatial task, and an additional group of 7-year-old children performed the high-attentional version. The results showed that compared with the standard non-differential outcomes procedure (NOP), the DOP produced better memory-based performance in 5-year-old children with the low-attentional task and in 7-year-old children with the high-attentional task. Additionally, delay intervals impaired performance in the NOP but not in the DOP. These findings suggest that the DOP may be a useful complement to other WM intervention programs targeted to improve children´s academic performance at school. PMID:26596777

  16. Erythropoietin enhances hippocampal long-term potentiation and memory

    PubMed Central

    Adamcio, Bartosz; Sargin, Derya; Stradomska, Alicja; Medrihan, Lucian; Gertler, Christoph; Theis, Fabian; Zhang, Mingyue; Müller, Michael; Hassouna, Imam; Hannke, Kathrin; Sperling, Swetlana; Radyushkin, Konstantin; El-Kordi, Ahmed; Schulze, Lizzy; Ronnenberg, Anja; Wolf, Fred; Brose, Nils; Rhee, Jeong-Seop; Zhang, Weiqi; Ehrenreich, Hannelore

    2008-01-01

    Background Erythropoietin (EPO) improves cognition of human subjects in the clinical setting by as yet unknown mechanisms. We developed a mouse model of robust cognitive improvement by EPO to obtain the first clues of how EPO influences cognition, and how it may act on hippocampal neurons to modulate plasticity. Results We show here that a 3-week treatment of young mice with EPO enhances long-term potentiation (LTP), a cellular correlate of learning processes in the CA1 region of the hippocampus. This treatment concomitantly alters short-term synaptic plasticity and synaptic transmission, shifting the balance of excitatory and inhibitory activity. These effects are accompanied by an improvement of hippocampus dependent memory, persisting for 3 weeks after termination of EPO injections, and are independent of changes in hematocrit. Networks of EPO-treated primary hippocampal neurons develop lower overall spiking activity but enhanced bursting in discrete neuronal assemblies. At the level of developing single neurons, EPO treatment reduces the typical increase in excitatory synaptic transmission without changing the number of synaptic boutons, consistent with prolonged functional silencing of synapses. Conclusion We conclude that EPO improves hippocampus dependent memory by modulating plasticity, synaptic connectivity and activity of memory-related neuronal networks. These mechanisms of action of EPO have to be further exploited for treating neuropsychiatric diseases. PMID:18782446

  17. CREB SUMOylation by the E3 ligase PIAS1 enhances spatial memory.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yan-Chu; Hsu, Wei-Lun; Ma, Yun-Li; Tai, Derek J C; Lee, Eminy H Y

    2014-07-16

    cAMP-responsive element binding protein (CREB) phosphorylation and signaling plays an important role in long-term memory formation, but other posttranslational modifications of CREB are less known. Here, we found that CREB1Δ, the short isoform of CREB, could be sumoylated by the small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO) E3 ligase protein inhibitor of activated STAT1 (PIAS1) at Lys271 and Lys290 and PIAS1 SUMOylation of CREB1Δ increased the expression level of CREB1Δ. CREB1Δ could also be sumoylated by other PIAS family proteins, but not by the E3 ligases RanBP2 and Pc2 or by the E2 ligase Ubc9. Furthermore, water maze training increased the level of endogenous CREB SUMOylation in rat CA1 neurons determined by in vitro SUMOylation assay, but this effect was not observed in other brain areas. Moreover, transduction of Lenti-CREBWT to rat CA1 area facilitated, whereas transduction of Lenti-CREB double sumo-mutant (CREBK271RK290R) impaired, spatial learning and memory performance. Transduction of Lenti-CREBWT-SUMO1 fusion vector to rat CA1 area showed a more significant effect in enhancing spatial learning and memory and CREB SUMOylation. Lenti-CREBWT transduction increased, whereas Lenti-CREBK271RK290R transduction decreased, CREB DNA binding to the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (bdnf) promoter and decreased bdnf mRNA expression. Knock-down of PIAS1 expression in CA1 area by PIAS1 siRNA transfection impaired spatial learning and memory and decreased endogenous CREB SUMOylation. In addition, CREB SUMOylation was CREB phosphorylation dependent and lasted longer. Therefore, CREB phosphorylation may be responsible for signal transduction during the early phase of long-term memory formation, whereas CREB SUMOylation sustains long-term memory.

  18. Delayed effects of cortisol enhance fear memory of trace conditioning.

    PubMed

    Cornelisse, Sandra; van Ast, Vanessa A; Joëls, Marian; Kindt, Merel

    2014-02-01

    Corticosteroids induce rapid non-genomic effects followed by slower genomic effects that are thought to modulate cognitive function in opposite and complementary ways. It is presently unknown how these time-dependent effects of cortisol affect fear memory of delay and trace conditioning. This distinction is of special interest because the neural substrates underlying these types of conditioning may be differently affected by time-dependent cortisol effects. Delay conditioning is predominantly amygdala-dependent, while trace conditioning additionally requires the hippocampus. Here, we manipulated the timing of cortisol action during acquisition of delay and trace fear conditioning, by randomly assigning 63 men to one of three possible groups: (1) receiving 10mg hydrocortisone 240 min (slow cort) or (2) 60 min (rapid cort) before delay and trace acquisition, or (3) placebo at both times, in a double-blind design. The next day, we tested memory for trace and delay conditioning. Fear potentiated startle responses, skin conductance responses and unconditioned stimulus expectancy scores were measured throughout the experiment. The fear potentiated startle data show that cortisol intake 240 min before actual fear acquisition (slow cort) uniquely strengthened subsequent trace conditioned memory. No effects of cortisol delivery 60 min prior to fear acquisition were found on any measure of fear memory. Our findings emphasize that slow, presumably genomic, but not more rapid effects of corticosteroids enhance hippocampal-dependent fear memories. On a broader level, our findings underline that basic experimental research and clinically relevant pharmacological treatments employing corticosteroids should acknowledge the timing of corticosteroid administration relative to the learning phase, or therapeutic intervention.

  19. Learning to Attend to Threat Accelerates and Enhances Memory Consolidation

    PubMed Central

    Abend, Rany; Karni, Avi; Sadeh, Avi; Fox, Nathan A.; Pine, Daniel S.; Bar-Haim, Yair

    2013-01-01

    Practice on a procedural task involves within-session learning and between-session consolidation of learning, with the latter requiring a minimum of about four hours to evolve due to involvement of slower cellular processes. Learning to attend to threats is vital for survival and thus may involve faster memory consolidation than simple procedural learning. Here, we tested whether attention to threat modulates the time-course and magnitude of learning and memory consolidation effects associated with skill practice. All participants (N = 90) practiced in two sessions on a dot-probe task featuring pairs of neutral and angry faces followed by target probes which were to be discriminated as rapidly as possible. In the attend-threat training condition, targets always appeared at the angry face location, forming an association between threat and target location; target location was unrelated to valence in a control training condition. Within each attention training condition, duration of the between-session rest interval was varied to establish the time-course for emergence of consolidation effects. During the first practice session, we observed robust improvement in task performance (online, within-session gains), followed by saturation of learning. Both training conditions exhibited similar overall learning capacities, but performance in the attend-threat condition was characterized by a faster learning rate relative to control. Consistent with the memory consolidation hypothesis, between-session performance gains (delayed gains) were observed only following a rest interval. However, rest intervals of 1 and 24 hours yielded similar delayed gains, suggesting accelerated consolidation processes. Moreover, attend-threat training resulted in greater delayed gains compared to the control condition. Auxiliary analyses revealed that enhanced performance was retained over several months, and that training to attend to neutral faces resulted in effects similar to control

  20. Contextualization: Memory Formation and Retrieval in a Nested Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piefke, Martina; Markowitsch, Hans J.

    Episodic memory functions are highly context-dependent. This is true for both experimental and autobiographical episodic memory. We here review neuropsychological and neuroimaging evidence for effects of differential encoding and retrieval contexts on episodic memory performance as well as the underlying neurofunctional mechanisms. In studies of laboratory episodic memory, the influence of context parameters can be assessed by experimental manipulations. Such experiments suggest that contextual variables mainly affect prefrontal functions supporting executive processes involved in episodic learning and retrieval. Context parameters affecting episodic autobiographical memory are far more complex and cannot easily be controlled. Data support the view that not only prefrontal, but also further medial temporal and posterior parietal regions mediating the re-experience and emotional evaluation of personal memories are highly influenced by changing contextual variables of memory encoding and retrieval. Based on our review of available data, we thus suggest that experimental and autobiographical episodic memories are influenced by both overlapping and differential context parameters.

  1. Ant workers exhibit specialization and memory during raft formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avril, Amaury; Purcell, Jessica; Chapuisat, Michel

    2016-06-01

    By working together, social insects achieve tasks that are beyond the reach of single individuals. A striking example of collective behaviour is self-assembly, a process in which individuals link their bodies together to form structures such as chains, ladders, walls or rafts. To get insight into how individual behavioural variation affects the formation of self-assemblages, we investigated the presence of task specialization and the role of past experience in the construction of ant rafts. We subjected groups of Formica selysi workers to two consecutive floods and monitored the position of individuals in rafts. Workers showed specialization in their positions when rafting, with the same individuals consistently occupying the top, middle, base or side position in the raft. The presence of brood modified workers' position and raft shape. Surprisingly, workers' experience in the first rafting trial with brood influenced their behaviour and raft shape in the subsequent trial without brood. Overall, this study sheds light on the importance of workers' specialization and memory in the formation of self-assemblages.

  2. Ant workers exhibit specialization and memory during raft formation.

    PubMed

    Avril, Amaury; Purcell, Jessica; Chapuisat, Michel

    2016-06-01

    By working together, social insects achieve tasks that are beyond the reach of single individuals. A striking example of collective behaviour is self-assembly, a process in which individuals link their bodies together to form structures such as chains, ladders, walls or rafts. To get insight into how individual behavioural variation affects the formation of self-assemblages, we investigated the presence of task specialization and the role of past experience in the construction of ant rafts. We subjected groups of Formica selysi workers to two consecutive floods and monitored the position of individuals in rafts. Workers showed specialization in their positions when rafting, with the same individuals consistently occupying the top, middle, base or side position in the raft. The presence of brood modified workers' position and raft shape. Surprisingly, workers' experience in the first rafting trial with brood influenced their behaviour and raft shape in the subsequent trial without brood. Overall, this study sheds light on the importance of workers' specialization and memory in the formation of self-assemblages.

  3. Effects of Sun ginseng on memory enhancement and hippocampal neurogenesis.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chang Hwan; Kim, Jong Min; Kim, Dong Hyun; Park, Se Jin; Liu, Xiaotong; Cai, Mudan; Hong, Jin Gyu; Park, Jeong Hill; Ryu, Jong Hoon

    2013-09-01

    Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer has been used in traditional herb prescriptions for thousands of years. A heat-processing method has been used to increase the efficacy of ginseng, yielding what is known as red ginseng. In addition, recently, a slightly modified heat-processing method was applied to ginseng, to obtain a new type of processed ginseng with increased biological activity; this new form of ginseng is referred to as Sun ginseng (SG). The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of SG on memory enhancement and neurogenesis in the hippocampal dentate gyrus (DG) region. The subchronic administration of SG (for 14 days) significantly increased the latency time in the passive avoidance task relative to the administration of the vehicle control (P < 0.05). Western blotting revealed that the levels of phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinase (pERK) and phosphorylated protein kinase B (pAkt) were significantly increased in hippocampal tissue after 14 days of SG administration (P < 0.05). Doublecortin and 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine immunostaining revealed that SG significantly enhanced the neuronal cell proliferation and the survival of immature neurons in the subgranular zone of the hippocampal DG region. These results suggest that SG has memory-enhancing activities and that these effects are mediated, in part, by the increase in the levels of pERK and pAkt and by the increases in cell proliferation and cell survival.

  4. Neuropeptide S enhances memory and mitigates memory impairment induced by MK801, scopolamine or Aβ₁₋₄₂ in mice novel object and object location recognition tasks.

    PubMed

    Han, Ren-Wen; Zhang, Rui-San; Xu, Hong-Jiao; Chang, Min; Peng, Ya-Li; Wang, Rui

    2013-07-01

    Neuropeptide S (NPS), the endogenous ligand of NPSR, has been shown to promote arousal and anxiolytic-like effects. According to the predominant distribution of NPSR in brain tissues associated with learning and memory, NPS has been reported to modulate cognitive function in rodents. Here, we investigated the role of NPS in memory formation, and determined whether NPS could mitigate memory impairment induced by selective N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonist MK801, muscarinic cholinergic receptor antagonist scopolamine or Aβ₁₋₄₂ in mice, using novel object and object location recognition tasks. Intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) injection of 1 nmol NPS 5 min after training not only facilitated object recognition memory formation, but also prolonged memory retention in both tasks. The improvement of object recognition memory induced by NPS could be blocked by the selective NPSR antagonist SHA 68, indicating pharmacological specificity. Then, we found that i.c.v. injection of NPS reversed memory disruption induced by MK801, scopolamine or Aβ₁₋₄₂ in both tasks. In summary, our results indicate that NPS facilitates memory formation and prolongs the retention of memory through activation of the NPSR, and mitigates amnesia induced by blockage of glutamatergic or cholinergic system or by Aβ₁₋₄₂, suggesting that NPS/NPSR system may be a new target for enhancing memory and treating amnesia.

  5. Thalamic theta phase alignment predicts human memory formation and anterior thalamic cross-frequency coupling.

    PubMed

    Sweeney-Reed, Catherine M; Zaehle, Tino; Voges, Jürgen; Schmitt, Friedhelm C; Buentjen, Lars; Kopitzki, Klaus; Hinrichs, Hermann; Heinze, Hans-Jochen; Rugg, Michael D; Knight, Robert T; Richardson-Klavehn, Alan

    2015-05-20

    Previously we reported electrophysiological evidence for a role for the anterior thalamic nucleus (ATN) in human memory formation (Sweeney-Reed et al., 2014). Theta-gamma cross-frequency coupling (CFC) predicted successful memory formation, with the involvement of gamma oscillations suggesting memory-relevant local processing in the ATN. The importance of the theta frequency range in memory processing is well-established, and phase alignment of oscillations is considered to be necessary for synaptic plasticity. We hypothesized that theta phase alignment in the ATN would be necessary for memory encoding. Further analysis of the electrophysiological data reveal that phase alignment in the theta rhythm was greater during successful compared with unsuccessful encoding, and that this alignment was correlated with the CFC. These findings support an active processing role for the ATN during memory formation.

  6. A new method to enhance rhizosheath formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmadi, katayoun; Zarebanadkouki, Mohsen; Kuzyakov, Yakov; Carminati, Andrea

    2016-04-01

    The rhizosheath is defined as the soil that adheres to the roots by help of root hairs and mucilage. Rhizosheath maintain the contact between roots and soil improving water and nutrient uptake. Here we introduce: (1) a technique to quantify the formation of rhizosheath around the roots, and (2) a method to enhance the formation of rhizosheath around the roots. Additionally, we measured the relation between rhizosheath thickness and the carbon content and enzyme activities in the rhizosphere. We grew lupine plants in aluminum containers (28×30×1 cm) filled with a sandy soil. When plants were two weeks-old and the soil had a water content of 30%, we stopped the irrigation and let the plants to uptake water to a soil water content of 4-5%. Thereafter, half of the plants (4 plants) were irrigated with water and the other half with water with an additive (international patent is pending). We repeated the drying and rewetting cycle three times. At the end of the third drying cycle, when plants were 40 days old and soil had a water content of 4-5%,the containers were opened and roots and their surrounding soils were gently collected. We used imaging to quantify the rhizosheath formation. The method consists of scanning the roots and the surrounding soil using the Winrhizo software. By image analysis we quantified the thickness of roots and their rhizosheath. The plants irrigated with the additive had 63% thicker rhizopsheath than plants irrigated with water. So, the additive enhanced gelation of mucilage exuded by the roots. Carbon content and enzyme activity in the collected rhizosheath showed that the rhizosheath of plants irrigated with the additive had higher carbon content and enzyme activity than the rhizopsheath of plants irrigated with water. The new method to increase rhizosheath has the great advantage that can be easily applied to the irrigation water to improve plant uptake of water and nutrients in semiarid and arid areas.

  7. The roles of Eph receptors in contextual fear conditioning memory formation.

    PubMed

    Dines, Monica; Grinberg, Svetlana; Vassiliev, Maria; Ram, Alon; Tamir, Tal; Lamprecht, Raphael

    2015-10-01

    Eph receptors regulate glutamate receptors functions, neuronal morphology and synaptic plasticity, cellular events believed to be involved in memory formation. In this study we aim to explore the roles of Eph receptors in learning and memory. Toward that end, we examined the roles of EphB2 and EphA4 receptors, key regulators of synaptic functions, in fear conditioning memory formation. We show that mice lacking EphB2 (EphB2(-/-)) are impaired in short- and long-term contextual fear conditioning memory. Mice that express a carboxy-terminally truncated form of EphB2 that lacks forward signaling, instead of the full EphB2, are impaired in long-term, but not short-term, contextual fear conditioning memory. Long-term contextual fear conditioning memory is attenuated in CaMKII-cre;EphA4(lx/-) mice where EphA4 is removed from all pyramidal neurons of the forebrain. Mutant mice with targeted kinase-dead EphA4 (EphA4(KD)) exhibit intact long-term contextual fear conditioning memory showing that EphA4 kinase-mediated forward signaling is not needed for contextual fear memory formation. The ability to form long-term conditioned taste aversion (CTA) memory is not impaired in the EphB2(-/-) and CaMKII-cre;EphA4(lx/-) mice. We conclude that EphB2 forward signaling is required for long-term contextual fear conditioning memory formation. In contrast, EphB2 mediates short-term contextual fear conditioning memory formation in a forward signaling-independent manner. EphA4 mediates long-term contextual fear conditioning memory formation in a kinase-independent manner.

  8. Early and late stages of working-memory maintenance contribute differentially to long-term memory formation.

    PubMed

    Bergmann, Heiko C; Kiemeneij, Anne; Fernández, Guillén; Kessels, Roy P C

    2013-06-01

    The present paper investigated the role of early and late stages of working-memory maintenance, which have been suggested to differentially contribute to long-term memory formation. In experiment 1, we administered a delayed-match-to-sample task, requiring participants to remember line drawings of non-sense three-dimensional stimuli. In the delay phase, participants were either presented with a fixation cross (for 2 or 9s) or with one of two different interference tasks, varying in visual overlap with the target. The interference task was presented 1.5, 4.5 or 7.5s after target offset. Early interfering and early probing disproportionately affected performance on an unexpected subsequent recognition-memory task compared to later interference or probing. This was not modulated by the type of interference task. In Experiment 2, we examined whether the formation of a holistic internal code of the target may be a gradual process. An analogous delayed-match-to-sample task was administered, with interference after 0.5, 2.5 or 4.5s after target offset. The early and middle interference condition similarly disproportionately affected performance compared to later interference. Hence, the present results support the view of a functional dissociation between early and late stages of working-memory maintenance and that early working-memory processes contribute particularly to long-term memory formation.

  9. Genes and signaling pathways involved in memory enhancement in mutant mice

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Mutant mice have been used successfully as a tool for investigating the mechanisms of memory at multiple levels, from genes to behavior. In most cases, manipulating a gene expressed in the brain impairs cognitive functions such as memory and their underlying cellular mechanisms, including synaptic plasticity. However, a remarkable number of mutations have been shown to enhance memory in mice. Understanding how to improve a system provides valuable insights into how the system works under normal conditions, because this involves understanding what the crucial components are. Therefore, more can be learned about the basic mechanisms of memory by studying mutant mice with enhanced memory. This review will summarize the genes and signaling pathways that are altered in the mutants with enhanced memory, as well as their roles in synaptic plasticity. Finally, I will discuss how knowledge of memory-enhancing mechanisms could be used to develop treatments for cognitive disorders associated with impaired plasticity. PMID:24894914

  10. Genes and signaling pathways involved in memory enhancement in mutant mice.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yong-Seok

    2014-06-04

    Mutant mice have been used successfully as a tool for investigating the mechanisms of memory at multiple levels, from genes to behavior. In most cases, manipulating a gene expressed in the brain impairs cognitive functions such as memory and their underlying cellular mechanisms, including synaptic plasticity. However, a remarkable number of mutations have been shown to enhance memory in mice. Understanding how to improve a system provides valuable insights into how the system works under normal conditions, because this involves understanding what the crucial components are. Therefore, more can be learned about the basic mechanisms of memory by studying mutant mice with enhanced memory. This review will summarize the genes and signaling pathways that are altered in the mutants with enhanced memory, as well as their roles in synaptic plasticity. Finally, I will discuss how knowledge of memory-enhancing mechanisms could be used to develop treatments for cognitive disorders associated with impaired plasticity.

  11. The retrosplenial cortex is involved in the formation of memory for context and trace fear conditioning.

    PubMed

    Kwapis, Janine L; Jarome, Timothy J; Lee, Jonathan L; Helmstetter, Fred J

    2015-09-01

    The retrosplenial cortex (RSC) is known to play a role in the retrieval of context memory, but its involvement in memory formation and consolidation is unclear. To better characterize the role of the RSC, we tested its involvement in the formation and retrieval of memory for trace fear conditioning, a task that requires the association of two cues separated by an empty period of time. We have previously shown that trace fear extinction requires the RSC (Kwapis, Jarome, Lee, Gilmartin, & Helmstetter, 2014) and have hypothesized that trace memory may be stored in a distributed cortical network that includes prelimbic and retrosplenial cortices (Kwapis, Jarome, & Helmstetter, 2015). Whether the RSC participates in acquiring and storing cued trace fear, however, is currently unknown. Here, we demonstrate that blocking protein synthesis in the RSC before, but not after acquisition impairs rats' memory for trace CS and context fear without affecting memory for the CS in standard delay fear conditioning. We also show that NMDA receptor blockade in the RSC transiently impairs memory retrieval for trace, but not delay memory. The RSC therefore appears to critically contribute to formation of trace and context fear memory in addition to its previously recognized role in context memory retrieval.

  12. Effect of gestational ethanol exposure on long-term memory formation in newborn chicks.

    PubMed

    Rao, Venugopal; Chaudhuri, Joydeep D

    2007-09-01

    Fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS), a condition occurring in some children of mothers who have consumed alcohol during pregnancy, is characterized by craniofacial malformations, and physical and mental retardation. It is significant that even children with history of gestational ethanol exposure but relatively unaffected overall IQ performance, often exhibit learning difficulties and behavioral problems, suggestive of impaired memory formation. Hence, the specific aim of this study was to examine memory formation in chicks exposed to ethanol during early gestation toward the understanding of neurobehavioral disturbances in FAS. Chicks were exposed to alcohol on gestational days 1-3 by injection of ethanol into the airspace of freshly fertilized eggs. The effects of prenatal ethanol on physical growth and development, and memory formation were studied. The one-trial passive avoidance learning paradigm in 1-day-old chicks was used to study memory formation in these chicks. It was observed that chick embryos exposed to 10% ethanol on gestational days 1-3 had significant reduction in all body parameters when compared with appropriate controls. Further, ethanol-exposed chick embryos had significantly impaired (P<.05) long-term memory (LTM) formation after training, though short-term or intermediate-term memory formation was unimpaired. Thus, the findings of the current study demonstrate the detrimental effects of ethanol exposure during early pregnancy on developing chick embryos in general and on memory formation in particular. Hence, it is suggested that impairment in LTM could be a fundamental mechanism for learning disorders and neurobehavioral abnormalities observed in FAS.

  13. The interaction of working memory performance and episodic memory formation in patients with Korsakoff's amnesia.

    PubMed

    van Geldorp, Bonnie; Bergmann, Heiko C; Robertson, Johanna; Wester, Arie J; Kessels, Roy P C

    2012-01-18

    Both neuroimaging work and studies investigating amnesic patients have shown involvement of the medial temporal lobe during working memory tasks, especially when multiple items or features have to be associated. However, so far no study has examined the relationship between working memory and subsequent episodic memory in patients using similar tasks. In this study, we compared patients with amnesia due to Korsakoff's syndrome (n=19) with healthy controls (n=18) on an associative working memory task followed by an unexpected subsequent episodic memory task. The computerized working memory task required participants to maintain two pairs of faces and houses for either short (3s) or long (6s) delays. Approximately 5 minutes after completion of the working memory task, an unexpected subsequent recognition task with a two-alternative forced choice paradigm was administered. By directly comparing working memory and subsequent episodic memory, we were able to examine long-term encoding processes that may take place after longer delays. As expected, patients performed at chance level on the episodic memory task. Interestingly, patients also showed significantly impaired working memory performance (p<.01), even at short delays. Longer delays did not result in better subsequent memory, indicating that they do not facilitate long-term encoding processes. Our results are discussed in relation to Baddeley's working memory model as the episodic buffer is assumed to be a short-term store for maintaining bound representations. In light of these results, the long-standing view that working memory and long-term memory are strictly dissociated may need to be revisited.

  14. Role of the hippocampus in memory formation: restorative encoding memory integration neural device as a cognitive neural prosthesis.

    PubMed

    Berger, Theodore; Song, Dong; Chan, Rosa; Shin, Dae; Marmarelis, Vasilis; Hampson, Robert; Sweatt, Andrew; Heck, Christi; Liu, Charles; Wills, Jack; Lacoss, Jeff; Granacki, John; Gerhardt, Greg; Deadwyler, Sam

    2012-01-01

    Remind, which stands for "restorative encoding memory integration neural device," is a Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA)-sponsored program to construct the first-ever cognitive prosthesis to replace lost memory function and enhance the existing memory capacity in animals and, ultimately, in humans. Reaching this goal involves understanding something fundamental about the brain that has not been understood previously: how the brain internally codes memories. In developing a hippocampal prosthesis for the rat, we have been able to demonstrate a multiple-input, multiple- output (MIMO) nonlinear model that predicts in real time the spatiotemporal codes for specific memories required for correct performance on a standard learning/memory task, i.e., delayed-nonmatch-to-sample (DNMS) memory. The MIMO model has been tested successfully in a number of contexts; most notably, in animals with a pharmacologically disabled hippocampus, we were able to reinstate long-term memories necessary for correct DNMS behavior by substituting a MIMO model-predicted code, delivered by electrical stimulation to the hippocampus through an array of electrodes, resulting in spatiotemporal hippocampal activity that is normally generated endogenously. We also have shown that delivering the same model-predicted code to electrode-implanted control animals with a normally functioning hippocampus substantially enhances animals memory capacity above control levels. These results in rodents have formed the basis for extending the MIMO model to nonhuman primates; this is now underway as the last step of the REMIND program before developing a MIMO-based cognitive prosthesis for humans.

  15. Dissociation between complete hippocampal context memory formation and context fear acquisition

    PubMed Central

    Leake, Jessica; Zinn, Raphael; Corbit, Laura; Vissel, Bryce

    2017-01-01

    Rodents require a minimal time period to explore a context prior to footshock to display plateau-level context fear at test. To investigate whether this rapid fear plateau reflects complete memory formation within that short time-frame, we used the immediate-early gene product Arc as an indicator of hippocampal context memory formation-related activity. We found that hippocampal Arc expression continued to increase well past the minimal time required for plateau-level fear. This raises the possibility that context fear conditioning occurs more rapidly than complete memory formation. Thus, animals may be able to condition robustly to both complete and incomplete contextual representations. PMID:28298553

  16. Enhancement of memory consolidation by the histone deacetylase inhibitor sodium butyrate in aged rats.

    PubMed

    Blank, Martina; Werenicz, Aline; Velho, Luciana Azevedo; Pinto, Diana F; Fedi, Ana Cláudia; Lopes, Mark William; Peres, Tanara Vieira; Leal, Rodrigo Bainy; Dornelles, Arethuza S; Roesler, Rafael

    2015-05-06

    Here we show that a systemic injection of the histone deacetylase inhibitor (HDACi) sodium butyrate (NaB) immediately after training in a step-down inhibitory avoidance task produced an enhancement of memory consolidation that persisted across consecutive retention tests during 14 days in aged rats, while it did not significantly affect memory in young adults. Control aged and young adult rats showed comparable basal levels of memory retention. Our results suggest that HDACis can display memory-enhancing effects specific for aged animals, even in the absence of age-related memory impairment.

  17. Role of Drosophila Amyloid Precursor Protein in Memory Formation

    PubMed Central

    Preat, Thomas; Goguel, Valérie

    2016-01-01

    The amyloid precursor protein (APP) is a membrane protein engaged in complex proteolytic pathways. APP and its derivatives have been shown to play a central role in Alzheimer’s disease (AD), a progressive neurodegenerative disease characterized by memory decline. Despite a huge effort from the research community, the primary cause of AD remains unclear, making it crucial to better understand the physiological role of the APP pathway in brain plasticity and memory. Drosophila melanogaster is a model system well-suited to address this issue. Although relatively simple, the fly brain is highly organized, sustains several forms of learning and memory, and drives numerous complex behaviors. Importantly, molecules and mechanisms underlying memory processes are conserved from flies to mammals. The fly encodes a single non-essential APP homolog named APP-Like (APPL). Using in vivo inducible RNA interference strategies, it was shown that APPL knockdown in the mushroom bodies (MB)—the central integrative brain structure for olfactory memory—results in loss of memory. Several APPL derivatives, such as secreted and full-length membrane APPL, may play different roles in distinct types of memory phases. Furthermore, overexpression of Drosophila amyloid peptide exacerbates the memory deficit caused by APPL knockdown, thus potentiating memory decline. Data obtained in the fly support the hypothesis that APP acts as a transmembrane receptor, and that disruption of its normal function may contribute to cognitive impairment during early AD. PMID:28008309

  18. Revisiting propranolol and PTSD: Memory erasure or extinction enhancement?

    PubMed

    Giustino, Thomas F; Fitzgerald, Paul J; Maren, Stephen

    2016-04-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) has been described as the only neuropsychiatric disorder with a known cause, yet effective behavioral and pharmacotherapies remain elusive for many afflicted individuals. PTSD is characterized by heightened noradrenergic signaling, as well as a resistance to extinction learning. Research aimed at promoting more effective treatment of PTSD has focused on memory erasure (disrupting reconsolidation) and/or enhancing extinction retention through pharmacological manipulations. Propranolol, a β-adrenoceptor antagonist, has received considerable attention for its therapeutic potential in PTSD, although its impact on patients is not always effective. In this review, we briefly examine the consequences of β-noradrenergic manipulations on both reconsolidation and extinction learning in rodents and in humans. We suggest that propranolol is effective as a fear-reducing agent when paired with behavioral therapy soon after trauma when psychological stress is high, possibly preventing or dampening the later development of PTSD. In individuals who have already suffered from PTSD for a significant period of time, propranolol may be less effective at disrupting reconsolidation of strong fear memories. Also, when PTSD has already developed, chronic treatment with propranolol may be more effective than acute intervention, given that individuals with PTSD tend to experience long-term, elevated noradrenergic hyperarousal.

  19. Enhanced memory performance thanks to neural network assortativity

    SciTech Connect

    Franciscis, S. de; Johnson, S.; Torres, J. J.

    2011-03-24

    The behaviour of many complex dynamical systems has been found to depend crucially on the structure of the underlying networks of interactions. An intriguing feature of empirical networks is their assortativity--i.e., the extent to which the degrees of neighbouring nodes are correlated. However, until very recently it was difficult to take this property into account analytically, most work being exclusively numerical. We get round this problem by considering ensembles of equally correlated graphs and apply this novel technique to the case of attractor neural networks. Assortativity turns out to be a key feature for memory performance in these systems - so much so that for sufficiently correlated topologies the critical temperature diverges. We predict that artificial and biological neural systems could significantly enhance their robustness to noise by developing positive correlations.

  20. Processes Underlying Developmental Reversals in False-Memory Formation: Comment on Brainerd, Reyna, and Ceci (2008)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ghetti, Simona

    2008-01-01

    C. J. Brainerd, V. F. Reyna, and S. J. Ceci (2008) reviewed compelling evidence of developmental reversals in false-memory formation (i.e., younger children exhibit lower false-memory rates than do older children and adults) and proposed that this phenomenon depends on the development of gist processing (i.e., the ability to identify and process…

  1. Activation of Midbrain Structures by Associative Novelty and the Formation of Explicit Memory in Humans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schott, Bjorn H.; Sellner, Daniela B.; Lauer, Corinna-J.; Habib, Reza; Frey, Julietta U.; Guderian, Sebastian; Heinze, Hans-Jochen; Duzel, Emrah

    2004-01-01

    Recent evidence suggests a close functional relationship between memory formation in the hippocampus and dopaminergic neuromodulation originating in the ventral tegmental area and medial substantia nigra of the midbrain. Here we report midbrain activation in two functional MRI studies of visual memory in healthy young adults. In the first study,…

  2. Enhancement of Memories by Systemic Administration of Insulin-Like Growth Factor II

    PubMed Central

    Stern, Sarah A; Kohtz, Amy S; Pollonini, Gabriella; Alberini, Cristina M

    2014-01-01

    To treat cognitive disorders in humans, new effective therapies that can be easily delivered systemically are needed. Previous studies showed that a bilateral injection of insulin-like growth factor II (IGF-II) into the dorsal hippocampus of rats or mice enhances fear memories and facilitates fear extinction. Here, we report that, in mice, systemic treatments with IGF-II given before training significantly enhance the retention and persistence of several types of working, short-term and long-term memories, including fear conditioning, object recognition, object placement, social recognition, and spatial reference memory. IGF-II-mediated memory enhancement does not alter memory flexibility or the ability for new learning and also occurs when IGF-II treatment is given in concert with memory retrieval. Thus IGF-II may represent a potentially important and effective treatment for enhancing human cognitive and executive functions. PMID:24642597

  3. Time of day influences memory formation and dCREB2 proteins in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Fropf, Robin; Zhang, Jiabin; Tanenhaus, Anne K.; Fropf, Whitney J.; Siefkes, Ellen; Yin, Jerry C. P.

    2014-01-01

    Many biological phenomena oscillate under the control of the circadian system, exhibiting peaks and troughs of activity across the day/night cycle. In most animal models, memory formation also exhibits this property, but the underlying neuronal and molecular mechanisms remain unclear. The dCREB2 transcription factor shows circadian regulated oscillations in its activity, and has been shown to be important for both circadian biology and memory formation. We show that the time-of-day (TOD) of behavioral training affects Drosophila memory formation. dCREB2 exhibits complex changes in protein levels across the daytime and nighttime, and these changes in protein abundance are likely to contribute to oscillations in dCREB2 activity and TOD effects on memory formation. PMID:24744705

  4. Nickel nanocrystal formation on HfO2 dielectric for nonvolatile memory device applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jong Jin; Harada, Yoshinao; Pyun, Jung Woo; Kwong, Dim-Lee

    2005-03-01

    This letter presents the formation of nickel nanocrystal on HfO2 high-k dielectric and its application to the nonvolatile memory devices. The effects of the initial nickel layer thickness and annealing temperature on nickel nanocrystal formation are investigated. The n-metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor with nickel nanocrystals and HfO2 tunneling dielectrics is fabricated and its programming, data retention, and endurance properties are characterized to demonstrate its advantages for nonvolatile memory device applications.

  5. Altered Protein Synthesis is a Trigger for Long-term Memory Formation

    PubMed Central

    Klann, Eric; Sweatt, J. David

    2008-01-01

    Summary There is ongoing debate concerning whether new protein synthesis is necessary for, or even contributes to, memory formation and storage. This review summarizes a contemporary model proposing a role for altered protein synthesis in memory formation and its subsequent stabilization. One defining aspect of the model is that altered protein synthesis serves as a trigger for memory consolidation. Thus, we propose that specific alterations in the pattern of neuronal protein translation serve as an initial event in long-term memory formation. These specific alterations in protein read-out result in the formation of a protein complex that then serves as a nidus for subsequent perpetuating reinforcement by a positive feedback mechanism. The model proposes this scenario as a minimal but requisite component for long-term memory formation. Our description specifies three aspects of prevailing scenarios for the role of altered protein synthesis in memory that we feel will help clarify what, precisely, is typically proposed as the role for protein translation in memory formation. First, that a relatively short initial time window exists wherein specific alterations in the pattern of proteins translated (not overall protein synthesis) is involved in initializing the engram. Second, that a self-perpetuating positive feedback mechanism maintains the altered pattern of protein expression (synthesis or recruitment) locally. Third, that other than the formation and subsequent perpetuation of the unique initializing proteins, ongoing constitutive protein synthesis is all that is minimally necessary for formation and maintenance of the engram. We feel that a clear delineation of these three principles will assist in interpreting the available experimental data, and propose that the available data are consistent with a role for protein synthesis in memory. PMID:17919940

  6. Autoradiographic study of serotonin transporter during memory formation.

    PubMed

    Tellez, Ruth; Rocha, Luisa; Castillo, Carlos; Meneses, Alfredo

    2010-09-01

    Serotonin transporter (SERT) has been associated with drugs of abuse like d-methamphetamine (METH). METH is well known to produce effects on the monoamine systems but it is unclear how METH affects SERT and memory. Here the effects of METH and the serotonin reuptake inhibitor fluoxetine (FLX) on autoshaping and novel object recognition (NOR) were investigated. Notably, both memory tasks recruit different behavioral, neural and cognitive demand. In autoshaping task a dose-response curve for METH was determined. METH (1.0mg/kg) impaired short-term memory (STM; lasting less of 90min) in NOR and impaired both STM and long-term memory (LTM; lasting 24 and 48h) in autoshaping, indicating that METH had long-lasting effects in the latter task. A comparative autoradiography study of the relationship between the binding pattern of SERT in autoshaping new untrained vs. trained treated (METH, FLX, or both) animals was made. Considering that hemispheric dominance is important for LTM, hence right vs. left hemisphere of the brain was compared. Results showed that trained animals decreased cortical SERT binding relative to untrained ones. In untrained and trained treated animals with the amnesic dose (1.0mg/kg) of METH SERT binding in several areas including hippocampus and cortex decreased, more remarkably in the trained animals. In contrast, FLX improved memory, increased SERT binding, prevented the METH amnesic effect and re-established the SERT binding. In general, memory and amnesia seemed to make SERT more vulnerable to drugs effects.

  7. Effects of lentivirus-mediated CREB expression in the dorsolateral striatum: memory enhancement and evidence for competitive and cooperative interactions with the hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Kathirvelu, Balachandar; Colombo, Paul J

    2013-11-01

    Neural systems specialized for memory may interact during memory formation or recall, and the results of interactions are important determinants of how systems control behavioral output. In two experiments, we used lentivirus-mediated expression of the transcription factor CREB (LV-CREB) to test if localized manipulations of cellular plasticity influence interactions between the hippocampus and dorsolateral striatum. In Experiment 1, we tested the hypothesis that infusion of LV-CREB in the dorsolateral striatum facilitates memory for response learning, and impairs memory for place learning. LV-CREB in the dorsolateral striatum had no effect on response learning, but impaired place memory; a finding consistent with competition between the striatum and hippocampus. In Experiment 2, we tested the hypothesis that infusion of LV-CREB in the dorsolateral striatum facilitates memory for cue learning, and impairs memory for contextual fear conditioning. LV-CREB in the dorsolateral striatum enhanced memory for cue learning and, in contrast to our prediction, also enhanced memory for contextual fear conditioning, consistent with a cooperative interaction between the striatum and hippocampus. Overall, the current experiments demonstrate that infusion of LV-CREB in the dorsolateral striatum (1) increases levels of CREB protein locally, (2) does not alter acquisition of place, response, cue, or contextual fear conditioning, (3) facilitates memory for cue learning and contextual fear conditioning, and (4) impairs memory for place learning. Taken together, the present results provide evidence that LV-CREB in the dorsolateral striatum can enhance memory formation and cause both competitive and cooperative interactions with the hippocampus.

  8. Implications of psychosocial stress on memory formation in a typical male versus female student sample.

    PubMed

    Cornelisse, Sandra; van Stegeren, Anda H; Joëls, Marian

    2011-05-01

    Stress is known to differentially modulate memory function. Memory can be impaired or strengthened by stress, depending on e.g. the memory type and phase under study, the emotional value of the learned information and the sex of the subjects. Here, we addressed the latter and investigated the impact of psychosocial stress on long-term memory for neutral and emotional pictures and working memory in typical samples of male versus female students. In total, 77 subjects (54 women of which 39 used oral contraceptives) were exposed to either the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) or a control condition, and then engaged in a long-term memory task (emotionally arousing and neutral pictures; surprise recall after one week) and a working memory (n-back) task. During the experiment salivary cortisol and alpha-amylase levels as well as subjective affect state were assessed. As expected, stress hormone concentrations as well as subjective negative affect states increased significantly in response to the stress task. Men reacted more to the stressor in terms of cortisol responses than women, probably due to oral contraceptive use of the latter. Results show that, in male as well as in female students, memory for emotional arousing information was better than for neutral information, in both the stress and control condition. Stress enhanced recognition memory for emotional versus neutral pictures only in male subjects. Moreover, stress enhanced working memory, particularly in males, during the first block of a 2-back task. The lack of stress effects on memory in women might be explained by oral contraceptive use, leading to blunted HPA-axis responses and secondary to reduced stress effects on memory. The results emphasize that stress affects both long-term and working memory differentially in male versus female students.

  9. Arp2/3 and VASP Are Essential for Fear Memory Formation in Lateral Amygdala

    PubMed Central

    Kustanovich, Irina

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The actin cytoskeleton is involved in key neuronal functions such as synaptic transmission and morphogenesis. However, the roles and regulation of actin cytoskeleton in memory formation remain to be clarified. In this study, we unveil the mechanism whereby actin cytoskeleton is regulated to form memory by exploring the roles of the major actin-regulatory proteins Arp2/3, VASP, and formins in long-term memory formation. Inhibition of Arp2/3, involved in actin filament branching and neuronal morphogenesis, in lateral amygdala (LA) with the specific inhibitor CK-666 during fear conditioning impaired long-term, but not short-term, fear memory. The inactive isomer CK-689 had no effect on memory formation. We observed that Arp2/3 is colocalized with the actin-regulatory protein profilin in LA neurons of fear-conditioned rats. VASP binding to profilin is needed for profilin-mediated stabilization of actin cytoskeleton and dendritic spine morphology. Microinjection of poly-proline peptide [G(GP5)3] into LA, to interfere with VASP binding to profilin, impaired long-term but not short-term fear memory formation. Control peptide [G(GA5)3] had no effect. Inhibiting formins, which regulate linear actin elongation, in LA during fear conditioning by microinjecting the formin-specific inhibitor SMIFH2 into LA had no effect on long-term fear memory formation. We conclude that Arp2/3 and VASP, through the profilin binding site, are essential for the formation of long-term fear memory in LA and propose a model whereby these proteins subserve cellular events, leading to memory consolidation. PMID:27957528

  10. Hippocampal neurogenesis enhancers promote forgetting of remote fear memory after hippocampal reactivation by retrieval.

    PubMed

    Ishikawa, Rie; Fukushima, Hotaka; Frankland, Paul W; Kida, Satoshi

    2016-09-26

    Forgetting of recent fear memory is promoted by treatment with memantine (MEM), which increases hippocampal neurogenesis. The approaches for treatment of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) using rodent models have focused on the extinction and reconsolidation of recent, but not remote, memories. Here we show that, following prolonged re-exposure to the conditioning context, enhancers of hippocampal neurogenesis, including MEM, promote forgetting of remote contextual fear memory. However, these interventions are ineffective following shorter re-exposures. Importantly, we find that long, but not short re-exposures activate gene expression in the hippocampus and induce hippocampus-dependent reconsolidation of remote contextual fear memory. Furthermore, remote memory retrieval becomes hippocampus-dependent after the long-time recall, suggesting that remote fear memory returns to a hippocampus dependent state after the long-time recall, thereby allowing enhanced forgetting by increased hippocampal neurogenesis. Forgetting of traumatic memory may contribute to the development of PTSD treatment.

  11. Remembering the snake in the grass: Threat enhances recognition but not source memory.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Miriam Magdalena; Bell, Raoul; Buchner, Axel

    2015-12-01

    Research on the influence of emotion on source memory has yielded inconsistent findings. The object-based framework (Mather, 2007) predicts that negatively arousing stimuli attract attention, resulting in enhanced within-object binding, and, thereby, enhanced source memory for intrinsic context features of emotional stimuli. To test this prediction, we presented pictures of threatening and harmless animals, the color of which had been experimentally manipulated. In a memory test, old-new recognition for the animals and source memory for their color was assessed. In all 3 experiments, old-new recognition was better for the more threatening material, which supports previous reports of an emotional memory enhancement. This recognition advantage was due to the emotional properties of the stimulus material, and not specific for snake stimuli. However, inconsistent with the prediction of the object-based framework, intrinsic source memory was not affected by emotion.

  12. The AKAP Yu is required for olfactory long-term memory formation in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yubing; Lu, Yi-Sheng; Shuai, Yichun; Feng, Chunhua; Tully, Tim; Xie, Zuoping; Zhong, Yi; Zhou, Hai-Meng

    2007-08-21

    Extensive neurogenetic analysis has shown that memory formation depends critically on cAMP-protein kinase A (PKA) signaling. Details of how this pathway is involved in memory formation, however, remain to be fully elucidated. From a large-scale behavioral screen in Drosophila, we identified the yu mutant to be defective in one-day memory after spaced training. The yu mutation disrupts a gene encoding an A-kinase anchoring protein (AKAP). AKAPs comprise a family of proteins, which determine the subcellular localization of PKAs and thereby critically restrict cAMP signaling within a cell. Further behavioral characterizations revealed that long-term memory (LTM) was disrupted specifically in the yu mutant, whereas learning, short-term memory and anesthesia-resistant memory all appeared normal. Another independently isolated mutation of the yu gene failed to complement the LTM defect associated with the yu mutation, and this phenotypic defect could be rescued by induced acute expression of a yu(+) transgene, suggesting that yu functions physiologically during memory formation. AKAP Yu is expressed preferentially in the mushroom body (MB) neuroanatomical structure, and expression of a yu(+) transgene to the MB, but not to other brain regions, is sufficient to rescue the LTM defect of the yu mutant. These observations lead us to conclude that proper localization of PKA by Yu AKAP in MB neurons is required for the formation of LTM.

  13. Semantic processes leading to true and false memory formation in schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Paz-Alonso, Pedro M.; Ghetti, Simona; Ramsay, Ian; Solomon, Marjorie; Yoon, Jong; Carter, Cameron S.; Ragland, J. Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Encoding semantic relationships between items on word lists (semantic processing) enhances true memories, but also increases memory distortions. Episodic memory impairments in schizophrenia (SZ) are strongly driven by failures to process semantic relations, but the exact nature of these relational semantic processing deficits are not well understood. Here, we used a false memory paradigm to investigate the impact of implicit and explicit semantic processing manipulations on episodic memory in SZ. Thirty SZ and 30 demographically matched healthy controls (HC) studied Deese/Roediger-McDermott (DRM) lists of semantically associated words. Half of the lists had strong implicit semantic associations and the remainder had low strength associations. Similarly, half of the lists were presented under “standard” instructions and the other half under explicit “relational processing” instructions. After study, participants performed recall and old/new recognition tests composed of targets, critical lures, and unrelated lures. HC exhibited higher true memories and better discriminability between true and false memory compared to SZ. High, versus low, associative strength increased false memory rates in both groups. However, explicit “relational processing” instructions positively improved true memory rates only in HC. Finally, true and false memory rates were associated with severity of disorganized and negative symptoms in SZ. These results suggest that reduced processing of semantic relationships during encoding in SZ may stem from an inability to implement explicit relational processing strategies rather than a fundamental deficit in the implicit activation and retrieval of word meanings from patients’ semantic lexicon. PMID:23623175

  14. Semantic processes leading to true and false memory formation in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Paz-Alonso, Pedro M; Ghetti, Simona; Ramsay, Ian; Solomon, Marjorie; Yoon, Jong; Carter, Cameron S; Ragland, J Daniel

    2013-07-01

    Encoding semantic relationships between items on word lists (semantic processing) enhances true memories, but also increases memory distortions. Episodic memory impairments in schizophrenia (SZ) are strongly driven by failures to process semantic relations, but the exact nature of these relational semantic processing deficits is not well understood. Here, we used a false memory paradigm to investigate the impact of implicit and explicit semantic processing manipulations on episodic memory in SZ. Thirty SZ and 30 demographically matched healthy controls (HC) studied Deese/Roediger-McDermott (DRM) lists of semantically associated words. Half of the lists had strong implicit semantic associations and the remainder had low strength associations. Similarly, half of the lists were presented under "standard" instructions and the other half under explicit "relational processing" instructions. After study, participants performed recall and old/new recognition tests composed of targets, critical lures, and unrelated lures. HC exhibited higher true memories and better discriminability between true and false memory compared to SZ. High, versus low, associative strength increased false memory rates in both groups. However, explicit "relational processing" instructions positively improved true memory rates only in HC. Finally, true and false memory rates were associated with severity of disorganized and negative symptoms in SZ. These results suggest that reduced processing of semantic relationships during encoding in SZ may stem from an inability to implement explicit relational processing strategies rather than a fundamental deficit in the implicit activation and retrieval of word meanings from patients' semantic lexicon.

