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Sample records for enhances proteasome activity

  1. Altered composition of liver proteasome assemblies contributes to enhanced proteasome activity in the exceptionally long-lived naked mole-rat.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, Karl A; Edrey, Yael H; Osmulski, Pawel; Gaczynska, Maria; Buffenstein, Rochelle

    2012-01-01

    The longest-lived rodent, the naked mole-rat (Bathyergidae; Heterocephalus glaber), maintains robust health for at least 75% of its 32 year lifespan, suggesting that the decline in genomic integrity or protein homeostasis routinely observed during aging, is either attenuated or delayed in this extraordinarily long-lived species. The ubiquitin proteasome system (UPS) plays an integral role in protein homeostasis by degrading oxidatively-damaged and misfolded proteins. In this study, we examined proteasome activity in naked mole-rats and mice in whole liver lysates as well as three subcellular fractions to probe the mechanisms behind the apparently enhanced effectiveness of UPS. We found that when compared with mouse samples, naked mole-rats had significantly higher chymotrypsin-like (ChT-L) activity and a two-fold increase in trypsin-like (T-L) in both whole lysates as well as cytosolic fractions. Native gel electrophoresis of the whole tissue lysates showed that the 20S proteasome was more active in the longer-lived species and that 26S proteasome was both more active and more populous. Western blot analyses revealed that both 19S subunits and immunoproteasome catalytic subunits are present in greater amounts in the naked mole-rat suggesting that the observed higher specific activity may be due to the greater proportion of immunoproteasomes in livers of healthy young adults. It thus appears that proteasomes in this species are primed for the efficient removal of stress-damaged proteins. Further characterization of the naked mole-rat proteasome and its regulation could lead to important insights on how the cells in these animals handle increased stress and protein damage to maintain a longer health in their tissues and ultimately a longer life.

  2. The 19S proteasomal lid subunit POH1 enhances the transcriptional activation by Mitf in osteoclasts.

    PubMed

    Schwarz, Toni; Sohn, Chee; Kaiser, Bria; Jensen, Eric D; Mansky, Kim C

    2010-04-01

    The microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (Mitf) regulates gene expression required for osteoclast differentiation. Genes regulated by Mitf have been previously identified. However, proteins that interact and regulate Mitf's activity in osteoclasts are not well known. Here, we report that POH1, a subunit of the 19S proteasome lid is a regulator of Mitf. We show that POH1 and Mitf interact in osteoclasts and that this interaction is dependent on RANKL signaling. Overexpression of POH1 increased Mitf's activation of 5XGal4-TK and Acp5 promoters. The amino terminus of POH1 mediates the binding to Mitf and is sufficient to increase Mitf's transcriptional activity. Finally, we show that mutations in the JAMM motif of POH1 reduced Mitf activation of promoters. In summary, our results identify a novel mechanism of Mitf regulation in osteoclasts by POH1.

  3. Proteasomes: Isolation and Activity Assays

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yanjie; Tomko, Robert J.; Hochstrasser, Mark

    2015-01-01

    In eukaryotes, damaged or unneeded proteins are typically degraded by the ubiquitin-proteasome system. In this system, the protein substrate is often first covalently modified with a chain of ubiquitin polypeptides. This chain serves as a signal for delivery to the 26S proteasome, a 2.5 MDa, ATP-dependent multisubunit protease complex. The proteasome consists of a barrel-shaped 20S core particle (CP) that is capped on one or both of its ends by a 19S regulatory particle (RP). The RP is responsible for recognizing the substrate, unfolding it, and translocating it into the CP for destruction. Here we describe simple, one-step purifications scheme for isolating the 26S proteasome and its 19S RP and 20S CP subcomplexes from the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, as well as assays for measuring ubiquitin-dependent and ubiquitin-independent proteolytic activity in vitro. PMID:26061243

  4. Proteasome activation as a novel anti-aging strategy.

    PubMed

    Gonos, Efstathios

    2014-10-01

    Aging and longevity are two multifactorial biological phenomena whose knowledge at molecular level is still limited. We have studied proteasome function in replicative senescence and cell survival (Mol Aspects Med 35, 1-71, 2014). We have observed reduced levels of proteasome content and activities in senescent cells due to the down-regulation of the catalytic subunits of the 20S complex (J Biol Chem 278, 28026-28037, 2003). In support, partial inhibition of proteasomes in young cells by specific inhibitors induces premature senescence which is p53 dependent (Aging Cell 7, 717-732, 2008). Stable over-expression of catalytic subunits or POMP resulted in enhanced proteasome assembly and activities and increased cell survival following treatments with various oxidants. Importantly, the developed "proteasome activated" human fibroblasts cell lines exhibit a delay of senescence by approximately 15% (J Biol Chem 280, 11840-11850, 2005; J Biol Chem 284, 30076-30086, 2009). Our current work proposes that proteasome activation is an evolutionary conserved mechanism, as it can delay aging in various in vivo systems. Moreover, additional findings indicate that the recorded proteasome activation by many inducers is Nrf2-dependent (J Biol Chem 285, 8171-8184, 2010). Finally, we have studied the proteolysis processes of various age-related proteins and we have identified that CHIP is a major p53 E3 ligase in senescent fibroblasts (Free Rad Biol Med 50, 157-165, 2011).

  5. Proteasome activator 200: the heat is on...

    PubMed

    Savulescu, Anca F; Glickman, Michael H

    2011-05-01

    Proteasomes play a key regulatory role in all eukaryotic cells by removing proteins in a timely manner. There are two predominant forms: The 20S core particle (CP) can hydrolyze peptides and certain unstructured proteins, and the 26S holoenzyme is able to proteolyse most proteins conjugated to ubiquitin. The 26S complex consists of a CP barrel with a 19S regulatory particle (RP; a.k.a PA700) attached to its outer surface. Several studies purified another proteasome activator with a MW of 200 kDa (PA200) that attaches to the same outer ring of the CP. A role for PA200 has been demonstrated in spermatogenesis, in response to DNA repair and in maintenance of mitochondrial inheritance. Enhanced levels of PA200-CP complexes are observed under conditions in which either activated or disrupted CP prevail, suggesting it participates in regulating overall proteolytic activity. PA200, or its yeast ortholog Blm10, may also incorporate into 26S proteasomes yielding PA200-CP-RP hybrids. A three-dimensional molecular structure determined by x-ray crystallography of Blm10-CP provides a model for activation. The carboxy terminus of Blm10 inserts into a dedicated pocket in the outer ring of the CP surface, whereas multiple HEAT-like repeats fold into an asymmetric solenoid wrapping around the central pore to stabilize a partially open conformation. The resulting hollow domelike structure caps the entire CP surface. This asymmetric structure may provide insight as to how the 19S RP, with two HEAT repeatlike subunits (Rpn1, Rpn2) alongside six ATPases (Rpt1-6), attaches to the same surface of the CP ring, and likewise, induces pore opening.

  6. Caspase activation inhibits proteasome function during apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xiao-Ming; Butterworth, Michael; MacFarlane, Marion; Dubiel, Wolfgang; Ciechanover, Aaron; Cohen, Gerald M

    2004-04-09

    The ubiquitin/proteasome system regulates protein turnover by degrading polyubiquitinated proteins. To date, all studies on the relationship of apoptosis and the proteasome have emphasized the key role of the proteasome in the regulation of apoptosis, by virtue of its ability to degrade regulatory molecules involved in apoptosis. We now demonstrate how induction of apoptosis may regulate the activity of the proteasome. During apoptosis, caspase activation results in the cleavage of three specific subunits of the 19S regulatory complex of the proteasome: S6' (Rpt5) and S5a (Rpn10), whose role is to recognize polyubiquitinated substrates of the proteasome, and S1 (Rpn2), which with S5a and S2 (Rpn1) holds together the lid and base of the 19S regulatory complex. This caspase-mediated cleavage inhibits the proteasomal degradation of ubiquitin-dependent and -independent cellular substrates, including proapoptotic molecules such as Smac, so facilitating the execution of the apoptotic program by providing a feed-forward amplification loop.

  7. The capture proteasome assay: A method to measure proteasome activity in vitro.

    PubMed

    Vigneron, Nathalie; Abi Habib, Joanna; Van den Eynde, Benoît J

    2015-08-01

    Because of its crucial role in various cellular processes, the proteasome is the focus of intensive research for the development of proteasome inhibitors to treat cancer and autoimmune diseases. Here, we describe a new and easy assay to measure the different proteasome activities in vitro (chymotrypsin-like, caspase-like, and trypsin-like) based on proteasome capture on antibody-coated plates, namely the capture proteasome assay (CAPA). Applying the CAPA to lysates from cells expressing standard proteasome, immunoproteasome, or intermediate proteasomes β5i or β1i-β5i, we can monitor the activity of the four proteasome subtypes. The CAPA provided similar results as the standard whole-cell proteasome-Glo assay without the problem of contaminating proteases requiring inhibitors. However, the profile of trypsin-like activity differed between the two assays. This could be partly explained by the presence of MgSO4 in the proteasome-Glo buffer, which inhibits the trypsin-like activity of the proteasome. The CAPA does not need MgSO4 and, therefore, provides a more precise measurement of the trypsin-like activity. The CAPA provides a quick and accurate method to measure proteasome activity in vitro in a very specific manner and should be useful for the development of proteasome inhibitors.

  8. Subunit-selective proteasome activity profiling uncovers uncoupled proteasome subunit activities during bacterial infections.

    PubMed

    Misas-Villamil, Johana C; van der Burgh, Aranka M; Grosse-Holz, Friederike; Bach-Pages, Marcel; Kovács, Judit; Kaschani, Farnusch; Schilasky, Sören; Emon, Asif Emran Khan; Ruben, Mark; Kaiser, Markus; Overkleeft, Hermen S; van der Hoorn, Renier A L

    2017-01-24

    The proteasome is a nuclear - cytoplasmic proteolytic complex involved in nearly all regulatory pathways in plant cells. The three different catalytic activities of the proteasome can have different functions but tools to monitor and control these subunits selectively are not yet available in plant science. Here, we introduce subunit-selective inhibitors and dual-color fluorescent activity-based probes for studying two of the three active catalytic subunits of the plant proteasome. We validate these tools in two model plants and use this to study the proteasome during plant-microbe interactions. Our data reveals that Nicotiana benthamiana incorporates two different paralogs of each catalytic subunit into active proteasomes. Interestingly, both β1 and β5 activities are significantly increased upon infection with pathogenic Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000 lacking hopQ1-1 (PtoDC3000(ΔhQ)) whilst the activity profile of the β1 subunit changes. Infection with wild-type PtoDC3000 causes proteasome activities that range from strongly induced β1 and β5 activities to strongly suppressed β5 activities, revealing that β1 and β5 activities can be uncoupled during bacterial infection. These selective probes and inhibitors are now available to the plant science community and can be widely and easily applied to study the activity and role of the different catalytic subunits of the proteasome in different plant species. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  9. Cereblon inhibits proteasome activity by binding to the 20S core proteasome subunit beta type 4.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kwang Min; Lee, Jongwon; Park, Chul-Seung

    2012-10-26

    In humans, mutations in the gene encoding cereblon (CRBN) are associated with mental retardation. Although CRBN has been investigated in several cellular contexts, its function remains unclear. Here, we demonstrate that CRBN plays a role in regulating the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS). Heterologous expression of CRBN inhibited proteasome activity in a human neuroblastoma cell line. Furthermore, proteasome subunit beta type 4 (PSMB4), the β7 subunit of the 20S core complex, was identified as a direct binding partner of CRBN. These findings suggest that CRBN may modulate proteasome activity by directly interacting with the β7 subunit.

  10. Phosphorylation regulates mycobacterial proteasome.

    PubMed

    Anandan, Tripti; Han, Jaeil; Baun, Heather; Nyayapathy, Seeta; Brown, Jacob T; Dial, Rebekah L; Moltalvo, Juan A; Kim, Min-Seon; Yang, Seung Hwan; Ronning, Donald R; Husson, Robert N; Suh, Joowon; Kang, Choong-Min

    2014-09-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis possesses a proteasome system that is required for the microbe to resist elimination by the host immune system. Despite the importance of the proteasome in the pathogenesis of tuberculosis, the molecular mechanisms by which proteasome activity is controlled remain largely unknown. Here, we demonstrate that the α-subunit (PrcA) of the M. tuberculosis proteasome is phosphorylated by the PknB kinase at three threonine residues (T84, T202, and T178) in a sequential manner. Furthermore, the proteasome with phosphorylated PrcA enhances the degradation of Ino1, a known proteasomal substrate, suggesting that PknB regulates the proteolytic activity of the proteasome. Previous studies showed that depletion of the proteasome and the proteasome-associated proteins decreases resistance to reactive nitrogen intermediates (RNIs) but increases resistance to hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). Here we show that PknA phosphorylation of unprocessed proteasome β-subunit (pre-PrcB) and α-subunit reduces the assembly of the proteasome complex and thereby enhances the mycobacterial resistance to H2O2 and that H2O2 stress diminishes the formation of the proteasome complex in a PknA-dependent manner. These findings indicate that phosphorylation of the M. tuberculosis proteasome not only modulates proteolytic activity of the proteasome, but also affects the proteasome complex formation contributing to the survival of M. tuberculosis under oxidative stress conditions.

  11. Gene therapy by proteasome activator, PA28γ, improves motor coordination and proteasome function in Huntington's disease YAC128 mice.

    PubMed

    Jeon, J; Kim, W; Jang, J; Isacson, O; Seo, H

    2016-06-02

    Huntington's disease (HD) is neurologically characterized by involuntary movements, associated with degeneration of the medium-sized spiny neurons (MSNs) and ubiquitin-positive neuronal intranuclear inclusions (NIIs). It has been reported that the proteolytic activities of the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) are generally inhibited in HD patient's brain. We previously discovered that a proteasome activator (PA), PA28γ enhances proteasome activities and cell survival in in vitro HD model. In this study, we aimed to find whether PA28γ gene transfer improves the proteasome activities and pathological symptoms in in vivo HD model. We stereotaxically injected lenti-PA28γ virus into the striatum of mutant (MT) YAC128 HD mice and littermate (LM) controls at 14-18months of age, and validated their behavioral and biochemical changes at 12weeks after the injection. YAC128 mice showed a significant increase in their peptidyl-glutamyl preferring hydrolytic (PGPH) proteasome activity and the mRNA or protein levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and pro-BDNF after lenti-PA28γ injection. The number of ubiquitin-positive inclusion bodies was reduced in the striatum of YAC128 mice after lenti-PA28γ injection. YAC128 mice showed significant improvement of latency to fall on the rota-rod test after lenti-PA28γ injection. These data demonstrate that the gene therapy with PA, PA28γ can improve UPS function as well as behavioral abnormalities in HD model mice.

  12. An adenosine triphosphate-independent proteasome activator contributes to the virulence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Jastrab, Jordan B; Wang, Tong; Murphy, J Patrick; Bai, Lin; Hu, Kuan; Merkx, Remco; Huang, Jessica; Chatterjee, Champak; Ovaa, Huib; Gygi, Steven P; Li, Huilin; Darwin, K Heran

    2015-04-07

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis encodes a proteasome that is highly similar to eukaryotic proteasomes and is required to cause lethal infections in animals. The only pathway known to target proteins for proteasomal degradation in bacteria is pupylation, which is functionally analogous to eukaryotic ubiquitylation. However, evidence suggests that the M. tuberculosis proteasome contributes to pupylation-independent pathways as well. To identify new proteasome cofactors that might contribute to such pathways, we isolated proteins that bound to proteasomes overproduced in M. tuberculosis and found a previously uncharacterized protein, Rv3780, which formed rings and capped M. tuberculosis proteasome core particles. Rv3780 enhanced peptide and protein degradation by proteasomes in an adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-independent manner. We identified putative Rv3780-dependent proteasome substrates and found that Rv3780 promoted robust degradation of the heat shock protein repressor, HspR. Importantly, an M. tuberculosis Rv3780 mutant had a general growth defect, was sensitive to heat stress, and was attenuated for growth in mice. Collectively, these data demonstrate that ATP-independent proteasome activators are not confined to eukaryotes and can contribute to the virulence of one the world's most devastating pathogens.

  13. An adenosine triphosphate-independent proteasome activator contributes to the virulence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    SciTech Connect

    Jastrab, Jordan B.; Wang, Tong; Murphy, J. Patrick; Bai, Lin; Hu, Kuan; Merkx, Remco; Huang, Jessica; Chatterjee, Champak; Ovaa, Huib; Gygi, Steven P.; Li, Huilin; Darwin, K. Heran

    2015-03-23

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis encodes a proteasome that is highly similar to eukaryotic proteasomes and is required to cause lethal infections in animals. The only pathway known to target proteins for proteasomal degradation in bacteria is pupylation, which is functionally analogous to eukaryotic ubiquitylation. However, evidence suggests that the M. tuberculosis proteasome contributes to pupylation-independent pathways as well. To identify new proteasome cofactors that might contribute to such pathways, we isolated proteins that bound to proteasomes overproduced in M. tuberculosis and found a previously uncharacterized protein, Rv3780, which formed rings and capped M. tuberculosis proteasome core particles. Rv3780 enhanced peptide and protein degradation by proteasomes in an adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-independent manner. We identified putative Rv3780-dependent proteasome substrates and found that Rv3780 promoted robust degradation of the heat shock protein repressor, HspR. Importantly, an M. tuberculosis Rv3780 mutant had a general growth defect, was sensitive to heat stress, and was attenuated for growth in mice. Collectively, these data demonstrate that ATP-independent proteasome activators are not confined to eukaryotes and can contribute to the virulence of one the world’s most devastating pathogens.

  14. An adenosine triphosphate-independent proteasome activator contributes to the virulence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    DOE PAGES

    Jastrab, Jordan B.; Wang, Tong; Murphy, J. Patrick; ...

    2015-03-23

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis encodes a proteasome that is highly similar to eukaryotic proteasomes and is required to cause lethal infections in animals. The only pathway known to target proteins for proteasomal degradation in bacteria is pupylation, which is functionally analogous to eukaryotic ubiquitylation. However, evidence suggests that the M. tuberculosis proteasome contributes to pupylation-independent pathways as well. To identify new proteasome cofactors that might contribute to such pathways, we isolated proteins that bound to proteasomes overproduced in M. tuberculosis and found a previously uncharacterized protein, Rv3780, which formed rings and capped M. tuberculosis proteasome core particles. Rv3780 enhanced peptide and proteinmore » degradation by proteasomes in an adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-independent manner. We identified putative Rv3780-dependent proteasome substrates and found that Rv3780 promoted robust degradation of the heat shock protein repressor, HspR. Importantly, an M. tuberculosis Rv3780 mutant had a general growth defect, was sensitive to heat stress, and was attenuated for growth in mice. Collectively, these data demonstrate that ATP-independent proteasome activators are not confined to eukaryotes and can contribute to the virulence of one the world’s most devastating pathogens.« less

  15. 20S proteasome activation promotes life span extension and resistance to proteotoxicity in Caenorhabditis elegans

    PubMed Central

    Chondrogianni, Niki; Georgila, Konstantina; Kourtis, Nikos; Tavernarakis, Nektarios; Gonos, Efstathios S.

    2015-01-01

    Protein homeostasis (proteostasis) is one of the nodal points that need to be preserved to retain physiologic cellular/organismal balance. The ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) is responsible for the removal of both normal and damaged proteins, with the proteasome being the downstream effector. The proteasome is the major cellular protease with progressive impairment of function during aging and senescence. Despite the documented age-retarding properties of proteasome activation in various cellular models, simultaneous enhancement of the 20S core proteasome content, assembly, and function have never been reported in any multicellular organism. Consequently, the possible effects of the core proteasome modulation on organismal life span are elusive. In this study, we have achieved activation of the 20S proteasome at organismal level. We demonstrate enhancement of proteasome levels, assembly, and activity in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, resulting in life span extension and increased resistance to stress. We also provide evidence that the observed life span extension is dependent on the transcriptional activity of Dauer formation abnormal/Forkhead box class O (DAF-16/FOXO), skinhead-1 (SKN-1), and heat shock factor-1 (HSF-1) factors through regulation of downstream longevity genes. We further show that the reported beneficial effects are not ubiquitous but they are dependent on the genetic context. Finally, we provide evidence that proteasome core activation might be a potential strategy to minimize protein homeostasis deficiencies underlying aggregation-related diseases, such as Alzheimer’s disease (AD) or Huntington’s disease (HD). In summary, this is the first report demonstrating that 20S core proteasome up-regulation in terms of both content and activity is feasible in a multicellular eukaryotic organism and that in turn this modulation promotes extension of organismal health span and life span.—Chondrogianni, N., Georgila, K., Kourtis, N

  16. Dynamic recruitment of active proteasomes into polyglutamine initiated inclusion bodies.

    PubMed

    Schipper-Krom, Sabine; Juenemann, Katrin; Jansen, Anne H; Wiemhoefer, Anne; van den Nieuwendijk, Rianne; Smith, Donna L; Hink, Mark A; Bates, Gillian P; Overkleeft, Hermen; Ovaa, Huib; Reits, Eric

    2014-01-03

    Neurodegenerative disorders such as Huntington's disease are hallmarked by neuronal intracellular inclusion body formation. Whether proteasomes are irreversibly recruited into inclusion bodies in these protein misfolding disorders is a controversial subject. In addition, it has been proposed that the proteasomes may become clogged by the aggregated protein fragments, leading to impairment of the ubiquitin-proteasome system. Here, we show by fluorescence pulse-chase experiments in living cells that proteasomes are dynamically and reversibly recruited into inclusion bodies. As these recruited proteasomes remain catalytically active and accessible to substrates, our results challenge the concept of proteasome sequestration and impairment in Huntington's disease, and support the reported absence of proteasome impairment in mouse models of Huntington's disease.

  17. Activity-based imaging probes of the proteasome.

    PubMed

    Carmony, Kimberly Cornish; Kim, Kyung Bo

    2013-09-01

    Over the years, the proteasome has been extensively investigated due to its crucial roles in many important signaling pathways and its implications in diseases. Two proteasome inhibitors--bortezomib and carfilzomib--have received FDA approval for the treatment of multiple myeloma, thereby validating the proteasome as a chemotherapeutic target. As a result, further research efforts have been focused on dissecting the complex biology of the proteasome to gain the insight required for developing next-generation proteasome inhibitors. It is clear that chemical probes have made significant contributions to these efforts, mostly by functioning as inhibitors that selectively block the catalytic activity of proteasomes. Analogues of these inhibitors are now providing additional tools for visualization of catalytically active proteasome subunits, several of which allow real-time monitoring of proteasome activity in living cells as well as in in vivo settings. These imaging probes will provide powerful tools for assessing the efficacy of proteasome inhibitors in clinical settings. In this review, we will focus on the recent efforts towards developing imaging probes of proteasomes, including the latest developments in immunoproteasome-selective imaging probes.

  18. Activating Cell Death Ligand Signaling Through Proteasome Inhibition

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-05-01

    Activating Cell Death Ligand Signaling Through Proteasome Inhibition PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Steven R Schwarze...SUBTITLE Activating Cell Death Ligand Signaling Through 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Proteasome Inhibition 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-08-1-0392 5c...proteasome inhibition can act as an anti-neoplastic agent in vivo by sensitizing cancer cells to cell death ligands in the tumor microenvironment

  19. 20S proteasome activation promotes life span extension and resistance to proteotoxicity in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Chondrogianni, Niki; Georgila, Konstantina; Kourtis, Nikos; Tavernarakis, Nektarios; Gonos, Efstathios S

    2015-02-01

    Protein homeostasis (proteostasis) is one of the nodal points that need to be preserved to retain physiologic cellular/organismal balance. The ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) is responsible for the removal of both normal and damaged proteins, with the proteasome being the downstream effector. The proteasome is the major cellular protease with progressive impairment of function during aging and senescence. Despite the documented age-retarding properties of proteasome activation in various cellular models, simultaneous enhancement of the 20S core proteasome content, assembly, and function have never been reported in any multicellular organism. Consequently, the possible effects of the core proteasome modulation on organismal life span are elusive. In this study, we have achieved activation of the 20S proteasome at organismal level. We demonstrate enhancement of proteasome levels, assembly, and activity in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, resulting in life span extension and increased resistance to stress. We also provide evidence that the observed life span extension is dependent on the transcriptional activity of Dauer formation abnormal/Forkhead box class O (DAF-16/FOXO), skinhead-1 (SKN-1), and heat shock factor-1 (HSF-1) factors through regulation of downstream longevity genes. We further show that the reported beneficial effects are not ubiquitous but they are dependent on the genetic context. Finally, we provide evidence that proteasome core activation might be a potential strategy to minimize protein homeostasis deficiencies underlying aggregation-related diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease (AD) or Huntington's disease (HD). In summary, this is the first report demonstrating that 20S core proteasome up-regulation in terms of both content and activity is feasible in a multicellular eukaryotic organism and that in turn this modulation promotes extension of organismal health span and life span.

  20. D1 dopamine receptor stimulation impairs striatal proteasome activity in Parkinsonism through 26S proteasome disassembly.

    PubMed

    Barroso-Chinea, Pedro; Thiolat, Marie-Laure; Bido, Simone; Martinez, Audrey; Doudnikoff, Evelyne; Baufreton, Jérôme; Bourdenx, Mathieu; Bloch, Bertrand; Bezard, Erwan; Martin-Negrier, Marie-Laure

    2015-06-01

    Among the mechanisms underlying the development of L-dopa-induced dyskinesia (LID) in Parkinson's disease, complex alterations in dopamine signaling in D1 receptor (D1R)-expressing medium spiny striatal neurons have been unraveled such as, but not limited to, dysregulation of D1R expression, lateral diffusion, intraneuronal trafficking, subcellular localization and desensitization, leading to a pathological anchorage of D1R at the plasma membrane. Such anchorage is partly due to a decreased proteasomal activity that is specific of the L-dopa-exposed dopamine-depleted striatum, results from D1R activation and feeds-back the D1R exaggerated cell surface abundance. The precise mechanisms by which L-dopa affects striatal proteasome activity remained however unknown. We here show, in a series of in vitro ex vivo and in vivo models, that such rapid modulation of striatal proteasome activity intervenes through D1R-mediated disassembly of the 26S proteasome rather than change in transcription or translation of proteasome or proteasome subunits intraneuronal relocalization.

  1. Increased proteasome activity determines human embryonic stem cell identity

    PubMed Central

    Vilchez, David; Boyer, Leah; Morantte, Ianessa; Lutz, Margaret; Merkwirth, Carsten; Joyce, Derek; Spencer, Brian; Page, Lesley; Masliah, Eliezer; Berggren, W. Travis; Gage, Fred H.; Dillin, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Embryonic stem cells are able to replicate continuously in the absence of senescence and, therefore, are immortal in culture1,2. While genome stability is central for survival of stem cells; proteome stability may play an equally important role in stem cell identity and function. Additionally, with the asymmetric divisions invoked by stem cells, the passage of damaged proteins to daughter cells could potentially destroy the resulting lineage of cells. We hypothesized that stem cells have an increased proteostasis ability compared to their differentiated counterparts and asked whether proteasome activity differed among human embryonic stem cells (hESCs). Notably, hESC populations exhibit a high proteasome activity that is correlated with increased levels of the 19S proteasome subunit PSMD11/RPN-63–5 and a corresponding increased assembly of the 26S/30S proteasome. Ectopic expression of PSMD11 is sufficient to increase proteasome assembly and activity. Proteasome inhibition affects pluripotency of hESCs inducing differentiation towards specific cell lineages. FOXO4, an insulin/IGF-1 responsive transcription factor associated with long lifespan in invertebrates6,7, regulates proteasome activity by modulating the expression of PSMD11 in hESCs. Our results establish a novel regulation of proteostasis in hESCs that links longevity and stress resistance in invertebrates with hESC function and identity. PMID:22972301

  2. Bacterial Proteasome Activator Bpa (Rv3780) Is a Novel Ring-Shaped Interactor of the Mycobacterial Proteasome

    PubMed Central

    Delley, Cyrille L.; Laederach, Juerg; Ziemski, Michal; Bolten, Marcel; Boehringer, Daniel; Weber-Ban, Eilika

    2014-01-01

    The occurrence of the proteasome in bacteria is limited to the phylum of actinobacteria, where it is maintained in parallel to the usual bacterial compartmentalizing proteases. The role it plays in these organisms is still not fully understood, but in the human pathogen Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) the proteasome supports persistence in the host. In complex with the ring-shaped ATPase Mpa (called ARC in other actinobacteria), the proteasome can degrade proteins that have been post-translationally modified with the prokaryotic ubiquitin-like protein Pup. Unlike for the eukaryotic proteasome core particle, no other bacterial proteasome interactors have been identified to date. Here we describe and characterize a novel bacterial proteasome activator of Mycobacterium tuberculosis we termed Bpa (Rv3780), using a combination of biochemical and biophysical methods. Bpa features a canonical C-terminal proteasome interaction motif referred to as the HbYX motif, and its orthologs are only found in those actinobacteria encoding the proteasomal subunits. Bpa can inhibit degradation of Pup-tagged substrates in vitro by competing with Mpa for association with the proteasome. Using negative-stain electron microscopy, we show that Bpa forms a ring-shaped homooligomer that can bind coaxially to the face of the proteasome cylinder. Interestingly, Bpa can stimulate the proteasomal degradation of the model substrate β-casein, which suggests it could play a role in the removal of non-native or damaged proteins. PMID:25469515

  3. Structural Analysis of the Bacterial Proteasome Activator Bpa in Complex with the 20S Proteasome.

    PubMed

    Bolten, Marcel; Delley, Cyrille L; Leibundgut, Marc; Boehringer, Daniel; Ban, Nenad; Weber-Ban, Eilika

    2016-12-06

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis harbors proteasomes that recruit substrates for degradation through an ubiquitin-like modification pathway. Recently, a non-ATPase activator termed Bpa (bacterial proteasome activator) was shown to support an alternate proteasomal degradation pathway. Here, we present the cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) structure of Bpa in complex with the 20S core particle (CP). For docking into the cryo-EM density, we solved the X-ray structure of Bpa, showing that it forms tight four-helix bundles arranged into a 12-membered ring with a 40 Å wide central pore and the C-terminal helix of each protomer protruding from the ring. The Bpa model was fitted into the cryo-EM map of the Bpa-CP complex, revealing its architecture and striking symmetry mismatch. The Bpa-CP interface was resolved to 3.5 Å, showing the interactions between the C-terminal GQYL motif of Bpa and the proteasome α-rings. This docking mode is related to the one observed for eukaryotic activators with features specific to the bacterial complex.

  4. Activities of proteasome and m-calpain are essential for Chikungunya virus replication.

    PubMed

    Karpe, Yogesh A; Pingale, Kunal D; Kanade, Gayatri D

    2016-10-01

    Replication of many viruses is dependent on the ubiquitin proteasome system. The present study demonstrates that Chikungunya virus replication increases proteasome activity and induces unfolded protein response (UPR) in cultured cells. Further, it was seen that the virus replication was dependent on the activities of proteasomes and m-calpain. Proteasome inhibition induced accumulation of polyubiquitinated proteins and earlier visualization of UPR.

  5. Structure of a proteasome Pba1-Pba2 complex: implications for proteasome assembly, activation, and biological function.

    PubMed

    Stadtmueller, Beth M; Kish-Trier, Erik; Ferrell, Katherine; Petersen, Charisse N; Robinson, Howard; Myszka, David G; Eckert, Debra M; Formosa, Tim; Hill, Christopher P

    2012-10-26

    The 20S proteasome is an essential, 28-subunit protease that sequesters proteolytic sites within a central chamber, thereby repressing substrate degradation until proteasome activators open the entrance/exit gate. Two established activators, Blm10 and PAN/19S, induce gate opening by binding to the pockets between proteasome α-subunits using C-terminal HbYX (hydrophobic-tyrosine-any residue) motifs. Equivalent HbYX motifs have been identified in Pba1 and Pba2, which function in proteasome assembly. Here, we demonstrate that Pba1-Pba2 proteins form a stable heterodimer that utilizes its HbYX motifs to bind mature 20S proteasomes in vitro and that the Pba1-Pba2 HbYX motifs are important for a physiological function of proteasomes, the maintenance of mitochondrial function. Other factors that contribute to proteasome assembly or function also act in the maintenance of mitochondrial function and display complex genetic interactions with one another, possibly revealing an unexpected pathway of mitochondrial regulation involving the Pba1-Pba2 proteasome interaction. Our determination of a proteasome Pba1-Pba2 crystal structure reveals a Pba1 HbYX interaction that is superimposable with those of known activators, a Pba2 HbYX interaction that is different from those reported previously, and a gate structure that is disrupted but not sufficiently open to allow entry of even small peptides. These findings extend understanding of proteasome interactions with HbYX motifs and suggest multiple roles for Pba1-Pba2 interactions throughout proteasome assembly and function.

  6. Denervation-Induced Activation of the Standard Proteasome and Immunoproteasome

    PubMed Central

    Ferrington, Deborah A.; Baumann, Cory W.; Thompson, LaDora V.

    2016-01-01

    The standard 26S proteasome is responsible for the majority of myofibrillar protein degradation leading to muscle atrophy. The immunoproteasome is an inducible form of the proteasome. While its function has been linked to conditions of atrophy, its contribution to muscle proteolysis remains unclear. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine if the immunoproteasome plays a role in skeletal muscle atrophy induced by denervation. Adult male C57BL/6 wild type (WT) and immunoproteasome knockout lmp7-/-/mecl-1-/- (L7M1) mice underwent tibial nerve transection on the left hindlimb for either 7 or 14 days, while control mice did not undergo surgery. Proteasome activity (caspase-, chymotrypsin-, and trypsin- like), protein content of standard proteasome (β1, β5 and β2) and immunoproteasome (LMP2, LMP7 and MECL-1) catalytic subunits were determined in the gastrocnemius muscle. Denervation induced significant atrophy and was accompanied by increased activities and protein content of the catalytic subunits in both WT and L7M1 mice. Although denervation resulted in a similar degree of muscle atrophy between strains, the mice lacking two immunoproteasome subunits showed a differential response in the extent and duration of proteasome features, including activities and content of the β1, β5 and LMP2 catalytic subunits. The results indicate that immunoproteasome deficiency alters the proteasome’s composition and activities. However, the immunoproteasome does not appear to be essential for muscle atrophy induced by denervation. PMID:27875560

  7. ROS inhibitor N-acetyl-L-cysteine antagonizes the activity of proteasome inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Halasi, Marianna; Wang, Ming; Chavan, Tanmay S; Gaponenko, Vadim; Hay, Nissim; Gartel, Andrei L

    2013-09-01

    NAC (N-acetyl-L-cysteine) is commonly used to identify and test ROS (reactive oxygen species) inducers, and to inhibit ROS. In the present study, we identified inhibition of proteasome inhibitors as a novel activity of NAC. Both NAC and catalase, another known scavenger of ROS, similarly inhibited ROS levels and apoptosis associated with H₂O₂. However, only NAC, and not catalase or another ROS scavenger Trolox, was able to prevent effects linked to proteasome inhibition, such as protein stabilization, apoptosis and accumulation of ubiquitin conjugates. These observations suggest that NAC has a dual activity as an inhibitor of ROS and proteasome inhibitors. Recently, NAC was used as a ROS inhibitor to functionally characterize a novel anticancer compound, piperlongumine, leading to its description as a ROS inducer. In contrast, our own experiments showed that this compound depicts features of proteasome inhibitors including suppression of FOXM1 (Forkhead box protein M1), stabilization of cellular proteins, induction of ROS-independent apoptosis and enhanced accumulation of ubiquitin conjugates. In addition, NAC, but not catalase or Trolox, interfered with the activity of piperlongumine, further supporting that piperlongumine is a proteasome inhibitor. Most importantly, we showed that NAC, but not other ROS scavengers, directly binds to proteasome inhibitors. To our knowledge, NAC is the first known compound that directly interacts with and antagonizes the activity of proteasome inhibitors. Taken together, the findings of the present study suggest that, as a result of the dual nature of NAC, data interpretation might not be straightforward when NAC is utilized as an antioxidant to demonstrate ROS involvement in drug-induced apoptosis.

  8. Open-gate mutants of the mammalian proteasome show enhanced ubiquitin-conjugate degradation.

    PubMed

    Choi, Won Hoon; de Poot, Stefanie A H; Lee, Jung Hoon; Kim, Ji Hyeon; Han, Dong Hoon; Kim, Yun Kyung; Finley, Daniel; Lee, Min Jae

    2016-03-09

    When in the closed form, the substrate translocation channel of the proteasome core particle (CP) is blocked by the convergent N termini of α-subunits. To probe the role of channel gating in mammalian proteasomes, we deleted the N-terminal tail of α3; the resulting α3ΔN proteasomes are intact but hyperactive in the hydrolysis of fluorogenic peptide substrates and the degradation of polyubiquitinated proteins. Cells expressing the hyperactive proteasomes show markedly elevated degradation of many established proteasome substrates and resistance to oxidative stress. Multiplexed quantitative proteomics revealed ∼ 200 proteins with reduced levels in the mutant cells. Potentially toxic proteins such as tau exhibit reduced accumulation and aggregate formation. These data demonstrate that the CP gate is a key negative regulator of proteasome function in mammals, and that opening the CP gate may be an effective strategy to increase proteasome activity and reduce levels of toxic proteins in cells.

  9. Morphine Induces Ubiquitin-Proteasome Activity and Glutamate Transporter Degradation*

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Liling; Wang, Shuxing; Sung, Backil; Lim, Grewo; Mao, Jianren

    2008-01-01

    Glutamate transporters play a crucial role in physiological glutamate homeostasis, neurotoxicity, and glutamatergic regulation of opioid tolerance. However, how the glutamate transporter turnover is regulated remains poorly understood. Here we show that chronic morphine exposure induced posttranscriptional down-regulation of the glutamate transporter EAAC1 in C6 glioma cells with a concurrent decrease in glutamate uptake and increase in proteasome activity, which were blocked by the selective proteasome inhibitor MG-132 or lactacystin but not the lysosomal inhibitor chloroquin. At the cellular level, chronic morphine induced the PTEN (phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome Ten)-mediated up-regulation of the ubiquitin E3 ligase Nedd4 via cAMP/protein kinase A signaling, leading to EAAC1 ubiquitination and proteasomal degradation. Either Nedd4 or PTEN knockdown with small interfering RNA prevented the morphine-induced EAAC1 degradation and decreased glutamate uptake. These data indicate that cAMP/protein kinase A signaling serves as an intracellular regulator upstream to the activation of the PTEN/Nedd4-mediated ubiquitin-proteasome system activity that is critical for glutamate transporter turnover. Under an in vivo condition, chronic morphine exposure also induced posttranscriptional down-regulation of the glutamate transporter EAAC1, which was prevented by MG-132, and transcriptional up-regulation of PTEN and Nedd4 within the spinal cord dorsal horn. Thus, inhibition of the ubiquitin-proteasome-mediated glutamate transporter degradation may be an important mechanism for preventing glutamate overexcitation and may offer a new strategy for treating certain neurological disorders and improving opioid therapy in chronic pain management. PMID:18539596

  10. Murraya koenigii leaf extract inhibits proteasome activity and induces cell death in breast cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Inhibition of the proteolytic activity of 26S proteasome, the protein-degrading machine, is now considered a novel and promising approach for cancer therapy. Interestingly, proteasome inhibitors have been demonstrated to selectively kill cancer cells and also enhance the sensitivity of tumor cells to chemotherapeutic agents. Recently, polyphenols/flavonoids have been reported to inhibit proteasome activity. Murraya koenigii Spreng, a medicinally important herb of Indian origin, has been used for centuries in the Ayurvedic system of medicine. Here we show that Murraya koenigii leaves (curry leaves), a rich source of polyphenols, inhibit the proteolytic activity of the cancer cell proteasome, and cause cell death. Methods Hydro-methanolic extract of curry leaves (CLE) was prepared and its total phenolic content [TPC] determined by, the Folin-Ciocalteau’s method. Two human breast carcinoma cell lines: MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 and a normal human lung fibroblast cell line, WI-38 were used for the studies. Cytotoxicity of the CLE was assessed by the MTT assay. We studied the effect of CLE on growth kinetics using colony formation assay. Growth arrest was assessed by cell cycle analysis and apoptosis by Annexin-V binding using flow cytometry. Inhibition of the endogenous 26S proteasome was studied in intact cells and cell extracts using substrates specific to 20S proteasomal enzymes. Results CLE decreased cell viability and altered the growth kinetics in both the breast cancer cell lines in a dose-dependent manner. It showed a significant arrest of cells in the S phase albeit in cancer cells only. Annexin V binding data suggests that cell death was via the apoptotic pathway in both the cancer cell lines. CLE treatment significantly decreased the activity of the 26S proteasome in the cancer but not normal cells. Conclusions Our study suggests M. koenigii leaves to be a potent source of proteasome inhibitors that lead to cancer cell death. Therefore, identification

  11. Activity-based profiling of the proteasome pathway during hepatitis C virus infection.

    PubMed

    Nasheri, Neda; Ning, Zhibin; Figeys, Daniel; Yao, Shao; Goto, Natalie K; Pezacki, John Paul

    2015-11-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection often leads to chronic hepatitis, liver cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma. The stability of the HCV proteins is controlled by ubiquitin-dependent and ubiquitin-independent proteasome pathways. Many viruses modulate proteasome function for their propagation. To examine the interrelationship between HCV and the proteasome pathways we employed a quantitative activity-based protein profiling method. Using this approach we were able to quantify the changes in the activity of several proteasome subunits and found that proteasome activity is drastically reduced by HCV replication. The results imply a link between the direct downregulation of the activity of this pathway and chronic HCV infection.

  12. Proteasome activity is important for replication recovery, CHK1 phosphorylation and prevention of G2 arrest after low-dose formaldehyde

    SciTech Connect

    Ortega-Atienza, Sara; Green, Samantha E.; Zhitkovich, Anatoly

    2015-07-15

    Formaldehyde (FA) is a human carcinogen with numerous sources of environmental and occupational exposures. This reactive aldehyde is also produced endogenously during metabolism of drugs and other processes. DNA–protein crosslinks (DPCs) are considered to be the main genotoxic lesions for FA. Accumulating evidence suggests that DPC repair in high eukaryotes involves proteolysis of crosslinked proteins. Here, we examined a role of the main cellular proteolytic machinery proteasomes in toxic responses of human lung cells to low FA doses. We found that transient inhibition of proteasome activity increased cytotoxicity and diminished clonogenic viability of FA-treated cells. Proteasome inactivation exacerbated suppressive effects of FA on DNA replication and increased the levels of the genotoxic stress marker γ-H2AX in normal human cells. A transient loss of proteasome activity in FA-exposed cells also caused delayed perturbations of cell cycle, which included G2 arrest and a depletion of S-phase populations at FA doses that had no effects in control cells. Proteasome activity diminished p53-Ser15 phosphorylation but was important for FA-induced CHK1 phosphorylation, which is a biochemical marker of DPC proteolysis in replicating cells. Unlike FA, proteasome inhibition had no effect on cell survival and CHK1 phosphorylation by the non-DPC replication stressor hydroxyurea. Overall, we obtained evidence for the importance of proteasomes in protection of human cells against biologically relevant doses of FA. Biochemically, our findings indicate the involvement of proteasomes in proteolytic repair of DPC, which removes replication blockage by these highly bulky lesions. - Highlights: • Proteasome inhibition enhances cytotoxicity of low-dose FA in human lung cells. • Active proteasomes diminish replication-inhibiting effects of FA. • Proteasome activity prevents delayed G2 arrest in FA-treated cells. • Proteasome inhibition exacerbates replication stress by FA in

  13. Calcium channel blocker verapamil accelerates gambogic acid-induced cytotoxicity via enhancing proteasome inhibition and ROS generation.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ningning; Huang, Hongbiao; Liu, Shouting; Li, Xiaofen; Yang, Changshan; Dou, Q Ping; Liu, Jinbao

    2014-04-01

    Verapamil (Ver), an inhibitor of the multidrug resistance gene product, has been proved to be a promising combination partner with other anti-cancer agents including proteasome inhibitor bortezomib. Gambogic acid (GA) has been approved for Phase II clinical trials in cancer therapy in China. We have most recently reported that GA is a potent proteasome inhibitor, with anticancer efficiency comparable to bortezomib but much less toxicity. In the current study we investigated whether Ver can enhance the cytotoxicity of GA. We report that (i) the combination of Ver and GA results in synergistic cytotoxic effect and cell death induction in HepG2 and K562 cancer cell lines; (ii) a combinational treatment with Ver and GA induces caspase activation, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production; (iii) caspase inhibitor z-VAD blocks GA+Ver-induced apoptosis but not proteasome inhibition; (iv) cysteine-containing compound N-acetylcysteine (NAC) prevents GA+Ver-induced poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase cleavage and proteasome inhibition. These results demonstrate that Ver accelerates GA-induced cytotoxicity via enhancing proteasome inhibition and ROS production. These findings indicate that the natural product GA is a valuable candidate that can be used in combination with Ver, thus representing a compelling anticancer strategy.

  14. 18α-Glycyrrhetinic Acid Proteasome Activator Decelerates Aging and Alzheimer's Disease Progression in Caenorhabditis elegans and Neuronal Cultures

    PubMed Central

    Papaevgeniou, Nikoletta; Sakellari, Marianthi; Jha, Sweta; Tavernarakis, Nektarios; Holmberg, Carina I.; Gonos, Efstathios S.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Aims: Proteasomes are constituents of the cellular proteolytic networks that maintain protein homeostasis through regulated proteolysis of normal and abnormal (in any way) proteins. Genetically mediated proteasome activation in multicellular organisms has been shown to promote longevity and to exert protein antiaggregation activity. In this study, we investigate whether compound-mediated proteasome activation is feasible in a multicellular organism and we dissect the effects of such approach in aging and Alzheimer's disease (AD) progression. Results: Feeding of wild-type Caenorhabditis elegans with 18α-glycyrrhetinic acid (18α-GA; a previously shown proteasome activator in cell culture) results in enhanced levels of proteasome activities that lead to a skinhead-1- and proteasome activation-dependent life span extension. The elevated proteasome function confers lower paralysis rates in various AD nematode models accompanied by decreased Aβ deposits, thus ultimately decelerating the progression of AD phenotype. More importantly, similar positive results are also delivered when human and murine cells of nervous origin are subjected to 18α-GA treatment. Innovation: This is the first report of the use of 18α-GA, a diet-derived compound as prolongevity and antiaggregation factor in the context of a multicellular organism. Conclusion: Our results suggest that proteasome activation with downstream positive outcomes on aging and AD, an aggregation-related disease, is feasible in a nongenetic manipulation manner in a multicellular organism. Moreover, they unveil the need for identification of antiaging and antiamyloidogenic compounds among the nutrients found in our normal diet. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 25, 855–869. PMID:26886723

  15. Proteasome inhibition enhances resistance to DNA damage via upregulation of Rpn4-dependent DNA repair genes.

    PubMed

    Karpov, Dmitry S; Spasskaya, Daria S; Tutyaeva, Vera V; Mironov, Alexander S; Karpov, Vadim L

    2013-09-17

    The 26S proteasome is an ATP-dependent multi-subunit protease complex and the major regulator of intracellular protein turnover and quality control. However, its role in the DNA damage response is controversial. We addressed this question in yeast by disrupting the transcriptional regulation of the PRE1 proteasomal gene. The mutant strain has decreased proteasome activity and is hyper-resistant to various DNA-damaging agents. We found that Rpn4-target genes MAG1, RAD23, and RAD52 are overexpressed in this strain due to Rpn4 stabilisation. These genes represent three different pathways of base excision, nucleotide excision and double strand break repair by homologous recombination (DSB-HR). Consistently, the proteasome mutant displays increased DSB-HR activity. Our data imply that the proteasome may have a negative role in DNA damage response.

  16. Subnormothermic Perfusion in the Isolated Rat Liver Preserves the Antioxidant Glutathione and Enhances the Function of the Ubiquitin Proteasome System

    PubMed Central

    Alva, Norma; Sanchez-Nuño, Sergio; Dewey, Shannamar; Gomes, Aldrin V.

    2016-01-01

    The reduction of oxidative stress is suggested to be one of the main mechanisms to explain the benefits of subnormothermic perfusion against ischemic liver damage. In this study we investigated the early cellular mechanisms induced in isolated rat livers after 15 min perfusion at temperatures ranging from normothermia (37°C) to subnormothermia (26°C and 22°C). Subnormothermic perfusion was found to maintain hepatic viability. Perfusion at 22°C raised reduced glutathione levels and the activity of glutathione reductase; however, lipid and protein oxidation still occurred as determined by malondialdehyde, 4-hydroxynonenal-protein adducts, and advanced oxidation protein products. In livers perfused at 22°C the lysosomal and ubiquitin proteasome system (UPS) were both activated. The 26S chymotrypsin-like (β5) proteasome activity was significantly increased in the 26°C (46%) and 22°C (42%) groups. The increased proteasome activity may be due to increased Rpt6 Ser120 phosphorylation, which is known to enhance 26S proteasome activity. Together, our results indicate that the early events produced by subnormothermic perfusion in the liver can induce oxidative stress concomitantly with antioxidant glutathione preservation and enhanced function of the lysosomal and UPS systems. Thus, a brief hypothermia could trigger antioxidant mechanisms and may be functioning as a preconditioning stimulus. PMID:27800122

  17. Activation of Chymotrypsin-Like Activity of the Proteasome during Ischemia Induces Myocardial Dysfunction and Death.

    PubMed

    Sanchez, Gina; Berrios, Daniela; Olmedo, Ivonne; Pezoa, Javier; Riquelme, Jaime A; Montecinos, Luis; Pedrozo, Zully; Donoso, Paulina

    2016-01-01

    Inhibitors of the ubiquitin-proteasome system improve hemodynamic parameters and decrease the infarct size after ischemia reperfusion. The molecular basis of this protection is not fully understood since most available data report inhibition of the 26 proteasome after ischemia reperfusion. The decrease in cellular ATP levels during ischemia leads to the dissociation of the 26S proteasome into the 19S regulatory complex and the 20S catalytic core, which results in protein degradation independently of ubiquitination. There is scarce information on the activity of the 20S proteasome during cardiac ischemia. Accordingly, the aim of this work was to determine the effects of 30 minutes of ischemia, or 30 min of ischemia followed by 60 minutes of reperfusion on the three main peptidase activities of the 20S proteasome in Langendorff perfused rat hearts. We found that 30 min of ischemia produced a significant increase in the chymotrypsin-like activity of the proteasome, without changes in its caspase-like or trypsin-like activities. In contrast, all three activities were decreased upon reperfusion. Ixazomib, perfused before ischemia at a concentration that reduced the chymotrypsin-like activity to 50% of the control values, without affecting the other proteasomal activities, improved the hemodynamic parameters upon reperfusion and decreased the infarct size. Ixazomib also prevented the 50% reduction in RyR2 content observed after ischemia. The protection was lost, however, when simultaneous inhibition of chymotrypsin-like and caspase-like activities of the proteasome was achieved at higher concentration of ixazomib. Our results suggest that selective inhibition of chymotrypsin-like activity of the proteasome during ischemia preserves key proteins for cardiomyocyte function and exerts a positive impact on cardiac performance after reperfusion.

  18. Activation of Chymotrypsin-Like Activity of the Proteasome during Ischemia Induces Myocardial Dysfunction and Death

    PubMed Central

    Sanchez, Gina; Berrios, Daniela; Olmedo, Ivonne; Pezoa, Javier; Riquelme, Jaime A.; Montecinos, Luis; Pedrozo, Zully; Donoso, Paulina

    2016-01-01

    Inhibitors of the ubiquitin-proteasome system improve hemodynamic parameters and decrease the infarct size after ischemia reperfusion. The molecular basis of this protection is not fully understood since most available data report inhibition of the 26 proteasome after ischemia reperfusion. The decrease in cellular ATP levels during ischemia leads to the dissociation of the 26S proteasome into the 19S regulatory complex and the 20S catalytic core, which results in protein degradation independently of ubiquitination. There is scarce information on the activity of the 20S proteasome during cardiac ischemia. Accordingly, the aim of this work was to determine the effects of 30 minutes of ischemia, or 30 min of ischemia followed by 60 minutes of reperfusion on the three main peptidase activities of the 20S proteasome in Langendorff perfused rat hearts. We found that 30 min of ischemia produced a significant increase in the chymotrypsin-like activity of the proteasome, without changes in its caspase-like or trypsin-like activities. In contrast, all three activities were decreased upon reperfusion. Ixazomib, perfused before ischemia at a concentration that reduced the chymotrypsin-like activity to 50% of the control values, without affecting the other proteasomal activities, improved the hemodynamic parameters upon reperfusion and decreased the infarct size. Ixazomib also prevented the 50% reduction in RyR2 content observed after ischemia. The protection was lost, however, when simultaneous inhibition of chymotrypsin-like and caspase-like activities of the proteasome was achieved at higher concentration of ixazomib. Our results suggest that selective inhibition of chymotrypsin-like activity of the proteasome during ischemia preserves key proteins for cardiomyocyte function and exerts a positive impact on cardiac performance after reperfusion. PMID:27529620

  19. Proteasome Activity Profiling Uncovers Alteration of Catalytic β2 and β5 Subunits of the Stress-Induced Proteasome during Salinity Stress in Tomato Roots

    PubMed Central

    Kovács, Judit; Poór, Péter; Kaschani, Farnusch; Chandrasekar, Balakumaran; Hong, Tram N.; Misas-Villamil, Johana C.; Xin, Bo T.; Kaiser, Markus; Overkleeft, Herman S.; Tari, Irma; van der Hoorn, Renier A. L.

    2017-01-01

    The stress proteasome in the animal kingdom facilitates faster conversion of oxidized proteins during stress conditions by incorporating different catalytic β subunits. Plants deal with similar kind of stresses and also carry multiple paralogous genes encoding for each of the three catalytic β subunits. Here, we investigated the existence of stress proteasomes upon abiotic stress (salt stress) in tomato roots. In contrast to Arabidopsis thaliana, tomato has a simplified proteasome gene set with single genes encoding each β subunit except for two genes encoding β2. Using proteasome activity profiling on tomato roots during salt stress, we discovered a transient modification of the catalytic subunits of the proteasome coinciding with a loss of cell viability. This stress-induced active proteasome disappears at later time points and coincides with the need to degrade oxidized proteins during salt stress. Subunit-selective proteasome probes and MS analysis of fluorescent 2D gels demonstrated that the detected stress-induced proteasome is not caused by an altered composition of subunits in active proteasomes, but involves an increased molecular weight of both labeled β2 and β5 subunits, and an additional acidic pI shift for labeled β5, whilst labeled β1 remains mostly unchanged. Treatment with phosphatase or glycosidases did not affect the migration pattern. This stress-induced proteasome may play an important role in PCD during abiotic stress. PMID:28217134

  20. Proteasome Activity Profiling Uncovers Alteration of Catalytic β2 and β5 Subunits of the Stress-Induced Proteasome during Salinity Stress in Tomato Roots.

    PubMed

    Kovács, Judit; Poór, Péter; Kaschani, Farnusch; Chandrasekar, Balakumaran; Hong, Tram N; Misas-Villamil, Johana C; Xin, Bo T; Kaiser, Markus; Overkleeft, Herman S; Tari, Irma; van der Hoorn, Renier A L

    2017-01-01

    The stress proteasome in the animal kingdom facilitates faster conversion of oxidized proteins during stress conditions by incorporating different catalytic β subunits. Plants deal with similar kind of stresses and also carry multiple paralogous genes encoding for each of the three catalytic β subunits. Here, we investigated the existence of stress proteasomes upon abiotic stress (salt stress) in tomato roots. In contrast to Arabidopsis thaliana, tomato has a simplified proteasome gene set with single genes encoding each β subunit except for two genes encoding β2. Using proteasome activity profiling on tomato roots during salt stress, we discovered a transient modification of the catalytic subunits of the proteasome coinciding with a loss of cell viability. This stress-induced active proteasome disappears at later time points and coincides with the need to degrade oxidized proteins during salt stress. Subunit-selective proteasome probes and MS analysis of fluorescent 2D gels demonstrated that the detected stress-induced proteasome is not caused by an altered composition of subunits in active proteasomes, but involves an increased molecular weight of both labeled β2 and β5 subunits, and an additional acidic pI shift for labeled β5, whilst labeled β1 remains mostly unchanged. Treatment with phosphatase or glycosidases did not affect the migration pattern. This stress-induced proteasome may play an important role in PCD during abiotic stress.

  1. Proteasome activity is required for the initiation of precancerous pancreatic lesions

    PubMed Central

    Furuyama, Takaki; Tanaka, Shinji; Shimada, Shu; Akiyama, Yoshimitsu; Matsumura, Satoshi; Mitsunori, Yusuke; Aihara, Arihiro; Ban, Daisuke; Ochiai, Takanori; Kudo, Atsushi; Fukamachi, Hiroshi; Arii, Shigeki; Kawaguchi, Yoshiya; Tanabe, Minoru

    2016-01-01

    Proteasome activity is significantly increased in advanced cancers, but its role in cancer initiation is not clear, due to difficulties in monitoring this process in vivo. We established a line of transgenic mice that carried the ZsGreen-degronODC (Gdeg) proteasome reporter to monitor the proteasome activity. In combination with Pdx-1-Cre;LSL-KrasG12D model, proteasome activity was investigated in the initiation of precancerous pancreatic lesions (PanINs). Normal pancreatic acini in Gdeg mice had low proteasome activity. By contrast, proteasome activity was increased in the PanIN lesions that developed in Gdeg;Pdx-1-Cre;LSL-KrasG12D mice. Caerulein administration to Gdeg;Pdx-1-Cre;LSL-KrasG12D mice induced constitutive elevation of proteasome activity in pancreatic tissues and accelerated PanIN formation. The proteasome inhibitor markedly reduced PanIN formation in Gdeg;Pdx-1-Cre;LSL-KrasG12D mice (P = 0.001), whereas it had no effect on PanIN lesions that had already formed. These observations indicated the significance of proteasome activity in the initiation of PanIN but not the maintenance per se. In addition, the expressions of pERK and its downstream factors including cyclin D1, NF-κB, and Cox2 were decreased after proteasome inhibition in PanINs. Our studies showed activation of proteasome is required specifically for the initiation of PanIN. The roles of proteasome in the early stages of pancreatic carcinogenesis warrant further investigation. PMID:27244456

  2. Structural analysis of the dodecameric proteasome activator PafE in Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Bai, Lin; Hu, Kuan; Wang, Tong; Jastrab, Jordan B; Darwin, K Heran; Li, Huilin

    2016-04-05

    The human pathogen Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) requires a proteasome system to cause lethal infections in mice. We recently found that proteasome accessory factor E (PafE, Rv3780) activates proteolysis by the Mtb proteasome independently of adenosine triphosphate (ATP). Moreover, PafE contributes to the heat-shock response and virulence of Mtb Here, we show that PafE subunits formed four-helix bundles similar to those of the eukaryotic ATP-independent proteasome activator subunits of PA26 and PA28. However, unlike any other known proteasome activator, PafE formed dodecamers with 12-fold symmetry, which required a glycine-XXX-glycine-XXX-glycine motif that is not found in previously described activators. Intriguingly, the truncation of the PafE carboxyl-terminus resulted in the robust binding of PafE rings to native proteasome core particles and substantially increased proteasomal activity, suggesting that the extended carboxyl-terminus of this cofactor confers suboptimal binding to the proteasome core particle. Collectively, our data show that proteasomal activation is not limited to hexameric ATPases in bacteria.

  3. Structural analysis of the dodecameric proteasome activator PafE in Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    DOE PAGES

    Bai, Lin; Hu, Kuan; Wang, Tong; ...

    2016-03-21

    Here, the human pathogen Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) requires a proteasome system to cause lethal infections in mice. We recently found that proteasome accessory factor E (PafE, Rv3780) activates proteolysis by the Mtb proteasome independently of adenosine triphosphate (ATP). Moreover, PafE contributes to the heat-shock response and virulence of Mtb. Here, we show that PafE subunits formed four-helix bundles similar to those of the eukaryotic ATP-independent proteasome activator subunits of PA26 and PA28. However, unlike any other known proteasome activator, PafE formed dodecamers with 12-fold symmetry, which required a glycine-XXX-glycine-XXX-glycine motif that is not found in previously described activators. Intriguingly, themore » truncation of the PafE carboxyl-terminus resulted in the robust binding of PafE rings to native proteasome core particles and substantially increased proteasomal activity, suggesting that the extended carboxyl-terminus of this cofactor confers suboptimal binding to the proteasome core particle. Collectively, our data show that proteasomal activation is not limited to hexameric ATPases in bacteria.« less

  4. Agouti Related Peptide Secreted Via Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells Upregulates Proteasome Activity in an Alzheimer’s Disease Model

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Na Kyung; Park, Sang Eon; Kwon, Soo Jin; Shim, Sangmi; Byeon, Yeji; Kim, Jong-Hwa; Na, Duk L.; Chang, Jong Wook

    2017-01-01

    The activity of the ubiquitin proteasome system (UPS) is downregulated in aggregation diseases such as Alzheimer’s disease (AD). In this study, we investigated the therapeutic potential of the Agouti-related peptide (AgRP), which is secreted by human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), in terms of its effect on the regulation of proteasome activity in AD. When SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells were co-cultured with MSCs isolated from human Wharton’s Jelly (WJ-MSC), their proteasome activity was significantly upregulated. Further analysis of the conditioned media after co-culture allowed us to identify significant concentrations of a neuropeptide, called AgRP. The stereotactic delivery of either WJ-MSCs or AgRP into the hippocampi of C57BL6/J and 5XFAD mice induced a significant increase of proteasome activity and suppressed the accumulation of ubiquitin-conjugated proteins. Collectively, these findings suggest strong therapeutic potential for WJ-MSCs and AgRP to enhance proteasome activity, thereby potentially reducing abnormal protein aggregation and delaying the clinical progression of various neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:28051110

  5. Degrasyn activates proteasomal-dependent degradation of c-Myc.

    PubMed

    Bartholomeusz, Geoffrey; Talpaz, Moshe; Bornmann, William; Kong, Ling-Yuan; Donato, Nicholas J

    2007-04-15

    c-Myc is a highly unstable transcription factor whose deregulation and increased expression are associated with cancer. Degrasyn, a small synthetic molecule, induces rapid degradation of c-Myc protein in MM-1 multiple myeloma and other tumor cell lines. Destruction of c-Myc by degrasyn requires the presence of a region of c-Myc between amino acid residues 316 and 378 that has not previously been associated with c-Myc stability. Degrasyn-induced degradation of c-Myc depends on proteasomes but is independent of the degron regions previously shown to be important for ubiquitin-mediated targeting and proteasomal destruction of the protein. Degrasyn-dependent c-Myc proteolysis is not mediated by any previously identified c-Myc regulatory mechanism, does not require new protein synthesis, and does not depend on the nuclear localization of c-Myc. Degrasyn reduced c-Myc levels in A375 melanoma cells and in A375 tumors in nude mice, and this activity correlated with tumor growth inhibition. Together, these results suggest that degrasyn reduces the stability of c-Myc in vitro and in vivo through a unique signaling process that uses c-Myc domains not previously associated with c-Myc regulation.

  6. Ubiquitin, Proteasomes and Proteolytic Mechanisms Activated by Kidney Disease

    PubMed Central

    Rajan, Vik; Mitch, William E.

    2008-01-01

    Summary The ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) includes 3 enzymes that conjugate ubiquitin to intracellular proteins that are then recognized and degraded in the proteasome. The process participates in the regulation of cell metabolism. In the kidney, the UPS regulates the turnover of transporters and signaling proteins and its activity is down regulated in acidosis-induced proximal tubular cell hypertrophy. In chronic kidney disease (CKD), muscle wasting occurs because complications of CKD including acidosis, insulin resistance, inflammation, and increased angiotensin II levels stimulate the UPS to degrade muscle proteins. This response also includes caspase-3 and calpains which act to cleave muscle proteins to provide substrates for the UPS. For example, caspase-3 degrades actomyosin, leaving a 14kD fragment of actin in muscle. The 14 kD actin fragment is increased in muscle of patient with kidney disease, burn injury and surgery. In addition, acidosis, insulin resistance, inflammation and angiotensin II stimulate glucocorticoid production. Glucocorticoids are also required for the muscle wasting that occurs in CKD. Thus, the UPS is involved in regulating kidney function and participates in highly organized responses that degrade muscle protein in response to loss of kidney function. PMID:18723090

  7. Natural Compounds with Proteasome Inhibitory Activity for Cancer Prevention and Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Yang, H; Landis-Piwowar, KR.; Chen, D; Milacic, V; Dou, QP

    2012-01-01

    The proteasome is a multicatalytic protease complex that degrades most endogenous proteins including misfolded or damaged proteins to ensure normal cellular function. The ubiquitin-proteasome degradation pathway plays an essential role in multiuple cellular processes, including cell cycle progression, proliferation, apoptosis and angiogenesis. It has been shown that human cancer cells are more sensitive to proteasome inhibition than normal cells, indicating that a proteasome inhibitor could be used as a novel anticancer drug. Indeed, this idea has been supported by the encouraging results of the clinical trials using the proteasome inhibitor Bortezomib (Velcade, PS-341), a drug approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Several natural compounds, including the microbial metabolite lactacystin, green tea polyphenols, and traditional medicinal triterpenes, have been shown to be potent proteasome inhibitors. These findings suggest the potential use of natural proteasome inhibitors as not only chemopreventive and chemotherapeutic agents, but also tumor sensitizers to conventional radiotherapy and chemotherapy. In this review, we will summarize the structure and biological activities of the proteasome and several natural compounds with proteasome inhibitory activity, and will discuss the potential use of these compounds for the prevention and treatment of human cancers. PMID:18537678

  8. Differential expression of 26S proteasome subunits and functional activity during neonatal development.

    PubMed

    Claud, Erika C; McDonald, Julie A K; He, Shu-Mei; Yu, Yueyue; Duong, Lily; Sun, Jun; Petrof, Elaine O

    2014-08-29

    Proteasomes regulate many essential cellular processes by degrading intracellular proteins. While aging is known to be associated with dysfunction of the proteasome, there are few reports detailing activity and function of proteasomes in the early stages of life. To elucidate the function and development of mammalian proteasomes, 26S proteasomes were affinity-purified from rat intestine, spleen and liver. The developmental expression of core, regulatory and immunoproteasome subunits was analyzed by immunoblotting and reverse-transcriptase PCR of mRNA subunits, and proteasome catalytic function was determined by fluorogenic enzymatic assays. The expression of core (β2, β5, α7 and β1) and regulatory (Rpt5) subunits was found to be present at low levels at birth and increased over time particularly at weaning. In contrast, while gradual developmental progression of proteasome structure was also seen with the immunoproteasome subunits (β1i, β5i, and β2i), these were not present at birth. Our studies demonstrate a developmental pattern to 26S proteasome activity and subunit expression, with low levels of core proteasome components and absence of immunoproteasomes at birth followed by increases at later developmental stages. This correlates with findings from other studies of a developmental hyporesponsiveness of the adaptive immune system to allow establishment of microbial colonization immediately after birth.

  9. Proteasome inhibitor-adapted myeloma cells are largely independent from proteasome activity and show complex proteomic changes, in particular in redox and energy metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Soriano, G P; Besse, L; Li, N; Kraus, M; Besse, A; Meeuwenoord, N; Bader, J; Everts, B; den Dulk, H; Overkleeft, H S; Florea, B I; Driessen, C

    2016-01-01

    Adaptive resistance of myeloma to proteasome inhibition represents a clinical challenge, whose biology is poorly understood. Proteasome mutations were implicated as underlying mechanism, while an alternative hypothesis based on low activation status of the unfolded protein response was recently suggested (IRE1/XBP1-low model). We generated bortezomib- and carfilzomib-adapted, highly resistant multiple myeloma cell clones (AMO-BTZ, AMO-CFZ), which we analyzed in a combined quantitative and functional proteomic approach. We demonstrate that proteasome inhibitor-adapted myeloma cells tolerate subtotal proteasome inhibition, irrespective of a proteasome mutation, and uniformly show an 'IRE1/XBP1-low' signature. Adaptation of myeloma cells to proteasome inhibitors involved quantitative changes in >600 protein species with similar patterns in AMO-BTZ and AMO-CFZ cells: proteins involved in metabolic regulation, redox homeostasis, and protein folding and destruction were upregulated, while apoptosis and transcription/translation were downregulated. The quantitatively most upregulated protein in AMO-CFZ cells was the multidrug resistance protein (MDR1) protein ABCB1, and carfilzomib resistance could be overcome by MDR1 inhibition. We propose a model where proteasome inhibitor-adapted myeloma cells tolerate subtotal proteasome inhibition owing to metabolic adaptations that favor the generation of reducing equivalents, such as NADPH, which is supported by oxidative glycolysis. Proteasome inhibitor resistance may thus be targeted by manipulating the energy and redox metabolism. PMID:27118406

  10. Emodin potentiates the antiproliferative effect of interferon α/β by activation of JAK/STAT pathway signaling through inhibition of the 26S proteasome

    PubMed Central

    He, Yujiao; Huang, Junmei; Wang, Ping; Shen, Xiaofei; Li, Sheng; Yang, Lijuan; Liu, Wanli; Suksamrarn, Apichart; Zhang, Guolin; Wang, Fei

    2016-01-01

    The 26S proteasome is a negative regulator of type I interferon (IFN-α/β) signaling. Inhibition of the 26S proteasome by small molecules may be a new strategy to enhance the efficacy of type I IFNs and reduce their side effects. Using cell-based screening assay for new 26S proteasome inhibitors, we found that emodin, a natural anthraquinone, was a potent inhibitor of the human 26S proteasome. Emodin preferably inhibited the caspase-like and chymotrypsin-like activities of the human 26S proteasome and increased the ubiquitination of endogenous proteins in cells. Computational modeling showed that emodin exhibited an orientation/conformation favorable to nucleophilic attack in the active pocket of the β1, β2, and β5 subunits of the 26S proteasome. Emodin increased phosphorylation of STAT1, decreased phosphorylation of STAT3 and increased endogenous gene expression stimulated by IFN-α. Emodin inhibited IFN-α-stimulated ubiquitination and degradation of type I interferon receptor 1 (IFNAR1). Emodin also sensitized the antiproliferative effect of IFN-α in HeLa cervical carcinoma cells and reduced tumor growth in Huh7 hepatocellular carcinoma-bearing mice. These results suggest that emodin potentiates the antiproliferative effect of IFN-α by activation of JAK/STAT pathway signaling through inhibition of 26S proteasome-stimulated IFNAR1 degradation. Therefore, emodin warrants further investigation as a new means to enhance the efficacy of IFN-α/β. PMID:26683360

  11. Bufalin derivative BF211 inhibits proteasome activity in human lung cancer cells in vitro by inhibiting β1 subunit expression and disrupting proteasome assembly

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Peng; Feng, Li-xing; Zhang, Dong-mei; Liu, Miao; Liu, Wang; Mi, Tian; Wu, Wan-ying; Jiang, Bao-hong; Yang, Min; Hu, Li-hong; Guo, De-an; Liu, Xuan

    2016-01-01

    Aim: Bufalin is one of the active components in the traditional Chinese medicine ChanSu that is used to treat arrhythmia, inflammation and cancer. BF211 is a bufalin derivative with stronger cytotoxic activity in cancer cells. The aim of this study was to identify the putative target proteins of BF211 and the signaling pathways in cancer cells. Methods: A549 human lung cancer cells were treated with BF211. A SILAC-based proteomic analysis was used to detect the protein expression profiles of BF211-treated A549 cells. Cellular proteasome activities were examined using fluorogenic peptide substrates, and the binding affinities of BF211 to recombinant proteasome subunit proteins were evaluated using the Biacore assay. The expression levels of proteasome subunits were determined using RT-PCR and Western blotting, and the levels of the integral 26S proteasome were evaluated using native PAGE analysis. Results: The proteomic analysis revealed that 1282 proteins were differentially expressed in BF211-treated A549 cells, and the putative target proteins of BF211 were associated with various cellular functions, including transcription, translation, mRNA splicing, ribosomal protein synthesis and proteasome function. In A549 cells, BF211 (5, 10, and 20 nmol/L) dose-dependently inhibited the enzymatic activities of proteasome. But BF211 displayed a moderate affinity in binding to proteasome β1 subunit and no binding affinity to the β2 and β5 subunits. Moreover, BF211 (0.1, 1, and 10 nmol/L) did not inhibit the proteasome activities in the cell lysates. BF211 (5, 10, and 20 nmol/L) significantly decreased the expression level of proteasome β1 subunit and the levels of integral 26S proteasome in A549 cells. Similarly, knockdown of the β1 subunit with siRNA in A549 cells significantly decreased integral 26S proteasome and proteasome activity. Conclusion: BF211 inhibits proteasome activity in A549 cells by decreasing β1 subunit expression and disrupting proteasome assembly

  12. The aspartyl protease DDI2 activates Nrf1 to compensate for proteasome dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Koizumi, Shun; Irie, Taro; Hirayama, Shoshiro; Sakurai, Yasuyuki; Yashiroda, Hideki; Naguro, Isao; Ichijo, Hidenori; Hamazaki, Jun; Murata, Shigeo

    2016-01-01

    In response to proteasome dysfunction, mammalian cells upregulate proteasome gene expression by activating Nrf1. Nrf1 is an endoplasmic reticulum-resident transcription factor that is continually retrotranslocated and degraded by the proteasome. Upon proteasome inhibition, Nrf1 escapes degradation and is cleaved to become active. However, the processing enzyme for Nrf1 remains obscure. Here we show that the aspartyl protease DNA-damage inducible 1 homolog 2 (DDI2) is required to cleave and activate Nrf1. Deletion of DDI2 reduced the cleaved form of Nrf1 and increased the full-length cytosolic form of Nrf1, resulting in poor upregulation of proteasomes in response to proteasome inhibition. These defects were restored by adding back wild-type DDI2 but not protease-defective DDI2. Our results provide a clue for blocking compensatory proteasome synthesis to improve cancer therapies targeting proteasomes. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.18357.001 PMID:27528193

  13. Inhibitory effects of pesticides on proteasome activity: implication in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xue-Feng; Li, Sharon; Chou, Arthur P; Bronstein, Jeff M

    2006-07-01

    Epidemiological studies have suggested a correlation of pesticides and Parkinson's disease (PD) while genetic and biochemical studies have implicated the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) in the pathogenesis of PD. In the present studies, we tested the hypothesis that pesticide exposure increases the risk of developing PD by inhibiting the UPS. The effects of pesticides on proteasome activity were examined in SK-N-MC neuroblastoma cells overexpressing a GFP-conjugated proteasome degradation signal, GFP(u). Six out of 25 representative pesticides, including rotenone, ziram, diethyldithiocarbamate, endosulfan, benomyl, and dieldrin, showed inhibitory effects on proteasome activities at low concentrations (10 nM to 10 microM). Unlike proteasome inhibitors, they did not inhibit 20 S proteasome activities in cell lysates. Except for rotenone, the other five pesticides did not induce significantly cellular oxidative stress. The cytotoxic effects of these pesticides were closely correlated with proteasome inhibition. Our results suggest proteasome inhibition as a potential mechanism for the epidemiological association of pesticides and PD.

  14. Circulating extracellular proteasome in the cerebrospinal fluid: a study on concentration and proteolytic activity.

    PubMed

    Mueller, Oliver; Anlasik, Timur; Wiedemann, Jonas; Thomassen, Jan; Wohlschlaeger, Jeremias; Hagel, Vincent; Keyvani, Kathy; Schwieger, Isabel; Dahlmann, Burkhardt; Sure, Ulrich; Sixt, Stephan Urs

    2012-03-01

    Alterations of the intracellular ubiquitin-proteasome pathway are found in neurodegenerative and inflammatory disorders of the central nervous system, as well as in its malignancies. Inhibitory substrates of the proteasomes represent promising approaches to control autoimmune inflammations and induction of apoptosis in cancer cells. Extracellular circulating proteasomes are positively correlated to outcome prognosis in hematogenic neoplasias and the outcome in critically ill patients. Previously, we reported raised levels of proteolytic active 20S proteasomes in the extracellular alveolar space in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). For the cerebrospinal fluid, we assumed that extracellular circulating proteasomes with enzymatic activity can be found, too. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples of twenty-six patients (14 females, 12 males), who underwent diagnostic spinal myelography, were analyzed for leukocyte cell count, total protein content, lactate and interleukine-6 (Il-6) concentrations. CSF samples were analyzed for concentration and enzymatic activity of extracellular 20S proteasomes (fluorescenic substrate cleavage; femtokatal). Blood samples were analyzed with respect to concentration of extracellular circulating proteasomes. Choroidal plexus was harvested at autopsies and examined with immunoelectron microscopy (EM) for identification of possible transportation mechanisms. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS (18.0.3). In all patients, extracellular proteasome was found in the CSF. The mean concentration was 24.6 ng/ml. Enzymatic activity of the 20S subunits of proteasomes was positively identified by the fluorescenic subtrate cleavage at a mean of 8.5 fkat/ml. Concentrations of extracellular proteasomes in the CSF, total protein content and Il-6 were uncorrelated. Immunoelectron microscopy revealed merging vesicles of proteasomes with the outer cell membrane suggestive of an exozytic transport mechanism. For the first time

  15. p97-dependent retrotranslocation and proteolytic processing govern formation of active Nrf1 upon proteasome inhibition.

    PubMed

    Radhakrishnan, Senthil K; den Besten, Willem; Deshaies, Raymond J

    2014-01-01

    Proteasome inhibition elicits an evolutionarily conserved response wherein proteasome subunit mRNAs are upregulated, resulting in recovery (i.e., 'bounce-back') of proteasome activity. We previously demonstrated that the transcription factor Nrf1/NFE2L1 mediates this homeostatic response in mammalian cells. We show here that Nrf1 is initially translocated into the lumen of the ER, but is rapidly and efficiently retrotranslocated to the cytosolic side of the membrane in a manner that depends on p97/VCP. Normally, retrotranslocated Nrf1 is degraded promptly by the proteasome and active species do not accumulate. However, in cells with compromised proteasomes, retrotranslocated Nrf1 escapes degradation and is cleaved N-terminal to Leu-104 to yield a fragment that is no longer tethered to the ER membrane. Importantly, this cleavage event is essential for Nrf1-dependent activation of proteasome gene expression upon proteasome inhibition. Our data uncover an unexpected role for p97 in activation of a transcription factor by relocalizing it from the ER lumen to the cytosol. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.01856.001.

