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Sample records for enhances osteogenic differentiation

  1. Chordin knockdown enhances the osteogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Kwong, Francois NK; Richardson, Stephen M; Evans, Christopher H

    2008-01-01

    Introduction Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) are critical growth factors in the osteogenic differentiation of progenitor cells during development in embryos and fracture repair in adults. Although recombinant BMPs are in use clinically, their clinical efficiency needs to be improved. The biological activities of BMPs are naturally regulated by extracellular binding proteins. The specific hypotheses tested in this study were as follows: the BMP inhibitor chordin is produced endogenously during the osteogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs); and blockade of the activity of the BMP inhibitor increases the rate of osteogenic differentiation of human MSCs in vitro. Methods Human MSCs were derived from bone marrow from an iliac crest aspirate and from patients undergoing hip hemiarthroplasty. The MSCs were induced down the osteogenic pathway using standard osteogenic differentiation media, and expressions of BMP-2 and chordin were determined by gene expression analysis. During osteogenic differentiation, chordin knockdown was induced using RNA interference. Osteogenic differentiation was assessed by measuring the expression of alkaline phosphatase and calcium deposition. The differences in expression of osteogenic makers between groups were compared by analysis of variance, followed by Gabriel post hoc test. Results We demonstrate the expression of BMP-2 and chordin in human MSCs during osteogenic differentiation. Knockdown of chordin by RNA interference in vitro resulted in a significant increase in the expression of the osteogenic marker alkaline phosphatase and the deposition of extracellular mineral, in response to osteogenic stimulation. Conclusion We conclude that endogenously produced chordin constrains the osteogenic differentiation of human MSCs. The targeting of BMP inhibitors, such as chordin, may provide a novel strategy for enhancing bone regeneration. PMID:18533030

  2. Src enhances osteogenic differentiation through phosphorylation of Osterix.

    PubMed

    Choi, You Hee; Han, YounHo; Lee, Sung Ho; Cheong, Heesun; Chun, Kwang-Hoon; Yeo, Chang-Yeol; Lee, Kwang Youl

    2015-05-15

    Osterix, a zinc-finger transcription factor, is required for osteoblast differentiation and new bone formation during embryonic development. The c-Src of tyrosine kinase is involved in a variety of cellular signaling pathways, leading to the induction of DNA synthesis, cell proliferation, and cytoskeletal reorganization. Src activity is tightly regulated and its dysregulation leads to constitutive activation and cellular transformation. The function of Osterix can be also modulated by post-translational modification. But the precise molecular signaling mechanisms between Osterix and c-Src are not known. In this study we investigated the potential regulation of Osterix function by c-Src in osteoblast differentiation. We found that c-Src activation increases protein stability, osteogenic activity and transcriptional activity of Osterix. The siRNA-mediated knockdown of c-Src decreased the protein levels and transcriptional activity of Osterix. Conversely, Src specific inhibitor, SU6656, decreased the protein levels and transcriptional activity of Osterix. The c-Src interacts with and phosphorylates Osterix. These results suggest that c-Src signaling modulates osteoblast differentiation at least in part through Osterix.

  3. Electrospun biomimetic scaffold of hydroxyapatite/chitosan supports enhanced osteogenic differentiation of mMSCs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Hongju; Yin, Zi; Liu, Huanhuan; Chen, Xiao; Feng, Bei; Yuan, Huihua; Su, Bo; Ouyang, Hongwei; Zhang, Yanzhong

    2012-12-01

    Engaging functional biomaterial scaffolds to regulate stem cell differentiation has drawn a great deal of attention in the tissue engineering and regenerative medicine community. In this study, biomimetic composite nanofibrous scaffolds of hydroxyapatite/chitosan (HAp/CTS) were prepared to investigate their capacity for inducing murine mesenchymal stem cells (mMSCs) to differentiate into the osteogenic lineage, in the absence and presence of an osteogenic supplementation (i.e., ascorbic acid, β-glycerol phosphate, and dexamethasone), respectively. Using electrospun chitosan (CTS) nanofibrous scaffolds as the control, cell morphology, growth, specific osteogenic genes expression, and quantified proteins secretion on the HAp/CTS scaffolds were sequentially examined and assessed. It appeared that the HAp/CTS scaffolds supported better attachment and proliferation of the mMSCs. Most noteworthy was that in the absence of the osteogenic supplementation, expression of osteogenic genes including collagen I (Col I), runt-related transcription factor 2 (Runx2), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and osteocalcin (OCN) were significantly upregulated in mMSCs cultured on the HAp/CTS nanofibrous scaffolds. Also increased secretion of the osteogenesis protein markers of alkaline phosphatase and collagen confirmed that the HAp/CTS nanofibrous scaffold markedly promoted the osteogenic commitment in the mMSCs. Moreover, the presence of osteogenic supplementation proved an enhanced efficacy of mMSC osteogenesis on the HAp/CTS nanofibrous scaffolds. Collectively, this study demonstrated that the biomimetic nanofibrous HAp/CTS scaffolds could support and enhance the adhesion, proliferation, and particularly osteogenic differentiation of the mMSCs. It also substantiated the potential of using biomimetic nanofibrous scaffolds of HAp/CTS for functional bone repair and regeneration applications.

  4. DNA N6-methyladenine demethylase ALKBH1 enhances osteogenic differentiation of human MSCs

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Chenchen; Liu, Yuting; Li, Xiaobing; Zou, Jing; Zou, Shujuan

    2016-01-01

    ALKBH1 was recently discovered as a demethylase for DNA N6-methyladenine (N6-mA), a new epigenetic modification, and interacts with the core transcriptional pluripotency network of embryonic stem cells. However, the role of ALKBH1 and DNA N6-mA in regulating osteogenic differentiation is largely unknown. In this study, we demonstrated that the expression of ALKBH1 in human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) was upregulated during osteogenic induction. Knockdown of ALKBH1 increased the genomic DNA N6-mA levels and significantly reduced the expression of osteogenic-related genes, alkaline phosphatase activity, and mineralization. ALKBH1-depleted MSCs also exhibited a restricted capacity for bone formation in vivo. By contrast, the ectopic overexpression of ALKBH1 enhanced osteoblastic differentiation. Mechanically, we found that the depletion of ALKBH1 resulted in the accumulation of N6-mA on the promoter region of ATF4, which subsequently silenced ATF4 transcription. In addition, restoring the expression of ATP by adenovirus-mediated transduction successfully rescued osteogenic differentiation. Taken together, our results demonstrate that ALKBH1 is indispensable for the osteogenic differentiation of MSCs and indicate that DNA N6-mA modifications area new mechanism for the epigenetic regulation of stem cell differentiation. PMID:27785372

  5. Hierarchical scaffolds enhance osteogenic differentiation of human Wharton's jelly derived stem cells.

    PubMed

    Canha-Gouveia, Analuce; Rita Costa-Pinto, Ana; Martins, Albino M; Silva, Nuno A; Faria, Susana; Sousa, Rui A; Salgado, António J; Sousa, Nuno; Reis, Rui L; Neves, Nuno M

    2015-09-03

    Hierarchical structures, constituted by polymeric nano and microfibers, have been considered promising scaffolds for tissue engineering strategies, mainly because they mimic, in some way, the complexity and nanoscale detail observed in real organs. The chondrogenic potential of these scaffolds has been previously demonstrated, but their osteogenic potential is not yet corroborated. In order to assess if a hierarchical structure, with nanoscale details incorporated, is an improved scaffold for bone tissue regeneration, we evaluate cell adhesion, proliferation, and osteogenic differentiation of human Wharton's jelly derived stem cells (hWJSCs), seeded into hierarchical fibrous scaffolds. Biological data corroborates that hierarchical fibrous scaffolds show an enhanced cell entrapment when compared to rapid prototyped scaffolds without nanofibers. Furthermore, upregulation of bone specific genes and calcium phosphate deposition confirms the successful osteogenic differentiation of hWJSCs on these scaffolds. These results support our hypothesis that a scaffold with hierarchical structure, in conjugation with hWJSCs, represents a possible feasible strategy for bone tissue engineering applications.

  6. Graphene oxide nanoflakes incorporated gelatin-hydroxyapatite scaffolds enhance osteogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nair, Manitha; Nancy, D.; Krishnan, Amit G.; Anjusree, G. S.; Vadukumpully, Sajini; Nair, Shantikumar V.

    2015-04-01

    In this study, graphene oxide (GO) nanoflakes (0.5 and 1 wt%) were incorporated into a gelatin-hydroxyapatite (GHA) matrix through a freeze drying technique and its effect to enhance mechanical strength and osteogenic differentiation was studied. The GHA matrix with GO demonstrated less brittleness in comparison to GHA scaffolds. There was no significant difference in mechanical strength between GOGHA0.5 and GOGHA1.0 scaffolds. When the scaffolds were immersed in phosphate buffered saline (to mimic physiologic condition) for 60 days, around 50-60% of GO was released in sustained and linear manner and the concentration was within the toxicity limit as reported earlier. Further, GOGHA0.5 scaffolds were continued for cell culture experiments, wherein the scaffold induced osteogenic differentiation of human adipose derived mesenchymal stem cells without providing supplements like dexamethasone, L-ascorbic acid and β glycerophosphate in the medium. The level of osteogenic differentiation of stem cells was comparable to those cultured on GHA scaffolds with osteogenic supplements. Thus biocompatible, biodegradable and porous GO reinforced gelatin-HA 3D scaffolds may serve as a suitable candidate in promoting bone regeneration in orthopaedics.

  7. Surface topography enhances differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells towards osteogenic and adipogenic lineages.

    PubMed

    Abagnale, Giulio; Steger, Michael; Nguyen, Vu Hoa; Hersch, Nils; Sechi, Antonio; Joussen, Sylvia; Denecke, Bernd; Merkel, Rudolf; Hoffmann, Bernd; Dreser, Alice; Schnakenberg, Uwe; Gillner, Arnold; Wagner, Wolfgang

    2015-08-01

    Surface topography impacts on cell growth and differentiation, but it is not trivial to generate defined surface structures and to assess the relevance of specific topographic parameters. In this study, we have systematically compared in vitro differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) on a variety of groove/ridge structures. Micro- and nano-patterns were generated in polyimide using reactive ion etching or multi beam laser interference, respectively. These structures affected cell spreading and orientation of human MSCs, which was also reflected in focal adhesions morphology and size. Time-lapse demonstrated directed migration parallel to the nano-patterns. Overall, surface patterns clearly enhanced differentiation of MSCs towards specific lineages: 15 μm ridges increased adipogenic differentiation whereas 2 μm ridges enhanced osteogenic differentiation. Notably, nano-patterns with a periodicity of 650 nm increased differentiation towards both osteogenic and adipogenic lineages. However, in absence of differentiation media surface structures did neither induce differentiation, nor lineage-specific gene expression changes. Furthermore, nanostructures did not affect the YAP/TAZ complex, which is activated by substrate stiffness. Our results provide further insight into how structuring of tailored biomaterials and implant interfaces - e.g. by multi beam laser interference in sub-micrometer scale - do not induce differentiation of MSCs per se, but support their directed differentiation.

  8. NLRP3 inflammasome activation in mesenchymal stem cells inhibits osteogenic differentiation and enhances adipogenic differentiation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Linghao; Chen, Ke; Wan, Xinxing; Wang, Fang; Guo, Zi; Mo, Zhaohui

    2017-03-18

    Osteoporosis is one of the most common skeletal disease featured by osteopenia and adipose accumulation in bone tissue. NLRP3 inflammasome activation is an essential player in aging-related chronic diseases like osteoporosis, particularly due to the causal caspase-1 activation and its correlation to adipose accumulation in bone tissue. Moreover, the expression of anti-aging/senescence SIRT1 was reported to decline along with aging. As the major cellular contributor of bone formation, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are multipotent stem cells processing mutually exclusive differentiatability toward osteocytes or adipocytes. Therefore, we hypothesized that NLRP3 inflammasome activation promotes adipogenesis and repress osteogenesis in MSCs via inhibiting SIRT1 expression. We activated NLRP3 inflammasome in human MSCs via lipopolysaccharide and palmitic acid (LPS/PA) treatment for self-renewal maintenance, adipogenic differentiation or osteogenic differentiation. LPS/PA treatment significantly increased NLRP3 expression, decreased SIRT1 expression and promoted caspase-1 activity in MSCs. LPS/PA treatment also boosted adipogenesis of MSCs and suppressed osteogenesis. Moreover, inhibition of caspase-1 activity repressed adipogenic differentiation and partially improved osteogenic differentiation of MSCs with LPS/PA treatment. Our study demonstrated the pivotal roles of NLRP3 inflammasome and downstream mediator caspase-1 for the progress of osteo-differentiation MSCs, and offered novel therapeutic target of treatment for osteoporosis.

  9. Boron nitride nanotube-enhanced osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Xia; Wang, Xiupeng; Jiang, Xiangfen; Yamaguchi, Maho; Ito, Atsuo; Bando, Yoshio; Golberg, Dmitri

    2016-02-01

    The interaction between boron nitride nanotubes (BNNTs) layer and mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) is evaluated for the first time in this study. BNNTs layer supports the attachment and growth of MSCs and exhibits good biocompatibility with MSCs. BNNTs show high protein adsorption ability, promote the proliferation of MSCs and increase the secretion of total protein by MSCs. Especially, BNNTs enhance the alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity as an early marker of osteoblasts, ALP/total protein and osteocalcin (OCN) as a late marker of osteogenic differentiation, which shows that BNNTs can enhance osteogenesis of MSCs. The release of trace boron and the stress on cells exerted by BNNTs with a fiber structure may account for the enhanced differentiation of MSCs into osteoblasts. Therefore BNNTs are potentially useful for bone regeneration in orthopedic applications.

  10. Enhanced early osteogenic differentiation by silicon-substituted hydroxyapatite ceramics fabricated via ultrasonic spray pyrolysis route.

    PubMed

    Honda, Michiyo; Kikushima, Koichi; Kawanobe, Yusuke; Konishi, Toshiisa; Mizumoto, Minori; Aizawa, Mamoru

    2012-12-01

    The influence of silicon-substituted hydroxyapatite (Si-HAp) on osteogenic differentiation was assessed by biological analysis. Si-HAp was prepared by ultrasonic spray pyrolysis (USSP) technique using various amounts of Si (0, 0.8, and 1.6 mass%). Chemical analysis revealed that Si was incorporated into the hydroxyapatite (HAp) lattice with no other crystalline phase and which caused the change of crystal structure. Biological analyses showed that the Si contents affected the cell proliferation and morphology, suggesting that there is an optimal Si content for cell culture. As for differentiation, alkaline phosphatase activity and osteocalcin production of Si-HAp were higher than those of HAp. Gene expression profiles also revealed that substitution of Si (0.8 mass%) up-regulated the expression levels of osteocalcin and especially Runx2, a master gene for osteoblast development. These results suggest that incorporating Si into the HAp lattice may enhance the bioactivity, particularly during early osteoblast development.

  11. Chitosan/β-1,3-glucan/hydroxyapatite bone scaffold enhances osteogenic differentiation through TNF-α-mediated mechanism.

    PubMed

    Przekora, Agata; Ginalska, Grazyna

    2017-04-01

    The role of TNF-α in bone healing process is still unclear and controversial. Although it is commonly believed that TNF-α inhibits osteogenic differentiation, there are few reports that identified a crucial role of TNF-α in enhancing bone regeneration process. The aim of this study was to prove that novel chitosan/β-1,3-glucan/HA scaffold (chit/glu/HA) may promote osteogenic differentiation via TNF-α-mediated mechanism and an autocrine stimulation of osteoblasts. It was demonstrated that normal human fetal osteoblasts (hFOB 1.19) maintained in conditioned medium containing increased level of TNF-α and harvested from hFOB 1.19 cells cultured on the chit/glu/HA scaffold (CM-chit/glu/HA) were in more advanced phase of osteogenic differentiation compared to the osteoblasts cultured in non-conditioned osteogenic medium and conditioned medium harvested from hFOB 1.19 cells cultured on the polystyrene plate. Cells cultured in CM-chit/glu/HA produced significantly more Col I protein, revealed 2-fold higher bALP activity, deposited 3-fold more calcium phosphate, and formed mineralized nodules. Thus, it was demonstrated that novel chit/glu/HA scaffold is promising material for bone regeneration applications to stimulate accelerated new bone formation as it enhances osteogenic differentiation via increasing TNF-α production by osteoblasts.

  12. The enhanced performance of bone allografts using osteogenic-differentiated adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells.

    PubMed

    Schubert, Thomas; Xhema, Daela; Vériter, Sophie; Schubert, Michaël; Behets, Catherine; Delloye, Christian; Gianello, Pierre; Dufrane, Denis

    2011-12-01

    Adipose tissue was only recently considered as a potential source of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) for bone tissue engineering. To improve the osteogenicity of acellular bone allografts, adipose MSCs (AMSCs) and bone marrow MSCs (BM-MSCs) at nondifferentiated and osteogenic-differentiated stages were investigated in vitro and in vivo. In vitro experiments demonstrated a superiority of AMSCs for proliferation (6.1±2.3 days vs. 9.0±1.9 days between each passage for BM-MSCs, respectively, P<0.001). A significantly higher T-cell depletion (revealed by mixed lymphocyte reaction, [MLR]) was found for AMSCs (vs. BM-MSCs) at both non- and differentiated stages. Although nondifferentiated AMSCs secreted a higher amount of vascular endothelial growth factor [VEGF] in vitro (between 24 and 72 h of incubation at 0.1-21% O(2)) than BM-MSCs (P<0.001), the osteogenic differentiation induced a significantly higher VEGF release by BM-MSCs at each condition (P<0.001). After implantation in the paraspinal muscles of nude rats, a significantly higher angiogenesis (histomorphometry for vessel development (P<0.005) and VEGF expression (P<0.001)) and osteogenesis (as revealed by osteocalcin expression (P<0.001) and micro-CT imagery for newly formed bone tissue (P<0.05)) were found for osteogenic-differentiated AMSCs in comparison to BM-MSCs after 30 days of implantation. Osteogenic-differentiated AMSCs are the best candidate to improve the angio-/osteogenicity of decellularized bone allografts.

  13. Surface modification of TiO2 nanotubes with osteogenic growth peptide to enhance osteoblast differentiation.

    PubMed

    Lai, Min; Jin, Ziyang; Su, Zhiguo

    2017-04-01

    To investigate the influence of surface-biofunctionalized substrates on osteoblast behavior, a layer of aligned TiO2 nanotubes with a diameter of around 70nm was fabricated on titanium surface by anodization, and then osteogenic growth peptide (OGP) was conjugated onto TiO2 nanotubes through the intermediate layer of polydopamine. The morphology, composition and wettability of different surfaces were characterized by field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and contact angle measurements, respectively. The effects of OGP-modified TiO2 nanotube substrates on the morphology, proliferation and differentiation of osteoblasts were examined in vitro. Immunofluorescence staining revealed that the OGP-functionalized TiO2 nanotubes were favorable for cell spreading. However, there was no significant difference in cell proliferation observed among the different groups. Cells grown onto OGP-functionalized TiO2 nanotubes showed significantly higher (p<0.05 or p<0.01) levels of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and mineralization after 4, 7 and 14days of culture, respectively. Cells grown on OGP-functionalized TiO2 nanotubes had significantly higher (p<0.05 or p<0.01) expression of osteogenic-related genes including runt related transcription factor 2 (Runx2), ALP, collagen type I (Col I), osteopontin (OPN) and osteocalcin (OC) after 14days of culture. These data suggest that surface functionalization of TiO2 nanotubes with OGP was beneficial for cell spreading and differentiation. This study provides a novel platform for the development and fabrication of titanium-based implants that enhance the propensity for osseointegration between the native tissue and implant interface.

  14. Platelet-rich concentrate in serum free medium enhances osteogenic differentiation of bone marrow-derived human mesenchymal stromal cells

    PubMed Central

    Ramasamy, Thamil Selvee; Karunanithi, Puvanan; Naveen, Sangeetha Vasudevaraj; Murali, Malliga Raman; Abbas, Azlina A.; Kamarul, Tunku

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that platelet concentrates used in conjunction with appropriate growth media enhance osteogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stromal cells (hMSCs). However, their potential in inducing osteogenesis of hMSCs when cultured in serum free medium has not been explored. Furthermore, the resulting osteogenic molecular signatures of the hMSCs have not been compared to standard osteogenic medium. We studied the effect of infrequent supplementation (8-day interval) of 15% non-activated platelet-rich concentrate (PRC) in serum free medium on hMSCs proliferation and differentiation throughout a course of 24 days, and compared the effect with those cultured in a standard osteogenic medium (OM). Cell proliferation was analyzed by alamar blue assay. Gene expression of osteogenic markers (Runx2, Collagen1, Alkaline Phosphatase, Bone morphogenetic protein 2, Osteopontin, Osteocalcin, Osteonectin) were analyzed using Q-PCR. Immunocytochemical staining for osteocalcin, osteopontin and transcription factor Runx2 were done at 8, 16 and 24 days. Biochemical assays for the expression of ALP and osteocalcin were also performed at these time-points. Osteogenic differentiation was further confirmed qualitatively by Alizarin Red S staining that was quantified using cetylpyridinium chloride. Results showed that PRC supplemented in serum free medium enhanced hMSC proliferation, which peaked at day 16. The temporal pattern of gene expression of hMSCs under the influence of PRC was comparable to that of the osteogenic media, but at a greater extent at specific time points. Immunocytochemical staining revealed stronger staining for Runx2 in the PRC-treated group compared to OM, while the staining for Osteocalcin and Osteopontin were comparable in both groups. ALP activity and Osteocalcin/DNA level were higher in the PRC group. Cells in the PRC group had similar level of bone mineralization as those cultured in OM, as reflected by the intensity of Alizarin red

  15. Co-culture with periodontal ligament stem cells enhances osteogenic gene expression in de-differentiated fat cells.

    PubMed

    Tansriratanawong, Kallapat; Tamaki, Yuichi; Ishikawa, Hiroshi; Sato, Soh

    2014-10-01

    In recent decades, de-differentiated fat cells (DFAT cells) have emerged in regenerative medicine because of their trans-differentiation capability and the fact that their characteristics are similar to bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells. Even so, there is no evidence to support the osteogenic induction using DFAT cells in periodontal regeneration and also the co-culture system. Consequently, this study sought to evaluate the DFAT cells co-culture with periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLSCs) in vitro in terms of gene expression by comparing runt-related transcription factor 2 (RUNX2) and Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma 2 (PPARγ2) genes. We isolated DFAT cells from mature adipocytes and compared proliferation with PDLSCs. After co-culture with PDLSCs, we analyzed transcriptional activity implying by DNA methylation in all adipogenic gene promoters using combined bisulfite restriction analysis. We compared gene expression in RUNX2 gene with the PPARγ2 gene using quantitative RT-PCR. After being sub-cultured, DFAT cells demonstrated morphology similar to fibroblast-like cells. At the same time, PDLSCs established all stem cell characteristics. Interestingly, the co-culture system attenuated proliferation while enhancing osteogenic gene expression in RUNX2 gene. Using the co-culture system, DFAT cells could trans-differentiate into osteogenic lineage enhancing, but conversely, their adipogenic characteristic diminished. Therefore, DFAT cells and the co-culture system might be a novel cell-based therapy for promoting osteogenic differentiation in periodontal regeneration.

  16. Peptide decorated nano-hydroxyapatite with enhanced bioactivity and osteogenic differentiation via polydopamine coating.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yuhua; Deng, Yi; Ye, Ziyou; Liang, Shanshan; Tang, Zhihui; Wei, Shicheng

    2013-11-01

    To be better used as implant materials in bone graft substitutes, bioactivity and osteogenesis of nano-hydroxyapatite (nano-HA) need to be further enhanced. Inspired by adhesive proteins in mussels, here we developed a novel bone forming peptide decorated nano-HA material. In this study, nano-HA was coated by one-step pH-induced polymerization of dopamine, and then the peptide was grafted onto polydopamine (pDA) coated nano-HA (HA-pDA) through catechol chemistry. Our results demonstrated that the peptide-conjugated nano-HA crystals could induce the adhesion and proliferation of MG-63 cells. Moreover, the highly alkaline phosphatase activity of the functionalized nano-HA indicated that the grafted peptide could maintain its biological activity after immobilization onto the surface of HA-pDA, especially at the concentration of 100μg/mL. These modified nano-HA crystals with better bioactivity and osteogenic differentiation hold great potential to be applied as bioactive materials in bone repairing, bone regeneration and bio-implant coating applications.

  17. Administration of tauroursodeoxycholic acid enhances osteogenic differentiation of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells and bone regeneration.

    PubMed

    Cha, Byung-Hyun; Jung, Moon-Joo; Moon, Bo-Kyung; Kim, Jin-Su; Ma, Yoonji; Arai, Yoshie; Noh, Myungkyung; Shin, Jung-Youn; Kim, Byung-Soo; Lee, Soo-Hong

    2016-02-01

    It is known that osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) can be promoted by suppression of adipogenesis of MSCs. We have recently found that the chemical chaperone tauroursodeoxycholic acid (TUDCA) significantly reduces adipogenesis of MSCs. In the present study, we examined whether TUDCA can promote osteogenic differentiation of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMMSCs) by regulating Integrin 5 (ITGA5) associated with activation of ERK1/2 signal pathway and thereby enhance bone tissue regeneration by reducing apoptosis and the inflammatory response. TUDCA treatment promoted in vitro osteogenic differentiation of BMMSCs and in vivo bone tissue regeneration in a calvarial defect model, as confirmed by micro-computed tomography, histological staining, and immunohistochemistry for osteocalcin. In addition, TUDCA treatment significantly decreased apoptosis and the inflammatory response in vivo and in vitro, which is important to enhance bone tissue regeneration. These results indicate that TUDCA plays a critical role in enhancing osteogenesis of BMMSCs, and is therefore a potential alternative drug for bone tissue regeneration.

  18. Loss of Cbl-PI3K interaction modulates the periosteal response to fracture by enhancing osteogenic commitment and differentiation.

    PubMed

    Scanlon, Vanessa; Walia, Bhavita; Yu, Jungeun; Hansen, Marc; Drissi, Hicham; Maye, Peter; Sanjay, Archana

    2017-02-01

    The periosteum contains multipotent skeletal progenitors that contribute to bone repair. The signaling pathways regulating the response of periosteal cells to fracture are largely unknown. Phosphatidylinositol-3 Kinase (PI3K), a prominent lipid kinase, is a major signaling protein downstream of several factors that regulate osteoblast differentiation. Cbl is an E3 ubiquitin ligase and a major adaptor protein that binds to the p85 regulatory subunit and modulates PI3K activity. Substitution of tyrosine 737 to phenylalanine (Y737F) in Cbl abolishes the interaction between Cbl and p85 subunit without affecting the Cbl's ubiquitin ligase function. Here, we investigated the role of PI3K signaling during the very early stages of fracture healing using Osterix(RFP) reporter mice. We found that the absence of PI3K regulation by Cbl resulted in robust periosteal thickening, with increased proliferation of periosteal cells. While the multipotent properties of periosteal progenitors to differentiate into chondrocytes and adipocytes did not change, osteogenic differentiation in the absence of Cbl-PI3K interaction was highly augmented. The increased stability and nuclear localization of Osterix observed in periosteal cells lacking Cbl-PI3K interaction may explain this enhanced osteogenic differentiation since the expression of Osterix transcriptional target genes including osteocalcin and BSP are increased in YF cells. Overall, our findings highlight a hitherto unexplored and novel role for Cbl and PI3K in modulating the osteogenic response of periosteal cells during the early stages of fracture repair.

  19. Msx1-modulated muscle satellite cells retain a primitive state and exhibit an enhanced capacity for osteogenic differentiation.

    PubMed

    Ding, Ke; Liu, Wen-Ying; Zeng, Qiang; Hou, Fang; Xu, Jian-Zhong; Yang, Zhong

    2017-03-01

    Multipotent muscle satellite cells (MuSCs) have been identified as potential seed cells for bone tissue engineering. However, MuSCs exhibit a rapid loss of stemness after in vitro culturing, thereby compromising their therapeutic efficiency. Muscle segment homeobox gene 1 (msx1) has been found to induce the dedifferentiation of committed progenitor cells, as well as terminally differentiated myotubes. In this study, a Tet-off retroviral gene delivery system was used to modulate msx1 expression. After ten passages, MuSCs that did not express msx-1 (e.g., the non-msx1 group) were compared with MuSCs with induced msx-1 expression (e.g., the msx1 group). The latter group exhibited a more juvenile morphology, it contained a significantly lower percentage of senescent cells characterized by positive β-galactosidase staining, and it exhibited increased proliferation and a higher proliferation index. Immunocytochemical stainings further detected a more primitive gene expression profile for the msx1 group, while osteogenic differentiation assays and ectopic bone formation assays demonstrated an improved capacity for the msx1 group to undergo osteogenic differentiation. These results suggest that transient expression of msx1 in MuSCs can retain a primitive state, thereby enhancing their capacity for osteogenic differentiation and restoring the potential for MuSCs to serve as seed cells for bone tissue engineering.

  20. Enhancement of stem cell differentiation to osteogenic lineage on hydroxyapatite-coated hybrid PLGA/gelatin nanofiber scaffolds.

    PubMed

    Sanaei-Rad, Parisa; Jafarzadeh Kashi, Tahereh-Sadat; Seyedjafari, Ehsan; Soleimani, Masoud

    2016-11-01

    A combination of polymeric materials and bioceramics has recently received a great deal of attention for bone tissue engineering applications. In the present study, hybrid nanofibrous scaffolds were fabricated from PLGA and gelatin via electrospinning and then were coated with hydroxyapatite (HA). They were then characterized and used in stem cell culture studies for the evaluation of their biological behavior and osteogenic differentiation in vitro. This study showed that all PLGA, hybrid PLGA/gelatin and HA-PLGA/gelatin scaffolds were composed of ultrafine fibers with smooth morphology and interconnected pores. The MTT assay confirmed that the scaffolds can support the attachment and proliferation of stem cells. During osteogenic differentiation, bone-related gene expression, ALP activity and biomineralization on HA-PLGA/gelatin scaffolds were higher than those observed on other scaffolds and TCPS. PLGA/gelatin electrospun scaffolds also showed higher values of these markers than TCPS. Taking together, it was shown that nanofibrous structure enhanced osteogenic differentiation of adipose-tissue derived stem cells. Furthermore, surface-coated HA stimulated the effect of nanofibers on the commitment of stem cells toward osteolineage. In conclusion, HA-PLGA/gelatin electrospun scaffolds were demonstrated to have significant potential for bone tissue engineering applications.

  1. Adiponectin enhances osteogenic differentiation in human adipose-derived stem cells by activating the APPL1-AMPK signaling pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Tong; Wu, Yu-wei; Lu, Hui; Guo, Yuan; Tang, Zhi-hui

    2015-05-29

    Human adipose-derived stem cells (hASCs) are multipotent progenitor cells with multi-lineage differentiation potential including osteogenesis and adipogenesis. While significant progress has been made in understanding the transcriptional control of hASC fate, little is known about how hASC differentiation is regulated by the autocrine loop. The most abundant adipocytokine secreted by adipocytes, adiponectin (APN) plays a pivotal role in glucose metabolism and energy homeostasis. Growing evidence suggests a positive association between APN and bone formation yet little is known regarding the direct effects of APN on hASC osteogenesis. Therefore, this study was designed to investigate the varied osteogenic effects and regulatory mechanisms of APN in the osteogenic commitment of hASCs. We found that APN enhanced the expression of osteoblast-related genes in hASCs, such as osteocalcin, alkaline phosphatase, and runt-related transcription factor-2 (Runx2, also known as CBFa1), in a dose- and time-dependent manner. This was further confirmed by the higher expression levels of alkaline phosphatase and increased formation of mineralization nodules, along with the absence of inhibition of cell proliferation. Importantly, APN at 1 μg/ml was the optimal concentration, resulting in maximum deposition of calcium nodules, and was significant superior to bone morphogenetic protein 2. Mechanistically, we found for the first time that APN increased nuclear translocation of the leucine zipper motif (APPL)-1 as well as AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) phosphorylation, which were reversed by pretreatment with APPL1 siRNA. Our results indicate that APN promotes the osteogenic differentiation of hASCs by activating APPL1-AMPK signaling, suggesting that manipulation of APN is a novel therapeutic target for controlling hASC fate. - Highlights: • Adiponectin enhances osteogenic differentiation in human adipose-derived stem cells. • The knock-down of APPL1 block the enhancement of

  2. Bioactive borate glass promotes the repair of radius segmental bone defects by enhancing the osteogenic differentiation of BMSCs.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jieyuan; Guan, Junjie; Zhang, Changqing; Wang, Hui; Huang, Wenhai; Guo, Shangchun; Niu, Xin; Xie, Zongping; Wang, Yang

    2015-11-20

    Bioactive borate glass (BG) has emerged as a promising alternative for bone regeneration due to its high osteoinductivity, osteoconductivity, compressive strength, and biocompatibility. However, the role of BG in large segmental bone repair is unclear and little is known about the underlying mechanism of BG's osteoinductivity. In this study, we demonstrated that BG possessed pro-osteogenic effects in an experimental model of critical-sized radius defects. Transplanting BG to radius defects resulted in better repair of bone defects as compared to widely used β-TCP. Histological and morphological analysis indicated that BG significantly enhanced new bone formation. Furthermore, the degradation rate of the BG was faster than that of β-TCP, which matched the higher bone regeneration rate. In addition, ions from BG enhanced cell viability, ALP activity, and osteogenic-related genes expression. Mechanistically, the critical genes Smad1/5 and Dlx5 in the BMP pathway and p-Smad1/5 proteins were significantly elevated after BG transplantation, and these effects could be blocked by the BMP/Smad specific inhibitor. Taken together, our findings suggest that BG could repair large segmental bone defects through activating the BMP/Smad pathway and osteogenic differentiation in BMSCs.

  3. Bone morphogenetic protein-2 enhances the osteogenic differentiation capacity of mesenchymal stromal cells derived from human bone marrow and umbilical cord

    PubMed Central

    Marupanthorn, Kulisara; Tantrawatpan, Chairat; Kheolamai, Pakpoom; Tantikanlayaporn, Duangrat; Manochantr, Sirikul

    2017-01-01

    Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) are multipotent cells that can give rise to different cell types of the mesodermal lineages. They are powerful sources for cell therapy in regenerative medicine as they can be isolated from various tissues, and can be expanded and induced to differentiate into multiple lineages. Recently, the umbilical cord has been suggested as an alternative source of MSCs. Although MSCs derived from the umbilical cord can be induced to differentiate into osteoblasts with a phenotypic similarity to that of bone marrow-derived MSCs, the differentiation ability is not consistent. In addition, MSCs from the umbilical cord require a longer period of time to differentiate into osteoblasts. Previous studies have demonstrated the benefits of bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) in bone tissue regeneration. In addition, several studies have supported the use of BMP-2 in periodontal regeneration, sinus lift bone-grafting and non-unions in oral surgery. Although the use of BMP-2 for bone tissue regeneration has been extensively investigated, the BMP-2-induced osteogenic differentiation of MSCs derived from the umbilical cord has not yet been fully examined. Therefore, in this study, we aimed to examine the effects of BMP-2 on the osteogenic differentiation of MSCs derived from umbilical cord compared to that of MSCs derived from bone marrow. The degree of osteogenic differentiation following BMP-2 treatment was determined by assessing alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, and the expression profiles of osteogenic differentiation marker genes, osterix (Osx), Runt-related transcription factor 2 (Runx2) and osteocalcin (Ocn). The results revealed that BMP-2 enhanced the osteogenic differentiation capacity of MSCs derived from both bone marrow and umbilical cord as demonstrated by increased ALP activity and the upregulation of osteogenic differentiation marker genes. The enhancement of the osteogenic differentiation capacity of MSCs by BMP-2 suggests that these

  4. Enhanced osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells on poly(L-lactide) nanofibrous scaffolds containing carbon nanomaterials.

    PubMed

    Duan, Shun; Yang, Xiaoping; Mei, Fang; Tang, Yan; Li, Xiaoli; Shi, Yuzhou; Mao, Jifu; Zhang, Hongquan; Cai, Qing

    2015-04-01

    Carbon nanomaterials (CNMs), such as carbon nanotube (CNT) and graphene, are highlighted in bone regeneration because of their osteoinductive properties. Their combinations with nanofibrous polymeric scaffolds, which mimic the morphology of natural extracellular matrix of bone, arouse keen interest in bone tissue engineering. To this end, CNM were incorporated into nanofibrous poly(L-lactic acid) scaffolds by thermal-induced phase separation. The CNM-containing composite nanofibrous scaffolds were biologically evaluated by both in vitro co-culture of bone mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) and in vivo implantation. The nanofibrous structure itself demonstrated significant enhancement in cell adhesion, proliferation and oseogenic differentiation of BMSCs, and with the incorporation of CNM, the composite nanofibrous scaffolds further promoted osteogenic differentiation of BMSCs significantly. Between the two CNMs, graphene showed stronger effect in promoting osteogenic differentiation of BMSCs than CNT. The results of in vivo experiments revealed that the composite nanofibrous scaffolds had both good biocompatibility and strong ability in inducing osteogenesis. CNMs could remarkably enhance the expression of osteogenesis-related proteins as well as the formation of type I collagen. Similarly, the graphene-containing composite nanofibrous scaffolds demonstrated the strongest effect on inducing osteogenesis in vivo. These findings demonstrated that CNM-containing composite nanofibrous scaffolds were obviously more efficient in promoting osteogenesis than pure polymeric scaffolds.

  5. Enhanced osteogenic differentiation of MC3T3-E1 on rhBMP-2-immobilized titanium via click reaction.

    PubMed

    Kim, Eun-Cheol; Kim, Tae-Hee; Jung, Jae-Hoon; Hong, Sung Ok; Lee, Deok-Won

    2014-03-15

    In the present study, we report about the efficacy of titanium surface-immobilized with bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) via click reaction on enhanced osteogenic differentiation of MC3T3-E1 cells. The surface was characterized by static contact angles and XPS measurements, which indicated that pristine titanium (Ti-1) was successfully surface-modified via click chemistry (aminated titanium, Ti-4). By quantitative analysis of heparin immobilized on aminated titanium (Ti-4), we found that the Ti-4 can be used as a good candidate to immobilize biomolecules such as heparin. BMP-2 from titanium immobilized with BMP-2 (Ti-6) was released for a period of 28 days in a sustained manner. The highest proliferation rate of MC3T3-E1 cells was observed on Ti-6. Through in vitro tests including alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, calcium deposition and real-time polymerase chain reaction (real-time PCR), we found that Ti-6 can be used as a good implant to enhance the osteogenic differentiation of MC3T3-E1 cells.

  6. Human platelet lysate supports ex vivo expansion and enhances osteogenic differentiation of human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells.

    PubMed

    Xia, Wenjie; Li, Hui; Wang, Zhen; Xu, Ru; Fu, Yongshui; Zhang, Xiuming; Ye, Xin; Huang, Yingfeng; Xiang, Andy Peng; Yu, Weihua

    2011-06-01

    MSCs (mesenchymal stem cells) with their versatile growth and differentiation potential are ideal candidates for use in regenerative medicine and are currently making their way into clinical trials, which requires the development of xeno-free protocols for their culture. In this study, MSCs were cultured in 10% FCS or 7.5% HPL (human platelet lysate)-supplemented media. We found that both groups of MSCs showed a comparable morphology, phenotype and proliferation. The percentage of cells in the S- and G2-/M-phases, however, was slightly up-regulated (P<0.01) in HPL group. HPL contains PDGF (platelet derived growth factor)-AB and IGF (insulin-like growth factor)-1. In addition, compared with FCS group, MSCs in HPL group showed an increase in osteogenic differentiation and a decrease in adipogenic differentiation. In conclusion, MSCs in HPL-supplemented media maintained similar growing potential and phenotype, while osteogenic potential was enhanced. HPL offers a promising alternative to FCS for MSC expansion for clinical application, especially in bone injury diseases.

  7. Chemical and genetic blockade of HDACs enhances osteogenic differentiation of human adipose tissue-derived stem cells by oppositely affecting osteogenic and adipogenic transcription factors

    SciTech Connect

    Maroni, Paola; Brini, Anna Teresa; Arrigoni, Elena; Girolamo, Laura de; Niada, Stefania; Matteucci, Emanuela; Bendinelli, Paola; Desiderio, Maria Alfonsina

    2012-11-16

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Acetylation affected hASCs osteodifferentiation through Runx2-PPAR{gamma}. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer HDACs knocking-down favoured the commitment effect of osteogenic medium. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer HDACs silencing early activated Runx2 and ALP. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer PPAR{gamma} reduction and calcium/collagen deposition occurred later. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Runx2/PPAR{gamma} target genes were modulated in line with HDACs role in osteo-commitment. -- Abstract: The human adipose-tissue derived stem/stromal cells (hASCs) are an interesting source for bone-tissue engineering applications. Our aim was to clarify in hASCs the role of acetylation in the control of Runt-related transcription factor 2 (Runx2) and Peroxisome proliferator activated receptor (PPAR) {gamma}. These key osteogenic and adipogenic transcription factors are oppositely involved in osteo-differentiation. The hASCs, committed or not towards bone lineage with osteoinductive medium, were exposed to HDACs chemical blockade with Trichostatin A (TSA) or were genetically silenced for HDACs. Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and collagen/calcium deposition, considered as early and late osteogenic markers, were evaluated concomitantly as index of osteo-differentiation. TSA pretreatment, useful experimental protocol to analyse pan-HDAC-chemical inhibition, and switch to osteogenic medium induced early-osteoblast maturation gene Runx2, while transiently decreased PPAR{gamma} and scarcely affected late-differentiation markers. Time-dependent effects were observed after knocking-down of HDAC1 and 3: Runx2 and ALP underwent early activation, followed by late-osteogenic markers increase and by PPAR{gamma}/ALP activity diminutions mostly after HDAC3 silencing. HDAC1 and 3 genetic blockade increased and decreased Runx2 and PPAR{gamma} target genes, respectively. Noteworthy, HDACs knocking-down favoured the commitment effect of osteogenic medium. Our results reveal

  8. Enhanced Osteogenic and Vasculogenic Differentiation Potential of Human Adipose Stem Cells on Biphasic Calcium Phosphate Scaffolds in Fibrin Gels

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    For bone tissue engineering synthetic biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP) with a hydroxyapatite/β-tricalcium phosphate (HA/β-TCP) ratio of 60/40 (BCP60/40) is successfully clinically applied, but the high percentage of HA may hamper efficient scaffold remodelling. Whether BCP with a lower HA/β-TCP ratio (BCP20/80) is more desirable is still unclear. Vascular development is needed before osteogenesis can occur. We aimed to test the osteogenic and/or vasculogenic differentiation potential as well as degradation of composites consisting of human adipose stem cells (ASCs) seeded on BCP60/40 or BCP20/80 incorporated in fibrin gels that trigger neovascularization for bone regeneration. ASC attachment to BCP60/40 and BCP20/80 within 30 min was similar (>93%). After 11 days of culture BCP20/80-based composites showed increased alkaline phosphatase activity and DMP1 gene expression, but not RUNX2 and osteonectin expression, compared to BCP60/40-based composites. BCP20/80-based composites also showed enhanced expression of the vasculogenic markers CD31 and VEGF189, but not VEGF165 and endothelin-1. Collagen-1 and collagen-3 expression was similar in both composites. Fibrin degradation was increased in BCP20/80-based composites at day 7. In conclusion, BCP20/80-based composites showed enhanced osteogenic and vasculogenic differentiation potential compared to BCP60/40-based composites in vitro, suggesting that BCP20/80-based composites might be more promising for in vivo bone augmentation than BCP60/40-based composites. PMID:27547223

  9. PDGF-induced PI3K-mediated signaling enhances the TGF-β-induced osteogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells in a TGF-β-activated MEK-dependent manner.

    PubMed

    Yokota, Jun; Chosa, Naoyuki; Sawada, Shunsuke; Okubo, Naoto; Takahashi, Noriko; Hasegawa, Tomokazu; Kondo, Hisatomo; Ishisaki, Akira

    2014-03-01

    Transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) is a critical regulator of osteogenic differentiation and the platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) is a chemoattractant or mitogen of osteogenic mesenchymal cells. However, the combined effects of these regulators on the osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal cells remains unknown. In this study, we investigated the effects of TGF-β and/or PDGF on the osteogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs). The TGF-β-induced osteogenic differentiation of UE7T-13 cells, a bone marrow-derived hMSC line, was markedly enhanced by PDGF, although PDGF alone did not induce differentiation. TGF-β induced extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) phosphorylation and PDGF induced Akt phosphorylation. In addition, the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)/ERK kinase (MEK) inhibitor, U0126, suppressed the osteogenic differentiation induced by TGF-β alone. Moreover, U0126 completely suppressed the osteogenic differentiation synergistically induced by TGF-β and PDGF, whereas the phosphoinositide-3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitor, LY294002, only partially suppressed this effect. These results suggest that the enhancement of TGF-β-induced osteogenic differentiation by PDGF-induced PI3K/Akt-mediated signaling depends on TGF-β-induced MEK activity. Thus, PDGF positively modulates the TGF-β-induced osteogenic differentiation of hMSCs through synergistic crosstalk between MEK- and PI3K/Akt-mediated signaling.

  10. Addition of BMP-2 or BMP-6 to dexamethasone, ascorbic acid, and β-glycerophosphate may not enhance osteogenic differentiation of human periodontal ligament cells.

    PubMed

    Khanna-Jain, Rashi; Agata, Hideki; Vuorinen, Annukka; Sándor, George K B; Suuronen, Riitta; Miettinen, Susanna

    2010-12-01

    This study was designed to investigate the potential merits of the combined use of bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-2 or BMP-6 and osteogenic supplements (OS) [dexamethasone, ascorbic acid (AA), and β-glycerophosphate] on osteogenic differentiation of periodontal ligament cells (PDLCs). Osteogenic differentiation was evaluated by quantitative alkaline phosphatase (ALP) assay, alizarin red staining, quantitative calcium assay, and the qRT-PCR analysis for the expression of collagen type I, runt-related transcription factor-2, osteopontin (OPN), and osteocalcin in PDLCs. Culture with BMP-2 or BMP-6+AA increased ALP activity of PDLCs, suggesting their osteo-inductive effects. However, longer duration of culture showed neither of the BMPs induced in vitro mineralization. In contrast, OS were able to increase ALP activity and OPN expressions, and also induced in vitro mineralization. The mineralization ability was not enhanced by the addition of BMP-2 or BMP-6. These findings suggest that the addition of BMP-2 or BMP-6 to OS may not enhance an osteogenic differentiation of hPDLCs.

  11. Exogenous polyamines promote osteogenic differentiation by reciprocally regulating osteogenic and adipogenic gene expression.

    PubMed

    Lee, Mon-Juan; Chen, Yuhsin; Huang, Yuan-Pin; Hsu, Yi-Chiang; Chiang, Lan-Hsin; Chen, Tzu-Yu; Wang, Gwo-Jaw

    2013-12-01

    Polyamines are naturally occurring organic polycations that are ubiquitous in all organisms, and are essential for cell proliferation and differentiation. Although polyamines are involved in various cellular processes, their roles in stem cell differentiation are relatively unexplored. In this study, we found that exogenous polyamines, putrescine, spermidine, and spermine, promoted osteogenic differentiation of human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hBMSCs) without inducing cell death or apoptosis. Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and the mRNA level of osteogenic genes, including Runx2, ALP, osteopontin, and osteocalcin, were up-regulated by exogenous polyamines. When hBMSCs were cultured at high cell density favoring adipocyte formation, exogenous polyamines resulted in down-regulation of adipogenic genes such as PPARγ, aP2, and adipsin. Extracellular matrix mineralization, a marker for osteoblast maturation, was enhanced in the presence of exogenous polyamines, while lipid accumulation, an indication of adipogenic differentiation, was attenuated. Exogenous polyamines increased the mRNA expression of polyamine-modulated factor 1 (PMF-1) and its downstream effector, spermidine/spermine N(1)-acetyltransferase (SSAT), while that of ornithine decarboxylase (ODC), the rate-limiting enzyme in polyamine biosynthesis, was suppressed. These results lead to possible connections between polyamine metabolism and osteogenic differentiation pathways. To summarize, this study provides evidence for the involvement of polyamines in osteogenic differentiation of hBMSCs, and is the first to demonstrate that osteogenic and adipogenic differentiation are reciprocally regulated by exogenous polyamines.

  12. Magnetically induced electrostimulation of human osteoblasts results in enhanced cell viability and osteogenic differentiation.

    PubMed

    Hiemer, Bettina; Ziebart, Josefin; Jonitz-Heincke, Anika; Grunert, Philip Christian; Su, Yukun; Hansmann, Doris; Bader, Rainer

    2016-07-01

    The application of electromagnetic fields to support the bone-healing processes is a therapeutic approach for patients with musculoskeletal disorders. The ASNIS-III s-series screw is a bone stimulation system providing electromagnetic stimulation; however, its influence on human osteoblasts (hOBs) has not been extensively investigated. Therefore, in the present study, the impact of this system on the viability and differentiation of hOBs was examined. We used the ASNIS-III s screw system in terms of a specific experimental test set-up. The ASNIS-III s screw system was used for the application of electromagnetic fields (EMF, 3 mT, 20 Hz) and electromagnetic fields combined with an additional alternating electric field (EMF + EF) (3 mT, 20 Hz, 700 mV). The stimulation of primary hOBs was conducted 3 times per day for 45 min over a period of 72 h. Unstimulated cells served as the controls. Subsequently, the viability, the gene expression of differentiation markers and pro-collagen type 1 synthesis of the stimulated osteoblasts and corresponding controls were investigated. The application of both EMF and EMF + EF using the ASNIS-III s screw system revealed a positive influence on bone cell viability and moderately increased the synthesis of pro-collagen type 1 compared to the unstimulated controls. Stimulation with EMF resulted in a slightly enhanced gene expression of type 1 collagen and osteocalcin; however, stimulation with EMF + EF resulted in a significant increase in alkaline phosphatase (1.4-fold) and osteocalcin (1.6-fold) levels, and a notable increase in the levels of runt-related transcription factor 2 (RUNX-2; 1.54-fold). Our findings demonstrate that stimulation with electromagnetic fields and an additional alternating electric field has a positive influence on hOBs as regards cell viability and the expression of osteoblastic differentiation markers.

  13. Porous tantalum coatings prepared by vacuum plasma spraying enhance bmscs osteogenic differentiation and bone regeneration in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Tang, Ze; Xie, Youtao; Yang, Fei; Huang, Yan; Wang, Chuandong; Dai, Kerong; Zheng, Xuebin; Zhang, Xiaoling

    2013-01-01

    Tantalum, as a potential metallic implant biomaterial, is attracting more and more attention because of its excellent anticorrosion and biocompatibility. However, its significantly high elastic modulus and large mechanical incompatibility with bone tissue make it unsuitable for load-bearing implants. In this study, porous tantalum coatings were first successfully fabricated on titanium substrates by vacuum plasma spraying (VPS), which would exert the excellent biocompatibility of tantalum and alleviate the elastic modulus of tantalum for bone tissue. We evaluated cytocompatibility and osteogenesis activity of the porous tantalum coatings using human bone marrow stromal cells (hBMSCs) and its ability to repair rabbit femur bone defects. The morphology and actin cytoskeletons of hBMSCs were observed via electron microscopy and confocal, and the cell viability, proliferation and osteogenic differentiation potential of hBMSCs were examined quantitatively by PrestoBlue assay, Ki67 immunofluorescence assay, real-time PCR technology and ALP staining. For in vivo detection, the repaired femur were evaluated by histomorphology and double fluorescence labeling 3 months postoperation. Porous tantalum coating surfaces promoted hBMSCs adhesion, proliferation, osteogenesis activity and had better osseointegration and faster new bone formation rate than titanium coating control. Our observation suggested that the porous tantalum coatings had good biocompatibility and could enhance osseoinductivity in vitro and promote new bone formation in vivo. The porous tantalum coatings prepared by VPS is a promising strategy for bone regeneration.

  14. Porous Tantalum Coatings Prepared by Vacuum Plasma Spraying Enhance BMSCs Osteogenic Differentiation and Bone Regeneration In Vitro and In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Ze; Xie, Youtao; Yang, Fei; Huang, Yan; Wang, Chuandong; Dai, Kerong; Zheng, Xuebin; Zhang, Xiaoling

    2013-01-01

    Tantalum, as a potential metallic implant biomaterial, is attracting more and more attention because of its excellent anticorrosion and biocompatibility. However, its significantly high elastic modulus and large mechanical incompatibility with bone tissue make it unsuitable for load-bearing implants. In this study, porous tantalum coatings were first successfully fabricated on titanium substrates by vacuum plasma spraying (VPS), which would exert the excellent biocompatibility of tantalum and alleviate the elastic modulus of tantalum for bone tissue. We evaluated cytocompatibility and osteogenesis activity of the porous tantalum coatings using human bone marrow stromal cells (hBMSCs) and its ability to repair rabbit femur bone defects. The morphology and actin cytoskeletons of hBMSCs were observed via electron microscopy and confocal, and the cell viability, proliferation and osteogenic differentiation potential of hBMSCs were examined quantitatively by PrestoBlue assay, Ki67 immunofluorescence assay, real-time PCR technology and ALP staining. For in vivo detection, the repaired femur were evaluated by histomorphology and double fluorescence labeling 3 months postoperation. Porous tantalum coating surfaces promoted hBMSCs adhesion, proliferation, osteogenesis activity and had better osseointegration and faster new bone formation rate than titanium coating control. Our observation suggested that the porous tantalum coatings had good biocompatibility and could enhance osseoinductivity in vitro and promote new bone formation in vivo. The porous tantalum coatings prepared by VPS is a promising strategy for bone regeneration. PMID:23776648

  15. Gradients in pore size enhance the osteogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stromal cells in three-dimensional scaffolds

    PubMed Central

    Di Luca, Andrea; Ostrowska, Barbara; Lorenzo-Moldero, Ivan; Lepedda, Antonio; Swieszkowski, Wojcech; Van Blitterswijk, Clemens; Moroni, Lorenzo

    2016-01-01

    Small fractures in bone tissue can heal by themselves, but in case of larger defects current therapies are not completely successful due to several drawbacks. A possible strategy relies on the combination of additive manufactured polymeric scaffolds and human mesenchymal stromal cells (hMSCs). The architecture of bone tissue is characterized by a structural gradient. Long bones display a structural gradient in the radial direction, while flat bones in the axial direction. Such gradient presents a variation in bone density from the cancellous bone to the cortical bone. Therefore, scaffolds presenting a gradient in porosity could be ideal candidates to improve bone tissue regeneration. In this study, we present a construct with a discrete gradient in pore size and characterize its ability to further support the osteogenic differentiation of hMSCs. Furthermore, we studied the behaviour of hMSCs within the different compartments of the gradient scaffolds, showing a correlation between osteogenic differentiation and ECM mineralization, and pore dimensions. Alkaline phosphatase activity and calcium content increased with increasing pore dimensions. Our results indicate that designing structural porosity gradients may be an appealing strategy to support gradual osteogenic differentiation of adult stem cells. PMID:26961859

  16. Gradients in pore size enhance the osteogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stromal cells in three-dimensional scaffolds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    di Luca, Andrea; Ostrowska, Barbara; Lorenzo-Moldero, Ivan; Lepedda, Antonio; Swieszkowski, Wojcech; van Blitterswijk, Clemens; Moroni, Lorenzo

    2016-03-01

    Small fractures in bone tissue can heal by themselves, but in case of larger defects current therapies are not completely successful due to several drawbacks. A possible strategy relies on the combination of additive manufactured polymeric scaffolds and human mesenchymal stromal cells (hMSCs). The architecture of bone tissue is characterized by a structural gradient. Long bones display a structural gradient in the radial direction, while flat bones in the axial direction. Such gradient presents a variation in bone density from the cancellous bone to the cortical bone. Therefore, scaffolds presenting a gradient in porosity could be ideal candidates to improve bone tissue regeneration. In this study, we present a construct with a discrete gradient in pore size and characterize its ability to further support the osteogenic differentiation of hMSCs. Furthermore, we studied the behaviour of hMSCs within the different compartments of the gradient scaffolds, showing a correlation between osteogenic differentiation and ECM mineralization, and pore dimensions. Alkaline phosphatase activity and calcium content increased with increasing pore dimensions. Our results indicate that designing structural porosity gradients may be an appealing strategy to support gradual osteogenic differentiation of adult stem cells.

  17. Apoptosis repressor with caspase recruitment domain enhances survival and promotes osteogenic differentiation of human osteoblast cells under Zoledronate treatment

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Longwei; Han, Jing; Yang, Xi; Wang, Yang; Pan, Hongya; Xu, Liqun

    2016-01-01

    Zoledronate is one of the most potent nitrogen-containing bisphosphonates which has been demonstrated to result in osteoblast apoptosis and impact osteogenic differentiation in vitro. This effect of Zoledronate on osteoblasts may partially explain bisphosphonate-associated osteonecrosis of the jaw, a serious complication associated with treatment with bisphosphonates. Apoptosis repressor with caspase recruitment domain (ARC) is a multifunctional inhibitor of apoptosis that is physiologically expressed predominantly in post-mitotic cells such as cardiomyocytes, neurons and skeletal muscle cells. However, its effect on human osteoblasts remains unclear. The current study aimed to investigate the effects of ARC on human osteoblasts under the treatment of high concentrations of Zoledronate. ARC-overexpressed human osteoblasts were established and were exposed to Zoledronate with different concentrations (0, 1 and 5 µM) in vitro. Cell numbers were detected using the MTT assay, and flow cytometry was used to identity cell apoptosis. Alkaline phosphatase staining, quantitative analysis and ectopic osteogenesis in nude mice were used to evaluate the osteogenic differentiation of ARC-overexpressed osteoblasts. It was observed that ARC is able to reverse the inhibitory effect of Zoldronate on osteoblasts. ARC is additionally able to promote osteogenic differentiation of osteoblasts and inhibit their apoptosis. These observations suggest a critical role for ARC in the regulation of human osteoblasts under Zoledronate treatment. PMID:27573706

  18. Nanomaterials enhance osteogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells similar to a short peptide of BMP-7

    PubMed Central

    Lock, Jaclyn; Liu, Huinan

    2011-01-01

    Background Nanomaterials have unique advantages in controlling stem cell function due to their biomimetic characteristics and special biological and mechanical properties. Controlling adhesion and differentiation of stem cells is critical for tissue regeneration. Methods This in vitro study investigated the effects of nano-hydroxyapatite, nano-hydroxyapatite-polylactide- co-glycolide (PLGA) composites, and a bone morphogenetic protein (BMP-7)- derived short peptide (DIF-7c) on osteogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells (MSC). The peptide was chemically functionalized onto nano-hydroxyapatite, incorporated into a nanophase hydroxyapatite-PLGA composite or PLGA control, or directly injected into culture media. Results Unlike the PLGA control, the nano-hydroxyapatite-PLGA composites promoted adhesion of human MSC. Importantly, nano-hydroxyapatite and nano-hydroxyapatite-PLGA composites promoted osteogenic differentiation of human MSCs, comparable with direct injection of the DIF-7c peptide into culture media. Conclusion Nano-hydroxyapatite and nano-hydroxyapatite-PLGA composites provide a promising alternative in directing the adhesion and differentiation of human MSC. These nanocomposites should be studied further to clarify their effects on MSC functions and bone remodeling in vivo, eventually translating to clinical applications. PMID:22114505

  19. Cyclic Tensile Stress During Physiological Occlusal Force Enhances Osteogenic Differentiation of Human Periodontal Ligament Cells via ERK1/2-Elk1 MAPK Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Li, Lu; Han, Minxuan; Li, Sheng

    2013-01-01

    Physiological occlusal force constitutively exists in the oral environment and is important for periodontal homeostasis and remodeling. Cyclic tensile stress (CTS) triggers the biological response of periodontal ligament (PDL). However, a few reports have studied the correlation between CTS during physiological occlusal force and PDL cell activities such as osteogenic differentiation. In the present study, human PDL cells (hPDLCs) were subjected to 10% elongation CTS loading at 0.5 Hz for 24 h, which represents the physiological conditions of occlusal force. Gene expression microarray was used to investigate the mechano-induced differential gene profile and pathway analysis in vitro. The osteogenic relative factors, that is, SPP1, RUNX2, and SP7, were assessed by real-time PCR and Western blot. The involvement of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathways was investigated by Western blot with a specific inhibitor. The expressions of SPP1, RUNX2, SP7, p-ERK1/2, and p-Elk1 were up-regulated after 10% CTS exposure. However, these up-regulated expressions were prevented by ERK1/2 inhibitor U0126 in the physiological occlusal force-applied hPDLCs. These results showed that 10% CTS could enhance osteogenic differentiation of hPDLCs via ERK1/2-Elk1 MAPK pathway, indicating that CTS during physiological occlusal force is a potent agent for PDL remodeling. PMID:23781879

  20. Enhanced Growth and Osteogenic Differentiation of Human Osteoblast-Like Cells on Boron-Doped Nanocrystalline Diamond Thin Films

    PubMed Central

    Grausova, Lubica; Kromka, Alexander; Burdikova, Zuzana; Eckhardt, Adam; Rezek, Bohuslav; Vacik, Jiri; Haenen, Ken; Lisa, Vera; Bacakova, Lucie

    2011-01-01

    Intrinsic nanocrystalline diamond (NCD) films have been proven to be promising substrates for the adhesion, growth and osteogenic differentiation of bone-derived cells. To understand the role of various degrees of doping (semiconducting to metallic-like), the NCD films were deposited on silicon substrates by a microwave plasma-enhanced CVD process and their boron doping was achieved by adding trimethylboron to the CH4:H2 gas mixture, the B∶C ratio was 133, 1000 and 6700 ppm. The room temperature electrical resistivity of the films decreased from >10 MΩ (undoped films) to 55 kΩ, 0.6 kΩ, and 0.3 kΩ (doped films with 133, 1000 and 6700 ppm of B, respectively). The increase in the number of human osteoblast-like MG 63 cells in 7-day-old cultures on NCD films was most apparent on the NCD films doped with 133 and 1000 ppm of B (153,000±14,000 and 152,000±10,000 cells/cm2, respectively, compared to 113,000±10,000 cells/cm2 on undoped NCD films). As measured by ELISA per mg of total protein, the cells on NCD with 133 and 1000 ppm of B also contained the highest concentrations of collagen I and alkaline phosphatase, respectively. On the NCD films with 6700 ppm of B, the cells contained the highest concentration of focal adhesion protein vinculin, and the highest amount of collagen I was adsorbed. The concentration of osteocalcin also increased with increasing level of B doping. The cell viability on all tested NCD films was almost 100%. Measurements of the concentration of ICAM-1, i.e. an immunoglobuline adhesion molecule binding inflammatory cells, suggested that the cells on the NCD films did not undergo significant immune activation. Thus, the potential of NCD films for bone tissue regeneration can be further enhanced and tailored by B doping and that B doping up to metallic-like levels is not detrimental for cells. PMID:21695172

  1. Bone Morphogenetic Protein-9 Enhances Osteogenic Differentiation of Human Periodontal Ligament Stem Cells via the JNK Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xingxing; Pang, Yanan; Yang, Su; Wei, Yibo; Gao, Haochen; Wang, Dalin; Cao, Zhizhong

    2017-01-01

    Bone morphogenetic protein-9 (BMP9) shows great osteoinductive potential in bone regeneration. Periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLSCs) with multi-differentiation capability and low immunogenicity are increasingly used as seed cells for periodontal regenerative therapies. In the present study, we investigated the potent osteogenic activity of BMP9 on human PDLSCs (hPDLSCs), in which the c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) pathway is possibly involved. Our results showed that JNK inhibition by the specific inhibitor SP600125 or adenovirus expressing small interfering RNA (siRNA) targeting JNK (AdR-si-JNK) significantly decreased BMP9-induced gene and protein expression of early and late osteogenic markers, such as runt-related transcription factor 2 (Runx2), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), osteopontin (OPN), and osteocalcin (OCN), in hPDLSCs. We also confirmed the in-vivo positive effect of JNKs on ectopic bone formation induced by hPDLSCs injected into the musculature of athymic nude mice and BMP9 ex vivo gene delivery. For the cellular mechanism, we found that BMP9 activated the phosphorylation of JNKs and Smad2/3, and that JNKs may engage in cross-talk with the Smad2/3 pathway in BMP9-mediated osteogenesis. PMID:28052093

  2. Demethylation of IGFBP5 by Histone Demethylase KDM6B Promotes Mesenchymal Stem Cell-Mediated Periodontal Tissue Regeneration by Enhancing Osteogenic Differentiation and Anti-Inflammation Potentials.

    PubMed

    Liu, Dayong; Wang, Yuejun; Jia, Zhi; Wang, Liping; Wang, Jinsong; Yang, Dongmei; Song, Jianqiu; Wang, Songlin; Fan, Zhipeng

    2015-08-01

    Mesenchymal stem cell (MSC)-mediated periodontal tissue regeneration is considered a promising method for periodontitis treatment. The molecular mechanism underlying directed differentiation and anti-inflammatory actions remains unclear, thus limiting potential MSC application. We previously found that insulin-like growth factor binding protein 5 (IGFBP5) is highly expressed in dental tissue-derived MSCs compared with in non-dental tissue-derived MSCs. IGFBP5 is mainly involved in regulating biological activity of insulin-like growth factors, and its functions in human MSCs and tissue regeneration are unclear. In this study, we performed gain- and loss-of-function assays to test whether IGFBP5 could regulate the osteogenic differentiation and anti-inflammatory potential in MSCs. We found that IGFBP5 expression was upregulated upon osteogenic induction, and that IGFBP5 enhanced osteogenic differentiation in MSCs. We further showed that IGFBP5 prompted the anti-inflammation effect of MSCs via negative regulation of NFκB signaling. Depletion of the histone demethylase lysine (K)-specific demethylase 6B (KDM6B) downregulated IGFBP5 expression by increasing histone K27 methylation in the IGFBP5 promoter. Moreover, IGFBP5 expression in periodontal tissues was downregulated in individuals with periodontitis compared with in healthy people, and IGFBP5 enhanced MSC-mediated periodontal tissue regeneration and alleviated local inflammation in a swine model of periodontitis. In conclusion, our present results reveal a new function for IGFBP5, provide insight into the mechanism underlying the directed differentiation and anti-inflammation capacities of MSCs, and identify a potential target mediator for improving tissue regeneration.

  3. Enhanced proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells on graphene oxide-incorporated electrospun poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) nanofibrous mats.

    PubMed

    Luo, Yu; Shen, He; Fang, Yongxiang; Cao, Yuhua; Huang, Jie; Zhang, Mengxin; Dai, Jianwu; Shi, Xiangyang; Zhang, Zhijun

    2015-03-25

    Currently, combining biomaterial scaffolds with living stem cells for tissue regeneration is a main approach for tissue engineering. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are promising candidates for musculoskeletal tissue repair through differentiating into specific tissues, such as bone, muscle, and cartilage. Thus, successfully directing the fate of MSCs through factors and inducers would improve regeneration efficiency. Here, we report the fabrication of graphene oxide (GO)-doped poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) nanofiber scaffolds via electrospinning technique for the enhancement of osteogenic differentiation of MSCs. GO-PLGA nanofibrous mats with three-dimensional porous structure and smooth surface can be readily produced via an electrospinning technique. GO plays two roles in the nanofibrous mats: first, it enhances the hydrophilic performance, and protein- and inducer-adsorption ability of the nanofibers. Second, the incorporated GO accelerates the human MSCs (hMSCs) adhesion and proliferation versus pure PLGA nanofiber and induces the osteogenic differentiation. The incorporating GO scaffold materials may find applications in tissue engineering and other fields.

  4. Investigation of the optimal timing for chondrogenic priming of MSCs to enhance osteogenic differentiation in vitro as a bone tissue engineering strategy.

    PubMed

    Freeman, F E; Haugh, M G; McNamara, L M

    2016-04-01

    Recent in vitro tissue engineering approaches have shown that chondrogenic priming of human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) can have a positive effect on osteogenesis in vivo. However, whether chondrogenic priming is an effective in vitro bone regeneration strategy is not yet known. In particular, the appropriate timing for chondrogenic priming in vitro is unknown albeit that in vivo cartilage formation persists for a specific period before bone formation. The objective of this study is to determine the optimum time for chondrogenic priming of MSCs to enhance osteogenic differentiation by MSCs in vitro. Pellets derived from murine and human MSCs were cultured in six different media groups: two control groups (chondrogenic and osteogenic) and four chondrogenic priming groups (10, 14, 21 and 28 days priming). Biochemical analyses (Hoechst, sulfate glycosaminoglycan (sGAG), Alkaline Phosphate (ALP), calcium), histology (Alcian Blue, Alizarin Red) and immunohistochemistry (collagen types I, II and X) were performed on the samples at specific times. Our results show that after 49 days the highest amount of sGAG production occurred in MSCs chondrogenically primed for 21 days and 28 days. Moreover we found that chondrogenic priming of MSCs in vitro for specific amounts of time (14 days, 21 days) can have optimum influence on their mineralization capacity and can produce a construct that is mineralized throughout the core. Determining the optimum time for chondrogenic priming to enhance osteogenic differentiation in vitro provides information that might lead to a novel regenerative treatment for large bone defects, as well as addressing the major limitation of core degradation and construct failure.

  5. Enhancement of growth and osteogenic differentiation of MC3T3-E1 cells via facile surface functionalization of polylactide membrane with chitooligosaccharide based on polydopamine adhesive coating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Huihua; Luo, Chuang; Luo, Binghong; Wen, Wei; Wang, Xiaoying; Ding, Shan; Zhou, Changren

    2016-01-01

    To develop a chitooligosaccharide(COS)-functionalized poly(D,L-lactide) (PDLLA) membrane to enhance growth and osteogenic differentiation of MC3T3-E1 cells, firstly a thin polydopamine (PDOPA) layer was adhered to the PDLLA membrane via the self-polymerization and strong adhesion behavior of dopamine. Subsequently, COS was immobilized covalently on the resultant PDLLA/PDOPA composite membrane by coupling with PDOPA active coating. The successful immobilization of the PDOPA and COS was confirmed by attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Scanning electronic microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) results indicated that the surface topography and roughness of the membranes were changed, and the root mean square increased from 0.613 nm to 6.96 and 7.12 nm, respectively after coating PDOPA and COS. Water contact angle and surface energy measurements revealed that the membrane hydrophilicity was remarkably improved by surface modification. In vitro cells culture results revealed that the PDOPA- and COS-functionalized surfaces showed a significant increase in MC3T3-E1 cells adhesion, proliferation, osteogenic differentiation and alkaline phosphate activity compared to the pristine PDLLA substrate. Furthermore the COS-functionalized PDLLA membrane was more effectively at enhancing osteoblast activity than the PDOPA-functionalized PDLLA membrane.

  6. Design of biomimetic and bioactive cold plasma-modified nanostructured scaffolds for enhanced osteogenic differentiation of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Mian; Cheng, Xiaoqian; Zhu, Wei; Holmes, Benjamin; Keidar, Michael; Zhang, Lijie Grace

    2014-03-01

    The objective of this study was to design a biomimetic and bioactive tissue-engineered bone construct via a cold atmospheric plasma (CAP) treatment for directed osteogenic differentiation of human bone morrow mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). Porous nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite/chitosan scaffolds were fabricated via a lyophilization procedure. The nanostructured bone scaffolds were then treated with CAP to create a more favorable surface for cell attachment, proliferation, and differentiation. The CAP-modified scaffolds were characterized via scanning electron microscope, Raman spectrometer, contact angle analyzer, and white light interferometer. In addition, optimal CAP treatment conditions were determined. Our in vitro study shows that MSC adhesion and infiltration were significantly enhanced on CAP modified scaffolds. More importantly, it was demonstrated that CAP-modified nanostructured bone constructs can greatly promote total protein, collagen synthesis, and calcium deposition after 3 weeks of culture, thus making them a promising implantable scaffold for bone regeneration. Moreover, the fibronectin and vitronection adsorption experiments by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay demonstrated that more adhesion-mediated protein adsorption on the CAP-treated scaffolds. Since the initial specific protein absorption on scaffold surfaces can lead to further recruitment as well as activation of favorable cell functions, it is suggested that our enhanced stem cell growth and osteogenic function may be related to more protein adsorption resulting from surface roughness and wettability modification. The CAP modification method used in this study provides a quick one-step process for cell-favorable tissue-engineered scaffold architecture remodeling and surface property alteration.

  7. Indirect coating of RGD peptides using a poly-L-lysine spacer enhances jaw periosteal cell adhesion, proliferation, and differentiation into osteogenic tissue.

    PubMed

    Ardjomandi, N; Klein, C; Kohler, K; Maurer, A; Kalbacher, H; Niederländer, J; Reinert, S; Alexander, D

    2012-08-01

    The aim of our study was to generate a biofunctionalized, three-dimensional (3D) biomaterial to enhance jaw periosteal cell (JPC) adhesion and differentiation into osteogenic tissue. Therefore, open-cell polylactic acid (OPLA) scaffolds were coated covalently with different RGD peptides (a conserved recognition sequence of the most ECM proteins--arginine-glycine-asparagine) and different coating variants. The linear and cyclic RGD peptides were either applied directly or indirectly via a poly-L-lysine (PLL) spacer. JPCs were analyzed on coated constructs in 2D and 3D cultures and showed enhanced rates for indirectly coated scaffolds using the PLL spacer. By gene expression, we detected significantly increased levels of osteogenic marker genes, such as alkaline phosphatase, RUNX2, and AMELY in JPCs seeded onto PLL/linear RGD constructs compared to the otherwise-coated constructs. An analysis of the JPC mineralization capacity revealed the highest amounts of calcium-phosphate precipitates in cells growing within the PLL/linear scaffolds. Additionally, the JPC adhesion behavior on OPLA scaffolds seems to be mediated by ITGB3, ITGB1, and ITGAV, as shown by blocking assays. We concluded that coating of OPLA constructs with linear RGD peptides via PLL represents a suitable approach for functionalizing the polymer surface and enhancing adhesion, proliferation, and mineralization of JPCs.

  8. Biocompatibility and enhanced osteogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells in response to surface engineered poly(D,L-lactic-co-glycolic acid) microparticles.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Catherine M; Deehan, David J; Knuth, Callie A; Rose, Felicity R A J; Shakesheff, Kevin M; Oldershaw, Rachel A

    2014-11-01

    Tissue engineering strategies can be applied to enhancing osseous integration of soft tissue grafts during ligament reconstruction. Ligament rupture results in a hemarthrosis, an acute intra-articular bleed rich in osteogenic human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs). With the aim of identifying an appropriate biomaterial with which to combine hemarthrosis fluid-derived hMSCs (HF-hMSCs) for therapeutic application, this work has investigated the biocompatibility of microparticles manufactured from two forms of poly(D,L-lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA), one synthesized with equal monomeric ratios of lactic acid to glycolic acid (PLGA 50:50) and the other with a higher proportion of lactic acid (PLGA 85:15) which confers a longer biodegradation time. The surfaces of both types of microparticles were functionalized by plasma polymerization with allylamine to increase hydrophilicity and promote cell attachment. HF-hMSCs attached to and spread along the surface of both forms of PLGA microparticle. The osteogenic response of HF-hMSCs was enhanced when cultured with PLGA compared with control cultures differentiated on tissue culture plastic and this was independent of the type of polymer used. We have demonstrated that surface engineered PLGA microparticles are an appropriate biomaterial for combining with HF-hMSCs and the selection of PLGA is relevant only when considering the biodegradation time for each biomedical application.

  9. Osteogenic Differentiation in Healthy and Pathological Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Valenti, Maria Teresa; Dalle Carbonare, Luca; Mottes, Monica

    2016-01-01

    This review focuses on the osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSC), bone formation and turn-over in good and ill skeletal fates. The interacting molecular pathways which control bone remodeling in physiological conditions during a lifelong process are described. Then, alterations of the molecular pathways regulating osteogenesis are addressed. In the aging process, as well as in glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis, bone loss is caused not only by an unbalanced bone resorption activity, but also by an impairment of MSCs’ commitment towards the osteogenic lineage, in favour of adipogenesis. Mutations affecting the expression of key genes involved in the control of bone development occur in several heritable bone disorders. A few examples are described in order to illustrate the pathological consequences of perturbation in different steps of osteogenic commitment, osteoblast maturation, and matrix mineralization, respectively. The involvement of abnormal MSC differentiation in cancer is then discussed. Finally, a brief overview of clinical applications of MSCs in bone regeneration and repair is presented. PMID:28035992

  10. Inhibition of SLC7A11 by Sulfasalazine Enhances Osteogenic Differentiation of Mesenchymal Stem Cells by Modulating BMP2/4 Expression and Suppresses Bone Loss in Ovariectomized Mice.

    PubMed

    Jin, Chanyuan; Zhang, Ping; Zhang, Min; Zhang, Xiao; Lv, Longwei; Liu, Hao; Liu, Yunsong; Zhou, Yongsheng

    2017-03-01

    An imbalance in osteogenesis and adipogenesis is a crucial pathological factor in the development of osteoporosis. Many attempts have been made to develop drugs to prevent and treat this disease. In the present study, we investigated the phenomenon whereby downregulation of SLC7A11 significantly enhanced the osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in vitro, and promoted the bone formation in vivo. Sulfasalazine (SAS), an inhibitor of SLC7A11, increased the osteogenic potential effectively. Mechanistically, inhibition of SLC7A11 by SAS treatment or knockdown of SLC7A11 increased BMP2/4 expression dramatically. In addition, we detected increased Slc7a11 expression in bone marrow MSCs of ovariectomized (OVX) mice. Remarkably, SAS treatment attenuated bone loss in ovariectomized mice. Together, our data suggested that SAS could be used to treat osteoporosis by enhancing osteogenic differentiation of MSCs. © 2016 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.

  11. Extracorporeal shockwaves (ESWs) enhance the osteogenic medium-induced differentiation of adipose-derived stem cells into osteoblast-like cells.