  15. Central Nervous Insulin Signaling in Sleep-Associated Memory Formation and Neuroendocrine Regulation

    PubMed Central

    Feld, Gordon B; Wilhem, Ines; Benedict, Christian; Rüdel, Benjamin; Klameth, Corinna; Born, Jan; Hallschmid, Manfred

    2016-01-01

    The neurochemical underpinnings of sleep's contribution to the establishment and maintenance of memory traces are largely unexplored. Considering that intranasal insulin administration to the CNS improves memory functions in healthy and memory-impaired humans, we tested whether brain insulin signaling and sleep interact to enhance memory consolidation in healthy participants. We investigated the effect of intranasal insulin on sleep-associated neurophysiological and neuroendocrine parameters and memory consolidation in 16 men and 16 women (aged 18–30 years), who learned a declarative word-pair task and a procedural finger sequence tapping task in the evening before intranasal insulin (160 IU) or placebo administration and 8 h of nocturnal sleep. On the subsequent evening, they learned interfering word-pairs and a new finger sequence before retrieving the original memories. Insulin increased growth hormone concentrations in the first night-half and EEG delta power during the second 90 min of non-rapid-eye-movement sleep. Insulin treatment impaired the acquisition of new contents in both the declarative and procedural memory systems on the next day, whereas retrieval of original memories was unchanged. Results indicate that sleep-associated memory consolidation is not a primary mediator of insulin's acute memory-improving effect, but that the peptide acts on mechanisms that diminish the subsequent encoding of novel information. Thus, by inhibiting processes of active forgetting during sleep, central nervous insulin might reduce the interfering influence of encoding new information. PMID:26448203

  16. Central Nervous Insulin Signaling in Sleep-Associated Memory Formation and Neuroendocrine Regulation.

    PubMed

    Feld, Gordon B; Wilhem, Ines; Benedict, Christian; Rüdel, Benjamin; Klameth, Corinna; Born, Jan; Hallschmid, Manfred

    2016-05-01

    The neurochemical underpinnings of sleep's contribution to the establishment and maintenance of memory traces are largely unexplored. Considering that intranasal insulin administration to the CNS improves memory functions in healthy and memory-impaired humans, we tested whether brain insulin signaling and sleep interact to enhance memory consolidation in healthy participants. We investigated the effect of intranasal insulin on sleep-associated neurophysiological and neuroendocrine parameters and memory consolidation in 16 men and 16 women (aged 18-30 years), who learned a declarative word-pair task and a procedural finger sequence tapping task in the evening before intranasal insulin (160 IU) or placebo administration and 8 h of nocturnal sleep. On the subsequent evening, they learned interfering word-pairs and a new finger sequence before retrieving the original memories. Insulin increased growth hormone concentrations in the first night-half and EEG delta power during the second 90 min of non-rapid-eye-movement sleep. Insulin treatment impaired the acquisition of new contents in both the declarative and procedural memory systems on the next day, whereas retrieval of original memories was unchanged. Results indicate that sleep-associated memory consolidation is not a primary mediator of insulin's acute memory-improving effect, but that the peptide acts on mechanisms that diminish the subsequent encoding of novel information. Thus, by inhibiting processes of active forgetting during sleep, central nervous insulin might reduce the interfering influence of encoding new information.

  17. Biased Competition during Long-term Memory Formation

    PubMed Central

    Hutchinson, J. Benjamin; Pak, Sarah S.; Turk-Browne, Nicholas B.

    2016-01-01

    A key task for the brain is to determine which pieces of information are worth storing in memory. To build a more complete representation of the environment, memory systems may prioritize new information that has not already been stored. Here, we propose a mechanism that supports this preferential encoding of new information, whereby prior experience attenuates neural activity for old information that is competing for processing. We evaluated this hypothesis with fMRI by presenting a series of novel stimuli concurrently with repeated stimuli at different spatial locations in Experiment 1 and from different visual categories (i.e., faces and scenes) in Experiment 2. Subsequent memory for the novel stimuli could be predicted from the reduction in activity in ventral temporal cortex for the accompanying repeated stimuli. This relationship was eliminated in control conditions where the competition during encoding came from another novel stimulus. These findings reveal how prior experience adaptively guides learning toward new aspects of the environment. PMID:26439270

  18. Enhanced dimension-specific visual working memory in grapheme-color synesthesia.

    PubMed

    Terhune, Devin Blair; Wudarczyk, Olga Anna; Kochuparampil, Priya; Cohen Kadosh, Roi

    2013-10-01

    There is emerging evidence that the encoding of visual information and the maintenance of this information in a temporarily accessible state in working memory rely on the same neural mechanisms. A consequence of this overlap is that atypical forms of perception should influence working memory. We examined this by investigating whether having grapheme-color synesthesia, a condition characterized by the involuntary experience of color photisms when reading or representing graphemes, would confer benefits on working memory. Two competing hypotheses propose that superior memory in synesthesia results from information being coded in two information channels (dual-coding) or from superior dimension-specific visual processing (enhanced processing). We discriminated between these hypotheses in three n-back experiments in which controls and synesthetes viewed inducer and non-inducer graphemes and maintained color or grapheme information in working memory. Synesthetes displayed superior color working memory than controls for both grapheme types, whereas the two groups did not differ in grapheme working memory. Further analyses excluded the possibilities of enhanced working memory among synesthetes being due to greater color discrimination, stimulus color familiarity, or bidirectionality. These results reveal enhanced dimension-specific visual working memory in this population and supply further evidence for a close relationship between sensory processing and the maintenance of sensory information in working memory.

  19. Exogenous insulin-like growth factor 2 administration enhances memory consolidation and persistence in a time-dependent manner.

    PubMed

    Lee, Younghwan; Lee, Young Woo; Gao, Qingtao; Lee, Younghwa; Lee, Hyung Eun; Ryu, Jong Hoon

    2015-10-05

    Memory consolidation is an important process for the formation of long-term memory. We have previously reported that mature brain-derived neurotrophic factor enhances memory consolidation within 9h after initial learning. Recent studies suggest that insulin-like growth factor 2 (IGF2) significantly enhances memory consolidation and prevents forgetting. Thus, we hypothesized that IGF2 exerts its activity on cognitive performance in a time-dependent manner as observed in our previous study. In the one-trial step-through inhibitory avoidance task, we demonstrate that a bilateral injection of IGF2 into the dorsal hippocampus 6 or 9 h after training significantly enhanced the step-through latencies compared with the vehicle-treated controls in the retention trial, which was conducted 24 h after the acquisition trial. However, 12h post-training, IGF2 injection did not increase the step-through latencies. Intriguingly, in the retention trial at 21 days after the training, hippocampal IGF2 injection 6, 9 or 12 h after the acquisition trial significantly increased the step-through latencies compared with the vehicle-treated controls. IGF2 administration at 9 h and 12 h after the acquisition trial significantly increased discrimination index and exploration time on the novel-located object in the test trial at 24 h and 21 days, respectively, after the acquisition trial in the novel location recognition task. In addition, IGF2-induced an increase in the step-through latencies in the retention trial 24 h or 21 days, respectively, after the initial learning was completely abolished by co-injected anti-IGF2 receptor antibody. These results suggest that IGF2 enhances memory consolidation within 9h after initial learning, and increased IGF2 within the 12 h after the acquisition trial, which represents a delayed consolidation phase, is also critical for memory persistence.

  20. Perirhinal Cortex Muscarinic Receptor Blockade Impairs Taste Recognition Memory Formation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gutierrez, Ranier; De la Cruz, Vanesa; Rodriguez-Ortiz, Carlos J.; Bermudez-Rattoni, Federico

    2004-01-01

    The relevance of perirhinal cortical cholinergic and glutamatergic neurotransmission for taste recognition memory and learned taste aversion was assessed by microinfusions of muscarinic (scopolamine), NMDA (AP-5), and AMPA (NBQX) receptor antagonists. Infusions of scopolamine, but not AP5 or NBQX, prevented the consolidation of taste recognition…

  1. Distinct Neural Mechanisms Mediate Olfactory Memory Formation at Different Timescales

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNamara, Ann Marie; Magidson, Phillip D.; Linster, Christiane; Wilson, Donald A.; Cleland, Thomas A.

    2008-01-01

    Habituation is one of the oldest forms of learning, broadly expressed across sensory systems and taxa. Here, we demonstrate that olfactory habituation induced at different timescales (comprising different odor exposure and intertrial interval durations) is mediated by different neural mechanisms. First, the persistence of habituation memory is…

  2. Transient medial prefrontal perturbation reduces false memory formation.

    PubMed

    Berkers, Ruud M W J; van der Linden, Marieke; de Almeida, Rafael F; Müller, Nils C J; Bovy, Leonore; Dresler, Martin; Morris, Richard G M; Fernández, Guillén

    2017-03-01

    Knowledge extracted across previous experiences, or schemas, benefit encoding and retention of congruent information. However, they can also reduce specificity and augment memory for semantically related, but false information. A demonstration of the latter is given by the Deese-Roediger-McDermott (DRM) paradigm, where the studying of words that fit a common semantic schema are found to induce false memories for words that are congruent with the given schema, but were not studied. The medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) has been ascribed the function of leveraging prior knowledge to influence encoding and retrieval, based on imaging and patient studies. Here, we used transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) to transiently perturb ongoing mPFC processing immediately before participants performed the DRM-task. We observed the predicted reduction in false recall of critical lures after mPFC perturbation, compared to two control groups, whereas veridical recall and recognition memory performance remained similar across groups. These data provide initial causal evidence for a role of the mPFC in biasing the assimilation of new memories and their consolidation as a function of prior knowledge.

  3. An Approach to Formative Evaluation for Teacher Enhancement Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruiz-Primo, Maria Araceli; Shavelson, Richard J.; Baxter, Gail P.

    This paper presents one possible approach to the formative evaluation of a Teacher Enhancement Program (TEP). The approach was applied to a National Science Foundation TEP designed to enhance teachers' knowledge and use of performance assessment technology. The study demonstrates the applicability of the approach to formative evaluation and…

  4. The Role of The RNA Demethylase FTO (Fat Mass and Obesity-Associated) and mRNA Methylation in Hippocampal Memory Formation.

    PubMed

    Walters, Brandon J; Mercaldo, Valentina; Gillon, Colleen J; Yip, Matthew; Neve, Rachael L; Boyce, Frederick M; Frankland, Paul W; Josselyn, Sheena A

    2017-03-15

    The formation of long-lasting memories requires coordinated changes in gene expression and protein synthesis. Although many studies implicate DNA modifications (DNA methylation, histone modifications) in memory formation, the contributions of RNA modifications remain largely unexplored. Here we investigated the role of mRNA methylation in hippocampal-dependent memory formation in mice. RNA modifications are highly dynamic and readily reversible. Methyltransferases add a methyl group to mRNA while demethylases remove methyl groups. Here we focused on examining the role of the best characterized RNA demethylase, FTO (fat mass and obesity-associated) in memory. We observed that FTO is expressed in the nuclei, dendrites and near dendritic spines of mouse dorsal hippocampal CA1 neurons. Next, we found that contextual fear conditioning transiently (0.5 h) decreased Fto levels in these neurons, with the largest decrease in FTO observed near synapses. The decrease in FTO observed shortly after contextual fear conditioning suggests that FTO normally constrains memory formation. To directly test this, we artificially decreased FTO levels in dorsal hippocampus of otherwise normal (wild-type) mice by microinjecting before training a single herpes simplex virus (HSV) vector expressing either CRISPR/Cas9 or shRNA targeted against Fto. Decreasing FTO using either method specifically enhanced contextual fear memory. Together, these results show the importance of FTO during memory formation and, furthermore, implicate mRNA modification and epi-transcriptomics as novel regulators of memory formation.Neuropsychopharmacology advance online publication, 15 March 2017; doi:10.1038/npp.2017.31.

  5. GABA, glutamate, dopamine and serotonin transporters expression on memory formation and amnesia.

    PubMed

    Tellez, Ruth; Gómez-Víquez, Leticia; Meneses, Alfredo

    2012-02-01

    Notwithstanding several neurotransmission systems are frequently related to memory formation, amnesia and/or therapeutic targets for memory alterations, the role of transporters γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA, GAT1), glutamate (neuronal glutamate transporter excitatory amino acid carrier; EACC1), dopamine (DAT) and serotonin (SERT) is poorly understood. Hence, in this paper Western-blot analysis was used to evaluate expression changes on them during memory formation in trained and untrained rats treated with the selective serotonin transporter inhibitor fluoxetine, the amnesic drug d-methamphetamine (METH) and fluoxetine plus METH. Transporters expression was evaluated in the hippocampus, prefrontal cortex and striatum. Data indicated that in addition of memory performance other behavioral parameters (e.g., explorative behavior, food-intake, etc.) that memory formation was recorded. Thus, memory formation in a Pavlovian/instrumental autoshaping was associated to up-regulation of prefrontal cortex GAT1 and EAAC1, striatal SERT, DAT and EACC1; while, hippocampal EACC1, GAT1 and SERT were down-regulated. METH impaired short (STM) and long-term memory (LTM), at 24 or 48h. The METH-induced amnesia down-regulated SERT, DAT, EACC1 and GAT1 in hippocampus and the GAT1 in striatum; no-changes were observed in prefrontal cortex. Post-training administration of fluoxetine improved LTM (48h), which was associated to DAT, GAT1 (prefrontal cortex) up-regulation, but GAT1 (striatum) and SERT (hippocampus) down-regulation. Fluoxetine plus METH administration was able to prevent amnesia, which was associated to DAT, EACC1 and GAT1 (prefrontal cortex), SERT and DAT (hippocampus) and EACC1 or DAT (striatal) up-regulation. Together these data show that memory formation, amnesia and anti-amnesic effects are associated to specific patters of transporters expression.

  6. Perceptual expertise enhances the resolution but not the number of representations in working memory.

    PubMed

    Scolari, Miranda; Vogel, Edward K; Awh, Edward

    2008-02-01

    Despite its central role in cognition, capacity in visual working memory is restricted to about three or four items. Curby and Gauthier (2007) examined whether perceptual expertise can help to overcome this limit by enabling more efficient coding of visual information. In line with this, they observed higher capacity estimates for upright than for inverted faces, suggesting that perceptual expertise enhances visual working memory. In the present work, we examined whether the improved capacity estimates for upright faces indicates an increased number of "slots" in working memory, or improved resolution within the existing slots. Our results suggest that perceptual expertise enhances the resolution but not the number of representations that can be held in working memory. These results clarify the effects of perceptual expertise in working memory and support recent suggestions that number and resolution represent distinct facets of working memory ability.

  7. Oxytocin and enhancement of the positive valence of social affiliation memories: an autobiographical memory study.

    PubMed

    Cardoso, Christopher; Orlando, Mark Anthony; Brown, Christopher A; Ellenbogen, Mark A

    2014-01-01

    Intranasal oxytocin has been shown to alter self-perceptions of personality (e.g., more trusting, increased extraversion). To follow up these findings, we examined the acute effects of two doses of intranasal oxytocin (24 IU and 48 IU) on another form of self-referential cognition: autobiographical memory. Changes in autobiographical memory (personal memories for the past) could conceivably effect change in self-perception and consequently alter social behaviors. We predicted that oxytocin would increase the number of specific personal memories recalled, and promote the recall of positive social affiliation memories. Seventeen male participants self-administered a placebo or oxytocin (24 IU, 48 IU) using a nasal spray on three separate occasions in a placebo-controlled, double-blind, and within-subject experiment. Participants completed the Autobiographical Memory Test (AMT) 110 minutes later. Analyses revealed a quadratic dose-response curve for the effects of intranasal oxytocin on autobiographical memory recall. The 24 IU dose, relative to the 48 IU dose and placebo, increased the number of specific personal memories recalled and promoted the recall of social affiliation memories that were rated more positively. The lack of effect with the 48 IU dose could be due to saturation of the oxytocin receptors at higher doses. Changes in autobiographical memory may be one mechanism by which oxytocin alters prosocial worldviews.

  8. Distinct circuits for the formation and retrieval of an imprinted olfactory memory

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Xin; Pokala, Navin; Bargmann, Cornelia I.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Memories formed early in life are particularly stable and influential, representing privileged experiences that shape enduring behaviors. Here we show that exposing newly-hatched C. elegans to pathogenic bacteria results in persistent aversion to those bacterial odors, whereas adult exposure generates only transient aversive memory. Long-lasting imprinted aversion has a critical period in the first larval stage, and is specific to the experienced pathogen. Distinct groups of neurons are required during formation (AIB, RIM) and retrieval (AIY, RIA) of the imprinted memory. RIM synthesizes the neuromodulator tyramine, which is required in the L1 stage for learning. AIY memory retrieval neurons sense tyramine via the SER-2 receptor, which is essential for imprinted but not for adult-learned aversion. Odor responses in several neurons, most notably RIA, are altered in imprinted animals. These findings provide insight into neuronal substrates of different forms of memory, and lay a foundation for further understanding of early learning. PMID:26871629

  9. Rapid formation and flexible expression of memories of subliminal word pairs.

    PubMed

    Reber, Thomas P; Henke, Katharina

    2011-01-01

    Our daily experiences are incidentally and rapidly encoded as episodic memories. Episodic memories consist of numerous associations (e.g., who gave what to whom where and when) that can be expressed flexibly in new situations. Key features of episodic memory are speed of encoding, its associative nature, and its representational flexibility. Another defining feature of human episodic memory has been consciousness of encoding/retrieval. Here, we show that humans can rapidly form associations between subliminal words and minutes later retrieve these associations even if retrieval words were conceptually related to, but different from encoding words. Because encoding words were presented subliminally, associative encoding, and retrieval were unconscious. Unconscious association formation and retrieval were dependent on a preceding understanding of task principles. We conclude that key computations underlying episodic memory - rapid encoding and flexible expression of associations - can operate outside consciousness.

  10. Corticothalamic phase synchrony and cross-frequency coupling predict human memory formation.

    PubMed

    Sweeney-Reed, Catherine M; Zaehle, Tino; Voges, Juergen; Schmitt, Friedhelm C; Buentjen, Lars; Kopitzki, Klaus; Esslinger, Christine; Hinrichs, Hermann; Heinze, Hans-Jochen; Knight, Robert T; Richardson-Klavehn, Alan

    2014-12-23

    The anterior thalamic nucleus (ATN) is thought to play an important role in a brain network involving the hippocampus and neocortex, which enables human memories to be formed. However, its small size and location deep within the brain have impeded direct investigation in humans with non-invasive techniques. Here we provide direct evidence for a functional role for the ATN in memory formation from rare simultaneous human intrathalamic and scalp electroencephalogram (EEG) recordings from eight volunteering patients receiving intrathalamic electrodes implanted for the treatment of epilepsy, demonstrating real-time communication between neocortex and ATN during successful memory encoding. Neocortical-ATN theta oscillatory phase synchrony of local field potentials and neocortical-theta-to-ATN-gamma cross-frequency coupling during presentation of complex photographic scenes predicted later memory for the scenes, demonstrating a key role for the ATN in human memory encoding.

  11. Rapid Formation and Flexible Expression of Memories of Subliminal Word Pairs

    PubMed Central

    Reber, Thomas P.; Henke, Katharina

    2011-01-01

    Our daily experiences are incidentally and rapidly encoded as episodic memories. Episodic memories consist of numerous associations (e.g., who gave what to whom where and when) that can be expressed flexibly in new situations. Key features of episodic memory are speed of encoding, its associative nature, and its representational flexibility. Another defining feature of human episodic memory has been consciousness of encoding/retrieval. Here, we show that humans can rapidly form associations between subliminal words and minutes later retrieve these associations even if retrieval words were conceptually related to, but different from encoding words. Because encoding words were presented subliminally, associative encoding, and retrieval were unconscious. Unconscious association formation and retrieval were dependent on a preceding understanding of task principles. We conclude that key computations underlying episodic memory – rapid encoding and flexible expression of associations – can operate outside consciousness. PMID:22125545

  12. Corticothalamic phase synchrony and cross-frequency coupling predict human memory formation

    PubMed Central

    Sweeney-Reed, Catherine M; Zaehle, Tino; Voges, Juergen; Schmitt, Friedhelm C; Buentjen, Lars; Kopitzki, Klaus; Esslinger, Christine; Hinrichs, Hermann; Heinze, Hans-Jochen; Knight, Robert T; Richardson-Klavehn, Alan

    2014-01-01

    The anterior thalamic nucleus (ATN) is thought to play an important role in a brain network involving the hippocampus and neocortex, which enables human memories to be formed. However, its small size and location deep within the brain have impeded direct investigation in humans with non-invasive techniques. Here we provide direct evidence for a functional role for the ATN in memory formation from rare simultaneous human intrathalamic and scalp electroencephalogram (EEG) recordings from eight volunteering patients receiving intrathalamic electrodes implanted for the treatment of epilepsy, demonstrating real-time communication between neocortex and ATN during successful memory encoding. Neocortical-ATN theta oscillatory phase synchrony of local field potentials and neocortical-theta-to-ATN-gamma cross-frequency coupling during presentation of complex photographic scenes predicted later memory for the scenes, demonstrating a key role for the ATN in human memory encoding. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.05352.001 PMID:25535839

  13. Impaired spatial memory and enhanced long-term potentiation in mice with forebrain-specific ablation of the Stim genes

    PubMed Central

    Garcia-Alvarez, Gisela; Shetty, Mahesh S.; Lu, Bo; Yap, Kenrick An Fu; Oh-Hora, Masatsugu; Sajikumar, Sreedharan; Bichler, Zoë; Fivaz, Marc

    2015-01-01

    Recent findings point to a central role of the endoplasmic reticulum-resident STIM (Stromal Interaction Molecule) proteins in shaping the structure and function of excitatory synapses in the mammalian brain. The impact of the Stim genes on cognitive functions remains, however, poorly understood. To explore the function of the Stim genes in learning and memory, we generated three mouse strains with conditional deletion (cKO) of Stim1 and/or Stim2 in the forebrain. Stim1, Stim2, and double Stim1/Stim2 cKO mice show no obvious brain structural defects or locomotor impairment. Analysis of spatial reference memory in the Morris water maze revealed a mild learning delay in Stim1 cKO mice, while learning and memory in Stim2 cKO mice was indistinguishable from their control littermates. Deletion of both Stim genes in the forebrain resulted, however, in a pronounced impairment in spatial learning and memory reflecting a synergistic effect of the Stim genes on the underlying neural circuits. Notably, long-term potentiation (LTP) at CA3-CA1 hippocampal synapses was markedly enhanced in Stim1/Stim2 cKO mice and was associated with increased phosphorylation of the AMPA receptor subunit GluA1, the transcriptional regulator CREB and the L-type Voltage-dependent Ca2+ channel Cav1.2 on protein kinase A (PKA) sites. We conclude that STIM1 and STIM2 are key regulators of PKA signaling and synaptic plasticity in neural circuits encoding spatial memory. Our findings also reveal an inverse correlation between LTP and spatial learning/memory and suggest that abnormal enhancement of cAMP/PKA signaling and synaptic efficacy disrupts the formation of new memories. PMID:26236206

  14. Does working memory training work? The promise and challenges of enhancing cognition by training working memory.

    PubMed

    Morrison, Alexandra B; Chein, Jason M

    2011-02-01

    A growing body of literature shows that one's working memory (WM) capacity can be expanded through targeted training. Given the established relationship between WM and higher cognition, these successful training studies have led to speculation that WM training may yield broad cognitive benefits. This review considers the current state of the emerging WM training literature, and details both its successes and limitations. We identify two distinct approaches to WM training, strategy training and core training, and highlight both the theoretical and practical motivations that guide each approach. Training-related increases in WM capacity have been successfully demonstrated across a wide range of subject populations, but different training techniques seem to produce differential impacts upon the broader landscape of cognitive abilities. In particular, core WM training studies seem to produce more far-reaching transfer effects, likely because they target domain-general mechanisms of WM. The results of individual studies encourage optimism regarding the value of WM training as a tool for general cognitive enhancement. However, we discuss several limitations that should be addressed before the field endorses the value of this approach.

  15. Improving Outcome of Psychosocial Treatments by Enhancing Memory and Learning

    PubMed Central

    Harvey, Allison G.; Lee, Jason; Williams, Joseph; Hollon, Steven D.; Walker, Matthew P.; Thompson, Monique A.; Smith, Rita

    2014-01-01

    Mental disorders are prevalent and lead to significant impairment. Progress toward establishing treatments has been good. However, effect sizes are small to moderate, gains may not persist, and many patients derive no benefit. Our goal is to highlight the potential for empirically-supported psychosocial treatments to be improved by incorporating insights from cognitive psychology and research on education. Our central question is: If it were possible to improve memory for content of sessions of psychosocial treatments, would outcome substantially improve? This question arises from five lines of evidence: (a) mental illness is often characterized by memory impairment, (b) memory impairment is modifiable, (c) psychosocial treatments often involve the activation of emotion, (d) emotion can bias memory and (e) memory for psychosocial treatment sessions is poor. Insights from scientific knowledge on learning and memory are leveraged to derive strategies for a transdiagnostic and transtreatment cognitive support intervention. These strategies can be applied within and between sessions and to interventions delivered via computer, the internet and text message. Additional novel pathways to improving memory include improving sleep, engaging in exercise and imagery. Given that memory processes change across the lifespan, services to children and older adults may benefit from cognitive support. PMID:25544856

  16. Revisiting the Novelty Effect: When Familiarity, Not Novelty, Enhances Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poppenk, J.; Kohler, S.; Moscovitch, M.

    2010-01-01

    Reports of superior memory for novel relative to familiar material have figured prominently in recent theories of memory. However, such "novelty effects" are incongruous with long-standing observations that familiar items are remembered better. In 2 experiments, we explored whether this discrepancy was explained by differences in the…

  17. A simplified memory network model based on pattern formations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Kesheng; Zhang, Xiyun; Wang, Chaoqing; Liu, Zonghua

    2014-12-01

    Many experiments have evidenced the transition with different time scales from short-term memory (STM) to long-term memory (LTM) in mammalian brains, while its theoretical understanding is still under debate. To understand its underlying mechanism, it has recently been shown that it is possible to have a long-period rhythmic synchronous firing in a scale-free network, provided the existence of both the high-degree hubs and the loops formed by low-degree nodes. We here present a simplified memory network model to show that the self-sustained synchronous firing can be observed even without these two necessary conditions. This simplified network consists of two loops of coupled excitable neurons with different synaptic conductance and with one node being the sensory neuron to receive an external stimulus signal. This model can be further used to show how the diversity of firing patterns can be selectively formed by varying the signal frequency, duration of the stimulus and network topology, which corresponds to the patterns of STM and LTM with different time scales. A theoretical analysis is presented to explain the underlying mechanism of firing patterns.

  18. Nicotine enhances the reconsolidation of novel object recognition memory in rats.

    PubMed

    Tian, Shaowen; Pan, Si; You, Yong

    2015-02-01

    There is increasing evidence that nicotine is involved in learning and memory. However, there are only few studies that have evaluated the relationship between nicotine and memory reconsolidation. In this study, we investigated the effects of nicotine on the reconsolidation of novel object recognition memory in rats. Behavior procedure involved four training phases: habituation (Days 1 and 2), sample (Day 3), reactivation (Day 4) and test (Day 6). Rats were injected with saline or nicotine (0.1, 0.2 and 0.4 mg/kg) immediately or 6h after reactivation. The discrimination index was used to assess memory performance and calculated as the difference in time exploring on the novel and familiar objects. Results showed that nicotine administration immediately but not 6 h after reactivation significantly enhanced memory performance of rats. Further results showed that the enhancing effect of nicotine on memory performance was dependent on memory reactivation, and was not attributed to the changes of the nonspecific responses (locomotor activity and anxiety level) 48 h after nicotine administration. The results suggest that post-reactivation nicotine administration enhances the reconsolidation of novel object recognition memory. Our present finding extends previous research on the nicotinic effects on learning and memory.

  19. Entanglement enhanced bit rate over multiple uses of a lossy bosonic channel with memory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lupo, C.; Mancini, S.

    2010-03-01

    We present a study of the achievable rates for classical information transmission via a lossy bosonic channel with memory, using homodyne detection. A comparison with the memoryless case shows that the presence of memory enhances the bit rate if information is encoded in collective states, i.e., states which are entangled over different uses of the channel.

  20. Identification of compounds that potentiate CREB signaling as possible enhancers of long-term memory

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Menghang; Huang, Ruili; Guo, Vicky; Southall, Noel; Cho, Ming-Hsuang; Inglese, James; Austin, Christopher P.; Nirenberg, Marshall

    2009-01-01

    Many studies have implicated the cAMP Response Element Binding (CREB) protein signaling pathway in long-term memory. To identify small molecule enhancers of CREB activation of gene expression, we screened ≈73,000 compounds, each at 7–15 concentrations in a quantitative high-throughput screening (qHTS) format, for activity in cells by assaying CREB mediated β-lactamase reporter gene expression. We identified 1,800 compounds that potentiated CREB mediated gene expression, with potencies as low as 16 nM, comprising 96 structural series. Mechanisms of action were systematically determined, and compounds that affect phosphodiesterase 4, protein kinase A, and cAMP production were identified, as well as compounds that affect CREB signaling via apparently unidentified mechanisms. qHTS folowed by interrogation of pathway targets is an efficient paradigm for lead generation for chemical genomics and drug development. PMID:19196967

  1. Differential contribution of mineralocorticoid and glucocorticoid receptors to memory formation during sleep.

    PubMed

    Groch, Sabine; Wilhelm, Ines; Lange, Tanja; Born, Jan

    2013-12-01

    Corticosteroids are known to modulate the consolidation of memories during sleep, specifically in the hippocampus-dependent declarative memory system. However, effects of the major human corticosteroid cortisol are conveyed via two different receptors, i.e., mineralocorticoid (MRs) and glucocorticoid receptors (GRs) whose specific contributions to memory consolidation are unclear. Whereas a shift in the balance between MR and GR activation toward predominant GR activation has been found to impair sleep-dependent consolidation of declarative memories, the effect of predominant MR activation is not well characterized. Here, we examined differential corticosteroid receptor contributions to memory consolidation during post-learning sleep in two placebo-controlled double-blind studies in humans, by comparing the effects of the selective MR agonist fludrocortisone (0.2 mg, orally, Study 1) and of hydrocortisone (22 mg, intravenously, Study 2) with strong binding affinity to both MR and GR. We hypothesized increased activation of MRs during sleep to enhance declarative memory consolidation, but the joint MR/GR activation to impair it. Participants (16 men in each study) learned a declarative (word pair associates) and a procedural task (mirror tracing) before a 7-h period of nocturnal retention sleep, with the substances administered before sleep (Study 1) and during sleep (Study 2), respectively. As hypothesized, retention of word pairs, but not of mirror tracing skill, was selectively enhanced by the MR agonist fludrocortisone. An impairing effect of hydrocortisone on word pair retention remained non-significant possibly reflecting that hydrocortisone administration failed to establish robust predominance of GR activation. Our results show that predominant MR activation benefits declarative memory consolidation presumably by enhancing the sleep-dependent reactivation of hippocampal memories and resultant synaptic plastic processes. The effect is counteracted by

  2. DNA methylation and histone acetylation work in concert to regulate memory formation and synaptic plasticity.

    PubMed

    Miller, Courtney A; Campbell, Susan L; Sweatt, J David

    2008-05-01

    A clear understanding is developing concerning the importance of epigenetic-related molecular mechanisms in transcription-dependent long-term memory formation. Chromatin modification, in particular histone acetylation, is associated with transcriptional activation, and acetylation of histone 3 (H3) occurs in Area CA1 of the hippocampus following contextual fear conditioning training. Conversely, DNA methylation is associated with transcriptional repression, but is also dynamically regulated in Area CA1 following training. We recently reported that inhibition of the enzyme responsible for DNA methylation, DNA methyltransferase (DNMT), in the adult rat hippocampus blocks behavioral memory formation. Here, we report that DNMT inhibition also blocks the concomitant memory-associated H3 acetylation, without affecting phosphorylation of its upstream regulator, extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK). Interestingly, the DNMT inhibitor-induced deficit in memory consolidation, along with deficits in long-term potentiation, can be rescued by pharmacologically increasing levels of histone acetylation prior to DNMT inhibition. These observations suggest that DNMT activity is not only necessary for memory and plasticity, but that DNA methylation may work in concert with histone modifications to regulate plasticity and memory formation in the adult rat hippocampus.

  3. Terms of the debate on the format and structure of visual memory.

    PubMed

    Suchow, Jordan W; Fougnie, Daryl; Brady, Timothy F; Alvarez, George A

    2014-10-01

    Our ability to actively maintain information in visual memory is strikingly limited. There is considerable debate about why this is so. As with many questions in psychology, the debate is framed dichotomously: Is visual working memory limited because it is supported by only a small handful of discrete "slots" into which visual representations are placed, or is it because there is an insufficient supply of a "resource" that is flexibly shared among visual representations? Here, we argue that this dichotomous framing obscures a set of at least eight underlying questions. Separately considering each question reveals a rich hypothesis space that will be useful for building a comprehensive model of visual working memory. The questions regard (1) an upper limit on the number of represented items, (2) the quantization of the memory commodity, (3) the relationship between how many items are stored and how well they are stored, (4) whether the number of stored items completely determines the fidelity of a representation (vs. fidelity being stochastic or variable), (5) the flexibility with which the memory commodity can be assigned or reassigned to items, (6) the format of the memory representation, (7) how working memories are formed, and (8) how memory representations are used to make responses in behavioral tasks. We reframe the debate in terms of these eight underlying questions, placing slot and resource models as poles in a more expansive theoretical space.

  4. Metabolic learning and memory formation by the brain influence systemic metabolic homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yumin; Liu, Gang; Yan, Jingqi; Zhang, Yalin; Li, Bo; Cai, Dongsheng

    2015-01-01

    Metabolic homeostasis is regulated by the brain, whether this regulation involves learning and memory of metabolic information remains unexplored. Here we use a calorie-based, taste-independent learning/memory paradigm to show that Drosophila form metabolic memories that help balancing food choice with caloric intake; however, this metabolic learning or memory is lost under chronic high-calorie feeding. We show that loss of individual learning/memory-regulating genes causes a metabolic learning defect, leading to elevated trehalose and lipids levels. Importantly, this function of metabolic learning requires not only the mushroom body but the hypothalamus-like pars intercerebralis, while NF-κB activation in the pars intercerebralis mimics chronic overnutrition in that it causes metabolic learning impairment and disorders. Finally, we evaluate this concept of metabolic learning/memory in mice, suggesting the hypothalamus is involved in a form of nutritional learning and memory, which is critical for determining resistance or susceptibility to obesity. In conclusion, our data indicate the brain, and potentially the hypothalamus, direct metabolic learning and the formation of memories, which contribute to the control of systemic metabolic homeostasis. PMID:25848677

  5. Divided Attention Can Enhance Memory Encoding: The Attentional Boost Effect in Implicit Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spataro, Pietro; Mulligan, Neil W.; Rossi-Arnaud, Clelia

    2013-01-01

    Distraction during encoding has long been known to disrupt later memory performance. Contrary to this long-standing result, we show that detecting an infrequent target in a dual-task paradigm actually improves memory encoding for a concurrently presented word, above and beyond the performance reached in the full-attention condition. This absolute…

  6. Memory

    MedlinePlus

    ... it has to decide what is worth remembering. Memory is the process of storing and then remembering this information. There are different types of memory. Short-term memory stores information for a few ...

  7. Script knowledge enhances the development of children's false memories.

    PubMed

    Otgaar, Henry; Candel, Ingrid; Scoboria, Alan; Merckelbach, Harald

    2010-01-01

    We examined whether script knowledge contributes to the development of children's false memories. Sixty 7-year-old and 60 11-year-old children listened to false narratives describing either a high-knowledge event (i.e., fingers being caught in a mousetrap) or a low-knowledge event (i.e., receiving a rectal enema) that were similar in terms of plausibility and pleasantness. Moreover, half of the children in each condition received additional suggestive details about the false events. Across two interviews, children had to report everything they remembered about the events. Script knowledge affected children's false memories in that both younger and older children developed more false memories for the high-knowledge event than for the low-knowledge event. Moreover, at the first interview, additional suggestive details inhibited the development of children's images into false memories.

  8. Intrinsic functional connectivity between amygdala and hippocampus during rest predicts enhanced memory under stress.

    PubMed

    de Voogd, Lycia D; Klumpers, Floris; Fernández, Guillén; Hermans, Erno J

    2017-01-01

    Declarative memories of stressful events are less prone to forgetting than mundane events. Animal research has demonstrated that such stress effects on consolidation of hippocampal-dependent memories require the amygdala. In humans, it has been shown that during learning, increased amygdala-hippocampal interactions are related to more efficient memory encoding. Animal models predict that following learning, amygdala-hippocampal interactions are instrumental to strengthening the consolidation of such declarative memories. Whether this is the case in humans is unknown and remains to be empirically verified. To test this, we analyzed data from a sample of 120 healthy male participants who performed an incidental encoding task and subsequently underwent resting-state functional MRI in a stressful and a neutral context. Stress was assessed by measures of salivary cortisol, blood pressure, heart rate, and subjective ratings. Memory was tested afterwards outside of the scanner. Our data show that memory was stronger in the stress context compared to the neutral context and that stress-induced cortisol responses were associated with this memory enhancement. Interestingly, amygdala-hippocampal connectivity during post-encoding awake rest regardless of context (stress or neutral) was associated with the enhanced memory performance under stress. Thus, our findings are in line with a role for intrinsic functional connectivity during rest between the amygdala and the hippocampus in the state effects of stress on strengthening memory.

  9. L1 retrotransposition alters the hippocampal genomic landscape enabling memory formation.

    PubMed

    Bachiller, Sara; Del-Pozo-Martín, Yaiza; Carrión, Ángel Manuel

    2016-12-21

    Somatic LINE-1 (L1) retrotransposition is a source of genomic mosaicism and potential phenotypic diversity among neurons during brain development. In the adult brain, L1 expression can be triggered by different environmental alterations, but its functional role in this context remains unknown. Here we demonstrate a neural activation-dependent increase in the number of L1 retrotransposon insertions in the hippocampus. Using both pharmacologic and genetic approaches in mice, we demonstrate that L1 expression in the adult hippocampus enables long-term memory formation. These results provide experimental evidence that L1 retrotransposition-induced genomic mosaicism is involved in cognitive processes such as memory formation.

  10. Social Models Enhance Apes’ Memory for Novel Events

    PubMed Central

    Howard, Lauren H.; Wagner, Katherine E.; Woodward, Amanda L.; Ross, Stephen R.; Hopper, Lydia M.

    2017-01-01

    Nonhuman primates are more likely to learn from the actions of a social model than a non-social “ghost display”, however the mechanism underlying this effect is still unknown. One possibility is that live models are more engaging, drawing increased attention to social stimuli. However, recent research with humans has suggested that live models fundamentally alter memory, not low-level attention. In the current study, we developed a novel eye-tracking paradigm to disentangle the influence of social context on attention and memory in apes. Tested in two conditions, zoo-housed apes (2 gorillas, 5 chimpanzees) were familiarized to videos of a human hand (social condition) and mechanical claw (non-social condition) constructing a three-block tower. During the memory test, subjects viewed side-by-side pictures of the previously-constructed block tower and a novel block tower. In accordance with looking-time paradigms, increased looking time to the novel block tower was used to measure event memory. Apes evidenced memory for the event featuring a social model, though not for the non-social condition. This effect was not dependent on attention differences to the videos. These findings provide the first evidence that, like humans, social stimuli increase nonhuman primates’ event memory, which may aid in information transmission via social learning. PMID:28106098

  11. Functional connectivity changes during consolidation of inhibitory avoidance memory in rats: a manganese-enhanced MRI study.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ke-Hsin; Chen, Der-Yow; Liang, K C

    2013-10-31

    Consolidation of memory involves transfer of encoded information into a durable neural representation, but how this is transacted in the nervous system remains elusive. It has been proposed that memory consolidation is subserved by formation of a cell assembly due to coincidence of pre- and post-synaptic activity therein after learning. To capture such off-line changes, manganese-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MEMRI) was used to trace brain activity during the memory consolidation period. Male Wistar rats were trained on the one-trial inhibitory avoidance task and received intraventricular infusion of manganese ion shortly after training. The MEMRI taken 1 day later showed that brain areas including the prelimbic, insular and anterior pirifrom cortices of the learning group had significantly lower memory-related MEMRI signal than those of the control group. The functional network was revealed by correlating the MEMRI signals among regions followed by graph theoretical analysis. Learning sculpted the non-discriminative connectivity among many brain regions in the controls into a network in the trained rats with selected connectivity among regions implicated in inhibitory avoidance learning. The network could be organized into three clusters presumably subserving different functions. The results suggest that the brain prunes excessive functional connectivity in a cell assembly to consolidate new memory.

  12. Trial-by-Trial Modulation of Associative Memory Formation by Reward Prediction Error and Reward Anticipation as Revealed by a Biologically Plausible Computational Model.

    PubMed

    Aberg, Kristoffer C; Müller, Julia; Schwartz, Sophie

    2017-01-01

    Anticipation and delivery of rewards improves memory formation, but little effort has been made to disentangle their respective contributions to memory enhancement. Moreover, it has been suggested that the effects of reward on memory are mediated by dopaminergic influences on hippocampal plasticity. Yet, evidence linking memory improvements to actual reward computations reflected in the activity of the dopaminergic system, i.e., prediction errors and expected values, is scarce and inconclusive. For example, different previous studies reported that the magnitude of prediction errors during a reinforcement learning task was a positive, negative, or non-significant predictor of successfully encoding simultaneously presented images. Individual sensitivities to reward and punishment have been found to influence the activation of the dopaminergic reward system and could therefore help explain these seemingly discrepant results. Here, we used a novel associative memory task combined with computational modeling and showed independent effects of reward-delivery and reward-anticipation on memory. Strikingly, the computational approach revealed positive influences from both reward delivery, as mediated by prediction error magnitude, and reward anticipation, as mediated by magnitude of expected value, even in the absence of behavioral effects when analyzed using standard methods, i.e., by collapsing memory performance across trials within conditions. We additionally measured trait estimates of reward and punishment sensitivity and found that individuals with increased reward (vs. punishment) sensitivity had better memory for associations encoded during positive (vs. negative) prediction errors when tested after 20 min, but a negative trend when tested after 24 h. In conclusion, modeling trial-by-trial fluctuations in the magnitude of reward, as we did here for prediction errors and expected value computations, provides a comprehensive and biologically plausible description of

  13. Trial-by-Trial Modulation of Associative Memory Formation by Reward Prediction Error and Reward Anticipation as Revealed by a Biologically Plausible Computational Model

    PubMed Central

    Aberg, Kristoffer C.; Müller, Julia; Schwartz, Sophie

    2017-01-01

    Anticipation and delivery of rewards improves memory formation, but little effort has been made to disentangle their respective contributions to memory enhancement. Moreover, it has been suggested that the effects of reward on memory are mediated by dopaminergic influences on hippocampal plasticity. Yet, evidence linking memory improvements to actual reward computations reflected in the activity of the dopaminergic system, i.e., prediction errors and expected values, is scarce and inconclusive. For example, different previous studies reported that the magnitude of prediction errors during a reinforcement learning task was a positive, negative, or non-significant predictor of successfully encoding simultaneously presented images. Individual sensitivities to reward and punishment have been found to influence the activation of the dopaminergic reward system and could therefore help explain these seemingly discrepant results. Here, we used a novel associative memory task combined with computational modeling and showed independent effects of reward-delivery and reward-anticipation on memory. Strikingly, the computational approach revealed positive influences from both reward delivery, as mediated by prediction error magnitude, and reward anticipation, as mediated by magnitude of expected value, even in the absence of behavioral effects when analyzed using standard methods, i.e., by collapsing memory performance across trials within conditions. We additionally measured trait estimates of reward and punishment sensitivity and found that individuals with increased reward (vs. punishment) sensitivity had better memory for associations encoded during positive (vs. negative) prediction errors when tested after 20 min, but a negative trend when tested after 24 h. In conclusion, modeling trial-by-trial fluctuations in the magnitude of reward, as we did here for prediction errors and expected value computations, provides a comprehensive and biologically plausible description of

  14. Context-dependent enhancement of declarative memory performance following acute psychosocial stress.

    PubMed

    Smeets, T; Giesbrecht, T; Jelicic, M; Merckelbach, H

    2007-09-01

    Studies on how acute stress affects learning and memory have yielded inconsistent findings, with some studies reporting enhancing effects while others report impairing effects. Recently, Joëls et al. [Joëls, M., Pu, Z., Wiegert, O., Oitzl, M.S., Krugers, H.J., 2006. Learning under stress: how does it work? Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 10, 152-158] argued that stress will enhance memory only when the memory acquisition phase and stressor share the same spatiotemporal context (i.e., context-congruency). The current study tested this hypothesis by looking at whether context-congruent stress enhances declarative memory performance. Undergraduates were assigned to a personality stress group (n=16), a memory stress group (n=18), or a no-stress control group (n=18). While being exposed to the acute stressor or a control task, participants encoded personality- and memory-related words and were tested for free recall 24h later. Relative to controls, stress significantly enhanced recall of context-congruent words, but only for personality words. This suggests that acute stress may strengthen the consolidation of memory material when the stressor matches the to-be-remembered information in place and time.

  15. Unraveling the complexities of circadian and sleep interactions with memory formation through invertebrate research

    PubMed Central

    Michel, Maximilian; Lyons, Lisa C.