  16. Second-generation proteasome inhibitor carfilzomib enhances doxorubicin-induced cytotoxicity and apoptosis in breast cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Yonghua; Yu, Yang; Wang, Zhenyu; Wang, Hao; Bieerkehazhi, Shayahati; Zhao, Yanling; Suzuk, Lale; Zhang, Hong

    2016-01-01

    Proteasome inhibition is an attractive approach for anticancer therapy. Doxorubicin (DOX) is widely used for treatment in a number of cancers including breast cancer; however, the development of DOX resistance largely limits its clinical application. One of the possible mechanisms of DOX-resistance is that DOX might induce the activation of NF-κB. In this case, proteasome inhibitors could inhibit the activation of NF-κB by blocking inhibitory factor κB (IκB) degradation. Carfilzomib, a second-generation proteasome inhibitor, overcomes bortezomib resistance and lessens its side-effects. Currently, the effect of carfilzomib on breast cancer cell proliferation remains unclear. In this study, we exploited the role of carfilzomib in seven breast cancer cell lines, MCF7, T-47D, MDA-MB-361, HCC1954, MDA-MB-468, MDA-MB-231, and BT-549, representing all major molecular subtypes of breast cancer. We found that carfilzomib alone had cytotoxic effects on the breast cancer cells and it increased DOX-induced cytotoxic effects and apoptosis in combination by enhancing DOX-induced JNK phosphorylation and inhibiting DOX-induced IκBα degradation. The results suggest that carfilzomib has potent antitumor effects on breast cancer in vitro and can sensitize breast cancer cells to DOX treatment. DOX in combination with carfilzomib may be an effective and feasible therapeutic option in the clinical trials for treating breast cancer. PMID:27655642

  17. Second-generation proteasome inhibitor carfilzomib enhances doxorubicin-induced cytotoxicity and apoptosis in breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Shi, Yonghua; Yu, Yang; Wang, Zhenyu; Wang, Hao; Bieerkehazhi, Shayahati; Zhao, Yanling; Suzuk, Lale; Zhang, Hong

    2016-11-08

    Proteasome inhibition is an attractive approach for anticancer therapy. Doxorubicin (DOX) is widely used for treatment in a number of cancers including breast cancer; however, the development of DOX resistance largely limits its clinical application. One of the possible mechanisms of DOX-resistance is that DOX might induce the activation of NF-κB. In this case, proteasome inhibitors could inhibit the activation of NF-κB by blocking inhibitory factor κB (IκB) degradation. Carfilzomib, a second-generation proteasome inhibitor, overcomes bortezomib resistance and lessens its side-effects. Currently, the effect of carfilzomib on breast cancer cell proliferation remains unclear. In this study, we exploited the role of carfilzomib in seven breast cancer cell lines, MCF7, T-47D, MDA-MB-361, HCC1954, MDA-MB-468, MDA-MB-231, and BT-549, representing all major molecular subtypes of breast cancer. We found that carfilzomib alone had cytotoxic effects on the breast cancer cells and it increased DOX-induced cytotoxic effects and apoptosis in combination by enhancing DOX-induced JNK phosphorylation and inhibiting DOX-induced IκBα degradation. The results suggest that carfilzomib has potent antitumor effects on breast cancer in vitro and can sensitize breast cancer cells to DOX treatment. DOX in combination with carfilzomib may be an effective and feasible therapeutic option in the clinical trials for treating breast cancer.

  18. Effects of Hydroxy Groups in the A-Ring on the Anti-proteasome Activity of Flavone.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Kasumi; Yang, Jia-Hua; Sato, Eiji; Miura, Naoyuki; Wu, Yi-Xin

    2015-01-01

    The ubiquitin-proteasome pathway plays an important role in regulating apoptosis and the cell cycle. Recently, proteasome inhibitors have been shown to have antitumor effects and have been used in anticancer therapy for several cancers such as multiple myeloma. Although some flavones, such as apigenin, chrysin and luteolin, have a specific role in the inhibition of proteasome activity and induced apoptosis in some reports, these findings did not address all flavone types. To further investigate the proteasome-inhibitory mechanism of flavonoids, we examined the inhibitory activity of 5,6,7-trihydroxyflavone, baicalein and 5,6,7,4'-tetrahydroxyflavone, scutellarein on extracted proteasomes from mice and cancer cells. Unlike the other flavones, baicalein and scutellarein did not inhibit proteasome activity or accumulate levels of ubiquitinated proteins. These results indicate that flavones with hydroxy groups at positions 5, 6 and 7 of the A-ring lack the anti-proteasome function.

  19. Combination Treatment with Sublethal Ionizing Radiation and the Proteasome Inhibitor, Bortezomib, Enhances Death-Receptor Mediated Apoptosis and Anti-Tumor Immune Attack

    PubMed Central

    Cacan, Ercan; Spring, Alexander M.; Kumari, Anita; Greer, Susanna F.; Garnett-Benson, Charlie

    2015-01-01

    Sub-lethal doses of radiation can modulate gene expression, making tumor cells more susceptible to T-cell-mediated immune attack. Proteasome inhibitors demonstrate broad anti-tumor activity in clinical and pre-clinical cancer models. Here, we use a combination treatment of proteasome inhibition and irradiation to further induce immunomodulation of tumor cells that could enhance tumor-specific immune responses. We investigate the effects of the 26S proteasome inhibitor, bortezomib, alone or in combination with radiotherapy, on the expression of immunogenic genes in normal colon and colorectal cancer cell lines. We examined cells for changes in the expression of several death receptors (DR4, DR5 and Fas) commonly used by T cells for killing of target cells. Our results indicate that the combination treatment resulted in increased cell surface expression of death receptors by increasing their transcript levels. The combination treatment further increases the sensitivity of carcinoma cells to apoptosis through FAS and TRAIL receptors but does not change the sensitivity of normal non-malignant epithelial cells. Furthermore, the combination treatment significantly enhances tumor cell killing by tumor specific CD8+ T cells. This study suggests that combining radiotherapy and proteasome inhibition may simultaneously enhance tumor immunogenicity and the induction of antitumor immunity by enhancing tumor-specific T-cell activity. PMID:26703577

  20. Homogeneous, bioluminescent proteasome assays.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, Martha A; Moravec, Richard A; Riss, Terry L; Bulleit, Robert F

    2015-01-01

    Protein degradation is mediated predominantly through the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway. The importance of the proteasome in regulating degradation of proteins involved in cell-cycle control, apoptosis, and angiogenesis led to the recognition of the proteasome as a therapeutic target for cancer. The proteasome is also essential for degrading misfolded and aberrant proteins, and impaired proteasome function has been implicated in neurodegerative and cardiovascular diseases. Robust, sensitive assays are essential for monitoring proteasome activity and for developing inhibitors of the proteasome. Peptide-conjugated fluorophores are widely used as substrates for monitoring proteasome activity, but fluorogenic substrates can exhibit significant background and can be problematic for screening because of cellular autofluorescence or interference from fluorescent library compounds. Furthermore, fluorescent proteasome assays require column-purified 20S or 26S proteasome (typically obtained from erythrocytes), or proteasome extracts from whole cells, as their samples. To provide assays more amenable to high-throughput screening, we developed a homogeneous, bioluminescent method that combines peptide-conjugated aminoluciferin substrates and a stabilized luciferase. Using substrates for the chymotrypsin-like, trypsin-like, and caspase-like proteasome activities in combination with a selective membrane permeabilization step, we developed single-step, cell-based assays to measure each of the proteasome catalytic activities. The homogeneous method eliminates the need to prepare individual cell extracts as samples and has adequate sensitivity for 96- and 384-well plates. The simple "add and read" format enables sensitive and rapid proteasome assays ideal for inhibitor screening.

  1. A monoclonal antibody that distinguishes latent and active forms of the proteasome (multicatalytic proteinase complex)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weitman, D.; Etlinger, J. D.

    1992-01-01

    Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) were generated to proteasome purified from human erythrocytes. Five of six proteasome-specific mAbs reacted with three subunits in the molecular mass range of 25-28 kDa, indicating a common epitope. The other mAb (AP5C10) exhibited a more restricted reactivity, recognizing a 32-kDa subunit of the proteasome purified in its latent state. However, when the proteasome is isolated in its active state, AP5C10 reacts with a 28-kDa subunit, evidence for processing of the proteasome subunits during purification. Purified proteasome preparations which exhibited partial latency have both AP5C10 reactive subunits. Although the 32-kDa subunit appears required for latency, loss of this component and generation of the 28-kDa component are not obligatory for activation. The 32- and 28-kDa subunits can each be further resolved into three components by isoelectric focusing. The apparent loss of 4 kDa during the conversion of the 32- to 28-kDa subunit is accompanied by a shift to a more basic pI for each polypeptide. Western blots of the early steps of proteasome purification reveal an AP5C10-reactive protein at 41 kDa. This protein was separated from proteasomes by sizing chromatography and may represent a pool of precursor subunits. Since the 32-kDa subunit appears necessary for latency, it is speculated to play a regulatory role in ATP-dependent proteolytic activity.

  2. Proteasome Inhibitor YSY01A Enhances Cisplatin Cytotoxicity in Cisplatin-Resistant Human Ovarian Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Wei; Zhou, Quan; Yuan, Xia; Ge, Ze-mei; Ran, Fu-xiang; Yang, Hua-yu; Qiang, Guang-liang; Li, Run-tao; Cui, Jing-rong

    2016-01-01

    Cisplatin is one of the most common drugs used for treatment of solid tumors such as ovarian cancer. Unfortunately, the development of resistance against this cytotoxic agent limits its clinical use. Here we report that YSY01A, a novel proteasome inhibitor, is capable of suppressing survival of cisplatin-resistant ovarian cancer cells by inducing apoptosis. And YSY01A treatment enhances the cytotoxicity of cisplatin in drug-resistant ovarian cancer cells. Specifically, YSY01A abrogates regulatory proteins important for cell proliferation and anti-apoptosis including NF-κB p65 and STAT3, resulting in down-regulation of Bcl-2. A dramatic increase in cisplatin uptake was also observed by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry following exposure to YSY01A. Taken together, YSY01A serves as a potential candidate for further development as anticancer therapeutics targeting the proteasome. PMID:27326257

  3. Celastrol can inhibit proteasome activity and upregulate the expression of heat shock protein genes, hsp30 and hsp70, in Xenopus laevis A6 cells.

    PubMed

    Walcott, Shantel E; Heikkila, John J

    2010-06-01

    In eukaryotes, the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) is responsible for the degradation of most proteins. Proteasome inhibition, which has been associated with various diseases, can cause alterations in various intracellular processes including the expression of heat shock protein (hsp) genes. In this study, we show that celastrol, a quinone methide triterpene and anti-inflammatory agent, inhibited proteasome activity and enhanced HSP accumulation in Xenopus laevis A6 kidney epithelial cells. Treatment of cells with celastrol induced the accumulation of ubiquitinated protein and inhibited chymotrypsin-like activity. This was accompanied by a dose- and time-dependent accumulation of HSP30 and HSP70. Celastrol-induced HSP accumulation was mediated by HSF1-DNA binding activity since this response was inhibited by the HSF1 activation inhibitor, KNK437. Simultaneous exposure of cells with celastrol plus either mild heat shock or the proteasome inhibitor, MG132, produced an enhanced accumulation of HSP30 that was greater than the sum of the individual stressors alone. Immunocytochemical analysis revealed that celastrol-induced HSP30 accumulation occurred in the cytoplasm in a granular pattern supplemented with larger circular HSP30 staining structures. HSP30 was also noted in the nucleus with less staining in the nucleolus. In some cells, celastrol induced the collapse of the actin cytoskeleton and conversion to a rounder morphology. In conclusion, this study has shown that celastrol inhibited proteasome activity and induced HSF1-mediated expression of hsp genes in amphibian cells.

  4. Inhibition of proteasome activity by various fruits and vegetables is associated with cancer cell death.

    PubMed

    Chen, Marina S; Chen, Di; Dou, Q Ping

    2004-01-01

    There is a large amount of scientific evidence showing that fruits and vegetables lower the risk of cancer. However, the responsible molecular mechanisms remain poorly understood. Our previous studies have demonstrated that inhibition of proteasomal chymotrypsin-like activity is associated with cancer cell apoptosis, which may also be the major mechanism responsible for the anticancer effects of green tea polyphenols. In the current study, we tested the hypothesis that some fruits and vegetables inhibit tumor cell proteasome activity and that this inhibition contributes to their cancer-preventative activities. We report that the extracts of apple and grape are more potent than onion, tomato and celery in: (i) inhibiting the proteasomal chymotrypsin-like activity in leukemia Jurkat T cell extract; (ii) accumulating the polyubiquitinated proteins in intact Jurkat T cells; (iii) inducing activation of caspase-3/-7 and cleavage of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase in intact Jurkat T cells; and (iv) inducing the appearance of spherical cells preferentially in prostate cancer PC-3 over the normal NIH 3T3 cell line. We also found that strawberry extract had some effect on Jurkat T cell extract and the prostate PC-3 cell line but not on intact Jurkat T cells. Our findings suggest that the proteasome is a cancer-related molecular target for, at least, the extracts of apple, grape and onion, and that the inhibition of proteasome activity by these fruits or vegetable may contribute to their cancer-preventative effects, although other molecular mechanisms may also be involved.

  5. Tumor Necrosis Factor-α Sensitizes Breast Cancer Cells to Natural Products with Proteasome-Inhibitory Activity Leading to Apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Li; Shi, Wenli; Deshmukh, Rahul R.; Long, Jie; Cheng, Xiaoli; Ji, Weidong; Zeng, Guohua; Chen, Xianliang; Zhang, Yajie; Dou, Q. Ping

    2014-01-01

    The inflammatory microenvironment plays an important role in the process of tumor development. Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), a key pro-inflammatory cytokine, has a significant role in this process. Natural medicinal products such as Withaferin A (WA) and Celastrol (Cel) have shown anti-cancer and anti-inflammatory properties that can be attributed to multiple mechanisms including, but not limited to, apoptosis induction due to the inhibition of proteasomal activities. This study aimed to investigate the effects of TNF-α in combination with WA or Cel in vitro in MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells. TNF-α, when combined with WA or Cel, activated caspase-3 and -9 and downregulated XIAP in a dose-dependent manner, leading to induction of apoptosis in MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells. The combination also caused accumulation of the proteasomal target protein IκBα, resulting in inhibition of the nuclear translocation of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB). Taken together, these results suggest that TNF-α could sensitize breast cancer cells MDA-MB-231 to WA and Cel, at least in part, through inhibiting the activation of NF-κB signaling, leading to XIAP inhibition with subsequent upregulation of caspase-3 and -9 activities. Thus, the anti-cancer activities of TNF-α are enhanced when combined with the natural proteasome inhibitors, WA or Cel. PMID:25419573

  6. CaMKII regulates proteasome phosphorylation and activity and promotes memory destabilization following retrieval.

    PubMed

    Jarome, Timothy J; Ferrara, Nicole C; Kwapis, Janine L; Helmstetter, Fred J

    2016-02-01

    Numerous studies have suggested that memories "destabilize" and require de novo protein synthesis in order to reconsolidate following retrieval, but very little is known about how this destabilization process is regulated. Recently, ubiquitin-proteasome mediated protein degradation has been identified as a critical regulator of memory trace destabilization following retrieval, though the specific mechanisms controlling retrieval-induced changes in ubiquitin-proteasome activity remain equivocal. Here, we found that proteasome activity is increased in the amygdala in a CaMKII-dependent manner following the retrieval of a contextual fear memory. We show that in vitro inhibition of CaMKII reversed retrieval-induced increases in proteasome activity. Additionally, in vivo pharmacological blockade of CaMKII abolished increases in proteolytic activity and activity related regulatory phosphorylation in the amygdala following retrieval, suggesting that CaMKII was "upstream" of protein degradation during the memory reconsolidation process. Consistent with this, while inhibiting CaMKII in the amygdala did not impair memory following retrieval, it completely attenuated the memory impairments that resulted from post-retrieval protein synthesis blockade. Collectively, these results suggest that CaMKII controls the initiation of the memory reconsolidation process through regulation of the proteasome.

  7. Structural analysis of the dodecameric proteasome activator PafE in Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    SciTech Connect

    Bai, Lin; Hu, Kuan; Wang, Tong; Jastrab, Jordan B.; Darwin, K. Heran; Li, Huilin

    2016-03-21

    Here, the human pathogen Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) requires a proteasome system to cause lethal infections in mice. We recently found that proteasome accessory factor E (PafE, Rv3780) activates proteolysis by the Mtb proteasome independently of adenosine triphosphate (ATP). Moreover, PafE contributes to the heat-shock response and virulence of Mtb. Here, we show that PafE subunits formed four-helix bundles similar to those of the eukaryotic ATP-independent proteasome activator subunits of PA26 and PA28. However, unlike any other known proteasome activator, PafE formed dodecamers with 12-fold symmetry, which required a glycine-XXX-glycine-XXX-glycine motif that is not found in previously described activators. Intriguingly, the truncation of the PafE carboxyl-terminus resulted in the robust binding of PafE rings to native proteasome core particles and substantially increased proteasomal activity, suggesting that the extended carboxyl-terminus of this cofactor confers suboptimal binding to the proteasome core particle. Collectively, our data show that proteasomal activation is not limited to hexameric ATPases in bacteria.

  8. Proteasome activators, PA28γ and PA200, play indispensable roles in male fertility.

    PubMed

    Huang, Lin; Haratake, Kousuke; Miyahara, Hatsumi; Chiba, Tomoki

    2016-03-22

    Protein degradation mediated by the proteasome is important for the protein homeostasis. Various proteasome activators, such as PA28 and PA200, regulate the proteasome function. Here we show double knockout (dKO) mice of Psme3 and Psme4 (genes for PA28γ and PA200), but not each single knockout mice, are completely infertile in male. The dKO sperms exhibited remarkable defects in motility, although most of them showed normal appearance in morphology. The proteasome activity of the mutant sperms decreased notably, and the sperms were strongly positive with ubiquitin staining. Quantitative analyses of proteins expressed in dKO sperms revealed up-regulation of several proteins involved in oxidative stress response. Furthermore, increased 8-OHdG staining was observed in dKO sperms head, suggesting defective response to oxidative damage. This report verified PA28γ and PA200 play indispensable roles in male fertility, and provides a novel insight into the role of proteasome activators in antioxidant response.

  9. Proteasome Dysfunction Activates Autophagy and the Keap1-Nrf2 Pathway*

    PubMed Central

    Kageyama, Shun; Sou, Yu-shin; Uemura, Takefumi; Kametaka, Satoshi; Saito, Tetsuya; Ishimura, Ryosuke; Kouno, Tsuguka; Bedford, Lynn; Mayer, R. John; Lee, Myung-Shik; Yamamoto, Masayuki; Waguri, Satoshi; Tanaka, Keiji; Komatsu, Masaaki

    2014-01-01

    The ubiquitin-proteasome system and autophagy are crucially important for proteostasis in cells. These pathways are interdependent, and dysfunction in either pathway causes accumulation of ubiquitin-positive aggregates, a hallmark of human pathological conditions. To elucidate in vivo compensatory action(s) against proteasomal dysfunction, we developed mice with reduced proteasome activity in their livers. The mutant mice exhibited severe liver damage, accompanied by formation of aggregates positive for ubiquitin and p62/Sqstm1, an adaptor protein for both selective autophagy and the anti-oxidative Keap1-Nrf2 pathway. These aggregates were selectively entrapped by autophagosomes, and pathological features of livers with impaired proteasome activity were exacerbated by simultaneous suppression of autophagy. In contrast, concomitant loss of p62/Sqstm1 had no apparent effect on the liver pathology though p62/Sqstm1 was indispensable for the aggregates formation. Furthermore, defective proteasome function led to transcriptional activation of the Nrf2, which served as a physiological adaptation. Our in vivo data suggest that cells contain networks of cellular defense mechanisms against defective proteostasis. PMID:25049227

  10. Proteasome activators, PA28γ and PA200, play indispensable roles in male fertility

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Lin; Haratake, Kousuke; Miyahara, Hatsumi; Chiba, Tomoki

    2016-01-01

    Protein degradation mediated by the proteasome is important for the protein homeostasis. Various proteasome activators, such as PA28 and PA200, regulate the proteasome function. Here we show double knockout (dKO) mice of Psme3 and Psme4 (genes for PA28γ and PA200), but not each single knockout mice, are completely infertile in male. The dKO sperms exhibited remarkable defects in motility, although most of them showed normal appearance in morphology. The proteasome activity of the mutant sperms decreased notably, and the sperms were strongly positive with ubiquitin staining. Quantitative analyses of proteins expressed in dKO sperms revealed up-regulation of several proteins involved in oxidative stress response. Furthermore, increased 8-OHdG staining was observed in dKO sperms head, suggesting defective response to oxidative damage. This report verified PA28γ and PA200 play indispensable roles in male fertility, and provides a novel insight into the role of proteasome activators in antioxidant response. PMID:27003159

  11. Coordination between proteasome impairment and caspase activation leading to TAU pathology: neuroprotection by cAMP

    PubMed Central

    Metcalfe, M J; Huang, Q; Figueiredo-Pereira, M E

    2012-01-01

    Neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs) are hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease (AD). The main component of NFTs is TAU, a highly soluble microtubule-associated protein. However, when TAU is cleaved at Asp421 by caspases it becomes prone to aggregation leading to NFTs. What triggers caspase activation resulting in TAU cleavage remains unclear. We investigated in rat cortical neurons a potential coordination between proteasome impairment and caspase activation. We demonstrate that upon proteasome inhibition, the early accumulation of detergent-soluble ubiquitinated (SUb) proteins paves the way to caspase activation and TAU pathology. This occurs with two drugs that inhibit the proteasome by different means: the product of inflammation prostaglandin J2 (PGJ2) and epoxomicin. Our results pinpoint a critical early event, that is, the buildup of SUb proteins that contributes to caspase activation, TAU cleavage, TAU/Ub-protein aggregation and neuronal death. Furthermore, to our knowledge, we are the first to demonstrate that elevating cAMP in neurons with dibutyryl-cAMP (db-cAMP) or the lipophilic peptide PACAP27 prevents/diminishes caspase activation, TAU cleavage and neuronal death induced by PGJ2, as long as these PGJ2-induced changes are moderate. db-cAMP also stimulated proteasomes, and mitigated proteasome inhibition induced by PGJ2. We propose that targeting cAMP/PKA to boost proteasome activity in a sustainable manner could offer an effective approach to avoid early accumulation of SUb proteins and later caspase activation, and TAU cleavage, possibly preventing/delaying AD neurodegeneration. PMID:22717581

  12. An evolutionarily conserved pathway controls proteasome homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Rousseau, Adrien; Bertolotti, Anne

    2016-01-01

    The proteasome is essential for the selective degradation of most cellular proteins but how cells maintain adequate amounts of proteasome is unclear. Here we found an evolutionarily conserved signalling pathway controlling proteasome homeostasis. Central to this pathway is TORC1 whose inhibition induced all known yeast 19S regulatory particle assembly-chaperones (RACs) as well as proteasome subunits. Downstream of TORC1 inhibition, the yeast mitogen-activated protein kinase, Mpk1, ensured that the supply of RACs and proteasome subunits increased under challenging conditions to maintain proteasomal degradation and cell viability. This adaptive pathway was evolutionarily conserved, with mTOR and Erk5 controlling the levels of the four mammalian RACs and proteasome abundance. Thus, the central growth and stress controllers, TORC1 and Mpk1/Erk5, endow cells with a rapid and vital adaptive response to adjust proteasome abundance to the rising needs. Enhancing this pathway may be a useful therapeutic approach for diseases resulting from impaired proteasomal degradation. PMID:27462806

  13. An evolutionarily conserved pathway controls proteasome homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Rousseau, Adrien; Bertolotti, Anne

    2016-08-11

    The proteasome is essential for the selective degradation of most cellular proteins, but how cells maintain adequate amounts of proteasome is unclear. Here we show that there is an evolutionarily conserved signalling pathway controlling proteasome homeostasis. Central to this pathway is TORC1, the inhibition of which induced all known yeast 19S regulatory particle assembly-chaperones (RACs), as well as proteasome subunits. Downstream of TORC1 inhibition, the yeast mitogen-activated protein kinase, Mpk1, acts to increase the supply of RACs and proteasome subunits under challenging conditions in order to maintain proteasomal degradation and cell viability. This adaptive pathway was evolutionarily conserved, with mTOR and ERK5 controlling the levels of the four mammalian RACs and proteasome abundance. Thus, the central growth and stress controllers, TORC1 and Mpk1/ERK5, endow cells with a rapid and vital adaptive response to adjust proteasome abundance in response to the rising needs of cells. Enhancing this pathway may be a useful therapeutic approach for diseases resulting from impaired proteasomal degradation.

  14. Proteasome dysfunction triggers activation of SKN-1A/Nrf1 by the aspartic protease DDI-1

    PubMed Central

    Lehrbach, Nicolas J; Ruvkun, Gary

    2016-01-01

    Proteasomes are essential for protein homeostasis in eukaryotes. To preserve cellular function, transcription of proteasome subunit genes is induced in response to proteasome dysfunction caused by pathogen attacks or proteasome inhibitor drugs. In Caenorhabditis elegans, this response requires SKN-1, a transcription factor related to mammalian Nrf1/2. Here, we use comprehensive genetic analyses to identify the pathway required for C. elegans to detect proteasome dysfunction and activate SKN-1. Genes required for SKN-1 activation encode regulators of ER traffic, a peptide N-glycanase, and DDI-1, a conserved aspartic protease. DDI-1 expression is induced by proteasome dysfunction, and we show that DDI-1 is required to cleave and activate an ER-associated isoform of SKN-1. Mammalian Nrf1 is also ER-associated and subject to proteolytic cleavage, suggesting a conserved mechanism of proteasome surveillance. Targeting mammalian DDI1 protease could mitigate effects of proteasome dysfunction in aging and protein aggregation disorders, or increase effectiveness of proteasome inhibitor cancer chemotherapies. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.17721.001 PMID:27528192

  15. Denervation-Induced Activation of the Ubiquitin-Proteasome System Reduces Skeletal Muscle Quantity Not Quality.

    PubMed

    Baumann, Cory W; Liu, Haiming M; Thompson, LaDora V

    2016-01-01

    It is well known that the ubiquitin-proteasome system is activated in response to skeletal muscle wasting and functions to degrade contractile proteins. The loss of these proteins inevitably reduces skeletal muscle size (i.e., quantity). However, it is currently unknown whether activation of this pathway also affects function by impairing the muscle's intrinsic ability to produce force (i.e., quality). Therefore, the purpose of this study was twofold, (1) document how the ubiquitin-proteasome system responds to denervation and (2) identify the physiological consequences of these changes. To induce soleus muscle atrophy, C57BL6 mice underwent tibial nerve transection of the left hindlimb for 7 or 14 days (n = 6-8 per group). At these time points, content of several proteins within the ubiquitin-proteasome system were determined via Western blot, while ex vivo whole muscle contractility was specifically analyzed at day 14. Denervation temporarily increased several key proteins within the ubiquitin-proteasome system, including the E3 ligase MuRF1 and the proteasome subunits 19S, α7 and β5. These changes were accompanied by reductions in absolute peak force and power, which were offset when expressed relative to physiological cross-sectional area. Contrary to peak force, absolute and relative forces at submaximal stimulation frequencies were significantly greater following 14 days of denervation. Taken together, these data represent two keys findings. First, activation of the ubiquitin-proteasome system is associated with reductions in skeletal muscle quantity rather than quality. Second, shortly after denervation, it appears the muscle remodels to compensate for the loss of neural activity via changes in Ca2+ handling.

  16. The 20S Proteasome Splicing Activity Discovered by SpliceMet

    PubMed Central

    Textoris-Taube, Kathrin; Janek, Katharina; Keller, Christin; Henklein, Petra; Kloetzel, Peter Michael; Zaikin, Alexey

    2010-01-01

    The identification of proteasome-generated spliced peptides (PSP) revealed a new unpredicted activity of the major cellular protease. However, so far characterization of PSP was entirely dependent on the availability of patient-derived cytotoxic CD8+ T lymphocytes (CTL) thus preventing a systematic investigation of proteasome-catalyzed peptide splicing (PCPS). For an unrestricted PSP identification we here developed SpliceMet, combining the computer-based algorithm ProteaJ with in vitro proteasomal degradation assays and mass spectrometry. By applying SpliceMet for the analysis of proteasomal processing products of four different substrate polypeptides, derived from human tumor as well as viral antigens, we identified fifteen new spliced peptides generated by PCPS either by cis or from two separate substrate molecules, i.e., by trans splicing. Our data suggest that 20S proteasomes represent a molecular machine that, due to its catalytic and structural properties, facilitates the generation of spliced peptides, thereby providing a pool of qualitatively new peptides from which functionally relevant products may be selected. PMID:20613855

  17. Transcriptional Activation of Pericentromeric Satellite Repeats and Disruption of Centromeric Clustering upon Proteasome Inhibition.

    PubMed

    Natisvili, Theona; Yandim, Cihangir; Silva, Raquel; Emanuelli, Giulia; Krueger, Felix; Nageshwaran, Sathiji; Festenstein, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Heterochromatinisation of pericentromeres, which in mice consist of arrays of major satellite repeats, are important for centromere formation and maintenance of genome stability. The dysregulation of this process has been linked to genomic stress and various cancers. Here we show in mice that the proteasome binds to major satellite repeats and proteasome inhibition by MG132 results in their transcriptional de-repression; this de-repression is independent of cell-cycle perturbation. The transcriptional activation of major satellite repeats upon proteasome inhibition is accompanied by delocalisation of heterochromatin protein 1 alpha (HP1α) from chromocentres, without detectable change in the levels of histone H3K9me3, H3K4me3, H3K36me3 and H3 acetylation on the major satellite repeats. Moreover, inhibition of the proteasome was found to increase the number of chromocentres per cell, reflecting destabilisation of the chromocentre structures. Our findings suggest that the proteasome plays a role in maintaining heterochromatin integrity of pericentromeres.

  18. Transcriptional Activation of Pericentromeric Satellite Repeats and Disruption of Centromeric Clustering upon Proteasome Inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Natisvili, Theona; Yandim, Cihangir; Silva, Raquel; Emanuelli, Giulia; Krueger, Felix; Nageshwaran, Sathiji; Festenstein, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Heterochromatinisation of pericentromeres, which in mice consist of arrays of major satellite repeats, are important for centromere formation and maintenance of genome stability. The dysregulation of this process has been linked to genomic stress and various cancers. Here we show in mice that the proteasome binds to major satellite repeats and proteasome inhibition by MG132 results in their transcriptional de-repression; this de-repression is independent of cell-cycle perturbation. The transcriptional activation of major satellite repeats upon proteasome inhibition is accompanied by delocalisation of heterochromatin protein 1 alpha (HP1α) from chromocentres, without detectable change in the levels of histone H3K9me3, H3K4me3, H3K36me3 and H3 acetylation on the major satellite repeats. Moreover, inhibition of the proteasome was found to increase the number of chromocentres per cell, reflecting destabilisation of the chromocentre structures. Our findings suggest that the proteasome plays a role in maintaining heterochromatin integrity of pericentromeres. PMID:27806100

  19. PiZ Mouse Liver Accumulates Polyubiquitin Conjugates That Associate with Catalytically Active 26S Proteasomes

    PubMed Central

    Haddock, Christopher J.; Blomenkamp, Keith; Gautam, Madhav; James, Jared; Mielcarska, Joanna; Gogol, Edward; Teckman, Jeffrey; Skowyra, Dorota

    2014-01-01

    Accumulation of aggregation-prone human alpha 1 antitrypsin mutant Z (AT-Z) protein in PiZ mouse liver stimulates features of liver injury typical of human alpha 1 antitrypsin type ZZ deficiency, an autosomal recessive genetic disorder. Ubiquitin-mediated proteolysis by the 26S proteasome counteracts AT-Z accumulation and plays other roles that, when inhibited, could exacerbate the injury. However, it is unknown how the conditions of AT-Z mediated liver injury affect the 26S proteasome. To address this question, we developed a rapid extraction strategy that preserves polyubiquitin conjugates in the presence of catalytically active 26S proteasomes and allows their separation from deposits of insoluble AT-Z. Compared to WT, PiZ extracts had about 4-fold more polyubiquitin conjugates with no apparent change in the levels of the 26S and 20S proteasomes, and unassembled subunits. The polyubiquitin conjugates had similar affinities to ubiquitin-binding domain of Psmd4 and co-purified with similar amounts of catalytically active 26S complexes. These data show that polyubiquitin conjugates were accumulating despite normal recruitment to catalytically active 26S proteasomes that were available in excess, and suggest that a defect at the 26S proteasome other than compromised binding to polyubiquitin chain or peptidase activity played a role in the accumulation. In support of this idea, PiZ extracts were characterized by high molecular weight, reduction-sensitive forms of selected subunits, including ATPase subunits that unfold substrates and regulate access to proteolytic core. Older WT mice acquired similar alterations, implying that they result from common aspects of oxidative stress. The changes were most pronounced on unassembled subunits, but some subunits were altered even in the 26S proteasomes co-purified with polyubiquitin conjugates. Thus, AT-Z protein aggregates indirectly impair degradation of polyubiquitinated proteins at the level of the 26S proteasome

  20. Compensatory role of the Nrf2-ARE pathway against paraquat toxicity: Relevance of 26S proteasome activity.

    PubMed

    Izumi, Yasuhiko; Yamamoto, Noriyuki; Matsushima, Sayaka; Yamamoto, Takamori; Takada-Takatori, Yuki; Akaike, Akinori; Kume, Toshiaki

    2015-11-01

    Oxidative stress and the ubiquitin-proteasome system play a key role in the pathogenesis of Parkinson disease. Although the herbicide paraquat is an environmental factor that is involved in the etiology of Parkinson disease, the role of 26S proteasome in paraquat toxicity remains to be determined. Using PC12 cells overexpressing a fluorescent protein fused to the proteasome degradation signal, we report here that paraquat yielded an inhibitory effect on 26S proteasome activity without an obvious decline in 20S proteasome activity. Relative low concentrations of proteasome inhibitors caused the accumulation of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), which is targeted to the ubiquitin-proteasome system, and activated the antioxidant response element (ARE)-dependent transcription. Paraquat also upregulated the protein level of Nrf2 without increased expression of Nrf2 mRNA, and activated the Nrf2-ARE pathway. Consequently, paraquat induced expression of Nrf2-dependent ARE-driven genes, such as γ-glutamylcysteine synthetase, catalase, and hemeoxygenase-1. Knockdown of Nrf2 or inhibition of γ-glutamylcysteine synthetase and catalase exacerbated paraquat-induced toxicity, whereas suppression of hemeoxygenase-1 did not. These data indicate that the compensatory activation of the Nrf2-ARE pathway via inhibition of 26S proteasome serves as part of a cellular defense mechanism to protect against paraquat toxicity.

  1. Measuring activity in the ubiquitin-proteasome system: from large scale discoveries to single cells analysis.

    PubMed

    Melvin, Adam T; Woss, Gregery S; Park, Jessica H; Waters, Marcey L; Allbritton, Nancy L

    2013-09-01

    The ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) is the primary pathway responsible for the recognition and degradation of misfolded, damaged, or tightly regulated proteins in addition to performing essential roles in DNA repair, cell cycle regulation, cell migration, and the immune response. While traditional biochemical techniques have proven useful in the identification of key proteins involved in this pathway, the implementation of novel reporters responsible for measuring enzymatic activity of the UPS has provided valuable insight into the effectiveness of therapeutics and role of the UPS in various human diseases such as multiple myeloma and Huntington's disease. These reporters, usually consisting of a recognition sequence fused to an analytical handle, are designed to specifically evaluate enzymatic activity of certain members of the UPS including the proteasome, E3 ubiquitin ligases, and deubiquitinating enzymes. This review highlights the more commonly used reporters employed in a variety of scenarios ranging from high-throughput screening of novel inhibitors to single cell microscopy techniques measuring E3 ligase or proteasome activity. Finally, a recent study is presented highlighting the development of a novel degron-based substrate designed to overcome the limitations of current reporting techniques in measuring E3 ligase and proteasome activity in patient samples.

  2. NMDAR-dependent proteasome activity in the gustatory cortex is necessary for conditioned taste aversion.

    PubMed

    Rosenberg, Tali; Elkobi, Alina; Dieterich, Daniela C; Rosenblum, Kobi

    2016-04-01

    Taste information is processed in different brain structures in the mammalian brain, including the gustatory cortex (GC), which resides within the insular cortex. N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) activity in the GC is necessary for the acquisition of conditioned taste aversion (CTA) but not positive novel taste learning. Previous studies have shown that taste memory consolidation requires intact protein synthesis in the GC. In addition, the direct involvement of translation initiation and elongation factors was documented in the GC during taste learning. However, protein expression is defined by protein synthesis, degradation, and localization. Protein degradation is critical for the consolidation and reconsolidation of other forms of learning, such as fear learning and addiction behavior, but its role in cortical-dependent learning is not clear. Here, we show for the first time that proteasome activity is specifically increased in the GC 4h following experiencing of a novel taste. This increase in proteasome activity was abolished by local administration to the GC of the NMDA antagonist, APV, as well as a CaMKII inhibitor, at the time of acquisition. In addition, local application of lactacystin, a proteasome inhibitor, resulted in impaired CTA, but not novel taste learning. These results suggest that NMDAR-dependent proteasome activity in the GC participates in the association process between novel taste experience and negative visceral sensation.

  3. Impaired enzymatic defensive activity, mitochondrial dysfunction and proteasome activation are involved in RTT cell oxidative damage.

    PubMed

    Cervellati, Carlo; Sticozzi, Claudia; Romani, Arianna; Belmonte, Giuseppe; De Rasmo, Domenico; Signorile, Anna; Cervellati, Franco; Milanese, Chiara; Mastroberardino, Pier Giorgio; Pecorelli, Alessandra; Savelli, Vinno; Forman, Henry J; Hayek, Joussef; Valacchi, Giuseppe

    2015-10-01

    A strong correlation between oxidative stress (OS) and Rett syndrome (RTT), a rare neurodevelopmental disorder affecting females in the 95% of the cases, has been well documented although the source of OS and the effect of a redox imbalance in this pathology has not been yet investigated. Using freshly isolated skin fibroblasts from RTT patients and healthy subjects, we have demonstrated in RTT cells high levels of H2O2 and HNE protein adducts. These findings correlated with the constitutive activation of NADPH-oxidase (NOX) and that was prevented by a NOX inhibitor and iron chelator pre-treatment, showing its direct involvement. In parallel, we demonstrated an increase in mitochondrial oxidant production, altered mitochondrial biogenesis and impaired proteasome activity in RTT samples. Further, we found that the key cellular defensive enzymes: glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase and thioredoxin reductases activities were also significantly lower in RTT. Taken all together, our findings suggest that the systemic OS levels in RTT can be a consequence of both: increased endogenous oxidants as well as altered mitochondrial biogenesis with a decreased activity of defensive enzymes that leads to posttranslational oxidant protein modification and a proteasome activity impairment.

  4. The 20S proteasome core, active within apoptotic exosome-like vesicles, induces autoantibody production and accelerates rejection.

    PubMed

    Dieudé, Mélanie; Bell, Christina; Turgeon, Julie; Beillevaire, Deborah; Pomerleau, Luc; Yang, Bing; Hamelin, Katia; Qi, Shijie; Pallet, Nicolas; Béland, Chanel; Dhahri, Wahiba; Cailhier, Jean-François; Rousseau, Matthieu; Duchez, Anne-Claire; Lévesque, Tania; Lau, Arthur; Rondeau, Christiane; Gingras, Diane; Muruve, Danie; Rivard, Alain; Cardinal, Héloise; Perreault, Claude; Desjardins, Michel; Boilard, Éric; Thibault, Pierre; Hébert, Marie-Josée

    2015-12-16

    Autoantibodies to components of apoptotic cells, such as anti-perlecan antibodies, contribute to rejection in organ transplant recipients. However, mechanisms of immunization to apoptotic components remain largely uncharacterized. We used large-scale proteomics, with validation by electron microscopy and biochemical methods, to compare the protein profiles of apoptotic bodies and apoptotic exosome-like vesicles, smaller extracellular vesicles released by endothelial cells downstream of caspase-3 activation. We identified apoptotic exosome-like vesicles as a central trigger for production of anti-perlecan antibodies and acceleration of rejection. Unlike apoptotic bodies, apoptotic exosome-like vesicles triggered the production of anti-perlecan antibodies in naïve mice and enhanced anti-perlecan antibody production and allograft inflammation in mice transplanted with an MHC (major histocompatibility complex)-incompatible aortic graft. The 20S proteasome core was active within apoptotic exosome-like vesicles and controlled their immunogenic activity. Finally, we showed that proteasome activity in circulating exosome-like vesicles increased after vascular injury in mice. These findings open new avenues for predicting and controlling maladaptive humoral responses to apoptotic cell components that enhance the risk of rejection after transplantation.

  5. HDAC and Proteasome Inhibitors Synergize to Activate Pro-Apoptotic Factors in Synovial Sarcoma

    PubMed Central

    Barrott, Jared J.; Yao, Ren Jie; Poulin, Neal M.; Brodin, Bertha A.; Jones, Kevin B.; Underhill, T. Michael; Nielsen, Torsten O.

    2017-01-01

    Conventional cytotoxic therapies for synovial sarcoma provide limited benefit, and no drugs specifically targeting its driving SS18-SSX fusion oncoprotein are currently available. Patients remain at high risk for early and late metastasis. A high-throughput drug screen consisting of over 900 tool compounds and epigenetic modifiers, representing over 100 drug classes, was undertaken in a panel of synovial sarcoma cell lines to uncover novel sensitizing agents and targetable pathways. Top scoring drug categories were found to be HDAC inhibitors and proteasomal targeting agents. We find that the HDAC inhibitor quisinostat disrupts the SS18-SSX driving protein complex, thereby reestablishing expression of EGR1 and CDKN2A tumor suppressors. In combination with proteasome inhibition, HDAC inhibitors synergize to decrease cell viability and elicit apoptosis. Quisinostat inhibits aggresome formation in response to proteasome inhibition, and combination treatment leads to elevated endoplasmic reticulum stress, activation of pro-apoptotic effector proteins BIM and BIK, phosphorylation of BCL-2, increased levels of reactive oxygen species, and suppression of tumor growth in a murine model of synovial sarcoma. This study identifies and provides mechanistic support for a particular susceptibility of synovial sarcoma to the combination of quisinostat and proteasome inhibition. PMID:28056055

  6. FBXO32 Targets c-Myc for Proteasomal Degradation and Inhibits c-Myc Activity*

    PubMed Central

    Mei, Zhichao; Zhang, Dawei; Hu, Bo; Wang, Jing; Shen, Xian; Xiao, Wuhan

    2015-01-01

    FBXO32 (MAFbx/Atrogin-1) is an E3 ubiquitin ligase that is markedly up-regulated in muscle atrophy. Although some data indicate that FBXO32 may play an important role in tumorigenesis, the molecular mechanism of FBXO32 in tumorigenesis has been poorly understood. Here, we present evidence that FBXO32 targets the oncogenic protein c-Myc for ubiquitination and degradation through the proteasome pathway. Phosphorylation of c-Myc at Thr-58 and Ser-62 is dispensable for FBXO32 to induce c-Myc degradation. Mutation of the lysine 326 in c-Myc reduces c-Myc ubiquitination and prevents the c-Myc degradation induced by FBXO32. Furthermore, overexpression of FBXO32 suppresses c-Myc activity and inhibits cell growth, but knockdown of FBXO32 enhances c-Myc activity and promotes cell growth. Finally, we show that FBXO32 is a direct downstream target of c-Myc, highlighting a negative feedback regulation loop between c-Myc and FBXO32. Thus, FBXO32 may function by targeting c-Myc. This work explains the function of FBXO32 and highlights its mechanisms in tumorigenesis. PMID:25944903

  7. FBXO32 Targets c-Myc for Proteasomal Degradation and Inhibits c-Myc Activity.

    PubMed

    Mei, Zhichao; Zhang, Dawei; Hu, Bo; Wang, Jing; Shen, Xian; Xiao, Wuhan

    2015-06-26

    FBXO32 (MAFbx/Atrogin-1) is an E3 ubiquitin ligase that is markedly up-regulated in muscle atrophy. Although some data indicate that FBXO32 may play an important role in tumorigenesis, the molecular mechanism of FBXO32 in tumorigenesis has been poorly understood. Here, we present evidence that FBXO32 targets the oncogenic protein c-Myc for ubiquitination and degradation through the proteasome pathway. Phosphorylation of c-Myc at Thr-58 and Ser-62 is dispensable for FBXO32 to induce c-Myc degradation. Mutation of the lysine 326 in c-Myc reduces c-Myc ubiquitination and prevents the c-Myc degradation induced by FBXO32. Furthermore, overexpression of FBXO32 suppresses c-Myc activity and inhibits cell growth, but knockdown of FBXO32 enhances c-Myc activity and promotes cell growth. Finally, we show that FBXO32 is a direct downstream target of c-Myc, highlighting a negative feedback regulation loop between c-Myc and FBXO32. Thus, FBXO32 may function by targeting c-Myc. This work explains the function of FBXO32 and highlights its mechanisms in tumorigenesis.

  8. Graded Proteasome Dysfunction in Caenorhabditis elegans Activates an Adaptive Response Involving the Conserved SKN-1 and ELT-2 Transcription Factors and the Autophagy-Lysosome Pathway.

    PubMed

    Keith, Scott A; Maddux, Sarah K; Zhong, Yayu; Chinchankar, Meghna N; Ferguson, Annabel A; Ghazi, Arjumand; Fisher, Alfred L

    2016-02-01

    The maintenance of cellular proteins in a biologically active and structurally stable state is a vital endeavor involving multiple cellular pathways. One such pathway is the ubiquitin-proteasome system that represents a major route for protein degradation, and reductions in this pathway usually have adverse effects on the health of cells and tissues. Here, we demonstrate that loss-of-function mutants of the Caenorhabditis elegans proteasome subunit, RPN-10, exhibit moderate proteasome dysfunction and unexpectedly develop both increased longevity and enhanced resistance to multiple threats to the proteome, including heat, oxidative stress, and the presence of aggregation prone proteins. The rpn-10 mutant animals survive through the activation of compensatory mechanisms regulated by the conserved SKN-1/Nrf2 and ELT-2/GATA transcription factors that mediate the increased expression of genes encoding proteasome subunits as well as those mediating oxidative- and heat-stress responses. Additionally, we find that the rpn-10 mutant also shows enhanced activity of the autophagy-lysosome pathway as evidenced by increased expression of the multiple autophagy genes including atg-16.2, lgg-1, and bec-1, and also by an increase in GFP::LGG-1 puncta. Consistent with a critical role for this pathway, the enhanced resistance of the rpn-10 mutant to aggregation prone proteins depends on autophagy genes atg-13, atg-16.2, and prmt-1. Furthermore, the rpn-10 mutant is particularly sensitive to the inhibition of lysosome activity via either RNAi or chemical means. We also find that the rpn-10 mutant shows a reduction in the numbers of intestinal lysosomes, and that the elt-2 gene also plays a novel and vital role in controlling the production of functional lysosomes by the intestine. Overall, these experiments suggest that moderate proteasome dysfunction could be leveraged to improve protein homeostasis and organismal health and longevity, and that the rpn-10 mutant provides a unique

  9. Graded Proteasome Dysfunction in Caenorhabditis elegans Activates an Adaptive Response Involving the Conserved SKN-1 and ELT-2 Transcription Factors and the Autophagy-Lysosome Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Chinchankar, Meghna N.; Ferguson, Annabel A.; Ghazi, Arjumand; Fisher, Alfred L.

    2016-01-01

    The maintenance of cellular proteins in a biologically active and structurally stable state is a vital endeavor involving multiple cellular pathways. One such pathway is the ubiquitin-proteasome system that represents a major route for protein degradation, and reductions in this pathway usually have adverse effects on the health of cells and tissues. Here, we demonstrate that loss-of-function mutants of the Caenorhabditis elegans proteasome subunit, RPN-10, exhibit moderate proteasome dysfunction and unexpectedly develop both increased longevity and enhanced resistance to multiple threats to the proteome, including heat, oxidative stress, and the presence of aggregation prone proteins. The rpn-10 mutant animals survive through the activation of compensatory mechanisms regulated by the conserved SKN-1/Nrf2 and ELT-2/GATA transcription factors that mediate the increased expression of genes encoding proteasome subunits as well as those mediating oxidative- and heat-stress responses. Additionally, we find that the rpn-10 mutant also shows enhanced activity of the autophagy-lysosome pathway as evidenced by increased expression of the multiple autophagy genes including atg-16.2, lgg-1, and bec-1, and also by an increase in GFP::LGG-1 puncta. Consistent with a critical role for this pathway, the enhanced resistance of the rpn-10 mutant to aggregation prone proteins depends on autophagy genes atg-13, atg-16.2, and prmt-1. Furthermore, the rpn-10 mutant is particularly sensitive to the inhibition of lysosome activity via either RNAi or chemical means. We also find that the rpn-10 mutant shows a reduction in the numbers of intestinal lysosomes, and that the elt-2 gene also plays a novel and vital role in controlling the production of functional lysosomes by the intestine. Overall, these experiments suggest that moderate proteasome dysfunction could be leveraged to improve protein homeostasis and organismal health and longevity, and that the rpn-10 mutant provides a unique

  10. The Transcription Activity of Gis1 Is Negatively Modulated by Proteasome-mediated Limited Proteolysis*

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Nianshu; Oliver, Stephen G.

    2010-01-01

    The transcriptional response to environmental changes has to be prompt but appropriate. Previously, it has been shown that the Gis1 transcription factor is responsible for regulating the expression of postdiauxic shift genes in response to nutrient starvation, and this transcription regulation is dependent upon the Rim15 kinase. Here we demonstrate that the activity of Gis1 is negatively modulated by proteasome-mediated limited proteolysis. Limited degradation of Gis1 by the proteasome leads to the production of smaller variants, which have weaker transcription activities than the full-length protein. The coiled-coil domain, absent from the smaller variants, is part of the second transcription activation domain in Gis1 and is essential for both the limited proteolysis of Gis1 and its full activity. Endogenous Gis1 and its variants, regardless of their transcription capabilities, activate transcription in a Rim15-dependent manner. However, when the full-length Gis1 accumulates in cells due to overexpression or inhibition of the proteasome function, transcription activation by Gis1 is no longer solely controlled by Rim15. Together, these data strongly indicate that the function of the limited degradation is to ensure that Gis1-dependent transcription is strictly regulated by the Rim15 kinase. Furthermore, we have revealed that the kinase activity of Rim15 is essential for this regulation. PMID:20022953

  11. Role of proteasomes in disease

    PubMed Central

    Dahlmann, Burkhardt

    2007-01-01

    A functional ubiquitin proteasome system is essential for all eukaryotic cells and therefore any alteration to its components has potential pathological consequences. Though the exact underlying mechanism is unclear, an age-related decrease in proteasome activity weakens cellular capacity to remove oxidatively modified proteins and favours the development of neurodegenerative and cardiac diseases. Up-regulation of proteasome activity is characteristic of muscle wasting conditions including sepsis, cachexia and uraemia, but may not be rate limiting. Meanwhile, enhanced presence of immunoproteasomes in aging brain and muscle tissue could reflect a persistent inflammatory defence and anti-stress mechanism, whereas in cancer cells, their down-regulation reflects a means by which to escape immune surveillance. Hence, induction of apoptosis by synthetic proteasome inhibitors is a potential treatment strategy for cancer, whereas for other diseases such as neurodegeneration, the use of proteasome-activating or -modulating compounds could be more effective. Publication history: Republished from Current BioData's Targeted Proteins database (TPdb; ). PMID:18047740

  12. A cytosolic protein factor from the naked mole-rat activates proteasomes of other species and protects these from inhibition.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, Karl A; Osmulski, Pawel A; Pierce, Anson; Weintraub, Susan T; Gaczynska, Maria; Buffenstein, Rochelle

    2014-11-01

    The naked mole-rat maintains robust proteostasis and high levels of proteasome-mediated proteolysis for most of its exceptional (~31years) life span. Here, we report that the highly active proteasome from the naked mole-rat liver resists attenuation by a diverse suite of proteasome-specific small molecule inhibitors. Moreover, mouse, human, and yeast proteasomes exposed to the proteasome-depleted, naked mole-rat cytosolic fractions, recapitulate the observed inhibition resistance, and mammalian proteasomes also show increased activity. Gel filtration coupled with mass spectrometry and atomic force microscopy indicates that these traits are supported by a protein factor that resides in the cytosol. This factor interacts with the proteasome and modulates its activity. Although Heat shock protein 72 kDa (HSP72) and Heat shock protein 40 kDa (Homolog of bacterial DNAJ1) (HSP40(Hdj1)) are among the constituents of this factor, the observed phenomenon, such as increasing peptidase activity and protecting against inhibition cannot be reconciled with any known chaperone functions. This novel function may contribute to the exceptional protein homeostasis in the naked mole-rat and allow it to successfully defy aging.

  13. Disulfiram promotes the conversion of carcinogenic cadmium to a proteasome inhibitor with pro-apoptotic activity in human cancer cells

    SciTech Connect

    Li Lihua; Yang Huanjie; Chen Di; Cui, Cindy; Ping Dou, Q.

    2008-06-01

    The ubiquitin-proteasome system is involved in various cellular processes, including transcription, apoptosis, and cell cycle. In vitro, in vivo, and clinical studies suggest the potential use of proteasome inhibitors as anticancer drugs. Cadmium (Cd) is a widespread environmental pollutant that has been classified as a human carcinogen. Recent study in our laboratory suggested that the clinically used anti-alcoholism drug disulfiram (DSF) could form a complex with tumor cellular copper, resulting in inhibition of the proteasomal chymotrypsin-like activity and induction of cancer cell apoptosis. In the current study, we report, for the first time, that DSF is able to convert the carcinogen Cd to a proteasome-inhibitor and cancer cell apoptosis inducer. Although the DSF-Cd complex inhibited the chymotrypsin-like activity of a purified 20S proteasome with an IC{sub 50} value of 32 {mu}mol/L, this complex was much more potent in inhibiting the chymotrypsin-like activity of prostate cancer cellular 26S proteasome. Inhibition of cellular proteasome activity by the DSF-Cd complex resulted in the accumulation of ubiquitinated proteins and the natural proteasome substrate p27, which was followed by activation of calpain and induction of apoptosis. Importantly, human breast cancer MCF10DCIS cells were much more sensitive to the DSF-Cd treatment than immortalized but non-tumorigenic human breast MCF-10A cells, demonstrating that the DSF-Cd complex could selectively induce proteasome inhibition and apoptosis in human tumor cells. Our work suggests the potential use of DSF for treatment of cells with accumulated levels of carcinogen Cd.

  14. A novel orally active proteasome inhibitor ONX 0912 triggers in vitro and in vivo cytotoxicity in multiple myeloma.

    PubMed

    Chauhan, Dharminder; Singh, Ajita V; Aujay, Monette; Kirk, Christopher J; Bandi, Madhavi; Ciccarelli, Bryan; Raje, Noopur; Richardson, Paul; Anderson, Kenneth C

    2010-12-02

    Bortezomib therapy has proven successful for the treatment of relapsed, relapsed/refractory, and newly diagnosed multiple myeloma (MM). At present, bortezomib is available as an intravenous injection, and its prolonged treatment is associated with toxicity and development of drug resistance. Here we show that the novel proteasome inhibitor ONX 0912, a tripeptide epoxyketone, inhibits growth and induces apoptosis in MM cells resistant to conventional and bortezomib therapies. The anti-MM activity of ONX-0912 is associated with activation of caspase-8, caspase-9, caspase-3, and poly(ADP) ribose polymerase, as well as inhibition of migration of MM cells and angiogenesis. ONX 0912, like bortezomib, predominantly inhibits chymotrypsin-like activity of the proteasome and is distinct from bortezomib in its chemical structure. Importantly, ONX 0912 is orally bioactive. In animal tumor model studies, ONX 0912 significantly reduced tumor progression and prolonged survival. Immununostaining of MM tumors from ONX 0912-treated mice showed growth inhibition, apoptosis, and a decrease in associated angiogenesis. Finally, ONX 0912 enhances anti-MM activity of bortezomib, lenalidomide dexamethasone, or pan-histone deacetylase inhibitor. Taken together, our study provides the rationale for clinical protocols evaluating ONX 0912, either alone or in combination, to improve patient outcome in MM.

  15. Zinc ionophores pyrithione inhibits herpes simplex virus replication through interfering with proteasome function and NF-κB activation.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Min; Chen, Yu; Chu, Ying; Song, Siwei; Yang, Na; Gao, Jie; Wu, Zhiwei

    2013-10-01

    Pyrithione (PT), known as a zinc ionophore, is effective against several pathogens from the Streptococcus and Staphylococcus genera. The antiviral activity of PT was also reported against a number of RNA viruses. In this paper, we showed that PT could effectively inhibit herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2 (HSV-1 and HSV-2). PT inhibited HSV late gene (Glycoprotein D, gD) expression and the production of viral progeny, and this action was dependent on Zn(2+). Further studies showed that PT suppressed the expression of HSV immediate early (IE) gene, the infected cell polypeptide 4 (ICP4), but had less effect on another regulatory IE protein, ICP0. It was found that PT treatment could interfere with cellular ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS), leading to the inhibition of HSV-2-induced IκB-α degradation to inhibit NF-κB activation and enhanced promyelocytic leukemia protein (PML) stability in nucleus. However, PT did not show direct inhibition of 26S proteasome activity. Instead, it induced Zn(2+) influx, which facilitated the dysregulation of UPS and the accumulation of intracellular ubiquitin-conjugates. UPS inhibition by PT caused disruption of IκB-α degradation and NF-κB activation thus leading to marked reduction of viral titer.

  16. Cks1-dependent proteasome recruitment and activation of CDC20 transcription in budding yeast.

    PubMed

    Morris, May C; Kaiser, Peter; Rudyak, Stanislav; Baskerville, Chris; Watson, Mark H; Reed, Steven I

    2003-06-26

    Cks proteins are small evolutionarily conserved proteins that interact genetically and physically with cyclin-dependent kinases. However, in spite of a large body of genetic, biochemical and structural research, no compelling unifying model of their functions has emerged. Here we show, by investigating the essential role of Cks1 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, that the protein is primarily involved in promoting mitosis by modulating the transcriptional activation of the APC/C protein-ubiquitin ligase activator Cdc20. Cks1 is required for both the periodic dissociation of Cdc28 kinase from the CDC20 promoter and the periodic association of the proteasome with the promoter. We propose that the essential role of Cks1 is to recruit the proteasome to, and/or dissociate the Cdc28 kinase from, the CDC20 promoter, thus facilitating transcription by remodelling transcriptional complexes or chromatin associated with the CDC20 gene.

  17. A unified mechanism for proteolysis and autocatalytic activation in the 20S proteasome

    PubMed Central

    Huber, Eva M.; Heinemeyer, Wolfgang; Li, Xia; Arendt, Cassandra S.; Hochstrasser, Mark; Groll, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Biogenesis of the 20S proteasome is tightly regulated. The N-terminal propeptides protecting the active-site threonines are autocatalytically released only on completion of assembly. However, the trigger for the self-activation and the reason for the strict conservation of threonine as the active site nucleophile remain enigmatic. Here we use mutagenesis, X-ray crystallography and biochemical assays to suggest that Lys33 initiates nucleophilic attack of the propeptide by deprotonating the Thr1 hydroxyl group and that both residues together with Asp17 are part of a catalytic triad. Substitution of Thr1 by Cys disrupts the interaction with Lys33 and inactivates the proteasome. Although a Thr1Ser mutant is active, it is less efficient compared with wild type because of the unfavourable orientation of Ser1 towards incoming substrates. This work provides insights into the basic mechanism of proteolysis and propeptide autolysis, as well as the evolutionary pressures that drove the proteasome to become a threonine protease. PMID:26964885

  18. Human Sex Determination at the Edge of Ambiguity: INHERITED XY SEX REVERSAL DUE TO ENHANCED UBIQUITINATION AND PROTEASOMAL DEGRADATION OF A MASTER TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR.

    PubMed

    Racca, Joseph D; Chen, Yen-Shan; Yang, Yanwu; Phillips, Nelson B; Weiss, Michael A

    2016-10-14

    A general problem is posed by analysis of transcriptional thresholds governing cell fate decisions in metazoan development. A model is provided by testis determination in therian mammals. Its key step, Sertoli cell differentiation in the embryonic gonadal ridge, is initiated by SRY, a Y-encoded architectural transcription factor. Mutations in human SRY cause gonadal dysgenesis leading to XY female development (Swyer syndrome). Here, we have characterized an inherited mutation compatible with either male or female somatic phenotypes as observed in an XY father and XY daughter, respectively. The mutation (a crevice-forming substitution at a conserved back surface of the SRY high mobility group box) markedly destabilizes the domain but preserves specific DNA affinity and induced DNA bend angle. On transient transfection of diverse human and rodent cell lines, the variant SRY exhibited accelerated proteasomal degradation (relative to wild type) associated with increased ubiquitination; in vitro susceptibility to ubiquitin-independent ("default") cleavage by the 20S core proteasome was unchanged. The variant's gene regulatory activity (as assessed in a cellular model of the rat embryonic XY gonadal ridge) was reduced by 2-fold relative to wild-type SRY at similar levels of mRNA expression. Chemical proteasome inhibition restored native-like SRY expression and transcriptional activity in association with restored occupancy of a sex-specific enhancer element in principal downstream gene Sox9, demonstrating that the variant SRY exhibits essentially native activity on a per molecule basis. Our findings define a novel mechanism of impaired organogenesis, accelerated ubiquitin-directed proteasomal degradation of a master transcription factor leading to a developmental decision poised at the edge of ambiguity.

  19. Enzymatic activities of circulating plasma proteasomes in newly diagnosed multiple myeloma patients treated with carfilzomib, lenalidomide and dexamethasone.

    PubMed

    Manasanch, Elisabet E; de Larrea, Carlos Fernández; Zingone, Adriana; Steinberg, Seth M; Kwok, Mary; Tageja, Nishant; Bhutani, Manisha; Kazandjian, Dickran; Roschewski, Mark; Wu, Peter; Carter, George; Zuchlinski, Diamond; Mulquin, Marcia; Lamping, Liz; Costello, Rene; Burton, Deborah; Gil, Lindsay A; Figg, William D; Maric, Irina; Calvo, Katherine R; Yuan, Constance; Stetler-Stevenson, Maryalice; Korde, Neha; Landgren, Ola

    2017-03-01

    The proteasome inhibitor carfilzomib is highly effective in the treatment of multiple myeloma. It irreversibly binds the chymotrypsin-like active site in the β5 subunit of the 20S proteasome. Despite impressive response rates when carfilzomib is used in combination with immunomodulatory agents in newly diagnosed multiple myeloma patients; no biomarker exists to accurately predict response and clinical outcomes. We prospectively assessed the activity in peripheral blood of the chymotrypsin-like (CHYM), caspase-like (CASP) and trypsin-like (TRYP) proteolytic sites in 45 newly diagnosed multiple myeloma patients treated with eight cycles of carfilzomib, lenalidomide and dexamethasone (CRd) (NCT01402284). Samples were collected per protocol and proteasome activity measured through a fluorogenic assay. Median CHYM levels after one dose of carfilzomib decreased by >70%. CHYM and CASP activity decreased throughout treatment reaching a minimum after eight cycles of treatment. Higher levels of proteasome activity associated with higher disease burden (r > 0.30; p < 0.05) and higher disease stage (0.10 < p <0.20). No association was found with the probability of achieving a complete response, minimal residual disease negativity or time to best response. Further studies evaluating proteasome activity in malignant plasma cells may help elucidate how proteasome activity can be used as a biomarker in multiple myeloma.

  20. Diaphragm Muscle Fiber Weakness and Ubiquitin–Proteasome Activation in Critically Ill Patients

    PubMed Central

    Hooijman, Pleuni E.; Beishuizen, Albertus; Witt, Christian C.; de Waard, Monique C.; Girbes, Armand R. J.; Spoelstra-de Man, Angelique M. E.; Niessen, Hans W. M.; Manders, Emmy; van Hees, Hieronymus W. H.; van den Brom, Charissa E.; Silderhuis, Vera; Lawlor, Michael W.; Labeit, Siegfried; Stienen, Ger J. M.; Hartemink, Koen J.; Paul, Marinus A.; Heunks, Leo M. A.

    2015-01-01

    Rationale: The clinical significance of diaphragm weakness in critically ill patients is evident: it prolongs ventilator dependency, and increases morbidity and duration of hospital stay. To date, the nature of diaphragm weakness and its underlying pathophysiologic mechanisms are poorly understood. Objectives: We hypothesized that diaphragm muscle fibers of mechanically ventilated critically ill patients display atrophy and contractile weakness, and that the ubiquitin–proteasome pathway is activated in the diaphragm. Methods: We obtained diaphragm muscle biopsies from 22 critically ill patients who received mechanical ventilation before surgery and compared these with biopsies obtained from patients during thoracic surgery for resection of a suspected early lung malignancy (control subjects). In a proof-of-concept study in a muscle-specific ring finger protein-1 (MuRF-1) knockout mouse model, we evaluated the role of the ubiquitin–proteasome pathway in the development of contractile weakness during mechanical ventilation. Measurements and Main Results: Both slow- and fast-twitch diaphragm muscle fibers of critically ill patients had approximately 25% smaller cross-sectional area, and had contractile force reduced by half or more. Markers of the ubiquitin–proteasome pathway were significantly up-regulated in the diaphragm of critically ill patients. Finally, MuRF-1 knockout mice were protected against the development of diaphragm contractile weakness during mechanical ventilation. Conclusions: These findings show that diaphragm muscle fibers of critically ill patients display atrophy and severe contractile weakness, and in the diaphragm of critically ill patients the ubiquitin–proteasome pathway is activated. This study provides rationale for the development of treatment strategies that target the contractility of diaphragm fibers to facilitate weaning. PMID:25760684

  1. The proteasome activator 11 S REG (PA28) and class I antigen presentation.

    PubMed Central

    Rechsteiner, M; Realini, C; Ustrell, V

    2000-01-01

    There are two immune responses in vertebrates: humoral immunity is mediated by circulating antibodies, whereas cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) confer cellular immunity. CTL lyse infected cells upon recognition of cell-surface MHC Class I molecules complexed with foreign peptides. The displayed peptides are produced in the cytosol by degradation of host proteins or proteins from intracellular pathogens that might be present. Proteasomes are cylindrical multisubunit proteases that generate many of the peptides eventually transferred to the cell surface for immune surveillance. In mammalian proteasomes, six active sites face a central chamber. As this chamber is sealed off from the enzyme's surface, there must be mechanisms to promote entry of substrates. Two protein complexes have been found to bind the ends of the proteasome and activate it. One of the activators is the 19 S regulatory complex of the 26 S proteasome; the other activator is '11 S REG' [Dubiel, Pratt, Ferrell and Rechsteiner (1992) J. Biol. Chem. 267, 22369-22377] or 'PA28' [Ma, Slaughter and DeMartino (1992) J. Biol. Chem. 267, 10515-10523]. During the past 7 years, our understanding of the structure of REG molecules has increased significantly, but much less is known about their biological functions. There are three REG subunits, namely alpha, beta and gamma. Recombinant REGalpha forms a ring-shaped heptamer of known crystal structure. 11 S REG is a heteroheptamer of alpha and beta subunits. REGgamma is also presumably a heptameric ring, and it is found in the nuclei of the nematode work Caenorhabditis elegans and higher organisms, where it may couple proteasomes to other nuclear components. REGalpha and REGbeta, which are abundant in vertebrate immune tissues, are located mostly in the cytoplasm. Synthesis of REG alpha and beta subunits is induced by interferon-gamma, and this has led to the prevalent hypothesis that REG alpha/beta hetero-oligomers play an important role in Class I antigen

  2. Docosahexaenoic acid-mediated protein aggregates may reduce proteasome activity and delay myotube degradation during muscle atrophy in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Seung Kyun; Kim, Ji Hyeon; Lee, Jung Hoon; Son, Young Hoon; Lee, Min Wook; Kim, Hak Joong; Noh, Sue Ah; Kim, Kwang Pyo; Kim, In-Gyu; Lee, Min Jae

    2017-01-01

    Proteasomes are the primary degradation machinery for oxidatively damaged proteins that compose a class of misfolded protein substrates. Cellular levels of reactive oxygen species increase with age and this cellular propensity is particularly harmful when combined with the age-associated development of various human disorders including cancer, neurodegenerative disease and muscle atrophy. Proteasome activity is reportedly downregulated in these disease conditions. Herein, we report that docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), a major dietary omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid, mediates intermolecular protein cross-linkages through oxidation, and the resulting protein aggregates potently reduce proteasomal activity both in vitro and in cultured cells. Cellular models overexpressing aggregation-prone proteins such as tau showed significantly elevated levels of tau aggregates and total ubiquitin conjugates in the presence of DHA, thereby reflecting suppressed proteasome activity. Strong synergetic cytotoxicity was observed when the cells overexpressing tau were simultaneously treated with DHA. Antioxidant N-acetyl cysteine significantly desensitized the cells to DHA-induced oxidative stress. DHA significantly delayed the proteasomal degradation of muscle proteins in a cellular atrophy model. Thus, the results of our study identified DHA as a potent inducer of cellular protein aggregates that inhibit proteasome activity and potentially delay systemic muscle protein degradation in certain pathologic conditions. PMID:28104914

  3. Deubiquitinase activity is required for the proteasomal degradation of misfolded cytosolic proteins upon heat-stress

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Nancy N.; Zhu, Mang; Rose, Amalia; Wu, Kuen-Phon; Mayor, Thibault

    2016-01-01

    Elimination of misfolded proteins is crucial for proteostasis and to prevent proteinopathies. Nedd4/Rsp5 emerged as a major E3-ligase involved in multiple quality control pathways that target misfolded plasma membrane proteins, aggregated polypeptides and cytosolic heat-induced misfolded proteins for degradation. It remained unclear how in one case cytosolic heat-induced Rsp5 substrates are destined for proteasomal degradation, whereas other Rsp5 quality control substrates are otherwise directed to lysosomal degradation. Here we find that Ubp2 and Ubp3 deubiquitinases are required for the proteasomal degradation of cytosolic misfolded proteins targeted by Rsp5 after heat-shock (HS). The two deubiquitinases associate more with Rsp5 upon heat-stress to prevent the assembly of K63-linked ubiquitin on Rsp5 heat-induced substrates. This activity was required to promote the K48-mediated proteasomal degradation of Rsp5 HS-induced substrates. Our results indicate that ubiquitin chain editing is key to the cytosolic protein quality control under stress conditions. PMID:27698423

  4. Inhibition of proteasome activity is involved in cobalt-induced apoptosis of human alveolar macrophages.

    PubMed

    Araya, Jun; Maruyama, Muneharu; Inoue, Akira; Fujita, Tadashi; Kawahara, Junko; Sassa, Kazuhiko; Hayashi, Ryuji; Kawagishi, Yukio; Yamashita, Naohiro; Sugiyama, Eiji; Kobayashi, Masashi

    2002-10-01

    Inhalation of particulate cobalt has been known to induce interstitial lung disease. There is growing evidence that apoptosis plays a crucial role in physiological and pathological settings and that the ubiquitin-proteasome system is involved in the regulation of apoptosis. Cadmium, the same transitional heavy metal as cobalt, has been reported to accumulate ubiquitinated proteins in neuronal cells. On the basis of these findings, we hypothesized that cobalt would induce apoptosis in the lung by disturbance of the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway. To evaluate this, we exposed U-937 cells and human alveolar macrophages (AMs) to cobalt chloride (CoCl(2)) and examined their apoptosis by DNA fragmentation assay, 4',6-diamidino-2'-phenylindol dihydrochloride staining, and Western blot analysis. CoCl(2) induced apoptosis and accumulated ubiquitinated proteins. Exposure to CoCl(2) inhibited proteasome activity in U-937 cells. Cobalt-induced apoptosis was mediated via mitochondrial pathway because CoCl(2) released cytochrome c from mitochondria. These results suggest that cobalt-induced apoptosis of AMs may be one of the mechanisms for cobalt-induced lung injury and that the accumulation of ubiquitinated proteins might be involved in this apoptotic process.

  5. Reactive center loop moiety is essential for the maspin activity on cellular invasion and ubiquitin-proteasome level.

    PubMed

    Khanaree, Chakkrit; Chairatvit, Kongthawat; Roytrakul, Sittiruk; Wongnoppavich, Ariyaphong

    2013-01-01

    Maspin, a tumor suppressor (SERPINB5), inhibits cancer migration, invasion, and metastasis in vitro and in vivo. The tumor-suppressing effects of maspin depend in part on its ability to enhance cell adhesion to extracellular matrix. Although the molecular mechanism of maspin's action is still unclear, its functional domain is believed to be located at the reactive center loop (RCL). We have elucidated the role of maspin RCL on adhesion, migration, and invasion by transfecting the highly invasive human breast carcinoma MDA-MB-231 cell line with pcDNA3.1-His/FLAG containing wild-type maspin, ovalbumin, or maspin/ovalbumin RCL chimeric mutants in which maspin RCL is replaced by ovalbumin (MOM) and vice versa (OMO). MDA-MB-231 cells transfected with maspin- or OMO-containing recombinant expression plasmid manifested significant increase in adhesion to fibronectin and reduction in in vitro migration and invasion through Matrigel compared with mock transfection or cells transfected with ovalbumin or MOM. Proteomics analysis of maspin- or OMO-transfected MDA-MB-231 cells revealed reduction in contents of proteins known to promote cancer metastasis and those of ubiquitin-proteasome pathway, while those with tumor-suppressing properties were increased. Furthermore, MDA-MB-231 cells containing maspin or OMO transgene have significantly higher levels of ubiquitin and ubiquitinated conjugates, but reduced 20S proteasome chymotrypsin-like activity. These results clearly demonstrate that the tumor-suppressive properties of maspin reside in its RCL domain.

  6. The proteasome is responsible for caspase-3-like activity during xylem development.

    PubMed

    Han, Jia-Jia; Lin, Wei; Oda, Yoshihisa; Cui, Ke-Ming; Fukuda, Hiroo; He, Xin-Qiang

    2012-10-01

    Xylem development is a process of xylem cell terminal differentiation that includes initial cell division, cell expansion, secondary cell wall formation and programmed cell death (PCD). PCD in plants and apoptosis in animals share many common characteristics. Caspase-3, which displays Asp-Glu-Val-Asp (DEVD) specificity, is a crucial executioner during animal cells apoptosis. Although a gene orthologous to caspase-3 is absent in plants, caspase-3-like activity is involved in many cases of PCD and developmental processes. However, there is no direct evidence that caspase-3-like activity exists in xylem cell death. In this study, we showed that caspase-3-like activity is present and is associated with secondary xylem development in Populus tomentosa. The protease responsible for the caspase-3-like activity was purified from poplar secondary xylem using hydrophobic interaction chromatography (HIC), Q anion exchange chromatography and gel filtration chromatography. After identification by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS), it was revealed that the 20S proteasome (20SP) was responsible for the caspase-3-like activity in secondary xylem development. In poplar 20SP, there are seven α subunits encoded by 12 genes and seven β subunits encoded by 12 genes. Pharmacological assays showed that Ac-DEVD-CHO, a caspase-3 inhibitor, suppressed xylem differentiation in the veins of Arabidopsis cotyledons. Furthermore, clasto-lactacystin β-lactone, a proteasome inhibitor, inhibited PCD of tracheary element in a VND6-induced Arabidopsis xylogenic culture. In conclusion, the 20S proteasome is responsible for caspase-3-like activity and is involved in xylem development.

  7. Posttranslational regulation of coordinated enzyme activities in the Pup-proteasome system

    PubMed Central

    Elharar, Yifat; Roth, Ziv; Hecht, Nir; Rotkopf, Ron; Khalaila, Isam; Gur, Eyal

    2016-01-01

    The proper functioning of any biological system depends on the coordinated activity of its components. Regulation at the genetic level is, in many cases, effective in determining the cellular levels of system components. However, in cases where regulation at the genetic level is insufficient for attaining harmonic system function, posttranslational regulatory mechanisms are often used. Here, we uncover posttranslational regulatory mechanisms in the prokaryotic ubiquitin-like protein (Pup)-proteasome system (PPS), the bacterial equivalent of the eukaryotic ubiquitin-proteasome system. Pup, a ubiquitin analog, is conjugated to proteins through the activities of two enzymes, Dop (deamidase of Pup) and PafA (proteasome accessory factor A), the Pup ligase. As Dop also catalyzes depupylation, it was unclear how PPS function could be maintained without Dop and PafA canceling the activity of the other, and how the two activities of Dop are balanced. We report that tight Pup binding and the limited degree of Dop interaction with high-molecular-weight pupylated proteins results in preferred Pup deamidation over protein depupylation by this enzyme. Under starvation conditions, when accelerated protein pupylation is required, this bias is intensified by depletion of free Dop molecules, thereby minimizing the chance of depupylation. We also find that, in contrast to Dop, PafA presents a distinct preference for high-molecular-weight protein substrates. As such, PafA and Dop act in concert, rather than canceling each other's activity, to generate a high-molecular-weight pupylome. This bias in pupylome molecular weight distribution is consistent with the proposed nutritional role of the PPS under starvation conditions. PMID:26951665

  8. Chemical analysis of Greek pollen - Antioxidant, antimicrobial and proteasome activation properties

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Pollen is a bee-product known for its medical properties from ancient times. In our days is increasingly used as health food supplement and especially as a tonic primarily with appeal to the elderly to ameliorate the effects of ageing. In order to evaluate the chemical composition and the biological activity of Greek pollen which has never been studied before, one sample with identified botanical origin from sixteen different common plant taxa of Greece has been evaluated. Results Three different extracts of the studied sample of Greek pollen, have been tested, in whether could induce proteasome activities in human fibroblasts. The water extract was found to induce a highly proteasome activity, showing interesting antioxidant properties. Due to this activity the aqueous extract was further subjected to chemical analysis and seven flavonoids have been isolated and identified by modern spectral means. From the methanolic extract, sugars, lipid acids, phenolic acids and their esters have been also identified, which mainly participate to the biosynthetic pathway of pollen phenolics. The total phenolics were estimated with the Folin-Ciocalteau reagent and the total antioxidant activity was determined by the DPPH method while the extracts and the isolated compounds were also tested for their antimicrobial activity by the dilution technique. Conclusions The Greek pollen is rich in flavonoids and phenolic acids which indicate the observed free radical scavenging activity, the effects of pollen on human fibroblasts and the interesting antimicrobial profile. PMID:21699688

  9. Proteasome dynamics.

    PubMed

    Enenkel, Cordula

    2014-01-01

    Proteasomes are highly conserved multisubunit protease complexes and occur in the cyto- and nucleoplasm of eukaryotic cells. In dividing cells proteasomes exist as holoenzymes and primarily localize in the nucleus. During quiescence they dissociate into proteolytic core and regulatory complexes and are sequestered into motile cytosolic clusters. Proteasome clusters rapidly clear upon the exit from quiescence, where proteasome core and regulatory complexes reassemble and localize to the nucleus again. The mechanisms underlying proteasome transport and assembly are not yet understood. Here, I summarize our present knowledge about nuclear transport and assembly of proteasomes in yeast and project our studies in this eukaryotic model organism to the mammalian cell system. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Ubiquitin-Proteasome System. Guest Editors: Thomas Sommer and Dieter H. Wolf.

