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Sample records for enne metsloomade suukaudse

  1. The ENN project. ENN exploitation plan.

    PubMed

    Dekena, R; Rehm-Berbenni, C; Seyfried, K

    2000-01-01

    The objective of the ENN-European Neurologic Network project is to improve knowledge and treatment of sleep disorders, headache and epilepsy. The means to obtain this objective shall be certain software to be distributed to the appropriate users in the medical field and the collection of relevant cases, in order to set up a neurological database. It is intended that the distribution of the above mentioned software and access to the database, will be able to finance research projects in the neurological field. The outcome of the EU funded project have been six prototypes, which need further work in order to establish a system of compatible and linked products. A particular emphasis of this work should be put on making the products as process oriented as possible. At the time being there are already products available in the market, which would be competing with particular ENN prototypes, but there is no set of compatible and linked products, which would be comparable with the intended set of ENN neurological tools. Such set of tools therefore could be a unique selling proposition. Intellectual property rights and legal implications have to be taken into consideration for the marketing of the ENN products. It has to be made sure, that no third party can assert violation of its IPRs and that, a protection of the products can be attained by appropriate application for IPRs. In the legal field in particular the prescriptions of data protection legislation have to be observed e.g. by obtaining the written consent of patients, whose cases are reported. The marketing concept should be set up as a short-term, middle-term, long-term strategy. The short-term strategy should concentrate on carrying out a market validation study at European level and simultaneously the development from prototype to products. The middle-term strategy should be directed towards the market introduction of the ENN products in Europe. The long-term strategy should comprise marketing of the products

  2. Two Versions of the Negative Compatibility Effect: Comment on Lleras and Enns (2004)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klapp, Stuart T.

    2005-01-01

    A. Lleras and J. T. Enns (see record 2004-21166-001) demonstrated a negative influence of a masked arrow that is attributable to the perceptual interaction between the arrow and the mask when these have properties in common (in this case diagonal lines). Although the present analysis is in agreement that this type of perceptual interaction can…

  3. Two versions of the negative compatibility effect: comment on Lleras and Enns (2004).

    PubMed

    Klapp, Stuart T

    2005-08-01

    A. Lleras and J. T. Enns demonstrated a negative influence of a masked arrow that is attributable to the perceptual interaction between the arrow and the mask when these have properties in common (in this case diagonal lines). Although the present analysis is in agreement that this type of perceptual interaction can occur, it also demonstrates that this is not the only way a masked arrow can produce a negative influence. The most critical finding is that a negative influence occurred even when the arrow and mask did not share the common properties that would be needed for this type of perceptual interaction. This illustrates the version of the negative compatibility effect that was studied by S. T. Klapp and L. B. Hinkley (2002) and others.

  4. Complication inhabituelle de la radiothérapie: la perforation cornéenne: à propos d’un cas

    PubMed Central

    Elghazi, Taha; Omor, Youssef; Hafidi, Zouheir; Eljai, Amine; Elmoize, Zakaria; Afif, Mohammed; Amazouzi, Abdellah; Cherkaoui, Lalla Ouafae; Daoudi, Rajae

    2016-01-01

    Les complications oculaires post radiques sont fréquentes au cours de l'irradiation des tumeurs de la tête et du cou. Certaines sont bénignes et transitoires, d'autres peuvent être très graves pouvant mettre en jeu la fonction visuelle. Nous discuterons à travers ce cas rare et inhabituel, les différentes manifestations et complications oculaires et surtout cornéenne de la radiothérapie ainsi que les modalités diagnostiques et thérapeutiques d'une perforation cornéenne qui représente une complication redoutable de la radiothérapie. PMID:28250888

  5. ENN-ICS--implementation and evaluation of a multilingual learning management system for sleep medicine in Europe.

    PubMed

    Knobl, Brigitte; Paiva, Teresa; Jungmann, Dieter; Böhme, Rico; Penzel, Thomas

    2006-01-01

    A new web based network aims at the improvement of health care in Europe by integrating advanced e-learning and e-publishing technologies for the training of medical doctors, nurses, and students. The field of application is sleep physiology and sleep medicine. Based on a multilingual, multimedia communication system, ENN-ICS Centre offers direct access to medical information for users, i.e healthcare professionals and citizens, in Europe and worldwide. The use of XML supports the development of media independent contents for multiple target groups. Editorial and distributive processes are supported by customized central editorial, content management and learning management systems (CMS, LMS). ENN-ICS e-health services are evaluated by selected user groups in North, Middle and Southern Europe using reliable and scientifically accepted validation instruments. The compliance with essential quality requirements and criteria is tested and verified by using online questionnaires based on the DISCERN questionnaire for evaluating patient information, the HON principles for health-related websites and the GMDS catalogue of quality criteria for electronic publications in medicine. The system architecture and its exemplary applications can be used as a model for future e-health services dealing with neurological and other medical topics.

  6. Dietary intake, physical activity and nutritional status in adults: the French nutrition and health survey (ENNS, 2006-2007).

    PubMed

    Castetbon, Katia; Vernay, Michel; Malon, Aurélie; Salanave, Benoit; Deschamps, Valérie; Roudier, Candice; Oleko, Amivi; Szego, Emmanuelle; Hercberg, Serge

    2009-09-01

    The French National Programme on Nutrition and Health (Programme national nutrition santé (PNNS)), the aim of which is to reduce nutrition-related chronic diseases, necessitates monitoring of nutritional characteristics. Our objective was to describe dietary intake, physical activity and nutritional status in a national sample of adults, especially according to current French recommendations. The study is based on a cross-sectional population-based survey using a multistage sampling design (Etude nationale nutrition santé (ENNS)). Between February 2006 and March 2007, 3115 18-74-year-old adults were included (participation rate 59.7 %). Energy, macronutrient and food consumption were estimated through three randomly distributed 24 h recalls, and compared to PNNS recommendations; physical activity was described using International Physical Activity Questionnaire guidelines; anthropometry, blood pressure and biochemical measurements were assessed according to national and international references. When compared to current recommendations, intake of carbohydrates (>50 % energy intake without alcohol: 26.4 %), SFA ( < 35 % total lipids: 18.5 %) and total fibre (>25 g/d: 13.7 %) was frequently unsatisfactory. While overall consumption of 'meat, seafood and eggs' was satisfactory, that of fruits and vegetables ( > or = 400 g/d: 43.8 %) and seafood (two or more servings per week: 29.9 %) was frequently too low. The physical activity level was satisfactory at 63.2 %. Overweight was observed in 49.3 % of adults, while 30.9 % were hypertensive and 44.1 % had dyslipidaemia. Vitamin and iron-poor status was found to affect less than 10 % of the population. Based on the ENNS survey, overall nutrition remains a problem in France. Comparison of these data with those of other countries could contribute to a better understanding of variations in nutrition-related diseases.