    2014-01-01

    Across phylogeny, the endogenous biological clock has been recognized as providing adaptive advantages to organisms through coordination of physiological and behavioral processes. Recent research has emphasized the role of circadian modulation of memory in generating peaks and troughs in cognitive performance. The circadian clock along with homeostatic processes also regulates sleep, which itself impacts the formation and consolidation of memory. Thus, the circadian clock, sleep and memory form a triad with ongoing dynamic interactions. With technological advances and the development of a global 24/7 society, understanding the mechanisms underlying these connections becomes pivotal for development of therapeutic treatments for memory disorders and to address issues in cognitive performance arising from non-traditional work schedules. Invertebrate models, such as Drosophila melanogaster and the mollusks Aplysia and Lymnaea, have proven invaluable tools for identification of highly conserved molecular processes in memory. Recent research from invertebrate systems has outlined the influence of sleep and the circadian clock upon synaptic plasticity. In this review, we discuss the effects of the circadian clock and sleep on memory formation in invertebrates drawing attention to the potential of in vivo and in vitro approaches that harness the power of simple invertebrate systems to correlate individual cellular processes with complex behaviors. In conclusion, this review highlights how studies in invertebrates with relatively simple nervous systems can provide mechanistic insights into corresponding behaviors in higher organisms and can be used to outline possible therapeutic options to guide further targeted inquiry. PMID:25136297

  16. Formation and decay of sensorimotor and associative memory in object lifting.

    PubMed

    Nowak, Dennis A; Koupan, Christina; Hermsdörfer, Joachim

    2007-08-01

    The temporal dynamics of the formation and decay of the memory processes underlying the specification of force when lifting objects of either the same or different weight were investigated. Sensorimotor memory enables rapid force programming to the physical object properties. Associative memory may be used to establish a memory link between a colour cue and object weight. In experiment 1, subjects lifted a constant weight in sets of ten lifts 10 s, 5 min, 1 h and 24 h apart. In experiment 2, subjects learned to associate a colour to two different weights to be lifted in alternation within sets of ten lifts 10 s, 5 min, 1 h and 24 h apart. Results of experiment 1 suggest that the memory related to the physical properties of a given object is rapidly established within a few lifts. However, there is a drift of accuracy of force programming that is observed as early as 10 s after the initial set of lifts. Results of experiment 2 imply that people are able to quickly establish an association between visual colour cues and particular object weights. Importantly, the formation of such memory appears to reduce the drift in accuracy observed in experiment 1 and provides the precise programming of grip and lift forces according to the physical object properties for up to 24 h.

  17. microRNAs That Promote or Inhibit Memory Formation in Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Busto, Germain U.; Guven-Ozkan, Tugba; Fulga, Tudor A.; Van Vactor, David; Davis, Ronald L.

    2015-01-01

    microRNAs (miRNAs) are small noncoding RNAs that regulate gene expression post-transcriptionally. Prior studies have shown that they regulate numerous physiological processes critical for normal development, cellular growth control, and organismal behavior. Here, we systematically surveyed 134 different miRNAs for roles in olfactory learning and memory formation using “sponge” technology to titrate their activity broadly in the Drosophila melanogaster central nervous system. We identified at least five different miRNAs involved in memory formation or retention from this large screen, including miR-9c, miR-31a, miR-305, miR-974, and miR-980. Surprisingly, the titration of some miRNAs increased memory, while the titration of others decreased memory. We performed more detailed experiments on two miRNAs, miR-974 and miR-31a, by mapping their roles to subpopulations of brain neurons and testing the functional involvement in memory of potential mRNA targets through bioinformatics and a RNA interference knockdown approach. This screen offers an important first step toward the comprehensive identification of all miRNAs and their potential targets that serve in gene regulatory networks important for normal learning and memory. PMID:26088433

  18. Septo-Hippocampo-Septal Loop and Memory Formation

    PubMed Central

    Khakpai, Fatemeh; Nasehi, Mohammad; Haeri-Rohani, Ali; Eidi, Akram; Zarrindast, Mohammad Reza

    2013-01-01

    The Cholinergic and GABAergic fibers of the medial septal/diagonal band of Broca (MS/ DB) area project to the hippocampus and constitute the septo-hippocampal pathway, which has been proven to play a role in learning and memory. In addition, the hippocampus has bidirectional connections with the septum so that to self-regulate of cholinergic input. The activity of septal and hippocampal neurons is modulated by several neurotransmitter systems including glutamatergic neurons from the entorhinal cortex, serotonergic fibers from the raphe nucleus, dopaminergic neurons from the ventral tegmental area (VTA), histaminergic cells from the tuberomammillary nucleus and adrenergic fibers from the locus coeruleus (LC). Thus, changes in the glutamatergic, serotonergic and other systems-mediated transmission in the MS/DB may influence cholinergic or GABAergic transmission in the hippocampus. PMID:25337323

  19. SNAP-25 in hippocampal CA3 region is required for long-term memory formation

    SciTech Connect

    Hou Qiuling; Gao Xiang; Lu Qi; Zhang Xuehan; Tu Yanyang; Jin Meilei; Zhao Guoping; Yu Lei; Jing Naihe; Li Baoming . E-mail: bmli@fudan.edu.cn

    2006-09-08

    SNAP-25 is a synaptosomal protein of 25 kDa, a key component of synaptic vesicle-docking/fusion machinery, and plays a critical role in exocytosis and neurotransmitter release. We previously reported that SNAP-25 in the hippocampal CA1 region is involved in consolidation of contextual fear memory and water-maze spatial memory (Hou et al. European J Neuroscience, 20: 1593-1603, 2004). SNAP-25 is expressed not only in the CA1 region, but also in the CA3 region, and the SNAP-25 mRNA level in the CA3 region is higher than in the CA1 region. Here, we provide evidence that SNAP-25 in the CA3 region is also involved in learning/memory. Intra-CA3 infusion of SNAP-25 antisense oligonucleotide impaired both long-term contextual fear memory and water-maze spatial memory, with short-term memory intact. Furthermore, the SNAP-25 antisense oligonucleotide suppressed the long-term potentiation (LTP) of field excitatory post-synaptic potential (fEPSP) in the mossy-fiber pathway (DG-CA3 pathway), with no effect on paired-pulse facilitation of the fEPSP. These results are consistent with the notion that SNAP-25 in the hippocampal CA3 region is required for long-term memory formation.

  20. NGF promotes long-term memory formation by activating poly(ADP-ribose)polymerase-1.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shao-Hui; Liao, Xiao-Mei; Liu, Dan; Hu, Juan; Yin, Yang-Yang; Wang, Jian-Zhi; Zhu, Ling-Qiang

    2012-11-01

    Nerve growth factor (NGF) is a critical secreted protein that plays an important role in development, survival, and function of the mammalian nervous system. Previously reports suggest that endogenous NGF is essential for the hippocampal plasticity/memory and NGF deprivation induces the impairment of hippocampus-related memory and synaptic plasticity. However, whether exogenous supplement of NGF could promote the hippocampus-dependent synaptic plasticity/memory and the possible underlying mechanisms are not clear. In this study we found that NGF administration facilitates the hippocampus-dependent long-term memory and synaptic plasticity by increasing the activity of PARP-1, a polymerase mediating the PolyADP-ribosylation and important for the memory formation. Co-application of 3-Aminobenzamide (3-AB), a specific inhibitor of PARP-1, distinctly blocked the boosting effect of NGF on memory and synaptic plasticity, and the activation of downstream PKA-CREB signal pathway. Our data provide the first evidence that NGF supplement facilitates synaptic plasticity and the memory ability through PARP-1-mediated protein polyADP-ribosylation and activation of PKA-CREB pathway.

  1. Allocentric spatial memory activation of the hippocampal formation measured with fMRI.

    PubMed

    Parslow, David M; Rose, David; Brooks, Barbara; Fleminger, Simon; Gray, Jeffrey A; Giampietro, Vincent; Brammer, Michael J; Williams, Steven; Gasston, David; Andrew, Christopher; Vythelingum, Goparlen N; Loannou, Glafkos; Simmons, Andrew; Morris, Robin G

    2004-07-01

    Hippocampal activation was investigated, comparing allocentric and egocentric spatial memory. Healthy participants were immersed in a virtual reality circular arena, with pattern-rendered walls. In a viewpoint-independent task, they moved toward a pole, which was then removed. They were relocated to another position and had to move to the prior location of the pole. For viewpoint-dependent memory, the participants were not moved to a new starting point, but the patterns were rotated to prevent them from indicating the final position. Hippocampal and parahippocampal activation were found in the viewpoint-independent memory encoding phase. Viewpoint-dependent memory did not result in such activation. These results suggest differential activation of the hippocampal formation during allocentric encoding, in partial support of the spatial mapping hypothesis as applied to humans.

  2. System consolidation during sleep - a common principle underlying psychological and immunological memory formation.

    PubMed

    Westermann, Jürgen; Lange, Tanja; Textor, Johannes; Born, Jan

    2015-10-01

    Sleep benefits the consolidation of psychological memory, and there are hints that sleep likewise supports immunological memory formation. Comparing psychological and immunological domains, we make the case for active system consolidation that is similarly established in both domains and partly conveyed by the same sleep-associated processes. In the psychological domain, neuronal reactivation of declarative memory during slow-wave sleep (SWS) promotes the redistribution of representations initially stored in hippocampal circuitry to extra-hippocampal circuitry for long-term storage. In the immunological domain, SWS seems to favor the redistribution of antigenic memories initially held by antigen-presenting cells, to persisting T cells serving as a long-term store. Because storage capacities are limited in both systems, system consolidation presumably reduces information by abstracting 'gist' for long-term storage.

  3. Delayed emergence of effects of memory-enhancing drugs: implications for the dynamics of long-term memory.

    PubMed Central

    Mondadori, C; Hengerer, B; Ducret, T; Borkowski, J

    1994-01-01

    Many theories of memory postulate that processing of information outlasts the learning situation and involves several different physiological substrates. If such physiologically distinct mechanisms or stages of memory do in fact exist, they should be differentially affected by particular experimental manipulations. Accordingly, a selective improvement of the processes underlying short-term memory should be detectable only while the information is encoded in the short-term mode, and a selective influence on long-term memory should be detectable only from the moment when memory is based on the long-term trace. Our comparative study of the time course of the effects of the cholinergic agonist arecoline, the gamma-aminobutyric acid type B receptor antagonist CGP 36742, the angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor captopril, and the nootropic oxiracetam, four substances with completely different primary sites of action, show that the memory-enhancing effects consistently come into evidence no sooner than 16-24 h after the learning trial. On the one hand, this finding suggests that all these substances act by way of the same type of mechanism; on the other hand, it demonstrates that the substrate modulated by the compounds forms the basis of memory only after 16-24 h. From the observation that animals also show clear signs of retention during the first 16 h--i.e., before the effects of the substances are measurable--it can be inferred that retention during this time is mediated by other mechanisms that are not influenced by any of the substances. Images PMID:8134347

  4. Consolidation power of extrinsic rewards: reward cues enhance long-term memory for irrelevant past events.

    PubMed

    Murayama, Kou; Kitagami, Shinji

    2014-02-01

    Recent research suggests that extrinsic rewards promote memory consolidation through dopaminergic modulation processes. However, no conclusive behavioral evidence exists given that the influence of extrinsic reward on attention and motivation during encoding and consolidation processes are inherently confounded. The present study provides behavioral evidence that extrinsic rewards (i.e., monetary incentives) enhance human memory consolidation independently of attention and motivation. Participants saw neutral pictures, followed by a reward or control cue in an unrelated context. Our results (and a direct replication study) demonstrated that the reward cue predicted a retrograde enhancement of memory for the preceding neutral pictures. This retrograde effect was observed only after a delay, not immediately upon testing. An additional experiment showed that emotional arousal or unconscious resource mobilization cannot explain the retrograde enhancement effect. These results provide support for the notion that the dopaminergic memory consolidation effect can result from extrinsic reward.

  5. Memory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKean, Kevin

    1983-01-01

    Discusses current research (including that involving amnesiacs and snails) into the nature of the memory process, differentiating between and providing examples of "fact" memory and "skill" memory. Suggests that three brain parts (thalamus, fornix, mammilary body) are involved in the memory process. (JN)

  6. Stereotype threat can both enhance and impair older adults' memory.

    PubMed

    Barber, Sarah J; Mather, Mara

    2013-12-01

    Negative stereotypes about aging can impair older adults' memory via stereotype threat; however, the mechanisms underlying this phenomenon are unclear. In two experiments, we tested competing predictions derived from two theoretical accounts of stereotype threat: executive-control interference and regulatory fit. Older adults completed a working memory test either under stereotype threat about age-related memory declines or not under such threat. Monetary incentives were manipulated such that recall led to gains or forgetting led to losses. The executive-control-interference account predicts that stereotype threat decreases the availability of executive-control resources and hence should impair working memory performance. The regulatory-fit account predicts that threat induces a prevention focus, which should impair performance when gains are emphasized but improve performance when losses are emphasized. Results were consistent only with the regulatory-fit account. Although stereotype threat significantly impaired older adults' working memory performance when remembering led to gains, it significantly improved performance when forgetting led to losses.

  7. Memory enhancement produced by post-training exposure to sucrose-conditioned cues

    PubMed Central

    Holahan, Matthew R

    2013-01-01

    A number of aversive and appetitive unconditioned stimuli (such as shock and food) are known to produce memory enhancement when they occur during the post-training period. Post-training exposure to conditioned aversive stimuli has also been shown to enhance memory consolidation processes. The present study shows for the first time that post-training exposure to conditioned stimuli previously paired with consumption of a sucrose solution also enhances memory consolidation. Male Long Evans rats were trained on a one-session conditioned cue preference (CCP) task on a radial arm maze. Immediately or 2 hours after training, rats consumed a sucrose solution or were exposed to cues previously paired with consumption of sucrose or cues previously paired with water. Twenty-four hours later, the rats were tested for a CCP. Immediate, but not delayed, post-training consumption of sucrose enhanced memory for the CCP. Immediate, but not delayed, post-training exposure to cues previously paired with sucrose, but not with water, also enhanced CCP memory. The possibility that rewarding and aversive conditioned stimuli affect memory by a common physiological process is discussed. PMID:24358865

  8. Genome-wide chromatin and gene expression profiling during memory formation and maintenance in adult mice

    PubMed Central

    Centeno, Tonatiuh Pena; Shomroni, Orr; Hennion, Magali; Halder, Rashi; Vidal, Ramon; Rahman, Raza-Ur; Bonn, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Recent evidence suggests that the formation and maintenance of memory requires epigenetic changes. In an effort to understand the spatio-temporal extent of learning and memory-related epigenetic changes we have charted genome-wide histone and DNA methylation profiles, in two different brain regions, two cell types, and three time-points, before and after learning. In this data descriptor we provide detailed information on data generation, give insights into the rationale of experiments, highlight necessary steps to assess data quality, offer guidelines for future use of the data and supply ready-to-use code to replicate the analysis results. The data provides a blueprint of the gene regulatory network underlying short- and long-term memory formation and maintenance. This ‘healthy’ gene regulatory network of learning can now be compared to changes in neurological or psychiatric diseases, providing mechanistic insights into brain disorders and highlighting potential therapeutic avenues. PMID:27727234

  9. The Cambridge Car Memory Test: a task matched in format to the Cambridge Face Memory Test, with norms, reliability, sex differences, dissociations from face memory, and expertise effects.

    PubMed

    Dennett, Hugh W; McKone, Elinor; Tavashmi, Raka; Hall, Ashleigh; Pidcock, Madeleine; Edwards, Mark; Duchaine, Bradley

    2012-06-01

    Many research questions require a within-class object recognition task matched for general cognitive requirements with a face recognition task. If the object task also has high internal reliability, it can improve accuracy and power in group analyses (e.g., mean inversion effects for faces vs. objects), individual-difference studies (e.g., correlations between certain perceptual abilities and face/object recognition), and case studies in neuropsychology (e.g., whether a prosopagnosic shows a face-specific or object-general deficit). Here, we present such a task. Our Cambridge Car Memory Test (CCMT) was matched in format to the established Cambridge Face Memory Test, requiring recognition of exemplars across view and lighting change. We tested 153 young adults (93 female). Results showed high reliability (Cronbach's alpha = .84) and a range of scores suitable both for normal-range individual-difference studies and, potentially, for diagnosis of impairment. The mean for males was much higher than the mean for females. We demonstrate independence between face memory and car memory (dissociation based on sex, plus a modest correlation between the two), including where participants have high relative expertise with cars. We also show that expertise with real car makes and models of the era used in the test significantly predicts CCMT performance. Surprisingly, however, regression analyses imply that there is an effect of sex per se on the CCMT that is not attributable to a stereotypical male advantage in car expertise.

  10. A single bout of resistance exercise can enhance episodic memory performance.

    PubMed

    Weinberg, Lisa; Hasni, Anita; Shinohara, Minoru; Duarte, Audrey

    2014-11-01

    Acute aerobic exercise can be beneficial to episodic memory. This benefit may occur because exercise produces a similar physiological response as physical stressors. When administered during consolidation, acute stress, both physical and psychological, consistently enhances episodic memory, particularly memory for emotional materials. Here we investigated whether a single bout of resistance exercise performed during consolidation can produce episodic memory benefits 48 h later. We used a one-leg knee extension/flexion task for the resistance exercise. To assess the physiological response to the exercise, we measured salivary alpha amylase (a biomarker of central norepinephrine), heart rate, and blood pressure. To test emotional episodic memory, we used a remember-know recognition memory paradigm with equal numbers of positive, negative, and neutral IAPS images as stimuli. The group that performed the exercise, the active group, had higher overall recognition accuracy than the group that did not exercise, the passive group. We found a robust effect of valence across groups, with better performance on emotional items as compared to neutral items and no difference between positive and negative items. This effect changed based on the physiological response to the exercise. Within the active group, participants with a high physiological response to the exercise were impaired for neutral items as compared to participants with a low physiological response to the exercise. Our results demonstrate that a single bout of resistance exercise performed during consolidation can enhance episodic memory and that the effect of valence on memory depends on the physiological response to the exercise.

  11. Enhancement and inhibition of immunological mechanisms by immunosuppressive agents. I. Dose effect on priming and generation of memory to a bacterial antigen.

    PubMed Central

    Macario, A J; De Macario, E C

    1978-01-01

    A new experimental system is described which allows the study of the effect of immunosuppressors upon the priming and generation of memory to an antigen from Escherichia coli. A single dose of bacterial beta-D-galactosidase without adjuvant injected into C57B1/6J mice primes and elicits memory but not antibodies. Thus by administering immunosuppressors near the priming injection, one can examine whether primary antibody formation is enhanced and whether priming generation of memory is enhanced or inhibited. We found that X-rays, cyclophosphamide and oxisuran (2-[(methylsulfinyl)acetyl]pyridine) either enhance or inhibit the elicitation of memory, depending on dosage, although they do not alter primary antibody unresponsiveness. The data show two main features: (a) immunosuppressors can enhance immunization; and (b) generation of memory can be improved without increasing antibody levels. The former finding draws attention to the role that immunosuppressors might play in the breaching of tolerance to self-antigens which share determinants with microbes, while the latter observation shows that antibody synthesis and elicitation of memory can follow independent pathways. PMID:417887

  12. Stress administered prior to encoding impairs neutral but enhances emotional long-term episodic memories.

    PubMed

    Payne, Jessica D; Jackson, Eric D; Hoscheidt, Siobhan; Ryan, Lee; Jacobs, W Jake; Nadel, Lynn

    2007-12-01

    Stressful events frequently comprise both neutral and emotionally arousing information, yet the impact of stress on emotional and neutral events is still not fully understood. The hippocampus and frontal cortex have dense concentrations of receptors for stress hormones, such as cortisol, which at high levels can impair performance on hippocampally dependent memory tasks. Yet, the same stress hormones can facilitate memory for emotional information, which involves interactions between the hippocampus and amygdala. Here, we induced psychosocial stress prior to encoding and examined its long-term effects on memory for emotional and neutral episodes. The stress manipulation disrupted long-term memory for a neutral episode, but facilitated long-term memory for an equivalent emotional episode compared with a control condition. The stress manipulation also increased salivary cortisol, catecholamines as indicated by the presence of alpha-amylase, heart rate, and subjectively reported stress. Stressed subjects reported more false memories than nonstressed control subjects, and these false memories correlated positively with cortisol levels, providing evidence for a relationship between stress and false memory formation. Our results demonstrate that stress, when administered prior to encoding, produces different patterns of long-term remembering for neutral and emotional episodes. These differences likely emerge from differential actions of stress hormones on memory-relevant regions of the brain.

  13. Sleep Enhances Recognition Memory for Conspecifics as Bound into Spatial Context.

    PubMed

    Sawangjit, Anuck; Kelemen, Eduard; Born, Jan; Inostroza, Marion

    2017-01-01

    Social memory refers to the fundamental ability of social species to recognize their conspecifics in quite different contexts. Sleep has been shown to benefit consolidation, especially of hippocampus-dependent episodic memory whereas effects of sleep on social memory are less well studied. Here, we examined the effect of sleep on memory for conspecifics in rats. To discriminate interactions between the consolidation of social memory and of spatial context during sleep, adult Long Evans rats performed on a social discrimination task in a radial arm maze. The Learning phase comprised three 10-min sampling sessions in which the rats explored a juvenile rat presented at a different arm of the maze in each session. Then the rats were allowed to sleep (n = 18) or stayed awake (n = 18) for 120 min. During the following 10-min Test phase, the familiar juvenile rat (of the Learning phase) was presented along with a novel juvenile rat, each rat at an opposite arm of the maze. Significant social recognition memory, as indicated by preferential exploration of the novel over the familiar conspecific, occurred only after post-learning sleep, but not after wakefulness. Sleep, compared with wakefulness, significantly enhanced social recognition during the first minute of the Test phase. However, memory expression depended on the spatial configuration: Significant social recognition memory emerged only after sleep when the rat encountered the novel conspecific at a place different from that of the familiar juvenile in the last sampling session before sleep. Though unspecific retrieval-related effects cannot entirely be excluded, our findings suggest that sleep, rather than independently enhancing social and spatial aspects of memory, consolidates social memory by acting on an episodic representation that binds the memory of the conspecific together with the spatial context in which it was recently encountered.

  14. Sleep Enhances Recognition Memory for Conspecifics as Bound into Spatial Context

    PubMed Central

    Sawangjit, Anuck; Kelemen, Eduard; Born, Jan; Inostroza, Marion

    2017-01-01

    Social memory refers to the fundamental ability of social species to recognize their conspecifics in quite different contexts. Sleep has been shown to benefit consolidation, especially of hippocampus-dependent episodic memory whereas effects of sleep on social memory are less well studied. Here, we examined the effect of sleep on memory for conspecifics in rats. To discriminate interactions between the consolidation of social memory and of spatial context during sleep, adult Long Evans rats performed on a social discrimination task in a radial arm maze. The Learning phase comprised three 10-min sampling sessions in which the rats explored a juvenile rat presented at a different arm of the maze in each session. Then the rats were allowed to sleep (n = 18) or stayed awake (n = 18) for 120 min. During the following 10-min Test phase, the familiar juvenile rat (of the Learning phase) was presented along with a novel juvenile rat, each rat at an opposite arm of the maze. Significant social recognition memory, as indicated by preferential exploration of the novel over the familiar conspecific, occurred only after post-learning sleep, but not after wakefulness. Sleep, compared with wakefulness, significantly enhanced social recognition during the first minute of the Test phase. However, memory expression depended on the spatial configuration: Significant social recognition memory emerged only after sleep when the rat encountered the novel conspecific at a place different from that of the familiar juvenile in the last sampling session before sleep. Though unspecific retrieval-related effects cannot entirely be excluded, our findings suggest that sleep, rather than independently enhancing social and spatial aspects of memory, consolidates social memory by acting on an episodic representation that binds the memory of the conspecific together with the spatial context in which it was recently encountered. PMID:28270755

  15. Cognitive Association Formation in Episodic Memory: Evidence from Event-Related Potentials

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Alice S. N.; Vallesi, Antonino; Picton, Terence W.; Tulving, Endel

    2009-01-01

    The present study focused on the processes underlying cognitive association formation by investigating subsequent memory effects. Event-related potentials were recorded as participants studied pairs of words, presented one word at a time, for later recall. The findings showed that a frontal-positive late wave (LW), which occurred 1-1.6 s after the…

  16. Growth Factor Signaling and Memory Formation: Temporal and Spatial Integration of a Molecular Network

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kopec, Ashley M.; Carew, Thomas J.

    2013-01-01

    Growth factor (GF) signaling is critically important for developmental plasticity. It also plays a crucial role in adult plasticity, such as that required for memory formation. Although different GFs interact with receptors containing distinct types of kinase domains, they typically signal through converging intracellular cascades (e.g.,…

  17. Gene repressive mechanisms in the mouse brain involved in memory formation.

    PubMed

    Yu, Nam-Kyung; Kaang, Bong-Kiun

    2016-04-01

    Gene regulation in the brain is essential for long-term plasticity and memory formation. Despite this established notion, the quantitative translational map in the brain during memory formation has not been reported. To systematically probe the changes in protein synthesis during memory formation, our recent study exploited ribosome profiling using the mouse hippocampal tissues at multiple time points after a learning event. Analysis of the resulting database revealed novel types of gene regulation after learning. First, the translation of a group of genes was rapidly suppressed without change in mRNA levels. At later time points, the expression of another group of genes was downregulated through reduction in mRNA levels. This reduction was predicted to be downstream of inhibition of ESR1 (Estrogen Receptor 1) signaling. Overexpressing Nrsn1, one of the genes whose translation was suppressed, or activating ESR1 by injecting an agonist interfered with memory formation, suggesting the functional importance of these findings. Moreover, the translation of genes encoding the translational machineries was found to be suppressed, among other genes in the mouse hippocampus. Together, this unbiased approach has revealed previously unidentified characteristics of gene regulation in the brain and highlighted the importance of repressive controls. [BMB Reports 2016; 49(4): 199-200].

  18. Effects of Acute Methamphetamine on Emotional Memory Formation in Humans: Encoding vs Consolidation

    PubMed Central

    Ballard, Michael E.; Weafer, Jessica; Gallo, David A.; de Wit, Harriet

    2015-01-01

    Understanding how stimulant drugs affect memory is important for understanding their addictive potential. Here we examined the effects of acute d-methamphetamine (METH), administered either before (encoding phase) or immediately after (consolidation phase) study on memory for emotional and neutral images in healthy humans. Young adult volunteers (N = 60) were randomly assigned to either an encoding group (N = 29) or a consolidation group (N = 31). Across three experimental sessions, they received placebo and two doses of METH (10, 20 mg) either 45 min before (encoding) or immediately after (consolidation) viewing pictures of emotionally positive, neutral, and negative scenes. Memory for the pictures was tested two days later, under drug-free conditions. Half of the sample reported sleep disturbances following the high dose of METH, which affected their memory performance. Therefore, participants were classified as poor sleepers (less than 6 hours; n = 29) or adequate sleepers (6 or more hours; n = 31) prior to analyses. For adequate sleepers, METH (20 mg) administered before encoding significantly improved memory accuracy relative to placebo, especially for emotional (positive and negative), compared to neutral, stimuli. For poor sleepers in the encoding group, METH impaired memory. METH did not affect memory in the consolidation group regardless of sleep quality. These results extend previous findings showing that METH can enhance memory for salient emotional stimuli but only if it is present at the time of study, where it can affect both encoding and consolidation. METH does not appear to facilitate consolidation if administered after encoding. The study also demonstrates the important role of sleep in memory studies. PMID:25679982

  19. Effects of acute methamphetamine on emotional memory formation in humans: encoding vs consolidation.

    PubMed

    Ballard, Michael E; Weafer, Jessica; Gallo, David A; de Wit, Harriet

    2015-01-01

    Understanding how stimulant drugs affect memory is important for understanding their addictive potential. Here we examined the effects of acute d-methamphetamine (METH), administered either before (encoding phase) or immediately after (consolidation phase) study on memory for emotional and neutral images in healthy humans. Young adult volunteers (N = 60) were randomly assigned to either an encoding group (N = 29) or a consolidation group (N = 31). Across three experimental sessions, they received placebo and two doses of METH (10, 20 mg) either 45 min before (encoding) or immediately after (consolidation) viewing pictures of emotionally positive, neutral, and negative scenes. Memory for the pictures was tested two days later, under drug-free conditions. Half of the sample reported sleep disturbances following the high dose of METH, which affected their memory performance. Therefore, participants were classified as poor sleepers (less than 6 hours; n = 29) or adequate sleepers (6 or more hours; n = 31) prior to analyses. For adequate sleepers, METH (20 mg) administered before encoding significantly improved memory accuracy relative to placebo, especially for emotional (positive and negative), compared to neutral, stimuli. For poor sleepers in the encoding group, METH impaired memory. METH did not affect memory in the consolidation group regardless of sleep quality. These results extend previous findings showing that METH can enhance memory for salient emotional stimuli but only if it is present at the time of study, where it can affect both encoding and consolidation. METH does not appear to facilitate consolidation if administered after encoding. The study also demonstrates the important role of sleep in memory studies.

  20. Tianeptine: 5-HT uptake sites and 5-HT(1-7) receptors modulate memory formation in an autoshaping Pavlovian/instrumental task.

    PubMed

    Meneses, Alfredo

    2002-05-01

    Recent studies using invertebrate and mammal species have revealed that, endogenous serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) modulates cognitive processes, particularly learning and memory, though, at present, it is unclear the manner, where, and how long 5-HT systems are involved. Hence in this work, an attempt was made to study the effects of 5-HT endogenous on memory formation, using a 5-HT uptake facilitator (tianeptine) and, selective 5-HT(1-7) receptor antagonists to determine whether 5-HT uptake sites and which 5-HT receptors are involved, respectively. Results showed that post-training tianeptine injection enhanced memory consolidation in an autoshaping Pavlovian/instrumental learning task, which has been useful to detect changes on memory formation elicited by drugs or aging. On interaction experiments, ketanserin (5-HT(1D/2A/2C) antagonist) slightly enhanced tianeptine effects, while WAY 100635 (5-HT(1A) antagonist), SB-224289 (5-HT(1B) inverse agonist), SB-200646 (5-HT(2B/2C) antagonist), ondansetron (5-HT(3) antagonist), GR 127487 (5-HT(4) antagonist), Ro 04-6790 (5-HT(6) antagonist), DR 4004 (5-HT(7) antagonist), or fluoxetine (an inhibitor of 5-HT reuptake) blocked the facilitatory tianeptine effect. Notably, together tianeptine and Ro 04-6790 impaired learning consolidation. Moreover, 5-HT depletion completely reversed the tianeptine effect. Tianeptine also normalized an impaired memory elicited by scopolamine (an antimuscarinic) or dizocilpine (non-competitive glutamatergic antagonist), while partially reversed that induced by TFMPP (5-HT(1B/1D/2A-2C/7) agonist/antagonist). Finally, tianeptine-fluoxetine coadministration had no effect on learning consolidation; nevertheless, administration of an acetylcholinesterase inhibitor, phenserine, potentiated subeffective tianeptine or fluoxetine doses. Collectively, these data confirmed that endogenously 5-HT modulates, via uptake sites and 5-HT(1-7) receptors, memory consolidation, and are consistent with the

  1. Distinct effects of perceptual quality on auditory word recognition, memory formation and recall in a neural model of sequential memory.

    PubMed

    Miller, Paul; Wingfield, Arthur

    2010-01-01

    Adults with sensory impairment, such as reduced hearing acuity, have impaired ability to recall identifiable words, even when their memory is otherwise normal. We hypothesize that poorer stimulus quality causes weaker activity in neurons responsive to the stimulus and more time to elapse between stimulus onset and identification. The weaker activity and increased delay to stimulus identification reduce the necessary strengthening of connections between neurons active before stimulus presentation and neurons active at the time of stimulus identification. We test our hypothesis through a biologically motivated computational model, which performs item recognition, memory formation and memory retrieval. In our simulations, spiking neurons are distributed into pools representing either items or context, in two separate, but connected winner-takes-all (WTA) networks. We include associative, Hebbian learning, by comparing multiple forms of spike-timing-dependent plasticity (STDP), which strengthen synapses between coactive neurons during stimulus identification. Synaptic strengthening by STDP can be sufficient to reactivate neurons during recall if their activity during a prior stimulus rose strongly and rapidly. We find that a single poor quality stimulus impairs recall of neighboring stimuli as well as the weak stimulus itself. We demonstrate that within the WTA paradigm of word recognition, reactivation of separate, connected sets of non-word, context cells permits reverse recall. Also, only with such coactive context cells, does slowing the rate of stimulus presentation increase recall probability. We conclude that significant temporal overlap of neural activity patterns, absent from individual WTA networks, is necessary to match behavioral data for word recall.

  2. Estradiol enhances retention but not organization of hippocampus-dependent memory in intact male mice.

    PubMed

    Al Abed, Alice Shaam; Sellami, Azza; Brayda-Bruno, Laurent; Lamothe, Valérie; Noguès, Xavier; Potier, Mylène; Bennetau-Pelissero, Catherine; Marighetto, Aline

    2016-07-01

    Because estrogens have mostly been studied in gonadectomized females, effects of chronic exposure to environmental estrogens in the general population are underestimated. Estrogens can enhance hippocampus-dependent memory through the modulation of information storage. However, declarative memory, the hippocampus-dependent memory of facts and events, demands more than abilities to retain information. Specifically, memory of repetitive events of everyday life such as "where I parked" requires abilities to organize/update memories to prevent proactive interference from similar memories of previous "parking events". Whether such organizational processes are estrogen-sensitive is unknown. We here studied, in intact young and aged adult mice, drinking-water (1μM) estradiol effects on both retention and organizational components of hippocampus-dependent memory, using a radial-maze task of everyday-like memory. Demand on retention vs organization was manipulated by varying the time-interval separating repetitions of similar events. Estradiol increased performance in young and aged mice under minimized organizational demand, but failed to improve the age-associated memory impairment and diminished performance in young mice under high organizational demand. In fact, estradiol prolonged mnemonic retention of successive events without improving organization abilities, hence resulted in more proactive interference from irrelevant memories. c-Fos imaging of testing-induced brain activations showed that the deterioration of young memory was associated with dentate gyrus dysconnectivity, reminiscent of that seen in aged mice. Our findings support the view that estradiol is promnesic but also reveal that such property can paradoxically impair memory. These findings have important outcomes regarding health issues relative to the impact of environmental estrogens in the general population.

  3. Intersensory Redundancy Enhances Memory in Bobwhite Quail Embryos

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lickliter, Robert; Bahrick, Lorraine E.; Honeycutt, Hunter

    2004-01-01

    Information presented concurrently and redundantly to 2 or more senses (intersensory redundancy) has been shown to recruit attention and promote perceptual learning of amodal stimulus properties in animal embryos and human infants. This study examined whether the facilitative effect of intersensory redundancy also extends to the domain of memory.…

  4. Working Memory Enhances Visual Perception: Evidence from Signal Detection Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soto, David; Wriglesworth, Alice; Bahrami-Balani, Alex; Humphreys, Glyn W.

    2010-01-01

    We show that perceptual sensitivity to visual stimuli can be modulated by matches between the contents of working memory (WM) and stimuli in the visual field. Observers were presented with an object cue (to hold in WM or to merely attend) and subsequently had to identify a brief target presented within a colored shape. The cue could be…

  5. Adaptive Memory: Animacy Enhances Free Recall but Impairs Cued Recall

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Popp, Earl Y.; Serra, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    Recent research suggests that human memory systems evolved to remember animate things better than inanimate things. In the present experiments, we examined whether these effects occur for both free recall and cued recall. In Experiment 1, we directly compared the effect of animacy on free recall and cued recall. Participants studied lists of…

  6. Spatial partitions systematize visual search and enhance target memory.

    PubMed

    Solman, Grayden J F; Kingstone, Alan

    2017-02-01

    Humans are remarkably capable of finding desired objects in the world, despite the scale and complexity of naturalistic environments. Broadly, this ability is supported by an interplay between exploratory search and guidance from episodic memory for previously observed target locations. Here we examined how the environment itself may influence this interplay. In particular, we examined how partitions in the environment-like buildings, rooms, and furniture-can impact memory during repeated search. We report that the presence of partitions in a display, independent of item configuration, reliably improves episodic memory for item locations. Repeated search through partitioned displays was faster overall and was characterized by more rapid ballistic orienting in later repetitions. Explicit recall was also both faster and more accurate when displays were partitioned. Finally, we found that search paths were more regular and systematic when displays were partitioned. Given the ubiquity of partitions in real-world environments, these results provide important insights into the mechanisms of naturalistic search and its relation to memory.

  7. Enhanced Visual Short-Term Memory for Angry Faces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Margaret C.; Wu, Chia-Yun; Linden, David E. J.; Raymond, Jane E.

    2009-01-01

    Although some views of face perception posit independent processing of face identity and expression, recent studies suggest interactive processing of these 2 domains. The authors examined expression-identity interactions in visual short-term memory (VSTM) by assessing recognition performance in a VSTM task in which face identity was relevant and…

  8. Ventromedial prefrontal cortex stimulation enhances memory and hippocampal neurogenesis in the middle-aged rats

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Albert; Jain, Neeraj; Vyas, Ajai; Lim, Lee Wei

    2015-01-01

    Memory dysfunction is a key symptom of age-related dementia. Although recent studies have suggested positive effects of electrical stimulation for memory enhancement, its potential targets remain largely unknown. In this study, we hypothesized that spatially targeted deep brain stimulation of ventromedial prefrontal cortex enhanced memory functions in a middle-aged rat model. Our results show that acute stimulation enhanced the short-, but not the long-term memory in the novel-object recognition task. Interestingly, after chronic high-frequency stimulation, both the short- and long-term memories were robustly improved in the novel-object recognition test and Morris water-maze spatial task compared to sham. Our results also demonstrated that chronic ventromedial prefrontal cortex high-frequency stimulation upregulated neurogenesis-associated genes along with enhanced hippocampal cell proliferation. Importantly, these memory behaviors were strongly correlated with the hippocampal neurogenesis. Overall, these findings suggest that chronic ventromedial prefrontal cortex high-frequency stimulation may serve as a novel effective therapeutic target for dementia-related disorders. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.04803.001 PMID:25768425

  9. Training Working Memory in Childhood Enhances Coupling between Frontoparietal Control Network and Task-Related Regions

    PubMed Central

    Barnes, Jessica J.; Nobre, Anna Christina; Woolrich, Mark W.; Baker, Kate

    2016-01-01

    Working memory is a capacity upon which many everyday tasks depend and which constrains a child's educational progress. We show that a child's working memory can be significantly enhanced by intensive computer-based training, relative to a placebo control intervention, in terms of both standardized assessments of working memory and performance on a working memory task performed in a magnetoencephalography scanner. Neurophysiologically, we identified significantly increased cross-frequency phase amplitude coupling in children who completed training. Following training, the coupling between the upper alpha rhythm (at 16 Hz), recorded in superior frontal and parietal cortex, became significantly coupled with high gamma activity (at ∼90 Hz) in inferior temporal cortex. This altered neural network activity associated with cognitive skill enhancement is consistent with a framework in which slower cortical rhythms enable the dynamic regulation of higher-frequency oscillatory activity related to task-related cognitive processes. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Whether we can enhance cognitive abilities through intensive training is one of the most controversial topics of cognitive psychology in recent years. This is particularly controversial in childhood, where aspects of cognition, such as working memory, are closely related to school success and are implicated in numerous developmental disorders. We provide the first neurophysiological account of how working memory training may enhance ability in childhood, using a brain recording technique called magnetoencephalography. We borrowed an analysis approach previously used with intracranial recordings in adults, or more typically in other animal models, called “phase amplitude coupling.” PMID:27559180

  10. Sensory Cortical Plasticity Participates in the Epigenetic Regulation of Robust Memory Formation

    PubMed Central

    Phan, Mimi L.; Bieszczad, Kasia M.

    2016-01-01

    Neuroplasticity remodels sensory cortex across the lifespan. A function of adult sensory cortical plasticity may be capturing available information during perception for memory formation. The degree of experience-dependent remodeling in sensory cortex appears to determine memory strength and specificity for important sensory signals. A key open question is how plasticity is engaged to induce different degrees of sensory cortical remodeling. Neural plasticity for long-term memory requires the expression of genes underlying stable changes in neuronal function, structure, connectivity, and, ultimately, behavior. Lasting changes in transcriptional activity may depend on epigenetic mechanisms; some of the best studied in behavioral neuroscience are DNA methylation and histone acetylation and deacetylation, which, respectively, promote and repress gene expression. One purpose of this review is to propose epigenetic regulation of sensory cortical remodeling as a mechanism enabling the transformation of significant information from experiences into content-rich memories of those experiences. Recent evidence suggests how epigenetic mechanisms regulate highly specific reorganization of sensory cortical representations that establish a widespread network for memory. Thus, epigenetic mechanisms could initiate events to establish exceptionally persistent and robust memories at a systems-wide level by engaging sensory cortical plasticity for gating what and how much information becomes encoded. PMID:26881129

  11. Enhanced human memory consolidation with post-learning stress: interaction with the degree of arousal at encoding.

    PubMed

    Cahill, Larry; Gorski, Lukasz; Le, Kathryn

    2003-01-01

    Abundant evidence indicates that endogenous stress hormones such as epinephrine and corticosterone modulate memory consolidation in animals. We recently provided the first demonstration that an endogenous stress hormone (epinephrine) can enhance human memory consolidation. However, these findings also suggested that post-learning stress hormone activation does not uniformly enhance memory for all recently acquired information; rather, that it interacts with the degree of arousal at initial encoding of material in modulating memory for the material. Here we tested this hypothesis by administering cold pressor stress (CPS) or a control procedure to subjects after they viewed slides of varying emotional content, and assessing memory for the slides 1 wk later. CPS, which significantly elevated salivary cortisol levels, enhanced memory for emotionally arousing slides compared with the controls, but did not affect memory for relatively neutral slides. These findings further support the view that post-learning stress hormone-related activity interacts with arousal at initial encoding to modulate memory consolidation.

  12. Sex, cheating, and disgust: enhanced source memory for trait information that violates gender stereotypes.

    PubMed

    Kroneisen, Meike; Bell, Raoul

    2013-01-01

    The present study examines memory for social-exchange-relevant information. In Experiment 1 male and female faces were shown together with behaviour descriptions of cheating, altruistic, and neutral behaviour. Previous results have led to the hypothesis that people preferentially remember schema-atypical information. Given the common gender stereotype that women are kinder and less egoistic than men, this atypicality account would predict that source memory (that is, memory for the type of context to which a face was associated) should be enhanced for female cheaters in comparison to male cheaters. The results of Experiment 1 confirmed this hypothesis. Experiment 2 reveals that source memory for female faces associated with disgusting behaviours is enhanced in comparison to male faces associated with disgusting behaviours. Thus the atypicality effect generalises beyond social-exchange-relevant information, a result which is inconsistent with the assumption that the findings can be ascribed to a highly specific cheater detection module.

  13. Enhanced associative memory for colour (but not shape or location) in synaesthesia.

    PubMed

    Pritchard, Jamie; Rothen, Nicolas; Coolbear, Daniel; Ward, Jamie

    2013-05-01

    People with grapheme-colour synaesthesia have been shown to have enhanced memory on a range of tasks using both stimuli that induce synaesthesia (e.g. words) and, more surprisingly, stimuli that do not (e.g. certain abstract visual stimuli). This study examines the latter by using multi-featured stimuli consisting of shape, colour and location conjunctions (e.g. shape A+colour A+location A; shape B+colour B+location B) presented in a recognition memory paradigm. This enables distractor items to be created in which one of these features is 'unbound' with respect to the others (e.g. shape A+colour B+location A; shape A+colour A+location C). Synaesthetes had higher recognition rates suggesting an enhanced ability to bind certain visual features together into memory. Importantly, synaesthetes' false alarm rates were lower only when colour was the unbound feature, not shape or location. We suggest that synaesthetes are "colour experts" and that enhanced perception can lead to enhanced memory in very specific ways; but, not for instance, an enhanced ability to form associations per se. The results support contemporary models that propose a continuum between perception and memory.

  14. Astrocyte-neuron lactate transport is required for long-term memory formation

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, Akinobu; Stern, Sarah A.; Bozdagi, Ozlem; Huntley, George W.; Walker, Ruth H.; Magistretti, Pierre J.; Alberini, Cristina M.

    2011-01-01

    SUMMARY We report that in the rat hippocampus learning leads to a significant increase in extracellular lactate levels, which derive from glycogen, an energy reserve selectively localized in astrocytes. Astrocytic glycogen breakdown and lactate release are essential for long-term but not short-term memory formation, and for the maintenance of long-term potentiation (LTP) of synaptic strength elicited in-vivo. Disrupting the expression of the astrocytic lactate transporters monocarboxylate transporter 4 (MCT4) or MCT1 causes amnesia, which, like LTP impairment, is rescued by lactate but not equicaloric glucose. Disrupting the expression of the neuronal lactate transporter MCT2 also leads to amnesia that is unaffected by either L-lactate or glucose, suggesting that lactate import into neurons is necessary for long-term memory. Glycogenolysis and astrocytic lactate transporters are also critical for the induction of molecular changes required for memory formation, including the induction of phospho-CREB, Arc and phospho-cofilin. We conclude that astrocyte-neuron lactate transport is required for long-term memory formation. PMID:21376239

  15. Processes underlying developmental reversals in false-memory formation: comment on Brainerd, Reyna, and Ceci (2008).

    PubMed

    Ghetti, Simona

    2008-09-01

    C. J. Brainerd, V. F. Reyna, and S. J. Ceci (2008) reviewed compelling evidence of developmental reversals in false-memory formation (i.e., younger children exhibit lower false-memory rates than do older children and adults) and proposed that this phenomenon depends on the development of gist processing (i.e., the ability to identify and process the semantic theme of word lists, events, etc.). A full understanding of development reversals, however, cannot be achieved without further characterizing the role played by complementary or opposing processes. Suggestions for future research are made from this perspective.

  16. Glucose Administration Enhances fMRI Brain Activation and Connectivity Related to Episodic Memory Encoding for Neutral and Emotional Stimuli

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parent, Marise B.; Krebs-Kraft, Desiree L.; Ryan, John P.; Wilson, Jennifer S.; Harenski, Carla; Hamann, Stephan

    2011-01-01

    Glucose enhances memory in a variety of species. In humans, glucose administration enhances episodic memory encoding, although little is known regarding the neural mechanisms underlying these effects. Here we examined whether elevating blood glucose would enhance functional MRI (fMRI) activation and connectivity in brain regions associated with…

  17. Distinct roles of the hippocampus and perirhinal cortex in GABAA receptor blockade-induced enhancement of object recognition memory.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jong Min; Kim, Dong Hyun; Lee, Younghwan; Park, Se Jin; Ryu, Jong Hoon

    2014-03-13

    It is well known that the hippocampus plays a role in spatial and contextual memory, and that spatial information is tightly regulated by the hippocampus. However, it is still highly controversial whether the hippocampus plays a role in object recognition memory. In a pilot study, the administration of bicuculline, a GABAA receptor antagonist, enhanced memory in the passive avoidance task, but not in the novel object recognition task. In the present study, we hypothesized that these different results are related to the characteristics of each task and the different roles of hippocampus and perirhinal cortex. A region-specific drug-treatment model was employed to clarify the role of the hippocampus and perirhinal cortex in object recognition memory. After a single habituation in the novel object recognition task, intra-perirhinal cortical injection of bicuculline increased and intra-hippocampal injection decreased the exploration time ratio to novel object. In addition, when animals were repeatedly habituated to the context, intra-perirhinal cortical administration of bicuculline still increased exploration time ratio to novel object, but the effect of intra-hippocampal administration disappeared. Concurrent increases of c-Fos expression and ERK phosphorylation were observed in the perirhinal cortex of the object with context-exposed group either after single or repeated habituation to the context, but no changes were noted in the hippocampus. Altogether, these results suggest that object recognition memory formation requires the perirhinal cortex but not the hippocampus, and that hippocampal activation interferes with object recognition memory by the information encoding of unfamiliar environment.

  18. Three-Dimensional Cellular Structures Enhanced By Shape Memory Alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nathal, Michael V.; Krause, David L.; Wilmoth, Nathan G.; Bednarcyk, Brett A.; Baker, Eric H.