  10. Hydrogen peroxide down-regulates inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor content through proteasome activation.

    PubMed

    Martín-Garrido, A; Boyano-Adánez, M C; Alique, M; Calleros, L; Serrano, I; Griera, M; Rodríguez-Puyol, D; Griendling, K K; Rodríguez-Puyol, M

    2009-11-15

    Hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) is implicated in the regulation of signaling pathways leading to changes in vascular smooth muscle function. Contractile effects produced by H(2)O(2) are due to the phosphorylation of myosin light chain kinase triggered by increases in intracellular calcium (Ca(2+)) from intracellular stores or influx of extracellular Ca(2+). One mechanism for mobilizing such stores involves the phosphoinositide pathway. Inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP(3)) mobilizes intracellular Ca(2+) by binding to a family of receptors (IP(3)Rs) on the endoplasmic-sarcoplasmic reticulum that act as ligand-gated Ca(2+) channels. IP(3)Rs can be rapidly ubiquitinated and degraded by the proteasome, causing a decrease in cellular IP(3)R content. In this study we show that IP(3)R(1) and IP(3)R(3) are down-regulated when vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) are stimulated by H(2)O(2), through an increase in proteasome activity. Moreover, we demonstrate that the decrease in IP(3)R by H(2)O(2) is accompanied by a reduction in calcium efflux induced by IP(3) in VSMC. Also, we observed that angiotensin II (ANGII) induces a decrease in IP(3)R by activation of NADPH oxidase and that preincubation with H(2)O(2) decreases ANGII-mediated calcium efflux and planar cell surface area in VSMC. The decreased IP(3) receptor content observed in cells was also found in aortic rings, which exhibited a decreased ANGII-dependent contraction after treatment with H(2)O(2). Altogether, these results suggest that H(2)O(2) mediates IP(3)R down-regulation via proteasome activity.

  11. The proteasome: mechanisms of biology and markers of activity and response to treatment in multiple myeloma.

    PubMed

    Manasanch, Elisabet E; Korde, Neha; Zingone, Adriana; Tageja, Nishant; Fernandez de Larrea, Carlos; Bhutani, Manisha; Wu, Peter; Roschewski, Mark; Landgren, Ola

    2014-08-01

    Since the early 1990s, the synthesis and subsequent clinical application of small molecule inhibitors of the ubiquitin proteasome pathway (UPP) has revolutionized the treatment and prognosis of multiple myeloma. In this review, we summarize important aspects of the biology of the UPP with a focus on its structure and key upstream/downstream regulatory components. We then review current knowledge of plasma cell sensitivity to proteasome inhibition and highlight new proteasome inhibitors that have recently entered clinical development. Lastly, we address the putative role of circulating proteasomes as a novel biomarker in multiple myeloma and provide guidance for future clinical trials using proteasome inhibitors.

  12. The capture proteasome assay (CAPA) to evaluate subtype-specific proteasome inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Vigneron, Nathalie; Abi Habib, Joanna; Van den Eynde, Benoît J

    2015-09-01

    We recently developed a new assay to measure proteasome activity in vitro (CAPA for capture proteasome assay) [1], based on proteasome capture on an antibody-coated plate. When used with lysates originating from cells expressing either standard proteasome, immunoproteasome or intermediate proteasomes β5i or β1i-β5i, this assay allows the individual monitoring of the chymotrypsin-like, trypsin-like and caspase-like activities of the corresponding proteasome subtypes. The efficiency and specificity of four proteasome inhibitors were studied using the CAPA assay, demonstrating the potential of this assay for the development of subtype-specific proteasome inhibitors.

  13. Spatial arrangement and functional role of α subunits of proteasome activator PA28 in hetero-oligomeric form

    SciTech Connect

    Sugiyama, Masaaki; Sahashi, Hiroki; Kurimoto, Eiji; Takata, Shin-ichi; Yagi, Hirokazu; Kanai, Keita; Sakata, Eri; Minami, Yasufumi; Tanaka, Keiji; Kato, Koichi

    2013-03-01

    Highlights: ► Homologous α and β subunits are alternatively arranged in the PA28 heptameric ring. ► The flexible loops of the three α subunits surround the site of substrate entry. ► The loops serve as gatekeepers that selectively hinder passage of longer peptides. - Abstract: A major form of proteasome activator PA28 is a heteroheptamer composed of interferon-γ-inducible α and β subunits, which share approximately 50% amino acid identity and possess distinct insert loops. This activator forms a complex with the 20S proteasome and thereby stimulates proteasomal degradation of peptides in an ATP-independent manner, giving rise to smaller antigenic peptides presented by major histocompatibility complex class I molecules. In this study, we performed biophysical and biochemical characterization of the structure and function of the PA28 hetero-oligomer. Deuteration-assisted small-angle neutron scattering demonstrated three α and four β subunits are alternately arranged in the heptameric ring. In this arrangement, PA28 loops surround the central pore of the heptameric ring (site for peptide entry). Activating the 20S proteasome with a PA28 mutant that lacked the α subunit loops cleaved model substrates longer than a nonapeptide with better efficiency when compared to wild-type PA28. Based on these data, we hypothesize that the flexible PA28 loops act as gatekeepers, which function to select the length of peptide substrates to be transported between the proteolytic chamber and the extra-proteasomal medium.

  14. Sorafenib enhances proteasome inhibitor-mediated cytotoxicity via inhibition of unfolded protein response and keratin phosphorylation

    SciTech Connect

    Honma, Yuichi; Harada, Masaru

    2013-08-15

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is highly resistant to conventional systemic therapies and prognosis for advanced HCC patients remains poor. Recent studies of the molecular mechanisms responsible for tumor initiation and progression have identified several potential molecular targets in HCC. Sorafenib is a multi-kinase inhibitor shown to have survival benefits in advanced HCC. It acts by inhibiting the serine/threonine kinases and the receptor type tyrosine kinases. In preclinical experiments sorafenib had anti-proliferative activity in hepatoma cells and it reduced tumor angiogenesis and increased apoptosis. Here, we demonstrate for the first time that the cytotoxic mechanisms of sorafenib include its inhibitory effects on protein ubiquitination, unfolded protein response (UPR) and keratin phosphorylation in response to endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. Moreover, we show that combined treatment with sorafenib and proteasome inhibitors (PIs) synergistically induced a marked increase in cell death in hepatoma- and hepatocyte-derived cells. These observations may open the way to potentially interesting treatment combinations that may augment the effect of sorafenib, possibly including drugs that promote ER stress. Because sorafenib blocked the cellular defense mechanisms against hepatotoxic injury not only in hepatoma cells but also in hepatocyte-derived cells, we must be careful to avoid severe liver injury. -- Graphical abstract: Display Omitted -- Highlights: •We examined the cytotoxic mechanisms of sorafenib in hepatoma cells. •Sorafenib induces cell death via apoptotic and necrotic fashion. •Sorafenib inhibits protein ubiquitination and unfolded protein response. •Autophagy induced by sorafenib may affect its cytotoxicity. •Sorafenib inhibits keratin phosphorylation and cytoplasmic inclusion formation.

  15. Pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate-zinc(II) and -copper(II) complexes induce apoptosis in tumor cells by inhibiting the proteasomal activity

    SciTech Connect

    Milacic, Vesna; Chen Di; Giovagnini, Lorena; Diez, Alejandro; Fregona, Dolores; Dou, Q. Ping

    2008-08-15

    Zinc and copper are trace elements essential for proper folding, stabilization and catalytic activity of many metalloenzymes in living organisms. However, disturbed zinc and copper homeostasis is reported in many types of cancer. We have previously demonstrated that copper complexes induced proteasome inhibition and apoptosis in cultured human cancer cells. In the current study we hypothesized that zinc complexes could also inhibit the proteasomal chymotrypsin-like activity responsible for subsequent apoptosis induction. We first showed that zinc(II) chloride was able to inhibit the chymotrypsin-like activity of a purified 20S proteasome with an IC{sub 50} value of 13.8 {mu}M, which was less potent than copper(II) chloride (IC{sub 50} 5.3 {mu}M). We then compared the potencies of a pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PyDT)-zinc(II) complex and a PyDT-copper(II) complex to inhibit cellular proteasomal activity, suppress proliferation and induce apoptosis in various human breast and prostate cancer cell lines. Consistently, zinc complex was less potent than copper complex in inhibiting the proteasome and inducing apoptosis. Additionally, zinc and copper complexes appear to use somewhat different mechanisms to kill tumor cells. Zinc complexes were able to activate calpain-, but not caspase-3-dependent pathway, while copper complexes were able to induce activation of both proteases. Furthermore, the potencies of these PyDT-metal complexes depend on the nature of metals and also on the ratio of PyDT to the metal ion within the complex, which probably affects their stability and availability for interacting with and inhibiting the proteasome in tumor cells.

  16. 4-Hydroxynonenal differentially regulates adiponectin gene expression and secretion via activating PPARγ and accelerating ubiquitin–proteasome degradation

    PubMed Central

    Wanga, Zhigang; Dou, Xiaobing; Gu, Dongfang; Shen, Chen; Yao, Tong; Nguyen, Van; Braunschweig, Carol; Song, Zhenyuan

    2011-01-01

    Although well-established, the underlying mechanisms involved in obesity-related plasma adiponectin decline remain elusive. Oxidative stress is associated with obesity and insulin resistance and considered to contribute to the progression toward obesity-related metabolic disorders. In this study, we investigated the effects of 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE), the most abundant lipid peroxidation end product, on adiponectin production and its potential implication in obesity-related adiponectin decrease. Long-term high-fat diet feeding led to obesity in mouse, accompanied by decreased plasma adiponectin and increased adipose tissue 4-HNE content. Exposure of adipocytes to exogenous 4-HNE resulted in decreased adiponectin secretion in a dose-dependent manner, which was consistent with significantly decreased intracellular adiponectin protein abundance. In contrast, adiponectin gene expression was significantly elevated by 4-HNE treatment, which was concomitant with increased peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR-γ) gene expression and transactivity. The effect was abolished by T0070907, a PPAR-γ antagonist, suggesting that PPAR-γ activation plays a critical role in this process. To gain insight into mechanisms involved in adiponectin protein decrease, we examined the effects of 4-HNE on adiponectin protein degradation. Cycloheximide (CHX)-chase assay revealed that 4-HNE exposure accelerated adiponectin protein degradation, which was prevented by MG132, a potent proteasome inhibitor. Immunoprecipitation assay showed that 4-HNE exposure increased ubiquitinated adiponectin protein levels. These data altogether indicated that 4-HNE enhanced adiponectin protein degradation via ubiquitin–proteasome system. Finally, we demonstrated that supplementation of HF diet with betaine, an antioxidant and methyl donor, alleviated high-fat-induced adipose tissue 4-HNE increase and attenuated plasma adiponectin decline. Taken together, our findings suggest that the lipid

  17. Protein Expression of Proteasome Subunits in Elderly Patients with Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Scott, Madeline R; Rubio, Maria D; Haroutunian, Vahram; Meador-Woodruff, James H

    2016-01-01

    The ubiquitin proteasome system (UPS) is a major regulator of protein processing, trafficking, and degradation. While protein ubiquitination is utilized for many cellular processes, one major function of this system is to target proteins to the proteasome for degradation. In schizophrenia, studies have found UPS transcript abnormalities in both blood and brain, and we have previously reported decreased protein expression of ubiquitin-associated proteins in brain. To test whether the proteasome is similarly dysregulated, we measured the protein expression of proteasome catalytic subunits as well as essential subunits from proteasome regulatory complexes in 14 pair-matched schizophrenia and comparison subjects in superior temporal cortex. We found decreased expression of Rpt1, Rpt3, and Rpt6, subunits of the 19S regulatory particle essential for ubiquitin-dependent degradation by the proteasome. Additionally, the α subunit of the 11S αβ regulatory particle, which enhances proteasomal degradation of small peptides and unfolded proteins, was also decreased. Haloperidol-treated rats did not have altered expression of these subunits, suggesting the changes we observed in schizophrenia are likely not due to chronic antipsychotic treatment. Interestingly, expression of the catalytic subunits of both the standard and immunoproteasome were unchanged, suggesting the abnormalities we observed may be specific to the complexed state of the proteasome. Aging has significant effects on the proteasome, and several subunits (20S β2, Rpn10, Rpn13, 11Sβ, and 11Sγ) were significantly correlated with subject age. These data provide further evidence of dysfunction of the ubiquitin-proteasome system in schizophrenia, and suggest that altered proteasome activity may be associated with the pathophysiology of this illness. PMID:26202105

  18. Glutamine enema regulates colonic ubiquitinated proteins but not proteasome activities during TNBS-induced colitis leading to increased mitochondrial activity.

    PubMed

    Bertrand, Julien; Marion-Letellier, Rachel; Azhar, Saïda; Chan, Philippe; Legrand, Romain; Goichon, Alexis; Ghouzali, Ibtissem; Aziz, Moutaz; Vaudry, David; Savoye, Guillaume; Déchelotte, Pierre; Coëffier, Moïse

    2015-07-01

    Ubiquitin proteasome system contributes to the regulation of intestinal inflammatory response as its inhibition is associated with tissue damage improvement. We aimed to evaluate whether glutamine is able to limit inflammation by targeting ubiquitin proteasome system in experimental colitis. Colitis was induced in male rats by intrarectal instillation of 2-4-6-trinitrobenzen sulfonic acid (TNBS) at day 1. From day 2 to day 6, rats daily received either an intrarectal instillation of PBS (TNBS/PBS group) or glutamine (TNBS/Gln). Rats were euthanized at day 7 and colonic samples were taken to evaluate ubiqutinated proteins by proteomic approach combining 2D electrophoresis and immunoblots directed against ubiquitin. Results were then confirmed by evaluating total expression of proteins and mRNA levels. Survival rate, TNFα, and IL-1β mRNA were improved in TNBS/Gln compared with TNBS/PBS (p < 0.05). Proteasome activities were affected by TNBS but not by glutamine. We identified eight proteins that were less ubiquitinated in TNBS/PBS compared with controls with no effect of glutamine. Four proteins were more ubiquitinated in TNBS/PBS group and restored in TNBS/Gln group. Finally, 12 ubiquitinated proteins were only affected by glutamine. Among proteins affected by glutamine, eight proteins (GFPT1, Gapdh, Pkm2, LDH, Bcat2, ATP5a1, Vdac1, and Vdac2) were involved in metabolic pathways. In conclusion, glutamine may regulate ubiquitination process during intestinal inflammation.

  19. Synergistic anti-myeloma activity of the proteasome inhibitor marizomib and the IMiD immunomodulatory drug pomalidomide.

    PubMed

    Das, Deepika S; Ray, Arghya; Song, Yan; Richardson, Paul; Trikha, Mohit; Chauhan, Dharminder; Anderson, Kenneth C

    2015-12-01

    The proteasome inhibitor bortezomib is an effective therapy for the treatment of relapsed and refractory multiple myeloma (RRMM); however, prolonged treatment can be associated with toxicity, peripheral neuropathy and drug resistance. Our earlier studies showed that the novel proteasome inhibitor marizomib is distinct from bortezomib in its chemical structure, mechanisms of action and effects on proteasomal activities, and that it can overcome bortezomib resistance. Pomalidomide, like lenalidomide, has potent immunomodulatory activity and has been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of RRMM. Here, we demonstrate that combining low concentrations of marizomib with pomalidomide induces synergistic anti-MM activity. Marizomib plus pomalidomide-induced apoptosis is associated with: (i) activation of caspase-8, caspase-9, caspase-3 and PARP cleavage, (ii) downregulation of cereblon (CRBN), IRF4, MYC and MCL1, and (iii) suppression of chymotrypsin-like, caspase-like, and trypsin-like proteasome activities. CRBN-siRNA attenuates marizomib plus pomalidomide-induced MM cells death. Furthermore, marizomib plus pomalidomide inhibits the migration of MM cells and tumour-associated angiogenesis, as well as overcomes cytoprotective effects of bone marrow microenvironment. In human MM xenograft model studies, the combination of marizomib and pomalidomide is well tolerated, inhibits tumour growth and prolongs survival. These preclinical studies provide the rationale for on-going clinical trials of combined marizomib and pomalidomide to improve outcome in patients with RRMM.

  20. Synergistic Anti-Myeloma Activity of the Proteasome Inhibitor Marizomib and the IMiD® Immunomodulatory Drug Pomalidomide

    PubMed Central

    Das, Deepika Sharma; Ray, Arghya; Song, Yan; Richardson, Paul; Trikha, Mohit; Chauhan, Dharminder; Anderson, Kenneth C.

    2015-01-01

    The proteasome inhibitor bortezomib is an effective therapy for the treatment of relapsed and refractory multiple myeloma (RRMM); however, prolonged treatment can be associated with toxicity, peripheral neuropathy and drug resistance. Our earlier studies showed that the novel proteasome inhibitor marizomib is distinct from bortezomib in its chemical structure, mechanisms of action and effects on proteasomal activities, and that it can overcome bortezomib resistance. Pomalidomide, like lenalidomide, has potent immunomodulatory activity and has been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of RRMM. Here, we demonstrate that combining low concentrations of marizomib with pomalidomide induces synergistic anti-MM activity. Marizomib plus pomalidomide-induced apoptosis is associated with: 1) activation of caspase-8, caspase-9, caspase-3 and PARP cleavage; 2) downregulation of cereblon (CRBN), IRF4, MYC and MCL1; and 3) suppression of chymotrypsin-like, caspase-like, and trypsin-like proteasome activities. CRBN-siRNA attenuates marizomib plus pomalidomide-induced MM cells death. Furthermore, marizomib plus pomalidomide inhibits the migration of MM cells and tumour-associated angiogenesis, as well as overcomes cytoprotective effects of bone marrow microenvironment. In human MM xenograft model studies, the combination of marizomib and pomalidomide is well tolerated, inhibits tumour growth and prolongs survival. These preclinical studies provide the rationale for on-going clinical trials of combined marizomib and pomalidomide to improve outcome in patients with RRMM. PMID:26456076

  1. The transcriptional repressor protein PRH interacts with the proteasome.

    PubMed Central

    Bess, Kirstin L; Swingler, Tracey E; Rivett, A Jennifer; Gaston, Kevin; Jayaraman, Padma-Sheela

    2003-01-01

    PRH (proline-rich homeodomain protein)/Hex is important in the control of cell proliferation and differentiation. We have shown previously that PRH contains two domains that can bring about transcriptional repression independently; the PRH homeodomain represses transcription by binding to TATA box sequences, whereas the proline-rich N-terminal domain can repress transcription by interacting with members of the Groucho/TLE (transducin-like enhancer of split) family of co-repressor proteins. The proteasome is a multi-subunit protein complex involved in the processing and degradation of proteins. Some proteasome subunits have been suggested to play a role in the regulation of transcription. In the present study, we show that PRH interacts with the HC8 subunit of the proteasome in the context of both 20 and 26 S proteasomes. Moreover, we show that PRH is associated with the proteasome in haematopoietic cells and that the proline-rich PRH N-terminal domain is responsible for this interaction. Whereas PRH can be cleaved by the proteasome, it does not appear to be degraded rapidly in vitro or in vivo, and the proteolytic activity of the proteasome is not required for transcriptional repression by PRH. However, proteasomal digestion of PRH can liberate truncated PRH proteins that retain the ability to bind to DNA. We discuss these findings in terms of the biological role of PRH in gene regulation and the control of cell proliferation. PMID:12826010

  2. Proteasome inhibitor-induced apoptosis is mediated by positive feedback amplification of PKCδ proteolytic activation and mitochondrial translocation

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Faneng; Kanthasamy, Arthi; Song, Chunjuan; Yang, Yongjie; Anantharam, Vellareddy; Kanthasamy, Anumantha G

    2008-01-01

    Emerging evidence implicates impaired protein degradation by the ubiquitin proteasome system (UPS) in Parkinson's disease; however cellular mechanisms underlying dopaminergic degeneration during proteasomal dysfunction are yet to be characterized. In the present study, we identified that the novel PKC isoform PKCδ plays a central role in mediating apoptotic cell death following UPS dysfunction in dopaminergic neuronal cells. Inhibition of proteasome function by MG-132 in dopaminergic neuronal cell model (N27 cells) rapidly depolarized mitochondria independent of ROS generation to activate the apoptotic cascade involving cytochrome c release, and caspase-9 and caspase-3 activation. PKCδ was a key downstream effector of caspase-3 because the kinase was proteolytically cleaved by caspase-3 following exposure to proteasome inhibitors MG-132 or lactacystin, resulting in a persistent increase in the kinase activity. Notably MG-132 treatment resulted in translocation of proteolytically cleaved PKCδ fragments to mitochondria in a time-dependent fashion, and the PKCδ inhibition effectively blocked the activation of caspase-9 and caspase-3, indicating that the accumulation of the PKCδ catalytic fragment in the mitochondrial fraction possibly amplifies mitochondria-mediated apoptosis. Overexpression of the kinase active catalytic fragment of PKCδ (PKCδ-CF) but not the regulatory fragment (RF), or mitochondria-targeted expression of PKCδ-CF triggers caspase-3 activation and apoptosis. Furthermore, inhibition of PKCδ proteolytic cleavage by a caspase-3 cleavage-resistant mutant (PKCδ-CRM) or suppression of PKCδ expression by siRNA significantly attenuated MG-132-induced caspase-9 and -3 activation and DNA fragmentation. Collectively, these results demonstrate that proteolytically activated PKCδ has a significant feedback regulatory role in amplification of the mitochondria-mediated apoptotic cascade during proteasome dysfunction in dopaminergic neuronal cells. PMID

  3. Pseudomonas aeruginosa Cif protein enhances the ubiquitination and proteasomal degradation of the transporter associated with antigen processing (TAP) and reduces major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I antigen presentation.

    PubMed

    Bomberger, Jennifer M; Ely, Kenneth H; Bangia, Naveen; Ye, Siying; Green, Kathy A; Green, William R; Enelow, Richard I; Stanton, Bruce A

    2014-01-03

    Cif (PA2934), a bacterial virulence factor secreted in outer membrane vesicles by Pseudomonas aeruginosa, increases the ubiquitination and lysosomal degradation of some, but not all, plasma membrane ATP-binding cassette transporters (ABC), including the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator and P-glycoprotein. The goal of this study was to determine whether Cif enhances the ubiquitination and degradation of the transporter associated with antigen processing (TAP1 and TAP2), members of the ABC transporter family that play an essential role in antigen presentation and intracellular pathogen clearance. Cif selectively increased the amount of ubiquitinated TAP1 and increased its degradation in the proteasome of human airway epithelial cells. This effect of Cif was mediated by reducing USP10 deubiquitinating activity, resulting in increased polyubiquitination and proteasomal degradation of TAP1. The reduction in TAP1 abundance decreased peptide antigen translocation into the endoplasmic reticulum, an effect that resulted in reduced antigen available to MHC class I molecules for presentation at the plasma membrane of airway epithelial cells and recognition by CD8(+) T cells. Cif is the first bacterial factor identified that inhibits TAP function and MHC class I antigen presentation.

  4. The E3 ubiquitin ligase TRIM31 attenuates NLRP3 inflammasome activation by promoting proteasomal degradation of NLRP3

    PubMed Central

    Song, Hui; Liu, Bingyu; Huai, Wanwan; Yu, Zhongxia; Wang, Wenwen; Zhao, Jing; Han, Lihui; Jiang, Guosheng; Zhang, Lining; Gao, Chengjiang; Zhao, Wei

    2016-01-01

    The NLRP3 inflammasome has a fundamental role in host defence against microbial pathogens and its deregulation may cause diverse inflammatory diseases. NLRP3 protein expression is a rate-limiting step for inflammasome activation, thus its expression must be tightly controlled to maintain immune homeostasis and avoid detrimental effects. However, how NLRP3 expression is regulated remains largely unknown. In this study, we identify E3 ubiquitin ligase TRIM31 as a feedback suppressor of NLRP3 inflammasome. TRIM31 directly binds to NLRP3, promotes K48-linked polyubiquitination and proteasomal degradation of NLRP3. Consequently, TRIM31 deficiency enhances NLRP3 inflammasome activation and aggravates alum-induced peritonitis in vivo. Furthermore, TRIM31 deficiency attenuates the severity of dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced colitis, an inflammatory bowel diseases model in which NLRP3 possesses protective roles. Thus, our research describes a mechanism by which TRIM31 limits NLRP3 inflammasome activity under physiological conditions and suggests TRIM31 as a potential therapeutic target for the intervention of NLRP3 inflammasome related diseases. PMID:27929086

  5. Proteasome inhibition mediates p53 reactivation and anti-cancer activity of 6-Gingerol in cervical cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Rastogi, Namrata; Duggal, Shivali; Singh, Shailendra Kumar; Porwal, Konica; Srivastava, Vikas Kumar; Maurya, Rakesh; Bhatt, Madan L.B.; Mishra, Durga Prasad

    2015-01-01

    Human papilloma virus (HPV) expressing E6 and E7 oncoproteins, is known to inactivate the tumor suppressor p53 through proteasomal degradation in cervical cancers. Therefore, use of small molecules for inhibition of proteasome function and induction of p53 reactivation is a promising strategy for induction of apoptosis in cervical cancer cells. The polyphenolic alkanone, 6-Gingerol (6G), present in the pungent extracts of ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) has shown potent anti-tumorigenic and pro-apoptotic activities against a variety of cancers. In this study we explored the molecular mechanism of action of 6G in human cervical cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. 6G potently inhibited proliferation of the HPV positive cervical cancer cells. 6G was found to: (i) inhibit the chymotrypsin activity of proteasomes, (ii) induce reactivation of p53, (iii) increase levels of p21, (iv) induce DNA damage and G2/M cell cycle arrest, (v) alter expression levels of p53-associated apoptotic markers like, cleaved caspase-3 and PARP, and (vi) potentiate the cytotoxicity of cisplatin. 6G treatment induced significant reduction of tumor volume, tumor weight, proteasome inhibition and p53 accumulation in HeLa xenograft tumor cells in vivo. The 6G treatment was devoid of toxic effects as it did not affect body weights, hematological and osteogenic parameters. Taken together, our data underscores the therapeutic and chemosensitizing effects of 6G in the management and treatment of cervical cancer. PMID:26621832

  6. Inhibition of the Proteasome β2 Site Sensitizes Triple-Negative Breast Cancer Cells to β5 Inhibitors and Suppresses Nrf1 Activation.

    PubMed

    Weyburne, Emily S; Wilkins, Owen M; Sha, Zhe; Williams, David A; Pletnev, Alexandre A; de Bruin, Gerjan; Overkleeft, Hermann S; Goldberg, Alfred L; Cole, Michael D; Kisselev, Alexei F

    2017-02-16

    The proteasome inhibitors carfilzomib (Cfz) and bortezomib (Btz) are used successfully to treat multiple myeloma, but have not shown clinical efficacy in solid tumors. Here we show that clinically achievable inhibition of the β5 site of the proteasome by Cfz and Btz does not result in loss of viability of triple-negative breast cancer cell lines. We use site-specific inhibitors and CRISPR-mediated genetic inactivation of β1 and β2 to demonstrate that inhibiting a second site of the proteasome, particularly the β2 site, sensitizes cell lines to Btz and Cfz in vitro and in vivo. Inhibiting both β5 and β2 suppresses production of the soluble, active form of the transcription factor Nrf1 and prevents the recovery of proteasome activity through induction of new proteasomes. These findings provide a strong rationale for the development of dual β5 and β2 inhibitors for the treatment of solid tumors.

  7. DBC2 resistance is achieved by enhancing 26S proteasome-mediated protein degradation.

    PubMed

    Collado, Denise; Yoshihara, Takashi; Hamaguchi, Masaaki

    2007-08-31

    Tumor suppressor gene DBC2 stops growth of tumor cells through regulation of CCND1. Interference of CCND1 down-regulation prevented growth arrest caused by DBC2 [T. Yoshihara, D. Collado, M. Hamaguchi, Cyclin D1 down-regulation is essential for DBC2's tumor suppressor function, Biochemical and biophysical research communications 358 (2007) 1076-1079]. It was also noted that DBC2 resistant cells eventually arose after repeated induction of DBC2 with muristerone A treatment [M. Hamaguchi, J.L. Meth, C. Von Klitzing, W. Wei, D. Esposito, L. Rodgers, T. Walsh, P. Welcsh, M.C. King, M.H. Wigler, DBC2, a candidate for a tumor suppressor gene involved in breast cancer, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 99 (2002) 13647-13652]. In order to elucidate the mechanism of resistance acquisition, we analyzed DBC2 sensitive and resistant cells derived from the same progenitor cells (T-47D). We discovered that DBC2 protein was abundantly expressed in the sensitive cells when DBC2 was induced. In contrast, it was undetectable by western blot analysis in the resistant cells. We confirmed that the inducible gene expression system was responsive in both cells by detecting induced GFP. Additionally, inhibition of 26S proteasome by MG132 revealed production of DBC2 protein in the resistant cells. These findings indicate that the resistant T-47D cells survive DBC2 induction by rapid destruction of DBC2 through 26S proteasome-mediated protein degradation.

  8. Inhibition of the host proteasome facilitates papaya ringspot virus accumulation and proteosomal catalytic activity is modulated by viral factor HcPro.

    PubMed

    Sahana, Nandita; Kaur, Harpreet; Basavaraj; Tena, Fatima; Jain, Rakesh Kumar; Palukaitis, Peter; Canto, Tomas; Praveen, Shelly

    2012-01-01

    The ubiquitin/26S proteasome system plays an essential role not only in maintaining protein turnover, but also in regulating many other plant responses, including plant-pathogen interactions. Previous studies highlighted different roles of the 20S proteasome in plant defense during virus infection, either indirectly through viral suppressor-mediated degradation of Argonaute proteins, affecting the RNA interference pathway, or directly through modulation of the proteolytic and RNase activity of the 20S proteasome, a component of the 20S proteasome, by viral proteins, affecting the levels of viral proteins and RNAs. Here we show that MG132, a cell permeable proteasomal inhibitor, caused an increase in papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) accumulation in its natural host papaya (Carica papaya). We also show that the PRSV HcPro interacts with the papaya homologue of the Arabidopsis PAA (α1 subunit of the 20S proteasome), but not with the papaya homologue of Arabidopsis PAE (α5 subunit of the 20S proteasome), associated with the RNase activity, although the two 20S proteasome subunits interacted with each other. Mutated forms of PRSV HcPro showed that the conserved KITC54 motif in the N-terminal domain of HcPro was necessary for its binding to PAA. Co-agroinfiltration assays demonstrated that HcPro expression mimicked the action of MG132, and facilitated the accumulation of bothtotal ubiquitinated proteins and viral/non-viral exogenous RNA in Nicotiana benthamiana leaves. These effects were not observed by using an HcPro mutant (KITS54), which impaired the HcPro - PAA interaction. Thus, the PRSV HcPro interacts with a proteasomal subunit, inhibiting the action of the 20S proteasome, suggesting that HcPro might be crucial for modulating its catalytic activities in support of virus accumulation.

  9. Structure of an endogenous yeast 26S proteasome reveals two major conformational states.

    PubMed

    Luan, Bai; Huang, Xiuliang; Wu, Jianping; Mei, Ziqing; Wang, Yiwei; Xue, Xiaobin; Yan, Chuangye; Wang, Jiawei; Finley, Daniel J; Shi, Yigong; Wang, Feng

    2016-03-08

    The eukaryotic proteasome mediates degradation of polyubiquitinated proteins. Here we report the single-particle cryoelectron microscopy (cryo-EM) structures of the endogenous 26S proteasome from Saccharomyces cerevisiae at 4.6- to 6.3-Å resolution. The fine features of the cryo-EM maps allow modeling of 18 subunits in the regulatory particle and 28 in the core particle. The proteasome exhibits two distinct conformational states, designated M1 and M2, which correspond to those reported previously for the proteasome purified in the presence of ATP-γS and ATP, respectively. These conformations also correspond to those of the proteasome in the presence and absence of exogenous substrate. Structure-guided biochemical analysis reveals enhanced deubiquitylating enzyme activity of Rpn11 upon assembly of the lid. Our structures serve as a molecular basis for mechanistic understanding of proteasome function.

  10. Structure of an endogenous yeast 26S proteasome reveals two major conformational states

    PubMed Central

    Luan, Bai; Huang, Xiuliang; Wu, Jianping; Mei, Ziqing; Wang, Yiwei; Xue, Xiaobin; Yan, Chuangye; Wang, Jiawei; Finley, Daniel J.; Shi, Yigong; Wang, Feng

    2016-01-01

    The eukaryotic proteasome mediates degradation of polyubiquitinated proteins. Here we report the single-particle cryoelectron microscopy (cryo-EM) structures of the endogenous 26S proteasome from Saccharomyces cerevisiae at 4.6- to 6.3-Å resolution. The fine features of the cryo-EM maps allow modeling of 18 subunits in the regulatory particle and 28 in the core particle. The proteasome exhibits two distinct conformational states, designated M1 and M2, which correspond to those reported previously for the proteasome purified in the presence of ATP-γS and ATP, respectively. These conformations also correspond to those of the proteasome in the presence and absence of exogenous substrate. Structure-guided biochemical analysis reveals enhanced deubiquitylating enzyme activity of Rpn11 upon assembly of the lid. Our structures serve as a molecular basis for mechanistic understanding of proteasome function. PMID:26929360

  11. Regulation of Endoribonuclease Activity of Alpha-Type Proteasome Subunits in Proerythroleukemia K562 Upon Hemin-Induced Differentiation.

    PubMed

    Mittenberg, Alexey G; Moiseeva, Tatyana N; Kuzyk, Valeria O; Barlev, Nickolai A

    2016-02-01

    The proteasome is the main intracellular proteolytic machine involved in the regulation of numerous cellular processes, including gene expression. In addition to their proteolytic activity, proteasomes also exhibit ATPase/helicase (the 19S particle) and RNAse (the 20S particle) activities, which are regulated by post-translational modifications. In this report we uncovered that several 20S particle subunits: α1 (PSMA6), α2 (PSMA2), α4 (PSMA7), α5 (PSMA5), α6 (PSMA1) and α7 (PSMA3) possess RNAse activity against the p53 mRNA in vitro. Furthermore, we found that the RNAse activity of PSMA1 and PSMA3 was regulated upon hemin-induced differentiation of K562 proerythroleukemia cells. The decrease in RNAse activity of PSMA1 and PSMA3 was paralleled by changes in their status of phosphorylation and ubiquitylation. Collectively, our data support the notion that proteasomal RNAse activity may be functionally important and provide insights into the potential mechanism of p53 repression in erythroleukemia cells by RNAse activity of the 20S α-type subunits.

  12. Intracellular colocalization of HAP1/STBs with steroid hormone receptors and its enhancement by a proteasome inhibitor

    SciTech Connect

    Fujinaga, Ryutaro; Takeshita, Yukio; Yoshioka, Kazuhiro; Nakamura, Hiroyuki; Shinoda, Shuhei; Islam, Md. Nabiul; Jahan, Mir Rubayet; Yanai, Akie; Kokubu, Keiji; Shinoda, Koh

    2011-07-15

    The stigmoid body (STB) is a cytoplasmic inclusion containing huntingtin-associated protein 1 (HAP1), and HAP1/STB formation is induced by transfection of the HAP1 gene into cultured cells. In the present study, we examined the intracellular colocalization of HAP1/STBs with steroid hormone receptors (SHRs), including the androgen receptor (AR), estrogen receptor, glucocorticoid receptor (GR), and mineralocorticoid receptor, in COS-7 cells cotransfected with HAP1 and each receptor. We found that C-terminal ligand-binding domains of all SHRs had potential for colocalization with HAP1/STBs, whereas only AR and GR were clearly colocalized with HAP1/STBs when each full-length SHR was coexpressed with HAP1. In addition, it appeared that HAP1/STBs did not disrupt GR and AR functions because the receptors on HAP1/STBs maintained nuclear translocation activity in response to their specific ligands. When the cells were treated with a proteasome inhibitor, GR and AR localized outside HAP1/STBs translocated into the nucleus, whereas the receptors colocalized with HAP1/STBs persisted in their colocalization even after treatment with their ligands. Therefore, HAP1/STBs may be involved in cytoplasmic modifications of the nuclear translocation of GR and AR in a ubiquitin-proteasome system.

  13. Regulation of Feedback between Protein Kinase A and the Proteasome System Worsens Huntington's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Jiun-Tsai; Chang, Wei-Cheng; Chen, Hui-Mei; Lai, Hsing-Lin; Chen, Chih-Yeh; Tao, Mi-Hua

    2013-01-01

    Huntington's disease (HD) is a neurodegenerative disease caused by the expansion of a CAG repeat in the Huntingtin (HTT) gene. Abnormal regulation of the cyclic AMP (cAMP)/protein kinase A (PKA) pathway occurs during HD progression. Here we found that lower PKA activity was associated with proteasome impairment in the striatum for two HD mouse models (R6/2 and N171-82Q) and in mutant HTT (mHTT)-expressing striatal cells. Because PKA regulatory subunits (PKA-Rs) are proteasome substrates, the mHTT-evoked proteasome impairment caused accumulation of PKA-Rs and subsequently inhibited PKA activity. Conversely, activation of PKA enhanced the phosphorylation of Rpt6 (a component of the proteasome), rescued the impaired proteasome activity, and reduced mHTT aggregates. The dominant-negative Rpt6 mutant (Rpt6S120A) blocked the ability of a cAMP-elevating reagent to enhance proteasome activity, whereas the phosphomimetic Rpt6 mutant (Rpt6S120D) increased proteasome activity, reduced HTT aggregates, and ameliorated motor impairment. Collectively, our data demonstrated that positive feedback regulation between PKA and the proteasome is critical for HD pathogenesis. PMID:23275441

  14. Myostatin Activates the Ubiquitin-Proteasome and Autophagy-Lysosome Systems Contributing to Muscle Wasting in Chronic Kidney Disease

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Dong-Tao; Yang, Ya-Jun; Huang, Ren-Hua; Zhang, Zhi-Hua; Lin, Xin

    2015-01-01

    Our evidence demonstrated that CKD upregulated the expression of myostatin, TNF-α, and p-IkBa and downregulated the phosphorylation of PI3K, Akt, and FoxO3a, which were also associated with protein degradation and muscle atrophy. The autophagosome formation and protein expression of autophagy-related genes were increased in muscle of CKD rats. The mRNA level and protein expression of MAFbx and MuRF-1 were also upregulated in CKD rats, as well as proteasome activity of 26S. Moreover, activation of myostatin elicited by TNF-α induces C2C12 myotube atrophy via upregulating the expression of autophagy-related genes, including MAFbx and MuRF1 and proteasome subunits. Inactivation of FoxO3a triggered by PI3K inhibitor LY294002 prevented the myostatin-induced increase of expression of MuRF1, MAFbx, and LC3-II protein in C2C12 myotubes. The findings were further consolidated by using siRNA interference and overexpression of myostatin. Additionally, expression of myostatin was activated by TNF-α via a NF-κB dependent pathway in C2C12 myotubes, while inhibition of NF-κB activity suppressed myostatin and improved myotube atrophy. Collectively, myostatin mediated CKD-induced muscle catabolism via coordinate activation of the autophagy and the ubiquitin-proteasome systems. PMID:26448817

  15. Biochemical and toxicological evaluation of nano-heparins in cell functional properties, proteasome activation and expression of key matrix molecules.

    PubMed

    Piperigkou, Zoi; Karamanou, Konstantina; Afratis, Nikolaos A; Bouris, Panagiotis; Gialeli, Chrysostomi; Belmiro, Celso L R; Pavão, Mauro S G; Vynios, Dimitrios H; Tsatsakis, Aristidis M

    2016-01-05

    The glycosaminoglycan heparin and its derivatives act strongly on blood coagulation, controlling the activity of serine protease inhibitors in plasma. Nonetheless, there is accumulating evidence highlighting different anticancer activities of these molecules in numerous types of cancer. Nano-heparins may have great biological significance since they can inhibit cell proliferation and invasion as well as inhibiting proteasome activation. Moreover, they can cause alterations in the expression of major modulators of the tumor microenvironment, regulating cancer cell behavior. In the present study, we evaluated the effects of two nano-heparin formulations: one isolated from porcine intestine and the other from the sea squirt Styela plicata, on a breast cancer cell model. We determined whether these nano-heparins are able to affect cell proliferation, apoptosis and invasion, as well as proteasome activity and the expression of extracellular matrix molecules. Specifically, we observed that nano-Styela compared to nano-Mammalian analogue has higher inhibitory role on cell proliferation, invasion and proteasome activity. Moreover, nano-Styela regulates cell apoptosis, expression of inflammatory molecules, such as IL-6 and IL-8 and reduces the expression levels of extracellular matrix macromolecules, such as the proteolytic enzymes MT1-MMP, uPA and the cell surface proteoglycans syndecan-1 and -2, but not on syndecan-4. The observations reported in the present article indicate that nano-heparins and especially ascidian heparin are effective agents for heparin-induced effects in critical cancer cell functions, providing an important possibility in pharmacological targeting.

  16. Subcellular distribution and dynamics of active proteasome complexes unraveled by a workflow combining in vivo complex cross-linking and quantitative proteomics.

    PubMed

    Fabre, Bertrand; Lambour, Thomas; Delobel, Julien; Amalric, François; Monsarrat, Bernard; Burlet-Schiltz, Odile; Bousquet-Dubouch, Marie-Pierre

    2013-03-01

    Through protein degradation, the proteasome plays fundamental roles in different cell compartments. Although the composition of the 20S catalytic core particle (CP) has been well documented, little is known about the composition and dynamics of the regulatory complexes that play a crucial role in its activity, or about how they associate with the CP in different cell compartments, different cell lines, and in response to external stimuli. Because of difficulties performing acceptable cell fractionation while maintaining complex integrity, it has been challenging to characterize proteasome complexes by proteomic approaches. Here, we report an integrated protocol, combining a cross-linking procedure on intact cells with cell fractionation, proteasome immuno-purification, and robust label-free quantitative proteomic analysis by mass spectrometry to determine the distribution and dynamics of cellular proteasome complexes in leukemic cells. Activity profiles of proteasomes were correlated fully with the composition of protein complexes and stoichiometry. Moreover, our results suggest that, at the subcellular level, proteasome function is regulated by dynamic interactions between the 20S CP and its regulatory proteins-which modulate proteasome activity, stability, localization, or substrate uptake-rather than by profound changes in 20S CP composition. Proteasome plasticity was observed both in the 20S CP and in its network of interactions following IFNγ stimulation. The fractionation protocol also revealed specific proteolytic activities and structural features of low-abundance microsomal proteasomes from U937 and KG1a cells. These could be linked to their important roles in the endoplasmic reticulum associated degradation pathway in leukemic cells.

  17. PPARα and PPARγ attenuate HIV-induced dysregulation of tight junction proteins by modulations of matrix metalloproteinase and proteasome activities

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Wen; Eum, Sung Yong; András, Ibolya E; Hennig, Bernhard; Toborek, Michal

    2009-01-01

    The blood-brain barrier (BBB) plays an important role in HIV trafficking into the brain and the development of the central nervous system complications in HIV infection. Tight junctions are the main structural and functional elements that regulate the BBB integrity. Exposure of human brain microvascular endothelial cells (hCMEC/D3 cell line) to HIV-infected monocytes resulted in decreased expression of tight junction proteins, such as junctional adhesion molecule-A (JAM)-A, occludin, and zonula occludens (ZO)-1. Control experiments involved exposure to uninfected monocytes. Alterations of tight junction protein expression were associated with increased endothelial permeability and elevated transendothelial migration of HIV-infected monocytes across an in vitro model of the BBB. Notably, overexpression of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)α or PPARγ attenuated HIV-mediated dysregulation of tight junction proteins. With the use of exogenous PPARγ agonists and silencing of PPARα or PPARγ, these protective effects were connected to down-regulation of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) and proteasome activities. Indeed, the HIV-induced decrease in the expression of JAM-A and occludin was restored by inhibition of MMP activity. Moreover, both MMP and proteasome inhibitors attenuated HIV-mediated altered expression of ZO-1. The present data indicate that down-regulation of MMP and proteasome activities constitutes a novel mechanism of PPAR-induced protections against HIV-induced disruption of brain endothelial cells.—Huang, W., Eum, S. Y., András, I. E., Hennig, B., Toborek, M. PPARα and PPARγ attenuate HIV-induced dysregulation of tight junction proteins by modulations of matrix metalloproteinase and proteasome activities. PMID:19141539

  18. PA28, an activator of the 20 S proteasome, is inactivated by proteolytic modification at its carboxyl terminus.

    PubMed

    Ma, C P; Willy, P J; Slaughter, C A; DeMartino, G N

    1993-10-25

    PA28, a protein activator of the 20 S proteasome, was previously identified in soluble extracts of bovine red blood cells (Ma, C.-P., Slaughter, C. A., and DeMartino, G. N. (1992) J. Biol. Chem. 267, 10515-10523). To determine whether this regulatory protein is as widely distributed as the proteasome, PA28 content and activity were examined in various eukaryotic tissues by immunoblot analysis and by functional assays of tissue extracts. PA28 protein was present in all sources examined. PA28 activity, however, was not detected in many of these sources, including those with the highest level of PA28 protein. To determine the biochemical basis of this result, PA28 was purified from extracts of rat liver, which had high levels of PA28 protein but no PA28 activity. The resulting purified PA28 had no detectable activity but had native and subunit molecular weights indistinguishable from the active PA28 of bovine red blood cells. Using the inactivation of purified PA28 as an assay, a protein that inactivated PA28 without altering its apparent molecular weight on SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis was identified, purified, and characterized from bovine liver. It had biochemical and catalytic characteristics similar to those of lysosomal carboxypeptidase B. When leupeptin, an inhibitor of lysosomal carboxypeptidase B, was included in the buffers used for the preparation of PA28, PA28 activity was detected in tissues which otherwise failed to demonstrate this activity. A similar result was obtained when extracts were prepared in a manner that minimized disruption of lysosomes. Other carboxypeptidases such as carboxypeptidase Y and pancreatic carboxypeptidase B also inactivated PA28 without altering its apparent molecular weight. Active PA28 binds to the proteasome to form a protease-activator complex that can be isolated after velocity sedimentation centrifugation through glycerol density gradients. Carboxypeptidase-inactivated PA28 failed to form such a complex

  19. Proteasome inhibition reduces superantigen-mediated T cell activation and the severity of psoriasis in a SCID-hu model.

    PubMed

    Zollner, Thomas M; Podda, Maurizio; Pien, Christine; Elliott, Peter J; Kaufmann, Roland; Boehncke, Wolf-Henning

    2002-03-01

    There is increasing evidence that bacterial superantigens contribute to inflammation and T cell responses in psoriasis. Psoriatic inflammation entails a complex series of inductive and effector processes that require the regulated expression of various proinflammatory genes, many of which require NF-kappa B for maximal trans-activation. PS-519 is a potent and selective proteasome inhibitor based upon the naturally occurring compound lactacystin, which inhibits NF-kappa B activation by blocking the degradation of its inhibitory protein I kappa B. We report that proteasome inhibition by PS-519 reduces superantigen-mediated T cell-activation in vitro and in vivo. Proliferation was inhibited along with the expression of very early (CD69), early (CD25), and late T cell (HLA-DR) activation molecules. Moreover, expression of E-selectin ligands relevant to dermal T cell homing was reduced, as was E-selectin binding in vitro. Finally, PS-519 proved to be therapeutically effective in a SCID-hu xenogeneic psoriasis transplantation model. We conclude that inhibition of the proteasome, e.g., by PS-519, is a promising means to treat T cell-mediated disorders such as psoriasis.

  20. Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator Controls Lung Proteasomal Degradation and Nuclear Factor-κB Activity in Conditions of Oxidative Stress

    PubMed Central

    Boncoeur, Emilie; Roque, Telma; Bonvin, Elise; Saint-Criq, Vinciane; Bonora, Monique; Clement, Annick; Tabary, Olivier; Henrion-Caude, Alexandra; Jacquot, Jacky

    2008-01-01

    Cystic fibrosis is a lethal inherited disorder caused by mutations in a single gene encoding the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) protein, resulting in progressive oxidative lung damage. In this study, we evaluated the role of CFTR in the control of ubiquitin-proteasome activity and nuclear factor (NF)-κB/IκB-α signaling after lung oxidative stress. After a 64-hour exposure to hyperoxia-mediated oxidative stress, CFTR-deficient (cftr−/−) mice exhibited significantly elevated lung proteasomal activity compared with wild-type (cftr+/+) animals. This was accompanied by reduced lung caspase-3 activity and defective degradation of NF-κB inhibitor IκB-α. In vitro, human CFTR-deficient lung cells exposed to oxidative stress exhibited increased proteasomal activity and decreased NF-κB-dependent transcriptional activity compared with CFTR-sufficient lung cells. Inhibition of the CFTR Cl− channel by CFTRinh-172 in the normal bronchial immortalized cell line 16HBE14o− increased proteasomal degradation after exposure to oxidative stress. Caspase-3 inhibition by Z-DQMD in CFTR-sufficient lung cells mimicked the response profile of increased proteasomal degradation and reduced NF-κB activity observed in CFTR-deficient lung cells exposed to oxidative stress. Taken together, these results suggest that functional CFTR Cl− channel activity is crucial for regulation of lung proteasomal degradation and NF-κB activity in conditions of oxidative stress. PMID:18372427

  1. Synthesis and Evaluation of Derivatives of the Proteasome Deubiquitinase Inhibitor b-AP15

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xin; D'Arcy, Pádraig; Caulfield, Thomas R.; Paulus, Aneel; Chitta, Kasyapa; Mohanty, Chitralekha; Gullbo, Joachim; Chanan-Khan, Asher; Linder, Stig

    2016-01-01

    The ubiquitin–proteasome system (UPS) is increasingly recognized as a therapeutic target for the development of anticancer therapies. The success of the 20S proteasome core particle (20S CP) inhibitor bortezomib in the clinical management of multiple myeloma has raised the possibility of identifying other UPS components for therapeutic intervention. We previously identified the small molecule b-AP15 as an inhibitor of 19S proteasome deubiquitinase (DUB) activity. Building upon our previous data, we performed a structure–activity relationship (SAR) study on b-AP15 and identified VLX1570 as an analog with promising properties, including enhanced potency and improved solubility in aqueous solution. In silico modeling was consistent with interaction of VLX1570 with key cysteine residues located at the active sites of the proteasome DUBs USP14 and UCHL5. VLX1570 was found to inhibit proteasome deubiquitinase activity in vitro in a manner consistent with competitive inhibition. Furthermore, using active-site-directed probes, VLX1570 also inhibited proteasome DUB activity in exposed cells. Importantly, VLX1570 did not show inhibitory activity on a panel of recombinant non-proteasome DUBs, on recombinant kinases, or on caspase-3 activity, suggesting that VLX1570 is not an overtly reactive general enzyme inhibitor. Taken together, our data shows the chemical and biological properties of VLX1570 as an optimized proteasome DUB inhibitor. PMID:25854145

  2. Toxoplasma gondii infection of activated J774-A1 macrophages causes inducible nitric oxide synthase degradation by the proteasome pathway.

    PubMed

    Padrão, Juliana da Cruz; Cabral, Gabriel Rabello de Abreu; da Silva, Maria de Fátima Sarro; Seabra, Sergio Henrique; DaMatta, Renato Augusto

    2014-10-01

    Classically activated macrophages produce nitric oxide (NO), which is a potent microbicidal agent. NO production is catalyzed by inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), which uses arginine as substrate producing NO and citruline. However, it has been demonstrated that NO production is inhibited after macrophage infection of Toxoplasma gondii, the agent of toxoplasmosis, due to iNOS degradation. Three possible iNOS degradation pathways have been described in activated macrophages: proteasome, calpain and lysosomal. To identify the iNOS degradation pathway after T. gondii infection, J774-A1 macrophage cell line was activated with lipopolysaccharide and interferon-gamma for 24 h, treated with the following inhibitors, lactacystin (proteasome), calpeptin (calpain), or concanamycin A (lysosomal), and infected with the parasite. NO production and iNOS expression were evaluated after 2 and 6 h of infection. iNOS was degraded in J774-A1 macrophages infected with T. gondii. However, treatment with lactacystin maintained iNOS expression in J774-A1 macrophages infected for 2 h by T. gondii, and after 6 h iNOS was localized in aggresomes. iNOS was degraded after parasite infection of J774-A1 macrophages treated with calpeptin or concanamycin A. NO production confirmed iNOS expression profiles. These results indicate that T. gondii infection of J774-A1 macrophages caused iNOS degradation by the proteasome pathway.

  3. Interactive effects of CO₂ and trace metals on the proteasome activity and cellular stress response of marine bivalves Crassostrea virginica and Mercenaria mercenaria.

    PubMed

    Götze, Sandra; Matoo, Omera B; Beniash, Elia; Saborowski, Reinhard; Sokolova, Inna M

    2014-04-01

    Increased anthropogenic emission of CO2 changes the carbonate chemistry and decreases the pH of the ocean. This can affect the speciation and the bioavailability of metals in polluted habitats such as estuaries. However, the effects of acidification on metal accumulation and stress response in estuarine organisms including bivalves are poorly understood. We studied the interactive effects of CO2 and two common metal pollutants, copper (Cu) and cadmium (Cd), on metal accumulation, intracellular ATP/ubiquitin-dependent protein degradation, stress response and energy metabolism in two common estuarine bivalves-Crassostrea virginica (eastern oyster) and Mercenaria mercenaria (hard shell clam). Bivalves were exposed for 4-5 weeks to clean seawater (control) and to either 50 μg L(-1) Cu or 50 μg L(-1) Cd at one of three partial pressures of CO2 ( [Formula: see text] ∼ 395, ∼ 800 and ∼ 1500 μatm) representative of the present-day conditions and projections of the Intergovernmental Panel for Climate Change (IPCC) for the years 2100 and 2250, respectively. Clams accumulated lower metal burdens than oysters, and elevated [Formula: see text] enhanced the Cd and Cu accumulation in mantle tissues in both species. Higher Cd and Cu burdens were associated with elevated mRNA expression of metal binding proteins metallothionein and ferritin. In the absence of added metals, proteasome activities of clams and oysters were robust to elevated [Formula: see text] , but [Formula: see text] modulated the proteasome response to metals. Cd exposure stimulated the chymotrypsin-like activity of the oyster proteasome at all CO2 levels. In contrast, trypsin- and caspase-like activities of the oyster proteasome were slightly inhibited by Cd exposure in normocapnia but this inhibition was reversed at elevated [Formula: see text] . Cu exposure inhibited the chymotrypsin-like activity of the oyster proteasome regardless of the exposure [Formula: see text] . The effects of metal exposure on

  4. Proteasome Inhibition Enhances the Induction and Impairs the Maintenance of Late-Phase Long-Term Potentiation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dong, Chenghai; Upadhya, Sudarshan C.; Ding, Lan; Smith, Thuy K.; Hegde, Ashok N.

    2008-01-01

    Protein degradation by the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway plays important roles in synaptic plasticity, but the molecular mechanisms by which proteolysis regulates synaptic strength are not well understood. We investigated the role of the proteasome in hippocampal late-phase long-term potentiation (L-LTP), a model for enduring synaptic plasticity.…

  5. Proteasome Activators, PA28α and PA28β, Govern Development of Microvascular Injury in Diabetic Nephropathy and Retinopathy

    PubMed Central

    Mahmoudpour, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Diabetic nephropathy (DN) and diabetic retinopathy (DR) are major complications of type 1 and type 2 diabetes. DN and DR are mainly caused by injury to the perivascular supporting cells, the mesangial cells within the glomerulus, and the pericytes in the retina. The genes and molecular mechanisms predisposing retinal and glomerular pericytes to diabetic injury are poorly characterized. In this study, the genetic deletion of proteasome activator genes, PA28α and PA28β genes, protected the diabetic mice in the experimental STZ-induced diabetes model against renal injury and retinal microvascular injury and prolonged their survival compared with wild type STZ diabetic mice. The improved wellbeing and reduced renal damage was associated with diminished expression of Osteopontin (OPN) and Monocyte Chemoattractant Protein-1 (MCP-1) in the glomeruli of STZ-injected PA28α/PA28β double knockout (Pa28αβDKO) mice and also in cultured mesangial cells and retinal pericytes isolated from Pa28αβDKO mice that were grown in high glucose. The mesangial PA28-mediated expression of OPN under high glucose conditions was suppressed by peptides capable of inhibiting the binding of PA28 to the 20S proteasome. Collectively, our findings demonstrate that diabetic hyperglycemia promotes PA28-mediated alteration of proteasome activity in vulnerable perivascular cells resulting in microvascular injury and development of DN and DR. PMID:27830089

  6. Silica-coated magnetic nanoparticles impair proteasome activity and increase the formation of cytoplasmic inclusion bodies in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Phukan, Geetika; Shin, Tae Hwan; Shim, Jeom Soon; Paik, Man Jeong; Lee, Jin-Kyu; Choi, Sangdun; Kim, Yong Man; Kang, Seong Ho; Kim, Hyung Sik; Kang, Yup; Lee, Soo Hwan; Mouradian, M. Maral; Lee, Gwang

    2016-01-01

    The potential toxicity of nanoparticles, particularly to neurons, is a major concern. In this study, we assessed the cytotoxicity of silica-coated magnetic nanoparticles containing rhodamine B isothiocyanate dye (MNPs@SiO2(RITC)) in HEK293 cells, SH-SY5Y cells, and rat primary cortical and dopaminergic neurons. In cells treated with 1.0 μg/μl MNPs@SiO2(RITC), the expression of several genes related to the proteasome pathway was altered, and proteasome activity was significantly reduced, compared with control and with 0.1 μg/μl MNPs@SiO2(RITC)-treated cells. Due to the reduction of proteasome activity, formation of cytoplasmic inclusions increased significantly in HEK293 cells over-expressing the α–synuclein interacting protein synphilin-1 as well as in primary cortical and dopaminergic neurons. Primary neurons, particularly dopaminergic neurons, were more vulnerable to MNPs@SiO2(RITC) than SH-SY5Y cells. Cellular polyamines, which are associated with protein aggregation, were significantly altered in SH-SY5Y cells treated with MNPs@SiO2(RITC). These findings highlight the mechanisms of neurotoxicity incurred by nanoparticles. PMID:27378605

  7. Silica-coated magnetic nanoparticles impair proteasome activity and increase the formation of cytoplasmic inclusion bodies in vitro.

    PubMed

    Phukan, Geetika; Shin, Tae Hwan; Shim, Jeom Soon; Paik, Man Jeong; Lee, Jin-Kyu; Choi, Sangdun; Kim, Yong Man; Kang, Seong Ho; Kim, Hyung Sik; Kang, Yup; Lee, Soo Hwan; Mouradian, M Maral; Lee, Gwang

    2016-07-05

    The potential toxicity of nanoparticles, particularly to neurons, is a major concern. In this study, we assessed the cytotoxicity of silica-coated magnetic nanoparticles containing rhodamine B isothiocyanate dye (MNPs@SiO2(RITC)) in HEK293 cells, SH-SY5Y cells, and rat primary cortical and dopaminergic neurons. In cells treated with 1.0 μg/μl MNPs@SiO2(RITC), the expression of several genes related to the proteasome pathway was altered, and proteasome activity was significantly reduced, compared with control and with 0.1 μg/μl MNPs@SiO2(RITC)-treated cells. Due to the reduction of proteasome activity, formation of cytoplasmic inclusions increased significantly in HEK293 cells over-expressing the α-synuclein interacting protein synphilin-1 as well as in primary cortical and dopaminergic neurons. Primary neurons, particularly dopaminergic neurons, were more vulnerable to MNPs@SiO2(RITC) than SH-SY5Y cells. Cellular polyamines, which are associated with protein aggregation, were significantly altered in SH-SY5Y cells treated with MNPs@SiO2(RITC). These findings highlight the mechanisms of neurotoxicity incurred by nanoparticles.

  8. Regulation of HTLV-1 tax stability, cellular trafficking and NF-κB activation by the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway.

    PubMed

    Lavorgna, Alfonso; Harhaj, Edward William

    2014-10-23

    Human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) is a complex retrovirus that infects CD4+ T cells and causes adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATLL) in 3%-5% of infected individuals after a long latent period. HTLV-1 Tax is a trans-activating protein that regulates viral gene expression and also modulates cellular signaling pathways to enhance T-cell proliferation and cell survival. The Tax oncoprotein promotes T-cell transformation, in part via constitutive activation of the NF-κB transcription factor; however, the underlying mechanisms remain unknown. Ubiquitination is a type of post-translational modification that occurs in a three-step enzymatic cascade mediated by E1, E2 and E3 enzymes and regulates protein stability as well as signal transduction, protein trafficking and the DNA damage response. Emerging studies indicate that Tax hijacks the ubiquitin machinery to activate ubiquitin-dependent kinases and downstream NF-κB signaling. Tax interacts with the E2 conjugating enzyme Ubc13 and is conjugated on C-terminal lysine residues with lysine 63-linked polyubiquitin chains. Tax K63-linked polyubiquitination may serve as a platform for signaling complexes since this modification is critical for interactions with NEMO and IKK. In addition to NF-κB signaling, mono- and polyubiquitination of Tax also regulate its subcellular trafficking and stability. Here, we review recent advances in the diverse roles of ubiquitin in Tax function and how Tax usurps the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway to promote oncogenesis.

  9. Angelman syndrome-associated ubiquitin ligase UBE3A/E6AP mutants interfere with the proteolytic activity of the proteasome.

    PubMed

    Tomaić, V; Banks, L

    2015-01-29

    Angelman syndrome, a severe neurodevelopmental disease, occurs primarily due to genetic defects, which cause lack of expression or mutations in the wild-type E6AP/UBE3A protein. A proportion of the Angelman syndrome patients bear UBE3A point mutations, which do not interfere with the expression of the full-length protein, however, these individuals still develop physiological conditions of the disease. Interestingly, most of these mutations are catalytically defective, thereby indicating the importance of UBE3A enzymatic activity role in the Angelman syndrome pathology. In this study, we show that Angelman syndrome-associated mutants interact strongly with the proteasome via the S5a proteasomal subunit, resulting in an overall inhibitory effect on the proteolytic activity of the proteasome. Our results suggest that mutated catalytically inactive forms of UBE3A may cause defects in overall proteasome function, which could have an important role in the Angelman syndrome pathology.

  10. Ubiquitin-proteasome pathway components as therapeutic targets for CNS maladies.

    PubMed

    Upadhya, Sudarshan C; Hegde, Ashok N

    2005-01-01

    In the central nervous system (CNS), abnormal deposition of insoluble protein aggregates or inclusion bodies within nerve cells is commonly observed in association with several neurodegenerative diseases. The ubiquitinated protein aggregates are believed to result from malfunction or overload of the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway or from structural changes in the protein substrates which prevent their recognition and degradation by the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway. Impaired proteolysis might also contribute to the synaptic dysfunction seen early in neurodegenerative diseases because the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway is known to play a role in normal functioning of synapses. Because specificity of the ubiquitin proteasome mediated proteolysis is determined by specific ubiquitin ligases (E3s), identification of specific E3s and their allosteric modulators are likely to provide effective therapeutic targets for the treatment of several CNS disorders. Another unexplored area for the discovery of drug targets is the proteasome. Although many inhibitors of the proteasome are available, no effective drugs exist that can stimulate the proteasome. Since abnormal protein aggregation is a common feature of different neurodegenerative diseases, enhancement of proteasome activity might be an efficient way to remove the aggregates that accumulate in the brain. In this review, we discuss how the components of the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway could be potential targets for therapy of CNS diseases and disorders.

  11. Negatively Charged Metal Oxide Nanoparticles Interact with the 20S Proteasome and Differentially Modulate Its Biologic Functional Effects

    PubMed Central

    Falaschetti, Christine A.; Paunesku, Tatjana; Kurepa, Jasmina; Nanavati, Dhaval; Chou, Stanley S.; De, Mrinmoy; Song, MinHa; Jang, Jung-tak; Wu, Aiguo; Dravid, Vinayak P.; Cheon, Jinwoo; Smalle, Jan; Woloschak, Gayle E.

    2013-01-01

    The multicatalytic ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) carries out proteolysis in a highly orchestrated way and regulates a large number of cellular processes. Deregulation of the UPS in many disorders has been documented. In some cases, e.g. carcinogenesis, elevated proteasome activity has been implicated in disease development, while the etiology of other diseases, e.g. neurodegeneration, includes decreased UPS activity. Therefore, agents that alter proteasome activity could suppress as well as enhance a multitude of diseases. Metal oxide nanoparticles, often developed as diagnostic tools, have not previously been tested as modulators of proteasome activity. Here, several types of metal oxide nanoparticles were found to adsorb to the proteasome and show variable preferential binding for particular proteasome subunits with several peptide binding “hotspots” possible. These interactions depend on the size, charge, and concentration of the nanoparticles and affect proteasome activity in a time-dependent manner. Should metal oxide nanoparticles increase proteasome activity in cells, as they do in vitro, unintended effects related to changes in proteasome function can be expected. PMID:23930940

  12. The Proteasome Acts as a Hub for Plant Immunity and Is Targeted by Pseudomonas Type III Effectors1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Sheikh, Arsheed; Gimenez-Ibanez, Selena

    2016-01-01

    Recent evidence suggests that the ubiquitin-proteasome system is involved in several aspects of plant immunity and that a range of plant pathogens subvert the ubiquitin-proteasome system to enhance their virulence. Here, we show that proteasome activity is strongly induced during basal defense in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). Mutant lines of the proteasome subunits RPT2a and RPN12a support increased bacterial growth of virulent Pseudomonas syringae pv tomato DC3000 (Pst) and Pseudomonas syringae pv maculicola ES4326. Both proteasome subunits are required for pathogen-associated molecular pattern-triggered immunity responses. Analysis of bacterial growth after a secondary infection of systemic leaves revealed that the establishment of systemic acquired resistance (SAR) is impaired in proteasome mutants, suggesting that the proteasome also plays an important role in defense priming and SAR. In addition, we show that Pst inhibits proteasome activity in a type III secretion-dependent manner. A screen for type III effector proteins from Pst for their ability to interfere with proteasome activity revealed HopM1, HopAO1, HopA1, and HopG1 as putative proteasome inhibitors. Biochemical characterization of HopM1 by mass spectrometry indicates that HopM1 interacts with several E3 ubiquitin ligases and proteasome subunits. This supports the hypothesis that HopM1 associates with the proteasome, leading to its inhibition. Thus, the proteasome is an essential component of pathogen-associated molecular pattern-triggered immunity and SAR, which is targeted by multiple bacterial effectors. PMID:27613851

  13. Proteasome Activation is Mediated via a Functional Switch of the Rpt6 C-terminal Tail Following Chaperone-dependent Assembly.

    PubMed

    Sokolova, Vladyslava; Li, Frances; Polovin, George; Park, Soyeon

    2015-10-09

    In the proteasome, the proteolytic 20S core particle (CP) associates with the 19S regulatory particle (RP) to degrade polyubiquitinated proteins. Six ATPases (Rpt1-Rpt6) of the RP form a hexameric Rpt ring and interact with the heptameric α ring (α1-α7) of the CP via the Rpt C-terminal tails individually binding to the α subunits. Importantly, the Rpt6 tail has been suggested to be crucial for RP assembly. Here, we show that the interaction of the CP and Rpt6 tail promotes a CP-Rpt3 tail interaction, and that they jointly mediate proteasome activation via opening the CP gate for substrate entry. The Rpt6 tail forms a novel relationship with the Nas6 chaperone, which binds to Rpt3 and regulates the CP-Rpt3 tail interaction, critically influencing cell growth and turnover of polyubiquitinated proteins. CP-Rpt6 tail binding promotes the release of Nas6 from the proteasome. Based on disulfide crosslinking that detects cognate α3-Rpt6 tail and α2-Rpt3 tail interactions in the proteasome, decreased α3-Rpt6 tail interaction facilitates robust α2-Rpt3 tail interaction that is also strongly ATP-dependent. Together, our data support the reported role of Rpt6 during proteasome assembly, and suggest that its function switches from anchoring for RP assembly into promoting Rpt3-dependent activation of the mature proteasome.

  14. Drug Synergism of Proteasome Inhibitors and Mitotane by Complementary Activation of ER Stress in Adrenocortical Carcinoma Cells.

    PubMed

    Kroiss, Matthias; Sbiera, Silviu; Kendl, Sabine; Kurlbaum, Max; Fassnacht, Martin

    2016-12-01

    Mitotane is the only drug approved for treatment of the orphan disease adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) and was recently shown to be the first clinically used drug acting through endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-stress induced by toxic lipids. Since mitotane has limited clinical activity as monotherapy, we here study the potential of activating ER-stress through alternative pathways. The single reliable NCI-H295 cell culture model for ACC was used to study the impact MG132, bortezomib (BTZ) and carfilzomib (CFZ) on mRNA and protein expression of ER-stress markers, cell viability and steroid hormone secretion. We found all proteasome inhibitors alone to trigger expression of mRNA (spliced X-box protein 1, XBP1) and protein markers indicative of the inositol-requiring enzyme 1 (IRE1) dependent pathway of ER-stress but not phosphorylation of eukaryotic initiation factor 2α (eIF2α), a marker of the PRKR-like endoplasmic reticulum kinase (PERK)-dependent pathway. Whereas mitotane alone activated both pathways, combination of BTZ and CFZ with low-dose mitotane blocked mitotane-induced eIF2α phosphorylation but increased XBP1-mRNA splicing indicating that proteasome inhibitors can commit signalling towards a single ER-stress pathway in ACC cells. By applying the median effect model of drug combinations using cell viability as a read out, we determined significant drug synergism between mitotane and both BTZ and CFZ. In conclusion, combination of mitotane with activators of ER-stress through the unfolded protein response is synergistic in an ACC cell culture model. Since proteasome inhibitors are readily available clinically, they are attractive candidates to study for ACC treatment in clinical trials in combination with mitotane.

  15. Development and Characterization of Proteasome Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Kyung Bo; Fonseca, Fabiana N.; Crews, Craig M.

    2008-01-01

    Although many proteasome inhibitors have been either synthesized or identified from natural sources, the development of more sophisticated, selective proteasome inhibitors is important for a detailed understanding of proteasome function. We have found that antitumor natural product epoxomicin and eponemycin, both of which are linear peptides containing a α,β-epoxyketone pharmacophore, target proteasome for their antitumor activity. Structural studies of the proteasome–epoxomicin complex revealed that the unique specificity of the natural product toward proteasome is due to the α,β-epoxyketone pharmacophore, which forms an unusual six-membered morpholino ring with the amino terminal catalytic Thr-1 of the 20S proteasome. Thus, we believe that a facile synthetic approach for α,β-epoxyketone linear peptides provides a unique opportunity to develop proteasome inhibitors with novel activities. In this chapter, we discuss the detailed synthetic procedure of the α′,β′-epoxyketone natural product epoxomicin and its derivatives. PMID:16338383

  16. N-Acetylcysteine in Combination with IGF-1 Enhances Neuroprotection against Proteasome Dysfunction-Induced Neurotoxicity in SH-SY5Y Cells

    PubMed Central

    Anand, Pinki; Kuang, Anxiu; Akhtar, Feroz; Scofield, Virginia L.

    2016-01-01

    Ubiquitin proteasome system (UPS) dysfunction has been implicated in the development of many neuronal disorders, including Parkinson's disease (PD). Previous studies focused on individual neuroprotective agents and their respective abilities to prevent neurotoxicity following a variety of toxic insults. However, the effects of the antioxidant N-acetylcysteine (NAC) on proteasome impairment-induced apoptosis have not been well characterized in human neuronal cells. The aim of this study was to determine whether cotreatment of NAC and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) efficiently protected against proteasome inhibitor-induced cytotoxicity in SH-SY5Y cells. Our results demonstrate that the proteasome inhibitor, MG132, initiates poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) cleavage, caspase 3 activation, and nuclear condensation and fragmentation. In addition, MG132 treatment leads to endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and autophagy-mediated cell death. All of these events can be attenuated without obvious reduction of MG132 induced protein ubiquitination by first treating the cells with NAC and IGF-1 separately or simultaneously prior to exposure to MG132. Moreover, our data demonstrated that the combination of the two proved to be significantly more effective for neuronal protection. Therefore, we conclude that the simultaneous use of growth/neurotrophic factors and a free radical scavenger may increase overall protection against UPS dysfunction-mediated cytotoxicity and neurodegeneration. PMID:27774335

  17. Molecular and functional characterization of a putative PA28γ proteasome activator orthologue in Schistosoma mansoni.

    PubMed

    Soares, Cláudia Sossai; Morais, Enyara Rezende; Magalhães, Lizandra G; Machado, Carla Botelho; Moreira, Érika Bueno de Carvalho; Teixeira, Felipe Roberti; Rodrigues, Vanderlei; Yoshino, Timothy P

    2013-05-01

    PA28γ is a proteasome activator involved in the regulation of the cellular proliferation, differentiation and growth. In the present study, we identified and characterized a cDNA from Schistosoma mansoni exhibiting significant homology to PA28γ of diverse taxa ranging from mammals (including humans) to simple invertebrates. Designated SmPA28γ, this transcript has a 753bp predicted ORF encoding a protein of 250 amino acid residues. Alignment of SmPA28γ with multiple PA28γ orthologues revealed an average similarity of ~40% among the investigated organisms, and 90% similarity with PA28γ from Schistosoma japonicum. In addition, phylogenetic analysis demonstrated a close linkage between SmPA28γ to its sister group that contains well-characterized PA28γ sequences from Drosophila spp., as well as sharing the same branch with PA28γ from S. japonicum. Gene expression profiling of SmPA28γ using real-time quantitative PCR revealed elevated steady-state transcript levels in the eggs, miracidia and paired adult worms compared to other stages. In parallel with gene expression profiles, an affinity-purified anti-SmPA28γ antibody produced against recombinant protein exhibited strongest reactivity in Western blot analyses to endogenous SmPA28γ from miracidia, sporocysts and paired adult worms. Given its known regulatory function in other organisms, we hypothesized that the high level of SmPA28γ transcript and protein in these stages may be correlated with an important role of the PA28γ in the cellular growth and/or development of this parasite. To address this hypothesis, miracidia were transformed in vitro to sporocysts in the presence of SmPA28γ double-stranded RNAs (dsRNAs) and cultivated for 4 days, after which time steady-state transcript and protein levels, and phenotypic changes were evaluated. SmPA28γ dsRNA treatment resulted in gene and protein knockdown of ~60% and ~80%, respectively, which were correlated with a significant decrease in larval length

  18. 26S and PA28-20S Proteasome Activity in Cytosolic Extracts from Embryonic Stem Cells.

    PubMed

    Hernebring, Malin

    2016-01-01

    The proteasome is a complex multisubunit protease that plays a major role in the degradation of proteins in eukaryotic cells. Proteasome function is one of the key players regulating the proteome and it is vital for many cellular processes. The method described here makes it possible to assay the proteolytic capacities of proteasome complexes separately in crude cytosolic extracts from ES cells. The method is based on hydrolysis of a fluorogenic peptide substrate in lysates prepared under conditions that favor the interactions of the 20S proteasomal catalytical core with either the 19S or the PA28αβ proteasome regulator.