  7. The comparison of heavy metal accumulation ratios of some fish species in Enne Dame Lake (Kütahya/Turkey).

    PubMed

    Uysal, Kazim; Köse, Esengül; Bülbül, Metin; Dönmez, Muhammet; Erdogan, Yunus; Koyun, Mustafa; Omeroglu, Cigdem; Ozmal, Ferda

    2009-10-01

    The metal accumulation levels for muscle, skin, gill, liver and intestine tissues of some Cyprinidae species (Carassius carassius, Condrostoma nasus, Leuciscus cephalus and Alburnus alburnus) in Enne Dame Lake (Kütahya/Turkey), which is mostly fed by hot spring waters, were investigated. Analyses were performed for copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), manganese (Mn), iron (Fe), cobalt (Co), magnesium (Mg), nickel (Ni), chrome (Cr) and boron (B) using inductively coupled plasma-optic emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES), and cadmium (Cd) using atomic absorption spectrophotometer (AAS) utilizing microwave digestion techniques. The concentrations of the heavy metals found in the fish varied in the follow ing ranges: Cu: < DL-7.04, Zn: 6.96-357.25, Mn: < DL-20.70, Ni: < DL-6.21, Fe: 9.62-2500.33, Cr: < DL-1.74, Co: < DL-0.54, Cd: 0.01-0.27 and Mg: 197.44-904.90 mg/kg wet weight. While B had the second highest concentration in the water of the lake, it was not encountered in any tissue of the investigated species. In all tissues and the species, While the bioaccumulation factors (BAFs) of Mn, Zn, Fe and Cu were remarkably high, the BAFs of Mg, Cr, Co, and B were also fairly low or none. Although the heavy metal accumulation levels for the muscle were generally lower than other tissues, there were some exceptions. Cd level in the muscle of C. carassius was higher than the permissible limit stated by Turkish legislation, FAO and WHO. The mean metal amounts for all the investigated tissues and species are statistically compared and discussed in this study.

  8. EURAPS at 20 years. A brief history of European Plastic Surgery from the Société Européenne de Chirurgie Structive to the European Association of Plastic Surgeons (EURAPS).

    PubMed

    Mazzola, Riccardo F; Kon, Moshe

    2010-06-01

    By the end of WWI, plastic surgery had reached unexpected heights. The high quality of the work done for soldiers with facial injuries and burns, either as an emergency or as a delayed procedure, demonstrated that this new discipline was honourable, worthwhile and socially crucial, thus deserving official recognition and independence. The establishment of new plastic surgery centres, scientific societies and specialised journals were the key to success for the achievement of this goal. In 1936, the Belgian Maurice Coelst (1894-1963) founded the Société Européenne de Chirurgie Structive, the first supranational society, with the aim of gathering once a year all those interested in this new branch of surgery and favouring confrontation of ideas by showing innovative clinical procedures. The very successful first Congress with a large international participation was held in Brussels, with Coelst as the president, the second in London, in 1937, organised by Kilner and the third in Milano, in 1938, arranged by Sanvenero Rosselli. Even live surgery was performed during the meetings. The beginning of the WWII stopped the Societé's activities, which were never resumed. In the late 1980s, when plastic surgery reached its zenith, the necessity was felt to create a new supranational society, different in its purpose from the existing European Section of IPRAS, later European Society of Plastic Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgery (ESPRAS), an organisation where all the official European plastic surgery societies merged automatically. The aim was to promote the excellence of plastic surgery in Europe, to furnish an annual forum for the selection of the best scientific works presented at national societies and to stimulate research and education at a European level. Established in 1989, 53 years after the foundation of the Société Européenne de Chirurgie Structive, it was named the European Association of Plastic Surgeons (EURAPS). The first scientific meeting took place

  9. L'ÉDUCATION Musicale pour la Formation D'une IDENTITÉ EUROPÉENNE Pluraliste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albarea, Roberto

    1997-01-01

    This paper presents some of the elements which have been typical of music in different contexts and cultures, and describes an approach to musical phenomena which relates them to the intercultural and interdisciplinary dimension of lifelong education (music considered as a cultural good, an expression form, a field of creativity, an artistic production and an aesthetic experience). From the educational point of view, the aim is to form "multi-musical" individuals. In this framework are set the problem of musical identity and the need to spell out that identity in relation to stereotypes (popular music, classical music, folk music, etc.) and the differing shades of diversity. Particular attention needs to be given to the question of the universals seen in the psychology of music and the configuration of musical phenomena as structures which are organized hierarchically in several dimensions. In short, music in all its forms can help to form a dynamic, pluralist identity in the European context.

  10. The Third Decade of Feminist Therapy and the Personal Is Still Political.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, Lucia Albino; Rossman, Karen M.

    1993-01-01

    Responds to earlier article by Carolyn Zerbe Enns on feminist counseling and psychotherapy. Asserts that Enns presents concise summary and overview but offers little beyond her examination of "themes of change, agreement, and disagreement." Focuses comments on two topics addressed by Enns: the importance of context and interrelationships…

  11. La limite Crétacé-Tertiaire en domaine marin dans les Pyrénées centrales (zone sous-pyrénéenne, France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peybernès, Bernard; Fondecave-Wallez, Marie-José; Eichène, Paule; Robin, Eric; Rocchia, Robert

    1998-05-01

    The discovery of Paleocene planktonic Foraminifera (subzones P1c to P3b) in the western sub-Pyrenean zone (Haute-Garonne) made it possible to locate an anomalously high abundance of iridium at the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary underlining the interface between the 'calcaires à Bryozoaires/calcaires à Algues, of Larcan-Nizan', newly assigned to Danian-Selandian and the underlying 'marnes bleues de Saint-Loup', the top of them being Uppermost Maastrichtian in age (Hariaensis zone and grade-datation of 65.47 Ma). A short gap (subzones P0 to P1b, Lowermost Danian) probably marks, as in Béarn, the base of the Paleocene Larcan-Nizan Bryalgal limestones.