    PubMed

    Catalano, Maria Graziella; Marano, Francesca; Rinella, Letizia; de Girolamo, Laura; Bosco, Ornella; Fortunati, Nicoletta; Berta, Laura; Frairia, Roberto

    2017-02-01

    Human adipose-derived stem cells (hASCs) are a promising cell type for bone tissue engineering, given their potential to differentiate into osteoblast-like cells. Interactions among biochemical and mechanical signals result in bone formation and repair. In this process stem cells have a crucial role. Extracorporeal shockwaves (ESWs) are acoustic waves capable of enhancing bone regeneration, suggesting that ESWs may induce some signals for mesenchymal progenitor maturation. The aim of the present work is to investigate the effects of ESW treatment on the differentiation of hASCs into osteoblast-like cells and to better clarify the mechanisms involved. The hASCs were treated with ESWs and osteogenic medium, and the effects in terms of gene expression, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and calcium deposition were then evaluated. Moreover, to investigate the mechanisms of ESW action, reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, extracellular-signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and small 'mothers against' decapentaplegic (Smad) phosphorylation, and bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP2) expression were assessed. The ESW treatment increased Runt-related transcription factor 2 (Runx2), ALP and BMP2 expression, as well as ALP activity and calcium deposits with respect to untreated cells. Moreover ESWs induced ROS formation, and both ERK and Smad phosphorylation. The present study shows the effects of ESWs on osteogenic differentiation in an in vitro model using hASCs and defines the mechanisms involved in this process. The observations suggest that the combination of autologous hASCs and ESW treatment may improve bone tissue repair in tissue engineering procedures. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Osteogenic Differentiation of Mesenchymal Stem Cells in Defined Protein Beads

    PubMed Central

    Lund, Amanda W.; Bush, Jeff A.; Plopper, George E.; Stegemann, Jan P.

    2008-01-01

    There is a need to develop improved methods for directing and maintaining the differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSC) for regenerative medicine. Here, we present a method for embedding cells in defined protein microenvironments for the directed osteogenic differentiation of hMSC. Composite matrices of collagen I and agarose were produced by emulsification and simultaneous polymerization in the presence of hMSC to produce 30–150 μm diameter hydrogel “beads.” The proliferation, morphology, osteogenic gene expression, and calcium deposition of hMSC in bead environments were compared to other two- and three-dimensional culture environments over 14–21 days in culture. Cells embedded within 40% collagen beads exhibited equivalent proliferation rates to those in gel disks, but showed upregulation of bone sialoprotein and increased calcium deposition over 2D controls. Osteocalcin gene expression was not changed in 3D beads and disks, while collagen type I gene expression was downregulated relative to cells in 2D culture. The hydrogel bead format allows controlled cell differentiation and is a cell delivery vehicle that may also enhance vascular invasion and host incorporation. Our results indicate that the application of such beads can be used to promote the osteogenic phenotype in hMSC, which is an important step toward using them in bone repair applications. PMID:18431753

  13. Soft matrix supports osteogenic differentiation of human dental follicle cells

    SciTech Connect

    Viale-Bouroncle, Sandra; Voellner, Florian; Moehl, Christoph; Kuepper, Kevin; Brockhoff, Gero; Reichert, Torsten E.; Schmalz, Gottfried; Morsczeck, Christian

    2011-07-08

    Highlights: {yields} Rigid stiffness supports osteogenic differentiation in mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). {yields} Our study examined stiffness and differentiation of dental follicle cells (DFCs). {yields} Soft ECMs have a superior capacity to support the osteogenic differentiation of DFCs. {yields} DFCs and MSCs react contrarily to soft and rigid surface stiffness. -- Abstract: The differentiation of stem cells can be directed by the grade of stiffness of the developed tissue cells. For example a rigid extracellular matrix supports the osteogenic differentiation in bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). However, less is known about the relation of extracellular matrix stiffness and cell differentiation of ectomesenchymal dental precursor cells. Our study examined for the first time the influence of the surface stiffness on the proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of human dental follicle cells (DFCs). Cell proliferation of DFCs was only slightly decreased on cell culture surfaces with a bone-like stiffness. The osteogenic differentiation in DFCs could only be initiated with a dexamethasone based differentiation medium after using varying stiffness. Here, the softest surface improved the induction of osteogenic differentiation in comparison to that with the highest stiffness. In conclusion, different to bone marrow derived MSCs, soft ECMs have a superior capacity to support the osteogenic differentiation of DFCs.

  14. Fibronectin-calcium phosphate composite layer on hydroxyapatite to enhance adhesion, cell spread and osteogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells in vitro.

    PubMed

    Sogo, Yu; Ito, Atsuo; Matsuno, Tomonori; Oyane, Ayako; Tamazawa, Gaku; Satoh, Tazuko; Yamazaki, Atsushi; Uchimura, Eiji; Ohno, Tadao

    2007-06-01

    Fibronectin (Fn) and type I collagen (Col) were immobilized on a surface of a hydroxyapatite (HAP) ceramic by coprecipitation with calcium phosphate in a supersaturated calcium phosphate solution prepared by mixing clinically approved infusion fluids. These proteins and the calcium phosphate precipitate formed a composite surface layer. As a result, the proteins were immobilized firmly as not to be released completely for 3 d in a physiological salt solution. When human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) were cultured on a HAP ceramic in a differentiation medium supplemented with dexamethasone, beta-glycerophosphate and ascorbic acid, hMSCs spread well within 1 h. The alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity of hMSCs cultured on the Fn-calcium phosphate composite layer significantly increased compared with that of hMSCs cultured on the untreated HAP ceramic. On the other hand, Col did not increase the ALP activity of hMSCs and no synergy between Fn and Col was observed. Therefore, the Fn-calcium phosphate composite layer formed on the HAP is useful for the enhancement of the spreading and osteogenic differentiation of hMSCs in vitro.

  15. Sox9 potentiates BMP2-induced chondrogenic differentiation and inhibits BMP2-induced osteogenic differentiation.

    PubMed

    Liao, Junyi; Hu, Ning; Zhou, Nian; Lin, Liangbo; Zhao, Chen; Yi, Shixiong; Fan, Tingxu; Bao, Wei; Liang, Xi; Chen, Hong; Xu, Wei; Chen, Cheng; Cheng, Qiang; Zeng, Yongming; Si, Weike; Yang, Zhong; Huang, Wei

    2014-01-01

    Bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP2) is one of the key chondrogenic growth factors involved in the cartilage regeneration. However, it also exhibits osteogenic abilities and triggers endochondral ossification. Effective chondrogenesis and inhibition of BMP2-induced osteogenesis and endochondral ossification can be achieved by directing the mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) towards chondrocyte lineage with chodrogenic factors, such as Sox9. Here we investigated the effects of Sox9 on BMP2-induced chondrogenic and osteogenic differentiation of MSCs. We found exogenous overexpression of Sox9 enhanced the BMP2-induced chondrogenic differentiation of MSCs in vitro. Also, it inhibited early and late osteogenic differentiation of MSCs in vitro. Subcutaneous stem cell implantation demonstrated Sox9 potentiated BMP2-induced cartilage formation and inhibited endochondral ossification. Mouse limb cultures indicated that BMP2 and Sox9 acted synergistically to stimulate chondrocytes proliferation, and Sox9 inhibited BMP2-induced chondrocytes hypertrophy and ossification. This study strongly suggests that Sox9 potentiates BMP2-induced MSCs chondrogenic differentiation and cartilage formation, and inhibits BMP2-induced MSCs osteogenic differentiation and endochondral ossification. Thus, exogenous overexpression of Sox9 in BMP2-induced mesenchymal stem cells differentiation may be a new strategy for cartilage tissue engineering.

  16. A smart fluorescence nanoprobe for the detection of cellular alkaline phosphatase activity and early osteogenic differentiation.

    PubMed

    Cao, Feng-Yi; Fan, Jin-Xuan; Long, Yue; Zeng, Xuan; Zhang, Xian-Zheng

    2016-07-01

    In the past decades, biomaterials were designed to induce stem cell toward osteogenic differentiation. However, conventional methods for evaluation osteogenic differentiation all required a process of cell fixation or lysis, which induce waste of a large number of cells. In this study, a fluorescence nanoprobe was synthesized by combining phosphorylated fluoresceinamine isomer I (FLA) on the surface of mesoporous silica-coated superparamagnetic iron oxide (Fe3O4@mSiO2) nanoparticles. In the presence of alkaline phosphatase (ALP), the phosphorylated FLA on the nanoprobe would be hydrolyzed, resulting in a fluorescence recovery of FLA. During early osteogenic differentiation, a high-level expression of cellular ALP was induced, which accelerated the hydrolysis of phosphorylated FLA, resulting in an enhancement of cellular fluorescence intensity. This fluorescence nanoprobe provides us a rapid and non-toxic method for the detection of cellular ALP activity and early osteogenic differentiation.

  17. Enhanced osteogenic differentiation of MC3T3-E1 cells on grid-topographic surface and evidence for involvement of YAP mediator.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yingying; Gong, He; Sun, Yan; Huang, Yan; Fan, Yubo

    2016-05-01

    Numerous studies have shown that surface topography can promote cell-substrate associations and deeply influence cell fate. The intracellular mechanism or how micro- or nano-patterned extracellular signal is ultimately linked to activity of nuclear transcription factors remains unknown. It has been reported that Yes-associated protein (YAP) can respond to extracellular matrix microenvironment signals, thus regulates stem cell differentiation process. We propose that YAP may play a role in mediating the topography induced cell differentiation. To this end, we fabricated polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) micropatterns with grid topology (GT) (3 μm pattern width, 2 μm pattern interval length, 7 μm pattern height); nonpatterned PDMS substrates were used as the planar controls. The MC3T3-E1 cells were then cultured on these surfaces, respectively, in osteogenic inducing medium. Cell differentiation in terms of osteogenesis related gene expression, protein levels, alkaline phosphatase activity and extracellular matrix mineralization was assessed. It was shown that the cells on GT surfaces had stronger osteogenesis capacity. In addition, expression level of YAP was increased when MC3T3-E1 cells grew on GT substrates, which was similar to the levels of osteogenic differentiation markers. It was also shown that YAP knockdown attenuated GT substrates-induced MC3T3-E1 differentiation, which reduced the osteogenic differentiation effect of the GT substrates. Collectively, our findings indicate that GT substrates-induced MC3T3-E1 differentiation may be associated with YAP. This paper provides new target points for transcriptional mechanism research of microenvironment induced cell differentiation and a useful approach to obtain more biofunctionalization scaffolds for tissue engineering.

  18. Electrospun Gelatin/β-TCP Composite Nanofibers Enhance Osteogenic Differentiation of BMSCs and In Vivo Bone Formation by Activating Ca (2+) -Sensing Receptor Signaling.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xuehui; Meng, Song; Huang, Ying; Xu, Mingming; He, Ying; Lin, Hong; Han, Jianmin; Chai, Yuan; Wei, Yan; Deng, Xuliang

    2015-01-01

    Calcium phosphate- (CaP-) based composite scaffolds have been used extensively for the bone regeneration in bone tissue engineering. Previously, we developed a biomimetic composite nanofibrous membrane of gelatin/β-tricalcium phosphate (TCP) and confirmed their biological activity in vitro and bone regeneration in vivo. However, how these composite nanofibers promote the osteogenic differentiation of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) is unknown. Here, gelatin/β-TCP composite nanofibers were fabricated by incorporating 20 wt% β-TCP nanoparticles into electrospun gelatin nanofibers. Electron microscopy showed that the composite β-TCP nanofibers had a nonwoven structure with a porous network and a rough surface. Spectral analyses confirmed the presence and chemical stability of the β-TCP and gelatin components. Compared with pure gelatin nanofibers, gelatin/β-TCP composite nanofibers caused increased cell attachment, proliferation, alkaline phosphatase activity, and osteogenic gene expression in rat BMSCs. Interestingly, the expression level of the calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR) was significantly higher on the composite nanofibrous scaffolds than on pure gelatin. For rat calvarial critical sized defects, more extensive osteogenesis and neovascularization occurred in the composite scaffolds group compared with the gelatin group. Thus, gelatin/β-TCP composite scaffolds promote osteogenic differentiation of BMSCs in vitro and bone regeneration in vivo by activating Ca(2+)-sensing receptor signaling.

  19. Electrospun Gelatin/β-TCP Composite Nanofibers Enhance Osteogenic Differentiation of BMSCs and In Vivo Bone Formation by Activating Ca2+-Sensing Receptor Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xuehui; Meng, Song; Huang, Ying; Xu, Mingming; He, Ying; Lin, Hong; Han, Jianmin; Chai, Yuan; Wei, Yan

    2015-01-01

    Calcium phosphate- (CaP-) based composite scaffolds have been used extensively for the bone regeneration in bone tissue engineering. Previously, we developed a biomimetic composite nanofibrous membrane of gelatin/β-tricalcium phosphate (TCP) and confirmed their biological activity in vitro and bone regeneration in vivo. However, how these composite nanofibers promote the osteogenic differentiation of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) is unknown. Here, gelatin/β-TCP composite nanofibers were fabricated by incorporating 20 wt% β-TCP nanoparticles into electrospun gelatin nanofibers. Electron microscopy showed that the composite β-TCP nanofibers had a nonwoven structure with a porous network and a rough surface. Spectral analyses confirmed the presence and chemical stability of the β-TCP and gelatin components. Compared with pure gelatin nanofibers, gelatin/β-TCP composite nanofibers caused increased cell attachment, proliferation, alkaline phosphatase activity, and osteogenic gene expression in rat BMSCs. Interestingly, the expression level of the calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR) was significantly higher on the composite nanofibrous scaffolds than on pure gelatin. For rat calvarial critical sized defects, more extensive osteogenesis and neovascularization occurred in the composite scaffolds group compared with the gelatin group. Thus, gelatin/β-TCP composite scaffolds promote osteogenic differentiation of BMSCs in vitro and bone regeneration in vivo by activating Ca2+-sensing receptor signaling. PMID:26124840

  20. Delivery of Phenamil Enhances BMP-2-Induced Osteogenic Differentiation of Adipose-Derived Stem Cells and Bone Formation in Calvarial Defects

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Jiabing; Im, Choong Sung; Cui, Zhong-Kai; Guo, Mian; Bezouglaia, Olga; Fartash, Armita; Lee, Ju-Yeon; Nguyen, John; Wu, Benjamin M.

    2015-01-01

    Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) have been widely used for bone repair in the craniofacial region. However, its high dose requirement in clinical applications revealed adverse effects and inefficient bone formation, along with high cost. Here, we report a novel osteoinductive strategy to effectively complement the osteogenic activity of BMP-2 using phenamil, a small molecule that can induce osteogenic differentiation via stimulation of BMP signaling. Treatment of adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) with BMP-2 in combination with phenamil significantly promoted the in vitro osteogenic differentiation of ASCs. The efficacy of the combination strategy of phenamil+BMP-2 was further confirmed in a mouse calvarial defect model using scaffolds consisting of poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) and apatite layer on their surfaces designed to slowly release phenamil and BMP-2. Six weeks after implantation, the scaffolds treated with phenamil+BMP-2 significantly promoted mouse calvarial regeneration as demonstrated by micro-computerized tomography and histology, compared with the groups treated with phenamil or BMP-2 alone. Moreover, the combination treatment reduced the BMP-2 dose without compromising calvarial healing efficacy. These results suggest promising complementary therapeutic strategies for bone repair in more efficient and cost-effective manners. PMID:25869476

  1. Osteogenic Differentiation of Periosteal Cells During Fracture Healing.

    PubMed

    Wang, Tao; Zhang, Xinping; Bikle, Daniel D

    2017-05-01

    Five to ten percent of fractures fail to heal normally leading to additional surgery, morbidity, and altered quality of life. Fracture healing involves the coordinated action of stem cells primarily coming from the periosteum which differentiate into the chondrocytes and osteoblasts, forming first the soft (cartilage) callus followed by the hard (bone) callus. These stem cells are accompanied by a vascular invasion that appears critical for the differentiation process and which may enable the entry of osteoclasts necessary for the remodeling of the callus into mature bone. However, more research is needed to clarify the signaling events that activate the osteochondroprogenitor cells of periosteum and stimulate their differentiation into chondrocytes and osteoblasts. Ultimately a thorough understanding of the mechanisms for differential regulation of these osteochondroprogenitors will aid in the treatment of bone healing and the prevention of delayed union and nonunion of fractures. In this review, evidence supporting the concept that the periosteal cells are the major cell sources of skeletal progenitors for the fracture callus will be discussed. The osteogenic differentiation of periosteal cells manipulated by Wnt/β-catenin, TGF/BMP, Ihh/PTHrP, and IGF-1/PI3K-Akt signaling in fracture repair will be examined. The effect of physical (hypoxia and hyperoxia) and chemical factors (reactive oxygen species) as well as the potential coordinated regulatory mechanisms in the periosteal progenitor cells promoting osteogenic differentiation will also be discussed. Understanding the regulation of periosteal osteochondroprogenitors during fracture healing could provide insight into possible therapeutic targets and thereby help to enhance future fracture healing and bone tissue engineering approaches. J. Cell. Physiol. 232: 913-921, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Osteogenic differentiation capacity of porcine dental follicle progenitor cells.

    PubMed

    Tsuchiya, Shuhei; Ohshima, Satoshi; Yamakoshi, Yasuo; Simmer, James P; Honda, Masaki J

    2010-06-01

    This study examined the effect of extracellular matrix (ECM) on the osteogenic differentiation capacity and osteogenesis of dental follicle cells. Single cell-derived porcine dental follicle cells (DFC-I) obtained at the early stage of crown formation in tooth were subcultured and characterized using periodontal ligament cells (PDLC) and bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSC) as comparison cell populations. The effect of ECM constituents including collagen type I, fibronectin, laminin, and collagen type IV on the differentiation of DFC-1 into osteogenic-lineage cells was evaluated in vitro. In addition, the DFC-1, PDLC, and BMSC populations were compared for osteogenic capacity in vitro by Alizarin red staining and in vivo by transplantation. DFC-I showed different features from PDLC and BMSC. Different components of ECM had different effects on the differentiation of DFC-1 into osteogenic-lineage cells in vitro. Alkaline phosphatase activity and matrix mineralization as early- and late-stage markers of osteogenesis, respectively, supported the differentiation of DFC-1 into osteogenic-related cells in vitro. All three cell types showed equivalent osteogenic capacity in vivo at 4 weeks postoperatively. There were no statistically significant differences among the cell populations with respect to capacity for bone formation. These results suggest a potential application for dental follicle cells in bone-tissue engineering.

  3. Defect-Related Luminescent Hydroxyapatite-Enhanced Osteogenic Differentiation of Bone Mesenchymal Stem Cells Via an ATP-Induced cAMP/PKA Pathway.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chao; Liu, Dandan; Zhang, Cuimiao; Sun, Jiadong; Feng, Weipei; Liang, Xing-Jie; Wang, Shuxiang; Zhang, Jinchao

    2016-05-11

    Novel defect-related hydroxyapatite (DHAP), which combines the advantages of HAP and defect-related luminescence, has the potential application in tissue engineering and biomedical area, because of its excellent capability of monitoring the osteogenic differentiation and material biodegradation. Although the extracellular mechanism of DHAP minerals and PO4(3-) functioning in osteogenic differentiation has been widely studied, the intracellular molecular mechanism through which PO4(3-) mediates osteogenesis of bone mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) is not clear. We examined a previously unknown molecular mechanism through which PO4(3-) promoted osteogenesis of BMSCs with an emphasis on adenosine-triphosphate (ATP)-induced cAMP/PKA pathway. Our studies showed that DHAP could be uptaken into lysosome, in which PO4(3-) was released from DHAP, because of the acid environment of lysosome. The released PO4(3-) interacted with ADP to form ATP, and then degraded into adenosine, an ATP metabolite, which interacted with A2b adenosine receptor to activate the cAMP/PKA pathway, resulting in the high expression of osteogenesis-related genes, such as Runx2, BMP-2, and OCN. These findings first revealed the function of ATP-metabolism in bone physiological homeostasis, which may be developed to cure bone metabolic diseases.

  4. Heparin affects human bone marrow stromal cell fate: Promoting osteogenic and reducing adipogenic differentiation and conversion.

    PubMed

    Simann, Meike; Schneider, Verena; Le Blanc, Solange; Dotterweich, Julia; Zehe, Viola; Krug, Melanie; Jakob, Franz; Schilling, Tatjana; Schütze, Norbert

    2015-09-01

    Heparins are broadly used for the prevention and treatment of thrombosis and embolism. Yet, osteoporosis is considered to be a severe side effect in up to one third of all patients on long-term treatment. However, the mechanisms underlying this clinical problem are only partially understood. To investigate if heparin affects differentiation of skeletal precursors, we examined the effects of heparin on the osteogenic and adipogenic lineage commitment and differentiation of primary human bone marrow stromal cells (hBMSCs). Due to the known inverse relationship between adipogenesis and osteogenesis and the capacity of pre-differentiated cells to convert into the respective other lineage, we also determined heparin effects on osteogenic conversion and adipogenic differentiation/conversion. Interestingly, heparin did not only significantly increase mRNA expression and enzyme activity of the osteogenic marker alkaline phosphatase (ALP), but it also promoted mineralization during osteogenic differentiation and conversion. Furthermore, the mRNA expression of the osteogenic marker bone morphogenic protein 4 (BMP4) was enhanced. In addition, heparin administration partly prevented adipogenic differentiation and conversion demonstrated by reduced lipid droplet formation along with a decreased expression of adipogenic markers. Moreover, luciferase reporter assays, inhibitor experiments and gene expression analyses revealed that heparin had putative permissive effects on osteogenic signaling via the BMP pathway and reduced the mRNA expression of the Wnt pathway inhibitors dickkopf 1 (DKK1) and sclerostin (SOST). Taken together, our data show a rather supportive than inhibitory effect of heparin on osteogenic hBMSC differentiation and conversion in vitro. Further studies will have to investigate the net effects of heparin administration on bone formation versus bone resorption in vivo to unravel the molecular mechanisms of heparin-associated osteoporosis and reconcile

  5. Surface topography of hydroxyapatite promotes osteogenic differentiation of human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells.

    PubMed

    Yang, Wanlei; Han, Weiqi; He, Wei; Li, Jianlei; Wang, Jirong; Feng, Haotian; Qian, Yu

    2016-03-01

    Effective and safe induction of osteogenic differentiation is one of the key elements of bone tissue engineering. Surface topography of scaffold materials was recently found to promote osteogenic differentiation. Utilization of this topography may be a safer approach than traditional induction by growth factors or chemicals. The aim of this study is to investigate the enhancement of osteogenic differentiation by surface topography and its mechanism of action. Hydroxyapatite (HA) discs with average roughness (Ra) of surface topography ranging from 0.2 to 1.65 μm and mean distance between peaks (RSm) ranging from 89.7 to 18.6 μm were prepared, and human bone-marrow mesenchymal stem cells (hBMSCs) were cultured on these discs. Optimal osteogenic differentiation was observed on discs with surface topography characterized by Ra ranging from 0.77 to 1.09 μm and RSm ranging from 53.9 to 39.3 μm. On this surface configuration of HA, hBMSCs showed oriented attachment, F-actin arrangement, and a peak in the expression of Yes-associated protein (YAP) and PDZ binding motif (TAZ) (YAP/TAZ). These results indicated that the surface topography of HA promoted osteogenic differentiation of hBMSCs, possibly by increasing cell attachment and promoting the YAP/TAZ signaling pathway.

  6. Reduced graphene oxide-coated hydroxyapatite composites stimulate spontaneous osteogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jong Ho; Shin, Yong Cheol; Jin, Oh Seong; Kang, Seok Hee; Hwang, Yu-Shik; Park, Jong-Chul; Hong, Suck Won; Han, Dong-Wook

    2015-07-01

    Human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) have great potential as cell sources for bone tissue engineering and regeneration, but the control and induction of their specific differentiation into bone cells remain challenging. Graphene-based nanomaterials are considered attractive candidates for biomedical applications such as scaffolds in tissue engineering, substrates for SC differentiation and components of implantable devices, due to their biocompatible and bioactive properties. Despite the potential biomedical applications of graphene and its derivatives, only limited information is available regarding their osteogenic activity. This study concentrates upon the effects of reduced graphene oxide (rGO)-coated hydroxyapatite (HAp) composites on osteogenic differentiation of hMSCs. The average particle sizes of HAp and rGO were 1270 +/- 476 nm and 438 +/- 180 nm, respectively. When coated on HAp particulates, rGO synergistically enhanced spontaneous osteogenic differentiation of hMSCs, without hampering their proliferation. This result was confirmed by determining alkaline phosphatase activity and mineralization of calcium and phosphate as early and late stage markers of osteogenic differentiation. It is suggested that rGO-coated HAp composites can be effectively utilized as dental and orthopedic bone fillers since these graphene-based particulate materials have potent effects on stimulating the spontaneous differentiation of MSCs and show superior bioactivity and osteoinductive potential.Human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) have great potential as cell sources for bone tissue engineering and regeneration, but the control and induction of their specific differentiation into bone cells remain challenging. Graphene-based nanomaterials are considered attractive candidates for biomedical applications such as scaffolds in tissue engineering, substrates for SC differentiation and components of implantable devices, due to their biocompatible and bioactive properties. Despite

  7. Pulsed electromagnetic fields stimulate osteogenic differentiation in human bone marrow and adipose tissue derived mesenchymal stem cells.

    PubMed

    Ongaro, Alessia; Pellati, Agnese; Bagheri, Leila; Fortini, Cinzia; Setti, Stefania; De Mattei, Monica

    2014-09-01

    Pulsed electromagnetic fields (PEMFs) play a regulatory role on osteoblast activity and are clinically beneficial during fracture healing. Human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) derived from different sources have been extensively used in bone tissue engineering. Compared with MSCs isolated from bone marrow (BMSCs), those derived from adipose tissue (ASCs) are easier to obtain and available in larger amounts, although they show a less osteogenic differentiation potential than BMSCs. The hypothesis tested in this study was to evaluate whether PEMFs favor osteogenic differentiation both in BMSCs and in ASCs and to compare the role of PEMFs alone and in combination with the biochemical osteogenic stimulus bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-2. Early and later osteogenic markers, such as alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, osteocalcin levels, and matrix mineralization, were analyzed at different times during osteogenic differentiation. Results showed that PEMFs induced osteogenic differentiation by increasing ALP activity, osteocalcin, and matrix mineralization in both BMSCs and ASCs, suggesting that PEMF activity is maintained during the whole differentiation period. The addition of BMP-2 in PEMF exposed cultures further increased all the osteogenic markers in BMSCs, while in ASCs, the stimulatory role of PEMFs was independent of BMP-2. Our results indicate that PEMFs may stimulate an early osteogenic induction in both BMSCs and ASCs and they suggest PEMFs as a bioactive factor to enhance the osteogenesis of ASCs, which are an attractive cell source for clinical applications. In conclusion, PEMFs may be considered a possible tool to improve autologous cell-based regeneration of bone defects in orthopedics.

  8. Three-dimensional spherical spatial boundary conditions differentially regulate osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stromal cells

    PubMed Central

    Lo, Yin-Ping; Liu, Yi-Shiuan; Rimando, Marilyn G.; Ho, Jennifer Hui-Chun; Lin, Keng-hui; Lee, Oscar K.

    2016-01-01

    The spatial boundary condition (SBC) arising from the surrounding microenvironment imposes specific geometry and spatial constraints that affect organogenesis and tissue homeostasis. Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) sensitively respond to alterations of mechanical cues generated from the SBC. However, mechanical cues provided by a three-dimensional (3D) environment are deprived in a reductionist 2D culture system. This study investigates how SBC affects osteogenic differentiation of MSCs using 3D scaffolds with monodispersed pores and homogenous spherical geometries. MSCs cultured under SBCs with diameters of 100 and 150 μm possessed the greatest capability of osteogenic differentiation. This phenomenon was strongly correlated with MSC morphology, organization of actin cytoskeleton, and distribution of focal adhesion involving α2 and α5 integrins. Further silencing either α2 or α5 integrin significantly reduced the above mentioned mechanosensitivity, indicating that the α2 and α5 integrins as mechano-sensitive molecules mediate MSCs’ ability to provide enhanced osteogenic differentiation in response to different spherical SBCs. Taken together, the findings provide new insights regarding how MSCs respond to mechanical cues from the surrounding microenvironment in a spherical SBC, and such biophysical stimuli should be taken into consideration in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine in conjunction with biochemical cues. PMID:26884253

  9. Osteogenic Differentiation of Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells in Mineralized Alginate Matrices

    PubMed Central

    Westhrin, Marita; Xie, Minli; Olderøy, Magnus Ø.; Sikorski, Pawel

    2015-01-01

    Mineralized biomaterials are promising for use in bone tissue engineering. Culturing osteogenic cells in such materials will potentially generate biological bone grafts that may even further augment bone healing. Here, we studied osteogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) in an alginate hydrogel system where the cells were co-immobilized with alkaline phosphatase (ALP) for gradual mineralization of the microenvironment. MSC were embedded in unmodified alginate beads and alginate beads mineralized with ALP to generate a polymer/hydroxyapatite scaffold mimicking the composition of bone. The initial scaffold mineralization induced further mineralization of the beads with nanosized particles, and scanning electron micrographs demonstrated presence of collagen in the mineralized and unmineralized alginate beads cultured in osteogenic medium. Cells in both types of beads sustained high viability and metabolic activity for the duration of the study (21 days) as evaluated by live/dead staining and alamar blue assay. MSC in beads induced to differentiate in osteogenic direction expressed higher mRNA levels of osteoblast-specific genes (RUNX2, COL1AI, SP7, BGLAP) than MSC in traditional cell cultures. Furthermore, cells differentiated in beads expressed both sclerostin (SOST) and dental matrix protein-1 (DMP1), markers for late osteoblasts/osteocytes. In conclusion, Both ALP-modified and unmodified alginate beads provide an environment that enhance osteogenic differentiation compared with traditional 2D culture. Also, the ALP-modified alginate beads showed profound mineralization and thus have the potential to serve as a bone substitute in tissue engineering. PMID:25769043

  10. Diverse effects of cyclic AMP variants on osteogenic and adipogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stromal cells.

    PubMed

    Doorn, Joyce; Leusink, Maarten; Groen, Nathalie; van de Peppel, Jeroen; van Leeuwen, Johannes P T M; van Blitterswijk, Clemens A; de Boer, Jan

    2012-07-01

    Osteogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stromal cells (hMSCs) may potentially be used in cell-based bone tissue-engineering applications to enhance the bone-forming potential of these cells. Osteogenic differentiation and adipogenic differentiation are thought to be mutually exclusive, and although several signaling pathways and cues that induce osteogenic or adipogenic differentiation, respectively, have been identified, there is no general consensus on how to optimally differentiate hMSCs into the osteogenic lineage. Some pathways have also been reported to be involved in both adipogenic and osteogenic differentiation, as for example, the protein kinase A (PKA) pathway, and the aim of this study was to investigate the role of cAMP/PKA signaling in differentiation of hMSCs in more detail. We show that activation of this pathway with dibutyryl-cAMP results in enhanced alkaline phosphatase expression, whereas another cAMP analog induces adipogenesis in long-term mineralization cultures. Adipogenic differentiation, induced by 8-bromo-cAMP, was accompanied by stronger PKA activity and higher expression of cAMP-responsive genes, suggesting that stronger activation correlates with adipogenic differentiation. In addition, a whole-genome expression analysis showed an increase in expression of adipogenic genes in 8-br-cAMP-treated cells. Furthermore, by means of quantitative polymerase chain reaction, we show differences in peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ activation, either alone or in combination with dexamethasone, thus demonstrating differential effects of the PKA pathway, most likely depending on its mode of activation.

  11. Inhibition of osteogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Moioli, Eduardo K.; Hong, Liu; Mao, Jeremy J.

    2010-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) have been shown to differentiate into osteoblasts that, in turn, are capable of forming tissues analogous to bone. The present study was designed to investigate the inhibition of osteogenesis by hMSCs. Bone marrow-derived hMSCs were treated with transforming growth factor β-3 (TGFβ3) at various doses during or after their differentiation into osteogenic cells. TGFβ3 was encapsulated in poly(DL-lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) microspheres and released via controlled delivery in the osteogenic culture of hMSCs and hMSC-derived osteoblasts for up to 28 days. Controlled release of TGFβ3 inhibited the osteogenic differentiation of hMSCs, as evidenced by significantly reduced alkaline phosphatase activity and staining, as well as decreased mineral deposition. After hMSCs had been differentiated into osteoblasts, controlled release of TGFβ3 further inhibited not only alkaline phosphatase and mineral deposition but also osteocalcin expression. These findings demonstrate the potential for sustained modulation of the behavior of stem cells and/or stem cell-derived lineage-specific cells via controlled release of growth factor(s). The attenuation of osteogenic differentiation of MSCs may facilitate understanding not only the regulation and patterning of osteogenesis in development but also several pathological models such as osteopetrosis, craniosynostosis, and heart valve calcification. PMID:17537129

  12. The effect of low static magnetic field on osteogenic and adipogenic differentiation potential of human adipose stromal/stem cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marędziak, Monika; Śmieszek, Agnieszka; Tomaszewski, Krzysztof A.; Lewandowski, Daniel; Marycz, Krzysztof

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this work was to investigate the effects of static magnetic field (SMF) on the osteogenic properties of human adipose derived mesenchymal stem cells (hASCs). In this study in seven days viability assay we examined the impact of SMF on cells proliferation rate, population doubling time, and ability to form single-cell derived colonies. We have also examined cells' morphology, ultrastructure and osteogenic properties on the protein as well as mRNA level. We established a complex approach, which enabled us to obtain information about SMF and hASCs potential in the context of differentiation into osteogenic and adipogenic lineages. We demonstrated that SMF enhances both viability and osteogenic properties of hASCs through higher proliferation factor and shorter population doubling time. We have also observed asymmetrically positioned nuclei and organelles after SMF exposition. With regards to osteogenic properties we observed increased levels of osteogenic markers i.e. osteopontin, osteocalcin and increased ability to form osteonodules with positive reaction to Alizarin Red dye. We have also shown that SMF besides enhancing osteogenic properties of hASCs, simultaneously decreases their ability to differentiate into adipogenic lineage. Our results clearly show a direct influence of SMF on the osteogenic potential of hASCs. These results provide key insights into the role of SMF on their cellular fate and properties.

  13. Reduced graphene oxide-coated hydroxyapatite composites stimulate spontaneous osteogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jong Ho; Shin, Yong Cheol; Jin, Oh Seong; Kang, Seok Hee; Hwang, Yu-Shik; Park, Jong-Chul; Hong, Suck Won; Han, Dong-Wook

    2015-07-21

    Human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) have great potential as cell sources for bone tissue engineering and regeneration, but the control and induction of their specific differentiation into bone cells remain challenging. Graphene-based nanomaterials are considered attractive candidates for biomedical applications such as scaffolds in tissue engineering, substrates for SC differentiation and components of implantable devices, due to their biocompatible and bioactive properties. Despite the potential biomedical applications of graphene and its derivatives, only limited information is available regarding their osteogenic activity. This study concentrates upon the effects of reduced graphene oxide (rGO)-coated hydroxyapatite (HAp) composites on osteogenic differentiation of hMSCs. The average particle sizes of HAp and rGO were 1270 ± 476 nm and 438 ± 180 nm, respectively. When coated on HAp particulates, rGO synergistically enhanced spontaneous osteogenic differentiation of hMSCs, without hampering their proliferation. This result was confirmed by determining alkaline phosphatase activity and mineralization of calcium and phosphate as early and late stage markers of osteogenic differentiation. It is suggested that rGO-coated HAp composites can be effectively utilized as dental and orthopedic bone fillers since these graphene-based particulate materials have potent effects on stimulating the spontaneous differentiation of MSCs and show superior bioactivity and osteoinductive potential.

  14. Effect of boron on osteogenic differentiation of human bone marrow stromal cells.

    PubMed

    Ying, Xiaozhou; Cheng, Shaowen; Wang, Wei; Lin, Zhongqin; Chen, Qingyu; Zhang, Wei; Kou, Dongquan; Shen, Yue; Cheng, Xiaojie; Rompis, Ferdinand An; Peng, Lei; Zhu Lu, Chuan

    2011-12-01

    Bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) have been well established as an ideal source of cell-based therapy for bone tissue engineering applications. Boron (B) is a notable trace element in humans; so far, the effects of boron on the osteogenic differentiation of BMSCs have not been reported. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of boron (0, 1, 10,100, and 1,000 ng/ml) on osteogenic differentiation of human BMSCs. In this study, BMSCs proliferation was analyzed by cell counting kit-8 (CCK8) assay, and cell osteogenic differentiation was evaluated by alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity assay, Von Kossa staining, and real-time PCR. The results indicated that the proliferation of BMSCs was no different from the control group when added with B at the concentration of 1, 10, and 100 ng/ml respectively (P > 0.05); in contrast, 1,000 ng/ml B inhibited the proliferation of BMSCs at days 4, 7, and 14 (P < 0.05). By ALP staining, we discovered that BMSCs treated with 10 and 100 ng/ml B presented a higher ALP activity compared with control (P < 0.05). By real-time PCR, we detected the messenger RNA expression of ALP, osteocalcin, collagen type I, and bone morphogenetic proteins 7 were also increased in 10 and 100 ng/ml B treatment groups (P < 0.05). The calcium depositions were increased in 1 and 10 ng/ml B treatment groups (P < 0.05). Taken all together, it was the first time to report that B could increase osteogenic effect by stimulating osteogenic differentiation-related marker gene synthesis during the proliferation and differentiation phase in human BMSCs and could be a promising approach for enhancing osteogenic capacity of cell-based construction in bone tissue engineering.

  15. Polarization of an electroactive functional film on titanium for inducing osteogenic differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Zhengnan; Li, Weiping; He, Tianrui; Qian, Lei; Tan, Guoxin; Ning, Chengyun

    2016-01-01

    To enhance the surface bioactivity of titanium (Ti) prostheses, an electroactive polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) film was prepared on a Ti substrate to provide a mimetic of the electrical microenvironment, which facilitated the performance of cell functions. The results of cell proliferation and differentiation assays indicated that polarization of the PVDF-Ti (PTi) altered its surface charge, thus inducing adhesion, proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of cells. The polarized PVDF-Ti (PPTi) may therefore find applications in bone regeneration. PMID:27762318

  16. Polarization of an electroactive functional film on titanium for inducing osteogenic differentiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Zhengnan; Li, Weiping; He, Tianrui; Qian, Lei; Tan, Guoxin; Ning, Chengyun

    2016-10-01

    To enhance the surface bioactivity of titanium (Ti) prostheses, an electroactive polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) film was prepared on a Ti substrate to provide a mimetic of the electrical microenvironment, which facilitated the performance of cell functions. The results of cell proliferation and differentiation assays indicated that polarization of the PVDF-Ti (PTi) altered its surface charge, thus inducing adhesion, proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of cells. The polarized PVDF-Ti (PPTi) may therefore find applications in bone regeneration.

  17. Prostaglandin E2 impairs osteogenic and facilitates adipogenic differentiation of human bone marrow stromal cells.

    PubMed

    Noack, Carolin; Hempel, Ute; Preissler, Carolin; Dieter, Peter

    2015-03-01

    The synthetic glucocorticoid dexamethasone (dex) is a mandatory additive to induce osteogenic differentiation of bone marrow stromal cell (BMSC) in vitro; however it is also known to promote the pathogenesis of osteoporotic bone disease in vivo. In this study human (h)BMSC were cultured in osteogenic medium containing β-glycerophosphate and ascorbate (OM) and in OM containing dex (OM/D). It was seen that dex induced in human (h)BMSC both, osteogenic and adipogenic differentiation markers. Dex reveals its anti-inflammatory effect by reducing endogenous prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) formation and by suppressing the inducible enzymes cyclooxygenase 2 and microsomal PGE2 synthase 1. It was further seen that dex enhanced the expression of prostaglandin receptors, mainly EP2 and EP4 receptor subtypes. We thus hypothesized that dex enforces the susceptibility of hBMSC to respond to exogenous PGE2. Permanent exposure of hBMSC which were cultured in OM/D to PGE2, decreased osteogenic and increased adipogenic differentiation markers. The effects of PGE2 were preferentially mediated by receptor subtypes EP2 and EP4; EP1 was partially involved in pro-adipogenic effects, and EP3 was partially involved in anti-osteogenic effects. These results suggest that dex suppresses the formation of endogenous PGE2 but also enables hBMSC to respond to PGE2 due to the induction of PGE2 receptors EP2 and EP4. PGE2 then shifts in hBMSC the balance from osteogenic to adipogenic differentiation.

  18. The Effects of High Glucose on Adipogenic and Osteogenic Differentiation of Gestational Tissue-Derived MSCs.

    PubMed

    Hankamolsiri, Weerawan; Manochantr, Sirikul; Tantrawatpan, Chairat; Tantikanlayaporn, Duangrat; Tapanadechopone, Pairath; Kheolamai, Pakpoom

    2016-01-01

    Most type 2 diabetic patients are obese who have increased number of visceral adipocytes. Those visceral adipocytes release several factors that enhance insulin resistance making diabetic treatment ineffective. It is known that significant percentages of visceral adipocytes are derived from mesenchymal stem cells and high glucose enhances adipogenic differentiation of mouse bone marrow-derived MSCs (BM-MSCs). However, the effect of high glucose on adipogenic differentiation of human bone marrow and gestational tissue-derived MSCs is still poorly characterized. This study aims to investigate the effects of high glucose on proliferation as well as adipogenic and osteogenic differentiation of human MSCs derived from bone marrow and several gestational tissues including chorion, placenta, and umbilical cord. We found that high glucose reduced proliferation but enhanced adipogenic differentiation of all MSCs examined. The expression levels of some adipogenic genes were also upregulated when MSCs were cultured in high glucose. Although high glucose transiently downregulated the expression levels of some osteogenic genes examined, its effect on the osteogenic differentiation levels of the MSCs is not clearly demonstrated. The knowledge gained from this study will increase our understanding about the effect of high glucose on adipogenic differentiation of MSCs and might lead to an improvement in the diabetic treatment in the future.

  19. The difference on the osteogenic differentiation between periodontal ligament stem cells and bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells under inflammatory microenviroments.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jing; Li, Zhi-Gang; Si, Ya-Meng; Chen, Bin; Meng, Jian

    2014-01-01

    Periodontitis is a major cause of tooth loss in adults and periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLSCs) is the most favorable candidate for the reconstruction of tissues destroyed by periodontal diseases. However, pathological alterations caused by inflammatory insults might impact the regenerative capacities of these cells. Bone-marrow-derived human mesenchymal stem cells (hBMSCs) would accelerate alveolar bone regeneration by transplantation, compared to PDLSCs. Therefore, a better understanding of the osteogenic differentiation between PDLSCs and BMSCs in inflammatory microenviroments is therefore warranted. In this study, human PDLSCs were investigated for their stem cell characteristics via analysis of cell surface marker expression, colony forming unit efficiency, osteogenic differentiation and adipogenic differentiation, and compared to BMSCs. To determine the impact of both inflammation and the NF-κβ signal pathway on osteogenic differentiation, cells were challenged with TNF-α under osteogenic induction conditions and investigated for mineralization, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, cell proliferation and relative genes expression. Results showed that PDLSCs exhibit weaker mineralization and ALP activity compared to BMSCs. TNF-α inhibited genes expression of osteogenic differentiation in PDLSCs, while, it stimulates gene expressions (BSP and Runx2) in BMSCs. Enhanced NF-κβ activity in PDLSCs decreases expression of Runx2 but it does not impede the osteogenic differentiation of BMSCs. Taken together, these results may suggest that the BMSCs owned the stronger immunomodulation in local microenvironment via anti-inflammatory functions, compared to PDLSCs.

  20. Deletion of Alox5 gene decreases osteogenic differentiation but increases adipogenic differentiation of mouse induced pluripotent stem cells.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yanru; Sun, Hualing; Song, Fangfang; Huang, Cui; Wang, Jiawei

    2014-10-01

    Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) have great potential in bone tissue engineering to repair large bone defects. Before their clinical application, investigations are needed to discover the genes and osteoconductive scaffolds that influence their differentiation toward an osteogenic lineage. Alox5 plays controversial and complex roles in the regulation of bone and fat metabolism. To detect the effect of Alox5 on osteogenic and adipogenic differentiation of iPSCs, both Alox5 knockout mouse iPSCs (Alox5-KO-iPSCs) and wild-type mouse iPSCs (Wild-iPSCs) were developed. The mRNA levels of many osteogenic markers in Alox5-KO-iPSCs were significantly reduced, while many adipogenic markers were enhanced. Furthermore, when implanted in rat cranial critical-sized defects with collagen/chitosan/hydroxyapatite scaffolds (CCHS), Alox5-KO-iPSCs produced significantly less new bone than Wild-iPSCs and both cell-scaffold groups had no tumor formation. There was a significant difference in the expression of Cox2 during the osteogenic and adipogenic differentiation between the two kinds of iPSCs in vitro. In conclusion, firstly, Alox5 knockout reduced the osteogenic but increased the adipogenic differentiation potential of mouse iPSCs. These disorders might be related to the change of Cox2 expression. Secondly, combined with iPSCs, CCHS can serve as a potential substrate to repair critical-sized bony defects. However, more studies are required to confirm the mechanisms through which Alox5 affects the osteogenic and adipogenic abilities of iPSCs in vivo and the effect of Cox2 inhibition in this system.

  1. Mechanical stimulation orchestrates the osteogenic differentiation of human bone marrow stromal cells by regulating HDAC1

    PubMed Central

    Wang, J; Wang, C D; Zhang, N; Tong, W X; Zhang, Y F; Shan, S Z; Zhang, X L; Li, Q F

    2016-01-01

    Mechanical stimulation and histone deacetylases (HDACs) have essential roles in regulating the osteogenic differentiation of bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) and bone formation. However, little is known regarding what regulates HDAC expression and therefore the osteogenic differentiation of BMSCs during osteogenesis. In this study, we investigated whether mechanical loading regulates HDAC expression directly and examined the role of HDACs in mechanical loading-triggered osteogenic differentiation and bone formation. We first studied the microarrays of samples from patients with osteoporosis and found that the NOTCH pathway and skeletal development gene sets were downregulated in the BMSCs of patients with osteoporosis. Then we demonstrated that mechanical stimuli can regulate osteogenesis and bone formation both in vivo and in vitro. NOTCH signaling was upregulated during cyclic mechanical stretch (CMS)-induced osteogenic differentiation, whereas HDAC1 protein expression was downregulated. The perturbation of HDAC1 expression also had a significant effect on matrix mineralization and JAG1-mediated Notch signaling, suggesting that HDAC1 acts as an endogenous attenuator of Notch signaling in the mechanotransduction of BMSCs. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assay results suggest that HDAC1 modulates the CMS-induced histone H3 acetylation level at the JAG1 promoter. More importantly, we found an inhibitory role of Hdac1 in regulating bone formation in response to hindlimb unloading in mice, and pretreatment with an HDAC1 inhibitor partly rescued the osteoporosis caused by mechanical unloading. Our results demonstrate, for the first time, that mechanical stimulation orchestrates genes expression involved in the osteogenic differentiation of BMSCs via the direct regulation of HDAC1, and the therapeutic inhibition of HDAC1 may be an efficient strategy for enhancing bone formation under mechanical stimulation. PMID:27171263

  2. Osteogenic Differentiation of MSC through Calcium Signaling Activation: Transcriptomics and Functional Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Viti, Federica; Landini, Martina; Mezzelani, Alessandra; Petecchia, Loredana; Milanesi, Luciano; Scaglione, Silvia

    2016-01-01

    The culture of progenitor mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) onto osteoconductive materials to induce a proper osteogenic differentiation and mineralized matrix regeneration represents a promising and widely diffused experimental approach for tissue-engineering (TE) applications in orthopaedics. Among modern biomaterials, calcium phosphates represent the best bone substitutes, due to their chemical features emulating the mineral phase of bone tissue. Although many studies on stem cells differentiation mechanisms have been performed involving calcium-based scaffolds, results often focus on highlighting production of in vitro bone matrix markers and in vivo tissue ingrowth, while information related to the biomolecular mechanisms involved in the early cellular calcium-mediated differentiation is not well elucidated yet. Genetic programs for osteogenesis have been just partially deciphered, and the description of the different molecules and pathways operative in these differentiations is far from complete, as well as the activity of calcium in this process. The present work aims to shed light on the involvement of extracellular calcium in MSC differentiation: a better understanding of the early stage osteogenic differentiation program of MSC seeded on calcium-based biomaterials is required in order to develop optimal strategies to promote osteogenesis through the use of new generation osteoconductive scaffolds. A wide spectrum of analysis has been performed on time-dependent series: gene expression profiles are obtained from samples (MSC seeded on calcium-based scaffolds), together with related microRNAs expression and in vivo functional validation. On this basis, and relying on literature knowledge, hypotheses are made on the biomolecular players activated by the biomaterial calcium-phosphate component. Interestingly, a key role of miR-138 was highlighted, whose inhibition markedly increases osteogenic differentiation in vitro and enhance ectopic bone formation in vivo

  3. Housekeeping gene stability influences the quantification of osteogenic markers during stem cell differentiation to the osteogenic lineage

    PubMed Central

    Posada, Olga M.; Gallego-Perez, Daniel; Higuita-Castro, Natalia; Sarassa, Carlos; Hansford, Derek J.; Agudelo-Florez, Piedad; López, Luis E.

    2010-01-01

    Real-time reverse transcription PCR (RT-qPCR) relies on a housekeeping or normalizer gene whose expression remains constant throughout the experiment. RT-qPCR is commonly used for characterization of human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (hBMSCs). However, to the best of our knowledge, there are no studies validating the expression stability of the genes used as normalizers during hBMSCs differentiation. This work aimed to study the stability of the housekeeping genes β-actin, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) and ribosomal protein L13A (RPL13A) during the osteogenic differentiation of hBMSCs. Their stability was evaluated via RT-qPCR in 14 and 20 day differentiation assays to the osteogenic lineage. Different normalization strategies were evaluated to quantify the osteogenic markers collagen type I, bone sialoprotein and osteonectin. Cell differentiation was confirmed via alizarin red staining. The results demonstrated up-regulation of β-actin with maximum fold changes (MFC) of 4.38. GAPDH and RPL13A were not regulated by osteogenic media after 14 days and presented average fold changes lower than 2 in 20 day cultures. RPL13A (MFC < 2) had a greater stability when normalizing as a function of culture time compared with GAPDH (MFC ≤ 2.2), which resulted in expression patterns of the osteogenic markers more consistent with the observed differentiation process. The results suggest that β-actin regulation could be associated with the morphological changes characteristic of hBMSCs osteogenic differentiation, and provide evidence for the superior performance of RPL13A as a normalizer gene in osteogenic differentiation studies of hBMSCs. This work highlights the importance of validating the normalizer genes used for stem cells characterization via RT-qPCR. PMID:20396946

  4. Housekeeping gene stability influences the quantification of osteogenic markers during stem cell differentiation to the osteogenic lineage.

    PubMed

    Quiroz, Felipe Garcia; Posada, Olga M; Gallego-Perez, Daniel; Higuita-Castro, Natalia; Sarassa, Carlos; Hansford, Derek J; Agudelo-Florez, Piedad; López, Luis E

    2010-04-01

    Real-time reverse transcription PCR (RT-qPCR) relies on a housekeeping or normalizer gene whose expression remains constant throughout the experiment. RT-qPCR is commonly used for characterization of human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (hBMSCs). However, to the best of our knowledge, there are no studies validating the expression stability of the genes used as normalizers during hBMSCs differentiation. This work aimed to study the stability of the housekeeping genes beta-actin, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) and ribosomal protein L13A (RPL13A) during the osteogenic differentiation of hBMSCs. Their stability was evaluated via RT-qPCR in 14 and 20 day differentiation assays to the osteogenic lineage. Different normalization strategies were evaluated to quantify the osteogenic markers collagen type I, bone sialoprotein and osteonectin. Cell differentiation was confirmed via alizarin red staining. The results demonstrated up-regulation of beta-actin with maximum fold changes (MFC) of 4.38. GAPDH and RPL13A were not regulated by osteogenic media after 14 days and presented average fold changes lower than 2 in 20 day cultures. RPL13A (MFC < 2) had a greater stability when normalizing as a function of culture time compared with GAPDH (MFC osteogenic markers more consistent with the observed differentiation process. The results suggest that beta-actin regulation could be associated with the morphological changes characteristic of hBMSCs osteogenic differentiation, and provide evidence for the superior performance of RPL13A as a normalizer gene in osteogenic differentiation studies of hBMSCs. This work highlights the importance of validating the normalizer genes used for stem cells characterization via RT-qPCR.

  5. Agent-based modeling of osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells in porous biomaterials.

    PubMed

    Bayrak, Elif S; Mehdizadeh, Hamidreza; Akar, Banu; Somo, Sami I; Brey, Eric M; Cinar, Ali

    2014-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) have shown promise in tissue engineering applications due to their potential for differentiating into mesenchymal tissues such as osteocytes, chondrocytes, and adipocytes and releasing proteins to promote tissue regeneration. One application involves seeding MSCs in biomaterial scaffolds to promote osteogenesis in the repair of bone defects following implantation. However, predicting in vivo survival and differentiation of MSCs in biomaterials is challenging. Rapid and stable vascularization of scaffolds is required to supply nutrients and oxygen that MSCs need to survive as well as to go through osteogenic differentiation. The objective of this study is to develop an agent-based model and simulator that can be used to investigate the effects of using gradient growth factors on survival and differentiation of MSCs seeded in scaffolds. An agent-based model is developed to simulate the MSC behavior. The effect of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and bone morphogenic protein-2 (BMP-2) on both survival and osteogenic differentiation is studied. Results showed that the survival ratio of MSCs can be enhanced by increasing VEGF concentration. BMP-2 caused a slight increase on survival ratio. Osteogenesis strongly depends on the VEGF concentration as well because of its effect on vascularization. BMP-2 increased the osteogenic differentiation of MSCs.

  6. Mechanism of osteogenic and adipogenic differentiation of tendon stem cells induced by sirtuin 1.

    PubMed

    Liu, Junpeng; Han, Weifeng; Chen, Lei; Tang, Kanglai

    2016-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess the expression of sirtuin (Sirt)1 in tendon stem cells (TSCs) and to elucidate its association with osteogenic and adipogenic differentiation of TSCs. Reverse-transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) and western blot analyses were performed to detect Sirt1 mRNA and protein levels in TSCs, respectively. TSCs were positive for Sirt1 expression, which was elevated by Sirt1 activator SRT1720 in a time- and concentration- dependent manner, and decreased by Sirt1 inhibitor EX527. TSCs were treated with SRT1720 and EX527 for various time periods and resulting changes in osteogenic and adipogenic protein markers were analyzed using alizarin red and oil red O staining. According to RT-qPCR and western blot analyses, the associated factors β‑catenin, Runt-related transcription factor 2 (Runx2) and bone morphogenetic protein 2 were elevated following increases of Sirt1 levels, while CCAAT/enhancer binding protein (CEBP)α and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)γ were decreased. These results suggested that osteogenic differentiation capacity was enhanced, while adipogenic differentiation capacity declined. Further mechanistic study revealed that phosphoinositide‑3 kinase (PI3K) and AKT were decreased following activation of Sirt1. In conclusion, the present study suggested that Sirt1 promotes the osteogenic differentiation of TSCs through upregulating β‑catenin and Runx2 and inhibits the adipogenic differentiation of TSCs through the PI3K/AKT pathway with downregulation of CEBPα and PPARγ.

  7. HtrA1 may regulate the osteogenic differentiation of human periodontal ligament cells by TGF-β1.

    PubMed

    Li, Ran; Zhang, Qi

    2015-04-01

    Periodontal ligament cells (PDLCs) in periodontal ligament (PDL) can differentiate into osteoblasts, while physiologically PDL remains non-mineralized space although located two hard tissues. But the exact mechanism of which is still unclear. High-temperature requirement protein A1 (HtrA1) is a key mineralization regulator and could inhibit the osteogenesis by transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) signaling. However, the role of HtrA1 in PDLCs osteogenic differentiation has yet to be clarified. We assume HtrA1 may play an important role in maintaining the balance of PDL mineralization, and may regulate human periodontal ligament cells (hPDLCs) osteogenic differentiation by TGF-β1. Firstly we confirmed the mRNA expression of HtrA1 and TGF-β1 in hPDLCs by RT-PCR, then QDs-based immunofluorescence demonstrated the co-localization of them in the cytoplasm, and co-immunoprecipitation further confirmed the interaction between them. Lentivirus-mediated HtrA1 overexpression enhanced the osteogenic differentiation of hPDLCs, as well as up-regulation of TGF-β1. In contrast, knockdown of HtrA1 suppressed the osteogenic differentiation with down-regulation of TGF-β1. These findings suggested that HtrA1 plays a positive role in hPDLCs osteogenic differentiation and may regulate this process by TGF-β1.

  8. Cytokines TNF-α, IL-6, IL-17F, and IL-4 Differentially Affect Osteogenic Differentiation of Human Adipose Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Bravenboer, Nathalie

    2016-01-01

    During the initial stages of bone repair, proinflammatory cytokines are released within the injury site, quickly followed by a shift to anti-inflammatory cytokines. The effect of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines on osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells is controversial. Here, we investigated the effect of the proinflammatory cytokines TNF-α, IL-6, IL-8, and IL-17F and the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-4 on proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of human adipose stem cells (hASCs). hASCs were treated with TNF-α, IL-6, IL-8, IL-17F, or IL-4 (10 ng/mL) for 72 h mimicking bone repair. TNF-α reduced collagen type I gene expression but increased hASC proliferation and ALP activity. IL-6 also strongly enhanced ALP activity (18-fold), as well as bone nodule formation by hASCs. IL-8 did not affect proliferation or osteogenic gene expression but reduced bone nodule formation. IL-17F decreased hASC proliferation but enhanced ALP activity. IL-4 enhanced osteocalcin gene expression and ALP activity but reduced RUNX2 gene expression and bone nodule formation. In conclusion, all cytokines studied have both enhancing and reducing effects on osteogenic differentiation of hASCs, even when applied for 72 h only. Some cytokines, specifically IL-6, may be suitable to induce osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells as a strategy for enhancing bone repair. PMID:27667999

  9. Promotion Effects of miR-375 on the Osteogenic Differentiation of Human Adipose-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells.

    PubMed

    Chen, Si; Zheng, Yunfei; Zhang, Shan; Jia, Lingfei; Zhou, Yongsheng

    2017-03-14

    MicroRNA plays an important role in bone tissue engineering; however, its role and function in osteogenic differentiation warrant further investigation. In this study, we demonstrated that miR-375 was upregulated during the osteogenic differentiation of human adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hASCs). Overexpression of miR-375 significantly enhanced hASCs osteogenesis both in vitro and in vivo, while knockdown of miR-375 inhibited the osteogenic differentiation of hASCs. Mechanistically, microarray analysis revealed DEPTOR as a target of miR-375 in hASCs. Knockdown of DEPTOR accelerated the osteogenic differentiation of hASCs by inhibiting AKT signaling, which mimics miR-375 overexpression. Furthermore, we confirmed that miR-375 regulated osteogenesis by targeting YAP1, and that YAP1 reversely bound to miR-375 promoter to inhibit miR-375 expression. Taken together, our results suggested that miR-375 promoted the osteogenic differentiation of hASCs via the YAP1/DEPTOR/AKT regulatory network, indicating that miR-375-targeted therapy might be a valuable approach to promote bone regeneration.

  10. Osteogenic differentiation of immature osteoblasts: Interplay of cell culture media and supplements.

    PubMed

    Brauer, A; Pohlemann, T; Metzger, W

    2016-01-01

    Differentiation of immature osteoblasts to mature osteoblasts in vitro initially was induced by supplementing the medium with β-gylcerophosphate and dexamethasone. Later, ascorbic acid, vitamin D3, vitamin K3 and TGFβ1 were used in varying concentrations as supplements to generate a mature osteoblast phenotype. We tested the effects of several combinations of cell culture media, seeding protocols and osteogenic supplements on osteogenic differentiation of human primary osteoblasts. Osteogenic differentiation was analyzed by staining alkaline phosphatase (ALP) with 5-bromo-4-chloro-3-indolyl-phosphate/nitro blue tetrazolium (BCIP/NBT) and by von Kossa staining of deposited calcium phosphate. The combinations of culture media and supplements significantly influenced osteogenic differentiation, but the seeding protocol did not. Staining of ALP and calcium phosphate could be achieved only if our own mix of osteogenic supplements was used in combination with Dulbecco's modified Eagle medium or if a commercial mix of osteogenic supplements was used in combination with osteoblast growth medium. Especially for von Kossa, we observed great variations in the staining intensity. Because osteogenic differentiation is a complex process, the origin of the osteoblasts, cell culture media and osteogenic supplements should be established by preliminary experiments to achieve optimal differentiation. Staining of ALP or deposited calcium phosphate should be supplemented with qRT-PCR studies to learn more about the influence of specific supplements on osteogenic markers.

  11. Lifetime fluorescence spectroscopy for in situ investigation of osteogenic differentiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marcu, Laura; Elbarbary, Amir; Zuk, Patricia; De Ugarte, Daniel A.; Benhaim, Prosper; Kurt, Hamza; Hedrick, Marc H.; Ashjian, Peter

    2003-07-01

    Time-Resolved Laser-Induced Fluorescence Spectroscopy (TR-LIFS) represents a potential tool for the in-situ characterization of bioengineered tissues. In this study, we evaluate the application of TR-LIFS to non-intrusive monitoring of matrix composition during osteogenetic differentiation. Human adipose-derived stem cells, harvested from 3 patients, were induced in osteogenic media for 3, 5, and 7 weeks. Samples were subsequently collected and probed for time-resolved fluorescence emission with a pulsed nitrogen laser. Fluorescence parameters, derived from both spectral- and time-domain, were used for sample characterization. The samples were further analyzed using Western blot analysis and computer-based densitometry. A significant change in the fluorescence parameters was detected for samples beyond 3 weeks of osteogenic differentiation. The spectroscopic observations: 1) show increase of collagen I when contrasted against the time-resolved fluorescence spectra of commercially available collagens; and 2) are in agreement with Western blot analysis that demonstrated significant increase in collagen I content between 3- vs. 5-weeks and 3- vs. 7-weeks and no changes for collagens III, IV, and V. Our results suggest that TR-LIFS can be used as a non-invasive means for the detection of specific collagens in maturing connective tissues.

  12. Osteogenic differentiation of preosteoblasts on a hemostatic gelatin sponge

    PubMed Central

    Kuo, Zong-Keng; Lai, Po-Liang; Toh, Elsie Khai-Woon; Weng, Cheng-Hsi; Tseng, Hsiang-Wen; Chang, Pei-Zen; Chen, Chih-Chen; Cheng, Chao-Min

    2016-01-01

    Bone tissue engineering provides many advantages for repairing skeletal defects. Although many different kinds of biomaterials have been used for bone tissue engineering, safety issues must be considered when using them in a clinical setting. In this study, we examined the effects of using a common clinical item, a hemostatic gelatin sponge, as a scaffold for bone tissue engineering. The use of such a clinically acceptable item may hasten the translational lag from laboratory to clinical studies. We performed both degradation and biocompatibility studies on the hemostatic gelatin sponge, and cultured preosteoblasts within the sponge scaffold to demonstrate its osteogenic differentiation potential. In degradation assays, the gelatin sponge demonstrated good stability after being immersed in PBS for 8 weeks (losing only about 10% of its net weight and about 54% decrease of mechanical strength), but pepsin and collagenases readily biodegraded it. The gelatin sponge demonstrated good biocompatibility to preosteoblasts as demonstrated by MTT assay, confocal microscopy, and scanning electron microscopy. Furthermore, osteogenic differentiation and the migration of preosteoblasts, elevated alkaline phosphatase activity, and in vitro mineralization were observed within the scaffold structure. Each of these results indicates that the hemostatic gelatin sponge is a suitable scaffold for bone tissue engineering. PMID:27616161

  13. YAP-mediated mechanotransduction regulates osteogenic and adipogenic differentiation of BMSCs on hierarchical structure.

    PubMed

    Pan, Houhua; Xie, Youtao; Zhang, Zequan; Li, Kai; Hu, Dandan; Zheng, Xuebin; Fan, Qiming; Tang, Tingting

    2017-04-01

    Hierarchical structure mimicking the natural bone microenvironment has been considered as a promising platform to regulate cell functions. We have previously fabricated hierarchical macropore/nanowire structure and evidence has shown that it can better manipulate the cytoskeleton status and osteogenic performance of osteoblasts. However, how cues of hierarchical structure are translated and ultimately linked to BMSC lineage commitment have still remained elusive, which hinders the accurate knowledge and further development of the hierarchical structure. In this study, bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) fate on hierarchical structure was investigated as well as the detailed mechanisms. It was shown that well-developed cytoskeleton and focal adhesion were observed for BMSCs on hierarchical structure, which was accompanied by enhanced osteogenic and depressed adipogenic potential. Evidence of increased YAP activity and nuclear translocation were exhibited on hierarchical structure and YAP knockdown inhibited osteogenic differentiation and promoted adipogenic differentiation induced by hierarchical structure. Further remove of cytoskeleton tension inhibited YAP function, which confirmed the key role of YAP-mediated mechanotransduction in the BMSC differentiation. These results together provide information of the stem cell fate commitment on hierarchical structure and a promising approach to design advanced biomaterials by focusing on specific mechanotransduction process.

  14. Nuclear receptor profile in calvarial bone cells undergoing osteogenic versus adipogenic differentiation.

    PubMed

    Pirih, Flavia Q; Abayahoudian, Rosette; Elashoff, David; Parhami, Farhad; Nervina, Jeanne M; Tetradis, Sotirios

    2008-12-01

    Nuclear receptors (NRs) are key regulators of cell function and differentiation. We examined NR expression during osteogenic versus adipogenic differentiation of primary mouse calvarial osteoblasts (MOBs). MOBs were cultured for 21 days in osteogenic or adipogenic differentiation media. von Kossa and Oil Red O staining, and qRT-PCR of marker genes and 49 NRs were performed. PCR amplicons were subcloned to establish correct sequences and absolute standard curves. Forty-three NRs were detected at days 0-21. Uncentered average linkage hierarchical clustering identified four expression clusters: NRs (1) upregulated during osteogenic, but not adipogenic, differentiation, (2) upregulated in both conditions, with greater upregulation during adipogenic differentiation, (3) upregulated equally in both conditions, (4) downregulated during adipogenic, but not osteogenic, differentiation. One-way ANOVA with contrast revealed 20 NRs upregulated during osteogenic differentiation and 12 NRs upregulated during adipogenic differentiation. Two-way ANOVA demonstrated that 18 NRs were higher in osteogenic media, while 9 NRs were higher in adipogenic media. The time effect revealed 16 upregulated NRs. The interaction of condition with time revealed 6 NRs with higher expression rate during adipogenic differentiation and 3 NRs with higher expression rate during osteogenic differentiation. Relative NR abundance at days 0 and 21 were ranked. Basal ranking changed at least 5 positions for 13 NRs in osteogenic media and 9 NRs in adipogenic media. Osteogenic and adipogenic differentiation significantly altered NR expression in MOBs. These differences offer a fingerprint of cellular commitment and may provide clues to the underlying mechanisms of osteogenic versus adipogenic differentiation.

  15. Nuclear Receptor Profile in Calvarial Bone Cells Undergoing Osteogenic Versus Adipogenic Differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Pirih, Flavia Q.; Abayahoudian, Rosette; Elashoff, David; Parhami, Farhad; Nervina, Jeanne M.; Tetradis, Sotirios

    2017-01-01

    Nuclear receptors (NRs) are key regulators of cell function and differentiation. We examined NR expression during osteogenic versus adipogenic differentiation of primary mouse calvarial osteoblasts (MOBs). MOBs were cultured for 21 days in osteogenic or adipogenic differentiation media. von Kossa and Oil Red O staining, and qRT-PCR of marker genes and 49 NRs were performed. PCR amplicons were subcloned to establish correct sequences and absolute standard curves. Forty-three NRs were detected at days 0–21. Uncentered average linkage hierarchical clustering identified four expression clusters: NRs (1) upregulated during osteogenic, but not adipogenic, differentiation, (2) upregulated in both conditions, with greater upregulation during adipogenic differentiation, (3) upregulated equally in both conditions, (4) downregulated during adipogenic, but not osteogenic, differentiation. One-way ANOVA with contrast revealed 20 NRs upregulated during osteogenic differentiation and 12 NRs upregulated during adipogenic differentiation. Two-way ANOVA demonstrated that 18 NRs were higher in osteogenic media, while 9 NRs were higher in adipogenic media. The time effect revealed 16 upregulated NRs. The interaction of condition with time revealed 6 NRs with higher expression rate during adipogenic differentiation and 3 NRs with higher expression rate during osteogenic differentiation. Relative NR abundance at days 0 and 21 were ranked. Basal ranking changed at least 5 positions for 13 NRs in osteogenic media and 9 NRs in adipogenic media. Osteogenic and adipogenic differentiation significantly altered NR expression in MOBs. These differences offer a fingerprint of cellular commitment and may provide clues to the underlying mechanisms of osteogenic versus adipogenic differentiation. PMID:18810760

  16. Osteogenic differentiation of human dental papilla mesenchymal cells

    SciTech Connect

    Ikeda, Etsuko; Hirose, Motohiro . E-mail: motohiro-hirose@aist.go.jp; Kotobuki, Noriko; Shimaoka, Hideki; Tadokoro, Mika; Maeda, Masahiko; Hayashi, Yoshiko; Kirita, Tadaaki; Ohgushi, Hajime

    2006-04-21

    We isolated dental papilla from impacted human molar and proliferated adherent fibroblastic cells after collagenase treatment of the papilla. The cells were negative for hematopoietic markers but positive for CD29, CD44, CD90, CD105, and CD166. When the cells were further cultured in the presence of {beta}-glycerophosphate, ascorbic acid, and dexamethasone for 14 days, mineralized areas together with osteogenic differentiation evidenced by high alkaline phosphatase activity and osteocalcin contents were observed. The differentiation was confirmed at both protein and gene expression levels. The cells can also be cryopreserved and, after thawing, could show in vivo bone-forming capability. These results indicate that mesenchymal type cells localize in dental papilla and that the cells can be culture expanded/utilized for bone tissue engineering.

  17. Enhancement of osteogenic differentiation of rat adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells by zinc sulphate under electromagnetic field via the PKA, ERK1/2 and Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathways

    PubMed Central

    Fathi, Ezzatollah; Farahzadi, Raheleh

    2017-01-01

    Zinc ion as an essential trace element and electromagnetic fields (EMFs) has been reported to be involved in the regulation of bone metabolism. The aim of this study was to elucidate the effects of zinc sulphate (ZnSO4) on the osteogenic differentiation of adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ADSCs) in the presence of EMF as a strategy in osteoporosis therapy. Alkaline phophatase (ALP) activity measurement, calcium assay and expression of several osteoblastic marker genes were examined to assess the effect of ZnSO4 on the osteogenic differentiation of ADSCs under EMF. The expression of cAMP and PKA was evaluated by ELISA. The expression of β-catenin, Wnt1, Wnt3a, low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 5 (LRP5) and reduced dickkopf1 (DKK1) genes were used to detect the Wnt/β-catenin pathway. It was found that ZnSO4, in the presence of EMF, resulted in an increase in the expression of osteogenic genes, ALP activity and calcium levels. EMF, in the presence of ZnSO4, increased the cAMP level and protein kinase A (PKA) activity. Treatment of ADSCs with (MAPK)/ERK kinase 1/2 inhibitor, or PKA inhibitor, significantly inhibited the promotion of osteogenic markers, indicating that the induction of osteogenesis was dependent on the ERK and PKA signaling pathways. Real-time PCR analysis showed that ZnSO4, in the presence of EMF, increased the mRNA expressions of β-catenin, Wnt1, Wnt3a, LRP5 and DKK1. In this study, it was shown that 0.432 μg/ml ZnSO4, in the presence of 50 Hz, 20 mT EMF, induced the osteogenic differentiation of ADSCs via PKA, ERK1/2 and Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathways. PMID:28339498

  18. BMP2 induces chondrogenic differentiation, osteogenic differentiation and endochondral ossification in stem cells.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Nian; Li, Qi; Lin, Xin; Hu, Ning; Liao, Jun-Yi; Lin, Liang-Bo; Zhao, Chen; Hu, Zhen-Ming; Liang, Xi; Xu, Wei; Chen, Hong; Huang, Wei

    2016-10-01

    Bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP2), a member of the transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) super-family, is one of the main chondrogenic growth factors involved in cartilage regeneration. BMP2 is known to induce chondrogenic differentiation in various types of stem cells in vitro. However, BMP2 also induces osteogenic differentiation and endochondral ossification in mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). Although information regarding BMP2-induced chondrogenic and osteogenic differentiation within the same system might be essential for cartilage tissue engineering, few studies concerning these issues have been conducted. In this study, BMP2 was identified as a regulator of chondrogenic differentiation, osteogenic differentiation and endochondral bone formation within the same system. BMP2 was used to regulate chondrogenic and osteogenic differentiation in stem cells within the same culture system in vitro and in vivo. Any changes in the differentiation markers were assessed. BMP2 was found to induce chondrogenesis and osteogenesis in vitro via the expression of Sox9, Runx2 and its downstream markers. According to the results of the subcutaneous stem cell implantation studies, BMP2 not only induced cartilage formation but also promoted endochondral ossification during ectopic bone/cartilage formation. In fetal limb cultures, BMP2 promoted chondrocyte hypertrophy and endochondral ossification. Our data reveal that BMP2 can spontaneously induce chondrogenic differentiation, osteogenic differentiation and endochondral bone formation within the same system. Thus, BMP2 can be used in cartilage tissue engineering to regulate cartilage formation but has to be properly regulated for cartilage tissue engineering in order to retain the cartilage phenotype.

  19. Osteogenic differentiation regulated by Rho-kinase in periodontal ligament cells.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Tadashi; Ugawa, Yuki; Yamashiro, Keisuke; Shimoe, Masayuki; Tomikawa, Kazuya; Hongo, Shoichi; Kochi, Shinsuke; Ideguchi, Hidetaka; Maeda, Hiroshi; Takashiba, Shogo

    2014-01-01

    The periodontal ligament is a multifunctional soft connective tissue, which functions not only as a cushion supporting the teeth against occlusal force, but is also a source of osteogenic cells that can regenerate neighboring hard tissues. Periodontal ligament cells (PDL cells) contain heterogeneous cell populations, including osteogenic cell progenitors. However, the precise mechanism underlying the differentiation process remains elusive. Cell differentiation is regulated by the local biochemical and mechanical microenvironment that can modulate gene expression and cell morphology by altering actin cytoskeletal organization mediated by Rho-associated, coiled-coil containing protein kinase (ROCK). To determine its role in PDL cell differentiation, we examined the effects of ROCK on cytoskeletal changes and kinetics of gene expression during osteogenic differentiation. PDL cells were isolated from human periodontal ligament on extracted teeth and cultured in osteogenic medium for 14 days. Y-27632 was used for ROCK inhibition assay. Osteogenic phenotype was determined by monitoring alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and calcium deposition by Alizarin Red staining. ROCK-induced cytoskeletal changes were examined by immunofluorescence analysis of F-actin and myosin light chain 2 (MLC2) expression. Real-time PCR was performed to examine the kinetics of osteogenic gene expression. F-actin and phospho-MLC2 were markedly induced during osteogenic differentiation, which coincided with upregulation of ALP activity and mineralization. Subsequent inhibition assay indicated that Y-27632 significantly inhibited F-actin and phospho-MLC2 expression in a dose-dependent manner with concomitant partial reversal of the PDL cell osteogenic phenotype. PCR array analysis of osteogenic gene expression indicated that extracellular matrix genes, such as fibronectin 1, collagen type I and III, and biglycan, were significantly downregulated by Y27632. These findings indicated crucial

  20. The roles of calcium-sensing receptor and calcium channel in osteogenic differentiation of undifferentiated periodontal ligament cells.

    PubMed

    Koori, Katsuaki; Maeda, Hidefumi; Fujii, Shinsuke; Tomokiyo, Atsushi; Kawachi, Giichiro; Hasegawa, Daigaku; Hamano, Sayuri; Sugii, Hideki; Wada, Naohisa; Akamine, Akifumi

    2014-09-01

    Elevated extracellular calcium has been shown to promote the differentiation of osteoblasts. However, the way that calcium affects the osteogenic differentiation of human periodontal ligament stem/progenitor cells (PDLSCs) remains unclear. Our aim has been to investigate the proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of a calcium-exposed human PDLSC line (cell line 1-17) that we have recently established and to elucidate the roles of the calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR) and L-type voltage-dependent calcium channel (L-VDCC) in this process. Proliferation activity was investigated by WST-1 assay, and gene and protein expression was examined by quantitative reverse transcriptase plus the polymerase chain reaction and immunostaining, respectively. Calcification assay was performed by von Kossa and Alizarin red staining. Treatment with 5 mM CaCl2 significantly induced proliferation, bone-related gene expression, and calcification in cell line 1-17. During culture with 5 mM CaCl2, this cell line up-regulated the gene expression of CaSR, which was reduced after 7 days. Simultaneous treatment with NPS2143, a CaSR inhibitor, and calcium significantly further increased bone-related gene expression and calcification as compared with CaCl2 exposure alone. The L-VDCC inhibitor, nifedipine, significantly suppressed osteogenic differentiation of cell line 1-17 treated with 5 mM CaCl2 and promoted the expression of CaSR, as compared with calcium treatment alone. Thus, elevated extracellular calcium promotes the proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of a PDLSC line. Antagonizing CaSR further enhances the effect of calcium on osteogenic differentiation, with CaSR expression being regulated by L-VDCC under extracellular calcium. Extracellular calcium might therefore modulate the osteogenic differentiation of PDLSCs through reciprocal adjustments of CaSR and L-VDCC.

  1. Detection of Osteogenic Differentiation by Differential Mineralized Matrix Production in Mesenchymal Stromal Cells by Raman Spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Chen, He-Guei; Chiang, Hui-Hua Kenny; Lee, Oscar Kuang-Sheng

    2013-01-01

    Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) hold great potential in skeletal tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. However, conventional methods that are used in molecular biology to evaluate osteogenic differentiation of MSCs require a relatively large amount of cells. Cell lysis and cell fixation are also required and all these steps are time-consuming. Therefore, it is imperative to develop a facile technique which can provide real-time information with high sensitivity and selectivity to detect the osteogenic maturation of MSCs. In this study, we use Raman spectroscopy as a biosensor to monitor the production of mineralized matrices during osteogenic induction of MSCs. In summary, Raman spectroscopy is an excellent biosensor to detect the extent of maturation level during MSCs-osteoblast differentiation with a non-disruptive, real-time and label free manner. We expect that this study will promote further investigation of stem cell research and clinical applications. PMID:23734254

  2. Inhibiting PPARγ by erythropoietin while upregulating TAZ by IGF1 synergistically promote osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jianwei; Wei, Fangyuan; Ma, Yuquan

    2016-09-09

    Erythropoietin (EPO) is reported to promote osteogenesis and inhibit adipogenesis of mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) through inhibiting PPARγ, while insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1) is able to enhance osteogenesis via upregulating transcriptional coactivator with PDZ-binding motif (TAZ). The different targets of EPO and IGF1 suggested their potential synergism to enhance osteogenesis. In this study, we aimed to determine the potential synergism of EPO and IGF1 and its efficacy on MSC differentiation. Rat adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ADSCs) were separately treated with EPO, IGF1 and EPO/IGF1. It was observed that the co-treatment using EPO and IGF1 was able to potently promote the osteogenic differentiation of rat ADSCs compared with EPO or IGF1 alone, which offered a promising effective option to strengthen bone tissue regeneration for bone defects. Further, we demonstrated that the enhanced osteogenic differentiation by EPO and IGF1 co-treatment was almost counteracted by activating PPARγ through PPARγ agonist, RSG, and blocking TAZ through TAZ silencing RNA, siTAZ. Thus, it could be concluded that EPO and IGF1 possessed a potent synergism in promoting osteogenic differentiation, and the synergism was mainly attributed to co-regulation of different osteogenic regulators PPARγ and TAZ, which were targeted genes of EPO and IGF1 respectively.