    2014-01-01

    This research effort explored lightweight structural concepts married with advanced smart materials to achieve a wide variety of benefits in airframe and engine components. Lattice block structures were cast from an aerospace structural titanium alloy Ti-6Al-4V and a NiTi shape memory alloy (SMA), and preliminary properties have been measured. A finite element-based modeling approach that can rapidly and accurately capture the deformation response of lattice architectures was developed. The Ti-6-4 and SMA material behavior was calibrated via experimental tests of ligaments machined from the lattice. Benchmark testing of complete lattice structures verified the main aspects of the model as well as demonstrated the advantages of the lattice structure. Shape memory behavior of a sample machined from a lattice block was also demonstrated.

  19. Retrieval practice enhances the accessibility but not the quality of memory.

    PubMed

    Sutterer, David W; Awh, Edward

    2016-06-01

    Numerous studies have demonstrated that retrieval from long-term memory (LTM) can enhance subsequent memory performance, a phenomenon labeled the retrieval practice effect. However, the almost exclusive reliance on categorical stimuli in this literature leaves open a basic question about the nature of this improvement in memory performance. It has not yet been determined whether retrieval practice improves the probability of successful memory retrieval or the quality of the retrieved representation. To answer this question, we conducted three experiments using a mixture modeling approach (Zhang & Luck, 2008) that provides a measure of both the probability of recall and the quality of the recalled memories. Subjects attempted to memorize the color of 400 unique shapes. After every 10 images were presented, subjects either recalled the last 10 colors (the retrieval practice condition) by clicking on a color wheel with each shape as a retrieval cue or they participated in a control condition that involved no further presentations (Experiment 1) or restudy of the 10 shape/color associations (Experiments 2 and 3). Performance in a subsequent delayed recall test revealed a robust retrieval practice effect. Subjects recalled a significantly higher proportion of items that they had previously retrieved relative to items that were untested or that they had restudied. Interestingly, retrieval practice did not elicit any improvement in the precision of the retrieved memories. The same empirical pattern also was observed following delays of greater than 24 hours. Thus, retrieval practice increases the probability of successful memory retrieval but does not improve memory quality.

  20. Carbonic anhydrase activation enhances object recognition memory in mice through phosphorylation of the extracellular signal-regulated kinase in the cortex and the hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Canto de Souza, Lucas; Provensi, Gustavo; Vullo, Daniela; Carta, Fabrizio; Scozzafava, Andrea; Costa, Alessia; Schmidt, Scheila Daiane; Passani, Maria Beatrice; Supuran, Claudiu T; Blandina, Patrizio

    2017-03-09

    Rats injected with by d-phenylalanine, a carbonic anhydrase (CA) activator, enhanced spatial learning, whereas rats given acetazolamide, a CA inhibitor, exhibited impairments of fear memory consolidation. However, the related mechanisms are unclear. We investigated if CAs are involved in a non-spatial recognition memory task assessed using the object recognition test (ORT). Systemic administration of acetazolamide to male CD1 mice caused amnesia in the ORT and reduced CA activity in brain homogenates, while treatment with d-phenylalanine enhanced memory and increased CA activity. We provided also the first evidence that d-phenylalanine administration rapidly activated extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) pathways, a critical step for memory formation, in the cortex and the hippocampus, two brain areas involved in memory processing. Effects elicited by d-phenylalanine were completely blunted by co-administration of acetazolamide, but not of 1-N-(4-sulfamoylphenyl-ethyl)-2,4,6-trimethylpyridinium perchlorate ((C18),) a CA inhibitor that, differently from acetazolamide, does not cross the blood brain barrier. Our results strongly suggest that brain but not peripheral CAs activation potentiates memory as a result of ERK pathway enhanced activation.

  1. Prior perceptual processing enhances the effect of emotional arousal on the neural correlates of memory retrieval.

    PubMed

    Dew, Ilana T Z; Ritchey, Maureen; LaBar, Kevin S; Cabeza, Roberto

    2014-07-01

    A fundamental idea in memory research is that items are more likely to be remembered if encoded with a semantic, rather than perceptual, processing strategy. Interestingly, this effect has been shown to reverse for emotionally arousing materials, such that perceptual processing enhances memory for emotional information or events. The current fMRI study investigated the neural mechanisms of this effect by testing how neural activations during emotional memory retrieval are influenced by the prior encoding strategy. Participants incidentally encoded emotional and neutral pictures under instructions to attend to either semantic or perceptual properties of each picture. Recognition memory was tested 2 days later. fMRI analyses yielded three main findings. First, right amygdalar activity associated with emotional memory strength was enhanced by prior perceptual processing. Second, prior perceptual processing of emotional pictures produced a stronger effect on recollection- than familiarity-related activations in the right amygdala and left hippocampus. Finally, prior perceptual processing enhanced amygdalar connectivity with regions strongly associated with retrieval success, including hippocampal/parahippocampal regions, visual cortex, and ventral parietal cortex. Taken together, the results specify how encoding orientations yield alterations in brain systems that retrieve emotional memories.

  2. LSD1n is a H4K20 demethylase regulating memory formation via transcriptional elongation control

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jianxun; Telese, Francesca; Tan, Yuliang; Li, Wenbo; Jin, Chunyu; He, Xin; Basnet, Harihar; Ma, Qi; Merkurjev, Daria; Zhu, Xiaoyan; Liu, Zhijie; Zhang, Jie; Ohgi, Kenny; Taylor, Havilah; White, Ryan R.; Macfarlan, Todd S.; Pfaff, Samuel L.; Rosenfeld, Michael G.

    2015-01-01

    We report that a neuron-specific isoform of LSD1, LSD1n, resulting from an alternative splicing event, acquires a novel substrate specificity targeting histone H4 K20 methylation, both in vitro and in vivo. Selective genetic ablation of LSD1n leads to deficits in spatial learning and memory, revealing the functional importance of LSD1n in the regulation of neuronal activity-regulated transcription in a fashion indispensable for long-term memory formation. LSD1n occupies neuronal gene enhancers, promoters and transcribed coding regions, and is required for transcription initiation and elongation steps in response to neuronal activity, indicating the crucial role of H4K20 methylation in coordinating gene transcription with neuronal function. This study reveals that the alternative splicing of LSD1 in neurons, associated with altered substrate specificity, serves as an underlying mechanism acquired by neurons to achieve more precise control of gene expression in the complex processes underlying learning and memory. PMID:26214369

  3. Post-learning stress enhances long-term memory and differentially influences memory in females depending on menstrual stage.

    PubMed

    Zoladz, Phillip R; Peters, David M; Cadle, Chelsea E; Kalchik, Andrea E; Aufdenkampe, Rachael L; Dailey, Alison M; Brown, Callie M; Scharf, Amanda R; Earley, McKenna B; Knippen, Courtney L; Rorabaugh, Boyd R

    2015-09-01

    Most work has shown that post-learning stress enhances long-term memory; however, there have been recent inconsistencies in this literature. The purpose of the present study was to examine further the effects of post-learning stress on long-term memory and to explore any sex differences that may exist. Male and female participants learned a list of 42 words that varied in emotional valence and arousal level. Following encoding, participants completed a free recall assessment and then submerged their hand into a bath of ice cold (stress) or lukewarm (no stress) water for 3 min. The next day, participants were given free recall and recognition tests. Stressed participants recalled more words than non-stressed participants 24h after learning. Stress also enhanced female participants' recall of arousing words when they were in the follicular, but not luteal, phase. These findings replicate previous work examining post-learning stress effects on memory and implicate the involvement of sex-related hormones in such effects.

  4. Behavioral tagging is a general mechanism of long-term memory formation.

    PubMed

    Ballarini, Fabricio; Moncada, Diego; Martinez, Maria Cecilia; Alen, Nadia; Viola, Haydée

    2009-08-25

    In daily life, memories are intertwined events. Little is known about the mechanisms involved in their interactions. Using two hippocampus-dependent (spatial object recognition and contextual fear conditioning) and one hippocampus-independent (conditioned taste aversion) learning tasks, we show that in rats subjected to weak training protocols that induce solely short term memory (STM), long term memory (LTM) is promoted and formed only if training sessions took place in contingence with a novel, but not familiar, experience occurring during a critical time window around training. This process requires newly synthesized proteins induced by novelty and reveals a general mechanism of LTM formation that begins with the setting of a "learning tag" established by a weak training. These findings represent the first comprehensive set of evidences indicating the existence of a behavioral tagging process that in analogy to the synaptic tagging and capture process, need the creation of a transient, protein synthesis-independent, and input specific tag.

  5. Memory formation in Tritonia via recruitment of variably-committed neurons

    PubMed Central

    Hill, Evan S.; Vasireddi, Sunil K.; Wang, Jean; Bruno, Angela M.; Frost, William N.

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Prior studies have found that functional networks can rapidly add neurons as they build short-term memories, yet little is known about the principles underlying this process. Using voltage-sensitive dye imaging we found that short-term sensitization of Tritonia’s swim motor program involves rapid expansion of the number of participating neurons. Tracking neurons across trials revealed that this involves the conversion of recently discovered variably-participating neurons to reliable status. Further, we identify a candidate serotonergic cellular mechanism mediating this process. Our findings reveal a new mechanism for memory formation, involving recruitment of pre-positioned, variably-committed neurons into memory networks. This represents a shift from the field’s long-term focus on synaptic plasticity, toward a view that certain neurons have characteristics that predispose them to join networks with learning. PMID:26549261

  6. Chemical modulation of memory formation in larval zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Wolman, Marc A.; Jain, Roshan A.; Liss, Laura; Granato, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Whole organism–based small-molecule screens have proven powerful in identifying novel therapeutic chemicals, yet this approach has not been exploited to identify new cognitive enhancers. Here we present an automated high-throughput system for measuring nonassociative learning behaviors in larval zebrafish. Using this system, we report that spaced training blocks of repetitive visual stimuli elicit protein synthesis–dependent long-term habituation in larval zebrafish, lasting up to 24 h. Moreover, repetitive acoustic stimulation induces robust short-term habituation that can be modulated by stimulation frequency and instantaneously dishabituated through cross-modal stimulation. To characterize the neurochemical pathways underlying short-term habituation, we screened 1,760 bioactive compounds with known targets. Although we found extensive functional conservation of short-term learning between larval zebrafish and mammalian models, we also discovered several compounds with previously unknown roles in learning. These compounds included a myristic acid analog known to interact with Src family kinases and an inhibitor of cyclin dependent kinase 2, demonstrating that high-throughput chemical screens combined with high-resolution behavioral assays provide a powerful approach for the discovery of novel cognitive modulators. PMID:21876167

  7. Memory-enhancing corticosterone treatment increases amygdala norepinephrine and Arc protein expression in hippocampal synaptic fractions.

    PubMed

    McReynolds, Jayme R; Donowho, Kyle; Abdi, Amin; McGaugh, James L; Roozendaal, Benno; McIntyre, Christa K

    2010-03-01

    Considerable evidence indicates that glucocorticoid hormones enhance the consolidation of memory for emotionally arousing events through interactions with the noradrenergic system of the basolateral complex of the amygdala (BLA). We previously reported that intra-BLA administration of a beta-adrenoceptor agonist immediately after inhibitory avoidance training enhanced memory consolidation and increased hippocampal expression of the protein product of the immediate early gene activity-regulated cytoskeletal-associated protein (Arc). In the present experiments corticosterone (3 mg/kg, i.p.) was administered to male Sprague-Dawley rats immediately after inhibitory avoidance training to examine effects on long-term memory, amygdala norepinephrine levels, and hippocampal Arc expression. Corticosterone increased amygdala norepinephrine levels 15 min after inhibitory avoidance training, as assessed by in vivo microdialysis, and enhanced memory tested at 48 h. Corticosterone treatment also increased expression of Arc protein in hippocampal synaptic tissue. The elevation in BLA norepinephrine appears to participate in corticosterone-influenced modulation of hippocampal Arc expression as intra-BLA blockade of beta-adrenoceptors with propranolol (0.5 microg/0.2 microL) attenuated the corticosterone-induced synaptic Arc expression in the hippocampus. These findings indicate that noradrenergic activity at BLA beta-adrenoceptors is involved in corticosterone-induced enhancement of memory consolidation and expression of the synaptic-plasticity-related protein Arc in the hippocampus.

  8. Decreased in vitro mitochondrial function is associated with enhanced brain metabolism, blood flow, and memory in Surf1-deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Lin, Ai-Ling; Pulliam, Daniel A; Deepa, Sathyaseelan S; Halloran, Jonathan J; Hussong, Stacy A; Burbank, Raquel R; Bresnen, Andrew; Liu, Yuhong; Podlutskaya, Natalia; Soundararajan, Anuradha; Muir, Eric; Duong, Timothy Q; Bokov, Alex F; Viscomi, Carlo; Zeviani, Massimo; Richardson, Arlan G; Van Remmen, Holly; Fox, Peter T; Galvan, Veronica

    2013-10-01

    Recent studies have challenged the prevailing view that reduced mitochondrial function and increased oxidative stress are correlated with reduced longevity. Mice carrying a homozygous knockout (KO) of the Surf1 gene showed a significant decrease in mitochondrial electron transport chain Complex IV activity, yet displayed increased lifespan and reduced brain damage after excitotoxic insults. In the present study, we examined brain metabolism, brain hemodynamics, and memory of Surf1 KO mice using in vitro measures of mitochondrial function, in vivo neuroimaging, and behavioral testing. We show that decreased respiration and increased generation of hydrogen peroxide in isolated Surf1 KO brain mitochondria are associated with increased brain glucose metabolism, cerebral blood flow, and lactate levels, and with enhanced memory in Surf1 KO mice. These metabolic and functional changes in Surf1 KO brains were accompanied by higher levels of hypoxia-inducible factor 1 alpha, and by increases in the activated form of cyclic AMP response element-binding factor, which is integral to memory formation. These findings suggest that Surf1 deficiency-induced metabolic alterations may have positive effects on brain function. Exploring the relationship between mitochondrial activity, oxidative stress, and brain function will enhance our understanding of cognitive aging and of age-related neurologic disorders.

  9. Enhancement of transmission rates in quantum memory channels with damping.

    PubMed

    Benenti, Giuliano; D'Arrigo, Antonio; Falci, Giuseppe

    2009-07-10

    We consider the transfer of quantum information down a single-mode quantum transmission line. Such a quantum channel is modeled as a damped harmonic oscillator, the interaction between the information carriers -a train of N qubits- and the oscillator being of the Jaynes-Cummings kind. Memory effects appear if the state of the oscillator is not reset after each channel use. We show that the setup without resetting is convenient in order to increase the transmission rates, both for the transfer of quantum and classical private information. Our results can be applied to the micromaser.

  10. Time-dependent enhancement of hippocampus-dependent memory after treatment with memantine: Implications for enhanced hippocampal adult neurogenesis.

    PubMed

    Ishikawa, Rie; Kim, Ryang; Namba, Takashi; Kohsaka, Shinichi; Uchino, Shigeo; Kida, Satoshi

    2014-07-01

    Adult hippocampal neurogenesis has been suggested to play modulatory roles in learning and memory. Importantly, previous studies have shown that newborn neurons in the adult hippocampus are integrated into the dentate gyrus circuit and are recruited more efficiently into the hippocampal memory trace of mice when they become 3 weeks old. Interestingly, a single high-dose treatment with the N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor antagonist memantine (MEM) has been shown to increase hippocampal neurogenesis dramatically by promoting cell proliferation. In the present study, to understand the impact of increased adult neurogenesis on memory performance, we examined the effects of a single treatment of MEM on hippocampus-dependent memory in mice. Interestingly, mice treated with MEM showed an improvement of hippocampus-dependent spatial and social recognition memories when they were trained and tested at 3-6 weeks, but not at 3 days or 4 months, after treatment with MEM. Importantly, we observed a significant positive correlation between the scores for spatial memory (probe trial in the Morris water maze task) and the number of young mature neurons (3 weeks old) in MEM-treated mice, but not saline-treated mice. We also observed that the young mature neurons generated by treatment with MEM were recruited into the trace of spatial memory similarly to those generated through endogenous neurogenesis. Taken together, our observations suggest that treatment with MEM temporally improves hippocampus-dependent memory formation and that the newborn neurons increased by treatment with MEM contribute to this improvement when they become 3 weeks old.

  11. Synchronous and Asynchronous Theta and Gamma Activity during Episodic Memory Formation

    PubMed Central

    Burke, John F.; Zaghloul, Kareem A.; Jacobs, Joshua; Williams, Ryan B.; Sperling, Michael R.; Sharan, Ashwini D.; Kahana, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    To test the hypothesis that neural oscillations synchronize to mediate memory encoding, we analyzed electrocorticographic recordings taken as 68 human neurosurgical patients studied and subsequently recalled lists of common words. To the extent that changes in spectral power reflect synchronous oscillations, we would expect those power changes to be accompanied by increases in phase synchrony between the region of interest and neighboring brain areas. Contrary to the hypothesized role of synchronous gamma oscillations in memory formation, we found that many key regions that showed power increases during successful memory encoding also exhibited decreases in global synchrony. Similarly, cortical theta activity that decreases during memory encoding exhibits both increased and decreased global synchrony depending on region and stage of encoding. We suggest that network synchrony analyses, as used here, can help to distinguish between two major types of spectral modulations: (1) those that reflect synchronous engagement of regional neurons with neighboring brain areas, and (2) those that reflect either asynchronous modulations of neural activity or local synchrony accompanied by global disengagement from neighboring regions. We show that these two kinds of spectral modulations have distinct spatiotemporal profiles during memory encoding. PMID:23283342

  12. The influence of self-awareness on emotional memory formation: an fMRI study.

    PubMed

    Pais-Vieira, Carla; Wing, Erik A; Cabeza, Roberto

    2016-04-01

    Evidence from functional neuroimaging studies of emotional perception shows that when attention is focused on external features of emotional stimuli (external perceptual orienting--EPO), the amygdala is primarily engaged, but when attention is turned inwards towards one's own emotional state (interoceptive self-orienting--ISO), regions of the salience network, such as the anterior insula (AI) and the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC), also play a major role. Yet, it is unknown if ISO boosts the contributions of AI and dACC not only to emotional 'perception' but also to emotional 'memory'. To investigate this issue, participants were scanned with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) while viewing emotional and neutral pictures under ISO or EPO, and memory was tested several days later. The study yielded three main findings: (i) emotion boosted perception-related activity in the amygdala during both ISO and EPO and in the right AI exclusively during ISO; (ii) emotion augmented activity predicting subsequent memory in AI and dACC during ISO but not during EPO and (iii) high confidence memory was associated with increased amygdala-dACC connectivity, selectively for ISO encoding. These findings show, for the first time, that ISO promotes emotional memory formation via regions associated with interoceptive awareness of emotional experience, such as AI and dACC.

  13. The Role of Histone Acetylation in Memory Formation and Cognitive Impairments

    PubMed Central

    Peixoto, Lucia; Abel, Ted

    2013-01-01

    Long-term memory formation requires transcription and protein synthesis. Over the past few decades, a great amount of knowledge has been gained regarding the molecular players that regulate the transcriptional program linked to memory consolidation. Epigenetic mechanisms have been shown to be essential for the regulation of neuronal gene expression, and histone acetylation has been one of the most studied and best characterized. In this review, we summarize the lines of evidence that have shown the relevance of histone acetylation in memory in both physiological and pathological conditions. Great advances have been made in identifying the writers and erasers of histone acetylation marks during learning. However, the identities of the upstream regulators and downstream targets that mediate the effect of changes in histone acetylation during memory consolidation remain restricted to a handful of molecules. We outline a general model by which corepressors and coactivators regulate histone acetylation during memory storage and discuss how the recent advances in high-throughput sequencing have the potential to radically change our understanding of how epigenetic control operates in the brain. PMID:22669172

  14. Animal model of methylphenidate's long-term memory-enhancing effects.

    PubMed

    Carmack, Stephanie A; Howell, Kristin K; Rasaei, Kleou; Reas, Emilie T; Anagnostaras, Stephan G

    2014-01-16

    Methylphenidate (MPH), introduced more than 60 years ago, accounts for two-thirds of current prescriptions for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Although many studies have modeled MPH's effect on executive function, almost none have directly modeled its effect on long-term memory (LTM), even though improvement in LTM is a critical target of therapeutic intervention in ADHD. We examined the effects of a wide range of doses of MPH (0.01-10 mg/kg, i.p.) on Pavlovian fear learning, a leading model of memory. MPH's effects were then compared to those of atomoxetine (0.1-10 mg/kg, i.p.), bupropion (0.5-20 mg/kg, i.p.), and citalopram (0.01-10 mg/kg, i.p.). At low, clinically relevant doses, MPH enhanced fear memory; at high doses it impaired memory. MPH's memory-enhancing effects were not confounded by its effects on locomotion or anxiety. Further, MPH-induced memory enhancement seemed to require both dopamine and norepinephrine transporter inhibition. Finally, the addictive potential of MPH (1 mg/kg and 10 mg/kg) was compared to those of two other psychostimulants, amphetamine (0.005 mg/kg and 1.5 mg/kg) and cocaine (0.15 mg/kg and 15 mg/kg), using a conditioned place preference and behavioral sensitization paradigm. We found that memory-enhancing effects of psychostimulants observed at low doses are readily dissociable from their reinforcing and locomotor activating effects at high doses. Together, our data suggest that fear conditioning will be an especially fruitful platform for modeling the effects of psychostimulants on LTM in drug development.

  15. Animal model of methylphenidate's long-term memory-enhancing effects

    PubMed Central

    Carmack, Stephanie A.; Howell, Kristin K.; Rasaei, Kleou; Reas, Emilie T.; Anagnostaras, Stephan G.

    2014-01-01

    Methylphenidate (MPH), introduced more than 60 years ago, accounts for two-thirds of current prescriptions for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Although many studies have modeled MPH's effect on executive function, almost none have directly modeled its effect on long-term memory (LTM), even though improvement in LTM is a critical target of therapeutic intervention in ADHD. We examined the effects of a wide range of doses of MPH (0.01–10 mg/kg, i.p.) on Pavlovian fear learning, a leading model of memory. MPH's effects were then compared to those of atomoxetine (0.1–10 mg/kg, i.p.), bupropion (0.5–20 mg/kg, i.p.), and citalopram (0.01–10 mg/kg, i.p.). At low, clinically relevant doses, MPH enhanced fear memory; at high doses it impaired memory. MPH's memory-enhancing effects were not confounded by its effects on locomotion or anxiety. Further, MPH-induced memory enhancement seemed to require both dopamine and norepinephrine transporter inhibition. Finally, the addictive potential of MPH (1 mg/kg and 10 mg/kg) was compared to those of two other psychostimulants, amphetamine (0.005 mg/kg and 1.5 mg/kg) and cocaine (0.15 mg/kg and 15 mg/kg), using a conditioned place preference and behavioral sensitization paradigm. We found that memory-enhancing effects of psychostimulants observed at low doses are readily dissociable from their reinforcing and locomotor activating effects at high doses. Together, our data suggest that fear conditioning will be an especially fruitful platform for modeling the effects of psychostimulants on LTM in drug development. PMID:24434869

  16. HDAC7 Ubiquitination by the E3 Ligase CBX4 Is Involved in Contextual Fear Conditioning Memory Formation.

    PubMed

    Jing, Xu; Sui, Wen-Hai; Wang, Shuai; Xu, Xu-Feng; Yuan, Rong-Rong; Chen, Xiao-Rong; Ma, Hui-Xian; Zhu, Ying-Xiao; Sun, Jin-Kai; Yi, Fan; Chen, Zhe-Yu; Wang, Yue

    2017-04-05

    Histone acetylation, an epigenetic modification, plays an important role in long-term memory formation. Recently, histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors were demonstrated to promote memory formation, which raises the intriguing possibility that they may be used to rescue memory deficits. However, additional research is necessary to clarify the roles of individual HDACs in memory. In this study, we demonstrated that HDAC7, within the dorsal hippocampus of C57BL6J mice, had a late and persistent decrease after contextual fear conditioning (CFC) training (4-24 h), which was involved in long-term CFC memory formation. We also showed that HDAC7 decreased via ubiquitin-dependent degradation. CBX4 was one of the HDAC7 E3 ligases involved in this process. Nur77, as one of the target genes of HDAC7, increased 6-24 h after CFC training and, accordingly, modulated the formation of CFC memory. Finally, HDAC7 was involved in the formation of other hippocampal-dependent memories, including the Morris water maze and object location test. The current findings facilitate an understanding of the molecular and cellular mechanisms of HDAC7 in the regulation of hippocampal-dependent memory.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT The current findings demonstrated the effects of histone deacetylase 7 (HDAC7) on hippocampal-dependent memories. Moreover, we determined the mechanism of decreased HDAC7 in contextual fear conditioning (CFC) through ubiquitin-dependent protein degradation. We also verified that CBX4 was one of the HDAC7 E3 ligases. Finally, we demonstrated that Nur77, as one of the important targets for HDAC7, was involved in CFC memory formation. All of these proteins, including HDAC7, CBX4, and Nur77, could be potential therapeutic targets for preventing memory deficits in aging and neurological diseases.

  17. Neurocognitive Mechanisms of Prejudice Formation: The Role of Time-Dependent Memory Consolidation.

    PubMed

    Enge, Luke R; Lupo, Amber K; Zárate, Michael A

    2015-07-01

    Prejudice is generally thought to derive from learned, emotion-laden experiences. The mechanisms underlying the formation of prejudice over time, however, remain unknown. In the present research, we proposed and tested hypotheses regarding prejudice formation derived from research on memory consolidation and social perception. We hypothesized that time-dependent memory consolidation would produce better implicit memory for negative out-group information and positive in-group information, compared with negative in-group information and positive out-group information. Fifty undergraduates learned positive and negative information about racial in-group (Latino) and out-group (African American) targets. Participants returned after both a short time delay (2-6 hr after the learning session) and a long time delay (48 hr after the learning session) to complete a lexical decision task. Results demonstrated that participants responded to information consistent with an in-group bias faster after a long time delay than after a short time delay. Our findings have important implications for the study of social perception and memory consolidation.

  18. Effect of Evolvulus alsinoides Linn. on learning behavior and memory enhancement activity in rodents.

    PubMed

    Nahata, Alok; Patil, U K; Dixit, V K

    2010-04-01

    In the Ayurvedic system of medicine, the whole herb of 'Shankhpushpi' has been employed clinically for centuries for its memory potentiating, anxiolytic and tranquilizing properties. The present study was undertaken to investigate the effects of Evolvulus alsinoides (EA), considered as Shankhpushpi on learning and memory in rodents. Nootropic activity using Cook and Weidley's pole climbing apparatus, passive avoidance paradigms and active avoidance tests were used to test learning and memory. The ethanol extract of EA and its ethyl acetate and aqueous fractions were evaluated for their memory enhancing properties. Two doses (100 and 200 mg/kg p.o.) of the ethanol extract and ethyl acetate and aqueous fractions were administered in separate groups of animals. Both doses of all the extracts of EA significantly improved learning and memory in rats. Furthermore, these doses significantly reversed the amnesia induced by scopolamine (0.3 mg/kg i.p.). Nootropic activity was compared using piracetam as the standard. EA also exhibited potent memory enhancing effects in the step-down and shuttle-box avoidance paradigms.

  19. Lack of DREAM protein enhances learning and memory and slows brain aging.

    PubMed

    Fontán-Lozano, Angela; Romero-Granados, Rocío; del-Pozo-Martín, Yaiza; Suárez-Pereira, Irene; Delgado-García, José María; Penninger, Josef M; Carrión, Angel Manuel

    2009-01-13

    Memory deficits in aging affect millions of people and are often disturbing to those concerned. Dissection of the molecular control of learning and memory is paramount to understand and possibly enhance cognitive functions. Old-age memory loss also has been recently linked to altered Ca(2+) homeostasis. We have previously identified DREAM (downstream regulatory element antagonistic modulator), a member of the neuronal Ca(2+) sensor superfamily of EF-hand proteins, with specific roles in different cell compartments. In the nucleus, DREAM is a Ca(2+)-dependent transcriptional repressor, binding to specific DNA signatures, or interacting with nucleoproteins regulating their transcriptional properties. Also, we and others have shown that dream mutant (dream(-/-)) mice exhibit marked analgesia. Here we report that dream(-/-) mice exhibit markedly enhanced learning and synaptic plasticity related to improved cognition. Mechanistically, DREAM functions as a negative regulator of the key memory factor CREB in a Ca(2+)-dependent manner, and loss of DREAM facilitates CREB-dependent transcription during learning. Intriguingly, 18-month-old dream(-/-) mice display learning and memory capacities similar to young mice. Moreover, loss of DREAM protects from brain degeneration in aging. These data identify the Ca(2+)-regulated "pain gene" DREAM as a novel key regulator of memory and brain aging.

  20. Psychosocial stress enhances non-drug-related positive memory retrieval in male abstinent heroin addicts.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Li-Yan; Shi, Jie; Zhang, Xiao-Li; Lu, Lin

    2010-11-12

    Stress exposure in addicted individuals is known to provoke drug craving, presumably through a memory-like process, but less is known about the effects of stress on non-drug-related affective memory retrieval per se in such individuals, which is likely to provide important insights into therapy for relapse. In present study, we explored the effect of stress on retrieval of neutral and emotionally valenced (positive and negative) words in abstinent heroin addicts. In present study, 28 male inpatient abstinent heroin addicts and 20 sex-, age-, education- and economic status-matched healthy control participants were assessed for 24h delayed recall of valenced and neutral word lists on two occasions 4 weeks apart-once in a nonstress control condition, once after exposure to the Trier Social Stress Test in a counterbalanced design. In addition, attention, working memory, blood pressure, heart rate and salivary cortisol were assessed. We found acute stress at the time of word list recall enhanced retrieval of positively valenced words, but no effect on negative and neutral word retrieval in abstinent heroin addicts was observed. No changes were detected for attention and working memory. The stressor induced a significant increase in salivary free cortisol, blood pressure and heart rate. Stress can enhance non-drug-related positive memory in abstinent heroin addicts. Our findings will provide richer information in understanding dysregulation of their emotional memory processing under stress and hopefully provide insight into designing improved treatments for drug addiction.

  1. Enhanced memory effect with embedded graphene nanoplatelets in ZnO charge trapping layer

    SciTech Connect

    El-Atab, Nazek; Nayfeh, Ammar; Cimen, Furkan; Alkis, Sabri; Okyay, Ali K.

    2014-07-21

    A charge trapping memory with graphene nanoplatelets embedded in atomic layer deposited ZnO (GNIZ) is demonstrated. The memory shows a large threshold voltage V{sub t} shift (4 V) at low operating voltage (6/−6 V), good retention (>10 yr), and good endurance characteristic (>10{sup 4} cycles). This memory performance is compared to control devices with graphene nanoplatelets (or ZnO) and a thicker tunnel oxide. These structures showed a reduced V{sub t} shift and retention characteristic. The GNIZ structure allows for scaling down the tunnel oxide thickness along with improving the memory window and retention of data. The larger V{sub t} shift indicates that the ZnO adds available trap states and enhances the emission and retention of charges. The charge emission mechanism in the memory structures with graphene nanoplatelets at an electric field E ≥ 5.57 MV/cm is found to be based on Fowler-Nordheim tunneling. The fabrication of this memory device is compatible with current semiconductor processing, therefore, has great potential in low-cost nano-memory applications.

  2. Role of Glia in Stress-Induced Enhancement and Impairment of Memory

    PubMed Central

    Pearson-Leary, Jiah; Osborne, Danielle Maria; McNay, Ewan C.

    2016-01-01

    Both acute and chronic stress profoundly affect hippocampally-dependent learning and memory: moderate stress generally enhances, while chronic or extreme stress can impair, neural and cognitive processes. Within the brain, stress elevates both norepinephrine and glucocorticoids, and both affect several genomic and signaling cascades responsible for modulating memory strength. Memories formed at times of stress can be extremely strong, yet stress can also impair memory to the point of amnesia. Often overlooked in consideration of the impact of stress on cognitive processes, and specifically memory, is the important contribution of glia as a target for stress-induced changes. Astrocytes, microglia, and oligodendrocytes all have unique contributions to learning and memory. Furthermore, these three types of glia express receptors for both norepinephrine and glucocorticoids and are hence immediate targets of stress hormone actions. It is becoming increasingly clear that inflammatory cytokines and immunomodulatory molecules released by glia during stress may promote many of the behavioral effects of acute and chronic stress. In this review, the role of traditional genomic and rapid hormonal mechanisms working in concert with glia to affect stress-induced learning and memory will be emphasized. PMID:26793072

  3. Role of Glia in Stress-Induced Enhancement and Impairment of Memory.

    PubMed

    Pearson-Leary, Jiah; Osborne, Danielle Maria; McNay, Ewan C

    2015-01-01

    Both acute and chronic stress profoundly affect hippocampally-dependent learning and memory: moderate stress generally enhances, while chronic or extreme stress can impair, neural and cognitive processes. Within the brain, stress elevates both norepinephrine and glucocorticoids, and both affect several genomic and signaling cascades responsible for modulating memory strength. Memories formed at times of stress can be extremely strong, yet stress can also impair memory to the point of amnesia. Often overlooked in consideration of the impact of stress on cognitive processes, and specifically memory, is the important contribution of glia as a target for stress-induced changes. Astrocytes, microglia, and oligodendrocytes all have unique contributions to learning and memory. Furthermore, these three types of glia express receptors for both norepinephrine and glucocorticoids and are hence immediate targets of stress hormone actions. It is becoming increasingly clear that inflammatory cytokines and immunomodulatory molecules released by glia during stress may promote many of the behavioral effects of acute and chronic stress. In this review, the role of traditional genomic and rapid hormonal mechanisms working in concert with glia to affect stress-induced learning and memory will be emphasized.

  4. Importance of the GluN2B Carboxy-Terminal Domain for Enhancement of Social Memories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobs, Stephanie; Wei, Wei; Wang, Deheng; Tsien, Joe Z.

    2015-01-01

    The N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor is known to be necessary for many forms of learning and memory, including social recognition memory. Additionally, the GluN2 subunits are known to modulate multiple forms of memory, with a high GluN2A:GluN2B ratio leading to impairments in long-term memory, while a low GluN2A:GluN2B ratio enhances some…

  5. Emotion regulation strategies that promote learning: reappraisal enhances children's memory for educational information.

    PubMed

    Davis, Elizabeth L; Levine, Linda J

    2013-01-01

    The link between emotion regulation and academic achievement is well documented. Less is known about specific emotion regulation strategies that promote learning. Six- to 13-year-olds (N = 126) viewed a sad film and were instructed to reappraise the importance, reappraise the outcome, or ruminate about the sad events; another group received no regulation instructions. Children viewed an educational film, and memory for this was later assessed. As predicted, reappraisal strategies more effectively attenuated children's self-reported emotional processing. Reappraisal enhanced memory for educational details relative to no instructions. Rumination did not lead to differences in memory from the other instructions. Memory benefits of effective instructions were pronounced for children with poorer emotion regulation skill, suggesting the utility of reappraisal in learning contexts.

  6. Chronic food restriction enhances memory in mice--analysis with matched drive levels.

    PubMed

    Hashimoto, Teruo; Watanabe, Shigeru

    2005-07-13

    We compared the effects of chronic and acute food deprivation on learning and memory using a dry-type water maze, active avoidance and passive avoidance in C57BL/6L mice. The drive level of the animals--under acute and chronic food deprivation--was matched by a progressive ratio schedule. Both deprivations led to a high degree of activity in the animals; however, the animals on an acute dietary restriction did not exhibit a significantly better performance than those on ad libitum feeding, while those on a chronic food deprivation exhibited memory enhancement. These effects were subtle and were found at a later stage of learning. These findings suggest that chronic food restriction induces memory consolidation or resistance to memory reduction in addition to increased activity.

  7. Teacher Learning of Technology-Enhanced Formative Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beatty, Ian D.; Feldman, Allan; Leonard, William J.; Gerace, William J.; St. Cyr, Karen; Lee, Hyunju; Harris, Robby

    2008-01-01

    "Technology-Enhanced Formative Assessment" (TEFA) is an innovative pedagogy for teaching secondary school science or mathematics with "classroom response system" technology. "Teacher Learning of TEFA" (TLT) is a five year research project studying teacher change in the context of an intensive, sustained, on-site professional development (PD)…

  8. Search strategy selection in the Morris water maze indicates allocentric map formation during learning that underpins spatial memory formation.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Jake; Churilov, Leonid; Hannan, Anthony J; Renoir, Thibault

    2017-03-01

    Using a Matlab classification algorithm, we demonstrate that a highly salient distal cue array is required for significantly increased likelihoods of spatial search strategy selection during Morris water maze spatial learning. We hypothesized that increased spatial search strategy selection during spatial learning would be the key measure demonstrating the formation of an allocentric map to the escape location. Spatial memory, as indicated by quadrant preference for the area of the pool formally containing the hidden platform, was assessed as the main measure that this allocentric map had formed during spatial learning. Our C57BL/6J wild-type (WT) mice exhibit quadrant preference in the highly salient cue paradigm but not the low, corresponding with a 120% increase in the odds of a spatial search strategy selection during learning. In contrast, quadrant preference remains absent in serotonin 1A receptor (5-HT1AR) knockout (KO) mice, who exhibit impaired search strategy selection during spatial learning. Additionally, we also aimed to assess the impact of the quality of the distal cue array on the spatial learning curves of both latency to platform and path length using mixed-effect regression models and found no significant associations or interactions. In contrast, we demonstrated that the spatial learning curve for search strategy selection was absent during training in the low saliency paradigm. Therefore, we propose that allocentric search strategy selection during spatial learning is the learning parameter in mice that robustly indicates the formation of a cognitive map for the escape goal location. These results also suggest that both latency to platform and path length spatial learning curves do not discriminate between allocentric and egocentric spatial learning and do not reliably predict spatial memory formation. We also show that spatial memory, as indicated by the absolute time in the quadrant formerly containing the hidden platform alone (without

  9. Formation and reverberation of sequential neural activity patterns evoked by sensory stimulation are enhanced during cortical desynchronization.

    PubMed

    Bermudez Contreras, Edgar J; Schjetnan, Andrea Gomez Palacio; Muhammad, Arif; Bartho, Peter; McNaughton, Bruce L; Kolb, Bryan; Gruber, Aaron J; Luczak, Artur

    2013-08-07

    Memory formation is hypothesized to involve the generation of event-specific neural activity patterns during learning and the subsequent spontaneous reactivation of these patterns. Here, we present evidence that these processes can also be observed in urethane-anesthetized rats and are enhanced by desynchronized brain state evoked by tail pinch, subcortical carbachol infusion, or systemic amphetamine administration. During desynchronization, we found that repeated tactile or auditory stimulation evoked unique sequential patterns of neural firing in somatosensory and auditory cortex and that these patterns then reoccurred during subsequent spontaneous activity, similar to what we have observed in awake animals. Furthermore, the formation of these patterns was blocked by an NMDA receptor antagonist, suggesting that the phenomenon depends on synaptic plasticity. These results suggest that anesthetized animals with a desynchronized brain state could serve as a convenient model for studying stimulus-induced plasticity to improve our understanding of memory formation and replay in the brain.

  10. Direct observation of conductive filament formation in Alq3 based organic resistive memories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Busby, Y.; Nau, S.; Sax, S.; List-Kratochvil, E. J. W.; Novak, J.; Banerjee, R.; Schreiber, F.; Pireaux, J.-J.

    2015-08-01

    This work explores resistive switching mechanisms in non-volatile organic memory devices based on tris(8-hydroxyquinolie)aluminum (Alq3). Advanced characterization tools are applied to investigate metal diffusion in ITO/Alq3/Ag memory device stacks leading to conductive filament formation. The morphology of Alq3/Ag layers as a function of the metal evaporation conditions is studied by X-ray reflectivity, while depth profile analysis with X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry is applied to characterize operational memory elements displaying reliable bistable current-voltage characteristics. 3D images of the distribution of silver inside the organic layer clearly point towards the existence of conductive filaments and allow for the identification of the initial filament formation and inactivation mechanisms during switching of the device. Initial filament formation is suggested to be driven by field assisted diffusion of silver from abundant structures formed during the top electrode evaporation, whereas thermochemical effects lead to local filament inactivation.

  11. Framing memories: How the retrieval query format shapes the neural bases of remembering.

    PubMed

    Raposo, Ana; Frade, Sofia; Alves, Mara

    2016-08-01

    The way memory questions are framed influences the information that is searched, retrieved, and monitored during remembering. This fMRI study aimed at clarifying how the format of the retrieval query shapes the neural basis of source recollection. During encoding, participants made semantic (pleasantness) or perceptual (number of letters) judgments about words. Subsequently, in a source memory test, the retrieval query was manipulated such that for half of the items from each encoding task, the retrieval query emphasized the semantic source (i.e., semantic query format: "Is this word from the pleasantness task?"), whereas for the other half the retrieval query emphasized the alternate, perceptual source (i.e., perceptual query format: "Is this word from the letter task?"). The results showed that the semantic query format was associated with higher source recognition than the perceptual query format. This behavioral advantage was accompanied by increased activation in several regions associated to controlled semantic elaboration and monitoring of internally-generated features about the past event. In particular, for items semantically encoded, the semantic query, relative to the perceptual query, induced activation in medial prefrontal cortex (PFC), hippocampal, parahippocampal and middle temporal cortex. Conversely, for items perceptually encoded, the semantic query recruited the lateral PFC and occipital-fusiform areas. Interestingly, the semantic format also influenced the processing of new items, eliciting greater L lateral and medial PFC activation. In contrast, the perceptual query format (versus the semantic format) only prompted greater activation in R orbitofrontal cortex and the R inferior parietal lobe, for items encoded in a perceptual manner and for new items, respectively. The results highlight the role of the retrieval query format in source remembering, showing that the retrieval query that emphasizes the semantic source promotes the use of semantic

  12. Music-based memory enhancement in Alzheimer's disease: promise and limitations.

    PubMed

    Simmons-Stern, Nicholas R; Deason, Rebecca G; Brandler, Brian J; Frustace, Bruno S; O'Connor, Maureen K; Ally, Brandon A; Budson, Andrew E

    2012-12-01

    In a previous study (Simmons-Stern, Budson & Ally, 2010), we found that patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) better recognized visually presented lyrics when the lyrics were also sung rather than spoken at encoding. The present study sought to further investigate the effects of music on memory in patients with AD by making the content of the song lyrics relevant for the daily life of an older adult and by examining how musical encoding alters several different aspects of episodic memory. Patients with AD and healthy older adults studied visually presented novel song lyrics related to instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) that were accompanied by either a sung or a spoken recording. Overall, participants performed better on a memory test of general lyric content for lyrics that were studied sung as compared to spoken. However, on a memory test of specific lyric content, participants performed equally well for sung and spoken lyrics. We interpret these results in terms of a dual-process model of recognition memory such that the general content questions represent a familiarity-based representation that is preferentially sensitive to enhancement via music, while the specific content questions represent a recollection-based representation unaided by musical encoding. Additionally, in a test of basic recognition memory for the audio stimuli, patients with AD demonstrated equal discrimination for sung and spoken stimuli. We propose that the perceptual distinctiveness of musical stimuli enhanced metamemorial awareness in AD patients via a non-selective distinctiveness heuristic, thereby reducing false recognition while at the same time reducing true recognition and eliminating the mnemonic benefit of music. These results are discussed in the context of potential music-based memory enhancement interventions for the care of patients with AD.

  13. [The effect of encoding on false memory: examination on levels of processing and list presentation format].

    PubMed

    Hamajima, Hideki

    2004-04-01

    Using the Deese/Roediger-McDermott paradigm, the effects of lists presentation format (blocked/random) and levels of processing of critical nonpresented lures were examined. A levels-of-processing effect in a blocked presentation order was not observed for lures. Rates of false recognition and remember judgments for lures in a shallow level of processing were significantly lower than those in a deep level of processing when items from various themes were inter-mixed instead of blocked. Results showed an interaction between levels of processing and list presentation format. It is thus concluded that encoding of each word and whole list should be both considered in understanding false memory.

  14. Glucocorticoids Enhance Taste Aversion Memory via Actions in the Insular Cortex and Basolateral Amygdala

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miranda, Maria Isabel; Quirarte, Gina L.; Rodriguez-Garcia, Gabriela; McGaugh, James L.; Roozendaal, Benno

    2008-01-01

    It is well established that glucocorticoid hormones strengthen the consolidation of hippocampus-dependent spatial and contextual memory. The present experiments investigated glucocorticoid effects on the long-term formation of conditioned taste aversion (CTA), an associative learning task that does not depend critically on hippocampal function.…

  15. Involvement of the Anterior Cingulate Cortex in Formation, Consolidation, and Reconsolidation of Recent and Remote Contextual Fear Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Einarsson, Einar O.; Nader, Karim

    2012-01-01

    It has been suggested that memories become more stable and less susceptible to the disruption of reconsolidation over weeks after learning. Here, we test this by targeting the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and test its involvement in the formation, consolidation, and reconsolidation of recent and remote contextual fear memory. We found that…

  16. The Dark Side of Testing Memory: Repeated Retrieval Can Enhance Eyewitness Suggestibility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chan, Jason C. K.; LaPaglia, Jessica A.

    2011-01-01

    Eyewitnesses typically recount their experiences many times before trial. Such repeated retrieval can enhance memory retention of the witnessed event. However, recent studies (e.g., Chan, Thomas, & Bulevich, 2009) have found that initial retrieval can exacerbate eyewitness suggestibility to later misleading information--a finding termed…

  17. Test-Enhanced Learning of Natural Concepts: Effects on Recognition Memory, Classification, and Metacognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacoby, Larry L.; Wahlheim, Christopher N.; Coane, Jennifer H.

    2010-01-01

    Three experiments examined testing effects on learning of natural concepts and metacognitive assessments of such learning. Results revealed that testing enhanced recognition memory and classification accuracy for studied and novel exemplars of bird families on immediate and delayed tests. These effects depended on the balance of study and test…

  18. Emotional Enhancement Effect of Memory: Removing the Influence of Cognitive Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sommer, Tobias; Glascher, Jan; Moritz, Steffen; Buchel, Christian

    2008-01-01

    According to the modulation hypothesis, arousal is the crucial factor in the emotional enhancement of memory (EEM). However, the multifactor theory of the EEM recently proposed that cognitive characteristics of emotional stimuli, e.g., relatedness and distinctiveness, also play an important role. The current study aimed to investigate the…

  19. Sex-Dependent Up-Regulation of Two Splicing Factors, Psf and Srp20, during Hippocampal Memory Formation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Antunes-Martins, Ana; Mizuno, Keiko; Irvine, Elaine E.; Lepicard, Eve M.; Giese, K. Peter

    2007-01-01

    Gene transcription is required for long-term memory (LTM) formation. LTM formation is impaired in a male-specific manner in mice lacking either of the two Ca[superscript 2+] / calmodulin-dependent kinase kinase ("Camkk") genes. Since altered transcription was suggested to cause these impairments in LTM formation, we used microarrays to screen for…

  20. Estradiol enhances object recognition memory in Swiss female mice by activating hippocampal estrogen receptor α.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Luciana M; Bastos, Cristiane P; de Souza, Jéssica M; Ribeiro, Fabíola M; Pereira, Grace S

    2014-10-01

    In rodents, 17β-estradiol (E2) enhances hippocampal function and improves performance in several memory tasks. Regarding the object recognition paradigm, E2 commonly act as a cognitive enhancer. However, the types of estrogen receptor (ER) involved, as well as the underlying molecular mechanisms are still under investigation. In the present study, we asked whether E2 enhances object recognition memory by activating ERα and/or ERβ in the hippocampus of Swiss female mice. First, we showed that immediately post-training intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of E2 (0.2 mg/kg) allowed object recognition memory to persist 48 h in ovariectomized (OVX) Swiss female mice. This result indicates that Swiss female mice are sensitive to the promnesic effects of E2 and is in accordance with other studies, which used C57/BL6 female mice. To verify if the activation of hippocampal ERα or ERβ would be sufficient to improve object memory, we used PPT and DPN, which are selective ERα and ERβ agonists, respectively. We found that PPT, but not DPN, improved object memory in Swiss female mice. However, DPN was able to improve memory in C57/BL6 female mice, which is in accordance with other studies. Next, we tested if the E2 effect on improving object memory depends on ER activation in the hippocampus. Thus, we tested if the infusion of intra-hippocampal TPBM and PHTPP, selective antagonists of ERα and ERβ, respectively, would block the memory enhancement effect of E2. Our results showed that TPBM, but not PHTPP, blunted the promnesic effect of E2, strongly suggesting that in Swiss female mice, the ERα and not the ERβ is the receptor involved in the promnesic effect of E2. It was already demonstrated that E2, as well as PPT and DPN, increase the phospho-ERK2 level in the dorsal hippocampus of C57/BL6 mice. Here we observed that PPT increased phospho-ERK1, while DPN decreased phospho-ERK2 in the dorsal hippocampus of Swiss female mice subjected to the object recognition sample phase

  1. Changes in blood glucose and salivary cortisol are not necessary for arousal to enhance memory in young or older adults.