  12. Feminist Therapy: Not for or by White Women Only.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Espin, Olivia M.

    1993-01-01

    Responds to earlier article by Carolyn Zerbe Enns on feminist counseling and psychotherapy, noting that Enns could have elaborated on what the challenge of multiculturalism meant for the future of feminist therapy and counseling. Asserts that tendency to overgeneralize from data and information gathered from experience of white women continues for…

  13. The Clerical Establishment in Iran

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-06-01

    Political Action and Legitimate Domi- nation in Shi’ite Iran: Fourteenth to Eighteenth Centuries, A.D.," Archives Europ~ennes de Sociologie , Vol. 20, No...139 Archives Europ6ennes de Sociologie Bours, (moderate centrist) weekly in Persian, Tehran Conflict Studies, quarterly in English, London Enghelab

  14. Enniatin B-induced cell death and inflammatory responses in RAW 267.4 murine macrophages

    SciTech Connect

    Gammelsrud, A.; Solhaug, A.; Dendelé, B.; Sandberg, W.J.; Ivanova, L.; Kocbach Bølling, A.; Lagadic-Gossmann, D.; Refsnes, M.; Becher, R.; Eriksen, G.; Holme, J.A.

    2012-05-15

    The mycotoxin enniatin B (EnnB) is predominantly produced by species of the Fusarium genera, and often found in grain. The cytotoxic effect of EnnB has been suggested to be related to its ability to form ionophores in cell membranes. The present study examines the effects of EnnB on cell death, differentiation, proliferation and pro-inflammatory responses in the murine monocyte–macrophage cell line RAW 264.7. Exposure to EnnB for 24 h caused an accumulation of cells in the G0/G1-phase with a corresponding decrease in cyclin D1. This cell cycle-arrest was possibly also linked to the reduced cellular ability to capture and internalize receptors as illustrated by the lipid marker ganglioside GM1. EnnB also increased the number of apoptotic, early apoptotic and necrotic cells, as well as cells with elongated spindle-like morphology. The Neutral Red assay indicated that EnnB induced lysosomal damage; supported by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) showing accumulation of lipids inside the lysosomes forming lamellar structures/myelin bodies. Enhanced levels of activated caspase-1 were observed after EnnB exposure and the caspase-1 specific inhibitor ZYVAD-FMK reduced EnnB-induced apoptosis. Moreover, EnnB increased the release of interleukin-1beta (IL-1β) in cells primed with lipopolysaccharide (LPS), and this response was reduced by both ZYVAD-FMK and the cathepsin B inhibitor CA-074Me. In conclusion, EnnB was found to induce cell cycle arrest, cell death and inflammation. Caspase-1 appeared to be involved in the apoptosis and release of IL-1β and possibly activation of the inflammasome through lysosomal damage and leakage of cathepsin B. -- Highlights: ► The mycotoxin EnnB induced cell cycle arrest, cell death and inflammation. ► The G0/G1-arrest was linked to a reduced ability to internalize receptors. ► EnnB caused lysosomal damage, leakage of cathepsin B and caspase-1 cleavage. ► Caspase-1 was partly involved in both apoptosis and release of IL-1

  15. La marge européenne de la Téthys jurassique en Corse : datation de trondhjémites de Balagne et indices de croûte continentale sous le domaine Balano-LigureThe European margin of the Jurassic Tethys in Corsica: dating of Balagne trondhjemites and evidence to support a continental crust beneath the Balagne-Ligurian domain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossi, Philippe; Cocherie, Alain; Lahondère, Didier; Fanning, C. Mark

    Vein trondhjemite in gabbro of the Carnispola Bridge has been dated to 169±3 Ma (UPb on zircon). This date indicates that E-MORB-type ophiolites were emplaced in the marginal Balagne part of the Ligurian Jurassic basin about some 10 Ma before the emplacement of N-MORB ophiolites in the most central part of the ocean. In addition, the presence of inherited zircons with Ordovician (431±8 Ma) and Archean (2693±12 Ma) ages reveals that the Balagne ophiolites were emplaced on a thinned continental crust. Finally, the 298±4 Ma age of zircons from eclogitised meta-arkose in the eclogitic Morteda-Farinole unit ('Schistes lustrés' zone) confirms the attribution of these rocks to a palaeogeographic area that laid between continent and ocean, along the edge of the Hercynian granite batholith in Corsica. To cite this article: P. Rossi et al., C. R. Geoscience 334 (2002) 313-322.

  16. Les politiques éducatives dans l'Union européenne - d'une approche intergouvernementaliste vers une démarche d'intégration ? Enquête auprès de fonctionnaires européens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruşitoru, Mihaela-Viorica

    2015-10-01

    Educational policies in the European Union: from intergovernmentalism to integration? A survey conducted among European officials - Officially, education remains a national competence of the Member States of the European Union. However, in the context of Europeanisation, policy changes are taking place in education. In this article, the author argues that, at the dawn of the third millennium, educational policies in the European Union are shifting from intergovernmentalism to integration. The European Qualifications Framework, the key competencies for lifelong education and training, and the benchmark criteria set out in two European strategies - Lisbon and Europe 2020 - attest to a real change in the field of educational policies. The author conducted interviews with officials from various European institutions, including the Commission, the Parliament and the Council, in order to compare their testimonies to the official discourse on education policies. The qualitative analysis of the interviews reveals that the principles of subsidiarity and neutrality have been called into question since the introduction of the open method of coordination. In contradiction with the legal framework and the official discourse, it would appear that, due to the growing influence of the European Union in education policy, the objective of reaching a common education policy in the Member States could become a reality in the coming decades.