  3. Synergistic effect of exogeneous and endogeneous electrostimulation on osteogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells seeded on silk scaffolds.

    PubMed

    Çakmak, Anıl S; Çakmak, Soner; White, James D; Raja, Waseem K; Kim, Kyungsook; Yiğit, Sezin; Kaplan, David L; Gümüşderelioğlu, Menemşe

    2016-04-01

    Bioelectrical regulation of bone fracture healing is important for many cellular events such as proliferation, migration, and differentiation. The aim of this study was to investigate the osteogenic differentiation potential of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) cultivated on silk scaffolds in response to different modes of electrostimulation (e.g., exogeneous and/or endogeneous). Endogeneous electrophysiology was altered through the use of monensin (10 nM) and glibenclamide (10 μM), along with external electrostimulation (60 kHz; 100-500 mV). Monensin enhanced the expression of early osteogenic markers such as alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and runt-related transcription factor 2 (RUNX-2). When exogeneous electrostimulation was combined with glibenclamide, more mature osteogenic marker upregulation based on bone sialoprotein expression (BSP) and mineralization was found. These results suggest the potential to exploit both exogeneous and endogeneous biophysical control of cell functions towards tissue-specific goals.

  4. miR-1827 inhibits osteogenic differentiation by targeting IGF1 in MSMSCs

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, ShuangXi; Peng, Wei; Li, Xiang; Weng, JunQuan; Zhang, Xing; Guo, JunBing; Huang, DaiYing; Rong, Qiong; Chen, SongLing

    2017-01-01

    We recently reported that maxillary sinus membrane stem cells (MSMSCs) have osteogenic potential. However, the biological mechanisms of bone formation remain unclear. In this study, we investigated the role and mechanisms of microRNAs (miRNAs) in the osteogenic differentiation of MSMSCs. The expression of miRNAs was determined in differentiated MSMSCs by comprehensive miRNA microarray analysis and quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR). We selected miR-1827 for functional follow-up studies to explore its significance in MSMSCs. Here, miR-1827 was found to be up-regulated during osteogenic differentiation of MSMSCs. Over expression of miR-1827 inhibited osteogenic differentiation of MSMSCs in vitro, whereas the repression of miR-1827 greatly promoted cell differentiation. Further experiments confirmed that insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1) is a direct target of miR-1827. miR-1827 inhibited osteogenic differentiation partially via IGF1, which in turn is a positive regulator of osteogenic differentiation. Moreover, miR-1827 suppressed ectopic bone formation and silencing of miR-1827 led to increased bone formation in vivo. In summary, this study is the first to demonstrate that miR-1827 can regulate osteogenic differentiation. The increase in miR-1827 expression observed during osteogenesis is likely a negative feedback mechanism, thus offering a potential therapeutic target to address inadequate bone volume for dental implantation through inhibiting miR-1827. PMID:28387248

  5. Surface thermal oxidation on titanium implants to enhance osteogenic activity and in vivo osseointegration

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Guifang; Li, Jinhua; Lv, Kaige; Zhang, Wenjie; Ding, Xun; Yang, Guangzheng; Liu, Xuanyong; Jiang, Xinquan

    2016-01-01

    Thermal oxidation, which serves as a low-cost, effective and relatively simple/facile method, was used to modify a micro-structured titanium surface in ambient atmosphere at 450 °C for different time periods to improve in vitro and in vivo bioactivity. The surface morphology, crystallinity of the surface layers, chemical composition and chemical states were evaluated by field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Cell behaviours including cell adhesion, attachment, proliferation, and osteogenic differentiation were observed in vitro study. The ability of the titanium surface to promote osseointegration was evaluated in an in vivo animal model. Surface thermal oxidation on titanium implants maintained the microstructure and, thus, both slightly changed the nanoscale structure of titanium and enhanced the crystallinity of the titanium surface layer. Cells cultured on the three oxidized titanium surfaces grew well and exhibited better osteogenic activity than did the control samples. The in vivo bone-implant contact also showed enhanced osseointegration after several hours of oxidization. This heat-treated titanium enhanced the osteogenic differentiation activity of rBMMSCs and improved osseointegration in vivo, suggesting that surface thermal oxidation could potentially be used in clinical applications to improve bone-implant integration. PMID:27546196

  6. Surface thermal oxidation on titanium implants to enhance osteogenic activity and in vivo osseointegration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Guifang; Li, Jinhua; Lv, Kaige; Zhang, Wenjie; Ding, Xun; Yang, Guangzheng; Liu, Xuanyong; Jiang, Xinquan

    2016-08-01

    Thermal oxidation, which serves as a low-cost, effective and relatively simple/facile method, was used to modify a micro-structured titanium surface in ambient atmosphere at 450 °C for different time periods to improve in vitro and in vivo bioactivity. The surface morphology, crystallinity of the surface layers, chemical composition and chemical states were evaluated by field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Cell behaviours including cell adhesion, attachment, proliferation, and osteogenic differentiation were observed in vitro study. The ability of the titanium surface to promote osseointegration was evaluated in an in vivo animal model. Surface thermal oxidation on titanium implants maintained the microstructure and, thus, both slightly changed the nanoscale structure of titanium and enhanced the crystallinity of the titanium surface layer. Cells cultured on the three oxidized titanium surfaces grew well and exhibited better osteogenic activity than did the control samples. The in vivo bone-implant contact also showed enhanced osseointegration after several hours of oxidization. This heat-treated titanium enhanced the osteogenic differentiation activity of rBMMSCs and improved osseointegration in vivo, suggesting that surface thermal oxidation could potentially be used in clinical applications to improve bone-implant integration.

  7. Voriconazole Enhances the Osteogenic Activity of Human Osteoblasts In Vitro through a Fluoride-Independent Mechanism.

    PubMed

    Allen, Kahtonna C; Sanchez, Carlos J; Niece, Krista L; Wenke, Joseph C; Akers, Kevin S

    2015-12-01

    Periostitis, which is characterized by bony pain and diffuse periosteal ossification, has been increasingly reported with prolonged clinical use of voriconazole. While resolution of clinical symptoms following discontinuation of therapy suggests a causative role for voriconazole, the biological mechanisms contributing to voriconazole-induced periostitis are unknown. To elucidate potential mechanisms, we exposed human osteoblasts in vitro to voriconazole or fluconazole at 15 or 200 μg/ml (reflecting systemic or local administration, respectively), under nonosteogenic or osteogenic conditions, for 1, 3, or 7 days and evaluated the effects on cell proliferation (reflected by total cellular DNA) and osteogenic differentiation (reflected by alkaline phosphatase activity, calcium accumulation, and expression of genes involved in osteogenic differentiation). Release of free fluoride, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) was also measured in cell supernatants of osteoblasts exposed to triazoles, with an ion-selective electrode (for free fluoride) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) (for VEGF and PDGF). Voriconazole but not fluconazole significantly enhanced the proliferation and differentiation of osteoblasts. In contrast to clinical observations, no increases in free fluoride levels were detected following exposure to either voriconazole or fluconazole; however, significant increases in the expression of VEGF and PDGF by osteoblasts were observed following exposure to voriconazole. Our results demonstrate that voriconazole can induce osteoblast proliferation and enhance osteogenic activity in vitro. Importantly, and in contrast to the previously proposed mechanism of fluoride-stimulated osteogenesis, our findings suggest that voriconazole-induced periostitis may also occur through fluoride-independent mechanisms that enhance the expression of cytokines that can augment osteoblastic activity.

  8. Promotive Effect of Zinc Ions on the Vitality, Migration, and Osteogenic Differentiation of Human Dental Pulp Cells.

    PubMed

    An, Shaofeng; Gong, Qimei; Huang, Yihua

    2017-01-01

    Zinc is an essential trace element for proper cellular function and bone formation. However, its exact role in the osteogenic differentiation of human dental pulp cells (hDPCs) has not been fully clarified before. Here, we speculated that zinc may be effective to regulate their growth and osteogenic differentiation properties. To test this hypothesis, different concentrations (1 × 10(-5), 4 × 10(-5), and 8 × 10(-5) M) of zinc ions (Zn(2+)) were added to the basic growth culture medium and osteogenic inductive medium. Cell viability and migration were measured by cell counting kit-8 (CCK-8) and transwell migration assay in the basic growth culture medium, respectively. The reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) was used to detect the gene expression levels of selective osteogenic differentiation markers and zinc transporters. Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity analysis and alizarin red S staining were used to investigate the mineralization of hDPCs. Exposure of hDPCs to Zn(2+) stimulated their viability and migration capacity in a dose- and time-dependent manner. RT-qPCR assay revealed elevated expression levels of osteogenic differentiation-related genes and zinc transporters genes in various degrees. ALP activity was also increased with elevated Zn(2+) concentrations and extended culture periods, but enhanced matrix nodules formation were observed only in 4 × 10(-5) and 8 × 10(-5) M Zn(2+) groups. These findings suggest that specific concentrations of Zn(2+) could potentiate the vitality, migration, and osteogenic differentiation of hDPCs. We may combine optimum zinc element into pulp capping materials to improve their biological performance.

  9. Contrasting effect of perlecan on adipogenic and osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells in vitro.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Ryosuke; Nakamura, Fumio; Fukunaga, Shigeharu

    2014-03-01

    Perlecan, a basement membrane component, shows diverse functions in different organs and tissues. However, the role of perlecan in differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) has been barely investigated. In this study, we examined the effect of perlecan on adipogenic and osteogenic differentiation of MSCs in vitro by adding extrinsic perlecan to culture media or blocking the function of intrinsic perlecan expressed into culture media by differentiating MSCs. Extrinsic perlecan suppressed adipogenic differentiation; however, it promoted osteogenic differentiation. These functions were further confirmed by a study of blocking intrinsic perlecan. Perlecan treated with heparitinase-I also showed the suppressive effect on adipogenic differentiation. In contrast, the promotive effect on osteogenic differentiation was found to be heparan sulfate-dependent. Intrinsic perlecan was suggested to be effective at the late stage of adipogenic differentiation by a study of perlecan-blocking performed at distinct periods, but was suggested to be effective at the early stage of osteogenic differentiation. Our results showed perlecan has contrasting effect on adipogenic and osteogenic differentiation of MSCs due to its diverse actions. Based on these outcomes, we recognized that employing extrinsic perlecan or blocking intrinsic perlecan is effective for regulating adipogenic and osteogenic differentiation of MSCs by restricting its direction.

  10. Tissue transglutaminase is involved in mechanical load-induced osteogenic differentiation of human ligamentum flavum cells.

    PubMed

    Chao, Yuan-Hung; Huang, Shih-Yung; Yang, Ruei-Cheng; Sun, Jui-Sheng

    2016-07-01

    Mechanical load-induced osteogenic differentiation might be the key cellular event in the calcification and ossification of ligamentum flavum. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of tissue transglutaminase (TGM2) on mechanical load-induced osteogenesis of ligamentum flavum cells. Human ligamentum flavum cells were obtained from 12 patients undergoing lumbar spine surgery. Osteogenic phenotypes of ligamentum flavum cells, such as alkaline phosphatase (ALP), Alizarin red-S stain, and gene expression of osteogenic makers were evaluated following the administration of mechanical load and BMP-2 treatment. The expression of TGM2 was evaluated by real-time PCR, Western blotting, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) analysis. Our results showed that mechanical load in combination with BMP-2 enhanced calcium deposition and ALP activity. Mechanical load significantly increased ALP and OC gene expression on day 3, whereas BMP-2 significantly increased ALP, OPN, and Runx2 on day 7. Mechanical load significantly induced TGM2 gene expression and enzyme activity in human ligamentum flavum cells. Exogenous TGM2 increased ALP and OC gene expression; while, inhibited TG activity significantly attenuated mechanical load-induced and TGM2-induced ALP activity. In summary, mechanical load-induced TGM2 expression and enzyme activity is involved in the progression of the calcification of ligamentum flavum.

  11. Correlation between ECM guidance and actin polymerization on osteogenic differentiation of human adipose-derived stem cells.

    PubMed

    Keller, Vivian; Deiwick, Andrea; Pflaum, Michael; Schlie-Wolter, Sabrina

    2016-10-01

    The correlation between extracellular matrix (ECM) components, cell shape, and stem cell guidance can shed light in understanding and mimicking the functionality of stem cell niches for various applications. This interplay on osteogenic guidance of human adipose-derived stem cells (hASCs) was focus of this study. Proliferation and osteogenic markers like alkaline phosphatase activity and calcium mineralization were slightly increased by the ECM components laminin (LA), collagen I (COL), and fibronectin (FIB); with control medium no differentiation occurred. ECM guided differentiation was rather dependent on osterix than on Runx2 pathway. FIB significantly enhanced cell elongation even in presence of actin polymerization blockers cytochalasin D (CytoD) and ROCK inhibitor Y-27632, which generally caused more rounded cells. Except for the COL surface, both inhibitors increased the extent of osterix, while the Runx2 pathway was more sensitive to the culture condition. Both inhibitors did not affect hASC proliferation. CytoD enabled osteogenic differentiation independently from the ECM, while it was rather blocked via Y-27632 treatment; on FIB the general highest extent of differentiation occurred. Taken together, the ECM effect on hASCs occurs indirectly and selectively via a dominant role of FIB: it sustains osteogenic differentiation in case of a tension-dependent control of actin polymerization.

  12. Insulin-like Growth Factor 2 (IGF-2) Potentiates BMP-9-Induced Osteogenic Differentiation and Bone Formation

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Liang; Jiang, Wei; Huang, Jiayi; He, Bai-Cheng; Zuo, Guo-Wei; Zhang, Wenli; Luo, Qing; Shi, Qiong; Zhang, Bing-Qiang; Wagner, Eric R; Luo, Jinyong; Tang, Min; Wietholt, Christian; Luo, Xiaoji; Bi, Yang; Su, Yuxi; Liu, Bo; Kim, Stephanie H; He, Connie J; Hu, Yawen; Shen, Jikun; Rastegar, Farbod; Huang, Enyi; Gao, Yanhong; Gao, Jian-Li; Zhou, Jian-Zhong; Reid, Russell R; Luu, Hue H; Haydon, Rex C; He, Tong-Chuan; Deng, Zhong-Liang

    2010-01-01

    Efficient osteogenic differentiation and bone formation from mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) should have clinical applications in treating nonunion fracture healing. MSCs are adherent bone marrow stromal cells that can self-renew and differentiate into osteogenic, chondrogenic, adipogenic, and myogenic lineages. We have identified bone morphogenetic protein 9 (BMP-9) as one of the most osteogenic BMPs. Here we investigate the effect of insulin-like growth factor 2 (IGF-2) on BMP-9-induced bone formation. We have found that endogenous IGF-2 expression is low in MSCs. Expression of IGF-2 can potentiate BMP-9-induced early osteogenic marker alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and the expression of later markers. IGF-2 has been shown to augment BMP-9-induced ectopic bone formation in the stem cell implantation assay. In perinatal limb explant culture assay, IGF-2 enhances BMP-9-induced endochondral ossification, whereas IGF-2 itself can promote the expansion of the hypertropic chondrocyte zone of the cultured limb explants. Expression of the IGF antagonists IGFBP3 and IGFBP4 leads to inhibition of the IGF-2 effect on BMP-9-induced ALP activity and matrix mineralization. Mechanistically, IGF-2 is further shown to enhance the BMP-9-induced BMPR-Smad reporter activity and Smad1/5/8 nuclear translocation. PI3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitor LY294002 abolishes the IGF-2 potentiation effect on BMP-9-mediated osteogenic signaling and can directly inhibit BMP-9 activity. These results demonstrate that BMP-9 crosstalks with IGF-2 through PI3K/AKT signaling pathway during osteogenic differentiation of MSCs. Taken together, our findings suggest that a combination of BMP-9 and IGF-2 may be explored as an effective bone-regeneration agent to treat large segmental bony defects, nonunion fracture, and/or osteoporotic fracture. © 2010 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research. PMID:20499340

  13. Adhesion, vitality and osteogenic differentiation capacity of adipose derived stem cells seeded on nitinol nanoparticle coatings.

    PubMed

    Strauss, Sarah; Neumeister, Anne; Barcikowski, Stephan; Kracht, Dietmar; Kuhbier, Jörn W; Radtke, Christine; Reimers, Kerstin; Vogt, Peter M

    2013-01-01

    Autologous cells can be used for a bioactivation of osteoimplants to enhance osseointegration. In this regard, adipose derived stem cells (ASCs) offer interesting perspectives in implantology because they are fast and easy to isolate. However, not all materials licensed for bone implants are equally suited for cell adhesion. Surface modifications are under investigation to promote cytocompatibility and cell growth. The presented study focused on influences of a Nitinol-nanoparticle coating on ASCs. Possible toxic effects as well as influences on the osteogenic differentiation potential of ASCs were evaluated by viability assays, scanning electron microscopy, immunofluorescence and alizarin red staining. It was previously shown that Nitinol-nanoparticles exert no cell toxic effects to ASCs either in soluble form or as surface coating. Here we could demonstrate that a Nitinol-nanoparticle surface coating enhances cell adherence and growth on Nitinol-surfaces. No negative influence on the osteogenic differentiation was observed. Nitinol-nanoparticle coatings offer new possibilities in implantology research regarding bioactivation by autologous ASCs, respectively enhancement of surface attraction to cells.

  14. Adhesion, Vitality and Osteogenic Differentiation Capacity of Adipose Derived Stem Cells Seeded on Nitinol Nanoparticle Coatings

    PubMed Central

    Strauß, Sarah; Neumeister, Anne; Barcikowski, Stephan; Kracht, Dietmar; Kuhbier, Jörn W.; Radtke, Christine; Reimers, Kerstin; Vogt, Peter M.

    2013-01-01

    Autologous cells can be used for a bioactivation of osteoimplants to enhance osseointegration. In this regard, adipose derived stem cells (ASCs) offer interesting perspectives in implantology because they are fast and easy to isolate. However, not all materials licensed for bone implants are equally suited for cell adhesion. Surface modifications are under investigation to promote cytocompatibility and cell growth. The presented study focused on influences of a Nitinol-nanoparticle coating on ASCs. Possible toxic effects as well as influences on the osteogenic differentiation potential of ASCs were evaluated by viability assays, scanning electron microscopy, immunofluorescence and alizarin red staining. It was previously shown that Nitinol-nanoparticles exert no cell toxic effects to ASCs either in soluble form or as surface coating. Here we could demonstrate that a Nitinol-nanoparticle surface coating enhances cell adherence and growth on Nitinol-surfaces. No negative influence on the osteogenic differentiation was observed. Nitinol-nanoparticle coatings offer new possibilities in implantology research regarding bioactivation by autologous ASCs, respectively enhancement of surface attraction to cells. PMID:23308190

  15. Synergistic effect of defined artificial extracellular matrices and pulsed electric fields on osteogenic differentiation of human MSCs.

    PubMed

    Hess, Ricarda; Jaeschke, Anna; Neubert, Holger; Hintze, Vera; Moeller, Stephanie; Schnabelrauch, Matthias; Wiesmann, Hans-Peter; Hart, David A; Scharnweber, Dieter

    2012-12-01

    In vivo, bone formation is a complex, tightly regulated process, influenced by multiple biochemical and physical factors. To develop a vital bone tissue engineering construct, all of these individual components have to be considered and integrated to gain an in vivo-like stimulation of target cells. The purpose of the present studies was to investigate the synergistic role of defined biochemical and physical microenvironments with respect to osteogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). Biochemical microenvironments have been designed using artificial extracellular matrices (aECMs), containing collagen I (coll) and glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) like chondroitin sulfate (CS), or a high-sulfated hyaluronan derivative (sHya), formulated as coatings on three-dimensional poly(caprolactone-co-lactide) (PCL) scaffolds. As part of the physical microenvironment, cells were exposed to pulsed electric fields via transformer-like coupling (TC). Results showed that aECM containing sHya enhanced osteogenic differentiation represented by increases in ALP activity and gene-expression (RT-qPCR) of several bone-related proteins (RUNX-2, ALP, OPN). Electric field stimulation alone did not influence cell proliferation, but osteogenic differentiation was enhanced if osteogenic supplements were provided, showing synergistic effects by the combination of sHya and electric fields. These results will improve the understanding of bone regeneration processes and support the development of effective tissue engineered bone constructs.

  16. Uric Acid Promotes Osteogenic Differentiation and Inhibits Adipogenic Differentiation of Human Bone Mesenchymal Stem Cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Hui-Zhang; Chen, Zhi; Hou, Cang-Long; Tang, Yi-Xing; Wang, Fei; Fu, Qing-Ge

    2015-08-01

    To investigate the effect of uric acid on the osteogenic and adipogenic differentiation of human bone mesenchymal stem cells (hBMSCs). The hBMSCs were isolated from bone marrow of six healthy donors. Cell morphology was observed by microscopy and cell surface markers (CD44 and CD34) of hBMSCs were analyzed by immunofluorescence. Cell morphology and immunofluorescence analysis showed that hBMSCs were successfully isolated from bone marrow. The number of hBMSCs in uric acid groups was higher than that in the control group on day 3, 4, and 5. Alizarin red staining showed that number of calcium nodules in uric acid groups was more than that of the control group. Oil red-O staining showed that the number of red fat vacuoles decreased with the increased concentration of uric acid. In summary, uric acid could promote the proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of hBMSCs while inhibit adipogenic differentiation of hBMSCs.

  17. Controlled Osteogenic Differentiation of Mouse Mesenchymal Stem Cells by Tetracycline-Controlled Transcriptional Activation of Amelogenin

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Fangfang; Okawa, Hiroko; Kamano, Yuya; Niibe, Kunimichi; Kayashima, Hiroki; Osathanon, Thanaphum; Pavasant, Prasit; Saeki, Makio; Yatani, Hirofumi; Egusa, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    Regenerative dental therapies for bone tissues rely on efficient targeting of endogenous and transplanted mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) to guide bone formation. Amelogenin is the primary component of Emdogain, which is used to regenerate periodontal defects; however, the mechanisms underlying the therapeutic effects on alveolar bone remain unclear. The tetracycline (Tet)-dependent transcriptional regulatory system is a good candidate to investigate distinct roles of genes of interest during stem cell differentiation. Here, we investigated amelogenin-dependent regulation of osteogenesis in MSCs by establishing a Tet-controlled transcriptional activation system. Clonal mouse bone marrow-derived MSCs were lentivirally transduced with the Tet repressor (TetR) expression vector followed by drug selection to obtain MSCs constitutively expressing TetR (MSCs-TetR). Expression vectors that contained the Tet operator and amelogenin-coding (Amelx) cDNA fragments were constructed using the Gateway system and lentivirally introduced into MSCs-TetR to generate a Tet regulation system in MSCs (MSCs-TetR/Amelx). MSCs-TetR/Amelx significantly overexpressed the Amelx gene and protein in the presence of the tetracycline derivative doxycycline. Concomitant expression of osterix, bone sialoprotein (BSP), osteopontin, and osteocalcin was modulated by addition or removal of doxycycline under osteogenic guidance. During osteogenic induction, MSCs-TetR/Amelx treated with doxycycline showed significantly increased gene expression of osterix, type I collagen, BSP, and osteocalcin in addition to increased alkaline phosphatase activity and mineralized nodule formation. Enhanced extracellular matrix calcification was observed when forced Amelx expression commenced at the early stage but not at the intermediate or late stages of osteogenesis. These results suggest that a Tet-controlled Amelx gene regulation system for mouse MSCs was successfully established, in which transcriptional activation

  18. Controlling Growth and Osteogenic Differentiation of Osteoblasts on Microgrooved Polystyrene Surfaces

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Lanying; Pereira, Daniel; Wang, Qibao; Barata, David Baião; Truckenmüller, Roman; Li, Zhaoyuan; Xu, Xin; Habibovic, Pamela

    2016-01-01

    Surface topography is increasingly being recognized as an important factor to control the response of cells and tissues to biomaterials. In the current study, the aim was to obtain deeper understanding of the effect of microgrooves on shape and orientation of osteoblast-like cells and to relate this effect to their proliferation and osteogenic differentiation. To this end, two microgrooved polystyrene (PS) substrates, differing in the width of the grooves (about 2 μm and 4 μm) and distance between individual grooves (about 6 μm and 11 μm, respectively) were fabricated using a combination of photolithography and hot embossing. MG-63 human osteosarcoma cells were cultured on these microgrooved surfaces, with unpatterned hot-embossed PS substrate as a control. Scanning electron- and fluorescence microscopy analyses showed that on patterned surfaces, the cells aligned along the microgrooves. The cells cultured on 4 μm-grooves / 11 μm-ridges surface showed a more pronounced alignment and a somewhat smaller cell area and cell perimeter as compared to cells cultured on surface with 2 μm-grooves / 6 μm-ridges or unpatterned PS. PrestoBlue analysis and quantification of DNA amounts suggested that microgrooves used in this experiment did not have a strong effect on cell metabolic activity or proliferation. However, cell differentiation towards the osteogenic lineage was significantly enhanced when MG-63 cells were cultured on the 2/6 substrate, as compared to the 4/11 substrate or unpatterned PS. This effect on osteogenic differentiation may be related to differences in cell spreading between the substrates. PMID:27571520

  19. Biochanin a promotes osteogenic but inhibits adipogenic differentiation: evidence with primary adipose-derived stem cells.

    PubMed

    Su, Shu-Jem; Yeh, Yao-Tsung; Su, Shu-Hui; Chang, Kee-Lung; Shyu, Huey-Wen; Chen, Kuan-Ming; Yeh, Hua

    2013-01-01

    Biochanin A has promising effects on bone formation in vivo, although the underlying mechanism remains unclear yet. This study therefore aimed to investigate whether biochanin A regulates osteogenic and adipogenic differentiation using primary adipose-derived stem cells. The effects of biochanin A (at a physiologically relevant concentration of 0.1-1 μM) were assessed in vitro using various approaches, including Oil red O staining, Nile red staining, alizarin red S staining, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, flow cytometry, RT-PCR, and western blotting. The results showed that biochanin A significantly suppressed adipocyte differentiation, as demonstrated by the inhibition of cytoplasmic lipid droplet accumulation, along with the inhibition of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR γ ), lipoprotein lipase (LPL), and leptin and osteopontin (OPN) mRNA expression, in a dose-dependent manner. On the other hand, treatment of cells with 0.3 μM biochanin A increased the mineralization and ALP activity, and stimulated the expression of the osteogenic marker genes ALP and osteocalcin (OCN). Furthermore, biochanin A induced the expression of runt-related transcription factor 2 (Runx2), osteoprotegerin (OPG), and Ras homolog gene family, member A (RhoA) proteins. These observations suggest that biochanin A prevents adipogenesis, enhances osteoblast differentiation in mesenchymal stem cells, and has beneficial regulatory effects in bone formation.

  20. Different Roles of GNAS and cAMP Signaling During Early and Late Stages of Osteogenic Differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, S.; Kaplan, F. S.; Shore, E. M.

    2013-01-01

    Progressive osseous heteroplasia (POH) and fibrous dysplasia (FD) are genetic diseases of bone formation at opposite ends of the osteogenic spectrum: imperfect osteogenesis of the skeleton occurs in FD, while heterotopic ossification in skin, subcutaneous fat, and skeletal muscle forms in POH. POH is caused by heterozygous inactivating germline mutations in GNAS, which encodes G-protein subunits regulating the cAMP pathway, while FD is caused by GNAS somatic activating mutations. We used pluripotent mouse ES cells to examine the effects of Gnas dysregulation on osteoblast differentiation. At the earliest stages of osteogenesis, Gnas transcripts Gs α, XLαs and 1A are expressed at low levels and cAMP levels are also low. Inhibition of cAMP signaling (as in POH) by 2′,5′-dideoxyadenosine enhanced osteoblast differentiation while conversely, increased cAMP signaling (as in FD), induced by forskolin, inhibited osteoblast differentiation. Notably, increased cAMP was inhibitory for osteogenesis only at early stages after osteogenic induction. Expression of osteogenic and adipogenic markers showed that increased cAMP enhanced adipogenesis and impaired osteoblast differentiation even in the presence of osteogenic factors, supporting cAMP as a critical regulator of osteoblast and adipocyte lineage commitment. Furthermore, increased cAMP signaling decreased BMP pathway signaling, indicating that G protein-cAMP pathway activation (as in FD) inhibits osteoblast differentiation, at least in part by blocking the BMP-Smad pathway, and suggesting that GNAS inactivation as occurs in POH enhances osteoblast differentiation, at least in part by stimulating BMP signaling. These data support that differences in cAMP levels during early stages of cell differentiation regulate cell fate decisions. PMID:22903279

  1. Regulation of osteogenic differentiation of human adipose-derived stem cells by controlling electromagnetic field conditions

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Kyung Shin; Hong, Jung Min; Kang, Jo A; Rhie, Jong-Won; Jeong, Young Hun; Cho, Dong-Woo

    2013-01-01

    Many studies have reported that an electromagnetic field can promote osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells. However, experimental results have differed depending on the experimental and environmental conditions. Optimization of electromagnetic field conditions in a single, identified system can compensate for these differences. Here we demonstrated that specific electromagnetic field conditions (that is, frequency and magnetic flux density) significantly regulate osteogenic differentiation of adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) in vitro. Before inducing osteogenic differentiation, we determined ASC stemness and confirmed that the electromagnetic field was uniform at the solenoid coil center. Then, we selected positive (30/45 Hz, 1 mT) and negative (7.5 Hz, 1 mT) osteogenic differentiation conditions by quantifying alkaline phosphate (ALP) mRNA expression. Osteogenic marker (for example, runt-related transcription factor 2) expression was higher in the 30/45 Hz condition and lower in the 7.5 Hz condition as compared with the nonstimulated group. Both positive and negative regulation of ALP activity and mineralized nodule formation supported these responses. Our data indicate that the effects of the electromagnetic fields on osteogenic differentiation differ depending on the electromagnetic field conditions. This study provides a framework for future work on controlling stem cell differentiation. PMID:23306704

  2. All-trans retinoic acid shifts rosiglitazone-induced adipogenic differentiation to osteogenic differentiation in mouse embryonic fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Shao, Ying; Chen, Qian-Zhao; Zeng, Yu-Hua; Li, Yang; Ren, Wen-Yan; Zhou, Lin-Yun; Liu, Rong-Xin; Wu, Ke; Yang, Jun-Qing; Deng, Zhong-Liang; Yu, Yu; Sun, Wen-Juan; He, Bai-Cheng

    2016-12-01

    Rosiglitazone (RSG) is a potent drug used in the treatment of insulin resistance; however, it is associated with marked skeletal toxicity. RSG-induced osteoporosis may contribute to the promotion of adipogenic differentiation at the expense of osteogenic differentiation in bone marrow stromal cells. The aim of this study was to investigate whether RSG-induced bone toxicity can be reversed by combined treatment with all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA). We examined different osteogenic markers in mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) following treatment with RSG, ATRA, or RSG and ATRA in combination. We examined the effects of RSG and/or ATRA on ectopic bone formation, and dissected the possible molecular mechanisms underlying this process. We found that ATRA or RSG both induced alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity in the MEFs, and that the ATRA-induced ALP activity was enhanced by RSG and vice versa. However, only the combination of RSG and ATRA increased the expression of osteopontin and osteocalcin, promoted matrix mineralization, and induced ectopic ossification in MEFs. Mechanistically, we found that the osteogenic differentiation induced by the combination of RSG and ATRA may be mediated partly by suppressing RSG-induced adipogenic differentiation and activating bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)/Smad signaling. On the whole, our findings demonstrate that RSG in combination with ATRA promotes the commitment of MEFs to the osteoblast lineage. Thus, the combination of these two agents may prove to be a promising and novel therapeutic regimen for insulin resistance without skeletal toxicity. It may also be a better strategy with which to prevent RSG-induced osteoporosis.

  3. All-trans retinoic acid shifts rosiglitazone-induced adipogenic differentiation to osteogenic differentiation in mouse embryonic fibroblasts

    PubMed Central

    Shao, Ying; Chen, Qian-Zhao; Zeng, Yu-Hua; Li, Yang; Ren, Wen-Yan; Zhou, Lin-Yun; Liu, Rong-Xin; Wu, Ke; Yang, Jun-Qing; Deng, Zhong-Liang; Yu, Yu; Sun, Wen-Juan; He, Bai-Cheng

    2016-01-01

    Rosiglitazone (RSG) is a potent drug used in the treatment of insulin resistance; however, it is associated with marked skeletal toxicity. RSG-induced osteoporosis may contribute to the promotion of adipogenic differentiation at the expense of osteogenic differentiation in bone marrow stromal cells. The aim of this study was to investigate whether RSG-induced bone toxicity can be reversed by combined treatment with all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA). We examined different osteogenic markers in mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) following treatment with RSG, ATRA, or RSG and ATRA in combination. We examined the effects of RSG and/or ATRA on ectopic bone formation, and dissected the possible molecular mechanisms underlying this process. We found that ATRA or RSG both induced alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity in the MEFs, and that the ATRA-induced ALP activity was enhanced by RSG and vice versa. However, only the combination of RSG and ATRA increased the expression of osteopontin and osteocalcin, promoted matrix mineralization, and induced ectopic ossification in MEFs. Mechanistically, we found that the osteogenic differentiation induced by the combination of RSG and ATRA may be mediated partly by suppressing RSG-induced adipogenic differentiation and activating bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)/Smad signaling. On the whole, our findings demonstrate that RSG in combination with ATRA promotes the commitment of MEFs to the osteoblast lineage. Thus, the combination of these two agents may prove to be a promising and novel therapeutic regimen for insulin resistance without skeletal toxicity. It may also be a better strategy with which to prevent RSG-induced osteoporosis. PMID:27779644

  4. Small Buccal Fat Pad Cells Have High Osteogenic Differentiation Potential.

    PubMed

    Tsurumachi, Niina; Akita, Daisuke; Kano, Koichiro; Matsumoto, Taro; Toriumi, Taku; Kazama, Tomohiko; Oki, Yoshinao; Tamura, Yoko; Tonogi, Morio; Isokawa, Keitaro; Shimizu, Noriyoshi; Honda, Masaki

    2016-03-01

    Dedifferentiated fat (DFAT) cells derived from mature adipocytes have mesenchymal stem cells' (MSCs) characteristics. Generally, mature adipocytes are 60-110 μm in diameter; however, association between adipocyte size and dedifferentiation efficiency is still unknown. This study, therefore, investigated the dedifferentiation efficiency of adipocytes based on cell diameter. Buccal fat pad was harvested from five human donors and dissociated by collagenase digestion. After exclusion of unwanted stromal cells by centrifugation, floating adipocytes were collected and their size distribution was analyzed. The floating adipocytes were then separated into two groups depending on cell size using 40- and 100-μm nylon mesh filters: cell diameters less than 40 μm (small adipocytes: S-adipocytes) and cell diameters of 40-100 μm (large adipocytes: L-adipocytes). Finally, we evaluated the efficiency of adipocyte dedifferentiation and then characterized the resultant DFAT cells. The S-adipocytes showed a higher capacity to dedifferentiate into DFAT cells (S-DFAT cells) compared to the L-adipocytes (L-DFAT cells). The S-DFAT cells also showed a relatively higher proportion of CD146-positive cells than L-DFAT cells, and exhibited more osteogenic differentiation ability based on the alkaline phosphatase activity and amount of calcium deposition. These results suggested that the S- and L-DFAT cells had distinct characteristics, and that the higher dedifferentiation potential of S-adipocytes compared to L-adipocytes gives the former group an advantage in yielding DFAT cells.

  5. Induction of Osteogenic Differentiation of Adipose Derived Stem Cells by Microstructured Nitinol Actuator-Mediated Mechanical Stress

    PubMed Central

    Strauß, Sarah; Dudziak, Sonja; Hagemann, Ronny; Barcikowski, Stephan; Fliess, Malte; Israelowitz, Meir; Kracht, Dietmar; Kuhbier, Jörn W.; Radtke, Christine; Reimers, Kerstin; Vogt, Peter M.

    2012-01-01

    The development of large tissue engineered bone remains a challenge in vitro, therefore the use of hybrid-implants might offer a bridge between tissue engineering and dense metal or ceramic implants. Especially the combination of the pseudoelastic implant material Nitinol (NiTi) with adipose derived stem cells (ASCs) opens new opportunities, as ASCs are able to differentiate osteogenically and therefore enhance osseointegration of implants. Due to limited knowledge about the effects of NiTi-structures manufactured by selective laser melting (SLM) on ASCs the study started with an evaluation of cytocompatibility followed by the investigation of the use of SLM-generated 3-dimensional NiTi-structures preseeded with ASCs as osteoimplant model. In this study we could demonstrate for the first time that osteogenic differentiation of ASCs can be induced by implant-mediated mechanical stimulation without support of osteogenic cell culture media. By use of an innovative implant design and synthesis via SLM-technique we achieved high rates of vital cells, proper osteogenic differentiation and mechanically loadable NiTi-scaffolds could be achieved. PMID:23236461

  6. Low-Intensity Pulsed Ultrasound Stimulation Facilitates Osteogenic Differentiation of Human Periodontal Ligament Cells

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Bo; Zhang, Yuanyuan; Zhou, Jie; Li, Jing; Deng, Feng; Wang, Zhibiao; Song, Jinlin

    2014-01-01

    Human periodontal ligament cells (hPDLCs) possess stem cell properties, which play a key role in periodontal regeneration. Physical stimulation at appropriate intensities such as low-intensity pulsed ultrasound (LIPUS) enhances cell proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of mesechymal stem cells. However, the impacts of LIPUS on osteogenic differentiation of hPDLCs in vitro and its molecular mechanism are unknown. This study was undertaken to investigate the effects of LIPUS on osteogenic differentiation of hPDLCs. HPDLCs were isolated from premolars of adolescents for orthodontic reasons, and exposed to LIPUS at different intensities to determine an optimal LIPUS treatment dosage. Dynamic changes of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activities in the cultured cells and supernatants, and osteocalcin production in the supernatants after treatment were analyzed. Runx2 and integrin β1 mRNA levels were assessed by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction analysis after LIPUS stimulation. Blocking antibody against integrinβ1 was used to assess the effects of integrinβ1 inhibitor on LIPUS-induced ALP activity, osteocalcin production as well as calcium deposition. Our data showed that LIPUS at the intensity of 90 mW/cm2 with 20 min/day was more effective. The ALP activities in lysates and supernatants of LIPUS-treated cells started to increase at days 3 and 7, respectively, and peaked at day 11. LIPUS treatment significantly augmented the production of osteocalcin after day 5. LIPUS caused a significant increase in the mRNA expression of Runx2 and integrin β1, while a significant decline when the integrinβ1 inhibitor was used. Moreover, ALP activity, osteocalcin production as well as calcium nodules of cells treated with both daily LIPUS stimulation and integrinβ1 antibody were less than those in the LIPUS-treated group. In conclusion, LIPUS promotes osteogenic differentiation of hPDLCs, which is associated with upregulation of Runx2 and integrin β1, which

  7. BMP7 can promote osteogenic differentiation of human periosteal cells in vitro.

    PubMed

    Bei, Kangsheng; Du, Zhipo; Xiong, Yinghui; Liao, Jiacheng; Su, Baojin; Wu, Liyang

    2012-09-01

    To study and evaluate BMP7s functions in osteogenic differentiation of human periosteal cells in vitro. Human periosteal cells from adult tibia were collected and cultured as experimental samples. BMP7 was used to induce periosteal cells in the experiment group with common osteogenic medium. The proliferative activity of periosteal cells was detected by CCK-8. The potentials of osteogenic differentiation were demonstrated as follows: (1) realtime-PCR and ELISA to confirm the expression of the OC, ALP and OPN, (2) Colorimetry, ALP staining and Von Kossa staining were performed to identify ALP activity, ALP expression and calcium nodules, respectively. Based on the significant different expression of OC, ALP and OPN, BMP7 ability of osteogenic differentiation can be identified. ALP activity detection, calcium nodules staining and toluidine staining also provide the power evidence to support BMP7 can promote osteogenic differentiation of human periosteal cells in vitro. To human periosteal cells, BMP7 is a good inducer for osteogenic differentiation. Therefore, it's maybe a potential tool for clinical application.

  8. BMP2 induced osteogenic differentiation of human umbilical cord stem cells in a peptide-based hydrogel scaffold

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lakshmana, Shruthi M.

    Craniofacial tissue loss due to traumatic injuries and congenital defects is a major clinical problem around the world. Cleft palate is the second most common congenital malformation in the United States occurring with an incidence of 1 in 700. Some of the problems associated with this defect are feeding difficulties, speech abnormalities and dentofacial anomalies. Current treatment protocol offers repeated surgeries with extended healing time. Our long-term goal is to regenerate bone in the palatal region using tissue-engineering approaches. Bone tissue engineering utilizes osteogenic cells, osteoconductive scaffolds and osteoinductive signals. Mesenchymal stem cells derived from human umbilical cord (HUMSCs) are highly proliferative with the ability to differentiate into osteogenic precursor cells. The primary objective of the study was to characterize HUMSCs and culture them in a 3D hydrogel scaffold and investigate their osteogenic potential. PuraMatrix(TM) is an injectable 3D nanofiber scaffold capable of self-assembly when exposed to physiologic conditions. Our second objective was to investigate the effect of Bone Morphogenic Protein 2 (BMP2) in enhancing the osteogenic differentiation of HUMSCs encapsulated in PuraMatrix(TM). We isolated cells isolated from Wharton's Jelly region of the umbilical cord obtained from NDRI (New York, NY). Isolated cells satisfied the minimal criteria for mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) as defined by International Society of Cell Therapy in terms of plastic adherence, fibroblastic phenotype, surface marker expression and osteogenic differentiation. Flow Cytometry analysis showed that cells were positive for CD73, CD90 and CD105 while negative for hematopoietic marker CD34. Alkaline phosphatase activity (ALP) of HUMSCs showed peak activity at 2 weeks (p<0.05). Cells were encapsulated in 0.2% PuraMatrix(TM) at cell densities of 10x104, 20x104, 40x10 4 and 80x104. Cell viability with WST and proliferation with Live-Dead cell assays

  9. The static magnetic field accelerates the osteogenic differentiation and mineralization of dental pulp cells

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Jui-Chih

    2010-01-01

    Dental pulp cells (DPCs) can differentiate into osteoblasts and are deemed a promising cell source for bone regeneration. Static magnetic field (SMF) stimulates osteoblast differentiation but the effect in DPCs remains unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of SMF exposure on the osteogenic differentiation and mineralization of rat DPCs in vitro. Cells were continuously exposed to SMF at 290 mT in the presence/absence of osteogenic induction [dexamethasone (Dex)/β-glycerophosphate (β-GP)]. Results showed that SMF alone did not impair the cell cycle and proliferation. On the other hand, obvious condensation in the metachromatic staining of the extracellular matrix with toluidine blue was observed for SMF-exposed cells as well as the Dex/β-GP treated cells. SMF in combination with Dex/β-GP significantly increased the mRNA expression of osteogenic genes, as well as the ALP activity and extracellular calcium concentration at the early stage, followed by obvious calcium deposits later. Besides, SMF exposure increased the activity of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) at 3 h and accelerated the mRNA expression of osteogenic transcription factor, Cbfa1, advancing its activation time from 168 to 72 h under osteogenic induction. In summary, SMF exposure in combination of Dex/β-GP induction could significantly accelerate the osteogenic differentiation and mineralization of DPCs. PMID:20464482

  10. Staphylococcal lipoteichoic acid promotes osteogenic differentiation of mouse mesenchymal stem cells by increasing autophagic activity.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xin; Wang, Yuan; Cao, Zhen; Dou, Ce; Bai, Yun; Liu, Chuan; Dong, Shiwu; Fei, Jun

    2017-02-16

    This study sought to explore the effect of staphylococcal lipoteichoic acid (LTA) on autophagy in mouse mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), and then influence osteogenesis through the change of autophagy. C3H10T1/2 cells were induced by osteogenic medium with the treatment of LTA at different concentrations (1, 5, 10 μg/mL); 3-methyladenine (3-MA) were used as the autophagy inhibitor, and rapamycin (rapamycin, Rap) were used to activate autophagy; the effects on osteogenesis were detected by alkaline phosphatase staining, alizarin red staining, real-time quantitative PCR, and western blotting; autophagic activity was investigated by the expression of LC3-Ⅱand p62 proteins. Compared with control group, the expression of osteogenesis markers was significantly up-regulated with the LTA treatment on the mRNA and protein level; the positive rate of alkaline phosphatase was enhanced in the LTA groups; and the formation of calcium nodules was increased simultaneously. The expression of LC3-Ⅱ protein was increased in LTA groups, while the expression of p62 protein was decreased. Inhibition of autophagy significantly reduced the effect of LTA on osteogenesis of MSCs; the promotion of LTA on osteogenic differentiation was further enhanced when adding rapamycin to activate autophagic activity. It provides new insight of prevention and treatment for bone infection.

  11. Upregulation of miR-22 promotes osteogenic differentiation and inhibits adipogenic differentiation of human adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells by repressing HDAC6 protein expression.

    PubMed

    Huang, Shan; Wang, Shihua; Bian, Chunjing; Yang, Zhuo; Zhou, Hong; Zeng, Yang; Li, Hongling; Han, Qin; Zhao, Robert Chunhua

    2012-09-01

    Mesenchmal stem cells (MSCs) can be differentiated into either adipocytes or osteoblasts, and a reciprocal relationship exists between adipogenesis and osteogenesis. Multiple transcription factors and signaling pathways have been reported to regulate adipogenic or osteogenic differentiation, respectively, yet the molecular mechanism underlying the cell fate alteration between adipogenesis and osteogenesis still remains to be illustrated. MicroRNAs are important regulators in diverse biological processes by repressing protein expression of their targets. Here, miR-22 was found to regulate adipogenic and osteogenic differentiation of human adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hADMSCs) in opposite directions. Our data showed that miR-22 decreased during the process of adipogenic differentiation but increased during osteogenic differentiation. On one hand, overexpression of miR-22 in hADMSCs could inhibit lipid droplets accumulation and repress the expression of adipogenic transcription factors and adipogenic-specific genes. On the other hand, enhanced alkaline phosphatase activity and matrix mineralization, as well as increased expression of osteo-specific genes, indicated a positive role of miR-22 in regulating osteogenic differentiation. Target databases prediction and validation by Dual Luciferase Reporter Assay, western blot, and real-time polymerase chain reaction identified histone deacetylase 6 (HDAC6) as a direct downstream target of miR-22 in hADMSCs. Inhibition of endogenous HDAC6 by small-interfering RNAs suppressed adipogenesis and stimulated osteogenesis, consistent with the effect of miR-22 overexpression in hADMSCs. Together, our results suggested that miR-22 acted as a critical regulator of balance between adipogenic and osteogenic differentiation of hADMSCs by repressing its target HDAC6.

  12. INO80 is Required for Osteogenic Differentiation of Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Chenchen; Zou, Jing; Zou, Shujuan; Li, Xiaobing

    2016-01-01

    Bone marrow derived human mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) are a great source in bone tissue engineering. However, how to improve the efficiency of MSC osteogenesis remains a big challenge in bone regenerative medicine. Here, we characterized the role of INO80 chromatin remodeling complex in osteogenic differentiation of MSC. We showed that silencing of subunits of INO80 reduced the mineral deposition of MSC in osteogenic condition. Moreover, INO80-silencing MSC cultured in osteogenic condition expressed lower mRNA levels of osteoblast-specific genes, including Runx2, Osx, Col1α1 and OCN. INO80 can interact with Wdr5 in MSC and positively regulates the canonical Wnt signaling transduction. Importantly, the mice implanted with INO80-silencing MSC displayed less bone formation. Overall, our study provides a new mechanism regarding osteogenic differentiation of MSC and could potentially be applied in clinical tissue engineering and treatment of osteoporosis. PMID:27804957

  13. The role of COX-2 in mediating the effect of PTEN on BMP9 induced osteogenic differentiation in mouse embryonic fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jun; Yuan, Shuang-Xue; Wang, Dong-Xu; Wu, Qiu-Xiang; Wang, Xing; Pi, Chang-Jun; Zou, Xiang; Chen, Liang; Ying, Liang-Jun; Wu, Ke; Yang, Jun-Qing; Sun, Wen-Juan; Deng, Zhong-Liang; He, Bai-Cheng

    2014-12-01

    Mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) are multi-potent progenitor cells (MPCs), can differentiate into different lineages, such as osteogenic, and adipogenic. PTEN, a tumor suppressor, may be involved in regulating bone development through interacting with COX-2. BMP9, the most potent osteogenic BMPs, can up-regulate COX-2 in MPCs. Whether PTEN is involved in BMP9 induced osteogenic differentiation in MPCs remains unknown. The goal of this investigation is to identify the effect of PTEN on BMP9-induced osteogenic differentiation in MPCs and dissect the possible mechanism underlay this. We found that BMP9 down-regulates PTEN, and PTEN inhibitor (VO) effectively increases different osteogenic markers induced by BMP9 in MEFs. Exogenous expression of PTEN inhibits BMP9 induced ectopic bone formation apparently. Mechanistically, we found that VO can enhance BMP9 induced BMPs/Smads signaling prominently without no substantial effects on cell cycle. Further analysis indicates that VO can promote BMP9-induced expression of COX-2 in MEFs, which can be eliminated by PI3K inhibitor. Additionally, COX-2 knockdown abolishes the effect of VO on BMP9-induced ALP activities in MEFs. Our findings suggest that PTEN plays an important role in regulating BMP9 induced osteogenic differentiation in MPCs, which may be mediated by PTEN/PI3K/Akt signaling to modulate the expression of COX-2.

  14. Osteogenic Differentiation of Human Amniotic Fluid Mesenchymal Stem Cells Is Determined by Epigenetic Changes

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Osteogenic differentiation of human amniotic fluid derived mesenchymal stem cells (AF-MSCs) has been widely studied in vitro and in vivo as a potential tool for regenerative medicine and tissue engineering. While most of the studies analyze changes in transcriptional profile during differentiation to date there is not much information regarding epigenetic changes in AF-MSCs during differentiation. The aim of our study was to evaluate epigenetic changes during osteogenic differentiation of AF-MS cells. Isolated AF-MSCs were characterized morphologically and osteogenic differentiation was confirmed by cell staining and determining expression of alkaline phosphatase and osteopontin by RT-qPCR. Variation in gene expression levels of pluripotency markers and specific microRNAs were also evaluated. Analysis of epigenetic changes revealed that levels of chromatin modifying enzymes such as Polycomb repressive complex 2 (PRC2) proteins (EZH2 and SUZ12), DNMT1, HDAC1, and HDAC2 were reduced after osteogenic differentiation of AF-MSCs. We demonstrated that the level of specific histone markers keeping active state of chromatin (H3K4me3, H3K9Ac, and others) increased and markers of repressed state of chromatin (H3K27me3) decreased. Our results show that osteogenic differentiation of AF-MSCs is conducted by various epigenetic alterations resulting in global chromatin remodeling and provide insights for further epigenetic investigations in human AF-MSCs. PMID:27818691

  15. An EWS-FLI1-Induced Osteosarcoma Model Unveiled a Crucial Role of Impaired Osteogenic Differentiation on Osteosarcoma Development

    PubMed Central

    Komura, Shingo; Semi, Katsunori; Itakura, Fumiaki; Shibata, Hirofumi; Ohno, Takatoshi; Hotta, Akitsu; Woltjen, Knut; Yamamoto, Takuya; Akiyama, Haruhiko; Yamada, Yasuhiro

    2016-01-01

    Summary EWS-FLI1, a multi-functional fusion oncogene, is exclusively detected in Ewing sarcomas. However, previous studies reported that rare varieties of osteosarcomas also harbor EWS-ETS family fusion. Here, using the doxycycline-inducible EWS-FLI1 system, we established an EWS-FLI1-dependent osteosarcoma model from murine bone marrow stromal cells. We revealed that the withdrawal of EWS-FLI1 expression enhances the osteogenic differentiation of sarcoma cells, leading to mature bone formation. Taking advantage of induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) technology, we also show that sarcoma-derived iPSCs with cancer-related genetic abnormalities exhibited an impaired differentiation program of osteogenic lineage irrespective of the EWS-FLI1 expression. Finally, we demonstrate that EWS-FLI1 contributed to secondary sarcoma development from the sarcoma iPSCs after osteogenic differentiation. These findings demonstrate that modulating cellular differentiation is a fundamental principle of EWS-FLI1-induced osteosarcoma development. This in vitro cancer model using sarcoma iPSCs should provide a unique platform for dissecting relationships between the cancer genome and cellular differentiation. PMID:26997645

  16. An EWS-FLI1-Induced Osteosarcoma Model Unveiled a Crucial Role of Impaired Osteogenic Differentiation on Osteosarcoma Development.

    PubMed

    Komura, Shingo; Semi, Katsunori; Itakura, Fumiaki; Shibata, Hirofumi; Ohno, Takatoshi; Hotta, Akitsu; Woltjen, Knut; Yamamoto, Takuya; Akiyama, Haruhiko; Yamada, Yasuhiro

    2016-04-12

    EWS-FLI1, a multi-functional fusion oncogene, is exclusively detected in Ewing sarcomas. However, previous studies reported that rare varieties of osteosarcomas also harbor EWS-ETS family fusion. Here, using the doxycycline-inducible EWS-FLI1 system, we established an EWS-FLI1-dependent osteosarcoma model from murine bone marrow stromal cells. We revealed that the withdrawal of EWS-FLI1 expression enhances the osteogenic differentiation of sarcoma cells, leading to mature bone formation. Taking advantage of induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) technology, we also show that sarcoma-derived iPSCs with cancer-related genetic abnormalities exhibited an impaired differentiation program of osteogenic lineage irrespective of the EWS-FLI1 expression. Finally, we demonstrate that EWS-FLI1 contributed to secondary sarcoma development from the sarcoma iPSCs after osteogenic differentiation. These findings demonstrate that modulating cellular differentiation is a fundamental principle of EWS-FLI1-induced osteosarcoma development. This in vitro cancer model using sarcoma iPSCs should provide a unique platform for dissecting relationships between the cancer genome and cellular differentiation.

  17. Bone Morphogenetic Protein-9 Induces PDLSCs Osteogenic Differentiation through the ERK and p38 Signal Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Guo; Li, Conghua; Xiang, Xuerong; Chen, Chu; Zhang, Ruyi; Yang, Xia; Yu, Xuesong; Wang, Jinhua; Wang, Lan; Shi, Qiong; Weng, Yaguang

    2014-01-01

    Periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLSCs) with bone morphogenic ability are used to treat diseases such as periodontitis. Their treatment potential is increased when used in combination with proteins that induce osteogenic differentiation. For example, bone morphogenetic protein-9 (BMP9) has been found to have potent osteogenic activity. In the present study, PDLSCs were isolated from human periodontal membrane and infected with recombinant adenoviruses expressing BMP9 (Ad-BMP9). Levels of osteogenic markers such as runt-related transcription factor 2 (Runx2), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), osteopontin (OPN), and osteocalcin (OCN) as well as mineralization ability were measured. The results showed that BMP9 promoted bone formation of PDLSCs. In other experiments, SB203580 and PD98059, which are inhibitors of p38 and ERK1/2, respectively, were used to determine if these kinases are involved in the osteogenic differentiation process. The resulting protein expression profiles and osteogenic markers of PDLSCs revealed that the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway might play an important role in the process of BMP9-induced osteogenic differentiation of PDLSCs. PMID:25136261

  18. Effect of BMP-2 Delivery Mode on Osteogenic Differentiation of Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Yong-Jin; Kim, Ki-Suk; Jang, Hyon-Seok; Chung, Hyung-Min

    2017-01-01

    Differentiation of stem cells is an important strategy for regeneration of defective tissue in stem cell therapy. Bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) is a well-known osteogenic differentiation factor that stimulates stem cell signaling pathways by activating transmembrane type I and type II receptors. However, BMPs have a very short half-life and may rapidly lose their bioactivity. Thus, a BMP delivery system is required to take advantage of an osteoinductive effect for osteogenic differentiation. Previously, BMP delivery has been designed and evaluated for osteogenic differentiation, focusing on carriers and sustained release system for delivery of BMPs. The effect of the delivery mode in cell culture plate on osteogenic differentiation potential was not evaluated. Herein, to investigate the effect of delivery mode on osteogenic differentiation of BM-MSCs in this study, we fabricated bottom-up release and top-down release systems for culture plate delivery of BMP-2. And also, we selected Arg-Gly-Asp- (RGD-) conjugated alginate hydrogel for BMP-2 delivery because alginate is able to release BMP-2 in a sustained manner and it is a biocompatible material. After 7 days of culture, the bottom-up release system in culture plate significantly stimulated alkaline phosphate activity of human bone marrow-mesenchymal stem cells. The present study highlights the potential value of the tool in stem cell therapy. PMID:28197209

  19. Transcriptome Analysis of MSC and MSC-Derived Osteoblasts on Resomer® LT706 and PCL: Impact of Biomaterial Substrate on Osteogenic Differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Neuss, Sabine; Denecke, Bernd; Gan, Lin; Lin, Qiong; Bovi, Manfred; Apel, Christian; Wöltje, Michael; Dhanasingh, Anandhan; Salber, Jochen; Knüchel, Ruth; Zenke, Martin

    2011-01-01

    Background Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) represent a particularly attractive cell type for bone tissue engineering because of their ex vivo expansion potential and multipotent differentiation capacity. MSC are readily differentiated towards mature osteoblasts with well-established protocols. However, tissue engineering frequently involves three-dimensional scaffolds which (i) allow for cell adhesion in a spatial environment and (ii) meet application-specific criteria, such as stiffness, degradability and biocompatibility. Methodology/Principal Findings In the present study, we analysed two synthetic, long-term degradable polymers for their impact on MSC-based bone tissue engineering: PLLA-co-TMC (Resomer® LT706) and poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL). Both polymers enhance the osteogenic differentiation compared to tissue culture polystyrene (TCPS) as determined by Alizarin red stainings, scanning electron microscopy, PCR and whole genome expression analysis. Resomer® LT706 and PCL differ in their influence on gene expression, with Resomer® LT706 being more potent in supporting osteogenic differentiation of MSC. The major trigger on the osteogenic fate, however, is from osteogenic induction medium. Conclusion This study demonstrates an enhanced osteogenic differentiation of MSC on Resomer® LT706 and PCL compared to TCPS. MSC cultured on Resomer® LT706 showed higher numbers of genes involved in skeletal development and bone formation. This identifies Resomer® LT706 as particularly attractive scaffold material for bone tissue engineering. PMID:21935359

  20. Effects of dexamethasone, ascorbic acid and β-glycerophosphate on the osteogenic differentiation of stem cells in vitro.

    PubMed

    Langenbach, Fabian; Handschel, Jörg

    2013-01-01

    The standard procedure for the osteogenic differentiation of multipotent stem cells is treatment of a confluent monolayer with a cocktail of dexamethasone (Dex), ascorbic acid (Asc) and β-glycerophosphate (β-Gly). This review describes the effects of these substances on intracellular signaling cascades that lead to osteogenic differentiation of bone marrow stroma-derived stem cells. We conclude that Dex induces Runx2 expression by FHL2/β-catenin-mediated transcriptional activation and that Dex enhances Runx2 activity by upregulation of TAZ and MKP1. Asc leads to the increased secretion of collagen type I (Col1), which in turn leads to increased Col1/α2β1 integrin-mediated intracellular signaling. The phosphate from β-Gly serves as a source for the phosphate in hydroxylapatite and in addition influences intracellular signaling molecules. In this context we give special attention to the differences between dystrophic and bone-specific mineralization.

  1. Arsenic trioxide regulates adipogenic and osteogenic differentiation in bone marrow MSCs of aplastic anemia patients through BMP4 gene.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Huan Chen; Liu, Sheng Wei; Li, Wei; Zhao, Xue Fei; Zhao, Xu; Cheng, Mei; Qiu, Lin; Ma, Jun

    2015-09-01

    The typical pathological feature of aplastic anemia (AA) is the rise in the number of fat cells and the reduction of osteoblasts in bone marrow. However, both fat cells and osteobalsts in bone marrow are derived from the mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). Generally, the adipogenic and osteogenic differentiation is a dynamic and balanceable process. The imbalance of the adipogenic and osteogenic differentiation may participate in the occurrence and progress of many diseases. Arsenic trioxide (ATO) could induce differentiation and apoptosis in tumor cells. In this study, Oil Red-O and Alizarin red were used to detect the adipogenic and osteogenic differentiation. The ability of adipogenic differentiation is much higher, whereas the osteogenic differentiation is much lower in the MSCs of AA patients compared with healthy controls. ATO inhibits adipogenic differentiation and promotes osteogenic differentiation in the MSC of AA patients. The expression of BMP4 is increased with ATO treatment. The ability of adipogenic differentiation is decreased, whereas the osteogenic differentiation is increased after transfection of BMP4 gene into the MSCs of AA patients. This study shows that ATO regulates the adipogenic and osteogenic differentiation balance of MSCs in AA, which provides a theoretical basis for the adjunctive therapy of ATO on AA. The BMP4 gene is involved in the ATO regulation of adipogenic and osteogenic differentiation balance, which provides a new target for the treatment of AA.

  2. Sulfated hyaluronan alters fibronectin matrix assembly and promotes osteogenic differentiation of human bone marrow stromal cells

    PubMed Central

    Vogel, Sarah; Arnoldini, Simon; Möller, Stephanie; Schnabelrauch, Matthias; Hempel, Ute

    2016-01-01

    Extracellular matrix (ECM) composition and structural integrity is one of many factors that influence cellular differentiation. Fibronectin (FN) which is in many tissues the most abundant ECM protein forms a unique fibrillary network. FN homes several binding sites for sulfated glycosaminoglycans (sGAG), such as heparin (Hep), which was previously shown to influence FN conformation and protein binding. Synthetically sulfated hyaluronan derivatives (sHA) can serve as model molecules with a well characterized sulfation pattern to study sGAG-FN interaction. Here is shown that the low-sulfated sHA (sHA1) interacts with FN and influences fibril assembly. The interaction of FN fibrils with sHA1 and Hep, but not with non-sulfated HA was visualized by immunofluorescent co-staining. FRET analysis of FN confirmed the presence of more extended fibrils in human bone marrow stromal cells (hBMSC)-derived ECM in response to sHA1 and Hep. Although both sHA1 and Hep affected FN conformation, exclusively sHA1 increased FN protein level and led to thinner fibrils. Further, only sHA1 had a pro-osteogenic effect and enhanced the activity of tissue non-specific alkaline phosphatase. We hypothesize that the sHA1-triggered change in FN assembly influences the entire ECM network and could be the underlying mechanism for the pro-osteogenic effect of sHA1 on hBMSC. PMID:27808176

  3. Sulfated hyaluronan alters fibronectin matrix assembly and promotes osteogenic differentiation of human bone marrow stromal cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vogel, Sarah; Arnoldini, Simon; Möller, Stephanie; Schnabelrauch, Matthias; Hempel, Ute

    2016-11-01

    Extracellular matrix (ECM) composition and structural integrity is one of many factors that influence cellular differentiation. Fibronectin (FN) which is in many tissues the most abundant ECM protein forms a unique fibrillary network. FN homes several binding sites for sulfated glycosaminoglycans (sGAG), such as heparin (Hep), which was previously shown to influence FN conformation and protein binding. Synthetically sulfated hyaluronan derivatives (sHA) can serve as model molecules with a well characterized sulfation pattern to study sGAG-FN interaction. Here is shown that the low-sulfated sHA (sHA1) interacts with FN and influences fibril assembly. The interaction of FN fibrils with sHA1 and Hep, but not with non-sulfated HA was visualized by immunofluorescent co-staining. FRET analysis of FN confirmed the presence of more extended fibrils in human bone marrow stromal cells (hBMSC)-derived ECM in response to sHA1 and Hep. Although both sHA1 and Hep affected FN conformation, exclusively sHA1 increased FN protein level and led to thinner fibrils. Further, only sHA1 had a pro-osteogenic effect and enhanced the activity of tissue non-specific alkaline phosphatase. We hypothesize that the sHA1-triggered change in FN assembly influences the entire ECM network and could be the underlying mechanism for the pro-osteogenic effect of sHA1 on hBMSC.

  4. The effect of type II collagen on MSC osteogenic differentiation and bone defect repair.

    PubMed

    Chiu, Li-Hsuan; Lai, Wen-Fu T; Chang, Shwu-Fen; Wong, Chin-Chean; Fan, Cheng-Yu; Fang, Chia-Lang; Tsai, Yu-Hui

    2014-03-01

    The function of type II collagen in cartilage is well documented and its importance for long bone development has been implicated. However, the involvement of type II collagen in bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cell (BMSC) osteogenesis has not been well investigated. This study elucidated the pivotal role of type II collagen in BMSC osteogenesis and its potential application to bone healing. Type II collagen-coated surface was found to accelerate calcium deposition, and the interaction of osteogenic medium-induced BMSCs with type II collagen-coated surface was mainly mediated through integrin α2β1. Exogenous type II collagen directly activated FAK-JNK signaling and resulted in the phosphorylation of RUNX2. In a segmental defect model in rats, type II collagen-HA/TCP-implanted rats showed significant callus formation at the reunion site, and a higher SFI (sciatic function index) scoring as comparing to other groups were also observed at 7, 14, and 21 day post-surgery. Collectively, type II collagen serves as a better modulator during early osteogenic differentiation of BMSCs by facilitating RUNX2 activation through integrin α2β1-FAK-JNK signaling axis, and enhance bone defect repair through an endochondral ossification-like process. These results advance our understanding about the cartilaginous ECM-BMSC interaction, and provide perspective for bone defect repair strategies.

  5. Label-free nonlinear optical microscopy detects early markers for osteogenic differentiation of human stem cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hofemeier, Arne D.; Hachmeister, Henning; Pilger, Christian; Schürmann, Matthias; Greiner, Johannes F. W.; Nolte, Lena; Sudhoff, Holger; Kaltschmidt, Christian; Huser, Thomas; Kaltschmidt, Barbara

    2016-05-01

    Tissue engineering by stem cell differentiation is a novel treatment option for bone regeneration. Most approaches for the detection of osteogenic differentiation are invasive or destructive and not compatible with live cell analysis. Here, non-destructive and label-free approaches of Raman spectroscopy, coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) and second harmonic generation (SHG) microscopy were used to detect and image osteogenic differentiation of human neural crest-derived inferior turbinate stem cells (ITSCs). Combined CARS and SHG microscopy was able to detect markers of osteogenesis within 14 days after osteogenic induction. This process increased during continued differentiation. Furthermore, Raman spectroscopy showed significant increases of the PO43‑ symmetric stretch vibrations at 959 cm‑1 assigned to calcium hydroxyapatite between days 14 and 21. Additionally, CARS microscopy was able to image calcium hydroxyapatite deposits within 14 days following osteogenic induction, which was confirmed by Alizarin Red-Staining and RT- PCR. Taken together, the multimodal label-free analysis methods Raman spectroscopy, CARS and SHG microscopy can monitor osteogenic differentiation of adult human stem cells into osteoblasts with high sensitivity and spatial resolution in three dimensions. Our findings suggest a great potential of these optical detection methods for clinical applications including in vivo observation of bone tissue–implant-interfaces or disease diagnosis.

  6. Label-free nonlinear optical microscopy detects early markers for osteogenic differentiation of human stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Hofemeier, Arne D.; Hachmeister, Henning; Pilger, Christian; Schürmann, Matthias; Greiner, Johannes F. W.; Nolte, Lena; Sudhoff, Holger; Kaltschmidt, Christian; Huser, Thomas; Kaltschmidt, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    Tissue engineering by stem cell differentiation is a novel treatment option for bone regeneration. Most approaches for the detection of osteogenic differentiation are invasive or destructive and not compatible with live cell analysis. Here, non-destructive and label-free approaches of Raman spectroscopy, coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) and second harmonic generation (SHG) microscopy were used to detect and image osteogenic differentiation of human neural crest-derived inferior turbinate stem cells (ITSCs). Combined CARS and SHG microscopy was able to detect markers of osteogenesis within 14 days after osteogenic induction. This process increased during continued differentiation. Furthermore, Raman spectroscopy showed significant increases of the PO43− symmetric stretch vibrations at 959 cm−1 assigned to calcium hydroxyapatite between days 14 and 21. Additionally, CARS microscopy was able to image calcium hydroxyapatite deposits within 14 days following osteogenic induction, which was confirmed by Alizarin Red-Staining and RT- PCR. Taken together, the multimodal label-free analysis methods Raman spectroscopy, CARS and SHG microscopy can monitor osteogenic differentiation of adult human stem cells into osteoblasts with high sensitivity and spatial resolution in three dimensions. Our findings suggest a great potential of these optical detection methods for clinical applications including in vivo observation of bone tissue–implant-interfaces or disease diagnosis. PMID:27225821

  7. Osteogenic differentiation of osteoblasts induced by calcium silicate and calcium silicate/β-tricalcium phosphate composite bioceramics.

    PubMed

    Fei, Lisha; Wang, Chen; Xue, Yang; Lin, Kaili; Chang, Jiang; Sun, Jiao

    2012-07-01

    In this study, calcium silicate (CS) and CS/β-tricalcium phosphate (CS/β-TCP) composites were investigated on their mechanism of osteogenic proliferation and differentiation through regulating osteogenic-related gene and proteins. Osteoblast-like cells were cultured in the extracts of these CS-based bioceramics and pure β-TCP, respectively. The main ionic content in extracts was analyzed by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy. The cell viability, mineralization, and differentiation were evaluated by MTT assay, Alizarin Red-S staining and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity assay. The expressions of BMP-2, transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β), Runx2, ALP, and osteocalcin (OCN) at both gene and protein level were detected by real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis and Western blot. The result showed that the extracts of CS-based bioceramics promoted cells proliferation, differentiation, and mineralization when compared with pure β-TCP. Accordingly, pure CS and CS/β-TCP composites stimulated osteoblast-like cells to express BMP-2/TGF-β gene and proteins, and further regulate the expression of Runx2 gene and protein, and ultimately affect the ALP activity and OCN deposition. This study suggested that the CS-based bioceramics could not only promote the expression of osteogenic-related genes but also enhance the genes to encode the corresponding proteins, which could finally control osteoblast-like cells proliferation and differentiation.

  8. Graphene/single-walled carbon nanotube hybrids promoting osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells by activating p38 signaling pathway

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Xinxin; Yang, Wen; Shao, Zengwu; Yang, Shuhua; Liu, Xianzhe

    2016-01-01

    Carbon nanomaterials are becoming increasingly significant in biomedical fields since they exhibit exceptional physicochemical and biocompatible properties. Today, the stem cells offer potentially new therapeutic approaches in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. However, the induction of differentiation into specific lineages remains challenging, which provoked us to explore the biomedical applications of carbon nanomaterials in stem cells. In this study, we investigated the interactions between graphene/single-walled carbon nanotube (G/SWCNT) hybrids and rat mesenchymal stem cells (rMSCs) and focused on the proliferation and differentiation of rMSCs treated with G/SWCNT hybrids. Cell viability and morphology were evaluated using cell counting kit-8 assay and immunofluorescence staining, respectively. Osteogenic differentiation evaluated by alkaline phosphatase activity of MSCs proved to be higher after treatment with G/SWCNT hybrids, and the mineralized matrix nodule formation was also enhanced. In addition, the expression levels of osteogenic-associated genes were upregulated, while the adipocyte-specific markers were downregulated. Consistent with these results, we illustrated that the effect of G/SWCNT hybrids on the process of osteogenic differentiation of rMSCs can be modulated by activating the p38 signaling pathway and inhibiting the extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 pathway. Nevertheless, our study suggests that carbon nanomaterials offer a promising platform for regenerative medicine in the near future. PMID:27799770

  9. MiR-101 Targets the EZH2/Wnt/β-Catenin the Pathway to Promote the Osteogenic Differentiation of Human Bone Marrow-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hongrui; Meng, Yake; Cui, Quanjun; Qin, Fujun; Yang, Haisong; Chen, Yu; Cheng, Yajun; Shi, Jiangang; Guo, Yongfei

    2016-01-01

    Mounting evidence indicates that microRNAs (miRNAs) are involved in multiple processes of osteogenic differentiation. MicroRNA-101 (miR-101), identified as a tumor suppressor, has been implicated in the pathogenesis of several types of cancer. However, the expression of miR-101 and its roles in the osteogenic differentiation of human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hBMSCs) remain unclear. We found that the miR-101 expression level was significantly increased during the osteogenic differentiation of hBMSCs. MiR-101 depletion suppressed osteogenic differentiation, whereas the overexpression of miR-101 was sufficient to promote this process. We further demonstrated that enhancer of zeste homolog 2 (EZH2) was a target gene of miR-101. EZH2 overexpression and depletion reversed the promoting or suppressing effect of osteogenic differentiation of hBMSCs, respectively, caused by miR-101. In addition, we showed that miR-101 overexpression promoted the expression of Wnt genes, resulting in the activation of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway by targeting EZH2, while the activity of β-catenin and the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway was inhibited by ICG-001, a β-Catenin inhibitor, which reversed the promoting effect of miR-101. Finally, miR-101 also promotes in vivo bone formation by hBMSCs. Collectively, these data suggest that miR-101 is induced by osteogenic stimuli and promotes osteogenic differentiation at least partly by targeting the EZH2/Wnt/β-Catenin signaling pathway. PMID:27845386

  10. Peri-prosthetic tissue cells show osteogenic capacity to differentiate into the osteoblastic lineage.

    PubMed

    Schoeman, Monique Ae; Oostlander, Angela E; de Rooij, Karien E; Valstar, Edward R; Nelissen, Rob Ghh

    2016-10-07

    During the process of aseptic loosening of prostheses, particulate wear debris induces a continuous inflammatory-like response resulting in the formation of a layer of fibrous peri-prosthetic tissue at the bone-prosthesis interface. The current treatment for loosening is revision surgery which is associated with a high morbidity rate, especially in old patients. Therefore, less invasive alternatives are necessary. One approach could be to re-establish osseointegration of the prosthesis by inducing osteoblast differentiation in the peri-prosthetic tissue. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the capacity of peri-prosthetic tissue cells to differentiate into the osteoblast lineage. Cells isolated from peri-prosthetic tissue samples (n = 22) - obtained during revision surgeries - were cultured under normal and several osteogenic culture conditions. Osteogenic differentiation was assessed by measurement of Alkaline Phosphatse (ALP), mineralization of the matrix and expression of several osteogenic genes. Cells cultured in osteogenic medium showed a significant increase in ALP staining (p = 0.024), mineralization of the matrix (p < 0.001) and ALP gene expression (p = 0.014) compared to normal culture medium. Addition of bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs), a specific GSK3β inhibitor (GIN) or a combination of BMP and GIN to osteogenic medium could not increase ALP staining, mineralization and ALP gene expression. In one donor, addition of GIN was required to induce mineralization of the matrix. Overall, we observed a high inter-donor variability in response to osteogenic stimuli. In conclusion, peri-prosthetic tissue cells, cultured under osteogenic conditions, can produce alkaline phosphatase and mineralized matrix and therefore show characteristics of differentiation into the osteoblastic lineage. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  11. Epigallocatechin-3-gallate Protects against Hydrogen Peroxide-Induced Inhibition of Osteogenic Differentiation of Human Bone Marrow-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Dawei; Wang, Yonghui; Xu, Shihong; Wang, Fu; Wang, Bomin; Han, Ke; Sun, Daqing; Li, Lianxin

    2016-01-01

    Oxidative stress induces bone loss and osteoporosis, and epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) may be used to combat these diseases due to its antioxidative property. Herein, oxidative stress in human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs) was induced by H2O2, resulting in an adverse effect on their osteogenic differentiation. However, this H2O2-induced adverse effect was nullified when the cells were treated with EGCG. In addition, treatment of BM-MSCs with EGCG alone also resulted in the enhancement of osteogenic differentiation of BM-MSCs. After EGCG treatment, expressions of β-catenin and cyclin D1 were upregulated, suggesting that the Wnt pathway was involved in the effects of EGCG on the osteogenic differentiation of BM-MSCs. This was also confirmed by the fact that the Wnt pathway inhibitor, Dickkopf-1 (DKK-1), can nullify the EGCG-induced enhancement effect on BM-MSC's osteogenic differentiation. Hence, our results suggested that EGCG can reduce the effects of oxidative stress on Wnt pathway in osteogenic cells, which supported a potentially promising therapy of bone disorders induced by oxidative stress. Considering its positive effects on BM-MSCs, EGCG may also be beneficial for stem cell-based bone repair. PMID:26977159

  12. Osteogenic Differentiation of Human Amniotic Epithelial Cells and Its Application in Alveolar Defect Restoration

    PubMed Central

    Jiawen, Si; Jianjun, Zhang; Jiewen, Dai; Dedong, Yu; Hongbo, Yu; Jun, Shi; Xudong, Wang; Shen, Steve G.F.

    2014-01-01

    The present study investigated the detailed in vitro osteogenic differentiation process and in vivo bone regenerative property of human amniotic epithelial cells (hAECs). The in vitro osteogenic differentiation process of hAECs was evaluated by biochemical staining, real-time polymerase chain reaction, and immunofluorescence. Next, β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) scaffolds alone or loaded with hAECs were implanted into the alveolar defects of rats. Micro-computed tomography evaluation and histologic studies were conducted. Our results validated the in vitro osteogenic capacity of hAECs by upregulation of Runx2, osterix, alkaline phosphatase, collagen I, and osteopontin, with positive biochemical staining for osteoblasts. An epithelial-mesenchymal transformation process might be involved in the osteogenic differentiation of hAECs by increased expression of transforming growth factor-β1. Our data also demonstrated that in vivo implantation of hAECs loaded on β-TCP scaffolds, not only improved bone regeneration by direct participation, but also reduced the early host immune response to the scaffolds. The presented data indicate that hAECs possess proper osteogenic differentiation potential and a modulatory influence on the early tissue remodeling process, making these cells a potential source of progenitor cells for clinical restoration of the alveolar defect. PMID:25368378

  13. Transdifferentiation of adipogenically differentiated cells into osteogenically or chondrogenically differentiated cells: phenotype switching via dedifferentiation.