  19. The Proteasome Inhibitor Bortezomib Affects Chondrosarcoma Cells via the Mitochondria-Caspase Dependent Pathway and Enhances Death Receptor Expression and Autophagy

    PubMed Central

    Lohberger, Birgit; Steinecker-Frohnwieser, Bibiane; Stuendl, Nicole; Kaltenegger, Heike; Leithner, Andreas; Rinner, Beate

    2016-01-01

    High grade chondrosarcoma is characterized by its lack of response to conventional cytotoxic chemotherapy, the tendency to develop lung metastases, and low survival rates. Research within the field prioritizes the development and expansion of new treatment options for dealing with unresectable or metastatic diseases. Numerous clinical trials using the proteasome inhibitor bortezomib have shown specific efficacy as an active antitumor agent for treating a variety of solid tumors. However, as of yet the effect of bortezomib on chondrosarcoma has not been investigated. In our study, bortezomib decreased cell viability and proliferation in two different chondrosarcoma cell lines in a time- and dose dependent manner. FACS analysis, mRNA- and protein expression studies illustrated that induction of apoptosis developed through the intrinsic mitochondria-caspase dependent pathway. Furthermore, bortezomib treatment significantly increased expression of the death receptors TRAILR-1 and TRAILR-2 in chondrosarcoma cells. An increased expression of the autophagy markers Atg5/12, Beclin, and LC3BI-II supports the interpretation that bortezomib functions as a trigger for autophagy. Our results demonstrated for the first time that bortezomib reduced viability and proliferation of chondrosarcoma cells, induced apoptosis via the mitochondria-caspase dependent pathway and enhanced death receptor expression and autophagy. PMID:27978543

  20. Activation of NRF2 by p62 and proteasome reduction in sphere-forming breast carcinoma cells

    PubMed Central

    Ryoo, In-geun; Choi, Bo-hyun; Kwak, Mi-Kyoung

    2015-01-01

    Cancer stem cells (CSCs) express high levels of drug efflux transporters and antioxidant genes, and are therefore believed to be responsible for cancer recurrence following chemo/radiotherapy intervention. In this study, we investigated the role of NF-E2-related factor 2 (NRF2), a master regulator of antioxidant gene expression, in the growth and stress resistance of CSC-enriched mammosphere. The MCF7 mammospheres expressed significantly higher levels of the NRF2 protein and target gene expression compared to the monolayer. As underlying mechanisms, we observed that proteolytic activity and expression of the proteasome catalytic subunits were decreased in the mammospheres. Additionally, mammospheres retained a high level of p62 and the silencing of p62 was observed to attenuate NRF2 activation. NRF2 increase was confirmed in sphere-cultures of the colon and ovarian cancer cells. The functional implication of NRF2 was demonstrated in NRF2-knockdown mammospheres. NRF2-silenced mammospheres demonstrated increased cell death and retarded sphere growth as a result of target gene repression. Moreover, unlike the control mammospheres, NRF2-knockdown mammospheres did not develop anticancer drug resistance. Collectively, these results indicated that altered proteasome function and p62 expression caused NRF2 activation in CSC-enriched mammospheres. In addition, NRF2 appeared to play a role in CSC survival and anticancer drug resistance. PMID:25717032

  1. Activation of the ATP-ubiquitin-proteasome pathway in skeletal muscle of cachectic rats bearing a hepatoma

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baracos, V. E.; DeVivo, C.; Hoyle, D. H.; Goldberg, A. L.

    1995-01-01

    Rats implanted with Yoshida ascites hepatoma (YAH) show a rapid and selective loss of muscle protein due mainly to a marked increase (63-95%) in the rate of protein degradation (compared with rates in muscles of pair-fed controls). To define which proteolytic pathways contribute to this increase, epitrochlearis muscles from YAH-bearing and control rats were incubated under conditions that modify different proteolytic systems. Overall proteolysis in either group of rats was not affected by removal of Ca2+ or by blocking the Ca(2+)-dependent proteolytic system. Inhibition of lysosomal function with methylamine reduced proteolysis (-12%) in muscles from YAH-bearing rats, but not in muscles of pair-fed rats. When ATP production was also inhibited, the remaining accelerated proteolysis in muscles of tumor-bearing rats fell to control levels. Muscles of YAH-bearing rats showed increased levels of ubiquitin-conjugated proteins and a 27-kDa proteasome subunit in Western blot analysis. Levels of mRNA encoding components of proteolytic systems were quantitated using Northern hybridization analysis. Although their total RNA content decreased 20-38%, pale muscles of YAH-bearing rats showed increased levels of ubiquitin mRNA (590-880%) and mRNA for multiple subunits of the proteasome (100-215%). Liver, kidney, heart, and brain showed no weight loss and no change in these mRNA species. Muscles of YAH-bearing rats also showed small increases (30-40%) in mRNA for cathepsins B and D, but not for calpain I or heat shock protein 70. Our findings suggest that accelerated muscle proteolysis and muscle wasting in tumor-bearing rats result primarily from activation of the ATP-dependent pathway involving ubiquitin and the proteasome.

  2. Characterization of the 26S proteasome network in Plasmodium falciparum.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lihui; Delahunty, Claire; Fritz-Wolf, Karin; Rahlfs, Stefan; Helena Prieto, Judith; Yates, John R; Becker, Katja

    2015-12-07

    In eukaryotic cells, the ubiquitin-proteasome system as a key regulator of protein quality control is an excellent drug target. We therefore aimed to analyze the 26S proteasome complex in the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum, which still threatens almost half of the world's population. First, we established an affinity purification protocol allowing for the isolation of functional 26S proteasome complexes from the parasite. Subunit composition of the proteasome and component stoichiometry were studied and physiologic interacting partners were identified via in situ protein crosslinking. Furthermore, intrinsic ubiquitin receptors of the plasmodial proteasome were determined and their roles in proteasomal substrate recognition were analyzed. Notably, PfUSP14 was characterized as a proteasome-associated deubiquitinase resulting in the concept that targeting proteasomal deubiquitinating activity in P. falciparum may represent a promising antimalarial strategy. The data provide insights into a profound network orchestrated by the plasmodial proteasome and identified novel drug target candidates in the ubiquitin-proteasome system.

  3. Changes in autophagy, proteasome activity and metabolism to determine a specific signature for acute and chronic senescent mesenchymal stromal cells.

    PubMed

    Capasso, Stefania; Alessio, Nicola; Squillaro, Tiziana; Di Bernardo, Giovanni; Melone, Mariarosa A; Cipollaro, Marilena; Peluso, Gianfranco; Galderisi, Umberto

    2015-11-24

    A sharp definition of what a senescent cell is still lacking since we do not have in depth understanding of mechanisms that induce cellular senescence. In addition, senescent cells are heterogeneous, in that not all of them express the same genes and present the same phenotype. To further clarify the classification of senescent cells, hints may be derived by the study of cellular metabolism, autophagy and proteasome activity. In this scenario, we decided to study these biological features in senescence of Mesenchymal Stromal Cells (MSC). These cells contain a subpopulation of stem cells that are able to differentiate in mesodermal derivatives (adipocytes, chondrocytes, osteocytes). In addition, they can also contribute to the homeostatic maintenance of many organs, hence, their senescence could be very deleterious for human body functions. We induced MSC senescence by oxidative stress, doxorubicin treatment, X-ray irradiation and replicative exhaustion. The first three are considered inducers of acute senescence while extensive proliferation triggers replicative senescence also named as chronic senescence. In all conditions, but replicative and high IR dose senescence, we detected a reduction of the autophagic flux, while proteasome activity was impaired in peroxide-treated and irradiated cells. Differences were observed also in metabolic status. In general, all senescent cells evidenced metabolic inflexibility and prefer to use glucose as energy fuel. Irradiated cells with low dose of X-ray and replicative senescent cells show a residual capacity to use fatty acids and glutamine as alternative fuels, respectively. Our study may be useful to discriminate among different senescent phenotypes.

  4. A binuclear complex constituted by diethyldithiocarbamate and copper(I) functions as a proteasome activity inhibitor in pancreatic cancer cultures and xenografts.

    PubMed

    Han, Jinbin; Liu, Luming; Yue, Xiaoqiang; Chang, Jinjia; Shi, Weidong; Hua, Yongqiang

    2013-12-15

    It is a therapeutic strategy for cancers including pancreatic to inhibit proteasome activity. Disulfiram (DSF) may bind copper (Cu) to form a DSF-Cu complex. DSF-Cu is capable of inducing apoptosis in cancer cells by inhibiting proteasome activity. DSF is rapidly converted to diethyldithiocarbamate (DDTC) within bodies. Copper(II) absorbed by bodies is reduced to copper(I) when it enters cells. We found that DDTC and copper(I) could form a binuclear complex which might be entitled DDTC-Cu(I), and it had been synthesized by us in the laboratory. This study is to investigate the anticancer potential of this complex on pancreatic cancer and the possible mechanism. Pancreatic cancer cell lines, SW1990, PANC-1 and BXPC-3 were used for in vitro assays. Female athymic nude mice grown SW1990 xenografts were used as animal models. Cell counting kit-8 (cck-8) assay and flow cytometry were used for analyzing apoptosis in cells. A 20S proteasome assay kit was used in proteasome activity analysis. Western blot (WB) and immunohistochemistry (IHC) and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) assays were used in tumor sample analysis. The results suggest that DDTC-Cu(I) inhibit pancreatic cancer cell proliferation and proteasome activity in vitro and in vivo. Accumulation of ubiquitinated proteins, and increased p27 as well as decreased NF-κB expression were detected in tumor tissues of DDTC-Cu(I)-treated group. Our data indicates that DDTC-Cu(I) is an effective proteasome activity inhibitor with the potential to be explored as a drug for pancreatic cancer.

  5. Arctigenin promotes degradation of inducible nitric oxide synthase through CHIP-associated proteasome pathway and suppresses its enzyme activity.

    PubMed

    Yao, Xiangyang; Li, Guilan; Lü, Chaotian; Xu, Hui; Yin, Zhimin

    2012-10-01

    Arctigenin, a natural dibenzylbutyrolactone lignan compound, has been reported to possess anti-inflammatory properties. Previous works showed that arctigenin decreased lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced iNOS at transcription level. However, whether arctigenin could regulate iNOS at the post-translational level is still unclear. In the present study, we demonstrated that arctigenin promoted the degradation of iNOS which is expressed under LPS stimulation in murine macrophage-like RAW 264.7 cells. Such degradation of iNOS protein is due to CHIP-associated ubiquitination and proteasome-dependency. Furthermore, arctigenin decreased iNOS phosphorylation through inhibiting ERK and Src activation, subsequently suppressed iNOS enzyme activity. In conclusion, our research displays a new finding that arctigenin can promote the ubiqitination and degradation of iNOS after LPS stimulation. iNOS activity regulated by arctigenin is likely to involve a multitude of crosstalking mechanisms.

  6. Pyrrolidine Dithiocarbamate Inhibits Herpes Simplex Virus 1 and 2 Replication, and Its Activity May Be Mediated through Dysregulation of the Ubiquitin-Proteasome System

    PubMed Central

    Qiu, Min; Chen, Yu; Cheng, Lin; Chu, Ying; Song, Hong-Yong

    2013-01-01

    Pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC) is widely used as an antioxidant or an NF-κB inhibitor. It has been reported to inhibit the replication of human rhinoviruses, poliovirus, coxsackievirus, and influenza virus. In this paper, we report that PDTC could inhibit the replication of herpes simplex virus 1 and 2 (HSV-1 and HSV-2). PDTC suppressed the expression of HSV-1 and HSV-2 viral immediate early (IE) and late (membrane protein gD) genes and the production of viral progeny. This antiviral property was mediated by the dithiocarbamate moiety of PDTC and required the presence of Zn2+. Although PDTC could potently block reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, it was found that this property did not contribute to its anti-HSV activity. PDTC showed no activity in disrupting the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway activation induced by viral infection that was vital for the virus's propagation. We found that PDTC modulated cellular ubiquitination and, furthermore, influenced HSV-2-induced IκB-α degradation to inhibit NF-κB activation and enhanced PML stability in the nucleus, resulting in the inhibition of viral gene expression. These results suggested that the antiviral activity of PDTC might be mediated by its dysregulation of the cellular ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS). PMID:23740985

  7. Novel green synthesis of gold nanoparticles using Citrullus lanatus rind and investigation of proteasome inhibitory activity, antibacterial, and antioxidant potential

    PubMed Central

    Patra, Jayanta Kumar; Baek, Kwang-Hyun

    2015-01-01

    Biological synthesis of nanoparticles using nontoxic, eco-friendly approaches is gaining importance owing to their fascinating biocompatibility and environmentally benign nature. This study describes the green synthesis approach for synthesis of gold nanoparticles (ANPs) using aqueous extract of the rind of watermelon as a fruit waste and evaluate its biopotential in terms of proteasome inhibitory activity, antibacterial, and antioxidant potential. The synthesized ANPs were characterized using UV–vis spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, and thermogravimetric analysis. The surface plasmon resonance spectra of ANPs were obtained at 560 nm. Scanning electron microscopy image revealed that particles had a spherical shape and have a size distribution of 20–140 nm, followed by the elemental analysis by energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. X-ray diffraction analysis confirmed the crystallite nature of the ANPs and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy revealed the involvement of bioactive compounds from watermelon rind in the synthesis, capping, and stabilization of ANPs. ANPs exhibited potential antibacterial activity against five different foodborne pathogenic bacteria with diameter of inhibition zones ranged between 9.23 and 11.58 mm. They also displayed strong synergistic antibacterial activity together with kanamycin (11.93–21.08 mm inhibition zones) and rifampicin (10.32–24.84 mm inhibition zones). ANPs displayed strong antioxidant activity in terms of DPPH radical scavenging (24.69%), nitric oxide scavenging (25.62%), ABTS scavenging (29.42%), and reducing power. Significantly high proteasome inhibitory potential of the ANPs (28.16%) could be highly useful for cancer treatment and targeted cancer drug delivery. Overall, results highlight a potential low-cost green method of synthesizing ANPs from food waste materials. Significant biopotentials of synthesized ANPs could make it a potential

  8. Novel green synthesis of gold nanoparticles using Citrullus lanatus rind and investigation of proteasome inhibitory activity, antibacterial, and antioxidant potential.

    PubMed

    Patra, Jayanta Kumar; Baek, Kwang-Hyun

    2015-01-01

    Biological synthesis of nanoparticles using nontoxic, eco-friendly approaches is gaining importance owing to their fascinating biocompatibility and environmentally benign nature. This study describes the green synthesis approach for synthesis of gold nanoparticles (ANPs) using aqueous extract of the rind of watermelon as a fruit waste and evaluate its biopotential in terms of proteasome inhibitory activity, antibacterial, and antioxidant potential. The synthesized ANPs were characterized using UV-vis spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, and thermogravimetric analysis. The surface plasmon resonance spectra of ANPs were obtained at 560 nm. Scanning electron microscopy image revealed that particles had a spherical shape and have a size distribution of 20-140 nm, followed by the elemental analysis by energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. X-ray diffraction analysis confirmed the crystallite nature of the ANPs and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy revealed the involvement of bioactive compounds from watermelon rind in the synthesis, capping, and stabilization of ANPs. ANPs exhibited potential antibacterial activity against five different foodborne pathogenic bacteria with diameter of inhibition zones ranged between 9.23 and 11.58 mm. They also displayed strong synergistic antibacterial activity together with kanamycin (11.93-21.08 mm inhibition zones) and rifampicin (10.32-24.84 mm inhibition zones). ANPs displayed strong antioxidant activity in terms of DPPH radical scavenging (24.69%), nitric oxide scavenging (25.62%), ABTS scavenging (29.42%), and reducing power. Significantly high proteasome inhibitory potential of the ANPs (28.16%) could be highly useful for cancer treatment and targeted cancer drug delivery. Overall, results highlight a potential low-cost green method of synthesizing ANPs from food waste materials. Significant biopotentials of synthesized ANPs could make it a potential

  9. Tomato 26S Proteasome subunit RPT4a regulates ToLCNDV transcription and activates hypersensitive response in tomato

    PubMed Central

    Sahu, Pranav Pankaj; Sharma, Namisha; Puranik, Swati; Chakraborty, Supriya; Prasad, Manoj

    2016-01-01

    Involvement of 26S proteasomal subunits in plant pathogen-interactions, and the roles of each subunit in independently modulating the activity of many intra- and inter-cellular regulators controlling physiological and defense responses of a plant were well reported. In this regard, we aimed to functionally characterize a Solanum lycopersicum 26S proteasomal subunit RPT4a (SlRPT4) gene, which was differentially expressed after Tomato leaf curl New Delhi virus (ToLCNDV) infection in tolerant cultivar H-88-78-1. Molecular analysis revealed that SlRPT4 protein has an active ATPase activity. SlRPT4 could specifically bind to the stem-loop structure of intergenic region (IR), present in both DNA-A and DNA-B molecule of the bipartite viral genome. Lack of secondary structure in replication-associated gene fragment prevented formation of DNA-protein complex suggesting that binding of SlRPT4 with DNA is secondary structure specific. Interestingly, binding of SlRPT4 to IR inhibited the function of RNA Pol-II and subsequently reduced the bi-directional transcription of ToLCNDV genome. Virus-induced gene silencing of SlRPT4 gene incited conversion of tolerant attributes of cultivar H-88-78-1 into susceptibility. Furthermore, transient overexpression of SlRPT4 resulted in activation of programmed cell death and antioxidant enzymes system. Overall, present study highlights non-proteolytic function of SlRPT4 and their participation in defense pathway against virus infection in tomato. PMID:27252084

  10. Proteasomal Activity Is Required to Initiate and to Sustain Translational Activation of Messenger RNA Encoding the Stem-Loop-Binding Protein During Meiotic Maturation in Mice1

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Qin; Allard, Patrick; Huang, Michael; Zhang, Wenling; Clarke, Hugh J.

    2009-01-01

    Developmentally regulated translation plays a key role in controlling gene expression during oogenesis. In particular, numerous mRNA species are translationally repressed in growing oocytes and become translationally activated during meiotic maturation. While many studies have focused on a U-rich sequence, termed the cytoplasmic polyadenylation element (CPE), located in the 3′-untranslated region (UTR) and the CPE-binding protein (CPEB) 1, multiple mechanisms likely contribute to translational control in oocytes. The stem-loop-binding protein (SLBP) is expressed in growing oocytes, where it is required for the accumulation of nonpolyadenylated histone mRNAs, and then accumulates substantially during meiotic maturation. We report that, in immature oocytes, Slbp mRNA carries a short poly(A) tail, and is weakly translated, and that a CPE-like sequence in the 3′-UTR is required to maintain this low activity. During maturation, Slbp mRNA becomes polyadenylated and translationally activated. Unexpectedly, proteasomal activity is required both to initiate and to sustain translational activation. This proteasomal activity is not required for the polyadenylation of Slbp mRNA during early maturation; however, it is required for a subsequent deadenylation of the mRNA that occurs during late maturation. Moreover, although CPEB1 is degraded during maturation, inhibiting its degradation by blocking mitogen-activated protein kinase 1/3 activity does not prevent the accumulation of SLBP, indicating that CPEB1 is not the protein whose degradation is required for translational activation of Slbp mRNA. These results identify a new role for proteasomal activity in initiating and sustaining translational activation during meiotic maturation. PMID:19759367

  11. The acidosis of chronic renal failure activates muscle proteolysis in rats by augmenting transcription of genes encoding proteins of the ATP-dependent ubiquitin-proteasome pathway.

    PubMed Central

    Bailey, J L; Wang, X; England, B K; Price, S R; Ding, X; Mitch, W E

    1996-01-01

    Chronic renal failure (CRF) is associated with negative nitrogen balance and loss of lean body mass. To identify specific proteolytic pathways activated by CRF, protein degradation was measured in incubated epitrochlearis muscles from CRF and sham-operated, pair-fed rats. CRF stimulated muscle proteolysis, and inhibition of lysosomal and calcium-activated proteases did not eliminate this increase. When ATP production was blocked, proteolysis in CRF muscles fell to the same level as that in control muscles. Increased proteolysis was also prevented by feeding CRF rats sodium bicarbonate, suggesting that activation depends on acidification. Evidence that the ATP-dependent ubiquitin-proteasome pathway is stimulated by the acidemia of CRF includes the following findings: (a) An inhibitor of the proteasome eliminated the increase in muscle proteolysis; and (b) there was an increase in mRNAs encoding ubiquitin (324%) and proteasome subunits C3 (137%) and C9 (251%) in muscle. This response involved gene activation since transcription of mRNAs for ubiquitin and the C3 subunit were selectively increased in muscle of CRF rats. We conclude that CRF stimulates muscle proteolysis by activating the ATP-ubiquitin-proteasome-dependent pathway. The mechanism depends on acidification and increased expression of genes encoding components of the system. These responses could contribute to the loss of muscle mass associated with CRF. PMID:8617877

  12. Disassembly of Lys11 and Mixed Linkage Polyubiquitin Conjugates Provides Insights into Function of Proteasomal Deubiquitinases Rpn11 and Ubp6*

    PubMed Central

    Mansour, Wissam; Nakasone, Mark A.; von Delbrück, Maximilian; Yu, Zanlin; Krutauz, Daria; Reis, Noa; Kleifeld, Oded; Sommer, Thomas; Fushman, David; Glickman, Michael H.

    2015-01-01

    Protein homeostasis is largely dependent on proteolysis by the ubiquitin-proteasome system. Diverse polyubiquitin modifications are reported to target cellular proteins to the proteasome. At the proteasome, deubiquitination is an essential preprocessing event that contributes to degradation efficiency. We characterized the specificities of two proteasome-associated deubiquitinases (DUBs), Rpn11 and Ubp6, and explored their impact on overall proteasome DUB activity. This was accomplished by constructing a panel of well defined ubiquitin (Ub) conjugates, including homogeneous linkages of varying lengths as well as a heterogeneously modified target. Rpn11 and Ubp6 processed Lys11 and Lys63 linkages with comparable efficiencies that increased with chain length. In contrast, processing of Lys48 linkages by proteasome was inversely correlated to chain length. Fluorescently labeled tetra-Ub chains revealed endo-chain preference for Ubp6 acting on Lys48 and random action for Rpn11. Proteasomes were more efficient at deconjugating identical substrates than their constituent DUBs by roughly 2 orders of magnitude. Incorporation into proteasomes significantly enhanced enzymatic efficiency of Rpn11, due in part to alleviation of the autoinhibitory role of its C terminus. The broad specificity of Rpn11 could explain how proteasomes were more effective at disassembling a heterogeneously modified conjugate compared with homogeneous Lys48-linked chains. The reduced ability to disassemble homogeneous Lys48-linked chains longer than 4 Ub units may prolong residency time on the proteasome. PMID:25389291

  13. CDK11{sup p58} represses vitamin D receptor-mediated transcriptional activation through promoting its ubiquitin-proteasome degradation

    SciTech Connect

    Chi, Yayun; Hong, Yi; Zong, Hongliang; Wang, Yanlin; Zou, Weiying; Yang, Junwu; Kong, Xiangfei; Yun, Xiaojing; Gu, Jianxin

    2009-08-28

    Vitamin D receptor (VDR) is a member of the nuclear receptor superfamily and regulates transcription of target genes. In this study, we identified CDK11{sup p58} as a novel protein involved in the regulation of VDR. CDK11{sup p58}, a member of the large family of p34cdc2-related kinases, is associated with cell cycle progression, tumorigenesis, and apoptotic signaling. Our study demonstrated that CDK11{sup p58} interacted with VDR and repressed VDR-dependent transcriptional activation. Furthermore, overexpression of CDK11{sup p58} decreased the stability of VDR through promoting its ubiquitin-proteasome-mediated degradation. Taken together, these results suggest that CDK11{sup p58} is involved in the negative regulation of VDR.

  14. Steviol Reduces MDCK Cyst Formation and Growth by Inhibiting CFTR Channel Activity and Promoting Proteasome-Mediated CFTR Degradation

    PubMed Central

    Yuajit, Chaowalit; Homvisasevongsa, Sureeporn; Chatsudthipong, Lisa; Soodvilai, Sunhapas; Muanprasat, Chatchai; Chatsudthipong, Varanuj

    2013-01-01

    Cyst enlargement in polycystic kidney disease (PKD) involves cAMP-activated proliferation of cyst-lining epithelial cells and transepithelial fluid secretion into the cyst lumen via cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) chloride channel. This study aimed to investigate an inhibitory effect and detailed mechanisms of steviol and its derivatives on cyst growth using a cyst model in Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells. Among 4 steviol-related compounds tested, steviol was found to be the most potent at inhibiting MDCK cyst growth. Steviol inhibition of cyst growth was dose-dependent; steviol (100 microM) reversibly inhibited cyst formation and cyst growth by 72.53.6% and 38.2±8.5%, respectively. Steviol at doses up to 200 microM had no effect on MDCK cell viability, proliferation and apoptosis. However, steviol acutely inhibited forskolin-stimulated apical chloride current in MDCK epithelia, measured with the Ussing chamber technique, in a dose-dependent manner. Prolonged treatment (24 h) with steviol (100 microM) also strongly inhibited forskolin-stimulated apical chloride current, in part by reducing CFTR protein expression in MDCK cells. Interestingly, proteasome inhibitor, MG-132, abolished the effect of steviol on CFTR protein expression. Immunofluorescence studies demonstrated that prolonged treatment (24 h) with steviol (100 microM) markedly reduced CFTR expression at the plasma membrane. Taken together, the data suggest that steviol retards MDCK cyst progression in two ways: first by directly inhibiting CFTR chloride channel activity and second by reducing CFTR expression, in part, by promoting proteasomal degradation of CFTR. Steviol and related compounds therefore represent drug candidates for treatment of polycystic kidney disease. PMID:23536832

  15. Proteasomal degradation of beta-carotene metabolite--modified proteins.

    PubMed

    Sommerburg, Olaf; Karius, Nicole; Siems, Werner; Langhans, Claus-Dieter; Leichsenring, Michael; Breusing, Nicolle; Grune, Tilman

    2009-01-01

    Free radical attack on beta-carotene results in the formation of high amounts of carotene breakdown products (CBPs) having biological activities. As several of the CBPs are reactive aldehydes, it has to be considered that these compounds are able to modify proteins. Therefore, the aim of the study was to investigate whether CBP-modification of proteins is leading to damaged proteins recognized and degraded by the proteasomal system. We used the model proteins tau and ferritin to test whether CBPs will modify them and whether such modifications lead to enhanced proteasomal degradation. To modify proteins, we used crude CBPs as a mixture obtained after hypochloric acid derived BC degradation, as well as several single compounds, as apo8'-carotenal, retinal, or beta-ionone. The majority of the CBPs found in our reaction mixture are well known metabolites as described earlier after BC degradation using different oxidants. CBPs are able to modify proteins, and in in vitro studies, we were able to demonstrate that the 20S proteasome is able to recognize and degrade CBP-modified proteins preferentially. In testing the proteolytic response of HT22 cells toward CBPs, we could demonstrate an enhanced protein turnover, which is sensitive to lactacystin. Interestingly, the proteasomal activity is resistant to treatment with CBP. On the other hand, we were able to demonstrate that supraphysiological levels of CBPs might lead to the formation of protein-CBP-adducts that are able to inhibit the proteasome. Therefore, the removal of CBP-modified proteins seems to be catalyzed by the proteasomal system and is effective, if the formation of CBPs is not overwhelming and leading to protein aggregates.

  16. Profound Activity of the Anti-cancer Drug Bortezomib against Echinococcus multilocularis Metacestodes Identifies the Proteasome as a Novel Drug Target for Cestodes

    PubMed Central

    Stadelmann, Britta; Aeschbacher, Denise; Huber, Cristina; Spiliotis, Markus; Müller, Joachim; Hemphill, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    A library of 426 FDA-approved drugs was screened for in vitro activity against E. multilocularis metacestodes employing the phosphoglucose isomerase (PGI) assay. Initial screening at 20 µM revealed that 7 drugs induced considerable metacestode damage, and further dose-response studies revealed that bortezomib (BTZ), a proteasome inhibitor developed for the chemotherapy of myeloma, displayed high anti-metacestodal activity with an EC50 of 0.6 µM. BTZ treatment of E. multilocularis metacestodes led to an accumulation of ubiquinated proteins and unequivocally parasite death. In-gel zymography assays using E. multilocularis extracts demonstrated BTZ-mediated inhibition of protease activity in a band of approximately 23 kDa, the same size at which the proteasome subunit beta 5 of E. multilocularis could be detected by Western blot. Balb/c mice experimentally infected with E. multilocularis metacestodes were used to assess BTZ treatment, starting at 6 weeks post-infection by intraperitoneal injection of BTZ. This treatment led to reduced parasite weight, but to a degree that was not statistically significant, and it induced adverse effects such as diarrhea and neurological symptoms. In conclusion, the proteasome was identified as a drug target in E. multilocularis metacestodes that can be efficiently inhibited by BTZ in vitro. However, translation of these findings into in vivo efficacy requires further adjustments of treatment regimens using BTZ, or possibly other proteasome inhibitors. PMID:25474446

  17. A binuclear complex constituted by diethyldithiocarbamate and copper(I) functions as a proteasome activity inhibitor in pancreatic cancer cultures and xenografts

    SciTech Connect

    Han, Jinbin; Yue, Xiaoqiang; Chang, Jinjia; Shi, Weidong; Hua, Yongqiang

    2013-12-15

    It is a therapeutic strategy for cancers including pancreatic to inhibit proteasome activity. Disulfiram (DSF) may bind copper (Cu) to form a DSF–Cu complex. DSF–Cu is capable of inducing apoptosis in cancer cells by inhibiting proteasome activity. DSF is rapidly converted to diethyldithiocarbamate (DDTC) within bodies. Copper(II) absorbed by bodies is reduced to copper(I) when it enters cells. We found that DDTC and copper(I) could form a binuclear complex which might be entitled DDTC–Cu(I), and it had been synthesized by us in the laboratory. This study is to investigate the anticancer potential of this complex on pancreatic cancer and the possible mechanism. Pancreatic cancer cell lines, SW1990, PANC-1 and BXPC-3 were used for in vitro assays. Female athymic nude mice grown SW1990 xenografts were used as animal models. Cell counting kit-8 (cck-8) assay and flow cytometry were used for analyzing apoptosis in cells. A 20S proteasome assay kit was used in proteasome activity analysis. Western blot (WB) and immunohistochemistry (IHC) and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) assays were used in tumor sample analysis. The results suggest that DDTC–Cu(I) inhibit pancreatic cancer cell proliferation and proteasome activity in vitro and in vivo. Accumulation of ubiquitinated proteins, and increased p27 as well as decreased NF-κB expression were detected in tumor tissues of DDTC–Cu(I)-treated group. Our data indicates that DDTC–Cu(I) is an effective proteasome activity inhibitor with the potential to be explored as a drug for pancreatic cancer. - Highlights: • A new structure of DDTC–Cu(I) was reported for the first time. • DDTC–Cu(I) dissolved directly in water was for in vitro and in vivo uses. • DDTC–Cu(I) demonstrated significant anticancer effect in vitro and in vivo. • DDTC–Cu(I) is capable of inhibiting proteasome activity in vitro and in vivo.

  18. T cell activation induces proteasomal degradation of Argonaute and rapid remodeling of the microRNA repertoire

    PubMed Central

    Bronevetsky, Yelena; Villarino, Alejandro V.; Eisley, Christopher J.; Barbeau, Rebecca; Barczak, Andrea J.; Heinz, Gitta A.; Kremmer, Elisabeth; Heissmeyer, Vigo; McManus, Michael T.; Erle, David J.; Rao, Anjana

    2013-01-01

    Activation induces extensive changes in the gene expression program of naive CD4+ T cells, promoting their differentiation into helper T cells that coordinate immune responses. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play a critical role in this process, and miRNA expression also changes dramatically during T cell differentiation. Quantitative analyses revealed that T cell activation induces global posttranscriptional miRNA down-regulation in vitro and in vivo. Argonaute (Ago) proteins, the core effector proteins of the miRNA-induced silencing complex (miRISC), were also posttranscriptionally down-regulated during T cell activation. Ago2 was inducibly ubiquitinated in activated T cells and its down-regulation was inhibited by the proteasome inhibitor MG132. Therefore, activation-induced miRNA down-regulation likely occurs at the level of miRISC turnover. Measurements of miRNA-processing intermediates uncovered an additional layer of activation-induced, miRNA-specific transcriptional regulation. Thus, transcriptional and posttranscriptional mechanisms cooperate to rapidly reprogram the miRNA repertoire in differentiating T cells. Altering Ago2 expression in T cells revealed that Ago proteins are limiting factors that determine miRNA abundance. Naive T cells with reduced Ago2 and miRNA expression differentiated more readily into cytokine-producing helper T cells, suggesting that activation-induced miRNA down-regulation promotes acquisition of helper T cell effector functions by relaxing the repression of genes that direct T cell differentiation. PMID:23382546

  19. The epoxyketone-based proteasome inhibitors carfilzomib and orally bioavailable oprozomib have anti-resorptive and bone-anabolic activity in addition to anti-myeloma effects.

    PubMed

    Hurchla, M A; Garcia-Gomez, A; Hornick, M C; Ocio, E M; Li, A; Blanco, J F; Collins, L; Kirk, C J; Piwnica-Worms, D; Vij, R; Tomasson, M H; Pandiella, A; San Miguel, J F; Garayoa, M; Weilbaecher, K N

    2013-02-01

    Proteasome inhibitors (PIs), namely bortezomib, have become a cornerstone therapy for multiple myeloma (MM), potently reducing tumor burden and inhibiting pathologic bone destruction. In clinical trials, carfilzomib, a next generation epoxyketone-based irreversible PI, has exhibited potent anti-myeloma efficacy and decreased side effects compared with bortezomib. Carfilzomib and its orally bioavailable analog oprozomib, effectively decreased MM cell viability following continual or transient treatment mimicking in vivo pharmacokinetics. Interactions between myeloma cells and the bone marrow (BM) microenvironment augment the number and activity of bone-resorbing osteoclasts (OCs) while inhibiting bone-forming osteoblasts (OBs), resulting in increased tumor growth and osteolytic lesions. At clinically relevant concentrations, carfilzomib and oprozomib directly inhibited OC formation and bone resorption in vitro, while enhancing osteogenic differentiation and matrix mineralization. Accordingly, carfilzomib and oprozomib increased trabecular bone volume, decreased bone resorption and enhanced bone formation in non-tumor bearing mice. Finally, in mouse models of disseminated MM, the epoxyketone-based PIs decreased murine 5TGM1 and human RPMI-8226 tumor burden and prevented bone loss. These data demonstrate that, in addition to anti-myeloma properties, carfilzomib and oprozomib effectively shift the bone microenvironment from a catabolic to an anabolic state and, similar to bortezomib, may decrease skeletal complications of MM.

  20. Cefepime, a fourth-generation cephalosporin, in complex with manganese, inhibits proteasome activity and induces the apoptosis of human breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhen; Bi, Caifeng; Fan, Yuhua; Wang, Huannan; Bao, Yan

    2015-10-01

    Cefepime (FEP), which is a member of the fourth-generation cephalosporin class, has been extensively studied as a biochemical and antimicrobial reagent in recent years. Manganese (Mn) is important in the biochemical and physiological processes of many living organisms, and it is also high expressed in some tumor tissues. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the proteasome-inhibitory and anti-proliferative properties of 8 metal complexes (FEP‑Cu, FEP-Zn, FEP-Co, FEP-Ni, FEP-Cd, FEP-Cr, FEP-Fe, FEP-Mn) in MDA-MB‑231 human breast cancer cells. The FEP-Mn complex was found to be more potent in its ability to inhibit cell proliferation and proteasome activity than the other compounds tested. Moreover, the FEP-Mn complex inhibited proteasomal chymotrypsin-like (CT-like) activity and induced the apoptosis of breast cancer cells in a dose-and time-dependent manner. Furthermore, the MCF-10A cells were much less sensitive to the FEP complexes compared with the MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells. These results demonstrated that the FEP-Mn(II) complex has the potential to act as a proteasome inhibitor and apoptosis inducer and therefore has possible future applications in cancer chemotherapy.

  1. Evidence for the Critical Roles of NF-κB p65 and Specificity Proteins in the Apoptosis-Inducing Activity of Proteasome Inhibitors in Leukemia Cells

    PubMed Central

    Reuter, Simone; Gupta, Subash C.; Kannappan, Ramaswamy; Aggarwal, Bharat B.

    2012-01-01

    Although proteasome inhibitors, such as Bortezomib, have been approved for the treatment of multiple myeloma and mantle cell lymphoma, the mechanism by which they induce apoptosis is still incompletely understood. In the present study, we demonstrate that genetic deletion of the NF-κB p65 subunit abolished the ability of Bortezomib to induce apoptosis, indicating that p65 is needed for apoptosis. Although Bortezomib inhibited TNF–induced NF-κB activation through suppression of IκBα degradation, it also induced proteolytic degradation of constitutive NF-κB proteins, including p65, IκBα and p105. These effects were also observed with two other proteasome inhibitors, N-acetyl-leucylleucyl-norleucinal (ALLN) and MG132. The p65 is known to be linked with Specific proteins (Sp), and we found that proteasome inhibition also induced degradation of Sp-1, Sp-3, and Sp-4 proteins. Bortezomib induced apoptosis in cells expressing caspase-3 but not in cells that lack caspase-3, indicating the critical role for this enzyme in the apoptotic action of Bortezomib. Furthermore, inhibition of pan-caspases abolished Bortezomib-induced degradation of p65, p105 and Sp proteins, but not that of IκBα. Overall, our results demonstrate for the first time a critical role for the degradation of NF-κB and Sp proteins by caspases in the apoptosis-inducing activity of proteasome inhibitors, such as Bortezomib.

  2. Transgenic pig carrying green fluorescent proteasomes

    PubMed Central

    Miles, Edward L.; O’Gorman, Chad; Zhao, Jianguo; Samuel, Melissa; Walters, Eric; Yi, Young-Joo; Prather, Randall S.; Wells, Kevin D.; Sutovsky, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Among its many functions, the ubiquitin–proteasome system regulates substrate-specific proteolysis during the cell cycle, apoptosis, and fertilization and in pathologies such as Alzheimer’s disease, cancer, and liver cirrhosis. Proteasomes are present in human and boar spermatozoa, but little is known about the interactions of proteasomal subunits with other sperm proteins or structures. We have created a transgenic boar with green fluorescent protein (GFP) tagged 20S proteasomal core subunit α-type 1 (PSMA1-GFP), hypothesizing that the PSMA1-GFP fusion protein will be incorporated into functional sperm proteasomes. Using direct epifluorescence imaging and indirect immunofluorescence detection, we have confirmed the presence of PSMA1-GFP in the sperm acrosome. Western blotting revealed a protein band corresponding to the predicted mass of PSMA1-GFP fusion protein (57 kDa) in transgenic spermatozoa. Transgenic boar fertility was confirmed by in vitro fertilization, resulting in transgenic blastocysts, and by mating, resulting in healthy transgenic offspring. Immunoprecipitation and proteomic analysis revealed that PSMA1-GFP copurifies with several acrosomal membrane-associated proteins (e.g., lactadherin/milk fat globule E8 and spermadhesin alanine-tryptophan-asparagine). The interaction of MFGE8 with PSMA1-GFP was confirmed through cross-immunoprecipitation. The identified proteasome-interacting proteins may regulate sperm proteasomal activity during fertilization or may be the substrates of proteasomal proteolysis during fertilization. Proteomic analysis also confirmed the interaction/coimmunoprecipitation of PSMA1-GFP with 13/14 proteasomal core subunits. These results demonstrate that the PSMA1-GFP was incorporated in the assembled sperm proteasomes. This mammal carrying green fluorescent proteasomes will be useful for studies of fertilization and wherever the ubiquitin–proteasome system plays a role in cellular function or pathology. PMID:23550158

  3. Proteasome Modulates Mitochondrial Function During Cellular Senescence

    PubMed Central

    Torres, Claudio A.; Perez, Viviana I.

    2009-01-01

    Proteasome plays fundamental roles in the removal of oxidized proteins and in the normal degradation of short-lived proteins. Previously we have provided evidences that the impairment in proteasome observed during the replicative senescence of human fibroblasts has significant effects on MAPK signaling, proliferation, life span, senescent phenotype and protein oxidative status. These studies have demonstrated that proteasome inhibition and replicative senescence caused accumulation of intracellular protein carbonyl content. In this study, we have investigated the mechanisms by which proteasome dysfunction modulates protein oxidation during cellular senescence. The results indicate that proteasome inhibition during replicative senescence have significant effects on the intra and extracellular ROS production in vitro. The data also show that ROS impaired the proteasome function, which is partially reversible by antioxidants. Increases in ROS after proteasome inhibition correlated with a significant negative effect on the activity of most mitochondrial electron transporters. We propose that failures in proteasome during cellular senescence lead to mitochondrial dysfunction, ROS production and oxidative stress. Furthermore, it is likely that changes in proteasome dynamics could generate a pro-oxidative condition at the immediate extracellular microenvironment that could cause tissue injury during aging, in vivo. PMID:17976388

  4. Decreased proteasomal function accelerates cigarette smoke-induced pulmonary emphysema in mice.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Yosuke; Tomaru, Utano; Ishizu, Akihiro; Ito, Tomoki; Kiuchi, Takayuki; Ono, Ayako; Miyajima, Syota; Nagai, Katsura; Higashi, Tsunehito; Matsuno, Yoshihiro; Dosaka-Akita, Hirotoshi; Nishimura, Masaharu; Miwa, Soichi; Kasahara, Masanori

    2015-06-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a disease common in elderly people, characterized by progressive destruction of lung parenchyma and chronic inflammation of the airways. The pathogenesis of COPD remains unclear, but recent studies suggest that oxidative stress-induced apoptosis in alveolar cells contributes to emphysematous lung destruction. The proteasome is a multicatalytic enzyme complex that plays a critical role in proteostasis by rapidly destroying misfolded and modified proteins generated by oxidative and other stresses. Proteasome activity decreases with aging in many organs including lungs, and an age-related decline in proteasomal function has been implicated in various age-related pathologies. However, the role of the proteasome system in the pathogenesis of COPD has not been investigated. Recently, we have established a transgenic (Tg) mouse model with decreased proteasomal chymotrypsin-like activity, showing age-related phenotypes. Using this model, we demonstrate here that decreased proteasomal function accelerates cigarette smoke (CS)-induced pulmonary emphysema. CS-exposed Tg mice showed remarkable airspace enlargement and increased foci of inflammation compared with wild-type controls. Importantly, apoptotic cells were found in the alveolar walls of the affected lungs. Impaired proteasomal activity also enhanced apoptosis in cigarette smoke extract (CSE)-exposed fibroblastic cells derived from mice and humans in vitro. Notably, aggresome formation and prominent nuclear translocation of apoptosis-inducing factor were observed in CSE-exposed fibroblastic cells isolated from Tg mice. Collective evidence suggests that CS exposure and impaired proteasomal activity coordinately enhance apoptotic cell death in the alveolar walls that may be involved in the development and progression of emphysema in susceptible individuals such as the elderly.

  5. Multiple Interactions between Peroxisome Proliferators-Activated Receptors and the Ubiquitin-Proteasome System and Implications for Cancer Pathogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Genini, Davide; Carbone, Giuseppina M.; Catapano, Carlo V.

    2008-01-01

    The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPAR) α, β/δ, and γ are ligand-activated nuclear receptors involved in a number of physiological processes, including lipid and glucose homeostasis, inflammation, cell growth, differentiation, and death. PPAR agonists are used in the treatment of human diseases, like type 2 diabetes and dyslipidemia, and PPARs appear as promising therapeutic targets in other conditions, including cancer. A better understanding of the functions and regulation of PPARs in normal and pathological processes is of primary importance to devise appropriate therapeutic strategies. The ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) plays an important role in controlling level and activity of many nuclear receptors and transcription factors. PPARs are subjected to UPS-dependent regulation. Interestingly, the three PPAR isotypes are differentially regulated by the UPS in response to ligand-dependent activation, a phenomenon that may be intrinsically connected to their distinct cellular functions and behaviors. In addition to their effects ongene expression, PPARs appear to affect protein levels and downstream pathways also by modulating the activity of the UPS in target-specific manners. Here we review the current knowledge of the interactions between the UPS and PPARs in light of the potential implications for their effects on cell fate and tumorigenesis. PMID:18551186

  6. Molecular mechanisms of proteasome plasticity in aging.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, Karl A; Gaczynska, Maria; Osmulski, Pawel A

    2010-02-01

    The ubiquitin-proteasome pathway plays a crucial role in regulation of intracellular protein turnover. Proteasome, the central protease of the pathway, encompasses multi-subunit assemblies sharing a common catalytic core supplemented by regulatory modules and localizing to different subcellular compartments. To better comprehend age-related functions of the proteasome we surveyed content, composition and catalytic properties of the enzyme in cytosolic, microsomal and nuclear fractions obtained from mouse livers subjected to organismal aging. We found that during aging subunit composition and subcellular distribution of proteasomes changed without substantial alterations in the total level of core complexes. We observed that the general decline in proteasomes functions was limited to nuclear and cytosolic compartments. Surprisingly, the observed changes in activity and specificity were linked to the amount of the activator module and distinct composition of the catalytic subunits. In contrast, activity, specificity and composition of the microsomal-associated proteasomes remained mostly unaffected by aging; however their relative contribution to the total activity was substantially elevated. Unexpectedly, the nuclear proteasomes were affected most profoundly by aging possibly triggering significant changes in cellular signaling and transcription. Collectively, the data indicate an age-related refocusing of proteasome from the compartment-specific functions towards general protein maintenance.

  7. Myxoma virus attenuates expression of activating transcription factor 4 (ATF4) which has implications for the treatment of proteasome inhibitor–resistant multiple myeloma

    PubMed Central

    Dunlap, Katherine M; Bartee, Mee Y; Bartee, Eric

    2015-01-01

    The recent development of chemotherapeutic proteasome inhibitors, such as bortezomib, has improved the outcomes of patients suffering from the plasma cell malignancy multiple myeloma. Unfortunately, many patients treated with these drugs still suffer relapsing disease due to treatment-induced upregulation of the antiapoptotic protein Mcl1. We have recently demonstrated that an oncolytic poxvirus, known as myxoma, can rapidly eliminate primary myeloma cells by inducing cellular apoptosis. The efficacy of myxoma treatment on proteasome inhibitor–relapsed or –refractory myeloma, however, remains unknown. We now demonstrate that myxoma-based elimination of myeloma is not affected by cellular resistance to proteasome inhibitors. Additionally, myxoma virus infection specifically prevents expression of Mcl1 following induction of the unfolded protein response, by blocking translation of the unfolded protein response activating transcription factor (ATF)4. These results suggest that myxoma-based oncolytic therapy represents an attractive option for myeloma patients whose disease is refractory to chemotherapeutic proteasome inhibitors due to upregulation of Mcl1. PMID:27512665

  8. HSF-1 activates the ubiquitin proteasome system to promote non-apoptotic developmental cell death in C. elegans.

    PubMed

    Kinet, Maxime J; Malin, Jennifer A; Abraham, Mary C; Blum, Elyse S; Silverman, Melanie R; Lu, Yun; Shaham, Shai

    2016-03-08

    Apoptosis is a prominent metazoan cell death form. Yet, mutations in apoptosis regulators cause only minor defects in vertebrate development, suggesting that another developmental cell death mechanism exists. While some non-apoptotic programs have been molecularly characterized, none appear to control developmental cell culling. Linker-cell-type death (LCD) is a morphologically conserved non-apoptotic cell death process operating in Caenorhabditis elegans and vertebrate development, and is therefore a compelling candidate process complementing apoptosis. However, the details of LCD execution are not known. Here we delineate a molecular-genetic pathway governing LCD in C. elegans. Redundant activities of antagonistic Wnt signals, a temporal control pathway, and mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase signaling control heat shock factor 1 (HSF-1), a conserved stress-activated transcription factor. Rather than protecting cells, HSF-1 promotes their demise by activating components of the ubiquitin proteasome system, including the E2 ligase LET-70/UBE2D2 functioning with E3 components CUL-3, RBX-1, BTBD-2, and SIAH-1. Our studies uncover design similarities between LCD and developmental apoptosis, and provide testable predictions for analyzing LCD in vertebrates.

  9. HSF-1 activates the ubiquitin proteasome system to promote non-apoptotic developmental cell death in C. elegans

    PubMed Central

    Kinet, Maxime J; Malin, Jennifer A; Abraham, Mary C; Blum, Elyse S; Silverman, Melanie R; Lu, Yun; Shaham, Shai

    2016-01-01

    Apoptosis is a prominent metazoan cell death form. Yet, mutations in apoptosis regulators cause only minor defects in vertebrate development, suggesting that another developmental cell death mechanism exists. While some non-apoptotic programs have been molecularly characterized, none appear to control developmental cell culling. Linker-cell-type death (LCD) is a morphologically conserved non-apoptotic cell death process operating in Caenorhabditis elegans and vertebrate development, and is therefore a compelling candidate process complementing apoptosis. However, the details of LCD execution are not known. Here we delineate a molecular-genetic pathway governing LCD in C. elegans. Redundant activities of antagonistic Wnt signals, a temporal control pathway, and mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase signaling control heat shock factor 1 (HSF-1), a conserved stress-activated transcription factor. Rather than protecting cells, HSF-1 promotes their demise by activating components of the ubiquitin proteasome system, including the E2 ligase LET-70/UBE2D2 functioning with E3 components CUL-3, RBX-1, BTBD-2, and SIAH-1. Our studies uncover design similarities between LCD and developmental apoptosis, and provide testable predictions for analyzing LCD in vertebrates. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.12821.001 PMID:26952214

  10. The proteasome complex and the maintenance of pluripotency: sustain the fate by mopping up?

    PubMed

    Schröter, Friederike; Adjaye, James

    2014-02-18

    The proteasome is a multi-enzyme complex responsible for orchestrating protein quality control by degrading misfolded, damaged, abnormal and foreign proteins. Studies related to the association of the proteasomal system in the preservation of self-renewal in both human and mouse pluripotent cells are sparse, and therefore a clear indication of the emergence of a new and important field of research. Under specific conditions the standard proteasome switches to the newly synthesized immunoproteasome, a catalytically active protein chamber also involved in the regulation of protein homeostasis, cell signaling and gene expression. Herein we review recent data to help elucidate and highlight the pivotal role of the proteasome complex, constitutive as well as inducible, in the regulation of self-renewal, pluripotency and differentiation of both embryonic and induced pluripotent stem cells. The proteasome that is endowed with enhanced proteolytic activity maintains self-renewal by regulating gene expression. In addition to protein degradation, the proteasome activator PA28, compartments of the 19S regulatory particle and key members of the ubiquitin pathway dictate the fate of a pluripotent stem cell. We anticipate that our observations will stimulate active research in this new and emerging theme related to stem cell biology, disease and regenerative medicine.

  11. Second-generation proteasome inhibitor carfilzomib sensitizes neuroblastoma cells to doxorubicin-induced apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Guan, Shan; Zhao, Yanling; Lu, Jiaxiong; Yu, Yang; Sun, Wenjing; Mao, Xinfang; Chen, Zhenghu; Xu, Xin; Pan, Jessie; Sun, Surong; Yang, Jianhua

    2016-01-01

    Neuroblastoma (NB), which accounts for about 15% of cancer-related mortality in children, is the most common extracranial malignant neoplasm in children. Elevated level of proteasome activity promotes cancer development and the inhibition of proteasome activity is a promising strategy for cancer treatment. Therefore, targeting proteasome by small molecule inhibitors may be a viable option for NB therapy. Here in this study, we show that a novel proteasome inhibitor Carfilzomib (CFZ) exerts anti-tumor effect on NB. CFZ caused decreased cell viability and attenuated colony formation ability of a subset of NB cell lines. CFZ induced cell apoptosis in NB cells. Moreover, CFZ enhanced the cytotoxic effect of doxorubicin (Dox) on NB cells and Dox-induced p38 and JNK phosphorylation. In addition, CFZ inhibited Dox-induced NF-κB activation by stabilizing the protein level of IκBα. Furthermore, CFZ induced apoptosis and augmented Dox-induced apoptosis in NB tumor cells in orthotopic xenograft mouse models. In summary, our study suggests that proteasome is a therapeutic target in NB and proteasome inhibition by CFZ is a potential therapeutic strategy for treating NB patients. PMID:27713150

  12. Proteasome as a Molecular Target of Microcystin-LR

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Zhu; Zhang, Li; Shi, Guoqing

    2015-01-01

    Proteasome degrades proteins in eukaryotic cells. As such, the proteasome is crucial in cell cycle and function. This study proved that microcystin-LR (MC-LR), which is a toxic by-product of algal bloom, can target cellular proteasome and selectively inhibit proteasome trypsin-like (TL) activity. MC-LR at 1 nM can inhibit up to 54% of the purified 20S proteasome TL activity and 43% of the proteasome TL activity in the liver of the cyprinid rare minnow (Gobiocypris rarus). Protein degradation was retarded in GFP-CL1-transfected PC-3 cells because MC-LR inhibited the proteasome TL activity. Docking studies indicated that MC-LR blocked the active site of the proteasome β2 subunit; thus, the proteasome TL activity was inhibited. In conclusion, MC-LR can target proteasome, selectively inhibit proteasome TL activity, and retard protein degradation. This study may be used as a reference of future research on the toxic mechanism of MC-LR. PMID:26090622

  13. Palmitate induces insulin resistance in human HepG2 hepatocytes by enhancing ubiquitination and proteasomal degradation of key insulin signaling molecules.

    PubMed

    Ishii, Megumi; Maeda, Ayumi; Tani, Shuji; Akagawa, Mitsugu

    2015-01-15

    Obesity-associated insulin resistance is a major pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes mellitus and is characterized by defects in insulin signaling. High concentrations of plasma free fatty acids (FFAs) are involved in the etiology of obesity-associated insulin resistance. However, the detailed mechanism by which FFAs contribute to the development of insulin resistance is not yet fully understood. We investigated the molecular basis of insulin resistance elicited by FFAs using the human hepatocyte cell line HepG2. Among major human FFAs, palmitate markedly inhibited insulin-stimulated phosphorylation of key insulin signaling molecules such as insulin receptor, insulin receptor substrate-1, and Akt, indicating that palmitate is the principal inducer of insulin resistance. We revealed that palmitate facilitates ubiquitination of the key insulin signaling molecules, and subsequently elicits their proteasomal degradation. Furthermore, we demonstrated that inhibition of ubiquitination by the ubiquitin-activating enzyme E1 inhibitor PYR41 significantly prevents palmitate-inducible insulin resistance but not by the proteasome inhibitor MG132, implying that ubiquitinated signaling molecules may be dysfunctional. In conclusion, inhibition of ubiquitination of the key insulin signaling molecules may be a potential strategy for preventing and treating obesity-associated insulin resistance.

  14. Microtubule-disrupting chemotherapeutics result in enhanced proteasome-mediated degradation and disappearance of tubulin in neural cells.

    PubMed

    Huff, Lyn M; Sackett, Dan L; Poruchynsky, Marianne S; Fojo, Tito

    2010-07-15

    We sought to examine the effects of microtubule-targeting agents (MTA) on neural cells to better understand the problem of neurotoxicity, their principal side effect, and to possibly develop a model of clinical toxicity. Studies showed that microtubule-depolymerizing agents (MDA) not only disassembled microtubules in neural HCN2 cells but also led to rapid disappearance of tubulin, and that this was specific for MDAs. Tubulin levels decreased to 20% as early as 8 hours after adding vincristine, and to 1% to 30% (mean, 9.8 +/- 7.6%; median of 7%) after 100 nmol/L vincristine for 24 hours. This disappearance was reversible. An increase in both glu-terminated and acetylated tubulin, markers of stable tubulin, preceded reaccumulation of soluble tubulin, suggesting a priority for stabilizing tubulin first as microtubules before replenishing the soluble pool. Similar results were shown with other MDAs. Furthermore, microtubule reassembly did not arise from a central focus but instead appeared to involve dispersed nucleation, as evidenced by the appearance of small, stable microtubule stubs throughout the cytoplasm. In contrast, experiments with four nonneural "normal" cell lines and four cancer cell lines resulted in microtubule destabilization but only modest tubulin degradation. Evidence for proteasome-mediated degradation was obtained by demonstrating that adding a proteasome inhibitor before vincristine prevented tubulin disappearance. In summary, MDAs lead to rapid disappearance of tubulin in neural but not in other normal or cancer cells. These results underscore the fine control that occurs in neural cells and may further our understanding of neurotoxicity following MDAs.

  15. Disruption of glycosylation enhances ubiquitin-mediated proteasomal degradation of Shadoo in Scrapie-infected rodents and cultured cells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jin; Guo, Yan; Xie, Wu-Ling; Xu, Yin; Ren, Ke; Shi, Qi; Zhang, Bao-Yun; Chen, Cao; Tian, Chan; Gao, Chen; Dong, Xiao-Ping

    2014-06-01

    Shadoo (Sho) is an N-glycosylated glycophosphatidylinositol-anchored protein that is expressed in the brain and exhibits neuroprotective properties. Recently, research has shown that a reduction of Sho levels may reflect the presence of PrPSc in the brain. However, the possible mechanism by which prion infection triggers down-regulation of Sho remains unclear. In the present study, Western blot and immunohistochemical assays revealed that Sho, especially glycosylated Sho, declined markedly in the brains of five scrapie agent-infected hamsters and mice at the terminal stages. Analyses of the down-regulation of Sho levels with the emergence of PrPSc C2 proteolytic fragments did not identify close association in all tested scrapie-infected models. To further investigate the mechanism of depletion of Sho in prion disease, a Sho-expressing plasmid with HA tag was introduced into a scrapie-infected cell line, SMB-S15, and its normal cell line, SMB-PS. Western blot assay revealed dramatically decreased Sho in SMB-S15 cells, especially its glycosylated form. Proteasome inhibitor MG132 reversed the decrease of nonglycosylated Sho, but had little effect on glycosylated Sho. N-acetylglucosamine transferase inhibitor tunicamycin efficiently reduced the glycosylations of Sho and PrPC in SMB-PS cells, while two other endoplasmic reticulum stress inducers showed clear inhibition of diglycosylated PrPC, but did not change the expression level and profile of Sho. Furthermore, immunoprecipitation of HA-Sho illustrated ubiquitination of Sho in SMB-S15 cells, but not in SMB-PS cells. We propose that the depletions of Sho in scrapie-infected cell lines due to inhibition of glycosylation mediate protein destabilization and subsequently proteasome degradation after modification by ubiquitination.

  16. Proteasome inhibitor MG-132 lowers gastric adenocarcinoma TMK1 cell proliferation via bone morphogenetic protein signaling

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, William Ka Kei; Sung, Joseph Jao Yiu; Yu Le; Cho, C.H.

    2008-06-27

    Proteasome inhibitor is a novel class of cancer therapeutics, of which the mechanism of action is not fully understood. It is reported that proteasome inhibitor enhances bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling in osteoblasts to stimulate bone formation. BMP signaling is also an important tumor-suppressing pathway in gastric carcinogenesis. We therefore sought to determine the anti-mitogenic effect of proteasome inhibition in relation to BMP signaling in gastric cancer cells. Results showed that proteasome inhibitor MG-132 significantly suppressed the proliferation and the colony-forming ability of gastric cancer TMK1 cells. In this connection, MG-132 activated BMP signaling, manifested as an increase in Smad1/5/8 phosphorylation and up-regulation of p21{sup Waf1/Cip1} mRNA and protein expression. Knockdown of BMP receptor II by RNA interference abolished Smad1/5/8 phosphorylation, p21{sup Waf1/Cip1} induction, and the inhibition of cell proliferation induced by MG-132. Further analysis revealed that MG-132 up-regulated the expression of BMP1 and BMP4 and suppressed the expression of Smad6. Knockdown of Smad6 also mimicked the effect of MG-132 on BMP signaling. Collectively, these findings suggest that inhibition of proteasome suppresses gastric cancer cell proliferation via activation of BMP signaling. This discovery may open up a novel therapeutic avenue to proteasome inhibitors for the management of gastric cancer.

  17. Nuclear protein quality is regulated by the ubiquitin-proteasome system through the activity of Ubc4 and San1 in fission yeast.

    PubMed

    Matsuo, Yuzy; Kishimoto, Hayafumi; Tanae, Katsuhiro; Kitamura, Kenji; Katayama, Satoshi; Kawamukai, Makoto

    2011-04-15

    Eukaryotic cells monitor and maintain protein quality through a set of protein quality control (PQC) systems whose role is to minimize the harmful effects of the accumulation of aberrant proteins. Although these PQC systems have been extensively studied in the cytoplasm, nuclear PQC systems are not well understood. The present work shows the existence of a nuclear PQC system mediated by the ubiquitin-proteasome system in the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe. Asf1-30, a mutant form of the histone chaperone Asf1, was used as a model substrate for the study of the nuclear PQC. A temperature-sensitive Asf1-30 protein localized to the nucleus was selectively degraded by the ubiquitin-proteasome system. The Asf1-30 mutant protein was highly ubiquitinated at higher temperatures, and it remained stable in an mts2-1 mutant, which lacks proteasome activity. The E2 enzyme Ubc4 was identified among 11 candidate proteins as the ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme in this system, and San1 was selected among 100 candidates as the ubiquitin ligase (E3) targeting Asf1-30 for degradation. San1, but not other nuclear E3s, showed specificity for the mutant nuclear Asf1-30, but did not show activity against wild-type Asf1. These data clearly showed that the aberrant nuclear protein was degraded by a defined set of E1-E2-E3 enzymes through the ubiquitin-proteasome system. The data also show, for the first time, the presence of a nuclear PQC system in fission yeast.

  18. Foxp3 enhances HIF-1α target gene expression in human bladder cancer through decreasing its ubiquitin-proteasomal degradation

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Chang-Te; Tung, Chun-Liang; Shen, Cheng-Huang; Tsai, Hsin-Tzu; Yang, Wen-Horng; Chang, Hung-I; Chen, Syue-Yi; Tzai, Tzong-Shin

    2016-01-01

    Hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) can control a transcriptional factor forkhead box P3 (Foxp3) protein expression in T lymphocyte differentiation through proteasome-mediated degradation. In this study, we unveil a reverse regulatory mechanism contributing to bladder cancer progression; Foxp3 expression attenuates HIF-1α degradation. We first demonstrated that Foxp3 expression positively correlates with the metastatic potential in T24 cells and can increase the expression of HIF-1α-target genes, such as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and glucose transporter (GLUT). Foxp3 protein can bind with HIF-1α, particularly under hypoxia. In vivo ubiquination assay demonstrated that Foxp3 can decrease HIF-1α degradation in a dose-dependent manner. Knocking-down of Foxp3 expression blocks in vivo tumor growth in mice and prolongs mice's survival, which is associated with von Willebrand factor expression. Thirty-three of 145 (22.8 %) bladder tumors exhibit Foxp3 expression. Foxp3 expression is an independent predictor for disease progression in superficial bladder cancer patients (p = 0.032), associated with less number of intratumoral CD8+ lymphocyte. The metaanalysis from 2 published datasets showed Foxp3 expression is positively associated with GLUT−4, −9, and VEGF-A, B-, D expression. This reverse post-translational regulation of HIF-1α protein by Foxp3 provides a new potential target for developing new therapeutic strategy for bladder cancer. PMID:27557492

  19. Proteasome-mediated turnover of the transcriptional activator FIT is required for plant iron-deficiency responses.

    PubMed

    Sivitz, Alicia; Grinvalds, Claudia; Barberon, Marie; Curie, Catherine; Vert, Grégory

    2011-06-01

    Plants display a number of responses to low iron availability in order to increase iron uptake from the soil. In the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana, the ferric-chelate reductase FRO2 and the ferrous iron transporter IRT1 control iron entry from the soil into the root epidermis. To maintain iron homeostasis, the expression of FRO2 and IRT1 is tightly controlled by iron deficiency at the transcriptional level. The basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factor FIT represents the most upstream actor known in the iron-deficiency signaling pathway, and directly regulates the expression of the root iron uptake machinery genes FRO2 and IRT1. However, how FIT is controlled by iron and acts to activate transcription of its targets remains obscure. Here we show that FIT mRNA and endogenous FIT protein accumulate in Arabidopsis roots upon iron deficiency. However, using plants constitutively expressing FIT, we observed that FIT protein accumulation is reduced in iron-limited conditions. This post-transcriptional regulation of FIT is perfectly synchronized with the accumulation of endogenous FIT and IRT1 proteins, and therefore is part of the early responses to low iron. We demonstrated that such regulation affects FIT protein stability under iron deficiency as a result of 26S proteasome-dependent degradation. In addition, we showed that FIT post-translational regulation by iron is required for FRO2 and IRT1 gene expression. Taken together our results indicate that FIT transcriptional and post-translational regulations are integrated in plant roots to ensure that the positive regulator FIT accumulates as a short-lived protein following iron shortage, and to allow proper iron-deficiency responses.

  20. The role of proteasome beta subunits in gastrin-mediated transcription of plasminogen activator inhibitor-2 and regenerating protein1.

    PubMed

    O'Hara, Adrian; Howarth, Alice; Varro, Andrea; Dimaline, Rod

    2013-01-01

    The hormone gastrin physiologically regulates gastric acid secretion and also contributes to maintaining gastric epithelial architecture by regulating expression of genes such as plasminogen activator inhibitor 2 (PAI-2) and regenerating protein 1 (Reg1). Here we examine the role of proteasome subunit PSMB1 in the transcriptional regulation of PAI-2 and Reg1 by gastrin, and its subcellular distribution during gastrin stimulation. We used the gastric cancer cell line AGS, permanently transfected with the CCK2 receptor (AGS-GR) to study gastrin stimulated expression of PAI-2 and Reg1 reporter constructs when PSMB1 was knocked down by siRNA. Binding of PSMB1 to the PAI-2 and Reg1 promoters was assessed by chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assay. Subcellular distribution of PSMB1 was determined by immunocytochemistry and Western Blot. Gastrin robustly increased expression of PAI-2 and Reg1 in AGS-GR cells, but when PSMB1 was knocked down the responses were dramatically reduced. In ChIP assays, following immunoprecipitation of chromatin with a PSMB1 antibody there was a substantial enrichment of DNA from the gastrin responsive regions of the PAI-2 and Reg1 promoters compared with chromatin precipitated with control IgG. In AGS-GR cells stimulated with gastrin there was a significant increase in the ratio of nuclear:cytoplasmic PSMB1 over the same timescale as recruitment of PSMB1 to the PAI-2 and Reg1 promoters seen in ChIP assays. We conclude that PSMB1 is part of the transcriptional machinery required for gastrin stimulated expression of PAI-2 and Reg1, and that its change in subcellular distribution in response to gastrin is consistent with this role.

  1. Precise assembly and regulation of 26S proteasome and correlation between proteasome dysfunction and neurodegenerative diseases

    PubMed Central

    Im, Eunju; Chung, Kwang Chul

    2016-01-01

    Neurodegenerative diseases (NDs) often involve the formation of abnormal and toxic protein aggregates, which are thought to be the primary factor in ND occurrence and progression. Aged neurons exhibit marked increases in aggregated protein levels, which can lead to increased cell death in specific brain regions. As no specific drugs/therapies for treating the symptoms or/and progression of NDs are available, obtaining a complete understanding of the mechanism underlying the formation of protein aggregates is needed for designing a novel and efficient removal strategy. Intracellular proteolysis generally involves either the lysosomal or ubiquitin-proteasome system. In this review, we focus on the structure and assembly of the proteasome, proteasome-mediated protein degradation, and the multiple dynamic regulatory mechanisms governing proteasome activity. We also discuss the plausibility of the correlation between changes in proteasome activity and the occurrence of NDs. [BMB Reports 2016; 49(9): 459-473] PMID:27312603

  2. Precise assembly and regulation of 26S proteasome and correlation between proteasome dysfunction and neurodegenerative diseases.

    PubMed

    Im, Eunju; Chung, Kwang Chul

    2016-09-01

    Neurodegenerative diseases (NDs) often involve the formation of abnormal and toxic protein aggregates, which are thought to be the primary factor in ND occurrence and progression. Aged neurons exhibit marked increases in aggregated protein levels, which can lead to increased cell death in specific brain regions. As no specific drugs/therapies for treating the symptoms or/and progression of NDs are available, obtaining a complete understanding of the mechanism underlying the formation of protein aggregates is needed for designing a novel and efficient removal strategy. Intracellular proteolysis generally involves either the lysosomal or ubiquitin-proteasome system. In this review, we focus on the structure and assembly of the proteasome, proteasome-mediated protein degradation, and the multiple dynamic regulatory mechanisms governing proteasome activity. We also discuss the plausibility of the correlation between changes in proteasome activity and the occurrence of NDs. [BMB Reports 2016; 49(9): 459-473].

  3. S-nitrosylation-dependent proteasomal degradation restrains Cdk5 activity to regulate hippocampal synaptic strength

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Peng; Fu, Wing-Yu; Fu, Amy K. Y.; Ip, Nancy Y.

    2015-01-01

    Precise regulation of synaptic strength requires coordinated activity and functions of synaptic proteins, which is controlled by a variety of post-translational modification. Here we report that S-nitrosylation of p35, the activator of cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (Cdk5), by nitric oxide (NO) is important for the regulation of excitatory synaptic strength. While blockade of NO signalling results in structural and functional synaptic deficits as indicated by reduced mature dendritic spine density and surface expression of glutamate receptor subunits, phosphorylation of numerous synaptic substrates of Cdk5 and its activity are aberrantly upregulated following reduced NO production. The results show that the NO-induced reduction in Cdk5 activity is mediated by S-nitrosylation of p35, resulting in its ubiquitination and degradation by the E3 ligase PJA2. Silencing p35 protein in hippocampal neurons partially rescues the NO blockade-induced synaptic deficits. These findings collectively demonstrate that p35 S-nitrosylation by NO signalling is critical for regulating hippocampal synaptic strength. PMID:26503494

  4. Marizomib irreversibly inhibits proteasome to overcome compensatory hyperactivation in multiple myeloma and solid tumour patients.

    PubMed

    Levin, Nancy; Spencer, Andrew; Harrison, Simon J; Chauhan, Dharminder; Burrows, Francis J; Anderson, Kenneth C; Reich, Steven D; Richardson, Paul G; Trikha, Mohit

    2016-09-01

    Proteasome inhibitors (PIs) are highly active in multiple myeloma (MM) but resistance is commonly observed. All clinical stage PIs effectively inhibit chymotrypsin-like (CT-L) activity; one possible mechanism of resistance is compensatory hyperactivation of caspase-like (C-L) and trypsin-like (T-L) subunits, in response to CT-L blockade. Marizomib (MRZ), an irreversible PI that potently inhibits all three 20S proteasome subunits with a specificity distinct from other PIs, is currently in development for treatment of MM and malignant glioma. The pan-proteasome pharmacodynamic activity in packed whole blood and peripheral blood mononuclear cells was measured in two studies in patients with advanced solid tumours and haematological malignancies. Functional inhibition of all proteasome subunits was achieved with once- or twice-weekly MRZ dosing; 100% inhibition of CT-L was frequently achieved within one cycle at therapeutic doses. Concomitantly, C-L and T-L activities were either unaffected or increased, suggesting compensatory hyperactivation of these subunits. Importantly, this response was overcome by continued administration of MRZ, with robust inhibition of T-L and C-L (up to 80% and 50%, respectively) by the end of Cycle 2 and maintained thereafter. This enhanced proteasome inhibition was independent of tumour type and may underlie the clinical activity of MRZ in patients resistant to other PIs.

  5. Comparative study of proteasome inhibitory, synergistic antibacterial, synergistic anticandidal, and antioxidant activities of gold nanoparticles biosynthesized using fruit waste materials

    PubMed Central

    Patra, Jayanta Kumar; Baek, Kwang-Hyun

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the biological synthesis of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) generated using the aqueous extracts of outer oriental melon peel (OMP) and peach. The synthesized OMP-AuNPs and peach extract (PE)-AuNPs were characterized by ultraviolet–visible spectroscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray analysis, X-ray powder diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and thermogravimetric analysis. The surface plasmon resonance spectra were obtained at 545 nm and 540 nm for OMP-AuNPs and PE-AuNPs, respectively. The estimated absolute crystallite size of the synthesized AuNPs was calculated to be 78.11 nm for OMP-AuNPs and 39.90 nm for PE-AuNPs based on the Scherer equation of the X-ray powder diffraction peaks. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy results revealed the involvement of bioactive compounds present in OMP and peach extracts in the synthesis and stabilization of synthesized AuNPs. Both the OMP-AuNPs and PE-AuNPs showed a strong antibacterial synergistic activity when combined with kanamycin (9.38–20.45 mm inhibition zones) and rifampicin (9.52–25.23 mm inhibition zones), and they also exerted a strong synergistic anticandidal activity (10.09–15.47 mm inhibition zones) when combined with amphotericin B against five pathogenic Candida species. Both the OMP-AuNPs and PE-AuNPs exhibited a strong antioxidant potential in terms of 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydraxyl radical scavenging, nitric oxide scavenging, 2,2′-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) radical scavenging, and a reducing power, along with a strong proteasome inhibitory potential that could be useful in cancer drug delivery and cancer treatments. The PE-AuNPs showed comparatively higher activity than OMP-AuNPs, which could be attributed to the presence of rich bioactive compounds in the PE that acted as reducing and capping agents in the synthesis of PE-AuNPs. Overall, the results of the current investigation

  6. Comparative study of proteasome inhibitory, synergistic antibacterial, synergistic anticandidal, and antioxidant activities of gold nanoparticles biosynthesized using fruit waste materials.

    PubMed

    Patra, Jayanta Kumar; Baek, Kwang-Hyun

    The aim of this study was to compare the biological synthesis of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) generated using the aqueous extracts of outer oriental melon peel (OMP) and peach. The synthesized OMP-AuNPs and peach extract (PE)-AuNPs were characterized by ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray analysis, X-ray powder diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and thermogravimetric analysis. The surface plasmon resonance spectra were obtained at 545 nm and 540 nm for OMP-AuNPs and PE-AuNPs, respectively. The estimated absolute crystallite size of the synthesized AuNPs was calculated to be 78.11 nm for OMP-AuNPs and 39.90 nm for PE-AuNPs based on the Scherer equation of the X-ray powder diffraction peaks. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy results revealed the involvement of bioactive compounds present in OMP and peach extracts in the synthesis and stabilization of synthesized AuNPs. Both the OMP-AuNPs and PE-AuNPs showed a strong antibacterial synergistic activity when combined with kanamycin (9.38-20.45 mm inhibition zones) and rifampicin (9.52-25.23 mm inhibition zones), and they also exerted a strong synergistic anticandidal activity (10.09-15.47 mm inhibition zones) when combined with amphotericin B against five pathogenic Candida species. Both the OMP-AuNPs and PE-AuNPs exhibited a strong antioxidant potential in terms of 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydraxyl radical scavenging, nitric oxide scavenging, 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) radical scavenging, and a reducing power, along with a strong proteasome inhibitory potential that could be useful in cancer drug delivery and cancer treatments. The PE-AuNPs showed comparatively higher activity than OMP-AuNPs, which could be attributed to the presence of rich bioactive compounds in the PE that acted as reducing and capping agents in the synthesis of PE-AuNPs. Overall, the results of the current investigation highlighted a

  7. Proteasome Modulates Positive and Negative Translational Regulators in Long-Term Synaptic Plasticity

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Chenghai; Bach, Svitlana V.; Haynes, Kathryn A.

    2014-01-01

    Proteolysis by the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway appears to have a complex role in synaptic plasticity, but its various functions remain to be elucidated. Using late phase long-term potentiation (L-LTP) in the hippocampus of the mouse as a model for long-term synaptic plasticity, we previously showed that inhibition of the proteasome enhances induction but blocks maintenance of L-LTP. In this study, we investigated the possible mechanisms by which proteasome inhibition has opposite effects on L-LTP induction and maintenance. Our results show that inhibiting phosphatidyl inositol-3 kinase or blocking the interaction between eukaryotic initiation factors 4E (eIF4E) and 4G (eIF4G) reduces the enhancement of L-LTP induction brought about by proteasome inhibition suggesting interplay between proteolysis and the signaling pathway mediated by mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR). Also, proteasome inhibition leads to accumulation of translational activators in the mTOR pathway such as eIF4E and eukaryotic elongation factor 1A (eEF1A) early during L-LTP causing increased induction. Furthermore, inhibition of the proteasome causes a buildup of translational repressors, such as polyadenylate-binding protein interacting protein 2 (Paip2) and eukaryotic initiation factor 4E-binding protein 2 (4E-BP2), during late stages of L-LTP contributing to the blockade of L-LTP maintenance. Thus, the proteasome plays a critical role in regulating protein synthesis during L-LTP by tightly controlling translation. Our results provide novel mechanistic insights into the interplay between protein degradation and protein synthesis in long-term synaptic plasticity. PMID:24573276

  8. Inhibitors Selective for Mycobacterial Versus Human Proteasomes

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, G.; Li, D; Sorio de Carvalho, L; Deng, H; Tao, H; Vogt, G; Wu, K; Schneider, J; Chidawanyika, T; et. al.

    2009-01-01

    Many anti-infectives inhibit the synthesis of bacterial proteins, but none selectively inhibits their degradation. Most anti-infectives kill replicating pathogens, but few preferentially kill pathogens that have been forced into a non-replicating state by conditions in the host. To explore these alternative approaches we sought selective inhibitors of the proteasome of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Given that the proteasome structure is extensively conserved, it is not surprising that inhibitors of all chemical classes tested have blocked both eukaryotic and prokaryotic proteasomes, and no inhibitor has proved substantially more potent on proteasomes of pathogens than of their hosts. Here we show that certain oxathiazol-2-one compounds kill non-replicating M.?tuberculosis and act as selective suicide-substrate inhibitors of the M.?tuberculosis proteasome by cyclocarbonylating its active site threonine. Major conformational changes protect the inhibitor-enzyme intermediate from hydrolysis, allowing formation of an oxazolidin-2-one and preventing regeneration of active protease. Residues outside the active site whose hydrogen bonds stabilize the critical loop before and after it moves are extensively non-conserved. This may account for the ability of oxathiazol-2-one compounds to inhibit the mycobacterial proteasome potently and irreversibly while largely sparing the human homologue.

  9. KIAA0368-deficiency affects disassembly of 26S proteasome under oxidative stress condition.

    PubMed

    Haratake, Kousuke; Sato, Akitsugu; Tsuruta, Fuminori; Chiba, Tomoki

    2016-06-01

    Many cellular stresses cause damages of intracellular proteins, which are eventually degraded by the ubiquitin and proteasome system. The proteasome is a multicatalytic protease complex composed of 20S core particle and the proteasome activators that regulate the proteasome activity. Extracellular mutants 29 (Ecm29) is a 200 kDa protein encoded by KIAA0368 gene, associates with the proteasome, but its role is largely unknown. Here, we generated KIAA0368-deficient mice and investigated the function of Ecm29 in stress response. KIAA0368-deficient mice showed normal peptidase activity and proteasome formation at normal condition. Under stressed condition, 26S proteasome dissociates in wild-type cells, but not in KIAA0368(-/-) cells. This response was correlated with efficient degradation of damaged proteins and resistance to oxidative stress of KIAA0368(-/-) cells. Thus, Ecm29 is involved in the dissociation process of 26S proteasome, providing clue to analyse the mechanism of proteasomal degradation under various stress condition.