  17. Immune Centroids Oversampling Method for Binary Classification

    PubMed Central

    Ai, Xusheng; Wu, Jian; Cui, Zhiming

    2015-01-01

    To improve the classification performance of imbalanced learning, a novel oversampling method, immune centroids oversampling technique (ICOTE) based on an immune network, is proposed. ICOTE generates a set of immune centroids to broaden the decision regions of the minority class space. The representative immune centroids are regarded as synthetic examples in order to resolve the imbalance problem. We utilize an artificial immune network to generate synthetic examples on clusters with high data densities, which can address the problem of synthetic minority oversampling technique (SMOTE), which lacks reflection on groups of training examples. Meanwhile, we further improve the performance of ICOTE via integrating ENN with ICOTE, that is, ICOTE + ENN. ENN disposes the majority class examples that invade the minority class space, so ICOTE + ENN favors the separation of both classes. Our comprehensive experimental results show that two proposed oversampling methods can achieve better performance than the renowned resampling methods. PMID:25834570

  18. Enniatin and Beauvericin Biosynthesis in Fusarium Species: Production Profiles and Structural Determinant Prediction

    PubMed Central

    Liuzzi, Vania C.; Mirabelli, Valentina; Cimmarusti, Maria Teresa; Haidukowski, Miriam; Leslie, John F.; Logrieco, Antonio F.; Caliandro, Rocco; Fanelli, Francesca; Mulè, Giuseppina

    2017-01-01

    Members of the fungal genus Fusarium can produce numerous secondary metabolites, including the nonribosomal mycotoxins beauvericin (BEA) and enniatins (ENNs). Both mycotoxins are synthesized by the multifunctional enzyme enniatin synthetase (ESYN1) that contains both peptide synthetase and S-adenosyl-l-methionine-dependent N-methyltransferase activities. Several Fusarium species can produce ENNs, BEA or both, but the mechanism(s) enabling these differential metabolic profiles is unknown. In this study, we analyzed the primary structure of ESYN1 by sequencing esyn1 transcripts from different Fusarium species. We measured ENNs and BEA production by ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with photodiode array and Acquity QDa mass detector (UPLC-PDA-QDa) analyses. We predicted protein structures, compared the predictions by multivariate analysis methods and found a striking correlation between BEA/ENN-producing profiles and ESYN1 three-dimensional structures. Structural differences in the β strand’s Asn789-Ala793 and His797-Asp802 portions of the amino acid adenylation domain can be used to distinguish BEA/ENN-producing Fusarium isolates from those that produce only ENN. PMID:28125067

  19. Occurrence of enniatins and beauvericin in 60 Chinese medicinal herbs.

    PubMed

    Hu, Ling; Rychlik, Michael

    2014-01-01

    A total of 60 Chinese medicinal herbs were examined for contamination of the emerging Fusarium mycotoxins enniatins (ENNs) A, A1, B, B1 and beauvericin (BEA). The herbs under study are commonly used in China as both medicines and food. The dried samples of herbs were randomly collected from traditional Chinese medicine stores in Zhejiang province, China. Sample preparation was achieved by methanol extraction, followed by a simple membrane filtration step; no tedious clean-ups were involved. ENNs A, A1, B, B1 and BEA were analysed by the recently developed stable isotope dilution assays, using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). With limits of detection ranging between 0.8 and 1.2 µg kg(-1) for the analytes under study, 25% of all analysed samples were contaminated with at least one of the ENNs and BEA. BEA was the most frequently detected toxin with a 20% incidence in all samples. The percentages of ENN-positive samples were lower: each single ENN was detected in 6.7-11.7% of all samples. Considering the total amounts of the five mycotoxins in single samples, values between 2.5 and 751 µg kg(-1) were found. The mean total amount in positive samples was 126 µg kg(-1). Regarding ginger, the frequent occurrence of ENNs and BEA in dried ginger could be confirmed in samples from Germany. However, in fresh ginger root the toxins were not detectable. This is the first report on the presence of ENNs and BEA in Chinese medicinal herbs.

  20. Datation U_Pb sur zircons des dolérites tholéiitiques pyrénéennes (ophites) à la limite Trias Jurassique et relations avec les tufs volcaniques dits « infra-liasiques » nord-pyrénéensU_Pb zircon SHRIMP dating of Pyrenean tholeiitic dolerites (ophites): evidence for an age encompassing the Trias Jurassic limit and relationships with earliest North Pyrenean 'Infraliassic' tuffs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossi, Philippe; Cocherie, Alain; Fanning, C. Mark; Ternet, Yves

    2003-12-01

    The tholeiitic doleritic magmatism (ophites) in the Aspe valley of the Pyrenees has been dated on the Triassic-Jurassic boundary (199±2 Ma) by the UPb method on zircon (SHRIMP). Emplacement of the ophites was probably synchronous with that of the earliest 'Infraliassic' Ségalas tuffs. The ophites are thus related to the Central Atlantic Magmatic Province (CAMP) whose emplacement linked with the fracturing of Pangea, preceded the opening of the Atlantic Ocean. To cite this article: P. Rossi et al., C. R. Geoscience 335 (2003).

  1. Discrimination of neutrons and γ-rays in liquid scintillator based on Elman neural network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Cai-Xun; Lin, Shin-Ted; Zhao, Jian-Ling; Yu, Xun-Zhen; Wang, Li; Zhu, Jing-Jun; Xing, Hao-Yang

    2016-08-01

    In this work, a new neutron and γ (n/γ) discrimination method based on an Elman Neural Network (ENN) is proposed to improve the discrimination performance of liquid scintillator (LS) detectors. Neutron and γ data were acquired from an EJ-335 LS detector, which was exposed in a 241Am-9Be radiation field. Neutron and γ events were discriminated using two methods of artificial neural network including the ENN and a typical Back Propagation Neural Network (BPNN) as a control. The results show that the two methods have different n/γ discrimination performances. Compared to the BPNN, the ENN provides an improved of Figure of Merit (FOM) in n/γ discrimination. The FOM increases from 0.907 ± 0.034 to 0.953 ± 0.037 by using the new method of the ENN. The proposed n/γ discrimination method based on ENN provides a new choice of pulse shape discrimination in neutron detection. Supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (11275134,11475117)