    PubMed

    Ullah, Mujib; Sittinger, Michael; Ringe, Jochen

    2014-01-01

    Reprogramming is a new wave in cellular therapies to achieve the vital goals of regenerative medicine. Transdifferentiation, whereas the differentiated state of cells could be reprogrammed into other cell types, meaning cells are no more locked in their differentiated circle. Hence, cells of choice from abundant and easily available sources such as fibroblast and adipose tissue could be converted into cells of demand, to restore the diseased tissues. Before diverting this new approach into effective clinical use, transdifferentiation could not be simply overlooked, as it challenges the normal paradigms of biological laws, where mature cells transdifferentiate not only within same germ layers, but even across the lineage boundaries. How unipotent differentiated cells reprogram into another, and whether transdifferentiation proceeds via a direct cell-to-cell conversion or needs dedifferentiation. To address such questions, MSC were adipogenically differentiated followed by direct transdifferentiation, and subsequently examined by histology, immunohistochemistry, qPCR and single cell analysis. Direct cellular conversion of adipogenic lineage cells into osteogenic or chondrogenic resulted in mixed culture of both lineage cells (adipogenic and new acquiring osteogenic/chondrogenic phenotypes). On molecular level, such conversion was confirmed by significantly upregulated expression of PPARG, FABP4, SPP1 and RUNX2. Chondrogenic transdifferentiation was verified by significantly upregulated expression of PPARG, FABP4, SOX9 and COL2A1. Single cell analysis did not support the direct cell-to-cell conversion, rather described the involvement of dedifferentiation. Moreover, some differentiated single cells did not change their phenotype and were resistant to transdifferentiation, suggesting that differentiated cells behave differently during cellular conversion. An obvious characterization of differentiated cells could be helpful to understand the process of

  14. Adhesion to Vitronectin and Collagen I Promotes Osteogenic Differentiation of Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Plopper, George E.

    2004-01-01

    The mechanisms controlling human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSC) differentiation are not entirely understood. We hypothesized that the contact with extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins normally found in bone marrow would promote osteogenic differentiation of hMSC in vitro. To test this hypothesis, we cultured hMSC on purified ECM proteins in the presence or absence of soluble osteogenic supplements, and assayed for the presence of well-established differentiation markers (production of mineralized matrix, osteopontin, osteocalcin, collagen I, and alkaline phosphatase expression) over a 16-day time course. We found that hMSC adhere to ECM proteins with varying affinity (fibronectin>collagen I≥collagen IV≥vitronectin>laminin-1) and through distinct integrin receptors. Importantly, the greatest osteogenic differentiation occurred in cells plated on vitronectin and collagen I and almost no differentiation took place on fibronectin or uncoated plates. We conclude that the contact with vitronectin and collagen I promotes the osteogenic differentiation of hMSC, and that ECM contact alone may be sufficient to induce differentiation in these cells. PMID:15123885

  15. A comparative study of the proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of human periodontal ligament cells cultured on β-TCP ceramics and demineralized bone matrix with or without osteogenic inducers in vitro.

    PubMed

    An, Shaofeng; Gao, Yan; Huang, Xiangya; Ling, Junqi; Liu, Zhaohui; Xiao, Yin

    2015-05-01

    The repair of bone defects that result from periodontal diseases remains a clinical challenge for periodontal therapy. β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) ceramics are biodegradable inorganic bone substitutes with inorganic components that are similar to those of bone. Demineralized bone matrix (DBM) is an acid-extracted organic matrix derived from bone sources that consists of the collagen and matrix proteins of bone. A few studies have documented the effects of DBM on the proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of human periodontal ligament cells (hPDLCs). The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of inorganic and organic elements of bone on the proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of hPDLCs using three-dimensional porous β-TCP ceramics and DBM with or without osteogenic inducers. Primary hPDLCs were isolated from human periodontal ligaments. The proliferation of the hPDLCs on the scaffolds in the growth culture medium was examined using a Cell-Counting kit-8 (CCK-8) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and the osteogenic differentiation of the hPDLCs cultured on the β-TCP ceramics and DBM were examined in both the growth culture medium and osteogenic culture medium. Specific osteogenic differentiation markers were examined using reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR). SEM images revealed that the cells on the β-TCP were spindle-shaped and much more spread out compared with the cells on the DBM surfaces. There were no significant differences observed in cell proliferation between the β-TCP ceramics and the DBM scaffolds. Compared with the cells that were cultured on β-TCP ceramics, the ALP activity, as well as the Runx2 and osteocalcin (OCN) mRNA levels in the hPDLCs cultured on DBM were significantly enhanced both in the growth culture medium and the osteogenic culture medium. The organic elements of bone may exhibit greater osteogenic differentiation effects

  16. Cross-talk between EGF and BMP9 signalling pathways regulates the osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xing; Qin, Jiaqiang; Luo, Qing; Bi, Yang; Zhu, Gaohui; Jiang, Wei; Kim, Stephanie H; Li, Mi; Su, Yuxi; Nan, Guoxin; Cui, Jing; Zhang, Wenwen; Li, Ruidong; Chen, Xiang; Kong, Yuhan; Zhang, Jiye; Wang, Jinhua; Rogers, Mary Rose; Zhang, Hongyu; Shui, Wei; Zhao, Chen; Wang, Ning; Liang, Xi; Wu, Ningning; He, Yunfeng; Luu, Hue H; Haydon, Rex C; Shi, Lewis L; Li, Tingyu; He, Tong-Chuan; Li, Ming

    2013-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are multipotent progenitors, which give rise to several lineages, including bone, cartilage and fat. Epidermal growth factor (EGF) stimulates cell growth, proliferation and differentiation. EGF acts by binding with high affinity to epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) on the cell surface and stimulating the intrinsic protein tyrosine kinase activity of its receptor, which initiates a signal transduction cascade causing a variety of biochemical changes within the cell and regulating cell proliferation and differentiation. We have identified BMP9 as one of the most osteogenic BMPs in MSCs. In this study, we investigate if EGF signalling cross-talks with BMP9 and regulates BMP9-induced osteogenic differentiation. We find that EGF potentiates BMP9-induced early and late osteogenic markers of MSCs in vitro, which can be effectively blunted by EGFR inhibitors Gefitinib and Erlotinib or receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors AG-1478 and AG-494 in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Furthermore, EGF significantly augments BMP9-induced bone formation in the cultured mouse foetal limb explants. In vivo stem cell implantation experiment reveals that exogenous expression of EGF in MSCs can effectively potentiate BMP9-induced ectopic bone formation, yielding larger and more mature bone masses. Interestingly, we find that, while EGF can induce BMP9 expression in MSCs, EGFR expression is directly up-regulated by BMP9 through Smad1/5/8 signalling pathway. Thus, the cross-talk between EGF and BMP9 signalling pathways in MSCs may underline their important roles in regulating osteogenic differentiation. Harnessing the synergy between BMP9 and EGF should be beneficial for enhancing osteogenesis in regenerative medicine. PMID:23844832

  17. Biomineral/Agarose Composite Gels Enhance Proliferation of Mesenchymal Stem Cells with Osteogenic Capability

    PubMed Central

    Suzawa, Yoshika; Kubo, Norihiko; Iwai, Soichi; Yura, Yoshiaki; Ohgushi, Hajime; Akashi, Mitsuru

    2015-01-01

    Hydroxyapatite (HA) or calcium carbonate (CaCO3) formed on an organic polymer of agarose gel is a biomaterial that can be used for bone tissue regeneration. However, in critical bone defects, the regeneration capability of these materials is limited. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are multipotent cells that can differentiate into bone forming osteoblasts. In this study, we loaded MSCs on HA- or CaCO3-formed agarose gel and cultured them with dexamethasone, which triggers the osteogenic differentiation of MSCs. High alkaline phosphatase activity was detected on both the HA- and CaCO3-formed agarose gels; however, basal activity was only detected on bare agarose gel. Bone-specific osteocalcin content was detected on CaCO3-formed agarose gel on Day 14 of culture, and levels subsequently increased over time. Similar osteocalcin content was detected on HA-formed agarose on Day 21 and levels increased on Day 28. In contrast, only small amounts of osteocalcin were found on bare agarose gel. Consequently, osteogenic capability of MSCs was enhanced on CaCO3-formed agarose at an early stage, and both HA- and CaCO3-formed agarose gels well supported the capability at a later stage. Therefore, MSCs loaded on either HA- or CaCO3-formed agarose could potentially be employed for the repair of critical bone defects. PMID:26110392

  18. Biomineral/Agarose Composite Gels Enhance Proliferation of Mesenchymal Stem Cells with Osteogenic Capability.

    PubMed

    Suzawa, Yoshika; Kubo, Norihiko; Iwai, Soichi; Yura, Yoshiaki; Ohgushi, Hajime; Akashi, Mitsuru

    2015-06-23

    Hydroxyapatite (HA) or calcium carbonate (CaCO3) formed on an organic polymer of agarose gel is a biomaterial that can be used for bone tissue regeneration. However, in critical bone defects, the regeneration capability of these materials is limited. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are multipotent cells that can differentiate into bone forming osteoblasts. In this study, we loaded MSCs on HA- or CaCO3-formed agarose gel and cultured them with dexamethasone, which triggers the osteogenic differentiation of MSCs. High alkaline phosphatase activity was detected on both the HA- and CaCO3-formed agarose gels; however, basal activity was only detected on bare agarose gel. Bone-specific osteocalcin content was detected on CaCO3-formed agarose gel on Day 14 of culture, and levels subsequently increased over time. Similar osteocalcin content was detected on HA-formed agarose on Day 21 and levels increased on Day 28. In contrast, only small amounts of osteocalcin were found on bare agarose gel. Consequently, osteogenic capability of MSCs was enhanced on CaCO3-formed agarose at an early stage, and both HA- and CaCO3-formed agarose gels well supported the capability at a later stage. Therefore, MSCs loaded on either HA- or CaCO3-formed agarose could potentially be employed for the repair of critical bone defects.

  19. Asperosaponin VI promotes bone marrow stromal cell osteogenic differentiation through the PI3K/AKT signaling pathway in an osteoporosis model

    PubMed Central

    Ke, Ke; Li, Qi; Yang, Xiaofeng; Xie, Zhijian; Wang, Yu; Shi, Jue; Chi, Linfeng; Xu, Weijian; Hu, Lingling; Shi, Huali

    2016-01-01

    Asperosaponin VI (ASA VI), a natural compound isolated from the well-known traditional Chinese herb Radix Dipsaci, has an important role in promoting osteoblast formation. However, its effects on osteoblasts in the context of osteoporosis is unknown. This study aimed to investigate the effects and mechanism of ASA VI action on the proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of bone marrow stromal cells isolated from the ovariectomized rats (OVX rBMSCs). The toxicity of ASA VI and its effects on the proliferation of OVX rBMSCs were measured using a CCK-8 assay. Various osteogenic differentiation markers were also analyzed, such as ALP activity, calcified nodule formation, and the expression of osteogenic genes, i.e., ALP, OCN, COL 1 and RUNX2. The results indicated that ASA VI promoted the proliferation of OVX rBMSCs and enhanced ALP activity and calcified nodule formation. In addition, while ASA VI enhanced the expression of ALP, OCN, Col 1 and RUNX2, treatment with LY294002 reduced all of these osteogenic effects and reduced the p-AKT levels induced by ASA VI. These results suggest that ASA VI promotes the osteogenic differentiation of OVX rBMSCs by acting on the phosphatidylinositol—3 kinase/AKT signaling pathway. PMID:27756897

  20. Stimulated Osteogenic Differentiation of Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells by Reduced Graphene Oxide.

    PubMed

    Jin, Linhua; Lee, Jong Ho; Jin, Oh Seong; Shin, Yong Cheol; Kim, Min Jeong; Hong, Suck Won; Lee, Mi Hee; Park, Jong-Chul; Han, Dong-Wook

    2015-10-01

    Osteoprogenitor cells play a significant role in the growth or repair of bones, and have great potential as cell sources for regenerative medicine and bone tissue engineering, but control of their specific differentiation into bone cells remains a challenge. Graphene-based nanomaterials are attractive candidates for biomedical applications as substrates for stem cell (SC) differentiation, scaffolds in tissue engineering, and components of implant devices owing to their biocompatible, transferable and implantable properties. This study examined the enhanced osteogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) by reduced graphene oxide (rGO) nanoparticles (NPs), and rGO NPs was prepared by reducing graphene oxide (GO) with a hydrazine treatment followed by annealing in argon and hydrogen. The cytotoxicity profile of each particle was examined using a water-soluble tetrazolium-8 (WST-8) assay. At different time-points, a WST-8 assay, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity assay and alizarin red S (ARS) staining were used to determine the effects of rGO NPs on proliferation, differentiation and mineralization, respectively. The results suggest that graphene-based materials have potential as a platform for stem cells culture and biomedical applications.

  1. Effect of molecular weight and concentration of hyaluronan on cell proliferation and osteogenic differentiation in vitro.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Ningbo; Wang, Xin; Qin, Lei; Guo, Zhengze; Li, Dehua

    2015-09-25

    Hyaluronan (HA), the simplest glycosaminoglycan and a major component of the extracellular matrix, exists in various tissues. It is involved in some critical biological procedures, including cellular signaling, cell adhesion and proliferation, and cell differentiation. The effect of molecular weight (MW) and concentration of HA on cell proliferation and differentiation was controversial. In this study, we investigated the effect of MW and concentration of HA on the proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of rabbit bone marrow-derived stem cells in vitro. Results showed that high MW HA decreased the cell adhesion rate in a concentration-dependant manner. The cell adhesion rate was decreased by increasing MW of HA. Cell proliferation was significantly enhanced by low MW HA (P < 0.05). The factorial analysis indicated that MW and concentration had an interactive effect on the cell adhesion rate and cell proliferation (P < 0.05). High MW HA increased the mRNA expressions of ALP, RUNX-2 and OCN. The higher the MW was, the higher the mRNA expressions were. The factorial analysis indicated that MW and concentration had an interactive effect on ALP mRNA expression (P < 0.05). HA of higher MW and higher concentration promoted bone formation. These findings provide some useful information in understanding the mechanism underlying the effect of MW and concentration of HA on cell proliferation and differentiation.

  2. Protein isoprenylation regulates osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells: effect of alendronate, and farnesyl and geranylgeranyl transferase inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Duque, G; Vidal, C; Rivas, D

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Protein isoprenylation is an important step in the intracellular signalling pathway conducting cell growth and differentiation. In bone, protein isoprenylation is required for osteoclast differentiation and activation. However, its role in osteoblast differentiation and function remains unknown. In this study, we assessed the role of protein isoprenylation in osteoblastogenesis in a model of mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) differentiation. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH We tested the effect of an inhibitor of farnesylation [farnesyl transferase inhibitor-277 (FTI-277)] and one of geranylgeranylation [geranylgeranyltransferase inhibitor-298 (GGTI-298)] on osteoblast differentiating MSC. In addition, we tested the effect of alendronate on protein isoprenylation in this model either alone or in combination with other inhibitors of isoprenylation. KEY RESULTS Initially, we found that levels of unfarnesylated proteins (prelamin A and HDJ-2) increased after treatment with FTI-277 concomitantly affecting osteoblastogenesis and increasing nuclear morphological changes without affecting cell survival. Furthermore, inhibition of geranylgeranylation by GGTI-298 alone increased osteoblastogenesis. This effect was enhanced by the combination of GGTI-298 and alendronate in the osteogenic media. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS Our data indicate that both farnesylation and geranylgeranylation play a role in osteoblastogenesis. In addition, a new mechanism of action for alendronate on protein isoprenylation in osteogenic differentiating MSC in vitro was found. In conclusion, protein isoprenylation is an important component of the osteoblast differentiation process that could constitute a new therapeutic target for osteoporosis in the future. PMID:21077849

  3. Effect of nano-structured bioceramic surface on osteogenic differentiation of adipose derived stem cells.

    PubMed

    Xia, Lunguo; Lin, Kaili; Jiang, Xinquan; Fang, Bing; Xu, Yuanjin; Liu, Jiaqiang; Zeng, Deliang; Zhang, Maolin; Zhang, Xiuli; Chang, Jiang; Zhang, Zhiyuan

    2014-10-01

    Tissue engineering strategies to construct vascularized bone grafts potentially revolutionize the treatment of massive bone loss. The surface topography of the grafts plays critical roles on bone regeneration, while adipose derived stem cells (ASCs) are known for their capability to promote osteogenesis and angiogenesis when applied to bone defects. In the present study, the effects of hydroxyapatite (HAp) bioceramic scaffolds with nanosheet, nanorod, and micro-nano-hybrid (the hybrid of nanorod and microrod) surface topographies on attachment, proliferation and osteogenic differentiation, as well as the expression of angiogenic factors of rat ASCs were systematically investigated. The results showed that the HAp bioceramic scaffolds with the micro-/nano-topography surfaces significantly enhanced cell attachment and viability, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, and mRNA expression levels of osteogenic markers and angiogenic factors of ASCs. More importantly, the biomimetic feature of the hierarchical micro-nano-hybrid surface topography showed the highest stimulatory effect. The activation in Akt signaling pathway was observed in ASCs cultured on HAp bioceramics with nanorod, and micro-nano-hybrid surface topographies. Moreover, these induction effects could be repressed by Akt signaling pathway inhibitor LY294002. Finally, the in vivo bone regeneration results of rat critical-sized calvarial defect models confirmed that the combination of the micro-nano-hybrid surface and ASCs could significantly enhance both osteogenesis and angiogenesis as compared with the control HAp bioceramic scaffold with traditional smooth surface. Our results suggest that HAp bioceramic scaffolds with micro-nano-hybrid surface can act as cell carrier for ASCs, and consequently combine with ASCs to construct vascularized tissue-engineered bone.

  4. Equine metabolic syndrome impairs adipose stem cells osteogenic differentiation by predominance of autophagy over selective mitophagy.

    PubMed

    Marycz, Krzysztof; Kornicka, Katarzyna; Marędziak, Monika; Golonka, Paweł; Nicpoń, Jakub

    2016-12-01

    Adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ASC) hold great promise in the treatment of many disorders including musculoskeletal system, cardiovascular and/or endocrine diseases. However, the cytophysiological condition of cells, used for engraftment seems to be fundamental factor that might determine the effectiveness of clinical therapy. In this study we investigated growth kinetics, senescence, accumulation of oxidative stress factors, mitochondrial biogenesis, autophagy and osteogenic differentiation potential of ASC isolated from horses suffered from equine metabolic syndrome (EMS). We demonstrated that EMS condition impairs multipotency/pluripotency in ASCs causes accumulation of reactive oxygen species and mitochondria deterioration. We found that, cytochrome c is released from mitochondria to the cytoplasm suggesting activation of intrinsic apoptotic pathway in those cells. Moreover, we observed up-regulation of p21 and decreased ratio of Bcl-2/BAX. Deteriorations in mitochondria structure caused alternations in osteogenic differentiation of ASCEMS resulting in their decreased proliferation rate and reduced expression of osteogenic markers BMP-2 and collagen type I. During osteogenic differentiation of ASCEMS , we observed autophagic turnover as probably, an alternative way to generate adenosine triphosphate and amino acids required to increased protein synthesis during differentiation. Downregulation of PGC1α, PARKIN and PDK4 in differentiated ASCEMS confirmed impairments in mitochondrial biogenesis and function. Hence, application of ASCEMS into endocrinological or ortophedical practice requires further investigation and analysis in the context of safeness of their application.

  5. Modulation of osteogenic differentiation in hMSCs cells by submicron topographically-patterned ridges and grooves.

    PubMed

    Watari, Shinya; Hayashi, Kei; Wood, Joshua A; Russell, Paul; Nealey, Paul F; Murphy, Christopher J; Genetos, Damian C

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that nanoscale and submicron topographic cues modulate a menu of fundamental cell behaviors, and the use of topographic cues is an expanding area of study in tissue engineering. We used topographically-patterned substrates containing anisotropically ordered ridges and grooves to investigate the effects of topographic cues on mesenchymal stem cell morphology, proliferation, and osteogenic differentiation. We found that human mesenchymal stem cells cultured on 1400 or 4000 nm pitches showed greater elongation and alignment relative to 400 nm pitch or planar control. Cells cultured on 400 nm pitch demonstrated significant increases in RUNX2 and BGLAP expression relative to cells cultured on 1400 or 4000 nm pitch or planar control. Four-hundred nanometer pitch enhanced extracellular calcium deposition. Cells cultured in osteoinductive medium revealed combinatory effects of topography and chemical cues on 400 nm pitch as well as up-regulation of expression of ID1, a target of the BMP pathway. Our data demonstrate that a specific size scale of topographic cue promotes osteogenic differentiation with or without osteogenic agents. These data demonstrate that the integration of topographic cues may be useful for the fabrication of orthopedic implants.

  6. Osteogenic Differentiation of Human and Ovine Bone Marrow Stromal Cells in response to β-Glycerophosphate and Monosodium Phosphate.

    PubMed

    Bottagisio, Marta; Lovati, Arianna B; Lopa, Silvia; Moretti, Matteo

    2015-08-01

    Bone defects are severe burdens in clinics, and thus cell therapy offers an alternative strategy exploiting the features of bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs). Sheep are a suitable orthopedic preclinical model for similarities with humans. This study compares the influence of two phosphate sources combined with bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) on the osteogenic potential of human and ovine BMSCs. β-Glycerophosphate (β-GlyP) and monosodium phosphate (NaH2PO4) were used as organic and inorganic phosphate sources. Osteogenic differentiation of the BMSCs was assessed by calcified matrix, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, and gene expression analysis. A higher calcified matrix deposition was detected in BMSCs cultured with NaH2PO4. Although no significant differences were detected among media for human BMSCs, β-GlyP with or without BMP-2 determined a positive trend in ALP levels compared to NaH2PO4. In contrast, NaH2PO4 had a positive effect on ALP levels in ovine BMSCs. β-GlyP better supported the expression of COL1A1 in human BMSCs, whereas all media enhanced RUNX2 and SPARC expression. Ovine BMSCs responded poorly to any media for RUNX2, COL1A1, and SPARC expression. NaH2PO4 improved calcified matrix deposition without upregulating the transcriptional expression of osteogenic markers. A further optimization of differentiation protocols needs to be performed to translate the procedures from preclinical to clinical models.

  7. Effect of low-magnitude, high-frequency vibration on osteogenic differentiation of rat mesenchymal stromal cells

    PubMed Central

    Lau, Esther; Lee, Whitaik David; Li, Jason; Xiao, Andrew; Davies, John E.; Wu, Qianhong; Wang, Liyun; You, Lidan

    2011-01-01

    Whole body vibration (WBV), consisting of a low-magnitude, high-frequency (LMHF) signal, has been found to be anabolic to bone in vivo, which may act through alteration of the lineage commitment of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC). Here, we investigated the effect of LMHF vibration on rat bone marrow-derived MSCs (rMSCs) in an in vitro system. We subjected rMSCs to repeated (six) bouts of 1-hour vibration at 0.3g and 60 Hz in the presence of osteogenic induction medium. The osteogenic differentiation of rMSCs under the loaded and non-loaded conditions was assessed by examining cell proliferation, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, mRNA expression of various osteoblast-associated markers (ALP, Runx2, osterix, collagen type I alpha 1, bone sialoprotein, osteopontin, and osteocalcin), as well as matrix mineralization. We observed that LMHF vibration did not enhance the osteogenic differentiation of rMSCs. Surprisingly, we found that the mRNA level of osterix, a transcription factor necessary for osteoblast formation, was decreased, and matrix mineralization was inhibited. Our findings suggest that LMHF vibration may exert its anabolic effects in vivo via mechanosensing of a cell type different from MSCs. PMID:21344497

  8. Mechanisms of stem cell osteogenic differentiation on TiO2 nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Yu, Weiqiang; Qian, Chao; Jiang, Xinquan; Zhang, Fuqiang; Weng, Weimin

    2015-12-01

    TiO2 nanotubes could stimulate osteogenic differentiation of stem cells, but the molecular mechanisms underlying the interactions between nanotubes and stem cells remain unclear. In this study, we investigated the response of bone marrow stromal cells to nanotubes of different diameters using microarray-based bioinformatics approach. Gene ontology (GO) and GO enrichment network analysis indicated that larger TiO2 nanotubes were more potent than smaller nanotubes in inducing the expression of genes involved in cell proliferation, differentiation, and immune responses, and inhibiting that of genes responsible for cell adhesion. The analysis of the signaling network containing significantly affected genes suggested that Na(+)/K(+) transporting ATPases ATP1A2 (alpha 2 polypeptide) and ATP1A3 (alpha 3 polypeptide), and MAP3K11 (mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase 11) were important for inducing osteogenic differentiation of bone marrow stromal cells without additional osteogenic stimuli. The upregulation of the ATP1A2 and MAP3K11 genes confirmed by real-time PCR indicates that the response of bone marrow stromal cells to nanotube cues may be mediated by the pathways previously implicated in transducing mechanical stress signals. Our results revealed some molecular mechanisms by which TiO2 nanotubes may direct osteogenic differentiation of stem cells.

  9. Histone deacetylase inhibitor sodium butyrate promotes the osteogenic differentiation of rat adipose-derived stem cells.

    PubMed

    Hu, Xiaoqing; Fu, Yutuo; Zhang, Xin; Dai, Linghui; Zhu, Jingxian; Bi, Zhenggang; Ao, Yingfang; Zhou, Chunyan

    2014-04-01

    Adult stem cells hold great promise for use in tissue repair and regeneration. Recently, adipose tissue-derived stem cells (ADSCs) were found to be an appealing alternative to bone marrow stem cells (BMSCs) for bone tissue engineering. The main benefit of ADSCs is that they can be easily and abundantly available from adipose tissue. However, our prior study discovered an important phenomenon that BMSCs have greater osteogenic potential than ADSCs in vitro and epigenetic regulation plays a critical role in runt-related transcription factor 2 (Runx2) expression and thus osteogenesis. In this study, we aimed to improve the osteogenic potential of ADSCs by histone deacetylase inhibitor sodium butyrate (NaBu). We found that NaBu promoted rat ADSC osteogenic differentiation by altering the epigenetic modifications on the Runx2 promoter.

  10. Collagen-Hydroxyapatite Scaffolds Induce Human Adipose Derived Stem Cells Osteogenic Differentiation In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Fabbi, Claudia; Figallo, Elisa; Lo Furno, Debora; Gulino, Rosario; Colarossi, Cristina; Fullone, Francesco; Giuffrida, Rosario; Parenti, Rosalba; Memeo, Lorenzo; Forte, Stefano

    2016-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) play a crucial role in regulating normal skeletal homeostasis and, in case of injury, in bone healing and reestablishment of skeletal integrity. Recent scientific literature is focused on the development of bone regeneration models where MSCs are combined with biomimetic three-dimensional scaffolds able to direct MSC osteogenesis. In this work the osteogenic potential of human MSCs isolated from adipose tissue (hADSCs) has been evaluated in vitro in combination with collagen/Mg doped hydroxyapatite scaffolds. Results demonstrate the high osteogenic potential of hADSCs when cultured in specific differentiation induction medium, as revealed by the Alizarin Red S staining and gene expression profile analysis. In combination with collagen/hydroxyapatite scaffold, hADSCs differentiate into mature osteoblasts even in the absence of specific inducing factors; nevertheless, the supplement of the factors markedly accelerates the osteogenic process, as confirmed by the expression of specific markers of pre-osteoblast and mature osteoblast stages, such as osterix, osteopontin (also known as bone sialoprotein I), osteocalcin and specific markers of extracellular matrix maturation and mineralization stages, such as ALPL and osteonectin. Hence, the present work demonstrates that the scaffold per se is able to induce hADSCs differentiation, while the addition of osteo-inductive factors produces a significant acceleration of the osteogenic process. This observation makes the use of our model potentially interesting in the field of regenerative medicine for the treatment of bone defects. PMID:26982592

  11. Effects of substrate stiffness on adipogenic and osteogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Wen; Li, Xiaowei; Liu, Xiaoyan; Zhang, Ning; Wen, Xuejun

    2014-07-01

    Substrate mechanical properties, in addition to biochemical signals, have been shown to modulate cell phenotype. In this study, we inspected the effects of substrate stiffness on human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) derived from adult human bone marrow differentiation into adipogenic and osteogenic cells. A chemically modified extracellular matrix derived and highly biocompatible hydrogel, based on thiol functionalized hyaluronic acid (HA-SH) and thiol functionalized recombinant human gelatin (Gtn-SH), which can be crosslinked by poly (ethylene glycol) tetra-acrylate (PEGTA), was used as a model system. The stiffness of the hydrogel was controlled by adjusting the crosslinking density. Human bone marrow MSCs were cultured on the hydrogels with different stiffness under adipogenic and osteogenic conditions. Oil Red O staining and F-actin staining were applied to assess the change of cell morphologies under adipogenic and osteogenic differentiation, respectively. Gene expression of cells was determined with reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) as a function of hydrogel stiffness. Results support the hypothesis that adipogenic and osteogenic differentiation of hMSCs are inclined to occur on substrate with stiffness similar to their in vivo microenvironments.

  12. Collagen-Hydroxyapatite Scaffolds Induce Human Adipose Derived Stem Cells Osteogenic Differentiation In Vitro.

    PubMed

    Calabrese, Giovanna; Giuffrida, Raffaella; Fabbi, Claudia; Figallo, Elisa; Lo Furno, Debora; Gulino, Rosario; Colarossi, Cristina; Fullone, Francesco; Giuffrida, Rosario; Parenti, Rosalba; Memeo, Lorenzo; Forte, Stefano

    2016-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) play a crucial role in regulating normal skeletal homeostasis and, in case of injury, in bone healing and reestablishment of skeletal integrity. Recent scientific literature is focused on the development of bone regeneration models where MSCs are combined with biomimetic three-dimensional scaffolds able to direct MSC osteogenesis. In this work the osteogenic potential of human MSCs isolated from adipose tissue (hADSCs) has been evaluated in vitro in combination with collagen/Mg doped hydroxyapatite scaffolds. Results demonstrate the high osteogenic potential of hADSCs when cultured in specific differentiation induction medium, as revealed by the Alizarin Red S staining and gene expression profile analysis. In combination with collagen/hydroxyapatite scaffold, hADSCs differentiate into mature osteoblasts even in the absence of specific inducing factors; nevertheless, the supplement of the factors markedly accelerates the osteogenic process, as confirmed by the expression of specific markers of pre-osteoblast and mature osteoblast stages, such as osterix, osteopontin (also known as bone sialoprotein I), osteocalcin and specific markers of extracellular matrix maturation and mineralization stages, such as ALPL and osteonectin. Hence, the present work demonstrates that the scaffold per se is able to induce hADSCs differentiation, while the addition of osteo-inductive factors produces a significant acceleration of the osteogenic process. This observation makes the use of our model potentially interesting in the field of regenerative medicine for the treatment of bone defects.

  13. Novel markers of osteogenic and adipogenic differentiation of human bone marrow stromal cells identified using a quantitative proteomics approach.

    PubMed

    Granéli, Cecilia; Thorfve, Anna; Ruetschi, Ulla; Brisby, Helena; Thomsen, Peter; Lindahl, Anders; Karlsson, Camilla

    2014-01-01

    Today, the tool that is most commonly used to evaluate the osteogenic differentiation of bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) in vitro is the demonstration of the expression of multiple relevant markers, such as ALP, RUNX2 and OCN. However, as yet, there is no single surface marker or panel of markers which clearly defines human BMSCs (hBMSCs) differentiating towards the osteogenic lineage. The aim of this study was therefore to examine this issue. Stable isotope labeling by amino acids in cell culture (SILAC)-based quantitative proteomics was utilized to investigate differently expressed surface markers in osteogenically differentiated and undifferentiated hBMSCs. Labeled membrane proteins were analyzed by mass spectrometry (MS) and 52 proteins with an expression ratio above 2, between osteogenically differentiated and undifferentiated cells, were identified. Subsequent validation, by flow cytometry and ELISA, of the SILAC expression ratios for a number of these proteins and investigations of the lineage specificity of three candidate markers were performed. The surface markers, CD10 and CD92, demonstrated significantly increased expression in hBMSCs differentiated towards the osteogenic and adipogenic lineages. In addition, there was a slight increase in CD10 expression during chondrogenic differentiation. Furthermore, the expression of the intracellular protein, crystalline-αB (CRYaB), was only significantly increased in osteogenically differentiated hBMSCs and not affected during differentiation towards the chondrogenic or adipogenic lineages. It has been concluded from the present results that CD10 and CD92 are potential markers of osteogenic and adipogenic differentiation and that CRYaB is a potential novel osteogenic marker specifically expressed during the osteogenic differentiation of hBMSCs in vitro.

  14. Conditioned media cause increases in select osteogenic and adipogenic differentiation markers in mesenchymal stem cell cultures.

    PubMed

    Maxson, Scott; Burg, Karen J L

    2008-01-01

    The optimal mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) culture conditions that would allow clinically viable tissue-engineered devices are still yet to be determined. Most MSCs are found in the bone marrow, an area that also contains numerous osteoblasts and adipocytes. Paracrine signalling may be leveraged to modulate MSC differentiation in the preparation of a tissue-engineered device. Thus, the objectives of this study were to determine the effects of adipocyte-conditioned medium (CM) on MSC differentiation to osteoblasts and to determine the effects of osteoblast CM on MSC differentiation to adipocytes. Two groups of murine MSCs were given either an osteogenic differentiation medium or an adipogenic differentiation medium. CM was taken from one group and administered to the opposite group in concentrations of 25% or 50%. Metabolic activity, total protein and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) assays were conducted on the osteogenic group at predefined time points throughout the 21 day study, while metabolic activity, triglyceride and oil red O assays were conducted on the adipogenic group at predefined time points. Adipocyte CM administered at a concentration of 50% increased the ALP production of MSCs undergoing osteogenic differentiation. Additionally, osteoblast CM increased the triglyceride production of MSCs undergoing adipogenic differentiation and enlarged the lipid vesicles that were produced by the cells. The effects of the osteoblast CM were seen at both concentrations, but were greatest at the 50% CM level.

  15. Novel Anti-infective Activities of Chitosan Immobilized Titanium Surface with Enhanced Osteogenic Properties

    PubMed Central

    Ghimire, Niranjan; Luo, Jie; Tang, Ruogu; Sun, Yuyu; Deng, Ying

    2014-01-01

    We have covalently immobilized chitosan onto a titanium (Ti) surface to manage implant-related infection and poor osseointegration, two of the major complications of orthopedic implants. The Ti surface was first treated with sulfuric acid (SA) and then covalently grafted with chitosan. Surface roughness, contact angle and surface zeta potential of the samples were markedly increased by the sulfuric acid treatment and the subsequent chitosan immobilization. The chitosan-immobilized Ti (SA-CS-Ti) showed two novel antimicrobial roles: it a) prevented the invasion and internalization of bacteria into the osteoblast-like cells, and b) significantly increased the susceptibility of adherent bacteria to antibiotics. In addition, the sulfuric acid-treated Ti (SA-Ti) and SA-CS-Ti led to significantly increased (P<0.05) osteoblast-like cell attachment, enhanced cell proliferation, and better osteogenic differentiation and mineralization of osteoblast-like cells. PMID:25033432

  16. Novel anti-infective activities of chitosan immobilized titanium surface with enhanced osteogenic properties.

    PubMed

    Ghimire, Niranjan; Luo, Jie; Tang, Ruogu; Sun, Yuyu; Deng, Ying

    2014-10-01

    We have covalently immobilized chitosan onto a titanium (Ti) surface to manage implant-related infection and poor osseointegration, two of the major complications of orthopedic implants. The Ti surface was first treated with sulfuric acid (SA) and then covalently grafted with chitosan. Surface roughness, contact angle and surface zeta potential of the samples were markedly increased by the sulfuric acid treatment and the subsequent chitosan immobilization. The chitosan-immobilized Ti (SA-CS-Ti) showed two novel antimicrobial roles: it (a) prevented the invasion and internalization of bacteria into the osteoblast-like cells, and (b) significantly increased the susceptibility of adherent bacteria to antibiotics. In addition, the sulfuric acid-treated Ti (SA-Ti) and SA-CS-Ti led to significantly increased (P<0.05) osteoblast-like cell attachment, enhanced cell proliferation, and better osteogenic differentiation and mineralization of osteoblast-like cells.

  17. Aging Reduces an ERRalpha-Directed Mitochondrial Glutaminase Expression Suppressing Glutamine Anaplerosis and Osteogenic Differentiation of Mesenchymal Stem Cells.

    PubMed

    Huang, Tongling; Liu, Renzhong; Fu, Xuekun; Yao, Dongsheng; Yang, Meng; Liu, Qingli; Lu, William W; Wu, Chuanyue; Guan, Min

    2017-02-01

    Aging deteriorates osteogenic capacity of mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSCs), contributing to imbalanced bone remodeling and osteoporosis. Glutaminase (Gls) catabolizes glutamine into glutamate at the first step of mitochondrial glutamine (Gln)-dependent anaplerosis which is essential for MSCs upon osteogenic differentiation. Estrogen-related receptor α (ERRα) regulates genes required for mitochondrial function. Here, we found that ERRα and Gls are upregulated by osteogenic induction in human MSCs (hMSCs). In contrast, osteogenic differentiation capacity and glutamine consumption of MSCs, as well as ERRα, Gls and osteogenic marker genes are significantly reduced with age. We demonstrated that ERRα binds to response elements on Gls promoter and affects glutamine anaplerosis through transcriptional induction of Gls. Conversely, mTOR inhibitor rapamycin, ERRα inverse agonist compound 29 or Gls inhibitor BPTES leads to reduced Gln anaplerosis and deteriorated osteogenic differentiation of hMSCs. Importantly, overexpression of ERRα or Gls restored impairment by these inhibitors. Finally, we proved that compensated ERRα or Gls expression indeed potentiated Gln anaplerosis and osteogenic capability of elderly mice MSCs in vitro. Together, we establish that Gls is a novel ERRα target gene and ERRα/Gls signaling pathway plays an important role in osteogenic differentiation of MSCs, providing new sights into novel regenerative therapeutics development. Our findings suggest that restoring age-related mitochondrial Gln-dependent anaplerosis may be beneficial for degenerative bone disorders such as osteoporosis. Stem Cells 2017;35:411-424.

  18. Osteogenic differentiation of mouse mesenchymal progenitor cell, Kusa-A1 is promoted by mammalian transcriptional repressor Rbpj

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Shengchao; Kawashima, Nobuyuki; Sakamoto, Kei; Katsube, Ken-ichi; Umezawa, Akihiro; Suda, Hideaki

    2010-09-10

    Research highlights: {yields} High Rbpj mRNA expression was observed in mesenchymal cells surrounding the bone of mouse embryos. {yields} Overexpression of Rbpj depressed Notch-Hes1/Hey1 signaling. {yields} Rbpj upregulated promoter activities of Runx2 and Ose2. {yields} Rbpj promoted osteoblastic differentiation/maturation in Kusa-A1 cells. -- Abstract: Pluripotent mesenchymal stem cells possess the ability to differentiate into many cell types, but the precise mechanisms of differentiation are still unclear. Here, we provide evidence that Rbpj (recombination signal-binding protein for immunoglobulin kappa j region) protein, the primary nuclear mediator of Notch, is involved in osteogenesis. Overexpression of Rbpj promoted osteogenic differentiation of mouse Kusa-A1 cells in vitro and in vivo. Transient transfection of an Rbpj expression vector into Kusa-A1 cells upregulated promoter activities of Runx2 and Ose2. Enhanced osteogenic potentials including high alkaline phosphatase activity, rapid calcium deposition, and increased calcified nodule formation, were observed in established stable Rbpj-overexpressing Kusa-A1 (Kusa-A1/Rbpj) cell line. In vivo mineralization by Kusa-A1/Rbpj was promoted compared to that by Kusa-A1 host cells. Histological findings revealed that expression of Rbpj was primarily observed in osteoblasts. These results suggest that Rbpj may play essential roles in osteoblast differentiation.

  19. The collagen I mimetic peptide DGEA enhances an osteogenic phenotype in mesenchymal stem cells when presented from cell-encapsulating hydrogels.

    PubMed

    Mehta, Manav; Madl, Christopher M; Lee, Shimwoo; Duda, Georg N; Mooney, David J

    2015-11-01

    Interactions between cells and the extracellular matrix (ECM) are known to play critical roles in regulating cell phenotype. The identity of ECM ligands presented to mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) has previously been shown to direct the cell fate commitment of these cells. To enhance osteogenic differentiation of MSCs, alginate hydrogels were prepared that present the DGEA ligand derived from collagen I. When presented from hydrogel surfaces in 2D, the DGEA ligand did not facilitate cell adhesion, while hydrogels presenting the RGD ligand derived from fibronectin did encourage cell adhesion and spreading. However, the osteogenic differentiation of MSCs encapsulated within alginate hydrogels presenting the DGEA ligand was enhanced when compared with unmodified alginate hydrogels and hydrogels presenting the RGD ligand. MSCs cultured in DGEA-presenting gels exhibited increased levels of osteocalcin production and mineral deposition. These data suggest that the presentation of the collagen I-derived DGEA ligand is a feasible approach for selectively inducing an osteogenic phenotype in encapsulated MSCs.

  20. Diverse effects of type II collagen on osteogenic and adipogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells.

    PubMed

    Chiu, Li-Hsuan; Yeh, Tien-Shun; Huang, Huei-Mei; Leu, Sy-Jye; Yang, Charng-Bin; Tsai, Yu-Hui

    2012-06-01

    Type II collagen is known to modulate chondrogenesis of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). In this study, MSCs from human bone marrow aspirates were used to study the modulating effects of type II collagen on MSC differentiation during the early stages of osteogenesis and adipogenesis. With osteogenic induction, MSCs cultured on the type II collagen-coated surface showed an enhanced calcium deposition level with increasing mRNA expressions of RUNX2, osteocalcin, and alkaline phosphatase. A synthetic integrin binding peptide, which specifically interacts with the I-domain of α(1)β(1)/α(2)β(1) integrins significantly blocks the mineralization-enhancing effect of type II collagen. MSCs attached on the type II collagen-coated plates exhibited expanded cell morphology with increasing spreading area, and the pretreatment of cells with integrin α(1)β(1) or α(2)β(1)-blocking antibody reduced the effect. The phosphorylation levels of FAK, ERK, and JNK significantly increased in the MSCs that attached on the type II collagen-coated plates. On the contrary, the mineralization-enhancing effect of type II collagen was diminished by JNK and MEK inhibitors. Furthermore, type II collagen blocked the adipogenic differentiation of MSCs, and this effect is rescued by JNK and MEK inhibitors. In conclusion, type II collagen facilitates osteogenesis and suppresses adipogenesis during early stage MSC differentiation. Such effects are integrin binding-mediated and conducted through FAK-JNK and/or FAK-ERK signaling cascades. These results inspire a novel strategy encompassing type II collagen in bone tissue engineering.

  1. Lipopolysaccharide induces proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of adipose-derived mesenchymal stromal cells in vitro via TLR4 activation.

    PubMed

    Herzmann, Nicole; Salamon, Achim; Fiedler, Tomas; Peters, Kirsten

    2017-01-01

    Multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) are capable of multi-lineage differentiation and support regenerative processes. In bacterial infections, resident MSC can come intocontact with and need to react to bacterial components. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a typical structure of Gram-negative bacteria, increases the proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of MSC. LPS is usually recognized by the toll-like receptor (TLR) 4 and induces pro-inflammatory reactions in numerous cell types. In this study, we quantified the protein expression of TLR4 and CD14 on adipose-derived MSC (adMSC) in osteogenic differentiation and investigated the effect of TLR4 activation by LPS on NF-κB activation, proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of adMSC. We found that TLR4 is expressed on adMSC whereas CD14 is not, and that osteogenic differentiation induced an increase of the amount of TLR4 protein whereas LPS stimulation did not. Moreover, we could show that NF-κB activation via TLR4 occurs upon LPS treatment. Furthermore, we were able to show that competitive inhibition of TLR4 completely abolished the stimulatory effect of LPS on the proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of adMSC. In addition, the inhibition of TLR4 leads to the complete absence of osteogenic differentiation of adMSC, even when osteogenically stimulated. Thus, we conclude that LPS induces proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of adMSC in vitro through the activation of TLR4 and that the TLR4 receptor seems to play a role during osteogenic differentiation of adMSC.

  2. Effects of Cimicifugae Rhizoma on the osteogenic and adipogenic differentiation of stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Ji-Eun; Kim, Bo-Bae; Ko, Youngkyung; Jeong, Su-Hyeon; Park, Jun-Beom

    2017-01-01

    Cimicifugae Rhizoma, a herb with a long history of use in traditional Oriental medicine is reported to have anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, anti-complement and anticancer effects. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of Cimicifugae Rhizoma extracts on the osteogenic and adipogenic differentiation of human stem cells derived from gingiva. Stem cells derived from gingiva were grown in the presence of Cimicifugae Rhizoma at final concentrations of 0.1, 1 and 10 µg/ml. Cell proliferation analyses were performed at day 15. For osteogenic differentiation experiments, the stem cells were cultured in osteogenic media containing β-glycerophosphate, ascorbic acid-2-phosphate and dexamethasone, and osteogenic differentiation was evaluated by analysis of osteocalcin expression at 21 days. For adipogenic differentiation experiments, the stem cells were grown in adipogenic induction medium, and the adipogenic differentiation was evaluated by analysis of adipocyte fatty acid-binding protein at day 14. The cultures grown in the presence of 0.1 µg/ml Cimicifugae Rhizoma showed a significant increase in cellular proliferation at day 15 compared with the control group. The relative osteogenic differentiation in the presence of Cimicifugae Rhizoma for the 0.1, 1 and 10 µg/ml groups was 171.5±13.7, 125.6±28.7 and 150.5±9.0, respectively, when that of the untreated control group on day 21 was considered to be 100%. The relative adipogenic differentiation at day 14 of the 0.1, 1 and 10 µg/ml groups in the presence of Cimicifugae Rhizoma was 97.5±15.0, 102.9±12.8 and 87.0±6.8%, respectively when that of the untreated control group on day 14 was considered to be 100%. Within the limits of this study, Cimicifugae Rhizoma increased the proliferation of stem cells derived from the gingiva, and low concentrations of Cimicifugae Rhizoma may increase the osteogenic differentiation of stem cells. PMID:28352313

  3. Semipermeable Capsules Wrapping a Multifunctional and Self-regulated Co-culture Microenvironment for Osteogenic Differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Correia, Clara R.; Pirraco, Rogério P.; Cerqueira, Mariana T.; Marques, Alexandra P.; Reis, Rui L.; Mano, João F.

    2016-01-01

    A new concept of semipermeable reservoirs containing co-cultures of cells and supporting microparticles is presented, inspired by the multi-phenotypic cellular environment of bone. Based on the deconstruction of the “stem cell niche”, the developed capsules are designed to drive a self-regulated osteogenesis. PLLA microparticles functionalized with collagen I, and a co-culture of adipose stem (ASCs) and endothelial (ECs) cells are immobilized in spherical liquified capsules. The capsules are coated with multilayers of poly(L-lysine), alginate, and chitosan nano-assembled through layer-by-layer. Capsules encapsulating ASCs alone or in a co-culture with ECs are cultured in endothelial medium with or without osteogenic differentiation factors. Results show that osteogenesis is enhanced by the co-encapsulation, which occurs even in the absence of differentiation factors. These findings are supported by an increased ALP activity and matrix mineralization, osteopontin detection, and the up regulation of BMP-2, RUNX2 and BSP. The liquified co-capsules also act as a VEGF and BMP-2 cytokines release system. The proposed liquified capsules might be a valuable injectable self-regulated system for bone regeneration employing highly translational cell sources. PMID:26905619

  4. Semipermeable Capsules Wrapping a Multifunctional and Self-regulated Co-culture Microenvironment for Osteogenic Differentiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Correia, Clara R.; Pirraco, Rogério P.; Cerqueira, Mariana T.; Marques, Alexandra P.; Reis, Rui L.; Mano, João F.

    2016-02-01

    A new concept of semipermeable reservoirs containing co-cultures of cells and supporting microparticles is presented, inspired by the multi-phenotypic cellular environment of bone. Based on the deconstruction of the “stem cell niche”, the developed capsules are designed to drive a self-regulated osteogenesis. PLLA microparticles functionalized with collagen I, and a co-culture of adipose stem (ASCs) and endothelial (ECs) cells are immobilized in spherical liquified capsules. The capsules are coated with multilayers of poly(L-lysine), alginate, and chitosan nano-assembled through layer-by-layer. Capsules encapsulating ASCs alone or in a co-culture with ECs are cultured in endothelial medium with or without osteogenic differentiation factors. Results show that osteogenesis is enhanced by the co-encapsulation, which occurs even in the absence of differentiation factors. These findings are supported by an increased ALP activity and matrix mineralization, osteopontin detection, and the up regulation of BMP-2, RUNX2 and BSP. The liquified co-capsules also act as a VEGF and BMP-2 cytokines release system. The proposed liquified capsules might be a valuable injectable self-regulated system for bone regeneration employing highly translational cell sources.

  5. DKK1 rescues osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells isolated from periodontal ligaments of patients with diabetes mellitus induced periodontitis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Qi; Hu, Cheng-Hu; Zhou, Cui-Hong; Cui, Xiao-Xia; Yang, Kun; Deng, Chao; Xia, Jia-Jia; Wu, Yan; Liu, Lu-Chuan; Jin, Yan

    2015-08-17

    Multiple studies have shown that diabetes mellitus is an established risk factor for periodontitis. Recently mesenchymal stem cells derived from periodontal ligament (PDLSCs) have been utilized to reconstruct tissues destroyed by chronic inflammation. However, impact of periodontitis with diabetes mellitus on PDLSCs and mechanisms mediating effects of complex microenvironments remain poorly understood. In this study, we found multiple differentiation potential of PDLSCs from chronic periodontitis with diabetes mellitus donors (D-PDLSCs) was damaged significantly. Inhibition of NF-κB signaling could rescue osteogenic potential of PDLSCs from simple chronic periodontitis patients (P-PDLSCs), whereas did not promote D-PDLSCs osteogenesis. In addition, we found expression of DKK1 in D-PDLSCs did not respond to osteogenic signal and decreased osteogenic potential of D-PDLSCs treated with DKK1 could be reversed. To further elucidate different character between P-PDLSCs and D-PDLSCs, we treated PDLSCs with TNF-α and advanced glycation end products (AGEs), and find out AGEs which enhance effect of TNF-α in PDLSCs might mediate special personality of D-PDLSCs. The adverse effect of AGEs in PDLSCs could be reversed when PDLSCs were treated with DKK1. These results suggested DKK1 mediating WNT signaling might be a therapy target to rescue potential of PDLSCs in periodontitis with diabetes mellitus.

  6. Electro-magnetic field promotes osteogenic differentiation of BM-hMSCs through a selective action on Ca2+-related mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Petecchia, Loredana; Sbrana, Francesca; Utzeri, Roberto; Vercellino, Marco; Usai, Cesare; Visai, Livia; Vassalli, Massimo; Gavazzo, Paola

    2015-01-01

    Exposure to Pulsed Electromagnetic Field (PEMF) has been shown to affect proliferation and differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells derived from bone marrow stroma (BM-hMSC). These cells offer considerable promise in the field of regenerative medicine, but their clinical application is hampered by major limitations such as poor availability and the time required to differentiate up to a stage suitable for implantation. For this reason, several research efforts are focusing on identifying strategies to speed up the differentiation process. In this work we investigated the in vitro effect of PEMF on Ca2+-related mechanisms promoting the osteogenic differentiation of BM-hMSC. Cells were daily exposed to PEMF while subjected to osteogenic differentiation and various Ca2+-related mechanisms were monitored using multiple approaches for identifying functional and structural modifications related to this process. The results indicate that PEMF exposure promotes chemically induced osteogenesis by mechanisms that mainly interfere with some of the calcium-related osteogenic pathways, such as permeation and regulation of cytosolic concentration, leaving others, such as extracellular deposition, unaffected. The PEMF effect is primarily associated to early enhancement of intracellular calcium concentration, which is proposed here as a reliable hallmark of the osteogenic developmental stage. PMID:26364969

  7. Osteogenic Differentiation of Mesenchymal Stem Cells using Hybrid Nanofibers with Different Configurations and Dimensionality.

    PubMed

    Gugutkov, D; Awaja, F; Belemezova, K; Keremidarska, M; Krasteva, N; Kuyrkchiev, S; GallegoFerrer, G; Seker, S; Elcin, A E; Elcin, Y M; Altankov, G

    2017-03-11

    Novel hybrid, fibrinogen/polylactic acid (FBG/PLA) nanofibers with different configuration (random vs. aligned) and dimensionality (2D vs.3D environment) were used to control the overall behaviour and the osteogenic differentiation of human Adipose Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells (ADMSCs). Aligned nanofibers in both the 2D and 3D configurations are proved to be favoured for osteo-differentiation. Morphologically we found that on randomly configured nanofibers, the cells developed a stellate-like morphology with multiple projections, however, time-lapse analysis showed significantly diminished cell movements. Conversely, an elongated cell shape with advanced cell spreading and extended actin cytoskeleton accompanied with significantly increased cell mobility were observed when cells attached on aligned nanofibers. Moreover, a clear tendency for higher alkaline phosphatase activity was also found on aligned fibres when ADMSCs were switched to osteogenic induction medium. The strongest accumulation of Alizarin red (AR) and von Kossa stain at 21 day of culture in osteogenic medium were found on 3D aligned constructs while the rest showed lower and rather undistinguishable activity. Quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analysis for Osteopontin (OSP) and RUNX 2 generally confirmed this trend showing favourable expression of osteogenic genes activity in 3D environment particularly in aligned configuration. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  8. Magnesium ion implantation on a micro/nanostructured titanium surface promotes its bioactivity and osteogenic differentiation function.

    PubMed

    Wang, Guifang; Li, Jinhua; Zhang, Wenjie; Xu, Lianyi; Pan, Hongya; Wen, Jin; Wu, Qianju; She, Wenjun; Jiao, Ting; Liu, Xuanyong; Jiang, Xinquan

    2014-01-01

    As one of the important ions associated with bone osseointegration, magnesium was incorporated into a micro/nanostructured titanium surface using a magnesium plasma immersion ion-implantation method. Hierarchical hybrid micro/nanostructured titanium surfaces followed by magnesium ion implantation for 30 minutes (Mg30) and hierarchical hybrid micro/nanostructured titanium surfaces followed by magnesium ion implantation for 60 minutes (Mg60) were used as test groups. The surface morphology, chemical properties, and amount of magnesium ions released were evaluated by field-emission scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, field-emission transmission electron microscopy, and inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry. Rat bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (rBMMSCs) were used to evaluate cell responses, including proliferation, spreading, and osteogenic differentiation on the surface of the material or in their medium extraction. Greater increases in the spreading and proliferation ability of rBMMSCs were observed on the surfaces of magnesium-implanted micro/nanostructures compared with the control plates. Furthermore, the osteocalcin (OCN), osteopontin (OPN), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) genes were upregulated on both surfaces and in their medium extractions. The enhanced cell responses were correlated with increasing concentrations of magnesium ions, indicating that the osteoblastic differentiation of rBMMSCs was stimulated through the magnesium ion function. The magnesium ion-implanted micro/nanostructured titanium surfaces could enhance the proliferation, spreading, and osteogenic differentiation activity of rBMMSCs, suggesting they have potential application in improving bone-titanium integration.

  9. Magnesium ion implantation on a micro/nanostructured titanium surface promotes its bioactivity and osteogenic differentiation function

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Guifang; Li, Jinhua; Zhang, Wenjie; Xu, Lianyi; Pan, Hongya; Wen, Jin; Wu, Qianju; She, Wenjun; Jiao, Ting; Liu, Xuanyong; Jiang, Xinquan

    2014-01-01

    As one of the important ions associated with bone osseointegration, magnesium was incorporated into a micro/nanostructured titanium surface using a magnesium plasma immersion ion-implantation method. Hierarchical hybrid micro/nanostructured titanium surfaces followed by magnesium ion implantation for 30 minutes (Mg30) and hierarchical hybrid micro/nanostructured titanium surfaces followed by magnesium ion implantation for 60 minutes (Mg60) were used as test groups. The surface morphology, chemical properties, and amount of magnesium ions released were evaluated by field-emission scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, field-emission transmission electron microscopy, and inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry. Rat bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (rBMMSCs) were used to evaluate cell responses, including proliferation, spreading, and osteogenic differentiation on the surface of the material or in their medium extraction. Greater increases in the spreading and proliferation ability of rBMMSCs were observed on the surfaces of magnesium-implanted micro/nanostructures compared with the control plates. Furthermore, the osteocalcin (OCN), osteopontin (OPN), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) genes were upregulated on both surfaces and in their medium extractions. The enhanced cell responses were correlated with increasing concentrations of magnesium ions, indicating that the osteoblastic differentiation of rBMMSCs was stimulated through the magnesium ion function. The magnesium ion-implanted micro/nanostructured titanium surfaces could enhance the proliferation, spreading, and osteogenic differentiation activity of rBMMSCs, suggesting they have potential application in improving bone-titanium integration. PMID:24940056

  10. Effects of hTERT immortalization on osteogenic and adipogenic differentiation of dental pulp stem cells.

    PubMed

    Ikbale, El-Ayachi; Goorha, Sarita; Reiter, Lawrence T; Miranda-Carboni, Gustavo A

    2016-03-01

    These data relate to the differentiation of human dental pulp stem cells (DPSC) and DPSC immortalized by constitutively expressing human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) through both osteogenic and adipogenic lineages (i.e. to make bone producing and fat producing cells from these dental pulp stem cells). The data augment another study to characterize immortalized DPSC for the study of neurogenetic "Characterization of neurons from immortalized dental pulp stem cells for the study of neurogenetic disorders" [1]. Two copies of one typical control cell line (technical replicates) were used in this study. The data represent the differentiation of primary DPSC into osteoblast cells approximately 60% more effectively than hTERT immortalized DPSC. Conversely, both primary and immortalized DPSC are poorly differentiated into adipocytes. The mRNA expression levels for both early and late adipogenic and osteogenic gene markers are shown.

  11. The induction of cellular senescence in dental follicle cells inhibits the osteogenic differentiation.

    PubMed

    Morsczeck, Christian; Gresser, Jan; Ettl, Tobias

    2016-06-01

    Dental stem cells such as human dental follicle cells (DFCs) have opened new promising treatment alternatives for today's dental health issues such as periodontal tissue regeneration. However, cellular senescence represents a restricting factor to cultured stem cells, resulting in limited lifespan and reduced cell differentiation potential. Therefore, this study evaluated if and how DFCs exhibit features of cellular senescence after being expanded in cell culture. The cell proliferation of DFCs decreased, while the cell size increased during prolonged cell culture. Moreover, DFCs expressed the senescence-associated β-galactosidase after a prolonged cell culture. The onset of senescence inhibited both the induction of osteoblast markers RUNX2 and osteopontin and the biomineralization of DFCs after stimulation of the osteogenic differentiation. In conclusion, we showed that a prolonged cell culture induces cellular senescence and inhibits the osteogenic differentiation in DFCs.

  12. Matrix-mediated retention of osteogenic differentiation potential by human adult bone marrow stromal cells during ex vivo expansion.

    PubMed

    Mauney, Joshua R; Kaplan, David L; Volloch, Vladimir

    2004-07-01

    During prolonged cultivation ex vivo, adult bone marrow stromal stem cells (BMSCs) undergo two probably interdependent processes, replicative aging and a decline in differentiation potential. Recently, our results with primary human fibroblasts indicated that growth on denatured collagen (DC) matrix results in the reduction of the rate of cellular aging. The present study has been undertaken to test whether the growth of human BMSCs under the same conditions would translate into preservation of cellular aging-attenuated functions, such as the ability to express HSP70 in response to stress as well as of osteogenic differentiation potential. We report here that growth of BMSCs on a DC matrix versus tissue culture polystyrene significantly reduced one of the main manifestations of cellular aging, the attenuation of the ability to express a major protective stress response component, HSP70, increased the proliferation capacity of ex vivo expanded BMSCs, reduced the rate of morphological changes, and resulted in a dramatic increase in the retention of the potential to express osteogenic-specific functions and markers upon treatment with osteogenic stimulants. BMSCs are a promising and increasingly important cell source for tissue engineering as well as cell and gene therapeutic strategies. For use of BMSCs in these applications, ex vivo expansion is necessary to obtain a sufficient, therapeutically useful, number of cells; however, this results in the loss of differentiation potential. This problem is especially acute in older patients where more extensive in vitro expansion of smaller number of stem/progenitor cells is needed. The finding that growth on certain biomaterials preserves aging-attenuated functions, enhances proliferation capacity, and maintains differentiation potential of BMSCs indicates a promising approach to address this problem.

  13. Control of proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of human dental-pulp-derived stem cells by distinct surface structures.

    PubMed

    Kolind, K; Kraft, D; Bøggild, T; Duch, M; Lovmand, J; Pedersen, F S; Bindslev, D A; Bünger, C E; Foss, M; Besenbacher, F

    2014-02-01

    The ability to control the behavior of stem cells provides crucial benefits, for example, in tissue engineering and toxicity/drug screening, which utilize the stem cell's capacity to engineer new tissues for regenerative purposes and the testing of new drugs in vitro. Recently, surface topography has been shown to influence stem cell differentiation; however, general trends are often difficult to establish due to differences in length scales, surface chemistries and detailed surface topographies. Here we apply a highly versatile screening approach to analyze the interplay of surface topographical parameters on cell attachment, morphology, proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal dental-pulp-derived stem cells (DPSCs) cultured with and without osteogenic differentiation factors in the medium (ODM). Increasing the inter-pillar gap size from 1 to 6 μm for surfaces with small pillar sizes of 1 and 2 μm resulted in decreased proliferation and in more elongated cells with long pseudopodial protrusions. The same alterations of pillar topography, up to an inter-pillar gap size of 4 μm, also resulted in enhanced mineralization of DPSCs cultured without ODM, while no significant trend was observed for DPSCs cultured with ODM. Generally, cells cultured without ODM had a larger deposition of osteogenic markers on structured surfaces relative to the unstructured surfaces than what was found when culturing with ODM. We conclude that the topographical design of biomaterials can be optimized for the regulation of DPSC differentiation and speculate that the inclusion of ODM alters the ability of the cells to sense surface topographical cues. These results are essential in order to transfer the use of this highly proliferative, easily accessible stem cell into the clinic for use in cell therapy and regenerative medicine.

  14. Nitric oxide production during the osteogenic differentiation of human periodontal ligament mesenchymal stem cells.

    PubMed

    Orciani, Monia; Trubiani, Oriana; Vignini, Arianna; Mattioli-Belmonte, Monica; Di Primio, R; Salvolini, Eleonora

    2009-01-01

    The critical tissues that require regeneration in the periodontium are of mesenchymal origin; therefore, the ability to identify, characterize and manipulate mesenchymal stem cells within the periodontium is of considerable clinical significance. In particular, recent findings suggest that periodontal ligament cells may possess many osteoblast-like properties. In the present study, periodontal ligament mesenchymal stem cells obtained from healthy volunteers were maintained in culture until confluence and then induced to osteogenic differentiation. Intracellular calcium ([Ca2+](i)) concentration and nitric oxide, important signalling molecules in the bone, were measured along with cell differentiation. Alkaline phosphatase activity was assayed and bone nodule-like structures were evaluated by means of morphological and histochemical analysis. Our results showed that the periodontal ligament mesenchymal stem cells underwent an in vitro osteogenic differentiation, resulting in the appearance of active osteoblast-like cells together with the formation of calcified deposits. Differentiating cells were also characterized by an increase of [Ca2+](i) and nitric oxide production. In conclusion, our data show a link between nitric oxide and the osteogenic differentiation of human periodontal ligament mesenchymal stem cells, thus suggesting that local reimplantation of expanded cells in conjugation with a nitric oxide donor could represent a promising method for treatment of periodontal defects.

  15. Hypothermia reduces VEGF-165 expression, but not osteogenic differentiation of human adipose stem cells under hypoxia

    PubMed Central

    Bakker, Astrid D.; Hogervorst, Jolanda M. A.; Nolte, Peter A.; Klein-Nulend, Jenneke

    2017-01-01

    Cryotherapy is successfully used in the clinic to reduce pain and inflammation after musculoskeletal damage, and might prevent secondary tissue damage under the prevalent hypoxic conditions. Whether cryotherapy reduces mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) number and differentiation under hypoxic conditions, causing impaired callus formation is unknown. We aimed to determine whether hypothermia modulates proliferation, apoptosis, nitric oxide production, VEGF gene and protein expression, and osteogenic/chondrogenic differentiation of human MSCs under hypoxia. Human adipose MSCs were cultured under hypoxia (37°C, 1% O2), hypothermia and hypoxia (30°C, 1% O2), or control conditions (37°C, 20% O2). Total DNA, protein, nitric oxide production, alkaline phosphatase activity, gene expression, and VEGF protein concentration were measured up to day 8. Hypoxia enhanced KI67 expression at day 4. The combination of hypothermia and hypoxia further enhanced KI67 gene expression compared to hypoxia alone, but was unable to prevent the 1.2-fold reduction in DNA amount caused by hypoxia at day 4. Addition of hypothermia to hypoxic cells did not alter the effect of hypoxia alone on BAX-to-BCL-2 ratio, alkaline phosphatase activity, gene expression of SOX9, COL1, or osteocalcin, or nitric oxide production. Hypothermia decreased the stimulating effect of hypoxia on VEGF-165 gene expression by 6-fold at day 4 and by 2-fold at day 8. Hypothermia also decreased VEGF protein expression under hypoxia by 2.9-fold at day 8. In conclusion, hypothermia decreased VEGF-165 gene and protein expression, but did not affect differentiation, or apoptosis of MSCs cultured under hypoxia. These in vitro results implicate that hypothermia treatment in vivo, applied to alleviate pain and inflammation, is not likely to harm early stages of callus formation. PMID:28166273

  16. Smurf1 plays a role in EGF inhibition of BMP2-induced osteogenic differentiation

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Hye-Lim; Park, Hyun-Jung; Kwon, Arang; Baek, Kyunghwa; Woo, Kyung Mi; Ryoo, Hyun-Mo; Kim, Gwan-Shik; Baek, Jeong-Hwa

    2014-05-01

    It has been demonstrated that epidermal growth factor (EGF) plays a role in supporting the proliferation of bone marrow stromal cells in bone but inhibits their osteogenic differentiation. However, the mechanism underlying EGF inhibition of osteoblast differentiation remains unclear. Smurf1 is an E3 ubiquitin ligase that targets Smad1/5 and Runx2, which are critical transcription factors for bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP2)-induced osteoblast differentiation. In this study, we investigated the effect of EGF on the expression of Smurf1, and the role of Smurf1 in EGF inhibition of osteogenic differentiation using C2C12 cells, a murine myoblast cell line. EGF increased Smurf1 expression, which was blocked by inhibiting the activity of either JNK or ERK. Chromatin immunoprecipitation and Smurf1 promoter assays demonstrated that c-Jun and Runx2 play roles in the EGF induction of Smurf1 transcription. EGF suppressed BMP2-induced expression of osteogenic marker genes, which were rescued by Smurf1 knockdown. EGF downregulated the protein levels of Runx2 and Smad1 in a proteasome-dependent manner. EGF decreased the transcriptional activity of Runx2 and Smurf1, which was partially rescued by Smurf1 silencing. Taken together, these results suggest that EGF increases Smurf1 expression via the activation of JNK and ERK and the subsequent binding of c-Jun and Runx2 to the Smurf1 promoter and that Smurf1 mediates the inhibitory effect of EGF on BMP2-induced osteoblast differentiation. - Highlights: • EGF increases the expression level of Smurf1 in mesenchymal precursor cells. • EGF reduces the protein levels and transcriptional activity of Runx2 and Smad1. • EGF suppresses BMP2-induced osteogenic differentiation, which is rescued by Smurf1 knockdown.

  17. High glucose inhibits osteogenic differentiation through the BMP signaling pathway in bone mesenchymal stem cells in mice

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Juncheng; Wang, Bin; Li, Ying; Wang, Dongsheng; Lingling, E; Bai, Yang; Liu, Hongchen

    2013-01-01

    Patients with diabetes tend to have an increased risk of osteoporosis that may be related to hyperglycemia. In vitro evidence has shown that high glucose can affect the proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). Tissue regeneration depends mainly on MSCs. However, the exact mechanisms involved in high glucose-induced bone loss remain unknown. In this study, we investigated the effects of high glucose on the proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of mice bone MSCs (BMSCs) and determined the specific mechanism of bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP-2) in the osteogenic differentiation of mice BMSCs in a high-glucose microenvironment. High glucose (< 25 mM) promoted cell growth but suppressed mineralization. The intracellular BMP-2 level in BMSCs cultured in a high-glucose microenvironment was significantly decreased and suppressed activation of the BMP signaling pathway. Consequently, expression of the osteogenic markers Runx2, alkaline phosphatase, and osteocalcin were decreased. Meanwhile, supplementation with ectogenic BMP-2 reversed the cell osteogenic differentiation and osteogenic marker down-regulation under high glucose. Our data indicate that BMP-2 plays an important role in regulating the osteogenic differentiation of BMSCs in a high-glucose microenvironment. Thus, it is possible that agents modifying this pathway could be used by BMSCs to promote bone regeneration in high-glucose microenvironments. PMID:27103890

  18. The Influence of Tetracycline Inducible Targeting Rat PPARγ Gene Silencing on the Osteogenic and Adipogenic Differentiation of Bone Marrow Stromal Cells.

    PubMed

    Feng, Xiaobo; Liu, Xianzhe; Cai, Xianyi; Lin, Tao; Xu, Weihua; Yang, Cao; Liu, Yongwei; Yang, Shuhua; Fu, Dehao

    2016-01-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) has been considered as the master regulator for adipogenesis of bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs). However, there are few reports regarding the effect of PPARγ gene silencing on osteogenic and adipogenic differentiation in rat BMSCs, and no reports about tissue targeting and conditional knockdown of PPARγ gene. In this study, we construct rat PPARγ gene shRNA Tet-on lentiviral vector, the lentiviral vector facilitated tetracycline (which has the characteristics of bone targeting)-inducible knockdown specific to PPARγ gene, and transfect it into BMSCs, the silencing effects induced by tetracycline is significant. The expression of the adipogenic factors adipocyte determination and differentiation-dependent factor 1 (ADD1) and recombinant CCAAT/enhancer binding protein alpha (C/EBPα) were decreased as measured by RT-PCR and Western blot assay following PPARγ silencing. In contrast, expression of the osteogenic genes encoding collagen I and Cbfa1/Runx2 were increased. In adipogenic medium, PPARγ-shRNA transfection reduced the lipid droplet count as measured by Oil red O staining when compared to the control groups. In osteogenic medium, PPARγ-shRNA increased the activity of alkaline phosphatase and the amount of calcium deposition as measured by Alizarin red S staining. These results suggest that the rat PPARγ gene shRNA Teton lentiviral vector decreases adipogenic differentiation and promotes osteogenic differentiation in BMSCs induced by tetracycline.

  19. Inhibition of actin polymerization decreases osteogeneic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells through p38 MAPK pathway

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Mesenchymal Stem Cells (MSC) are important candidates for therapeutic applications due to their ex vivo proliferation and differentiation capacity. MSC differentiation is controlled by both intrinsic and extrinsic factors and actin cytoskeleton plays a major role in the event. In the current study, we tried to understand the initial molecular mechanisms and pathways that regulate the differentiation of MSC into osteocytes or adipocytes. Results We observed that actin modification was important during differentiation and differentially regulated during adipogenesis and osteogenesis. Initial disruption of actin polymerization reduced further differentiation of MSC into osteocytes and osteogenic differentiation was accompanied by increase in ERK1/2 and p38 MAPK phosphorylation. However, only p38 MAPK phosphorylation was down regulated upon inhibition of actin polymerization which as accompanied by decreased CD49E expression. Conclusion Taken together, our results show that actin modification is a pre-requisite for MSC differentiation into osteocytes and adipocytes and osteogenic differentiation is regulated through p38 MAPK phosphorylation. Thus by modifying their cytoskeleton the differentiation potential of MSC could be controlled which might have important implications for tissue repair and regeneration. PMID:24070328

  20. GABPβ2 expression during osteogenic differentiation from human osteoblast-like Saos-2 cells.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xiaoyuan; Xiong, Jianjun; Wang, Tao; Zheng, Meirong; Wu, Ping; Wang, Xinping; Jiang, He; Yi, Benyi; Lang, Bin; Li, Weidong

    2014-01-01

    The E26 transformation-specific (ETS) family of transcription factors plays an important role in osteogenic differentiation. Whether GA-binding protein β2 (GABPβ2), a member of the ETS family, is involved in osteogenic differentiation has not been previously reported. In the present study, directed differentiation of human osteoblast-like Saos-2 cells was induced and validated by examining alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, presence of mineralized nodule and other phenotypic characteristics of the cells on days 0, 3, 6 and 9, thus establishing their osteogenic potential. Real-time PCR revealed that similarly to the bone-specific transcription factor Runx2, the expression of Gabpb2 in Saos-2 cells also peaked on day 3 and was significantly reduced on days 6 and 9. Immunocytochemical staining showed that changes in the immunoreactivity of GABPβ2 also exhibited a similar trend to that of Runx2. Initially, Runx2 was predominantly localized in the nuclei, while GABPβ2 was relatively diffuse. Both exhibited a significant increase in immunoreactivity on day 3, with presence in both the nuclei and cytoplasm. By day 6, both showed a significant decrease in immunoreactivity and were mainly localized in the nuclei. Therefore, we surmise that GABPβ2, as an ETS family member, may play a regulatory role in early osteoblastic differentiation and potentially act in synergy with Runx2.

  1. Apigenin promotes osteogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells through JNK and p38 MAPK pathways.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xue; Zhou, Chenhui; Zha, Xuan; Xu, Zhoumei; Li, Li; Liu, Yuyu; Xu, Liangliang; Cui, Liao; Xu, Daohua; Zhu, Baohua

    2015-09-01

    Apigenin is a plant-derived flavonoid and has been reported to prevent bone loss in ovariectomized mice, but the role of apigenin on osteogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) has not been reported. In the present study, the effect of apigenin on osteogenic differentiation of hMSCs was explored. Our results showed that apigenin treatment significantly increased alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and mineralization in hMSCs. RT-PCR revealed that apigenin markedly up-regulated the mRNA expression of osteopontin (OPN) and the transcription factors runt-related transcription factor 2 (Runx2). The expression of Runx2 and osterix (OSX) proteins were also increased in hMSCs differentiating into osteoblasts after treatment with apigenin. Furthermore, we investigated the signaling pathways responsible for osteogenic differentiation of apigenin in hMSCs. We found that apigenin treatment significantly increased the levels of p-JNK, p-p38 in hMSCs and addition of the inhibitors of JNK (SP600125) or p38 MAPK (SB203580) eliminated the stimulating effects of apigenin. In addition, addition of SP600125 or SB203580 also blocked apigenin-induced ALP activity, OPN, Runx2, and OSX expression and meanwhile inhibited bone nodule formation. Taken together, these findings suggest apigenin promotes the osteogenesis of hMSCs through activation of JNK and p38 MAPK signal pathways which leads to Runx2 and OSX expressions to induce the formation of bone nodule.

  2. Articular cartilage-derived cells hold a strong osteogenic differentiation potential in comparison to mesenchymal stem cells in vitro

    SciTech Connect

    Salamon, Achim; Jonitz-Heincke, Anika; Adam, Stefanie; Rychly, Joachim; Müller-Hilke, Brigitte; Bader, Rainer; Lochner, Katrin; Peters, Kirsten

    2013-11-01

    Cartilaginous matrix-degenerative diseases like osteoarthritis (OA) are characterized by gradual cartilage erosion, and also by increased presence of cells with mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) character within the affected tissues. Moreover, primary chondrocytes long since are known to de-differentiate in vitro and to be chondrogenically re-differentiable. Since both findings appear to conflict with each other, we quantitatively assessed the mesenchymal differentiation potential of OA patient cartilage-derived cells (CDC) towards the osteogenic and adipogenic lineage in vitro and compared it to that of MSC isolated from adipose tissue (adMSC) of healthy donors. We analyzed expression of MSC markers CD29, CD44, CD105, and CD166, and, following osteogenic and adipogenic induction in vitro, quantified their expression of osteogenic and adipogenic differentiation markers. Furthermore, CDC phenotype and proliferation were monitored. We found that CDC exhibit an MSC CD marker expression pattern similar to adMSC and a similar increase in proliferation rate during osteogenic differentiation. In contrast, the marked reduction of proliferation observed during adipogenic differentiation of adMSC was absent in CDC. Quantification of differentiation markers revealed a strong osteogenic differentiation potential for CDC, however almost no capacity for adipogenic differentiation. Since in the pathogenesis of OA, cartilage degeneration coincides with high bone turnover rates, the high osteogenic differentiation potential of OA patient-derived CDC may affect clinical therapeutic regimens aiming at autologous cartilage regeneration in these patients. - Highlights: • We analyze the mesenchymal differentiation capacity of cartilage-derived cells (CDC). • CDC express mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) markers CD29, CD44, CD105, and CD166. • CDC and MSC proliferation is reduced in adipogenesis and increased in osteogenesis. • Adipogenic differentiation is virtually absent in CDC, but

  3. BMP‐9‐induced osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal progenitors requires functional canonical Wnt/β‐catenin signalling

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Ni; Song, Wen‐Xin; Luo, Jinyong; Luo, Xiaoji; Chen, Jin; Sharff, Katie A.; Bi, Yang; He, Bai‐Cheng; Huang, Jia‐Yi; Zhu, Gao‐Hui; Su, Yu‐Xi; Jiang, Wei; Tang, Min; He, Yun; Wang, Yi; Chen, Liang; Zuo, Guo‐Wei; Shen, Jikun; Pan, Xiaochuan; Reid, Russell R.; Luu, Hue H.; Haydon, Rex C.