  10. Proteasome inhibitory, antioxidant, and synergistic antibacterial and anticandidal activity of green biosynthesized magnetic Fe3O4 nanoparticles using the aqueous extract of corn (Zea mays L.) ear leaves.

    PubMed

    Patra, Jayanta Kumar; Ali, Md Sarafat; Oh, In-Gyung; Baek, Kwang-Hyun

    2017-03-01

    Herein, Fe3O4 nanoparticles synthesized using aqueous extract of corn ear leaves were investigated for proteasome inhibitory activity, antioxidant activity, synergistic antibacterial, and anticandidal potential. The UV-Vis spectrum displayed an absorption band at 355 nm that indicated the formation of nano-sized Fe3O4 particles. Vibrating sample magnetometer analysis revealed its superparamagnetic nature. Fe3O4 nanoparticles exhibited strong proteasome inhibitory potential and antioxidant activity and exerted strong synergistic antibacterial and anticandidal activity. Its significant proteasome inhibitory potential could be useful in cancer treatment and drug delivery. Furthermore, strong antioxidant, antibacterial, and anticandidal activity make them a promising candidate for biomedical and pharmaceutical applications.

  11. Decreased rate of protein synthesis, caspase-3 activity, and ubiquitin-proteasome proteolysis in soleus muscles from growing rats fed a low-protein, high-carbohydrate diet.

    PubMed

    Batistela, Emanuele; Pereira, Mayara Peron; Siqueira, Juliany Torres; Paula-Gomes, Silvia; Zanon, Neusa Maria; Oliveira, Eduardo Brandt; Navegantes, Luiz Carlos Carvalho; Kettelhut, Isis C; Andrade, Claudia Marlise Balbinotti; Kawashita, Nair Honda; Baviera, Amanda Martins

    2014-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the changes in the rates of both protein synthesis and breakdown, and the activation of intracellular effectors that control these processes in soleus muscles from growing rats fed a low-protein, high-carbohydrate (LPHC) diet for 15 days. The mass and the protein content, as well as the rate of protein synthesis, were decreased in the soleus from LPHC-fed rats. The availability of amino acids was diminished, since the levels of various essential amino acids were decreased in the plasma of LPHC-fed rats. Overall rate of proteolysis was also decreased, explained by reductions in the mRNA levels of atrogin-1 and MuRF-1, ubiquitin conjugates, proteasome activity, and in the activity of caspase-3. Soleus muscles from LPHC-fed rats showed increased insulin sensitivity, with increased levels of insulin receptor and phosphorylation levels of AKT, which probably explains the inhibition of both the caspase-3 activity and the ubiquitin-proteasome system. The fall of muscle proteolysis seems to represent an adaptive response that contributes to spare proteins in a condition of diminished availability of dietary amino acids. Furthermore, the decreased rate of protein synthesis may be the driving factor to the lower muscle mass gain in growing rats fed the LPHC diet.

  12. Cisplatin triggers atrophy of skeletal C2C12 myotubes via impairment of Akt signalling pathway and subsequent increment activity of proteasome and autophagy systems

    SciTech Connect

    Fanzani, Alessandro Zanola, Alessandra; Rovetta, Francesca; Rossi, Stefania; Aleo, Maria Francesca

    2011-02-01

    Cisplatin (cisPt) is an antineoplastic drug which causes an array of adverse effects on different organs and tissues, including skeletal muscle. In this work we show that cisPt behaves as a potent trigger to activate protein hypercatabolism in skeletal C2C12 myotubes. Within 24 h of 50 {mu}M cisPt administration, C2C12 myotubes displayed unchanged cell viability but showed a subset of hallmark signs typically recognized during atrophy, including severe reduction in body size, repression of Akt phosphorylation, transcriptional up-regulation of atrophy-related genes, such as atrogin-1, gabarap, beclin-1 and bnip-3, and loss of myogenic markers. As a consequence, proteasomal activity and formation of autophagosomes were remarkably increased in cisPt-treated myotubes, but forced stimulation of Akt pathway, as obtained through insulin administration or delivery of a constitutively activated Akt form, was sufficient to counter the cisPt-induced protein breakdown, leading to rescue of atrophic size. Overall, these results indicate that cisPt induces atrophy of C2C12 myotubes via activation of proteasome and autophagy systems, suggesting that the Akt pathway represents one sensitive target of cisPt molecular action in skeletal muscle.

  13. Genomic structural characterization and transcriptional expression analysis of proteasome activator PA28α and PA28β subunits from Oplegnathus fasciatus.

    PubMed

    Kasthuri, Saranya Revathy; Umasuthan, Navaneethaiyer; Whang, Ilson; Kim, Eunmi; Park, Hae-Chul; Lee, Jehee

    2013-10-01

    Proteasomes are multicatalytic subunit complexes involved in the degradation of cytosolic proteins and antigen presentation. In this study, we have characterized the alpha and beta subunits of proteasome activator complex from rock bream at the molecular level. RbPA28α and RbPA28β possessed the characteristic features of the subunits identified from mammals and teleosts. The RbPA28α and RbPA28β proteasome subunits contained a proline-rich motif (Region A), subunit-specific insert in the region corresponding to the KEKE motif of the known PA28α (Region B), conserved activation loop (Region C), a potential protein kinase C recognition site (Region D) and a highly homologous C-terminal region (Region E) among all three PA28 subunits. Multiple sequence alignment and pairwise alignment revealed that RbPA28α and RbPA28β proteins shared high homology with the teleosts and mammals. RbPA28α and RbPA28β genome possessed 11 exons interrupted by 10 introns. In silico promoter analysis of RbPA28α and RbPA28β revealed various transcription factor-binding sites displaying their regulation under various stress conditions. Tissue distribution profiling showed a higher expression in blood and gills. Transcriptional expression analysis of RbPA28α and RbPA28β showed up-regulation in the immune tissues following LPS and poly I:C challenges, providing further evidence for the immunological role of RbPA28α and RbPA28β.

  14. Proteasome Inhibitors Enhance Gene Delivery by AAV Virus Vectors Expressing Large Genomes in Hemophilia Mouse and Dog Models: A Strategy for Broad Clinical Application

    PubMed Central

    Monahan, Paul E; Lothrop, Clinton D; Sun, Junjiang; Hirsch, Matthew L; Kafri, Tal; Kantor, Boris; Sarkar, Rita; Tillson, D Michael; Elia, Joseph R; Samulski, R Jude

    2010-01-01

    Delivery of genes that are larger than the wild-type adeno-associated virus (AAV) 4,681 nucleotide genome is inefficient using AAV vectors. We previously demonstrated in vitro that concurrent proteasome inhibitor (PI) treatment improves transduction by AAV vectors encoding oversized transgenes. In this study, an AAV vector with a 5.6 kilobase (kb) factor VIII expression cassette was used to test the effect of an US Food and Drug Administration–approved PI (bortezomib) treatment concurrent with vector delivery in vivo. Intrahepatic vector delivery resulted in factor VIII expression that persisted for >1 year in hemophilia mice. Single-dose bortezomib given with AAV2 or AAV8 factor VIII vector enhanced expression on average ~600 and ~300%, respectively. Moreover, coadministration of AAV8.canineFVIII (1 × 1013 vg/kg) and bortezomib in hemophilia A dogs (n = 4) resulted in normalization of the whole blood clotting time (WBCT) and 90% reduction in hemorrhages for >32 months compared to untreated hemophilia A dogs (n = 3) or dogs administered vector alone (n = 3). Demonstration of long-term phenotypic correction of hemophilia A dogs with combination adjuvant bortezomib and AAV vector expressing the oversized transgene establishes preclinical studies that support testing in humans and provides a working paradigm to facilitate a significant expansion of therapeutic targets for human gene therapy. PMID:20700109

  15. The proteasome assembly line

    PubMed Central

    Madura, Kiran

    2013-01-01

    The assembly of the proteasome — the cellular machine that eliminates unwanted proteins — is a carefully choreographed affair, involving a complex sequence of steps overseen by dedicated protein chaperones. PMID:19516331

  16. Immunoaffinity purification of the functional 20S proteasome from human cells via transient overexpression of specific proteasome subunits.

    PubMed

    Livinskaya, Veronika A; Barlev, Nickolai A; Nikiforov, Andrey A

    2014-05-01

    The proteasome is a multi-subunit proteolytic complex that plays a central role in protein degradation in all eukaryotic cells. It regulates many vital cellular processes therefore its dysfunction can lead to various pathologies including cancer and neurodegeneration. Isolation of enzymatically active proteasomes is a key step to the successful study of the proteasome regulation and functions. Here we describe a simple and efficient protocol for immunoaffinity purification of the functional 20S proteasomes from human HEK 293T cells after transient overexpression of specific proteasome subunits tagged with 3xFLAG. To construct 3xFLAG-fusion proteins, DNA sequences encoding the 20S proteasome subunits PSMB5, PSMA5, and PSMA3 were cloned into mammalian expression vector pIRES-hrGFP-1a. The corresponding recombinant proteins PSMB5-3xFLAG, PSMA5-3xFLAG, or PSMA3-3xFLAG were transiently overexpressed in human HEK 293T cells and were shown to be partially incorporated into the intact proteasome complexes. 20S proteasomes were immunoprecipitated from HEK 293T cell extracts under mild conditions using antibodies against FLAG peptide. Isolation of highly purified 20S proteasomes were confirmed by SDS-PAGE and Western blotting using antibodies against different proteasome subunits. Affinity purified 20S proteasomes were shown to possess chymotrypsin- and trypsin-like peptidase activities confirming their functionality. This simple single-step affinity method of the 20S proteasome purification can be instrumental to subsequent functional studies of proteasomes in human cells.

  17. The proteasome and the degradation of oxidized proteins: Part III—Redox regulation of the proteasomal system

    PubMed Central

    Höhn, Tobias Jung Annika; Grune, Tilman

    2014-01-01

    Here, we review shortly the current knowledge on the regulation of the proteasomal system during and after oxidative stress. After addressing the components of the proteasomal system and the degradation of oxidatively damaged proteins in part I and II of this series, we address here which changes in activity undergo the proteasome and the ubiquitin-proteasomal system itself under oxidative conditions. While several components of the proteasomal system undergo direct oxidative modification, a number of redox-regulated events are modulating the proteasomal activity in a way it can address the major tasks in an oxidative stress situation: the removal of oxidized proteins and the adaptation of the cellular metabolism to the stress situation. PMID:24563857

  18. Detection of O-propargyl-puromycin with SUMO and ubiquitin by click chemistry at PML-nuclear bodies during abortive proteasome activities.

    PubMed

    Uozumi, Naoki; Matsumoto, Hotaru; Saitoh, Hisato

    2016-05-27

    The amino-nucleoside antibiotic, puromycin, acts by covalently linking to elongating polypeptide chains on ribosomes to generate prematurely terminated immature polypeptides. The trafficking of puromycin-conjugated (puromycylated) immature polypeptides within cell has, however, remained elusive. In this study, using O-propargyl-puromycin (OP-Puro), the distribution of puromycylated polypeptides was assessed in HeLa cells by click chemistry. Under standard culture conditions, OP-Puro signals were detected in the cytoplasm and nucleus with the highest concentrations in the nucleolus. Intriguingly, when proteasome activities were aborted using MG132, OP-Puro signals began to accumulate at promyelocytic leukemia nuclear bodies (PML-NBs) in addition to the nucleolus. We also found promiscuous association of OP-Puro signals with SUMO-2/3 and ubiquitin at PML-NBs, but not at the nucleolus, during abortive proteasome activities. This study reveals a previously unknown distribution of OP-Puro that argues for a nuclear function in regulating immature protein homeostasis.

  19. The novel β2-selective proteasome inhibitor LU-102 synergizes with bortezomib and carfilzomib to overcome proteasome inhibitor resistance of myeloma cells.

    PubMed

    Kraus, Marianne; Bader, Juergen; Geurink, Paul P; Weyburne, Emily S; Mirabella, Anne C; Silzle, Tobias; Shabaneh, Tamer B; van der Linden, Wouter A; de Bruin, Gerjan; Haile, Sarah R; van Rooden, Eva; Appenzeller, Christina; Li, Nan; Kisselev, Alexei F; Overkleeft, Herman; Driessen, Christoph

    2015-10-01

    Proteasome inhibitor resistance is a challenge for myeloma therapy. Bortezomib targets the β5 and β1 activity, but not the β2 activity of the proteasome. Bortezomib-resistant myeloma cells down-regulate the activation status of the unfolded protein response, and up-regulate β2 proteasome activity. To improve proteasome inhibition in bortezomib-resistant myeloma and to achieve more efficient UPR activation, we have developed LU-102, a selective inhibitor of the β2 proteasome activity. LU-102 inhibited the β2 activity in intact myeloma cells at low micromolar concentrations without relevant co-inhibition of β1 and β5 proteasome subunits. In proteasome inhibitor-resistant myeloma cells, significantly more potent proteasome inhibition was achieved by bortezomib or carfilzomib in combination with LU-102, compared to bortezomib/carfilzomib alone, resulting in highly synergistic cytotoxic activity of the drug combination via endoplasmatic reticulum stress-induced apoptosis. Combining bortezomib/carfilzomib with LU-102 significantly prolonged proteasome inhibition and increased activation of the unfolded protein response and IRE1-a activity. IRE1-α has recently been shown to control myeloma cell differentiation and bortezomib sensitivity (Leung-Hagesteijn, Cancer Cell 24:3, 289-304). Thus, β2-selective proteasome inhibition by LU-102 in combination with bortezomib or carfilzomib results in synergistic proteasome inhibition, activation of the unfolded protein response, and cytotoxicity, and overcomes bortezomib/carfilzomib resistance in myeloma cells in vitro.

  20. Phosphorylation by p38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Promotes Estrogen Receptor α Turnover and Functional Activity via the SCFSkp2 Proteasomal Complex

    PubMed Central

    Bhatt, Shweta; Xiao, Zhen; Meng, Zhaojing

    2012-01-01

    The nuclear hormone receptor estrogen receptor α (ERα) mediates the actions of estrogens in target cells and is a master regulator of the gene expression and proliferative programs of breast cancer cells. The presence of ERα in breast cancer cells is crucial for the effectiveness of endocrine therapies, and its loss is a hallmark of endocrine-insensitive breast tumors. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the regulation of the cellular levels of ERα are not fully understood. Our findings reveal a unique cellular pathway involving the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38MAPK)-mediated phosphorylation of ERα at Ser-294 that specifies its turnover by the SCFSkp2 proteasome complex. Consistently, we observed an inverse relationship between ERα and Skp2 or active p38MAPK in breast cancer cell lines and human tumors. ERα regulation by Skp2 was cell cycle stage dependent and critical for promoting the mitogenic effects of estradiol via ERα. Interestingly, by the knockdown of Skp2 or the inhibition of p38MAPK, we restored functional ERα protein levels and the control of gene expression and proliferation by estrogen and antiestrogen in ERα-negative breast cancer cells. Our findings highlight a novel pathway with therapeutic potential for restoring ERα and the responsiveness to endocrine therapy in some endocrine-insensitive ERα-negative breast cancers. PMID:22431515

  1. The regulation of glucose on milk fat synthesis is mediated by the ubiquitin-proteasome system in bovine mammary epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Liu, Lily; Jiang, Li; Ding, Xiang-dong; Liu, Jian-feng; Zhang, Qin

    2015-09-11

    Glucose as one of the nutrition factors plays a vital role in the regulation of milk fat synthesis. Ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) is a vital proteolytic pathway in all eukaryotic cells through timely marking, recognizing and degrading the poly-ubiquitinated protein substrates. Previous studies indicated that UPS plays a considerable role in controlling the triglyceride (TG) synthesis. Therefore, the aim of this study is to confirm the link between high-glucose and UPS and its regulation mechanism on milk fat synthesis in BMEC (bovine mammary epithelial cells). We incubated BMEC with normal (17.5 mm/L) and high-glucose (25 mm/L) with and without proteasome inhibitor epoxomicin and found that, compared with the control (normal glucose and without proteasome inhibitor), both high-glucose concentration and proteasome inhibitor epoxomicin could increase the accumulation of TG and poly-ubiquitinated proteins, and reduce significantly three proteasome activities (chymotrypsin-like, caspase-like, and trypsin-like). In addition, high-glucose concentration combined with proteasome inhibitor further enhanced the increase of the poly-ubiquitinated protein level and the decrease of proteasome activities. Our results suggest that the regulation of high-glucose on milk fat synthesis is mediated by UPS in BMEC, and high-glucose exposure could lead to a hypersensitization of BMEC to UPS inhibition which in turn results in increased milk fat synthesis.

  2. How the ubiquitin proteasome system regulates the regulators of transcription.

    PubMed

    Ee, Gary; Lehming, Norbert

    2012-01-01

    The ubiquitin proteasome system plays an important role in transcription. Monoubiquitination of activators is believed to aid their function, while the 26S proteasomal degradation of repressors is believed to restrict their function. What remains controversial is the question of whether the degradation of activators aids or restricts their function.

  3. Isolation and purification of proteasomes from primary cells.

    PubMed

    Steers, Nicholas J; Peachman, Kristina K; Alving, Carl R; Rao, Mangala

    2014-11-03

    Proteasomes play an important role in cell homeostasis and in orchestrating the immune response by systematically degrading foreign proteins and misfolded or damaged host cell proteins. We describe a protocol to purify functionally active proteasomes from human CD4(+) T cells and dendritic cells derived from peripheral blood mononuclear cells. The purification is a three-step process involving ion-exchange chromatography, ammonium sulfate precipitation, and sucrose density gradient ultracentrifugation. This method can be easily adapted to purify proteasomes from cell lines or from organs. Methods to characterize and visualize the purified proteasomes are also described.

  4. [Immune proteasomes in the development of rat immune system].

    PubMed

    Karpova, Ia D; Lyupina, Iu V; Astakhova, T M; Stepanova, A A; Erokhov, P A; Abramova, E B; Sharova, N P

    2013-01-01

    The dynamics of the expression of LMP7 and LMP2 proteasome subunits in embryonic and early postnatal development of rat spleen and liver is investigated in comparison with the dynamics of chymotrypsin-like and caspase-like proteasome activities and expression of MHC (major histocompatibility complex) class I molecules. The immune subunits LMP7 and LMP2 distribution in spleen and liver cells in the development process is also studied. A mutual for both organs tendency to the increase of the expression of both LMP7 subunit and LMP2 one on P21 (the 21st postnatal day) as compared to the embryonic period is discovered. However, the total proteasome level is shown to be constant. At definite development stages, the dynamics of immune subunits expression in the spleen and liver was different. In the spleen gradual enhancement of both immune subunits level being detected on P1, P18 and P21, in the liver gradual enhancement periods on E16 (the 16th embryonic day) and E18 changed to the stage of the shrink of immune subunits level on P5. This level did not reliably change till P18 and was augmented on P21. The alterations revealed were accompanied by chymotrypsin-like activity raise and caspase-like activity drop in spleen by P21 as compared with the embryonic period, which proves the enlargement of proteasome ability to form antigenic epitopes for MHC class I molecules. In the liver, both activities increased by P21 in comparison with the embryonic period. Such dynamics of caspase-like activity can be explained not only by the change of proteolytic constitutive and immune subunits, but also by additional regulatory mechanisms. Besides, it is discovered that the increment of immune subunits expression in the early spleen development is connected with the process of successive forming the white pulp by B- and T-lymphocytes enriched by immune subunits. In the liver, the growth of immune subunits level by P21 was accompanied by their expression expansion in hepatocytes, while

  5. High Fat Diet-Induced Skeletal Muscle Wasting Is Decreased by Mesenchymal Stem Cells Administration: Implications on Oxidative Stress, Ubiquitin Proteasome Pathway Activation, and Myonuclear Apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Abrigo, Johanna; Rivera, Juan Carlos; Aravena, Javier; Cabrera, Daniel; Simon, Felipe; Ezquer, Fernando; Ezquer, Marcelo; Cabello-Verrugio, Claudio

    2016-01-01

    Obesity can lead to skeletal muscle atrophy, a pathological condition characterized by the loss of strength and muscle mass. A feature of muscle atrophy is a decrease of myofibrillar proteins as a result of ubiquitin proteasome pathway overactivation, as evidenced by increased expression of the muscle-specific ubiquitin ligases atrogin-1 and MuRF-1. Additionally, other mechanisms are related to muscle wasting, including oxidative stress, myonuclear apoptosis, and autophagy. Stem cells are an emerging therapy in the treatment of chronic diseases such as high fat diet-induced obesity. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are a population of self-renewable and undifferentiated cells present in the bone marrow and other mesenchymal tissues of adult individuals. The present study is the first to analyze the effects of systemic MSC administration on high fat diet-induced skeletal muscle atrophy in the tibialis anterior of mice. Treatment with MSCs reduced losses of muscle strength and mass, decreases of fiber diameter and myosin heavy chain protein levels, and fiber type transitions. Underlying these antiatrophic effects, MSC administration also decreased ubiquitin proteasome pathway activation, oxidative stress, and myonuclear apoptosis. These results are the first to indicate that systemically administered MSCs could prevent muscle wasting associated with high fat diet-induced obesity and diabetes.

  6. High Fat Diet-Induced Skeletal Muscle Wasting Is Decreased by Mesenchymal Stem Cells Administration: Implications on Oxidative Stress, Ubiquitin Proteasome Pathway Activation, and Myonuclear Apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Aravena, Javier; Cabrera, Daniel; Simon, Felipe; Ezquer, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    Obesity can lead to skeletal muscle atrophy, a pathological condition characterized by the loss of strength and muscle mass. A feature of muscle atrophy is a decrease of myofibrillar proteins as a result of ubiquitin proteasome pathway overactivation, as evidenced by increased expression of the muscle-specific ubiquitin ligases atrogin-1 and MuRF-1. Additionally, other mechanisms are related to muscle wasting, including oxidative stress, myonuclear apoptosis, and autophagy. Stem cells are an emerging therapy in the treatment of chronic diseases such as high fat diet-induced obesity. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are a population of self-renewable and undifferentiated cells present in the bone marrow and other mesenchymal tissues of adult individuals. The present study is the first to analyze the effects of systemic MSC administration on high fat diet-induced skeletal muscle atrophy in the tibialis anterior of mice. Treatment with MSCs reduced losses of muscle strength and mass, decreases of fiber diameter and myosin heavy chain protein levels, and fiber type transitions. Underlying these antiatrophic effects, MSC administration also decreased ubiquitin proteasome pathway activation, oxidative stress, and myonuclear apoptosis. These results are the first to indicate that systemically administered MSCs could prevent muscle wasting associated with high fat diet-induced obesity and diabetes. PMID:27579157

  7. Progressive skeletal muscle weakness in transgenic mice expressing CTG expansions is associated with the activation of the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway.

    PubMed

    Vignaud, Alban; Ferry, Arnaud; Huguet, Aline; Baraibar, Martin; Trollet, Capucine; Hyzewicz, Janek; Butler-Browne, Gillian; Puymirat, Jack; Gourdon, Genevieve; Furling, Denis

    2010-05-01

    Myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1) is a neuromuscular disease caused by the expansion of a CTG repeat in the DMPK gene and characterised by progressive skeletal muscle weakness and wasting. To investigate the effects of the CTG expansion on the physiological function of the skeletal muscles, we have used a transgenic mouse model carrying the human DM1 region with 550 expanded CTG repeats. Maximal force is reduced in the skeletal muscles of 10-month-old but not in 3-month-old DM1 mice when compared to age-matched non-transgenic littermates. The progressive weakness observed in the DM1 mice is directly related to the reduced muscle mass and muscle fibre size. A significant increase in trypsin-like proteasome activity and Fbxo32 expression is also measured in the DM1 muscles indicating that an atrophic process mediated by the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway may contribute to the progressive muscle wasting and weakness in the DM1 mice.

  8. Arabidopsis ABA-Activated Kinase MAPKKK18 is Regulated by Protein Phosphatase 2C ABI1 and the Ubiquitin-Proteasome Pathway.

    PubMed

    Mitula, Filip; Tajdel, Malgorzata; Cieśla, Agata; Kasprowicz-Maluśki, Anna; Kulik, Anna; Babula-Skowrońska, Danuta; Michalak, Michal; Dobrowolska, Grazyna; Sadowski, Jan; Ludwików, Agnieszka

    2015-12-01

    Phosphorylation and dephosphorylation events play an important role in the transmission of the ABA signal. Although SnRK2 [sucrose non-fermenting1-related kinase2] protein kinases and group A protein phosphatase type 2C (PP2C)-type phosphatases constitute the core ABA pathway, mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways are also involved in plant response to ABA. However, little is known about the interplay between MAPKs and PP2Cs or SnRK2 in the regulation of ABA pathways. In this study, an effort was made to elucidate the role of MAP kinase kinase kinase18 (MKKK18) in relation to ABA signaling and response. The MKKK18 knockout lines showed more vigorous root growth, decreased abaxial stomatal index and increased stomatal aperture under normal growth conditions, compared with the control wild-type Columbia line. In addition to transcriptional regulation of the MKKK18 promoter by ABA, we demonstrated using in vitro and in vivo kinase assays that the kinase activity of MKKK18 was regulated by ABA. Analysis of the cellular localization of MKKK18 showed that the active kinase was targeted specifically to the nucleus. Notably, we identified abscisic acid insensitive 1 (ABI1) PP2C as a MKKK18-interacting protein, and demonstrated that ABI1 inhibited its activity. Using a cell-free degradation assay, we also established that MKKK18 was unstable and was degraded by the proteasome pathway. The rate of MKKK18 degradation was delayed in the ABI1 knockout line. Overall, we provide evidence that ABI1 regulates the activity and promotes proteasomal degradation of MKKK18.

  9. Arabidopsis ABA-Activated Kinase MAPKKK18 is Regulated by Protein Phosphatase 2C ABI1 and the Ubiquitin–Proteasome Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Mitula, Filip; Tajdel, Malgorzata; Cieśla, Agata; Kasprowicz-Maluśki, Anna; Kulik, Anna; Babula-Skowrońska, Danuta; Michalak, Michal; Dobrowolska, Grazyna; Sadowski, Jan; Ludwików, Agnieszka

    2015-01-01

    Phosphorylation and dephosphorylation events play an important role in the transmission of the ABA signal. Although SnRK2 [sucrose non-fermenting1-related kinase2] protein kinases and group A protein phosphatase type 2C (PP2C)-type phosphatases constitute the core ABA pathway, mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways are also involved in plant response to ABA. However, little is known about the interplay between MAPKs and PP2Cs or SnRK2 in the regulation of ABA pathways. In this study, an effort was made to elucidate the role of MAP kinase kinase kinase18 (MKKK18) in relation to ABA signaling and response. The MKKK18 knockout lines showed more vigorous root growth, decreased abaxial stomatal index and increased stomatal aperture under normal growth conditions, compared with the control wild-type Columbia line. In addition to transcriptional regulation of the MKKK18 promoter by ABA, we demonstrated using in vitro and in vivo kinase assays that the kinase activity of MKKK18 was regulated by ABA. Analysis of the cellular localization of MKKK18 showed that the active kinase was targeted specifically to the nucleus. Notably, we identified abscisic acid insensitive 1 (ABI1) PP2C as a MKKK18-interacting protein, and demonstrated that ABI1 inhibited its activity. Using a cell-free degradation assay, we also established that MKKK18 was unstable and was degraded by the proteasome pathway. The rate of MKKK18 degradation was delayed in the ABI1 knockout line. Overall, we provide evidence that ABI1 regulates the activity and promotes proteasomal degradation of MKKK18. PMID:26443375

  10. Catabolism of endogenous and overexpressed APH1a and PEN2: evidence for artifactual involvement of the proteasome in the degradation of overexpressed proteins

    PubMed Central

    Dunys, Julie; Kawarai, Toshitaka; Wilk, Sherwin; St. George-Hyslop, Peter; Alves Da Costa, Cristine; Checler, Frédéric

    2005-01-01

    PS (presenilin)-dependent γ-secretase occurs as a high-molecular-mass complex composed of either PS1 or PS2 associated with Nct (nicastrin), PEN2 (presenilin enhancer 2 homologue) and APH1 (anterior pharynx defective 1 homologue). Numerous reports have documented the very complicated physical and functional cross-talk between these proteins that ultimately governs the biological activity of the γ-secretase, but very few studies examined the fate of the components of the complex. We show that, in both HEK-293 cells and the TSM1 neuronal cell line, the immunoreactivities of overexpressed myc-tagged-APH1a and -PEN2 were enhanced by the proteasome inhibitors ZIE and lactacystin, whereas a broad range of protease inhibitors had no effect. By contrast, proteasome inhibitors were totally unable to affect the cellular expression of endogenous APH1aL and PEN2 in HEK-293 cells, TSM1 and primary cultured cortical neurons. To explain this apparent discrepancy, we examined the degradation of myc-tagged-APH1a and -PEN2, in vitro, by cell extracts containing endogenous proteasome and by purified 20S proteasome. Strikingly, myc-tagged-APH1a and -PEN2 resist proteolysis by endogenous proteasome and purified 20S proteasome. We also show that endogenous PEN2 expression was drastically higher in wild-type than in PS- and Nct-deficient fibroblasts and was enhanced by proteasome inhibitors only in the two deficient cell systems. However, here again, purified 20S proteasome appeared unable to cleave endogenous PEN2 present in PS-deficient fibroblasts. The levels of endogenous APH1aL-like immunoreactivity were not modified by proteasome inhibitors and were unaffected by PS deficiency. Altogether, our results indicate that endogenous PEN2 and APH1aL do not undergo proteasomal degradation under physiological conditions in HEK-293 cells, TSM1 cells and fibroblasts and that the clearance of PEN2 in PS- and Nct-deficient fibroblasts is not mediated by 20S proteasome. Whether the 26S

  11. Deleterious effects of reactive aldehydes and glycated proteins on macrophage proteasomal function: possible links between diabetes and atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Moheimani, Fatemeh; Morgan, Philip E; van Reyk, David M; Davies, Michael J

    2010-06-01

    People with diabetes experience chronic hyperglycemia and are at a high risk of developing atherosclerosis and microvascular disease. Reactions of glucose, or aldehydes derived from glucose (e.g. methylglyoxal, glyoxal, or glycolaldehyde), with proteins result in glycation that ultimately yield advanced glycation end products (AGE). AGE are present at elevated levels in plasma and atherosclerotic lesions from people with diabetes, and previous in vitro studies have postulated that the presence of these materials is deleterious to cell function. This accumulation of AGE and glycated proteins within cells may arise from either increased formation and/or ineffective removal by cellular proteolytic systems, such as the proteasomes, the major multi-enzyme complex that removes proteins within cells. In this study it is shown that whilst high glucose concentrations fail to modify proteasome enzyme activities in J774A.1 macrophage-like cell extracts, reactive aldehydes enhanced proteasomal enzyme activities. In contrast BSA, pre-treated with high glucose for 8 weeks, inhibited both the chymotrypsin-like and caspase-like activities. BSA glycated using methylglyoxal or glycolaldehyde, also inhibited proteasomal activity though to differing extents. This suppression of proteasome activity by glycated proteins may result in further intracellular accumulation of glycated proteins with subsequent deleterious effects on cellular function.

  12. Ubiquitin-proteasome system and hereditary cardiomyopathies.

    PubMed

    Schlossarek, Saskia; Frey, Norbert; Carrier, Lucie

    2014-06-01

    Adequate protein turnover is essential for cardiac homeostasis. Different protein quality controls are involved in the maintenance of protein homeostasis, including molecular chaperones and co-chaperones, the autophagy-lysosomal pathway, and the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS). In the last decade, a series of evidence has underlined a major function of the UPS in cardiac physiology and disease. Particularly, recent studies have shown that dysfunctional proteasomal function leads to cardiac disorders. Hypertrophic and dilated cardiomyopathies are the two most prevalent inherited cardiomyopathies. Both are primarily transmitted as an autosomal-dominant trait and mainly caused by mutations in genes encoding components of the cardiac sarcomere, including a relevant striated muscle-specific E3 ubiquitin ligase. A growing body of evidence indicates impairment of the UPS in inherited cardiomyopathies as determined by measurement of the level of ubiquitinated proteins, the activities of the proteasome and/or the use of fluorescent UPS reporter substrates. The present review will propose mechanisms of UPS impairment in inherited cardiomyopathies, summarize the potential consequences of UPS impairment, including activation of the unfolded protein response, and underline some therapeutic options available to restore proteasome function and therefore cardiac homeostasis and function. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled "Protein Quality Control, the Ubiquitin Proteasome System, and Autophagy".

  13. Evolution of Proteasome Regulators in Eukaryotes

    PubMed Central

    Fort, Philippe; Kajava, Andrey V.; Delsuc, Fredéric; Coux, Olivier

    2015-01-01

    All living organisms require protein degradation to terminate biological processes and remove damaged proteins. One such machine is the 20S proteasome, a specialized barrel-shaped and compartmentalized multicatalytic protease. The activity of the 20S proteasome generally requires the binding of regulators/proteasome activators (PAs), which control the entrance of substrates. These include the PA700 (19S complex), which assembles with the 20S and forms the 26S proteasome and allows the efficient degradation of proteins usually labeled by ubiquitin tags, PA200 and PA28, which are involved in proteolysis through ubiquitin-independent mechanisms and PI31, which was initially identified as a 20S inhibitor in vitro. Unlike 20S proteasome, shown to be present in all Eukaryotes and Archaea, the evolutionary history of PAs remained fragmentary. Here, we made a comprehensive survey and phylogenetic analyses of the four types of regulators in 17 clades covering most of the eukaryotic supergroups. We found remarkable conservation of each PA700 subunit in all eukaryotes, indicating that the current complex PA700 structure was already set up in the last eukaryotic common ancestor (LECA). Also present in LECA, PA200, PA28, and PI31 showed a more contrasted evolutionary picture, because many lineages have subsequently lost one or two of them. The paramount conservation of PA700 composition in all eukaryotes and the dynamic evolution of PA200, PA28, and PI31 are discussed in the light of current knowledge on their physiological roles. PMID:25943340

  14. Evolution of proteasome regulators in eukaryotes.

    PubMed

    Fort, Philippe; Kajava, Andrey V; Delsuc, Fredéric; Coux, Olivier

    2015-05-04

    All living organisms require protein degradation to terminate biological processes and remove damaged proteins. One such machine is the 20S proteasome, a specialized barrel-shaped and compartmentalized multicatalytic protease. The activity of the 20S proteasome generally requires the binding of regulators/proteasome activators (PAs), which control the entrance of substrates. These include the PA700 (19S complex), which assembles with the 20S and forms the 26S proteasome and allows the efficient degradation of proteins usually labeled by ubiquitin tags, PA200 and PA28, which are involved in proteolysis through ubiquitin-independent mechanisms and PI31, which was initially identified as a 20S inhibitor in vitro. Unlike 20S proteasome, shown to be present in all Eukaryotes and Archaea, the evolutionary history of PAs remained fragmentary. Here, we made a comprehensive survey and phylogenetic analyses of the four types of regulators in 17 clades covering most of the eukaryotic supergroups. We found remarkable conservation of each PA700 subunit in all eukaryotes, indicating that the current complex PA700 structure was already set up in the last eukaryotic common ancestor (LECA). Also present in LECA, PA200, PA28, and PI31 showed a more contrasted evolutionary picture, because many lineages have subsequently lost one or two of them. The paramount conservation of PA700 composition in all eukaryotes and the dynamic evolution of PA200, PA28, and PI31 are discussed in the light of current knowledge on their physiological roles.

  15. Fast axonal transport of the proteasome complex depends on membrane interaction and molecular motor function.

    PubMed

    Otero, Maria G; Alloatti, Matías; Cromberg, Lucas E; Almenar-Queralt, Angels; Encalada, Sandra E; Pozo Devoto, Victorio M; Bruno, Luciana; Goldstein, Lawrence S B; Falzone, Tomás L

    2014-04-01

    Protein degradation by the ubiquitin-proteasome system in neurons depends on the correct delivery of the proteasome complex. In neurodegenerative diseases, aggregation and accumulation of proteins in axons link transport defects with degradation impairments; however, the transport properties of proteasomes remain unknown. Here, using in vivo experiments, we reveal the fast anterograde transport of assembled and functional 26S proteasome complexes. A high-resolution tracking system to follow fluorescent proteasomes revealed three types of motion: actively driven proteasome axonal transport, diffusive behavior in a viscoelastic axonema and proteasome-confined motion. We show that active proteasome transport depends on motor function because knockdown of the KIF5B motor subunit resulted in impairment of the anterograde proteasome flux and the density of segmental velocities. Finally, we reveal that neuronal proteasomes interact with intracellular membranes and identify the coordinated transport of fluorescent proteasomes with synaptic precursor vesicles, Golgi-derived vesicles, lysosomes and mitochondria. Taken together, our results reveal fast axonal transport as a new mechanism of proteasome delivery that depends on membrane cargo 'hitch-hiking' and the function of molecular motors. We further hypothesize that defects in proteasome transport could promote abnormal protein clearance in neurodegenerative diseases.

  16. Processing and MHC class II presentation of exogenous soluble antigen involving a proteasome-dependent cytosolic pathway in CD40-activated B cells.

    PubMed

    Becker, Hans Jiro; Kondo, Eisei; Shimabukuro-Vornhagen, Alexander; Theurich, Sebastian; von Bergwelt-Baildon, Michael S

    2016-08-01

    Activated B cells have the capacity to present antigen and induce immune responses as potent antigen-presenting cells (APCs). As in other APCs, antigen presentation by B cells involves antigen internalization, antigen processing, and peptide loading onto MHC molecules. However, while the mechanism of antigen processing has been studied extensively in other APCs, this pathway remains elusive in B cells. The aim of this study was to investigate the MHC class II processing pathway in CD40-activated B cells (CD40Bs), as a model for activated, antigen-presenting B cells. Using CMV pp65 as a model antigen, we evaluated processing and presentation of the CD4 + T-cell epitope 509-523 (K509) by human CD40Bs in ELISPOT assays. As expected, stimulation of specific CD4 + T-cell clones was attenuated after pretreatment of CD40Bs with inhibitors of classic class II pathway components. However, proteasome inhibitors such as epoxomicin limited antigen presentation as well. This suggests that the antigen is processed in a non-classical, cytosolic MHC class II pathway. Further experiments with truncated protein variants revealed involvement of the proteasome in processing of the N and C extensions of the epitope. Access to the cytosol was shown to be size dependent. Epoxomicin sensitivity exclusively in CD40B cells, but not in dendritic cells, suggests a novel processing mechanism unique to this APC. Our data suggest that B cells process antigen using a distinct, non-classical class II pathway.

  17. Aging perturbs 26S proteasome assembly in Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Vernace, Vita A.; Arnaud, Lisette; Schmidt-Glenewinkel, Thomas; Figueiredo-Pereira, Maria E.

    2012-01-01

    Aging is associated with loss of quality control in protein turnover. The ubiquitin-proteasome pathway is critical to this quality control process as it degrades mutated and damaged proteins. We identified a unique aging-dependent mechanism that contributes to proteasome dysfunction in Drosophila melanogaster. Our studies are the first to show that the major proteasome form in old (43–47 days old) female and male flies is the weakly active 20S core particle, while in younger (1–32 days old) flies highly active 26S proteasomes are preponderant. Old (43–47 days) flies of both genders also exhibit a decline (~50%) in ATP levels, which is relevant to 26S proteasomes, as their assembly is ATP-dependent. The steep declines in 26S proteasome and ATP levels were observed at an age (43–47 days) when the flies exhibited a marked drop in locomotor performance, attesting that these are “old age” events. Remarkably, treatment with a proteasome inhibitor increases ubiquitinated protein levels and shortens the life span of old but not young flies. In conclusion, our data reveal a previously unknown mechanism that perturbs proteasome activity in “old-age” female and male Drosophila most likely depriving them of the ability to effectively cope with proteotoxic damages caused by environmental and/or genetic factors. PMID:17413001

  18. Modulation of BAG3 Expression and Proteasomal Activity by sAPPα Does Not Require Membrane-Tethered Holo-APP.

    PubMed

    Kundu, Arpita; Milosch, Nelli; Antonietti, Patrick; Baumkötter, Frederik; Zymny, Andreas; Müller, Ulrike C; Kins, Stefan; Hajieva, Parvana; Behl, Christian; Kögel, Donat

    2016-11-01

    Maintenance of intracellular proteostasis is essential for neuronal function, and emerging data support the view that disturbed proteostasis plays an important role in brain aging and the pathogenesis of age-related neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease (AD). sAPPalpha (sAPPα), the extracellularly secreted N-terminal alpha secretase cleavage product of the amyloid precursor protein (APP), has an established function in neuroprotection. Recently, we provided evidence that membrane-bound holo-APP functionally cooperates with sAPPα to mediate neuroprotection via activation of the Akt survival signaling pathway and sAPPα directly affects proteostasis. Here, we demonstrate that in addition to its anti-apoptotic function, sAPPα has effects on neuronal proteostasis under conditions of proteasomal stress. In particular, recombinant sAPPα significantly suppressed MG132-triggered expression of the co-chaperone BAG3 and aggresome formation, and it partially rescued proteasomal activity in a dose-dependent manner in SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells. In analogy, sAPPα was able to inhibit MG132-induced BAG3 expression in primary hippocampal neurons. Strikingly, these sAPPα-induced changes were unaltered in APP-depleted SH-SY5Y cells and APP-deficient neurons, demonstrating that holo-APP is not required for this particular function of sAPPα. Importantly, recombinant sAPPbeta (sAPPβ) failed to modulate BAG3 expression and proteostasis in APP-proficient wild-type (wt) cells, indicating that these biological effects are highly selective for sAPPα. In conclusion, we demonstrate that modulation of proteostasis is a distinct biological function of sAPPα and does not require surface-bound holo-APP. Our data shed new light on the physiological functions of APP and the interplay between APP processing and proteostasis during brain aging.

  19. TGF-β activates APC through Cdh1 binding for Cks1 and Skp2 proteasomal destruction stabilizing p27kip1 for normal endometrial growth.

    PubMed

    Pavlides, Savvas C; Lecanda, Jon; Daubriac, Julien; Pandya, Unnati M; Gama, Patricia; Blank, Stephanie; Mittal, Khushbakhat; Shukla, Pratibha; Gold, Leslie I

    2016-01-01

    We previously reported that aberrant TGF-β/Smad2/3 signaling in endometrial cancer (ECA) leads to continuous ubiquitylation of p27(kip1)(p27) by the E3 ligase SCF-Skp2/Cks1 causing its degradation, as a putative mechanism involved in the pathogenesis of this cancer. In contrast, normal intact TGF-β signaling prevents degradation of nuclear p27 by SCF-Skp2/Cks1 thereby accumulating p27 to block Cdk2 for growth arrest. Here we show that in ECA cell lines and normal primary endometrial epithelial cells, TGF-β increases Cdh1 and its binding to APC/C to form the E3 ligase complex that ubiquitylates Cks1 and Skp2 prompting their proteasomal degradation and thus, leaving p27 intact. Knocking-down Cdh1 in ECA cell lines increased Skp2/Cks1 E3 ligase activity, completely diminished nuclear and cytoplasmic p27, and obviated TGF-β-mediated inhibition of proliferation. Protein synthesis was not required for TGF-β-induced increase in nuclear p27 and decrease in Cks1 and Skp2. Moreover, half-lives of Cks1 and Skp2 were extended in the Cdh1-depleted cells. These results suggest that the levels of p27, Skp2 and Cks1 are strongly or solely regulated by proteasomal degradation. Finally, an inverse relationship of low p27 and high Cks1 in the nucleus was shown in patients in normal proliferative endometrium and grade I-III ECAs whereas differentiated secretory endometrium showed the reverse. These studies implicate Cdh1 as the master regulator of TGF-β-induced preservation of p27 tumor suppressor activity. Thus, Cdh1 is a potential therapeutic target for ECA and other human cancers showing an inverse relationship between Cks1/Skp2 and p27 and/or dysregulated TGF-β signaling.

  20. GSK-3β signaling determines autophagy activation in the breast tumor cell line MCF7 and inclusion formation in the non-tumor cell line MCF10A in response to proteasome inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Gavilán, E; Sánchez-Aguayo, I; Daza, P; Ruano, D

    2013-01-01

    The ubiquitin–proteasome system and the autophagy–lysosome pathway are the two main mechanisms for eukaryotic intracellular protein degradation. Proteasome inhibitors are used for the treatment of some types of cancer, whereas autophagy seems to have a dual role in tumor cell survival and death. However, the relationship between both pathways has not been extensively studied in tumor cells. We have investigated both proteolytic systems in the human epithelial breast non-tumor cell line MCF10A and in the human epithelial breast tumor cell line MCF7. In basal condition, tumor cells showed a lower proteasome function but a higher autophagy activity when compared with MCF10A cells. Importantly, proteasome inhibition (PI) leads to different responses in both cell types. Tumor cells showed a dose-dependent glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3)β inhibition, a huge increase in the expression of the transcription factor CHOP and an active processing of caspase-8. By contrast, MCF10A cells fully activated GSK-3β and showed a lower expression of both CHOP and processed caspase-8. These molecular differences were reflected in a dose-dependent autophagy activation and cell death in tumor cells, while non-tumor cells exhibited the formation of inclusion bodies and a decrease in the cell death rate. Importantly, the behavior of the MCF7 cells can be reproduced in MCF10A cells when GSK-3β and the proteasome were simultaneously inhibited. Under this situation, MCF10A cells strongly activated autophagy, showing minimal inclusion bodies, increased CHOP expression and cell death rate. These findings support GSK-3β signaling as a key mechanism in regulating autophagy activation or inclusion formation in human tumor or non-tumor breast cells, respectively, which may shed new light on breast cancer control. PMID:23559006

  1. Apoptotic effect of ethyl-4-isothiocyanatobutanoate is associated with DNA damage, proteasomal activity and induction of p53 and p21cip1/waf1.

    PubMed

    Bodo, Juraj; Jakubikova, Jana; Chalupa, Ivan; Bartosova, Zdena; Horakova, Katarina; Floch, Lubomir; Sedlak, Jan

    2006-08-01

    The effect of synthetic isothiocyanate ethyl-4-isothiocyanatobutanoate (E-4IB) on survival of mismatch repair-proficient TK6 and -deficient MT1 cell lines as well as the influence of proteasomal inhibitor MG132, caspase inhibitor Z-VAD-fmk, and ATM inhibitor caffeine on E-4IB modulation of cell cycle and apoptosis was evaluated. Flow cytometric analyses of DNA double strand breaks (gamma-H2AX), mitotic fraction (phospho-histone H3), cell cycle modulation, apoptosis induction (sub-G(0) fraction and fluorescein diacetate staining), and dissipation of transmembrane mitochondrial potential (JC-1 staining) were performed. Western blotting was used for the evaluation of ERK activation, expression of p53, p21(cip1/waf1) and GADD45alpha proteins, as well as PARP fragmentation. Analysis of mitotic nuclei was performed for chromosomal aberrations assessment. MT1 cells were more resistant to E-4IB treatment then TK6 cells (IC(50) 8 muM vs. 4 muM). In both cell lines E-4IB treatment induced phosphorylation of H2AX, increase of p53 protein level, phospho-histone H3 staining, and G(2)/M arrest. The sub-G(0) fragmentation was accompanied by PARP degradation, decreased mitochondrial transmembrane potential, and diminished p21(cip1/waf1) protein expression in TK6 cells. Caspase inhibitor Z-VAD-fmk decreased E-4IB induced sub-G(0) fragmentation and extent of apoptosis in TK6 cells, while proteasome inhibitor MG132 increased number of apoptotic cells in both cell lines tested. A number of aberrant metaphases and clastogenic effect of high E-4IB concentration was observed. The synthetic isothiocyanate E-4IB induced DNA strand breaks, increased mitotic fraction and apoptosis potentiated by MG132 inhibitor in both mismatch repair-proficient and -deficient cell lines.

  2. Potential role of 20S proteasome in maintaining stem cell integrity of human bone marrow stromal cells in prolonged culture expansion

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Li; Song, Hui-Fang; Zhang, Wei-Guo; Liu, Xue-Qin; Zhu, Qian; Cheng, Xiao-Long; Yang, Gui-Jiao; Li, Ang; Xiao, Zhi-Cheng

    2012-05-25

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Prolonged culture expansion retards proliferation and induces senescence of hBMSCs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Reduced 20S proteasomal activity and expression potentially contribute to cell aging. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer MG132-mediated 20S proteasomal inhibition induces senescence-like phenotype. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer 18{alpha}-GA stimulates proteasomal activity and restores replicative senescence. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer 18{alpha}-GA retains differentiation without affecting stem cell characterizations. -- Abstract: Human bone marrow stromal cells (hBMSCs) could be used in clinics as precursors of multiple cell lineages following proper induction. Such application is impeded by their characteristically short lifespan, together with the increasing loss of proliferation capability and progressive reduction of differentiation potential after the prolonged culture expansion. In the current study, we addressed the possible role of 20S proteasomes in this process. Consistent with prior reports, long-term in vitro expansion of hBMSCs decreased cell proliferation and increased replicative senescence, accompanied by reduced activity and expression of the catalytic subunits PSMB5 and PSMB1, and the 20S proteasome overall. Application of the proteasome inhibitor MG132 produced a senescence-like phenotype in early passages, whereas treating late-passage cells with 18{alpha}-glycyrrhetinic acid (18{alpha}-GA), an agonist of 20S proteasomes, delayed the senescence progress, enhancing the proliferation and recovering the capability of differentiation. The data demonstrate that activation of 20S proteasomes assists in counteracting replicative senescence of hBMSCs expanded in vitro.

  3. Trial Watch: Proteasomal inhibitors for anticancer therapy

    PubMed Central

    Obrist, Florine; Manic, Gwenola; Kroemer, Guido; Vitale, Ilio; Galluzzi, Lorenzo

    2015-01-01

    The so-called “ubiquitin-proteasome system” (UPS) is a multicomponent molecular apparatus that catalyzes the covalent attachment of several copies of the small protein ubiquitin to other proteins that are generally (but not always) destined to proteasomal degradation. This enzymatic cascade is crucial for the maintenance of intracellular protein homeostasis (both in physiological conditions and in the course of adaptive stress responses), and regulates a wide array of signaling pathways. In line with this notion, defects in the UPS have been associated with aging as well as with several pathological conditions including cardiac, neurodegenerative, and neoplastic disorders. As transformed cells often experience a constant state of stress (as a result of the hyperactivation of oncogenic signaling pathways and/or adverse microenvironmental conditions), their survival and proliferation are highly dependent on the integrity of the UPS. This rationale has driven an intense wave of preclinical and clinical investigation culminating in 2003 with the approval of the proteasomal inhibitor bortezomib by the US Food and Drug Administration for use in multiple myeloma patients. Another proteasomal inhibitor, carfilzomib, is now licensed by international regulatory agencies for use in multiple myeloma patients, and the approved indications for bortezomib have been extended to mantle cell lymphoma. This said, the clinical activity of bortezomib and carfilzomib is often limited by off-target effects, innate/acquired resistance, and the absence of validated predictive biomarkers. Moreover, the antineoplastic activity of proteasome inhibitors against solid tumors is poor. In this Trial Watch we discuss the contribution of the UPS to oncogenesis and tumor progression and summarize the design and/or results of recent clinical studies evaluating the therapeutic profile of proteasome inhibitors in cancer patients. PMID:27308423

  4. Endothelial monocyte activating polypeptide-II modulates endothelial cell responses by degrading hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha through interaction with PSMA7, a component of the proteasome

    SciTech Connect

    Tandle, Anita T.; Calvani, Maura; Uranchimeg, Badarch; Zahavi, David; Melillo, Giovanni; Libutti, Steven K.

    2009-07-01

    The majority of human tumors are angiogenesis dependent. Understanding the specific mechanisms that contribute to angiogenesis may offer the best approach to develop therapies to inhibit angiogenesis in cancer. Endothelial monocyte activating polypeptide-II (EMAP-II) is an anti-angiogenic cytokine with potent effects on endothelial cells (ECs). It inhibits EC proliferation and cord formation, and it suppresses primary and metastatic tumor growth in-vivo. However, very little is known about the molecular mechanisms behind the anti-angiogenic activity of EMAP-II. In the present study, we explored the molecular mechanism behind the anti-angiogenic activity exerted by this protein on ECs. Our results demonstrate that EMAP-II binds to the cell surface {alpha}5{beta}1 integrin receptor. The cell surface binding of EMAP-II results in its internalization into the cytoplasmic compartment where it interacts with its cytoplasmic partner PSMA7, a component of the proteasome degradation pathway. This interaction increases hypoxia-inducible factor 1-alpha (HIF-1{alpha}) degradation under hypoxic conditions. The degradation results in the inhibition of HIF-1{alpha} mediated transcriptional activity as well as HIF-1{alpha} mediated angiogenic sprouting of ECs. HIF-1{alpha} plays a critical role in angiogenesis by activating a variety of angiogenic growth factors. Our results suggest that one of the major anti-angiogenic functions of EMAP-II is exerted through its inhibition of the HIF-1{alpha} activities.

  5. Crystal structure of archaeal homolog of proteasome-assembly chaperone PbaA.

    PubMed

    Sikdar, Arunima; Satoh, Tadashi; Kawasaki, Masato; Kato, Koichi

    2014-10-24

    Formation of the eukaryotic proteasome is not a spontaneous process but a highly ordered process assisted by several assembly chaperones. In contrast, archaeal proteasome subunits can spontaneously assemble into an active form. Recent bioinformatic analysis identified the proteasome-assembly chaperone-like proteins, PbaA and PbaB, in archaea. Our previous study showed that the PbaB homotetramer functions as a proteasome activator through its tentacle-like C-terminal segments. However, a functional role of the other homolog PbaA has remained elusive. Here we determined the 2.25-Å resolution structure of PbaA, illustrating its disparate tertiary and quaternary structures compared with PbaB. PbaA forms a homopentamer in which the C-terminal segments, with a putative proteasome-activating motif, are packed against the core. These findings offer deeper insights into the molecular evolution relationships between the proteasome-assembly chaperones and the proteasome activators.

  6. GluN2B-Containing NMDA Receptors Regulate AMPA Receptor Traffic through Anchoring of the Synaptic Proteasome.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Joana S; Schmidt, Jeannette; Rio, Pedro; Águas, Rodolfo; Rooyakkers, Amanda; Li, Ka Wan; Smit, August B; Craig, Ann Marie; Carvalho, Ana Luisa

    2015-06-03

    NMDA receptors play a central role in shaping the strength of synaptic connections throughout development and in mediating synaptic plasticity mechanisms that underlie some forms of learning and memory formation in the CNS. In the hippocampus and the neocortex, GluN1 is combined primarily with GluN2A and GluN2B, which are differentially expressed during development and confer distinct molecular and physiological properties to NMDA receptors. The contribution of each subunit to the synaptic traffic of NMDA receptors and therefore to their role during development and in synaptic plasticity is still controversial. We report a critical role for the GluN2B subunit in regulating NMDA receptor synaptic targeting. In the absence of GluN2B, the synaptic levels of AMPA receptors are increased and accompanied by decreased constitutive endocytosis of GluA1-AMPA receptor. We used quantitative proteomic analysis to identify changes in the composition of postsynaptic densities from GluN2B(-/-) mouse primary neuronal cultures and found altered levels of several ubiquitin proteasome system components, in particular decreased levels of proteasome subunits. Enhancing the proteasome activity with a novel proteasome activator restored the synaptic levels of AMPA receptors in GluN2B(-/-) neurons and their endocytosis, revealing that GluN2B-mediated anchoring of the synaptic proteasome is responsible for fine tuning AMPA receptor synaptic levels under basal conditions.

  7. Proteasomes generate spliced epitopes by two different mechanisms and as efficiently as non-spliced epitopes

    PubMed Central

    Ebstein, F.; Textoris-Taube, K.; Keller, C.; Golnik, R.; Vigneron, N.; Van den Eynde, B. J.; Schuler-Thurner, B.; Schadendorf, D.; Lorenz, F. K. M.; Uckert, W.; Urban, S.; Lehmann, A.; Albrecht-Koepke, N.; Janek, K.; Henklein, P.; Niewienda, A.; Kloetzel, P. M.; Mishto, M.

    2016-01-01

    Proteasome-catalyzed peptide splicing represents an additional catalytic activity of proteasomes contributing to the pool of MHC-class I-presented epitopes. We here biochemically and functionally characterized a new melanoma gp100 derived spliced epitope. We demonstrate that the gp100mel47–52/40–42 antigenic peptide is generated in vitro and in cellulo by a not yet described proteasomal condensation reaction. gp100mel47–52/40–42 generation is enhanced in the presence of the β5i/LMP7 proteasome-subunit and elicits a peptide-specific CD8+ T cell response. Importantly, we demonstrate that different gp100mel-derived spliced epitopes are generated and presented to CD8+ T cells with efficacies comparable to non-spliced canonical tumor epitopes and that gp100mel-derived spliced epitopes trigger activation of CD8+ T cells found in peripheral blood of half of the melanoma patients tested. Our data suggest that both transpeptidation and condensation reactions contribute to the frequent generation of spliced epitopes also in vivo and that their immune relevance may be comparable to non-spliced epitopes. PMID:27049119

  8. The 26S proteasome is a multifaceted target for anti-cancer therapies.

    PubMed

    Grigoreva, Tatyana A; Tribulovich, Vyacheslav G; Garabadzhiu, Alexander V; Melino, Gerry; Barlev, Nickolai A

    2015-09-22

    Proteasomes play a critical role in the fate of proteins that are involved in major cellular processes, including signal transduction, gene expression, cell cycle, replication, differentiation, immune response, cellular response to stress, etc. In contrast to non-specific degradation by lysosomes, proteasomes are highly selective and destroy only the proteins that are covalently labelled with small proteins, called ubiquitins. Importantly, many diseases, including neurodegenerative diseases and cancers, are intimately connected to the activity of proteasomes making them an important pharmacological target. Currently, the vast majority of inhibitors are aimed at blunting the proteolytic activities of proteasomes. However, recent achievements in solving structures of proteasomes at very high resolution provided opportunities to design new classes of small molecules that target other physiologically-important enzymatic activities of proteasomes, including the de-ubiquitinating one. This review attempts to catalog the information available to date about novel classes of proteasome inhibitors that may have important pharmacological ramifications.

  9. Pituitary adenylyl cyclase-activating polypeptide and nerve growth factor use the proteasome to rescue nerve growth factor-deprived sympathetic neurons cultured from chick embryos.

    PubMed

    Przywara, D A; Kulkarni, J S; Wakade, T D; Leontiev, D V; Wakade, A R

    1998-11-01

    Removal of nerve growth factor (NGF) from sympathetic neurons initiates a neuronal death program and apoptosis. We show that pituitary adenylyl cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) prevents apoptosis in NGF-deprived sympathetic neurons. PACAP (100 nM) added to culture medium at the time of plating failed to support neuronal survival. However, in neurons grown for 2 days with NGF and then deprived of NGF, PACAP prevented cell death for the next 24-48 h. Uptake of [3H]norepinephrine ([3H]NE) was used as an index of survival and decreased >50% in NGF-deprived cultures within 24 h. PACAP (1-100 nM) restored [3H]NE uptake to 92 +/- 8% of that of NGF-supported controls. Depolarization-induced [3H]NE release in neurons rescued by PACAP was the same as that in NGF-supported neurons. PACAP rescue was not mimicked by forskolin or 8-bromo-cyclic AMP and was not blocked by the protein kinase A inhibitor Rp-adenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphothioate. Mobilization of phosphatidylinositol by muscarine failed to support NGF-deprived neurons. Thus, PACAP may use novel signaling to promote survival of sympathetic neurons. The apoptosis-associated caspase CPP32 activity increased approximately fourfold during 6 h of NGF withdrawal (145 +/- 40 versus 38 +/- 17 nmol of substrate cleaved/min/mg of protein) and returned to even below the control level in NGF-deprived, PACAP-rescued cultures (14 +/- 7 nmol/min/mg of protein). Readdition of NGF or PACAP to NGF-deprived cultures reversed CPP32 activation, and this was blocked by lactacystin, a potent and specific inhibitor of the 20S proteasome, suggesting that NGF and PACAP target CPP32 for destruction by the proteasome. As PACAP is a preganglionic neurotransmitter in autonomic ganglia, we propose a novel function for this transmitter as an apoptotic rescuer of sympathetic neurons when the supply of NGF is compromised.

  10. Molecular and cellular roles of PI31 (PSMF1) protein in regulation of proteasome function.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaohua; Thompson, David; Kumar, Brajesh; DeMartino, George N

    2014-06-20

    We investigated molecular features and cellular roles of PI31 (PSMF1) on regulation of proteasome function. PI31 has a C-terminal HbYX (where Hb is a hydrophobic amino acid, Y is tyrosine, and X is any amino acid) motif characteristic of several proteasome activators. Peptides corresponding to the PI31 C terminus also bind to and activate the 20 S proteasome in an HbYX-dependent manner, but intact PI31protein inhibits in vitro 20 S activity. Binding to and inhibition of the proteasome by PI31 are conferred by the HbYX-containing proline-rich C-terminal domain but do not require HbYX residues. Thus, multiple regions of PI31 bind independently to the proteasome and collectively determine effects on activity. PI31 blocks the ATP-dependent in vitro assembly of 26 S proteasome from 20 S proteasome and PA700 subcomplexes but has no effect on in vitro activity of the intact 26 S proteasome. To determine the physiologic significance of these in vitro effects, we assessed multiple aspects of cellular proteasome content and function after altering PI31 levels. We detected no change in overall cellular proteasome content or function when PI31 levels were either increased by moderate ectopic overexpression or decreased by RNA interference (RNAi). We also failed to identify a role of PI31 ADP-ribosylation as a mechanism for regulation of overall 26 S proteasome content and function, as recently proposed. Thus, despite its in vitro effects on various proteasome activities and its structural relationship to established proteasome regulators, cellular roles and mechanisms of PI31 in regulation of proteasome function remain unclear and require future definition.

  11. Crystal structure of the boronic acid-based proteasome inhibitor bortezomib in complex with the yeast 20S proteasome.

    PubMed

    Groll, Michael; Berkers, Celia R; Ploegh, Hidde L; Ovaa, Huib

    2006-03-01

    The dipeptide boronic acid bortezomib, also termed VELCADE, is a proteasome inhibitor now in use for the treatment of multiple myeloma, and its use for the treatment of other malignancies is being explored. We determined the crystal structure of the yeast 20S proteasome in complex with bortezomib to establish the specificity and binding mode of bortezomib to the proteasome's different catalytically active sites. This structure should enable the rational design of new boronic acid derivatives with improved affinities and specificities for individual active subunits.

  12. Proteasome Regulation of ULBP1 Transcription

    PubMed Central

    Butler, James E.; Moore, Mikel B.; Presnell, Steven R.; Chan, Huei-Wei; Chalupny, N. Jan; Lutz, Charles T.

    2009-01-01

    Killer lymphocytes recognize stress-activated NKG2D ligands on tumors. We examined NKG2D ligand expression in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) cells and other cell lines. HNSCC cells typically expressed MHC class I chain-related gene A (MICA), MICB, UL16-binding protein (ULBP)2, and ULBP3, but they were uniformly negative for cell surface ULBP1 and ULBP4. We then studied how cancer treatments affected NKG2D ligand expression. NKG2D ligand expression was not changed by most cancer-relevant treatments. However, bortezomib and other proteasome inhibitor drugs with distinct mechanisms of action dramatically and specifically up-regulated HNSCC ULBP1 mRNA and cell surface protein. Proteasome inhibition also increased RNA for ULBP1 and other NKG2D ligands in nontransformed human keratinocytes. Proteasome inhibitor drugs increased ULBP1 transcription by acting at a site in the 522-bp ULBP1 promoter. Although the DNA damage response pathways mediated by ATM (ataxia-telangiectasia, mutated) and ATR (ATM and Rad3-related) signaling had been reported to up-regulate NKG2D ligand expression, we found that ULBP1 up-regulation was not inhibited by caffeine and wortmannin, inhibitors of ATM/ATR signaling. ULBP1 expression in HNSCC cells was not increased by several ATM/ATR activating treatments, including bleomycin, cisplatin, aphidicolin, and hydroxyurea. Ionizing radiation caused ATM activation in HNSCC cells, but high-level ULBP1 expression was not induced by gamma radiation or UV radiation. Thus, ATM/ATR signaling was neither necessary nor sufficient for high-level ULBP1 expression in human HNSCC cell lines and could not account for the proteasome effect. The selective induction of ULBP1 expression by proteasome inhibitor drugs, along with variable NKG2D ligand expression by human tumor cells, indicates that NKG2D ligand genes are independently regulated. PMID:19414815

  13. Activation of Both the Calpain and Ubiquitin-Proteasome Systems Contributes to Septic Cardiomyopathy through Dystrophin Loss/Disruption and mTOR Inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Freitas, Ana Caroline Silva; Figueiredo, Maria Jose; Campos, Erica Carolina; Soave, Danilo Figueiredo; Ramos, Simone Gusmao; Tanowitz, Herbert B.

    2016-01-01

    Cardiac dysfunction caused by the impairment of myocardial contractility has been recognized as an important factor contributing to the high mortality in sepsis. Calpain activation in the heart takes place in response to increased intracellular calcium influx resulting in proteolysis of structural and contractile proteins with subsequent myocardial dysfunction. The purpose of the present study was to test the hypothesis that increased levels of calpain in the septic heart leads to disruption of structural and contractile proteins and that administration of calpain inhibitor-1 (N-acetyl-leucinyl-leucinyl-norleucinal (ALLN)) after sepsis induced by cecal ligation and puncture prevents cardiac protein degradation. We also tested the hypothesis that calpain plays a role in the modulation of protein synthesis/degradation through the activation of proteasome-dependent proteolysis and inhibition of the mTOR pathway. Severe sepsis significantly increased heart calpain-1 levels and promoted ubiquitin and Pa28β over-expression with a reduction in the mTOR levels. In addition, sepsis reduced the expression of structural proteins dystrophin and β-dystroglycan as well as the contractile proteins actin and myosin. ALLN administration prevented sepsis-induced increases in calpain and ubiquitin levels in the heart, which resulted in decreased of structural and contractile proteins degradation and basal mTOR expression levels were re-established. Our results support the concept that increased calpain concentrations may be part of an important mechanism of sepsis-induced cardiac muscle proteolysis. PMID:27880847

  14. Residual activity and proteasomal degradation of p.Ser298Pro sulfamidase identified in patients with a mild clinical phenotype of Sanfilippo A syndrome.

    PubMed

    Muschol, Nicole; Pohl, Sandra; Meyer, Ann; Gal, Andreas; Ullrich, Kurt; Braulke, Thomas

    2011-07-01

    Mucopolysaccharidosis type IIIA (MPS IIIA, Sanfilippo syndrome) is a fatal inherited lysosomal storage disease accompanied by progressive neurologic degeneration. The gene underlying MPS IIIA, SGSH, encodes a lysosomal enzyme, N-sulfoglucosamine sulfohydrolase (sulfamidase). Mutational analysis of a large cohort of MPS IIIA patients showed a correlation of the missense mutation p.Ser298Pro and a slowly progressive course of the disease. We report here on the expression of the mutant p.Ser298Pro sulfamidase in BHK cells retaining low residual activity. Pulse-chase experiments showed that rapid degradation is responsible for the low steady state level of the mutant protein. Processing and secretion of p.Ser298Pro sulfamidase suggests that small amounts of the newly synthesized enzyme are transported to lysosomes. Most of the mutant sulfamidase exits the endoplasmic reticulum for proteasomal degradation. The ability to predict the clinical course of MPS IIIA in patients with the p.Ser298Pro mutation, as well as the residual enzymatic activity, and the reduced stability of the mutant sulfamidase suggest that this subgroup of patients is especially well suited to early sulfamidase replacement therapy or treatment with selective pharmacological chaperones.

  15. A novel Bruton's tyrosine kinase inhibitor CC-292 in combination with the proteasome inhibitor carfilzomib impacts the bone microenvironment in a multiple myeloma model with resultant antimyeloma activity.

    PubMed

    Eda, H; Santo, L; Cirstea, D D; Yee, A J; Scullen, T A; Nemani, N; Mishima, Y; Waterman, P R; Arastu-Kapur, S; Evans, E; Singh, J; Kirk, C J; Westlin, W F; Raje, N S

    2014-09-01

    Bruton's tyrosine kinase (Btk) modulates B-cell development and activation and has an important role in antibody production. Interestingly, Btk may also affect human osteoclast (OC) function; however, the mechanism was unknown. Here we studied a potent and specific Btk inhibitor, CC-292, in multiple myeloma (MM). In this report, we demonstrate that, although CC-292 increased OC differentiation, it inhibited OC function via inhibition of c-Src, Pyk2 and cortactin, all involved in OC-sealing zone formation. As CC-292 did not show potent in vitro anti-MM activity, we next evaluated it in combination with the proteasome inhibitor, carfilzomib. We first studied the effect of carfilzomib on OC. Carfilzomib did not have an impact on OC-sealing zone formation but significantly inhibited OC differentiation. CC-292 combined with carfilzomib inhibited both sealing zone formation and OC differentiation, resulting in more profound inhibition of OC function than carfilzomib alone. Moreover, the combination treatment in an in vivo MM mouse model inhibited tumor burden compared with CC-292 alone; it also increased bone volume compared with carfilzomib alone. These results suggest that CC-292 combined with carfilzomib augments the inhibitory effects against OC within the bone microenvironment and has promising therapeutic potential for the treatment of MM and related bone disease.

  16. Stress-responsive mitogen-activated protein kinases interact with the EAR motif of a poplar zinc finger protein and mediate its degradation through the 26S proteasome.

    PubMed

    Hamel, Louis-Philippe; Benchabane, Meriem; Nicole, Marie-Claude; Major, Ian T; Morency, Marie-Josée; Pelletier, Gervais; Beaudoin, Nathalie; Sheen, Jen; Séguin, Armand

    2011-11-01

    Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) contribute to the establishment of plant disease resistance by regulating downstream signaling components, including transcription factors. In this study, we identified MAPK-interacting proteins, and among the newly discovered candidates was a Cys-2/His-2-type zinc finger protein named PtiZFP1. This putative transcription factor belongs to a family of transcriptional repressors that rely on an ERF-associated amphiphilic repression (EAR) motif for their repression activity. Amino acids located within this repression motif were also found to be essential for MAPK binding. Close examination of the primary protein sequence revealed a functional bipartite MAPK docking site that partially overlaps with the EAR motif. Transient expression assays in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) protoplasts suggest that MAPKs promote PtiZFP1 degradation through the 26S proteasome. Since features of the MAPK docking site are conserved among other EAR repressors, our study suggests a novel mode of defense mechanism regulation involving stress-responsive MAPKs and EAR repressors.

  17. The Ubiquitin-Proteasome Pathway and Proteasome Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Myung, Jayhyuk; Kim, Kyung Bo

    2008-01-01

    The ubiquitin-proteasome pathway has emerged as a central player in the regulation of several diverse cellular processes. Here, we describe the important components of this complex biochemical machinery as well as several important cellular substrates targeted by this pathway and examples of human diseases resulting from defects in various components of the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway. In addition, this review covers the chemistry of synthetic and natural proteasome inhibitors, emphasizing their mode of actions toward the 20S proteasome. Given the importance of proteasome-mediated protein degradation in various intracellular processes, inhibitors of this pathway will continue to serve as both molecular probes of major cellular networks as well as potential therapeutic agents for various human diseases. PMID:11410931

  18. Functional asymmetries of proteasome translocase pore.

    PubMed

    Erales, Jenny; Hoyt, Martin A; Troll, Fabian; Coffino, Philip

    2012-05-25

    Degradation by proteasomes involves coupled translocation and unfolding of its protein substrates. Six distinct but paralogous proteasome ATPase proteins, Rpt1 to -6, form a heterohexameric ring that acts on substrates. An axially positioned loop (Ar-Φ loop) moves in concert with ATP hydrolysis, engages substrate, and propels it into a proteolytic chamber. The aromatic (Ar) residue of the Ar-Φ loop in all six Rpts of S. cerevisiae is tyrosine; this amino acid is thought to have important functional contacts with substrate. Six yeast strains were constructed and characterized in which Tyr was individually mutated to Ala. The mutant cells were viable and had distinct phenotypes. rpt3, rpt4, and rpt5 Tyr/Ala mutants, which cluster on one side of the ATPase hexamer, were substantially impaired in their capacity to degrade substrates. In contrast, rpt1, rpt2, and rpt6 mutants equaled or exceeded wild type in degradation activity. However, rpt1 and rpt6 mutants had defects that limited cell growth or viability under conditions that stressed the ubiquitin proteasome system. In contrast, the rpt3 mutant grew faster than wild type and to a smaller size, a defect that has previously been associated with misregulation of G1 cyclins. This rpt3 phenotype probably results from altered degradation of cell cycle regulatory proteins. Finally, mutation of five of the Rpt subunits increased proteasome ATPase activity, implying bidirectional coupling between the Ar-Φ loop and the ATP hydrolysis site. The present observations assign specific functions to individual Rpt proteins and provide insights into the diverse roles of the axial loops of individual proteasome ATPases.

  19. Enhanced NIF neutron activation diagnostics.

    PubMed

    Yeamans, C B; Bleuel, D L; Bernstein, L A

    2012-10-01

    The NIF neutron activation diagnostic suite relies on removable activation samples, leading to operational inefficiencies and a fundamental lower limit on the half-life of the activated product that can be observed. A neutron diagnostic system measuring activation of permanently installed samples could remove these limitations and significantly enhance overall neutron diagnostic capabilities. The physics and engineering aspects of two proposed systems are considered: one measuring the (89)Zr/(89 m)Zr isomer ratio in the existing Zr activation medium and the other using potassium zirconate as the activation medium. Both proposed systems could improve the signal-to-noise ratio of the current system by at least a factor of 5 and would allow independent measurement of fusion core velocity and fuel areal density.

  20. Enhanced NIF neutron activation diagnostics

    SciTech Connect

    Yeamans, C. B.; Bleuel, D. L.; Bernstein, L. A.

    2012-10-15

    The NIF neutron activation diagnostic suite relies on removable activation samples, leading to operational inefficiencies and a fundamental lower limit on the half-life of the activated product that can be observed. A neutron diagnostic system measuring activation of permanently installed samples could remove these limitations and significantly enhance overall neutron diagnostic capabilities. The physics and engineering aspects of two proposed systems are considered: one measuring the {sup 89}Zr/{sup 89m}Zr isomer ratio in the existing Zr activation medium and the other using potassium zirconate as the activation medium. Both proposed systems could improve the signal-to-noise ratio of the current system by at least a factor of 5 and would allow independent measurement of fusion core velocity and fuel areal density.

  1. Proteasome Inhibition by Fellutamide B Induces Nerve Growth Factor Synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Hines, John; Groll, Michael; Fahnestock, Margaret; Crews, Craig M.

    2008-01-01

    SUMMARY Neurotrophic small molecules have the potential to aid in the treatment of neuronal injury and neurodegenerative diseases. The natural product fellutamide B, originally isolated from Penicillium fellutanum, potently induces nerve growth factor (NGF) release from fibroblasts and glial-derived cells, although the mechanism for this neurotrophic activity has not been elucidated. Here, we report that fellutamide B potently inhibits proteasome catalytic activity. High resolution structural information obtained from co-crystallization of the 20S proteasome reveals novel aspects regarding β-subunit binding and adduct formation by fellutamide B to inhibit their hydrolytic activity. We demonstrate that fellutamide B and other proteasome inhibitors increased NGF gene transcription via a cis-acting element (or elements) in the promoter. These results demonstrate an unrecognized connection between proteasome inhibition and NGF production, suggesting a possible new strategy in the development of neurotrophic agents. PMID:18482702

  2. TRIM13 (RFP2) downregulation decreases tumour cell growth in multiple myeloma through inhibition of NF Kappa B pathway and proteasome activity

    PubMed Central

    Gatt, Moshe E; Takada, Kohichi; Mani, Mala; Lerner, Mikael; Pick, Marjorie; Hideshima, Teru; Carrasco, Daniel E.; Protopopov, Alexei; Ivanova, Elena; Sangfelt, Olle; Grandér, Dan; Barlogie, Bart; Shaughnessy, John D.; Anderson, Kenneth C.; Carrasco, Daniel R.

    2013-01-01

    Multiple myeloma (MM) is an incurable neoplasm caused by proliferation of malignant plasma cells in the bone marrow (BM). MM is characterized frequently by a complete or partial deletion of chromosome 13q14, seen in more than 50% of patients at diagnosis. Within this deleted region the tripartite motif containing 13 (TRIM13, also termed RFP2) gene product has been proposed to be a tumour suppressor gene (TSG). Here, we show that low expression levels of TRIM13 in MM are associated with chromosome 13q deletion and poor clinical outcome. We present a functional analysis of TRIM13 using a loss-of-function approach, and demonstrate that TRIM13 downregulation decreases tumour cell survival as well as cell cycle progression and proliferation of MM cells. In addition, we provide evidence for the involvement of TRIM13 downregulation in inhibiting the NF kappa B pathway and the activity of the 20S proteasome. Although this data does not support a role of TRIM13 as a TSG, it substantiates important roles of TRIM13 in MM tumour survival and proliferation, underscoring its potential role as a novel target for therapeutic intervention. PMID:23647456

  3. Structural Insights on the Mycobacterium tuberculosis Proteasomal ATPase Mpa

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, T.; Li, H; Lin, G; Tang, C; Li, D; Nathan, C; Heran Darwin, K

    2009-01-01

    Proteasome-mediated protein turnover in all domains of life is an energy-dependent process that requires ATPase activity. Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) was recently shown to possess a ubiquitin-like proteasome pathway that plays an essential role in Mtb resistance to killing by products of host macrophages. Here we report our structural and biochemical investigation of Mpa, the presumptive Mtb proteasomal ATPase. We demonstrate that Mpa binds to the Mtb proteasome in the presence of ATPS, providing the physical evidence that Mpa is the proteasomal ATPase. X-ray crystallographic determination of the conserved interdomain showed a five stranded double {beta} barrel structure containing a Greek key motif. Structure and mutational analysis indicate a major role of the interdomain for Mpa hexamerization. Our mutational and functional studies further suggest that the central channel in the Mpa hexamer is involved in protein substrate translocation and degradation. These studies provide insights into how a bacterial proteasomal ATPase interacts with and facilitates protein degradation by the proteasome.