  2. A Sustainable NATO/EU Partnership for the Future

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-03-03

    addition the tendency of many European states to primarily deal with security problems with nonmilitary means, the request for a ‘peace dividend ’, the... Politique de Sécurité et de Défense Européenne, Bilan d’Etape, published by Yves Boyer is only one example showing a strong French tendency to...organizations, both essential for the country. 22 12 Yves Boyer, La Politique de Sécurité et de Défense Européenne, Bilan d’Etape

  3. Application of a genetic algorithm Elman network in temperature drift modeling for a fiber-optic gyroscope.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiyuan; Song, Rui; Shen, Chong; Zhang, Hong

    2014-09-10

    The fiber-optic gyroscope (FOG) has been widely used as a satellite and automobile attitude sensor in many industrial and defense fields such as navigation and positioning. Based on the fact that the FOG is sensitive to temperature variation, a novel (to our knowledge) error-processing technique for the FOG through a set of temperature experiment results and error analysis is presented. The method contains two parts: one is denoising, and the other is modeling and compensating. After the denoising part, a novel modeling method which is based on the dynamic modified Elman neural network (ENN) is proposed. In order to get the optimum parameters of the ENN, the genetic algorithm (GA) is applied and the optimization objective function was set as the difference between the predicted data and real data. The modeling and compensating results indicate that the drift caused by the varying temperature can be reduced and compensated effectively by the proposed model; the prediction accuracy of the GA-ENN is improved 20% over the ENN.

  4. Complexity, Contextualism, and Multiculturalism: Responses to the Critiques and Future Directions for the Gender Role Conflict Research Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Neil, James M.

    2008-01-01

    The author reacts to three reviews by Carolyn Enns, Stephen Wester, and P. Paul and Mary Heppner on "The Counseling Psychologist" Major Contribution "Summarizing 25 Years of Research on Men's Gender Role Conflict Using the Gender Role Conflict Scale: New Research Paradigms and Clinical Implications." The reviews provide support for assessing the…

  5. Search Codes for a Bibliography for the Study of African International Relations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-01-01

    in «i K^fiM PAGE 13 0CiA ORGAN I SAT IOU COMMUNE AFRICAiNE, MALGACHE ET MAüRtCiENNE (OCAf;) 0AU ORGANIZATION OF...OAU) 0C ORGANISATION COMMUNE AFRICANINE, MALGACHE ET MAURACIENNE (OCAi) OMA UllAN ÜPE ORGANIZATION UF PETROLEU,, EXPORTING COUNTRIES

  6. Updating a Cautionary Tale of Masked Priming: Reply to Klapp (2005)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lleras, Alejandro; Enns, James T.

    2005-01-01

    The commentary by S. T. Klapp (see record 2005-09704-010) on our recent article (A. Lleras & J. T. Enns, [see record 2004-21166-001]) proposes that the empirical finding of negative compatibility in masked priming be attributed to 2 distinct theoretical constructs: (a) perceptual priming through object updating, as described in our article, and…

  7. Robust Kalman filtering cooperated Elman neural network learning for vision-sensing-based robotic manipulation with global stability.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Xungao; Zhong, Xunyu; Peng, Xiafu

    2013-10-08

    In this paper, a global-state-space visual servoing scheme is proposed for uncalibrated model-independent robotic manipulation. The scheme is based on robust Kalman filtering (KF), in conjunction with Elman neural network (ENN) learning techniques. The global map relationship between the vision space and the robotic workspace is learned using an ENN. This learned mapping is shown to be an approximate estimate of the Jacobian in global space. In the testing phase, the desired Jacobian is arrived at using a robust KF to improve the ENN learning result so as to achieve robotic precise convergence of the desired pose. Meanwhile, the ENN weights are updated (re-trained) using a new input-output data pair vector (obtained from the KF cycle) to ensure robot global stability manipulation. Thus, our method, without requiring either camera or model parameters, avoids the corrupted performances caused by camera calibration and modeling errors. To demonstrate the proposed scheme's performance, various simulation and experimental results have been presented using a six-degree-of-freedom robotic manipulator with eye-in-hand configurations.

  8. Conformal Sheets of Thin Film Sensors, Electronics and Energy Harvesters for Structural Monitoring

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-08-01

    Science and Engineering, Electrical and Computer Engineering, Bioengineering Mechanical Science and Engineering, and Chemistry Beckman Institute for...neurology D D C ll (P ) di lr. . a ans enn – car o ogy Dr. M. Slepian (Sarver) – cardiology Dr. J. McDonald (JHU) – rehabilitation Dr. I. Efimov (Wash Univ) -- cardiology

  9. [Consumption of carbonated beverages with nonnutritive sweeteners in Latin American university students].

    PubMed

    Durán Agüero, Samuel; Record Cornwall, Jiniva; Encina Vega, Claudia; Salazar de Ariza, Julieta; Cordón Arrivillaga, Karla; Cereceda Bujaico, María del Pilar; Antezana Alzamora, Sonia; Espinoza Bernardo, Sissy

    2014-09-12

    Introducción: El consumo de bebidas carbonatadas con edulcorantes no nutritivos (ENN) es cada vez más común con el objetivo de mantener un peso saludable, sin embargo el efecto de los ENN sobre el peso corporal es controversial. Materiales y métodos: Estudiantes universitarios (n=1.229) de ambos sexos de 18 a 26 años, de los cuales 472 de Chile, 300 de Panamá, 253 de Guatemala y 204 de Perú. A cada estudiante se le aplicó una encuesta de frecuencia de consumo semanal de alimentos apoyada con fotografías de bebidas con ENN para cada país para determinar la ingesta de ellos. Asimismo y se les realizó una evaluación antropométrica. Resultados: El 80% de los estudiantes consumían bebidas carbonatadas con ENN, ninguno de ellos superó la ingesta diaria admitida para sucralosa, acesulfame de potasio y aspartame. El mayor consumo tanto en hombres como mujeres se observó en estudiantes universitarios chilenos (p.