    PubMed

    Gore, Jane B; Krebs, Desiree L; Parent, Marise B

    2006-06-01

    Emotional arousal enhances memory, and this memory-enhancing effect may involve neurochemicals released by arousal, such as glucose and cortisol. Physiological consequences of arousal change with age, and these changes may contribute to age-related memory decline. The present study examined whether emotionally arousing pictures would affect glucose and cortisol levels and enhance memory in young and older adults. Blood glucose and salivary cortisol were measured once before and six times after young and old adults viewed either 60 highly arousing or 60 relatively neutral pictures. Recall for the stimuli was measured 75 min later. The results indicated that recall was impaired in older adults. Arousal as measured by self-report enhanced recall in both young and older adults. However, arousal did not affect glucose or cortisol levels in either group. These findings demonstrate that changes in blood glucose or salivary cortisol levels are not necessary for arousal to enhance memory.

  2. Music Enhances Autobiographical Memory in Mild Alzheimer's Disease

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    El Haj, Mohamad; Postal, Virginie; Allain, Philippe

    2012-01-01

    Studies have shown that the "Four Seasons" music may enhance the autobiographical performance of Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients. We used a repeated measures design in which autobiographical recall of 12 mild AD patients was assessed using a free narrative method under three conditions: (a) in "Silence," (b) after being exposed to the opus "Four…

  3. Extinction Memory Improvement by the Metabolic Enhancer Methylene Blue

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzalez-Lima, F.; Bruchey, Aleksandra K.

    2004-01-01

    We investigated whether postextinction administration of methylene blue (MB) could enhance retention of an extinguished conditioned response. MB is a redox compound that at low doses elevates cytochrome oxidase activity, thereby improving brain energy production. Saline or MB (4 mg/kg intraperitoneally) were administered to rats for 5 d following…

  4. The influence of self-awareness on emotional memory formation: an fMRI study

    PubMed Central

    Wing, Erik A.; Cabeza, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    Evidence from functional neuroimaging studies of emotional perception shows that when attention is focused on external features of emotional stimuli (external perceptual orienting—EPO), the amygdala is primarily engaged, but when attention is turned inwards towards one’s own emotional state (interoceptive self-orienting—ISO), regions of the salience network, such as the anterior insula (AI) and the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC), also play a major role. Yet, it is unknown if ISO boosts the contributions of AI and dACC not only to emotional ‘perception’ but also to emotional ‘memory’. To investigate this issue, participants were scanned with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) while viewing emotional and neutral pictures under ISO or EPO, and memory was tested several days later. The study yielded three main findings: (i) emotion boosted perception-related activity in the amygdala during both ISO and EPO and in the right AI exclusively during ISO; (ii) emotion augmented activity predicting subsequent memory in AI and dACC during ISO but not during EPO and (iii) high confidence memory was associated with increased amygdala–dACC connectivity, selectively for ISO encoding. These findings show, for the first time, that ISO promotes emotional memory formation via regions associated with interoceptive awareness of emotional experience, such as AI and dACC. PMID:26645274

  5. Impairment of single-trial memory formation by oral methylphenidate in the rat.

    PubMed

    Chuhan, Yadvinder S; Taukulis, Harald K

    2006-03-01

    High synaptic concentrations of dopamine and/or norepinephrine can impair the working memory function of the prefrontal cortex and impede attention and learning. Methylphenidate, a dopamine and norepinephrine transporter blocker known to facilitate these cognitive processes at low doses, was hypothesized to interfere with memory storage at doses that may raise concentrations of these neurotransmitters to systemically disruptive levels. In the present experiments, a dose of 10.0mg/kg of this drug was administered to female and male Long-Evans rats using a novel oral administration procedure designed to model the normal mode of delivery to humans. It was found to interfere with single-trial memory acquisition in a delayed object recognition test, a spontaneous learning task that involves no appetitive or aversive motivator. The time that the rats spent in overt exploration of the to-be-remembered objects during the acquisition trial was not affected, suggesting that the drug may have impaired processes of memory formation independently of interference with attention.

  6. Music as a memory enhancer in patients with Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Simmons-Stern, Nicholas R; Budson, Andrew E; Ally, Brandon A

    2010-08-01

    Musical mnemonics have a long and diverse history of popular use. In addition, music processing in general is often considered spared by the neurodegenerative effects of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Research examining these two phenomena is limited, and no work to our knowledge has explored the effectiveness of musical mnemonics in AD. The present study sought to investigate the effect of music at encoding on the subsequent recognition of associated verbal information. Lyrics of unfamiliar children's songs were presented bimodally at encoding, and visual stimuli were accompanied by either a sung or a spoken recording. Patients with AD demonstrated better recognition accuracy for the sung lyrics than the spoken lyrics, while healthy older adults showed no significant difference between the two conditions. We propose two possible explanations for these findings: first, that the brain areas subserving music processing may be preferentially spared by AD, allowing a more holistic encoding that facilitates recognition, and second, that music heightens arousal in patients with AD, allowing better attention and improved memory.

  7. 2-Phenylethynyl-butyltellurium enhances learning and memory impaired by scopolamine in mice.

    PubMed

    Souza, Ana Cristina G; Bruning, César A; Acker, Carmine I; Neto, José S S; Nogueira, Cristina W

    2013-08-01

    Taking into account the memory-enhancing properties of 2-phenylethynyl-butyltellurium (PEBT) and the constant search for drugs that improve cognitive performance, the present study was designed to investigate the effect of PEBT on cognitive impairment induced by scopolamine in mice. PEBT (10 mg/kg, gavage) was administered to mice 1 h before the probe trial in the Morris water maze task. Memory impairment was induced by scopolamine (1 mg/kg, intraperitoneally) 30 min before the probe trial. PEBT significantly ameliorated the scopolamine-induced impairment of long-term memory, as indicated by a decrease in escape latency and an increase in the number of crossings of the platform location when compared with the amnesic mice. To evaluate the effect of PEBT on different phases of memory (acquisition, consolidation, and retrieval) impaired by scopolamine, the step-down inhibitory avoidance task was used. Scopolamine was administered 30 min before training (acquisition), test (retrieval), or immediately after training (consolidation). PEBT, administered 30 min before scopolamine, increased step-down latency in memory-impaired mice, improving the consolidation and retrieval stages, but not acquisition. No significant alterations in locomotor or exploratory behaviors were found in animals treated with PEBT and/or scopolamine. PEBT improved memory deficits during consolidation and retrieval induced by scopolamine.

  8. Focusing on food during lunch enhances lunch memory and decreases later snack intake.

    PubMed

    Higgs, Suzanne; Donohoe, Jessica E

    2011-08-01

    We investigated whether eating lunch mindfully, in contrast to eating with distractions or no particular focus, reduces later snack intake and if this is related to a measure of meal memory. The design was between-subjects with three conditions. Twenty-nine female undergraduate students either ate a fixed lunch while (1) focusing on the sensory characteristics of the food as they ate (food focus group), (2) reading a newspaper article about food (food thoughts control group) or (3) in the absence of any secondary task (neutral control group). Cookie intake later that afternoon was measured as well as rated vividness of memory of the lunch. Participants ate significantly fewer cookies in the food focus group than in both the food thoughts control group or the neutral control group. Rated appetite before the snack session was lower in the food focus group than in the other two groups and rated vividness of lunch memory was higher. Rated vividness of lunch memory was negatively correlated with snack intake. These results suggest that enhancing meal memory by paying attention to food while eating can reduce later intake and are consistent with the suggestion that memory plays an important role in appetite control.

  9. 16Oxygen irradiation enhances cued fear memory in B6D2F1 mice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raber, Jacob; Marzulla, Tessa; Kronenberg, Amy; Turker, Mitchell S.

    2015-11-01

    The space radiation environment includes energetic charged particles that may impact cognitive performance. We assessed the effects of 16O ion irradiation on cognitive performance of C57BL/6J × DBA/2J F1 (B6D2F1) mice at OHSU (Portland, OR) one month following irradiation at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL, Upton, NY). Hippocampus-dependent contextual fear memory and hippocampus-independent cued fear memory of B6D2F1 mice were tested. 16O ion exposure enhanced cued fear memory. This effect showed a bell-shaped dose response curve. Cued fear memory was significantly stronger in mice irradiated with 16O ions at a dose of 0.4 or 0.8 Gy than in sham-irradiated mice or following irradiation at 1.6 Gy. In contrast to cued fear memory, contextual fear memory was not affected following 16O ion irradiation at the doses used in this study. These data indicate that the amygdala might be particularly susceptible to effects of 16O ion exposure.

  10. Aging promotes acquisition of naive-like CD8+ memory T cell traits and enhanced functionalities.

    PubMed

    Eberlein, Jens; Davenport, Bennett; Nguyen, Tom; Victorino, Francisco; Haist, Kelsey; Jhun, Kevin; Karimpour-Fard, Anis; Hunter, Lawrence; Kedl, Ross; Clambey, Eric T; Homann, Dirk

    2016-10-03

    Protective T cell memory is an acquired trait that is contingent upon the preservation of its constituents and therefore vulnerable to the potentially deleterious effects of organismal aging. Here, however, we have found that long-term T cell memory in a natural murine host-pathogen system can substantially improve over time. Comprehensive molecular, phenotypic, and functional profiling of aging antiviral CD8+ memory T cells (CD8+ TM) revealed a pervasive remodeling process that promotes the gradual acquisition of distinct molecular signatures, of increasingly homogeneous phenotypes, and of diversified functionalities that combine to confer a CD8+ TM-autonomous capacity for enhanced recall responses and immune protection. Notably, the process of CD8+ TM aging is characterized by a progressive harmonization of memory and naive T cell traits, is broadly amenable to experimental acceleration or retardation, and serves as a constitutional component for the "rebound model" of memory T cell maturation. By casting CD8+ TM populations within the temporal framework of their slowly evolving properties, this model establishes a simple ontogenetic perspective on the principal organization of CD8+ T cell memory that may directly inform the development of improved diagnostic, prophylactic, and therapeutic modalities.

  11. Aging promotes acquisition of naive-like CD8+ memory T cell traits and enhanced functionalities

    PubMed Central

    Davenport, Bennett; Nguyen, Tom; Victorino, Francisco; Haist, Kelsey; Jhun, Kevin; Karimpour-Fard, Anis; Hunter, Lawrence; Kedl, Ross; Clambey, Eric T.

    2016-01-01

    Protective T cell memory is an acquired trait that is contingent upon the preservation of its constituents and therefore vulnerable to the potentially deleterious effects of organismal aging. Here, however, we have found that long-term T cell memory in a natural murine host-pathogen system can substantially improve over time. Comprehensive molecular, phenotypic, and functional profiling of aging antiviral CD8+ memory T cells (CD8+ TM) revealed a pervasive remodeling process that promotes the gradual acquisition of distinct molecular signatures, of increasingly homogeneous phenotypes, and of diversified functionalities that combine to confer a CD8+ TM–autonomous capacity for enhanced recall responses and immune protection. Notably, the process of CD8+ TM aging is characterized by a progressive harmonization of memory and naive T cell traits, is broadly amenable to experimental acceleration or retardation, and serves as a constitutional component for the “rebound model” of memory T cell maturation. By casting CD8+ TM populations within the temporal framework of their slowly evolving properties, this model establishes a simple ontogenetic perspective on the principal organization of CD8+ T cell memory that may directly inform the development of improved diagnostic, prophylactic, and therapeutic modalities. PMID:27617858

  12. Getting more from visual working memory: Retro-cues enhance retrieval and protect from visual interference.

    PubMed

    Souza, Alessandra S; Rerko, Laura; Oberauer, Klaus

    2016-06-01

    Visual working memory (VWM) has a limited capacity. This limitation can be mitigated by the use of focused attention: if attention is drawn to the relevant working memory content before test, performance improves (the so-called retro-cue benefit). This study tests 2 explanations of the retro-cue benefit: (a) Focused attention protects memory representations from interference by visual input at test, and (b) focusing attention enhances retrieval. Across 6 experiments using color recognition and color reproduction tasks, we varied the amount of color interference at test, and the delay between a retrieval cue (i.e., the retro-cue) and the memory test. Retro-cue benefits were larger when the memory test introduced interfering visual stimuli, showing that the retro-cue effect is in part because of protection from visual interference. However, when visual interference was held constant, retro-cue benefits were still obtained whenever the retro-cue enabled retrieval of an object from VWM but delayed response selection. Our results show that accessible information in VWM might be lost in the processes of testing memory because of visual interference and incomplete retrieval. This is not an inevitable state of affairs, though: Focused attention can be used to get the most out of VWM. (PsycINFO Database Record

  13. Effect of Convulvulus pluricaulis Choisy. on learning behaviour and memory enhancement activity in rodents.

    PubMed

    Nahata, Alok; Patil, U K; Dixit, V K

    2008-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to investigate the effects of Convulvulus pluricaulis (CP), considered as Shankhpushpi on learning and memory in rodents. Nootropic activity using Cook and Weidley's Pole Climbing Apparatus, passive avoidance paradigms and active avoidance tests were used to test learning and memory. The ethanolic extract of CP and its ethyl acetate and aqueous fractions were evaluated for their memory enhancing properties. Two doses (100 and 200 mg kg(-1) p.o.) of the ethanolic extract and ethyl acetate and aqueous fractions were administered in separate groups of animals. Both the doses of all the extracts of CP significantly improved learning and memory in rats. Furthermore, these doses significantly reversed the amnesia induced by scopolamine (0.3 mg kg(-1) i.p.). Nootropic activity was compared using piracetam as the standard. Moreover, CP has exhibited potent memory-enhancing effects in the step-down and shuttle-box avoidance paradigms. Further studies are necessitated to identify the exact mechanism of action.

  14. Temporal cortex direct current stimulation enhances performance on a visual recognition memory task in Alzheimer disease.

    PubMed

    Boggio, P S; Khoury, L P; Martins, D C S; Martins, O E M S; de Macedo, E C; Fregni, F

    2009-04-01

    Several studies have reported that transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), a non-invasive method of neuromodulation, enhances some aspects of working memory in healthy and Parkinson disease subjects. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of anodal tDCS on recognition memory, working memory and selective attention in Alzheimer disease (AD). Ten patients with diagnosis of AD received three sessions of anodal tDCS (left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, left temporal cortex and sham stimulation) with an intensity of 2 mA for 30 min. Sessions were performed in different days in a randomised order. The following tests were assessed during stimulation: Stroop, Digit Span and a Visual Recognition Memory task (VRM). The results showed a significant effect of stimulation condition on VRM (p = 0.0085), and post hoc analysis showed an improvement after temporal (p = 0.01) and prefrontal (p = 0.01) tDCS as compared with sham stimulation. There were no significant changes in attention as indexed by Stroop task performance. As far as is known, this is the first trial showing that tDCS can enhance a component of recognition memory. The potential mechanisms of action and the implications of these results are discussed.

  15. Stimulation of the Posterior Cortical-Hippocampal Network Enhances Precision of Memory Recollection.

    PubMed

    Nilakantan, Aneesha S; Bridge, Donna J; Gagnon, Elise P; VanHaerents, Stephen A; Voss, Joel L

    2017-02-06

    Episodic memory is thought to critically depend on interaction of the hippocampus with distributed brain regions [1-3]. Specific contributions of distinct networks have been hypothesized, with the hippocampal posterior-medial (HPM) network implicated in the recollection of highly precise contextual and spatial information [3-6]. Current evidence for HPM specialization is mostly indirect, derived from correlative measures such as neural activity recordings. Here we tested the causal role of the HPM network in recollection using network-targeted noninvasive brain stimulation in humans, which has previously been shown to increase functional connectivity within the HPM network [7]. Effects of multiple-day electromagnetic stimulation were assessed using an object-location memory task that segregated recollection precision from general recollection success. HPM network-targeted stimulation produced lasting (∼24 hr) enhancement of recollection precision, without effects on general success. Canonical neural correlates of recollection [8-10] were also modulated by stimulation. Late-positive evoked potential amplitude and theta-alpha oscillatory power were reduced, suggesting that stimulation can improve memory through enhanced reactivation of detailed visuospatial information at retrieval. The HPM network was thus specifically implicated in the processing of fine-grained memory detail, supporting functional specialization of hippocampal-cortical networks. These findings demonstrate that brain networks can be causally linked to distinct and specific neurocognitive functions and suggest mechanisms for long-lasting changes in memory due to network-targeted stimulation.

  16. Vortioxetine (Lu AA21004), a novel multimodal antidepressant, enhances memory in rats.

    PubMed

    Mørk, Arne; Montezinho, Liliana P; Miller, Silke; Trippodi-Murphy, Crista; Plath, Niels; Li, Yan; Gulinello, Maria; Sanchez, Connie

    2013-04-01

    The serotonergic system plays an important role in cognitive functions via various 5-HT receptors. Vortioxetine (Lu AA21004) in development as a novel multimodal antidepressant is a 5-HT3, 5-HT7 and 5-HT1D receptor antagonist, a 5-HT1B receptor partial agonist, a 5-HT1A receptor agonist and a 5-HT transporter (5-HTT) inhibitor in vitro. Preclinical studies suggest that 5-HT3 and 5-HT7 receptor antagonism as well as 5-HT1A receptor agonism may have a positive impact on cognitive functions including memory. Thus vortioxetine may potentially enhance memory. We investigated preclinical effects of vortioxetine (1-10mg/kg administered subcutaneously [s.c.]) on memory in behavioral tests, and on cortical neurotransmitter levels considered important in rat memory function. Contextual fear conditioning and novel object recognition tests were applied to assess memory in rats. Microdialysis studies were conducted to measure extracellular neurotransmitter levels in the rat medial prefrontal cortex. Vortioxetine administered 1h before or immediately after acquisition of contextual fear conditioning led to an increase in freezing time during the retention test. This mnemonic effect was not related to changes in pain sensitivity as measured in the hotplate test. Rats treated with vortioxetine 1h before training spent more time exploring the novel object in the novel object recognition test. In microdialysis studies of the rat medial prefrontal cortex, vortioxetine increased extracellular levels of acetylcholine and histamine. In conclusion, vortioxetine enhanced contextual and episodic memory in rat behavioral models. Further demonstration of its potential effect on memory functions in clinical settings is warranted.

  17. Protease-activated receptor-1 modulates hippocampal memory formation and synaptic plasticity.

    PubMed

    Almonte, Antoine G; Qadri, Laura H; Sultan, Faraz A; Watson, Jennifer A; Mount, Daniel J; Rumbaugh, Gavin; Sweatt, J David

    2013-01-01

    Protease-activated receptor-1 (PAR1) is an unusual G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR) that is activated through proteolytic cleavage by extracellular serine proteases. Although previous work has shown that inhibiting PAR1 activation is neuroprotective in models of ischemia, traumatic injury, and neurotoxicity, surprisingly little is known about PAR1's contribution to normal brain function. Here, we used PAR1-/- mice to investigate the contribution of PAR1 function to memory formation and synaptic function. We demonstrate that PAR1-/- mice have deficits in hippocampus-dependent memory. We also show that while PAR1-/- mice have normal baseline synaptic transmission at Schaffer collateral-CA1 synapses, they exhibit severe deficits in N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDAR)-dependent long-term potentiation (LTP). Mounting evidence indicates that activation of PAR1 leads to potentiation of NMDAR-mediated responses in CA1 pyramidal cells. Taken together, this evidence and our data suggest an important role for PAR1 function in NMDAR-dependent processes subserving memory formation and synaptic plasticity.

  18. CD22 is required for formation of memory B cell precursors within germinal centers

    PubMed Central

    Chappell, Craig P.; Draves, Kevin E.

    2017-01-01

    CD22 is a BCR co-receptor that regulates B cell signaling, proliferation and survival and is required for T cell-independent Ab responses. To investigate the role of CD22 during T cell-dependent (TD) Ab responses and memory B cell formation, we analyzed Ag-specific B cell responses generated by wild-type (WT) or CD22-/- B cells following immunization with a TD Ag. CD22-/- B cells mounted normal early Ab responses yet failed to generate either memory B cells or long-lived plasma cells, whereas WT B cells formed both populations. Surprisingly, B cell expansion and germinal center (GC) differentiation were comparable between WT and CD22-/- B cells. CD22-/- B cells, however, were significantly less capable of generating a population of CXCR4hiCD38hi GC B cells, which we propose represent memory B cell precursors within GCs. These results demonstrate a novel role for CD22 during TD humoral responses evident during primary GC formation and underscore that CD22 functions not only during B cell maturation but also during responses to both TD and T cell-independent antigens. PMID:28346517

  19. Gaming is related to enhanced working memory performance and task-related cortical activity.

    PubMed

    Moisala, M; Salmela, V; Hietajärvi, L; Carlson, S; Vuontela, V; Lonka, K; Hakkarainen, K; Salmela-Aro, K; Alho, K

    2017-01-15

    Gaming experience has been suggested to lead to performance enhancements in a wide variety of working memory tasks. Previous studies have, however, mostly focused on adult expert gamers and have not included measurements of both behavioral performance and brain activity. In the current study, 167 adolescents and young adults (aged 13-24 years) with different amounts of gaming experience performed an n-back working memory task with vowels, with the sensory modality of the vowel stream switching between audition and vision at random intervals. We studied the relationship between self-reported daily gaming activity, working memory (n-back) task performance and related brain activity measured using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). The results revealed that the extent of daily gaming activity was related to enhancements in both performance accuracy and speed during the most demanding (2-back) level of the working memory task. This improved working memory performance was accompanied by enhanced recruitment of a fronto-parietal cortical network, especially the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. In contrast, during the less demanding (1-back) level of the task, gaming was associated with decreased activity in the same cortical regions. Our results suggest that a greater degree of daily gaming experience is associated with better working memory functioning and task difficulty-dependent modulation in fronto-parietal brain activity already in adolescence and even when non-expert gamers are studied. The direction of causality within this association cannot be inferred with certainty due to the correlational nature of the current study.

  20. A Familiar Pattern? Semantic Memory Contributes to the Enhancement of Visuo-Spatial Memories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riby, Leigh M.; Orme, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    In this study we quantify for the first time electrophysiological components associated with incorporating long-term semantic knowledge with visuo-spatial information using two variants of a traditional matrix patterns task. Results indicated that the matrix task with greater semantic content was associated with enhanced accuracy and RTs in a…

  1. Method for training honeybees to respond to olfactory stimuli and enhancement of memory retention therein

    SciTech Connect

    McCade, Kirsten J.; Wingo, Robert M.; Haarmann, Timothy K.; Sutherland, Andrew; Gubler, Walter D.

    2015-12-15

    A specialized conditioning protocol for honeybees that is designed for use within a complex agricultural ecosystem. This method ensures that the conditioned bees will be less likely to exhibit a conditioned response to uninfected plants, a false positive response that would render such a biological sensor unreliable for agricultural decision support. Also described is a superboosting training regime that allows training without the aid of expensive equipment and protocols for training in out in the field. Also described is a memory enhancing cocktail that aids in long term memory retention of a vapor signature. This allows the bees to be used in the field for longer durations and with fewer bees trained overall.

  2. Gonadal Hormones Rapidly Enhance Spatial Memory and Increase Hippocampal Spine Density in Male Rats

    PubMed Central

    Jacome, Luis F.; Barateli, Ketti; Buitrago, Dina; Lema, Franklin; Frankfurt, Maya

    2016-01-01

    17β-estradiol (E2) rapidly, within minutes, activates behaviors and cognition by binding to membrane estrogen receptors, activating cell signaling cascades and increasing dendritic spines. In female rodents, E2 enhances spatial memory within 2–4 hours, and spine density is increased in the CA1 area of the hippocampus within 30–60 minutes. Although chronic gonadal hormone treatments in male rats alter cognition and spines/spine synapses and acute hormone effects occur in hippocampal slices, effects of acute, in vivo hormone administration in males are unknown. Therefore, we assessed rapid effects of E2 (20 μg/kg) and testosterone (T) (750 μg/kg) on spatial memory using the object placement task and on hippocampal spine density using Golgi impregnation. Orchidectomized rats received hormones immediately after the training trial and were tested for retention 2 hours later. Vehicle-injected orchidectomized males spent equal time exploring objects in the old and new locations, but E2- or T-treated subjects spent more time exploring objects at the new location, suggesting enhanced memory. Both hormones also increased spine density in CA1, but not the dentate gyrus, by 20%–40% at 30 minutes and 2 hours after injections. This report is the first, to our knowledge, to show E2 and T enhancements of memory and spine density within such a short time frame in male rats. PMID:26844375

  3. Activity Dependent Protein Degradation Is Critical for the Formation and Stability of Fear Memory in the Amygdala

    PubMed Central

    Jarome, Timothy J.; Helmstetter, Fred J.

    2011-01-01

    Protein degradation through the ubiquitin-proteasome system [UPS] plays a critical role in some forms of synaptic plasticity. However, its role in memory formation in the amygdala, a site critical for the formation of fear memories, currently remains unknown. Here we provide the first evidence that protein degradation through the UPS is critically engaged at amygdala synapses during memory formation and retrieval. Fear conditioning results in NMDA-dependent increases in degradation-specific polyubiquitination in the amygdala, targeting proteins involved in translational control and synaptic structure and blocking the degradation of these proteins significantly impairs long-term memory. Furthermore, retrieval of fear memory results in a second wave of NMDA-dependent polyubiquitination that targets proteins involved in translational silencing and synaptic structure and is critical for memory updating following recall. These results indicate that UPS-mediated protein degradation is a major regulator of synaptic plasticity necessary for the formation and stability of long-term memories at amygdala synapses. PMID:21961035

  4. The Role of Cannabinoid Transmission in Emotional Memory Formation: Implications for Addiction and Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Huibing; Ahmad, Tasha; Loureiro, Michael; Zunder, Jordan; Laviolette, Steven R.

    2014-01-01

    Emerging evidence from both basic and clinical research demonstrates an important role for endocannabinoid (ECB) signaling in the processing of emotionally salient information, learning, and memory. Cannabinoid transmission within neural circuits involved in emotional processing has been shown to modulate the acquisition, recall, and extinction of emotionally salient memories and importantly, can strongly modulate the emotional salience of incoming sensory information. Two neural regions in particular, the medial prefrontal cortex (PFC) and the basolateral nucleus of the amygdala (BLA), play important roles in emotional regulation and contain high levels of cannabinoid receptors. Furthermore, both regions show profound abnormalities in neuropsychiatric disorders such as addiction and schizophrenia. Considerable evidence has demonstrated that cannabinoid transmission functionally interacts with dopamine (DA), a neurotransmitter system that is of exceptional importance for both addictive behaviors and the neuropsychopathology of disorders like schizophrenia. Research in our laboratory has focused on how cannabinoid transmission both within and extrinsic to the mesolimbic DA system, including the BLA → mPFC circuitry, can modulate both rewarding and aversive emotional information. In this review, we will summarize clinical and basic neuroscience research demonstrating the importance of cannabinoid signaling within this neural circuitry. In particular, evidence will be reviewed emphasizing the importance of cannabinoid signaling within the BLA → mPFC circuitry in the context of emotional salience processing, memory formation and memory-related plasticity. We propose that aberrant states of hyper or hypoactive ECB signaling within the amygdala-prefrontal cortical circuit may lead to dysregulation of mesocorticolimbic DA transmission controlling the processing of emotionally salient information. These disturbances may in turn lead to emotional processing

  5. Object properties and cognitive load in the formation of associative memory during precision lifting.

    PubMed

    Li, Yong; Randerath, Jennifer; Bauer, Hans; Marquardt, Christian; Goldenberg, Georg; Hermsdörfer, Joachim

    2009-01-03

    When we manipulate familiar objects in our daily life, our grip force anticipates the physical demands right from the moment of contact with the object, indicating the existence of a memory for relevant object properties. This study explores the formation and consolidation of the memory processes that associate either familiar (size) or arbitrary object features (color) with object weight. In the general task, participants repetitively lifted two differently weighted objects (580 and 280 g) in a pseudo-random order. Forty young healthy adults participated in this study and were randomly distributed into four groups: Color Cue Single task (CCS, blue and red, 9.8(3)cm(3)), Color Cue Dual task (CCD), No Cue (NC) and Size Cue (SC, 9.8(3) and 6(3)cm(3)) group. All groups performed a repetitive precision grasp-lift task and were retested with the same protocol after a 5-min pause. The CCD group was also required to simultaneously perform a memory task during each lift of differently weighted objects coded by color. The results show that groups lifting objects with arbitrary or familiar features successfully formed the association between object weight and manipulated object features and incorporated this into grip force programming, as observed in the different scaling of grip force and grip force rate for different object weights. An arbitrary feature, i.e., color, can be sufficiently associated with object weight, however with less strength than the familiar feature of size. The simultaneous memory task impaired anticipatory force scaling during repetitive object lifting but did not jeopardize the learning process and the consolidation of the associative memory.

  6. Transcranial direct current stimulation enhances verbal working memory training performance over time and near transfer outcomes.

    PubMed

    Richmond, Lauren L; Wolk, David; Chein, Jason; Olson, Ingrid R

    2014-11-01

    Studies attempting to increase working memory (WM) capacity show promise in enhancing related cognitive functions but have also raised criticism in the broader scientific community given the inconsistent findings produced by these studies. Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) has been shown to enhance WM performance in a single session [Fregni, F., Boggio, P., Nitsche, M., Bermpohl, F., Anatal, A., Feredoes, E., et al. Anodal transcranial direct current stimulation of prefrontal cortex enhances working memory. Experimental Brain Research, 166, 23-30, 2005]; however, the extent to which tDCS might enhance learning on a WM training regime and the extent to which learning gains might transfer outside the training task remains largely unknown. To this end, participants engaged in an adaptive WM training task [previously utilized in Richmond, L., Morrison, A., Chein, J., & Olson, I. Working memory training and transfer in older adults. Psychology & Aging, 26, 813-822, 2011; Chein, J., & Morrison, A. Expanding the mind's workspace: Training and transfer effects with a complex working memory span task. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 17, 193-199, 2010] for 10 sessions over 2 weeks, concurrent with either active or sham stimulation of dorsolateral pFC. Before and after training, a battery of tests tapping domains known to relate to WM abilities was administered. Results show that tDCS enhanced learning on the verbal portion of the training task by 3.65 items. Furthermore, tDCS was shown to enhance near transfer to other untrained WM tasks in comparison with a no-contact control group. These results lend support to the idea that tDCS might bolster training and transfer gains in populations with compromised WM abilities.

  7. Does computerized working memory training with game elements enhance motivation and training efficacy in children with ADHD?

    PubMed

    Prins, Pier J M; Dovis, Sebastiaan; Ponsioen, Albert; ten Brink, Esther; van der Oord, Saskia

    2011-03-01

    This study examined the benefits of adding game elements to standard computerized working memory (WM) training. Specifically, it examined whether game elements would enhance motivation and training performance of children with ADHD, and whether it would improve training efficacy. A total of 51 children with ADHD aged between 7 and 12 years were randomly assigned to WM training in a gaming format or to regular WM training that was not in a gaming format. Both groups completed three weekly sessions of WM training. Children using the game version of the WM training showed greater motivation (i.e., more time training), better training performance (i.e., more sequences reproduced and fewer errors), and better WM (i.e., higher scores on a WM task) at post-training than children using the regular WM training. Results are discussed in terms of executive functions and reinforcement models of ADHD. It is concluded that WM training with game elements significantly improves the motivation, training performance, and working memory of children with ADHD. The findings of this study are encouraging and may have wide-reaching practical implications in terms of the role of game elements in the design and implementation of new intervention efforts for children with ADHD.

  8. Identification of transmitter systems and learning tag molecules involved in behavioral tagging during memory formation

    PubMed Central

    Moncada, Diego; Ballarini, Fabricio; Martinez, María Cecilia; Frey, Julietta U.; Viola, Haydee

    2011-01-01

    Long-term memory (LTM) consolidation requires the synthesis of plasticity-related proteins (PRPs). In addition, we have shown recently that LTM formation also requires the setting of a “learning tag” able to capture those PRPs. Weak training, which results only in short-term memory, can set a tag to use PRPs derived from a temporal-spatial closely related event to promote LTM formation. Here, we studied the involvement of glutamatergic, dopaminergic, and noradrenergic inputs on the setting of an inhibitory avoidance (IA) learning tag and the synthesis of PRPs. Rats explored an open field (PRP donor) followed by weak (tag inducer) or strong (tag inducer plus PRP donor) IA training. Throughout pharmacological interventions around open-field and/or IA sessions, we found that hippocampal dopamine D1/D5- and β-adrenergic receptors are specifically required to induce PRP synthesis. Moreover, activation of the glutamatergic NMDA receptors is required for setting the learning tags, and this machinery further required α-Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II and PKA but not ERK1/2 activity. Together, the present findings emphasize an essential role of the induction of PRPs and learning tags for LTM formation. The existence of only the PRP or the tag was insufficient for stabilization of the mnemonic trace. PMID:21768371

  9. NAAG peptidase inhibitors and deletion of NAAG peptidase gene enhance memory in novel object recognition test

    PubMed Central

    Janczura, Karolina J.; Olszewski, Rafal T.; Bzdega, Tomasz; Bacich, Dean J.; Heston, Warren D.; Neale, Joseph H.

    2012-01-01

    The peptide neurotransmitter N-acetylaspartylglutamate (NAAG) is inactivated by the extracellular enzyme glutamate carboxypeptidase II. Inhibitors of this enzyme reverse dizocilpine (MK-801)-induced impairment of short-term memory in the novel object recognition test. The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that NAAG peptidase inhibition enhances the long-term (24 hr delay) memory of C57BL mice in this test. These mice and mice in which glutamate carboxypeptidase II had been knocked out were presented with two identical objects to explore for 10 minutes on day 1 and tested with one of these familiar objects and one novel object on day 2. Memory was assessed as the degree to which the mice recalled the familiar object and explored the novel object to a greater extent on day 2. Uninjected mice or mice injected with saline prior to the acquisition session on day 1 demonstrated a lack of memory of the acquisition experience by exploring the familiar and novel objects to the same extent on day 2. Mice treated with glutamate carboxypeptidase II inhibitors ZJ43 or 2-PMPA prior to the acquisition trial explored the novel object significantly more time than the familiar object on day 2. Consistent with these results, mice in which glutamate carboxypeptidase II had been knocked out distinguished the novel from the familiar object on day 2 while their heterozygous colony mates did not. Inhibition of glutamate carboxypeptidase II enhances recognition memory, a therapeutic action that might be useful in treatment of memory deficits related to age and neurological disorders. PMID:23200894

  10. Acoustic Enhancement of Sleep Slow Oscillations and Concomitant Memory Improvement in Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Papalambros, Nelly A; Santostasi, Giovanni; Malkani, Roneil G; Braun, Rosemary; Weintraub, Sandra; Paller, Ken A; Zee, Phyllis C

    2017-01-01

    Acoustic stimulation methods applied during sleep in young adults can increase slow wave activity (SWA) and improve sleep-dependent memory retention. It is unknown whether this approach enhances SWA and memory in older adults, who generally have reduced SWA compared to younger adults. Additionally, older adults are at risk for age-related cognitive impairment and therefore may benefit from non-invasive interventions. The aim of this study was to determine if acoustic stimulation can increase SWA and improve declarative memory in healthy older adults. Thirteen participants 60-84 years old completed one night of acoustic stimulation and one night of sham stimulation in random order. During sleep, a real-time algorithm using an adaptive phase-locked loop modeled the phase of endogenous slow waves in midline frontopolar electroencephalographic recordings. Pulses of pink noise were delivered when the upstate of the slow wave was predicted. Each interval of five pulses ("ON interval") was followed by a pause of approximately equal length ("OFF interval"). SWA during the entire sleep period was similar between stimulation and sham conditions, whereas SWA and spindle activity were increased during ON intervals compared to matched periods during the sham night. The increases in SWA and spindle activity were sustained across almost the entire five-pulse ON interval compared to matched sham periods. Verbal paired-associate memory was tested before and after sleep. Overnight improvement in word recall was significantly greater with acoustic stimulation compared to sham and was correlated with changes in SWA between ON and OFF intervals. Using the phase-locked-loop method to precisely target acoustic stimulation to the upstate of sleep slow oscillations, we were able to enhance SWA and improve sleep-dependent memory storage in older adults, which strengthens the theoretical link between sleep and age-related memory integrity.

  11. Acoustic Enhancement of Sleep Slow Oscillations and Concomitant Memory Improvement in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Papalambros, Nelly A.; Santostasi, Giovanni; Malkani, Roneil G.; Braun, Rosemary; Weintraub, Sandra; Paller, Ken A.; Zee, Phyllis C.

    2017-01-01

    Acoustic stimulation methods applied during sleep in young adults can increase slow wave activity (SWA) and improve sleep-dependent memory retention. It is unknown whether this approach enhances SWA and memory in older adults, who generally have reduced SWA compared to younger adults. Additionally, older adults are at risk for age-related cognitive impairment and therefore may benefit from non-invasive interventions. The aim of this study was to determine if acoustic stimulation can increase SWA and improve declarative memory in healthy older adults. Thirteen participants 60–84 years old completed one night of acoustic stimulation and one night of sham stimulation in random order. During sleep, a real-time algorithm using an adaptive phase-locked loop modeled the phase of endogenous slow waves in midline frontopolar electroencephalographic recordings. Pulses of pink noise were delivered when the upstate of the slow wave was predicted. Each interval of five pulses (“ON interval”) was followed by a pause of approximately equal length (“OFF interval”). SWA during the entire sleep period was similar between stimulation and sham conditions, whereas SWA and spindle activity were increased during ON intervals compared to matched periods during the sham night. The increases in SWA and spindle activity were sustained across almost the entire five-pulse ON interval compared to matched sham periods. Verbal paired-associate memory was tested before and after sleep. Overnight improvement in word recall was significantly greater with acoustic stimulation compared to sham and was correlated with changes in SWA between ON and OFF intervals. Using the phase-locked-loop method to precisely target acoustic stimulation to the upstate of sleep slow oscillations, we were able to enhance SWA and improve sleep-dependent memory storage in older adults, which strengthens the theoretical link between sleep and age-related memory integrity. PMID:28337134

  12. Rapid-Eye-Movement-Sleep (REM) Associated Enhancement of Working Memory Performance after a Daytime Nap.

    PubMed

    Lau, Esther Yuet Ying; Wong, Mark Lawrence; Lau, Kristy Nga Ting; Hui, Florence Wai Ying; Tseng, Chia-huei

    2015-01-01

    The main objective was to study the impact of a daytime sleep opportunity on working memory and the mechanism behind such impact. This study adopted an experimental design in a sleep research laboratory. Eighty healthy college students (Age:17-23, 36 males) were randomized to either have a polysomnography-monitored daytime sleep opportunity (Nap-group, n=40) or stay awake (Wake-group, n=40) between the two assessment sessions. All participants completed a sleep diary and wore an actigraph-watch for 5 days before and one day after the assessment sessions. They completed the state-measurement of sleepiness and affect, in addition to a psychomotor vigilance test and a working memory task before and after the nap/wake sessions. The two groups did not differ in their sleep characteristics prior to and after the lab visit. The Nap-group had higher accuracy on the working memory task, fewer lapses on the psychomotor vigilance test and lower state-sleepiness than the Wake-group. Within the Nap-group, working memory accuracy was positively correlated with duration of rapid eye movement sleep (REM) and total sleep time during the nap. Our findings suggested that "sleep gain" during a daytime sleep opportunity had significant positive impact on working memory performance, without affecting subsequent nighttime sleep in young adult, and such impact was associated with the duration of REM. While REM abnormality has long been noted in pathological conditions (e.g. depression), which are also presented with cognitive dysfunctions (e.g. working memory deficits), this was the first evidence showing working memory enhancement associated with REM in daytime napping in college students, who likely had habitual short sleep duration but were otherwise generally healthy.

  13. Cotinine enhances the extinction of contextual fear memory and reduces anxiety after fear conditioning.

    PubMed

    Zeitlin, Ross; Patel, Sagar; Solomon, Rosalynn; Tran, John; Weeber, Edwin J; Echeverria, Valentina

    2012-03-17

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is an anxiety disorder triggered by traumatic events. Symptoms include anxiety, depression and deficits in fear memory extinction (FE). PTSD patients show a higher prevalence of cigarette smoking than the general population. The present study investigated the effects of cotinine, a tobacco-derived compound, over anxiety and contextual fear memory after fear conditioning (FC) in mice, a model for inducing PTSD-like symptoms. Two-month-old C57BL/6J mice were separated into three experimental groups. These groups were used to investigate the effect of pretreatment with cotinine on contextual fear memory and posttreatment on extinction and stability or retrievability of the fear memory. Also, changes induced by cotinine on the expression of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)1/2 were assessed after extinction in the hippocampus. An increase in anxiety and corticosterone levels were found after fear conditioning. Cotinine did not affect corticosterone levels but enhanced the extinction of contextual fear, decreased anxiety and the stability and/or retrievability of contextual fear memory. Cotinine-treated mice showed higher levels of the active forms of ERK1/2 than vehicle-treated mice after FC. This evidence suggests that cotinine is a potential new pharmacological treatment to reduce symptoms in individuals with PTSD.

  14. High-redshift major mergers weakly enhance star formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fensch, J.; Renaud, F.; Bournaud, F.; Duc, P.-A.; Agertz, O.; Amram, P.; Combes, F.; Di Matteo, P.; Elmegreen, B.; Emsellem, E.; Jog, C. J.; Perret, V.; Struck, C.; Teyssier, R.

    2017-02-01

    Galaxy mergers are believed to trigger strong starbursts. This is well assessed by observations in the local Universe. However, the efficiency of this mechanism has poorly been tested so far for high-redshift, actively star-forming, galaxies. We present a suite of pc-resolution hydrodynamical numerical simulations to compare the star formation process along a merging sequence of high- and low-redshift galaxies, by varying the gas mass fraction between the two models. We show that, for the same orbit, high-redshift gas-rich mergers are less efficient than low-redshift ones at producing starbursts; the star formation rate excess induced by the merger and its duration are both around 10 times lower than in the low gas fraction case. The mechanisms that account for the star formation triggering at low redshift - the increased compressive turbulence, gas fragmentation, and central gas inflows - are only mildly, if not at all, enhanced for high gas fraction galaxy encounters. Furthermore, we show that the strong stellar feedback from the initially high star formation rate in high-redshift galaxies does not prevent an increase of the star formation during the merger. Our results are consistent with the observed increase of the number of major mergers with increasing redshift being faster than the respective increase in the number of starburst galaxies.

  15. Designer receptors enhance memory in a mouse model of Down syndrome.

    PubMed

    Fortress, Ashley M; Hamlett, Eric D; Vazey, Elena M; Aston-Jones, Gary; Cass, Wayne A; Boger, Heather A; Granholm, Ann-Charlotte E

    2015-01-28

    Designer receptors exclusively activated by designer drugs (DREADDs) are novel and powerful tools to investigate discrete neuronal populations in the brain. We have used DREADDs to stimulate degenerating neurons in a Down syndrome (DS) model, Ts65Dn mice. Individuals with DS develop Alzheimer's disease (AD) neuropathology and have elevated risk for dementia starting in their 30s and 40s. Individuals with DS often exhibit working memory deficits coupled with degeneration of the locus coeruleus (LC) norepinephrine (NE) neurons. It is thought that LC degeneration precedes other AD-related neuronal loss, and LC noradrenergic integrity is important for executive function, working memory, and attention. Previous studies have shown that LC-enhancing drugs can slow the progression of AD pathology, including amyloid aggregation, oxidative stress, and inflammation. We have shown that LC degeneration in Ts65Dn mice leads to exaggerated memory loss and neuronal degeneration. We used a DREADD, hM3Dq, administered via adeno-associated virus into the LC under a synthetic promoter, PRSx8, to selectively stimulate LC neurons by exogenous administration of the inert DREADD ligand clozapine-N-oxide. DREADD stimulation of LC-NE enhanced performance in a novel object recognition task and reduced hyperactivity in Ts65Dn mice, without significant behavioral effects in controls. To confirm that the noradrenergic transmitter system was responsible for the enhanced memory function, the NE prodrug l-threo-dihydroxyphenylserine was administered in Ts65Dn and normosomic littermate control mice, and produced similar behavioral results. Thus, NE stimulation may prevent memory loss in Ts65Dn mice, and may hold promise for treatment in individuals with DS and dementia.

  16. Early memory formation disrupted by atypical PKC inhibitor ZIP in the medial prefrontal cortex but not hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Evuarherhe, Obaro; Barker, Gareth R I; Savalli, Giorgia; Warburton, Elizabeth C; Brown, Malcolm W

    2014-08-01

    Atypical isoforms of protein kinase C (aPKCs; particularly protein kinase M zeta: PKMζ) have been hypothesized to be necessary and sufficient for the maintenance of long-term potentiation (LTP) and long term memory by maintaining postsynaptic AMPA receptors via the GluA2 subunit. A myristoylated PKMζ pseudosubstrate peptide (ZIP) blocks PKMζ activity. We examined the actions of ZIP in medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and hippocampus in associative recognition memory in rats during early memory formation and memory maintenance. ZIP infusion in either hippocampus or mPFC impaired memory maintenance. However, early memory formation was impaired by ZIP in mPFC but not hippocampus; and blocking GluA2-dependent removal of AMPA receptors did not affect this impairment caused by ZIP in the mPFC. The findings indicate: (i) a difference in the actions of ZIP in hippocampus and medial prefrontal cortex, and (ii) a GluA2-independent target of ZIP (possibly PKCλ) in the mPFC during early memory formation.

  17. Segregating cognitive functions within hippocampal formation: a quantitative meta-analysis on spatial navigation and episodic memory.

    PubMed

    Kühn, Simone; Gallinat, Jürgen

    2014-04-01

    The most important cognitive domains where hippocampal formation is crucially involved are navigation and memory. Some evidence suggests that different hippocampal subregions mediate these domains. However, a quantitative meta-analysis on neuroimaging studies of spatial navigation versus memory is lacking. By means of activation likelihood estimation (ALE), we investigate concurrence of brain regions activated during spatial navigation encoding and retrieval as well as during episodic memory encoding and retrieval tasks in humans. During encoding in spatial navigation, activity was located in more posterior regions of the hippocampal formation, whereas episodic memory encoding was located in more anterior regions. Retrieval in spatial navigation was more strongly lateralized to the right compared to episodic memory retrieval. Within studies on spatial navigation retrieval, immediate recall was located more posterior and delayed recall more anterior. Overlap between concurrence of activation in spatial navigation and episodic memory was rather limited in comparison to uniquely involved regions. This argues in favor of two distinct networks, one for spatial navigation the other for episodic memory within the hippocampal formation.