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Bone morphogenetic protein 9 (BMP‐9) is a member of the transforming growth factor (TGF)‐β/BMP superfamily, and we have demonstrated that it is one of the most potent BMPs to induce osteoblast differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). Here, we sought to investigate if canonical Wnt/β‐catenin signalling plays an important role in BMP‐9‐induced osteogenic differentiation of MSCs. Wnt3A and BMP‐9 enhanced each other’s ability to induce alkaline phosphatase (ALP) in MSCs and mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs). Wnt antagonist FrzB was shown to inhibit BMP‐9‐induced ALP activity more effectively than Dkk1, whereas a secreted form of LPR‐5 or low‐density lipoprotein receptor‐related protein (LRP)‐6 exerted no inhibitory effect on BMP‐9‐induced ALP activity. β‐Catenin knockdown in MSCs and MEFs diminished BMP‐9‐induced ALP activity, and led to a decrease in BMP‐9‐induced osteocalcin reporter activity and BMP‐9‐induced expression of late osteogenic markers. Furthermore, β‐catenin knockdown or FrzB overexpression inhibited BMP‐9‐induced mineralization in vitro and ectopic bone formation in vivo, resulting in immature osteogenesis and the formation of chondrogenic matrix. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) analysis indicated that BMP‐9 induced recruitment of both Runx2 and β‐catenin to the osteocalcin promoter. Thus, we have demonstrated that canonical Wnt signalling, possibly through interactions between β‐catenin and Runx2, plays an important role in BMP‐9‐induced osteogenic differentiation of MSCs. PMID:19175684

  4. Effect of low-level diode laser on proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of dental pulp stem cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tabatabaei, Fahimeh S.; Torshabi, Maryam; Mojahedi Nasab, Masoud; Khosraviani, Keikhosro; Khojasteh, Arash

    2015-09-01

    This study assessed the effect of low-level laser irradiation (LLLI) on the proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs). DPSCs were exposed to 810 nm laser light (0.1, 0.2, or 0.3 J cm-2) for 7 d (60 s daily). The negative control group (cells in regular medium) and positive control group (cells in osteogenic medium (OM)) were not lased. One group of cells in OM was irradiated with laser operated at 0.2 J cm-2. Cell viability was evaluated at 24 h and one week after the last day of laser irradiation using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. Osteogenic differentiation was assessed using real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and alizarin Red S staining. Cell proliferation was not affected by laser irradiation at 24 h except in one group (cells in OM exposed to laser at 0.2 J cm-2). However, one week after the last day of laser irradiation, it was significantly increased in groups exposed to laser at 0.1 or 0.2 J cm-2 and decreased in groups containing OM (P  <  0.05). Osteoblast marker expression was observed in groups containing OM. LLLI at 0.2 J cm-2 dramatically enhanced cell differentiation. Laser at 0.3 J cm-2 increased bone sialoprotein (BSP) and decreased alkaline phosphatase (ALP). Mineralized nodules were only observed in groups containing OM. Considering these findings, LLLI may be used as a novel approach for preconditioning of DPSCs in vitro prior to bone tissue engineering.

  5. Effects of miR-335-5p in modulating osteogenic differentiation by specifically downregulating Wnt antagonist DKK1.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jin; Tu, Qisheng; Bonewald, Lynda F; He, Xi; Stein, Gary; Lian, Jane; Chen, Jake

    2011-08-01

    Dickkopf-related protein 1 (DKK1) is essential to maintain skeletal homeostasis as an inhibitor of Wnt signaling and osteogenic differentiation. The purpose of this study was to investigate the molecular mechanisms underlying the developmental stage-specific regulation of the DKK1 protein level. We performed a series of studies including luciferase reporter assays, micro-RNA microarray, site-specific mutations, and gain- and loss-of-function analyses. We found that the DKK1 protein level was regulated via DKK1 3' UTR by miRNA control, which was restricted to osteoblast-lineage cells. As a result of decreased DKK1 protein level by miR-335-5p, Wnt signaling was enhanced, as indicated by elevated GSK-3β phosphorylation and increased β-catenin transcriptional activity. The effects of miR-335-5p were reversed by anti-miR-335-5p treatment, which downregulated endogenous miR-335-5p. In vivo studies showed high expression levels of miR-335-5p in osteoblasts and hypertrophic chondrocytes of mouse embryos, indicating a pivotal role of miR-335-5p in regulating bone development. In conclusion, miR-335-5p activates Wnt signaling and promotes osteogenic differentiation by downregulating DKK1. This cell- and development-specific regulation is essential and mandatory for the initiation and progression of osteogenic differentiation. miR-335-5p proves to be a potential and useful targeting molecule for promoting bone formation and regeneration.

  6. Three dimensional electrospun PCL/PLA blend nanofibrous scaffolds with significantly improved stem cells osteogenic differentiation and cranial bone formation.

    PubMed

    Yao, Qingqing; Cosme, Jaqueline G L; Xu, Tao; Miszuk, Jacob M; Picciani, Paulo H S; Fong, Hao; Sun, Hongli

    2017-01-01

    Nanofibrous scaffolds that are morphologically/structurally similar to natural ECM are highly interested for tissue engineering; however, the electrospinning technique has the difficulty in directly producing clinically relevant 3D nanofibrous scaffolds with desired structural properties. To address this challenge, we have developed an innovative technique of thermally induced nanofiber self-agglomeration (TISA) recently. The aim of this work was to prepare (via the TISA technique) and evaluate 3D electrospun PCL/PLA blend (mass ratio: 4/1) nanofibrous scaffolds having high porosity of ∼95.8% as well as interconnected and hierarchically structured pores with sizes from sub-micrometers to ∼300 μm for bone tissue engineering. The hypothesis was that the incorporation of PLA (with higher mechanical stiffness/modulus and bioactivity) into PCL nanofibers would significantly improve human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) osteogenic differentiation in vitro and bone formation in vivo. Compared to neat PCL-3D scaffolds, PCL/PLA-3D blend scaffolds had higher mechanical properties and in vitro bioactivity; as a result, they not only enhanced the cell viability of hMSCs but also promoted the osteogenic differentiation. Furthermore, our in vivo studies revealed that PCL/PLA-3D scaffolds considerably facilitated new bone formation in a critical-sized cranial bone defect mouse model. In summary, both in vitro and in vivo results indicated that novel 3D electrospun PCL/PLA blend nanofibrous scaffolds would be strongly favorable/desired for hMSCs osteogenic differentiation and cranial bone formation.

  7. Intermittent parathyroid hormone (1-34) application regulates cAMP-response element binding protein activity to promote the proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of bone mesenchymal stromal cells, via the cAMP/PKA signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Chen, Bailing; Lin, Tao; Yang, Xiaoxi; Li, Yiqiang; Xie, Denghui; Cui, Haowen

    2016-06-01

    The potential effects of intermittent parathyroid hormone (1-34) [PTH (1-34)] administration on bone formation have previously been investigated. A number of studies have suggested that the cyclic adenosine monophosphate/protein kinase A (cAMP/PKA) pathway is associated with PTH-induced osteogenic differentiation. However, the precise signaling pathways and molecular mechanism by which PTH (1-34) induces the osteogenic differentiation of bone mesenchymal stromal cells (BMSCs) remain elusive. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the mechanism underlying the effect of intermittent PTH (1-34) application on the proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of BMSCs. BMSCs were randomly divided into four groups, as follows: Osteogenic medium (control group); osteogenic medium and intermittent PTH (1-34); osteogenic medium and intermittent PTH (1-34) plus the adenylyl cyclase activator forskolin; and osteogenic medium and intermittent PTH (1-34) plus the PKA inhibitor H-89. A cell proliferation assay revealed that PTH (1-34) stimulates BMSC proliferation via the cAMP/PKA pathway. Furthermore, reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction, alkaline phosphatase activity testing and cell examination using Alizarin Red S staining demonstrated that PTH (1-34) administration promotes osteogenic differentiation and mineralization, mediated by the cAMP/PKA pathway. Crucially, the results of western blot analyses suggested that PTH (1-34) treatment and, to a greater degree, PTH (1-34) plus forskolin treatment caused an increase in phosphorylated cAMP response element binding protein (p-CREB) expression, but the effect of PTH on p-CREB expression was blocked by H-89. In conclusion, the current study demonstrated that intermittent PTH (1-34) administration regulates downstream proteins, particularly p-CREB, in the cAMP/PKA signaling pathway, to enhance the proliferation, osteogenic differentiation and mineralization of BMSCs.

  8. Nanoclay-Enriched Poly(ɛ-caprolactone) Electrospun Scaffolds for Osteogenic Differentiation of Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Gaharwar, Akhilesh K.; Mukundan, Shilpaa; Karaca, Elif; Dolatshahi-Pirouz, Alireza; Patel, Alpesh; Rangarajan, Kaushik; Mihaila, Silvia M.; Iviglia, Giorgio; Zhang, Hongbin

    2014-01-01

    Musculoskeletal tissue engineering aims at repairing and regenerating damaged tissues using biological tissue substitutes. One approach to achieve this aim is to develop osteoconductive scaffolds that facilitate the formation of functional bone tissue. We have fabricated nanoclay-enriched electrospun poly(ɛ-caprolactone) (PCL) scaffolds for osteogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs). A range of electrospun scaffolds is fabricated by varying the nanoclay concentrations within the PCL scaffolds. The addition of nanoclay decreases fiber diameter and increases surface roughness of electrospun fibers. The enrichment of PCL scaffold with nanoclay promotes in vitro biomineralization when subjected to simulated body fluid (SBF), indicating bioactive characteristics of the hybrid scaffolds. The degradation rate of PCL increases due to the addition of nanoclay. In addition, a significant increase in crystallization temperature of PCL is also observed due to enhanced surface interactions between PCL and nanoclay. The effect of nanoclay on the mechanical properties of electrospun fibers is also evaluated. The feasibility of using nanoclay-enriched PCL scaffolds for tissue engineering applications is investigated in vitro using hMSCs. The nanoclay-enriched electrospun PCL scaffolds support hMSCs adhesion and proliferation. The addition of nanoclay significantly enhances osteogenic differentiation of hMSCs on the electrospun scaffolds as evident by an increase in alkaline phosphates activity of hMSCs and higher deposition of mineralized extracellular matrix compared to PCL scaffolds. Given its unique bioactive characteristics, nanoclay-enriched PCL fibrous scaffold may be used for musculoskeletal tissue engineering. PMID:24842693

  9. Hypoxia Suppresses Spontaneous Mineralization and Osteogenic Differentiation of Mesenchymal Stem Cells via IGFBP3 Up-Regulation

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Ji Hye; Yoon, Sei Mee; Song, Sun U.; Park, Sang Gyu; Kim, Won-Serk; Park, In Guk; Lee, Jinu; Sung, Jong-Hyuk

    2016-01-01

    Hypoxia has diverse stimulatory effects on human adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs). In the present study, we investigated whether hypoxic culture conditions (2% O2) suppress spontaneous mineralization and osteogenic differentiation of ASCs. We also investigated signaling pathways and molecular mechanisms involved in this process. We found that hypoxia suppressed spontaneous mineralization and osteogenic differentiation of ASCs, and up-regulated mRNA and protein expression of Insulin-like growth factor binding proteins (IGFBPs) in ASCs. Although treatment with recombinant IGFBPs did not affect osteogenic differentiation of ASCs, siRNA-mediated inhibition of IGFBP3 attenuated hypoxia-suppressed osteogenic differentiation of ASCs. In contrast, overexpression of IGFBP3 via lentiviral vectors inhibited ASC osteogenic differentiation. These results indicate that hypoxia suppresses spontaneous mineralization and osteogenic differentiation of ASCs via intracellular IGFBP3 up-regulation. We determined that reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation followed by activation of the MAPK and PI3K/Akt pathways play pivotal roles in IGFBP3 expression under hypoxia. For example, ROS scavengers and inhibitors for MAPK and PI3K/Akt pathways attenuated the hypoxia-induced IGFBP3 expression. Inhibition of Elk1 and NF-κB through siRNA transfection also led to down-regulation of IGFBP3 mRNA expression. We next addressed the proliferative potential of ASCs with overexpressed IGFBP3, but IGFBP3 overexpression reduced the proliferation of ASCs. In addition, hypoxia reduced the osteogenic differentiation of bone marrow-derived clonal mesenchymal stem cells. Collectively, our results indicate that hypoxia suppresses the osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells via IGFBP3 up-regulation. PMID:27563882

  10. Effects of hyperbaric oxygen on the osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Hyperbaric oxygenation was shown to increase bone healing in a rabbit model. However, little is known about the regulatory factors and molecular mechanism involved.We hypothesized that the effect of hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) on bone formation is mediated via increases in the osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) which are regulated by Wnt signaling. Methods The phenotypic characterization of the MSCs was analyzed by flow cytometric analysis. To investigate the effects of HBO on Wnt signaling and osteogenic differentiation of MSCs, mRNA and protein levels of Wnt3a, beta-catenin, GSK-3beta, Runx 2, as well as alkaline phosphatase activity, calcium deposition, and the intensity of von Kossa staining were analyzed after HBO treatment. To investigate the effects of HBO on Wnt processing and secretion, the expression of Wntless and vacuolar ATPases were quantified after HBO treatment. Results Cells expressed MSC markers such as CD105, CD146, and STRO-1. The mRNA and protein levels of Wnt3a, β-catenin, and Runx 2 were up-regulated, while GSK-3β was down-regulated after HBO treatment. Western blot analysis showed an increased β-catenin translocation with a subsequent stimulation of the expression of target genes after HBO treatment. The above observation was confirmed by small interfering (si)RNA treatment. HBO significantly increased alkaline phosphatase activity, calcium deposition, and the intensity of von Kossa staining of osteogenically differentiated MSCs. We further showed that HBO treatment increased the expression of Wntless, a retromer trafficking protein, and vacuolar ATPases to stimulate Wnt processing and secretion, and the effect was confirmed by siRNA treatment. Conclusions HBO treatment increased osteogenic differentiation of MSCs via regulating Wnt processing, secretion, and signaling. PMID:24568330

  11. Calcium phosphate-bearing matrices induce osteogenic differentiation of stem cells through adenosine signaling.

    PubMed

    Shih, Yu-Ru V; Hwang, YongSung; Phadke, Ameya; Kang, Heemin; Hwang, Nathaniel S; Caro, Eduardo J; Nguyen, Steven; Siu, Michael; Theodorakis, Emmanuel A; Gianneschi, Nathan C; Vecchio, Kenneth S; Chien, Shu; Lee, Oscar K; Varghese, Shyni

    2014-01-21

    Synthetic matrices emulating the physicochemical properties of tissue-specific ECMs are being developed at a rapid pace to regulate stem cell fate. Biomaterials containing calcium phosphate (CaP) moieties have been shown to support osteogenic differentiation of stem and progenitor cells and bone tissue formation. By using a mineralized synthetic matrix mimicking a CaP-rich bone microenvironment, we examine a molecular mechanism through which CaP minerals induce osteogenesis of human mesenchymal stem cells with an emphasis on phosphate metabolism. Our studies show that extracellular phosphate uptake through solute carrier family 20 (phosphate transporter), member 1 (SLC20a1) supports osteogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells via adenosine, an ATP metabolite, which acts as an autocrine/paracrine signaling molecule through A2b adenosine receptor. Perturbation of SLC20a1 abrogates osteogenic differentiation by decreasing intramitochondrial phosphate and ATP synthesis. Collectively, this study offers the demonstration of a previously unknown mechanism for the beneficial role of CaP biomaterials in bone repair and the role of phosphate ions in bone physiology and regeneration. These findings also begin to shed light on the role of ATP metabolism in bone homeostasis, which may be exploited to treat bone metabolic diseases.

  12. Understanding the influence of phosphorylation and polysialylation of gelatin on mineralization and osteogenic differentiation.

    PubMed

    Arora, Aditya; Katti, Dhirendra S

    2016-08-01

    Post-translational modifications such as phosphorylation and sialylation impart crucial functions such as mineral deposition and osteogenic differentiation to non-collagenous bone matrix proteins. In this work, the influence of phosphorylation and polysialylation of gelatin on mineralization in simulated body fluid (SBF) and on osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) was studied. It was observed that increase in phosphorylation could be directly correlated with the mineralization ability of phosphorylated gelatin in SBF. The total calcium and phosphate deposited increased with increase in degree of phosphorylation and was >3 fold higher on the highest degree of phosphorylation. Whereas, polysialylation did not have any significant influence on mineral deposition in SBF. On the other hand, when MSCs were cultured on polysialylated surfaces they showed relatively higher cell elongation with 1.5 fold higher cell aspect ratio, higher alkaline phosphatase activity and 3 fold higher mineral deposition when compared to control and phosphorylated gelatin surfaces. In conclusion, phosphorylation and polysialylation of gelatin show a significant influence on mineralization and osteogenic differentiation respectively which can be advantageously used for bone tissue engineering.

  13. Cyclic tension promotes osteogenic differentiation in human periodontal ligament stem cells.

    PubMed

    Shen, Tao; Qiu, Lin; Chang, Huijun; Yang, Yanchun; Jian, Congxiang; Xiong, Jian; Zhou, Jixiang; Dong, Shiwu

    2014-01-01

    Orthodontic forces result in alveolar bone resorption and formation predominantly on the pressure and tension sides of the tooth roots, respectively. Human periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLSCs) have demonstrated the capacity to differentiate into osteoblasts, and they play important roles in maintaining homeostasis and regenerating periodontal tissues. However, little is known about how PDLSCs contribute to osteoblastogenesis during orthodontic tooth movement on the tension side. In this study, we applied a 12% cyclic tension force to PDLSCs cultured in osteoinductive medium. The osteogenic markers Runx2, ALP, and OCN were detected at the mRNA and protein levels at different time points using real-time PCR and western blot analyses. We discovered that the mRNA and protein levels of Runx2, ALP and OCN were significantly up-regulated after 6, 12 and 24 hours of mechanical loading on PDLSCs compared to levels in unstimulated PDLSCs (P < 0.05). This study demonstrates, for the first time, the effects of mechanical tensile strain on the osteogenic differentiation of PDLSCs, as examined with a Flexcell FX-4000T Tension Plus System. Our findings suggested that cyclic tension could promote the osteogenic differentiation of PDLSCs. Furthermore, the effects of orthodontic force on alveolar bone remodeling might be achieved by PDLSCs.

  14. Titanium phosphate glass microcarriers induce enhanced osteogenic cell proliferation and human mesenchymal stem cell protein expression

    PubMed Central

    Lakhkar, Nilay J; M Day, Richard; Kim, Hae-Won; Ludka, Katarzyna; Mordan, Nicola J; Salih, Vehid; Knowles, Jonathan C

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we have developed 50- to 100-µm-sized titanium phosphate glass microcarriers (denoted as Ti5) that show enhanced proliferation of human mesenchymal stem cells and MG63 osteosarcoma cells, as well as enhanced human mesenchymal stem cell expression of bone differentiation markers, in comparison with commercially available glass microspheres at all time points. We also demonstrate that these microcarriers provide superior human mesenchymal stem cell proliferation with conventional Dulbecco’s Modified Eagle medium than with a specially developed commercial stem cell medium. The microcarrier proliferative capacity is revealed by a 24-fold increase in MG63 cell numbers in spinner flask bioreactor studies performed over a 7-day period, versus only a 6-fold increase in control microspheres under the same conditions; the corresponding values of Ti5 and control microspheres under static culture are 8-fold and 7-fold, respectively. The capability of guided osteogenic differentiation is confirmed by ELISAs for bone morphogenetic protein-2 and osteopontin, which reveal significantly greater expression of these markers, especially osteopontin, by human mesenchymal stem cells on the Ti5 microspheres than on the control. Scanning electron microscopy and confocal laser scanning microscopy images reveal favorable MG63 and human mesenchymal stem cell adhesion on the Ti5 microsphere surfaces. Thus, the results demonstrate the suitability of the developed microspheres for use as microcarriers in bone tissue engineering applications. PMID:26668711

  15. DNA Demethylation Rescues the Impaired Osteogenic Differentiation Ability of Human Periodontal Ligament Stem Cells in High Glucose

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zhi; Chen, Tian; Sun, Wenhua; Yuan, Zongyi; Yu, Mei; Chen, Guoqing; Guo, Weihua; Xiao, Jingang; Tian, Weidong

    2016-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus, characterized by abnormally high blood glucose levels, gives rise to impaired bone remodeling. In response to high glucose (HG), the attenuated osteogenic differentiation capacity of human periodontal ligament stem cells (hPDLSCs) is associated with the loss of alveolar bone. Recently, DNA methylation was reported to affect osteogenic differentiation of stem cells in pathological states. However, the intrinsic mechanism linking DNA methylation to osteogenic differentiation ability in the presence of HG is still unclear. In this study, we found that diabetic rats with increased DNA methylation levels in periodontal ligaments exhibited reduced bone mass and density. In vitro application of 5-aza-2′-deoxycytidine (5-aza-dC), a DNA methyltransferase inhibitor, to decrease DNA methylation levels in hPDLSCs, rescued the osteogenic differentiation capacity of hPDLSCs under HG conditions. Moreover, we demonstrated that the canonical Wnt signaling pathway was activated during this process and, under HG circumstances, the 5-aza-dC-rescued osteogenic differentiation capacity was blocked by Dickkopf-1, an effective antagonist of the canonical Wnt signaling pathway. Taken together, these results demonstrate for the first time that suppression of DNA methylation is able to facilitate the osteogenic differentiation capacity of hPDLSCs exposed to HG, through activation of the canonical Wnt signaling pathway. PMID:27273319

  16. PS1/γ-Secretase-Mediated Cadherin Cleavage Induces β-Catenin Nuclear Translocation and Osteogenic Differentiation of Human Bone Marrow Stromal Cells

    PubMed Central

    Dias, Rhayra B.; Fortuna-Costa, Anneliese; Chicaybam, Leonardo; Lopes, Daiana V.; Dutra, Hélio S.; Borojevic, Radovan; Bonamino, Martin; Mermelstein, Claudia

    2016-01-01

    Bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) are considered a promising tool for bone bioengineering. However, the mechanisms controlling osteoblastic commitment are still unclear. Osteogenic differentiation of BMSCs requires the activation of β-catenin signaling, classically known to be regulated by the canonical Wnt pathway. However, BMSCs treatment with canonical Wnts in vitro does not always result in osteogenic differentiation and evidence indicates that a more complex signaling pathway, involving cadherins, would be required to induce β-catenin signaling in these cells. Here we showed that Wnt3a alone did not induce TCF activation in BMSCs, maintaining the cells at a proliferative state. On the other hand, we verified that, upon BMSCs osteoinduction with dexamethasone, cadherins were cleaved by the PS1/γ-secretase complex at the plasma membrane, and this event was associated with an enhanced β-catenin translocation to the nucleus and signaling. When PS1/γ-secretase activity was inhibited, the osteogenic process was impaired. Altogether, we provide evidence that PS1/γ-secretase-mediated cadherin cleavage has as an important role in controlling β-catenin signaling during the onset of BMSCs osteogenic differentiation, as part of a complex signaling pathway responsible for cell fate decision. A comprehensive map of these pathways might contribute to the development of strategies to improve bone repair. PMID:28053606

  17. Application of low-frequency alternating current electric fields via interdigitated electrodes: effects on cellular viability, cytoplasmic calcium, and osteogenic differentiation of human adipose-derived stem cells.

    PubMed

    McCullen, Seth D; McQuilling, John P; Grossfeld, Robert M; Lubischer, Jane L; Clarke, Laura I; Loboa, Elizabeth G

    2010-12-01

    Electric stimulation is known to initiate signaling pathways and provides a technique to enhance osteogenic differentiation of stem and/or progenitor cells. There are a variety of in vitro stimulation devices to apply electric fields to such cells. Herein, we describe and highlight the use of interdigitated electrodes to characterize signaling pathways and the effect of electric fields on the proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of human adipose-derived stem cells (hASCs). The advantage of the interdigitated electrode configuration is that cells can be easily imaged during short-term (acute) stimulation, and this identical configuration can be utilized for long-term (chronic) studies. Acute exposure of hASCs to alternating current (AC) sinusoidal electric fields of 1 Hz induced a dose-dependent increase in cytoplasmic calcium in response to electric field magnitude, as observed by fluorescence microscopy. hASCs that were chronically exposed to AC electric field treatment of 1 V/cm (4 h/day for 14 days, cultured in the osteogenic differentiation medium containing dexamethasone, ascorbic acid, and β-glycerol phosphate) displayed a significant increase in mineral deposition relative to unstimulated controls. This is the first study to evaluate the effects of sinusoidal AC electric fields on hASCs and to demonstrate that acute and chronic electric field exposure can significantly increase intracellular calcium signaling and the deposition of accreted calcium under osteogenic stimulation, respectively.

  18. The effect of magnetic stimulation on the osteogenic and chondrogenic differentiation of human stem cells derived from the adipose tissue (hASCs)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lima, João; Gonçalves, Ana I.; Rodrigues, Márcia T.; Reis, Rui L.; Gomes, Manuela E.

    2015-11-01

    The use of magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) towards the musculoskeletal tissues has been the focus of many studies, regarding MNPs ability to promote and direct cellular stimulation and orient tissue responses. This is thought to be mainly achieved by mechano-responsive pathways, which can induce changes in cell behavior, including the processes of proliferation and differentiation, in response to external mechanical stimuli. Thus, the application of MNP-based strategies in tissue engineering may hold potential to propose novel solutions for cell therapy on bone and cartilage strategies to accomplish tissue regeneration. The present work aims at studying the influence of MNPs on the osteogenic and chondrogenic differentiation of human adipose derived stem cells (hASCs). MNPs were incorporated in hASCs and cultured in medium supplemented for osteogenic and chondrogenic differentiation. Cultures were maintained up to 28 days with/without an external magnetic stimulus provided by a magnetic bioreactor, to determine if the MNPs alone could affect the osteogenic or chondrogenic phenotype of the hASCs. Results indicate that the incorporation of MNPs does not negatively affect the viability nor the proliferation of hASCs. Furthermore, Alizarin Red staining evidences an enhancement in extracellular (ECM) mineralization under the influence of an external magnetic field. Although not as evident as for osteogenic differentiation, Toluidine blue and Safranin-O stainings also suggest the presence of a cartilage-like ECM with glycosaminoglycans and proteoglycans under the magnetic stimulus provided. Thus, MNPs incorporated in hASCs under the influence of an external magnetic field have the potential to induce differentiation towards the osteogenic and chondrogenic lineages.

  19. Enhanced Osteogenic Activity of TiO2 Nanorod Films with Microscaled Distribution of Zn-CaP.

    PubMed

    He, Meng; Chen, Xiaoyi; Cheng, Kui; Weng, Wenjian; Wang, Huiming

    2016-03-23

    The topography at the micro-/nanoscale level and bioactive composition of material surfaces have been thought to play vital roles in their interactions with cells. However, it is still a challenge to further modify special topography with biodegradable composition or vice versa. In this study, TiO2 nanorod films covered with microscale-distributed Zn-containing calcium phosphate (Zn-CaP) were prepared, trying to create a micro-/nanoscale topography and Zn(2+) release capability. MC3T3-E1 cells cultured on TiO2 nanorod film with sparsely distributed Zn-CaP (TiO2/S-ZCP) had significantly higher biological responses than those on the films with densely distributed Zn-CaP (TiO2/D-ZCP) and fully covered Zn-CaP (F-ZCP). TiO2/S-ZCP film was demonstrated to facilitate osteogenic differentiation much more strongly than F-ZCP and TiO2/D-ZCP films based on evaluations of ALP, related gene expressions, and extracellular matrix mineralization. The higher osteogenic differentiation on TiO2/S-ZCP film is ascribed to the micro-/nanoscale topography from Zn-CaP coverage promoting cell adhesion and filopodia extension, and inducing differentiation-orientation in the initial stage. And consequently Zn(2+) release results in enhancement of differentiation. Therefore, we believe that better organization of the micro-/nanotopography and bioactive ion release on the surface would be a promising way to enhance osteogenic activity for orthopedic and dental implants.

  20. Precursor cells from Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) visceral fat holds the plasticity to differentiate into the osteogenic lineage

    PubMed Central

    Ytteborg, Elisabeth; Todorcevic, Marijana; Krasnov, Aleksei; Takle, Harald; Kristiansen, Inger Øien; Ruyter, Bente

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT In order to study the potential plasticity of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) precursor cells (aSPCs) from the adipogenic mesenchyme cell lineage to differentiate to the osteogenic lineage, aSPCs were isolated and cultivated under either osteogenic or adipogenic promoting conditions. The results strengthen the hypothesis that aSPCs most likely are predestined to the adipogenic lineage, but they also hold the flexibility to turn into other lineages given the right stimuli. This assumption is supported by the fact that the transcription factor pparγ , important for regulation of adiopogenesis, was silent in aSPCs grown in osteogenic media, while runx2, important for osteogenic differentiation, was not expressed in aSPCs cultivated in adipogenic media. After 2 weeks in osteogenic promoting conditions the cells started to deposit extracellular matrix and after 4 weeks, the cells started mineralizing secreted matrix. Microarray analyses revealed large-scale transcriptome responses to osteogenic medium after 2 days, changes remained stable at day 15 and decreased by magnitude at day 30. Induction was observed in many genes involved in osteogenic differentiation, growth factors, regulators of development, transporters and production of extracellular matrix. Transcriptome profile in differentiating adipocytes was markedly different from differentiating osteoblasts with far fewer genes changing activity. The number of regulated genes slowly increased at the mature stage, when adipocytes increased in size and accumulated lipids. This is the first report on in vitro differentiation of aSPCs from Atlantic salmon to mineralizing osteogenic cells. This cell model system provides a new valuable tool for studying osteoblastogenesis in fish. PMID:25948755

  1. Coexpression of osteogenic and adipogenic differentiation markers in selected subpopulations of primary human mesenchymal progenitor cells.

    PubMed

    Ponce, M L; Koelling, S; Kluever, A; Heinemann, D E H; Miosge, N; Wulf, G; Frosch, K-H; Schütze, N; Hufner, M; Siggelkow, H

    2008-07-01

    Knowledge of the basic mechanisms controlling osteogenesis and adipogenesis might provide new insights into the prevention of osteoporosis and age-related osteopenia. With the help of magnetic cell sorting and fluorescence activated cell sorting (FACS), osteoblastic subpopulations of mesenchymal progenitor cells were characterized. Alkaline phosphatase (AP) negative cells expressed low levels of osteoblastic and adipocytic markers. AP positive cells expressed adipocytic markers more strongly than the AP negative cell populations, thus suggesting that committed osteoblasts exhibit a greater adipogenic potential. AP negative cells differentiated to the mature osteoblastic phenotype, as demonstrated by increased AP-activity and osteocalcin secretion under standard osteogenic culture conditions. Surprisingly, this was accompanied by increased expression of adipocytic gene markers such as peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma2, lipoprotein lipase and fatty acid binding protein. The induction of adipogenic markers was suppressed by transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-beta1) and promoted by bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP-2). Osteogenic culture conditions including BMP-2 induced both the formation of mineralized nodules and cytoplasmic lipid vacuoles. Upon immunogold electron microscopic analysis, osteoblastic and adipogenic marker proteins were detectable in the same cell. Our results suggest that osteogenic and adipogenic differentiation in human mesenchymal progenitor cells might not be exclusively reciprocal, but rather, a parallel event until late during osteoblast development.

  2. MicroRNAs regulate signaling pathways in osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells (Review)

    PubMed Central

    PENG, SHUPING; GAO, DAN; GAO, CHENGDE; WEI, PINGPIN; NIU, MAN; SHUAI, CIJUN

    2016-01-01

    Osteogenesis is a complex multi-step process involving the differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) into osteoblast progenitor cells, preosteoblasts, osteoblasts and osteocytes, and the crosstalk between multiple cell types for the formation and remodeling of bone. The signaling regulatory networks during osteogenesis include various components, including growth factors, transcription factors, micro (mi)RNAs and effectors, a number of which form feedback loops controlling the balance of osteogenic differentiation by positive or negative regulation. miRNAs have been found to be important regulators of osteogenic signaling pathways in multiple aspects and multiple signaling pathways. The present review focusses on the progress in elucidating the role of miRNA in the osteogenesis signaling networks of MSCs as a substitute for bone implantation the the field of bone tissue engineering. In particular, the review classifies which miRNAs promote or suppress the osteogenic process, and summarizes which signaling pathway these miRNAs are involved in. Improvements in knowledge of the characteristics of miRNAs in osteogenesis provide an important step for their application in translational investigations of bone tissue engineering and bone disease. PMID:27222009

  3. Synergistic effects of overexpression of BMP-2 and TGF-β3 on osteogenic differentiation of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yilin; He, Tian; Liu, Jie; Liu, Hongzhi; Zhou, Lugang; Hao, Wei; Sun, Yujie; Wang, Xin

    2016-01-01

    Bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP-2) and transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) isoforms are important in advancing bone regeneration. The aim of the present study was to investigate the positive and reciprocal effect of TGF-β3, one of the three TGF-β isoforms, on BMP-2 in promoting osteogenic differentiation. Exogenous BMP-2 and TGF-β3 genes were separately, and in combination, overexpressed in rabbit bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (rBMSCs). Expression levels of BMP-2 and TGF-β3 were evaluated using reverse-transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and Western blotting assays. Furthermore, the osteogenic differentiation capacities of BMSCs were assessed by measuring Alizarin Red S staining, an alkaline phosphatase activity assay, and quantification of the osteogenic-specific genes, Runt-related transcription factor 2 (Runx2) and Osterix (Osx). Using lentiviral-mediated transfection, robust co-transfection efficiency of >90% was achieved. RT-PCR and immunoblotting results indicated a marked elevated expression of BMP-2 and TGF-β3 in rBMSCs undergoing co-transfection, compared with transfection with BMP-2 or TGF-β3 alone, indicating that BMP-2 and TGF-β3 are synergistically expressed in rBMSCs. Furthermore, enhanced osteogenic differentiation was observed in rBMSCs co-transfected with BMP-2/TGF-β3. The present study successfully delivered BMP-2 together with TGF-β3 into rBMSCs with high efficiency for the first time. Furthermore, TGF-β3 overexpression was demonstrated to enhance the osteogenic efficacy of BMP-2 in rBMSCs, and vice versa. This provides a potential clinical therapeutic approach for regenerating the function of osseous tissue, and may present a promising strategy for bone defect healing. PMID:27878265

  4. BMP-2, VEGF and bFGF synergistically promote the osteogenic differentiation of rat bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells.

    PubMed

    Bai, Yan; Li, Peipei; Yin, Guangfu; Huang, Zhongbing; Liao, Xiaoming; Chen, Xianchun; Yao, Yadong

    2013-03-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) were treated with bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) dose-dependently and time-dependently. Together they caused a strong synergistic effect on the osteogenic differentiation of MSCs, with lower concentrations of each factor being enough to show the synergistic promotion (50 ng BMP-2/ml, 1 ng VEGF/ml and 10 ng bFGF/ml). When both VEGF and bFGF were added in the early proliferating stage (the first 7 days) and BMP-2 was added in the late differentiation stage (the last 7 days), osteogenic differentiation of MSCs could be enhanced more effectively.

  5. Simvastatin coating of TiO₂ scaffold induces osteogenic differentiation of human adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells.

    PubMed

    Pullisaar, Helen; Reseland, Janne E; Haugen, Håvard J; Brinchmann, Jan E; Ostrup, Esben

    2014-04-25

    Bone tissue engineering requires an osteoconductive scaffold, multipotent cells with regenerative capacity and bioactive molecules. In this study we investigated the osteogenic differentiation of human adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hAD-MSCs) on titanium dioxide (TiO2) scaffold coated with alginate hydrogel containing various concentrations of simvastatin (SIM). The mRNA expression of osteoblast-related genes such as collagen type I alpha 1 (COL1A1), alkaline phosphatase (ALPL), osteopontin (SPP1), osteocalcin (BGLAP) and vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA) was enhanced in hAD-MSCs cultured on scaffolds with SIM in comparison to scaffolds without SIM. Furthermore, the secretion of osteoprotegerin (OPG), vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA), osteopontin (OPN) and osteocalcin (OC) to the cell culture medium was higher from hAD-MSCs cultured on scaffolds with SIM compared to scaffolds without SIM. The TiO2 scaffold coated with alginate hydrogel containing SIM promote osteogenic differentiation of hAD-MSCs in vitro, and demonstrate feasibility as scaffold for hAD-MSC based bone tissue engineering.

  6. Growth and osteogenic differentiation of adipose stem cells on PLA/bioactive glass and PLA/beta-TCP scaffolds.

    PubMed

    Haimi, Suvi; Suuriniemi, Niina; Haaparanta, Anne-Marie; Ellä, Ville; Lindroos, Bettina; Huhtala, Heini; Räty, Sari; Kuokkanen, Hannu; Sándor, George K; Kellomäki, Minna; Miettinen, Susanna; Suuronen, Riitta

    2009-07-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effects of novel three-dimensional composite scaffolds consisting of a bioactive phase (bioactive glass or beta-tricalcium phosphate [beta-TCP] 10 and 20 wt%) incorporated within a polylactic acid (PLA) matrix on viability, distribution, proliferation, and osteogenic differentiation of human adipose stem cells (ASCs). The viability and distribution of ASCs on the bioactive composite scaffolds was evaluated using Live/Dead fluorescence staining, environmental scanning electron microscopy, and scanning electron microscopy. There were no differences between the two concentrations of bioactive glass and beta-TCP in PLA scaffolds on proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of ASCs. After 2 weeks of culture, DNA content and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity of ASCs cultured on PLA/beta-TCP composite scaffolds were higher relative to other scaffold types. Interestingly, the cell number was significantly lower, but the relative ALP/DNA ratio of ASCs was significantly higher in PLA/bioactive glass scaffolds than in other three scaffold types. These results indicate that the PLA/beta-TCP composite scaffolds significantly enhance ASC proliferation and total ALP activity compared to other scaffold types. This supports the potential future use of PLA/beta-TCP composites as effective scaffolds for tissue engineering and as bone replacement materials.

  7. Effect of molecular weight and concentration of hyaluronan on cell proliferation and osteogenic differentiation in vitro

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, Ningbo Wang, Xin Qin, Lei Guo, Zhengze Li, Dehua

    2015-09-25

    Hyaluronan (HA), the simplest glycosaminoglycan and a major component of the extracellular matrix, exists in various tissues. It is involved in some critical biological procedures, including cellular signaling, cell adhesion and proliferation, and cell differentiation. The effect of molecular weight (MW) and concentration of HA on cell proliferation and differentiation was controversial. In this study, we investigated the effect of MW and concentration of HA on the proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of rabbit bone marrow-derived stem cells in vitro. Results showed that high MW HA decreased the cell adhesion rate in a concentration-dependant manner. The cell adhesion rate was decreased by increasing MW of HA. Cell proliferation was significantly enhanced by low MW HA (P < 0.05). The factorial analysis indicated that MW and concentration had an interactive effect on the cell adhesion rate and cell proliferation (P < 0.05). High MW HA increased the mRNA expressions of ALP, RUNX-2 and OCN. The higher the MW was, the higher the mRNA expressions were. The factorial analysis indicated that MW and concentration had an interactive effect on ALP mRNA expression (P < 0.05). HA of higher MW and higher concentration promoted bone formation. These findings provide some useful information in understanding the mechanism underlying the effect of MW and concentration of HA on cell proliferation and differentiation. - Highlights: • Effect of hyaluronan on cell proliferation and differentiation is evaluated in vitro. • Hyaluronan of low molecular weight increases cell proliferation. • Hyaluronan of high molecular weight promotes cell osteogenic differentiation. • Molecular weight and concentration of hyaluronan show interactive effect.

  8. Platelet-rich plasma-derived growth factors promote osteogenic differentiation of rat muscle satellite cells: in vitro and in vivo studies.

    PubMed

    Huang, Shengyun; Wang, Zuolin

    2012-01-01

    PRP (platelet-rich plasma)-derived growth factors are a new application of tissue engineering and a developing area for researchers and clinicians. We have assessed the effects of PRP-derived growth factors on the proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of rMSCs (rat muscle satellite cells), and constructed a novel tissue engineering bone composed of PRP-derived growth factors and rMSCs. PRP were created by a freeze-thaw process. rMSCs were isolated from rat masticatory muscle using serial platings technique. Wst-1 assay, SEM (scanning electron microscopy), ALP (alkaline phosphatase) activity, total protein concentration, AR (Alizarin red S) staining, calcium analyses and RT-PCR (reverse transcription-PCR) of osteogenic-related genes were used to assess the effect of PRP-derived growth factors on proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of cultured rMSCs on scaffolds. The different composite scaffolds were implanted to the subcutaneous spaces of nude mice. H&E (haematoxylin and eosin) and Masson's trichrome staining were used to examine the ectopic bone formation. In vitro, we found that PRP-derived growth factors showed excellent cell compatibility and significantly enhanced cell proliferation over serum and control groups at 48 and 72 h. SEM, ALP activity, AR staining, calcium analyses and RT-PCR showed that PRP-derived growth factors significantly increased cells osteogenic differentiation when compared with other groups. In vivo examination showed that more fibrous tissue capsule and bone with lamellar structures appeared in PRP-derived growth factors groups. These results suggest that the PRP-derived growth factors significantly promote rMSCs proliferation, osteogenic differentiation compared with serum and scaffolds alone, and may be suitable for stem cell growth factors delivery and bone tissue engineering.

  9. Human mesenchymal stem cells express neuronal markers after osteogenic and adipogenic differentiation.

    PubMed

    Foudah, Dana; Redondo, Juliana; Caldara, Cristina; Carini, Fabrizio; Tredici, Giovanni; Miloso, Mariarosaria

    2013-06-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are multipotent cells that are able to differentiate into mesodermal lineages (osteogenic, adipogenic, chondrogenic), but also towards non-mesodermal derivatives (e.g. neural cells). Recent in vitro studies revealed that, in the absence of any kind of differentiation stimuli, undifferentiated MSCs express neural differentiation markers, but the literature data do not all concur. Considering their promising therapeutic potential for neurodegenerative diseases, it is very important to expand our knowledge about this particular biological property of MSCs. In this study, we confirmed the spontaneous expression of neural markers (neuronal, glial and progenitor markers) by undifferentiated human MSCs (hMSCs) and in particular, we demonstrated that the neuronal markers βIII-tubulin and NeuN are expressed by a very high percentage of hMSCs, regardless of the number of culture passages and the culture conditions. Moreover, the neuronal markers βIII-tubulin and NeuN are still expressed by hMSCs after in vitro osteogenic and adipogenic differentiation. On the other hand, chondrogenically differentiated hMSCs are negative for these markers. Our findings suggest that the expression of neuronal markers could be common to a wide range of cellular types and not exclusive for neuronal lineages. Therefore, the expression of neuronal markers alone is not sufficient to demonstrate the differentiation of MSCs towards the neuronal phenotype. Functional properties analysis is also required.

  10. Mechanical strain regulates osteogenic and adipogenic differentiation of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Runguang; Liang, Liang; Dou, Yonggang; Huang, Zeping; Mo, Huiting; Wang, Yaning; Yu, Bin

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the effects of mechanical strain on osteogenic and adipogenic differentiation of cultured MSCs by stimulating MSCs cultured in general and adipogenic differentiation media using a mechanical strain device. Markers of osteogenic (Runx2, Osx, and I-collagen) and adipogenic (PPARγ-2, C/EBPα, and lipid droplets) differentiation were examined using real-time PCR, western blot, immunocytochemical, or histochemical stain analyses. Levels of Runx2 and Osx gradually increased in MSC groups in general medium subject to strain stimulation, as compared with in unstrained groups. After adding the stress signal, I-collagen protein levels of expression were obviously promoted in cells in comparison to the controls. The levels of PPARγ-2 and C/EBPα were decreased, and the emergence of lipid droplets was delayed in MSCs groups in adipogenic differentiation medium subject to strain stimulation, as compared with in unstrained groups. Mechanical strain can promote differentiation of MSCs into osteoblasts and can impede differentiation into adipocytes. These results clarify the mechanisms underlying the effects of exercise on bone repair and reconstruction and provide a more adequate scientific basis for the use of exercise therapy in the treatment of obesity and metabolic osteoporosis.

  11. Effects of pulsed electromagnetic field frequencies on the osteogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells.

    PubMed

    Luo, Fei; Hou, Tianyong; Zhang, Zehua; Xie, Zhao; Wu, Xuehui; Xu, Jianzhong

    2012-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of different frequencies of pulsed electromagnetic fields on the osteogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells. Third-generation human mesenchymal stem cells were irradiated with different frequencies of pulsed electromagnetic fields, including 5, 25, 50, 75, 100, and 150 Hz, with a field intensity of 1.1 mT, for 30 minutes per day for 21 days. Changes in human mesenchymal stem cell morphology were observed using phase contrast microscopy. Alkaline phosphatase activity and osteocalcin expression were also determined to evaluate human mesenchymal stem cell osteogenic differentiation.Different effects were observed on human mesenchymal stem cell osteoblast induction following exposure to different pulsed electromagnetic field frequencies. Levels of human mesenchymal stem cell differentiation increased when the pulsed electromagnetic field frequency was increased from 5 hz to 50 hz, but the effect was weaker when the pulsed electromagnetic field frequency was increased from 50 Hz to 150 hz. The most significant effect on human mesenchymal stem cell differentiation was observed at of 50 hz.The results of the current study show that pulsed electromagnetic field frequency is an important factor with regard to the induction of human mesenchymal stem cell differentiation. Furthermore, a pulsed electromagnetic field frequency of 50 Hz was the most effective at inducing human mesenchymal stem cell osteoblast differentiation in vitro.

  12. Collagen functionalized bioactive nanofiber matrices for osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells: bone tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Yixing; Ramos, Daisy; Lee, Paul; Liang, Danni; Yu, Xiaojun; Kumbar, Sangamesh G

    2014-02-01

    Scaffold architecture, surface topography, biochemical and mechanical cues have been shown to significantly improve cellular events and in vivo tissue regeneration. Specifically electrospun nanofiber matrices have gained tremendous interest due to their intrinsic structural resemblance to native tissue extracellular matrix (ECM). The present study reports on the electrospun nanofiber matrices of polycaprolactone (PCL)-chitosan (CS) blends and effect of type I collagen surface functionalization in regulating rat bone marrow derived stromal cells (rBMSCs) differentiation into osteogenic lineage. Collagen was covalently attached to blend nanofibers via carbodiimide (EDC) coupling. Bead-free smooth nanofibers (diameter-700-850 nm) obtained at the optimized conditions of polymer concentration and electrospinning parameters were used for the study. EDC collagen coupling resulted in 0.120+/-0.016 micro g of collagen immobilization onto a 1 cm2 area of the PCL/CS nanofibers, which was 2.6-folds higher than the amount of collagen that can be retained by physical adsorption. Significantly improved rBMSCs adhesion, spreading, proliferation and osteogenic differentiation was observed on the collagen functionalized COL-PCULCS nanofiber matrices as compared to control groups. Osteogenic phenotypic markers such as alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and mineralization were found to be significantly higher on COL-PCL/CS nanofiber matrices as compared to controls. Elevated gene expression profiles of osteogenic markers such as osteocalcin (0CN), osteopontin (OPN) and ALP further corroborate the osteoinductive nature of the collagen functionalized PCL/CS nanofiber matrices. These fiber matrices and modification techniques could be extended to other scaffold systems for tissue engineering applications.

  13. Orchestrating osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells--identification of placental growth factor as a mechanosensitive gene with a pro-osteogenic role.

    PubMed

    McCoy, Ryan J; Widaa, Amro; Watters, Karen M; Wuerstle, Maximilian; Stallings, Ray L; Duffy, Garry P; O'Brien, Fergal J

    2013-11-01

    Skeletogenesis is initiated during fetal development and persists through adult life as either a remodeling process in response to homeostatic regulation or as a regenerative process in response to physical injury. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) play a crucial role providing progenitor cells from which osteoblasts, bone matrix forming cells are differentiated. The mechanical environment plays an important role in regulating stem cell differentiation into osteoblasts, however, the mechanisms by which MSCs respond to mechanical stimuli are yet to be fully elucidated. To increase understanding of MSC mechanotransuction and osteogenic differentiation, this study aimed to identify novel, mechanically augmented genes and pathways with pro-osteogenic functionality. Using collagen glycoaminoglycan scaffolds as mimics of native extracellular matrix, to create a 3D environment more representative of that found in bone, MSC-seeded constructs were mechanically stimulated in a flow-perfusion bioreactor. Global gene expression profiling techniques were used to identify potential candidates warranting further investigation. Of these, placental growth factor (PGF) was selected and expression levels were shown to strongly correlate to both the magnitude and duration of mechanical stimulation. We demonstrated that PGF gene expression was modulated through an actin polymerization-mediated mechanism. The functional role of PGF in modulating MSC osteogenic differentiation was interrogated, and we showed a concentration-dependent response whereby low concentrations exhibited the strongest pro-osteogenic effect. Furthermore, pre-osteoclast migration and differentiation, as well as endothelial cell tubule formation also maintained concentration-dependent responses to PGF, suggesting a potential role for PGF in bone resorption and angiogenesis, processes key to bone remodeling and fracture repair.

  14. Correlation between cell attachment areas after 2 h of culture and osteogenic differentiation activity of rat mesenchymal stem cells on hydroxyapatite substrates with various surface properties.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Kan; Hirose, Motohiro; Wang, Xiupeng; Sogo, Yu; Yamazaki, Atsushi; Ito, Atsuo

    2013-01-04

    The initial attachment of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) to substrates and osteogenic differentiation are supported by culture on a hydroxyapatite substrate. Cell attachment areas of rat MSCs after 2 h of culture on hydroxyapatite substrates with various microstructures and the osteogenic differentiation activity thereafter were measured. The perceived outcome was that, after 2 h of culture, rat MSCs with a small attachment area would have a high osteogenic differentiation activity, whereas those with a large attachment area would have a low osteogenic differentiation activity. Furthermore, rat MSCs with a small attachment area had many cytoplasmic processes, while those with a large attachment area revealed clear stress fibers and focal contacts. These results suggest that cell attachment area of rat MSCs after 2 h of culture has a strong effect on the osteogenic differentiation of rat MSCs. Thus, the measurement of cell attachment area after 2 h of culture could become valuable for estimating the osteogenic differentiation activity of rat MSCs thereafter.

  15. A bioceramic with enhanced osteogenic properties to regulate the function of osteoblastic and osteocalastic cells for bone tissue regeneration.

    PubMed

    Roohani-Esfahani, Seyed-Iman; No, Young Jung; Lu, Zufu; Ng, Pei Ying; Chen, Yongjuan; Shi, Jeffrey; Pavlos, Nathan J; Zreiqat, Hala

    2016-06-15

    Bioceramics for regenerative medicine applications should have the ability to promote adhesion, proliferation and differentiation of osteoblast and osteoclast cells. Osteogenic properties of the material are essential for rapid bone regeneration and new bone formation. The aim of this study was to develop a silicate-based ceramic, gehlenite (GLN, Ca2Al2SiO7), and characterise its physiochemical, biocompatibility and osteogenic properties. A pure GLN powder was synthesised by a facile reactive sintering method and compacted to disc-shaped specimens. The sintering behaviour and degradation of the GLN discs in various buffer solutions were fully characterised. The cytotoxicity of GLN was evaluated by direct and indirect methods. In the indirect method, primary human osteoblast cells (HOBs) were exposed to diluted extracts (100, 50, 25, 12.5 and 6.25 mg ml(-1)) of fine GLN particles in culture medium. The results showed that the extracts did not cause any cytotoxic effect on the HOBs with the number of cells increasing significantly from day 1 to day 7. GLN-supported HOB attachment and proliferation, and significantly enhanced osteogenic gene expression levels (Runx2, osteocalcin, osteopontin and bone sialoprotein) were compared with biphasic calcium phosphate groups (BCP, a mixture of hydroxyapatite (60wt.%) and β-tricalcium phosphate(40wt.%)). We also demonstrated that in addition to supporting HOB attachment and proliferation, GLN promoted the formation of tartrate-acid resistance phosphatase (TRAP) positive multinucleated osteoclastic cells (OCs) derived from mouse bone marrow cells. Results also demonstrated the ability of GLN to support the polarisation of OCs, a prerequisite for their functional resorptive activity which is mainly influenced by the composition and degradability of biomaterials. Overall, the developed GLN is a prospective candidate to be used in bone regeneration applications due its effective osteogenic properties and biocompatibility.

  16. Glimepiride promotes osteogenic differentiation in rat osteoblasts via the PI3K/Akt/eNOS pathway in a high glucose microenvironment.

    PubMed

    Ma, Pan; Gu, Bin; Xiong, Wei; Tan, Baosheng; Geng, Wei; Li, Jun; Liu, Hongchen

    2014-01-01

    Our previous studies demonstrated that glimepiride enhanced the proliferation and differentiation of osteoblasts and led to activation of the PI3K/Akt pathway. Recent genetic evidence shows that endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) plays an important role in bone homeostasis. In this study, we further elucidated the roles of eNOS, PI3K and Akt in bone formation by osteoblasts induced by glimepiride in a high glucose microenvironment. We demonstrated that high glucose (16.5 mM) inhibits the osteogenic differentiation potential and proliferation of rat osteoblasts. Glimepiride activated eNOS expression in rat osteoblasts cultured with two different concentrations of glucose. High glucose-induced osteogenic differentiation was significantly enhanced by glimepiride. Down-regulation of PI3K P85 levels by treatment with LY294002 (a PI3K inhibitor) led to suppression of P-eNOS and P-AKT expression levels, which in turn resulted in inhibition of RUNX2, OCN and ALP mRNA expression in osteoblasts induced by glimepiride at both glucose concentrations. ALP activity was partially inhibited by 10 µM LY294002. Taken together, our results demonstrate that glimepiride-induced osteogenic differentiation of osteoblasts occurs via eNOS activation and is dependent on the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway in a high glucose microenvironment.

  17. Nampt expression increases during osteogenic differentiation of multi- and omnipotent progenitors.

    PubMed

    Li, Yan; He, Jiaxue; He, Xu; Li, Yulin; Lindgren, Urban

    2013-04-26

    Despite emerging data showing that metabolic changes occur with stem cell differentiation, the cross-talk between factors governing energy metabolism and epigenetic modification is not understood. Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) participates in both energy metabolism and protein modification processes. Changes of the intracellular NAD concentration have been shown to correlate with differentiation of adult and embryonic stem cells. In the present study, we investigated the expression pattern of Nampt, the rate-limiting enzyme in NAD salvaging pathway, during osteogenic differentiation of the multipotent mouse fibroblast C3H10T1/2 and the omnipotent preosteoblast MC3T3-E1 cells. We found that Nampt was increasingly expressed during differentiation in both cell models. The increase of Nampt was associated with higher NAD concentration and Sirt1 activity. Knockdown of Nampt or addition of its specific inhibitor FK866 leads to lower intracellular NAD concentration and decline in osteogenesis. These findings indicate that osteogenic differentiation correlates with intracellular NAD metabolism in which Nampt plays a regulatory role.

  18. Markers Are Shared Between Adipogenic and Osteogenic Differentiated Mesenchymal Stem Cells.

    PubMed

    Köllmer, Melanie; Buhrman, Jason S; Zhang, Yu; Gemeinhart, Richard A

    2013-05-01

    The stem cell differentiation paradigm is based on the progression of cells through generations of daughter cells that eventually become restricted and committed to one lineage resulting in fully differentiated cells. Herein, we report on the differentiation of adult human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) towards adipogenic and osteogenic lineages using established protocols. Lineage specific geneswere evaluated by quantitative real-time PCR relative to two reference genes. The expression of osteoblast-associated genes (alkaline phosphatase, osteopontin, and osteocalcin)was detected in hMSCs that underwent adipogenesis. When normalized, the expression of adipocyte marker genes (adiponectin, fatty acid binding protein P4, and leptin) increasedin a time-dependent manner during adipogenic induction. Adiponectin and leptin were also detected in osteoblast-induced cells. Lipid vacuoles that represent the adipocyte phenotype were only present in the adipogenic induction group. Conforming to the heterogeneous nature of hMSCs and the known plasticity between osteogenic and adipogenic lineages, these data indicatea marker overlap between MSC-derived adipocytes and osteoblasts. Weproposea careful consideration of experimental conditions such as investigated timepoints, selected housekeeping genesand the evidence indicating lack of differentiation into other lineageswhen evaluating hMSC differentiation.

  19. Canonical FGFs Prevent Osteogenic Lineage Commitment and Differentiation of Human Bone Marrow Stromal Cells Via ERK1/2 Signaling.

    PubMed

    Simann, Meike; Le Blanc, Solange; Schneider, Verena; Zehe, Viola; Lüdemann, Martin; Schütze, Norbert; Jakob, Franz; Schilling, Tatjana

    2017-02-01

    Controlling the adipo-osteogenic lineage decision of trabecular human bone marrow stromal cells (hBMSCs) in favor of osteogenesis represents a promising approach for osteoporosis therapy and prevention. Previously, Fibroblast Growth Factor 1 (FGF1) and its subfamily member FGF2 were scored as leading candidates to exercise control over skeletal precursor commitment and lineage decision albeit literature results are highly inconsistent. We show here that FGF1 and 2 strongly prevent the osteogenic commitment and differentiation of hBMSCs. Mineralization of extracellular matrix (ECM) and mRNA expression of osteogenic marker genes Alkaline Phosphatase (ALP), Collagen 1A1 (COL1A1), and Integrin-Binding Sialoprotein (IBSP) were significantly reduced. Furthermore, master regulators of osteogenic commitment like Runt-Related Transcription Factor 2 (RUNX2) and Bone Morphogenetic Protein 4 (BMP4) were downregulated. When administered under adipogenic culture conditions, canonical FGFs did not support osteogenic marker expression. Moreover despite the presence of osteogenic differentiation factors, FGFs even disabled the pro-osteogenic lineage decision of pre-differentiated adipocytic cells. In contrast to FGF Receptor 2 (FGFR2), FGFR1 was stably expressed throughout osteogenic and adipogenic differentiation and FGF addition. Moreover, FGFR1 and Extracellular Signal-Regulated Kinases 1 and 2 (ERK1/2) were found to be responsible for underlying signal transduction using respective inhibitors. Taken together, we present new findings indicating that canonical FGFR-ERK1/2 signaling entrapped hBMSCs in a pre-committed state and arrested further maturation of committed precursors. Our results might aid in unraveling and controlling check points relevant for ageing-associated aberrant adipogenesis with consequences for the treatment of degenerative diseases such as osteoporosis and for skeletal tissue engineering strategies. J. Cell. Biochem. 118: 263-275, 2017. © 2016 Wiley

  20. Human mesenchymal stem cell differentiation to the osteogenic or adipogenic lineage is regulated by AMP-activated protein kinase.

    PubMed

    Kim, Eung-Kyun; Lim, Seyoung; Park, Ji-Man; Seo, Jeong Kon; Kim, Jae Ho; Kim, Kyong Tai; Ryu, Sung Ho; Suh, Pann-Ghill

    2012-04-01

    AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is an energy-sensing kinase that has recently been shown to regulate the differentiation of preadipocytes and osteoblasts. However, the role of AMPK in stem cell differentiation is largely unknown. Using in vitro culture models, the present study demonstrates that AMPK is a critical regulatory factor for osteogenic differentiation. We observed that expression and phosphorylation of AMPK were increased during osteogenesis in human adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hAMSC). To elucidate the role of AMPK in osteogenic differentiation, we investigated the effect of AMPK inhibition or knockdown on mineralization of hAMSC. Compound C, an AMPK inhibitor, reduced mineralized matrix deposition and suppressed the expression of osteoblast-specific genes, including alkaline phosphatase (ALP), runt-related transcription factor 2 (RUNX2), and osteocalcin (OCN). Knockdown of AMPK by shRNA-lentivirus infection also reduced osteogenesis. In addition, inhibition or knockdown of AMPK during osteogenesis inhibited ERK phosphorylation, which is required for osteogenesis. Interestingly, inhibition of AMPK induced adipogenic differentiation of hAMSC, even in osteogenic induction medium (OIM). These results provide a potential mechanism involving AMPK activation in osteogenic differentiation of hAMSC and suggest that commitment of hAMSC to osteogenic or adipogenic lineage is governed by activation or inhibition of AMPK, respectively.

  1. The impact of Wnt signalling and hypoxia on osteogenic and cementogenic differentiation in human periodontal ligament cells

    PubMed Central

    Li, Shuigen; Shao, Jin; Zhou, Yinghong; Friis, Thor; Yao, Jiangwu; Shi, Bin; Xiao, Yin

    2016-01-01

    Cementum is a periodontal support tissue that is directly connected to the periodontal ligament. It shares common traits with bone tissues, however, unlike bone, the cementum has a limited capacity for regeneration. As a result, following damage the cementum rarely, if ever, regenerates. Periodontal ligament cells (PDLCs) are able to differentiate into osteoblastic and cementogenic lineages according to specific local environmental conditions, including hypoxia, which is induced by inflammation or activation of the Wnt signalling pathway by local loading. The interactions between the Wnt signalling pathway and hypoxia during cementogenesis are of particular interest to improve the understanding of periodontal tissue regeneration. In the present study, osteogenic and cementogenic differentiation of PDLCs was investigated under hypoxic conditions in the presence and absence of Wnt pathway activation. Protein and gene expression of the osteogenic markers type 1 collagen (COL1) and runt-related transcription factor 2 (RUNX2), and cementum protein 1 (CEMP1) were used as markers for osteogenic and cementogenic differentiation, respectively. Wnt signalling activation inhibited cementogenesis, whereas hypoxia alone did not affect PDLC differentiation. However, hypoxia reversed the inhibition of cementogenesis that resulted from overexpression of Wnt signalling. Cross-talk between hypoxia and Wnt signalling pathways was, therefore, demonstrated to be involved in the differentiation of PDLCs to the osteogenic and cementogenic lineages. In summary, the present study suggests that the differentiation of PDLCs into osteogenic and cementogenic lineages is partially regulated by the Wnt signalling pathway and that hypoxia is also involved in this process. PMID:27840938

  2. Adipogenic and osteogenic differentiation of Lin(-)CD271(+)Sca-1(+) adipose-derived stem cells.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Jingang; Yang, Xiaojuan; Jing, Wei; Guo, Weihua; Sun, Qince; Lin, Yunfeng; Liu, Lei; Meng, Wentong; Tian, Weidong

    2013-05-01

    Adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) have been defined as cells that undergo sustained in vitro growth and have multilineage differentiation potential. However, the identity and purification of ASCs has proved elusive due to the lack of specific markers and poor understanding of their physiological roles. Here, we prospectively isolated and identified a restricted homogeneous subpopulation of ASCs (Lin(-)CD271(+)Sca-1(+)) from mouse adipose tissues on the basis of cell-surface markers. Individual ASCs generated colony-forming unit-fibroblast at a high frequency and could differentiate into adipocytes, osteoblasts, and chondrocytes in vitro. Expansion of ASCs in a large quantity was feasible in medium supplemented with fibroblast growth factor-2 and leukemia inhibitory factor, without loss of adipogenic and osteogenic differentiation capacity. Moreover, we found that the transplanted ASCs can differentiate into adipocytes in adipogenic microenvironment in vivo and osteoblasts in osteogenic microenvironment in vivo. Thus we proved that Lin, CD271, and Sca-1 could be used as the specific markers to purify ASCs from adipose tissue. The method we established to identify ASCs as defined in vivo entities will help develop ASCs transplantation as a new therapeutic strategy for bone regeneration and adipose tissue regeneration in clinic.

  3. Osteogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells promotes mineralization within a biodegradable peptide hydrogel

    PubMed Central

    Castillo Diaz, Luis A; Elsawy, Mohamed; Saiani, Alberto; Gough, Julie E; Miller, Aline F

    2016-01-01

    An attractive strategy for the regeneration of tissues has been the use of extracellular matrix analogous biomaterials. Peptide-based fibrillar hydrogels have been shown to mimic the structure of extracellular matrix offering cells a niche to undertake their physiological functions. In this study, the capability of an ionic-complementary peptide FEFEFKFK (F, E, and K are phenylalanine, glutamic acid, and lysine, respectively) hydrogel to host human mesenchymal stem cells in three dimensions and induce their osteogenic differentiation is demonstrated. Assays showed sustained cell viability and proliferation throughout the hydrogel over 12 days of culture and these human mesenchymal stem cells differentiated into osteoblasts simply upon addition of osteogenic stimulation. Differentiated osteoblasts synthesized key bone proteins, including collagen-1 (Col-1), osteocalcin, and alkaline phosphatase. Moreover, mineralization occurred within the hydrogel. The peptide hydrogel is a naturally biodegradable material as shown by oscillatory rheology and reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography, where both viscoelastic properties and the degradation of the hydrogel were monitored over time, respectively. These findings demonstrate that a biodegradable octapeptide hydrogel can host and induce the differentiation of stem cells and has the potential for the regeneration of hard tissues such as alveolar bone. PMID:27493714

  4. AFM studies of cellular mechanics during osteogenic differentiation of human amniotic fluid-derived stem cells.

    PubMed

    Chen, Qian; Xiao, Pan; Chen, Jia-Nan; Cai, Ji-Ye; Cai, Xiao-Fang; Ding, Hui; Pan, Yun-Long

    2010-01-01

    Amniotic fluid-derived stem cells (AFSCs) are becoming an important source of cells for regenerative medicine given with apparent advantages of accessibility, renewal capacity and multipotentiality. In this study, the mechanical properties of human amniotic fluid-derived stem cells (hAFSCs), such as the average Young's modulus, were determined by atomic force microscopy (3.97 ± 0.53 kPa for hAFSCs vs. 1.52 ± 0.63 kPa for fully differentiated osteoblasts). These differences in cell elasticity result primarily from differential actin cytoskeleton organization in these two cell types. Furthermore, ultrastructures, nanostructural details on the surface of cell, were visualized by atomic force microscopy (AFM). It was clearly shown that surface of osteoblasts were covered by mineralized particles, and the histogram of particles size showed that most of the particles on the surface of osteoblasts distributed from 200 to 400 nm in diameter, while the diameter of hAFSCs particles ranged from 100 to 200 nm. In contrast, there were some dips on the surface of hAFSCs, and particles were smaller than that of osteoblasts. Additionally, as osteogenic differentiation of hAFSCs progressed, more and more stress fibers were replaced by a thinner actin network which is characteristic of mature osteoblasts. These results can improve our understanding of the mechanical properties of hAFSCs during osteogenic differentiation. AFM can be used as a powerful tool for detecting ultrastructures and mechanical properties.

  5. Osteogenic cell differentiation on H-terminated and O-terminated nanocrystalline diamond films.

    PubMed

    Liskova, Jana; Babchenko, Oleg; Varga, Marian; Kromka, Alexander; Hadraba, Daniel; Svindrych, Zdenek; Burdikova, Zuzana; Bacakova, Lucie

    2015-01-01

    Nanocrystalline diamond (NCD) films are promising materials for bone implant coatings because of their biocompatibility, chemical resistance, and mechanical hardness. Moreover, NCD wettability can be tailored by grafting specific atoms. The NCD films used in this study were grown on silicon substrates by microwave plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition and grafted by hydrogen atoms (H-termination) or oxygen atoms (O-termination). Human osteoblast-like Saos-2 cells were used for biological studies on H-terminated and O-terminated NCD films. The adhesion, growth, and subsequent differentiation of the osteoblasts on NCD films were examined, and the extracellular matrix production and composition were quantified. The osteoblasts that had been cultivated on the O-terminated NCD films exhibited a higher growth rate than those grown on the H-terminated NCD films. The mature collagen fibers were detected in Saos-2 cells on both the H-terminated and O-terminated NCD films; however, the quantity of total collagen in the extracellular matrix was higher on the O-terminated NCD films, as were the amounts of calcium deposition and alkaline phosphatase activity. Nevertheless, the expression of genes for osteogenic markers - type I collagen, alkaline phosphatase, and osteocalcin - was either comparable on the H-terminated and O-terminated films or even lower on the O-terminated films. In conclusion, the higher wettability of the O-terminated NCD films is promising for adhesion and growth of osteoblasts. In addition, the O-terminated surface also seems to support the deposition of extracellular matrix proteins and extracellular matrix mineralization, and this is promising for better osteoconductivity of potential bone implant coatings.

  6. Shaping oral cell plasticity to osteogenic differentiation by human mesenchymal stem cell coculture.

    PubMed

    Proksch, Susanne; Steinberg, Thorsten; Vach, Kirstin; Hellwig, Elmar; Tomakidi, Pascal

    2014-04-01

    In the context of cell-based oral hard tissue regeneration, especially assumed plasticity of oral host tissue cells in response to human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs), is poorly understood. To investigate this area, we assess osteogenic features in various oral cell types during hMSC coculture, including human alveolar osteoblasts (hOAs), periodontal ligament cells (hPDLs) and gingival fibroblasts (hGFs). Interactive hMSC coculture globally enhanced the transcription of osteogenic genes, in all oral cell types under study, as revealed by qRT-PCR and did not affect oral cell proliferation compared with controls in a transwell coculture system as evaluated by 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine proliferation assay. 3D gel-derived hMSC cocultures exhibited an abundance of bone-related key molecules in oral cells, which followed the ranking hOAs > hGFs > hPDLs. Compared to matched controls, this hierarchy also applied for the presence of higher amounts of extracellular matrix deposits and mineralization nodules in interactive hMSC coculture. Our results show for the first time that in the context of prospective periodontal tissue regeneration strategies, hMSCs influence oral cells by gradually shaping their plasticity, particularly features associated with an osteogenic phenotype. These novel findings contribute another piece to the conceptual hMSC action puzzle and valuably support the notion that hMSCs trigger osteogenesis in the oral cell context.

  7. Osteogenic differentiation of human periosteal-derived cells in a three-dimensional collagen scaffold.

    PubMed

    Ryu, Young-Mo; Hah, Young-Sool; Park, Bong-Wook; Kim, Deok Ryong; Roh, Gu Seob; Kim, Jong-Ryoul; Kim, Uk-Kyu; Rho, Gyu-Jin; Maeng, Geun-Ho; Byun, June-Ho

    2011-06-01

    This study examined the osteogenic differentiation of cultured human periosteal-derived cells grown in a three dimensional collagen-based scaffold. Periosteal explants with the appropriate dimensions were harvested from the mandible during surgical extraction of lower impacted third molar. Periosteal-derived cells were introduced into cell culture. After passage 3, the cells were divided into two groups and cultured for 28 days. In one group, the cells were cultured in two-dimensional culture dishes with osteogenic inductive medium containing dexamethasone, ascorbic acid, and β-glycerophosphate. In the other group, the cells were seeded onto a three-dimensional collagen scaffold and cultured under the same conditions. We examined the bioactivity of alkaline phosphatase (ALP), the RT-PCR analysis for ALP and osteocalcin, and measurements of the calcium content in the periosteal-derived cells of two groups. Periosteal-derived cells were successfully differentiated into osteoblasts in the collagen-based scaffold. The ALP activity in the periosteal-derived cells was appreciably higher in the three-dimensional collagen scaffolds than in the two-dimensional culture dishes. The levels of ALP and osteocalcin mRNA in the periosteal-derived cells was also higher in the three-dimensional collagen scaffolds than in the two-dimensional culture dishes. The calcium level in the periosteal-derived cells seeded onto three-dimensional collagen scaffolds showed a 5.92-fold increase on day 7, 3.28-fold increase on day 14, 4.15-fold increase on day 21, and 2.91-fold increase on day 28, respectively, compared with that observed in two-dimensional culture dishes. These results suggest that periosteal-derived cells have good osteogenic capacity in a three-dimensional collagen scaffold, which provides a suitable environment for the osteoblastic differentiation of these cells.

  8. SIRT1 was involved in TNF-α-promoted osteogenic differentiation of human DPSCs through Wnt/β-catenin signal.

    PubMed

    Feng, Guijuan; Zheng, Ke; Song, Donghui; Xu, Ke; Huang, Dan; Zhang, Ye; Cao, Peipei; Shen, Shuling; Zhang, Jinlong; Feng, Xingmei; Zhang, Dongmei

    2016-12-01

    Dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs), as one type of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), have the capability of self-renewal and differentiating along the various directions, including osteogenic, chondrogenic, neurogenic, and adipogenic. We previously study and found that tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) promoted osteogenic differentiation of human DPSCs via the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway in low concentration while inhibited that in high concentration. In the abovementioned process, we found that sirtuin-1 (SIRT1) had the same change compared with the characteristic protein of bone formation, such as bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP2), runt-related transcription factor 2 (Runx2), and collagen I (COL1). We asked whether SIRT1 could regulate osteogenesis of DPSCs. In inflammation microenvironment constructed by TNF-α, we tested the expression changing of SIRT1 and analyzed the function of SIRT1 on osteogenic differentiation of DPSCs. SIRT1 deacetylated β-catenin, and then promote its accumulation in the nucleus. Accumulated β-catenin can lead to transcription of osteogenic characteristic genes. Using the activator of SIRT1, resveratrol, could promote the above-mentioned process of osteogenic differentiation. SIRT1 could regulate osteogenesis of DPSCs through Wnt/β-catenin signal. SIRT1, as a regulator of differentiation of DPSCs, may be a new target for cell-based therapy in oral diseases and other regenerative medicine.

  9. Decreased osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells and reduced bone mineral density in patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis.

    PubMed

    Park, Weon Wook; Suh, Kuen Tak; Kim, Jeung Il; Kim, Seong-Jang; Lee, Jung Sub

    2009-12-01

    Generalized low bone mass and osteopenia in both axial and peripheral skeletons have been reported in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS). However, the mechanism and causes of bone loss in AIS have not been identified. Therefore, this study examined the relationship between the osteogenic and adipogenic differentiation abilities of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and bone mass in 19 patients with AIS and compared these with those of 16 age- and gender-matched patients with lower leg fracture. Mean lumbar spinal bone mineral density (LSBMD) in AIS patients was found to be lower than in controls (P = 0.037) and the osteogenic differentiation abilities and alkaline phosphatase activities of MSCs from patients were also found to be lower than those of controls (P = 0.0073 and P = 0.001, respectively), but the abilities of the MSCs of patients and controls to undergo adipogenic differentiation were similar. The osteogenic differentiation ability was found to be positively correlated with alkaline phosphatase activity in the AIS group. However, the osteogenic and adipogenic abilities were not found to be correlated with LSBMD in either patients or controls. These findings suggest that the decreased osteogenic differentiation ability of MSCs might be one of the possible mechanisms leading to low bone mass in AIS. However, we did not determine definite mechanisms of low bone mass in AIS. Therefore, further study with large scale will be needed to identify the mechanism involved.

  10. HMGB1 promotes the secretion of multiple cytokines and potentiates the osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells through the Ras/MAPK signaling pathway

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Lin; Xue, Deting; Chen, Erman; Zhang, Wei; Gao, Xiang; Yu, Jiawei; Feng, Yadong; Pan, Zhijun

    2016-01-01

    High mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) protein has been previously been detected in the inflammatory microenvironment of bone fractures. It is well known that HMGB1 acts as a chemoattractant to mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). In the present study, the effects of HMGB1 on cytokine secretion from MSCs were determined, and the molecular mechanisms underlying these effects of HMGB1 on osteogenic differentiation were elucidated. To detect cytokine secretion, antibody array assays were performed, which demonstrated that HGMB1 induced the differential secretion of cytokines that are predominantly associated with cell development, regulation of growth and cell migration, stress responses, and immune system functions. Moreover, the secretion of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) was significantly upregulated by HMGB1. The EGFR-activated Ras/MAPK pathway regulates the osteogenic differentiation of MSCs. These results suggested that HMGB1 enhances the secretion of various cytokines by MSCs and promotes osteogenic differentiation via the Ras/MAPK signaling pathway. The present study may provide a theoretical basis for the development of novel techniques for the treatment of bone fractures in the future. PMID:28105126

  11. Activation of GLP-1 Receptor Promotes Bone Marrow Stromal Cell Osteogenic Differentiation through β-Catenin

    PubMed Central

    Meng, Jingru; Ma, Xue; Wang, Ning; Jia, Min; Bi, Long; Wang, Yunying; Li, Mingkai; Zhang, Huinan; Xue, Xiaoyan; Hou, Zheng; Zhou, Ying; Yu, Zhibin; He, Gonghao; Luo, Xiaoxing

    2016-01-01

    Summary Glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) plays an important role in regulating bone remodeling, and GLP-1 receptor agonist shows a positive relationship with osteoblast activity. However, GLP-1 receptor is not found in osteoblast, and the mechanism of GLP-1 receptor agonist on regulating bone remodeling is unclear. Here, we show that the GLP-1 receptor agonist exendin-4 (Ex-4) promoted bone formation and increased bone mass and quality in a rat unloading-induced bone loss model. These functions were accompanied by an increase in osteoblast number and serum bone formation markers, while the adipocyte number was decreased. Furthermore, GLP-1 receptor was detected in bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs), but not in osteoblast. Activation of GLP-1 receptor by Ex-4 promoted the osteogenic differentiation and inhibited BMSC adipogenic differentiation through regulating PKA/β-catenin and PKA/PI3K/AKT/GSK3β signaling. These findings reveal that GLP-1 receptor regulates BMSC osteogenic differentiation and provide a molecular basis for therapeutic potential of GLP-1 against osteoporosis. PMID:26947974

  12. Effects of strength training on osteogenic differentiation and bone strength in aging female Wistar rats

    PubMed Central

    Singulani, Monique Patricio; Stringhetta-Garcia, Camila Tami; Santos, Leandro Figueiredo; Morais, Samuel Rodrigues Lourenço; Louzada, Mário Jefferson Quirino; Oliveira, Sandra Helena Penha; Chaves Neto, Antonio Hernandes; Dornelles, Rita Cássia Menegati

    2017-01-01

    The effects of strength training (ST) on the mechanical bone strength and osteogenic differentiation of bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells (BMSCs) from adult, aged and exercised aged rats were determined. The exercised aged animals displayed higher values of areal bone mineral density, compression test, alkaline phosphatase activity (ALP) and biological mineralization, while oil red O staining for adipocytes was lower. ST increased gene expression of runt-related transcription factor 2 (Runx2), osterix (Osx) as well as bone matrix protein expression, and reduced expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (Pparγ). The production of pro-inflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) was lower in BMSCs of the aged exercised group. The ST practice was able to improve the bone mechanical properties in aged female rats, increasing the potential for osteogenic differentiation of BMSCs, reducing the adipogenic differentiation and pro-inflammatory cytokine level. In summary, the data achieved in this study showed that strength training triggers physiological responses that result in changes in the bone microenvironment and bring benefits to biomechanical parameters of bone tissue, which could reduce the risk of fractures during senescent. PMID:28211481

  13. Effects of strength training on osteogenic differentiation and bone strength in aging female Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Singulani, Monique Patricio; Stringhetta-Garcia, Camila Tami; Santos, Leandro Figueiredo; Morais, Samuel Rodrigues Lourenço; Louzada, Mário Jefferson Quirino; Oliveira, Sandra Helena Penha; Chaves Neto, Antonio Hernandes; Dornelles, Rita Cássia Menegati

    2017-02-17

    The effects of strength training (ST) on the mechanical bone strength and osteogenic differentiation of bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells (BMSCs) from adult, aged and exercised aged rats were determined. The exercised aged animals displayed higher values of areal bone mineral density, compression test, alkaline phosphatase activity (ALP) and biological mineralization, while oil red O staining for adipocytes was lower. ST increased gene expression of runt-related transcription factor 2 (Runx2), osterix (Osx) as well as bone matrix protein expression, and reduced expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (Pparγ). The production of pro-inflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) was lower in BMSCs of the aged exercised group. The ST practice was able to improve the bone mechanical properties in aged female rats, increasing the potential for osteogenic differentiation of BMSCs, reducing the adipogenic differentiation and pro-inflammatory cytokine level. In summary, the data achieved in this study showed that strength training triggers physiological responses that result in changes in the bone microenvironment and bring benefits to biomechanical parameters of bone tissue, which could reduce the risk of fractures during senescent.