  10. Effects of Pharmacologic Intervention on Oxygenation, Lung Water and Protein Leak in the Pseudomonas Ards Porcine Model.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-07-01

    597, 1983. 3. Staub , N.C. : Clinical use of lung water measurements. Report of a work- shop. Chest 90:588-594, 1986. 4. Chinard, F.P., and Enns, T...Neutrophils and the adult respiratory distress syndrome. Am. Rev. Resp. Dis. 125:552-559, 1983. 13. Staub , N.C., Schultz, E.L., and Albertine, K.H

  11. Attentional Distractor Interference May Be Diminished by Concurrent Working Memory Load in Normal Participants and Traumatic Brain Injury Patients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Liano, Beatriz Gil-Gomez; Umilta, Carlo; Stablum, Franca; Tebaldi, Francesca; Cantagallo, Anna

    2010-01-01

    A reduction in congruency effects under working memory (WM) load has been previously described using different attentional paradigms (e.g., Kim, Kim, & Chun, 2005; Smilek, Enns, Eastwood, & Merikle, 2006). One hypothesis is that different types of WM load have different effects on attentional selection, depending on whether a specific memory load…

  12. Human skin permeation of emerging mycotoxins (beauvericin and enniatins).

    PubMed

    Taevernier, Lien; Veryser, Lieselotte; Roche, Nathalie; Peremans, Kathelijne; Burvenich, Christian; Delesalle, Catherine; De Spiegeleer, Bart

    2016-01-01

    Currently, dermal exposure data of cyclic depsipeptide mycotoxins are completely absent. There is a lack of understanding about the local skin and systemic kinetics and effects, despite their widespread skin contact and intrinsic hazard. Therefore, we provide a quantitative characterisation of their dermal kinetics. The emerging mycotoxins enniatins (ENNs) and beauvericin (BEA) were used as model compounds and their transdermal kinetics were quantitatively evaluated, using intact and damaged human skin in an in vitro Franz diffusion cell set-up and ultra high-performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC)-MS analytics. We demonstrated that all investigated mycotoxins are able to penetrate through the skin. ENN B showed the highest permeation (kp,v=9.44 × 10(-6) cm/h), whereas BEA showed the lowest (kp,v=2.35 × 10(-6) cm/h) and the other ENNs ranging in between. Combining these values with experimentally determined solubility data, Jmax values ranging from 0.02 to 0.35 μg/(cm(2) h) for intact skin and from 0.07 to 1.11 μg/(cm(2) h) for damaged skin were obtained. These were used to determine the daily dermal exposure (DDE) in a worst-case scenario. On the other hand, DDE's for a typical occupational scenario were calculated based on real-life mycotoxin concentrations for the industrial exposure of food-related workers. In the latter case, for contact with intact human skin, DDE's up to 0.0870 ng/(kg BW × day) for ENN A were calculated, whereas for impaired skin barrier this can even rise up to 0.3209 ng/(kg BW × day) for ENN B1. This knowledge is needed for the risk assessment after skin exposure of contaminated food, feed, indoor surfaces and airborne particles with mycotoxins.

  13. Toward a Computational Theory of Early Visual Processing in Reading.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-09-01

    nia) be supposed to be de efficient extraction of nicaning from iniaged text. Gi~cn the nature of written language, particularly English , a presunably...ricrslanding: Siwdies in cogniive sciencecds. iBobrow I). and Collins A.. Academic Press, 1975. Nelson The Nelson l)enn) Ieading tesi , I oughton...Inference on English ," Proc. lw. J. Conf Arlificial Intelligence 3 (1973), 255-261. Smilh F. "Familiarity or configuration vs. discriminability of

  14. Vénus version Express

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nazé, Yaël

    2010-04-01

    En avril 2006, Vénus a "capturé" un objet d'un genre particulier: une sonde robotique européenne, baptisée Venus Express et destinée à scruter cette planète sous tous les angles. Bilan de cette mission 5 ans après le lancement de la sonde, dont 4 d'observations vénusiennes.

  15. A Prototype Decision Support System for Marine Corps Officer Allocation Policy Analysis.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-09-01

    SINCE THE TOTAL NUMBER OF ARCS SOUGHT, REDUCE IARC BY I IND = M + 1 lAD = :ARC -I D = M N A M ISA = H A=M+ 1 IHS = 0 MAXC = 0 ISUP = -1 IBIG 10000c...8217FINISHED GENERATING ARCS FOR THE NETWORK’ GOTO 77-. *6666 CALL GNETX (IND,IAD, IQD,M,H,T,C,CP,X,CPX,P,D,IT,U,NSA,ISA,A,IHS, * CIBIG,MAXC, ISUP ,MBIG, E,NNS

  16. Sciences and society

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    J.Luns des Pays-Bas, ancien sécétaire général de NATO (OTAN=Organisation du traité de l'Atlantique Nord) parle du passé, présent et future de la défense européenne et des relations est et ouest

  17. Delay Differential Equation-Based Modeling of Passively Mode-Locked Quantum Dot Lasers Using Measured Gain and Loss Spectra (Postprint)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-01-01

    Européenne de Bretagne JANUARY 2013 Interim Approved for public release; distribution unlimited. See additional restrictions described on... Bretagne ) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 2305 5e. TASK NUMBER DP 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER Y05T 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) 8...University of Mexico Université Européene de Bretagne 9. SPONSORING/MONITORING AGENCY NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) Air Force Research Laboratory

  18. History of Cern

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    Cérémonie à l'occasion de l'apparition du premier volume du livre sur l'histoire du Cern, avec plusieurs personnes présentes qui jouaient un rôle important dans cette organisation européenne couronnée de succès grâce à l'esprit des membres fondateurs qui est et restera essentiel

  19. Detecting Susceptibility to Breast Cancer with SNP-SNP Interaction Using BPSOHS and Emotional Neural Networks

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiao; Fan, Yue

    2016-01-01

    Studies for the association between diseases and informative single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) have received great attention. However, most of them just use the whole set of useful SNPs and fail to consider the SNP-SNP interactions, while these interactions have already been proven in biology experiments. In this paper, we use a binary particle swarm optimization with hierarchical structure (BPSOHS) algorithm to improve the effective of PSO for the identification of the SNP-SNP interactions. Furthermore, in order to use these SNP interactions in the susceptibility analysis, we propose an emotional neural network (ENN) to treat SNP interactions as emotional tendency. Different from the normal architecture, just as the emotional brain, this architecture provides a specific path to treat the emotional value, by which the SNP interactions can be considered more quickly and directly. The ENN helps us use the prior knowledge about the SNP interactions and other influence factors together. Finally, the experimental results prove that the proposed BPSOHS_ENN algorithm can detect the informative SNP-SNP interaction and predict the breast cancer risk with a much higher accuracy than existing methods. PMID:27294121

  20. Role of microbial iron reduction in the dissolution of iron hydroxysulfate minerals - article no. G01012

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, E.J.P.; Nadeau, T.L.; Voytek, M.A.; Landa, E.R.