  18. Distinctiveness enhances long-term event memory in non-human primates, irrespective of reinforcement.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Amy; Call, Josep; Berntsen, Dorthe

    2017-04-13

    Non-human primates are capable of recalling events that occurred as long as 3 years ago, and are able to distinguish between similar events; akin to human memory. In humans, distinctiveness enhances memory for events, however, it is unknown whether the same occurs in non-human primates. As such, we tested three great ape species on their ability to remember an event that varied in distinctiveness. Across three experiments, apes witnessed a baiting event in which one of three identical containers was baited with food. After a delay of 2 weeks, we tested their memory for the location of the baited container. Apes failed to recall the baited container when the event was undistinctive (Experiment 1), but were successful when it was distinctive (Experiment 2), although performance was equally good in a less-distinctive condition. A third experiment (Experiment 3) confirmed that distinctiveness, independent of reinforcement, was a consistent predictor of performance. These findings suggest that distinctiveness may enhance memory for events in non-human primates in the same way as in humans, and provides further evidence of basic similarities between the ways apes and humans remember past events.

  19. Nicotine uses neuron-glia communication to enhance hippocampal synaptic transmission and long-term memory.

    PubMed

    López-Hidalgo, Mónica; Salgado-Puga, Karla; Alvarado-Martínez, Reynaldo; Medina, Andrea Cristina; Prado-Alcalá, Roberto A; García-Colunga, Jesús

    2012-01-01

    Nicotine enhances synaptic transmission and facilitates long-term memory. Now it is known that bi-directional glia-neuron interactions play important roles in the physiology of the brain. However, the involvement of glial cells in the effects of nicotine has not been considered until now. In particular, the gliotransmitter D-serine, an endogenous co-agonist of NMDA receptors, enables different types of synaptic plasticity and memory in the hippocampus. Here, we report that hippocampal long-term synaptic plasticity induced by nicotine was annulled by an enzyme that degrades endogenous D-serine, or by an NMDA receptor antagonist that acts at the D-serine binding site. Accordingly, both effects of nicotine: the enhancement of synaptic transmission and facilitation of long-term memory were eliminated by impairing glial cells with fluoroacetate, and were restored with exogenous D-serine. Together, these results show that glial D-serine is essential for the long-term effects of nicotine on synaptic plasticity and memory, and they highlight the roles of glial cells as key participants in brain functions.

  20. Reward signal in a recurrent circuit drives appetitive long-term memory formation

    PubMed Central

    Ichinose, Toshiharu; Aso, Yoshinori; Yamagata, Nobuhiro; Abe, Ayako; Rubin, Gerald M; Tanimoto, Hiromu

    2015-01-01

    Dopamine signals reward in animal brains. A single presentation of a sugar reward to Drosophila activates distinct subsets of dopamine neurons that independently induce short- and long-term olfactory memories (STM and LTM, respectively). In this study, we show that a recurrent reward circuit underlies the formation and consolidation of LTM. This feedback circuit is composed of a single class of reward-signaling dopamine neurons (PAM-α1) projecting to a restricted region of the mushroom body (MB), and a specific MB output cell type, MBON-α1, whose dendrites arborize that same MB compartment. Both MBON-α1 and PAM-α1 neurons are required during the acquisition and consolidation of appetitive LTM. MBON-α1 additionally mediates the retrieval of LTM, which is dependent on the dopamine receptor signaling in the MB α/β neurons. Our results suggest that a reward signal transforms a nascent memory trace into a stable LTM using a feedback circuit at the cost of memory specificity. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.10719.001 PMID:26573957

  1. Hippocampal formation volume, memory dysfunction, and cortisol levels in patients with Cushing's syndrome.

    PubMed

    Starkman, M N; Gebarski, S S; Berent, S; Schteingart, D E

    1992-11-01

    Patients with chronic hypercortisolemia due to Cushing's syndrome (CS) exhibit cognitive dysfunction. Because glucocorticoid excess is associated with hippocampal damage in animals, and the hippocampus participates in learning and memory, we explored the relationships between hippocampal formation (HF) volume, memory dysfunction, and cortisol levels in 12 patients with CS. After magnetic resonance imaging, HF volume was determined using digital sum of track ball traces of dentate gyrus, hippocampus proper and subiculum, correcting for total intracranial volume. For 27% of the patients, HF volume fell outside the 95% confidence intervals for normal subject volume given in the literature. In addition, there were significant and specific correlations between HF volume and scores for verbal paired associate learning, verbal recall, and verbal recall corrected for full-scale IQ (r = 0.57 to 0.70, p < 0.05). HF volume was negatively correlated with plasma cortisol levels (r = -0.73, p < 0.05). These studies suggest an association between reduced HF volume, memory dysfunction, and elevated cortisol in patients with CS.

  2. Effects of hippocampal high-frequency electrical stimulation in memory formation and their association with amino acid tissue content and release in normal rats.

    PubMed

    Luna-Munguía, Hiram; Meneses, Alfredo; Peña-Ortega, Fernando; Gaona, Andres; Rocha, Luisa

    2012-01-01

    Hippocampal high frequency electrical stimulation (HFS) at 130 Hz has been proposed as a therapeutical strategy to control neurological disorders such as intractable temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). This study was carried out to determine the effects of hippocampal HFS on the memory process and the probable involvement of amino acids. Using the autoshaping task, we found that animals receiving hippocampal HFS showed augmented short-term, but not long-term memory formation, an effect blocked by bicuculline pretreatment and associated with enhanced tissue levels of amino acids in hippocampus. In addition, microdialysis experiments revealed high extracellular levels of glutamate, aspartate, glycine, taurine, and alanine during the application of hippocampal HFS. In contrast, GABA release augmented during HFS and remained elevated for more than 1 h after the stimulation was ended. HFS had minimal effects on glutamine release. The present results suggest that HFS has an activating effect on specific amino acids in normal hippocampus that may be involved in the enhanced short-term memory formation. These data further provide experimental support for the concept that hippocampus may be a promising target for focal stimulation to treat intractable seizures in humans.

  3. Evaluation of word associations as a reliable postoperative indicator of implicit memory formation during the intraoperative period.

    PubMed

    Maye, J P; Smith, T L

    2001-02-01

    Patients expect to receive an anesthetic that prevents the formation of memories during the intraoperative period. Unfortunately, explicit memory formation occurs 40,000 times per year in the United States, while the incidence of implicit memory is thought to be greater. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the effectiveness of word associations as a reliable postoperative indicator of implicit memory formation during the intraoperative period. Forty-eight participants scheduled to undergo general anesthesia for an elective procedure were selected. During the administration of 0.77 +/- .18 microgram/kg per minute of remifentanyl and 0.31 +/- .04 end-tidal volume percent of sevoflurane in air/oxygen, word associations in the form of "Trivial Pursuit" (Hasbro, Inc, Pawtucket, RI) game statements were presented via headphones. Within 24 hours of surgery, each participant was given a postoperative word association test that included the experimental and control word associations. No reports of explicit memory were noted. The experimental word associations were correctly answered 19.3% of the time, while the control word associations were correctly answered 12.8% of the time (P = .014). The findings illustrated that the word association test in the form of Trivial Pursuit game statements/answers may serve as a reliable postoperative indicator of implicit memory formation during the intraoperative period.

  4. Formation of nanoparticles of blue haze enhanced by anthropogenic pollution.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Renyi; Wang, Lin; Khalizov, Alexei F; Zhao, Jun; Zheng, Jun; McGraw, Robert L; Molina, Luisa T

    2009-10-20

    The molecular processes leading to formation of nanoparticles of blue haze over forested areas are highly complex and not fully understood. We show that the interaction between biogenic organic acids and sulfuric acid enhances nucleation and initial growth of those nanoparticles. With one cis-pinonic acid and three to five sulfuric acid molecules in the critical nucleus, the hydrophobic organic acid part enhances the stability and growth on the hydrophilic sulfuric acid counterpart. Dimers or heterodimers of biogenic organic acids alone are unfavorable for new particle formation and growth because of their hydrophobicity. Condensation of low-volatility organic acids is hindered on nano-sized particles, whereas ammonia contributes negligibly to particle growth in the size range of 3-30 nm. The results suggest that initial growth from the critical nucleus to the detectable size of 2-3 nm most likely occurs by condensation of sulfuric acid and water, implying that anthropogenic sulfur emissions (mainly from power plants) strongly influence formation of terrestrial biogenic particles and exert larger direct and indirect climate forcing than previously recognized.

  5. Associations of Unilateral Whisker and Olfactory Signals Induce Synapse Formation and Memory Cell Recruitment in Bilateral Barrel Cortices: Cellular Mechanism for Unilateral Training Toward Bilateral Memory

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Zilong; Chen, Lei; Fan, Ruicheng; Lu, Wei; Wang, Dangui; Cui, Shan; Huang, Li; Zhao, Shidi; Guan, Sudong; Zhu, Yan; Wang, Jin-Hui

    2016-01-01

    Somatosensory signals and operative skills learned by unilateral limbs can be retrieved bilaterally. In terms of cellular mechanism underlying this unilateral learning toward bilateral memory, we hypothesized that associative memory cells in bilateral cortices and synapse innervations between them were produced. In the examination of this hypothesis, we have observed that paired unilateral whisker and odor stimulations led to odorant-induced whisker motions in bilateral sides, which were attenuated by inhibiting the activity of barrel cortices. In the mice that showed bilateral cross-modal responses, the neurons in both sides of barrel cortices became to encode this new odor signal alongside the innate whisker signal. Axon projections and synapse formations from the barrel cortex, which was co-activated with the piriform cortex, toward its contralateral barrel cortex (CBC) were upregulated. Glutamatergic synaptic transmission in bilateral barrel cortices was upregulated and GABAergic synaptic transmission was downregulated. The associative activations of the sensory cortices facilitate new axon projection, glutamatergic synapse formation and GABAergic synapse downregulation, which drive the neurons to be recruited as associative memory cells in the bilateral cortices. Our data reveal the productions of associative memory cells and synapse innervations in bilateral sensory cortices for unilateral training toward bilateral memory. PMID:28018178

  6. Learning to learn - intrinsic plasticity as a metaplasticity mechanism for memory formation.

    PubMed

    Sehgal, Megha; Song, Chenghui; Ehlers, Vanessa L; Moyer, James R

    2013-10-01

    "Use it or lose it" is a popular adage often associated with use-dependent enhancement of cognitive abilities. Much research has focused on understanding exactly how the brain changes as a function of experience. Such experience-dependent plasticity involves both structural and functional alterations that contribute to adaptive behaviors, such as learning and memory, as well as maladaptive behaviors, including anxiety disorders, phobias, and posttraumatic stress disorder. With the advancing age of our population, understanding how use-dependent plasticity changes across the lifespan may also help to promote healthy brain aging. A common misconception is that such experience-dependent plasticity (e.g., associative learning) is synonymous with synaptic plasticity. Other forms of plasticity also play a critical role in shaping adaptive changes within the nervous system, including intrinsic plasticity - a change in the intrinsic excitability of a neuron. Intrinsic plasticity can result from a change in the number, distribution or activity of various ion channels located throughout the neuron. Here, we review evidence that intrinsic plasticity is an important and evolutionarily conserved neural correlate of learning. Intrinsic plasticity acts as a metaplasticity mechanism by lowering the threshold for synaptic changes. Thus, learning-related intrinsic changes can facilitate future synaptic plasticity and learning. Such intrinsic changes can impact the allocation of a memory trace within a brain structure, and when compromised, can contribute to cognitive decline during the aging process. This unique role of intrinsic excitability can provide insight into how memories are formed and, more interestingly, how neurons that participate in a memory trace are selected. Most importantly, modulation of intrinsic excitability can allow for regulation of learning ability - this can prevent or provide treatment for cognitive decline not only in patients with clinical disorders but

  7. Rapid formation and selective stabilization of synapses for enduring motor memories

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Tonghui; Yu, Xinzhu; Perlik, Andrew J.; Tobin, Willie F.; Zweig, Jonathan A.; Tennant, Kelly; Jones, Theresa; Zuo, Yi

    2010-01-01

    Novel motor skills are learned through repetitive practice and, once acquired, persist long after training stops1,2. Earlier studies have shown that such learning induces an increase in the efficacy of synapses in the primary motor cortex, the persistence of which is associated with retention of the task3–5. However, how motor learning affects neuronal circuitry at the level of individual synapses and how long-lasting memory is structurally encoded in the intact brain remain unknown. Here we show that synaptic connections in the living mouse brain rapidly respond to motor-skill learning and permanently rewire. Training in a forelimb reaching task leads to rapid (within an hour) formation of postsynaptic dendritic spines on the output pyramidal neurons in the contralateral motor cortex. Although selective elimination of spines that existed before training gradually returns the overall spine density back to the original level, the new spines induced during learning are preferentially stabilized during subsequent training and endure long after training stops. Furthermore, we show that different motor skills are encoded by different sets of synapses. Practice of novel, but not previously learned, tasks further promotes dendritic spine formation in adulthood. Our findings reveal that rapid, but long-lasting, synaptic reorganization is closely associated with motor learning. The data also suggest that stabilized neuronal connections are the foundation of durable motor memory. PMID:19946267

  8. Neural Correlates of Auditory Processing, Learning and Memory Formation in Songbirds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinaud, R.; Terleph, T. A.; Wynne, R. D.; Tremere, L. A.

    Songbirds have emerged as powerful experimental models for the study of auditory processing of complex natural communication signals. Intact hearing is necessary for several behaviors in developing and adult animals including vocal learning, territorial defense, mate selection and individual recognition. These behaviors are thought to require the processing, discrimination and memorization of songs. Although much is known about the brain circuits that participate in sensorimotor (auditory-vocal) integration, especially the ``song-control" system, less is known about the anatomical and functional organization of central auditory pathways. Here we discuss findings associated with a telencephalic auditory area known as the caudomedial nidopallium (NCM). NCM has attracted significant interest as it exhibits functional properties that may support higher order auditory functions such as stimulus discrimination and the formation of auditory memories. NCM neurons are vigorously dr iven by auditory stimuli. Interestingly, these responses are selective to conspecific, relative to heterospecific songs and artificial stimuli. In addition, forms of experience-dependent plasticity occur in NCM and are song-specific. Finally, recent experiments employing high-throughput quantitative proteomics suggest that complex protein regulatory pathways are engaged in NCM as a result of auditory experience. These molecular cascades are likely central to experience-associated plasticity of NCM circuitry and may be part of a network of calcium-driven molecular events that support the formation of auditory memory traces.

  9. IL-21 is required for CD4 memory formation in response to viral infection

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Yuqing; Huang, Xiaopei

    2017-01-01

    IL-21 has been shown to play an important role in the CD8 T cell response during acute and chronic viral infections. However, the role of IL-21 signaling in the CD4 T cell response to viral infection remains incompletely defined. In a model of infection with vaccinia virus, we show that intrinsic IL-21 signaling on CD4 T cells was critical for the formation of memory CD4 T cells in vivo. We further reveal that IL-21 promoted CD4 T cell survival in a mechanism dependent on activation of the STAT1 and STAT3 signaling pathways. In addition, the activation of Akt is also required for IL-21–dependent survival of CD4 T cells in vivo. These results identify a critical role for intrinsic IL-21 signaling in CD4 T cell survival and memory formation in response to viral infection in vivo and may provide insights into the design of effective vaccine strategies.

  10. Microstructural changes in memory and reticular formation neural pathway after simple concussion☆

    PubMed Central

    Ouyang, Lin; Shi, Rongyue; Xiao, Yuhui; Meng, Jiarong; Guo, Yihe; Lu, Guangming

    2012-01-01

    Patients with concussion often present with temporary disturbance of consciousness. The microstructural and functional changes in the brain associated with concussion, as well as the relationship with transient cognitive disorders, are currently unclear. In the present study, a rabbit model of simple concussion was established. Magnetic resonance-diffusion tensor imaging results revealed that the corona radiata and midbrain exhibited significantly decreased fractional anisotropy values in the neural pathways associated with memory and the reticular formation. In addition, the apparent diffusion coefficient values were significantly increased following injury compared with those before injury. Following a 1-hour period of quiet rest, the fractional anisotropy values significantly increased, and apparent diffusion coefficient values significantly decreased, returning to normal pre-injury levels. In contrast, the fractional anisotropy values and apparent diffusion coefficient values in the corpus callosum, thalamus and hippocampus showed no statistical significant alterations following injury. These findings indicate that the neural pathways associated with memory and the reticular formation pathway exhibit reversible microstructural white matter changes when concussion occurs, and these changes are exhibited to a different extent in different regions. PMID:25538741

  11. Epigenetic gene regulation in the adult mammalian brain: multiple roles in memory formation.

    PubMed

    Lubin, Farah D

    2011-07-01

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (bdnf) is one of numerous gene products necessary for long-term memory formation and dysregulation of bdnf has been implicated in the pathogenesis of cognitive and mental disorders. Recent work indicates that epigenetic-regulatory mechanisms including the markings of histone proteins and associated DNA remain labile throughout the life-span and represent an attractive molecular process contributing to gene regulation in the brain. In this review, important information will be discussed on epigenetics as a set of newly identified dynamic transcriptional mechanisms serving to regulate gene expression changes in the adult brain with particular emphasis on bdnf transcriptional readout in learning and memory formation. This review will also highlight evidence for the role of epigenetics in aberrant bdnf gene regulation in the pathogenesis of cognitive dysfunction associated with seizure disorders, Rett syndrome, Schizophrenia, and Alzheimer's disease. Such research offers novel concepts for understanding epigenetic transcriptional mechanisms subserving adult cognition and mental health, and furthermore promises novel avenues for therapeutic approach in the clinic.

  12. Reconciling findings of emotion-induced memory enhancement and impairment of preceding items

    PubMed Central

    Knight, Marisa; Mather, Mara

    2009-01-01

    A large body of work reveals that people remember emotionally arousing information better than neutral information. However, previous research reveals contradictory effects of emotional events on memory for neutral events that precede or follow them: in some studies emotionally arousing items impair memory for immediately preceding or following items and in others arousing items enhance memory for preceding items. By demonstrating both emotion-induced enhancement and impairment, Experiments 1 and 2 clarified the conditions under which these effects are likely to occur. The results suggest that emotion-induced enhancement is most likely to occur for neutral items that: (1) precede (and so are poised to predict the onset of) emotionally arousing items, (2) have high attentional weights at encoding, and (3) are tested after a delay period of a week rather than within the same experiment session. In contrast, emotion-induced impairment is most likely to occur for neutral items near the onset of emotional arousal that are overshadowed by highly activated competing items during encoding. PMID:20001121

  13. Acute stress blocks the caffeine-induced enhancement of contextual memory retrieval in mice.

    PubMed

    Pierard, Chistophe; Krazem, Ali; Henkous, Nadia; Decorte, Laurence; Béracochéa, Daniel

    2015-08-15

    This study investigated in mice the dose-effect of caffeine on memory retrieval in non-stress and stress conditions. C57 Bl/6 Jico mice learned two consecutive discriminations (D1 and D2) in a four-hole board which involved either distinct contextual (CSD) or similar contextual (SSD) cues. All mice received an i.p. injection of vehicle or caffeine (8, 16 or 32mg/kg) 30min before the test session. Results showed that in non-stress conditions, the 16mg/kg caffeine dose induced a significant enhancement of D1 performance in CSD but not in SSD. Hence, we studied the effect of an acute stress (electric footshocks) administered 15min before the test session on D1 performance in caffeine-treated mice. Results showed that stress significantly decreased D1 performance in vehicle-treated controls and the memory-enhancing effect induced by the 16mg/kg caffeine dose in non-stress condition is no longer observed. Interestingly, whereas caffeine-treated mice exhibited weaker concentrations of plasma corticosterone as compared to vehicles in non-stress condition, stress significantly increased plasma corticosterone concentrations in caffeine-treated mice which reached similar level to that of controls. Overall, the acute stress blocked both the endocrinological and memory retrieval enhancing effects of caffeine.

  14. Memories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brand, Judith, Ed.

    1998-01-01

    This theme issue of the journal "Exploring" covers the topic of "memories" and describes an exhibition at San Francisco's Exploratorium that ran from May 22, 1998 through January 1999 and that contained over 40 hands-on exhibits, demonstrations, artworks, images, sounds, smells, and tastes that demonstrated and depicted the biological,…

  15. The Enhanced Rise and Delayed Fall of Memory in a Model of Synaptic Integration: Extension to Discrete State Synapses.

    PubMed

    Elliott, Terry

    2016-09-01

    Integrate-and-express models of synaptic plasticity propose that synapses may act as low-pass filters, integrating synaptic plasticity induction signals in order to discern trends before expressing synaptic plasticity. We have previously shown that synaptic filtering strongly controls destabilizing fluctuations in developmental models. When applied to palimpsest memory systems that learn new memories by forgetting old ones, we have also shown that with binary-strength synapses, integrative synapses lead to an initial memory signal rise before its fall back to equilibrium. Such an initial rise is in dramatic contrast to nonintegrative synapses, in which the memory signal falls monotonically. We now extend our earlier analysis of palimpsest memories with synaptic filters to consider the more general case of discrete state, multilevel synapses. We derive exact results for the memory signal dynamics and then consider various simplifying approximations. We show that multilevel synapses enhance the initial rise in the memory signal and then delay its subsequent fall by inducing a plateau-like region in the memory signal. Such dynamics significantly increase memory lifetimes, defined by a signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). We derive expressions for optimal choices of synaptic parameters (filter size, number of strength states, number of synapses) that maximize SNR memory lifetimes. However, we find that with memory lifetimes defined via mean-first-passage times, such optimality conditions do not exist, suggesting that optimality may be an artifact of SNRs.

  16. Enhanced perceived responsibility decreases metamemory but not memory accuracy in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD).

    PubMed

    Moritz, S; Wahl, K; Zurowski, B; Jelinek, L; Hand, I; Fricke, S

    2007-09-01

    Mixed findings have been obtained in prior research with respect to the presence and severity of memory and metamemory deficits in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). We tested the hypothesis that experimentally induced increments of subjective responsibility would lead to a disproportionately strong decline of memory confidence and enhanced response latencies in OCD while leaving memory accuracy unaffected. Twenty-eight OCD patients and 28 healthy controls were presented a computerized memory test framed with two different scenarios. In the neutral scenario, the participant was requested to imagine purchasing 15 items from a do-it-yourself store. In the recognition phase, the 15 needed items were presented along with 15 distractor items. The participant was asked to decide whether items were on his or her shopping list or not, graded by subjective confidence. In the responsibility scenario, the general experimental setup was analogous except that the participant now had to envision that he or she was a helper in a region recently struck by an earthquake, dispatched to provide 15 urgently needed goods from a nearby town. In line with prior work by our group, samples did not differ in either condition on memory accuracy in a subsequent recognition task. As hypothesized, OCD participants were less certain in their responses for the high responsibility condition than controls. Whereas patients and controls did not differ in their subjective estimates for memorized items, patients expressed stronger doubt that their earthquake mission was successful. The findings indicate that low memory confidence in OCD may only be elicited in situations where perceived responsibility is high and that patients may share higher performance standards ("good is not good enough") than controls when perceived responsibility is inflated.

  17. A role for the endocannabinoid system in exercise-induced spatial memory enhancement in mice.

    PubMed

    Ferreira-Vieira, Talita H; Bastos, Cristiane P; Pereira, Grace S; Moreira, Fabricio A; Massensini, André R

    2014-01-01

    It is well known that physical exercise has positive effects on cognitive functions and hippocampal plasticity. However, the underlying mechanisms have remained to be further investigated. Here we investigated the hypothesis that the memory-enhancement promoted by physical exercise relies on facilitation of the endocannabinoid system. We observed that the spatial memory tested in the object location paradigm did not persist in sedentary mice, but could be improved by 1 week of treadmill running. In addition, exercise up-regulated CB1 receptor and BDNF expression in the hippocampus. To verify if these changes required CB1 activation, we treated the mice with the selective antagonist, AM251, before each period of physical activity. In line with our hypothesis, this drug prevented the exercise-induced memory enhancement and BDNF expression. Furthermore, AM251 reduced CB1 expression. To test if facilitating the endocannabinoid system signaling would mimic the alterations observed after exercise, we treated sedentary animals during 1 week with the anandamide-hydrolysis inhibitor, URB597. Mice treated with this drug recognized the object in a new location and have increased levels of CB1 and BDNF expression in the hippocampus, showing that potentiating the endocanabinoid system equally benefits memory. In conclusion, the favorable effects of exercise upon spatial memory and BDNF expression depend on facilitation of CB1 receptor signaling, which can be mimic by inhibition of anandamide hydrolysis in sedentary animals. Our results suggest that, at least in part, the promnesic effect of the exercise is dependent of CB1 receptor activation and is mediated by BDNF.

  18. Aging and memory improvement through semantic clustering: The role of list-presentation format.

    PubMed

    Kuhlmann, Beatrice G; Touron, Dayna R

    2016-11-01

    The present study examined how the presentation format of the study list influences younger and older adults' semantic clustering. Spontaneous clustering did not differ between age groups or between an individual-words (presentation of individual study words in consecution) and a whole-list (presentation of the whole study list at once for the same total duration) presentation format in 132 younger (18-30 years, M = 19.7) and 120 older (60-84 years, M = 69.5) adults. However, after instructions to use semantic clustering (second list) age-related differences in recall magnified, indicating a utilization deficiency, and both age groups achieved higher recall in the whole-list than in the individual-words format. While this whole-list benefit was comparable across age groups, it is notable that older adults were only able to improve their average recall performance after clustering instructions in the whole-list but not in the individual-words format. In both formats, instructed clustering was correlated with processing resources (processing speed and, especially, working memory capacity), particularly in older adults. Spontaneous clustering, however, was not related to processing resources but to metacognitive beliefs about the efficacy and difficulty of semantic clustering, neither of which indicated awareness of the benefits of the whole-list presentation format in either age group. Taken together, the findings demonstrate that presentation format has a nontrivial influence on the utilization of semantic clustering in adults. The analyses further highlight important differences between output-based and list-based clustering measures. (PsycINFO Database Record

  19. Emotional face expression modulates occipital-frontal effective connectivity during memory formation in a bottom-up fashion

    PubMed Central

    Xiu, Daiming; Geiger, Maximilian J.; Klaver, Peter

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the role of bottom-up and top-down neural mechanisms in the processing of emotional face expression during memory formation. Functional brain imaging data was acquired during incidental learning of positive (“happy”), neutral and negative (“angry” or “fearful”) faces. Dynamic Causal Modeling (DCM) was applied on the functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data to characterize effective connectivity within a brain network involving face perception (inferior occipital gyrus and fusiform gyrus) and successful memory formation related areas (hippocampus, superior parietal lobule, amygdala, and orbitofrontal cortex). The bottom-up models assumed processing of emotional face expression along feed forward pathways to the orbitofrontal cortex. The top-down models assumed that the orbitofrontal cortex processed emotional valence and mediated connections to the hippocampus. A subsequent recognition memory test showed an effect of negative emotion on the response bias, but not on memory performance. Our DCM findings showed that the bottom-up model family of effective connectivity best explained the data across all subjects and specified that emotion affected most bottom-up connections to the orbitofrontal cortex, especially from the occipital visual cortex and superior parietal lobule. Of those pathways to the orbitofrontal cortex the connection from the inferior occipital gyrus correlated with memory performance independently of valence. We suggest that bottom-up neural mechanisms support effects of emotional face expression and memory formation in a parallel and partially overlapping fashion. PMID:25954169

  20. Emotional face expression modulates occipital-frontal effective connectivity during memory formation in a bottom-up fashion.

    PubMed

    Xiu, Daiming; Geiger, Maximilian J; Klaver, Peter

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the role of bottom-up and top-down neural mechanisms in the processing of emotional face expression during memory formation. Functional brain imaging data was acquired during incidental learning of positive ("happy"), neutral and negative ("angry" or "fearful") faces. Dynamic Causal Modeling (DCM) was applied on the functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data to characterize effective connectivity within a brain network involving face perception (inferior occipital gyrus and fusiform gyrus) and successful memory formation related areas (hippocampus, superior parietal lobule, amygdala, and orbitofrontal cortex). The bottom-up models assumed processing of emotional face expression along feed forward pathways to the orbitofrontal cortex. The top-down models assumed that the orbitofrontal cortex processed emotional valence and mediated connections to the hippocampus. A subsequent recognition memory test showed an effect of negative emotion on the response bias, but not on memory performance. Our DCM findings showed that the bottom-up model family of effective connectivity best explained the data across all subjects and specified that emotion affected most bottom-up connections to the orbitofrontal cortex, especially from the occipital visual cortex and superior parietal lobule. Of those pathways to the orbitofrontal cortex the connection from the inferior occipital gyrus correlated with memory performance independently of valence. We suggest that bottom-up neural mechanisms support effects of emotional face expression and memory formation in a parallel and partially overlapping fashion.

  1. Increased hippocampal cell density and enhanced spatial memory in the valproic acid rat model of autism.

    PubMed

    Edalatmanesh, Mohammad Amin; Nikfarjam, Haniyeh; Vafaee, Farzaneh; Moghadas, Marzieh

    2013-08-14

    Autism is characterized by behavioral impairments in three main domains: social interaction; language, communication and imaginative play; and the range of interests and activities. However, neuronal processing studies have suggested that hyper-perception, hyper-attention, and enhanced memory, which may lie at the heart of most autistic symptoms. Pregnant Wistar rats were administered by either Valproic Acid (VPA, 500mg/kg) or Phosphate Buffer Saline (PBS) during fetal neural tube development on embryonic day 12.5. All offspring were subjected to various tests. The present study examined social interaction, repetitive behaviors, nociception and tactile threshold, anxiety as well as spatial memory. Histological analyses of cells in five regions of the hippocampus were done to determine neuronal density in both groups. A single intra-peritoneal injection of VPA to pregnant rats produced severe autistic-like symptoms in the offspring. The results showed significant behavioral impairments such as a lower tendency to initiate social interactions, enhanced stereotyped, repetitive behaviors, increased nociception threshold and anxiety at postnatal day (PND) 30 and PND 60. The Morris water maze learning paradigm revealed enhanced spatial memory at PND 60. Furthermore, histological analysis showed that the neuronal density in five separate regions of hippocampus (CA1, CA2, CA3, Dentate gyrus and Subiculum) were increased at PND 67. This work suggests that early embryonic exposure to VPA in rats provides a good model for several specific aspects of autism and should help to continue to explore pathophysiological and neuroanatomical hypotheses. This study provides further evidence to support the notion that spatial memory and hippocampal cell density are increased in this animal model of autism.

  2. Enhanced zinc consumption causes memory deficits and increased brain levels of zinc

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Flinn, J.M.; Hunter, D.; Linkous, D.H.; Lanzirotti, A.; Smith, L.N.; Brightwell, J.; Jones, B.F.

    2005-01-01

    Zinc deficiency has been shown to impair cognitive functioning, but little work has been done on the effects of elevated zinc. This research examined the effect on memory of raising Sprague-Dawley rats on enhanced levels of zinc (10 ppm ZnCO3; 0.153 mM) in the drinking water for periods of 3 or 9 months, both pre- and postnatally. Controls were raised on lab water. Memory was tested in a series of Morris Water Maze (MWM) experiments, and zinc-treated rats were found to have impairments in both reference and working memory. They were significantly slower to find a stationary platform and showed greater thigmotaxicity, a measure of anxiety. On a working memory task, where the platform was moved each day, zinc-treated animals had longer latencies over both trials and days, swam further from the platform, and showed greater thigmotaxicity. On trials using an Atlantis platform, which remained in one place but was lowered on probe trials, the zinc-treated animals had significantly fewer platform crossings, spent less time in the target quadrant, and did not swim as close to the platform position. They had significantly greater latency on nonprobe trials. Microprobe synchrotron X-ray fluorescence (??SXRF) confirmed that brain zinc levels were increased by adding ZnCO 3 to the drinking water. These data show that long-term dietary administration of zinc can lead to impairments in cognitive function. ?? 2004 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Effects of enhanced zinc and copper in drinking water on spatial memory and fear conditioning

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chrosniak, L.D.; Smith, L.N.; McDonald, C.G.; Jones, B.F.; Flinn, J.M.

    2006-01-01

    Ingestion of enhanced zinc can cause memory impairments and copper deficiencies. This study examined the effect of zinc supplementation, with and without copper, on two types of memory. Rats raised pre- and post-natally on 10 mg/kg ZnCO3 or ZnSO4 in the drinking water were tested in a fear-conditioning experiment at 11 months of age. Both zinc groups showed a maladaptive retention of fearful memories compared to controls raised on tap water. Rats raised on 10 mg/kg ZnCO3, 10 mg/kg ZnCO3 + 0.25 mg/kg CuCl2, or tap water, were tested for spatial memory ability at 3 months of age. Significant improvements in performance were found in the ZnCO3 + CuCl2 group compared to the ZnCO3 group, suggesting that some of the cognitive deficits associated with zinc supplementation may be remediated by addition of copper. ?? 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Methylphenidate enhances working memory by modulating discrete frontal and parietal lobe regions in the human brain.

    PubMed

    Mehta, M A; Owen, A M; Sahakian, B J; Mavaddat, N; Pickard, J D; Robbins, T W

    2000-03-15

    The indirect catecholamine agonist methylphenidate (Ritalin) is the drug treatment of choice in attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (AD/HD), one of the most common behavioral disorders of childhood (DSM-IV), although symptoms may persist into adulthood. Methylphenidate can enhance cognitive performance in adults and children diagnosed with AD/HD (Kempton et al., 1999; Riordan et al., 1999) and also in normal human volunteers on tasks sensitive to frontal lobe damage, including aspects of spatial working memory (SWM) performance (Elliott et al., 1997). The present study investigated changes in regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) induced by methylphenidate during performance of a self-ordered SWM task to define the neuroanatomical loci of the beneficial effect of the drug. The results show that the methylphenidate-induced improvements in working memory performance occur with task-related reductions in rCBF in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and posterior parietal cortex. The beneficial effects of methylphenidate on working memory were greatest in the subjects with lower baseline working memory capacity. This is to our knowledge the first demonstration of a localization of a drug-induced improvement in SWM performance in humans and has relevance for understanding the treatment of AD/HD.

  5. Histamine enhances inhibitory avoidance memory consolidation through a H2 receptor-dependent mechanism.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Weber C; Bonini, Juliana S; Bevilaqua, Lia R M; Izquierdo, Iván; Cammarota, Martín

    2006-07-01

    Several evidences suggest that brain histamine is involved in memory consolidation but the actual contribution of the hippocampal histaminergic system to this process remains controversial. Here, we show that when infused into the CA1 region of the dorsal hippocampus immediately after training in an inhibitory avoidance task, but not later, histamine induced a dose-dependent promnesic effect without altering locomotor activity, exploratory behavior, anxiety state or retrieval of the avoidance response. The facilitatory effect of intra-CA1 histamine was mimicked by the histamine N-methyltransferase inhibitor SKF-91844 as well as by the H2 receptor agonist dimaprit and it was blocked completely by the H2 receptor antagonist ranitidine. Conversely, the promnesic action of histamine was unaffected by the H1 receptor antagonist pyrilamine, the H3 receptor antagonist, thioperamide, and the NMDAr polyamine-binding site antagonist ifenprodil. By themselves, ranitidine, pyrilamine, thioperamide, and ifenprodil did not affect IA memory consolidation. Our data indicate that, when given into CA1, histamine enhances memory consolidation through a mechanism that involves activation of H2 receptors; however, endogenous CA1 histamine does not seem to participate in the consolidation of IA memory at least at the post-training times analyzed.

  6. Examination of mechanisms underlying enhanced memory performance in action video game players: a pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xianchun; Cheng, Xiaojun; Li, Jiaying; Pan, Yafeng; Hu, Yi; Ku, Yixuan

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have shown enhanced memory performance resulting from extensive action video game playing. The mechanisms underlying the cognitive benefit were investigated in the current study. We presented two types of retro-cues, with variable intervals to memory array (Task 1) or test array (Task 2), during the retention interval in a change detection task. In Task 1, action video game players demonstrated steady performance while non-action video game players showed decreased performance as cues occurred later, indicating their performance difference increased as the cue-to-memory-array intervals became longer. In Task 2, both participant groups increased their performance at similar rates as cues presented later, implying the performance difference in two groups were irrespective of the test-array-to-cue intervals. These findings suggested that memory benefit from game plays is not attributable to the higher ability of overcoming interference from the test array, but to the interactions between the two processes of protection from decay and resistance from interference, or from alternative hypotheses. Implications for future studies were discussed. PMID:26136720

  7. Cognitive-Enhancing Effect of Aronia melanocarpa Extract against Memory Impairment Induced by Scopolamine in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hyeon Yong; Weon, Jin Bae; Jung, Youn Sik; Kim, Nam Young; Kim, Myong Ki; Ma, Choong Je

    2016-01-01

    Aronia melanocarpa (A. melanocarpa) berries are a fruit with a marked antioxidant effect. The objective of this study was to confirm the effect of A. melanocarpa berries extract against scopolamine-induced memory impairment in mice using the Morris water maze and passive avoidance test. Moreover, we determined a possible mechanism of the cognitive-enhancing effect involving AChE activity and BDNF and p-CREB expression in the hippocampus of mice. A. melanocarpa berries extract attenuated the learning and memory impairment induced by scopolamine in the Morris water maze (79.3 ± 0.8 s of 200 mg/kg and 64.4 ± 10.7 s of 400 mg/kg on day 4) and passive avoidance tests (46.0 ± 41.1 s of 200 mg/kg and 25.6 ± 18.7 s of 400 mg/kg). A. melanocarpa berries extract reduced the acetylcholinesterase level in the hippocampus of scopolamine-injected mice and increased BDNF and p-CREB expression in the hippocampus. The major compound, cyanidin-3-O-galactoside, also reversed memory impairment. These results showed that A. melanocarpa berries extract improved memory impairment by inhibiting AChE and increasing BDNF and p-CREB expression, and cyanidin-3-O-galactoside may be responsible for the effect of A. melanocarpa berries extract. PMID:27239211

  8. Examination of mechanisms underlying enhanced memory performance in action video game players: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Li, Xianchun; Cheng, Xiaojun; Li, Jiaying; Pan, Yafeng; Hu, Yi; Ku, Yixuan

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have shown enhanced memory performance resulting from extensive action video game playing. The mechanisms underlying the cognitive benefit were investigated in the current study. We presented two types of retro-cues, with variable intervals to memory array (Task 1) or test array (Task 2), during the retention interval in a change detection task. In Task 1, action video game players demonstrated steady performance while non-action video game players showed decreased performance as cues occurred later, indicating their performance difference increased as the cue-to-memory-array intervals became longer. In Task 2, both participant groups increased their performance at similar rates as cues presented later, implying the performance difference in two groups were irrespective of the test-array-to-cue intervals. These findings suggested that memory benefit from game plays is not attributable to the higher ability of overcoming interference from the test array, but to the interactions between the two processes of protection from decay and resistance from interference, or from alternative hypotheses. Implications for future studies were discussed.

  9. The Role of Lactate-Mediated Metabolic Coupling between Astrocytes and Neurons in Long-Term Memory Formation

    PubMed Central

    Steinman, Michael Q.; Gao, Virginia; Alberini, Cristina M.

    2016-01-01

    Long-term memory formation, the ability to retain information over time about an experience, is a complex function that affects multiple behaviors, and is an integral part of an individual’s identity. In the last 50 years many scientists have focused their work on understanding the biological mechanisms underlying memory formation and processing. Molecular studies over the last three decades have mostly investigated, or given attention to, neuronal mechanisms. However, the brain is composed of different cell types that, by concerted actions, cooperate to mediate brain functions. Here, we consider some new insights that emerged from recent studies implicating astrocytic glycogen and glucose metabolisms, and particularly their coupling to neuronal functions via lactate, as an essential mechanism for long-term memory formation. PMID:26973477

  10. Slow light enhanced atomic frequency comb quantum memories in photonic crystal waveguides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Chenzhi; Zhang, Wei; Huang, Yidong; Peng, Jiangde

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, we propose a slow light-enhanced quantum memory with high efficiency based on atomic frequency comb (AFC) in ion-doped photonic crystal waveguide (PCW). The performance of the quantum memory is investigated theoretically, considering the impact of the signal bandwidth. Both the forward and backward retrieval schemes are analyzed. In the forward retrieval scheme, the analysis shows that a moderate slow light effect can improve the retrieval efficiency to above 50% with very high fidelity, even when the intrinsic optical depth is very low and the signal bandwidth is comparable with the AFC bandwidth. In the backward retrieval scheme, retrieval efficiency larger than 90% can be obtained and fidelity can remain above 90% for signal with bandwidth much narrower than AFC bandwidth, when moderate slow light is introduced into waveguide with low intrinsic optical depth. Although the phase mismatching effect limits the slow light enhancement on retrieval efficiency and decreases the fidelity for signal with bandwidth approaching AFC bandwidth, we design a modified atomic frequency comb structure (MAFC) based on which a moderate slow light can make the retrieval efficiency larger than 85% and keep the fidelity above 80%. Our calculations show that the proposed scheme provides a promising way to realize high efficiency on-chip quantum memory.

  11. Investigating the enhancing effect of music on autobiographical memory in mild Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Irish, Muireann; Cunningham, Conal J; Walsh, J Bernard; Coakley, Davis; Lawlor, Brian A; Robertson, Ian H; Coen, Robert F

    2006-01-01

    The enhancing effect of music on autobiographical memory recall in mild Alzheimer's disease individuals (n = 10; Mini-Mental State Examination score >17/30) and healthy elderly matched individuals (n = 10; Mini-Mental State Examination score 25-30) was investigated. Using a repeated-measures design, each participant was seen on two occasions: once in music condition (Vivaldi's 'Spring' movement from 'The Four Seasons') and once in silence condition, with order counterbalanced. Considerable improvement was found for Alzheimer individuals' recall on the Autobiographical Memory Interview in the music condition, with an interaction for condition by group (p < 0.005). There were no differences in terms of overall arousal using galvanic skin response recordings or attentional errors during the Sustained Attention to Response Task. A significant reduction in state anxiety was found on the State Trait Anxiety Inventory in the music condition (p < 0.001), suggesting anxiety reduction as a potential mechanism underlying the enhancing effect of music on autobiographical memory recall.

  12. tDCS for Memory Enhancement: Analysis of the Speculative Aspects of Ethical Issues

    PubMed Central

    Voarino, Nathalie; Dubljević, Veljko; Racine, Eric

    2017-01-01

    Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a promising technology to enhance cognitive and physical performance. One of the major areas of interest is the enhancement of memory function in healthy individuals. The early arrival of tDCS on the market for lifestyle uses and cognitive enhancement purposes lead to the voicing of some important ethical concerns, especially because, to date, there are no official guidelines or evaluation procedures to tackle these issues. The aim of this article is to review ethical issues related to uses of tDCS for memory enhancement found in the ethics and neuroscience literature and to evaluate how realistic and scientifically well-founded these concerns are? In order to evaluate how plausible or speculative each issue is, we applied the methodological framework described by Racine et al. (2014) for “informed and reflective” speculation in bioethics. This framework could be succinctly presented as requiring: (1) the explicit acknowledgment of factual assumptions and identification of the value attributed to them; (2) the validation of these assumptions with interdisciplinary literature; and (3) the adoption of a broad perspective to support more comprehensive reflection on normative issues. We identified four major considerations associated with the development of tDCS for memory enhancement: safety, autonomy, justice and authenticity. In order to assess the seriousness and likelihood of harm related to each of these concerns, we analyzed the assumptions underlying the ethical issues, and the level of evidence for each of them. We identified seven distinct assumptions: prevalence, social acceptance, efficacy, ideological stance (bioconservative vs. libertarian), potential for misuse, long term side effects, and the delivery of complete and clear information. We conclude that ethical discussion about memory enhancement via tDCS sometimes involves undue speculation, and closer attention to scientific and social facts would

  13. Cytokine-Induced Memory-Like Differentiation Enhances Unlicensed Natural Killer Cell Antileukemia and FcγRIIIa-Triggered Responses.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Julia A; Berrien-Elliott, Melissa M; Rosario, Maximillian; Leong, Jeffrey W; Jewell, Brea A; Schappe, Timothy; Abdel-Latif, Sara; Fehniger, Todd A

    2017-03-01

    Cytokine-induced memory-like natural killer (NK) cells differentiate after short-term preactivation with IL-12, IL-15, and IL-18 and display enhanced effector function in response to cytokines or tumor targets for weeks after the initial preactivation. Conventional NK cell function depends on a licensing signal, classically delivered by an inhibitory receptor engaging its cognate MHC class I ligand. How licensing status integrates with cytokine-induced memory-like NK cell responses is unknown. We investigated this interaction using killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptor- and HLA-genotyped primary human NK cells. Memory-like differentiation resulted in enhanced IFN-γ production triggered by leukemia targets or FcγRIIIa ligation within licensed NK cells, which exhibited the highest functionality of the NK cell subsets interrogated. IFN-γ production by unlicensed memory-like NK cells was also enhanced to a level comparable with that of licensed control NK cells. Mechanistically, differences in responses to FcγRIIIa-based triggering were not explained by alterations in key signaling intermediates, indicating that the underlying biology of memory-like NK cells is distinct from that of adaptive NK cells in human cytomegalovirus-positive individuals. Additionally, memory-like NK cells responded robustly to cytokine receptor restimulation with no impact of licensing status. These results demonstrate that both licensed and unlicensed memory-like NK cell populations have enhanced functionality, which may be translated to improve leukemia immunotherapy.

  14. The selective M1 muscarinic cholinergic agonist CDD-0102A enhances working memory and cognitive flexibility.

    PubMed

    Ragozzino, Michael E; Artis, Sonja; Singh, Amritha; Twose, Trevor M; Beck, Joseph E; Messer, William S

    2012-03-01

    Various neurodegenerative diseases and psychiatric disorders are marked by alterations in brain cholinergic function and cognitive deficits. Efforts to alleviate such deficits have been limited by a lack of selective M(1) muscarinic agonists. 5-(3-Ethyl-1,2,4-oxadiazol-5-yl)-1,4,5,6-tetrahydropyrimidine hydrochloride (CDD-0102A) is a partial agonist at M(1) muscarinic receptors with limited activity at other muscarinic receptor subtypes. The present studies investigated the effects of CDD-0102A on working memory and strategy shifting in rats. CDD-0102A administered intraperitoneally 30 min before testing at 0.1, 0.3, and 1 mg/kg significantly enhanced delayed spontaneous alternation performance in a four-arm cross maze, suggesting improvement in working memory. In separate experiments, CDD-0102A had potent enhancing effects on learning and switching between a place and visual cue discrimination. Treatment with CDD-0102A did not affect acquisition of either a place or visual cue discrimination. In contrast, CDD-0102A at 0.03 and 0.1 mg/kg significantly enhanced a shift between a place and visual cue discrimination. Analysis of the errors in the shift to the place or shift to the visual cue strategy revealed that in both cases CDD-0102A significantly increased the ability to initially inhibit a previously relevant strategy and maintain a new, relevant strategy once selected. In anesthetized rats, the minimum dose required to induce salivation was approximately 0.3 mg/kg i.p. Salivation increased with dose, and the estimated ED(50) was 2.0 mg/kg. The data suggest that CDD-0102A has unique memory and cognitive enhancing properties that might be useful in the treatment of neurological disorders at doses that do not produce adverse effects such as salivation.