  4. Mammalian proteasome subtypes: Their diversity in structure and function.

    PubMed

    Dahlmann, Burkhardt

    2016-02-01

    The 20S proteasome is a multicatalytic proteinase catalysing the degradation of the majority of intracellular proteins. Thereby it is involved in almost all basic cellular processes, which is facilitated by its association with various regulator complexes so that it appears in different disguises like 26S proteasome, hybrid-proteasome and others. The 20S proteasome has a cylindrical structure built up by four stacked rings composed of α- and β-subunits. Since the three active site-containing β-subunits can all or in part be replaced by immuno-subunits, three main subpopulations exist, namely standard-, immuno- and intermediate-proteasomes. Due to posttranslational modifications or/and genetic variations all α- and β-subunits occur in multiple iso- or proteoforms. This leads to the fact that each of the three subpopulations is composed of a variety of 20S proteasome subtypes. This review summarizes the knowledge of proteasome subtypes in mammalian cells and tissues and their possible biological and medical relevancy.

  5. Overview of Proteasome Inhibitor-Based Anti-cancer Therapies: Perspective on Bortezomib and Second Generation Proteasome Inhibitors versus Future Generation Inhibitors of Ubiquitin-Proteasome System

    PubMed Central

    Dou, Q. Ping; Zonder, Jeffrey A.

    2014-01-01

    Over the past ten years, proteasome inhibition has emerged as an effective therapeutic strategy for treating multiple myeloma (MM) and some lymphomas. In 2003, Bortezomib (BTZ) became the first proteasome inhibitor approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). BTZ-based therapies have become a staple for the treatment of MM at all stages of the disease. The survival rate of MM patients has improved significantly since clinical introduction of BTZ and other immunomodulatory drugs. However, BTZ has several limitations. Not all patients respond to BTZ-based therapies and relapse occurs in many patients who initially responded. Solid tumors, in particular, are often resistant to BTZ. Furthermore, BTZ can induce dose-limiting peripheral neuropathy (PN). The second generation proteasome inhibitor Carfizomib (CFZ; U.S. FDA approved in August 2012) induces responses in a minority of MM patients relapsed from or refractory to BTZ. There is less PN compared to BTZ. Four other second-generation proteasome inhibitors (Ixazomib, Delanzomib, Oprozomib and Marizomib) with different pharmacologic properties and broader anticancer activities, have also shown some clinical activity in bortezomib-resistant cancers. While the mechanism of resistance to bortezomib in human cancers still remains to be fully understood, targeting the immunoproteasome, ubiquitin E3 ligases, the 19S proteasome and deubiquitinases in pre-clinical studies represents possible directions for future generation inhibitors of ubiquitin-proteasome system in the treatment of MM and other cancers. PMID:25092212

  6. Fellutamide B is a Potent Inhibitor of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis Proteasome

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, G.; Li, D; Chidawanyika, T; Nathan, C; Li, H

    2010-01-01

    Via high-throughput screening of a natural compound library, we have identified a lipopeptide aldehyde, fellutamide B (1), as the most potent inhibitor of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) proteasome tested to date. Kinetic studies reveal that 1 inhibits both Mtb and human proteasomes in a time-dependent manner under steady-state condition. Remarkably, 1 inhibits the Mtb proteasome in a single-step binding mechanism with K{sub i} = 6.8 nM, whereas it inhibits the human proteasome {beta}5 active site following a two-step mechanism with K{sub i} = 11.5 nM and K*{sub i} = 0.93 nM. Co-crystallization of 1 bound to the Mtb proteasome revealed a structural basis for the tight binding of 1 to the active sites of the Mtb proteasome. The hemiacetal group of 1 in the Mtb proteasome takes the (R)-configuration, whereas in the yeast proteasome it takes the (S)-configuration, indicating that the pre-chiral CHO group of 1 binds to the active site Thr1 in a different orientation. Re-examination of the structure of the yeast proteasome in complex with 1 showed significant conformational changes at the substrate-binding cleft along the active site. These structural differences are consistent with the different kinetic mechanisms of 1 against Mtb and human proteasomes.

  7. Proteasome Inhibitors Decrease AAV2 Capsid derived Peptide Epitope Presentation on MHC Class I Following Transduction

    PubMed Central

    Finn, Jonathan D; Hui, Daniel; Downey, Harre D; Dunn, Danielle; Pien, Gary C; Mingozzi, Federico; Zhou, Shangzhen; High, Katherine A

    2009-01-01

    Adeno-associated viral (AAV) vectors are an extensively studied and highly used vector platform for gene therapy applications. We hypothesize that in the first clinical trial using AAV to treat hemophilia B, AAV capsid proteins were presented on the surface of transduced hepatocytes, resulting in clearance by antigen-specific CD8+ T cells and consequent loss of therapeutic transgene expression. It has been previously shown that proteasome inhibitors can have a dramatic effect on AAV transduction in vitro and in vivo. Here, we describe using the US Food and Drug Administration-approved proteasome inhibitor, bortezomib, to decrease capsid antigen presentation on hepatocytes in vitro, whereas at the same time, enhancing gene expression in vivo. Using an AAV capsid-specific T-cell reporter (TCR) line to analyze the effect of proteasome inhibitors on antigen presentation, we demonstrate capsid antigen presentation at low multiplicities of infection (MOIs), and inhibition of antigen presentation at pharmacologic levels of bortezomib. We also demonstrate that bortezomib can enhance Factor IX (FIX) expression from an AAV2 vector in mice, although the same effect was not observed for AAV8 vectors. A pharmacological agent that can enhance AAV transduction, decrease T-cell activation/proliferation, and decrease capsid antigen presentation would be a promising solution to obstacles to successful AAV-mediated, liver-directed gene transfer in humans. PMID:19904235

  8. Induction of 26S proteasome subunit PSMB5 by the bifunctional inducer 3-methylcholanthrene through the Nrf2-ARE, but not the AhR/Arnt-XRE, pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Kwak, Mi-Kyoung . E-mail: mkwak@yumail.ac.kr; Kensler, Thomas W.

    2006-07-14

    The 26S proteasome is responsible for degradation of abnormal intracellular proteins, including oxidatively damaged proteins and may play a role as a component of a cellular antioxidative system. However, little is known about regulation of proteasome expression. In the present study, regulation of proteasome expression by the bifunctional enzyme inducer and a specific signaling pathway for this regulation were investigated in murine neuroblastoma cells. Expression of catalytic core subunits including PSMB5 and peptidase activities of the proteasome were elevated following incubation with 3-methylcholanthrene (3-MC). Studies using reporter genes containing the murine Psmb5 promoter showed that transcriptional activity of this gene was enhanced by 3-MC. Overexpression of AhR/Arnt did not affect activation of the Pmsb5 promoter by 3-MC and deletion of the xenobiotic response elements (XREs) from this promoter exerted modest effects on inducibility in response to 3-MC. However, mutation of the proximal AREs of the Psmb5 promoter largely abrogated its inducibility by 3-MC. In addition, this promoter showed a blunted response toward 3-MC in the absence of nrf2; 3-MC incubation increased nuclear levels of Nrf2 only in wild-type cells. Collectively, these results indicate that expression of proteasome subunit PSMB5 is modulated by bifunctional enzyme inducers in a manner independent of the AhR/Arnt-XRE pathway but dependent upon the Nrf2-ARE pathway.

  9. Osmotic stress inhibits proteasome by p38 MAPK-dependent phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seung-Hoon; Park, Yoon; Yoon, Sungjoo Kim; Yoon, Jong-Bok

    2010-12-31

    Osmotic stress causes profound perturbations of cell functions. Although the adaptive responses required for cell survival upon osmotic stress are being unraveled, little is known about the effects of osmotic stress on ubiquitin-dependent proteolysis. We now report that hyperosmotic stress inhibits proteasome activity by activating p38 MAPK. Osmotic stress increased the level of polyubiquitinated proteins in the cell. The selective p38 inhibitor SB202190 decreased osmotic stress-associated accumulation of polyubiquitinated proteins, indicating that p38 MAPK plays an inhibitory role in the ubiquitin proteasome system. Activated p38 MAPK stabilized various substrates of the proteasome and increased polyubiquitinated proteins. Proteasome preparations purified from cells expressing activated p38 MAPK had substantially lower peptidase activities than control proteasome samples. Proteasome phosphorylation sites dependent on p38 were identified by measuring changes in the extent of proteasome phosphorylation in response to p38 MAPK activation. The residue Thr-273 of Rpn2 is the major phosphorylation site affected by p38 MAPK. The mutation T273A in Rpn2 blocked the proteasome inhibition that is mediated by p38 MAPK. These results suggest that p38 MAPK negatively regulates the proteasome activity by phosphorylating Thr-273 of Rpn2.

  10. Oxidative stress and proteasome inhibitors in multiple myeloma.

    PubMed

    Lipchick, Brittany C; Fink, Emily E; Nikiforov, Mikhail A

    2016-03-01

    Multiple myeloma is a form of plasma cell neoplasm that accounts for approximately 10% of all hematological malignancies. Recently, several novel drugs have been discovered that almost doubled the overall survival of multiple myeloma patients. One of these drugs, the first-in-class proteasome inhibitor bortezomib (Velcade) has demonstrated remarkable response rates in multiple myeloma patients, and yet, currently this disease remains incurable. The major factor undermining the success of multiple myeloma treatment is a rapidly emerging resistance to the available therapy. Thus, the development of stand-alone or adjuvant anti-myeloma agents becomes of paramount importance. Overproduction of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) often accompanies malignant transformation due to oncogene activation and/or enhanced metabolism in tumor cells. As a result, these cells possess higher levels of ROS and lower levels of antioxidant molecules compared to their normal counterparts. Unbalanced production of ROS leads to oxidative stress which, if left unchecked, could be toxic for the cell. In multiple myeloma cells where high rates of immunoglobulin synthesis is an additional factor contributing to overproduction of ROS, further induction of oxidative stress can be an effective strategy to cope with this disease. Here we will review the available data on the role of oxidative stress in the cytotoxicity of proteasome inhibitors and the use of ROS-inducing compounds as anti-myeloma agents.

  11. JNK–NQO1 axis drives TAp73-mediated tumor suppression upon oxidative and proteasomal stress

    PubMed Central

    Kostecka, A; Sznarkowska, A; Meller, K; Acedo, P; Shi, Y; Mohammad Sakil, H A; Kawiak, A; Lion, M; Królicka, A; Wilhelm, M; Inga, A; Zawacka-Pankau, J

    2014-01-01

    Hyperproliferating cancer cells produce energy mainly from aerobic glycolysis, which results in elevated ROS levels. Thus aggressive tumors often possess enhanced anti-oxidant capacity that impedes many current anti-cancer therapies. Additionally, in ROS-compromised cancer cells ubiquitin proteasome system (UPS) is often deregulated for timely removal of oxidized proteins, thus enabling cell survival. Taken that UPS maintains the turnover of factors controlling cell cycle and apoptosis – such as p53 or p73, it represents a promising target for pharmaceutical intervention. Enhancing oxidative insult in already ROS-compromised cancer cells appears as an attractive anti-tumor scenario. TAp73 is a bona fide tumor suppressor that drives the chemosensitivity of some cancers to cisplatin or γ-radiation. It is an important drug target in tumors where p53 is lost or mutated. Here we discovered a novel synergistic mechanism leading to potent p73 activation and cancer cell death by oxidative stress and inhibition of 20S proteasomes. Using a small-molecule inhibitor of 20S proteasome and ROS-inducer – withaferin A (WA), we found that WA-induced ROS activates JNK kinase and stabilizes phase II anti-oxidant response effector NF-E2-related transcription factor (NRF2). This results in activation of Nrf2 target – NQO1 (NADPH quinone oxidoreductase), and TAp73 protein stabilization. The observed effect was ablated by the ROS scavenger – NAC. Concurrently, stress-activated JNK phosphorylates TAp73 at multiple serine and threonine residues, which is crucial to ablate TAp73/MDM2 complex and to promote TAp73 transcriptional function and induction of robust apoptosis. Taken together our data demonstrate that ROS insult in combination with the inhibition of 20S proteasome and TAp73 activation endows synthetic lethality in cancer cells. Thus, our results may enable the establishment of a novel pharmacological strategy to exploit the enhanced sensitivity of tumors to elevated ROS

  12. Proteasome dysfunction induces muscle growth defects and protein aggregation

    PubMed Central

    Kitajima, Yasuo; Tashiro, Yoshitaka; Suzuki, Naoki; Warita, Hitoshi; Kato, Masaaki; Tateyama, Maki; Ando, Risa; Izumi, Rumiko; Yamazaki, Maya; Abe, Manabu; Sakimura, Kenji; Ito, Hidefumi; Urushitani, Makoto; Nagatomi, Ryoichi; Takahashi, Ryosuke; Aoki, Masashi

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT The ubiquitin–proteasome and autophagy–lysosome pathways are the two major routes of protein and organelle clearance. The role of the proteasome pathway in mammalian muscle has not been examined in vivo. In this study, we report that the muscle-specific deletion of a crucial proteasomal gene, Rpt3 (also known as Psmc4), resulted in profound muscle growth defects and a decrease in force production in mice. Specifically, developing muscles in conditional Rpt3-knockout animals showed dysregulated proteasomal activity. The autophagy pathway was upregulated, but the process of autophagosome formation was impaired. A microscopic analysis revealed the accumulation of basophilic inclusions and disorganization of the sarcomeres in young adult mice. Our results suggest that appropriate proteasomal activity is important for muscle growth and for maintaining myofiber integrity in collaboration with autophagy pathways. The deletion of a component of the proteasome complex contributed to myofiber degeneration and weakness in muscle disorders that are characterized by the accumulation of abnormal inclusions. PMID:25380823

  13. Quantitative time-resolved analysis reveals intricate, differential regulation of standard- and immuno-proteasomes.

    PubMed

    Liepe, Juliane; Holzhütter, Hermann-Georg; Bellavista, Elena; Kloetzel, Peter M; Stumpf, Michael P H; Mishto, Michele

    2015-09-22

    Proteasomal protein degradation is a key determinant of protein half-life and hence of cellular processes ranging from basic metabolism to a host of immunological processes. Despite its importance the mechanisms regulating proteasome activity are only incompletely understood. Here we use an iterative and tightly integrated experimental and modelling approach to develop, explore and validate mechanistic models of proteasomal peptide-hydrolysis dynamics. The 20S proteasome is a dynamic enzyme and its activity varies over time because of interactions between substrates and products and the proteolytic and regulatory sites; the locations of these sites and the interactions between them are predicted by the model, and experimentally supported. The analysis suggests that the rate-limiting step of hydrolysis is the transport of the substrates into the proteasome. The transport efficiency varies between human standard- and immuno-proteasomes thereby impinging upon total degradation rate and substrate cleavage-site usage.

  14. Nelfinavir augments proteasome inhibition by bortezomib in myeloma cells and overcomes bortezomib and carfilzomib resistance.

    PubMed

    Kraus, M; Bader, J; Overkleeft, H; Driessen, C

    2013-03-01

    HIV protease inhibitors (HIV-PI) are oral drugs for HIV treatment. HIV-PI have antitumor activity via induction of ER-stress, inhibition of phospho-AKT (p-AKT) and the proteasome, suggesting antimyeloma activity. We characterize the effects of all approved HIV-PI on myeloma cells. HIV-PI were compared regarding cytotoxicity, proteasome activity, ER-stress induction and AKT phosphorylation using myeloma cells in vitro. Nelfinavir is the HIV-PI with highest cytotoxic activity against primary myeloma cells and with an IC50 near therapeutic drug blood levels (8-14 μM), irrespective of bortezomib sensitivity. Only nelfinavir inhibited intracellular proteasome activity in situ at drug concentrations <40 μM. Ritonavir, saquinavir and lopinavir inhibited p-AKT comparable to nelfinavir, and showed similar synergistic cytotoxicity with bortezomib against bortezomib-sensitive cells. Nelfinavir had superior synergistic activity with bortezomib/carfilzomib in particular against bortezomib/carfilzomib-resistant myeloma cells. It inhibited not only the proteasomal β1/β5 active sites, similar to bortezomib/carfilzomib, but in addition the β2 proteasome activity not targeted by bortezomib/carfilzomib. Additional inhibition of β2 proteasome activity is known to sensitize cells for bortezomib and carfilzomib. Nelfinavir has unique proteasome inhibiting activity in particular on the bortezomib/carfilzomib-insensitive tryptic (β2) proteasome activity in intact myeloma cells, and is active against bortezomib/carfilzomib-resistant myeloma cells in vitro.

  15. Reciprocal regulation of cilia and autophagy via the MTOR and proteasome pathways.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shixuan; Livingston, Man J; Su, Yunchao; Dong, Zheng

    2015-04-03

    Primary cilium is an organelle that plays significant roles in a number of cellular functions ranging from cell mechanosensation, proliferation, and differentiation to apoptosis. Autophagy is an evolutionarily conserved cellular function in biology and indispensable for cellular homeostasis. Both cilia and autophagy have been linked to different types of genetic and acquired human diseases. Their interaction has been suggested very recently, but the underlying mechanisms are still not fully understood. We examined autophagy in cells with suppressed cilia and measured cilium length in autophagy-activated or -suppressed cells. It was found that autophagy was repressed in cells with short cilia. Further investigation showed that MTOR activation was enhanced in cilia-suppressed cells and the MTOR inhibitor rapamycin could largely reverse autophagy suppression. In human kidney proximal tubular cells (HK2), autophagy induction was associated with cilium elongation. Conversely, autophagy inhibition by 3-methyladenine (3-MA) and chloroquine (CQ) as well as bafilomycin A1 (Baf) led to short cilia. Cilia were also shorter in cultured atg5-knockout (KO) cells and in atg7-KO kidney proximal tubular cells in mice. MG132, an inhibitor of the proteasome, could significantly restore cilium length in atg5-KO cells, being concomitant with the proteasome activity. Together, the results suggest that cilia and autophagy regulate reciprocally through the MTOR signaling pathway and ubiquitin-proteasome system.

  16. Proteasome function is not impaired in healthy aging of the lung.

    PubMed

    Caniard, Anne; Ballweg, Korbinian; Lukas, Christina; Yildirim, Ali Ö; Eickelberg, Oliver; Meiners, Silke

    2015-10-01

    Aging is the progressive loss of cellular function which inevitably leads to death. Failure of proteostasis including the decrease in proteasome function is one hallmark of aging. In the lung, proteasome activity was shown to be impaired in age-related diseases such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. However, little is known on proteasome function during healthy aging. Here, we comprehensively analyzed healthy lung aging and proteasome function in wildtype, proteasome reporter and immunoproteasome knockout mice. Wildtype mice spontaneously developed senile lung emphysema while expression and activity of proteasome complexes and turnover of ubiquitinated substrates was not grossly altered in lungs of aged mice. Immunoproteasome subunits were specifically upregulated in the aged lung and the caspase-like proteasome activity concomitantly decreased. Aged knockout mice for the LMP2 or LMP7 immunoproteasome subunits showed no alteration in proteasome activities but exhibited typical lung aging phenotypes suggesting that immunoproteasome function is dispensable for physiological lung aging in mice. Our results indicate that healthy aging of the lung does not involve impairment of proteasome function. Apparently, the reserve capacity of the proteostasis systems in the lung is sufficient to avoid severe proteostasis imbalance during healthy aging.

  17. Reconfiguration of the proteasome during chaperone-mediated assembly.

    PubMed

    Park, Soyeon; Li, Xueming; Kim, Ho Min; Singh, Chingakham Ranjit; Tian, Geng; Hoyt, Martin A; Lovell, Scott; Battaile, Kevin P; Zolkiewski, Michal; Coffino, Philip; Roelofs, Jeroen; Cheng, Yifan; Finley, Daniel

    2013-05-23

    The proteasomal ATPase ring, comprising Rpt1-Rpt6, associates with the heptameric α-ring of the proteasome core particle (CP) in the mature proteasome, with the Rpt carboxy-terminal tails inserting into pockets of the α-ring. Rpt ring assembly is mediated by four chaperones, each binding a distinct Rpt subunit. Here we report that the base subassembly of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae proteasome, which includes the Rpt ring, forms a high-affinity complex with the CP. This complex is subject to active dissociation by the chaperones Hsm3, Nas6 and Rpn14. Chaperone-mediated dissociation was abrogated by a non-hydrolysable ATP analogue, indicating that chaperone action is coupled to nucleotide hydrolysis by the Rpt ring. Unexpectedly, synthetic Rpt tail peptides bound α-pockets with poor specificity, except for Rpt6, which uniquely bound the α2/α3-pocket. Although the Rpt6 tail is not visualized within an α-pocket in mature proteasomes, it inserts into the α2/α3-pocket in the base-CP complex and is important for complex formation. Thus, the Rpt-CP interface is reconfigured when the lid complex joins the nascent proteasome to form the mature holoenzyme.

  18. Synergistic anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic activity of combined therapy with bortezomib, a proteasome inhibitor, with anti-epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) drugs in human cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Cascone, Tina; Morelli, Maria Pia; Morgillo, Floriana; Kim, Woo-Young; Rodolico, Gabriella; Pepe, Stefano; Tortora, Giampaolo; Berrino, Liberato; Lee, Ho-Young; Heymach, John V; Ciardiello, Fortunato

    2008-09-01

    The proteasome plays a pivotal role in the turnover of regulatory transduction proteins induced by activated cell membrane growth factor receptors. The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) pathway is crucial in the development and progression of human epithelial cancers. Proteasome inhibition may sensitize human cancer cell lines to EGFR inhibitors. We investigated the growth inhibitory and pro-apoptotic effects of the proteasome inhibitor bortezomib in combination with anti-EGFR drugs, such as gefitinib, vandetanib, and cetuximab in EGFR-expressing human cancer cell lines. Bortezomib determined dose-dependent growth inhibition in a nine cancer cell line panel (IC(50) values, range 6-42 nM). A significant synergistic growth inhibitory effect was observed with the combination of bortezomib and each EGFR inhibitor in all cell lines (combination index, CI, range 0.10-0.55), which was accompanied by a significant induction in apoptosis by the combined treatment with bortezomib, cetuximab and vandetanib. In HCT-116 colon cancer and A549 lung adenocarcinoma cells, bortezomib plus EGFR inhibitor treatment induced a more effective inhibition of EGFR-activated down-stream signals, including a marked suppression in activated, phosphorylated Akt (P-Akt). In contrast, overexpression of a constitutively active P-Akt protected A549 cells by cell growth inhibition and apoptosis following treatment with bortezomib and EGFR inhibitors. The combined treatment with bortezomib and EGFR inhibitors has a synergistic growth inhibitory and pro-apoptotic activity in different human cancer cells which possess a functional EGFR-dependent autocrine growth pathway through to a more efficient and sustained inhibition of Akt.

  19. Involvement of the Nrf2-proteasome pathway in the endoplasmic reticulum stress response in pancreatic β-cells

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Sanghwan; Hur, Eu-gene; Ryoo, In-geun; Jung, Kyeong-Ah; Kwak, Jiyeon; Kwak, Mi-Kyoung

    2012-11-01

    The ubiquitin-proteasome system plays a central role in protein quality control through endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-associated degradation (ERAD) of unfolded and misfolded proteins. NF-E2‐related factor 2 (Nrf2) is a transcription factor that controls the expression of an array of phase II detoxification and antioxidant genes. Nrf2 signaling has additionally been shown to upregulate the expression of the proteasome catalytic subunits in several cell types. Here, we investigated the role of Nrf2 in tunicamycin-induced ER stress using a murine insulinoma β-cell line, βTC-6. shRNA-mediated silencing of Nrf2 expression in βTC-6 cells significantly increased tunicamycin-induced cytotoxicity, elevated the expression of the pro-apoptotic ER stress marker Chop10, and inhibited tunicamycin-inducible expression of the proteasomal catalytic subunits Psmb5 and Psmb6. The effects of 3H-1,2-dithiole-3-thione (D3T), a small molecule Nrf2 activator, on ER stress were also examined in βTC-6 cells. D3T pretreatment reduced tunicamycin cytotoxicity and attenuated the tunicamycin-inducible Chop10 and protein kinase RNA-activated‐like ER kinase (Perk). The protective effect of D3T was shown to be associated with increased ERAD. D3T increased the expression of Psmb5 and Psmb6 and elevated chymotrypsin-like peptidase activity; proteasome inhibitor treatment blocked D3T effects on tunicamycin cytotoxicity and ER stress marker changes. Similarly, silencing of Nrf2 abolished the protective effect of D3T against ER stress. These results indicate that the Nrf2 pathway contributes to the ER stress response in pancreatic β-cells by enhancing proteasome-mediated ERAD. -- Highlights: ► Nrf2 silencing in pancreatic β-cells enhanced tunicamycin-mediated ER stress. ► Expression of the proteasome was inducible by Nrf2 signaling. ► Nrf2 activator D3T protected β-cells from tunicamycin-mediated ER stress. ► Protective effect of D3T was associated with Nrf2-dependent proteasome

  20. Purification and characterization of Candida albicans 20S proteasome: identification of four proteasomal subunits.

    PubMed

    Fernández Murray, P; Biscoglio, M J; Passeron, S

    2000-03-15

    The 20S proteasome from yeast cells of Candida albicans was purified by successive chromatographic steps to apparent homogeneity, as judged by nondenaturing and denaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Its molecular mass was estimated to be 640 kDa by gel filtration. Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis in the presence of sodium dodecyl sulfate gave at least 10 bands in the range 20-32 kDa. Two-dimensional electrophoresis revealed the presence of at least 14 polypeptides. By electron microscopy after negative staining, the proteasome preparation appeared as typical symmetrical barrel-shaped particles. The enzyme cleaved the peptidyl-arylamide bonds in the model synthetic substrates Cbz-G-G-L-p-nitroanilide, Cbz-G-G-R-beta-naphthylamide, and Cbz-L-L-E-beta-naphthylamide (chymotrypsin-like, trypsin-like, and peptidylglutamyl-peptide-hydrolyzing activities). The differential sensitivity of these activities to aldehyde peptides and sodium dodecyl sulfate supported the multicatalytic nature of this enzyme. Three proteasomal subunits were identified as alpha6/Pre5, alpha3/Y13, and alpha5/Pup2 by internal sequencing of tryptic fragments. Their sequences perfectly matched the corresponding deduced amino acid sequences of the C. albicans genes. A fourth subunit was identified as alpha7/Prs1 by immunorecognition with a monoclonal antibody specific for C8, the human proteasome subunit homologue. Treatment of the intact isolated 20S proteasome with acid phosphatase and Western blot analysis of the separated components indicated that the alpha7/Prs1 subunit is obtained as a multiply phosphorylated protein.

  1. Viruses and the 26S proteasome: hacking into destruction.

    PubMed

    Banks, Lawrence; Pim, David; Thomas, Miranda

    2003-08-01

    The discovery that the human papillomavirus E6 oncoprotein could direct the ubiquitination and degradation of the p53 tumour suppressor at the 26S proteasome was the beginning of a new view on virus-host interactions. A decade later, a plethora of viral proteins have been shown to direct host-cell proteins for proteolytic degradation. These activities are required for various aspects of the virus life-cycle from entry, through replication and enhanced cell survival, to viral release. As with oncogenes and cell-cycle control, the study of apparently simple viruses has provided a wealth of information on the function of a whole class of cellular proteins whose function is arguably as important as that of the kinases: the ubiquitin-protein ligases.

  2. Assembly of an Evolutionarily Conserved Alternative Proteasome Isoform in Human Cells.

    PubMed

    Padmanabhan, Achuth; Vuong, Simone Anh-Thu; Hochstrasser, Mark

    2016-03-29

    Targeted intracellular protein degradation in eukaryotes is largely mediated by the proteasome. Here, we report the formation of an alternative proteasome isoform in human cells, previously found only in budding yeast, that bears an altered subunit arrangement in the outer ring of the proteasome core particle. These proteasomes result from incorporation of an additional α4 (PSMA7) subunit in the position normally occupied by α3 (PSMA4). Assembly of "α4-α4" proteasomes depends on the relative cellular levels of α4 and α3 and on the proteasome assembly chaperone PAC3. The oncogenic tyrosine kinases ABL and ARG and the tumor suppressor BRCA1 regulate cellular α4 levels and formation of α4-α4 proteasomes. Cells primed to assemble α4-α4 proteasomes exhibit enhanced resistance to toxic metal ions. Taken together, our results establish the existence of an alternative mammalian proteasome isoform and suggest a potential role in enabling cells to adapt to environmental stresses.

  3. DNA damage modulates interactions between microRNAs and the 26S proteasome

    PubMed Central

    Tsimokha, Anna S; Kulichkova, Valentina A.; Karpova, Elena V.; Zaykova, Julia J.; Aksenov, Nikolai D; Vasilishina, Anastasia A.; Kropotov, Andrei V.; Antonov, Alexey; Barlev, Nikolai A.

    2014-01-01

    26S proteasomes are known as major non-lysosomal cellular machines for coordinated and specific destruction of ubiquitinylated proteins. The proteolytic activities of proteasomes are controlled by various post-translational modifications in response to environmental cues, including DNA damage. Besides proteolysis, proteasomes also associate with RNA hydrolysis and splicing. Here, we extend the functional diversity of proteasomes by showing that they also dynamically associate with microRNAs (miRNAs) both in the nucleus and cytoplasm of cells. Moreover, DNA damage induced by an anti-cancer drug, doxorubicin, alters the repertoire of proteasome-associated miRNAs, enriching the population of miRNAs that target cell cycle checkpoint regulators and DNA repair proteins. Collectively, these data uncover yet another potential mode of action for proteasomes in the cell via their dynamic association with microRNAs. PMID:25004448

  4. Proteomic remodeling of proteasome in right heart failure.

    PubMed

    Fessart, Delphine; Martin-Negrier, Marie-Laure; Claverol, Stéphane; Thiolat, Marie-Laure; Crevel, Huguette; Toussaint, Christian; Bonneu, Marc; Muller, Bernard; Savineau, Jean-Pierre; Delom, Frederic

    2014-01-01

    The development of right heart failure (RHF) is characterized by alterations of right ventricle (RV) structure and function, but the mechanisms of RHF remain still unknown. Thus, understanding the RHF is essential for improved therapies. Therefore, identification by quantitative proteomics of targets specific to RHF may have therapeutic benefits to identify novel potential therapeutic targets. The objective of this study was to analyze the molecular mechanisms changing RV function in the diseased RHF and thus, to identify novel potential therapeutic targets. For this, we have performed differential proteomic analysis of whole RV proteins using two experimental rat models of RHF. Differential protein expression was observed for hundred twenty six RV proteins including proteins involved in structural constituent of cytoskeleton, motor activity, structural molecule activity, cytoskeleton protein binding and microtubule binding. Interestingly, further analysis of down-regulated proteins, reveals that both protein and gene expressions of proteasome subunits were drastically decreased in RHF, which was accompanied by an increase of ubiquitinated proteins. Interestingly, the proteasomal activities chymotrypsin and caspase-like were decreased whereas trypsin-like activity was maintained. In conclusion, this study revealed the involvement of ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) in RHF. Three deregulated mechanisms were discovered: (1) decreased gene and protein expressions of proteasome subunits, (2) decreased specific activity of proteasome; and (3) a specific accumulation of ubiquitinated proteins. This modulation of UPS of RV may provide a novel therapeutic avenue for restoration of cardiac function in the diseased RHF.

  5. Targeting proteasome ubiquitin receptor Rpn13 in multiple myeloma.

    PubMed

    Song, Y; Ray, A; Li, S; Das, D S; Tai, Y T; Carrasco, R D; Chauhan, D; Anderson, K C

    2016-09-01

    Proteasome inhibitor bortezomib is an effective therapy for relapsed and newly diagnosed multiple myeloma (MM); however, dose-limiting toxicities and the development of resistance can limit its long-term utility. Recent research has focused on targeting ubiquitin receptors upstream of 20S proteasome, with the aim of generating less toxic therapies. Here we show that 19S proteasome-associated ubiquitin receptor Rpn13 is more highly expressed in MM cells than in normal plasma cells. Rpn13-siRNA (small interfering RNA) decreases MM cell viability. A novel agent RA190 targets Rpn13 and inhibits proteasome function, without blocking the proteasome activity or the 19S deubiquitylating activity. CRISPR/Cas9 Rpn13-knockout demonstrates that RA190-induced activity is dependent on Rpn13. RA190 decreases viability in MM cell lines and patient MM cells, inhibits proliferation of MM cells even in the presence of bone marrow stroma and overcomes bortezomib resistance. Anti-MM activity of RA190 is associated with induction of caspase-dependent apoptosis and unfolded protein response-related apoptosis. MM xenograft model studies show that RA190 is well tolerated, inhibits tumor growth and prolongs survival. Combining RA190 with bortezomib, lenalidomide or pomalidomide induces synergistic anti-MM activity. Our preclinical data validates targeting Rpn13 to overcome bortezomib resistance, and provides the framework for clinical evaluation of Rpn13 inhibitors, alone or in combination, to improve patient outcome in MM.

  6. Dominant-negative mutation in the beta2 and beta6 proteasome subunit genes affect alternative cell fate decisions in the Drosophila sense organ lineage.

    PubMed

    Schweisguth, F

    1999-09-28

    In Drosophila, dominant-negative mutations in the beta2 and beta6 proteasome catalytic subunit genes have been identified as dominant temperature-sensitive (DTS) mutations. At restrictive temperature, beta2 and beta6 DTS mutations confer lethality at the pupal stage. I investigate here the role of proteasome activity in regulating cell fate decisions in the sense organ lineage at the early pupal stage. Temperature-shift experiments in beta2 and beta6 DTS mutant pupae occasionally resulted in external sense organs with two sockets and no shaft. This double-socket phenotype was strongly enhanced in conditions in which Notch signaling was up-regulated. Furthermore, conditional overexpression of the beta6 dominant-negative mutant subunit led to shaft-to-socket and to neuron-to-sheath cell fate transformations, which are both usually associated with increased Notch signaling activity. Finally, expression of the beta6 dominant-negative mutant subunit led to the stabilization of an ectopically expressed nuclear form of Notch in imaginal wing discs. This study demonstrates that mutations affecting two distinct proteasome catalytic subunits affect two alternative cell fate decisions and enhance Notch signaling activity in the sense organ lineage. These findings raise the possibility that the proteasome targets an active form of the Notch receptor for degradation in Drosophila.

  7. Centrosomal localisation of the cancer/testis (CT) antigens NY-ESO-1 and MAGE-C1 is regulated by proteasome activity in tumour cells.

    PubMed

    Pagotto, Anna; Caballero, Otavia L; Volkmar, Norbert; Devalle, Sylvie; Simpson, Andrew J G; Lu, Xin; Christianson, John C

    2013-01-01

    The Cancer/Testis (CT) antigen family of genes are transcriptionally repressed in most human tissues but are atypically re-expressed in many malignant tumour types. Their restricted expression profile makes CT antigens ideal targets for cancer immunotherapy. As little is known about whether CT antigens may be regulated by post-translational processing, we investigated the mechanisms governing degradation of NY-ESO-1 and MAGE-C1 in selected cancer cell lines. Inhibitors of proteasome-mediated degradation induced the partitioning of NY-ESO-1 and MAGE-C1 into a detergent insoluble fraction. Moreover, this treatment also resulted in increased localisation of NY-ESO-1 and MAGE-C1 at the centrosome. Despite their interaction, relocation of either NY-ESO-1 or MAGE-C1 to the centrosome could occur independently of each other. Using a series of truncated fragments, the regions corresponding to NY-ESO-1(91-150) and MAGE-C1(900-1116) were established as important for controlling both stability and localisation of these CT antigens. Our findings demonstrate that the steady state levels of NY-ESO-1 and MAGE-C1 are regulated by proteasomal degradation and that both behave as aggregation-prone proteins upon accumulation. With proteasome inhibitors being increasingly used as front-line treatment in cancer, these data raise issues about CT antigen processing for antigenic presentation and therefore immunogenicity in cancer patients.

  8. Synthetic analogs of green tea polyphenols as proteasome inhibitors.

    PubMed Central

    Smith, David M.; Wang, Zhigang; Kazi, Aslamuzzaman; Li, Lian-Hai; Chan, Tak-Hang; Dou, Q. Ping

    2002-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Animal, epidemiological and clinical studies have demonstrated the anti-tumor activity of pharmacological proteasome inhibitors and the cancer-preventive effects of green tea consumption. Previously, one of our laboratories reported that natural ester bond-containing green tea polyphenols (GTPs), such as (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate [(-)-EGCG] and (-)-gallocatechin-3-gallate [(-)-GCG], are potent and specific proteasome inhibitors. Another of our groups, for the first time, was able to enantioselectively synthesize (-)-EGCG as well as other analogs of this natural GTP. Our interest in designing and developing novel synthetic GTPs as proteasome inhibitors and potential cancer-preventive agents prompted our current study. MATERIALS AND METHODS: GTP analogs, (+)-EGCG, (+)-GCG, and a fully benzyl-protected (+)-EGCG [Bn-(+)-EGCG], were prepared by enantioselective synthesis. Inhibition of the proteasome or calpain (as a control) activities under cell-free conditions were measured by fluorogenic substrate assay. Inhibition of intact tumor cell proteasome activity was measured by accumulation of some proteasome target proteins (p27, I kappa B-alpha and Bax) using Western blot analysis. Inhibition of tumor cell proliferation and induction of apoptosis by synthetic GTPs were determined by G(1) arrest and caspase activation, respectively. Finally, inhibition of the transforming activity of human prostate cancer cells by synthetic GTPs was measured by a colony formation assay. RESULTS: (+)-EGCG and (+)-GCG potently and specifically inhibit the chymotrypsin-like activity of purified 20S proteasome and the 26S proteasome in tumor cell lysates, while Bn-(+)-EGCG does not. Treatment of leukemic Jurkat T or prostate cancer LNCaP cells with either (+)-EGCG or (+)-GCG accumulated p27 and IkappaB-alpha proteins, associated with an increased G(1) population. (+)-EGCG treatment also accumulated the pro-apoptotic Bax protein and induced apoptosis in LNCaP cells expressing

  9. Proteasome Dysfunction Associated to Oxidative Stress and Proteotoxicity in Adipocytes Compromises Insulin Sensitivity in Human Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Díaz-Ruiz, Alberto; Guzmán-Ruiz, Rocío; Moreno, Natalia R.; García-Rios, Antonio; Delgado-Casado, Nieves; Membrives, Antonio; Túnez, Isaac; El Bekay, Rajaa; Fernández-Real, José M.; Tovar, Sulay; Diéguez, Carlos; Tinahones, Francisco J.; Vázquez-Martínez, Rafael; López-Miranda, José

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Aims: Obesity is characterized by a low-grade systemic inflammatory state and adipose tissue (AT) dysfunction, which predispose individuals to the development of insulin resistance (IR) and metabolic disease. However, a subset of obese individuals, referred to as metabolically healthy obese (MHO) individuals, are protected from obesity-associated metabolic abnormalities. Here, we aim at identifying molecular factors and pathways in adipocytes that are responsible for the progression from the insulin-sensitive to the insulin-resistant, metabolically unhealthy obese (MUHO) phenotype. Results: Proteomic analysis of paired samples of adipocytes from subcutaneous (SC) and omental (OM) human AT revealed that both types of cells are altered in the MUHO state. Specifically, the glutathione redox cycle and other antioxidant defense systems as well as the protein-folding machinery were dysregulated and endoplasmic reticulum stress was increased in adipocytes from IR subjects. Moreover, proteasome activity was also compromised in adipocytes of MUHO individuals, which was associated with enhanced accumulation of oxidized and ubiquitinated proteins in these cells. Proteasome activity was also impaired in adipocytes of diet-induced obese mice and in 3T3-L1 adipocytes exposed to palmitate. In line with these data, proteasome inhibition significantly impaired insulin signaling in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Innovation: This study provides the first evidence of the occurrence of protein homeostasis deregulation in adipocytes in human obesity, which, together with oxidative damage, interferes with insulin signaling in these cells. Conclusion: Our results suggest that proteasomal dysfunction and impaired proteostasis in adipocytes, resulting from protein oxidation and/or misfolding, constitute major pathogenic mechanisms in the development of IR in obesity. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 23, 597–612. PMID:25714483

  10. Melatonin production: proteasomal proteolysis in serotonin N-acetyltransferase regulation.

    PubMed

    Gastel, J A; Roseboom, P H; Rinaldi, P A; Weller, J L; Klein, D C

    1998-02-27

    The nocturnal increase in circulating melatonin in vertebrates is regulated by 10- to 100-fold increases in pineal serotonin N-acetyltransferase (AA-NAT) activity. Changes in the amount of AA-NAT protein were shown to parallel changes in AA-NAT activity. When neural stimulation was switched off by either light exposure or L-propranolol-induced beta-adrenergic blockade, both AA-NAT activity and protein decreased rapidly. Effects of L-propranolol were blocked in vitro by dibutyryl adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate (cAMP) or inhibitors of proteasomal proteolysis. This result indicates that adrenergic-cAMP regulation of AA-NAT is mediated by rapid reversible control of selective proteasomal proteolysis. Similar proteasome-based mechanisms may function widely as selective molecular switches in vertebrate neural systems.

  11. Protein oxidative modification in the aging organism and the role of the ubiquitin proteasomal system.

    PubMed

    Kastle, Marc; Grune, Tilman

    2011-12-01

    Living in an oxygen containing environment is automatically connected to oxidative stress. Beside lipids and nucleic acids, especially proteins are very susceptible for oxidative modifications. These oxidative modifications comprise alterations of single amino acids, like the formation of protein carbonyls and methionine sulfoxide, or the aggregation of whole proteins. Due to the ongoing accumulation of protein aggregates during the aging process, the cellular protein quality control system becomes more and more overwhelmed. One essential element of the protein quality control machinery is the ubiquitin proteasomal system which plays therefore a crucial part in the aging process, too. Ubiquitination of proteins is a three step mechanism to tag proteins with a polyubiquitin chain for the proteasome. The proteasome is a regulated, barrel-shaped multi-enzyme complex which is responsible for the degradation of proteins. Although there is no drastic loss of all proteasomal subunits during the aging process, there is a functional decline of the proteasome activity in aging organisms. Impairment of the ubiquitin proteasome system leads to increasing protein aggregation and cellular death. A lot of age related diseases are closely connected to an inhibition of the proteasome and the formation of large protein aggregates. Especially skin aging, atherosclerosis, age-dependent macula degeneration, cataract formation and several neurodegenerative diseases are directly connected to the decline of proteasome function. This review outlines the connections between aging, oxidative stress and protein oxidation, as well as the influence on the ubiquitin proteasomal system and several associated diseases.

  12. APEH Inhibition Affects Osteosarcoma Cell Viability via Downregulation of the Proteasome

    PubMed Central

    Palumbo, Rosanna; Gogliettino, Marta; Cocca, Ennio; Iannitti, Roberta; Sandomenico, Annamaria; Ruvo, Menotti; Balestrieri, Marco; Rossi, Mosè; Palmieri, Gianna

    2016-01-01

    The proteasome is a multienzymatic complex that controls the half-life of the majority of intracellular proteins, including those involved in apoptosis and cell-cycle progression. Recently, proteasome inhibition has been shown to be an effective anticancer strategy, although its downregulation is often accompanied by severe undesired side effects. We previously reported that the inhibition of acylpeptide hydrolase (APEH) by the peptide SsCEI 4 can significantly affect the proteasome activity in A375 melanoma or Caco-2 adenocarcinoma cell lines, thus shedding new light on therapeutic strategies based on downstream regulation of proteasome functions. In this work, we investigated the functional correlation between APEH and proteasome in a panel of cancer cell lines, and evaluated the cell proliferation upon SsCEI 4-treatments. Results revealed that SsCEI 4 triggered a proliferative arrest specifically in osteosarcoma U2OS cells via downregulation of the APEH–proteasome system, with the accumulation of the typical hallmarks of proteasome: NF-κB, p21Waf1, and polyubiquitinylated proteins. We found that the SsCEI 4 anti-proliferative effect involved a senescence-like growth arrest without noticeable cytotoxicity. These findings represent an important step toward understanding the mechanism(s) underlying the APEH-mediated downregulation of proteasome in order to design new molecules able to efficiently regulate the proteasome system for alternative therapeutic strategies. PMID:27669226

  13. From Bortezomib to other Inhibitors of the Proteasome and Beyond

    PubMed Central

    Buac, Daniela; Shen, Min; Schmitt, Sara; Kona, Fathima Rani; Deshmukh, Rahul; Zhang, Zhen; Neslund-Dudas, Christine; Mitra, Bharati; Dou, Q. Ping

    2013-01-01

    The cancer drug discovery field has placed much emphasis on the identification of novel and cancer-specific molecular targets. A rich source of such targets for the design of novel anti-tumor agents is the ubiqutin-proteasome system (UP-S), a tightly regulated, highly specific pathway responsible for the vast majority of protein turnover within the cell. Because of its critical role in almost all cell processes that ensure normal cellular function, its inhibition at one point in time was deemed non-specific and therefore not worth further investigation as a molecular drug target. However, today the proteasome is one of the most promising anti-cancer drug targets of the century. The discovery that tumor cells are in fact more sensitive to proteasome inhibitors than normal cells indeed paved the way for the design of its inhibitors. Such efforts have led to bortezomib, the first FDA approved proteasome inhibitor now used as a frontline treatment for newly diagnosed multiple myeloma (MM), relapsed/refractory MM and mantle cell lymphoma. Though successful in improving clinical outcomes for patients with hematological malignancies, relapse often occurs in those who initially responded to bortezomib. Therefore, the acquisition of bortezomib resistance is a major issue with its therapy. Furthermore, some neuro-toxicities have been associated with bortezomib treatment and its efficacy in solid tumors is lacking. These observations have encouraged researchers to pursue the next generation of proteasome inhibitors, which would ideally overcome bortezomib resistance, have reduced toxicities and a broader range of anti-cancer activity. This review summarizes the success and limitations of bortezomib, and describes recent advances in the field, including, and most notably, the most recent FDA approval of carfilzomib in July, 2012, a second generation proteasome inhibitor. Other proteasome inhibitors currently in clinical trials and those that are currently experimental grade

  14. Proteasome inhibition alleviates prolonged moderate compression-induced muscle pathology

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The molecular mechanism initiating deep pressure ulcer remains to be elucidated. The present study tested the hypothesis that the ubiquitin proteasome system is involved in the signalling mechanism in pressure-induced deep tissue injury. Methods Adult Sprague Dawley rats were subjected to an experimental compression model to induce deep tissue injury. The tibialis region of the right hind limb was subjected to 100 mmHg of static pressure for six hours on each of two consecutive days. The compression pressure was continuously monitored by a three-axial force transducer within the compression indentor. The left hind limb served as the intra-animal control. Muscle tissues underneath the compressed region were collected and used for analyses. Results Our results demonstrated that the activity of 20S proteasome and the protein abundance of ubiquitin and MAFbx/atrogin-1 were elevated in conjunction with pathohistological changes in the compressed muscle, as compared to control muscle. The administration of the proteasome inhibitor MG132 was found to be effective in ameliorating the development of pathological histology in compressed muscle. Furthermore, 20S proteasome activity and protein content of ubiquitin and MAFbx/atrogin-1 showed no apparent increase in the MG132-treated muscle following compression. Conclusion Our data suggest that the ubiquitin proteasome system may play a role in the pathogenesis of pressure-induced deep tissue injury. PMID:21385343

  15. Dietary apigenin potentiates the inhibitory effect of interferon-α on cancer cell viability through inhibition of 26S proteasome-mediated interferon receptor degradation

    PubMed Central

    Li, Sheng; Yang, Li-juan; Wang, Ping; He, Yu-jiao; Huang, Jun-mei; Liu, Han-wei; Shen, Xiao-fei; Wang, Fei

    2016-01-01

    Background Type I interferons (IFN-α/β) have broad and potent immunoregulatory and antiproliferative activities. However, it is still known whether the dietary flavonoids exhibit their antiviral and anticancer properties by modulating the function of type I IFNs. Objective This study aimed at determining the role of apigenin, a dietary plant flavonoid abundant in common fruits and vegetables, on the type I IFN-mediated inhibition of cancer cell viability. Design Inhibitory effect of apigenin on human 26S proteasome, a known negative regulator of type I IFN signaling, was evaluated in vitro. Molecular docking was conducted to know the interaction between apigenin and subunits of 26S proteasome. Effects of apigenin on JAK/STAT pathway, 26S proteasome-mediated interferon receptor stability, and cancer cells viability were also investigated. Results Apigenin was identified to be a potent inhibitor of human 26S proteasome in a cell-based assay. Apigenin inhibited the chymotrypsin-like, caspase-like, and trypsin-like activities of the human 26S proteasome and increased the ubiquitination of endogenous proteins in cells. Results from computational modeling of the potential interactions of apigenin with the chymotrypsin site (β5 subunit), caspase site (β1 subunit), and trypsin site (β2 subunit) of the proteasome were consistent with the observed proteasome inhibitory activity. Apigenin enhanced the phosphorylation of signal transducer and activator of transcription proteins (STAT1 and STAT2) and promoted the endogenous IFN-α-regulated gene expression. Apigenin inhibited the IFN-α-stimulated ubiquitination and degradation of type I interferon receptor 1 (IFNAR1). Apigenin also sensitized the inhibitory effect of IFN-α on viability of cervical carcinoma HeLa cells. Conclusion These results suggest that apigenin potentiates the inhibitory effect of IFN-α on cancer cell viability by activating JAK/STAT signaling pathway through inhibition of 26S proteasome

  16. Transcriptional upregulation of BAG3 upon proteasome inhibition

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Huaqin Liu Haimei; Zhang Haiyan; Guan Yifu; Du Zhenxian

    2008-01-11

    Proteasome inhibitors exhibit antitumoral activity against malignancies of different histology. Emerging evidence indicates that antiapoptotic factors may also accumulate as a consequence of exposure to these drugs, thus it seems plausible that activation of survival signaling cascades might compromise their antitumoral effects. Bcl-2-associated athanogene (BAG) family proteins are characterized by their property of interaction with a variety of partners involved in modulating the proliferation/death balance, including heat shock proteins (HSP), Bcl-2, Raf-1. In this report, we demonstrated that BAG3 is a novel antiapoptotic molecule induced by proteasome inhibitors in various cancer cells at the transcriptional level. Moreover, we demonstrated that BAG3 knockdown by siRNA sensitized cancer cells to MG132-induced apoptosis. Taken together, our results suggest that BAG3 induction might represents as an unwanted molecular consequence of utilizing proteasome inhibitors to combat tumors.

  17. Proteasomes play an essential role in thymocyte apoptosis.

    PubMed Central

    Grimm, L M; Goldberg, A L; Poirier, G G; Schwartz, L M; Osborne, B A

    1996-01-01

    Cell death in many different organisms requires the activation of proteolytic cascades involving cytosolic proteases. Here we describe a novel requirement in thymocyte cell death for the 20S proteasome, a highly conserved multicatalytic protease found in all eukaryotes. Specific inhibitors of proteasome function blocked cell death induced by ionizing radiation, glucocorticoids or phorbol ester. In addition to inhibiting apoptosis, these signals prevented the cleavage of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase that accompanies many cell deaths. Since overall rates of protein degradation were not altered significantly during cell death in thymocytes, these results suggest that the proteasome may either degrade regulatory protein(s) that normally inhibit the apoptotic pathway or may proteolytically activate protein(s) than promote cell death. Images PMID:8670888

  18. Molecular cloning and functional analysis of three subunits of yeast proteasome.

    PubMed Central

    Emori, Y; Tsukahara, T; Kawasaki, H; Ishiura, S; Sugita, H; Suzuki, K

    1991-01-01

    The genes encoding three subunits of Saccharomyces cerevisiae proteasome were cloned and sequenced. The deduced amino acid sequences were homologous not only to each other (30 to 40% identity) but also to those of rat and Drosophila proteasomes (25 to 65% identity). However, none of these sequences showed any similarity to any other known sequences, including various proteases, suggesting that these proteasome subunits may constitute a unique gene family. Gene disruption analyses revealed that two of the three subunits (subunits Y7 and Y8) are essential for growth, indicating that the proteasome and its individual subunits play an indispensable role in fundamental biological processes. On the other hand, subunit Y13 is not essential; haploid cells with a disrupted Y13 gene can proliferate, although the doubling time is longer than that of cells with nondisrupted genes. In addition, biochemical analysis revealed that proteasome prepared from the Y13 disrupted cells contains tryptic and chymotryptic activities equivalent to those of nondisrupted cells, indicating that the Y13 subunit is not essential for tryptic or chymotryptic activity. However, the chymotryptic activity of the Y13 disrupted cells is not dependent on sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), an activator of proteasome, since nearly full activity was observed in the absence of SDS. Thus, the activity in proteasome of the Y13 disrupted cells might result in unregulated intracellular proteolysis, thus leading to the prolonged cell cycle. These results indicate that cloned proteasome subunits having similar sequences to the yeast Y13 subunit are structural, but not catalytic, components of proteasome. It is also suggested that two subunits (Y7 and Y8) might occupy positions essential to proteasome structure or activity, whereas subunit Y13 is in a nonessential but important position. Images PMID:1898763

  19. Structure- and function-based design of Plasmodium-selective proteasome inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Li, Hao; O'Donoghue, Anthony J; van der Linden, Wouter A; Xie, Stanley C; Yoo, Euna; Foe, Ian T; Tilley, Leann; Craik, Charles S; da Fonseca, Paula C A; Bogyo, Matthew

    2016-02-11

    The proteasome is a multi-component protease complex responsible for regulating key processes such as the cell cycle and antigen presentation. Compounds that target the proteasome are potentially valuable tools for the treatment of pathogens that depend on proteasome function for survival and replication. In particular, proteasome inhibitors have been shown to be toxic for the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum at all stages of its life cycle. Most compounds that have been tested against the parasite also inhibit the mammalian proteasome, resulting in toxicity that precludes their use as therapeutic agents. Therefore, better definition of the substrate specificity and structural properties of the Plasmodium proteasome could enable the development of compounds with sufficient selectivity to allow their use as anti-malarial agents. To accomplish this goal, here we use a substrate profiling method to uncover differences in the specificities of the human and P. falciparum proteasome. We design inhibitors based on amino-acid preferences specific to the parasite proteasome, and find that they preferentially inhibit the β2-subunit. We determine the structure of the P. falciparum 20S proteasome bound to the inhibitor using cryo-electron microscopy and single-particle analysis, to a resolution of 3.6 Å. These data reveal the unusually open P. falciparum β2 active site and provide valuable information about active-site architecture that can be used to further refine inhibitor design. Furthermore, consistent with the recent finding that the proteasome is important for stress pathways associated with resistance of artemisinin family anti-malarials, we observe growth inhibition synergism with low doses of this β2-selective inhibitor in artemisinin-sensitive and -resistant parasites. Finally, we demonstrate that a parasite-selective inhibitor could be used to attenuate parasite growth in vivo without appreciable toxicity to the host. Thus, the Plasmodium proteasome is a

  20. Structure and function based design of Plasmodium-selective proteasome inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Li, Hao; O'Donoghue, Anthony J.; van der Linden, Wouter A.; Xie, Stanley C.; Yoo, Euna; Foe, Ian T.; Tilley, Leann; Craik, Charles S.; da Fonseca, Paula C. A.; Bogyo, Matthew

    2016-01-01

    The proteasome is a multi-component protease complex responsible for regulating key processes such as the cell cycle and antigen presentation1. Compounds that target the proteasome are potentially valuable tools for the treatment of pathogens that depend on proteasome function for survival and replication. In particular, proteasome inhibitors have been shown to be toxic for the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum at all stages of its life cycle2-5. Most compounds that have been tested against the parasite also inhibit the mammalian proteasome resulting in toxicity that precludes their use as therapeutic agents2,6. Therefore, better definition of the substrate specificity and structural properties of the Plasmodium proteasome could enable the development of compounds with sufficient selectivity to allow their use as anti-malarial agents. To accomplish this goal, we used a substrate profiling method to uncover differences in the specificities of the human and P. falciparum proteasome. We designed inhibitors based on amino acid preferences specific to the parasite proteasome, and found that they preferentially inhibit the β 2 subunit. We determined the structure of the P. falciparum 20S proteasome bound to the inhibitor using cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) and single particle analysis, to a resolution of 3.6 Å. These data reveal the unusually open P. falciparum β2 active site and provide valuable information regarding active site architecture that can be used to further refine inhibitor design. Furthermore, consistent with the recent finding that the proteasome is important for stress pathways associated with resistance of artemisinin (ART) family anti-malarials7,8, we observed growth inhibition synergism with low doses of this β 2 selective inhibitor in ART sensitive and resistant parasites. Finally, we demonstrated that a parasite selective inhibitor could be used to attenuate parasite growth in vivo without significant toxicity to the host. Thus, the

  1. Lysine 419 targets human glucocorticoid receptor for proteasomal degradation.

    PubMed

    Wallace, Andrew D; Cao, Yan; Chandramouleeswaran, Sindhu; Cidlowski, John A

    2010-12-01

    Glucocorticoid receptors (GRs) are members of a highly conserved family of ligand dependent transcription factors which following hormone binding undergo homologous down-regulation reducing the levels of receptor protein. This decline in human GR (hGR) is due in part to a decrease in protein receptor stability that may limit cellular responsiveness to ligand. To examine the role of the proteasome protein degradation pathway in steroid-dependent hGR responsiveness, we utilized the proteasomal inhibitors MG-132, beta-lactone, and epoxomicin. HeLa cells and COS cells were treated with proteasome inhibitors in the presence of the GR agonist dexamethasone (Dex), or were pretreated with proteasomal inhibitor and then Dex. Dexamethasone induced glucocorticoid responsive reporter activity significantly over untreated controls, whereas cells treated with proteasomal inhibitors and Dex together showed 2-3-fold increase in activity. Protein sequence analysis of the hGR protein identified several candidate protein degradation motifs including a PEST element. Mutagenesis of this element at lysine 419 was done and mutant K419A hGR failed to undergo ligand dependent down-regulation. Mutant K419A hGR displayed 2-3-fold greater glucocorticoid responsive reporter activity in the presence of Dex than wild type hGR. These differences in transcriptional activity were not due to altered subcellular localization, since when the mutant K419A hGR was fused with the green fluorescent protein (GFP) it was found to move in and out of the nucleus similarly to wild type hGR. Together these results suggest that the proteasome and the identified PEST degradation motif limit steroid-dependent human glucocorticoid receptor signaling.

  2. Wheat sprout extract-induced apoptosis in human cancer cells by proteasomes modulation.

    PubMed

    Bonfili, Laura; Amici, Manila; Cecarini, Valentina; Cuccioloni, Massimiliano; Tacconi, Rosalia; Angeletti, Mauro; Fioretti, Evandro; Keller, Jeffrey N; Eleuteri, Anna Maria

    2009-09-01

    Natural occurring modulators of proteasome functionality are extensively investigated for their implication in cancer therapy. On the basis of our previous evidences both on proteasomal inhibition by monomeric polyphenols, and on the characterization of wheat sprout hydroalcoholic extract, herein we thoroughly report on a comparative study of the effect of wheat sprout extract on both normal and tumour cells. Treatment of isolated 20S proteasomes with wheat sprout extracts induced a gradual inhibition of all proteasome activities. Next, two wheat sprout extract components were separated: a polyphenol and a protein fraction. Both components exerted an in vitro inhibitory effect on proteasome activity. HeLa tumour cells and FHs 74 Int normal cells were exposed to both fractions, resulting in different rates of proteasome inhibition, with tumour cells showing a significantly higher degree of proteasome impairment and apoptosis induction. Furthermore, a decrease in proteasome activities and in cell survival of the human plasmacytoma RPMI 8226 cell line, upon the same treatments, was observed. Collectively, our results provide additional evidences supporting the possible use of natural extracts as coadjuvants in cancer treatments.

  3. Clioquinol - a novel copper-dependent and independent proteasome inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Schimmer, A D

    2011-03-01

    Clioquinol (5-chloro-7-iodo-quinolin-8-ol) was used in the 1950's-1970's as an oral anti-parasitic agent. More recently, studies have demonstrated that Clioquinol displays preclinical efficacy in the treatment of malignancy. Its anti-cancer activity relates, at least in part, to its ability to inhibit the proteasome through mechanisms dependent and independent of its ability to bind heavy metals such as copper. By acting as a metal ionophore Clioquinol transports metal ions from the extracellular environment into the cell and mobilizes weakly bound intracellular stores. It then directs the metal to the proteasome resulting in disruption of this enzymatic complex. In addition, Clioquinol is capable of directly inhibiting the proteasome at higher concentrations. Thus, Clioquinol represents a novel therapeutic strategy to inhibit the proteasome. Given the prior toxicology and pharmacology studies, Clioquinol could be rapidly repositioned for a new anti-cancer indication. This review highlights the mechanism of action of Clioquinol as a proteasome inhibitor. In addition, it discusses the human pharmacology and toxicology studies and how this information would guide a phase I clinical trial of this agent for patients with malignancy.

  4. Proteasome Inhibitors in the Treatment of Multiple Myeloma

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Jatin J.; Orlowski, Robert Z.

    2016-01-01

    Targeting intracellular protein turnover by inhibiting the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway as a strategy for cancer therapy is a new addition to our chemotherapeutic armamentarium, and has seen its greatest successes against multiple myeloma. The first-in-class proteasome inhibitor bortezomib was initially approved for treatment of patients in the relapsed/refractory setting as a single agent, and was recently shown to induce even greater benefits as part of rationally-designed combinations that overcome chemoresistance. Modulation of proteasome function is also a rational approach to achieve chemosensitization to other anti-myeloma agents, and bortezomib has now been incorporated into the front-line setting. Bortezomib-based induction regimens are able to achieve higher overall response rates and response qualities than was the case with prior standards of care, and unlike these older approaches, maintain efficacy in patients with clinically- and molecularly-defined high-risk disease. Second-generation proteasome inhibitors with novel properties, such as NPI-0052 and carfilzomib, are entering the clinical arena, and showing evidence of anti-myeloma activity. In this spotlight review, we provide an overview of the current state of the art use of bortezomib and other proteasome inhibitors against multiple myeloma, and highlight areas for future study that will further optimize our ability to benefit patients with this disease. PMID:19741722

  5. Characterisation of 20S Proteasome in Tritrichomonas foetus and Its Role during the Cell Cycle and Transformation into Endoflagellar Form.

    PubMed

    Pereira-Neves, Antonio; Gonzaga, Luiz; Menna-Barreto, Rubem F S; Benchimol, Marlene

    2015-01-01

    Proteasomes are intracellular complexes that control selective protein degradation in organisms ranging from Archaea to higher eukaryotes. These structures have multiple proteolytic activities that are required for cell differentiation, replication and maintaining cellular homeostasis. Here, we document the presence of the 20S proteasome in the protist parasite Tritrichomonas foetus. Complementary techniques, such as a combination of whole genome sequencing technologies, bioinformatics algorithms, cell fractionation and biochemistry and microscopy approaches were used to characterise the 20S proteasome of T. foetus. The 14 homologues of the typical eukaryotic proteasome subunits were identified in the T. foetus genome. Alignment analyses showed that the main regulatory and catalytic domains of the proteasome were conserved in the predicted amino acid sequences from T. foetus-proteasome subunits. Immunofluorescence assays using an anti-proteasome antibody revealed a labelling distributed throughout the cytosol as punctate cytoplasmic structures and in the perinuclear region. Electron microscopy of a T. foetus-proteasome-enriched fraction confirmed the presence of particles that resembled the typical eukaryotic 20S proteasome. Fluorogenic assays using specific peptidyl substrates detected presence of the three typical peptidase activities of eukaryotic proteasomes in T. foetus. As expected, these peptidase activities were inhibited by lactacystin, a well-known specific proteasome inhibitor, and were not affected by inhibitors of serine or cysteine proteases. During the transformation of T. foetus to endoflagellar form (EFF), also known as pseudocyst, we observed correlations between the EFF formation rates, increases in the proteasome activities and reduced levels of ubiquitin-protein conjugates. The growth, cell cycle and EFF transformation of T. foetus were inhibited after treatment with lactacystin in a dose-dependent manner. Lactacystin treatment also resulted in

  6. Characterisation of 20S Proteasome in Tritrichomonas foetus and Its Role during the Cell Cycle and Transformation into Endoflagellar Form

    PubMed Central

    Pereira-Neves, Antonio; Gonzaga, Luiz; Menna-Barreto, Rubem F. S.; Benchimol, Marlene

    2015-01-01

    Proteasomes are intracellular complexes that control selective protein degradation in organisms ranging from Archaea to higher eukaryotes. These structures have multiple proteolytic activities that are required for cell differentiation, replication and maintaining cellular homeostasis. Here, we document the presence of the 20S proteasome in the protist parasite Tritrichomonas foetus. Complementary techniques, such as a combination of whole genome sequencing technologies, bioinformatics algorithms, cell fractionation and biochemistry and microscopy approaches were used to characterise the 20S proteasome of T. foetus. The 14 homologues of the typical eukaryotic proteasome subunits were identified in the T. foetus genome. Alignment analyses showed that the main regulatory and catalytic domains of the proteasome were conserved in the predicted amino acid sequences from T. foetus-proteasome subunits. Immunofluorescence assays using an anti-proteasome antibody revealed a labelling distributed throughout the cytosol as punctate cytoplasmic structures and in the perinuclear region. Electron microscopy of a T. foetus-proteasome-enriched fraction confirmed the presence of particles that resembled the typical eukaryotic 20S proteasome. Fluorogenic assays using specific peptidyl substrates detected presence of the three typical peptidase activities of eukaryotic proteasomes in T. foetus. As expected, these peptidase activities were inhibited by lactacystin, a well-known specific proteasome inhibitor, and were not affected by inhibitors of serine or cysteine proteases. During the transformation of T. foetus to endoflagellar form (EFF), also known as pseudocyst, we observed correlations between the EFF formation rates, increases in the proteasome activities and reduced levels of ubiquitin-protein conjugates. The growth, cell cycle and EFF transformation of T. foetus were inhibited after treatment with lactacystin in a dose-dependent manner. Lactacystin treatment also resulted in

  7. Progressively impaired proteasomal capacity during terminal plasma cell differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Cenci, Simone; Mezghrani, Alexandre; Cascio, Paolo; Bianchi, Giada; Cerruti, Fulvia; Fra, Anna; Lelouard, Hugues; Masciarelli, Silvia; Mattioli, Laura; Oliva, Laura; Orsi, Andrea; Pasqualetto, Elena; Pierre, Philippe; Ruffato, Elena; Tagliavacca, Luigina; Sitia, Roberto

    2006-01-01

    After few days of intense immunoglobulin (Ig) secretion, most plasma cells undergo apoptosis, thus ending the humoral immune response. We asked whether intrinsic factors link plasma cell lifespan to Ig secretion. Here we show that in the late phases of plasmacytic differentiation, when antibody production becomes maximal, proteasomal activity decreases. The excessive load for the reduced proteolytic capacity correlates with accumulation of polyubiquitinated proteins, stabilization of endogenous proteasomal substrates (including Xbp1s, IκBα, and Bax), onset of apoptosis, and sensitization to proteasome inhibitors (PI). These events can be reproduced by expressing Ig-μ chain in nonlymphoid cells. Our results suggest that a developmental program links plasma cell death to protein production, and help explaining the peculiar sensitivity of normal and malignant plasma cells to PI. PMID:16498407

  8. Proteasomes regulate hepatitis B virus replication by degradation of viral core-related proteins in a two-step manner.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Zi-Hua; Yang, Hui-Ying; Gu, Lin; Peng, Xiao-Mou

    2016-10-01

    The cellular proteasomes presumably inhibit the replication of hepatitis B virus (HBV) due to degradation of the viral core protein (HBcAg). Common proteasome inhibitors, however, either enhance or inhibit HBV replication. In this study, the exact degradation process of HBcAg and its influences on HBV replication were further studied using bioinformatic analysis, protease digestion assays of recombinant HBcAg, and proteasome inhibitor treatments of HBV-producing cell line HepG2.2.15. Besides HBcAg and hepatitis B e antigen precursor, common hepatitis B core-related antigens (HBcrAgs), the small and the large degradation intermediates of these HBcrAgs (HBcrDIs), were regularly found in cytosol of HepG2.2.15 cells. Further, the results of investigation reveal that the degradation process of cytosolic HBcrAgs in proteasomes consists of two steps: the limited proteolysis into HBcrDIs by the trypsin-like (TL) activity and the complete degradation of HBcrDIs by the chymotrypsin-like (chTL) activity. Concordantly, HBcrAgs and the large HBcrDI or HBcrDIs (including the small HBcrDI) were accumulated when the TL or chTL activity was inhibited, which generally correlated with enhancement and inhibition of HBV replication, respectively. The small HBcrDI inhibited HBV replication by assembling into the nucleocapsids and preventing the victim particles from being mature enough for envelopment. The two-step degradation manner may highlight some new anti-HBV strategies.

  9. Proteasome subtypes and regulators in the processing of antigenic peptides presented by class I molecules of the major histocompatibility complex.

    PubMed

    Vigneron, Nathalie; Van den Eynde, Benoît J

    2014-11-18

    The proteasome is responsible for the breakdown of cellular proteins. Proteins targeted for degradation are allowed inside the proteasome particle, where they are cleaved into small peptides and released in the cytosol to be degraded into amino acids. In vertebrates, some of these peptides escape degradation in the cytosol, are loaded onto class I molecules of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) and displayed at the cell surface for scrutiny by the immune system. The proteasome therefore plays a key role for the immune system: it provides a continued sampling of intracellular proteins, so that CD8-positive T-lymphocytes can kill cells expressing viral or tumoral proteins. Consequently, the repertoire of peptides displayed by MHC class I molecules at the cell surface depends on proteasome activity, which may vary according to the presence of proteasome subtypes and regulators. Besides standard proteasomes, cells may contain immunoproteasomes, intermediate proteasomes and thymoproteasomes. Cells may also contain regulators of proteasome activity, such as the 19S, PA28 and PA200 regulators. Here, we review the effects of these proteasome subtypes and regulators on the production of antigenic peptides. We also discuss an unexpected function of the proteasome discovered through the study of antigenic peptides: its ability to splice peptides.

  10. Poxvirus Exploitation of the Ubiquitin-Proteasome System

    PubMed Central

    Barry, Michele; van Buuren, Nicholas; Burles, Kristin; Mottet, Kelly; Wang, Qian; Teale, Alastair

    2010-01-01

    Ubiquitination plays a critical role in many cellular processes. A growing number of viruses have evolved strategies to exploit the ubiquitin-proteasome system, including members of the Poxviridae family. Members of the poxvirus family have recently been shown to encode BTB/kelch and ankyrin/F-box proteins that interact with cullin-3 and cullin-1 based ubiquitin ligases, respectively. Multiple members of the poxvirus family also encode ubiquitin ligases with intrinsic activity. This review describes the numerous mechanisms that poxviruses employ to manipulate the ubiquitin-proteasome system. PMID:21994622

  11. Structural Insights into the Regulatory Particle of the Proteasome from Methanocaldococcus jannaschii

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, F.; Hu, M; Tian, G; Zhang, P; Finley, D; Jeffrey, P; Shi, Y

    2009-01-01

    Eukaryotic proteasome consists of a core particle (CP), which degrades unfolded protein, and a regulatory particle (RP), which is responsible for recognition, ATP-dependent unfolding, and translocation of polyubiquitinated substrate protein. In the archaea Methanocaldococcus jannaschii, the RP is a homohexameric complex of proteasome-activating nucleotidase (PAN). Here, we report the crystal structures of essential elements of the archaeal proteasome: the CP, the ATPase domain of PAN, and a distal subcomplex that is likely the first to encounter substrate. The distal subcomplex contains a coiled-coil segment and an OB-fold domain, both of which appear to be conserved in the eukaryotic proteasome. The OB domains of PAN form a hexameric ring with a 13 A pore, which likely constitutes the outermost constriction of the substrate translocation channel. These studies reveal structural codes and architecture of the complete proteasome, identify potential substrate-binding sites, and uncover unexpected asymmetry in the RP of archaea and eukaryotes.

  12. Distinct temporal requirements for autophagy and the proteasome in yeast meiosis.

    PubMed

    Wen, Fu-ping; Guo, Yue-shuai; Hu, Yang; Liu, Wei-xiao; Wang, Qian; Wang, Yuan-ting; Yu, Hai-Yan; Tang, Chao-ming; Yang, Jun; Zhou, Tao; Xie, Zhi-ping; Sha, Jia-hao; Guo, Xuejiang; Li, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Meiosis is a special type of cellular renovation that involves 2 successive cell divisions and a single round of DNA replication. Two major degradation systems, the autophagy-lysosome and the ubiquitin-proteasome, are involved in meiosis, but their roles have yet to be elucidated. Here we show that autophagy mainly affects the initiation of meiosis but not the nuclear division. Autophagy works not only by serving as a dynamic recycling system but also by eliminating some negative meiotic regulators such as Ego4 (Ynr034w-a). In a quantitative proteomics study, the proteasome was found to be significantly upregulated during meiotic divisions. We found that proteasomal activity is essential to the 2 successive meiotic nuclear divisions but not for the initiation of meiosis. Our study defines the roles of autophagy and the proteasome in meiosis: Autophagy mainly affects the initiation of meiosis, whereas the proteasome mainly affects the 2 successive meiotic divisions.

  13. Molecular characterization and intracellular distribution of the alpha 5 subunit of Trypanosoma cruzi 20S proteasome.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez, Bessy; Osorio, Luis; Motta, María Cristina M; Huima-Byron, Telervo; Erdjument-Bromage, Heydeie; Muñoz, Christian; Sagua, Hernán; Mortara, Renato A; Echeverría, Alex; Araya, Jorge E; González, Jorge

    2009-12-01

    Three different monoclonal antibodies were produced against Trypanosona cruzi proteasomes. These antibodies were shown to react with a single 27-kDa band on immunoblots of purified proteasomes. Using a 7E5 monoclonal antibody (IgG1) that recognized the alpha5 subunit of protozoan protease we have studied the intracellular distribution of the T. cruzi 20S proteasome. Contrary to all cell types described to date, T. cruzi 20S proteasome was found not only in the cytoplasm and nucleus but also in the kinetoplast. As revealed by confocal microscopy, the reactivity of monoclonal antibody 7E5 was highly specific for protozoan proteasome because the antibody recognized only the proteasomes from parasites and not those from the mammalian host in T. cruzi infected cells. These findings were confirmed by immunoblots or immunoprecipitations, followed by chymotrypsin-like activity detection in kinetoplasts isolated by differential centrifugation and sucrose density gradients. Proteasome 20S was present in all T. cruzi stages and only slight differences in terms of relative abundance were found. The potential role of the proteasome in kinetoplast remodeling remains to be determined.