    2006-03-28

    Reduction of structural sulfate in the iron-hydroxysulfate mineral jarosite by sulfate-reducing bacteria has previously been demonstrated. The primary objective of this work was to evaluate the potential for anaerobic dissolution of the iron-hydroxysulfate minerals jarosite and schwertmannite at neutral pH by iron-reducing bacteria. Mineral dissolution was tested using a long-term cultivar, Geobacter metallireducens strain GS-15, and a fresh isolate Geobacter sp. strain ENN1, previously undescribed. ENN1 was isolated from the discharge site of Shadle Mine, in the southern anthracite coalfield of Pennsylvania, where schwertmannite was the predominant iron-hydroxysulfate mineral. When jarosite from Elizabeth Mine (Vermont) was provided as the sole terminal electron acceptor, resting cells of both G. metallireducens and ENN1 were able to reduce structural Fe(III), releasing Fe{sup +2}, SO{sub 4}{sup -2}, and K{sup +} ions. A lithified jarosite sample from Utah was more resistant to microbial attack, but slow release of Fe{sup +2} was observed. Neither bacterium released Fe{sup +2} from poorly crystalline synthetic schwertmannite. Our results indicate that exposure of jarosite to iron-reducing conditions at neutral pH is likely to promote the mobility of hazardous constituents and should therefore be considered in evaluating waste disposal and/or reclamation options involving jarosite-bearing materials.

  1. Effects of partitioned enthalpy of mixing on glass-forming ability.

    PubMed

    Song, Wen-Xiong; Zhao, Shi-Jin

    2015-04-14

    We explore the inherent reason at atomic level for the glass-forming ability of alloys by molecular simulation, in which the effect of partitioned enthalpy of mixing is studied. Based on Morse potential, we divide the enthalpy of mixing into three parts: the chemical part (ΔEnn), strain part (ΔEstrain), and non-bond part (ΔEnnn). We find that a large negative ΔEnn value represents strong AB chemical bonding in AB alloy and is the driving force to form a local ordered structure, meanwhile the transformed local ordered structure needs to satisfy the condition (ΔEnn/2 + ΔEstrain) < 0 to be stabilized. Understanding the chemical and strain parts of enthalpy of mixing is helpful to design a new metallic glass with a good glass forming ability. Moreover, two types of metallic glasses (i.e., "strain dominant" and "chemical dominant") are classified according to the relative importance between chemical effect and strain effect, which enriches our knowledge of the forming mechanism of metallic glass. Finally, a soft sphere model is established, different from the common hard sphere model.

  2. Novel approach to evolutionary neural network based descriptor selection and QSAR model development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Debeljak, Željko; Marohnić, Viktor; Srečnik, Goran; Medić-Šarić, Marica

    2005-12-01

    Capability of evolutionary neural network (ENN) based QSAR approach to direct the descriptor selection process towards stable descriptor subset (DS) composition characterized by acceptable generalization, as well as the influence of description stability on QSAR model interpretation have been examined. In order to analyze the DS stability and QSAR model generalization properties multiple random dataset partitions into training and test set were made. Acceptability criteria proposed by Golbraikh et al. [J. Comput.-Aided Mol. Des., 17 (2003) 241] have been chosen for selection of highly predictive QSAR models from a set of all models produced by ENN for each dataset splitting. All QSAR models that pass Golbraikh's filter generated by ENN for each dataset partition were collected. Two final DS forming principles were compared. Standard principle is based on selection of descriptors characterized by highest frequencies among all descriptors that appear in the pool [J. Chem. Inf. Comput. Sci., 43 (2003) 949]. Search across the model pool for DS that are stable against multiple dataset subsampling i.e. universal DS solutions is the basis of novel approach. Based on described principles benzodiazepine QSAR has been proposed and evaluated against results reported by others in terms of final DS composition and model predictive performance.

  3. Effects of partitioned enthalpy of mixing on glass-forming ability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Wen-Xiong; Zhao, Shi-Jin

    2015-04-01

    We explore the inherent reason at atomic level for the glass-forming ability of alloys by molecular simulation, in which the effect of partitioned enthalpy of mixing is studied. Based on Morse potential, we divide the enthalpy of mixing into three parts: the chemical part (Δ Enn), strain part (Δ Estrain), and non-bond part (Δ Ennn). We find that a large negative Δ Enn value represents strong AB chemical bonding in AB alloy and is the driving force to form a local ordered structure, meanwhile the transformed local ordered structure needs to satisfy the condition (Δ Enn/2 + Δ Estrain) < 0 to be stabilized. Understanding the chemical and strain parts of enthalpy of mixing is helpful to design a new metallic glass with a good glass forming ability. Moreover, two types of metallic glasses (i.e., "strain dominant" and "chemical dominant") are classified according to the relative importance between chemical effect and strain effect, which enriches our knowledge of the forming mechanism of metallic glass. Finally, a soft sphere model is established, different from the common hard sphere model.

  4. Evolutionary neural networks for anomaly detection based on the behavior of a program.

    PubMed

    Han, Sang-Jun; Cho, Sung-Bae

    2006-06-01

    The process of learning the behavior of a given program by using machine-learning techniques (based on system-call audit data) is effective to detect intrusions. Rule learning, neural networks, statistics, and hidden Markov models (HMMs) are some of the kinds of representative methods for intrusion detection. Among them, neural networks are known for good performance in learning system-call sequences. In order to apply this knowledge to real-world problems successfully, it is important to determine the structures and weights of these call sequences. However, finding the appropriate structures requires very long time periods because there are no suitable analytical solutions. In this paper, a novel intrusion-detection technique based on evolutionary neural networks (ENNs) is proposed. One advantage of using ENNs is that it takes less time to obtain superior neural networks than when using conventional approaches. This is because they discover the structures and weights of the neural networks simultaneously. Experimental results with the 1999 Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) Intrusion Detection Evaluation (IDEVAL) data confirm that ENNs are promising tools for intrusion detection.