  15. Enhanced memory characteristics in organic ferroelectric field-effect transistors through thermal annealing

    SciTech Connect

    Sugano, Ryo; Tashiro, Tomoya; Sekine, Tomohito; Fukuda, Kenjiro; Kumaki, Daisuke; Tokito, Shizuo

    2015-11-15

    We report on the memory characteristics of organic ferroelectric field-effect transistors (FeFETs) using spin-coated poly(vinylidene difluoride/trifluoroethylene) (P(VDF/TrFE)) as a gate insulating layer. By thermal annealing the P(VDF/TrFE) layer at temperatures above its melting point, we could significantly improve the on/off current ratio to over 10{sup 4}. Considerable changes in the surface morphology and x-ray diffraction patterns were also observed in the P(VDF/TrFE) layer as a result of the annealing process. The enhanced memory effect is attributed to large polarization effects caused by rearranged ferroelectric polymer chains and improved crystallinity in the organic semiconductor layer of the FeFET devices.

  16. In the white cube: museum context enhances the valuation and memory of art.

    PubMed

    Brieber, David; Nadal, Marcos; Leder, Helmut

    2015-01-01

    Art museum attendance is rising steadily, unchallenged by online alternatives. However, the psychological value of the real museum experience remains unclear because the experience of art in the museum and other contexts has not been compared. Here we examined the appreciation and memory of an art exhibition when viewed in a museum or as a computer simulated version in the laboratory. In line with the postulates of situated cognition, we show that the experience of art relies on organizing resources present in the environment. Specifically, artworks were found more arousing, positive, interesting and liked more in the museum than in the laboratory. Moreover, participants who saw the exhibition in the museum later recalled more artworks and used spatial layout cues for retrieval. Thus, encountering real art in the museum enhances cognitive and affective processes involved in the appreciation of art and enriches information encoded in long-term memory.

  17. Stress before extinction learning enhances and generalizes extinction memory in a predictive learning task.

    PubMed

    Meir Drexler, Shira; Hamacher-Dang, Tanja C; Wolf, Oliver T

    2017-04-08

    In extinction learning, the individual learns that a previously acquired association (e.g. between a threat and its predictor) is no longer valid. This learning is the principle underlying many cognitive-behavioral psychotherapeutic treatments, e.g. 'exposure therapy'. However, extinction is often highly-context dependent, leading to renewal (relapse of extinguished conditioned response following context change). We have previously shown that post-extinction stress leads to a more context-dependent extinction memory in a predictive learning task. Yet as stress prior to learning can impair the integration of contextual cues, here we aim to create a more generalized extinction memory by inducing stress prior to extinction. Forty-nine men and women learned the associations between stimuli and outcomes in a predictive learning task (day 1), extinguished them shortly after an exposure to a stress/control condition (day 2), and were tested for renewal (day 3). No group differences were seen in acquisition and extinction learning, and a renewal effect was present in both groups. However, the groups differed in the strength and context-dependency of the extinction memory. Compared to the control group, the stress group showed an overall reduced recovery of responding to the extinguished stimuli, in particular in the acquisition context. These results, together with our previous findings, demonstrate that the effects of stress exposure on extinction memory depend on its timing. While post-extinction stress makes the memory more context-bound, pre-extinction stress strengthens its consolidation for the acquisition context as well, making it potentially more resistant to relapse. These results have implications for the use of glucocorticoids as extinction-enhancers in exposure therapy.

  18. Dynamic changes in prefrontal cortex involvement during verbal episodic memory formation.

    PubMed

    Galli, Giulia; Feurra, Matteo; Pavone, Enea Francesco; Sirota, Miroslav; Rossi, Simone

    2017-02-24

    During encoding, the neural activity immediately before or during an event can predict whether that event will be later remembered. The contribution of brain activity immediately after an event to memory formation is however less known. Here, we used repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS) to investigate the temporal dynamics of episodic memory encoding with a focus on post-stimulus time intervals. At encoding, rTMS was applied during the online processing of the word, at its offset, or 100, 200, 300 or 400ms thereafter. rTMS was delivered to the left ventrolateral (VLPFC) or dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC). VLPFC rTMS during the first few hundreds of milliseconds after word offset disrupted subsequent recognition accuracy. We did not observe effects of DLPFC rTMS at any time point. These results suggest that encoding-related VLPFC engagement starts at a relatively late processing stage, and may reflect brain processes related to the offset of the stimulus.

  19. Modulation of Neuronal Signal Transduction and Memory Formation by Synaptic Zinc

    PubMed Central

    Sindreu, Carlos; Storm, Daniel R.

    2011-01-01

    The physiological role of synaptic zinc has remained largely enigmatic since its initial detection in hippocampal mossy fibers over 50 years ago. The past few years have witnessed a number of studies highlighting the ability of zinc ions to regulate ion channels and intracellular signaling pathways implicated in neuroplasticity, and others that shed some light on the elusive role of synaptic zinc in learning and memory. Recent behavioral studies using knock-out mice for the synapse-specific zinc transporter ZnT-3 indicate that vesicular zinc is required for the formation of memories dependent on the hippocampus and the amygdala, two brain centers that are prominently innervated by zinc-rich fibers. A common theme emerging from this research is the activity-dependent regulation of the Erk1/2 mitogen-activated-protein kinase pathway by synaptic zinc through diverse mechanisms in neurons. Here we discuss current knowledge on how synaptic zinc may play a role in cognition through its impact on neuronal signaling. PMID:22084630

  20. Inorganic polyphosphates enhances nucleus pulposus tissue formation in vitro.

    PubMed

    Gawri, Rahul; Shiba, Toshikazu; Pilliar, Robert; Kandel, Rita

    2017-01-01

    Disc degeneration is associated with low back pain for which currently there is no optimal therapy so there is a great need to identify new treatment approaches. Inorganic polyphosphates (polyP) are linear polymers of orthophosphate units varying in chain length and present in many cell types. As polyP has anabolic effects on chondrocytes, we hypothesized that polyP treatment would enhance matrix accumulation by nucleus pulposus (NP) cells. NP cells isolated from bovine caudal discs were grown in 3D culture under normoxic or in select experiments under hypoxic conditions, in the presence or absence of various concentrations and sizes of polyP. Gene expression was determined using RT-PCR. Matrix accumulation was quantified by measuring proteoglycan and collagen contents. DAPI fluorescence shift was used to stain for polyP in tissue. DAPI staining showed polyP present predominantly in the pericellular region of in vitro formed tissue. PolyP treatment enhanced matrix accumulation in a concentration and chain length dependant manner. NP cells exposed to polyP-22 (22 phosphate units length) showed an increase in gene expression of aggrecan, Collagen II, Sox 9, and MMP-13 which was maintained for the 14 days of culture. This suggests that polyP may enhance NP tissue formation in vitro by upregulating the expression of matrix genes. As polyP enhances proteoglycan accumulation even under hypoxic conditions, this raises the possibility that polyP may be a novel treatment to induce NP regeneration. © 2016 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res 35:41-50, 2017.

  1. Hepatocyte growth factor overexpression in the nervous system enhances learning and memory performance in mice.

    PubMed

    Kato, Takashi; Funakoshi, Hiroshi; Kadoyama, Keiichi; Noma, Satsuki; Kanai, Masaaki; Ohya-Shimada, Wakana; Mizuno, Shinya; Doe, Nobutaka; Taniguchi, Taizo; Nakamura, Toshikazu

    2012-09-01

    Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) and its receptor, c-Met, play pivotal roles in the nervous system during development and in disease states. However, the physiological roles of HGF in the adult brain are not well understood. In the present study, to assess its role in learning and memory function, we used transgenic mice that overexpress HGF in a neuron-specific manner (HGF-Tg) to deliver HGF into the brain without injury. HGF-Tg mice displayed increased alternation rates in the Y-maze test compared with age-matched wild-type (WT) controls. In the Morris water maze (MWM) test, HGF-Tg mice took less time to find the platform on the first day, whereas the latency to escape to the hidden platform was decreased over training days compared with WT mice. A transfer test revealed that the incidence of arrival at the exact location of the platform was higher for HGF-Tg mice compared with WT mice. These results demonstrate that overexpression of HGF leads to an enhancement of both short- and long-term memory. Western blot analyses revealed that the levels of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor subunits NR2A and NR2B, but not NR1, were increased in the hippocampus of HGF-Tg mice compared with WT controls, suggesting that an upregulation of NR2A and NR2B could represent one mechanism by which HGF enhances learning and memory performance. These results demonstrate that modulation of learning and memory performance is an important physiological function of HGF that contributes to normal CNS plasticity, and we propose HGF as a novel regulator of higher brain functions.

  2. Enhancement of long-term memory retention by Colostrinin in one-day-old chicks trained on a weak passive avoidance learning paradigm.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Michael G; Banks, Duncan

    2006-07-01

    Colostrinin (CLN) is a biologically active proline-rich polypeptide which has therapeutic potential for the alleviation of memory deficits in age-related dementias in a number of human conditions, particularly Alzheimer's disease. To examine the efficacy of CLN in other species, day-old domestic chicks were used as a model system to study its effects on retention of memory for a single one-trial learning paradigm--avoidance of a bitter-tasting substance (methylanthranilate, MeA). Birds were presented with a bead coated with either a dilute (10%) solution of MeA or a bead coated with 100% MeA. Those trained on 100% MeA avoided pecking at a similar but dry bead 24 h later, thereby demonstrating long-term memory whereas chicks trained on the 10% solution pecked the bead at 24 h, indicating lack of long term memory for the task. However, when CLN was injected (i.c.) into a region known to be important in memory formation, the mesopallium intermediomediale (IMM), prior to training with 10% MeA, chicks exhibited strong memory retention at 24 h, similar to those trained on 100% MeA. Control chicks trained on 10% MeA but injected i.c. with a 10% saline solution did not show improvement in memory retention. Intraperitoneal (i.p.) injections of CLN were as effective as the i.c. route. These data extend the known efficacy of CLN from mammals demonstrating its widespread efficacy as a cognitive enhancer.

  3. Encoding-related EEG oscillations during memory formation are modulated by mood state

    PubMed Central

    Bajbouj, Malek

    2014-01-01

    Mood states have a strong impact on how we process incoming information. It has been proposed that positive mood facilitates elaborative, relational encoding, whereas negative mood promotes a more careful, stimulus-driven encoding style. Previous electrophysiological studies have linked successful information encoding to power increases in slow (<8 Hz) delta/theta and fast (>30 Hz) gamma oscillations, as well as to power decreases in midrange (8–30 Hz) alpha/beta oscillations. Whether different mood states modulate encoding-related oscillations has not been investigated yet. In order to address this question, we used an experimental mood induction procedure and recorded electroencephalograms from 20 healthy participants while they performed a free recall memory task after positive and negative mood induction. We found distinct oscillatory patterns in positive and negative mood. Successful encoding in positive mood was accompanied by widespread power increases in the delta band, whereas encoding success in negative mood was specifically accompanied by frontal power decreases in the beta band. On the behavioral level, memory performance was enhanced in positive mood. Our findings show that mood differentially modulates the neural correlates of successful information encoding and thus contribute to an understanding of how mood shapes different processing styles. PMID:24464848

  4. Transcriptional profiling reveals regulated genes in the hippocampus during memory formation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Donahue, Christine P.; Jensen, Roderick V.; Ochiishi, Tomoyo; Eisenstein, Ingrid; Zhao, Mingrui; Shors, Tracey; Kosik, Kenneth S.

    2002-01-01

    Transcriptional profiling (TP) offers a powerful approach to identify genes activated during memory formation and, by inference, the molecular pathways involved. Trace eyeblink conditioning is well suited for the study of regional gene expression because it requires the hippocampus, whereas the highly parallel task, delay conditioning, does not. First, we determined when gene expression was most regulated during trace conditioning. Rats were exposed to 200 trials per day of paired and unpaired stimuli each day for 4 days. Changes in gene expression were most apparent 24 h after exposure to 200 trials. Therefore, we profiled gene expression in the hippocampus 24 h after 200 trials of trace eyeblink conditioning, on multiple arrays using additional animals. Of 1,186 genes on the filter array, seven genes met the statistical criteria and were also validated by real-time polymerase chain reaction. These genes were growth hormone (GH), c-kit receptor tyrosine kinase (c-kit), glutamate receptor, metabotropic 5 (mGluR5), nerve growth factor-beta (NGF-beta), Jun oncogene (c-Jun), transmembrane receptor Unc5H1 (UNC5H1), and transmembrane receptor Unc5H2 (UNC5H2). All these genes, except for GH, were downregulated in response to trace conditioning. GH was upregulated; therefore, we also validated the downregulation of the GH inhibitor, somatostatin (SST), even though it just failed to meet criteria on the arrays. By during situ hybridization, GH was expressed throughout the cell layers of the hippocampus in response to trace conditioning. None of the genes regulated in trace eyeblink conditioning were similarly affected by delay conditioning, a task that does not require the hippocampus. These findings demonstrate that transcriptional profiling can exhibit a repertoire of genes sensitive to the formation of hippocampal-dependent associative memories.

  5. The evolution of galaxies. III - Metal-enhanced star formation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Talbot, R. J., Jr.; Arnett, W. D.

    1973-01-01

    The problem of the paucity of low-metal-abundance low-mass stars is discussed. One alternative to the variable-initial-mass-function (VIMF) solution is proposed. It is shown that this solution - metal-enhanced star formation - satisfies the classical test which prompted the VIMF hypothesis. Furthermore, with no additional parameters it provides improved fits to other tests - e.g., inhomogeneities in the abundances in young stars, concordance of all nucleo-cosmochronologies, and a required yield of heavy-element production which is consistent with current stellar evolution theory. In this model the age of the Galaxy is 18.6 plus or minus 5.7 b.y.

  6. Linked supramolecular building blocks for enhanced cluster formation

    DOE PAGES

    McLellan, Ross; Palacios, Maria A.; Beavers, Christine M.; ...

    2015-01-09

    Methylene-bridged calix[4]arenes have emerged as extremely versatile ligand supports in the formation of new polymetallic clusters possessing fascinating magnetic properties. Metal ion binding rules established for this building block allow one to partially rationalise the complex assembly process. The ability to covalently link calix[4]arenes at the methylene bridge provides significantly improved control over the introduction of different metal centres to resulting cluster motifs. Clusters assembled from bis-calix[4]arenes and transition metal ions or 3d-4f combinations display characteristic features of the analogous calix[4]arene supported clusters, thereby demonstrating an enhanced and rational approach towards the targeted synthesis of complex and challenging structures.

  7. Linked supramolecular building blocks for enhanced cluster formation

    SciTech Connect

    McLellan, Ross; Palacios, Maria A.; Beavers, Christine M.; Teat, Simon J.; Piligkos, Stergios; Brechin, Euan K.; Dalgarno, Scott J.

    2015-01-09

    Methylene-bridged calix[4]arenes have emerged as extremely versatile ligand supports in the formation of new polymetallic clusters possessing fascinating magnetic properties. Metal ion binding rules established for this building block allow one to partially rationalise the complex assembly process. The ability to covalently link calix[4]arenes at the methylene bridge provides significantly improved control over the introduction of different metal centres to resulting cluster motifs. Clusters assembled from bis-calix[4]arenes and transition metal ions or 3d-4f combinations display characteristic features of the analogous calix[4]arene supported clusters, thereby demonstrating an enhanced and rational approach towards the targeted synthesis of complex and challenging structures.

  8. Electrolytic lesions of the bilateral ventrolateral orbital cortex inhibit methamphetamine-associated contextual memory formation in rats.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yan; Liu, Peng; Chu, Zheng; Liu, Fei; Han, Wei; Xun, Xi; Dang, Yong-hui

    2015-10-22

    The memories that are formed between rewarding and drug-associated contextual cues have been suggested to contribute to drug addiction relapse. Recent evidence has indicated that the ventrolateral orbital cortex (VLO) plays important roles in reward-based learning and reversal learning. However, whether the VLO is required for methamphetamine-induced contextual memory formation is not well understood. In the present study, a three-phase methamphetamine-induced conditioned place preference (CPP) model was used to investigate the effects of VLO lesions on the formation of drug-associated contextual memories in rats. We found that the VLO lesions themselves elicited no observable effects on place preferences. However, the VLO lesions delayed the acquisition and extinction phases of CPP without affecting the expression level. Furthermore, the VLO lesions did not have an obvious influence on CPP reinstatement. These results indicate that electrolytic lesions of the bilateral ventrolateral orbital cortex can inhibit the formation of methamphetamine-induced contextual memories in rats. Moreover, VLO may not be critically involved in memory storage and retrieval.

  9. Eleutheroside B or E enhances learning and memory in experimentally aged rats.

    PubMed

    Huang, Debin; Hu, Zehua; Yu, Zhaofen

    2013-04-25

    Eleutheroside B or E, the main component of Acanthopanax, can relieve fatigue, enhance memory, and improve human cognition. Numerous studies have confirmed that high doses of acetylcholine significantly attenuate clinical symptoms and delay the progression of Alzheimer's disease. The present study replicated a rat model of aging induced by injecting quinolinic acid into the hippocampal CA1 region. These rats were intraperitoneally injected with low, medium and high doses of eleutheroside B or E (50, 100, 200 mg/kg), and rats injected with Huperzine A or PBS were used as controls. At 4 weeks after administration, behavioral tests showed that the escape latencies and errors in searching for the platform in a Morris water maze were dose-dependently reduced in rats treated with medium and high-dose eleutheroside B or E. Hematoxylin-eosin staining showed that the number of surviving hippocampal neurons was greater and pathological injury was milder in three eleutheroside B or E groups compared with model group. Hippocampal homogenates showed enhanced cholinesterase activity, and dose-dependent increases in acetylcholine content and decreases in choline content following eleutheroside B or E treatment, similar to those seen in the Huperzine A group. These findings indicate that eleutheroside B or E improves learning and memory in aged rats. These effects of eleutheroside B or E may be mediated by activation of cholinesterase or enhanced reuse of choline to accelerate the synthesis of acetylcholine in hippocampal neurons.

  10. Eleutheroside B or E enhances learning and memory in experimentally aged rats★

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Debin; Hu, Zehua; Yu, Zhaofen

    2013-01-01

    Eleutheroside B or E, the main component of Acanthopanax, can relieve fatigue, enhance memory, and improve human cognition. Numerous studies have confirmed that high doses of acetylcholine significantly attenuate clinical symptoms and delay the progression of Alzheimer's disease. The present study replicated a rat model of aging induced by injecting quinolinic acid into the hippocampal CA1 region. These rats were intraperitoneally injected with low, medium and high doses of eleutheroside B or E (50, 100, 200 mg/kg), and rats injected with Huperzine A or PBS were used as controls. At 4 weeks after administration, behavioral tests showed that the escape latencies and errors in searching for the platform in a Morris water maze were dose-dependently reduced in rats treated with medium and high-dose eleutheroside B or E. Hematoxylin-eosin staining showed that the number of surviving hippocampal neurons was greater and pathological injury was milder in three eleutheroside B or E groups compared with model group. Hippocampal homogenates showed enhanced cholinesterase activity, and dose-dependent increases in acetylcholine content and decreases in choline content following eleutheroside B or E treatment, similar to those seen in the Huperzine A group. These findings indicate that eleutheroside B or E improves learning and memory in aged rats. These effects of eleutheroside B or E may be mediated by activation of cholinesterase or enhanced reuse of choline to accelerate the synthesis of acetylcholine in hippocampal neurons. PMID:25206404

  11. Nitride coating enhances endothelialization on biomedical NiTi shape memory alloy.

    PubMed

    Ion, Raluca; Luculescu, Catalin; Cimpean, Anisoara; Marx, Philippe; Gordin, Doina-Margareta; Gloriant, Thierry

    2016-05-01

    Surface nitriding was demonstrated to be an effective process for improving the biocompatibility of implantable devices. In this study, we investigated the benefits of nitriding the NiTi shape memory alloy for vascular stent applications. Results from cell experiments indicated that, compared to untreated NiTi, a superficial gas nitriding treatment enhanced the adhesion of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs), cell spreading and proliferation. This investigation provides data to demonstrate the possibility of improving the rate of endothelialization on NiTi by means of nitride coating.

  12. Diphenyl diselenide-supplemented diet and swimming exercise enhance novel object recognition memory in old rats.

    PubMed

    Cechella, José L; Leite, Marlon R; Rosario, Alisson R; Sampaio, Tuane B; Zeni, Gilson

    2014-01-01

    The benefits of exercise and the element selenium on mental health and cognitive performance are well documented. The purpose of the present study was to investigate whether the intake of a diet supplemented with diphenyl diselenide [(PhSe)2] and the swimming exercise could enhance memory in old Wistar rats. Male Wistar rats (24 months) were fed daily with standard diet chow or standard chow supplemented with 1 ppm of (PhSe)2 during 4 weeks. Animals were submitted to swimming training with a workload (3 % of body weight, 20 min/day for 4 weeks). After 4 weeks, the object recognition test (ORT) and the object location test (OLT) were performed. The results of this study demonstrated that intake of a supplemented diet with (PhSe)2 and swimming exercise was effective in improving short-term and long-term memory as well as spatial learning, increasing the hippocampal levels of phosphorylated cAMP-response element-binding protein (CREB) in old rats. This study also provided evidence that (PhSe)2-supplemented diet facilitated memory of old rats by modulating cAMP levels and stimulating CREB phosphorylation, without altering the levels of Akt.

  13. Selective Entrainment of Theta Oscillations in the Dorsal Stream Causally Enhances Auditory Working Memory Performance.

    PubMed

    Albouy, Philippe; Weiss, Aurélien; Baillet, Sylvain; Zatorre, Robert J

    2017-04-05

    The implication of the dorsal stream in manipulating auditory information in working memory has been recently established. However, the oscillatory dynamics within this network and its causal relationship with behavior remain undefined. Using simultaneous MEG/EEG, we show that theta oscillations in the dorsal stream predict participants' manipulation abilities during memory retention in a task requiring the comparison of two patterns differing in temporal order. We investigated the causal relationship between brain oscillations and behavior by applying theta-rhythmic TMS combined with EEG over the MEG-identified target (left intraparietal sulcus) during the silent interval between the two stimuli. Rhythmic TMS entrained theta oscillation and boosted participants' accuracy. TMS-induced oscillatory entrainment scaled with behavioral enhancement, and both gains varied with participants' baseline abilities. These effects were not seen for a melody-comparison control task and were not observed for arrhythmic TMS. These data establish theta activity in the dorsal stream as causally related to memory manipulation. VIDEO ABSTRACT.

  14. The enhancement of stress-related memory by glucocorticoids depends on synapsin-Ia/Ib

    PubMed Central

    Revest, J-M; Kaouane, N; Mondin, M; Le Roux, A; Rougé-Pont, F; Vallée, M; Barik, J; Tronche, F; Desmedt, A; Piazza, P V

    2010-01-01

    The activation of glucocorticoid receptors (GR) by glucocorticoids increases stress-related memory through the activation of the MAPK signaling pathway and the downstream transcription factor Egr-1. Here, using converging in vitro and in vivo approaches, respectively, GR-expressing cell lines, culture of hippocampal neurons, and GR genetically modified mice (GRNesCre), we identified synapsin-Ia/Ib as one of the effectors of the glucocorticoid signaling cascade. Stress and glucocorticoid-induced activation of the GR modulate synapsin-Ia/Ib through two complementary mechanisms. First, glucocorticoids driving Egr-1 expression increase the expression of synapsin-Ia/Ib, and second, glucocorticoids driving MAPK activation increase its phosphorylation. Finally, we showed that blocking fucosylation of synapsin-Ia/Ib in the hippocampus inhibits its expression and prevents the glucocorticoid-mediated increase in stress-related memory. In conclusion, our data provide a complete molecular pathway (GR/Egr-1/MAPK/Syn-Ia/Ib) through which stress and glucocorticoids enhance the memory of stress-related events and highlight the function of synapsin-Ia/Ib as molecular effector of the behavioral effects of stress. PMID:20368707

  15. Event Congruency Enhances Episodic Memory Encoding through Semantic Elaboration and Relational Binding

    PubMed Central

    Staresina, Bernhard P.; Gray, James C.

    2009-01-01

    Behavioral research consistently shows that congruous events, that is, events whose constituent elements match along some specific dimension, are better remembered than incongruous events. Although it has been speculated that this “congruency subsequent memory effect” (cSME) results from enhanced semantic elaboration, empirical evidence for this account is lacking. Here, we report a set of behavioral and neuroimaging experiments demonstrating that congruous events engage regions along the left inferior frontal gyrus (LIFG)—consistently related to semantic elaboration—to a significantly greater degree than incongruous events, providing evidence in favor of this hypothesis. Critically, we additionally report 3 novel findings in relation to event congruency: First, congruous events yield superior memory not only for a given study item but also for associated source details. Second, the cSME is evident not only for events that matched a semantic context but also for those that matched a subjective aesthetic schema. Finally, functional magnetic resonance imaging brain/behavior correlation analysis reveals a strong link between 1) across-subject variation in the magnitude of the cSME and 2) differential right hippocampal activation, suggesting that episodic memory for congruous events is effectively bolstered by the extent to which semantic associations are generated and relationally integrated via LIFG-hippocampal–encoding mechanisms. PMID:18820289

  16. Neural mechanisms underlying the reward-related enhancement of motivation when remembering episodic memories with high difficulty.

    PubMed

    Shigemune, Yayoi; Tsukiura, Takashi; Nouchi, Rui; Kambara, Toshimune; Kawashima, Ryuta

    2017-04-04

    The motivation to receive rewards enhances episodic memories, and the motivation is modulated by task difficulty. In episodic retrieval, however, functional neuroimaging evidence regarding the motivation that mediates interactions between reward and task difficulty is scarce. The present fMRI study investigated this issue. During encoding performed without fMRI, participants encoded Japanese words using either deep or shallow strategies, which led to variation in difficulty level during subsequent retrieval. During retrieval with fMRI, participants recognized the target words in either high or low monetary reward conditions. In the behavioral results, a reward-related enhancement of memory was found only when the memory retrieval was difficult, and the rewarding effect on subjective motivation was greater in the retrieval of memories with high difficulty than those with low difficulty. The fMRI data showed that reward-related increases in the activation of the substantia nigra/ventral tegmental area (SN/VTA), medial temporal lobe (MTL), dorsomedial prefrontal cortex (dmPFC), and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC) were greater during the retrieval of memories with high difficulty than those with low difficulty. Furthermore, reward-related enhancement of functional connectivity between the SN/VTA and MTL and between the SN/VTA and dmPFC during the retrieval of memories with high difficulty was significantly correlated with reward-related increases of retrieval accuracy and subjective motivation. The reward-related enhancement of episodic retrieval and retrieval-related motivation could be most effective when the level of retrieval difficulty is optimized. Such reward-related enhancement of memory and motivation could be modulated by a network including the reward-related SN/VTA, motivation-related dmPFC, and memory-related MTL. Hum Brain Mapp, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Inhibition of Different Histone Acetyltransferases (HATs) Uncovers Transcription-Dependent and -Independent Acetylation-Mediated Mechanisms in Memory Formation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merschbaecher, Katja; Hatko, Lucyna; Folz, Jennifer; Mueller, Uli

    2016-01-01

    Acetylation of histones changes the efficiency of the transcription processes and thus contributes to the formation of long-term memory (LTM). In our comparative study, we used two inhibitors to characterize the contribution of different histone acetyl transferases (HATs) to appetitive associative learning in the honeybee. For one we applied…

  18. The participation of NMDA receptors, PKC, and MAPK in the formation of memory following operant conditioning in Lymnaea

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Memory is the ability to store, retain, and later retrieve information that has been learned. Intermediate term memory (ITM) that persists for up to 3 h requires new protein synthesis. Long term memory (LTM) that persists for at least 24 h requires: DNA transcription, RNA translation, and the trafficking of newly synthesized proteins. It has been shown in a number of different model systems that NMDA receptors, protein kinase C (PKC) and mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) are all involved in the memory formation process. Results Here we show that snails trained in control conditions are capable of forming, depending on the training procedure used, either ITM or LTM. However, blockage of NMDA receptors (MK 801), inhibition of PKC (GF109203X hydrochloride) and MAPK activity (UO126) prevent the formation of both ITM and LTM. Conclusions The injection of either U0126 or GF109203X, which inhibit MAPK and PKC activity respectively, 1 hour prior to training results in the inhibition of both ITM and LTM formation. We further found that NMDA receptor activity was necessary in order for both ITM and LTM formation. PMID:20807415

  19. The Ubiquitin-Specific Protease 14 (USP14) Is a Critical Regulator of Long-Term Memory Formation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jarome, Timothy J.; Kwapis, Janine L.; Hallengren, Jada J.; Wilson, Scott M.; Helmstetter, Fred J.

    2014-01-01

    Numerous studies have suggested a role for ubiquitin-proteasome-mediated protein degradation in learning-dependent synaptic plasticity; however, very little is known about how protein degradation is regulated at the level of the proteasome during memory formation. The ubiquitin-specific protease 14 (USP14) is a proteasomal deubiquitinating enzyme…

  20. NMDA Receptor- and ERK-Dependent Histone Methylation Changes in the Lateral Amygdala Bidirectionally Regulate Fear Memory Formation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gupta-Agarwal, Swati; Jarome, Timothy J.; Fernandez, Jordan; Lubin, Farah D.

    2014-01-01

    It is well established that fear memory formation requires de novo gene transcription in the amygdala. We provide evidence that epigenetic mechanisms in the form of histone lysine methylation in the lateral amygdala (LA) are regulated by NMDA receptor (NMDAR) signaling and involved in gene transcription changes necessary for fear memory…

  1. The Calmodulin-Binding Transcription Activator CAMTA1 Is Required for Long-Term Memory Formation in Mice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bas-Orth, Carlos; Tan, Yan-Wei; Oliveira, Ana M. M.; Bengtson, C. Peter; Bading, Hilmar

    2016-01-01

    The formation of long-term memory requires signaling from the synapse to the nucleus to mediate neuronal activity-dependent gene transcription. Synapse-to-nucleus communication is initiated by influx of calcium ions through synaptic NMDA receptors and/or L-type voltage-gated calcium channels and involves the activation of transcription factors by…

  2. Enhancing and impairing extinction of habit memory through modulation of NMDA receptors in the dorsolateral striatum.

    PubMed

    Goodman, Jarid; Ressler, Reed L; Packard, Mark G

    2017-04-02

    The present experiments investigated the involvement of N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptors of the dorsolateral striatum (DLS) in consolidation of extinction in a habit memory task. Adult male Long-Evans rats were initially trained in a food-reinforced response learning version of a plus-maze task and were subsequently given extinction training in which the food was removed from the maze. In experiment 1, immediately after the first day of extinction training, rats received bilateral intra-DLS injections of the NMDA receptor antagonist 2-amino-5-phosphonopentanoic acid (AP5; 2µg/side) or physiological saline. In experiment 2, immediately following the first day of extinction training, animals were given intra-DLS injections of NMDA receptor partial agonist d-cycloserine (DCS; 10 or 20µg/side) or saline. In both experiments, the number of perseverative trials (a trial in which a rat made the same previously reinforced body-turn response) and latency to reach the previously correct food well were used as measures of extinction behavior. Results indicated that post-training intra-DLS injections of AP5 impaired extinction. In contrast, post-training intra-DLS infusions of DCS (20µg) enhanced extinction. Intra-DLS administration of AP5 or DCS given two hours after extinction training did not influence extinction of response learning, indicating that immediate post-training administration of AP5 and DCS specifically influenced consolidation of the extinction memory. The present results indicate a critical role for DLS NMDA receptors in modulating extinction of habit memory and may be relevant to developing therapeutic approaches to combat the maladaptive habits observed in human psychopathologies in which DLS-dependent memory has been implicated (e.g. drug addiction and relapse and obsessive compulsive disorder).

  3. Exercise-Induced Noradrenergic Activation Enhances Memory Consolidation in Both Normal Aging and Patients with Amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment

    PubMed Central

    Segal, Sabrina K.; Cotman, Carl W.; Cahill, Lawrence F.

    2013-01-01

    Post-trial pharmacological activation of the noradrenergic system can facilitate memory consolidation. Because exercise activates the locus coeruleus and increases brain norepinephrine release, we hypothesized that post-trial exercise could function as a natural stimulus to enhance memory consolidation. We investigated this in amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) and cognitively normal elderly individuals by examining the effects of an acute bout of post-learning, aerobic exercise (6 minutes at 70% VO2 max on a stationary bicycle) on memory for some emotional images. Exercise significantly elevated endogenous norepinephrine (measured via the biomarker, salivary alpha-amylase) in both aMCI patients and controls. Additionally, exercise retrogradely enhanced memory in both aMCI patients and controls. Acute exercise that activates the noradrenergic system may serve as a beneficial, natural, and practical therapeutic intervention for cognitive decline in the aging population. PMID:22914593

  4. Exercise-induced noradrenergic activation enhances memory consolidation in both normal aging and patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment.

    PubMed

    Segal, Sabrina K; Cotman, Carl W; Cahill, Lawrence F

    2012-01-01

    Post-trial pharmacological activation of the noradrenergic system can facilitate memory consolidation. Because exercise activates the locus coeruleus and increases brain norepinephrine release, we hypothesized that post-trial exercise could function as a natural stimulus to enhance memory consolidation. We investigated this in amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) and cognitively normal elderly individuals by examining the effects of an acute bout of post-learning, aerobic exercise (6 minutes at 70% VO2 max on a stationary bicycle) on memory for some emotional images. Exercise significantly elevated endogenous norepinephrine (measured via the biomarker, salivary alpha-amylase) in both aMCI patients and controls. Additionally, exercise retrogradely enhanced memory in both aMCI patients and controls. Acute exercise that activates the noradrenergic system may serve as a beneficial, natural, and practical therapeutic intervention for cognitive decline in the aging population.

  5. A Role of Protein Degradation in Memory Consolidation after Initial Learning and Extinction Learning in the Honeybee ("Apis mellifera")

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Felsenberg, Johannes; Dombrowski, Vincent; Eisenhardt, Dorothea

    2012-01-01

    Protein degradation is known to affect memory formation after extinction learning. We demonstrate here that an inhibitor of protein degradation, MG132, interferes with memory formation after extinction learning in a classical appetitive conditioning paradigm. In addition, we find an enhancement of memory formation when the same inhibitor is…

  6. Curcuminoids enhance memory in an amyloid-infused rat model of Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, T; Enam, S A; Gilani, A H

    2010-09-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disease. There are a limited number of therapeutic options available for the treatment of AD. Curcuminoids (a mixture of bisdemethoxycurcumin, demethoxycurcumin and curcumin) is the main chemical constituent found in turmeric, a well known curry spice, having potential in the treatment of AD. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of curcuminoid mixture and individual constituents on spatial learning and memory in an amyloid-beta (Abeta) peptide-infused rat model of AD and on the expression of PSD-95, synaptophysin and camkIV. Curcuminoid mixture showed a memory-enhancing effect in rats displaying AD-like neuronal loss only at 30 mg/kg, whereas individual components were effective at 3-30 mg/kg. A shorter duration treatment with test compounds showed that the curcuminoid mixture and bisdemethoxycurcumin increased PSD-95 expression in the hippocampus at 3-30 mg/kg, with maximum effect at a lower dose (3 mg/kg) with respective values of 470.5 and 587.9%. However, after a longer duration treatment, two other compounds (demethoxycurcumin and curcumin) also increased PSD-95 to 331.7 and 226.2% respectively at 30 mg/kg. When studied for their effect on synaptophysin in the hippocampus after the longer duration treatment, the curcuminoid mixture and all three individual constituents increased synaptophysin expression. Of these, demethoxycurcumin was the most effective showing a 350.1% increase (P<0.01) at 30 mg/kg compared to the neurotoxin group. When studied for their effect on camkIV expression after longer treatment in the hippocampus, only demethoxycurcumin at 30 mg/kg increased levels to 421.2%. These compounds salvaged PSD-95, synaptophysin and camkIV expression levels in the hippocampus in the rat AD model, which suggests multiple target sites with the potential of curcuminoids in spatial memory enhancing and disease modifying in AD.

  7. β-Adrenergic Receptors Regulate the Acquisition and Consolidation Phases of Aversive Memory Formation Through Distinct, Temporally Regulated Signaling Pathways.

    PubMed

    Schiff, Hillary C; Johansen, Joshua P; Hou, Mian; Bush, David E A; Smith, Emily K; Klein, JoAnna E; LeDoux, Joseph E; Sears, Robert M

    2017-03-01

    Memory formation requires the temporal coordination of molecular events and cellular processes following a learned event. During Pavlovian threat (fear) conditioning (PTC), sensory and neuromodulatory inputs converge on post-synaptic neurons within the lateral nucleus of the amygdala (LA). By activating an intracellular cascade of signaling molecules, these G-protein-coupled neuromodulatory receptors are capable of recruiting a diverse profile of plasticity-related proteins. Here we report that norepinephrine, through its actions on β-adrenergic receptors (βARs), modulates aversive memory formation following PTC through two molecularly and temporally distinct signaling mechanisms. Specifically, using behavioral pharmacology and biochemistry in adult rats, we determined that βAR activity during, but not after PTC training initiates the activation of two plasticity-related targets: AMPA receptors (AMPARs) for memory acquisition and short-term memory and extracellular regulated kinase (ERK) for consolidating the learned association into a long-term memory. These findings reveal that βAR activity during, but not following PTC sets in motion cascading molecular events for the acquisition (AMPARs) and subsequent consolidation (ERK) of learned associations.

  8. Enhancing sleep quality and memory in insomnia using instrumental sensorimotor rhythm conditioning.

    PubMed

    Schabus, Manuel; Heib, Dominik P J; Lechinger, Julia; Griessenberger, Hermann; Klimesch, Wolfgang; Pawlizki, Annedore; Kunz, Alexander B; Sterman, Barry M; Hoedlmoser, Kerstin

    2014-01-01

    EEG recordings over the sensorimotor cortex show a prominent oscillatory pattern in a frequency range between 12 and 15 Hz (sensorimotor rhythm, SMR) under quiet but alert wakefulness. This frequency range is also abundant during sleep, and overlaps with the sleep spindle frequency band. In the present pilot study we tested whether instrumental conditioning of SMR during wakefulness can enhance sleep and cognitive performance in insomnia. Twenty-four subjects with clinical symptoms of primary insomnia were tested in a counterbalanced within-subjects-design. Each patient participated in a SMR- as well as a sham-conditioning training block. Polysomnographic sleep recordings were scheduled before and after the training blocks. Results indicate a significant increase of 12-15 Hz activity over the course of ten SMR training sessions. Concomitantly, the number of awakenings decreased and slow-wave sleep as well as subjective sleep quality increased. Interestingly, SMR-training enhancement was also found to be associated with overnight memory consolidation and sleep spindle changes indicating a beneficial cognitive effect of the SMR training protocol for SMR "responders" (16 out of 24 participants). Although results are promising it has to be concluded that current results are of a preliminary nature and await further proof before SMR-training can be promoted as a non-pharmacological approach for improving sleep quality and memory performance.

  9. Convection's enhancement in thermal micro pipes using extra fluid and shape memory material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mihai, Ioan; Sprinceana, Siviu

    2016-12-01

    Up to now, there have been developed various applications of thermal micro pipes[1-3], such as refrigerating systems, high heat flux electronics cooling, and biological devices etc., based on vacuum vaporization followed by a convective phenomenon that allows vapor transfer from the vaporization area to the condensation one. This article presents studies carried out on the enhancement of the convective phenomenon taking place in flat thermal micro pipes. The proposed method[4] is aimed at the cooling of power electronics components, such as microprocessors. The conducted research focused on the use of shape memory materials that allow, by a semi-active method, to bring extra fluid in the vaporization area of the thermal micro pipe. The conducted investigations analyzed the variation of the liquid layer thickness in the trapezoidal micro channels and the thermal flow change over time. The modification of liquid flow was studied in correlation with the capacity of the polysynthetic material to retain the most extra fluid in its pores. The enhancement of the convective heat transfer phenomenon in flat thermal micro pipes was investigated in correspondence to the increase of liquid quantity in the vaporization zone. The charts obtained by aid of Mathcad[5] allowed to represent the evolution during a period of time (or with the pipe's length) of the liquid film thickness, the flow and the thermal flow, as a function of the liquid supply variation due to the shape memory materials and the modification of the working temperature.

  10. Grapheme-color synesthesia can enhance immediate memory without disrupting the encoding of relational cues.

    PubMed

    Gibson, Bradley S; Radvansky, Gabriel A; Johnson, Ann C; McNerney, M Windy

    2012-12-01

    Previous evidence has suggested that grapheme-color synesthesia can enhance memory for words, but little is known about how these photisms cue retrieval. Often, the encoding of specific features of individual words can disrupt the encoding of ordered relations between words, resulting in an overall decrease in recall accuracy. Here we show that the photisms arising from grapheme-color synesthesia do not function like these item-specific cues. The influences of high and low word frequency on the encoding of ordered relations and the accuracy of immediate free recall were compared across a group of 10 synesthetes and 48 nonsynesthetes. The main findings of Experiment 1 showed that the experience of synesthesia had no adverse effect on the encoding of ordered relations (as measured by input-output correspondence); furthermore, it enhanced recall accuracy in a strictly additive fashion across the two word frequency conditions. Experiment 2 corroborated these findings by showing that the synesthetes only outperformed the nonsynesthetes when the materials involved words and letters, not when they involved digits and spatial locations. Altogether, the present findings suggest that synesthesia can boost immediate memory performance without disrupting the encoding of ordered relations.

  11. Atypical 1,4-dihydropyridine derivatives, an approach to neuroprotection and memory enhancement.

    PubMed

    Klusa, Vija

    2016-11-01

    This mini review is devoted to the design and pharmacological studies of novel atypical 1,4-dihydropyridine (DHP) derivatives which differ to a great extent from the traditional DHPs either by lack of neuronal calcium channel blocking activity and/or inability to protect mitochondrial processes. About 100 new DHP derivatives were screened and the mostly active were selected for detailed studies. The compounds of the series of the amino acid ("free" plus "crypto")-containing DHPs and lipophilic di-cyclic DHPs demonstrated long-lasting neuroprotective and/or memory-enhancing action, particularly at low doses (0.005-0.05mg/kg) in different neurodeficiency rat or mice models, and exerted neurotransmitter-modulating effects. The studies have shown an ability of these atypical DHPs to normalize the expression of neuronal proteins, which participate in the regulation of neurotransmission (particularly of the GABAergic system) and synaptic plasticity that has been impaired in animal models, including Alzheimer's disease transgenic mice. The obtained results indicate that the tested DHP compounds can be considered as candidate molecules either for their further chemical modifications or for the more detailed studies to identify cell targets essential for neuroprotection and memory enhancing.

  12. Enhancing effects of acute psychosocial stress on priming of non-declarative memory in healthy young adults.

    PubMed

    Hidalgo, Vanesa; Villada, Carolina; Almela, Mercedes; Espín, Laura; Gómez-Amor, Jesús; Salvador, Alicia

    2012-05-01

    Social stress affects cognitive processes in general, and memory performance in particular. However, the direction of these effects has not been clearly established, as it depends on several factors. Our aim was to determine the impact of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and sympathetic nervous system (SNS) reactivity to psychosocial stress on short-term non-declarative memory and declarative memory performance. Fifty-two young participants (18 men, 34 women) were subjected to the Trier Social Stress Task (TSST) and a control condition in a crossover design. Implicit memory was assessed by a priming test, and explicit memory was assessed by the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test (RAVLT). The TSST provoked greater salivary cortisol and salivary alpha-amylase (sAA) responses than the control task. Men had a higher cortisol response to stress than women, but no sex differences were found for sAA release. Stress was associated with an enhancement of priming but did not affect declarative memory. Additionally, the enhancement on the priming test was higher in those whose sAA levels increased more in response to stress (r(48) = 0.339, p = 0.018). Our results confirm an effect of acute stress on priming, and that this effect is related to SNS activity. In addition, they suggest a different relationship between stress biomarkers and the different memory systems.

  13. Sleep-Dependent Declarative Memory Consolidation—Unaffected after Blocking NMDA or AMPA Receptors but Enhanced by NMDA Coagonist D-Cycloserine

    PubMed Central

    Feld, Gordon B; Lange, Tanja; Gais, Steffen; Born, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Sleep has a pivotal role in the consolidation of declarative memory. The coordinated neuronal replay of information encoded before sleep has been identified as a key process. It is assumed that the repeated reactivation of firing patterns in glutamatergic neuron assemblies translates into plastic synaptic changes underlying the formation of longer-term neuronal representations. Here, we tested the effects of blocking and enhancing glutamatergic neurotransmission during sleep on declarative memory consolidation in humans. We conducted three placebo-controlled, crossover, double-blind studies in which participants learned a word-pair association task. Afterwards, they slept in a sleep laboratory and received glutamatergic modulators. Our first two studies aimed at impairing consolidation by administering the NMDA receptor blocker ketamine and the AMPA receptor blocker caroverine during retention sleep, which, paradoxically, remained unsuccessful, inasmuch as declarative memory performance was unaffected by the treatment. However, in the third study, administration of the NMDA receptor coagonist D-cycloserine (DCS) during retention sleep facilitated consolidation of declarative memory (word pairs) but not consolidation of a procedural control task (finger sequence tapping). Administration of DCS during a wake interval remained without effect on retention of word pairs but improved encoding of numbers. From the overall pattern, we conclude that the consolidation of hippocampus-dependent declarative memory during sleep relies on NMDA-related plastic processes that differ from those processes leading to wake encoding. We speculate that glutamatergic activation during sleep is not only involved in consolidation but also in forgetting of hippocampal memory with both processes being differentially sensitive to DCS and unselective blockade of NMDA and AMPA receptors. PMID:23887151

  14. Those were the days: memory bias for the frequency of positive events, depression, and self-enhancement.

    PubMed

    Lotterman, Jenny H; Bonanno, George A

    2014-01-01

    Past research has associated depression with memory biases pertaining to the frequency, duration, and specificity of past events. Associations have been proposed between both negative and positive memory biases and depression symptoms. However, research has not examined the occurrence of actual events over time in the study of memory bias. To address these limitations and investigate whether a negative or positive memory bias is associated with symptoms of depression, we collected weekly data on specific types of life events over a 4-year period from a sample of college students, and asked students to recall event frequency at the end of that period. Exaggerated recall of frequency for positive events but not other types of events was associated with depression symptoms, using both continuous and categorical measures. Moderator analyses indicated that these effects were evidenced primarily for memories involving the self and among individuals low in trait self-enhancement. The current study indicates that positive memory-frequency bias is an important type of memory bias associated with symptoms of depression. Results support the idea that the link between memory bias for positive event frequency and depressed mood arises out of a current-self vs past-self comparison.

  15. Neural Basis of Working Memory Enhancement after Acute Aerobic Exercise: fMRI Study of Preadolescent Children.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ai-Guo; Zhu, Li-Na; Yan, Jun; Yin, Heng-Chan

    2016-01-01

    Working memory lies at the core of cognitive function and plays a crucial role in children's learning, reasoning, problem solving, and intellectual activity. Behavioral findings have suggested that acute aerobic exercise improves children's working memory; however, there is still very little knowledge about whether a single session of aerobic exercise can alter working memory's brain activation patterns, as assessed by functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Therefore, we investigated the effect of acute moderate-intensity aerobic exercise on working memory and its brain activation patterns in preadolescent children, and further explored the neural basis of acute aerobic exercise on working memory in these children. We used a within-subjects design with a counterbalanced order. Nine healthy, right-handed children were scanned with a Siemens MAGNETOM Trio 3.0 Tesla magnetic resonance imaging scanner while they performed a working memory task (N-back task), following a baseline session and a 30-min, moderate-intensity exercise session. Compared with the baseline session, acute moderate-intensity aerobic exercise benefitted performance in the N-back task, increasing brain activities of bilateral parietal cortices, left hippocampus, and the bilateral cerebellum. These data extend the current knowledge by indicating that acute aerobic exercise enhances children's working memory, and the neural basis may be related to changes in the working memory's brain activation patterns elicited by acute aerobic exercise.