  14. The Lysine 48 and Lysine 63 Ubiquitin Conjugates Are Processed Differently by the 26 S Proteasome*

    PubMed Central

    Jacobson, Andrew D.; Zhang, Nan-Yan; Xu, Ping; Han, Ke-Jun; Noone, Seth; Peng, Junmin; Liu, Chang-Wei

    2009-01-01

    The role of Lys-63 ubiquitin chains in targeting proteins for proteasomal degradation is still obscure. We systematically compared proteasomal processing of Lys-63 ubiquitin chains with that of the canonical proteolytic signal, Lys-48 ubiquitin chains. Quantitative mass spectrometric analysis of ubiquitin chains in HeLa cells determines that the levels of Lys-63 ubiquitin chains are insensitive to short-time proteasome inhibition. Also, the Lys-48/Lys-63 ratio in the 26 S proteasome-bound fraction is 1.7-fold more than that in the cell lysates, likely because some cellular Lys-63 ubiquitin conjugates are sequestered by Lys-63 chain-specific binding proteins. In vitro, Lys-48 and Lys-63 ubiquitin chains bind the 26 S proteasome comparably, whereas Lys-63 chains are deubiquitinated 6-fold faster than Lys-48 chains. Also, Lys-63 tetraubiquitin-conjugated UbcH10 is rapidly deubiquitinated into the monoubiquitinated form, whereas Lys-48 tetraubiquitin targets UbcH10 for degradation. Furthermore, we found that both the ubiquitin aldehyde- and 1,10-phenanthroline-sensitive deubiquitinating activities of the 26 S proteasome contribute to Lys-48- and Lys-63-linkage deubiquitination, albeit the inhibitory extents are different. Together, our findings suggest that compared with Lys-48 chains, cellular Lys-63 chains have less proteasomal accessibility, and proteasome-bound Lys-63 chains are more rapidly deubiquitinated, which could cause inefficient degradation of Lys-63 conjugates. PMID:19858201

  15. Autophagy maintains ubiquitination-proteasomal degradation of Sirt3 to limit oxidative stress in K562 leukemia cells

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Li; Cao, Yan; Xu, Fei; Yan, Lili; Nie, Meilan; Yuan, Na; Zhang, Suping; Zhao, Ruijin; Wang, Hongbin; Wu, Mengyin; Zhang, Xiaoying; Wang, Jianrong

    2016-01-01

    Sirtuin protein family member 3 (Sirt3) has been suggested as a positive regulator in alleviating oxidative stress by acting on the mitochondrial antioxidant machinery in solid tumors; however, its role and regulation in hematological malignancies has been poorly understood. Here, we show that contrary to what has been reported in solid tumors, in K562 leukemia cells elevated Sirt3 was associated with mitochondrial stress, and depletion of Sirt3 decreased reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and lipid oxidation, but increased the ratio of reduced glutathione (GSH) to oxidized glutathione (GSSG), suggesting an opposite role of Sirt3 in regulating oxidative stress in the leukemia cells. Notably, loss of autophagy by deletion of autophagy essential gene or by pharmacological inhibition on autophagic degradation caused a significant accumulation of Sirt3. However, induced activation of autophagy did not cause autophagic degradation of Sirt3. Furthermore, inhibiting proteasome activity accumulated Sirt3 in autophagy-intact but not autophagy-defective cells, and disrupting functional autophagy either genetically or pharmacologically caused significantly less ubiquitination of Sirt3. Therefore, our data suggest that basal but not enhanced autophagy activity maintains ubiquitination-proteasomal degradation of Sirt3 to limit lipid oxidative stress, representing an adaptive mechanism by which autophagy, in collaboration with the ubiquitination-proteasomal system, controls oxidative stress by controlling the levels of certain proteins in K562 leukemia cells. PMID:27232755

  16. Additive loss-of-function proteasome subunit mutations in CANDLE/PRAAS patients promote type I IFN production

    PubMed Central

    Brehm, Anja; Liu, Yin; Sheikh, Afzal; Marrero, Bernadette; Omoyinmi, Ebun; Zhou, Qing; Montealegre, Gina; Biancotto, Angelique; Reinhardt, Adam; Almeida de Jesus, Adriana; Pelletier, Martin; Tsai, Wanxia L.; Remmers, Elaine F.; Kardava, Lela; Hill, Suvimol; Kim, Hanna; Lachmann, Helen J.; Megarbane, Andre; Chae, Jae Jin; Brady, Jilian; Castillo, Rhina D.; Brown, Diane; Casano, Angel Vera; Gao, Ling; Chapelle, Dawn; Huang, Yan; Stone, Deborah; Chen, Yongqing; Sotzny, Franziska; Lee, Chyi-Chia Richard; Kastner, Daniel L.; Torrelo, Antonio; Zlotogorski, Abraham; Moir, Susan; Gadina, Massimo; McCoy, Phil; Wesley, Robert; Rother, Kristina; Hildebrand, Peter W.; Brogan, Paul; Krüger, Elke; Aksentijevich, Ivona; Goldbach-Mansky, Raphaela

    2015-01-01

    Autosomal recessive mutations in proteasome subunit β 8 (PSMB8), which encodes the inducible proteasome subunit β5i, cause the immune-dysregulatory disease chronic atypical neutrophilic dermatosis with lipodystrophy and elevated temperature (CANDLE), which is classified as a proteasome-associated autoinflammatory syndrome (PRAAS). Here, we identified 8 mutations in 4 proteasome genes, PSMA3 (encodes α7), PSMB4 (encodes β7), PSMB9 (encodes β1i), and proteasome maturation protein (POMP), that have not been previously associated with disease and 1 mutation in PSMB8 that has not been previously reported. One patient was compound heterozygous for PSMB4 mutations, 6 patients from 4 families were heterozygous for a missense mutation in 1 inducible proteasome subunit and a mutation in a constitutive proteasome subunit, and 1 patient was heterozygous for a POMP mutation, thus establishing a digenic and autosomal dominant inheritance pattern of PRAAS. Function evaluation revealed that these mutations variably affect transcription, protein expression, protein folding, proteasome assembly, and, ultimately, proteasome activity. Moreover, defects in proteasome formation and function were recapitulated by siRNA-mediated knockdown of the respective subunits in primary fibroblasts from healthy individuals. Patient-isolated hematopoietic and nonhematopoietic cells exhibited a strong IFN gene-expression signature, irrespective of genotype. Additionally, chemical proteasome inhibition or progressive depletion of proteasome subunit gene transcription with siRNA induced transcription of type I IFN genes in healthy control cells. Our results provide further insight into CANDLE genetics and link global proteasome dysfunction to increased type I IFN production. PMID:26524591

  17. Rapid Turnover of Extracellular Signal-Regulated Kinase 3 by the Ubiquitin-Proteasome Pathway Defines a Novel Paradigm of Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Regulation during Cellular Differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Coulombe, Philippe; Rodier, Geneviève; Pelletier, Stéphane; Pellerin, Johanne; Meloche, Sylvain

    2003-01-01

    Mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases are stable enzymes that are mainly regulated by phosphorylation and subcellular targeting. Here we report that extracellular signal-regulated kinase 3 (ERK3), unlike other MAP kinases, is an unstable protein that is constitutively degraded in proliferating cells with a half-life of 30 min. The proteolysis of ERK3 is executed by the proteasome and requires ubiquitination of the protein. Contrary to other protein kinases, the catalytic activity of ERK3 is not responsible for its short half-life. Instead, analysis of ERK1/ERK3 chimeras revealed the presence of two destabilization regions (NDR1 and -2) in the N-terminal lobe of the ERK3 kinase domain that are both necessary and sufficient to target ERK3 and heterologous proteins for proteasomal degradation. To assess the physiological relevance of the rapid turnover of ERK3, we monitored the expression of the kinase in different cellular models of differentiation. We observed that ERK3 markedly accumulates during differentiation of PC12 and C2C12 cells into the neuronal and muscle lineage, respectively. The accumulation of ERK3 during myogenic differentiation is associated with the time-dependent stabilization of the protein. Terminal skeletal muscle differentiation is accompanied by cell cycle withdrawal. Interestingly, we found that expression of stabilized forms of ERK3 causes G1 arrest in NIH 3T3 cells. We propose that ERK3 biological activity is regulated by its cellular abundance through the control of protein stability. PMID:12808096

  18. Purification and characterization of 26S proteasomes from human and mouse spermatozoa.

    PubMed

    Tipler, C P; Hutchon, S P; Hendil, K; Tanaka, K; Fishel, S; Mayer, R J

    1997-12-01

    We purified by fractionation on 10-40% glycerol gradients, 26S proteasomes from normal human spermatozoa. These proteasomes, which participate in the ATP-dependent degradation of ubiquitinated proteins, share a similar sedimentation coefficient to those purified from other human tissues. Fluorogenic peptide assays reveal they have chymotrypsin, trypsin and peptidyl-glutamyl-like peptide hydrolysing activities; the chymotrypsin activity is ablated by the specific 26S proteasome inhibitor MG132. Confirmation that these large proteases are 26S proteasomes is provided by detection of the 20S proteasome subunits HC2, XAPC7, RN3 and Z and regulatory ATPases MSS1, TBP1, SUG1 and SUG2 by Western analyses with monoclonal antisera. These antigens are found only in the gradient fractions enriched in proteolytic activities. We have also shown that, although mature spermatozoa from mice have considerably reduced amounts of a ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme (E2) and ubiquitin-protein conjugates in comparison with less mature germ cells, they retain relatively high values of 26S proteasome activity. This suggests that proteasomes may have further roles to play in normal sperm physiology.

  19. Inhibition on Proteasome β1 Subunit Might Contribute to the Anti-Cancer Effects of Fangchinoline in Human Prostate Cancer Cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Dong; Lu, Yu; Sun, Peng; Feng, Li-Xing; Liu, Miao; Hu, Li-Hong; Wu, Wan-Ying; Jiang, Bao-Hong; Yang, Min; Qu, Xiao-Bo; Guo, De-An; Liu, Xuan

    2015-01-01

    Fangchinoline is a bisbenzylisoquinoline alkaloid isolated from Radix Stephaniae tetrandrae S. Moore. Fangchinoline and its structure analogue, tetrandrine, exhibited direct binding affinity with recombinant human proteasome β1 subunit and also inhibited its activity in vitro. In cultured prostate PC-3 cells and LnCap cells, fangchinoline could dose-dependently inhibit cell proliferation and caspase-like activity of cellular proteasome which was mediated by proteasome β1 subunit. The inhibitive effect of fangchinoline on caspase-like activity of proteasome was also observed in purified human erythrocyte 20S proteasome. In PC-3 cells, fangchinoline induced cell cycle arrest at G0/G1 phase and apoptosis. Treatment of PC-3 tumor-bearing nude mice with fangchinoline inhibited tumor growth, induced apoptosis and also caused decrease in proteasome activities in tumor xenografts. Dose-dependent and time-dependent accumulation of ubiquitinated proteins and important proteasome substrates such as p27, Bax and IκB-α were observed in fangchinoline-treated cells. Over-expression of proteasome β1 subunit by plasmid transfection increased sensitivity of cells to the cytotoxicity of fangchinoline while knockdown of proteasome β1 subunit ameliorated cytotoxicity of fangchinoline in PC-3 cells. Results of the present study suggested that proteasome inhibition was involved in the anti-cancer effects of fangchinoline. Fangchinoline and its structure analogues might be new natural proteasome inhibitors targeting β1 subunit.

  20. The proteasome inhibitor bortezomib induces testicular toxicity by upregulation of oxidative stress, AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activation and deregulation of germ cell development in adult murine testis

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Wei; Fu, Jianfang; Zhang, Shun; Zhao, Jie; Xie, Nianlin; Cai, Guoqing

    2015-06-01

    Understanding how chemotherapeutic agents mediate testicular toxicity is crucial in light of compelling evidence that male infertility, one of the severe late side effects of intensive cancer treatment, occurs more often than they are expected to. Previous study demonstrated that bortezomib (BTZ), a 26S proteasome inhibitor used to treat refractory multiple myeloma (MM), exerts deleterious impacts on spermatogenesis in pubertal mice via unknown mechanisms. Here, we showed that intermittent treatment with BTZ resulted in fertility impairment in adult mice, evidenced by testicular atrophy, desquamation of immature germ cells and reduced caudal sperm storage. These deleterious effects may originate from the elevated apoptosis in distinct germ cells during the acute phase and the subsequent disruption of Sertoli–germ cell anchoring junctions (AJs) during the late recovery. Mechanistically, balance between AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activation and Akt/ERK pathway appeared to be indispensable for AJ integrity during the late testicular recovery. Of particular interest, the upregulated testicular apoptosis and the following disturbance of Sertoli–germ cell interaction may both stem from the excessive oxidative stress elicited by BTZ exposure. We also provided the in vitro evidence that AMPK-dependent mechanisms counteract follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) proliferative effects in BTZ-exposed Sertoli cells. Collectively, BTZ appeared to efficiently prevent germ cells from normal development via multiple mechanisms in adult mice. Employment of antioxidants and/or AMPK inhibitor may represent an attractive strategy of fertility preservation in male MM patients exposed to conventional BTZ therapy and warrants further investigation. - Highlights: • Intermittent treatment with BTZ caused fertility impairment in adult mice. • BTZ treatment elicited apoptosis during early phase of testicular recovery. • Up-regulation of oxidative stress by BTZ treatment

  1. Urban renewal in the nucleus: is protein turnover by proteasomes absolutely required for nuclear receptor-regulated transcription?

    PubMed

    Nawaz, Zafar; O'Malley, Bert W

    2004-03-01

    The importance of the ubiquitin proteasome pathway in higher eukaryotes has been well established in cell cycle regulation, signal transduction, and cell differentiation, but has only recently been linked to nuclear hormone receptor-regulated gene transcription. Characterization of a number of ubiquitin proteasome pathway enzymes as coactivators and observations that several nuclear receptors are ubiquitinated and degraded in the course of their nuclear activities provide evidence that ubiquitin proteasome-mediated protein degradation plays an integral role in eukaryotic transcription. In addition to receptors, studies have revealed that coactivators are ubiquitinated and degraded via the proteasome. The notion that the ubiquitin proteasome pathway is involved in gene transcription is further strengthened by the fact that ubiquitin proteasome pathway enzymes are recruited to the promoters of target genes and that proteasome-dependent degradation of nuclear receptors is required for efficient transcriptional activity. These findings suggest that protein degradation is coupled with nuclear receptor coactivation activity. It is possible that the ubiquitin proteasome pathway modulates transcription by promoting remodeling and turnover of the nuclear receptor-transcription complex. In this review, we discus the possible role of the ubiquitin proteasome pathway in nuclear hormone receptor-regulated gene transcription.

  2. Stronger proteasomal inhibition and higher CHOP induction are responsible for more effective induction of paraptosis by dimethoxycurcumin than curcumin.

    PubMed

    Yoon, M J; Kang, Y J; Lee, J A; Kim, I Y; Kim, M A; Lee, Y S; Park, J H; Lee, B Y; Kim, I A; Kim, H S; Kim, S-A; Yoon, A-R; Yun, C-O; Kim, E-Y; Lee, K; Choi, K S

    2014-03-13

    Although curcumin suppresses the growth of a variety of cancer cells, its poor absorption and low systemic bioavailability have limited its translation into clinics as an anticancer agent. In this study, we show that dimethoxycurcumin (DMC), a methylated, more stable analog of curcumin, is significantly more potent than curcumin in inducing cell death and reducing the clonogenicity of malignant breast cancer cells. Furthermore, DMC reduces the tumor growth of xenografted MDA-MB 435S cells more strongly than curcumin. We found that DMC induces paraptosis accompanied by excessive dilation of mitochondria and the endoplasmic reticulum (ER); this is similar to curcumin, but a much lower concentration of DMC is required to induce this process. DMC inhibits the proteasomal activity more strongly than curcumin, possibly causing severe ER stress and contributing to the observed dilation. DMC treatment upregulates the protein levels of CCAAT-enhancer-binding protein homologous protein (CHOP) and Noxa, and the small interfering RNA-mediated suppression of CHOP, but not Noxa, markedly attenuates DMC-induced ER dilation and cell death. Interestingly, DMC does not affect the viability, proteasomal activity or CHOP protein levels of human mammary epithelial cells, suggesting that DMC effectively induces paraptosis selectively in breast cancer cells, while sparing normal cells. Taken together, these results suggest that DMC triggers a stronger proteasome inhibition and higher induction of CHOP compared with curcumin, giving it more potent anticancer effects on malignant breast cancer cells.

  3. Proteasome stress responses in Schistosoma mansoni.

    PubMed

    de Paula, Renato Graciano; de Magalhães Ornelas, Alice Maria; Morais, Enyara Rezende; de Souza Gomes, Matheus; de Paula Aguiar, Daniela; Magalhães, Lizandra Guidi; Rodrigues, Vanderlei

    2015-05-01

    The proteasome proteolytic system is the major ATP-dependent protease in eukaryotic cells responsible for intracellular protein turnover. Schistosoma mansoni has been reported to contain an ubiquitin-proteasome proteolytic pathway, and many studies have suggested a biological role of proteasomes in the development of this parasite. Additionally, evidence has suggested diversity in proteasome composition under several cellular conditions, and this might contribute to the regulation of its function in this parasite. The proteasomal system has been considered important to support the protein homeostasis during cellular stress. In this study, we described in vitro effects of oxidative stress, heat shock, and chemical stress on S. mansoni adults. Our findings showed that chemical stress induced with curcumin, IBMX, and MG132 modified the gene expression of the proteasomal enzymes SmHul5 and SmUbp6. Likewise, the expression of these genes was upregulated during oxidative stress and heat shock. Analyses of the S. mansoni life cycle showed differential gene expression in sporocysts, schistosomulae, and miracidia. These results suggested that proteasome accessory proteins participate in stress response during the parasite development. The expression level of SmHul5 and SmUbp6 was decreased by 16-fold and 9-fold, respectively, by the chemical stress induced with IBMX, which suggests proteasome disassembly. On the other hand, curcumin, MG132, oxidative stress, and heat shock increased the expression of these genes. Furthermore, the gene expression of maturation proteasome protein (SmPOMP) was increased in stress conditions induced by curcumin, MG132, and H₂O₂, which could be related to the synthesis of new proteasomes. S. mansoni adult worms were found to utilize similar mechanisms to respond to different conditions of stress. Our results demonstrated that oxidative stress, heat shock, and chemical stress modified the expression profile of genes related to the ubiquitin-proteasome

  4. Function-Oriented Biosynthesis of β-Lactone Proteasome Inhibitors in Salinispora tropica

    PubMed Central

    Nett, Markus; Gulder, Tobias A. M.; Kale, Andrew J.; Hughes, Chambers C.; Moore, Bradley S.

    2009-01-01

    The natural proteasome inhibitor salinosporamide A from the marine bacterium Salinispora tropica is a promising drug candidate for the treatment of multiple myeloma and mantle cell lymphoma. Using a comprehensive approach that combined chemical synthesis with metabolic engineering, we generated a series of salinosporamide analogues with altered proteasome binding affinity. One of the engineered compounds is equipotent to salinosporamide A in inhibition of the chymotrypsin-like activity of the proteasome, yet, exhibits superior activity in the cell-based HCT-116 assay. PMID:19746976

  5. Extracellular proteasome-osteopontin circuit regulates cell migration with implications in multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Dianzani, Chiara; Bellavista, Elena; Liepe, Juliane; Verderio, Claudia; Martucci, Morena; Santoro, Aurelia; Chiocchetti, Annalisa; Luca Gigliotti, Casimiro; Boggio, Elena; Ferrara, Benedetta; Riganti, Loredana; Keller, Christin; Janek, Katharina; Niewienda, Agathe; Fenoglio, Chiara; Sorosina, Melissa; Cantello, Roberto; Kloetzel, Peter M; Stumpf, Michael P H; Paul, Friedemann; Ruprecht, Klemens; Galimberti, Daniela; Martinelli Boneschi, Filippo; Comi, Cristoforo; Dianzani, Umberto; Mishto, Michele

    2017-03-09

    Osteopontin is a pleiotropic cytokine that is involved in several diseases including multiple sclerosis. Secreted osteopontin is cleaved by few known proteases, modulating its pro-inflammatory activities. Here we show by in vitro experiments that secreted osteopontin can be processed by extracellular proteasomes, thereby producing fragments with novel chemotactic activity. Furthermore, osteopontin reduces the release of proteasomes in the extracellular space. The latter phenomenon seems to occur in vivo in multiple sclerosis, where it reflects the remission/relapse alternation. The extracellular proteasome-mediated inflammatory pathway may represent a general mechanism to control inflammation in inflammatory diseases.

  6. Extracellular proteasome-osteopontin circuit regulates cell migration with implications in multiple sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Dianzani, Chiara; Bellavista, Elena; Liepe, Juliane; Verderio, Claudia; Martucci, Morena; Santoro, Aurelia; Chiocchetti, Annalisa; Luca Gigliotti, Casimiro; Boggio, Elena; Ferrara, Benedetta; Riganti, Loredana; Keller, Christin; Janek, Katharina; Niewienda, Agathe; Fenoglio, Chiara; Sorosina, Melissa; Cantello, Roberto; Kloetzel, Peter M.; Stumpf, Michael P. H.; Paul, Friedemann; Ruprecht, Klemens; Galimberti, Daniela; Martinelli Boneschi, Filippo; Comi, Cristoforo; Dianzani, Umberto; Mishto, Michele

    2017-01-01

    Osteopontin is a pleiotropic cytokine that is involved in several diseases including multiple sclerosis. Secreted osteopontin is cleaved by few known proteases, modulating its pro-inflammatory activities. Here we show by in vitro experiments that secreted osteopontin can be processed by extracellular proteasomes, thereby producing fragments with novel chemotactic activity. Furthermore, osteopontin reduces the release of proteasomes in the extracellular space. The latter phenomenon seems to occur in vivo in multiple sclerosis, where it reflects the remission/relapse alternation. The extracellular proteasome-mediated inflammatory pathway may represent a general mechanism to control inflammation in inflammatory diseases. PMID:28276434

  7. Novel proteasome inhibitor ixazomib sensitizes neuroblastoma cells to doxorubicin treatment

    PubMed Central

    Li, Haoyu; Chen, Zhenghu; Hu, Ting; Wang, Long; Yu, Yang; Zhao, Yanling; Sun, Wenijing; Guan, Shan; Pang, Jonathan C.; Woodfield, Sarah E.; Liu, Qing; Yang, Jianhua

    2016-01-01

    Neuroblastoma (NB) is the most common extracranial malignant solid tumor seen in children and continues to lead to the death of many pediatric cancer patients. The poor outcome in high risk NB is largely attributed to the development of chemoresistant tumor cells. Doxorubicin (dox) has been widely employed as a potent anti-cancer agent in chemotherapeutic regimens; however, it also leads to chemoresistance in many cancer types including NB. Thus, developing novel small molecules that can overcome dox-induced chemoresistance is a promising strategy in cancer therapy. Here we show that the second generation proteasome inhibitor ixazomib (MLN9708) not only inhibits NB cell proliferation and induces apoptosis in vitro but also enhances dox-induced cytotoxicity in NB cells. Ixazomib inhibits dox-induced NF-κB activity and sensitizes NB cells to dox-induced apoptosis. More importantly, ixazomib demonstrated potent anti-tumor efficacy in vivo by enhancing dox-induced apoptosis in an orthotopic xenograft NB mouse model. Collectively, our study illustrates the anti-tumor efficacy of ixazomib in NB both alone and in combination with dox, suggesting that combination therapy including ixazomib with traditional therapeutic agents such as dox is a viable strategy that may achieve better outcomes for NB patients. PMID:27687684

  8. Targeting the ubiquitin–proteasome system for cancer therapy

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Min; Schmitt, Sara; Buac, Daniela; Dou, Q Ping

    2013-01-01

    Introduction The ubiquitin–proteasome system (UPS) degrades 80 – 90% of intracellular proteins. Cancer cells take advantage of the UPS for their increased growth and decreased apoptotic cell death. Thus, the components that make up the UPS represent a diverse group of potential anti-cancer targets. The success of the first-in-class proteasome inhibitor bortezomib not only proved that the proteasome is a feasible and valuable anti-cancer target, but also inspired researchers to extensively explore other potential targets of this pathway. Areas covered This review provides a broad overview of the UPS and its role in supporting cancer development and progression, especially in aspects of p53 inactivation, p27 turnover and NF-κB activation. Also, efforts toward the development of small molecule inhibitors (SMIs) targeting different steps in this pathway for cancer treatment are reviewed and discussed. Expert opinion Whereas some of the targets in the UPS, such as the 20S pro-teasome, Nedd8 activating enzyme and HDM2, have been well-established and validated, there remains a large pool of candidates waiting to be investigated. Development of SMIs targeting the UPS has been largely facilitated by state-of-the-art technologies such as high-throughput screening and computer-assisted drug design, both of which require a better understanding of the targets of interest. PMID:23822887

  9. Blm10 facilitates nuclear import of proteasome core particles.

    PubMed

    Weberruss, Marion H; Savulescu, Anca F; Jando, Julia; Bissinger, Thomas; Harel, Amnon; Glickman, Michael H; Enenkel, Cordula

    2013-10-16

    Short-lived proteins are degraded by proteasome complexes, which contain a proteolytic core particle (CP) but differ in the number of regulatory particles (RPs) and activators. A recently described member of conserved proteasome activators is Blm10. Blm10 contains 32 HEAT-like modules and is structurally related to the nuclear import receptor importin/karyopherin β. In proliferating yeast, RP-CP assemblies are primarily nuclear and promote cell division. During quiescence, RP-CP assemblies dissociate and CP and RP are sequestered into motile cytosolic proteasome storage granuli (PSG). Here, we show that CP sequestration into PSG depends on Blm10, whereas RP sequestration into PSG is independent of Blm10. PSG rapidly clear upon the resumption of cell proliferation and proteasomes are relocated into the nucleus. Thereby, Blm10 facilitates nuclear import of CP. Blm10-bound CP serves as an import receptor-cargo complex, as Blm10 mediates the interaction with FG-rich nucleoporins and is dissociated from the CP by Ran-GTP. Thus, Blm10 represents the first CP-dedicated nuclear import receptor in yeast.

  10. Molecular shredders: how proteasomes fulfill their role.

    PubMed

    Groll, Michael; Clausen, Tim

    2003-12-01

    The 20S proteasome is a large, cylinder-shaped protease that is found in all domains of life and plays a crucial role in cellular protein turnover. It has multiple catalytic centers located within the hollow cavity of a molecular cage. This architecture prevents unwanted degradation of endogenous proteins and promotes processive degradation of substrates by restricting the dissociation of partially digested polypeptides. Although this kind of self-compartmentalization is generally conserved, the proteasomes of bacteria, archaea and eukaryotes show many differences in architecture, subunit composition and regulation. The structure of the 20S proteasome and its inherent role in the regulation of proteasome function are gradually being elucidated.

  11. Peptide-based proteasome inhibitors in anticancer drug design.

    PubMed

    Micale, Nicola; Scarbaci, Kety; Troiano, Valeria; Ettari, Roberta; Grasso, Silvana; Zappalà, Maria

    2014-09-01

    The identification of the key role of the eukaryotic 26S proteasome in regulated intracellular proteolysis and its importance as a target in many pathological conditions wherein the proteasomal activity is defective (e.g., malignancies, autoimmune diseases, neurodegenerative diseases, etc.) prompted several research groups to the development of specific inhibitors of this multicatalytic complex with the aim of obtaining valid drug candidates. In regard to the anticancer therapy, the peptide boronate bortezomib (Velcade®) represents the first molecule approved by FDA for the treatment of multiple myeloma in 2003 and mantle cell lymphoma in 2006. Since then, a plethora of molecules targeting the proteasome have been identified as potential anticancer agents and a few of them reached clinical trials or are already in the market (i.e., carfilzomib; Kyprolis®). In most cases, the design of new proteasome inhibitors (PIs) takes into account a proven peptide or pseudopeptide motif as a base structure and places other chemical entities throughout the peptide skeleton in such a way to create an efficacious network of interactions within the catalytic sites. The purpose of this review is to provide an in-depth look at the current state of the research in the field of peptide-based PIs, specifically those ones that might find an application as anticancer agents.

  12. The Regulatory Complex of Drosophila melanogaster 26s Proteasomes

    PubMed Central

    Hölzl, Harald; Kapelari, Barbara; Kellermann, Josef; Seemüller, Erika; Sümegi, Máté; Udvardy, Andor; Medalia, Ohad; Sperling, Joseph; Müller, Shirley A.; Engel, Andreas; Baumeister, Wolfgang

    2000-01-01

    Drosophila melanogaster embryos are a source for homogeneous and stable 26S proteasomes suitable for structural studies. For biochemical characterization, purified 26S proteasomes were resolved by two-dimensional (2D) gel electrophoresis and subunits composing the regulatory complex (RC) were identified by amino acid sequencing and immunoblotting, before corresponding cDNAs were sequenced. 17 subunits from Drosophila RCs were found to have homologues in the yeast and human RCs. An additional subunit, p37A, not yet described in RCs of other organisms, is a member of the ubiquitin COOH-terminal hydrolase family (UCH). Analysis of EM images of 26S proteasomes-UCH-inhibitor complexes allowed for the first time to localize one of the RC's specific functions, deubiquitylating activity. The masses of 26S proteasomes with either one or two attached RCs were determined by scanning transmission EM (STEM), yielding a mass of 894 kD for a single RC. This value is in good agreement with the summed masses of the 18 identified RC subunits (932 kD), indicating that the number of subunits is complete. PMID:10893261

  13. Exploring dual electrophiles in peptide-based proteasome inhibitors: carbonyls and epoxides.

    PubMed

    Xin, Bo-Tao; de Bruin, Gerjan; Verdoes, Martijn; Filippov, Dmitri V; van der Marel, Gijs A; Overkleeft, Herman S

    2014-08-14

    Peptide epoxyketones are potent and selective proteasome inhibitors. Selectivity is governed by the epoxyketone dual electrophilic warhead, which reacts with the N-terminal threonine 1,2-amino alcohol uniquely present in proteasome active sites. We studied a series of C-terminally modified oligopeptides featuring adjacent electrophiles based on the epoxyketone warhead. We found that the carbonyl moiety in the natural warhead is essential, but that the adjacent epoxide can be replaced by a carbonyl, though with considerable loss of activity.

  14. Therapeutic potential of proteasome inhibitors in congenital erythropoietic porphyria.

    PubMed

    Blouin, Jean-Marc; Duchartre, Yann; Costet, Pierre; Lalanne, Magalie; Ged, Cécile; Lain, Ana; Millet, Oscar; de Verneuil, Hubert; Richard, Emmanuel

    2013-11-05

    Congenital erythropoietic porphyria (CEP) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder characterized by uroporphyrinogen III synthase (UROS) deficiency resulting in massive porphyrin accumulation in blood cells, which is responsible for hemolytic anemia and skin photosensitivity. Among the missense mutations actually described up to now in CEP patients, the C73R and the P248Q mutations lead to a profound UROS deficiency and are usually associated with a severe clinical phenotype. We previously demonstrated that the UROS(C73R) mutant protein conserves intrinsic enzymatic activity but triggers premature degradation in cellular systems that could be prevented by proteasome inhibitors. We show evidence that the reduced kinetic stability of the UROS(P248Q) mutant is also responsible for increased protein turnover in human erythroid cells. Through the analysis of EGFP-tagged versions of UROS enzyme, we demonstrate that both UROS(C73R) and UROS(P248Q) are equally destabilized in mammalian cells and targeted to the proteasomal pathway for degradation. We show that a treatment with proteasomal inhibitors, but not with lysosomal inhibitors, could rescue the expression of both EGFP-UROS mutants. Finally, in CEP mice (Uros(P248Q/P248Q)) treated with bortezomib (Velcade), a clinically approved proteasome inhibitor, we observed reduced porphyrin accumulation in circulating RBCs and urine, as well as reversion of skin photosensitivity on bortezomib treatment. These results of medical importance pave the way for pharmacologic treatment of CEP disease by preventing certain enzymatically active UROS mutants from early degradation by using proteasome inhibitors or chemical chaperones.

  15. Therapeutic potential of proteasome inhibitors in congenital erythropoietic porphyria

    PubMed Central

    Blouin, Jean-Marc; Duchartre, Yann; Costet, Pierre; Lalanne, Magalie; Ged, Cécile; Lain, Ana; Millet, Oscar; de Verneuil, Hubert; Richard, Emmanuel

    2013-01-01

    Congenital erythropoietic porphyria (CEP) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder characterized by uroporphyrinogen III synthase (UROS) deficiency resulting in massive porphyrin accumulation in blood cells, which is responsible for hemolytic anemia and skin photosensitivity. Among the missense mutations actually described up to now in CEP patients, the C73R and the P248Q mutations lead to a profound UROS deficiency and are usually associated with a severe clinical phenotype. We previously demonstrated that the UROSC73R mutant protein conserves intrinsic enzymatic activity but triggers premature degradation in cellular systems that could be prevented by proteasome inhibitors. We show evidence that the reduced kinetic stability of the UROSP248Q mutant is also responsible for increased protein turnover in human erythroid cells. Through the analysis of EGFP-tagged versions of UROS enzyme, we demonstrate that both UROSC73R and UROSP248Q are equally destabilized in mammalian cells and targeted to the proteasomal pathway for degradation. We show that a treatment with proteasomal inhibitors, but not with lysosomal inhibitors, could rescue the expression of both EGFP-UROS mutants. Finally, in CEP mice (UrosP248Q/P248Q) treated with bortezomib (Velcade), a clinically approved proteasome inhibitor, we observed reduced porphyrin accumulation in circulating RBCs and urine, as well as reversion of skin photosensitivity on bortezomib treatment. These results of medical importance pave the way for pharmacologic treatment of CEP disease by preventing certain enzymatically active UROS mutants from early degradation by using proteasome inhibitors or chemical chaperones. PMID:24145442

  16. Caveolin-1 down-regulates inducible nitric oxide synthase via the proteasome pathway in human colon carcinoma cells

    PubMed Central

    Felley-Bosco, Emanuela; Bender, Florent C.; Courjault-Gautier, Françoise; Bron, Claude; Quest, Andrew F. G.

    2000-01-01

    To investigate whether caveolin-1 (cav-1) may modulate inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) function in intact cells, the human intestinal carcinoma cell lines HT29 and DLD1 that have low endogenous cav-1 levels were transfected with cav-1 cDNA. In nontransfected cells, iNOS mRNA and protein levels were increased by the addition of a mix of cytokines. Ectopic expression of cav-1 in both cell lines correlated with significantly decreased iNOS activity and protein levels. This effect was linked to a posttranscriptional mechanism involving enhanced iNOS protein degradation by the proteasome pathway, because (i) induction of iNOS mRNA by cytokines was not affected and (ii) iNOS protein levels increased in the presence of the proteasome inhibitors N-acetyl-Leu-Leu-Norleucinal and lactacystin. In addition, a small amount of iNOS was found to cofractionate with cav-1 in Triton X-100-insoluble membrane fractions where also iNOS degradation was apparent. As has been described for endothelial and neuronal NOS isoenzymes, direct binding between cav-1 and human iNOS was detected in vitro. Taken together, these results suggest that cav-1 promotes iNOS presence in detergent-insoluble membrane fractions and degradation there via the proteasome pathway. PMID:11114180

  17. Caveolin-1 down-regulates inducible nitric oxide synthase via the proteasome pathway in human colon carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Felley-Bosco, E; Bender, F C; Courjault-Gautier, F; Bron, C; Quest, A F

    2000-12-19

    To investigate whether caveolin-1 (cav-1) may modulate inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) function in intact cells, the human intestinal carcinoma cell lines HT29 and DLD1 that have low endogenous cav-1 levels were transfected with cav-1 cDNA. In nontransfected cells, iNOS mRNA and protein levels were increased by the addition of a mix of cytokines. Ectopic expression of cav-1 in both cell lines correlated with significantly decreased iNOS activity and protein levels. This effect was linked to a posttranscriptional mechanism involving enhanced iNOS protein degradation by the proteasome pathway, because (i) induction of iNOS mRNA by cytokines was not affected and (ii) iNOS protein levels increased in the presence of the proteasome inhibitors N-acetyl-Leu-Leu-Norleucinal and lactacystin. In addition, a small amount of iNOS was found to cofractionate with cav-1 in Triton X-100-insoluble membrane fractions where also iNOS degradation was apparent. As has been described for endothelial and neuronal NOS isoenzymes, direct binding between cav-1 and human iNOS was detected in vitro. Taken together, these results suggest that cav-1 promotes iNOS presence in detergent-insoluble membrane fractions and degradation there via the proteasome pathway.

  18. Design, synthesis and biological evaluation of novel non-peptide boronic acid derivatives as proteasome inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Ge, Ying; Li, Aibo; Wu, Jianwei; Feng, Haiwei; Wang, Letian; Liu, Hongwu; Xu, Yungen; Xu, Qingxiang; Zhao, Li; Li, Yuyan

    2017-03-10

    A novel series of non-peptide proteasome inhibitors bearing the 1, 4-naphthoquinone scaffold and boronic acid warhead was developed. In the biological evaluation on the chymotrypsin-like activity of human 20S proteasome, five compounds showed IC50 values in the nanomolar range. Docking experiments into the yeast 20S proteasome rationalized their biological activities and allowed further optimization of this interesting class of inhibitors. Within the cellular proliferation inhibition assay and western blot analysis, compound 3e demonstrated excellent anti-proliferative activity against solid tumor cells and clear accumulation of ubiquitinated cellular proteins. Furthermore, in the microsomal stability assay compound 3e demonstrated much improved metabolic stability compared to bortezomib, emerging as a promising lead compound for further design of non-peptide proteasome inhibitors.

  19. The effect of temperature adaptation on the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway in notothenioid fishes.

    PubMed

    Todgham, Anne E; Crombie, Timothy A; Hofmann, Gretchen E

    2017-02-01

    There is an accumulating body of evidence suggesting that the sub-zero Antarctic marine environment places physiological constraints on protein homeostasis. Levels of ubiquitin (Ub)-conjugated proteins, 20S proteasome activity and mRNA expression of many proteins involved in both the Ub tagging of damaged proteins as well as the different complexes of the 26S proteasome were measured to examine whether there is thermal compensation of the Ub-proteasome pathway in Antarctic fishes to better understand the efficiency of the protein degradation machinery in polar species. Both Antarctic (Trematomus bernacchii, Pagothenia borchgrevinki) and non-Antarctic (Notothenia angustata, Bovichtus variegatus) notothenioids were included in this study to investigate the mechanisms of cold adaptation of this pathway in polar species. Overall, there were significant differences in the levels of Ub-conjugated proteins between the Antarctic notothenioids and B. variegatus, with N. angustata possessing levels very similar to those of the Antarctic fishes. Proteasome activity in the gills of Antarctic fishes demonstrated a high degree of temperature compensation such that activity levels were similar to activities measured in their temperate relatives at ecologically relevant temperatures. A similar level of thermal compensation of proteasome activity was not present in the liver of two Antarctic fishes. Higher gill proteasome activity is likely due in part to higher cellular levels of proteins involved in the Ub-proteasome pathway, as evidenced by high mRNA expression of relevant genes. Reduced activity of the Ub-proteasome pathway does not appear to be the mechanism responsible for elevated levels of denatured proteins in Antarctic fishes, at least in the gills.

  20. Noise enhanced activity in a complex network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choudhary, Anshul; Kohar, Vivek; Sinha, Sudeshna

    2014-09-01

    We consider the influence of local noise on a generalized network of populations having positive and negative feedbacks. The population dynamics at the nodes is nonlinear, typically chaotic, and allows cessation of activity if the population falls below a threshold value. We investigate the global stability of this large interactive system, as indicated by the average number of nodal populations that manage to remain active. Our central result is that the probability of obtaining active nodes in this network is significantly enhanced under fluctuations. Further, we find a sharp transition in the number of active nodes as noise strength is varied, along with clearly evident scaling behaviour near the critical noise strength. Lastly, we also observe noise induced temporal coherence in the active sub-network, namely, there is an enhancement in synchrony among the nodes at an intermediate noise strength.

  1. Method for enhancing amidohydrolase activity of fatty acid amide hydrolase

    SciTech Connect

    John, George; Nagarajan, Subbiah; Chapman, Kent; Faure, Lionel; Koulen, Peter

    2016-10-25

    A method for enhancing amidohydrolase activity of Fatty Acid Amide Hydrolase (FAAH) is disclosed. The method comprising administering a phenoxyacylethanolamide that causes the enhanced activity. The enhanced activity can have numerous effects on biological organisms including, for example, enhancing the growth of certain seedlings. The subject matter disclosed herein relates to enhancers of amidohydrolase activity.

  2. K(ATP) channel block prevents proteasome inhibitor-induced apoptosis in differentiated PC12 cells.

    PubMed

    Nam, Yoon Jeong; Lee, Da Hee; Lee, Min Sung; Lee, Chung Soo

    2015-10-05

    Dysfunction of the proteasome system has been suggested to be implicated in neuronal degeneration. Modulation of KATP channels appears to affect the viability of neuronal cells exposed to toxic insults. However, the effect of KATP channel blockers on the neuronal cell death mediated by proteasome inhibition has not been studied. The present study investigated the effect of KATP channel blockers on proteasome inhibitor-induced apoptosis in differentiated PC12 cells and SH-SY5Y cells. 5-Hydroxydecanoate (a selective KATP channel blocker) and glibenclamide (a cell surface and mitochondrial KATP channel inhibitor) reduced the proteasome inhibitor-induced apoptosis. Addition of the KATP channel blockers attenuated the proteasome inhibitor-induced changes in the levels of apoptosis-related proteins, the loss of the mitochondrial transmembrane potential, the increase in the formation of reactive oxygen species and the depletion of glutathione in both cell lines. The results show that KATP channel blockers may attenuate proteasome inhibitor-induced apoptosis in PC12 cells by suppressing activation of the mitochondrial pathway and of the caspase-8- and Bid-dependent pathways. The preventive effect appears to be associated with the inhibition of the formation of reactive oxygen species and the depletion of glutathione. KATP channel blockade appears to prevent proteasome inhibition-induced neuronal cell death.

  3. Proteasome inhibitors in cancer therapy: Treatment regimen and peripheral neuropathy as a side effect.

    PubMed

    Kaplan, Gulce Sari; Torcun, Ceyda Corek; Grune, Tilman; Ozer, Nesrin Kartal; Karademir, Betul

    2017-02-01

    Proteasomal system plays an important role in protein turnover, which is essential for homeostasis of cells. Besides degradation of oxidized proteins, it is involved in the regulation of many different signaling pathways. These pathways include mainly cell differentiation, proliferation, apoptosis, transcriptional activation and angiogenesis. Thus, proteasomal system is a crucial target for treatment of several diseases including neurodegenerative diseases, cystic fibrosis, atherosclerosis, autoimmune diseases, diabetes and cancer. Over the last fifteen years, proteasome inhibitors have been tested to highlight their mechanisms of action and used in the clinic to treat different types of cancer. Proteasome inhibitors are mainly used in combinational therapy along with classical chemo-radiotherapy. Several studies have proved their significant effects but serious side effects such as peripheral neuropathy, limits their use in required effective doses. Recent studies focus on peripheral neuropathy as the primary side effect of proteasome inhibitors. Therefore, it is important to delineate the underlying mechanisms of peripheral neuropathy and develop new inhibitors according to obtained data. This review will detail the role of proteasome inhibition in cancer therapy and development of peripheral neuropathy as a side effect. Additionally, new approaches to prevent treatment-limiting side effects will be discussed in order to help researchers in developing effective strategies to overcome side effects of proteasome inhibitors.

  4. Divergent tissue and sex effects of rapamycin on the proteasome-chaperone network of old mice

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez, Karl A.; Dodds, Sherry G.; Strong, Randy; Galvan, Veronica; Sharp, Z. D.; Buffenstein, Rochelle

    2014-01-01

    Rapamycin, an allosteric inhibitor of the mTOR kinase, increases longevity in mice in a sex-specific manner. In contrast to the widely accepted theory that a loss of proteasome activity is detrimental to both life- and healthspan, biochemical studies in vitro reveal that rapamycin inhibits 20S proteasome peptidase activity. We tested if this unexpected finding is also evident after chronic rapamycin treatment in vivo by measuring peptidase activities for both the 26S and 20S proteasome in liver, fat, and brain tissues of old, male and female mice fed encapsulated chow containing 2.24 mg/kg (14 ppm) rapamycin for 6 months. Further we assessed if rapamycin altered expression of the chaperone proteins known to interact with the proteasome-mediated degradation system (PMDS), heat shock factor 1 (HSF1), and the levels of key mTOR pathway proteins. Rapamycin had little effect on liver proteasome activity in either gender, but increased proteasome activity in female brain lysates and lowered its activity in female fat tissue. Rapamycin-induced changes in molecular chaperone levels were also more substantial in tissues from female animals. Furthermore, mTOR pathway proteins showed more significant changes in female tissues compared to those from males. These data show collectively that there are divergent tissue and sex effects of rapamycin on the proteasome-chaperone network and that these may be linked to the disparate effects of rapamycin on males and females. Further our findings suggest that rapamycin induces indirect regulation of the PMDS/heat-shock response through its modulation of the mTOR pathway rather than via direct interactions between rapamycin and the proteasome. PMID:25414638

  5. Proteasome Dysfunction Mediates High Glucose-Induced Apoptosis in Rodent Beta Cells and Human Islets

    PubMed Central

    Broca, Christophe; Varin, Elodie; Armanet, Mathieu; Tourrel-Cuzin, Cécile; Bosco, Domenico; Dalle, Stéphane; Wojtusciszyn, Anne

    2014-01-01

    The ubiquitin/proteasome system (UPS), a major cellular protein degradation machinery, plays key roles in the regulation of many cell functions. Glucotoxicity mediated by chronic hyperglycaemia is detrimental to the function and survival of pancreatic beta cells. The aim of our study was to determine whether proteasome dysfunction could be involved in beta cell apoptosis in glucotoxic conditions, and to evaluate whether such a dysfunction might be pharmacologically corrected. Therefore, UPS activity was measured in GK rats islets, INS-1E beta cells or human islets after high glucose and/or UPS inhibitor exposure. Immunoblotting was used to quantify polyubiquitinated proteins, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress through CHOP expression, and apoptosis through the cleavage of PARP and caspase-3, whereas total cell death was detected through histone-associated DNA fragments measurement. In vitro, we found that chronic exposure of INS-1E cells to high glucose concentrations significantly decreases the three proteasome activities by 20% and leads to caspase-3-dependent apoptosis. We showed that pharmacological blockade of UPS activity by 20% leads to apoptosis in a same way. Indeed, ER stress was involved in both conditions. These results were confirmed in human islets, and proteasome activities were also decreased in hyperglycemic GK rats islets. Moreover, we observed that a high glucose treatment hypersensitized beta cells to the apoptotic effect of proteasome inhibitors. Noteworthily, the decreased proteasome activity can be corrected with Exendin-4, which also protected against glucotoxicity-induced apoptosis. Taken together, our findings reveal an important role of proteasome activity in high glucose-induced beta cell apoptosis, potentially linking ER stress and glucotoxicity. These proteasome dysfunctions can be reversed by a GLP-1 analog. Thus, UPS may be a potent target to treat deleterious metabolic conditions leading to type 2 diabetes. PMID:24642635

  6. Divergent tissue and sex effects of rapamycin on the proteasome-chaperone network of old mice.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, Karl A; Dodds, Sherry G; Strong, Randy; Galvan, Veronica; Sharp, Z D; Buffenstein, Rochelle

    2014-01-01

    Rapamycin, an allosteric inhibitor of the mTOR kinase, increases longevity in mice in a sex-specific manner. In contrast to the widely accepted theory that a loss of proteasome activity is detrimental to both life- and healthspan, biochemical studies in vitro reveal that rapamycin inhibits 20S proteasome peptidase activity. We tested if this unexpected finding is also evident after chronic rapamycin treatment in vivo by measuring peptidase activities for both the 26S and 20S proteasome in liver, fat, and brain tissues of old, male and female mice fed encapsulated chow containing 2.24 mg/kg (14 ppm) rapamycin for 6 months. Further we assessed if rapamycin altered expression of the chaperone proteins known to interact with the proteasome-mediated degradation system (PMDS), heat shock factor 1 (HSF1), and the levels of key mTOR pathway proteins. Rapamycin had little effect on liver proteasome activity in either gender, but increased proteasome activity in female brain lysates and lowered its activity in female fat tissue. Rapamycin-induced changes in molecular chaperone levels were also more substantial in tissues from female animals. Furthermore, mTOR pathway proteins showed more significant changes in female tissues compared to those from males. These data show collectively that there are divergent tissue and sex effects of rapamycin on the proteasome-chaperone network and that these may be linked to the disparate effects of rapamycin on males and females. Further our findings suggest that rapamycin induces indirect regulation of the PMDS/heat-shock response through its modulation of the mTOR pathway rather than via direct interactions between rapamycin and the proteasome.

  7. Oridonin Triggers Chaperon-mediated Proteasomal Degradation of BCR-ABL in Leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Huilin; Weng, Hengyou; Dong, Bowen; Zhao, Panpan; Zhou, Hui; Qu, Lianghu

    2017-01-01

    Inducing degradation of oncoproteins by small molecule compounds has the potential to avoid drug resistance and therefore deserves to be exploited for new therapies. Oridonin is a natural compound with promising antitumor efficacy that can trigger the degradation of oncoproteins; however, the direct cellular targets and underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Here we report that oridonin depletes BCR-ABL through chaperon-mediated proteasomal degradation in leukemia. Mechanistically, oridonin poses oxidative stress in cancer cells and directly binds to cysteines of HSF1, leading to the activation of this master regulator of the chaperone system. The resulting induction of HSP70 and ubiquitin proteins and the enhanced binding to CHIP E3 ligase hence target BCR-ABL for ubiquitin-proteasome degradation. Both wild-type and mutant forms of BCR-ABL can be efficiently degraded by oridonin, supporting its efficacy observed in cultured cells as well as mouse tumor xenograft assays with either imatinib-sensitive or -resistant cells. Collectively, our results identify a novel mechanism by which oridonin induces rapid degradation of BCR-ABL as well as a novel pharmaceutical activator of HSF1 that represents a promising treatment for leukemia. PMID:28128329

  8. RNF20 promotes the polyubiquitination and proteasome-dependent degradation of AP-2α protein.

    PubMed

    Ren, Peng; Sheng, Zhifeng; Wang, Yijun; Yi, Xin; Zhou, Qiuzhi; Zhou, Jianlin; Xiang, Shuanglin; Hu, Xiang; Zhang, Jian

    2014-02-01

    Transcription factor activator protein 2α (AP-2α) is a negative regulator of adipogenesis by repressing the transcription of CCAAT/enhancer binding protein (C/EBPα) gene. During adipogenesis, AP-2α is degraded, leading to transcriptional up-regulation of C/EBPα. However, the mechanism for AP-2α degradation is not clear. Here, using immunoprecipitation assay and mass spectrometry, we identified ring finger protein 20 (RNF20) as an AP-2α-interacting protein in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. RNF20 has been proved to be an E3 ubiquitin ligase for both histone H2B and tumor suppressor ErbB3-binding protein 1 (Ebp1). In this study, we demonstrated that RNF20 co-localized and interacted with AP-2α, and promoted its polyubiquitination and proteasome-dependent degradation. Over-expression of RNF20 inhibited the activity of AP-2α and rescued the C/EBPα expression which was inhibited by AP-2α. These results suggested that RNF20 may play roles in adipocyte differentiation by stimulating ubiquitin-proteasome-dependent degradation of AP-2α.

  9. Encapsulation of a proteasome inhibitor with gold-polysaccharide nanocarriers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coelho, Sílvia Castro; Rocha, Sandra; Sampaio, Paula; Pereira, Maria Carmo; Coelho, Manuel A. N.

    2014-04-01

    Organic-inorganic hybrid nanoparticles are potential effective systems for drug delivery in cancer therapy and diagnosis. Chitosan-gum arabic with entrapped gold nanoparticles were developed as a carrier for an anticancer drug bortezomib. The nanosystem was designed to enhance the proteasome inhibitor activity in pancreatic cell lines, S2-013 and hTERT-HPNE. The hydrodynamic diameter of chitosan-gum arabic-gold nanoparticles loaded with bortezomib is around 330 nm. Laser scanning confocal microscopy images show the uptake of the gold nanoparticle/bortezomib encapsulated in chitosan-gum arabic matrix and the fast internalization of these nano combinations into pancreatic cells. Cytotoxic assays assessed that positively charged nanosystems reduce the cell growth and cell proliferation of S2-013s, but the same effect was not observed in cytotoxic response in hTERT-HPNE cells. The outcomes of this study demonstrate the capacity of chitosan-gum arabic nanocarriers to deliver gold nanoparticles/anticancer drug and to increase the permeation and retention effect in S2-013 cells and minimize drug side effects in HPNE cells.

  10. Postnatal Proteasome Inhibition Induces Neurodegeneration and Cognitive Deficiencies in Adult Mice: A New Model of Neurodevelopment Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Romero-Granados, Rocío; Fontán-Lozano, Ángela; Aguilar-Montilla, Francisco Javier; Carrión, Ángel Manuel

    2011-01-01

    Defects in the ubiquitin-proteasome system have been related to aging and the development of neurodegenerative disease, although the effects of deficient proteasome activity during early postnatal development are poorly understood. Accordingly, we have assessed how proteasome dysfunction during early postnatal development, induced by administering proteasome inhibitors daily during the first 10 days of life, affects the behaviour of adult mice. We found that this regime of exposure to the proteasome inhibitors MG132 or lactacystin did not produce significant behavioural or morphological changes in the first 15 days of life. However, towards the end of the treatment with proteasome inhibitors, there was a loss of mitochondrial markers and activity, and an increase in DNA oxidation. On reaching adulthood, the memory of mice that were injected with proteasome inhibitors postnatally was impaired in hippocampal and amygdala-dependent tasks, and they suffered motor dysfunction and imbalance. These behavioural deficiencies were correlated with neuronal loss in the hippocampus, amygdala and brainstem, and with diminished adult neurogenesis. Accordingly, impairing proteasome activity at early postnatal ages appears to cause morphological and behavioural alterations in adult mice that resemble those associated with certain neurodegenerative diseases and/or syndromes of mental retardation. PMID:22174927

  11. Copper(II) ions affect the gating dynamics of the 20S proteasome: a molecular and in cell study

    PubMed Central

    Santoro, Anna Maria; Monaco, Irene; Attanasio, Francesco; Lanza, Valeria; Pappalardo, Giuseppe; Tomasello, Marianna Flora; Cunsolo, Alessandra; Rizzarelli, Enrico; De Luigi, Ada; Salmona, Mario; Milardi, Danilo

    2016-01-01

    Due to their altered metabolism cancer cells are more sensitive to proteasome inhibition or changes of copper levels than normal cells. Thus, the development of copper complexes endowed with proteasome inhibition features has emerged as a promising anticancer strategy. However, limited information is available about the exact mechanism by which copper inhibits proteasome. Here we show that Cu(II) ions simultaneously inhibit the three peptidase activities of isolated 20S proteasomes with potencies (IC50) in the micromolar range. Cu(II) ions, in cell-free conditions, neither catalyze red-ox reactions nor disrupt the assembly of the 20S proteasome but, rather, promote conformational changes associated to impaired channel gating. Notably, HeLa cells grown in a Cu(II)-supplemented medium exhibit decreased proteasome activity. This effect, however, was attenuated in the presence of an antioxidant. Our results suggest that if, on one hand, Cu(II)-inhibited 20S activities may be associated to conformational changes that favor the closed state of the core particle, on the other hand the complex effect induced by Cu(II) ions in cancer cells is the result of several concurring events including ROS-mediated proteasome flooding, and disassembly of the 26S proteasome into its 20S and 19S components. PMID:27633879

  12. Proteasome inhibitors with pyrazole scaffolds from structure-based virtual screening.

    PubMed

    Miller, Zachary; Kim, Keun-Sik; Lee, Do-Min; Kasam, Vinod; Baek, Si Eun; Lee, Kwang Hyun; Zhang, Yan-Yan; Ao, Lin; Carmony, Kimberly; Lee, Na-Ra; Zhou, Shou; Zhao, Qingquan; Jang, Yujin; Jeong, Hyun-Young; Zhan, Chang-Guo; Lee, Wooin; Kim, Dong-Eun; Kim, Kyung Bo

    2015-02-26

    We performed a virtual screen of ∼340 000 small molecules against the active site of proteasomes followed by in vitro assays and subsequent optimization, yielding a proteasome inhibitor with pyrazole scaffold. The pyrazole-scaffold compound displayed excellent metabolic stability and was highly effective in suppressing solid tumor growth in vivo. Furthermore, the effectiveness of this compound was not negatively impacted by resistance to bortezomib or carfilzomib.

  13. Noncanonical SQSTM1/p62-Nrf2 pathway activation mediates proteasome inhibitor resistance in multiple myeloma cells via redox, metabolic and translational reprogramming.

    PubMed

    Riz, Irene; Hawley, Teresa S; Marsal, Jeffrey W; Hawley, Robert G

    2016-10-11

    Multiple Myeloma (MM) is a B-cell malignancy characterized by the accumulation of clonal plasma cells in the bone marrow, with drug resistance being a major cause of therapeutic failure. We established a carfilzomib-resistant derivative of the LP-1 MM cell line (LP-1/Cfz) and found that the transcription factor NF-E2 p45-related factor 2 (Nrf2; gene symbol NFE2L2) contributes to carfilzomib resistance. The mechanism of Nrf2 activation involved enhanced translation of Nrf2 as well as its positive regulator, the autophagy receptor sequestosome 1 (SQSTM1)/p62. The eukaryotic translation initiation factor gene EIF4E3 was among the Nrf2 target genes upregulated in LP-1/Cfz cells, suggesting existence of a positive feedback loop. In line with this, we found that siRNA knockdown of eIF4E3 decreased Nrf2 protein levels. On the other hand, elevated SQSTM1/p62 levels were due at least in part to activation of the PERK-eIF2α pathway. LP-1/Cfz cells had decreased levels of reactive oxygen species as well as elevated levels of fatty acid oxidation and prosurvival autophagy. Genetic and pharmacologic inhibition of the Nrf2-EIF4E3 axis or the PERK-eIF2α pathway, disruption of redox homeostasis or inhibition of fatty acid oxidation or autophagy conferred sensitivity to carfilzomib. Our findings were supported by clinical data where increased EIF4E3 expression was predictive of Nrf2 target gene upregulation in a subgroup of patients with chemoresistant minimal residual disease and relapsed/refractory MM. Thus, our data offer a preclinical rationale for including inhibitors of the SQSTM1/p62-Nrf2 pathway to the treatment regimens for certain advanced stage MM patients.

  14. Noncanonical SQSTM1/p62-Nrf2 pathway activation mediates proteasome inhibitor resistance in multiple myeloma cells via redox, metabolic and translational reprogramming

    PubMed Central

    Riz, Irene; Hawley, Teresa S.; Marsal, Jeffrey W.; Hawley, Robert G.

    2016-01-01

    Multiple Myeloma (MM) is a B-cell malignancy characterized by the accumulation of clonal plasma cells in the bone marrow, with drug resistance being a major cause of therapeutic failure. We established a carfilzomib-resistant derivative of the LP-1 MM cell line (LP-1/Cfz) and found that the transcription factor NF-E2 p45-related factor 2 (Nrf2; gene symbol NFE2L2) contributes to carfilzomib resistance. The mechanism of Nrf2 activation involved enhanced translation of Nrf2 as well as its positive regulator, the autophagy receptor sequestosome 1 (SQSTM1)/p62. The eukaryotic translation initiation factor gene EIF4E3 was among the Nrf2 target genes upregulated in LP-1/Cfz cells, suggesting existence of a positive feedback loop. In line with this, we found that siRNA knockdown of eIF4E3 decreased Nrf2 protein levels. On the other hand, elevated SQSTM1/p62 levels were due at least in part to activation of the PERK-eIF2α pathway. LP-1/Cfz cells had decreased levels of reactive oxygen species as well as elevated levels of fatty acid oxidation and prosurvival autophagy. Genetic and pharmacologic inhibition of the Nrf2-EIF4E3 axis or the PERK-eIF2α pathway, disruption of redox homeostasis or inhibition of fatty acid oxidation or autophagy conferred sensitivity to carfilzomib. Our findings were supported by clinical data where increased EIF4E3 expression was predictive of Nrf2 target gene upregulation in a subgroup of patients with chemoresistant minimal residual disease and relapsed/refractory MM. Thus, our data offer a preclinical rationale for including inhibitors of the SQSTM1/p62-Nrf2 pathway to the treatment regimens for certain advanced stage MM patients. PMID:27626179

  15. Proteasome regulates turnover of toxic human amylin in pancreatic cells

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Sanghamitra; Trikha, Saurabh; Sarkar, Anjali; Jeremic, Aleksandar M.

    2016-01-01

    Toxic human amylin (hA) oligomers and aggregates are implicated in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Although recent studies demonstrated a causal connection between hA uptake and toxicity in pancreatic cells, the mechanism of amylin’s clearance following its internalization and its relationship to toxicity is yet to be determined, and hence was investigated here. Using pancreatic rat insulinoma β-cells and human islets as model systems, we show that hA, following its internalization, first accumulates in the cytosol followed by its translocation into nucleus, and to a lesser extent lysosomes, keeping the net cytosolic amylin content low. An increase in hA accumulation in the nucleus of pancreatic cells correlated with its cytotoxicity, suggesting that its excessive accumulation in the nucleus is detrimental. hA interacted with 20S core and 19S lid subunits of the β-cell proteasomal complex, as suggested by immunoprecipitation and confocal microscopy studies, which subsequently resulted in a decrease in the proteasome’s proteolytic activity in these cells. In vitro binding and activity assays confirmed an intrinsic and potent ability of amylin to interact with the 20S core complex thereby modulating its proteolytic activity. Interestingly, less toxic and aggregation incapable rat amylin (rA) showed a comparable inhibitory effect on proteasome activity and protein ubiquitination, decoupling amylin aggregation/toxicity and amylin-induced protein stress. In agreement with these studies, inhibition of proteasomal proteolytic activity significantly increased intracellular amylin content and toxicity. Taken together, our results suggest a pivotal role of proteasomes in amylin’s turnover and detoxification in pancreatic cells. PMID:27340132

  16. E2-25K SUMOylation inhibits proteasome for cell death during cerebral ischemia/reperfusion

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Eun Il; Chung, Hae Won; Lee, Won Jea; Kim, Seo-Hyun; Kim, Hyunjoo; Choi, Seon-Guk; Jung, Yong-Keun

    2016-01-01

    Cerebral ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) causes brain damage accompanied by ubiquitin accumulation and impairment of proteasome activity. In this study, we report that E2-25K, an E2-conjugating enzyme, is SUMOylated during oxidative stress and regulates cerebral I/R-induced damage. Knockdown of E2-25K expression protects against oxygen/glucose deprivation and reoxygenation (OGD/R)-induced neuronal cell death, whereas ectopic expression of E2-25K stimulates it. Compared with the control mice, cerebral infarction lesions and behavioral/neurological disorders are ameliorated in E2-25K knockout mice during middle cerebral artery occlusion and reperfusion. In particular, E2-25K is SUMOylated at Lys14 under oxidative stress, OGD/R and I/R to prompt cell death. Further, E2-25K downregulates the proteasome subunit S5a to impair proteasome complex and thus restrain proteasome activity under oxidative stress. This proteasome inhibitory activity of E2-25K is dependent on its SUMOylation. These results suggest that E2-25K has a crucial role in oxidative stress and cerebral I/R-induced damage through inhibiting proteasome via its SUMOylation. PMID:28032866

  17. Molecular study on copper-mediated tumor proteasome inhibition and cell death

    PubMed Central

    ZHANG, XIA; CUI, QIUZHI; FAN, YUHUA; BI, CAIFENG; DOU, Q. PING

    2013-01-01

    The metal ion copper is a cofactor essential for maintaining normal biological and physical functions in human beings. High copper levels have been found in variety of tumor tissues and are involved in tumor angiogenesis processes. The ubiquitin-proteasome system plays an important role in cell growth and apoptosis and has been shown as a novel target for cancer therapy. We previously reported that some organic copper complexes can inhibit the proteasomal chymotrypsin-like activity and induce apoptosis in human cancer cells and xenograft models. In the current study, we investigated the effect of oxidation status of copper, Cu(I) or Cu(II), on inhibition of proteasome activity, induction of apoptosis, and induction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in human cancer cells. We report four major findings here: i) both Cu(I) and Cu(II) could inhibit the chymotrypsin-like activity of purified 20S proteasome, but Cu(I) was more potent than Cu(II), ii) purified 20S proteasome protein was able to reduce Cu(II) to Cu(I), suggesting that Cu(I) is the oxidation status of copper that directly reacts with the proteasome, iii) when complexed with the copper ligand neocuproine, Cu(I) showed higher ability to induce ROS production in cancer cells, compared with Cu(II), iv) addition of a ROS scavenger in the cancer cell culture-blocked copper-induced ROS generation, but did not overcome copper-mediated proteasome-inhibitory and cell death-inducing events, demonstrating the ROS-independent proteasome-inhibitory property of copper complexes. PMID:20514399

  18. Effects of an Anticarcinogenic Bowman-Birk Protease Inhibitor on Purified 20S Proteasome and MCF-7 Breast Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Souza, Larissa da Costa; Camargo, Ricardo; Demasi, Marilene; Santana, Jaime Martins; de Freitas, Sonia Maria

    2014-01-01

    Proteasome inhibitors have been described as an important target for cancer therapy due to their potential to regulate the ubiquitin-proteasome system in the degradation pathway of cellular proteins. Here, we reported the effects of a Bowman-Birk-type protease inhibitor, the Black-eyed pea Trypsin/Chymotrypsin Inhibitor (BTCI), on proteasome 20S in MCF-7 breast cancer cells and on catalytic activity of the purified 20S proteasome from horse erythrocytes, as well as the structural analysis of the BTCI-20S proteasome complex. In vitro experiments and confocal microscopy showed that BTCI readily crosses the membrane of the breast cancer cells and co-localizes with the proteasome in cytoplasm and mainly in nucleus. Indeed, as indicated by dynamic light scattering, BTCI and 20S proteasome form a stable complex at temperatures up to 55°C and at neutral and alkaline pHs. In complexed form, BTCI strongly inhibits the proteolytic chymotrypsin-, trypsin- and caspase-like activities of 20S proteasome, indicated by inhibition constants of 10−7 M magnitude order. Besides other mechanisms, this feature can be associated with previously reported cytostatic and cytotoxic effects of BTCI in MCF-7 breast cancer cells by means of apoptosis. PMID:24475156

  19. A mental retardation-linked nonsense mutation in cereblon is rescued by proteasome inhibition.

    PubMed

    Xu, Guoqiang; Jiang, Xiaogang; Jaffrey, Samie R

    2013-10-11

    A nonsense mutation in cereblon (CRBN) causes autosomal recessive nonsyndromic mental retardation. Cereblon is a substrate receptor for the Cullin-RING E3 ligase complex and couples the ubiquitin ligase to specific ubiquitination targets. The CRBN nonsense mutation (R419X) results in a protein lacking 24 amino acids at its C terminus. Although this mutation has been linked to mild mental retardation, the mechanism by which the mutation affects CRBN function is unknown. Here, we used biochemical and mass spectrometric approaches to explore the function of this mutant. We show that the protein retains its ability to assemble into a Cullin-RING E3 ligase complex and catalyzes the ubiquitination of CRBN-target proteins. However, we find that this mutant exhibits markedly increased levels of autoubiquitination and is more readily degraded by the proteasome than the wild type protein. We also show that the level of the mutant protein can be restored by a treatment of cells with a clinically utilized proteasome inhibitor, suggesting that this agent may be useful for the treatment of mental retardation associated with the CRBN R419X mutation. These data demonstrate that enhanced autoubiquitination and degradation account for the defect in CRBN activity that leads to mental retardation.

  20. Remodelling of the ubiquitin-proteasome system in response to interferons.

    PubMed

    Seifert, Ulrike; Krüger, Elke

    2008-10-01

    Peptide generation by the UPS (ubiquitin-proteasome system) is rate-limiting in MHC class I-restricted antigen presentation in response to virus-induced IFNs (interferons). In this process, the role of IFN-induced rapid remodelling of the UPS is less defined. IFN-mediated de novo formation of different proteasome compositions as i20S (immunoproteasomes) or m20S (mixed-type proteasomes) essentially supports the rapid adjustment of the mammalian immune system to pathogens. This adjustment is of particular importance for the immune response to rapidly replicating viruses. In agreement, i20S formation has been shown to be an accelerated and transient response. Moreover, i20S and/or PA28 (proteasome activator 28) are essentially required for the generation of certain viral epitopes. In the present paper, we discuss how IFNs consecutively regulate the UPS at different levels, thereby improving the immune responsiveness of target cells.

  1. Gambogic acid is a tissue-specific proteasome inhibitor in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaofen; Liu, Shouting; Huang, Hongbiao; Liu, Ningning; Zhao, Chong; Liao, Siyan; Yang, Changshan; Liu, Yurong; Zhao, Canguo; Li, Shujue; Lu, Xiaoyu; Liu, Chunjiao; Guan, Lixia; Zhao, Kai; Shi, Xiaoqing; Song, Wenbin; Zhou, Ping; Dong, Xiaoxian; Guo, Haiping; Wen, Guanmei; Zhang, Change; Jiang, Lili; Ma, Ningfang; Li, Bing; Wang, Shunqing; Tan, Huo; Wang, Xuejun; Dou, Q Ping; Liu, Jinbao

    2013-01-31

    Gambogic acid (GA) is a natural compound derived from Chinese herbs that has been approved by the Chinese Food and Drug Administration for clinical trials in cancer patients; however, its molecular targets have not been thoroughly studied. Here, we report that GA inhibits tumor proteasome activity, with potency comparable to bortezomib but much less toxicity. First, GA acts as a prodrug and only gains proteasome-inhibitory function after being metabolized by intracellular CYP2E1. Second, GA-induced proteasome inhibition is a prerequisite for its cytotoxicity and anticancer effect without off-targets. Finally, because expression of the CYP2E1 gene is very high in tumor tissues but low in many normal tissues, GA could therefore produce tissue-specific proteasome inhibition and tumor-specific toxicity, with clinical significance for designing novel strategies for cancer treatment.

  2. Compromising the 19S proteasome complex protects cells from reduced flux through the proteasome.

    PubMed

    Tsvetkov, Peter; Mendillo, Marc L; Zhao, Jinghui; Carette, Jan E; Merrill, Parker H; Cikes, Domagoj; Varadarajan, Malini; van Diemen, Ferdy R; Penninger, Josef M; Goldberg, Alfred L; Brummelkamp, Thijn R; Santagata, Sandro; Lindquist, Susan

    2015-09-01

    Proteasomes are central regulators of protein homeostasis in eukaryotes. Proteasome function is vulnerable to environmental insults, cellular protein imbalance and targeted pharmaceuticals. Yet, mechanisms that cells deploy to counteract inhibition of this central regulator are little understood. To find such mechanisms, we reduced flux through the proteasome to the point of toxicity with specific inhibitors and performed genome-wide screens for mutations that allowed cells to survive. Counter to expectation, reducing expression of individual subunits of the proteasome's 19S regulatory complex increased survival. Strong 19S reduction was cytotoxic but modest reduction protected cells from inhibitors. Protection was accompanied by an increased ratio of 20S to 26S proteasomes, preservation of protein degradation capacity and reduced proteotoxic stress. While compromise of 19S function can have a fitness cost under basal conditions, it provided a powerful survival advantage when proteasome function was impaired. This means of rebalancing proteostasis is conserved from yeast to humans.

  3. Dissecting a role of a charge and conformation of Tat2 peptide in allosteric regulation of 20S proteasome.

    PubMed

    Witkowska, Julia; Karpowicz, Przemysław; Gaczynska, Maria; Osmulski, Pawel A; Jankowska, Elżbieta

    2014-08-01

    Proteasome is a 'proteolytic factory' that constitutes an essential part of the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway. The involvement of proteasome in regulation of all major aspects of cellular physiology makes it an attractive drug target. So far, only inhibitors of the proteasome entered the clinic as anti-cancer drugs. However, proteasome regulators may also be useful for treatment of inflammatory and neurodegenerative diseases. We established in our previous studies that the peptide Tat2, comprising the basic domain of HIV-1 Tat protein: R(49) KKRRQRR(56) , supplemented with Q(66) DPI(69) fragment, inhibits the 20S proteasome in a noncompetitive manner. Mechanism of Tat2 likely involves allosteric regulation because it competes with the proteasome natural 11S activator for binding to the enzyme noncatalytic subunits. In this study, we performed alanine walking coupled with biological activity measurements and FTIR and CD spectroscopy to dissect contribution of a charge and conformation of Tat2 to its capability to influence peptidase activity of the proteasome. In solution, Tat2 and most of its analogs with a single Ala substitution preferentially adopted a conformation containing PPII/turn structural motifs. Replacing either Asp10 or two or more adjacent Arg/Lys residues induced a random coil conformation, probably by disrupting ionic interactions responsible for stabilization of the peptides ordered structure. The random coil Tat2 analogs lost their capability to activate the latent 20S proteasome. In contrast, inhibitory properties of the peptides more significantly depended on their positive charge. The data provide valuable clues for the future optimization of the Tat2-based proteasome regulators.

  4. Proteasome inhibition reverses hedgehog inhibitor and taxane resistance in ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Steg, Adam D; Burke, Mata R; Amm, Hope M; Katre, Ashwini A; Dobbin, Zachary C; Jeong, Dae Hoon; Landen, Charles N

    2014-08-30

    The goal of this study was to determine whether combined targeted therapies, specifically those against the Notch, hedgehog and ubiquitin-proteasome pathways, could overcome ovarian cancer chemoresistance. Chemoresistant ovarian cancer cells were exposed to gamma-secretase inhibitors (GSI-I, Compound E) or the proteasome inhibitor bortezomib, alone and in combination with the hedgehog antagonist, LDE225. Bortezomib, alone and in combination with LDE225, was evaluated for effects on paclitaxel efficacy. Cell viability and cell cycle analysis were assessed by MTT assay and propidium iodide staining, respectively. Proteasome activity and gene expression were determined by luminescence assay and qPCR, respectively. Studies demonstrated that GSI-I, but not Compound E, inhibited proteasome activity, similar to bortezomib. Proteasome inhibition decreased hedgehog target genes (PTCH1, GLI1 and GLI2) and increased LDE225 sensitivity in vitro. Bortezomib, alone and in combination with LDE225, increased paclitaxel sensitivity through apoptosis and G2/M arrest. Expression of the multi-drug resistance gene ABCB1/MDR1 was decreased and acetylation of α-tubulin, a marker of microtubule stabilization, was increased following bortezomib treatment. HDAC6 inhibitor tubastatin-a demonstrated that microtubule effects are associated with hedgehog inhibition and sensitization to paclitaxel and LDE225. These results suggest that proteasome inhibition, through alteration of microtubule dynamics and hedgehog signaling, can reverse taxane-mediated chemoresistance.

  5. Lifelong maintenance of composition, function and cellular/subcellular distribution of proteasomes in human liver.

    PubMed

    Bellavista, Elena; Martucci, Morena; Vasuri, Francesco; Santoro, Aurelia; Mishto, Michele; Kloss, Alexander; Capizzi, Elisa; Degiovanni, Alessio; Lanzarini, Catia; Remondini, Daniel; Dazzi, Alessandro; Pellegrini, Sara; Cescon, Matteo; Capri, Miriam; Salvioli, Stefano; D'Errico-Grigioni, Antonia; Dahlmann, Burkhardt; Grazi, Gian Luca; Franceschi, Claudio

    2014-01-01

    Owing to organ shortage, livers from old donors are increasingly used for transplantation. The function and duration of such transplanted livers are apparently comparable to those from young donors, suggesting that, despite some morphological and structural age-related changes, no major functional changes do occur in liver with age. We tested this hypothesis by performing a comprehensive study on proteasomes, major cell organelles responsible for proteostasis, in liver biopsies from heart-beating donors. Oxidized and poly-ubiquitin conjugated proteins did not accumulate with age and the three major proteasome proteolytic activities were similar in livers from young and old donors. Analysis of proteasomes composition showed an age-related increased of β5i/α4 ratio, suggesting a shift toward proteasomes containing inducible subunits and a decreased content of PA28α subunit, mainly in the cytosol of hepatocytes. Thus our data suggest that, proteasomes activity is well preserved in livers from aged donors, concomitantly with subtle changes in proteasome subunit composition which might reflect the occurrence of a functional remodelling to maintain an efficient proteostasis. Gender differences are emerging and they deserve further investigations owing to the different aging trajectories between men and women. Finally, our data support the safe use of livers from old donors for transplantation.

  6. Proteasome Inhibitors Prevent Tracheary Element Differentiation in Zinnia Mesophyll Cell Cultures1

    PubMed Central

    Woffenden, Bonnie J.; Freeman, Thomas B.; Beers, Eric P.

    1998-01-01

    To determine whether proteasome activity is required for tracheary element (TE) differentiation, the proteasome inhibitors clasto-lactacystin β-lactone and carbobenzoxy-leucinyl-leucinyl-leucinal (LLL) were used in a zinnia (Zinnia elegans) mesophyll cell culture system. The addition of proteasome inhibitors at the time of culture initiation prevented differentiation otherwise detectable at 96 h. Inhibition of the proteasome at 48 h, after cellular commitment to differentiation, did not alter the final percentage of TEs compared with controls. However, proteasome inhibition at 48 h delayed the differentiation process by approximately 24 h, as indicated by examination of both morphological markers and the expression of putative autolytic proteases. These results indicate that proteasome function is required both for induction of TE differentiation and for progression of the TE program in committed cells. Treatment at 48 h with LLL but not clasto-lactacystin β-lactone resulted in partial uncoupling of autolysis from differentiation. Results from gel analysis of protease activity suggested that the observed incomplete autolysis was due to the ability of LLL to inhibit TE cysteine proteases. PMID:9765527

  7. Induction of autophagy by proteasome inhibitor is associated with proliferative arrest in colon cancer cells

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, William Ka Kei Wu Yachun; Yu Le; Li Zhijie; Sung, Joseph Jao Yiu; Cho, C.H.

    2008-09-19

    The ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) and lysosome-dependent macroautophagy (autophagy) are two major intracellular pathways for protein degradation. Blockade of UPS by proteasome inhibitors has been shown to activate autophagy. Recent evidence also suggests that proteasome inhibitors may inhibit cancer growth. In this study, the effect of a proteasome inhibitor MG-132 on the proliferation and autophagy of cultured colon cancer cells (HT-29) was elucidated. Results showed that MG-132 inhibited HT-29 cell proliferation and induced G{sub 2}/M cell cycle arrest which was associated with the formation of LC3{sup +} autophagic vacuoles and the accumulation of acidic vesicular organelles. MG-132 also increased the protein expression of LC3-I and -II in a time-dependent manner. In this connection, 3-methyladenine, a Class III phosphoinositide 3-kinase inhibitor, significantly abolished the formation of LC3{sup +} autophagic vacuoles and the expression of LC3-II but not LC3-I induced by MG-132. Taken together, this study demonstrates that inhibition of proteasome in colon cancer cells lowers cell proliferation and activates autophagy. This discovery may shed a new light on the novel function of proteasome in the regulation of autophagy and proliferation in colon cancer cells.