  14. Activation of GLP-1 Receptor Promotes Bone Marrow Stromal Cell Osteogenic Differentiation through β-Catenin.

    PubMed

    Meng, Jingru; Ma, Xue; Wang, Ning; Jia, Min; Bi, Long; Wang, Yunying; Li, Mingkai; Zhang, Huinan; Xue, Xiaoyan; Hou, Zheng; Zhou, Ying; Yu, Zhibin; He, Gonghao; Luo, Xiaoxing

    2016-04-12

    Glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) plays an important role in regulating bone remodeling, and GLP-1 receptor agonist shows a positive relationship with osteoblast activity. However, GLP-1 receptor is not found in osteoblast, and the mechanism of GLP-1 receptor agonist on regulating bone remodeling is unclear. Here, we show that the GLP-1 receptor agonist exendin-4 (Ex-4) promoted bone formation and increased bone mass and quality in a rat unloading-induced bone loss model. These functions were accompanied by an increase in osteoblast number and serum bone formation markers, while the adipocyte number was decreased. Furthermore, GLP-1 receptor was detected in bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs), but not in osteoblast. Activation of GLP-1 receptor by Ex-4 promoted the osteogenic differentiation and inhibited BMSC adipogenic differentiation through regulating PKA/β-catenin and PKA/PI3K/AKT/GSK3β signaling. These findings reveal that GLP-1 receptor regulates BMSC osteogenic differentiation and provide a molecular basis for therapeutic potential of GLP-1 against osteoporosis.

  15. Microcarrier Culture for Efficient Expansion and Osteogenic Differentiation of Human Fetal Mesenchymal Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Goh, Tony Kwang-Poh; Zhang, Zhi-Yong; Chen, Allen Kuan-Liang; Reuveny, Shaul; Choolani, Mahesh

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Stirred microcarrier (MC) culture has been suggested as the method of choice for supplying large volumes of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) for bone tissue engineering. In this study, we show that in addition to the improvement in cell expansion capacity, MSCs propagated and harvested from MC culture also demonstrate higher osteogenic potency when differentiated in vivo or in vitro in three-dimensional (3D) scaffold cultures as compared with traditional monolayer (MNL) cultures. Cytodex 3 microcarrier-expanded human fetal MSC (hfMSC) cultures (MC-hfMSCs) achieved 12- to 16-fold expansion efficiency (6×105–8×105 cells/mL) compared to 4- to 6-fold (1.2×105–1.8×105 cells/mL) achieved by traditional MNL-expanded hfMSC culture (MNL-hfMSCs; p<0.05). Both MC-hfMSCs and MNL-hfMSCs maintained similar colony-forming capacity, doubling times, and immunophenotype postexpansion. However, when differentiated under in vitro two-dimensional (2D) osteogenic conditions, MC-hfMSCs exhibited a 45-fold reduction in alkaline phosphatase level and a 37.5% decrease in calcium deposition compared with MNL-hfMSCs (p<0.05). Surprisingly, when MC-hfMSCs and MNL-hfMSCs were seeded on 3D macroporous scaffold culture or subcutaneously implanted into nonobese diabetic/severe combined immunodeficient mice, MC-hfMSCs deposited 63.5% (p<0.05) more calcium and formed 47.2% (p<0.05) more bone volume, respectively. These results suggest that the mode of hfMSC growth in the expansion phase affects the osteogenic potential of hfMSCs differently in various differentiation platforms. In conclusion, MC cultures are advantageous over MNL cultures in bone tissue engineering because MC-hfMSCs have improved cell expansion capacity and exhibit higher osteogenic potential than MNL-hfMSCs when seeded in vitro into 3D scaffolds or implanted in vivo. PMID:23593561

  16. 25-Hydroxyvitamin D3 induces osteogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Lou, Yan-Ru; Toh, Tai Chong; Tee, Yee Han; Yu, Hanry

    2017-01-01

    25-Hydroxyvitamin D3 [25(OH)D3] has recently been found to be an active hormone. Its biological actions are demonstrated in various cell types. 25(OH)D3 deficiency results in failure in bone formation and skeletal deformation. Here, we investigated the effect of 25(OH)D3 on osteogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs). We also studied the effect of 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 [1α,25-(OH)2D3], a metabolite of 25(OH)D3. One of the vitamin D responsive genes, 25(OH)D3-24-hydroxylase (cytochrome P450 family 24 subfamily A member 1) mRNA expression is up-regulated by 25(OH)D3 at 250–500 nM and by 1α,25-(OH)2D3 at 1–10 nM. 25(OH)D3 and 1α,25-(OH)2D3 at a time-dependent manner alter cell morphology towards osteoblast-associated characteristics. The osteogenic markers, alkaline phosphatase, secreted phosphoprotein 1 (osteopontin), and bone gamma-carboxyglutamate protein (osteocalcin) are increased by 25(OH)D3 and 1α,25-(OH)2D3 in a dose-dependent manner. Finally, mineralisation is significantly increased by 25(OH)D3 but not by 1α,25-(OH)2D3. Moreover, we found that hMSCs express very low level of 25(OH)D3-1α-hydroxylase (cytochrome P450 family 27 subfamily B member 1), and there is no detectable 1α,25-(OH)2D3 product. Taken together, our findings provide evidence that 25(OH)D3 at 250–500 nM can induce osteogenic differentiation and that 25(OH)D3 has great potential for cell-based bone tissue engineering. PMID:28211493

  17. Modulation of keratin in adhesion, proliferation, adipogenic, and osteogenic differentiation of porcine adipose-derived stem cells.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yen-Lin; Lin, Che-Wei; Cheng, Nai-Chen; Yang, Kai-Chiang; Yu, Jiashing

    2017-01-01

    Recently, keratin attracts tremendous interest because of its intrinsic ability to interact with different cells. It has the potential to serve as a controllable extracellular matrix protein that can be used to demonstrate cell mechanism and cell-matrix interaction. However, there have been relatively few studies on the effects of keratin on stem cells. In the present work, we study the effects of human keratin on porcine adipose-derived stem cells (pASCs) and a series of selective cell lines: 3T3 fibroblasts, Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells, and MG63 osteoblasts. Relative to un-treated culture plate, our results showed that keratin coating substrates promote cell adhesion and proliferation to above cell lines. Keratin also improved pASCs adhesion, proliferation, and enhanced cell viability. Evaluation of genetic markers showed that adipogenic and osteogenic differentiations of pASCs can be successfully induced, thus demonstrating that keratin did not influence the stemness of pASCs. Furthermore, keratin improved adipogenic differentiations of pASCs in terms of up-regulations in lipoprotein lipase, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma, and CCAAT-enhancer-binding protein alpha. The osteogenic markers type I collagen, runt-related transcription factor 2, and vitamin D receptor were also upregulated when pASCs cultured on keratin substrates. Therefore, keratin can serve as a biological derived material for surface modification and scaffold fabrication for biomedical purpose. The combination of keratin with stem cells may be a potential candidate for tissue repair in the field of regenerative medicine. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 105B: 180-192, 2017.

  18. The suppressive effect of myeloid Elf-1-like factor (MEF) in osteogenic differentiation.

    PubMed

    Kim, Youn-Jeong; Kim, Byung-Gyu; Lee, Seung-Jin; Lee, Ho-Kyung; Lee, Sang-Han; Ryoo, Hyun-Mo; Cho, Je-Yoel

    2007-04-01

    Myeloid Elf-1 like factor (MEF) is a member of the Ets transcription factor family. Ets family proteins control the expression of genes that are critical for biological processes such as proliferation, differentiation, and cell death. Some of Ets factors are also known to regulate bone development. In this study, we investigated the role of MEF in osteoblast differentiation. MEF expression was highest early in the differentiation of MC3T3-E1 osteoblasts and was reduced by treatment with BMP-2. The expression of MEF suppressed the alkaline phosphatase activity and expression induced by BMP-2 stimulation and mediated by Runx2. The expression of MEF also reduces osteocalcin mRNA levels, and mineralization in MC3T3-E1 cells. We found that the MEF-mediated suppression of osteogenic differentiation was critically related to Runx2 regulation. The MEF and Runx2 proteins physically interact to form a complex, and this interaction interferes with Runx2 binding to the cis-acting element OSE2 derived from the osteocalcin promoter. Co-transfection of MEF inhibited the 6xOSE2-luciferase reporter activity induced by Runx2. In addition, MEF stimulated the transcription of a negative mediator Msx2, and a transcriptional repressor, Mab21L1, and suppressed the transcription of a positive mediator, Dlx5 in osteoblast differentiation. MEF overexpression stimulated C2C12 cell proliferation. Together, our findings suggest that MEF promotes cell proliferation and functions as a negative regulator of osteogenic differentiation by directly interacting with Runx2 and suppressing its transcriptional activity.

  19. Synergistic effects of overexpression of BMP‑2 and TGF‑β3 on osteogenic differentiation of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yilin; He, Tian; Liu, Jie; Liu, Hongzhi; Zhou, Lugang; Hao, Wei; Sun, Yujie; Wang, Xin

    2016-12-01

    Bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP-2) and transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) isoforms are important in advancing bone regeneration. The aim of the present study was to investigate the positive and reciprocal effect of TGF‑β3, one of the three TGF‑β isoforms, on BMP‑2 in promoting osteogenic differentiation. Exogenous BMP‑2 and TGF‑β3 genes were separately, and in combination, overexpressed in rabbit bone marrow‑derived mesenchymal stem cells (rBMSCs). Expression levels of BMP‑2 and TGF‑β3 were evaluated using reverse‑transcription‑polymerase chain reaction (RT‑PCR) and Western blotting assays. Furthermore, the osteogenic differentiation capacities of BMSCs were assessed by measuring Alizarin Red S staining, an alkaline phosphatase activity assay, and quantification of the osteogenic‑specific genes, Runt‑related transcription factor 2 (Runx2) and Osterix (Osx). Using lentiviral‑mediated transfection, robust co‑transfection efficiency of >90% was achieved. RT‑PCR and immunoblotting results indicated a marked elevated expression of BMP‑2 and TGF‑β3 in rBMSCs undergoing co‑transfection, compared with transfection with BMP‑2 or TGF‑β3 alone, indicating that BMP‑2 and TGF‑β3 are synergistically expressed in rBMSCs. Furthermore, enhanced osteogenic differentiation was observed in rBMSCs co‑transfected with BMP‑2/TGF‑β3. The present study successfully delivered BMP‑2 together with TGF‑β3 into rBMSCs with high efficiency for the first time. Furthermore, TGF‑β3 overexpression was demonstrated to enhance the osteogenic efficacy of BMP‑2 in rBMSCs, and vice versa. This provides a potential clinical therapeutic approach for regenerating the function of osseous tissue, and may present a promising strategy for bone defect healing.

  20. Curcumin attenuates osteogenic differentiation and calcification of rat vascular smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Hou, Menglin; Song, Yan; Li, Zhenlin; Luo, Chufan; Ou, Jing-Song; Yu, Huimin; Yan, Jianyun; Lu, Lihe

    2016-09-01

    Vascular calcification has been considered as a biological process resembling bone formation involving osteogenic differentiation. It is a major risk factor for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Previous studies have shown the protective effects of curcumin on cardiovascular diseases. However, whether curcumin has effects on osteogenic differentiation and calcification of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) has not been reported. In the present study, we used an in vitro model of VSMC calcification to investigate the role of curcumin in the progression of rat VSMC calcification. Curcumin treatment significantly reduced calcification of VSMCs in a dose-dependent manner, detected by alizarin red staining and calcium content assay. Similarly, ALP activity and expression of bone-related molecules including Runx2, BMP2, and Osterix were also decreased in VSMCs treated with curcumin. In addition, flow cytometry analysis and caspase-3 activity assay revealed that curcumin treatment significantly suppressed apoptosis of VSMCs, which plays an important role during vascular calcification. Furthermore, we found that pro-apoptotic molecules including p-JNK and Bax were up-regulated in VSMCs treated with calcifying medium, but they were reduced in VSMCs after curcumin treatment. However, curcumin treatment has no effect on expression of NF-κB p65. Taken together, these findings suggest that curcumin attenuates apoptosis and calcification of VSMCs, presumably via inhibition of JNK/Bax signaling pathway.

  1. Synthesis of nanostructured porous silica coatings on titanium and their cell adhesive and osteogenic differentiation properties.

    PubMed

    Inzunza, Débora; Covarrubias, Cristian; Von Marttens, Alfredo; Leighton, Yerko; Carvajal, Juan Carlos; Valenzuela, Francisco; Díaz-Dosque, Mario; Méndez, Nicolás; Martínez, Constanza; Pino, Ana María; Rodríguez, Juan Pablo; Cáceres, Mónica; Smith, Patricio

    2014-01-01

    Nanostructured porous silica coatings were synthesized on titanium by the combined sol-gel and evaporation-induced self-assembly process. The silica-coating structures were characterized by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and nitrogen sorptometry. The effect of the nanoporous surface on apatite formation in simulated body fluid, protein adsorption, osteoblast cell adhesion behavior, and osteogenic differentiation of human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (hBMSCs) is reported. Silica coatings with highly ordered sub-10 nm porosity accelerate early osteoblast adhesive response, a favorable cell response that is attributed to an indirect effect due to the high protein adsorption observed on the large-specific surface area of the nanoporous coating but is also probably due to direct mechanical stimulus from the nanostructured topography. The nanoporous silica coatings, particularly those doped with calcium and phosphate, also promote the osteogenic differentiation of hBMSCs with spontaneous mineral nodule formation in basal conditions. The bioactive surface properties exhibited by the nanostructured porous silica coatings make these materials a promising alternative to improve the osseointegration properties of titanium dental implants and could have future impact on the nanoscale design of implant surfaces.

  2. Effects of Plants on Osteogenic Differentiation and Mineralization of Periodontal Ligament Cells: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Costa, Cláudio Rodrigues Rezende; Amorim, Bruna Rabelo; de Magalhães, Pérola; De Luca Canto, Graziela; Acevedo, Ana Carolina; Guerra, Eliete Neves Silva

    2016-04-01

    This systematic review aimed to evaluate the effects of plants on osteogenic differentiation and mineralization of human periodontal ligament cells. The included studies were selected using five different electronic databases. The reference list of the included studies was crosschecked, and a partial gray literature search was undertaken using Google Scholar and ProQuest. The methodology of the selected studies was evaluated using GRADE. After a two-step selection process, eight studies were identified. Six different types of plants were reported in the selected studies, which were Morinda citrifolia, Aloe vera, Fructus cnidii, Zanthoxylum schinifolium, Centella asiatica, and Epimedium species. They included five types of isolated plant components: acemannan, osthole, hesperetin, asiaticoside, and icariin. In addition, some active substances of these components were identified as polysaccharides, coumarins, flavonoids, and triterpenes. The studies demonstrated the potential effects of plants on osteogenic differentiation, cell proliferation, mineral deposition, and gene and protein expression. Four studies showed that periodontal ligament cells induce mineral deposition after plant treatment. Although there are few studies on the subject, current evidence suggests that plants are potentially useful for the treatment of periodontal diseases. However, further investigations are required to confirm the promising effect of these plants in regenerative treatments.

  3. The Effects of Simulated Microgravity on Gene Expression in Human Bone Marrow MSC's Under Osteogenic Differentiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buravkova, L. B.; Gershovich, J. G.; Gershovich, P. M.; Grigoriev, A. I.

    2013-02-01

    In this work it was found that the expression level of 144 genes significantly changed in human mesenchymal stem cells during their osteogenic differentiation after 20 days of exposure to simulated microgravity: the expression of 30 genes significantly increased (from 1.7 to 11.9 fold), and 114 - decreased (from 0.2 to 0.6 fold). Most of the revealed genes were attributed to the 11 major groups corresponding to its biological role in the cells. Additional group was formed from the genes which did not belong to these categories, or did not have a description in the known databases (such as Pubmed). The greatest number of genes with altered expression was found in the group “Matrix and Adhesion", while the lowest - in the "Apoptosis and the response to external stimuli" group. These findings suggest that cultured hMSCs, placed in non-standard conditions, maintain a high level of viability, but have significantly altered functional properties which could affect their efficiency to differentiate towards osteogenic direction.

  4. Hydroxyapatite coatings with oriented nanoplate and nanorod arrays: Fabrication, morphology, cytocompatibility and osteogenic differentiation.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wei; Tian, Bo; Lei, Yong; Ke, Qin-Fei; Zhu, Zhen-An; Guo, Ya-Ping

    2016-10-01

    Hydroxyapatite (HA) crystals exhibit rod-like shape with c-axis orientation and plate-like shape with a(b)-axis orientation in vertebrate bones and tooth enamel surfaces, respectively. Herein, we report the synthesis of HA coatings with the oriented nanorod arrays (RHACs) and HA coatings with oriented nanoplate arrays (PHACs) by using bioglass coatings as sacrificial templates. After soaking in simulated body fluid (SBF) at 120°C, the bioglass coatings are hydrothermally converted into the HA coatings via a dissolution-precipitation reaction. If the Ca/P ratios in SBF are 2.50 and 1.25, the HA crystals on the coatings are oriented nanorod arrays and oriented nanoplate arrays, respectively. Moreover, the bioglass coatings are treated with SBF at 37°C, plate-like HA coatings with a low crystallinity (SHACs) are prepared. As compared with the Ti6Al4V and SHACs, the human bone marrow stromal cells (hBMSCs) on the RHACs and PHACs have better cell adhesion, spreading, proliferation and osteogenic differentiation because of their moderately hydrophilic surfaces and similar chemical composition, morphology and crystal orientation to human hard tissues. Notably, the morphologies of HA crystals have no obvious effects on cytocompatibility and osteogenic differentiation. Hence, the HA coatings with oriented nanoplate arrays or oriented nanorod arrays have a great potential for orthopedic applications.

  5. Proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of rat BMSCs on a novel Ti/SiC metal matrix nanocomposite modified by friction stir processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Chenyuan; Lv, Yuting; Qian, Chao; Qian, Haixin; Jiao, Ting; Wang, Liqiang; Zhang, Fuqiang

    2016-12-01

    The aims of this study were to fabricate a novel titanium/silicon carbide (Ti/SiC) metal matrix nanocomposite (MMNC) by friction stir processing (FSP) and to investigate its microstructure and mechanical properties. In addition, the adhesion, proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of rat bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) on the nanocomposite surface were investigated. The MMNC microstructure was observed by both scanning and transmission electron microscopy. Mechanical properties were characterized by nanoindentation and Vickers hardness testing. Integrin β1 immunofluorescence, cell adhesion, and MTT assays were used to evaluate the effects of the nanocomposite on cell adhesion and proliferation. Osteogenic and angiogenic differentiation were evaluated by alkaline phosphatase (ALP) staining, ALP activity, PCR and osteocalcin immunofluorescence. The observed microstructures and mechanical properties clearly indicated that FSP is a very effective technique for modifying Ti/SiC MMNC to contain uniformly distributed nanoparticles. In the interiors of recrystallized grains, characteristics including twins, fine recrystallized grains, and dislocations formed concurrently. Adhesion, proliferation, and osteogenic and angiogenic differentiation of rat BMSCs were all enhanced on the novel Ti/SiC MMNC surface. In conclusion, nanocomposites modified using FSP technology not only have superior mechanical properties under stress-bearing conditions but also provide improved surface and physicochemical properties for cell attachment and osseointegration.

  6. Proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of rat BMSCs on a novel Ti/SiC metal matrix nanocomposite modified by friction stir processing

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Chenyuan; Lv, Yuting; Qian, Chao; Qian, Haixin; Jiao, Ting; Wang, Liqiang; Zhang, Fuqiang

    2016-01-01

    The aims of this study were to fabricate a novel titanium/silicon carbide (Ti/SiC) metal matrix nanocomposite (MMNC) by friction stir processing (FSP) and to investigate its microstructure and mechanical properties. In addition, the adhesion, proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of rat bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) on the nanocomposite surface were investigated. The MMNC microstructure was observed by both scanning and transmission electron microscopy. Mechanical properties were characterized by nanoindentation and Vickers hardness testing. Integrin β1 immunofluorescence, cell adhesion, and MTT assays were used to evaluate the effects of the nanocomposite on cell adhesion and proliferation. Osteogenic and angiogenic differentiation were evaluated by alkaline phosphatase (ALP) staining, ALP activity, PCR and osteocalcin immunofluorescence. The observed microstructures and mechanical properties clearly indicated that FSP is a very effective technique for modifying Ti/SiC MMNC to contain uniformly distributed nanoparticles. In the interiors of recrystallized grains, characteristics including twins, fine recrystallized grains, and dislocations formed concurrently. Adhesion, proliferation, and osteogenic and angiogenic differentiation of rat BMSCs were all enhanced on the novel Ti/SiC MMNC surface. In conclusion, nanocomposites modified using FSP technology not only have superior mechanical properties under stress-bearing conditions but also provide improved surface and physicochemical properties for cell attachment and osseointegration. PMID:27958394

  7. FOXO1-suppressed miR-424 regulates the proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of MSCs by targeting FGF2 under oxidative stress

    PubMed Central

    Li, Liangping; Qi, Qihua; Luo, Jiaquan; Huang, Sheng; Ling, Zemin; Gao, Manman; Zhou, Zhiyu; Stiehler, Maik; Zou, Xuenong

    2017-01-01

    Recently, microRNAs (miRNAs) have been identified as key regulators of the proliferation and differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). Our previous in vivo study and other in vitro studies using miRNA microarrays suggest that miR-424 is involved in the regulation of bone formation. However, the role and mechanism of miR-424 in bone formation still remain unknown. Here, we identified that the downregulation of miR-424 mediates bone formation under oxidative stress, and we explored its underlying mechanism. Our results showed that miR-424 was significantly downregulated in an anterior lumbar interbody fusion model of pigs and in a cell model of oxidative stress induced by H2O2. The overexpression of miR-424 inhibited proliferation and osteogenic differentiation shown by a decrease in alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, mineralization and osteogenic markers, including RUNX2 and ALP, whereas the knockdown of miR-424 led to the opposite results. Moreover, miR-424 exerts its effects by targeting FGF2. Furthermore, we found that FOXO1 suppressed miR-424 expression and bound to its promoter region. FOXO1 enhanced proliferation and osteogenic differentiation in part through the miR-424/FGF2 pathway. These results indicated that FOXO1-suppressed miR-424 regulates both the proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of MSCs via targeting FGF2, suggesting that miR-424 might be a potential novel therapeutic strategy for promoting bone formation. PMID:28186136

  8. FOXO1-suppressed miR-424 regulates the proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of MSCs by targeting FGF2 under oxidative stress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Liangping; Qi, Qihua; Luo, Jiaquan; Huang, Sheng; Ling, Zemin; Gao, Manman; Zhou, Zhiyu; Stiehler, Maik; Zou, Xuenong

    2017-02-01

    Recently, microRNAs (miRNAs) have been identified as key regulators of the proliferation and differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). Our previous in vivo study and other in vitro studies using miRNA microarrays suggest that miR-424 is involved in the regulation of bone formation. However, the role and mechanism of miR-424 in bone formation still remain unknown. Here, we identified that the downregulation of miR-424 mediates bone formation under oxidative stress, and we explored its underlying mechanism. Our results showed that miR-424 was significantly downregulated in an anterior lumbar interbody fusion model of pigs and in a cell model of oxidative stress induced by H2O2. The overexpression of miR-424 inhibited proliferation and osteogenic differentiation shown by a decrease in alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, mineralization and osteogenic markers, including RUNX2 and ALP, whereas the knockdown of miR-424 led to the opposite results. Moreover, miR-424 exerts its effects by targeting FGF2. Furthermore, we found that FOXO1 suppressed miR-424 expression and bound to its promoter region. FOXO1 enhanced proliferation and osteogenic differentiation in part through the miR-424/FGF2 pathway. These results indicated that FOXO1-suppressed miR-424 regulates both the proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of MSCs via targeting FGF2, suggesting that miR-424 might be a potential novel therapeutic strategy for promoting bone formation.

  9. Impact of bacteria and bacterial components on osteogenic and adipogenic differentiation of adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells

    SciTech Connect

    Fiedler, Tomas; Salamon, Achim; Adam, Stefanie; Herzmann, Nicole; Taubenheim, Jan; Peters, Kirsten

    2013-11-01

    Adult mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) are present in several tissues, e.g. bone marrow, heart muscle, brain and subcutaneous adipose tissue. In invasive infections MSC get in contact with bacteria and bacterial components. Not much is known about how bacterial pathogens interact with MSC and how contact to bacteria influences MSC viability and differentiation potential. In this study we investigated the impact of three different wound infection relevant bacteria, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, and Streptococcus pyogenes, and the cell wall components lipopolysaccharide (LPS; Gram-negative bacteria) and lipoteichoic acid (LTA; Gram-positive bacteria) on viability, proliferation, and osteogenic as well as adipogenic differentiation of human adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells (adMSC). We show that all three tested species were able to attach to and internalize into adMSC. The heat-inactivated Gram-negative E. coli as well as LPS were able to induce proliferation and osteogenic differentiation but reduce adipogenic differentiation of adMSC. Conspicuously, the heat-inactivated Gram-positive species showed the same effects on proliferation and adipogenic differentiation, while its cell wall component LTA exhibited no significant impact on adMSC. Therefore, our data demonstrate that osteogenic and adipogenic differentiation of adMSC is influenced in an oppositional fashion by bacterial antigens and that MSC-governed regeneration is not necessarily reduced under infectious conditions. - Highlights: • Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes and Escherichia coli bind to and internalize into adMSC. • Heat-inactivated cells of these bacterial species trigger proliferation of adMSC. • Heat-inactivated E. coli and LPS induce osteogenic differentiation of adMSC. • Heat-inactivated E. coli and LPS reduce adipogenic differentiation of adMSC. • LTA does not influence adipogenic or osteogenic differentiation of adMSC.

  10. Electrical Cell-Substrate Impedance Spectroscopy Can Monitor Age-Grouped Human Adipose Stem Cell Variability During Osteogenic Differentiation.

    PubMed

    Nordberg, Rachel C; Zhang, Jianlei; Griffith, Emily H; Frank, Matthew W; Starly, Binil; Loboa, Elizabeth G

    2017-02-01

    Human adipose stem cells (hASCs) are an attractive cell source for bone tissue engineering applications. However, a critical issue to be addressed before widespread hASC clinical translation is the dramatic variability in proliferative capacity and osteogenic potential among hASCs isolated from different donors. The goal of this study was to test our hypothesis that electrical cell-substrate impedance spectroscopy (ECIS) could track complex bioimpedance patterns of hASCs throughout proliferation and osteogenic differentiation to better understand and predict variability among hASC populations. Superlots composed of hASCs from young (aged 24-36 years), middle-aged (aged 48-55 years), and elderly (aged 60-81 years) donors were seeded on gold electrode arrays. Complex impedance measurements were taken throughout proliferation and osteogenic differentiation. During osteogenic differentiation, four impedance phases were identified: increase, primary stabilization, drop phase, and secondary stabilization. Matrix deposition was first observed 48-96 hours after the impedance maximum, indicating, for the first time, that ECIS can identify morphological changes that correspond to late-stage osteogenic differentiation. The impedance maximum was observed at day 10.0 in young, day 6.1 in middle-aged, and day 1.3 in elderly hASCs, suggesting that hASCs from younger donors require a longer time to differentiate than do hASCs from older donors, but young hASCs proliferated more and accreted more calcium long-term. This is the first study to use ECIS to predict osteogenic potential of multiple hASC populations and to show that donor age may temporally control onset of osteogenesis. These findings could be critical for development of patient-specific bone tissue engineering and regenerative medicine therapies. Stem Cells Translational Medicine 2017;6:502-511.

  11. Genistein induces adipogenic differentiation in human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells and suppresses their osteogenic potential by upregulating PPARγ

    PubMed Central

    ZHANG, LI-YAN; XUE, HAO-GANG; CHEN, JI-YING; CHAI, WEI; NI, MING

    2016-01-01

    Genistein is a soy isoflavone that exists in the form of an aglycone. It is the primary active component in soy isoflavone and has a number of biological activities (anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative). However, the specific effect of genistein on human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) remains unclear. In the present study, the mechanism underlying the effect of genistein on the suppression of BMSC adipogenic differentiation and the enhancement of osteogenic potential was investigated using an MTT assay. It was observed that genistein significantly increased BMSC cell proliferation in a time- and dose-dependent manner (P<0.01). In addition, reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction revealed that genistein significantly inhibited the expression of runt-related transcription factor 2 (Runx2), type I collagen (Col I) and osteocalcin (OC; P<0.01). Furthermore, 20 µm genistein significantly inhibited the activity of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and increased the activity of triglycerides (TGs) increased (P<0.01) as determined by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Finally, western blotting revealed that BMSC pretreatment with 20 µm genistein significantly increased peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) protein expression (P<0.01). This suggests that the downregulation of PPARγ may significantly reduce the effect of genistein on cell proliferation, suppress the expression of Runx2, Col I and OC mRNA, and reduce ALP and promote TG activity in BMSCs. Thus, the results of the present study conclude that genistein induces adipogenic differentiation in human BMSCs and suppresses their osteogenic potential by upregulating the expression of PPARγ. In conclusion, genistein may be a promising candidate drug for treatment against osteogenesis. PMID:27168816

  12. The effects of secretion factors from umbilical cord derived mesenchymal stem cells on osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Kui-Xing; Xu, Liang-Liang; Rui, Yun-Feng; Huang, Shuo; Lin, Si-En; Xiong, Jiang-Hui; Li, Ying-Hui; Lee, Wayne Yuk-Wai; Li, Gang

    2015-01-01

    Factors synthesized by mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) contain various growth factors, cytokines, exosomes and microRNAs, which may affect the differentiation abilities of MSCs. In the present study, we investigated the effects of secretion factors of human umbilical cord derived mesenchymal stem cells (hUCMSCs) on osteogenesis of human bone marrow derived MSCs (hBMSCs). The results showed that 20 μg/ml hUCMSCs secretion factors could initiate osteogenic differentiation of hBMSCs without osteogenic induction medium (OIM), and the amount of calcium deposit (stained by Alizarin Red) was significantly increased after the hUCMSCs secretion factors treatment. Real time quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (real time qRT-PCR) demonstrated that the expression of osteogenesis-related genes including ALP, BMP2, OCN, Osterix, Col1α and Runx2 were significantly up-regulated following hUCMSCs secretion factors treatment. In addition, we found that 10 μg hUCMSCs secretion factors together with 2×10(5) hBMSCs in the HA/TCP scaffolds promoted ectopic bone formation in nude mice. Local application of 10 μg hUCMSCs secretion factors with 50 μl 2% hyaluronic acid hydrogel and 1×10(5) rat bone marrow derived MSCs (rBMSCs) also significantly enhanced the bone repair of rat calvarial bone critical defect model at both 4 weeks and 8 weeks. Moreover, the group that received the hUCMSCs secretion factors treatment had more cartilage and bone regeneration in the defect areas than those in the control group. Taken together, these findings suggested that hUCMSCs secretion factors can initiate osteogenesis of bone marrow MSCs and promote bone repair. Our study indicates that hUCMSCs secretion factors may be potential sources for promoting bone regeneration.

  13. Linarin promotes osteogenic differentiation by activating the BMP-2/RUNX2 pathway via protein kinase A signaling

    PubMed Central

    LI, JIA; HAO, LINGYU; WU, JUNHUA; ZHANG, JIQUAN; SU, JIANSHENG

    2016-01-01

    Linarin (LIN), a flavonoid which exerts both anti-inflammatory and antioxidative effects, has been found to promote osteogenic differentiation. However, the molecular mechanism of its effect on osteoblast differentiation was unclear. In the present study, LIN from Flos Chrysanthemi Indici (FCI) was isolated in order to investigate the underlying mechanisms of LIN on MC3T3-E1 cells (a mouse osteoblastic cell line) and the osteoprotective effect of LIN in mice which had undergone an ovariectomy (OVX). The results revealed that LIN enhanced osteoblast proliferation and differentiation in MC3T3-E1 cells dose-dependently, with enhanced alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and mineralization of extracellular matrix. LIN upregulated osteogenesis-related gene expression, including that of ALP, runt-related transcription factor 2 (RUNX2), osteocalcin (OCN), bone sialoprotein (BSP), and type I collagen (COL-I). Pretreatment with noggin, a bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) antagonist, meant that LIN-induced gene expression levels of COL-1, ALP, OCN, BSP and RUNX2 were significantly reduced, as shown by RT-qPCR. Western blot analysis showed that LIN dose-dependently increased the protein levels of BMP-2 and RUNX2 and enhanced the phosphorylation of SMAD1/5. In addition, LIN dose-dependently upregulated protein kinase A (PKA) expression. H-89 (a PKA inhibitor) partially blocked the LIN-induced protein increase in BMP-2, p-SMAD1/5 and RUNX2. We noted that LIN preserved the trabecular bone microarchitecture of ovariectomized mice in vivo. Moreover, pretreatment with LIN significantly lowered serum levels of ALP and OCN in ovariectomized mice. Our data indicated that LIN induced the osteogenic differentiation and mineralization of MC3T3-E1 osteoblastic cells by activating the BMP-2/RUNX2 pathway through PKA signaling in vitro and protected against OVX-induced bone loss in vivo. The results strongly suggest that LIN is a useful natural alternative for the management of

  14. Abnormal osteogenic and chondrogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells from patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis in response to melatonin

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Chong; Xu, Caixia; Zhou, Taifeng; Gao, Bo; Zhou, Hang; Chen, Changhua; Zhang, Changli; Huang, Dongsheng; Su, Peiqiang

    2016-01-01

    Abnormalities of membranous and endochondral ossification in patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) remain incompletely understood. To investigate abnormalities in the melatonin signaling pathway and cellular response to melatonin in AIS, a case-control study of osteogenic and chondrogenic differentiation was performed using human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs). AIS was diagnosed by physical and radiographic examination. hMSCs were isolated from the bone marrow of patients with AIS and control subjects (n=12 each), and purified by density gradient centrifugation. The expression levels of melatonin receptors (MTs) 1 and 2 were detected by western blotting. Osteogenic and chondrogenic differentiation was induced by culturing hMSCs in osteogenic and chondrogenic media containing vehicle or 50 nM melatonin. Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity assays, quantitative glycosaminoglycan (GAG) analysis, and reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis were performed. Compared with controls, MT2 demonstrated low expression in the AIS group. Melatonin increased ALP activity, GAG synthesis and upregulated the expression of genes involved in osteogenic and chondrogenic differentiation including, ALP, osteopontin, osteocalcin, runt-related transcription factor 2, collagen type II, collagen type X, aggrecan and sex-determining region Y-box 9 in the normal control hMSCs, but did not affect the AIS groups. Thus, AIS hMSCs exhibit abnormal cellular responses to melatonin during osteogenic and chondrogenic differentiation, which may be associated with abnormal membranous and endochondral ossification, and skeletal growth. These results indicate a potential modulating role of melatonin via the MT2 receptor on abnormal osteogenic and chondrogenic differentiaation in patients with AIS. PMID:27314307

  15. Arsenic trioxide and microRNA-204 display contrary effects on regulating adipogenic and osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells in aplastic anemia.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Junmei; Wang, Chao; Song, Yongping; Fang, Baijun

    2014-10-01

    Our previous studies have demonstrated that arsenic trioxide (ATO) had the clinical efficacy in treating patients with aplastic anemia (AA). However, the mechanisms remain to be elucidated. The important components of the bone marrow hematopoietic microenvironment, bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs), are often altered in AA patients. In this study, it was found that AA BMSCs were prone to be induced into adipocytes rather than osteoblasts. ATO treatment can at least partially restore the differentiation imbalance of AA BMSCs. We further identified miR-204 as a key regulator in AA BMSC differentiation. Luciferase reporter assay showed that miR-204 could directly bind to the 3'-untranslated region of Runx2 mRNA, a key transcription factor regulating osteogenesis. Moreover, adipogenic differentiation was promoted and osteogenic differentiation was inhibited in miR-204 over-expressed cells, whereas osteogenesis was enhanced and adipocyte formation was inhibited in cells that lost miR-204 function, which suggested its endogenous function. Together we showed that ATO could inhibit adipogenic differentiation, but promote osteogenic differentiation in AA BMSCs, providing a possible explanation for ATO clinical efficacy in AA patients. MiR-204 plays a key role in regulating BMSCs differentiation, and down-regulating miR-204 expression might be a novel strategy to treat AA.

  16. Effects of serial passaging on the adipogenic and osteogenic differentiation potential of adipose-derived human mesenchymal stem cells.

    PubMed

    Wall, Michelle E; Bernacki, Susan H; Loboa, Elizabeth G

    2007-06-01

    Adipose-derived human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) will be more valuable for tissue engineering applications if they can be extensively subcultured without loss of phenotype and multilineage differentiation ability. This study examined the effects of serial passaging on growth rate, gene expression, and differentiation potential of adipose-derived hMSCs. Differentiation was assessed by analyzing changes in messenger RNA (mRNA) expression of osteogenic and adipogenic marker genes and by determining production of calcium deposits and lipid vacuoles. Cells cultured in osteogenic medium for 2 weeks upregulated expression of alkaline phosphatase mRNA relative to cells in growth medium, and deposited calcium. Calcium deposition decreased in cells from passages 4 to 6 but returned to levels near or above those of primary cells by passage 10. Cells cultured in adipogenic medium upregulated expression of lipoprotein lipase and peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-gamma mRNA relative to cells in growth medium, and formed lipid vacuoles at all passages. By passage 8, however, cells in adipogenic medium also deposited calcium. Growth rate was stable through passage 5, then decreased. The results of this study indicate that adipose-derived hMSCs are capable of both adipogenic and osteogenic differentiation through 10 passages (34 population doublings) but that osteogenic differentiation may start to dominate at later passages.

  17. Osteogenic differentiation of human adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells on gum tragacanth hydrogel.

    PubMed

    Haeri, Seyed Mohammad Jafar; Sadeghi, Yousef; Salehi, Mohammad; Farahani, Reza Masteri; Mohsen, Nourozian

    2016-05-01

    Currently, natural polymer based hydrogels has attracted great attention of orthopedic surgeons for application in bone tissue engineering. With this aim, osteoinductive capacity of Gum Tragacanth (GT) based hydrogel was compared to collagen hydrogel and tissue culture plate (TCPS). For this purpose, adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (AT-MSCs) was cultured on the hydrogels and TCPS and after investigating the biocompatibility of hydrogels using MTT assay, osteoinductivity of hydrogels were evaluated using pan osteogenic markers such as Alizarin red staining, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, calcium content and osteo-related genes. Increasing proliferation trend of AT-MSCs on GT hydrogel demonstrated that TG has no-cytotoxicity and can even be better than the other groups i.e., highest proliferation at day 5. GT hydrogel displayed highest ALP activity and mineralization when compared to the collagen hydrogel and TCPS. Relative gene expression levels have demonstrated that highest expression of Runx2, osteonectin and osteocalcin in the cells cultured GT hydrogel but the expression of collagen type-1 remains constant in hydrogels. Above results demonstrate that GT hydrogel could be an appropriate scaffold for accelerating and supporting the adhesion, proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of stem cells which further can be used for orthopedic applications.

  18. Material Properties and Osteogenic Differentiation of Marrow Stromal Cells on Fiber-Reinforced Laminated Hydrogel Nanocomposites

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Weijie; Ma, Junyu; Jabbari, Esmaiel

    2009-01-01

    The fibrils in the bone matrix are glued together by ECM proteins to form laminated structures (osteons) to provide elasticity and a supportive substrate for osteogenesis. The objective of this work was to investigate material properties and osteogenic differentiation of bone marrow stromal (BMS) cells seeded on osteon-mimetic fiber-reinforced hydrogel/apatite composites. Layers of electrospun poly(L-lactide) (L-PLA) fiber mesh coated with a poly(lactide-co-ethylene oxide fumarate) (PLEOF) hydrogel precursor solution were stacked and pressed together, and crosslinked to produce a laminated fiber-reinforced composite. Hydroxyapatite (HA) nanocrystals were added to the precursor solution to produce an osteoconductive matrix for BMS cells. Acrylamide-terminated RGD peptide (Ac-GRGD) was conjugated to the PLEOF/HA hydrogel phase to promote focal point adhesion of BMS cells. Laminates were characterized with respect to Young’s modulus, degradation kinetics, and osteogenic differentiation of BMS cells. The moduli of the laminates under dry and wet conditions were significantly higher than those of the fiber mesh and PLEOF/HA hydrogel, and within the range of values reported for wet human cancellous bone. At days 14 and 21, ALPase activity of the laminates was significantly higher than those of the fiber mesh and hydrogel. Lamination significantly increased the extent of mineralization of BMS cells and laminates with HA and conjugated with RGD (Lam-RGD-HA) had 2.7-, 3.5-, and 2.8-fold higher calcium content (compared to laminates without HA or RGD) after 7, 14, and 21 days, respectively. The Lam-RGD-HA group had significantly higher expression of osteopontin (OP) and osteocalcin (OC) compared to the hydrogel or laminates without HA or RGD, consistent with the higher ALPase activity and calcium content of Lam-RGD-HA. Laminated osteon-mimetic structures have the potential to provide mechanical strength to the regenerating region as well as supporting the differentiation

  19. Supportive angiogenic and osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stromal cells and endothelial cells in monolayer and co-cultures

    PubMed Central

    Böhrnsen, Florian; Schliephake, Henning

    2016-01-01

    Sites of implantation with compromised biology may be unable to achieve the required level of angiogenic and osteogenic regeneration. The specific function and contribution of different cell types to the formation of prevascularized, osteogenic networks in co-culture remains unclear. To determine how bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (BMSCs) and endothelial cells (ECs) contribute to cellular proangiogenic differentiation, we analysed the differentiation of BMSCs and ECs in standardized monolayer, Transwell and co-cultures. BMSCs were derived from the iliac bone marrow of five patients, characterized and differentiated in standardized monolayers, permeable Transwells and co-cultures with human umbilical vein ECs (HUVECs). The expression levels of CD31, von Willebrand factor, osteonectin (ON) and Runx2 were assessed by quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. The protein expression of alkaline phosphatase, ON and CD31 was demonstrated via histochemical and immunofluorescence analysis. The results showed that BMSCs and HUVECs were able to retain their lineage-specific osteogenic and angiogenic differentiation in direct and indirect co-cultures. In addition, BMSCs demonstrated a supportive expression of angiogenic function in co-culture, while HUVEC was able to improve the expression of osteogenic marker molecules in BMSCs. PMID:27910940

  20. Effects of decellularized matrices derived from periodontal ligament stem cells and SHED on the adhesion, proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of human dental pulp stem cells in vitro.

    PubMed

    Heng, Boon Chin; Zhu, Shaoyue; Xu, Jianguang; Yuan, Changyong; Gong, Ting; Zhang, Chengfei

    2016-04-01

    A major bottleneck to the therapeutic applications of dental pulp stem cells (DPSC) are their limited proliferative capacity ex vivo and tendency to undergo senescence. This may be partly due to the sub-optimal in vitro culture milieu, which could be improved by an appropriate extracellular matrix substratum. This study therefore examined decellularized matrix (DECM) from stem cells derived from human exfoliated deciduous teeth (SHED) and periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLSC), as potential substrata for DPSC culture. Both SHED-DECM and PDLSC-DECM promoted rapid adhesion and spreading of newly-seeded DPSC compared to bare polystyrene (TCPS), with vinculin immunocytochemistry showing expression of more focal adhesions by newly-adherent DPSC cultured on DECM versus TCPS. Culture of DPSC on SHED-DECM and PDLSC-DECM yielded higher proliferation of cell numbers compared to TCPS. The qRT-PCR data showed significantly higher expression of nestin by DPSC cultured on DECM versus the TCPS control. Osteogenic differentiation of DPSC was enhanced by culturing on PDLSC-DECM and SHED-DECM versus TCPS, as demonstrated by alizarin red S staining for mineralized calcium deposition, alkaline phosphatase assay and qRT-PCR analysis of key osteogenic marker expression. Hence, both SHED-DECM and PDLSC-DECM could enhance the ex vivo culture of DPSC under both non-inducing and osteogenic-inducing conditions.

  1. Fe3O4/BSA particles induce osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells under static magnetic field.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Pengfei; Zhang, Yixian; Zhu, Chaonan; Zhang, Wenjing; Mao, Zhengwei; Gao, Changyou

    2016-12-01

    Differentiation of stem cells is influenced by many factors, yet uptake of the magnetic particles with or without magnetic field is rarely tackled. In this study, iron oxide nanoparticles-loaded bovine serum albumin (BSA) (Fe3O4/BSA) particles were prepared, which showed a spherical morphology with a diameter below 200 nm, negatively charged surface, and tunable magnetic property. The particles could be internalized into bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), and their release from the cells was significantly retarded under external magnetic field, resulting in almost twice intracellular amount of the particles within 21 d compared to that of the magnetic field free control. Uptake of the Fe3O4/BSA particles enhanced significantly the osteogenic differentiation of MSCs under a static magnetic field, as evidenced by elevated alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, calcium deposition, and expressions of collagen type I and osteocalcin at both mRNA and protein levels. Therefore, uptake of the Fe3O4/BSA particles brings significant influence on the differentiation of MSCs under magnetic field, and thereby should be paid great attention for practical applications.

  2. On the use of dexamethasone-loaded liposomes to induce the osteogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells.

    PubMed

    Monteiro, Nelson; Martins, Albino; Ribeiro, Diana; Faria, Susana; Fonseca, Nuno A; Moreira, João N; Reis, Rui L; Neves, Nuno M

    2015-09-01

    Stem cells have received considerable attention by the scientific community because of their potential for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. The most frequently used method to promote their differentiation is supplementation of the in vitro culture medium with growth/differentiation factors (GDFs). The limitations of that strategy caused by the short half-life of GDFs limit its efficacy in vivo and consequently its clinical use. Thus, the development of new concepts that enable the bioactivity and bioavailability of GDFs to be protected, both in vitro and in vivo, is very relevant. Nanoparticle-based drug delivery systems can be injected, protect the GDFs and enable spatiotemporal release kinetics to be controlled. Liposomes are well-established nanodelivery devices presenting significant advantages, viz. a high load-carrying capacity, relative safety and easy production, and a versatile nature in terms of possible formulations and surface functionalization. The main objective of the present study was to optimize the formulation of liposomes to encapsulate dexamethasone (Dex). Our results showed that the optimized Dex-loaded liposomes do not have any cytotoxic effect on human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hBMSCs). More importantly, they were able to promote an earlier induction of differentiation of hBMSCs into the osteogenic lineage, as demonstrated by the expression of osteoblastic markers, both phenotypically and genotypically. We concluded that Dex-loaded liposomes represent a viable nanoparticle strategy with enhanced safety and efficacy for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine.

  3. Strontium-doped calcium silicate bioceramic with enhanced in vitro osteogenic properties.

    PubMed

    No, Young Jung; Roohani-Esfahani, Seyed-Iman; Lu, Zufu; Shi, Jeffrey; Zreiqat, Hala

    2017-03-28

    Gehlenite (GLN, Ca2SiAl2O7) is a bioceramic that has been recently shown to possess excellent mechanical strength and in vitro osteogenic properties for bone regeneration. Substitutional incorporation of strontium in place of calcium is an effective way to further enhance biological properties of calcium-based bioceramics and glasses. However, such strategy has the potential to affect other important physicochemical parameters such as strength and degradation due to differences in the ionic radius of strontium and calcium. This study is the first to investigate the effect of a range of concentrations of strontium substitution of calcium at 1, 2, 5, 10 mol% (S1-GLN, S2-GLN, S5-GLN and S10-GLN) on the physicochemical and biological properties of GLN. We showed that up to 2 mol% strontium ion substitution retains the monophasic GLN structure when sintered at 1450 oC, whereas higher concentrations resulted in presence of calcium silicate impurities. Increased strontium incorporation resulted in changes in grain morphology and reduced densification when the ceramics were sintered at 1450 oC. Porous GLN, S1-GLN and S2-GLN scaffolds (~80% porosity) showed compressive strengths of 2.05 ± 0.46 MPa, 1.76 ± 0.79 MPa and 1.57 ± 0.52 MPa respectively. S1-GLN and S2-GLN immersed in simulated body fluid showed increased strontium ion release but reduced calcium and silicon ion release compared to GLN without affecting overall weight loss and pH over a 21 day period. The bioactivity of the S2-GLN ceramics was significantly improved as reflected in the significant upregulation of HOB proliferation and differentiation compared to GLN. Overall, these results suggest that increased incorporation of strontium presents a trade-off between bioactivity and mechanical strength for GLN bioceramics. This is an important consideration in the development of strontium-doped bioceramics.

  4. The role of reactive oxygen species in mesenchymal stem cell adipogenic and osteogenic differentiation: a review.

    PubMed

    Atashi, Fatemeh; Modarressi, Ali; Pepper, Michael S

    2015-05-15

    Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) are promising candidates for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. The multipotent stem cell component of MSC isolates is able to differentiate into derivatives of the mesodermal lineage including adipocytes, osteocytes, chondrocytes, and myocytes. Many common pathways have been described in the regulation of adipogenesis and osteogenesis. However, stimulation of osteogenesis appears to suppress adipogenesis and vice-versa. Increasing evidence implicates a tight regulation of these processes by reactive oxygen species (ROS). ROS are short-lived oxygen-containing molecules that display high chemical reactivity toward DNA, RNA, proteins, and lipids. Mitochondrial complexes I and III, and the NADPH oxidase isoform NOX4 are major sources of ROS production during MSC differentiation. ROS are thought to interact with several pathways that affect the transcription machinery required for MSC differentiation including the Wnt, Hedgehog, and FOXO signaling cascades. On the other hand, elevated levels of ROS, defined as oxidative stress, lead to arrest of the MSC cell cycle and apoptosis. Tightly regulated levels of ROS are therefore critical for MSC terminal differentiation, although the precise sources, localization, levels and the exact species of ROS implicated remain to be determined. This review provides a detailed overview of the influence of ROS on adipogenic and osteogenic differentiation in MSCs.

  5. Effects of oncostatin M on cell proliferation and osteogenic differentiation in C3H10T1/2

    PubMed Central

    Zou, F.; Xu, J-C.; Wu, G-H.; Zhou, L-L.; Wa, Q-D.; Peng, J-Q.; Zou, X-N.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To explore the effects of protein factor Oncostatin M (OSM), a member of the Interleukin-6 (IL-6) family on cell proliferation, osteogenic differentiation and mineralization. Materials and methods: Basal nutrient solutions of different concentrations of OSM (0, 5, 10, 20, 40, 80 ng/ml) were used. In order to divide embryonic origin between mesenchymal stem cells C3H10T1/2 of in vitro cultured mice, and the effects of in vitro proliferation efficiencies of C3H10T1/2 cells of different concentrations of OSM, the C3H10T1/2 cells were divided into four groups: (1) Basal nutrient solution group (negative control); (2) Osteogenesis induced liquid group (positive control); (3) OSM (20 ng/ml) group; (4) Experimental group (osteogenesis induced liquid + OSM (20 ng/ml)). The expressions levels of relevant osteogenesis and mineralization genes were detected. Results: OSM had several effects on promoting the proliferation of embryonic origin mesenchymal stem cells C3H10T1/2 with respect to time of exposure as well as concentrations. In the present study, it has been shown that when the concentration of OSM is 20 ng/ml, the effects of promoting proliferation are most obvious. OSM can induce osteogenic differentiation of C3H10T1/2, make the process of osteogenic differentiation in advance, and promote the formation of end-stage calcium deposits and mineralized nodule, and osteogenic differentiation of C3H10T1/2 is finally achieved. Conclusion: OSM can promote the proliferation of C3H10T1/2, and induce its osteogenic differentiation and end-stage mineralization. PMID:27973390

  6. Investigation of low-level laser therapy potentiality on proliferation and differentiation of human osteoblast-like cells in the absence/presence of osteogenic factors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bloise, Nora; Ceccarelli, Gabriele; Minzioni, Paolo; Vercellino, Marco; Benedetti, Laura; De Angelis, Maria Gabriella Cusella; Imbriani, Marcello; Visai, Livia

    2013-12-01

    Several studies have shown that low-level laser irradiation (LLLI) has beneficial effects on bone regeneration. The objective of this study was to examine the in vitro effects of LLLI on proliferation and differentiation of a human osteoblast-like cell line (Saos-2 cell line). Cultured cells were exposed to different doses of LLLI with a semiconductor diode laser (659 nm 10 mW power output). The effects of laser on proliferation were assessed daily up to seven days of culture in cells irradiated once or for three consecutive days with laser doses of 1 or 3 J/cm2. The obtained results showed that laser stimulation enhances the proliferation potential of Saos-2 cells without changing their telomerase pattern or morphological characteristics. The effects on cell differentiation were assessed after three consecutive laser irradiation treatments in the presence or absence of osteo-inductive factors on day 14. Enhanced secretion of proteins specific for differentiation toward bone as well as calcium deposition and alkaline phosphatase activity were observed in irradiated cells cultured in a medium not supplemented with osteogenic factors. Taken together these findings indicate that laser treatment enhances the in vitro proliferation of Saos-2 cells, and also influences their osteogenic maturation, which suggest it is a helpful application for bone tissue regeneration.

  7. Mechanosensitive TRPM7 mediates shear stress and modulates osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stromal cells through Osterix pathway.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yi-Shiuan; Liu, Yu-An; Huang, Chin-Jing; Yen, Meng-Hua; Tseng, Chien-Tzu; Chien, Shu; Lee, Oscar K

    2015-11-12

    Microenvironments that modulate fate commitments of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) are composed of chemical and physical cues, but the latter ones are much less investigated. Here we demonstrate that intermittent fluid shear stress (IFSS), a potent and physiologically relevant mechanical stimulus, regulates osteogenic differentiation of MSCs through Transient receptor potential melastatin 7 (TRPM7)-Osterix axis. Immunostaining showed the localization of TRPM7 near or at cell membrane upon IFSS, and calcium imaging analysis demonstrated the transient increase of cytosolic free calcium. Expressions of osteogenic marker genes including Osterix, but not Runx2, were upregulated after three-hour IFSS. Phosphorylation of p38 and Smad1/5 was promoted by IFSS as well. TRPM7 gene knockdown abolished the promotion of bone-related gene expressions and phosphorylation. We illustrate that TRPM7 is mechanosensitive to shear force of 1.2 Pa, which is much lower than 98 Pa pressure loading reported recently, and mediates distinct mechanotransduction pathways. Additionally, our results suggest the differential roles of TRPM7 in endochondral and intramembranous ossification. Together, this study elucidates the mechanotransduction in MSCs fate commitments and displays an efficient mechano-modulation for MSCs osteogenic differentiation. Such findings should be taken into consideration when designing relevant scaffolds and microfluidic devices for osteogenic induction in the future.

  8. Application of Green Tea Catechin for Inducing the Osteogenic Differentiation of Human Dedifferentiated Fat Cells in Vitro.

    PubMed

    Kaida, Koji; Honda, Yoshitomo; Hashimoto, Yoshiya; Tanaka, Masahiro; Baba, Shunsuke

    2015-11-25

    Despite advances in stem cell biology, there are few effective techniques to promote the osteogenic differentiation of human primary dedifferentiated fat (DFAT) cells. We attempted to investigate whether epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), the main component of green tea catechin, facilitates early osteogenic differentiation and mineralization on DFAT cells in vitro. DFAT cells were treated with EGCG (1.25-10 μM) in osteogenic medium (OM) with or without 100 nM dexamethasone (Dex) for 12 days (hereafter two osteogenic media were designated as OM(Dex) and OM). Supplementation of 1.25 μM EGCG to both the media effectively increased the mRNA expression of collagen 1 (COL1A1) and runt-related transcription factor 2 (RUNX2) and also increased proliferation and mineralization. Compared to OM(Dex) with EGCG, OM with EGCG induced earlier expression for COL1A1 and RUNX2 at day 1 and higher mineralization level at day 12. OM(Dex) with 10 μM EGCG remarkably hampered the proliferation of the DFAT cells. These results suggest that OM(without Dex) with EGCG might be a preferable medium to promote proliferation and to induce osteoblast differentiation of DFAT cells. Our findings provide an insight for the combinatory use of EGCG and DFAT cells for bone regeneration and stem cell-based therapy.

  9. RSPO3-LGR4 Regulates Osteogenic Differentiation Of Human Adipose-Derived Stem Cells Via ERK/FGF Signalling

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Min; Zhang, Ping; Liu, Yunsong; Lv, Longwei; Zhang, Xiao; Liu, Hao; Zhou, Yongsheng

    2017-01-01

    The four R-spondins (RSPOs) and their three related receptors, LGR4, 5 and 6, have emerged as a major ligand-receptor system with critical roles in development and stem cell survival. However, the exact roles of the RSPO-LGR system in osteogenesis remain largely unknown. In the present study, we showed that RSPO3-shRNA increased the osteogenic potential of human adipose-derived stem cells (hASCs) significantly. Mechanistically, we demonstrated that RSPO3 is a negative regulator of ERK/FGF signalling. We confirmed that inhibition of the ERK1/2 signalling pathway blocked osteogenic differentiation in hASCs, and the increased osteogenic capacity observed after RSPO3 knockdown in hASCs was reversed by inhibition of ERK signalling. Further, silencing of LGR4 inhibited the activity of ERK signalling and osteogenic differentiation of hASCs. Most importantly, we found that loss of LGR4 abrogated RSPO3-regulated osteogenesis and RSPO3-induced ERK1/2 signalling inhibition. Collectively, our data show that ERK signalling works downstream of LGR4 and RSPO3 regulates osteoblastic differentiation of hASCs possibly via the LGR4-ERK signalling. PMID:28220828

  10. Mechanosensitive TRPM7 mediates shear stress and modulates osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stromal cells through Osterix pathway

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yi-Shiuan; Liu, Yu-An; Huang, Chin-Jing; Yen, Meng-Hua; Tseng, Chien-Tzu; Chien, Shu; Lee, Oscar K.

    2015-01-01

    Microenvironments that modulate fate commitments of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) are composed of chemical and physical cues, but the latter ones are much less investigated. Here we demonstrate that intermittent fluid shear stress (IFSS), a potent and physiologically relevant mechanical stimulus, regulates osteogenic differentiation of MSCs through Transient receptor potential melastatin 7 (TRPM7)-Osterix axis. Immunostaining showed the localization of TRPM7 near or at cell membrane upon IFSS, and calcium imaging analysis demonstrated the transient increase of cytosolic free calcium. Expressions of osteogenic marker genes including Osterix, but not Runx2, were upregulated after three-hour IFSS. Phosphorylation of p38 and Smad1/5 was promoted by IFSS as well. TRPM7 gene knockdown abolished the promotion of bone-related gene expressions and phosphorylation. We illustrate that TRPM7 is mechanosensitive to shear force of 1.2 Pa, which is much lower than 98 Pa pressure loading reported recently, and mediates distinct mechanotransduction pathways. Additionally, our results suggest the differential roles of TRPM7 in endochondral and intramembranous ossification. Together, this study elucidates the mechanotransduction in MSCs fate commitments and displays an efficient mechano-modulation for MSCs osteogenic differentiation. Such findings should be taken into consideration when designing relevant scaffolds and microfluidic devices for osteogenic induction in the future. PMID:26558702

  11. Application of Green Tea Catechin for Inducing the Osteogenic Differentiation of Human Dedifferentiated Fat Cells in Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Kaida, Koji; Honda, Yoshitomo; Hashimoto, Yoshiya; Tanaka, Masahiro; Baba, Shunsuke

    2015-01-01

    Despite advances in stem cell biology, there are few effective techniques to promote the osteogenic differentiation of human primary dedifferentiated fat (DFAT) cells. We attempted to investigate whether epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), the main component of green tea catechin, facilitates early osteogenic differentiation and mineralization on DFAT cells in vitro. DFAT cells were treated with EGCG (1.25–10 μM) in osteogenic medium (OM) with or without 100 nM dexamethasone (Dex) for 12 days (hereafter two osteogenic media were designated as OM(Dex) and OM). Supplementation of 1.25 μM EGCG to both the media effectively increased the mRNA expression of collagen 1 (COL1A1) and runt-related transcription factor 2 (RUNX2) and also increased proliferation and mineralization. Compared to OM(Dex) with EGCG, OM with EGCG induced earlier expression for COL1A1 and RUNX2 at day 1 and higher mineralization level at day 12. OM(Dex) with 10 μM EGCG remarkably hampered the proliferation of the DFAT cells. These results suggest that OM(without Dex) with EGCG might be a preferable medium to promote proliferation and to induce osteoblast differentiation of DFAT cells. Our findings provide an insight for the combinatory use of EGCG and DFAT cells for bone regeneration and stem cell-based therapy. PMID:26602917

  12. Effects of Cerium Oxide Nanoparticles on the Proliferation, Osteogenic Differentiation and Adipogenic Differentiation of Primary Mouse Bone Marrow Stromal Cells In Vitro.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qun; Ge, Kun; Ren, Huihui; Zhang, Cuimiao; Zhang, Jinchao

    2015-09-01

    The effects of cerium oxide nanoparticles (nanoceria) on the proliferation, osteogenic and adipogenic differentiation of primary mouse bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) were studied by employing 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-dipheny tetrazolium bromide (MTT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, collagen production, alizarin red-S (ARS) and oil red o stain assays. The results indicated that nanoceria increased the viability of BMSCs at all tested concentrations with evident dose dependence for 24 and 72 h. On day 14, nanoceria inhibited the osteogenic differentiation of BMSCs at all tested concentrations. On day 19 and 24, nanoceria inhibited the formation of mineralized matrix nodules of BMSCs at all tested concentrations. On day 17, nanoceria inhibited the adipogenic differentiation of BMSCs at all tested concentrations. This suggests that the effects of nanoceria on the proliferation, osteogenic differentiation and adipogenic differentiation of BMSCs are very complicated. Both the concentration and culture time have significant influence on the proliferation, osteogenic differentiation and adipogenic differentiation of BMSCs. These results will be helpful for rational applications of nanoceria in the future.

  13. Osteogenic differentiation of MC3T3-E1 cells on poly(L-lactide)/Fe3O4 nanofibers with static magnetic field exposure.

    PubMed

    Cai, Qing; Shi, Yuzhou; Shan, Dingying; Jia, Wenkai; Duan, Shun; Deng, Xuliang; Yang, Xiaoping

    2015-10-01

    Proliferation and differentiation of bone-related cells are modulated by many factors such as scaffold design, growth factor, dynamic culture system, and physical simulation. Nanofibrous structure and moderate-intensity (1 mT-1 T) static magnetic field (SMF) have been identified as capable of stimulating proliferation and differentiation of osteoblasts. Herein, magnetic nanofibers were prepared by electrospinning mixture solutions of poly(L-lactide) (PLLA) and ferromagnetic Fe3O4 nanoparticles (NPs). The PLLA/Fe3O4 composite nanofibers demonstrated homogeneous dispersion of Fe3O4 NPs, and their magnetism depended on the contents of Fe3O4 NPs. SMF of 100 mT was applied in the culture of MC3T3-E1 osteoblasts on pure PLLA and PLLA/Fe3O4 composite nanofibers for the purpose of studying the effect of SMF on osteogenic differentiation of osteoblastic cells on magnetic nanofibrous scaffolds. On non-magnetic PLLA nanofibers, the application of external SMF could enhance the proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of MC3T3-E1 cells. In comparison with pure PLLA nanofibers, the incorporation of Fe3O4 NPs could also promote the proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of MC3T3-E1 cells in the absence or presence of external SMF. The marriage of magnetic nanofibers and external SMF was found most effective in accelerating every aspect of biological behaviors of MC3T3-E1 osteoblasts. The findings demonstrated that the magnetic feature of substrate and microenvironment were applicable ways in regulating osteogenesis in bone tissue engineering.

  14. KDM5A controls bone morphogenic protein 2-induced osteogenic differentiation of bone mesenchymal stem cells during osteoporosis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chuandong; Wang, Jing; Li, Jiao; Hu, Guoli; Shan, Shengzhou; Li, Qingfeng; Zhang, Xiaoling

    2016-01-01

    Bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP2) has been used to induce bone regeneration by promoting osteogenic differentiation of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). However, its effect is attenuated in osteoporotic conditions by unknown mechanisms. In this study, we investigated the molecular mechanisms of reduced osteogenic effect of BMP2 in osteoporotic conditions. By interrogating the microarray data from osteoporosis patients, we revealed an upregulation of the epigenetic modifying protein lysine (K)-specific demethylase 5A (KDM5A) and decreased Runt-related transcription factor 2 (RUNX2) expression. Further studies were focused on the role of KDM5A in osteoporosis. We first established ovariectomized (OVX) mouse model and found that the BMP2-induced osteogenic differentiation of osteoporotic MSCs was impaired. The elevated level of KDM5A was confirmed in osteoporotic MSCs. Overexpression of KDM5A in normal MSCs inhibited BMP2-induced osteogenesis. Moreover, osteogenic differentiation of osteoporotic MSCs was restored by specific KDM5A short hairpin RNA or inhibitor. Furthermore, by chromatin immunoprecipitation assay we demonstrated that KDM5A functions as endogenous modulator of osteogenic differentiation by decreasing H3K4me3 levels on promoters of Runx2, depend on its histone methylation activity. More importantly, we found an inhibitory role of KDM5A in regulating bone formation in osteoporotic mice, and pretreatment with KDM5A inhibitor partly rescued the bone loss during osteoporosis. Our results show, for the first time, that KDM5A-mediated H3K4me3 modification participated in the etiology of osteoporosis and may provide new strategies to improve the clinical efficacy of BMP2 in osteoporotic conditions. PMID:27512956

  15. Proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells on zirconia and titanium with different surface topography.

    PubMed

    Hirano, Tomoki; Sasaki, Hodaka; Honma, Shinya; Furuya, Yoshitaka; Miura, Tadashi; Yajima, Yasutomo; Yoshinari, Masao

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to elucidate behavior of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) on yttria stabilized tetragonal zirconia polycrystals (TZP) and commercial pure titanium (CpTi) with different surface topography. Mirror-polished (MS), sandblasted with 150-μm alumina (SB150) and SB150 acid-etched (SB150E) were prepared on TZP and CpTi. Proliferation, osteogenic differentiation of hMSCs was evaluated. The scanning electron microscopy showed that micro- and nano-topographies were created on both TZP and CpTi SB150E surfaces. The proliferation ability, ALP activity, expression of Runx2 on the both SB150E specimens was significantly higher than those on the other specimens. These results suggested that creation of micro- and nano-topographies on TZP and CpTi by blast and acid-etching may offer a promising method for enhancing the proliferation and differentiation of hMSCs in clinical application.

  16. Impact of bacteria and bacterial components on osteogenic and adipogenic differentiation of adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells.

    PubMed

    Fiedler, Tomas; Salamon, Achim; Adam, Stefanie; Herzmann, Nicole; Taubenheim, Jan; Peters, Kirsten

    2013-11-01

    Adult mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) are present in several tissues, e.g. bone marrow, heart muscle, brain and subcutaneous adipose tissue. In invasive infections MSC get in contact with bacteria and bacterial components. Not much is known about how bacterial pathogens interact with MSC and how contact to bacteria influences MSC viability and differentiation potential. In this study we investigated the impact of three different wound infection relevant bacteria, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, and Streptococcus pyogenes, and the cell wall components lipopolysaccharide (LPS; Gram-negative bacteria) and lipoteichoic acid (LTA; Gram-positive bacteria) on viability, proliferation, and osteogenic as well as adipogenic differentiation of human adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells (adMSC). We show that all three tested species were able to attach to and internalize into adMSC. The heat-inactivated Gram-negative E. coli as well as LPS were able to induce proliferation and osteogenic differentiation but reduce adipogenic differentiation of adMSC. Conspicuously, the heat-inactivated Gram-positive species showed the same effects on proliferation and adipogenic differentiation, while its cell wall component LTA exhibited no significant impact on adMSC. Therefore, our data demonstrate that osteogenic and adipogenic differentiation of adMSC is influenced in an oppositional fashion by bacterial antigens and that MSC-governed regeneration is not necessarily reduced under infectious conditions.

  17. Osteogenic and osteoclastogenic differentiation of co-cultured cells in polylactic acid-nanohydroxyapatite fiber scaffolds.

    PubMed

    Morelli, Sabrina; Salerno, Simona; Holopainen, Jani; Ritala, Mikko; De Bartolo, Loredana

    2015-06-20

    The design of bone substitutes involves the creation of a microenvironment supporting molecular cross-talk between cells and scaffolds during tissue formation and remodelling. Bone remodelling process includes the cooperation of bone-building cells and bone-resorbing cells. In this paper we developed polylactic acid (PLA) and composite PLA-nanohydroxyapatite (nHA) scaffolds with 20 and 50wt.% of nHA by electrospinning technique to be used in bone tissue engineering. The developed scaffolds have different fiber diameter, porosity with interconnected pores and mechanical properties. Taking cues from the bone environment features we investigated the differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) from bone marrow in osteoblasts and the osteoclastogenesis in the developed scaffolds in homotypic and in co-culture up to 46 days. PLA and composite PLA-nHA scaffolds induced osteogenic and osteoclastogenic differentiation. Both osteoblasts and osteoclasts displayed high expression of specific markers (osteopontin, osteocalcin, RANK, RANKL) and functions such as secretion of ALP, cathepsin K and TRAP activity on composite scaffolds especially on PLA-nHA containing 20wt.% of nHA. The heterotypic interactions between osteoblasts and osteoclasts co-cultured in the developed scaffolds triggered their functional differentiation and activation.

  18. Osteogenic differentiation of human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells in hydrogel containing nacre powder.

    PubMed

    Flausse, Alicia; Henrionnet, Christel; Dossot, Manuel; Dumas, Dominique; Hupont, Sébastien; Pinzano, Astrid; Mainard, Didier; Galois, Laurent; Magdalou, Jacques; Lopez, Evelyne; Gillet, Pierre; Rousseau, Marthe

    2013-11-01

    Nacre (or mother of pearl) can facilitate bone cell differentiation and can speed up their mineralization. Here we report on the capability of nacre to induce differentiation of human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (hBM-MSCs) and the production of extracellular matrix. hBM-MSCs were encapsulated in an alginate hydrogel containing different concentrations of powdered nacre and cultured in the same environment until Day 28. Analysis of osteogenic gene expression, histochemistry, second harmonic generation (SHG) microscopy, and Raman scattering spectroscopy were used to characterize the synthesis of the extracellular matrix. In the presence of nacre powder, a significant increase in matrix synthesis from D21 in comparison with pure alginate was observed. Histochemistry revealed the formation of a new tissue composed of collagen fibers in the presence of nacre (immunostaining and SHG), and hydroxyapatite crystals (Raman) in the alginate beads. These results suggest that nacre is efficient in hBM-MSCs differentiation, extracellular matrix production and mineralization in alginate 3D biomaterials.

  19. A protein kinase A (PKA)/β-catenin pathway sustains the BMP2/DLX3-induced osteogenic differentiation in dental follicle cells (DFCs).

    PubMed

    Viale-Bouroncle, S; Klingelhöffer, C; Ettl, T; Reichert, T E; Morsczeck, C

    2015-03-01

    The directed expression of osteogenic transcription factors via a balanced activation of signaling pathways is an important prerequisite for the development of mineralized tissues. A positive-feedback loop of the BMP2-dependent SMAD signaling pathway and the DLX3 transcription factor (BMP2/DLX3 pathway) directs the osteogenic differentiation of periodontal precursor cells from the dental follicle (DFCs). However, little is known how this BMP2/DLX3 pathway interacts with other crucial signaling pathways such as the WNT/β-catenin signaling pathway. This study investigated the interaction between the BMP2/DLX3 pathway and the WNT pathway during the osteogenic differentiation of DFCs. BMP2 induced the WNT/β-catenin pathway in DFCs and phosphorylates β-catenin via protein kinase A (PKA). Moreover, only BMP2 facilitated the binding of LEF1/SMAD4/β-catenin complex to the DLX3 promoter, while an inducer of the canonical WNT pathway, WNT3A, act as an inhibitor. Although WNT3A inhibits the osteogenic differentiation of DFCs the expression of β-catenin was crucial for both the expression of DLX3 and for the osteogenic differentiation. In conclusion, while the activation of the canonical WNT pathway inhibits the osteogenic differentiation of DFCs, β-catenin sustains the BMP2/DLX3-mediated osteogenic differentiation via the activation of PKA.

  20. Shockwaves induce osteogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells through ATP release and activation of P2X7 receptors.

    PubMed

    Sun, Dahui; Junger, Wolfgang G; Yuan, Changji; Zhang, Wenyan; Bao, Yi; Qin, Daming; Wang, Chengxue; Tan, Lei; Qi, Baochang; Zhu, Dong; Zhang, Xizheng; Yu, Tiecheng

    2013-06-01

    Shockwave treatment promotes bone healing of nonunion fractures. In this study, we investigated whether this effect could be due to adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP) release-induced differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) into osteoprogenitor cells. Cultured bone marrow-derived hMSCs were subjected to shockwave treatment and ATP release was assessed. Osteogenic differentiation and mineralization of hMSCs were evaluated by examining alkaline phosphatase activity, osteocalcin production, and calcium nodule formation. Expression of P2X7 receptors and c-fos and c-jun mRNA was determined with real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and Western blotting. P2X7-siRNA, apyrase, P2 receptor antagonists, and p38 MAPK inhibitors were used to evaluate the roles of ATP release, P2X7 receptors, and p38 MAPK signaling in shockwave-induced osteogenic hMSCs differentiation. Shockwave treatment released significant amounts (≈ 7 μM) of ATP from hMSCs. Shockwaves and exogenous ATP induced c-fos and c-jun mRNA transcription, p38 MAPK activation, and hMSC differentiation. Removal of ATP with apyrase, targeting of P2X7 receptors with P2X7-siRNA or selective antagonists, or blockade of p38 MAPK with SB203580 prevented osteogenic differentiation of hMSCs. Our findings indicate that shockwaves release cellular ATP that activates P2X7 receptors and downstream signaling events that caused osteogenic differentiation of hMSCs. We conclude that shockwave therapy promotes bone healing through P2X7 receptor signaling, which contributes to hMSC differentiation.

  1. Celastrol inhibits prostaglandin E2-induced proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of fibroblasts isolated from ankylosing spondylitis hip tissues in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Zou, Yu-Cong; Yang, Xian-Wen; Yuan, Shi-Guo; Zhang, Pei; Li, Yi-Kai

    2016-01-01

    Background Heterotopic ossification on the enthesis, which develops after subsequent inflammation, is one of the most distinctive features in ankylosing spondylitis (AS). Prostaglandin E2 (PGE-2) serves as a key mediator of inflammation and bone remodeling in AS. Celastrol, a well-known Chinese medicinal herb isolated from Tripterygium wilfordii, is widely used in treating inflammatory diseases, including AS. It has been proven that it can inhibit lipopolysac-charide-induced expression of various inflammation mediators, such as PGE-2. However, the mechanism by which celastrol inhibits inflammation-induced bone forming in AS is unclear. Objective To investigate whether celastrol could inhibit isolated AS fibroblast osteogenesis induced by PGE-2. Methods Hip synovial tissues were obtained from six AS patients undergoing total hip replacement in our hospital. Fibroblasts were isolated, primarily cultured, and then treated with PGE-2 for osteogenic induction. Different doses of celastrol and indometacin were added to observe their effects on osteogenic differentiation. Cell proliferation, osteogenic markers, alizarin red staining as well as the activity of alkaline phosphatase were examined in our study. Results Celastrol significantly inhibits cell proliferation of isolated AS fibroblasts and in vitro osteogenic differentiation compared with control groups in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Conclusion Our results demonstrated that celastrol could inhibit isolated AS fibroblast proliferation and in vitro osteogenic differentiation. The interaction of PI3K/AKT signaling and Wnt protein may be involved in the process. Further studies should be performed in vivo and animal models to identify the potential effect of celastrol on the bone metabolism of AS patients. PMID:27022241

  2. Activation of autophagy by FOXO3 regulates redox homeostasis during osteogenic differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Gómez-Puerto, M. C.; Verhagen, L. P.; Braat, A. K.; Lam, E. W.-F.; Coffer, P. J.; Lorenowicz, M. J.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Bone remodeling is a continuous physiological process that requires constant generation of new osteoblasts from mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). Differentiation of MSCs to osteoblast requires a metabolic switch from glycolysis to increased mitochondrial respiration to ensure the sufficient energy supply to complete this process. As a consequence of this increased mitochondrial metabolism, the levels of endogenous reactive oxygen species (ROS) rise. In the current study we analyzed the role of forkhead box O3 (FOXO3) in the control of ROS levels in human MSCs (hMSCs) during osteogenic differentiation. Treatment of hMSCs with H2O2 induced FOXO3 phosphorylation at Ser294 and nuclear translocation. This ROS-mediated activation of FOXO3 was dependent on mitogen-activated protein kinase 8 (MAPK8/JNK) activity. Upon FOXO3 downregulation, osteoblastic differentiation was impaired and hMSCs lost their ability to control elevated ROS levels. Our results also demonstrate that in response to elevated ROS levels, FOXO3 induces autophagy in hMSCs. In line with this, impairment of autophagy by autophagy-related 7 (ATG7) knockdown resulted in a reduced capacity of hMSCs to regulate elevated ROS levels, together with a reduced osteoblast differentiation. Taken together our findings are consistent with a model where in hMSCs, FOXO3 is required to induce autophagy and thereby reduce elevated ROS levels resulting from the increased mitochondrial respiration during osteoblast differentiation. These new molecular insights provide an important contribution to our better understanding of bone physiology. PMID:27532863

  3. Osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells using PAMAM dendrimers as gene delivery vectors.

    PubMed

    Santos, José Luís; Oramas, Elena; Pêgo, Ana Paula; Granja, Pedro Lopes; Tomás, Helena

    2009-03-04

    This paper reports the use of different generations of polyamidoamine (PAMAM) dendrimers for the in vitro transfection of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). A systematic study was carried out on the transfection efficiency achieved by the PAMAM dendrimers using a beta-galactosidase reporter gene system. Transfection results were shown to be dependent upon the generation of dendrimers, the amine to phosphate group ratio and the cell passage number. In all cases, the transfection efficiency was very low. Nevertheless, it was hypothesized that a low transfection level could be sufficient to promote the in vitro differentiation of MSCs towards the osteoblastic lineage. To address this possibility, dendrimers carrying the human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (hBMP-2) gene-containing plasmid were used. All quantitative (alkaline phosphatase activity, osteocalcin secretion and calcium deposition) and qualitative (von Kossa staining) osteogenic markers were significantly stronger in transfected cells when compared to non-transfected ones. This study not only clearly demonstrates that a low transfection level can be sufficient for inducing in vitro differentiation of MSCs to the osteoblast phenotype but also highlights the importance of focusing research on the development of gene delivery vectors in the concrete application.