  16. Muscle tension induced after learning enhances long-term narrative and visual memory in healthy older adults.

    PubMed

    Nielson, Kristy A; Wulff, Laura L; Arentsen, Timothy J

    2014-03-01

    Arousing events are better remembered than mundane events. Indeed, manipulation of arousal, such as by muscle tension, can influence memory even when it occurs shortly after learning. Indeed, our founding study showed this approach can raise delayed memory performance in older adults to a level comparable to that of unaided young adults. Yet, systematic studies, especially those investigating different modalities or types of memory, have not been done. This study investigated the effects of a brief bout of isometric exercise via handgrip on narrative and visuospatial episodic memory in healthy elders. Forty-seven participants completed the Logical Memory subtest of the Wechsler Memory Scales III (LM) and the Benton Visual Retention Test (BVRT), followed alternately by no treatment and by moderately squeezing a sand-filled latex ball for 1-min (counterbalanced order and test forms). Isometric exercise significantly increased both positive and negative affect ratings. Retention was tested 2 weeks later. Delayed recall and recognition of LM was enhanced by arousal relative to control, as was recognition of the BVRT. The results extend past findings that muscle tension induced after learning modulates memory consolidation, extending findings in elders to suggest that a simple form of isometric exercise can have practical effects, such as aiding memory for stories and images.

  17. Protein kinase D promotes plasticity-induced F-actin stabilization in dendritic spines and regulates memory formation

    PubMed Central

    Bencsik, Norbert; Szíber, Zsófia; Liliom, Hanna; Tárnok, Krisztián; Borbély, Sándor; Gulyás, Márton; Rátkai, Anikó; Szűcs, Attila; Hazai-Novák, Diána; Ellwanger, Kornelia; Rácz, Bence; Pfizenmaier, Klaus; Hausser, Angelika

    2015-01-01

    Actin turnover in dendritic spines influences spine development, morphology, and plasticity, with functional consequences on learning and memory formation. In nonneuronal cells, protein kinase D (PKD) has an important role in stabilizing F-actin via multiple molecular pathways. Using in vitro models of neuronal plasticity, such as glycine-induced chemical long-term potentiation (LTP), known to evoke synaptic plasticity, or long-term depolarization block by KCl, leading to homeostatic morphological changes, we show that actin stabilization needed for the enlargement of dendritic spines is dependent on PKD activity. Consequently, impaired PKD functions attenuate activity-dependent changes in hippocampal dendritic spines, including LTP formation, cause morphological alterations in vivo, and have deleterious consequences on spatial memory formation. We thus provide compelling evidence that PKD controls synaptic plasticity and learning by regulating actin stability in dendritic spines. PMID:26304723

  18. Memory B cells.

    PubMed

    Kurosaki, Tomohiro; Kometani, Kohei; Ise, Wataru

    2015-03-01

    The immune system can remember a previously experienced pathogen and can evoke an enhanced response to reinfection that depends on memory lymphocyte populations. Recent advances in tracking antigen-experienced memory B cells have revealed the existence of distinct classes of cells that have considerable functional differences. Some of these differences seem to be determined by the stimulation history during memory cell formation. To induce rapid recall antibody responses, the contributions of other types of cells, such as memory T follicular helper cells, have also now begun to be appreciated. In this Review, we discuss these and other recent advances in our understanding of memory B cells, focusing on the underlying mechanisms that are required for rapid and effective recall antibody responses.

  19. Protein degradation by ubiquitin–proteasome system in formation and labilization of contextual conditioning memory

    PubMed Central

    Sol Fustiñana, María; de la Fuente, Verónica; Federman, Noel; Freudenthal, Ramiro

    2014-01-01

    The ubiquitin–proteasome system (UPS) of protein degradation has been evaluated in different forms of neural plasticity and memory. The role of UPS in such processes is controversial. Several results support the idea that the activation of this system in memory consolidation is necessary to overcome negative constrains for plasticity. In this case, the inhibition of the UPS during consolidation impairs memory. Similar results were reported for memory reconsolidation. However, in other cases, the inhibition of UPS had no effect on memory consolidation and reconsolidation but impedes the amnesic action of protein synthesis inhibition after retrieval. The last finding suggests a specific action of the UPS inhibitor on memory labilization. However, another interpretation is possible in terms of the synthesis/degradation balance of positive and negative elements in neural plasticity, as was found in the case of long-term potentiation. To evaluate these alternative interpretations, other reconsolidation-interfering drugs than translation inhibitors should be tested. Here we analyzed initially the UPS inhibitor effect in contextual conditioning in crabs. We found that UPS inhibition during consolidation impaired long-term memory. In contrast, UPS inhibition did not affect memory reconsolidation after contextual retrieval but, in fact, impeded memory labilization, blocking the action of drugs that does not affect directly the protein synthesis. To extend these finding to vertebrates, we performed similar experiments in contextual fear memory in mice. We found that the UPS inhibitor in hippocampus affected memory consolidation and blocked memory labilization after retrieval. These findings exclude alternative interpretations to the requirement of UPS in memory labilization and give evidence of this mechanism in both vertebrates and invertebrates. PMID:25135196

  20. Protein degradation by ubiquitin-proteasome system in formation and labilization of contextual conditioning memory.

    PubMed

    Sol Fustiñana, María; de la Fuente, Verónica; Federman, Noel; Freudenthal, Ramiro; Romano, Arturo

    2014-09-01

    The ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) of protein degradation has been evaluated in different forms of neural plasticity and memory. The role of UPS in such processes is controversial. Several results support the idea that the activation of this system in memory consolidation is necessary to overcome negative constrains for plasticity. In this case, the inhibition of the UPS during consolidation impairs memory. Similar results were reported for memory reconsolidation. However, in other cases, the inhibition of UPS had no effect on memory consolidation and reconsolidation but impedes the amnesic action of protein synthesis inhibition after retrieval. The last finding suggests a specific action of the UPS inhibitor on memory labilization. However, another interpretation is possible in terms of the synthesis/degradation balance of positive and negative elements in neural plasticity, as was found in the case of long-term potentiation. To evaluate these alternative interpretations, other reconsolidation-interfering drugs than translation inhibitors should be tested. Here we analyzed initially the UPS inhibitor effect in contextual conditioning in crabs. We found that UPS inhibition during consolidation impaired long-term memory. In contrast, UPS inhibition did not affect memory reconsolidation after contextual retrieval but, in fact, impeded memory labilization, blocking the action of drugs that does not affect directly the protein synthesis. To extend these finding to vertebrates, we performed similar experiments in contextual fear memory in mice. We found that the UPS inhibitor in hippocampus affected memory consolidation and blocked memory labilization after retrieval. These findings exclude alternative interpretations to the requirement of UPS in memory labilization and give evidence of this mechanism in both vertebrates and invertebrates.

  1. The role of attention in emotional memory enhancement in pathological and healthy aging.

    PubMed

    Sava, Alina-Alexandra; Paquet, Claire; Dumurgier, Julien; Hugon, Jacques; Chainay, Hanna

    2016-01-01

    After short delays between encoding and retrieval, healthy young participants have better memory performance for emotional stimuli than for neutral stimuli. Divided-attention paradigms suggest that this emotional enhancement of memory (EEM) is due to different attention mechanisms involved during encoding: automatic processing for negative stimuli, and controlled processing for positive stimuli. As far as we know, no study on the influence of these factors on EEM in Alzheimer's disease (AD) and mild cognitive impairment (MCI) patients, as compared to healthy young and older controls, has been conducted. Thus, the goal of our study was to ascertain whether the EEM in these populations depends on the attention resources available at encoding. Participants completed two encoding phases: full attention (FA) and divided attention (DA), followed by two retrieval phases (recognition tasks). There was no EEM on the discrimination accuracy, independently of group and encoding condition. Nevertheless, all participants used a more liberal response criterion for the negative and positive stimuli than for neutral ones. In AD patients, larger numbers of false recognitions for negative and positive stimuli than for neutral ones were observed after both encoding conditions. In MCI patients and in healthy older and younger controls this effect was observed only for negative stimuli, and it depended on the encoding condition. Thus, this effect was observed in young controls after both encoding conditions, in older controls after the DA encoding, and in MCI patients after the FA encoding. In conclusion, our results suggest that emotional valence does not always enhance discrimination accuracy. Nevertheless, in certain conditions related to the attention resources available at encoding, emotional valence, especially the negative one, enhances the subjective feeling of familiarity and, consequently, engenders changes in response bias. This effect seems to be sensitive to the age and

  2. Inactivation of the Anterior Cingulate Reveals Enhanced Reliance on Cortical Networks for Remote Spatial Memory Retrieval after Sequential Memory Processing

    PubMed Central

    Wartman, Brianne C.; Gabel, Jennifer; Holahan, Matthew R.

    2014-01-01

    One system consolidation model suggests that as time passes, ensembles of cortical neurons form strong connections to represent remote memories. In this model, the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) serves as a cortical region that represents remote memories. However, there is debate as to whether remote spatial memories go through this systems consolidation process and come to rely on the ACC. The present experiment examined whether increasing the processing demand on the hippocampus, by sequential training on two spatial tasks, would more fully engage the ACC during retrieval of a remote spatial memory. In this scenario, inactivation of the ACC at a remote time point was hypothesized to produce a severe memory deficit if rats had been trained on two, sequential spatial tasks. Rats were trained on a water maze (WM) task only or a WM task followed by a radial arm maze task. A WM probe test was given recently or remotely to all rats. Prior to the probe test, rats received an injection of saline or muscimol into the ACC. A subtle deficit in probe performance was found at the remote time point in the group trained on only one spatial task and treated with muscimol. In the group trained on two spatial tasks and treated with muscimol, a subtle deficit in probe performance was noted at the recent time point and a substantial deficit in probe performance was observed at the remote time point. c-Fos labeling in the hippocampus revealed more labeling in the CA1 region in all remotely tested groups than recently tested groups. Findings suggest that spatial remote memories come to rely more fully on the ACC when hippocampal processing requirements are increased. Results also suggest continued involvement of the hippocampus in spatial memory retrieval along with a progressive strengthening of cortical connections as time progresses. PMID:25279556

  3. Adaptive Training Leads to Sustained Enhancement of Poor Working Memory in Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holmes, Joni; Gathercole, Susan E.; Dunning, Darren L.

    2009-01-01

    Working memory plays a crucial role in supporting learning, with poor progress in reading and mathematics characterizing children with low memory skills. This study investigated whether these problems can be overcome by a training program designed to boost working memory. Children with low working memory skills were assessed on measures of working…

  4. Individual language experience modulates rapid formation of cortical memory circuits for novel words.

    PubMed

    Kimppa, Lilli; Kujala, Teija; Shtyrov, Yury

    2016-07-22

    Mastering multiple languages is an increasingly important ability in the modern world; furthermore, multilingualism may affect human learning abilities. Here, we test how the brain's capacity to rapidly form new representations for spoken words is affected by prior individual experience in non-native language acquisition. Formation of new word memory traces is reflected in a neurophysiological response increase during a short exposure to novel lexicon. Therefore, we recorded changes in electrophysiological responses to phonologically native and non-native novel word-forms during a perceptual learning session, in which novel stimuli were repetitively presented to healthy adults in either ignore or attend conditions. We found that larger number of previously acquired languages and earlier average age of acquisition (AoA) predicted greater response increase to novel non-native word-forms. This suggests that early and extensive language experience is associated with greater neural flexibility for acquiring novel words with unfamiliar phonology. Conversely, later AoA was associated with a stronger response increase for phonologically native novel word-forms, indicating better tuning of neural linguistic circuits to native phonology. The results suggest that individual language experience has a strong effect on the neural mechanisms of word learning, and that it interacts with the phonological familiarity of the novel lexicon.

  5. Kinase suppressor of Ras1 compartmentalizes hippocampal signal transduction and subserves synaptic plasticity and memory formation.

    PubMed

    Shalin, Sara C; Hernandez, Caterina M; Dougherty, Michele K; Morrison, Deborah K; Sweatt, J David

    2006-06-01

    The ERK/MAP kinase cascade is important for long-term memory formation and synaptic plasticity, with a myriad of upstream signals converging upon ERK activation. Despite this convergence of signaling, neurons routinely activate appropriate biological responses to different stimuli. Scaffolding proteins represent a mechanism to achieve compartmentalization of signaling and the appropriate targeting of ERK-dependent processes. We report that kinase suppressor of Ras (KSR1) functions biochemically in the hippocampus to scaffold the components of the ERK cascade, specifically regulating the cascade when a membrane fraction of ERK is activated via a PKC-dependent pathway but not via a cAMP/PKA-dependent pathway. Specificity of KSR1-dependent signaling also extends to specific downstream targets of ERK. Behaviorally and physiologically, we found that the absence of KSR1 leads to deficits in associative learning and theta burst stimulation-induced LTP. Our report provides novel insight into the endogenous scaffolding role of KSR1 in controlling kinase activation within the nervous system.

  6. Hyperlink format, categorization abilities and memory span as contributors to deaf users hypertext access.

    PubMed

    Fajardo, Inmaculada; Farjardo, Inmaculada; Arfé, Barbara; Benedetti, Patrizia; Altoé, Gianmarco

    2008-01-01

    Sixty deaf and hearing students were asked to search for goods in a Hypertext Supermarket with either graphical or textual links of high typicality, frequency, and familiarity. Additionally, they performed a picture and word categorization task and two working memory span tasks (spatial and verbal). Results showed that deaf students were faster in graphical than in verbal hypertext when the number of visited pages per search trial was blocked. Regardless of stimuli format, accuracy differences between groups did not appear, although deaf students were slower than hearing students in both Web search and categorization tasks (graphical or verbal). No relation between the two tasks was found. Correlation analyses showed that deaf students with higher spatial span were faster in graphical Web search, but no correlations emerged between verbal span and verbal Web search. A hypothesis of different strategies used by the two groups for searching information in hypertext is formulated. It is suggested that deaf users use a visual-matching strategy more than a semantic approach to make navigation decisions.

  7. Individual language experience modulates rapid formation of cortical memory circuits for novel words

    PubMed Central

    Kimppa, Lilli; Kujala, Teija; Shtyrov, Yury

    2016-01-01

    Mastering multiple languages is an increasingly important ability in the modern world; furthermore, multilingualism may affect human learning abilities. Here, we test how the brain’s capacity to rapidly form new representations for spoken words is affected by prior individual experience in non-native language acquisition. Formation of new word memory traces is reflected in a neurophysiological response increase during a short exposure to novel lexicon. Therefore, we recorded changes in electrophysiological responses to phonologically native and non-native novel word-forms during a perceptual learning session, in which novel stimuli were repetitively presented to healthy adults in either ignore or attend conditions. We found that larger number of previously acquired languages and earlier average age of acquisition (AoA) predicted greater response increase to novel non-native word-forms. This suggests that early and extensive language experience is associated with greater neural flexibility for acquiring novel words with unfamiliar phonology. Conversely, later AoA was associated with a stronger response increase for phonologically native novel word-forms, indicating better tuning of neural linguistic circuits to native phonology. The results suggest that individual language experience has a strong effect on the neural mechanisms of word learning, and that it interacts with the phonological familiarity of the novel lexicon. PMID:27444206

  8. The effect of background music on episodic memory and autonomic responses: listening to emotionally touching music enhances facial memory capacity

    PubMed Central

    Mado Proverbio, C.A. Alice; Lozano Nasi, Valentina; Alessandra Arcari, Laura; De Benedetto, Francesco; Guardamagna, Matteo; Gazzola, Martina; Zani, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate how background auditory processing can affect other perceptual and cognitive processes as a function of stimulus content, style and emotional nature. Previous studies have offered contrasting evidence, and it has been recently shown that listening to music negatively affected concurrent mental processing in the elderly but not in young adults. To further investigate this matter, the effect of listening to music vs. listening to the sound of rain or silence was examined by administering an old/new face memory task (involving 448 unknown faces) to a group of 54 non-musician university students. Heart rate and diastolic and systolic blood pressure were measured during an explicit face study session that was followed by a memory test. The results indicated that more efficient and faster recall of faces occurred under conditions of silence or when participants were listening to emotionally touching music. Whereas auditory background (e.g., rain or joyful music) interfered with memory encoding, listening to emotionally touching music improved memory and significantly increased heart rate. It is hypothesized that touching music is able to modify the visual perception of faces by binding facial properties with auditory and emotionally charged information (music), which may therefore result in deeper memory encoding. PMID:26469712

  9. The effect of background music on episodic memory and autonomic responses: listening to emotionally touching music enhances facial memory capacity.

    PubMed

    Proverbio, Alice Mado; Mado Proverbio, C A Alice; Lozano Nasi, Valentina; Alessandra Arcari, Laura; De Benedetto, Francesco; Guardamagna, Matteo; Gazzola, Martina; Zani, Alberto

    2015-10-15

    The aim of this study was to investigate how background auditory processing can affect other perceptual and cognitive processes as a function of stimulus content, style and emotional nature. Previous studies have offered contrasting evidence, and it has been recently shown that listening to music negatively affected concurrent mental processing in the elderly but not in young adults. To further investigate this matter, the effect of listening to music vs. listening to the sound of rain or silence was examined by administering an old/new face memory task (involving 448 unknown faces) to a group of 54 non-musician university students. Heart rate and diastolic and systolic blood pressure were measured during an explicit face study session that was followed by a memory test. The results indicated that more efficient and faster recall of faces occurred under conditions of silence or when participants were listening to emotionally touching music. Whereas auditory background (e.g., rain or joyful music) interfered with memory encoding, listening to emotionally touching music improved memory and significantly increased heart rate. It is hypothesized that touching music is able to modify the visual perception of faces by binding facial properties with auditory and emotionally charged information (music), which may therefore result in deeper memory encoding.

  10. A shape memory foam composite with enhanced fluid uptake and bactericidal properties as a hemostatic agent.

    PubMed

    Landsman, T L; Touchet, T; Hasan, S M; Smith, C; Russell, B; Rivera, J; Maitland, D J; Cosgriff-Hernandez, E

    2017-01-01

    Uncontrolled hemorrhage accounts for more than 30% of trauma deaths worldwide. Current hemostatic devices focus primarily on time to hemostasis, but prevention of bacterial infection is also critical for improving survival rates. In this study, we sought to improve on current devices used for hemorrhage control by combining the large volume-filling capabilities and rapid clotting of shape memory polymer (SMP) foams with the swelling capacity of hydrogels. In addition, a hydrogel composition was selected that readily complexes with elemental iodine to impart bactericidal properties to the device. The focus of this work was to verify that the advantages of each respective material (SMP foam and hydrogel) are retained when combined in a composite device. The iodine-doped hydrogel demonstrated an 80% reduction in bacteria viability when cultured with a high bioburden of Staphylococcus aureus. Hydrogel coating of the SMP foam increased fluid uptake by 19× over the uncoated SMP foam. The composite device retained the shape memory behavior of the foam with more than 15× volume expansion after being submerged in 37°C water for 15 min. Finally, the expansion force of the composite was tested to assess potential tissue damage within the wound during device expansion. Expansion forces did not exceed 0.6N, making tissue damage during device expansion unlikely, even when the expanded device diameter is substantially larger than the target wound site. Overall, the enhanced fluid uptake and bactericidal properties of the shape memory foam composite indicate its strong potential as a hemostatic agent to treat non-compressible wounds.

  11. Histamine infused into basolateral amygdala enhances memory consolidation of inhibitory avoidance.

    PubMed

    Benetti, Fernando; Izquierdo, Ivan

    2013-08-01

    The role of the basolateral amygdala (BLA) in the consolidation of aversive memory is well established. Here we investigate the involvement of the histaminergic system in BLA on this variable. Rats were chronically implanted with bilateral cannulae in the BLA and after recovery were trained in a one-trial step-down inhibitory avoidance task. Immediately after training histaminergic compounds either alone or in combination were infused through the cannulae. Memory was assessed in test sessions carried out 24 h after the training session. Post-training histamine (1-10 nmol; 0.5 μl/side) enhanced consolidation and the histamine H₃ receptor antagonist thioperamide (50 nmol; 0.5 μl/side) impaired memory consolidation. The effect was shared by the histamine N-methyltransferase inhibitor SKF-91844 (50 nmol; 0.5 μl/side) as well as by the H₃ receptor agonist imetit (10 nmol; 0.5 μl/side). The promnesic action of histamine was unaffected by the H₁ receptor antagonist pyrilamine (50 nmol; 0.5 μl/side). The H1 receptor agonist pyridylethylamine (10 nmol; 0.5 μl/side), the H₂ agonist dimaprit (10 nmol; 0.5 μl/side) and the H₂ antagonist ranitidine (50 nmol; 0.5 μl/side) were ineffective. Histaminergic compounds infused into the BLA had no effect on open-field or elevated plus-maze behaviour. The data show that histamine induces a dose-dependent mnemonic effect in rats and indicate that this reflects a role of endogenous histamine in the BLA mediated by H₃ receptors.

  12. Genetic increase in brain-derived neurotrophic factor levels enhances learning and memory.

    PubMed

    Nakajo, Yukako; Miyamoto, Susumu; Nakano, Yoshikazu; Xue, Jing-Hui; Hori, Takuya; Yanamoto, Hiroji

    2008-11-19

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), a neurotrophin, is known to promote neuronal differentiation stimulating neurite outgrowth in the developing CNS, and is also known to modulate synaptic plasticity, thereby contributing to learning and memory in the mature brain. Here, we investigated the role of increased levels of intracerebral BDNF in learning and memory function. Using genetically engineered transgenic BDNF overexpressing mice (RTG-BDNF), young adult, homozygous (+/+), heterozygous (+/-), or wild-type (-/-) littermates, we analyzed escape latency to a hidden-platform and swimming velocity in the Morris Water Maze test (MWM) with modifications for the mice. The MWM comprised 4 trials per day over 5 consecutive days (sessions) without prior or subsequent training. In a separate set of animals, BDNF protein levels in the cortex, thalamostriatum and the hippocampus were measured quantitatively using ELISA. In the BDNF (+/-) mice, the BDNF levels in the cortex, the thalamostriatum and the hippocampus were significantly high, compared to the wild-type littermates; 238%, 158%, and 171%, respectively (P<0.01, one-way ANOVA and a post-hoc test in each region). The BDNF levels in the BDNF (+/+) mice were not elevated. The BDNF (+/-), but not the (+/+) mice, demonstrated significantly shorter escape latency, shorter total path length in the MWM, and more frequent arrivals at the location where the platform had been placed previously in the probe trial, compared with the wild-type littermates (P<0.05, at each time pint). Because the maximum swimming velocity was not affected in the BDNF-transgenic mice, increased BDNF levels in the brain were found to enhance spatial learning and memory function. Although it has been postulated that excessive BDNF is deteriorating for neuronal survival or neurite outgrowth, further investigations are needed to clarify the mechanism of paradoxical lack of increase in BDNF levels in the (+/+) mouse brain.

  13. Enhancing Spatial Memory: Anxiolytic and Antidepressant Effects of Tapinanthus dodoneifolius (DC) Danser in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Harquin Simplice, Foyet; David Emery, Tsala; Hervé Hervé, Ngatanko Abaissou

    2014-01-01

    We evaluated the anxiolytic and antidepressant effects of the aqueous extract of the bark of Tapinanthus dodoneifolius (TAE) (Danser) (25, 50, and 100 mg/kg), using open field, elevated plus maze, and forced swimming tests. Effect of TAE was compared to standard drugs diazepam (2 mg/kg) and imipramine (10 mg/kg). Additionally, the same doses of TAE were evaluated on rat's memory using Y-maze task. Results showed a significant (P < 0.05; 100 mg/kg) increase in the percentage of open arm entry and the time spent in the open arms in the elevated plus maze, suggesting an anxiolytic activity of the extract. In a dose-dependant manner, TAE at 25 mg/kg significantly (P < 0.05) decreased the number of lines crossed and the rearing behavior in the open field test, suggesting its possible sedative activity. In the forced swimming test, the immobility time of the animal was significantly reduced (P < 0.05) by TAE (100 mg/kg), compared to control, and this effect was quite comparable to that of imipramine. In the Y-maze paradigm, TAE at 50 mg/kg caused a significant increase in the spontaneous alternations but with a significant decrease in exploratory behavioral pattern. Taking these results together, TAE improved the spatial memory and showed anxiolytic, antidepressant, and sedative activities. The present results support the anxiolytic and antidepressant activities of TAE and, to our knowledge, for the first time, demonstrate its enhancing effect on memory. PMID:24649363

  14. Effects of the putative cognitive-enhancing ampakine, CX717, on attention and object recognition memory.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Yiwen; Balabhadrapatruni, Sangeeta; Masumura, Chisako; Darlington, Cynthia L; Smith, Paul F

    2011-12-01

    Ampakines are a class of putative nootropic drug designed to positively modulate the AMPA receptor and have been investigated as a potential treatment for cognitive disorders such as Alzheimer's Disease. Nonetheless, some ampakines such as CX717 have been incompletely characterized in behavioural pharmacological studies. Therefore, in this study, we attempted to further characterize the effects of the ampakine, CX717 (20 mg/kg s.c), on the performance of rats in a 5 choice serial reaction time (5CSRTT) and object recognition memory task, using rats with cognitive deficits caused by bilateral vestibular deafferentation (BVD) as a model. In the 5CSRTT, when the stimulus duration was varied from 5 to 2 sec, the number of incorrect responses was significantly greater for the BVD group compared to sham controls, but significantly less for the CX717 groups, with no significant interaction. With changes in inter-trial interval (ITI), there was a significant effect of surgery/drug and a significant effect of ITI on premature responses, and the BVD group treated with CX717 showed significantly fewer premature responses than the other groups. In the object recognition memory task, CX717 significantly reduced total exploration time and the exploration towards the novel object in both sham and BVD animals. These results suggest that CX717 can reduce the number of incorrect responses in both sham and BVD rats and enhance inhibitory control specifically in BVD rats, in the 5CSRTT. On the other hand, CX717 produced a detrimental effect in the object recognition memory task.

  15. [Metabolic memory enhances hormesis effect to the copper ions in age-depended manner].

    PubMed

    Bozhkov, A I; Sidorov, V I; Kurguzova, N I; Dlubovskaia, V L

    2014-01-01

    The ability of young and old rats to manifest the hormesis effect to lethal doses of copper sulphate and the ability to save the induced "adaptive" pattern of redistribution of copper ions after the transfer of animals in the standard conditions is the mechanism of metabolic memory. It was found that pretreatment of animals with low-dose (1 mg per 100 g body mass, i.e. 33% of the lethal dose) of copper sulfate induced the formation of their resistance to lethal doses (3 mg per 100 g), so the hormesis effect was manifested. Hormesis effect depended on the number of pre injections of small doses of copper sulphate in an S-shaped manner. The protective effect increased after 1 to 3 of preliminary injections of copper sulfate, and after four or more injections the hormesis effect decreased. It is shown that the cardinal role in intracellular pattern of copper ion redistribution play heat-stable copper binding proteins 12 kDa cytosolic proteins. The formed "adaptive" pattern of intracellular distribution of the copper ions may be reproduced, after at least, one month. The prolonged hormesis effect can be attributed to the forming metabolic memory. The intracellular distribution pattern of the copper ions was age-dependent. Age-related differences were found in hormesis effect induced by copper ions, which results in increased binding capacity of copper binding proteins in old animals, with a higher content of copper ions in the mitochondria and microsomes as compared to young animals.

  16. Involvement of 5-HT(2A/2B/2C) receptors on memory formation: simple agonism, antagonism, or inverse agonism?

    PubMed

    Meneses, Alfredo

    2002-12-01

    1. The 5-HT2 receptors subdivision into the 5-HT(2A/2B/2C) subtypes along with the advent of the selective antagonists has allowed a more detailed investigation on the role and therapeutic significance of these subtypes in cognitive functions. The present study further analyzed the 5-HT2 receptors role on memory consolidation. 2. The SB-200646 (a selective 5-HT(2B/2C) receptor antagonist) and LY215840 (a nonselective 5-HT(2/7) receptor antagonist) posttraining administration had no effect on an autoshaped memory consolidation. However, both drugs significantly and differentially antagonized the memory impairments induced by 1-(3-chlorophenyl)piperazine (mCPP), 1-naphtyl-piperazine (1-NP), mesulergine, or N-(3-trifluoromethylphenyl) piperazine (TFMPP). 3. In contrast, SB-200646 failed to modify the facilitatory procognitive effect produced by (+/-)-2.5-dimethoxy-4-iodoamphetamine (DOI) or ketanserin, which were sensitive to MDL100907 (a selective 5-HT2A receptor antagonist) and to a LY215840 high dose. 4. Finally, SB-200646 reversed the learning deficit induced by dizocilpine, but not that by scopolamine: while SB-200646 and MDL100907 coadministration reversed memory deficits induced by both drugs. 5. It is suggested that 5-HT(2B/2C) receptors might be involved on memory formation probably mediating a suppressive or constraining action. Whether the drug-induced memory impairments in this study are explained by simple agonism, antagonism, or inverse agonism at 5-HT2 receptors remains unclear at this time. 6. Notably, the 5-HT2 receptor subtypes blockade may provide some benefit to reverse poor memory consolidation conditions associated with decreasedcholinergic, glutamatergic, and/or serotonergic neurotransmission.

  17. Memory modulation in the classroom: selective enhancement of college examination performance by arousal induced after lecture.

    PubMed

    Nielson, Kristy A; Arentsen, Timothy J

    2012-07-01

    Laboratory studies examining moderate physiological or emotional arousal induced after learning indicate that it enhances memory consolidation. Yet, no studies have yet examined this effect in an applied context. As such, arousal was induced after a college lecture and its selective effects were examined on later exam performance. Participants were divided into two groups who either watched a neutral video clip (n=66) or an arousing video clip (n=70) after lecture in a psychology course. The final examination occurred two weeks after the experimental manipulation. Only performance on the group of final exam items that covered material from the manipulated lecture were significantly different between groups. Other metrics, such as the midterm examination and the total final examination score, did not differ between groups. The results indicate that post-lecture arousal selectively increased the later retrieval of lecture material, despite the availability of the material for study before and after the manipulation. The results reinforce the role of post-learning arousal on memory consolidation processes, expanding the literature to include a real-world learning context.

  18. Erythropoietin enhances neurogenesis and restores spatial memory in rats after traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Lu, Dunyue; Mahmood, Asim; Qu, Changsheng; Goussev, Anton; Schallert, Timothy; Chopp, Michael

    2005-09-01

    Erythropoietin (EPO) is neuroprotective in models of stroke and traumatic brain injury (TBI) when administered prior to or within the first few hours after injury. We seek to demonstrate that EPO also has neurorestorative effects when administered late (i.e., 1 day) after TBI in the rat. Twelve rats were subjected to TBI. Six rats were treated with EPO daily for 14 days starting 1 day after injury, and an additional six rats were treated with saline. Bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) was administered daily for 14 days. Memory tests using a Morris Water Maze were performed prior to and after injury and treatment. Animals were sacrificed at 15 days after TBI, and their brains were prepared for histological analysis of damage to the dentate gyrus (DG) and for evaluation of newly formed neurons using double labeling of BrdU and MAP-2. The data revealed a significant improvement in spatial memory and significant increase in the number of newly formed neurons with EPO treatment compared with control animals. These data suggest that EPO treatment initiated 1 day after TBI is neurorestorative by enhancing neurogenesis, as well as neuroprotective.

  19. Transcranial direct current stimulation for memory enhancement: from clinical research to animal models

    PubMed Central

    Bennabi, Djamila; Pedron, Solène; Haffen, Emmanuel; Monnin, Julie; Peterschmitt, Yvan; Van Waes, Vincent

    2014-01-01

    There is a growing demand for new brain-enhancing technologies to improve mental performance, both for patients with cognitive disorders and for healthy individuals. Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a non-invasive, painless, and easy to use neuromodulatory technique that can improve performance on a variety of cognitive tasks in humans despite its exact mode of action remains unclear. We have conducted a mini-review of the literature to first briefly summarize the growing amount of data from clinical trials assessing the efficacy of tDCS, focusing exclusively on learning and memory performances in healthy human subjects and in patients with depression, schizophrenia, and other neurological disorders. We then discuss these findings in the context of the strikingly few studies resulting from animal research. Finally, we highlight future directions and limitations in this field and emphasize the need to develop translational studies to better understand how tDCS improves memory, a necessary condition before it can be used as a therapeutic tool. PMID:25237299

  20. Enhanced visual short-term memory in action video game players.

    PubMed

    Blacker, Kara J; Curby, Kim M

    2013-08-01

    Visual short-term memory (VSTM) is critical for acquiring visual knowledge and shows marked individual variability. Previous work has illustrated a VSTM advantage among action video game players (Boot et al. Acta Psychologica 129:387-398, 2008). A growing body of literature has suggested that action video game playing can bolster visual cognitive abilities in a domain-general manner, including abilities related to visual attention and the speed of processing, providing some potential bases for this VSTM advantage. In the present study, we investigated the VSTM advantage among video game players and assessed whether enhanced processing speed can account for this advantage. Experiment 1, using simple colored stimuli, revealed that action video game players demonstrate a similar VSTM advantage over nongamers, regardless of whether they are given limited or ample time to encode items into memory. Experiment 2, using complex shapes as the stimuli to increase the processing demands of the task, replicated this VSTM advantage, irrespective of encoding duration. These findings are inconsistent with a speed-of-processing account of this advantage. An alternative, attentional account, grounded in the existing literature on the visuo-cognitive consequences of video game play, is discussed.

  1. Paternal treadmill exercise enhances spatial learning and memory related to hippocampus among male offspring.

    PubMed

    Yin, M M; Wang, W; Sun, J; Liu, S; Liu, X L; Niu, Y M; Yuan, H R; Yang, F Y; Fu, L

    2013-09-15

    Both epidemiologic and laboratory studies suggest that parents can shape their offspring's development. Recently, it has been shown that maternal exercise during pregnancy benefits the progeny's brain function. However, little is known regarding the influence of paternal exercise on their offspring's phenotype. In this study we attempt to determine the effects of 6 weeks paternal treadmill exercise on spatial learning and memory and the expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and reelin in their male offspring. Sibling males were divided into two groups: the control (C) and the exercise group (E). The mice in the E group were exercised on a motor-driven rodent treadmill for 5 days per week for 6 weeks. After 6 weeks of exercise, the male mouse was mated with its sibling female. After weaning, male pups underwent behavioral assessment (Open field and Morris water maze tests). Immunohistochemistry staining, real time-PCR and western blot were performed to determine hippocampal BDNF and reelin expression of the male pups after behavior tasks. Our results showed that paternal treadmill exercise improved the spatial learning and memory capability of male pups, which was accompanied by significantly increased expression of BDNF and reelin, as compared to those of C group. Our results provide novel evidence that paternal treadmill exercise can enhance the brain functions of their F1 male offspring.

  2. Enhancing effects of lithium on memory are not by-products of learning or attentional deficits.

    PubMed

    Tsaltas, Eleftheria; Kyriazi, Theodora; Poulopoulou, Cornelia; Kontis, Dimitrios; Maillis, Antonios

    2007-06-18

    We recently reported that chronic lithium (LiCl), at therapeutic plasma levels, enhanced spatial working memory and retention of an aversive contingency. Here we examine the possibility that these effects be secondary to LiCl effects on the ability to ignore irrelevant stimuli or on fear conditioning. In Experiment 1, rats subjected to >30 daily intraperitoneal injections of LiCl (2mmol/kg) or saline underwent conditioned emotional response training (CER: 2 CS pairings with 1-s, 1-mA shock) after 40 pre-exposures either to the CS (latent inhibition-LiCl/latent inhibition-saline, n=8) or to another stimulus (control-LiCl/control-saline, n=8). In Experiment 2, eight LiCl and eight saline animals were trained in on-the-baseline (VI-60s) CER (1-s, 0.15-mA shock in CS-signalled periods) in the Skinner box. In Experiment 1, LiCl animals showed normal latent inhibition. In both experiments, their fear conditioning was unimpaired. Therefore, the previously reported memory improvement under chronic lithium cannot be attributed to changes in the ability to ignore irrelevant stimuli or in fear conditioning.

  3. Inter-individual differences in trait negative affect moderate cortisol's effects on memory formation: preliminary findings from two studies.

    PubMed

    Abercrombie, Heather C; Wirth, Michelle M; Hoks, Roxanne M

    2012-05-01

    Acute emotional arousal moderates the effects of cortisol on memory. However, it is currently unknown how stable inter-individual differences (i.e., traits) moderate cortisol's effects on memory. In two studies using within-subjects designs - 31 healthy males in Study 1 and 42 healthy subjects (22 female) in Study 2 - we measured trait negative affect (NA) and presented emotional and neutral pictures. In Study 1, we manipulated endogenous cortisol levels using a speech stressor following encoding. In Study 2, using a randomized placebo-controlled design, we pharmacologically manipulated cortisol levels prior to encoding (0.1mg/kg hydrocortisone vs. saline infused over 30min). Free recall for pictures was subsequently assessed. Trait NA repeatedly moderated the relationship between cortisol and memory formation. Findings suggested the speculative conclusion that the direction of effects may vary by sex. In males, cortisol was related to memory facilitation in subjects with lower Trait NA. Conversely, females with higher Trait NA showed greater cortisol-related increases in memory. Trait NA may be a stable inter-individual difference predicting neurocognitive effects of cortisol during stressors.

  4. Endotoxemia contributes to CD27+ memory B-cell apoptosis via enhanced sensitivity to Fas ligation in patients with Cirrhosis

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Li-Yuan; Li, Yonghai; Kaplan, David E.

    2016-01-01

    Peripheral CD27+ memory B-cells become quantitatively reduced and dysfunctional in patients with cirrhosis through poorly characterized mechanisms. We hypothesized that the disappearance of CD27+ memory B-cells results from enhanced sensitivity to apoptosis caused by exposure to gut microbial translocation products. Using isolated naïve and memory B-cells from patients with cirrhosis and age-matched controls, ex vivo and activation-induced sensitivity to Fas-mediated apoptosis was assessed under relevant experimental conditions. We observed differential expression of CD95(Fas) in CD27+ B-cells from cirrhotic patients that was inversely correlated with peripheral CD27+ B-cell frequency. While memory B-cells from cirrhotic patients were resistant to Fas-mediated apoptosis ex vivo, Toll-like receptor 4(TLR4)-ligation restored Fas-sensitivity. Sensitivity to Fas-mediated apoptosis could be transferred to healthy donor memory B-cells by co-culturing these cells with plasma from cirrhotic patients, a sensitivity partially mediated by Fas and TLR4 signaling, and partially rescued via B-cell receptor crosslinking. We conclude that peripheral CD27+ memory B-cells in cirrhosis exhibit increased sensitivity to Fas-induced apoptosis in an activation-dependent manner to which endotoxin contributes, associated with reduced frequency of circulating memory B-cells. Destruction of this critical cell subset may contribute to the cirrhotic immunodeficiency state and heightened risk of systemic infections in advanced liver disease. PMID:27857173

  5. Face likeability mediates the memory-enhancing effect of face attractiveness in young but not older adults.

    PubMed

    Lin, Tian; Lendry, Reesa; Ebner, Natalie C

    2016-11-01

    Evidence of effects of face attractiveness on memory is mixed and little is known about the underlying mechanisms of this relationship. Previous work suggests a possible mediating role of affective responding to faces (i.e., face likeability) on the relationship between face attractiveness and memory. Age-related change in social motivation may reduce the relevance of face attractiveness in older adults, with downstream effects on memory. In the present study, 50 young and 51 older participants were presented with face-trait pairs. Faces varied in attractiveness. Participants then completed a face-trait associative recognition memory task and provided likeability ratings for each face. There was a memory-enhancing effect of face attractiveness in young (but not older) participants, which was partially mediated by face likeability. In addition, more attractive and less attractive (compared to moderately attractive) faces were more likely remembered by both young and older participants. This quadratic effect of face attractiveness on memory was not mediated by face likeability. Findings are discussed in the context of motivational influences on memory that vary with age.

  6. Increase in posterior alpha activity during rehearsal predicts successful long-term memory formation of word sequences.

    PubMed

    Meeuwissen, Esther B; Takashima, Atsuko; Fernández, Guillén; Jensen, Ole

    2011-12-01

    It is becoming increasingly clear that demanding cognitive tasks rely on an extended network engaging task-relevant areas and, importantly, disengaging task-irrelevant areas. Given that alpha activity (8-12 Hz) has been shown to reflect the disengagement of task-irrelevant regions in attention and working memory tasks, we here ask if alpha activity plays a related role for long-term memory formation. Subjects were instructed to encode and maintain the order of word sequences while the ongoing brain activity was recorded using magnetoencephalography (MEG). In each trial, three words were presented followed by a 3.4 s rehearsal interval. Considering the good temporal resolution of MEG this allowed us to investigate the word presentation and rehearsal interval separately. The sequences were grouped in trials where word order either could be tested immediately (working memory trials; WM) or later (LTM trials) according to instructions. Subjects were tested on their ability to retrieve the order of the three words. The data revealed that alpha power in parieto-occipital regions was lower during word presentation compared to rehearsal. Our key finding was that parieto-occipital alpha power during the rehearsal period was markedly stronger for successfully than unsuccessfully encoded LTM sequences. This subsequent memory effect demonstrates that high posterior alpha activity creates an optimal brain state for successful LTM formation possibly by actively reducing parieto-occipital activity that might interfere with sequence encoding.

  7. Promoter-Specific Effects of DREADD Modulation on Hippocampal Synaptic Plasticity and Memory Formation

    PubMed Central

    López, Alberto J.; Kramár, Enikö; Matheos, Dina P.; White, André O.; Kwapis, Janine; Vogel-Ciernia, Annie; Sakata, Keith; Espinoza, Monica

    2016-01-01

    Designer receptors exclusively activated by designer drug (DREADDs) are a novel tool with the potential to bidirectionally drive cellular, circuit, and ultimately, behavioral changes. We used DREADDs to evaluate memory formation in a hippocampus-dependent task in mice and effects on synaptic physiology in the dorsal hippocampus. We expressed neuron-specific (hSyn promoter) DREADDs that were either excitatory (HM3D) or inhibitory (HM4D) in the dorsal hippocampus. As predicted, hSyn–HM3D was able to transform a subthreshold learning event into long-term memory (LTM), and hSyn–HM4D completely impaired LTM formation. Surprisingly, the opposite was observed during experiments examining the effects on hippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP). hSyn–HM3D impaired LTP and hSyn–HM4D facilitated LTP. Follow-up experiments indicated that the hSyn–HM3D-mediated depression of fEPSP appears to be driven by presynaptic activation of inhibitory currents, whereas the hSyn–HM4D-mediated increase of fEPSP is induced by a reduction in GABAA receptor function. To determine whether these observations were promoter specific, we next examined the effects of using the CaMKIIα promoter that limits expression to forebrain excitatory neurons. CaMKIIα–HM3D in the dorsal hippocampus led to the transformation of a subthreshold learning event into LTM, whereas CaMKIIα–HM4D blocked LTM formation. Consistent with these findings, baseline synaptic transmission and LTP was increased in CaMKIIα–HM3D hippocampal slices, whereas slices from CaMKIIα–HM4D mice produced expected decreases in baseline synaptic transmission and LTP. Together, these experiments further demonstrate DREADDs as being a robust and reliable means of modulating neuronal function to manipulate long-term changes in behavior, while providing evidence for specific dissociations between LTM and LTP. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT This study evaluates the efficacy of designer receptors exclusively activated by designer

  8. Resolution enhancement techniques for contact hole printing of sub-50nm memory device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, Hye-Jin; You, Tae-jun; Yoo, Min-Ae; Choi, Jin-Young; Yang, Kiho; Park, Chan-Ha; Yim, Dong-gyu

    2008-11-01

    In resolution limited lithography process, the contact hole pattern is one of the most challenging features to be printed on wafer. A lot of lithographers struggle to make robust hole patterns under 45nm node, especially if the contact hole patterns are composed of dense array and isolated hole simultaneously. The strong OAI(Off Axis Illumination) such as dipole is very useful technique to enhance resolution for specific features. However the contact hole formed by dipole illumination usually has elliptical shape and the asymmetric feature leads to increment of chip size. In this paper, we will explore the lithographic feasibility for the coexisting dense array with isolated contact holes and the technical issues are investigated to generate finer contact hole for both dense and isolated feature. Conventional illumination with resist shrinkage technique will be used to generate dense array and isolated contact hole maintaining original shape for the sub-50nm node memory device.

  9. Clitoria ternatea (Linn) root extract treatment during growth spurt period enhances learning and memory in rats.

    PubMed

    Rai, K S; Murthy, K D; Karanth, K S; Rao, M S

    2001-07-01

    Neonatal rat pups (7 days old) were intubated with either 50 mg/kg body weight or 100 mg/kg body weight of aqueous root extract of Clitoria ternatea (CTR) for 30 days. These rats were then subjected to open field, two compartment passive avoidance and spatial learning (T-Maze) tests (i) immediately after the treatment and (ii) 30 days after the treatment, along with age matched normal and saline control rats. Results showed no change in open field behaviour, but showed improved retention and spatial learning performance at both time points of behavioural tests, indicating the memory enhancing property of CTR which implicates a permanent change in the brain of CTR treated rats.

  10. Design of an online EEG based neurofeedback game for enhancing attention and memory.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Kavitha P; Vinod, A P; Guan, Cuntai

    2013-01-01

    Brain-Computer Interface (BCI) is an alternative communication and control channel between brain and computer which finds applications in neuroprosthetics, brain wave controlled computer games etc. This paper proposes an Electroencephalogram (EEG) based neurofeedback computer game that allows the player to control the game with the help of attention based brain signals. The proposed game protocol requires the player to memorize a set of numbers in a matrix, and to correctly fill the matrix using his attention. The attention level of the player is quantified using sample entropy features of EEG. The statistically significant performance improvement of five healthy subjects after playing a number of game sessions demonstrates the effectiveness of the proposed game in enhancing their concentration and memory skills.

  11. Something in the way she sings: enhanced memory for vocal melodies.

    PubMed

    Weiss, Michael W; Trehub, Sandra E; Schellenberg, E Glenn

    2012-10-01

    Across species, there is considerable evidence of preferential processing for biologically significant signals such as conspecific vocalizations and the calls of individual conspecifics. Surprisingly, music cognition in human listeners is typically studied with stimuli that are relatively low in biological significance, such as instrumental sounds. The present study explored the possibility that melodies might be remembered better when presented vocally rather than instrumentally. Adults listened to unfamiliar folk melodies, with some presented in familiar timbres (voice and piano) and others in less familiar timbres (banjo and marimba). They were subsequently tested on recognition of previously heard melodies intermixed with novel melodies. Melodies presented vocally were remembered better than those presented instrumentally even though they were liked less. Factors underlying the advantage for vocal melodies remain to be determined. In line with its biological significance, vocal music may evoke increased vigilance or arousal, which in turn may result in greater depth of processing and enhanced memory for musical details.

  12. Caloric restriction preserves memory and reduces anxiety of aging mice with early enhancement of neurovascular functions

    PubMed Central

    Parikh, Ishita; Guo, Janet; Chuang, Kai-Hsiang; Zhong, Yu; Rempe, Ralf G.; Hoffman, Jared D.; Armstrong, Rachel; Bauer, Björn; Hartz, Anika M.S.; Lin, Ai-Ling

    2016-01-01

    Neurovascular integrity plays an important role in protecting cognitive and mental health in aging. Lifestyle interventions that sustain neurovascular integrity may thus be critical on preserving brain functions in aging and reducing the risk for age-related neurodegenerative disorders. Here we show that caloric restriction (CR) had an early effect on neurovascular enhancements, and played a critical role in preserving vascular, cognitive and mental health in aging. In particular, we found that CR significantly enhanced cerebral blood flow (CBF) and