  8. Active Dendrites Enhance Neuronal Dynamic Range

    PubMed Central

    Gollo, Leonardo L.; Kinouchi, Osame; Copelli, Mauro

    2009-01-01

    Since the first experimental evidences of active conductances in dendrites, most neurons have been shown to exhibit dendritic excitability through the expression of a variety of voltage-gated ion channels. However, despite experimental and theoretical efforts undertaken in the past decades, the role of this excitability for some kind of dendritic computation has remained elusive. Here we show that, owing to very general properties of excitable media, the average output of a model of an active dendritic tree is a highly non-linear function of its afferent rate, attaining extremely large dynamic ranges (above 50 dB). Moreover, the model yields double-sigmoid response functions as experimentally observed in retinal ganglion cells. We claim that enhancement of dynamic range is the primary functional role of active dendritic conductances. We predict that neurons with larger dendritic trees should have larger dynamic range and that blocking of active conductances should lead to a decrease in dynamic range. PMID:19521531

  9. Colorectal Carcinogenesis, Radiation Quality, and the Ubiquitin-Proteasome Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Datta, Kamal; Suman, Shubhankar; Kumar, Santosh; Fornace, Albert J

    2016-01-01

    Adult colorectal epithelium undergoes continuous renewal and maintains homeostatic balance through regulated cellular proliferation, differentiation, and migration. The canonical Wnt signaling pathway involving the transcriptional co-activator β-catenin is important for colorectal development and normal epithelial maintenance, and deregulated Wnt/β-catenin signaling has been implicated in colorectal carcinogenesis. Colorectal carcinogenesis has been linked to radiation exposure, and radiation has been demonstrated to alter Wnt/β-catenin signaling, as well as the proteasomal pathway involved in the degradation of the signaling components and thus regulation of β-catenin. The current review discusses recent progresses in our understanding of colorectal carcinogenesis in relation to different types of radiation and roles that radiation quality plays in deregulating β-catenin and ubiquitin-proteasome pathway (UPP) for colorectal cancer initiation and progression. PMID:26819641

  10. The ubiquitin-proteasome system regulates plant hormone signaling

    PubMed Central

    Santner, Aaron; Estelle, Mark

    2011-01-01

    SUMMARY Plants utilize the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) to modulate nearly every aspect of growth and development. Ubiquitin is covalently attached to target proteins through the action of three enzymes known as E1, E2, and E3. The ultimate outcome of this post-translational modification depends on the nature of the ubiquitin linkage and the extent of polyubiquitination. In most cases, ubiquitination results in degradation of the target protein in the 26S proteasome. During the last 10 years it has become clear that the UPS plays a prominent regulatory role in hormone biology. E3 ubiquitin ligases in particular actively participate in hormone perception, de-repression of hormone signaling pathways, degradation of hormone specific transcription factors, and regulation of hormone biosynthesis. It is certain that additional functions will be discovered as more of the nearly 1200 potential E3s in plants are elucidated. PMID:20409276

  11. Proteasomal dysfunction in sporadic Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    McNaught, Kevin St P; Jackson, Tehone; JnoBaptiste, Ruth; Kapustin, Alexander; Olanow, C Warren

    2006-05-23

    The cause and mechanism of neuronal death in sporadic Parkinson's disease (PD) continue to elude investigators. Recently, alterations in proteasomal function have been detected in the brain of patients with the illness. The biochemical basis of the defect and its relevance to the disease process are now being studied. The available results suggest that proteasomal dysfunction could underlie protein accumulation, Lewy body formation, and neuron death in PD. The cause of proteasomal dysfunction is unknown at present, but this could relate to gene mutations, oxidative damage, ATP depletion, or the actions of environmental toxins. It remains to be established if proteasomal dysfunction plays a primary or a secondary role in the initiation or progression of the neurodegenerative process in PD.

  12. Interaction of Gcn4 with target gene chromatin is modulated by proteasome function

    PubMed Central

    Howard, Gregory C.; Tansey, William P.

    2016-01-01

    The ubiquitin–proteasome system (UPS) influences gene transcription in multiple ways. One way in which the UPS affects transcription centers on transcriptional activators, the function of which can be stimulated by components of the UPS that also trigger their destruction. Activation of transcription by the yeast activator Gcn4, for example, is attenuated by mutations in the ubiquitin ligase that mediates Gcn4 ubiquitylation or by inhibition of the proteasome, leading to the idea that ubiquitin-mediated proteolysis of Gcn4 is required for its activity. Here we probe the steps in Gcn4 activity that are perturbed by disruption of the UPS. We show that the ubiquitylation machinery and the proteasome control different steps in Gcn4 function and that proteasome activity is required for the ability of Gcn4 to bind to its target genes in the context of chromatin. Curiously, the effect of proteasome inhibition on Gcn4 activity is suppressed by mutations in the ubiquitin-selective chaperone Cdc48, revealing that proteolysis per se is not required for Gcn4 activity. Our data highlight the role of Cdc48 in controlling promoter occupancy by Gcn4 and support a model in which ubiquitylation of activators—not their destruction—is important for function. PMID:27385344

  13. The role of the proteasome in AML

    PubMed Central

    Csizmar, C M; Kim, D-H; Sachs, Z

    2016-01-01

    Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is deadly hematologic malignancy. Despite a well-characterized genetic and molecular landscape, targeted therapies for AML have failed to significantly improve clinical outcomes. Over the past decade, proteasome inhibition has been demonstrated to be an effective therapeutic strategy in several hematologic malignancies. Proteasome inhibitors, such as bortezomib and carfilzomib, have become mainstays of treatment for multiple myeloma and mantle cell lymphoma. In light of this success, there has been a surge of literature exploring both the role of the proteasome and the effects of proteasome inhibition in AML. Pre-clinical studies have demonstrated that proteasome inhibition disrupts proliferative cell signaling pathways, exhibits cytotoxic synergism with other chemotherapeutics and induces autophagy of cancer-related proteins. Meanwhile, clinical trials incorporating bortezomib into combination chemotherapy regimens have reported a range of responses in AML patients, with complete remission rates >80% in some cases. Taken together, this preclinical and clinical evidence suggests that inhibition of the proteasome may be efficacious in this disease. In an effort to focus further investigation into this area, these recent studies and their findings are reviewed here. PMID:27911437

  14. The proteasomes of two marine decapod crustaceans, European lobster (Homarus gammarus) and Edible crab (Cancer pagurus), are differently impaired by heavy metals.

    PubMed

    Götze, Sandra; Bose, Aneesh; Sokolova, Inna M; Abele, Doris; Saborowski, Reinhard

    2014-05-01

    The intracellular ubiquitin-proteasome system is a key regulator of cellular processes involved in the controlled degradation of short-living or malfunctioning proteins. Certain diseases and cellular dysfunctions are known to arise from the disruption of proteasome pathways. Trace metals are recognized stressors of the proteasome system in vertebrates and plants, but their effects on the proteasome of invertebrates are not well understood. Since marine invertebrates, and particularly benthic crustaceans, can be exposed to high metal levels, we studied the effects of in vitro exposure to Hg(2+), Zn(2+), Cu(2+), and Cd(2+) on the activities of the proteasome from the claw muscles of lobsters (Homarus gammarus) and crabs (Cancer pagurus). The chymotrypsin like activity of the proteasome of these two species showed different sensitivity to metals. In lobsters the activity was significantly inhibited by all metals to a similar extent. In crabs the activities were severely suppressed only by Hg(2+) and Cu(2+) while Zn(2+) had only a moderate effect and Cd(2+) caused almost no inhibition of the crab proteasome. This indicates that the proteasomes of both species possess structural characteristics that determine different susceptibility to metals. Consequently, the proteasome-mediated protein degradation in crab C. pagurus may be less affected by metal pollution than that of the lobster H. gammarus.

  15. Phosphorylation and Methylation of Proteasomal Proteins of the Haloarcheon Haloferax volcanii

    PubMed Central

    Humbard, Matthew A.; Reuter, Christopher J.; Zuobi-Hasona, Kheir; Zhou, Guangyin; Maupin-Furlow, Julie A.

    2010-01-01

    Proteasomes are composed of 20S core particles (CPs) of α- and β-type subunits that associate with regulatory particle AAA ATPases such as the proteasome-activating nucleotidase (PAN) complexes of archaea. In this study, the roles and additional sites of post-translational modification of proteasomes were investigated using the archaeon Haloferax volcanii as a model. Indicative of phosphorylation, phosphatase-sensitive isoforms of α1 and α2 were detected by 2-DE immunoblot. To map these and other potential sites of post-translational modification, proteasomes were purified and analyzed by tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS). Using this approach, several phosphosites were mapped including α1 Thr147, α2 Thr13/Ser14 and PAN-A Ser340. Multiple methylation sites were also mapped to α1, thus, revealing a new type of proteasomal modification. Probing the biological role of α1 and PAN-A phosphorylation by site-directed mutagenesis revealed dominant negative phenotypes for cell viability and/or pigmentation for α1 variants including Thr147Ala, Thr158Ala and Ser58Ala. An H. volcanii Rio1p Ser/Thr kinase homolog was purified and shown to catalyze autophosphorylation and phosphotransfer to α1. The α1 variants in Thr and Ser residues that displayed dominant negative phenotypes were significantly reduced in their ability to accept phosphoryl groups from Rio1p, thus, providing an important link between cell physiology and proteasomal phosphorylation. PMID:20671954

  16. Bortezomib-resistance is associated with increased levels of proteasome subunits and apoptosis-avoidance

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Yi-Xin; Yang, Jia-Hua; Saitsu, Hirotomo

    2016-01-01

    Bortezomib (BTZ), a proteasome inhibitor, is the first proteasome inhibitor to be used in clinical practice. Here we investigated the mechanisms underlying acquired bortezomib resistance in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells. Using stepwise selection, we established two acquired bortezomib-resistant HCC cell lines, a bortezomib-resistant HepG2 cell line (HepG2/BTZ) and bortezomib-resistant HuH7 cell line (HuH7/BTZ). The 50% inhibitory concentration values of HepG2/BTZ and HuH7/BTZ were respectively 15- and 39-fold higher than those of parental cell lines. Sequence analysis of the bortezomib-binding pocket in the β5-subunit showed no mutation. However, bortezomib-resistant HCC cells had increased expression of β1 and β5 proteasome subunits. These alterations of proteasome expression were accompanied by a weak degree of proteasome inhibition in bortezomib-resistant cells than that in wild-type cells after bortezomib exposure. Furthermore, bortezomib-resistant HCC cells acquired resistance to apoptosis. Bortezomib up-regulated pro-apoptotic proteins of the Bcl-2 protein family, Bax and Noxa in wild-type HCC cells. However, in bortezomib-resistant HCC cells, resistance to apoptosis was accompanied by loss of the ability to stabilize and accumulate these proteins. Thus, increased expression and increased activity of proteasomes constitute an adaptive and auto regulatory feedback mechanism to allow cells to survive exposure bortezomib. PMID:27769058

  17. Enhancing laboratory activities in nuclear medicine education.

    PubMed

    Grantham, Vesper; Martin, Chris; Schmitz, Casey

    2009-12-01

    Hands-on or active learning is important in nuclear medicine education. As more curricula start to require greater standards and as distance education expands, the effective use of laboratories in nuclear medicine education remains important in physics, instrumentation, and imaging but is often overlooked or underutilized. Laboratory exercises are a unique opportunity for nuclear medicine educators to facilitate students' critical thinking and problem-solving skills in a manner that often cannot occur in lectures or during online education. Given the lack of current laboratory tools and publications, there exists a requirement for nuclear medicine educators to develop, enhance, and monitor educational tools for laboratory exercises. Expanding technologies, variations in imaging and measurement systems, and the need to ensure that the taught technology is relevant to nuclear medicine students are issues faced by nuclear medicine educators. This article, based on principles of instructional design, focuses on the components and development of effective and enhanced nuclear medicine laboratories in our current educational environment.

  18. -graphene nanocomposites and their enhanced photocatalytic activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xian, Tao; Yang, Hua; Di, Lijing; Ma, Jinyuan; Zhang, Haimin; Dai, Jianfeng

    2014-06-01

    SrTiO3-graphene nanocomposites were prepared via photocatalytic reduction of graphene oxide by UV light-irradiated SrTiO3 nanoparticles. Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy analysis indicates that graphene oxide is reduced into graphene. Transmission electron microscope observation shows that SrTiO3 nanoparticles are well assembled onto graphene sheets. The photocatalytic activity of as-prepared SrTiO3-graphene composites was evaluated by the degradation of acid orange 7 (AO7) under a 254-nm UV irradiation, revealing that the composites exhibit significantly enhanced photocatalytic activity compared to the bare SrTiO3 nanoparticles. This can be explained by the fact that photogenerated electrons are captured by graphene, leading to an increased separation and availability of electrons and holes for the photocatalytic reaction. Hydroxyl (·OH) radicals were detected by the photoluminescence technique using terephthalic acid as a probe molecule and were found to be produced over the irradiated SrTiO3 nanoparticles and SrTiO3-graphene composites; especially, an enhanced yield is observed for the latter. The influence of ethanol, KI, and N2 on the photocatalytic efficiency was also investigated. Based on the experimental results, ·OH, h+, and H2O2 are suggested to be the main active species in the photocatalytic degradation of AO7 by SrTiO3-graphene composites.

  19. LRRK2 autophosphorylation enhances its GTPase activity

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zhiyong; Mobley, James A.; DeLucas, Lawrence J.; Kahn, Richard A.; West, Andrew B.

    2016-01-01

    The leucine-rich repeat kinase (LRRK)-2 protein contains nonoverlapping GTPase and kinase domains, and mutation in either domain can cause Parkinson disease. GTPase proteins are critical upstream modulators of many effector protein kinases. In LRRK2, this paradigm may be reversed, as the kinase domain phosphorylates its own GTPase domain. In this study, we found that the ameba LRRK2 ortholog ROCO4 phosphorylates the GTPase domain [termed Ras-of-complex (ROC) domain in this family] of human LRRK2 on the same residues as the human LRRK2 kinase. Phosphorylation of ROC enhances its rate of GTP hydrolysis [from kcat (catalytic constant) 0.007 to 0.016 min−1], without affecting GTP or GDP dissociation kinetics [koff = 0.093 and 0.148 min−1 for GTP and GDP, respectively). Phosphorylation also promotes the formation of ROC dimers, although GTPase activity appears to be equivalent between purified dimers and monomers. Modeling experiments show that phosphorylation induces conformational changes at the critical p-loop structure. Finally, ROC appears to be one of many GTPases phosphorylated in p-loop residues, as revealed by alignment of LRRK2 autophosphorylation sites with GTPases annotated in the phosphoproteome database. These results provide an example of a novel mechanism for kinase-mediated control of GTPase activity.—Liu, Z., Mobley, J. A., DeLucas, L. J., Kahn, R. A., West, A. B. LRRK2 autophosphorylation enhances its GTPase activity. PMID:26396237

  20. The Novel Polyamine Analog CGC-11093 Enhances the Anti-Myeloma Activity of Bortezomib

    PubMed Central

    Carew, Jennifer S.; Nawrocki, Steffan T.; Reddy, Venudhar K.; Bush, Dorothy; Rehg, Jerold E.; Goodwin, Andrew; Houghton, Janet A.; Casero, Robert A.; Marton, Laurence J.; Cleveland, John L.

    2009-01-01

    Multiple myeloma (MM) is an incurable plasma cell malignancy. The recent successes of the proteasome inhibitor bortezomib in MM therapy have prompted investigations of its efficacy in combination with other anticancer agents. Polyamines play important roles in regulating tumor cell proliferation and angiogenesis and represent an important therapeutic target. CGC-11093 is a novel polyamine analog that has completed a Phase I clinical trial for the treatment of cancer. Here we report that CGC-11093 selectively augments the in vitro and in vivo anti-myeloma activity of bortezomib. Specifically, the combination of CGC-11093 and bortezomib compromised MM viability and clonogenic survival, and increased drug-induced apoptosis over that achieved by either single agent. Xenografts of MM tumors treated with this combination had marked increases in phospho-JNK-positive cells and apoptosis, and corresponding reductions in tumor burden, tumor vasculature, and the expression of PCNA and the pro-angiogenic cytokine vascular endothelial growth factor. Furthermore, inhibition of JNK with a pharmacological inhibitor or by selective knockdown blunted the efficacy of CGC-11093 and bortezomib. Therefore, CGC-11093 enhances bortezomib's anti-cancer activity by augmenting JNK-mediated apoptosis and blocking angiogenesis. These findings support study of the use of the combination of bortezomib and CGC-11093 in multiple myeloma patients that fail to respond to frontline therapy. PMID:18559525

  1. Targeting the ubiquitin-proteasome system for cancer therapy

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yili; Kitagaki, Jirouta; Wang, Honghe; Hou, Dexing; Perantoni, Alan O.

    2009-01-01

    Summary The ubiquitin-proteasome system plays a critical role in controlling the level, activity, and location of various cellular proteins. Significant progress has been made in investigating the molecular mechanisms of ubiquitination, particularly in understanding the structure of the ubiquitination machinery and identifying ubiquitin protein ligases, the primary specificity-determining enzymes. Therefore, it is now possible to target specific molecules involved in the ubiquitination and proteasomal degradation to regulate many cellular processes such as signal transduction, proliferation and apoptosis. In particular, alterations in ubiquitination are observed in most, if not all, cancer cells. This is manifested by destabilization of tumor suppressors, such as p53, and overexpression of oncogenes such as c-Myc and c-Jun. In addition to the development and clinical validation of proteasome inhibitor Bortezomib in myeloma therapy, recent studies have demonstrated that it is possible to develop inhibitors for specific ubiquitination and deubiquitination enzymes. With the help of structural studies, rational design, and chemical synthesis, it is conceivable that we will be able to use “druggable” inhibitors of the ubiquitin system to evaluate their effects in animal tumor models in the not-so-distant future. PMID:19037995

  2. The role of allostery in the ubiquitin-proteasome system

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jin; Nussinov, Ruth

    2012-01-01

    The Ubiquitin-Proteasome System is involved in many cellular processes including protein degradation. Degradation of a protein via this system involves two successive steps: ubiquitination and degradation. Ubiquitination tags the target protein with ubiquitin-like proteins, such as ubiquitin, SUMO and NEDD8, via a cascade involving three enzymes: activating enzyme E1, conjugating enzyme E2, and E3 ubiquitin ligases. The proteasomes recognize the ubiquitin-like protein tagged substrate proteins and degrade them. Accumulating evidence indicates that allostery is a central player in the regulation of ubiquitination, as well as deubiquitination and degradation. Here, we provide an overview of the key mechanistic roles played by allostery in all steps of these processes, and highlight allosteric drugs targeting them. Throughout the review, we emphasize the crucial mechanistic role played by linkers in allosterically controlling the Ubiquitin-Proteasome System action by biasing the sampling of the conformational space, which facilitate the catalytic reactions of the ubiquitination and degradation. Finally, we propose that allostery may similarly play key roles in the regulation of molecular machines in the cell, and as such allosteric drugs can be expected to be increasingly exploited in therapeutic regimes. PMID:23234564

  3. Reactive nucleolar and Cajal body responses to proteasome inhibition in sensory ganglion neurons.

    PubMed

    Palanca, Ana; Casafont, Iñigo; Berciano, María T; Lafarga, Miguel

    2014-06-01

    The dysfunction of the ubiquitin proteasome system has been related to a broad array of neurodegenerative disorders in which the accumulation of misfolded protein aggregates causes proteotoxicity. The ability of proteasome inhibitors to induce cell cycle arrest and apoptosis has emerged as a powerful strategy for cancer therapy. Bortezomib is a proteasome inhibitor used as an antineoplastic drug, although its neurotoxicity frequently causes a severe sensory peripheral neuropathy. In this study we used a rat model of bortezomib treatment to study the nucleolar and Cajal body responses to the proteasome inhibition in sensory ganglion neurons that are major targets of bortezomib-induced neurotoxicity. Treatment with bortezomib induced dose-dependent dissociation of protein synthesis machinery (chromatolysis) and nuclear retention of poly(A) RNA granules resulting in neuronal dysfunction. However, as a compensatory response to the proteotoxic stress, both nucleoli and Cajal bodies exhibited reactive changes. These include an increase in the number and size of nucleoli, strong nucleolar incorporation of the RNA precursor 5'-fluorouridine, and increased expression of both 45S rRNA and genes encoding nucleolar proteins UBF, fibrillarin and B23. Taken together, these findings appear to reflect the activation of the nucleolar transcription in response to proteotoxic stress Furthermore, the number of Cajal bodies, a parameter related to transcriptional activity, increases upon proteasome inhibition. We propose that nucleoli and Cajal bodies are important targets in the signaling pathways that are activated by the proteotoxic stress response to proteasome inhibition. The coordinating activity of these two organelles in the production of snRNA, snoRNA and rRNA may contribute to neuronal survival after proteasome inhibition. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Role of the Nucleolus in Human Disease.

  4. Structure of a Blm10 complex reveals common mechanisms for proteasome binding and gate opening.

    PubMed

    Sadre-Bazzaz, Kianoush; Whitby, Frank G; Robinson, Howard; Formosa, Tim; Hill, Christopher P

    2010-03-12

    The proteasome is an abundant protease that is critically important for numerous cellular pathways. Proteasomes are activated in vitro by three known classes of proteins/complexes, including Blm10/PA200. Here, we report a 3.4 A resolution crystal structure of a proteasome-Blm10 complex, which reveals that Blm10 surrounds the proteasome entry pore in the 1.2 MDa complex to form a largely closed dome that is expected to restrict access of potential substrates. This architecture and the observation that Blm10 induces a disordered proteasome gate structure challenge the assumption that Blm10 functions as an activator of proteolysis in vivo. The Blm10 C terminus binds in the same manner as seen for 11S activators and inferred for 19S/PAN activators and indicates a unified model for gate opening. We also demonstrate that Blm10 acts to maintain mitochondrial function. Consistent with the structural data, the C-terminal residues of Blm10 are needed for this activity.

  5. FV-162 is a novel, orally bioavailable, irreversible proteasome inhibitor with improved pharmacokinetics displaying preclinical efficacy with continuous daily dosing

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Z; Dove, P; Wang, X; Shamas-Din, A; Li, Z; Nachman, A; Oh, Y J; Hurren, R; Ruschak, A; Climie, S; Press, B; Griffin, C; Undzys, E; Aman, A; Al-awar, R; Kay, L E; O'Neill, D; Trudel, S; Slassi, M; Schimmer, A D

    2015-01-01

    Approved proteasome inhibitors have advanced the treatment of multiple myeloma but are associated with serious toxicities, poor pharmacokinetics, and most with the inconvenience of intravenous administration. We therefore sought to identify novel orally bioavailable proteasome inhibitors with a continuous daily dosing schedule and improved therapeutic window using a unique drug discovery platform. We employed a fluorine-based medicinal chemistry technology to synthesize 14 novel analogs of epoxyketone-based proteasome inhibitors and screened them for their stability, ability to inhibit the chymotrypsin-like proteasome, and antimyeloma activity in vitro. The tolerability, pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamic activity, and antimyeloma efficacy of our lead candidate were examined in NOD/SCID mice. We identified a tripeptide epoxyketone, FV-162, as a metabolically stable, potent proteasome inhibitor cytotoxic to human myeloma cell lines and primary myeloma cells. FV-162 had limited toxicity and was well tolerated on a continuous daily dosing schedule. Compared with the benchmark oral irreversible proteasome inhibitor, ONX-0192, FV-162 had a lower peak plasma concentration and longer half-life, resulting in a larger area under the curve (AUC). Oral FV-162 treatment induced rapid, irreversible inhibition of chymotrypsin-like proteasome activity in murine red blood cells and inhibited tumor growth in a myeloma xenograft model. Our data suggest that oral FV-162 with continuous daily dosing schedule displays a favorable safety, efficacy, and pharmacokinetic profile in vivo, identifying it as a promising lead for clinical evaluation in myeloma therapy. PMID:26158521

  6. Rpn1 provides adjacent receptor sites for substrate binding and deubiquitination by the proteasome

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Yuan; Chen, Xiang; Elsasser, Suzanne; Stocks, Bradley B.; Tian, Geng; Lee, Byung-Hoon; Shi, Yanhong; Zhang, Naixia; de Poot, Stefanie A. H.; Tuebing, Fabian; Sun, Shuangwu; Vannoy, Jacob; Tarasov, Sergey G.; Engen, John R.; Finley, Daniel; Walters, Kylie J.

    2016-01-01

    Structured Abstract INTRODUCTION The ubiquitin-proteasome system comprises hundreds of distinct pathways of degradation, which converge at the step of ubiquitin recognition by the proteasome. Five proteasomal ubiquitin receptors have been identified, two that are intrinsic to the proteasome (Rpn10 and Rpn13) and three reversibly associated proteasomal ubiquitin receptors (Rad23, Dsk2, and Ddi1). RATIONALE We found that the five known proteasomal ubiquitin receptors of yeast are collectively nonessential for ubiquitin recognition by the proteasome. We therefore screened for additional ubiquitin receptors in the proteasome and identified subunit Rpn1 as a candidate. We used nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy to characterize the structure of the binding site within Rpn1, which we term the T1 site. Mutational analysis of this site showed its functional importance within the context of intact proteasomes. T1 binds both ubiquitin and ubiquitin-like (UBL) proteins, in particular the substrate-delivering shuttle factor Rad23. A second site within the Rpn1 toroid, T2, recognizes the UBL domain of deubiquitinating enzyme Ubp6, as determined by hydrogen-deuterium exchange mass spectrometry analysis and validated by amino acid substitution and functional assays. The Rpn1 toroid thus serves a critical scaffolding role within the proteasome, helping to assemble multiple proteasome cofactors as well as substrates. RESULTS Our results indicate that proteasome subunit Rpn1 can recognize both ubiquitin and UBL domains of substrate shuttling factors that themselves bind ubiquitin and function as reversibly-associated proteasomal ubiquitin receptors. Recognition is mediated by the T1 site within the Rpn1 toroid, which supports proteasome function in vivo. We found that the capacity of T1 to recognize both ubiquitin and UBL proteins was shared with Rpn10 and Rpn13. The surprising multiplicity of ubiquitin-recognition domains within the proteasome may promote enhanced

  7. Synthesis and Biological Evaluation of Naphthoquinone Analogs as a Novel Class of Proteasome Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Lawrence, Harshani R.; Kazi, Aslamuzzaman; Luo, Yunting; Kendig, Robert; Ge, Yiyu; Jain, Sanjula; Daniel, Kenyon; Santiago, Daniel; Guida, Wayne C.; Sebti, Saïd M.

    2012-01-01

    Screening of the NCI Diversity Set-1 identified PI-083 (NSC-45382) a proteasome inhibitor selective for cancer over normal cells. Focused libraries of novel compounds based on PI-083 chloronaphthoquinone and sulfonamide moieties were synthesized to gain a better understanding of the structure activity relationship responsible for chymotrypsin-like proteasome inhibitory activity. This led to the demonstration that the chloronaphthoquinone and the sulfonamide moieties are critical for inhibitory activity. The pyridyl group in PI-083 can be replaced with other heterocyclic groups without significant loss of activity. Molecular modeling studies were also performed to explore the detailed interactions of PI-083 and its derivatives with the β5 and β6 subunits of the 20S proteasome. The refined model showed an H-bond interaction between the Asp-114 and the sulfonamide moiety of the PI-083 in the β6 subunit. PMID:20621484

  8. Sperm-surface ATP in boar spermatozoa is required for fertilization: relevance to sperm proteasomal function.

    PubMed

    Yi, Young-Joo; Park, Chang-Sik; Kim, Eui-Sook; Song, Eun-Sook; Jeong, Ji-Hyeon; Sutovsky, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Extracellular ATP has been implicated in a number of cellular events, including mammalian sperm function. The complement of ATP-dependent sperm proteins includes six subunits of the 26S proteasome, a multi-subunit protease specific to ubiquitinated substrate-proteins. Proteolysis of ubiquitinated proteins by the 26S proteasome is necessary for the success of mammalian fertilization, including but not limited to acrosomal exocytosis (AE) and sperm-zona pellucida (ZP) penetration. The 26S proteasome is uniquely present on the sperm acrosomal surface during mammalian, ascidian, and invertebrate fertilization. The proteasome is a multi-subunit protease complex of approximately 2 MDa composed of the 19S regulatory complex and a 20S proteolytic core. Integrity of the 19S complex is maintained by six 19S ATPase subunits (PSMC1 through PSMC6). Consequently, we hypothesized that fertilization will be blocked by the depletion of sperm-surface associated ATP (ssATP). Depletion of ssATP by the Solanum tuberosum apyrase, a 49 kDa, non-cell permeant enzyme, significantly reduced the ATP content measured by an adapted luminescence-ATP assay from which all permeabilizing agents were excluded. Addition of active apyrase to porcine in vitro fertilization (IVF) medium caused a concentration dependent reduction in the overall fertilization rate. No such outcomes were observed in control groups using heat-inactivated apyrase. Apyrase treatment altered the band pattern of 19S ATPase subunits PSMC1 (Rpt2) and PSMC4 (Rpt3) in Western blotting, suggesting that it had an effect on the integrity of the sperm proteasomal 19S complex. Apyrase only altered the proteasomal core activities slightly, since these activities are not directly dependent on external ATP. In contrast, sperm treatment with MG132, a specific inhibitor of the proteasomal core chymotrypsin-like activity, inhibited the target proteolytic activity, but also induced a compensatory elevation in proteasomal peptidyl

  9. Proteasome-Mediated Proteolysis of SRSF5 Splicing Factor Intriguingly Co-occurs with SRSF5 mRNA Upregulation during Late Erythroid Differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Breig, Osman; Baklouti, Faouzi

    2013-01-01

    SR proteins exhibit diverse functions ranging from their role in constitutive and alternative splicing, to virtually all aspects of mRNA metabolism. These findings have attracted growing interest in deciphering the regulatory mechanisms that control the tissue-specific expression of these SR proteins. In this study, we show that SRSF5 protein decreases drastically during erythroid cell differentiation, contrasting with a concomitant upregulation of SRSF5 mRNA level. Proteasome chemical inhibition provided strong evidence that endogenous SRSF5 protein, as well as protein deriving from stably transfected SRSF5 cDNA, are both targeted to proteolysis as the cells undergo terminal differentiation. Consistently, functional experiments show that overexpression of SRSF5 enhances a specific endogenous pre-mRNA splicing event in proliferating cells, but not in differentiating cells, due to proteasome-mediated targeting of both endogenous and transfection-derived SRSF5. Further investigation of the relationship between SRSF5 structure and its post-translation regulation and function, suggested that the RNA recognition motifs of SRSF5 are sufficient to activate pre-mRNA splicing, whereas proteasome-mediated proteolysis of SRSF5 requires the presence of the C-terminal RS domain of the protein. Phosphorylation of SR proteins is a key post-translation regulation that promotes their activity and subcellular availability. We here show that inhibition of the CDC2-like kinase (CLK) family and mutation of the AKT phosphorylation site Ser86 on SRSF5, have no effect on SRSF5 stability. We reasoned that at least AKT and CLK signaling pathways are not involved in proteasome-induced turnover of SRSF5 during late erythroid development. PMID:23536862

  10. Paraquat, but not maneb, induces synucleinopathy and tauopathy in striata of mice through inhibition of proteasomal and autophagic pathways.

    PubMed

    Wills, Jonathan; Credle, Joel; Oaks, Adam W; Duka, Valeriy; Lee, Jae-Hoon; Jones, Jessica; Sidhu, Anita

    2012-01-01

    SNCA and MAPT genes and environmental factors are important risk factors of Parkinson's disease [PD], the second-most common neurodegenerative disease. The agrichemicals maneb and paraquat selectively target dopaminergic neurons, leading to parkinsonism, through ill-defined mechanisms. In the current studies we have analyzed the ability of maneb and paraquat, separately and together, to induce synucleinopathy and tauopathy in wild type mice. Maneb was ineffective in increasing α-synuclein [α-Syn] or p-Tau levels. By contrast, paraquat treatment of mice resulted in robust accumulation of α-Syn and hyperphosphorylation of Tau in striata, through activation of p-GSK-3β, a major Tau kinase. Co-treatment with maneb did not enhance the effects of paraquat. Increased hyperacetylation of α-tubulin was observed in paraquat-treated mice, suggesting cytoskeleton remodeling. Paraquat, but not maneb, inhibited soluble proteasomal activity on a peptide substrate but this was not associated with a decreased expression of 26S proteasome subunits. Both paraquat and maneb treatments increased levels of the autophagy inhibitor, mammalian target of rapamycin, mTOR, suggesting impaired axonal autophagy, despite increases in certain autophagic proteins, such as beclin 1 and Agt12. Autophagic flux was also impaired, as ratios of LC3 II to LC3 I were reduced in treated animals. Increased mTOR was also observed in postmortem human PD striata, where there was a reduction in the LC3 II to LC3 I ratio. Heat shock proteins were either increased or unchanged upon paraquat-treatment suggesting that chaperone-mediated autophagy is not hampered by the agrichemicals. These studies provide novel insight into the mechanisms of action of these agrichemicals, which indicate that paraquat is much more toxic than maneb, via its inhibitory effects on proteasomes and autophagy, which lead to accumulation of α-Syn and p-Tau.

  11. Proteasome inhibitor MG-132 enhances histone deacetylase inhibitor SAHA-induced cell death of chronic myeloid leukemia cells by an ROS-mediated mechanism and downregulation of the Bcr-Abl fusion protein

    PubMed Central

    ZHOU, WENJING; ZHU, WEIWEI; MA, LIYA; XIAO, FENG; QIAN, WENBIN

    2015-01-01

    Recently, there has been progress in the treatment of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). However, novel therapeutic strategies are required in order to address the emerging problem of imatinib resistance. Histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi) and proteasome inhibitors are promising alternatives, and may be amenable to integration with current therapeutic approaches. However, the mechanisms underlying the interaction between these two agents remain unclear. The present study assessed the cytotoxic effect of the HDACi, suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA), in combination with the proteasome inhibitor, MG-132, in imatinib-sensitive K562 and imatinib-resistant K562G cells, and investigated the mechanism underlying this effect. Cell viability was measured using the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide method and protein expression levels were determined by western blotting. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation levels were observed under a fluorescence microscope The results indicated that SAHA and MG-132 act in a synergistic manner to induce cell death in K562 and K562G cells. This effect was associated with Bcr-Abl downregulation and the production of ROS. Notably, the ROS scavenger, N-acetyl-L-cysteine, almost fully reversed the cell death and Bcr-Abl downregulation that was induced by the combination of SAHA and MG-132. By contrast, the pan-caspase inhibitor, z-VAD-fmk, only partially reversed the cell death induced by these two drugs in CML cells. These results indicated that increased intracellular ROS levels are important in the induction of cell death and the downregulation of Bcr-Abl. In conclusion, the present results suggested that combined SAHA and MG-132 may be a promising treatment for CML. PMID:26722260

  12. Role of the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway and some peptidases during seed germination and copper stress in bean cotyledons.

    PubMed

    Karmous, Inès; Chaoui, Abdelilah; Jaouani, Khadija; Sheehan, David; El Ferjani, Ezzedine; Scoccianti, Valeria; Crinelli, Rita

    2014-03-01

    The role of the ubiquitin (Ub)-proteasome pathway and some endo- and aminopeptidases (EPs and APs, respectively) was studied in cotyledons of germinating bean seeds (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). The Ub system appeared to be important both in the early (3 days) and late (9 days) phases of germination. In the presence of copper, an increase in protein carbonylation and a decrease in reduced -SH pool occurred, indicating protein damage. This was associated with an enhancement in accumulation of malondialdehyde, a major product of lipid peroxidation, and an increase in content of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), showing oxidative stress generation. Moreover, copper induced inactivation of the Ub-proteasome (EC 3.4.25) pathway and inhibition of leucine and proline aminopeptidase activities (EC 3.4.11.1 and EC 3.4.11.5, respectively), thus limiting their role in modulating essential metabolic processes, such as the removal of regulatory and oxidatively-damaged proteins. By contrast, total trypsin and chymotrypsin-like activities (EC 3.4.21.4 and EC 3.4.21.1, respectively) increased after copper exposure, in parallel with a decrease in their inhibitor capacities (i.e. trypsin inhibitor and chymotrypsin inhibitor activity), suggesting that these endoproteases are part of the protective mechanisms against copper stress.

  13. Polyamines directly promote antizyme-mediated degradation of ornithine decarboxylase by the proteasome

    PubMed Central

    Beenukumar, R. R.; Gödderz, Daniela; Palanimurugan, R.; Dohmen, R. J.

    2015-01-01

    Ornithine decarboxylase (ODC), a ubiquitin-independent substrate of the proteasome, is a homodimeric protein with a rate-limiting function in polyamine biosynthesis. Polyamines regulate ODC levels by a feedback mechanism mediated by ODC antizyme (OAZ). Higher cellular polyamine levels trigger the synthesis of OAZ and also inhibit its ubiquitin-dependent proteasomal degradation. OAZ binds ODC monomers and targets them to the proteasome. Here, we report that polyamines, aside from their role in the control of OAZ synthesis and stability, directly enhance OAZ-mediated ODC degradation by the proteasome. Using a stable mutant of OAZ, we show that polyamines promote ODC degradation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells even when OAZ levels are not changed. Furthermore, polyamines stimulated the in vitro degradation of ODC by the proteasome in a reconstituted system using purified components. In these assays, spermine shows a greater effect than spermidine. By contrast, polyamines do not have any stimulatory effect on the degradation of ubiquitin-dependent substrates. PMID:28357293

  14. Phanerochaete mutants with enhanced ligninolytic activity

    SciTech Connect

    Kakar, S.N.; Perez, A.; Gonzales, J.

    1993-06-01

    In addition to lignin, the white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium has the ability to degrade a wide spectrum of recalcitrant organopollutants in soils and aqueous media. Although some of the organic compounds are degraded under nonligninolytic conditions, most are degraded under ligninolytic conditions with the involvement of the extracellular enzymes, lignin peroxidases, and manganese-dependent peroxidases, which are produced as secondary metabolites triggered by conditions of nutrient starvation (e.g., nitrogen limitation). The fungus and its enzymes can thus provide alternative technologies for bioremediation, biopulping, biobleaching, and other industrial applications. The efficiency and effectiveness of the fungus can be enhanced by increasing production and secretion of the important enzymes in large quantities and as primary metabolites under enriched conditions. One way this can be achieved is through isolation of mutants that are deregulated or are hyperproducers or supersecretors of key enzymes under enriched conditions. Through ultraviolet-light and gamma-rays mutagenesis we have isolated a variety of mutants, some of which produce key enzymes of the ligninolytic system under high-nitrogen growth conditions. One of the mutants produced 272 units (U) of lignin peroxidases enzyme activity per liter after nine days under high nitrogen. The mutant and the parent strains produced up to 54 U/L and 62 U/L, respectively, of the enzyme activity under low-nitrogen growth conditions during this period. In some experiments the mutant showed 281 U/L of enzyme activity under high nitrogen after 17 days.

  15. How Soluble GARP Enhances TGFβ Activation

    PubMed Central

    Fridrich, Sven; Hahn, Susanne A.; Linzmaier, Marion; Felten, Matthias; Zwarg, Jenny; Lennerz, Volker; Tuettenberg, Andrea; Stöcker, Walter

    2016-01-01

    GARP (glycoprotein A repetitions predominant) is a cell surface receptor on regulatory T-lymphocytes, platelets, hepatic stellate cells and certain cancer cells. Its described function is the binding and accommodation of latent TGFβ (transforming growth factor), before the activation and release of the mature cytokine. For regulatory T cells it was shown that a knockdown of GARP or a treatment with blocking antibodies dramatically decreases their immune suppressive capacity. This confirms a fundamental role of GARP in the basic function of regulatory T cells. Prerequisites postulated for physiological GARP function include membrane anchorage of GARP, disulfide bridges between the propeptide of TGFβ and GARP and connection of this propeptide to αvβ6 or αvβ8 integrins of target cells during mechanical TGFβ release. Other studies indicate the existence of soluble GARP complexes and a functionality of soluble GARP alone. In order to clarify the underlying molecular mechanism, we expressed and purified recombinant TGFβ and a soluble variant of GARP. Surprisingly, soluble GARP and TGFβ formed stable non-covalent complexes in addition to disulfide-coupled complexes, depending on the redox conditions of the microenvironment. We also show that soluble GARP alone and the two variants of complexes mediate different levels of TGFβ activity. TGFβ activation is enhanced by the non-covalent GARP-TGFβ complex already at low (nanomolar) concentrations, at which GARP alone does not show any effect. This supports the idea of soluble GARP acting as immune modulator in vivo. PMID:27054568

  16. High-throughput bioluminescence screening of ubiquitin-proteasome pathway inhibitors from chemical and natural sources.

    PubMed

    Ausseil, Frederic; Samson, Arnaud; Aussagues, Yannick; Vandenberghe, Isabelle; Creancier, Laurent; Pouny, Isabelle; Kruczynski, Anna; Massiot, Georges; Bailly, Christian

    2007-02-01

    To discover original inhibitors of the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway, the authors have developed a cell-based bioluminescent assay and used it to screen collections of plant extracts and chemical compounds. They first established a DLD-1 human colon cancer cell line that stably expresses a 4Ubiquitin-Luciferase (4Ub-Luc) reporter protein, efficiently targeted to the ubiquitin-proteasome degradation pathway. The assay was then adapted to 96- and 384-well plate formats and calibrated with reference proteasome inhibitors. Assay robustness was carefully assessed, particularly cell toxicity, and the statistical Z factor value was calculated to 0.83, demonstrating a good performance level of the assay. A total of 18,239 molecules and 15,744 plant extracts and fractions thereof were screened for their capacity to increase the luciferase activity in DLD-1 4Ub-Luc cells, and 21 molecules and 66 extracts inhibiting the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway were identified. The fractionation of an active methanol extract of Physalis angulata L. aerial parts was performed to isolate 2 secosteroids known as physalin B and C. In a cell-based Western blot assay, the ubiquitinated protein accumulation was confirmed after a physalin treatment confirming the accuracy of the screening process. The method reported here thus provides a robust approach to identify novel ubiquitin-proteasome pathway inhibitors in large collections of chemical compounds and natural products.

  17. New insights into the role of the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway in the regulation of apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Cui-Hua; Goldberg, Alfred L; Qiu, Xiao-Bo

    2007-01-01

    The ubiquitin-proteasome pathway (UPP) is the major system responsible for degradation of intracellular proteins in eukaryotes. By controlling the levels of key proteins, it regulates almost all of the cellular activities, including cell cycle progression, DNA replication and repair, transcription, protein quality control, immune response, and apoptosis. UPP is composed of the ubiquitination system that marks proteins for degradation and the proteasome which degrades the ubiquitinated proteins. The 26S proteasome is a 2400 kDa complex consisting of more than 40 subunits. Following ubiquitination catalyzed by the ubiquitin activating enzyme (El), a ubiquitin-carrier protein (E2), and one of the cell's many ubiquitin-protein ligases (E3s), the protein substrates are targeted to the proteasome for degradation into small peptides. E3s regulate the degradation of protein substrates indirectly by determining both the specificity and timing of substrate ubiquitination, whereas the deubiquitinating enzymes can inhibit this process by releasing ubiquitin from substrates. In this review, we attempt to highlight the recent progress in research on UPP and its role in the regulation of apoptosis by focusing on several of its important components, including the ubiqutin ligase Nrdp 1, which regulates ErbB/EGFR family of receptor tyrosine kinases, the ubiquitin-carrier protein BRUCE/Apollon (an Inhibitor of Apoptosis Protein), and the novel proteasome subunit hRpnl3 (a binding site for the deubiquitinating enzyme, UCH37).

  18. Systemic administration of a proteasome inhibitor does not cause nigrostriatal dopamine degeneration.

    PubMed

    Mathur, Brian N; Neely, M Diana; Dyllick-Brenzinger, Melanie; Tandon, Anurag; Deutch, Ariel Y

    2007-09-07

    Proteasomal dysfunction has been suggested to contribute to the degeneration of nigrostriatal dopamine neurons in Parkinson's disease. A recent study reported that systemic treatment of rats with the proteasome inhibitor Z-lle-Glu(OtBu)-Ala-Leu-al (PSI) causes a slowly progressive degeneration of nigrostriatal dopamine neurons, the presence of inclusion bodies in dopamine neurons, and motor impairment. We examined in vitro and in vivo the effects of PSI on nigrostriatal dopamine neurons. Mass spectrometric analysis was employed to verify the authenticity of the PSI compound. PSI was non-specifically toxic to neurons in ventral mesencephalic organotypic slice cultures, indicating that impairment of proteasome function in vitro is toxic. Moreover, systemic administration of PSI transiently decreased brain proteasome activity. Systemic treatment of rats with PSI did not, however, result in any biochemical or anatomical evidence of lesions of nigrostriatal dopamine neurons, nor were any changes in locomotor activity observed. These data suggest that systemic administration of proteasome inhibitors to normal adult rats does not reliably cause an animal model of parkinsonism.

  19. Withaferin A Induces Proteasome Inhibition, Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress, the Heat Shock Response and Acquisition of Thermotolerance

    PubMed Central

    Heikkila, John J.

    2012-01-01

    In the present study, withaferin A (WA), a steroidal lactone with anti-inflammatory and anti-tumor properties, inhibited proteasome activity and induced endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and cytoplasmic HSP accumulation in Xenopus laevis A6 kidney epithelial cells. Proteasomal inhibition by WA was indicated by an accumulation of ubiquitinated protein and a decrease in chymotrypsin-like activity. Additionally, immunoblot analysis revealed that treatment of cells with WA induced the accumulation of HSPs including ER chaperones, BiP and GRP94, as well as cytoplasmic/nuclear HSPs, HSP70 and HSP30. Furthermore, WA-induced an increase in the relative levels of the protein kinase, Akt, while the levels of actin were unchanged compared to control. Northern blot experiments determined that WA induced an accumulation in bip, hsp70 and hsp30 mRNA but not eIF-1α mRNA. Interestingly, WA acted synergistically with mild heat shock to enhance HSP70 and HSP30 accumulation to a greater extent than the sum of both stressors individually. This latter phenomenon was not observed with BiP or GRP94. Immunocytochemical analysis indicated that WA-induced BiP accumulation occurred mainly in the perinuclear region in a punctate pattern, while HSP30 accumulation occurred primarily in a granular pattern in the cytoplasm with some staining in the nucleus. Prolonged exposure to WA resulted in disorganization of the F-actin cytoskeleton as well as the production of relatively large HSP30 staining structures that co-localized with F-actin. Finally, prior exposure of cells to WA treatment, which induced the accumulation of HSPs conferred a state of thermal protection since it protected the F-actin cytoskeleton against a subsequent cytotoxic thermal challenge. PMID:23226310

  20. Repurposing an antidandruff agent to treating cancer: zinc pyrithione inhibits tumor growth via targeting proteasome-associated deubiquitinases.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Chong; Chen, Xin; Yang, Changshan; Zang, Dan; Lan, Xiaoying; Liao, Siyan; Zhang, Peiquan; Wu, Jinjie; Li, Xiaofen; Liu, Ningning; Liao, Yuning; Huang, Hongbiao; Shi, Xianping; Jiang, Lili; Liu, Xiuhua; Dou, Q Ping; Wang, Xuejun; Liu, Jinbao

    2017-01-10

    The ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) plays a central role in various cellular processes through selectively degrading proteins involved in critical cellular functions. Targeting UPS has been validated as a novel strategy for treating human cancer, as inhibitors of the 20S proteasome catalytic activity are currently in clinical use for treatment of multiple myeloma and other cancers, and the deubiquitinase activity associated with the proteasome is also a valid target for anticancer agents. Recent studies suggested that zinc pyrithione, an FDA-approved antidandruff agent, may have antitumor activity, but the detailed molecular mechanisms remain unclear. Here we report that zinc pyrithione (ZnPT) targets the proteasome-associated DUBs (USP14 and UCHL5) and inhibits their activities, resulting in a rapid accumulation of protein-ubiquitin conjugates, but without inhibiting the proteolytic activities of 20S proteasomes. Furthermore, ZnPT exhibits cytotoxic effects against various cancer cell lines in vitro, selectively kills bone marrow cells from leukemia patients ex vivo, and efficiently inhibits the growth of lung adenocarcinoma cancer cell xenografts in nude mice. This study has identified zinc pyrithione, an FDA-approved pharmacological agent with potential antitumor properties as a proteasomal DUB inhibitor.

  1. "Depupylation" of Prokaryotic Ubiquitin-like Protein from Mycobacterial Proteasome Substrates

    SciTech Connect

    Burns, K.E.; Li, H.; Cerda-Maira, F. A.; Wang, T.; Bishai, W. R.; Darwin, K. H.

    2010-09-10

    Ubiquitin (Ub) provides the recognition and specificity required to deliver proteins to the eukaryotic proteasome for destruction. Prokaryotic ubiquitin-like protein (Pup) is functionally analogous to Ub in Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), as it dooms proteins to the Mtb proteasome. Studies suggest that Pup and Ub do not share similar mechanisms of activation and conjugation to target proteins. Dop (deamidase of Pup; Mtb Rv2112c/MT2172) deamidates the C-terminal glutamine of Pup to glutamate, preparing it for ligation to target proteins by proteasome accessory factor A (PafA). While studies have shed light on the conjugation of Pup to proteins, it was not known if Pup could be removed from substrates in a manner analogous to the deconjugation of Ub from eukaryotic proteins. Here, we show that Mycobacteria have a depupylase activity provided by Dop. The discovery of a depupylase strengthens the parallels between the Pup- and Ub-tagging systems of prokaryotes and eukaryotes, respectively.

  2. Proteomics of the 26S proteasome in Spodoptera frugiperda cells infected with the nucleopolyhedrovirus, AcMNPV.

    PubMed

    Lyupina, Yulia V; Zatsepina, Olga G; Serebryakova, Marina V; Erokhov, Pavel A; Abaturova, Svetlana B; Kravchuk, Oksana I; Orlova, Olga V; Beljelarskaya, Svetlana N; Lavrov, Andrey I; Sokolova, Olga S; Mikhailov, Victor S

    2016-06-01

    Baculoviruses are large DNA viruses that infect insect species such as Lepidoptera and are used in biotechnology for protein production and in agriculture as insecticides against crop pests. Baculoviruses require activity of host proteasomes for efficient reproduction, but how they control the cellular proteome and interact with the ubiquitin proteasome system (UPS) of infected cells remains unknown. In this report, we analyzed possible changes in the subunit composition of 26S proteasomes of the fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (Sf9), cells in the course of infection with the Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV). 26S proteasomes were purified from Sf9 cells by an immune affinity method and subjected to 2D gel electrophoresis followed by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry and Mascot search in bioinformatics databases. A total of 34 homologues of 26S proteasome subunits of eukaryotic species were identified including 14 subunits of the 20S core particle (7 α and 7 β subunits) and 20 subunits of the 19S regulatory particle (RP). The RP contained homologues of 11 of RPN-type and 6 of RPT-type subunits, 2 deubiquitinating enzymes (UCH-14/UBP6 and UCH-L5/UCH37), and thioredoxin. Similar 2D-gel maps of 26S proteasomes purified from uninfected and AcMNPV-infected cells at 48hpi confirmed the structural integrity of the 26S proteasome in insect cells during baculovirus infection. However, subtle changes in minor forms of some proteasome subunits were detected. A portion of the α5(zeta) cellular pool that presumably was not associated with the proteasome underwent partial proteolysis at a late stage in infection.

  3. Optimization and Evaluation of 5-Styryl-Oxathiazol-2-one Mycobacterium tuberculosis Proteasome Inhibitors as Potential Antitubercular Agents

    PubMed Central

    Russo, Francesco; Gising, Johan; Åkerbladh, Linda; Roos, Annette K; Naworyta, Agata; Mowbray, Sherry L; Sokolowski, Anders; Henderson, Ian; Alling, Torey; Bailey, Mai A; Files, Megan; Parish, Tanya; Karlén, Anders; Larhed, Mats

    2015-01-01

    This is the first report of 5-styryl-oxathiazol-2-ones as inhibitors of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) proteasome. As part of the study, the structure–activity relationship of oxathiazolones as Mtb proteasome inhibitors has been investigated. Furthermore, the prepared compounds displayed a good selectivity profile for Mtb compared to the human proteasome. The 5-styryl-oxathiazol-2-one inhibitors identified showed little activity against replicating Mtb, but were rapidly bactericidal against nonreplicating bacteria. (E)-5-(4-Chlorostyryl)-1,3,4-oxathiazol-2-one) was most effective, reducing the colony-forming units (CFU)/mL below the detection limit in only seven days at all concentrations tested. The results suggest that this new class of Mtb proteasome inhibitors has the potential to be further developed into novel antitubercular agents for synergistic combination therapies with existing drugs. PMID:26246997

  4. Proteasomal inhibition causes loss of nigral tyrosine hydroxylase neurons.

    PubMed

    Schapira, Anthony H V; Cleeter, Michael W J; Muddle, John R; Workman, Jane M; Cooper, J Mark; King, Rosalind H M

    2006-08-01

    Dysfunction of the ubiquitin-proteasomal system (UPS) has been implicated in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease. The systemic administration of UPS inhibitors has been reported to induce nigrostriatal cell death and model Parkinson's disease pathology in rodents. We administered a synthetic, specific UPS inhibitor (PSI) subcutaneously to rats and quantified substantia nigral tyrosine hydroxylase-positive dopaminergic neurons by stereology. PSI caused a 15% decrease in UPS activity at 2 weeks and a 42% reduction in substantia nigra pars compacta tyrosine hydroxylase-positive neurons at 8 weeks. Systemic inhibition of the UPS warrants further evaluation as a means to model Parkinson's disease.

  5. Hotspots of aberrant enhancer activity punctuate the colorectal cancer epigenome

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Andrea J.; Saiakhova, Alina; Corradin, Olivia; Luppino, Jennifer M.; Lovrenert, Katreya; Bartels, Cynthia F.; Morrow, James J.; Mack, Stephen C.; Dhillon, Gursimran; Beard, Lydia; Myeroff, Lois; Kalady, Matthew F.; Willis, Joseph; Bradner, James E.; Keri, Ruth A.; Berger, Nathan A.; Pruett-Miller, Shondra M.; Markowitz, Sanford D.; Scacheri, Peter C.

    2017-01-01

    In addition to mutations in genes, aberrant enhancer element activity at non-coding regions of the genome is a key driver of tumorigenesis. Here, we perform epigenomic enhancer profiling of a cohort of more than forty genetically diverse human colorectal cancer (CRC) specimens. Using normal colonic crypt epithelium as a comparator, we identify enhancers with recurrently gained or lost activity across CRC specimens. Of the enhancers highly recurrently activated in CRC, most are constituents of super enhancers, are occupied by AP-1 and cohesin complex members, and originate from primed chromatin. Many activate known oncogenes, and CRC growth can be mitigated through pharmacologic inhibition or genome editing of these loci. Nearly half of all GWAS CRC risk loci co-localize to recurrently activated enhancers. These findings indicate that the CRC epigenome is defined by highly recurrent epigenetic alterations at enhancers which activate a common, aberrant transcriptional programme critical for CRC growth and survival. PMID:28169291

  6. The proteasome stress regulon is controlled by a pair of NAC transcription factors in arabidopsis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Proteotoxic stress is mitigated by a variety of mechanisms, including activation of the unfolded protein response and co-ordinated increases in protein chaperones and activities that direct proteolysis such as the 26S proteasome. Using RNA-seq analyses combined with either chemical inhibitors or mut...

  7. The proteasome stress regulon is controlled by a pair of NAC transcription factors in arabidopsis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Proteotoxic stress is mitigated by a variety of mechanisms, including activation of the unfolded protein response and coordinated increases in protein chaperones and activities that direct proteolysis such as the 26S proteasome. Using RNA-seq analyses combined with either chemical inhibitors or mut...

  8. Redox-Regulated Pathway of Tyrosine Phosphorylation Underlies NF-κB Induction by an Atypical Pathway Independent of the 26S Proteasome

    PubMed Central

    Cullen, Sarah; Ponnappan, Subramaniam; Ponnappan, Usha

    2015-01-01

    Alternative redox stimuli such as pervanadate or hypoxia/reoxygenation, induce transcription factor NF-κB by phospho-tyrosine-dependent and proteasome-independent mechanisms. While considerable attention has been paid to the absence of proteasomal regulation of tyrosine phosphorylated IκBα, there is a paucity of information regarding proteasomal regulation of signaling events distinct from tyrosine phosphorylation of IκBα. To delineate roles for the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway in the phospho-tyrosine dependent mechanism of NF-κB induction, we employed the proteasome inhibitor, Aclacinomycin, and the phosphotyrosine phosphatase inhibitor, pervanadate (PV). Results from these studies demonstrate that phospho-IκBα (Tyr-42) is not subject to proteasomal degradation in a murine stromal epithelial cell line, confirming results previously reported. Correspondingly, proteasome inhibition had no discernable effect on the key signaling intermediaries, Src and ERK1/2, involved in the phospho-tyrosine mechanisms regulating PV-mediated activation of NF-κB. Consistent with previous reports, a significant redox imbalance leading to the activation of tyrosine kinases, as occurs with pervanadate, is required for the induction of NF-κB. Strikingly, our studies demonstrate that proteasome inhibition can potentiate oxidative stress associated with PV-stimulation without impacting kinase activation, however, other cellular implications for this increase in intracellular oxidation remain to be fully delineated. PMID:25671697

  9. Proteasome inhibition correlates with intracellular bortezomib concentrations but not with antiproliferative effects after bolus treatment in myeloma cell lines.

    PubMed

    Dettmer, Susan; Theile, Dirk; Schäfer, Julia; Seckinger, Anja; Burhenne, Jürgen; Weiss, Johanna

    2016-10-01

    Although bortezomib is successfully used against multiple myeloma, the pharmacodynamics of proteasome inhibition and its association with efficacy or resistance is poorly understood. Using ultra performance liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry, site-specific luminogenic substrate assays and 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazolyl-2)-2,5-diphenyltetrazoliumbromide (MTT) assays, effects of bortezomib on cellular drug concentrations, chymotrypsin- , caspase- , and trypsin-like activities, and cytotoxic efficacy were evaluated in eight myeloma cell lines directly after 1 h of exposure and additionally after a 23-h washout phase. Bortezomib accumulated in myeloma cells by up to 100-fold and concentration-dependently inhibited the proteasomal activities with the chymotrypsin-like activity being the most sensitive. Whereas intracellular concentrations correlated with the inhibition of the chymotrypsin- and the caspase-like activities of the proteasome, the cytotoxic efficacy of bortezomib did not correlate with either intracellular concentrations or proteasomal inhibition. However, the ratio of concentrations measured directly after the exposure and after the washout phase (indicating drug disposition) correlated with efficacy, suggesting that the cell's ability to dispose bortezomib at least in part influences bortezomib's cytotoxicity. In conclusion, this data argues against a direct association of intracellular concentration or proteasomal inhibition with cytotoxic efficacy but advocates for an important role of cellular drug disposition. Moreover, this study underlines the pleiotropic mode of action of bortezomib going beyond proteasome inhibition.

  10. Identification of an unstable 4-hydroxynoneal modification on the 20S proteasome subunit α7 by recombinant antibody technology.

    PubMed

    Just, Jesper; Jung, Tobias; Friis, Niels Anton; Lykkemark, Simon; Drasbek, Kim; Siboska, Gunhild; Grune, Tilman; Kristensen, Peter

    2015-12-01

    Numerous cellular functions rely on an active proteasome allowing degradation of damaged or misfolded proteins. Therefore changes in the proteasomal activity have important physiological consequences. During oxidative stress the production of free radicals can result in the formation of 4-hydroxynonenal (HNE) following lipid peroxidiation. The HNE moiety is highly reactive and via a nucleophilic attack readily forms covalent links to cysteine, histidine and lysine side chains. However, as the chemical properties of these amino acids differ, so does the kinetics of the reactions. While covalent linkage through Michael addition is well established, reversible and unstable associations have only been indicated in a few cases. In the present study we have identified an unstable HNE adduct on the α7 subunit of the 20S proteasome using phage display of recombinant antibodies. This recombinant antibody fragment recognized HNE modified proteasomes in vitro and showed that this epitope was easily HNE modified, yet unstable, and influenced by experimental procedures. Hence unstable HNE-adducts could be overlooked as a regulatory mechanism of proteasomal activity and a participating factor in the decreased proteasomal activity associated with oxidative stress.

  11. Terminal functionalized thiourea-containing dipeptides as multidrug-resistance reversers that target 20S proteasome and cell proliferation.

    PubMed

    Qin, Jian-Mei; Huang, Ri-Zhen; Yao, Gui-Yang; Liao, Zhi-Xin; Pan, Ying-Ming; Wang, Heng-Shan

    2017-01-27

    A series of inhibitors of 20S proteasome based on terminal functionalized dipeptide derivatives containing the thiourea moiety were synthesized and evaluated for inhibition of 20S proteasome and the effects of multidrug-resistance reversers. These compounds exhibited significant selectivity to the β5-subunit of the human 20S proteasome with IC50 values at submicromolar concentrations. A docking study of the most active compound 6i revealed key interactions between 6i and the active site of the 20S proteasome in which the thiourea moiety and a nitro group were important for improving activity. In particular, compound 6i appeared to be the most potent compound against the NCI-H460 cell line, and displayed similar efficiency in drug-sensitive versus drug-resistant cancer cell lines, at least partly, by inhibition of the activity of 20S proteasome and induce apoptosis. In addition, 6i-induced apoptosis was significantly facilitated in NCI-H460/DOX cells that had been pretreated with inhibitors of P-gp. Mechanistically, compound 6i might trigger apoptotic signalling pathway. Thus, we conclude that dipeptide derivatives containing the thiourea moiety may be the potential inhibitors of proteasome with the ability to reverse multidrug resistance.

  12. Acetylation-mediated proteasomal degradation of core histones during DNA repair and spermatogenesis.

    PubMed

    Qian, Min-Xian; Pang, Ye; Liu, Cui Hua; Haratake, Kousuke; Du, Bo-Yu; Ji, Dan-Yang; Wang, Guang-Fei; Zhu, Qian-Qian; Song, Wei; Yu, Yadong; Zhang, Xiao-Xu; Huang, Hai-Tao; Miao, Shiying; Chen, Lian-Bin; Zhang, Zi-Hui; Liang, Ya-Nan; Liu, Shan; Cha, Hwangho; Yang, Dong; Zhai, Yonggong; Komatsu, Takuo; Tsuruta, Fuminori; Li, Haitao; Cao, Cheng; Li, Wei; Li, Guo-Hong; Cheng, Yifan; Chiba, Tomoki; Wang, Linfang; Goldberg, Alfred L; Shen, Yan; Qiu, Xiao-Bo

    2013-05-23

    Histone acetylation plays critical roles in chromatin remodeling, DNA repair, and epigenetic regulation of gene expression, but the underlying mechanisms are unclear. Proteasomes usually catalyze ATP- and polyubiquitin-dependent proteolysis. Here, we show that the proteasomes containing the activator PA200 catalyze the polyubiquitin-independent degradation of histones. Most proteasomes in mammalian testes ("spermatoproteasomes") contain a spermatid/sperm-specific α subunit α4 s/PSMA8 and/or the catalytic β subunits of immunoproteasomes in addition to PA200. Deletion of PA200 in mice abolishes acetylation-dependent degradation of somatic core histones during DNA double-strand breaks and delays core histone disappearance in elongated spermatids. Purified PA200 greatly promotes ATP-independent proteasomal degradation of the acetylated core histones, but not polyubiquitinated proteins. Furthermore, acetylation on histones is required for their binding to the bromodomain-like regions in PA200 and its yeast ortholog, Blm10. Thus, PA200/Blm10 specifically targets the core histones for acetylation-mediated degradation by proteasomes, providing mechanisms by which acetylation regulates histone degradation, DNA repair, and spermatogenesis.

  13. Sperm proteasome degrades egg envelope glycoprotein ZP1 during fertilization of Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica).

    PubMed

    Sasanami, Tomohiro; Sugiura, Kenichi; Tokumoto, Toshinobu; Yoshizaki, Norio; Dohra, Hideo; Nishio, Shunsuke; Mizushima, Shusei; Hiyama, Gen; Matsuda, Tsukasa

    2012-10-01

    At the time of fertilization, the extracellular matrix surrounding avian oocytes, termed the perivitelline membrane (pvm), is hydrolyzed by a sperm-borne protease, although the actual protease that is responsible for the digestion of the pvm remains to be identified. Here, we show evidence that the ubiquitin-proteasome system is functional in the fertilization of Japanese quail. The activities for the induction of the acrosome reaction and binding to ZP3 as revealed by ligand blotting of purified serum ZP1 are similar to those of pvm ZP1. Western blot analysis of purified ZP1 and ZP3 by the use of the anti-ubiquitin antibody showed that only pvm ZP1 was reactive to the antibody. In vitro penetration assay of the sperm on the pvm indicated that fragments of ZP1 and intact ZP3 were released from the pvm. Western blot analysis using the anti-20S proteasome antibody and ultrastructural analysis showed that immunoreactive proteasome was localized in the acrosomal region of the sperm. Inclusion of specific proteasome inhibitor MG132 in the incubation mixture, or depletion of extracellular ATP by the addition of apyrase, efficiently suppressed the sperm perforation of the pvm. These results demonstrate for the first time that the sperm proteasome is important for fertilization in birds and that the extracellular ubiquitination of ZP1 might occur during its transport via blood circulation.

  14. TRIM5α associates with proteasomal subunits in cells while in complex with HIV-1 virions

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The TRIM5 proteins are cellular restriction factors that prevent retroviral infection in a species-specific manner. Multiple experiments indicate that restriction activity requires accessory host factors, including E2-enzymes. To better understand the mechanism of restriction, we conducted yeast-two hybrid screens to identify proteins that bind to two TRIM5 orthologues. Results The only cDNAs that scored on repeat testing with both TRIM5 orthologues were the proteasome subunit PSMC2 and ubiquitin. Using co-immunoprecipitation assays, we demonstrated an interaction between TRIM5α and PSMC2, as well as numerous other proteasome subunits. Fluorescence microscopy revealed co-localization of proteasomes and TRIM5α cytoplasmic bodies. Forster resonance energy transfer (FRET) analysis indicated that the interaction between TRIM5 and PSMC2 was direct. Previous imaging experiments demonstrated that, when cells are challenged with fluorescently-labeled HIV-1 virions, restrictive TRIM5α orthologues assemble cytoplasmic bodies around incoming virion particles. Following virus challenge, we observed localization of proteasome subunits to rhTRIM5α cytoplasmic bodies that contained fluorescently labeled HIV-1 virions. Conclusions Taken together, the results presented here suggest that localization of the proteasome to TRIM5α cytoplasmic bodies makes an important contribution to TRIM5α-mediated restriction. PMID:22078707

  15. Eastward electrojet enhancements during substorm activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Onofrio, M.; Partamies, N.; Tanskanen, E.

    2014-11-01

    In this study, we use a semi-automatic routine to identify negative and positive bays in the IMAGE magnetometer data during seven months in 2003. The IMAGE stations have been divided into three latitude regions to monitor the time evolution and temporal relationship between the regions during substorms. In particular, we focus on the events where both positive and negative ground magnetic deflections are observed in different latitude regions. We found 101 events in total. We examine separately a subset of 32 events, for which the local electrojet index values are larger than the global ones, suggesting that the strongest activity at that time takes place within or very close to the local time sector of IMAGE. We systematically analyze the temporal difference and the intensity of the positive and negative bays. Our results show that the magnitude of the positive bay is on average about half of that of the negative bay. Two thirds of the positive bays within the IMAGE network peak earlier than the negative bays. Because the positive and negative bays occur meridionally very close together, we suggest that the enhancements of the westward current at the poleward part of the auroral oval and the eastward current within the return flow are very tightly coupled through field-aligned currents and closing horizontal currents. The substorm current system appears as a superposition on the large-scale current pattern in the vicinity of the evening sector shear flow region.

  16. Enhanced-performance active fiber composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gentilman, Richard L.; McNeal, Kelley; Schmidt, Gerald E.; Pizzochero, Alessandro E.; Rossetti, George A., Jr.

    2003-08-01

    Active fiber composites (AFCs) find applications in a variety of industrial, commercial, and aerospace markets as both actuators and sensors. Among the key attributes of AFCs relative to conventional monolithic piezoceramic actuators are high strain energy density, unidirectional response, conformability, and robustness. Recently, performance enhancements in AFCs have been demonstrated through the use of a modified injection molding process to produce piezoceramic modules with multiple identical fibers of a uniform rectangular cross section. AFC actuators made from Type II PZT fiber modules exhibit free micro-strains of 1830 +/- 30 ppm at a peak-peak E-field drive of 26.1 kV/cm, and show exceptional part-to-part uniformity. In addition, AFCs made from injection molded PMN-PT fiber modules show a low-field d33 of 650 pm/V. The successful incorporation of PMN-PT materials into AFCs also demonstrates the viability of using highly textured ceramic PMN-PT piezofibers, for which even larger increases in strain response are expected.

  17. Stiff substrates enhance cultured neuronal network activity.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Quan-You; Zhang, Yan-Yan; Xie, Jing; Li, Chen-Xu; Chen, Wei-Yi; Liu, Bai-Lin; Wu, Xiao-an; Li, Shu-Na; Huo, Bo; Jiang, Lin-Hua; Zhao, Hu-Cheng

    2014-08-28

    The mechanical property of extracellular matrix and cell-supporting substrates is known to modulate neuronal growth, differentiation, extension and branching. Here we show that substrate stiffness is an important microenvironmental cue, to which mouse hippocampal neurons respond and integrate into synapse formation and transmission in cultured neuronal network. Hippocampal neurons were cultured on polydimethylsiloxane substrates fabricated to have similar surface properties but a 10-fold difference in Young's modulus. Voltage-gated Ca(2+) channel currents determined by patch-clamp recording were greater in neurons on stiff substrates than on soft substrates. Ca(2+) oscillations in cultured neuronal network monitored using time-lapse single cell imaging increased in both amplitude and frequency among neurons on stiff substrates. Consistently, synaptic connectivity recorded by paired recording was enhanced between neurons on stiff substrates. Furthermore, spontaneous excitatory postsynaptic activity became greater and more frequent in neurons on stiff substrates. Evoked excitatory transmitter release and excitatory postsynaptic currents also were heightened at synapses between neurons on stiff substrates. Taken together, our results provide compelling evidence to show that substrate stiffness is an important biophysical factor modulating synapse connectivity and transmission in cultured hippocampal neuronal network. Such information is useful in designing instructive scaffolds or supporting substrates for neural tissue engineering.

  18. In trans promoter activation by enhancers in transient transfection.

    PubMed

    Smirnov, N A; Akopov, S B; Didych, D A; Nikolaev, L G

    2017-03-01

    Earlier, it was reported that the strong cytomegalovirus enhancer can activate the cytomegalovirus promoter in trans, i.e. as a separate plasmid co-transfected with a promoter-reporter gene construct. Here we demonstrate that the ability of enhancers to activate promoters in trans in transient transfection experiments is a property of not only viral regulatory elements but also of various genomic enhancers and promoters. Enhancer-promoter activation in trans is promoter- and cell type-specific, and accompanied by physical interaction between promoter and enhancer as revealed by chromosome conformation capture assays. Thus, promoter activation in transient co-transfection of promoters and enhancers shares a number of important traits with long-distance promoter activation by enhancers in living cells and may therefore serve as a model of this fundamental cellular process.

  19. Nrf2, a regulator of the proteasome, controls self-renewal and pluripotency in human embryonic stem cells.

    PubMed

    Jang, Jiwon; Wang, Yidi; Kim, Hyung-Seok; Lalli, Matthew A; Kosik, Kenneth S

    2014-10-01

    Nuclear factor, erythroid 2-like 2 (Nrf2) is a master transcription factor for cellular defense against endogenous and exogenous stresses by regulating expression of many antioxidant and detoxification genes. Here, we show that Nrf2 acts as a key pluripotency gene and a regulator of proteasome activity in human embryonic stem cells (hESCs). Nrf2 expression is highly enriched in hESCs and dramatically decreases upon differentiation. Nrf2 inhibition impairs both the self-renewal ability of hESCs and re-establishment of pluripotency during cellular reprogramming. Nrf2 activation can delay differentiation. During early hESC differentiation, Nrf2 closely colocalizes with OCT4 and NANOG. As an underlying mechanism, our data show that Nrf2 regulates proteasome activity in hESCs partially through proteasome maturation protein (POMP), a proteasome chaperone, which in turn controls the proliferation of self-renewing hESCs, three germ layer differentiation and cellular reprogramming. Even modest proteasome inhibition skews the balance of early differentiation toward mesendoderm at the expense of an ectodermal fate by decreasing the protein level of cyclin D1 and delaying the degradation of OCT4 and NANOG proteins. Taken together, our findings suggest a new potential link between environmental stress and stemness with Nrf2 and the proteasome coordinately positioned as key mediators.

  20. Effect of proteasome inhibition on toxicity and CYP3A23 induction in cultured rat hepatocytes: Comparison with arsenite

    SciTech Connect

    Noreault-Conti, Trisha L.; Jacobs, Judith M.; Trask, Heidi W.; Wrighton, Steven A.; Sinclair, Jacqueline F.; Nichols, Ralph C. . E-mail: ralph.c.nichols@dartmouth.edu

    2006-12-15

    Previous work in our laboratory has shown that acute exposure of primary rat hepatocyte cultures to non-toxic concentrations of arsenite causes major decreases in the DEX-mediated induction of CYP3A23 protein, with minor decreases in CYP3A23 mRNA. To elucidate the mechanism for these effects of arsenite, the effects of arsenite and proteasome inhibition, separately and in combination, on induction of CYP3A23 protein were compared. The proteasome inhibitor, MG132, inhibited proteasome activity, but also decreased CYP3A23 mRNA and protein. Lactacystin, another proteasome inhibitor, decreased CYP3A23 protein without affecting CYP3A23 mRNA at a concentration that effectively inhibited proteasome activity. This result, suggesting that the action of lactacystin is similar to arsenite and was post-transcriptional, was confirmed by the finding that lactacystin decreased association of DEX-induced CYP3A23 mRNA with polyribosomes. Both MG132 and lactacystin inhibited total protein synthesis, but did not affect MTT reduction. Arsenite had no effect on ubiquitination of proteins, nor did arsenite significantly affect proteasomal activity. These results suggest that arsenite and lactacystin act by similar mechanisms to inhibit translation of CYP3A23.

  1. Deimination of the myelin basic protein decelerates its proteasome-mediated metabolism.

    PubMed

    Kuzina, E S; Kudriaeva, A A; Glagoleva, I S; Knorre, V D; Gabibov, A G; Belogurov, A A

    2016-07-01

    Deimination of myelin basic protein (MBP) by peptidylarginine deiminase (PAD) prevents its binding to the proteasome and decelerates its degradation by the proteasome in mammalian cells. Potential anticancer drug tetrazole analogue of chloramidine 2, at concentrations greater than 1 µM inhibits the enzymatic activity of PAD in vitro. The observed acceleration of proteasome hydrolysis of MBP to antigenic peptides in the presence of PAD inhibitor may increase the efficiency of lesion of the central nervous system by cytotoxic lymphocytes in multiple sclerosis. We therefore suggest that clinical trials and the introduction of PAD inhibitors in clinical practice for the treatment of malignant neoplasms should be performed only after a careful analysis of their potential effect on the induction of autoimmune neurodegeneration processes.

  2. Proteasomal inhibition sensitizes cervical cancer cells to mitomycin C-induced bystander effect: the role of tumor microenvironment.

    PubMed

    Singh, S V; Ajay, A K; Mohammad, N; Malvi, P; Chaube, B; Meena, A S; Bhat, M K

    2015-10-22

    Inaccessibility of drugs to poorly vascularized strata of tumor is one of the limiting factors in cancer therapy. With the advent of bystander effect (BE), it is possible to perpetuate the cellular damage from drug-exposed cells to the unexposed ones. However, the role of infiltrating tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs), an integral part of the tumor microenvironment, in further intensifying BE remains obscure. In the present study, we evaluated the effect of mitomycin C (MMC), a chemotherapeutic drug, to induce BE in cervical carcinoma. By using cervical cancer cells and differentiated macrophages, we demonstrate that MMC induces the expression of FasL via upregulation of PPARγ in both cell types (effector cells) in vitro, but it failed to induce bystander killing in cervical cancer cells. This effect was primarily owing to the proteasomal degradation of death receptors in the cervical cancer cells. Pre-treatment of cervical cancer cells with MG132, a proteasomal inhibitor, facilitates MMC-mediated bystander killing in co-culture and condition medium transfer experiments. In NOD/SCID mice bearing xenografted HeLa tumors administered with the combination of MMC and MG132, tumor progression was significantly reduced in comparison with those treated with either agent alone. FasL expression was increased in TAMs, and the enhanced level of Fas was observed in these tumor sections, thereby causing increased apoptosis. These findings suggest that restoration of death receptor-mediated apoptotic pathway in tumor cells with concomitant activation of TAMs could effectively restrict tumor growth.

  3. Dual attenuation of proteasomal and autophagic BMAL1 degradation in Clock Δ19/+ mice contributes to improved glucose homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Kwon; He, Baokun; Nohara, Kazunari; Park, Noheon; Shin, Youngmin; Kim, Seonghwa; Shimomura, Kazuhiro; Koike, Nobuya; Yoo, Seung-Hee; Chen, Zheng

    2015-07-31

    Circadian clocks orchestrate essential physiology in response to various cues, yet their mechanistic and functional plasticity remains unclear. Here, we investigated Clock(Δ19/+) heterozygous (Clk/+) mice, known to display lengthened periodicity and dampened amplitude, as a model of partially perturbed clocks. Interestingly, Clk/+ mice exhibited improved glycemic control and resistance to circadian period lengthening under high-fat diet (HFD). Furthermore, BMAL1 protein levels in Clk/+ mouse liver were upregulated compared with wild-type (WT) mice under HFD. Pharmacological and molecular studies showed that BMAL1 turnover entailed proteasomal and autophagic activities, and CLOCKΔ19 attenuated both processes. Consistent with an important role of BMAL1 in glycemic control, enhanced activation of insulin signaling was observed in Clk/+ mice relative to WT in HFD. Finally, transcriptome analysis revealed reprogramming of clock-controlled metabolic genes in Clk/+ mice. Our results demonstrate a novel role of autophagy in circadian regulation and reveal an unforeseen plasticity of circadian and metabolic networks.

  4. Reliability enhancement activities for the TANSO interferometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Châteauneuf, François; Soucy, Marc-André; Perron, Gaétan; Lévesque, Luc; Tanii, Jun

    2006-08-01

    The Greenhouse gases Observing SATellite (GOSAT) is designed to monitor the global distribution of carbon dioxide (CO II) from orbit. It is a joint project of Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, the Ministry of Environment (MOE), and the National Institute for Environmental Studies (NIES). JAXA is responsible for the satellite and instrument development, MOE is involved in the instrument development, and NIES is responsible for the satellite data retrieval. It is scheduled to be launched in 2008. As existing ground monitoring stations are limited and still unevenly distributed, the satellite observation has advantages of global and frequent observations. The objective of the mission is in response to COP3 (Kyoto Protocol): Observation of Green House Gases (GHGs) including CO II with 1% relative accuracy in sub-continental spatial resolution and to identify the GHGs source and sink from the data obtained by GOSAT in conjunction with the data from the ground instruments, with simulated models. In order to detect the CO II variation of boundary layers, the technique to measure the column density and the retrieval algorithm