  4. The effect of synthetic α-tricalcium phosphate on osteogenic differentiation of rat bone mesenchymal stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jinzhong; Zhao, Liang; Ni, Ling; Qiao, Chunyan; Li, Daowei; Sun, Hongchen; Zhang, Zongtao

    2015-01-01

    The reconstruction of large bone defects has been the focus in bone tissue engineering research. By acting as synthetic frameworks for cell growth and tissue formation, biomaterials can play a critical role in bone tissue engineering. Among various biomaterials, calcium phosphate based materials include hydroxyapatite (HA), α-tricalcium phosphate (α-TCP), and β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) are widely used as scaffold materials in bone tissue engineering. However, little is known about the effect of α-TCP alone on the osteogenic differentiation of the BMSCs. To this end, we synthesized α-TCP using a novel co-precipitation method. The synthetic α-TCP was then incubated with rat BMSCs under osteogenic inductive medium culture conditions, followed by the analysis of the mRNA levels of various osteogenesis-related genes, including ALP, Rux2, COL-I, and SP7, using a quantitative RT-PCR method. Following incubation of BMSCs with 20 μg/ml α-TCP, cells reached confluency after 7 days. Additionally, the MTT analysis showed that α-TCP at concentration of 10-20 μg/ml had good biocompatibility with BMSCs, showing no significant inhibition of rat BMSCs proliferation. Furthermore, the synthetic α-TCP (20 μg/ml), when incubated with rat BMSCs in the osteogenic culture medium, increased the mRNA levels of various osteogenesis-related genes, including ALP, Rux2, COL-I, and SP7. Finally, treatment of synthetic α-TCP (20 μg/ml) potentiated calcium nodule formations after incubation with rat BMSCs in osteogenic culture medium for 21 days, as compared with non-treated control. Taken together, the results in the present study suggested that α-TCP alone likely promotes rat BMSCs osteogenic differentiation through up-regulating ALP, Col-I, Runx2, and SP7 gene expression. PMID:26550458

  5. Evaluation of injectable strontium-containing borate bioactive glass cement with enhanced osteogenic capacity in a critical-sized rabbit femoral condyle defect model.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yadong; Cui, Xu; Zhao, Shichang; Wang, Hui; Rahaman, Mohamed N; Liu, Zhongtang; Huang, Wenhai; Zhang, Changqing

    2015-02-04

    The development of a new generation of injectable bone cements that are bioactive and have enhanced osteogenic capacity for rapid osseointegration is receiving considerable interest. In this study, a novel injectable cement (designated Sr-BBG) composed of strontium-doped borate bioactive glass particles and a chitosan-based bonding phase was prepared and evaluated in vitro and in vivo. The bioactive glass provided the benefits of bioactivity, conversion to hydroxyapatite, and the ability to stimulate osteogenesis, while the chitosan provided a cohesive biocompatible and biodegradable bonding phase. The Sr-BBG cement showed the ability to set in situ (initial setting time = 11.6 ± 1.2 min) and a compressive strength of 19 ± 1 MPa. The Sr-BBG cement enhanced the proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells in vitro when compared to a similar cement (BBG) composed of chitosan-bonded borate bioactive glass particles without Sr. Microcomputed tomography and histology of critical-sized rabbit femoral condyle defects implanted with the cements showed the osteogenic capacity of the Sr-BBG cement. New bone was observed at different distances from the Sr-BBG implants within eight weeks. The bone-implant contact index was significantly higher for the Sr-BBG implant than it was for the BBG implant. Together, the results indicate that this Sr-BBG cement is a promising implant for healing irregularly shaped bone defects using minimally invasive surgery.

  6. Lithium chloride attenuates the abnormal osteogenic/adipogenic differentiation of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells obtained from rats with steroid-related osteonecrosis by activating the β-catenin pathway.

    PubMed

    Yu, Zefeng; Fan, Lihong; Li, Jia; Ge, Zhaogang; Dang, Xiaoqian; Wang, Kunzheng

    2015-11-01

    Steroid-related osteonecrosis of the femoral head (ONFH) may be a disease that results from the abnormal osteogenic/adipogenic differentiation of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMMSCs). In the present study, we examined the possible use of lithium in an aim to reverse the abnormal osteogenic/adipogenic differentiation of BMMSCs isolated from rats with steroid-related ONFH (termed ONFH-BMMSCs). BMMSCs obtained from steroid‑related ONFH rat femurs were cultured with or without lithium chloride (LiCl). BMMSCs obtained from normal rat femurs were cultured as controls. LiCl significantly increased the expression of osteocalcin and Runx2 in the ONFH-BMMSCs during osteogenic induction. The mineralization of ONFH-BMMSCs following osteogenic induction was also enhanced. Furthermore, LiCl exerted anti-adipogenic effects on the ONFH-BMMSCs by inhibiting the expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) and fatty acid binding protein 4 (Fabp4) during adipogenic induction, and decreasing lipid droplet formation at the end of adipogenic induction. These effects of LiCl on the ONFH-BMMSCs were associated with an increased expression of β-catenin and a decreased expression of phosphorylated GSK-3β at Tyr-216, and these effects were abolished by treatment with quercetin, an antagonist of the β-catenin pathway. The normal osteogenic/adipogenic activity of BMMSCs may be impaired in steroid-related ONFH. However, as demonstrated by our findings, LiCl reduces abnormal adipogenic activity and simultaneously increases the osteogenic differentiation of ONFH-BMMSCs by activating the β-catenin pathway.

  7. Effects of pH and thermally sensitive hybrid gels on osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells.

    PubMed

    Dai, Zhuojun; Shu, Yinglan; Wan, Chao; Wu, Chi

    2015-04-01

    Osteoblastic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells from bone marrow is an essential step for bone formation. The osteogenesis is normally induced by chemical mediators. Recent laboratory studies have revealed that mechanical properties of an extracellular matrix, typically hydrogels with different modules, also affect the fate of stem cells. The question is how to adjust their mechanical properties inside the body in biomedical applications. In this study, we designed/used a novel extracellular matrix, namely, a hybrid gel made of billions of injectable small thermally and pH-sensitive poly(N-isopropylacrylamide-co-acrylic acid) microgels whose swelling at the body pH and temperature physically jammed them and mesenchymal stem cells together, which enabled us to in situ apply an adjustable mechanical stress on those embedded stem cells. By treating the cell layer with the microgels, we found that an earlier incorporation of the microgels significantly increases the alkaline phosphatase activity, while a later addition of the microgels after the primary calcium deposition enhances the extracellular matrix mineralization in the mesenchymal stem cells cultures accompanied by up-regulation of osteogenic marker genes expression, presumably due to the calcium fixation by the carboxyl groups inside the microgels and the physical contact between the microgels and mesenchymal stem cells layers. These microgels provide an extracellular matrix microenvironment to affect the fate and biological behavior of mesenchymal stem cells, facilitating their potential applications in regenerative therapies.

  8. Continuing differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells and induced chondrogenic and osteogenic lineages in electrospun PLGA nanofiber scaffold

    PubMed Central

    Xin, Xuejun; Hussain, Mohammad; Mao, Jeremy J.

    2010-01-01

    Nanofibers have recently gained substantial interest for potential applications in tissue engineering. The objective of this study was to determine whether electrospun nanofibers accommodate the viability, growth, and differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) as well as their osteogenic (hMSC-Ob) and chondrogenic (hMSC-Ch) derivatives. Poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) beads with a PLA:PGA ratio of 85:15 were electrospun into non-woven fibers with an average diameter of 760±210 nm. The average Young’s modulus of electrospun PLGA nanofibers was 42±26 kPa, per nanoindentation with atomic force microscopy (AFM). Human MSCs were seeded 1–4 weeks at a density of 2×106 cells/mL in PLGA nanofiber sheets. After 2 week culture on PLGA nanofiber scaffold, hMSCs remained as precursors upon immunoblotting with hKL12 antibody. SEM taken up to 7 days after cell seeding revealed that hMSCs, hMSC-Ob and hMSC-Ch apparently attached to PLGA nanofibers. The overwhelming majority of hMSCs was viable and proliferating in PLGA nanofiber scaffolds up to the tested 14 days, as assayed live/dead tests, DNA assay and BrdU. In a separate experiment, hMSCs seeded in PLGA nanofiber scaffolds were differentiated into chodrogenic and osteogenic cells. Histological assays revealed that hMSCs continuously differentiated into chondrogenic cells and osteogenic cells after 2 week incubation in PLGA nanofibers. Taken together, these data represent an original investigation of continuous differentiation of hMSCs into chondrogenic and osteogenic cells in PLGA nanofiber scaffold. Consistent with previous work, these findings also suggest that nanofibers may serve as accommodative milieu for not only hMSCs, but also as a 3D carrier vehicle for lineage specific cells. PMID:17010425

  9. Sarcomatoid renal cell carcinoma with osteogenic differentiation and paraneoplastic hepatopathy in a dog, possibly related to human Stauffer's syndrome.

    PubMed

    Zini, E; Bovero, A; Nigrisoli, E; Ratto, A; Rampazzo, A; Zatelli, A

    2003-11-01

    Sarcomatoid renal cell carcinoma is an uncommon tumour in human beings, and osteogenic differentiation is a rare feature. This report describes such a case in a male dog aged 8 years. The tumour, which showed extensive osseous metaplasia and a few necrotic areas, protruded into the renal pelvis, disrupting the renal capsule. Light microscopical and immunohistochemical examination revealed the epithelial nature of the tumour. Abnormal liver biochemistry, mild hepatocyte degeneration and the absence of histological evidence of metastasis suggested a paraneoplastic hepatopathy.

  10. BMP2-loaded hollow hydroxyapatite microspheres exhibit enhanced osteoinduction and osteogenicity in large bone defects.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Long; Zeng, Jianhua; Yao, Aihua; Tu, Qiquan; Li, Jingtang; Yan, Liang; Tang, Zhiming

    2015-01-01

    The regeneration of large bone defects is an osteoinductive, osteoconductive, and osteogenic process that often requires a bone graft for support. Limitations associated with naturally autogenic or allogenic bone grafts have demonstrated the need for synthetic substitutes. The present study investigates the feasibility of using novel hollow hydroxyapatite microspheres as an osteoconductive matrix and a carrier for controlled local delivery of bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP2), a potent osteogenic inducer of bone regeneration. Hollow hydroxyapatite microspheres (100±25 μm) with a core (60±18 μm) and a mesoporous shell (180±42 m(2)/g surface area) were prepared by a glass conversion technique and loaded with recombinant human BMP2 (1 μg/mg). There was a gentle burst release of BMP2 from microspheres into the surrounding phosphate-buffered saline in vitro within the initial 48 hours, and continued at a low rate for over 40 days. In comparison with hollow hydroxyapatite microspheres without BMP2 or soluble BMP2 without a carrier, BMP2-loaded hollow hydroxyapatite microspheres had a significantly enhanced capacity to reconstitute radial bone defects in rabbit, as shown by increased serum alkaline phosphatase; quick and complete new bone formation within 12 weeks; and great biomechanical flexural strength. These results indicate that BMP2-loaded hollow hydroxyapatite microspheres could be a potential new option for bone graft substitutes in bone regeneration.

  11. BMP2-loaded hollow hydroxyapatite microspheres exhibit enhanced osteoinduction and osteogenicity in large bone defects

    PubMed Central

    Xiong, Long; Zeng, Jianhua; Yao, Aihua; Tu, Qiquan; Li, Jingtang; Yan, Liang; Tang, Zhiming

    2015-01-01

    The regeneration of large bone defects is an osteoinductive, osteoconductive, and osteogenic process that often requires a bone graft for support. Limitations associated with naturally autogenic or allogenic bone grafts have demonstrated the need for synthetic substitutes. The present study investigates the feasibility of using novel hollow hydroxyapatite microspheres as an osteoconductive matrix and a carrier for controlled local delivery of bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP2), a potent osteogenic inducer of bone regeneration. Hollow hydroxyapatite microspheres (100±25 μm) with a core (60±18 μm) and a mesoporous shell (180±42 m2/g surface area) were prepared by a glass conversion technique and loaded with recombinant human BMP2 (1 μg/mg). There was a gentle burst release of BMP2 from microspheres into the surrounding phosphate-buffered saline in vitro within the initial 48 hours, and continued at a low rate for over 40 days. In comparison with hollow hydroxyapatite microspheres without BMP2 or soluble BMP2 without a carrier, BMP2-loaded hollow hydroxyapatite microspheres had a significantly enhanced capacity to reconstitute radial bone defects in rabbit, as shown by increased serum alkaline phosphatase; quick and complete new bone formation within 12 weeks; and great biomechanical flexural strength. These results indicate that BMP2-loaded hollow hydroxyapatite microspheres could be a potential new option for bone graft substitutes in bone regeneration. PMID:25609957

  12. The effect of an alendronate-eluting titanium system to induce osteogenic differentiation in human buccal fat cells (HBFCs)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Sung Eun; Lee, Su-Young; Yun, Young-Pil; Lee, Jae Yong; Park, Kyeongsoon; Lee, Deok-Won; Song, Hae-Ryong

    2012-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop alendronate (Aln)-eluting Ti substrates to induce osteogenic differentiation of human buccal fat cells (HBFCs). The surface of pristine Ti was modified by dopamine (DOPA) and then heparin was grafted onto the aminated Ti surfaces to achieve the Aln-eluting Ti system. Aln was subsequently immobilized on the surface of heparinized Ti (Hep-Ti). Pristine Ti and surface-modified-Ti were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and contact angle. Osteogenic differentiation of HBFCs on the surface of pristine-Ti, Hep-Ti, Aln (1 mg)/Hep-Ti, and Aln (5 mg)/Hep-Ti was demonstrated by alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, calcium deposition, and osteocalcin and osteopontin mRNA expression. Successful immobilization of Aln on Hep-Ti was confirmed by XPS and contact angle. Aln/Hep-Ti showed the sustained release for up to 28 days. Additionally, HBFCs cultured on Aln/Hep-Ti substrates showed significantly induced ALP activity, calcium deposition, and osteocalcin and osteopontin mRNA expression. These results suggest that Aln-eluting Ti substrates have a potential effect on osteogenic differentiation of HBFCs and will be a promising material for bone regeneration.

  13. Simulated microgravity inhibits osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells via depolymerizing F-actin to impede TAZ nuclear translocation

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Zhe; Luo, Qing; Lin, Chuanchuan; Kuang, Dongdong; Song, Guanbin

    2016-01-01

    Microgravity induces observed bone loss in space flight, and reduced osteogenesis of bone mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) partly contributes to this phenomenon. Abnormal regulation or functioning of the actin cytoskeleton induced by microgravity may cause the inhibited osteogenesis of BMSCs, but the underlying mechanism remains obscure. In this study, we demonstrated that actin cytoskeletal changes regulate nuclear aggregation of the transcriptional coactivator with PDZ-binding motif (TAZ), which is indispensable for osteogenesis of bone mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs). Moreover, we utilized a clinostat to model simulated microgravity (SMG) and demonstrated that SMG obviously depolymerized F-actin and hindered TAZ nuclear translocation. Interestingly, stabilizing the actin cytoskeleton induced by Jasplakinolide (Jasp) significantly rescued TAZ nuclear translocation and recovered the osteogenic differentiation of BMSCs in SMG, independently of large tumor suppressor 1(LATS1, an upstream kinase of TAZ). Furthermore, lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) also significantly recovered the osteogenic differentiation of BMSCs in SMG through the F-actin-TAZ pathway. Taken together, we propose that the depolymerized actin cytoskeleton inhibits osteogenic differentiation of BMSCs through impeding nuclear aggregation of TAZ, which provides a novel connection between F-actin cytoskeleton and osteogenesis of BMSCs and has important implications in bone loss caused by microgravity. PMID:27444891

  14. Famotidine suppresses osteogenic differentiation of tendon cells in vitro and pathological calcification of tendon in vivo.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Kenichi; Hojo, Hironori; Koshima, Isao; Chung, Ung-il; Ohba, Shinsuke

    2012-12-01

    Heterotopic ossification or calcification follows any type of musculoskeletal trauma and is known to occur after arthroplasties of hip, knee, shoulder, or elbow; fractures; joint dislocations; or tendon ruptures. Histamine receptor H2 (Hrh2) has been shown to be effective for reducing pain and decreasing calcification in patients with calcifying tendinitis, which suggested that H2 blockers were effective for the treatment of tendon ossification or calcification. However, the detailed mechanisms of its action on tendon remain to be clarified. We investigated the mechanisms underlying H2 blocker-mediated suppression of tendon calcification, with a focus on the direct action of the drug on tendon cells. Famotidine treatment suppressed the mRNA expressions of Col10a1 and osteocalcin, ossification markers, in a tendon-derived cell line TT-D6, as well as a preosteoblastic one MC3T3-E1. Both of the cell lines expressed Hrh2; histamine treatment induced osteocalcin expression in these cells. Famotidine administration suppressed calcification in the Achilles tendon of ttw mice, a mouse model of ectopic ossification. These data suggest that famotidine inhibits osteogenic differentiation of tendon cells in vitro, and this inhibition may underlie the anti-calcification effects of the drug in vivo. This study points to the use of H2 blockers as a promising strategy for treating heterotopic ossification or calcification in tendon, and provides evidence in support of the clinical use of famotidine.

  15. Boron Nitride Nanotubes Reinforce Tricalcium Phosphate Scaffolds and Promote the Osteogenic Differentiation of Mesenchymal Stem Cells.

    PubMed

    Shuai, Cijun; Gao, Chengde; Feng, Pei; Xiao, Tao; Yu, Kun; Deng, Youwen; Peng, Shuping

    2016-05-01

    Incorporating boron nitride nanotubes (BNNTs) into ceramic matrices is a promising strategy for obtaining multifunctional composites. In this study, the application of BNNTs in reinforcing β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) scaffolds manufactured using laser sintering is demonstrated. BNNTs contribute to the effective inhibition of both grain growth and phase transformation in β-TCP. Moreover, they can strengthen the grain boundaries and boost the fracture mode transition from intergranular to transgranular. BNNTs play an active role in reinforcing β-TCP in terms of load transfer and energy absorption by the synergistic mechanisms of pull-out, peel-off, crack bridging and deflection. With a BNNT content of 4 wt%, the elastic modulus, hardness, compressive strength and fracture toughness of β-TCP increase by 46%, 39%, 109% and 35%, respectively. Umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells (UC-MSCs) were isolated with high purity, and surface molecule characterization revealed that they were CD90+, CD29+, CD73+, CD31-, CD34- and CD45-. UC-MSCs on BNNTs/β-TCP scaffolds were characterized by more positive Alizarin Red staining as well as up-regulated expression of osteoblast markers, as revealed by quantitative real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction analysis and immunofluorescence staining. These results are the first to demonstrate that BNNTs promote the osteogenic differentiation of UC-MSCs, indicating good osteoinductive properties for use in bone scaffolds. This study paves the way for the potential use of a BNNT/β-TCP scaffold in bone repair.

  16. Effect of enamel matrix derivative and of proline-rich synthetic peptides on the differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells toward the osteogenic lineage.

    PubMed

    Ramis, Joana Maria; Rubert, Marina; Vondrasek, Jiri; Gayà, Antoni; Lyngstadaas, Staale Petter; Monjo, Marta

    2012-06-01

    With the aim of discovering new molecules for induction of bone formation and biomineralization, combination of bioinformatics and simulation methods were used to design the structure of artificial peptides based on proline-rich domains of enamel matrix proteins. In this study, the effect of such peptides on the differentiation toward the osteogenic lineage of human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells (hUCMSCs) was evaluated with or without osteogenic supplements (hydrocortisone, β-glycerol phosphate, and ascorbic acid) and compared to the effect of the commercially available enamel matrix derivative (EMD). It was hypothesized that the differentiation toward the osteogenic lineage of hUCMSCs would be promoted by the treatment with the synthetic peptides when combined with differentiation media, or it could even be directed exclusively by the synthetic peptides. Osteoinductivity was assessed by cell proliferation, bone morphogenetic protein-2 secretion, and gene expression of osteogenic markers after 1, 3, and 14 days of treatment. All peptides were safe with the dosages used, showing lower cell toxicity. P2, P4, and P6 reduced cell proliferation with growing media by 10%-15%. Higher expression of early osteoblast markers was found after 3 days of treatment with EMD in combination with osteogenic supplements, while after 14 days of treatment, cells treated by the different synthetic peptides in combination with osteogenic supplements showed higher osteocalcin mRNA levels. We can conclude that osteogenic differentiation of hUCMSCs is promoted by short-term EMD treatment in combination with osteogenic supplements and by long-term treatment by the synthetic peptides in combination with osteogenic supplements, showing similar results for all the peptide variants analyzed in this study.

  17. In vitro osteogenic and odontogenic differentiation of human dental pulp stem cells seeded on carboxymethyl cellulose-hydroxyapatite hybrid hydrogel

    PubMed Central

    Teti, Gabriella; Salvatore, Viviana; Focaroli, Stefano; Durante, Sandra; Mazzotti, Antonio; Dicarlo, Manuela; Mattioli-Belmonte, Monica; Orsini, Giovanna

    2015-01-01

    Stem cells from human dental pulp have been considered as an alternative source of adult stem cells in tissue engineering because of their potential to differentiate into multiple cell lineages. Recently, polysaccharide based hydrogels have become especially attractive as matrices for the repair and regeneration of a wide variety of tissues and organs. The incorporation of inorganic minerals as hydroxyapatite nanoparticles can modulate the performance of the scaffolds with potential applications in tissue engineering. The aim of this study was to verify the osteogenic and odontogenic differentiation of dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) cultured on a carboxymethyl cellulose—hydroxyapatite hybrid hydrogel. Human DPSCs were seeded on carboxymethyl cellulose—hydroxyapatite hybrid hydrogel and on carboxymethyl cellulose hydrogel for 1, 3, 5, 7, 14, and 21 days. Cell viability assay and ultramorphological analysis were carried out to evaluate biocompatibility and cell adhesion. Real Time PCR was carried out to demonstrate the expression of osteogenic and odontogenic markers. Results showed a good adhesion and viability in cells cultured on carboxymethyl cellulose—hydroxyapatite hybrid hydrogel, while a low adhesion and viability was observed in cells cultured on carboxymethyl cellulose hydrogel. Real Time PCR data demonstrated a temporal up-regulation of osteogenic and odontogenic markers in dental pulp stem cells cultured on carboxymethyl cellulose—hydroxyapatite hybrid hydrogel. In conclusion, our in vitro data confirms the ability of DPSCs to differentiate toward osteogenic and odontogenic lineages in presence of a carboxymethyl cellulose—hydroxyapatite hybrid hydrogel. Taken together, our results provide evidence that DPSCs and carboxymethyl cellulose—hydroxyapatite hybrid hydrogel could be considered promising candidates for dental pulp complex and periodontal tissue engineering. PMID:26578970

  18. The osteogenic differentiation of human bone marrow MSCs on HUVEC-derived ECM and β-TCP scaffold.

    PubMed

    Kang, Yunqing; Kim, Sungwoo; Bishop, Julius; Khademhosseini, Ali; Yang, Yunzhi

    2012-10-01

    Extracellular matrix (ECM) serves a key role in cell migration, attachment, and cell development. Here we report that ECM derived from human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) promoted osteogenic differentiation of human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (hMSC). We first produced an HUVEC-derived ECM on a three-dimensional (3D) beta-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) scaffold by HUVEC seeding, incubation, and decellularization. The HUVEC-derived ECM was then characterized by SEM, FTIR, XPS, and immunofluorescence staining. The effect of HUVEC-derived ECM-containing β-TCP scaffold on hMSC osteogenic differentiation was subsequently examined. SEM images indicate a dense matrix layer deposited on the surface of struts and pore walls. FTIR and XPS measurements show the presence of new functional groups (amide and hydroxyl groups) and elements (C and N) in the ECM/β-TCP scaffold when compared to the β-TCP scaffold alone. Immunofluorescence images indicate that high levels of fibronectin and collagen IV and low level of laminin were present on the scaffold. ECM-containing β-TCP scaffolds significantly increased alkaline phosphatase (ALP) specific activity and up-regulated expression of osteogenesis-related genes such as runx2, alkaline phosphatase, osteopontin and osteocalcin in hMSC, compared to β-TCP scaffolds alone. This increased effect was due to the activation of MAPK/ERK signaling pathway since disruption of this pathway using an ERK inhibitor PD98059 results in down-regulation of these osteogenic genes. Cell-derived ECM-containing calcium phosphate scaffolds is a promising osteogenic-promoting bone void filler in bone tissue regeneration.

  19. Effects of Tricalcium Silicate Cements on Osteogenic Differentiation of Human Bone Marrow-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Eid, Ashraf A.; Hussein, Khalid A.; Niu, Li-na; Li, Guo-hua; Watanabe, Ikuya; Al-Shabrawey, Mohamed; Pashley, David H.; Tay, Franklin R.

    2014-01-01

    Tricalcium silicate cements have been successfully employed in the biomedical field as bioactive bone and dentin substitutes, with widely acclaimed osteoactive properties. This research analyzed the effects of different tricalcium silicate cement formulations on the temporal osteoactivity profile of human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hMW-MSCs). These cells were exposed to 4 commercially-available tricalcium silicate cement formulations in osteogenic differentiation medium. After 1, 3, 7 and 10 days, quantitative real time-polymerase chain reaction and Western blotting were performed to detect the expression of target osteogenic markers ALP, RUNX2, OSX, OPN, MSX2, and OCN. After 3, 7, 14 and 21 days, alkaline phosphatase assay was performed to detect changes in intracellular enzyme level. Alizarin Red S assay was performed after 28 days to detect extracellular matrix mineralization. In the presence of tricalcium silicate cements, target osteogenic markers were downregulated at the mRNA and protein levels at all time-points. Intracellular alkaline phosphatase enzyme levels and extracellular mineralization of the experimental groups were not significantly different from the untreated control. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction results showed increases in downregulation of RUNX2, OSX, MSX2 and OCN with increase in time of exposure to the tricalcium silicate cements, while ALP showed peak downregulation at day 7. For Western blotting, OSX, OPN, MSX2 and OCN showed increased downregulation with increased exposure time to the tested cements. Alkaline phosphatase enzyme levels generally declined after day 7. Based on these results, it is concluded that tricalcium silicate cements do not induce osteogenic differentiation of hBM-MSCs in vitro. PMID:24726977

  20. MiR-132 regulates osteogenic differentiation via downregulating Sirtuin1 in a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor β/δ-dependent manner.

    PubMed

    Gong, Kai; Qu, Bo; Liao, Dongfa; Liu, Da; Wang, Cairu; Zhou, Jingsong; Pan, Xianming

    2016-09-09

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play significant roles in multiple diseases by regulating the expression of their target genes. Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a chronic endocrine and metabolic disease with complex mechanisms. T2DM can result in diabetic osteoporosis (DO), which is characterized by bone loss, decreased bone mineral density and increased bone fractures. The promotion of osteogenic differentiation of osteoblasts is an effective way to treat osteoporosis. In the present study, high glucose (HG) and free fatty acids (FFA) were employed to mimic T2DM in MC3T3-E1 cells. To induce osteogenic differentiation, MC3T3-E1 cells were cultured in osteogenic medium. The results showed that osteogenic differentiation was significantly suppressed by HG and FFA. We found that miR-132 expression was significantly upregulated and much higher in HG-FFA-induced cells than other selected miRNAs, indicating that miR-132 might play an important role in DO. Furthermore, overexpression of miR-132 markedly inhibited the expression of key markers of osteogenic differentiation and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity. Reciprocally, inhibition of miR-132 restored osteogenic differentiation, even under treatment with HG-FFA. We also showed that Sirtuin 1 (Sirt1) was one of the target genes of miR-132, whose expression was controlled by miR-132. Ectopic expression of Sirt1 reversed the decrease in osteogenic differentiation caused by miR-132 and HG-FFA. These results demonstrated the direct role of miR-132 in suppressing osteogenic differentiation through downregulating Sirt1. Moreover, we demonstrated that peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor β/δ (PPARβ/δ) was a downstream molecule of Sirt1, and its knockout by PPARβ/δ siRNA significantly abolished the promotive effects of Sirt1 on osteogenic differentiation, indicating that Sirt1 functioned in a PPARβ/δ-dependent manner. Taken together, we provide crucial evidence that miR-132 plays a key role in regulating osteogenic

  1. Heparin-induced conformational changes of fibronectin within the extracellular matrix promote hMSC osteogenic differentiation.

    PubMed

    Li, Bojun; Lin, Zhe; Mitsi, Maria; Zhang, Yang; Vogel, Viola

    2015-01-01

    An increasing body of evidence suggests important roles of extracellular matrix (ECM) in regulating stem cell fate. This knowledge can be exploited in tissue engineering applications for the design of ECM scaffolds appropriate to direct stem cell differentiation. By probing the conformation of fibronectin (Fn) using fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET), we show here that heparin treatment of the fibroblast-derived ECM scaffolds resulted in more extended conformations of fibrillar Fn in ECM. Since heparin is a highly negatively charged molecule while fibronectin contains segments of positively charged modules, including FnIII13, electrostatic interactions between Fn and heparin might interfere with residual quaternary structure in relaxed fibronectin fibers thereby opening up buried sites. The conformation of modules FnIII12-14 in particular, which contain one of the heparin binding sites as well as binding sites for many growth factors, may be activated by heparin, resulting in alterations in growth factor binding to Fn. Indeed, upregulated osteogenic differentiation was observed when hMSCs were seeded on ECM scaffolds that had been treated with heparin and were subsequently chemically fixed. In contrast, either rigidifying relaxed fibers by fixation alone, or heparin treatment without fixation had no effect. We hypothesize that fibronectin's conformations within the ECM are activated by heparin such as to coordinate with other factors to upregulate hMSC osteogenic differentiation. Thus, the conformational changes of fibronectin within the ECM could serve as a 'converter' to tune hMSC differentiation in extracellular matrices. This knowledge could also be exploited to promote osteogenic stem cell differentiation on biomedical surfaces.

  2. Enhanced differentiation of mesenchymal stromal cells by three-dimensional culture and azacitidine

    PubMed Central

    Bae, Yoo-Jin; Kwon, Yong-Rim; Kim, Hye Joung; Lee, Seok

    2017-01-01

    Background Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) are useful for cell therapy because of their potential for multilineage differentiation. However, MSCs that are expanded in traditional two-dimensional (2D) culture systems eventually lose their differentiation abilities. Therefore, we investigated whether azacitidine (AZA) supplementation and three-dimensional culture (3D) could improve the differentiation properties of MSCs. Methods 2D- or 3D-cultured MSCs which were prepared according to the conventional or hanging-drop culture method respectively, were treated with or without AZA (1 µM for 72 h), and their osteogenic and adipogenic differentiation potential were determined and compared. Results AZA treatment did not affect the cell apoptosis or viability in both 2D- and 3D-cultured MSCs. However, compared to conventionally cultured 2D-MSCs, AZA-treated 2D-MSCs showed marginally increased differentiation abilities. In contrast, 3D-MSCs showed significantly increased osteogenic and adipogenic differentiation ability. When 3D culture was performed in the presence of AZA, the osteogenic differentiation ability was further increased, whereas adipogenic differentiation was not affected. Conclusion 3D culture efficiently promoted the multilineage differentiation of MSCs, and in combination with AZA, it could help MSCs to acquire greater osteogenic differentiation ability. This optimized culture method can enhance the therapeutic potential of MSCs.

  3. Bifunctional bioceramics stimulating osteogenic differentiation of a gingival fibroblast and inhibiting plaque biofilm formation.

    PubMed

    Shen, Ya; Wang, Zhejun; Wang, Jiao; Zhou, Yinghong; Chen, Hui; Wu, Chengtie; Haapasalo, Markus

    2016-04-01

    Gingival recession is a common clinical problem that results in esthetic deficiencies and poor plaque control and predominantly occurs in aged patients. In order to restore the cervical region, ideal biomaterials should possess the ability to stimulate proliferation and osteogenesis/cementogenesis of human gingival fibroblasts (HGF) and have a strong antibiofilm effect. The aim of the present study was to investigate the interactions of HGF and oral multispecies biofilms with Ca, Mg and Si-containing bredigite (BRT, Ca7MgSi4O16) bioceramics. BRT extract induced osteogenic/cementogenic differentiation of HGF and its inhibition of plaque biofilm formation were systematically studied. BRT extract in concentrations lower than <200 mg mL(-1) presented high biocompatibility to HGF cells in 3 days. Ion extracts from BRT also stimulated a series of bone-related gene and protein expressions in HGF cells. Furthermore, BRT extract significantly inhibited oral multispecies plaque biofilm growth on its surface and contributed to over 30% bacterial cell death without additional antibacterial agents in two weeks. A planktonic killing test showed that BRT suppressed 98% plaque bacterial growth compared to blank control in 3 days. The results also revealed that BRT extract has an osteostimulation effect on HGF. The suppression effect on plaque biofilms suggested that BRT might be used as a bioactive material for cervical restoration and that the synergistic effect of bioactive ions, such as Ca, Mg and Si ions, played an important role in the design and construction of bifunctional biomaterials in combination with tissue regeneration and antibiofilm activity.

  4. Calcium Phosphate Crystals from Uremic Serum Promote Osteogenic Differentiation in Human Aortic Smooth Muscle Cells.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yaorong; Zhang, Lin; Ni, Zhaohui; Qian, Jiaqi; Fang, Wei

    2016-11-01

    Recent study demonstrated that calcium phosphate (CaP) crystals isolated from high phosphate medium were a key contributor to arterial calcification. The present study further investigated the effects of CaP crystals induced by uremic serum on calcification of human aortic smooth muscle cells. This may provide a new insight for the development of uremic cardiovascular calcification. We tested the effects of uremic serum or normal serum on cell calcification. Calcification was visualized by staining and calcium deposition quantified. Expression of various bone-calcifying genes was detected by real-time PCR, and protein levels were quantified by western blotting or enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Pyrophosphate was used to investigate the effects of CaP crystals' inhibition. Finally, CaP crystals were separated from uremic serum to determine its specific pro-calcification effects. Uremic serum incubation resulted in progressively increased calcification staining and increased calcium deposition in HASMCs after 4, 8 and 12 days (P vs 0 day <0.001 for all). Compared to cells incubated in control serum, uremic serum significantly induced the mRNA expression of bone morphogenetic factor-2, osteopontin and RUNX2, and increased their protein levels as well (P < 0.05 for all). Inhibition of CaP crystals with pyrophosphate incubation prevented calcium deposition and bone-calcifying gene over-expression increased by uremic serum. CaP crystals, rather than the rest of uremic serum, were responsible for these effects. Uremic serum accelerates arterial calcification by mediating osteogenic differentiation. This effect might be mainly attributed to the CaP crystal content.

  5. Platelet Lysates Produced from Expired Platelet Concentrates Support Growth and Osteogenic Differentiation of Mesenchymal Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Jonsdottir-Buch, Sandra Mjoll; Lieder, Ramona; Sigurjonsson, Olafur Eysteinn

    2013-01-01

    Background Mesenchymal stem cells are promising candidates in regenerative cell therapy. Conventional culture methods involve the use of animal substances, specifically fetal bovine serum as growth supplement. Since the use of animal-derived products is undesirable for human applications, platelet lysates produced from human platelets are an attractive alternative. This is especially true if platelet lysates from already approved transfusion units at blood banks can be utilized. The purpose of this study was to produce human platelet lysates from expired, blood bank-approved platelet concentrates and evaluate their use as growth supplement in the culture of mesenchymal stem cells. Methodology/Principal Findings In this study, bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells were cultured with one of three culture supplements; fetal bovine serum, lysates from freshly prepared human platelet concentrates, or lysates from expired human platelet concentrates. The effects of these platelet-derived culture supplements on basic mesenchymal stem cell characteristics were evaluated. All cultures maintained the typical mesenchymal stem cell surface marker expression, trilineage differentiation potential, and the ability to suppress in vitro immune responses. However, mesenchymal stem cells supplemented with platelet lysates proliferated faster than traditionally cultured cells and increased the expression of the osteogenic marker gene RUNX-2; yet no difference between the use of fresh and expired platelet concentrates was observed. Conclusion/Significance Our findings suggest that human platelet lysates produced from expired platelet concentrates can be used as an alternative to fetal bovine serum for mesenchymal stem cell culture to the same extent as lysates from fresh platelets. PMID:23874839

  6. Isolation, Characterization, Cryopreservation of Human Amniotic Stem Cells and Differentiation to Osteogenic and Adipogenic Cells

    PubMed Central

    Gholizadeh-Ghaleh Aziz, Shiva; Pashaei-Asl, Fatima; Fardyazar, Zahra; Pashaiasl, Maryam

    2016-01-01

    Human stem cells and progenitor cells can be used to treat cancer and replace dysfunctional cells within a tissue or organ. The objective of this study was to identify the appropriate cells type in regenerative medicine and targeted therapy. As an alternative to embryonic and bone marrow stem cells, we examined human amniotic fluid stem cells (hAFSCs), one of the potential source of multipotent stem cells isolated from both cell pellet (using single-stage method), and supernatant of human amniotic fluid. Source of isolation and unique property of the cells emphasize that these cells are one of the promising new tools in therapeutic field. Double sources for isolation and availability of the left over samples in diagnostic laboratory at the same time have less legal and ethical concerns compared with embryonic stem cell studies. Cells were isolated, cultured for 18th passage for 6 months and characterized using qPCR and flow cytometry. Cells showed good proliferative ability in culture condition. The cells successfully differentiated into the adipogenic and osteogenic lineages. Based on these findings, amniotic fluid can be considered as an appropriate and convenient source of human amniotic fluid stem cells. These cells provide potential tools for therapeutic applications in the field of regenerative medicine. To get a better understanding of crosstalk between Oct4/NANOG with osteogenesis and adipogenesis, we used network analysis based on Common Targets algorithm and Common Regulators algorithm as well as subnetwork discovery based on gene set enrichment. Network analysis highlighted the possible role of MIR 302A and MIR let-7g. We demonstrated the high expression of MIR 302A and low expression of MIR let7g in hAFSCs by qPCR. PMID:27434028

  7. Suppression of Evi1 promotes the osteogenic differentiation and inhibits the adipogenic differentiation of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells in vitro.

    PubMed

    An, Qijun; Wu, Dou; Ma, Yuehong; Zhou, Biao; Liu, Qiang

    2015-12-01

    Osteoporosis (OP) is considered a complex disease with a strong genetic impact, mainly affecting post-menopausal women and is also a common cause of fracture. Elucidating the molecular mechanisms that regulate the osteogenic differentiation of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) is crucial to developing treatment strategies to combat OP. In the present study, we found that ectopic viral integration site‑1 (Evi1) was highly expressed during the process of adipogenesis of rat BMSCs. Notably, Evi1 levels markedly increased on day 3 of adipogenic differentiation following the addition of adipogenic induction supplements. In addition, we interfered with the expression of the Evi1 gene in the adipogenesis of BMSCs by supplementing adenoviral plasmids and measured the expression levels of bone sialoprotein (BSP), osteocalcin (OCN), osteopontin (OPN), peroxisome proliferator‑activated receptor γ2 (PPARγ2) and lipoprotein lipase (LPL) by RT-qPCR and western blot analysis. The mRNA and protein levels of osteogenic and adipogenic markers in the BMSCs were up‑ and downregulated, respectively following the silencing of siEvi1. Our experimental results substantiate that the suppression of Evi1 in BMSCs by RNA interference inhibits adipogenic differentiation, while it promotes osteogenic differentiation. The results from our study demonstrated that the Evi1 gene may be targeted as a therapeutic strategy for promoting bone formation.

  8. Comparative epigenetic influence of autologous versus fetal bovine serum on mesenchymal stem cells through in vitro osteogenic and adipogenic differentiation.

    PubMed

    Fani, Nesa; Ziadlou, Reihane; Shahhoseini, Maryam; Baghaban Eslaminejad, Mohamadreza

    2016-06-10

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) derived from bone marrow (BM) represents a useful source of adult stem cells for cell therapy and tissue engineering. MSCs are present at a low frequency in the BM; therefore expansion is necessary before performing clinical studies. Fetal bovine serum (FBS) as a nutritional supplement for in vitro culture of MSCs is a suitable additive for human cell culture, but not regarding subsequent use of these cells for clinical treatment of human patients due to the risk of viral and prion transmission as well as xenogeneic immune responses after transplantation. Recently, autologous serum (AS) has been as a supplement to replace FBS in culture medium. We compared the effect of FBS versus AS on the histone modification pattern of MSCs through in vitro osteogenesis and adipogenesis. Differentiation of stem cells under various serum conditions to a committed state involves global changes in epigenetic patterns that are critically determined by chromatin modifications. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) coupled with real-time PCR showed significant changes in the acetylation and methylation patterns in lysine 9 (Lys9) of histone H3 on the regulatory regions of stemness (Nanog, Sox2, Rex1), osteogenic (Runx2, Oc, Sp7) and adipogenic (Ppar-γ, Lpl, adiponectin) marker genes in undifferentiated MSCs, FBS and AS. All epigenetic changes occurred in a serum dependent manner which resulted in higher expression level of stemness genes in undifferentiated MSCs compared to differentiated MSCs and increased expression levels of osteogenic genes in AS compared to FBS. Adipogenic genes showed greater expression in FBS compared to AS. These findings have demonstrated the epigenetic influence of serum culture conditions on differentiation potential of MSCs, which suggest that AS is possibly more efficient serum for osteogenic differentiation of MSCs in cell therapy purposes.

  9. miR-214 suppresses the osteogenic differentiation of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells and these effects are mediated through the inhibition of the JNK and p38 pathways

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Yongzhi; Li, Lianhua; Gao, Jie; Chen, Xiaobin; Sang, Qinghua

    2017-01-01

    In this study, we sought to investigate the expression of microRNA (miR)-214 on the osteogenic differentiation of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) and explore the possible underlying mechanisms. We found that the overexpression of miR-214 effectively promoted the adipocyte differentiation of BMSCs in vitro, reduced alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and the gene expression of collagen type I (Col I), osteocalcin (OCN) and osteopontin (OPN) in the BMSCs. We further found that the overexpression of miR-214 suppressed the protein expression of fibroblast growth factor (FGF), phosphorylated c-Jun N-terminal kinase (p-JNK) and phosphorylated p38 (p-p38) in the BMSCs. The downregulation of miR-214 promoted the osteogenic differentiation of BMSCs, and increased ALP activity and Col I, OCN and OPN gene expression in the BMSCs. It also increased FGF p-JNK and p-p38 protein expression in the BMSCs. The use of JNK inhibitor (SP600125) enhanced the inhibitory effects of miR-214 overexpression on osteogenic differentiation, ALP activity, and Col I, OCN and OPN gene expression in the BMSCs. Lastly, the use of p38 inhibitor (SB202190) also enhanced the inhibitory effects of miR-214 overexpression on ALP activity, and Col I, OCN and OPN gene expression in the BMSCs. These results provide a mechanism responsible for the suppressive effects of miR-214 on the osteogenic differentiation of BMSCs involving the inhibition of the JNK and p38 pathways. PMID:27959394

  10. Preconditioning Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells with a Low Concentration of BMP2 Stimulates Proliferation and Osteogenic Differentiation In Vitro.

    PubMed

    Lysdahl, Helle; Baatrup, Anette; Foldager, Casper Bindzus; Bünger, Cody

    2014-12-01

    Clinical trials using bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP2) for bone reconstruction have shown promising results. However, the relatively high concentration needed to be effective raises concerns for efficacy and safety. The aim of this study was to investigate the osteogenic effect of an alternative treatment strategy in which human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) are preconditioned with low concentrations of BMP2 for a short time in vitro. hMSCs in suspension were stimulated for 15 min with 10 and 20 ng/mL of BMP2. After the BMP2 was removed, the cells were seeded and cultured in osteogenic medium. The effects of preconditioning were analyzed with regard to proliferation and expression of osteogenic markers at both gene and protein level. The results were compared to those from cultures with continuous BMP2 stimulation. A significant increase in proliferation was seen with both precondition and continuous stimulation with BMP2, with no difference between the treatments. Preconditioning with BMP2 significantly increased gene expression of RUNX2, COLI, ALP, and OC, and protein levels of COLI and ALP. This was not found with continuous stimulation. The role of preconditioning with BMP2 in osteogenesis was validated by findings of increased gene expression of SMAD1 and an increase in dual phosphorylation of ser 463 and ser 465 in the SMAD 1/5/8 pathway. We concluded that preconditioning hMSCs with BMP2 stimulates osteogenesis: proliferation with matrix secretion and matrix maturation of hMSCs. This implies that preconditioning with BMP2 might be more effective at inducing proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of hMSCs than continuous stimulation. Preconditioning with BMP2 could benefit the clinical application of BMP2 since side effects from high-dose treatments could be avoided.

  11. The Role of Lipase and α-Amylase in the Degradation of Starch/Poly(ɛ-Caprolactone) Fiber Meshes and the Osteogenic Differentiation of Cultured Marrow Stromal Cells

    PubMed Central

    Martins, Ana M.; Pham, Quynh P.; Malafaya, Patrícia B.; Sousa, Rui A.; Gomes, Manuela E.; Raphael, Robert M.; Kasper, F. Kurtis; Reis, Rui L.

    2009-01-01

    The present work studies the influence of hydrolytic enzymes (α-amylase or lipase) on the degradation of fiber mesh scaffolds based on a blend of starch and poly(ɛ-caprolactone) (SPCL) and the osteogenic differentiation of osteogenic medium–expanded rat bone marrow stromal cells (MSCs) and subsequent formation of extracellular matrix on these scaffolds under static culture conditions. The biodegradation profile of SPCL fiber meshes was investigated using enzymes that are specifically responsible for the enzymatic hydrolysis of SPCL using concentrations similar to those found in human serum. These degradation studies were performed under static and dynamic conditions. After several degradation periods (3, 7, 14, 21, and 30 days), weight loss measurements and micro-computed tomography analysis (specifically porosity, interconnectivity, mean pore size, and fiber thickness) were performed. The SPCL scaffolds were seeded with rat MSCs and cultured for 8 and 16 days using complete osteogenic media with and without enzymes (α-amylase or lipase). Results indicate that culture medium supplemented with enzymes enhanced cell proliferation after 16 days of culture, whereas culture medium without enzymes did not. No calcium was detected in groups cultured with α-amylase or without enzymes after each time period, although groups cultured with lipase presented calcium deposition after the eighth day, showing a significant increase at the sixteenth day. Lipase appears to positively influence osteoblastic differentiation of rat MSCs and to enhance matrix mineralization. Furthermore, scanning electron microscopy images showed that the enzymes did not have a deleterious effect on the three-dimensional structure of SPCL fiber meshes, meaning that the scaffolds did not lose their structural integrity after 16 days. Confocal micrographs have shown cells to be evenly distributed and infiltrated within the SPCL fiber meshes up to 410 μm from the surface. This study demonstrates

  12. Differentiation of human embryonic stem cells into osteogenic or hematopoietic lineages: a dose-dependent effect of osterix over-expression.

    PubMed

    Kärner, Elerin; Unger, Christian; Cerny, Radim; Ahrlund-Richter, Lars; Ganss, Bernhard; Dilber, M Sirac; Wendel, Mikael

    2009-02-01

    Enhanced differentiation of human embryonic stem cells (HESCs), induced by genetic modification could potentially generate a vast number of diverse cell types. Such genetic modifications have frequently been achieved by over-expression of individual regulatory proteins. However, careful evaluation of the expression levels is critical, since this might have important implications for the differentiation potential of HESCs. To date, attempts to promote osteogenesis by means of gene transfer into HESCs using the early bone "master" transcription factor osterix (Osx) have not been reported. In this study, we attained HESC subpopulations expressing two significantly different levels of Osx, following lentiviral gene transfer. Both subpopulations exhibited spontaneous differentiation and reduced expression of markers characteristic of the pluripotent phenotype, such as SSEA3, Tra1-60, and Nanog, In order to promote bone differentiation, the cells were treated with ascorbic acid, beta-glycerophosphate and dexamethasone. The high level of Osx, compared to endogenous levels found in primary human osteoblasts, did not enhance osteogenic differentiation, and did not up-regulate collagen I expression. We show that the high Osx levels instead induced the commitment towards the hematopoietic-endothelial lineage-by up-regulating the expression of CD34 and Gata1. However, low levels of Osx up-regulated collagen I, bone sialoprotein and osteocalcin. Conversely, forced high level expression of the homeobox transcription factor HoxB4, a known regulator for early hematopoiesis, promoted osteogenesis in HESCs, while low levels of HoxB4 lead to hematopoietic gene expression.

  13. A comparative study of metabolic state of stem cells during osteogenic and adipogenic differentiations via fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakraborty, Sandeep; Ou, Meng-Hsin; Kuo, Jean-Cheng; Chiou, Arthur

    2016-10-01

    Cellular metabolic state can serve as a biomarker to indicate the differentiation potential of stem cells into other specialized cell lineages. In this study, two-photon fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (2P-FLIM) was applied to determine the fluorescence lifetime and the amounts of the auto-fluorescent metabolic co-factor reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) to elucidate the cellular metabolism of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) in osteogenic and adipogenic differentiation processes. 2P-FLIM provides the free to protein-bound NADH ratio which can serve as the indicator of cellular metabolic state. We measured NADH fluorescence lifetime at 0, 7, and 14 days after hMSCs were induced for either osteogenesis or adipogenesis. In both cases, the average fluorescence lifetime increased significantly at day 14 (P < 0.001), while the ratio of free to protein-bound NADH ratio decreased significantly in 7- days (P < 0.001) and 14-days (P < 0.001). Thus, our results indicated a higher metabolic rate in both osteogenic and adipogenic differentiation processes when compared with undifferentiated hMSCs. This approach may be further utilized to study proliferation efficiency and differentiation potential of stem cells into other specialized cell lineages.

  14. The in vitro and in vivo effects of the low molecular weight fucoidan on the bone osteogenic differentiation properties.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Pai-An; Hung, Yu-Lan; Phan, Nam Nhut; Hieu, Bui-Thi-Ngoc; Chang, Po-Ming; Li, Kuan-Lun; Lin, Yen-Chang

    2016-08-01

    Osteoporosis has been reported as a hidden death factor in aged people. So far, prevention and treatment therapies for osteoporosis only slow down the progress but do not treat the disease. Fucoidan has been recognized its roles in anti-tumor, anti-inflammatory, anti-coagulant and antiviral activities. To date, low molecular weight (LMW) fucoidan role in bone loss disease has been not determined yet. Therefore, this study aims to figure out potential effects of LMW fucoidan in osteoporosis in vitro and in vivo. LMW fucoidan was extracted from fresh Sargassum hemiphyllum showing a significant increase in 7F2 cell viability to 150.33 ± 6.50 % relative to normal fucoidan (130.12 ± 5.74 %). The expression of level BMP-2, ALP, osteocalcin significantly increased with 2.28 ± 0.06, 2.18 ± 0.12 and 2.06 ± 0.07 fold, respectively. The RT-PCR assay showed that LMW fucoidan increased mRNA expression of BMP-2, ALP, osteocalcin, COL I, BSP and osteonectin. Furthermore, the bone density and bone ash weight were considerably boosted by the oral administration of 280 mg/kg LMW fucoidan and 100 mg/kg calcium carbonate in C57BL/6J female aged mice. The present finding indicated that LMW fucoidan triggered osteogenic differentiation in vitro, and had an anabolic effect on bone mineralization in vivo. Dietary intake of LMW fucoidan from S. hemiphyllum suggested playing a role in the enhancement of bone loss with increasing age.

  15. Fabrication of nano-structured calcium silicate coatings with enhanced stability, bioactivity and osteogenic and angiogenic activity.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiuhui; Zhou, Yuning; Xia, Lunguo; Zhao, Cancan; Chen, Lei; Yi, Deliang; Chang, Jiang; Huang, Liping; Zheng, Xuebin; Zhu, Huiying; Xie, Youtao; Xu, Yuanjin; Lin, Kaili

    2015-02-01

    The bioactivity and stability of coatings on alloy implants play critical roles in the fast osseointegration and maintenance of a long-term life span of the implants, respectively. Herein, nano-sheet surface on bioactive calcium silicate (CaSiO3, CS) coatings on metal substrates was fabricated by combining atmosphere plasma spraying (APS) and hydrothermal technology (HT). The glassy phase in CS coatings generated by APS was converted into crystalline sheet-like nano-structures after HT treatment. Compared with the original CS coating samples, HT treatment decreased the degradation rate of the CS coatings. Moreover, the fabricated nano-structured topography of CS coatings increased the apatite mineralization ability and significantly enhanced the cell attachment, proliferation, differentiation, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and expression of osteogenic genes and angiogenic factors of rat bone marrow stromal cells (bMSCs). Our results suggest that the nano-structured CS coatings have immense potential in improving the clinical performance of medical implants.

  16. Genetic differences in osteogenic differentiation potency in the thoracic ossification of the ligamentum flavum under cyclic mechanical stress

    PubMed Central

    Ning, Shanglong; Chen, Zhongqiang; Fan, Dongwei; Sun, Chuiguo; Zhang, Chi; Zeng, Yan; Li, Weishi; Hou, Xiaofei; Qu, Xiaochen; Ma, Yunlong; Yu, Huilei

    2017-01-01

    Mechanical stress and genetic factors play important roles in the occurrence of thoracic ossification of ligament flavum (TOLF), which can occur at one, two, or multiple levels of the spine. It is unclear whether single- and multiple-level TOLF differ in terms of osteogenic differentiation potency and osteogenesis-related gene expression under cyclic mechanical stress. This was addressed in the present study using patients with non-TOLF and single- and multiple-level TOLF (n=8 per group). Primary ligament cells were cultured and osteogenesis was induced by application of cyclic mechanical stress. Osteogenic differentiation was assessed by evaluating alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and the mRNA and protein expression of osteogenesis-related genes, including ALP, bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP2), Runt-related transcription factor-2 (Runx-2), osterix, osteopontin (OPN) and osteocalcin. The application of cyclic mechanical stress resulted in higher ALP activity in the multiple-level than in the single-level TOLF group, whereas no changes were observed in the non-TOLF group. The ALP, BMP2, OPN and osterix mRNA levels were higher in the multiple-level as compared to the single-level TOLF group, and the levels of all osteogenesis-related genes, apart from Runx2, were higher in the multiple-level as compared to the non-TOLF group. The osterix and ALP protein levels were higher in the multiple-level TOLF group than in the other 2 groups, and were increased with the longer duration of stress. These results highlight the differences in osteogenic differentiation potency between single- and multiple-level TOLF that may be related to the different pathogenesis and genetic background. PMID:28004120

  17. The inhibitory effect of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticle (Ferucarbotran) on osteogenic differentiation and its signaling mechanism in human mesenchymal stem cells

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Ying-Chun; Hsiao, Jong-Kai; Liu, Hon-Man; Lai, I-Yin; Yao, Ming; Hsu, Szu-Chun; Ko, Bor-Sheng; Chen, Yao-Chang; Yang, Chung-Shi; Huang, Dong-Ming

    2010-06-01

    Superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO) nanoparticles are very useful for monitoring cell trafficking in vivo and distinguish whether cellular regeneration originated from an exogenous cell source, which is a key issue for developing successful stem cell therapies. However, the impact of SPIO labeling on stem cell behavior remains uncertain. Here, we show the inhibitory effect of Ferucarbotran, an ionic SPIO, on osteogenic differentiation and its signaling mechanism in human mesenchymal stem cells. Ferucarbotran caused a dose-dependent inhibition of osteogenic differentiation, abolished the differentiation at high concentration, promoted cell migration, and activated the signaling molecules, {beta}-catenin, a cancer/testis antigen, SSX, and matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP2). An iron chelator, desferrioxamine, suppressed all the above Ferucarbotran-induced actions, demonstrating an important role of free iron in the inhibition of osteogenic differentiation that is mediated by the promotion of cell mobilization, involving the activation of a specific signaling pathway.

  18. Inhibition of miR-222-3p activity promoted osteogenic differentiation of hBMSCs by regulating Smad5-RUNX2 signal axis.

    PubMed

    Yan, Jihong; Guo, Duo; Yang, Shu; Sun, Huaimei; Wu, Bo; Zhou, Deshan

    2016-02-12

    miRNAs are recently found playing important roles in osteogenesis. In this study, we identified that miR-222-3p decreased during osteogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells (hBMSCs) using Quantitative Real-Time Reverse Transcription PCR (qRT-PCR). Furthermore, we investigated the effect of miR-222-3p on osteogenic differentiation of hBMSCs. Inhibition of miR-222-3p function in hBMSCs using infection of lentiviruses carrying miR-222-3p specific inhibitor promoted expression of osteoblast-specific genes, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, and matrix mineralization. Whereas, overexpression of miR-222-3p inhibited osteoblast differentiation of hBMSCs in vitro. Moreover, Smad5 and RUNX2, which are the critical transcription factors in osteogenic differentiation, were predicted to be targets of miR-222-3p by bioinformatic analysis. Overexpression of miR-222-3p in hBMSCs significantly suppressed the protein levels of Smad5 and RUNX2, while inhibition of miR-222-3p increased their protein levels. Furthermore, inhibition of miR-222-3p increased phosphorylation of Smad1/5/8, which regulated the expression of osteogenic genes. Our findings suggest that suppression of miR-222-3p activity promoted osteogenic differentiation hBMSCs through regulating Smad5-RUNX2 signaling axis.

  19. Transcriptomics comparison between porcine adipose and bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells during in vitro osteogenic and adipogenic differentiation.

    PubMed

    Monaco, Elisa; Bionaz, Massimo; Rodriguez-Zas, Sandra; Hurley, Walter L; Wheeler, Matthew B

    2012-01-01

    Bone-marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSC) are considered the gold standard for use in tissue regeneration among mesenchymal stem cells (MSC). The abundance and ease of harvest make the adipose-derived stem cells (ASC) an attractive alternative to BMSC. The aim of the present study was to compare the transcriptome of ASC and BMSC, respectively isolated from subcutaneous adipose tissue and femur of 3 adult pigs, during in vitro osteogenic and adipogenic differentiation for up to four weeks. At 0, 2, 7, and 21 days of differentiation RNA was extracted for microarray analysis. A False Discovery Rate ≤0.05 for overall interactions effect and P<0.001 between comparisons were used to determine differentially expressed genes (DEG). Ingenuity Pathway Analysis and DAVID performed the functional analysis of the DEG. Functional analysis of highest expressed genes in MSC and genes more expressed in MSC vs. fully differentiated tissues indicated low immunity and high angiogenic capacity. Only 64 genes were differentially expressed between ASC and BMSC before differentiation. The functional analysis uncovered a potential larger angiogenic, osteogenic, migration, and neurogenic capacity in BMSC and myogenic capacity in ASC. Less than 200 DEG were uncovered between ASC and BMSC during differentiation. Functional analysis also revealed an overall greater lipid metabolism in ASC, while BMSC had a greater cell growth and proliferation. The time course transcriptomic comparison between differentiation types uncovered <500 DEG necessary to determine cell fate. The functional analysis indicated that osteogenesis had a larger cell proliferation and cytoskeleton organization with a crucial role of G-proteins. Adipogenesis was driven by PPAR signaling and had greater angiogenesis, lipid metabolism, migration, and tumorigenesis capacity. Overall the data indicated that the transcriptome of the two MSC is relatively similar across the conditions studied. In addition, functional analysis

  20. Osteogenic differentiation of stem cells from human exfoliated deciduous teeth on poly(ε-caprolactone) nanofibers containing strontium phosphate.

    PubMed

    Su, Wen-Ta; Wu, Pai-Shuen; Huang, Te-Yang

    2015-01-01

    Mimicking the architecture of the extracellular matrix is an effective strategy for tissue engineering. Composite nanofibers similar to natural bone structure can be prepared via an electrospinning technique and used in biomedical applications. Stem cells from human exfoliated deciduous teeth (SHEDs) can differentiate into multiple cell lineages, such as cells that are alternative sources of stem cells for tissue engineering. Strontium has important functions in bone remodeling; for example, this element can simulate bone formation and decrease bone resorption. Incorporating strontium phosphate into nanofibers provides a potential material for bone tissue engineering. This study investigated the potential of poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) nanofibers coated or blended with strontium phosphate for the osteogenic differentiation of SHEDs. Cellular morphology and MTT assay revealed that nanofibers effectively support cellular attachment, spreading, and proliferation. Strontium-loaded PCL nanofibers exhibited higher expressions of collagen type I, alkaline phosphatase, biomineralization, and bone-related genes than pure PCL nanofibers during the osteogenic differentiation of SHEDs. This study demonstrated that strontium can be an effective inducer of osteogenesis for SHEDs. Understanding the function of bioceramics (such as strontium) is useful in designing and developing strategies for bone tissue engineering.

  1. Electrospun fibrous scaffolds combined with nanoscale hydroxyapatite induce osteogenic differentiation of human periodontal ligament cells

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Xiaonan; Miao, Leiying; Yao, Yingfang; Wu, Wenlei; Liu, Yu; Chen, Xiaofeng; Sun, Weibin

    2014-01-01

    Periodontal repair is a complex process in which regeneration of alveolar bone is a vital component. The aim of this study was to develop a biodegradable scaffold with good biocompatibility and osteoinductive ability. Two types of composite fibrous scaffolds were produced by electrospinning, ie, type I collagen/poly(ε-caprolactone) (COL/PCL) and type I collagen/poly(ε-caprolactone)/nanoscale hydroxyapatite (COL/PCL/nHA) with an average fiber diameter of about 377 nm. After a simulated body fluid (SBF) immersion test, the COL/PCL/nHA-SBF scaffold developed a rough surface because of the calcium phosphate deposited on the fibers, suggesting that the presence of nHA promoted the mineralization potential of the scaffold. Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy clearly showed the calcium and phosphorus content in the COL/PCL/nHA and COL/PCL/nHA-SBF scaffolds, confirming the findings of nHA and calcium phosphate precipitation on scanning electron micrographs. Water contact analysis revealed that nHA could improve the hydrophilic nature of the COL/PCL/nHA-SBF scaffold. The morphology of periodontal ligament cells cultured on COL/PCL-SBF and COL/PCL/nHA-SBF was evaluated by scanning electron microscopy. The results showed that cells adhered to either type of scaffold and were slightly spindle-shaped in the beginning, then extended gradually with stretched filopodia, indicating an ability to fill the fiber pores. A Cell Counting Kit-8 assay showed that both scaffolds supported cell proliferation. However, real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis showed that expression of the bone-related markers, alkaline phosphatase and osteocalcin, was upregulated only on the COL/PCL/nHA-SBF scaffold, indicating that this scaffold had the ability to induce osteogenic differentiation of periodontal ligament cells. In this study, COL/PCL/nHA-SBF produced by electrospinning followed by biomimetic mineralization had combined electrospun fibers with nHA in it. This scaffold has

  2. [Activation of endoplasmic reticulum stress and its effect on osteogenic differentiation induced by micropit/nanotube topography].

    PubMed

    Shi, M Q; Song, W; Han, T X; Chang, B; Zhang, Y M

    2017-02-09

    Objective: To explore the activation of endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS) in bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell (BMMSC) and its effect on osteogenic differentiation induced by micropit/nanotube topography (MNT), so as to provide guidance for the topography design of biomaterials. Methods: Four sample groups were fabricated: polishing control group (polished titanium, PT, no treatment), thapsigargin treatment (TG, 0.1 μmol/L TG treated for 9 h), MNT5 and MNT20 (anodized at 5 V and 20 V after acid etching). Scanning electron microscope (SEM) was used to observe the topography of Ti samples. The alkaline phosphatase (ALP) production, collagen secretion and extracellular matrix (ECM) mineralization of BMMSC (osteogenic induced for 7, 14 and 21 d) on Ti samples were detected to evaluate the osteogenic differentiation. After 12 h incubation, the shape and size of ER was examined using a transmission electron microscope (TEM), and ERS-related genes including immunoglobulin heavy chain binding protein (BiP), protein kinase RNA-like endoplasmic reticulum kinase (PERK) and activating transcription factor 4 (ATF4) were detected by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). Results: After 7, 14 and 21 d of induction, the ALP production, collagen secretion and ECM mineralization in TG and MNT20 all significantly increased compared to PT (P<0.05). The cells grown on TG, MNT5 and MNT20 surfaces displayed gross distortions of the ER. Compared to PT, BiP, PERK, ATF4 mRNA expression in TG was respectively 1.87±0.10, 2.24±0.35, 1.85±0.14; BiP, ATF4 mRNA expression in MNT5 were respectively 1.27±0.09, 1.25±0.04; BiP, PERK, ATF4 mRNA expression in MNT20 were respectively 1.44±0.09, 2.40±0.60, 1.48±0.05 (P<0.05). Conclusions: MNT triggered different degree of ERS, and the activated ERS may promote MNT-induced osteogenic differentiation.

  3. Induction of osteogenic differentiation of stem cells via a lyophilized microRNA reverse transfection formulation on a tissue culture plate.

    PubMed

    Wu, Kaimin; Xu, Jie; Liu, Mengyuan; Song, Wen; Yan, Jun; Gao, Shan; Zhao, Lingzhou; Zhang, Yumei

    2013-01-01

    MicroRNA (miRNA) regulation is a novel approach to manipulating the fate of mesenchymal stem cells, but an easy, safe, and highly efficient method of transfection is required. In this study, we developed an miRNA reverse transfection formulation by lyophilizing Lipofectamine 2000-miRNA lipoplexes on a tissue culture plate. The lipoplexes can be immobilized on a tissue culture plate with an intact pseudospherical structure and lyophilization without any lyoprotectant. In this study, reverse transfection resulted in highly efficient cellular uptake of miRNA and enabled significant manipulation of the intracellular target miRNA level. Reverse transfection formulations containing Lipofectamine 2000 1 μL per well generated much higher transfection efficiency without obvious cytotoxicity compared with conventional and other transfection methods. Further, the transfection efficiency of the reverse transfection formulations did not deteriorate during 90 days of storage at 4°C and -20°C. We then assessed the efficiency of the miRNA reverse transfection formulation in promoting osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells. We found that transfection with anti-miR-138 and miR-148b was efficient for enhancing osteogenic differentiation, as indicated by enhanced osteogenesis-related gene expression, amount of alkaline phosphatase present, production of collagen, and matrix mineralization. Overall, the miRNA reverse transfection formulation developed in this study is a promising approach for miRNA transfection which can control stem cell fate and is suitable for loading miRNAs onto various biomaterials.

  4. Enhanced osteogenic activity and anti-inflammatory properties of Lenti-BMP-2-loaded TiO2 nanotube layers fabricated by lyophilization following trehalose addition

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xiaochen; Zhang, Zhiyuan; Shen, Gang; Zhao, Jun

    2016-01-01

    To enhance biocompatibility and osseointegration between titanium implants and surrounding bone tissue, numerous efforts have been made to modify the surface topography and composition of Ti implants. In this paper, Lenti-BMP-2-loaded TiO2 nanotube coatings were fabricated by lyophilization in the presence of trehalose to functionalize the surface. We characterized TiO2 nanotube layers in terms of the following: surface morphology; Lenti-BMP-2 and trehalose release; their ability to induce osteogenesis, proliferation, and anti-inflammation in vitro; and osseointegration in vivo. The anodized TiO2 nanotube surfaces exhibited an amorphous glassy matrix perpendicular to the Ti surface. Both Lenti-BMP-2 and trehalose showed sustained release over the course of 8 days. Results from real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction studies demonstrated that lyophilized Lenti-BMP-2/TiO2 nanotubes constructed with trehalose (Lyo-Tre-Lenti-BMP-2) significantly promoted osteogenic differentiation of bone marrow stromal cells but not their proliferation. In addition, Lyo-Tre-Lenti-BMP-2 nanotubes effectively inhibited lipopolysaccharide-induced interleukin-1β and tumor necrosis factor-α production. In vivo, the formulation also promoted osseointegration. This study presents a promising new method for surface-modifying biomedical Ti-based implants to simultaneously enhance their osteogenic potential and anti-inflammatory properties, which can better satisfy clinical needs. PMID:26869786

  5. Icariin promotes proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of rat adipose-derived stem cells by activating the RhoA-TAZ signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Ye, Yaping; Jing, Xingzhi; Li, Na; Wu, Yingxing; Li, Bingbing; Xu, Tao

    2017-04-01

    Icariin, the main active flavonoid glucoside isolated from Herba epimedii, has been demonstrated to be a potential alternative therapy to prevent postmenopausal osteoporosis. Icariin has also been shown to regulate the proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of rat bone marrow stromal cells (rBMSCs). However, the detailed molecular mechanism of icariin has remained largely unknown. Besides, no investigation has focused on the relevance of icariin in the regulation of rat adipose-derived stem cells (rASCs) proliferation and osteogenic differentiation. In the present study, we detected that icariin promotes proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of rASCs in a concentration range from 10(-8)M to 10(-6)M, with 10(-7)M to be the optimal concentration. We found that 10(-7)M icariin significantly increased active RhoA protein expression and ROCK substrate molecule p-MYPT1 expression in rASCs. C3 (the RhoA inhibitor) treatment abrogated the increased proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of rASCs induced by icariin. Interestingly, we also found that C3 abrogated the activation of TAZ induced by icariin. Depletion of TAZ by siRNA transfection significantly blocked icariin promoted proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of rASCs. However, icariin induced active RhoA protein expression was not affected by TAZ specific siRNA transfection, suggesting that RhoA lies upstream of TAZ. Taken together, our data indicate that icariin promotes proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of rASCs by activating the RhoA-TAZ signaling pathway.

  6. The Effect of 1α,25(OH)2D3 on Osteogenic Differentiation of Stem Cells from Dental Pulp of Exfoliated Deciduous Teeth

    PubMed Central

    Mojarad, Farzad; Amiri, Iraj; Rafatjou, Rezvan; Janeshin, Atousa; Farhadian, Maryam

    2016-01-01

    Statement of the Problem: Stem cells from human exfoliated deciduous teeth (SHEDs) are a population of highly proliferative cells, being capable of differentiating into osteogenic, odontogenic, adipocytes, and neural cells. Vitamin D3 metabolites such as 1α, 25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 are key factors in the regulation of bone metabolism. Purpose: The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of 1α, 25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 on osteogenic differentiation (alkaline phosphatase activity and alizarin red staining) of stem cells of exfoliated deciduous teeth. Materials and Method: Dental pulp was removed from freshly extracted primary teeth and immersed in a digestive solution. Then, the dental pulp cells were immersed in α-MEM (minimum essential medium) to which 10% fetal bovine serum was added. After the third passage, the cells were isolated from the culture plate and were used for osteogenic differentiation. As a control group, the cells were cultured in osteogenic cell culture medium. As the case group, the cells were cultured in osteogenic culture medium supplemented with 100 nM 1α,25 (OH)2D3. The alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and alizarin red staining were analyzed to evaluate the osteogenic differentiation at day 21. The results were analyzed by using t-test. Results: Compared with the control group, significant increase was observed in ALP activity of SHEDs after being treated with 1α,25(OH)2D3 (p= 0.002). Alizarin red staining demonstrated that the cells exposed to 1α,25(OH)2D3 induced higher mineralized nodules (p< 0.001). Conclusion: Osteoblast differentiation in SHEDs was stimulated by 1α,25(OH) 2D3. It can be concluded that 1α,25(OH)2D3 can improve osteoblastic differentiation. PMID:27942551

  7. Effects of immunosuppressants, FK506 and cyclosporin A, on the osteogenic differentiation of rat mesenchymal stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Byun, Yu-Kyung; Kim, Kyoung-Hwa; Kim, Su-Hwan; Kim, Young-Sung; Koo, Ki-Tae; Kim, Tai-Il; Seol, Yang-Jo; Ku, Young; Rhyu, In-Chul

    2012-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of the immunosuppressants FK506 and cyclosporin A (CsA) on the osteogenic differentiation of rat mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). Methods The effect of FK506 and CsA on rat MSCs was assessed in vitro. The MTT assay was used to determine the deleterious effect of immunosuppressants on stem cell proliferation at 1, 3, and 7 days. Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity was analyzed on days 3, 7, and 14. Alizarin red S staining was done on day 21 to check mineralization nodule formation. Real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was also performed to detect the expressions of bone tissue-specific genes on days 1 and 7. Results Cell proliferation was promoted more in the FK506 groups than the control or CsA groups on days 3 and 7. The FK506 groups showed increased ALP activity compared to the other groups during the experimental period. The ALP activity of the CsA groups did not differ from the control group in any of the assessments. Mineralization nodule formation was most prominent in the FK506 groups at 21 days. RT-PCR results of the FK506 groups showed that several bone-related genes-osteopontin, osteonectin, and type I collagen (Col-I)-were expressed more than the control in the beginning, but the intensity of expression decreased over time. Runx2 and Dlx5 gene expression were up-regulated on day 7. The effects of 50 nM CsA on osteonectin and Col-I were similar to those of the FK506 groups, but in the 500 nM CsA group, most of the genes were less expressed compared to the control. Conclusions These results suggest that FK506 enhances the osteoblastic differentiation of rat MSCs. Therefore, FK506 might have a beneficial effect on bone regeneration when immunosuppressants are needed in xenogenic or allogenic stem cell transplantation to treat bone defects. PMID:22803008

  8. Alginate hydrogel enriched with enamel matrix derivative to target osteogenic cell differentiation in TiO2 scaffolds.

    PubMed

    Pullisaar, Helen; Verket, Anders; Szoke, Krisztina; Tiainen, Hanna; Haugen, Håvard J; Brinchmann, Jan E; Reseland, Janne E; Østrup, Esben

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of bone tissue engineering is to employ scaffolds, cells, and growth factors to facilitate healing of bone defects. The aim of this study was to assess the viability and osteogenic differentiation of primary human osteoblasts and adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells from various donors on titanium dioxide (TiO2) scaffolds coated with an alginate hydrogel enriched with enamel matrix derivative. Cells were harvested for quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction on days 14 and 21, and medium was collected on days 2, 14, and 21 for protein analyses. Neither coating with alginate hydrogel nor alginate hydrogel enriched with enamel matrix derivative induced a cytotoxic response. Enamel matrix derivative-enriched alginate hydrogel significantly increased the expression of osteoblast markers COL1A1, TNFRSF11B, and BGLAP and secretion of osteopontin in human osteoblasts, whereas osteogenic differentiation of human adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells seemed unaffected by enamel matrix derivative. The alginate hydrogel coating procedure may have potential for local delivery of enamel matrix derivative and other stimulatory factors for use in bone tissue engineering.

  9. Alginate hydrogel enriched with enamel matrix derivative to target osteogenic cell differentiation in TiO2 scaffolds

    PubMed Central

    Pullisaar, Helen; Verket, Anders; Szoke, Krisztina; Tiainen, Hanna; Haugen, Håvard J; Brinchmann, Jan E; Reseland, Janne E

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of bone tissue engineering is to employ scaffolds, cells, and growth factors to facilitate healing of bone defects. The aim of this study was to assess the viability and osteogenic differentiation of primary human osteoblasts and adipose tissue–derived mesenchymal stem cells from various donors on titanium dioxide (TiO2) scaffolds coated with an alginate hydrogel enriched with enamel matrix derivative. Cells were harvested for quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction on days 14 and 21, and medium was collected on days 2, 14, and 21 for protein analyses. Neither coating with alginate hydrogel nor alginate hydrogel enriched with enamel matrix derivative induced a cytotoxic response. Enamel matrix derivative–enriched alginate hydrogel significantly increased the expression of osteoblast markers COL1A1, TNFRSF11B, and BGLAP and secretion of osteopontin in human osteoblasts, whereas osteogenic differentiation of human adipose tissue–derived mesenchymal stem cells seemed unaffected by enamel matrix derivative. The alginate hydrogel coating procedure may have potential for local delivery of enamel matrix derivative and other stimulatory factors for use in bone tissue engineering. PMID:26090086

  10. Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells become antiangiogenic when chondrogenically or osteogenically differentiated: implications for bone and cartilage tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Bara, Jennifer J; McCarthy, Helen E; Humphrey, Emma; Johnson, William E B; Roberts, Sally

    2014-01-01

    Osteochondral tissue repair requires formation of vascularized bone and avascular cartilage. Mesenchymal stem cells stimulate angiogenesis both in vitro and in vivo but it is not known if these proangiogenic properties change as a result of chondrogenic or osteogenic differentiation. We investigated the angiogenic/antiangiogenic properties of equine bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (eBMSCs) before and after differentiation in vitro. Conditioned media from chondrogenic and osteogenic cell pellets and undifferentiated cells was applied to endothelial tube formation assays using Matrigel™. Additionally, the cell secretome was analysed using LC-MS/MS mass spectrometry and screened for angiogenesis and neurogenesis-related factors using protein arrays. Endothelial tube-like formation was supported by conditioned media from undifferentiated eBMSCs. Conversely, chondrogenic and osteogenic conditioned media was antiangiogenic as shown by significantly decreased length of endothelial tube-like structures and degree of branching compared to controls. Undifferentiated cells produced higher levels of angiogenesis-related proteins compared to chondrogenic and osteogenic pellets. In summary, eBMSCs produce an array of angiogenesis-related proteins and support angiogenesis in vitro via a paracrine mechanism. However, when these cells are differentiated chondrogenically or osteogenically, they produce a soluble factor(s) that inhibits angiogenesis. With respect to osteochondral tissue engineering, this may be beneficial for avascular articular cartilage formation but unfavourable for bone formation where a vascularized tissue is desired.

  11. Incorporation of Fucoidan in β-Tricalcium phosphate-Chitosan scaffold prompts the differentiation of human bone marrow stromal cells into osteogenic lineage

    PubMed Central

    Puvaneswary, Subramaniam; Raghavendran, Hanumantharao Balaji; Talebian, Sepehr; Murali, Malliga Raman; A Mahmod, Suhaeb; Singh, Simmrat; Kamarul, Tunku

    2016-01-01

    In our previous study, we reported the fabrication and characterization of a novel tricalcium phosphate-fucoidan-chitosan (TCP-Fu-Ch) biocomposite scaffold. However, the previous report did not show whether the biocomposite scaffold can exhibit osteogenic differentiation of human bone marrow stromal cells in osteogenic media and normal media supplemented with platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF-BB). On day 15, the release of osteocalcin, was significant in the TCP-Fu-Ch scaffold, when compared with that in the TCP-Ch scaffold, and the level of release was approximately 8 and 6 ng/ml in osteogenic and normal media supplemented with PDGF-BB, respectively. Scanning electron microscopy of the TCP-Fu-Ch scaffold demonstrated mineralization and apatite layer formation on day 14, while the addition of PDGF-BB also improved the osteogenic differentiation of the scaffold. An array of gene expression analysis demonstrated that TCP-Fu-Ch scaffold cultured in osteogenic and normal media supplemented with PDGF-BB showed significant improvement in the expression of collagen 1, Runt-related transcription factor 2, osteonectin, bone gamma-carboxyglutamate protein, alkaline phosphatase, and PPA2, but a decline in the expression of integrin. Altogether, the present study demonstrated that fucoidan-incorporated TCP-Ch scaffold could be used in the differentiation of bone marrow stromal cells and can be a potential candidate for the treatment of bone-related ailments through tissue engineering technology. PMID:27068453

  12. Regulation of the osteogenic and adipogenic differentiation of bone marrow-derived stromal cells by extracellular uridine triphosphate: The role of P2Y2 receptor and ERK1/2 signaling

    PubMed Central

    LI, WENKAI; WEI, SHENG; LIU, CHAOXU; SONG, MINGYU; WU, HUA; YANG, YONG

    2016-01-01

    An imbalance in the osteogenesis and adipogenesis of bone marrow-derived stromal cells (BMSCs) is a crucial pathological factor in the development of osteoporosis. Growing evidence suggests that extracellular nucleotide signaling involving the P2 receptors plays a significant role in bone metabolism. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of uridine triphosphate (UTP) on the osteogenic and adipogenic differentiation of BMSCs, and to elucidate the underlying mechanisms. The differentiation of the BMSCs was determined by measuring the mRNA and protein expression levels of osteogenic- and adipogenic-related markers, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) staining, alizarin red staining and Oil Red O staining. The effects of UTP on BMSC differentiation were assayed using selective P2Y receptor antagonists, small interfering RNA (siRNA) and an intracellular signaling inhibitor. The incubation of the BMSCs with UTP resulted in a dose-dependent decrease in osteogenesis and an increase in adipogenesis, without affecting cell proliferation. Significantly, siRNA targeting the P2Y2 receptor prevented the effects of UTP, whereas the P2Y6 receptor antagonist (MRS2578) and siRNA targeting the P2Y4 receptor had little effect. The activation of P2Y receptors by UTP transduced to the extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) signaling pathway. This transduction was prevented by the mitogen-activated protein kinase inhibitor (U0126) and siRNA targeting the P2Y2 receptor. U0126 prevented the effects of UTP on osteogenic- and adipogenic-related gene expression after 24 h of culture, as opposed to 3 to 7 days of culture. Thus, our data suggest that UTP suppresses the osteogenic and enhances the adipogenic differentiation of BMSCs by activating the P2Y2 receptor. The ERK1/2 signaling pathway mediates the early stages of this process. PMID:26531757

  13. Osteogenic Differentiation Capacity of In Vitro Cultured Human Skeletal Muscle for Expedited Bone Tissue Engineering

    PubMed Central

    Miao, Chunlei; Zhou, Lulu; Tian, Lufeng; Zhang, Yingjie; Zhang, Wei; Yang, Fanghong; Liu, Tianyi

    2017-01-01

    Expedited bone tissue engineering employs the biological stimuli to harness the intrinsic regenerative potential of skeletal muscle to trigger the reparative process in situ to improve or replace biological functions. When genetically modified with adenovirus mediated BMP2 gene transfer, muscle biopsies from animals have demonstrated success in regenerating bone within rat bony defects. However, it is uncertain whether the human adult skeletal muscle displays an osteogenic potential in vitro when a suitable biological trigger is applied. In present study, human skeletal muscle cultured in a standard osteogenic medium supplemented with dexamethasone demonstrated significant increase in alkaline phosphatase activity approximately 24-fold over control at 2-week time point. More interestingly, measurement of mRNA levels revealed the dramatic results for osteoblast transcripts of alkaline phosphatase, bone sialoproteins, transcription factor CBFA1, collagen type I, and osteocalcin. Calcified mineral deposits were demonstrated on superficial layers of muscle discs after an extended 8-week osteogenic induction. Taken together, these are the first data supporting human skeletal muscle tissue as a promising potential target for expedited bone regeneration, which of the technologies is a valuable method for tissue repair, being not only effective but also inexpensive and clinically expeditious. PMID:28210626

  14. Osteogenic differentiation of cultured marrow stromal stem cells on surface of microporous hydroxyapatite based mica composite and macroporous synthetic hydroxyapatite.

    PubMed

    Nordström, E; Ohgushi, H; Yoshikawa, T; Yokobori, A T; Yokobori, T

    1999-01-01

    In order to investigate the significance of hydroxyapatite based microporous composite (HA/mica composite) surfaces and a macroporous synthetic hydroxyapatite, rat marrow cell culture, which shows osteogenic differentiation, was carried out on six different culture substrata (two control culture dishes, two identical HA/mica composites, and two identical macroporous synthetic hydroxyapatites). A culture period of two weeks in the presence of beta-glycerophosphate (BGP), ascorbic acid, and dexamethasone resulted in abundant mineralized nodule formations that were positive for alkaline phosphatase (ALP) stain. The stain on the macroporous synthetic hydroxyapatite and the HA/mica composites were intense, the enzyme activity being about double that of control culture dishes. These data indicate that the synthetic macroporous hydroxyapatite surface and the HA/mica composite surface promotes osteoblastic differentiation.

  15. Silencing tumor necrosis factor-alpha in vitro from small interfering RNA-decorated titanium nanotube array can facilitate osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhenlin; Hu, Zhiqiang; Zhang, Dawei; Zhuo, Mengchuan; Cheng, Jiwei; Xu, Xingping; Xing, Yongming; Fan, Jie

    2016-01-01

    Titanium implants are known for their bone bonding ability. However, the osseointegration may be severely disturbed in the inflammation environment. In order to enhance osseointegration of the implant in an inflamed environment, the small interfering RNA (siRNA) targeting tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) was used to functionalize titanium surface for gene silencing. The chitosan–tripolyphosphate–hyaluronate complexes were used to formulate nanoparticles (NPs) with siRNA, which were adsorbed directly by the anodized titanium surface. The surface characterization was analyzed by scanning electron microscope, atomic force microscopy, as well as contact angle measurement. The fluorescence microscope was used to monitor the degradation of the layer. The coculture system was established with mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) grown directly on functionalized titanium surface and RAW264.7 cells (preactivated by lipopolysaccharide) grown upside in a transwell chamber. The transfection and knockdown efficiency of TNF-α in RAW264.7 cells were determined by fluorescence microscope, quantitative polymerase chain reaction, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The cytoskeleton and osteogenic differentiation of MSCs were also analyzed. Regular vertical aligned nanotubes (~100 nm diameter and ~300 nm length) were generated after anodization of polished titanium. After loading with NPs, the nanotubes were filled and covered by a layer of amorphous particles. The surface topography changed and wettability decreased after covering with NPs. As expected, a burst degradation of the film was observed, which could provide sufficient NPs in the released supernatant and result in transfection and knockdown effects in RAW264.7 cells. The cytoskeleton arrangement of MSCs was elongated and the osteogenic differentiation was also significantly improved on NPs loading surface. In conclusion, the siRNA decorated titanium implant could simultaneously suppress inflammation and improve

  16. Silencing tumor necrosis factor-alpha in vitro from small interfering RNA-decorated titanium nanotube array can facilitate osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhenlin; Hu, Zhiqiang; Zhang, Dawei; Zhuo, Mengchuan; Cheng, Jiwei; Xu, Xingping; Xing, Yongming; Fan, Jie

    2016-01-01

    Titanium implants are known for their bone bonding ability. However, the osseointegration may be severely disturbed in the inflammation environment. In order to enhance osseointegration of the implant in an inflamed environment, the small interfering RNA (siRNA) targeting tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) was used to functionalize titanium surface for gene silencing. The chitosan-tripolyphosphate-hyaluronate complexes were used to formulate nanoparticles (NPs) with siRNA, which were adsorbed directly by the anodized titanium surface. The surface characterization was analyzed by scanning electron microscope, atomic force microscopy, as well as contact angle measurement. The fluorescence microscope was used to monitor the degradation of the layer. The coculture system was established with mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) grown directly on functionalized titanium surface and RAW264.7 cells (preactivated by lipopolysaccharide) grown upside in a transwell chamber. The transfection and knockdown efficiency of TNF-α in RAW264.7 cells were determined by fluorescence microscope, quantitative polymerase chain reaction, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The cytoskeleton and osteogenic differentiation of MSCs were also analyzed. Regular vertical aligned nanotubes (~100 nm diameter and ~300 nm length) were generated after anodization of polished titanium. After loading with NPs, the nanotubes were filled and covered by a layer of amorphous particles. The surface topography changed and wettability decreased after covering with NPs. As expected, a burst degradation of the film was observed, which could provide sufficient NPs in the released supernatant and result in transfection and knockdown effects in RAW264.7 cells. The cytoskeleton arrangement of MSCs was elongated and the osteogenic differentiation was also significantly improved on NPs loading surface. In conclusion, the siRNA decorated titanium implant could simultaneously suppress inflammation and improve

  17. Influence of different modifications of a calcium phosphate bone cement on adhesion, proliferation, and osteogenic differentiation of human bone marrow stromal cells.

    PubMed

    Vater, Corina; Lode, Anja; Bernhardt, Anne; Reinstorf, Antje; Heinemann, Christiane; Gelinsky, Michael

    2010-03-15

    Collagen and noncollagenous proteins of the extracellular bone matrix are able to stimulate bone cell activities and bone healing. The modification of calcium phosphate bone cements used as temporary bone replacement materials with these proteins seems to be a promising approach to accelerate new bone formation. In this study, we investigated adhesion, proliferation, and osteogenic differentiation of human bone marrow stromal cells (hBMSC) on Biocement D/collagen composites which have been modified with osteocalcin and O-phospho-L-serine. Modification with osteocalcin was carried out by its addition to the cement precursor before setting as well as by functionalization of the cement samples after setting and sterilization. hBMSC were cultured on these samples for 28 days with and without osteogenic supplements. We found a positive impact especially of the phosphoserine-modifications but also of both osteocalcin-modifications on differentiation of hBMSC indicated by higher expression of the osteoblastic markers matrix metalloproteinase-13 and bone sialo protein II. For hBMSC cultured on phosphoserine-containing composites, an increased proliferation has been observed. However, in case of the osteocalcin-modified samples, only osteocalcin adsorbed after setting and sterilization of the cement samples was able to promote initial adhesion and proliferation of hBMSC. The addition of osteocalcin before setting results in a finer microstructure but the biological activity of osteocalcin might be impaired due to the sterilization process. Thus, our data indicate that the initial adhesion and proliferation of hBMSC is enhanced rather by the biological activity of osteocalcin than by the finer microstructure.

  18. Naringin promotes osteogenic differentiation of bone marrow stromal cells by up-regulating Foxc2 expression via the IHH signaling pathway

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Fei-xiang; Du, Shi-xin; Liu, De-zhong; Hu, Qin-xiao; Yu, Guo-yong; Wu, Chu-cheng; Zheng, Gui-zhou; Xie, Da; Li, Xue-dong; Chang, Bo

    2016-01-01

    Naringin is an active compound extracted from Rhizoma Drynariae, and studies have revealed that naringin can promote proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs). In this study, we explored whether naringin could promote osteogenic differentiation of BMSCs by upregulating Foxc2 expression via the Indian hedgehog (IHH) signaling pathway. BMSCs were cultured in basal medium, basal medium with naringin, osteogenic induction medium, osteogenic induction medium with naringin and osteogenic induction medium with naringin in the presence of the IHH inhibitor cyclopamine (CPE). We examined cell proliferation by using a WST-8 assay, and differentiation by Alizarin Red S staining (for mineralization) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity. In addition, we detected core-binding factor α1 (Cbfα1), osteocalcin (OCN), bone sialoprotein (BSP), peroxisome proliferation-activated receptor gamma 2 (PPARγ2) and Foxc2 expression by using RT-PCR. We also determined Foxc2 and IHH protein levels by western blotting. Naringin increased the mineralization of BMSCs, as shown by Alizarin red S assays, and induced ALP activity. In addition, naringin significantly increased the mRNA levels of Foxc2, Cbfα1, OCN, and BSP, while decreasing PPARγ2 mRNA levels. Furthermore, the IHH inhibitor CPE inhibited the osteogenesis-potentiating effects of naringin. Naringin increased Foxc2 and stimulated the activation of IHH, as evidenced by increased expression of proteins that were inhibited by CPE. Our findings indicate that naringin promotes osteogenic differentiation of BMSCs by up-regulating Foxc2 expression via the IHH signaling pathway. PMID:27904711

  19. Effect of bioactive glass particles on osteogenic differentiation of adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells seeded on lactide and caprolactone based scaffolds.

    PubMed

    Larrañaga, Aitor; Alonso-Varona, Ana; Palomares, Teodoro; Rubio-Azpeitia, Eva; Aldazabal, Pablo; Martin, Francisco Javier; Sarasua, Jose-Ramon

    2015-12-01

    Incorporation of bioactive glass (BG) particles to synthetic polymer scaffolds is a promising strategy to improve the bioactivity of bioinert materials and to stimulate specific cell responses. In this study, the influence of incorporating BG particles to lactide and caprolactone based porous scaffolds on osteogenic differentiation of adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) was analyzed. Accordingly, ASCs were seeded on poly(L-lactide) (PLLA), poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL), or poly(L-lactide-co-ε-caprolactone) (PLCL) scaffolds containing 15 vol % of BG particles in two culture conditions: standard versus osteogenic culture medium. In standard culture medium, incorporation of BG to a PLLA scaffold increased the ALP activity with respect to its unfilled counterpart (ca. 1.2- and a 1.6-fold increase over 7 and 14 days, respectively). Moreover, in all the studied polymers the incorporation of BG induced a slightly higher production of mineralized matrix by ASCs, but the differences observed were not statistically significant. In the osteogenic medium, the effect of BG was masked by the effect of osteogenic supplements in the long-term. However, in the short-term (day 7), BG particles induced an early ALP activity of predifferentiated osteoblasts on PLLA and PCL scaffolds and higher matrix mineralization on PCL scaffolds. In summary, the addition of BG particles to PLLA and PCL scaffolds sustains ASC osteogenic differentiation, facilitates mineralization and induces the formation of a hydroxyapatite layer on the surface of the polymer scaffolds.

  20. Gluteal and abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue depots as stroma cell source: gluteal cells display increased adipogenic and osteogenic differentiation potentials.

    PubMed

    Iwen, Karl Alexander; Priewe, Anna-Christin; Winnefeld, Marc; Rose, Christian; Siemers, Frank; Rohwedel, Jürgen; Cakiroglu, Figen; Lehnert, Hendrik; Schepky, Andreas; Klein, Johannes; Kramer, Jan

    2014-06-01

    Human adipose-derived stroma cells (ADSCs) have successfully been employed in explorative therapeutic studies. Current evidence suggests that ADSCs are unevenly distributed in subcutaneous adipose tissue; therefore, the anatomical origin of ADSCs may influence clinical outcomes. This study was designed to investigate proliferation and differentiation capacities of ADSCs from the gluteal and abdominal depot of 8 females. All had normal BMI (22.01 ± 0.39 kg/m(2) ) and waist circumference (81.13 ± 2.33 cm). Examination by physicians and analysis of 31 laboratory parameters did not reveal possibly confounding medical disorders. Gluteal and abdominal adipose tissue was sampled by en bloc resection on day 7 (±1) after the last menses. Histological examination did not reveal significant depot-specific differences. As assessed by BrdU assay, proliferation of cells from both depots was similar after 24 h and analysis of 15 cell surface markers by flow cytometry identified the isolated cells as ADSCs, again without depot-specific differences. ADSCs from both depots differentiated poorly to chondroblasts. Gluteal ADSCs displayed significantly higher adipogenic differentiation potential than abdominal cells. Osteogenic differentiation was most pronounced in gluteal cells, whereas differentiation of abdominal ADSCs was severely impaired. Our data demonstrate a depot-specific difference in ADSC differentiation potential with abdominal cells failing to meet the criteria of multipotent ADSCs. This finding should be taken into account in future explorations of ADSC-derived therapeutic strategies.

  1. Vibration induced osteogenic commitment of mesenchymal stem cells is enhanced by cytoskeletal remodeling but not fluid shear.

    PubMed

    Uzer, Gunes; Pongkitwitoon, Suphannee; Ete Chan, M; Judex, Stefan

    2013-09-03

    Consistent across studies in humans, animals and cells, the application of vibrations can be anabolic and/or anti-catabolic to bone. The physical mechanisms modulating the vibration-induced response have not been identified. Recently, we developed an in vitro model in which candidate parameters including acceleration magnitude and fluid shear can be controlled independently during vibrations. Here, we hypothesized that vibration induced fluid shear does not modulate mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) proliferation and mineralization and that cell's sensitivity to vibrations can be promoted via actin stress fiber formation. Adipose derived human MSCs were subjected to vibration frequencies and acceleration magnitudes that induced fluid shear stress ranging from 0.04 Pa to 5 Pa. Vibrations were applied at magnitudes of 0.15 g, 1g, and 2g using frequencies of both 100 Hz and 30 Hz. After 14 d and under low fluid shear conditions associated with 100 Hz oscillations, mineralization was greater in all vibrated groups than in controls. Greater levels of fluid shear produced by 30 Hz vibrations enhanced mineralization only in the 2g group. Over 3d, vibrations led to the greatest increase in total cell number with the frequency/acceleration combination that induced the smallest level of fluid shear. Acute experiments showed that actin remodeling was necessary for early mechanical up-regulation of RUNX-2 mRNA levels. During osteogenic differentiation, mechanically induced up-regulation of actin remodeling genes including Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome (WAS) protein, a critical regulator of Arp2/3 complex, was related to the magnitude of the applied acceleration but not to fluid shear. These data demonstrate that fluid shear does not regulate vibration induced proliferation and mineralization and that cytoskeletal remodeling activity may play a role in MSC mechanosensitivity.

  2. Cytocompatibility with osteogenic cells and enhanced in vivo anti-infection potential of quaternized chitosan-loaded titania nanotubes

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Ying; Ao, Haiyong; Wang, Yugang; Lin, Wentao; Yang, Shengbing; Zhang, Shuhong; Yu, Zhifeng; Tang, Tingting

    2016-01-01

    Infection is one of the major causes of failure of orthopedic implants. Our previous study demonstrated that nanotube modification of the implant surface, together with nanotubes loaded with quaternized chitosan (hydroxypropyltrimethyl ammonium chloride chitosan, HACC), could effectively inhibit bacterial adherence and biofilm formation in vitro. Therefore, the aim of this study was to further investigate the in vitro cytocompatibility with osteogenic cells and the in vivo anti-infection activity of titanium implants with HACC-loaded nanotubes (NT-H). The titanium implant (Ti), nanotubes without polymer loading (NT), and nanotubes loaded with chitosan (NT-C) were fabricated and served as controls. Firstly, we evaluated the cytocompatibility of these specimens with human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells in vitro. The observation of cell attachment, proliferation, spreading, and viability in vitro showed that NT-H has improved osteogenic activity compared with Ti and NT-C. A prophylaxis rat model with implantation in the femoral medullary cavity and inoculation with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus was established and evaluated by radiographical, microbiological, and histopathological assessments. Our in vivo study demonstrated that NT-H coatings exhibited significant anti-infection capability compared with the Ti and NT-C groups. In conclusion, HACC-loaded nanotubes fabricated on a titanium substrate show good compatibility with osteogenic cells and enhanced anti-infection ability in vivo, providing a good foundation for clinical application to combat orthopedic implant-associated infections. PMID:27672479

  3. Osterix enhances proliferation and osteogenic potential of bone marrow stromal cells

    SciTech Connect

    Tu Qisheng; Valverde, Paloma . E-mail: paloma.valverde@tufts.edu; Chen, Jake

    2006-03-24

    Osterix (Osx) is a zinc-finger-containing transcription factor that is expressed in osteoblasts of all endochondral and membranous bones. In Osx null mice osteoblast differentiation is impaired and bone formation is absent. In this study, we hypothesized that overexpression of Osx in murine bone marrow stromal cells (BMSC) would be able to enhance their osteoblastic differentiation and mineralization in vitro. Retroviral transduction of Osx in BMSC cultured in non-differentiating medium did not affect expression of Runx2/Cbfa1, another key transcription factor of osteoblast differentiation, but induced an increase in the expression of other markers associated with the osteoblastic lineage including alkaline phosphatase, bone sialoprotein, osteocalcin, and osteopontin. Retroviral transduction of Osx in BMSC also increased their proliferation, alkaline phosphatase activity, and ability to form bone nodules. These events occurred without significant changes in the expression of {alpha}1(II) procollagen or lipoprotein lipase, which are markers of chondrogenic and adipogenic differentiation, respectively.

  4. MicroRNA expression profiling of human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells during osteogenic differentiation reveals Osterix regulation by miR-31.

    PubMed

    Baglìo, Serena Rubina; Devescovi, Valentina; Granchi, Donatella; Baldini, Nicola

    2013-09-15

    Osteogenesis is the result of a complex sequence of events that involve the differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) into osteoblasts. MSCs are multipotent adult stem cells that can give rise to different cell types of the mesenchymal germ layer. The differentiation fate of MSCs depends on the microenvironmental signals received by these cells and is tightly regulated by multiple pathways that lead to the activation of specific transcription factors. Among the transcription factors involved in osteogenic differentiation Osterix (Sp7) plays a key role and has been shown to be fundamental for bone homeostasis. However, the molecular events governing the expression of this transcription factor are not fully understood. In this study we set out to investigate the changes in the microRNA (miRNA) expression that occur during the osteogenic differentiation of bone marrow-derived MSCs. To this purpose, we analyzed the miRNA expression profile of MSCs deriving from 3 donors during the differentiation and mineralization processes by microarray. 29 miRNAs were significantly and consistently modulated during the osteogenic differentiation and 5 during the mineralization process. Interestingly, most of the differentially expressed miRNAs have been reported to be implicated in stemness maintenance, differentiation and/or oncogenesis. Subsequently, we focused our attention on the regulation of Osterix by miRNAs and demonstrated that one of the miRNAs differentially modulated during osteogenic differentiation, miR-31, controls Osterix expression through association to the 3' untranslated region of this transcription factor. By analyzing miR-31 and Osterix expression levels we found an inverse miRNA-target expression trend during osteogenic differentiation and in osteosarcoma cell lines. Moreover, the inhibition of the microRNA activity led to an increase in the endogenous expression of Osterix. Our results define a miRNA signature characterizing the osteogenic

  5. Lim Mineralization Protein 3 Induces the Osteogenic Differentiation of Human Amniotic Fluid Stromal Cells through Kruppel-Like Factor-4 Downregulation and Further Bone-Specific Gene Expression

    PubMed Central

    Barba, Marta; Pirozzi, Filomena; Saulnier, Nathalie; Vitali, Tiziana; Natale, Maria Teresa; Logroscino, Giandomenico; Robbins, Paul D.; Gambotto, Andrea; Neri, Giovanni; Michetti, Fabrizio; Pola, Enrico; Lattanzi, Wanda

    2012-01-01

    Multipotent mesenchymal stem cells with extensive self-renewal properties can be easily isolated and rapidly expanded in culture from small volumes of amniotic fluid. These cells, namely, amniotic fluid-stromal cells (AFSCs), can be regarded as an attractive source for tissue engineering purposes, being phenotypically and genetically stable, plus overcoming all the safety and ethical issues related to the use of embryonic/fetal cells. LMP3 is a novel osteoinductive molecule acting upstream to the main osteogenic pathways. This study is aimed at delineating the basic molecular events underlying LMP3-induced osteogenesis, using AFSCs as a cellular model to focus on the molecular features underlying the multipotency/differentiation switch. For this purpose, AFSCs were isolated and characterized in vitro and transfected with a defective adenoviral vector expressing the human LMP3. LMP3 induced the successful osteogenic differentiation of AFSC by inducing the expression of osteogenic markers and osteospecific transcription factors. Moreover, LMP3 induced an early repression of the kruppel-like factor-4, implicated in MSC stemness maintenance. KLF4 repression was released upon LMP3 silencing, indicating that this event could be reasonably considered among the basic molecular events that govern the proliferation/differentiation switch during LMP3-induced osteogenic differentiation of AFSC. PMID:23097599

  6. A Long-Acting BMP-2 Release System Based on Poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) Nanoparticles Modified by Amphiphilic Phospholipid for Osteogenic Differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Xiaochun; Chen, Yunsu; Li, Yamin; Wang, Yiming

    2016-01-01

    We explored a novel poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) (PHB) nanoparticle loaded with hydrophilic recombinant human BMP-2 with amphiphilic phospholipid (BPC-PHB NP) for a rapid-acting and long-acting delivery system of BMP-2 for osteogenic differentiation. The BPC-PHB NPs were prepared by a solvent evaporation method and showed a spherical particle with a mean particle size of 253.4 nm, mean zeta potential of −22.42 mV, and high entrapment efficiency of 77.18%, respectively. For BPC-PHB NPs, a short initial burst release of BMP-2 from NPs in 24 h was found and it has steadily risen to reach about 80% in 20 days for in vitro test. BPC-PHB NPs significantly reduced the burst release of BMP-2, as compared to that of PHB NPs loading BMP-2 without PL (B-PHB NPs). BPC-PHB NPs maintained the content of BMP-2 for a long-term osteogenic differentiation. The OCT-1 cells with BPC-PHB NPs have high ALP activity in comparison with others. The gene markers for osteogenic differentiation were significantly upregulated for sample with BPC-PHB NPs, implying that BPC-PHB NPs can be used as a rapid-acting and long-acting BMP-2 delivery system for osteogenic differentiation. PMID:27379249

  7. Tailoring the nanostructured surfaces of hydroxyapatite bioceramics to promote protein adsorption, osteoblast growth, and osteogenic differentiation.

    PubMed

    Lin, Kaili; Xia, Lunguo; Gan, Jingbo; Zhang, Zhiyuan; Chen, Hong; Jiang, Xinquan; Chang, Jiang

    2013-08-28

    To promote and understand the biological responses of the implant via nanostructured surface design is essential for the development of bioactive bone implants. However, the control of the surface topography of the bioceramics in nanoscale is a big challenge because of their brittle property. Herein, the hydroxyapatite (HAp) bioceramics with distinct nanostructured topographies were fabricated via hydrothermal treatment using α-tricalcium phosphate ceramic as hard-template under different reaction conditions. HAp bioceramics with nanosheet, nanorod and micro-nanohybrid structured surface in macroscopical size were obtained by controlling the composition of the reaction media. Comparing with the traditional sample with flat and dense surface, the fabricated HAp bioceramics with hierarchical 3D micro-nanotextured surfaces possessed higher specific surface area, which selectively enhanced adsorption of specific proteins including Fn and Vn in plasma, and stimulated osteoblast adhesion, growth, and osoteogenic differentiation. In particular, the biomimetic features of the hierarchical micro-nanohybrid surface resulted in the best ability for simultaneous enhancement of protein adsorption, osteoblast proliferation, and differentiation. The results suggest that the hierarchical micro-nanohybrid topography might be one of the critical factors to be considered in the design of functional bone grafts.

  8. Expression of OCT-4 and SOX-2 in Bone Marrow-Derived Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells during Osteogenic Differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Matic, Igor; Antunovic, Maja; Brkic, Sime; Josipovic, Pavle; Mihalic, Katarina Caput; Karlak, Ivan; Ivkovic, Alan; Marijanovic, Inga

    2016-01-01

    AIM: Determine the levels of expression of pluripotency genes OCT-4 and SOX-2 before and after osteogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs). METHODS: Human MSCs were derived from the bone marrow and differentiated into osteoblasts. The analyses were performed on days 0 and 14 of the cell culture. In vitro differentiation was evaluated due to bone markers – alkaline phosphatase (AP) activity and the messenger RNA (mRNA) expression of AP and bone sialoprotein (BSP). The OCT-4 and SOX-2 expression was evaluated at mRNA level by real-time qPCR and at protein level by immunocytochemistry. RESULTS: In vitro cultures on day 14 showed an increase in AP activity and upregulation of AP and BSP gene expression. OCT-4 and SOX-2 in undifferentiated hMSCs on day 0 is detectable and very low compared to tumor cell lines as a positive control. Immunocytochemistry detected OCT-4 in the cell nuclei prior (day 0) and post differentiation (day 14). On the same time points, cultures were negative for SOX-2 protein. CONCLUSION: Messenger RNA for pluripotency markers OCT-4 and SOX-2 isolated from hMSCs was less present, while OCT-4 protein was detected in cell nuclei prior and post differentiation into osteoblast lineage. PMID:27275321

  9. The scaffold protein Tks4 is required for the differentiation of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) into adipogenic and osteogenic lineages

    PubMed Central

    Dülk, Metta; Kudlik, Gyöngyi; Fekete, Anna; Ernszt, Dávid; Kvell, Krisztián; Pongrácz, Judit E.; Merő, Balázs L.; Szeder, Bálint; Radnai, László; Geiszt, Miklós; Csécsy, Dalma E.; Kovács, Tamás; Uher, Ferenc; Lányi, Árpád; Vas, Virag; Buday, László

    2016-01-01

    The commitment steps of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) to adipogenic and other lineages have been widely studied but not fully understood. Therefore, it is critical to understand which molecules contribute to the conversion of stem cells into differentiated cells. The scaffold protein Tks4 plays a role in podosome formation, EGFR signaling and ROS production. Dysfunction of Tks4 causes a hereditary disease called Frank-ter Haar syndrome with a variety of defects concerning certain mesenchymal tissues (bone, fat and cartilage) throughout embryogenic and postnatal development. In this study, we aimed to analyze how the mutation of Tks4 affects the differentiation potential of multipotent bone marrow MSCs (BM-MSCs). We generated a Tks4 knock-out mouse strain on C57Bl/6 background, and characterized BM-MSCs isolated from wild type and Tks4−/− mice to evaluate their differentiation. Tks4−/− BM-MSCs had reduced ability to differentiate into osteogenic and adipogenic lineages compared to wild type. Studying the expression profile of a panel of lipid-regulated genes during adipogenic induction revealed that the expression of adipogenic transcription factors, genes responsible for lipid droplet formation, sterol and fatty acid metabolism was delayed or reduced in Tks4−/− BM-MSCs. Taken together, these results establish a novel function for Tks4 in the regulation of MSC differentiation. PMID:27711054

  10. Differentiation of human CD146-positive endometrial stem cells to adipogenic-, osteogenic-, neural progenitor-, and glial-like cells.

    PubMed

    Fayazi, Mehri; Salehnia, Mojdeh; Ziaei, Saeideh

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the potential differentiation of CD146(+) endometrial stem cells to several lineages. Endometrial stromal cells were cultured using Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium/Hams F-12 (DMEM/F-12) and were passaged every 7-10 d when cultures reached 80-100% of confluency. The immunophenotypes of single endometrial cells were analyzed using flow cytometry at fourth passage. Then the CD146(+) cells were sorted using magnetic-activated cell sorting, and they were cultured and analyzed for in vitro differentiation to several lineages. Detection of adipocyte- and osteocyte-like cells were assessed by oil red O and alizarin red staining, respectively. For detection of neural progenitor and oligodendrocyte-like cells, the cells were immunostained by neurofilament 68 and oligo2, respectively. The rates of CD90, CD105, CD146, CD31, CD34, and CD9 of cultured endometrial cells were 94.98 ± 3%, 95.77 ± 2.5%, 27.61 ± 2%, 0.79 ± 0.05%, 1.43 ± 0.1%, and 1.01 ± 0.06%, respectively. CD146(+) cells were isolated to high purity. CD146(+)-differentiated cells to adipogenic cell with typical lipid-rich vacuoles and osteogenic cells were observed and confirmed their mesenchymal origin. They also differentiated into neural progenitor and glial differentiation by retinoic acid, basic fibroblast growth factor, and epidermal growth factor signaling molecules, respectively, and confirmed by neurofilament 68 and oligo2 immunocytochemistry. The efficiency of differentiation to neural progenitor and oligodendrocyte-like cells was 90 ± 3.4% and 79 ± 2.8%, respectively. This study showed that CD146(+) cells from human endometrium after in vitro cultivation can differentiate into adipogenic-, osteogenic-, neural progenitor-, and glial-like cells. They may provide available alternative source of stem cells for future cell-based therapies and tissue engineering applications.

  11. Inhibitory effect of CT domain of CCN3/NOV on proliferation and differentiation of osteogenic mesenchymal stem cells, Kusa-A1

    SciTech Connect

    Katsuki, Yuko; Sakamoto, Kei; Minamizato, Tokutaro; Makino, Hatsune; Umezawa, Akihiro; Ikeda, Masa-aki; Perbal, Bernard; Amagasa, Teruo; Yamaguchi, Akira; Katsube, Ken-ichi

    2008-04-11

    CCN3/NOV activates the Notch signal through the carboxyl terminal cysteine-rich (CT) domain. CCN3 transfection to Kusa-A1 inhibited osteogenic differentiation and cell proliferation, which is accompanied by upregulation of Hes/Hey, Notch downstream targets, and p21, a CDK inhibitor. Upregulation of Hes/Hey and p21 was abrogated by the deletion of CT domain. Anti-proliferative activity of CCN3 was also abrogated by CT domain deletion whereas anti-osteogenic activity was not completely abrogated. We found that CT domain-deleted CCN3 still possesses antagonistic effect on BMP-2. These results suggest that CCN3 employs Notch and BMP pathways in anti-osteogenic activity while it inhibits cell proliferation uniquely by Notch/p21 pathway.

  12. Role of the ER/NO/cGMP Signaling Pathway in the Promotion of Osteogenic Differentiation of Rat Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cells by Actaea racemosa Extract

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Shenlan; Zhou, Yanping; Zhu, Rui; Xu, Wei; Wu, Yanran; Deng, Danfang; Luo, Yingying

    2016-01-01

    Purpose/Objective. To investigate the effect of Actaea racemosa (AR) extract on in vitro osteogenic differentiation of rat bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) via the ER/NO/cGMP signaling pathway. Methods/Materials. Rat BMSCs were treated with osteogenic differentiation-inducing medium containing AR; estrogen receptor antagonist, ICI 182,780 (10−6 mol/L); and nitric oxide synthase inhibitor, L-nitro arginine methyl ester (L-NAME, 6 × 10−3 mol/L). Markers of osteogenic differentiation (alkaline phosphatase [ALP] activity, osteocalcin secretion, and calcium ion deposit levels) and the levels of key signaling molecules (nitric oxide synthase [NOS], nitric oxide [NO], and cyclic guanosine monophosphate [cGMP]) were assessed. Results. AR (10−1–10−6 g/L) increased ALP activity in a dose-dependent manner, and the highest ALP, osteocalcin, and osteoprotegerin activities were achieved at an AR concentration of 10−4 g/L. Therefore, the concentration of 10−4 g/L was used for promoting osteogenic differentiation of BMSCs in subsequent analyses. At this concentration, AR increased the levels of NO and cGMP, and such effects could be blocked by the estrogen receptor antagonist (ICI 182,780) and nitric oxide synthase inhibitor (L-NAME). Conclusion. AR induced osteogenic differentiation of rat BMSCs through the ER/NO/cGMP signaling pathway. This finding provides the theoretical foundation for the mechanism of AR in the treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis. PMID:27974901

  13. miR-23b targets Smad 3 and ameliorates the LPS-inhibited osteogenic differentiation in preosteoblast MC3T3-E1 cells.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hongzhi; Hao, Wei; Wang, Xin; Su, Hao

    2016-04-01

    Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) has been confirmed to be the main inhibitor in osteogenic differentiation, posing a clinical challenge to bone healing, particularly for trauma followed by endotoxinemia/sepsis. However, the molecular mechanism remains ambiguous. miR-23b, which regulates multiple signaling pathways in inflammation, has been shown to be deregulated by LPS. In this study, we examined the LPS-mediated regulation on the expression of miR-23b and Smad 3 in preosteoblast MC3T3-E1 cells. Then we determined the regulation of miR-23b overexpression on the Smad 3 expression and on the LPS-mediated inhibition of bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2)-induced osteogenic differentiation. Our results demonstrated that LPS significantly downregulated the expression of miR-23b, while upregulating Smad 3 in MC3T3-E1 cells. However, the transfection with miR-23b mimics markedly downregulated the Smad 3 in both mRNA and protein levels, via the specific binding to the 3'-untranslated region (UTR) of Smad 3. Moreover, though LPS markedly downregulated the BMP-2-induced osteogenic differentiation of MC3T3-E1 cells by inhibiting the expression of alkaline phosphatase (ALP), Osteocalcin (OCN), Osteopontin (OPN) and Runt-related transcription factor 2 (RUNX2). The upregulated miR-23b reversed such downregulation of ALP, OCN, OPN and RUNX2 in the MC3T3-E1 cells which were treated both with LPS and BMP-2. In conclusion, our data indicates that miR-23b ameliorates the LPS-mediated inhibition of BMP-2-induced osteogenic differentiation in MC3T3-E1 cells, implying the protective role of miR-23b in the LPS-mediated inhibition of osteogenic differentiation and bone formation.

  14. Differential expression of CCN-family members in primary human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells during osteogenic, chondrogenic and adipogenic differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Schutze, Norbert; Noth, Ulrich; Schneidereit, Jutta; Hendrich, Christian; Jakob, Franz

    2005-01-01

    Background The human cysteine rich protein 61 (CYR61, CCN1) as well as the other members of the CCN family of genes play important roles in cellular processes such as proliferation, adhesion, migration and survival. These cellular events are of special importance within the complex cellular interactions ongoing in bone remodeling. Previously, we analyzed the role of CYR61/CCN1 as an extracellular signaling molecule in human osteoblasts. Since mesenchymal stem cells of bone marrow are important progenitors for various differentiation pathways in bone and possess increasing potential for regenerative medicine, here we aimed to analyze the expression of CCN family members in bone marrow-derived human mesenchymal stem cells and along the osteogenic, the adipogenic and the chondrogenic differentiation. Results Primary cultures of human mesenchymal stem cells were obtained from the femoral head of patients undergoing total hip arthroplasty. Differentiation into adipocytes and osteoblasts was done in monolayer culture, differentiation into chondrocytes was induced in high density cell pellet cultures. For either pathway, established differentiation markers and CCN-members were analyzed at the mRNA level by RT-PCR and the CYR61/CCN1 protein was analyzed by immunocytochemistry. RT-PCR and histochemical analysis revealed the appropriate phenotype of differentiated cells (Alizarin-red S, Oil Red O, Alcian blue, alkaline phosphatase; osteocalcin, collagen types I, II, IX, X, cbfa1, PPARγ, aggrecan). Mesenchymal stem cells expressed CYR61/CCN1, CTGF/CCN2, CTGF-L/WISP2/CCN5 and WISP3/CCN6. The CYR61/CCN1 expression decreased markedly during osteogenic differentiation, adipogenic differentiation and chondrogenic differentiation. These results were confirmed by immuncytochemical analyses. WISP2/CCN5 RNA expression declined during adipogenic differentiation and WISP3/CCN6 RNA expression was markedly reduced in chondrogenic differentiation. Conclusion The decrease in CYR61/CCN1

  15. Correlation of NADH fluorescence lifetime and oxidative phosphorylation metabolism in the osteogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Han-Wen; Yu, Jia-Sin; Hsu, Shu-Han; Wei, Yau-Huei; Lee, Oscar K.; Dong, Chen-Yuan; Wang, Hsing-Wen

    2015-01-01

    Reduced nicotinamide dinucleotide (NADH) fluorescence lifetime has been broadly used as a metabolic indicator for stem cell imaging. However, the direct relationship between NADH fluorescence lifetime and metabolic pathway and activity remains to be clarified. In this study, we measured the NADH fluorescence lifetime of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) as well as the metabolic indictors, such as adenosine triphosphate (ATP) level, oxygen consumption, and lactate release, up to 4 weeks under normal osteogenic differentiation and oxidative phosphorylation-attenuated/inhibited differentiation by oligomycin A (OA) treatment. NADH fluorescence lifetime was positively correlated with oxygen consumption and ATP level during energy transformation from glycolysis to oxidative phosphorylation. Under OA treatment, oxidative phosphorylation was attenuated/inhibited (i.e., oxygen consumption remained the same as controls or lower), cells showed attenuated differentiation under glycolysis, and NADH fluorescence lifetime change was not detected. Increased expression of the overall complex proteins was observed in addition to Complex I. We suggested special caution needs to be exercised while interpreting NADH fluorescence lifetime signal in terms of stem cell differentiation.

  16. Effects of total flavonoids from Drynaria fortunei on the proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of rat dental pulp stem cells.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xiao-Fei; Yuan, Su-Jian; Yang, Cheng

    2012-09-01

    Dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) have the potential to form bone, nerve and fat, and are a candidate for use in regenerative medicine. Previous studies indicated that total flavonoids from Drynaria fortunei show a stimulative effect on the proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells in vitro. This study aimed to investigate the effect of total flavonoids from Drynaria fortunei on the proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of rat DPSCs, and to further clarify the mechanisms involved. DPSCs were isolated by enzymatic digestion and identified using the CD44, CD29 and CD34 markers by immunohistochemistry, and exposed to 0.01, 0.05 and 0.1 g/l total flavonoids from Drynaria fortunei media. Total flavonoids from Drynaria fortunei promoted the proliferation of DPSCs in a dose-dependent manner and this effect may depend on the shortening of the G0/G1 phase and promotion of the S phase. Compared with the control group, the levels of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and the expression of osteogenic genes increased with the concentrations of total flavonoids from Drynaria fortunei, and the volume and number of calcified nodules in the Drynaria groups was bigger compared to the control group. These results suggest that total flavonoid from Drynaria fortunei directly stimulates DPSC proliferation and osteogenic differentiation, and may serve as a new promising candidate drug for dental tissue engineering and bone regeneration.

  17. Effects of parathyroid hormone 1-34 on osteogenic and chondrogenic differentiation of human fracture haematoma-derived cells in vitro.

    PubMed

    Dogaki, Yoshihiro; Lee, Sang Yang; Niikura, Takahiro; Koga, Takaaki; Okumachi, Etsuko; Nishida, Kotaro; Kuroda, Ryosuke; Kurosaka, Masahiro

    2016-10-01

    Parathyroid hormone (PTH) 1-34 has been shown to accelerate fracture healing. Previously, we reported that progenitor cells with osteogenic and chondrogenic potential exist in human fracture haematoma, suggesting that the fracture haematoma-derived progenitor cells (HCs) contribute to fracture healing. However, there has been no study investigating the effect of PTH on HCs. We investigated the effect of pulsatile and continuous PTH treatment on human fracture HCs in vitro. HCs were isolated from seven patients. The HCs were divided into four groups: growth medium; control [osteogenic medium (OM) without PTH]; PTH-C (OM with continuous PTH); and PTH-P (OM with pulsatile PTH) groups. Osteogenic differentiation potential and proliferation of HCs were compared among the four groups. For chondrogenesis, the HCs were divided into two groups: control [chondrogenic medium (CM) without PTH]; and PTH-C (CM with continuous PTH) groups, and chondrogenic differentiation potential was analysed. PTH treatment did not affect cell proliferation, regardless of the mode of administration. Osteogenic activity was also not significantly affected by continuous PTH treatment but significantly inhibited by pulsatile PTH treatment. Conversely, chondrogenic differentiation was significantly inhibited by continuous PTH treatment. Our results revealed that PTH treatment on HCs, either continuous or pulsatile, does not exhibit any positive effect, and indicates that exogenous PTH administration after fracture has no effect on HCs. PTH may not have a positive effect at the fracture site during the early stage of fracture healing in which haematoma formation occurs. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Metallofullerene nanoparticles promote osteogenic differentiation of bone marrow stromal cells through BMP signaling pathway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Kangning; Cao, Weipeng; Hao, Xiaohong; Xue, Xue; Zhao, Jing; Liu, Juan; Zhao, Yuliang; Meng, Jie; Sun, Baoyun; Zhang, Jinchao; Liang, Xing-Jie

    2013-01-01

    Although endohedral metallofullerenol [Gd@C82(OH)22]n nanoparticles have anti-tumor efficiency and mostly deposit in the bones of mice, how these nanoparticles act in bone marrow stromal cells (MSCs) remains largely unknown. Herein, we observed that [Gd@C82(OH)22]n nanoparticles facilitated the differentiation of MSCs toward osteoblasts, as evidenced by the enhancement of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and mineralized nodule formation upon [Gd@C82(OH)22]n nanoparticle treatment. Mechanistically, the effect of [Gd@C82(OH)22]n nanoparticles on ALP activity was inhibited by the addition of noggin as an inhibitor of the BMP signaling pathway. Moreover, the in vivo results of the ovariectomized rats further indicated that [Gd@C82(OH)22]n nanoparticles effectively improved bone density and prevented osteoporosis.Although endohedral metallofullerenol [Gd@C82(OH)22]n nanoparticles have anti-tumor efficiency and mostly deposit in the bones of mice, how these nanoparticles act in bone marrow stromal cells (MSCs) remains largely unknown. Herein, we observed that [Gd@C82(OH)22]n nanoparticles facilitated the differentiation of MSCs toward osteoblasts, as evidenced by the enhancement of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and mineralized nodule formation upon [Gd@C82(OH)22]n nanoparticle treatment. Mechanistically, the effect of [Gd@C82(OH)22]n nanoparticles on ALP activity was inhibited by the addition of noggin as an inhibitor of the BMP signaling pathway. Moreover, the in vivo results of the ovariectomized rats further indicated that [Gd@C82(OH)22]n nanoparticles effectively improved bone density and prevented osteoporosis. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c2nr33575a

  19. Substance P stimulates bone marrow stromal cell osteogenic activity, osteoclast differentiation, and resorption activity in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Liping; Zhao, Rong; Shi, Xiaoyou; Wei, Tzuping; Halloran, Bernard P.; Clark, David J.; Jacobs, Christopher R.; Kingery, Wade S.

    2009-01-01

    Introduction SP is a neuropeptide distributed in the sensory nerve fibers that innervate the medullar tissues of bone, as well as the periosteum. Previously we demonstrated that inhibition of neuropeptide signaling after capsaicin treatment resulted in a loss of bone mass and we hypothesized that SP contributes to bone integrity by stimulating osteogenesis. Materials and Methods Osteoblast precursors (bone marrow stromal cells, BMSCs) and osteoclast precursors (bone marrow macrophages, BMMs) derived from C57BL/6 mice were cultured. Expression of the SP receptor (NK1) was detected by using immunocytochemical staining and PCR. Effects of SP on proliferation and differentiation of BMSCs were studied by measuring BrdU incorporation, gene expression, alkaline phosphatase activity, and osteocalcin and Runx2 protein levels with EIA and western blot assays, respectively. Effects of SP on BMMs were determined using a BrdU assay, counting multinucleated cells staining positive for tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP+), measuring pit erosion area, and evaluating RANKL protein production and NF-κB activity with ELISA and western blot. Results The NK1 receptor was expressed in both BMSCs and BMMs. SP stimulated the proliferation of BMSCs in a concentration-dependent manner. Low concentrations (10−12 M) of SP stimulated alkaline phosphatase and osteocalcin expression, increased alkaline phosphatase activity, and up-regulated Runx2 protein levels, and higher concentrations of SP (10−8 M) enhanced mineralization in differentiated BMSCs. SP also stimulated BMSCs to produce RANKL, but at concentrations too low to evoke osteoclastogenesis in co-culture with macrophages in the presence of SP. SP also activated NF-κB in BMMs and directly facilitate RANKL induced macrophage osteoclastogenesis and bone resorption activity. Conclusions NK1 receptors are expressed by osteoblast and osteoclast precursors and SP stimulates osteoblast and osteoclast differentiation and function in

  20. New insights in osteogenic differentiation revealed by mass spectrometric assessment of phosphorylated substrates in murine skin mesenchymal cells

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Bone fractures and loss represent significant costs for the public health system and often affect the patients quality of life, therefore, understanding the molecular basis for bone regeneration is essential. Cytokines, such as IL-6, IL-10 and TNFα, secreted by inflammatory cells at the lesion site, at the very beginning of the repair process, act as chemotactic factors for mesenchymal stem cells, which proliferate and differentiate into osteoblasts through the autocrine and paracrine action of bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs), mainly BMP-2. Although it is known that BMP-2 binds to ActRI/BMPR and activates the SMAD 1/5/8 downstream effectors, little is known about the intracellular mechanisms participating in osteoblastic differentiation. We assessed differences in the phosphorylation status of different cellular proteins upon BMP-2 osteogenic induction of isolated murine skin mesenchymal stem cells using Triplex Stable Isotope Dimethyl Labeling coupled with LC/MS. Results From 150 μg of starting material, 2,264 proteins were identified and quantified at five different time points, 235 of which are differentially phosphorylated. Kinase motif analysis showed that several substrates display phosphorylation sites for Casein Kinase, p38, CDK and JNK. Gene ontology analysis showed an increase in biological processes related with signaling and differentiation at early time points after BMP2 induction. Moreover, proteins involved in cytoskeleton rearrangement, Wnt and Ras pathways were found to be differentially phosphorylated during all timepoints studied. Conclusions Taken together, these data, allow new insights on the intracellular substrates which are phosphorylated early on during differentiation to BMP2-driven osteoblastic differentiation of skin-derived mesenchymal stem cells. PMID:24148232

  1. Adipose- and bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells display different osteogenic differentiation patterns in 3D bioactive glass-based scaffolds.

    PubMed

    Rath, Subha N; Nooeaid, Patcharakamon; Arkudas, Andreas; Beier, Justus P; Strobel, Leonie A; Brandl, Andreas; Roether, Judith A; Horch, Raymund E; Boccaccini, Aldo R; Kneser, Ulrich

    2016-10-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells can be isolated from a variety of different sources, each having their own peculiar merits and drawbacks. Although a number of studies have been conducted comparing these stem cells for their osteo-differentiation ability, these are mostly done in culture plastics. We have selected stem cells from either adipose tissue (ADSCs) or bone marrow (BMSCs) and studied their differentiation ability in highly porous three-dimensional (3D) 45S5 Bioglass®-based scaffolds. Equal numbers of cells were seeded onto 5 × 5 × 4 mm(3) scaffolds and cultured in vitro, with or without osteo-induction medium. After 2 and 4 weeks, the cell-scaffold constructs were analysed for cell number, cell spreading, viability, alkaline phosphatase activity and osteogenic gene expression. The scaffolds with ADSCs displayed osteo-differentiation even without osteo-induction medium; however, with osteo-induction medium osteogenic differentiation was further increased. In contrast, the scaffolds with BMSCs showed no osteo-differentiation without osteo-induction medium; after application of osteo-induction medium, osteo-differentiation was confirmed, although lower than in scaffolds with ADSCs. In general, stem cells in 3D bioactive glass scaffolds differentiated better than cells in culture plastics with respect to their ALP content and osteogenic gene expression. In summary, 45S5 Bioglass-based scaffolds seeded with ADSCs are well-suited for possible bone tissue-engineering applications. Induction of osteogenic differentiation appears unnecessary prior to implantation in this specific setting. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Effect of an Experimental Direct Pulp-capping Material on the Properties and Osteogenic Differentiation of Human Dental Pulp Stem Cells.

    PubMed

    Yu, Fan; Dong, Yan; Yang, Yan-Wei; Lin, Ping-Ting; Yu, Hao-Han; Sun, Xiang; Sun, Xue-Fei; Zhou, Huan; Huang, Li; Chen, Ji-Hua

    2016-10-04

    Effective pulp-capping materials must have antibacterial properties and induce dentin bridge formation; however, many current materials do not satisfy clinical requirements. Accordingly, the effects of an experiment pulp-capping material (Exp) composed of an antibacterial resin monomer (MAE-DB) and Portland cement (PC) on the viability, adhesion, migration, and differentiation of human dental pulp stem cells (hDPSCs) were examined. Based on a Cell Counting Kit-8 assay, hDPSCs exposed to Exp extracts showed limited viability at 24 and 48 h, but displayed comparable viability to the control at 72 h. hDPSC treatment with Exp extracts enhanced cellular adhesion and migration according to in vitro scratch wound healing and Transwell migration assays. Exp significantly upregulated the expression of osteogenesis-related genes. The hDPSCs cultured with Exp exhibited higher ALP activity and calcium deposition in vitro compared with the control group. The novel material showed comparable cytocompatibility to control cells and promoted the adhesion, migration, and osteogenic differentiation of hDPSCs, indicating excellent biocompatibility. This new direct pulp-capping material containing MAE-DB and PC shows promise as a potential alternative to conventional materials for direct pulp capping.

  3. Effect of an Experimental Direct Pulp-capping Material on the Properties and Osteogenic Differentiation of Human Dental Pulp Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Fan; Dong, Yan; Yang, Yan-wei; Lin, Ping-ting; Yu, Hao-han; Sun, Xiang; Sun, Xue-fei; Zhou, Huan; Huang, Li; Chen, Ji-hua

    2016-01-01

    Effective pulp-capping materials must have antibacterial properties and induce dentin bridge formation; however, many current materials do not satisfy clinical requirements. Accordingly, the effects of an experiment pulp-capping material (Exp) composed of an antibacterial resin monomer (MAE-DB) and Portland cement (PC) on the viability, adhesion, migration, and differentiation of human dental pulp stem cells (hDPSCs) were examined. Based on a Cell Counting Kit-8 assay, hDPSCs exposed to Exp extracts showed limited viability at 24 and 48 h, but displayed comparable viability to the control at 72 h. hDPSC treatment with Exp extracts enhanced cellular adhesion and migration according to in vitro scratch wound healing and Transwell migration assays. Exp significantly upregulated the expression of osteogenesis-related genes. The hDPSCs cultured with Exp exhibited higher ALP activity and calcium deposition in vitro compared with the control group. The novel material showed comparable cytocompatibility to control cells and promoted the adhesion, migration, and osteogenic differentiation of hDPSCs, indicating excellent biocompatibility. This new direct pulp-capping material containing MAE-DB and PC shows promise as a potential alternative to conventional materials for direct pulp capping. PMID:27698421

  4. Effect of an Experimental Direct Pulp-capping Material on the Properties and Osteogenic Differentiation of Human Dental Pulp Stem Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Fan; Dong, Yan; Yang, Yan-Wei; Lin, Ping-Ting; Yu, Hao-Han; Sun, Xiang; Sun, Xue-Fei; Zhou, Huan; Huang, Li; Chen, Ji-Hua

    2016-10-01

    Effective pulp-capping materials must have antibacterial properties and induce dentin bridge formation; however, many current materials do not satisfy clinical requirements. Accordingly, the effects of an experiment pulp-capping material (Exp) composed of an antibacterial resin monomer (MAE-DB) and Portland cement (PC) on the viability, adhesion, migration, and differentiation of human dental pulp stem cells (hDPSCs) were examined. Based on a Cell Counting Kit-8 assay, hDPSCs exposed to Exp extracts showed limited viability at 24 and 48 h, but displayed comparable viability to the control at 72 h. hDPSC treatment with Exp extracts enhanced cellular adhesion and migration according to in vitro scratch wound healing and Transwell migration assays. Exp significantly upregulated the expression of osteogenesis-related genes. The hDPSCs cultured with Exp exhibited higher ALP activity and calcium deposition in vitro compared with the control group. The novel material showed comparable cytocompatibility to control cells and promoted the adhesion, migration, and osteogenic differentiation of hDPSCs, indicating excellent biocompatibility. This new direct pulp-capping material containing MAE-DB and PC shows promise as a potential alternative to conventional materials for direct pulp capping.

  5. A novel strontium(II)-modified calcium phosphate bone cement stimulates human-bone-marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cell proliferation and osteogenic differentiation in vitro.

    PubMed

    Schumacher, M; Lode, A; Helth, A; Gelinsky, M

    2013-12-01

    In the present study, the in vitro effects of novel strontium-modified calcium phosphate bone cements (SrCPCs), prepared using two different approaches on human-bone-marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs), were evaluated. Strontium ions, known to stimulate bone formation and therefore already used in systemic osteoporosis therapy, were incorporated into a hydroxyapatite-forming calcium phosphate bone cement via two simple approaches: incorporation of strontium carbonate crystals and substitution of Ca(2+) by Sr(2+) ions during cement setting. All modified cements released 0.03-0.07 mM Sr(2+) under in vitro conditions, concentrations that were shown not to impair the proliferation or osteogenic differentiation of hMSCs. Furthermore, strontium modification led to a reduced medium acidification and Ca(2+) depletion in comparison to the standard calcium phosphate cement. In indirect and direct cell culture experiments with the novel SrCPCs significantly enhanced cell proliferation and differentiation were observed. In conclusion, the SrCPCs described here could be beneficial for the local treatment of defects, especially in the osteoporotic bone.

  6. ClC-3 Promotes Osteogenic Differentiation in MC3T3-E1 Cell After Dynamic Compression.

    PubMed

    Wang, Dawei; Wang, Hao; Gao, Feng; Wang, Kun; Dong, Fusheng

    2017-06-01

    ClC-3 chloride channel has been proved to have a relationship with the expression of osteogenic markers during osteogenesis, persistent static compression can upregulate the expression of ClC-3 and regulate osteodifferentiation in osteoblasts. However, there was no study about the relationship between the expression of ClC-3 and osteodifferentiation after dynamic compression. In this study, we applied dynamic compression on MC3T3-E1 cells to detect the expression of ClC-3, runt-related transcription factor 2 (Runx2), bone morphogenic protein-2 (BMP-2), osteopontin (OPN), nuclear-associated antigen Ki67 (Ki67), and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) in biopress system, then we investigated the expression of these genes after dynamic compression with Chlorotoxin (specific ClC-3 chloride channel inhibitor) added. Under transmission electron microscopy, there were more cell surface protrusions, rough surfaced endoplasmic reticulum, mitochondria, Golgi apparatus, abundant glycogen, and lysosomes scattered in the cytoplasm in MC3T3-E1 cells after dynamic compression. The nucleolus was more obvious. We found that ClC-3 was significantly up-regulated after dynamic compression. The compressive force also up-regulated Runx2, BMP-2, and OPN after dynamic compression for 2, 4 and 8 h. The proliferation gene Ki67 and PCNA did not show significantly change after dynamic compression for 8 h. Chlorotoxin did not change the expression of ClC-3 but reduced the expression of Runx2, BMP-2, and OPN after dynamic compression compared with the group without Cltx added. The data from the current study suggested that ClC-3 may promotes osteogenic differentiation in MC3T3-E1 cell after dynamic compression. J. Cell. Biochem. 118: 1606-1613, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Competing Roles of Substrate Composition, Microstructure, and Sustained Strontium Release in Directing Osteogenic Differentiation of hMSCs.

    PubMed

    Boda, Sunil Kumar; Thrivikraman, Greeshma; Panigrahy, Bharati; Sarma, D D; Basu, Bikramjit

    2016-09-12

    Strontium releasing bioactive ceramics constitute an important class of biomaterials for osteoporosis treatment. In the present study, we evaluated the synthesis, phase assemblage, and magnetic properties of strontium hexaferrite, SrFe12O19, (SrFe) nanoparticles. On the biocompatibility front, the size- and dose-dependent cytotoxicity of SrFe against human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) were investigated. After establishing their non-toxic nature, we used the strontium hexaferrite nanoparticles (SrFeNPs) in varying amount (x = 0, 10, and 20 wt %) to consolidate bioactive composites with hydroxyapatite (HA) by multi-stage spark plasma sintering (SPS). Rietveld refinement of these spark plasma sintered composites revealed a near complete decomposition of SrFe12O19 to magnetite (Fe3O4) along with a marked increase in the unit cell volume of HA, commensurate with strontium-doped HA. The cytocompatibility of SrHA-Fe composites with hMSCs was assessed using qualitative and quantitative morphological analysis along with phenotypic and genotypic expression for stem cell differentiation. A marked decrease in the stemness of hMSCs, indicated by reduced vimentin expression and acquisition of osteogenic phenotype, evinced by alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and collagen deposition was recorded on SrHA-Fe composites in osteoinductive culture. A significant upregulation of osteogenic marker genes (Runx2, ALP and OPN) was detected in case of the SrHA-Fe composites, whereas OCN and Col IA expression were similarly high for baseline HA. However, matrix mineralization was elevated on SrHA-Fe composites in commensurate with the release of Sr(2+) and Fe(2+). Summarizing, the current work is the first report of strontium hexaferrite as a non-toxic nanobiomaterial. Also, SrHA-based iron oxide composites can potentially better facilitate bone formation, when compared to pristine HA.

  8. [Regulatory effect of As₂O₃on imbalance between adipogenic and osteogenic differentiation of BM-MSC from patients with aplastic anemia].

    PubMed

    Lin, Quan-De; Fang, Bai-Jun; Zhou, Jian; Zhang, Yan-Li; Liu, Yang; Wang, Chao; Zhao, Jun-Mei; Song, Yong-Ping

    2014-12-01

    This study was aimed to explore the regulation of arsenic trioxide (As₂O₃) on imbalance between adipogenic and osteogenic differentiation of BM-MSC from patients with aplastic anemia(AA). The BM-MSC from AA patients were separated and purified, placed into the adipogenic and osteogenic differentiation culture system, then added the As₂O₃, CsA, As₂O₃combined with CsA were added to corresponding differentiation culture system, the concentration of As₂O₃and CsA were set at 0.001 µmol/ml and 2.5 mmol/ml respectively, the cells were divided into As₂O₃group, the CsA group, combined group and control group (no drug). The cell morphological observation, oil red 'O' staining, Von-Kossa staining, and RT-PCR were used to detect corresponding differentiation marks. The results indicated that in respect to adipogenic differentiation, cellular morphology observing and oil red 'O' staining showed that the rate of adipocyte differentiation in As₂O₃group was (18.3 ± 1.9)%, which was lower than the (91.8 ± 2.7)% in the CsA group and (92.1 ± 1.2)% in control group (P < 0.05), there was no significant difference in comparison with (8.3 ± 1.9)% in the combined group (P > 0.05), but the rate of differentiation in CsA group was higher than that in combined group (P < 0.05), and there was no significant difference in comparison wtih control group. RT-PCR showed that the LPL-mRNA expression level in As₂O₃group were significantly lower than that in the CsA group and the control group (P < 0.05), no difference was observed while compared with the combined group (P > 0.05), but the LPL-mRNA expression level in CsA group was significantly higher than that in the combined group (P < 0.05). In terms of osteogenetic differentiation, the calcium deposition in As₂O₃group and combined group was obviously observed while rarely in the CsA group and the control group when detected by the Von-Kossa staining. OST-mRNA expression level in As₂O₃group were higher

  9. Effect of micro-nano-hybrid structured hydroxyapatite bioceramics on osteogenic and cementogenic differentiation of human periodontal ligament stem cell via Wnt signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Mao, Lixia; Liu, Jiaqiang; Zhao, Jinglei; Chang, Jiang; Xia, Lunguo; Jiang, Lingyong; Wang, Xiuhui; Lin, Kaili; Fang, Bing

    2015-01-01

    The surface structure of bioceramic scaffolds is crucial for its bioactivity and osteoinductive ability, and in recent years, human periodontal ligament stem cells have been certified to possess high osteogenic and cementogenic differential ability. In the present study, hydroxyapatite (HA) bioceramics with micro-nano-hybrid surface (mnHA [the hybrid of nanorods and microrods]) were fabricated via hydrothermal reaction of the α-tricalcium phosphate granules as precursors in aqueous solution, and the effects of mnHA on the attachment, proliferation, osteogenic and cementogenic differentiations of human periodontal ligament stem cells as well as the related mechanisms were systematically investigated. The results showed that mnHA bioceramics could promote cell adhesion, proliferation, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, and expression of osteogenic/cementogenic-related markers including runt-related transcription factor 2 (Runx2), ALP, osteocalcin (OCN), cementum attachment protein (CAP), and cementum protein (CEMP) as compared to the HA bioceramics with flat and dense surface. Moreover, mnHA bioceramics stimulated gene expression of low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 5 (LRP5) and β-catenin, which are the key genes of canonical Wnt signaling. Moreover, the stimulatory effect on ALP activity and osteogenic and cementogenic gene expression, including that of ALP, OCN, CAP, CEMP, and Runx2 of mnHA bioceramics could be repressed by canonical Wnt signaling inhibitor dickkopf1 (Dkk1). The results suggested that the HA bioceramics with mnHA could act as promising grafts for periodontal tissue regeneration.

  10. Effect of micro-nano-hybrid structured hydroxyapatite bioceramics on osteogenic and cementogenic differentiation of human periodontal ligament stem cell via Wnt signaling pathway

    PubMed Central

    Mao, Lixia; Liu, Jiaqiang; Zhao, Jinglei; Chang, Jiang; Xia, Lunguo; Jiang, Lingyong; Wang, Xiuhui; Lin, Kaili; Fang, Bing

    2015-01-01

    The surface structure of bioceramic scaffolds is crucial for its bioactivity and osteoinductive ability, and in recent years, human periodontal ligament stem cells have been certified to possess high osteogenic and cementogenic differential ability. In the present study, hydroxyapatite (HA) bioceramics with micro-nano-hybrid surface (mnHA [the hybrid of nanorods and microrods]) were fabricated via hydrothermal reaction of the α-tricalcium phosphate granules as precursors in aqueous solution, and the effects of mnHA on the attachment, proliferation, osteogenic and cementogenic differentiations of human periodontal ligament stem cells as well as the related mechanisms were systematically investigated. The results showed that mnHA bioceramics could promote cell adhesion, proliferation, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, and expression of osteogenic/cementogenic-related markers including runt-related transcription factor 2 (Runx2), ALP, osteocalcin (OCN), cementum attachment protein (CAP), and cementum protein (CEMP) as compared to the HA bioceramics with flat and dense surface. Moreover, mnHA bioceramics stimulated gene expression of low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 5 (LRP5) and β-catenin, which are the key genes of canonical Wnt signaling. Moreover, the stimulatory effect on ALP activity and osteogenic and cementogenic gene expression, including that of ALP, OCN, CAP, CEMP, and Runx2 of mnHA bioceramics could be repressed by canonical Wnt signaling inhibitor dickkopf1 (Dkk1). The results suggested that the HA bioceramics with mnHA could act as promising grafts for periodontal tissue regeneration. PMID:26648716

  11. Differences in the Osteogenic Differentiation Capacity of Omental Adipose-Derived Stem Cells in Obese Patients With and Without Metabolic Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Gea, Antonio Leiva; Lhamyani, Said; Coín-Aragüez, Leticia; Torres, Juan Alcaide; Bernal-López, Maria Rosa; García-Luna, Pedro Pablo; Conde, Salvador Morales; Fernández-Veledo, Sonia

    2015-01-01

    Multiple studies have suggested that the reduced differentiation capacity of multipotent adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ASCs) in obese subjects could compromise their use in cell therapy. Our aim was to assess the osteogenic potential of omental ASCs and to examine the status of the isolated CD34negative-enriched fraction of omental-derived ASCs from subjects with different metabolic profiles. Omental ASCs from normal-weight subjects and subjects with or without metabolic syndrome were isolated, and the osteogenic potential of omental ASCs was evaluated. Additionally, osteogenic and clonogenic potential, proliferation rate, mRNA expression levels of proteins involved in redox balance, and fibrotic proteins were examined in the CD34negative-enriched fraction of omental-derived ASCs. Both the omental ASCs and the CD34negative-enriched fraction of omental ASCs from subjects without metabolic syndrome have a greater osteogenic potential than those from subjects with metabolic syndrome. The alkaline phosphatase and osteonectin mRNA were negatively correlated with nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase-2 mRNA and the mRNA expression levels of the fibrotic proteins correlated positively with nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase-5 mRNA and the homeostasis model assessment. Although the population doubling time was significantly higher in subjects with a body mass index of 25 kg/m2 or greater, only the CD34negative-enriched omental ASC fraction in the subjects with metabolic syndrome had a higher population doubling time than the normal-weight subjects. The osteogenic, clonogenic, fibrotic potential, and proliferation rate observed in vitro suggest that omental ASCs from subjects without metabolic syndrome are more suitable for therapeutic osteogenic applications than those from subjects with metabolic syndrome. PMID:26372179

  12. Differences in the Osteogenic Differentiation Capacity of Omental Adipose-Derived Stem Cells in Obese Patients With and Without Metabolic Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Oliva-Olivera, Wilfredo; Leiva Gea, Antonio; Lhamyani, Said; Coín-Aragüez, Leticia; Alcaide Torres, Juan; Bernal-López, Maria Rosa; García-Luna, Pedro Pablo; Morales Conde, Salvador; Fernández-Veledo, Sonia; El Bekay, Rajaa; Tinahones, Francisco José

    2015-12-01

    Multiple studies have suggested that the reduced differentiation capacity of multipotent adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ASCs) in obese subjects could compromise their use in cell therapy. Our aim was to assess the osteogenic potential of omental ASCs and to examine the status of the isolated CD34(negative)-enriched fraction of omental-derived ASCs from subjects with different metabolic profiles. Omental ASCs from normal-weight subjects and subjects with or without metabolic syndrome were isolated, and the osteogenic potential of omental ASCs was evaluated. Additionally, osteogenic and clonogenic potential, proliferation rate, mRNA expression levels of proteins involved in redox balance, and fibrotic proteins were examined in the CD34(negative)-enriched fraction of omental-derived ASCs. Both the omental ASCs and the CD34(negative)-enriched fraction of omental ASCs from subjects without metabolic syndrome have a greater osteogenic potential than those from subjects with metabolic syndrome. The alkaline phosphatase and osteonectin mRNA were negatively correlated with nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase-2 mRNA and the mRNA expression levels of the fibrotic proteins correlated positively with nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase-5 mRNA and the homeostasis model assessment. Although the population doubling time was significantly higher in subjects with a body mass index of 25 kg/m(2) or greater, only the CD34(negative)-enriched omental ASC fraction in the subjects with metabolic syndrome had a higher population doubling time than the normal-weight subjects. The osteogenic, clonogenic, fibrotic potential, and proliferation rate observed in vitro suggest that omental ASCs from subjects without metabolic syndrome are more suitable for therapeutic osteogenic applications than those from subjects with metabolic syndrome.

  13. Bifunctional coating based on carboxymethyl chitosan with stable conjugated alkaline phosphatase for inhibiting bacterial adhesion and promoting osteogenic differentiation on titanium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Dong; Neoh, Koon Gee; Kang, En-Tang

    2016-01-01

    In this work, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) was covalently immobilized on carboxymethyl chitosan (CMCS)-coated polydopamine (PDA)-functionalized Ti to achieve a bifunctional surface. Our results showed ∼89% reduction in Staphylococcus epidermidis adhesion on this surface compared to that on pristine Ti. The ALP-modified Ti supported cell proliferation, and significantly enhanced cellular ALP activity and calcium deposition of osteoblasts, human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) and human adipose-derived stem cells (hADSCs). The extent of enhancement in the functions of these cells is dependent on the surface density of immobilized ALP. The substrate prepared using an ALP solution of 50 μg/cm2 resulted in 44%, 54% and 129% increase in calcium deposited by osteoblasts, hMSCs and hADSCs, respectively, compared to those cultured on pristine Ti. The ALP-modified substrates also promoted the osteogenic differentiation of hMSCs and hADSCs by up-regulating gene expressions of runt-related transcription factor 2 (RUNX2), osterix (OSX), and osteocalcin (OC) in the two types of stem cells. The surface-immobilized ALP was stable after being subjected to 1 h immersion in 70% ethanol and autoclaving at 121 °C for 20 min. However, the enzymatic bioactivity of the surface-immobilized ALP was reduced by about 50% after these substrates were immersed in phosphate buffered saline (PBS) or PBS containing lysozyme for 14 days.

  14. Akt phosphorylates and regulates the osteogenic activity of Osterix.

    PubMed

    Choi, You Hee; Jeong, Hyung Min; Jin, Yun-Hye; Li, Hongyan; Yeo, Chang-Yeol; Lee, Kwang-Youl

    2011-08-05

    Osterix (Osx), a zinc-finger transcription factor is required for osteoblast differentiation and new bone formation during embryonic development. Akt is a member of the serine/threonine-specific protein kinase and plays important roles in osteoblast differentiation. The function of Osterix can be also modulated by post-translational modification. But, the precise molecular signaling mechanisms between Osterix and Akt are not known. In this study, we investigated the potential regulation of Osterix function by Akt in osteoblast differentiation. We found that Akt phosphorylates Osterix and that Akt activation increases protein stability, osteogenic activity and transcriptional activity of Osterix. We also found that BMP-2 increases the protein level of Osterix in an Akt activity-dependent manner. These results suggest that Akt activity enhances the osteogenic function of Osterix, at least in part, through protein stabilization and that BMP-2 regulates the osteogenic function of Osterix, at least in part, through Akt.

  15. miR-223 Regulates Adipogenic and Osteogenic Differentiation of Mesenchymal Stem Cells Through a C/EBPs/miR-223/FGFR2 Regulatory Feedback Loop.

    PubMed

    Guan, Xiaohui; Gao, Yifei; Zhou, Jie; Wang, Jun; Zheng, Fang; Guo, Fei; Chang, Ailing; Li, Xiaoxia; Wang, Baoli

    2015-05-01

    Several miRNAs have recently been identified to regulate adipocyte or osteoblast differentiation or both. In this study, miR-223 was found to be involved in the reciprocal regulation of adipocyte and osteoblast differentiation. miR-223 was induced in primary cultured mouse marrow stromal cell, mesenchymal line C3H10T1/2 and stromal line ST2 after adipogenic treatment. Conversely, it was reduced in preosteoblast MC3T3-E1 after osteogenic treatment. Supplementing miR-223 levels using synthetic miR-223 mimics significantly suppressed the growth of the C3H10T1/2 and ST2 cells and induced the progenitor cells to fully differentiate into adipocytes, along with induction of adipocyte-specific transcription factors peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ, CCAAT/enhancer binding protein-α (C/EBPα), and marker genes aP2 and adipsin. By contrast, depletion of the endogenous miR-223 using synthetic miR-223 inhibitor repressed the progenitor cells to differentiate. The effects of miR-223 on adipocyte formation from ST2 cells were also demonstrated by using lentivirus that overexpresses miR-223. Conversely, supplementing miR-223 blocked ST2 to differentiate into osteoblasts. Fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 (Fgfr2), a critical regulator of osteoblast, was shown to be a direct target of miR-223 by using dual luciferase reporter assay. Knockdown of Fgfr2 in C3H10T1/2 downregulated phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and upregulated expression of C/EBPα and dramatically enhanced the differentiation of the cells into adipocytes. Further investigation of mechanisms that control miR-223 expression demonstrated that C/EBPs induced miR-223 expression through binding to the promoter regions of the miR-223. Taken together, our study provides evidences that miR-223 regulates adipocyte and osteoblast differentiation through a novel C/EBPs/miR-223/FGFR2 regulatory feedback loop.

  16. Co(II)-mediated effects of plain and plasma immersion ion implanted cobalt-chromium alloys on the osteogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells.

    PubMed

    Schröck, Kathleen; Lutz, Johanna; Mändl, Stephan; Hacker, Michael C; Kamprad, Manja; Schulz-Siegmund, Michaela

    2015-03-01

    Medical CoCr is one of the main alloys used for metal-on-metal prosthesis in patients with total hip arthroplasty. CoCr surfaces modified by nitrogen plasma immersion ion implantation (PIII) are characterized by improved wear resistance but also showed increased Co(II) ion release under in vitro conditions. For the first time, CoCr modified by nitrogen PIII was evaluated with regard to its effect on the osteogenic differentiation of MSC. The activity of alkaline phosphatase, the expression of the osteogenic genes Runt-related transcription factor 2, osteopontin as well as integrin-binding bone sialoprotein and the production of osteocalcin and hydroxyapatite were determined. The results of our study demonstrate that Co(II) ions released from the alloy affected the osteogenic differentiation of MSC. Distinct differences in differentiation markers were found between pristine and modified alloys for osteocalcin but not for integrin-binding sialoprotein and hydroxyapatite. Interestingly, osteopontin was upregulated in naive and differentiated MSC by Co(II) ions and modified CoCr, likely through the induction of a cellular hypoxic response. The findings of this study contribute to a better understanding of possible risk factors with regard to a clinical applicability of surface modified CoCr implant materials.

  17. Promotion of osteogenic differentiation of stem cells and increase of bone-bonding ability in vivo using urease-treated titanium coated with calcium phosphate and gelatin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Zhong-Ming; Qi, Yi-Ying; Du, Shao-Hua; Feng, Gang; Unuma, Hidero; Yan, Wei-Qi

    2013-10-01

    Because of its excellent biocompatibility and low allergenicity, titanium has been widely used for bone replacement and tissue engineering. To produce a desirable composite with enhanced bone response and mechanical strength, in this study bioactive calcium phosphate (CaP) and gelatin composites were coated onto titanium (Ti) via a novel urease technique. The cellular responses to the CaP/gelatin/Ti (CaP/gel/Ti) and bone bonding ability were evaluated with proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) on CaP/gel/Ti and CaP/Ti in vitro. The results showed that the optical density values, alkaline phosphatase expression and genes expression of MSCs on CaP/gel/Ti were similar to those on CaP/Ti, yet significantly higher than those on pure Ti (p < 0.05). CaP/gel/Ti and CaP/Ti rods (2 mm in diameter, 10 mm in length) were also implanted into femoral shaft of rabbits and pure Ti rods served as control (n = 10). Histological examination, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) measurements were performed at 4 and 8 weeks after the operation. The histological and SEM observations demonstrated clearly that more new bone formed on the surface of CaP/gel/Ti than in the other two groups at each time point. The CaP/gel/Ti bonded to the surrounding bone directly with no intervening soft tissue layer. An interfacial layer, containing Ti, Ca and P, was found to form at the interface between bone and the implant on all three groups by EDS analysis. However, the content of Ca, P in the surface of CaP/gel/Ti implants was more than in the other two groups at each time point. The CaP/gel/Ti modified by t