  5. Semiconducting Lead-Sulfur-Organic Network Solids

    SciTech Connect

    Turner,D.; Vaid, T.; Stephens, P.; Stone, K.; DiPasquale, A.; Rheingold, A.

    2008-01-01

    The reactions of Pb(OAc)2 with 1, 2,4, 5-benzenetetrathiol, 1, 4-benzenedithiol, and benzenehexathiol in ethylenediamine yield bright yellow [Pb2(S2C6H2S2)(en)]n, orange-red [Pb3(SC6H4S)3(en)2]n, and brown [Pb3C6S6]n, respectively. The structures of [Pb2(S2C6H2S2)(en)]n and [Pb3C6S6]n were solved by synchrotron X-ray powder diffraction, while the structure of [Pb3(SC6H4S)3(en)2]n was solved by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. The bonding in [Pb2(S2C6H2S2)(en)]n indicates the presence of 'molecular' units, while in [Pb3C6S6]n, the bonding most resembles that in an inorganic solid such as PbS. The differences in bonding are reflected in the optical and electrical properties of the materials; [Pb3C6S6]n is a semiconductor.

  6. Semiconducting lead-sulfur-organic network solids.

    PubMed

    Turner, Dayna L; Vaid, Thomas P; Stephens, Peter W; Stone, Kevin H; DiPasquale, Antonio G; Rheingold, Arnold L

    2008-01-09

    The reactions of Pb(OAc)2 with 1,2,4,5-benzenetetrathiol, 1,4-benzenedithiol, and benzenehexathiol in ethylenediamine yield bright yellow [Pb2(S2C6H2S2)(en)]n, orange-red [Pb3(SC6H4S)3(en)2]n, and brown [Pb3C6S6]n, respectively. The structures of [Pb2(S2C6H2S2)(en)]n and [Pb3C6S6]n were solved by synchrotron X-ray powder diffraction, while the structure of [Pb3(SC6H4S)3(en)2]n was solved by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. The bonding in [Pb2(S2C6H2S2)(en)]n indicates the presence of "molecular" units, while in [Pb3C6S6]n, the bonding most resembles that in an inorganic solid such as PbS. The differences in bonding are reflected in the optical and electrical properties of the materials; [Pb3C6S6]n is a semiconductor.

  7. Case study for the identification and evaluation of rainfall-runoff models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaleris, Vassilios; Langousis, Andreas

    2014-05-01

    We investigate the modeling assumptions used in two rainfall-runoff models, namely the model ENNS (Nachtnebel et al., 1993) and the model MIKE SHE (http://www.dhigroup.com/), and study how those assumptions affect the effectiveness and quality of model fitting and runoff simulation. To avoid artificial effects caused by simplifications in the equations used in ENNS for the calculation of the outflow from two-outlet linear reservoirs, a new version of the ENNS code is developed that is fully compatible with the corresponding equations used in MIKE SHE. The two models are applied in a real-word case study, using 19-year long historical time-series of daily precipitation, temperature and runoff from Glafkos river basin. The latter is located near the city of Patras, in Peloponnese, Greece. Both models are manually calibrated using five years of the available data, whereas the remaining part of the data is used for model validation. The effectiveness of the models to simulate the runoff process is evaluated using (a) the relative model bias, (b) the criterion of Nash and Sutcliffe (N-S) and (c) the modified N-S-criterion calculated using the logarithmically or square root transformed observed and simulated flows. While both models describe the base- and inter-flow hydrological processes using the same conceptual model of linear reservoirs, they use different modeling assumptions to describe surface runoff and infiltration through the unsaturated zone. To that extent, the presented comparison sheds light to (a) the effectiveness of each modeling assumption to describe surface runoff and infiltration through the unsaturated zone, (b) the quality of model calibration, and (c) the optimality and robustness of the estimated parameters, common to the two models (thickness of the unsaturated zone, water content, field capacity, wilting point etc.). Differences in the simulated surface runoff, the infiltration and other runoff components, are not caused solely by the different

  8. Role of microbial iron reduction in the dissolution of iron hydroxysulfate minerals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Elizabeth J. P.; Nadeau, Tracie-Lynn; Voytek, Mary A.; Landa, Edward R.

    2006-03-01

    Iron-hydroxysulfate minerals can be important hosts for metals such as lead, mercury, copper, zinc, silver, chromium, arsenic, and selenium and for radionuclides such as 226Ra. These mineral-bound contaminants are considered immobilized under oxic conditions. However, when anoxic conditions develop, the activities of sulfate- or iron-reducing bacteria could result in mineral dissolution, releasing these bound contaminants. Reduction of structural sulfate in the iron-hydroxysulfate mineral jarosite by sulfate-reducing bacteria has previously been demonstrated. The primary objective of this work was to evaluate the potential for anaerobic dissolution of the iron-hydroxysulfate minerals jarosite and schwertmannite at neutral pH by iron-reducing bacteria. Mineral dissolution was tested using a long-term cultivar, Geobacter metallireducens strain GS-15, and a fresh isolate Geobacter sp. strain ENN1, previously undescribed. ENN1 was isolated from the discharge site of Shadle Mine, in the southern anthracite coalfield of Pennsylvania, where schwertmannite was the predominant iron-hydroxysulfate mineral. When jarosite from Elizabeth Mine (Vermont) was provided as the sole terminal electron acceptor, resting cells of both G. metallireducens and ENN1 were able to reduce structural Fe(III), releasing Fe+2, SO4-2, and K+ ions. A lithified jarosite sample from Utah was more resistant to microbial attack, but slow release of Fe+2 was observed. Neither bacterium released Fe+2 from poorly crystalline synthetic schwertmannite. Our results indicate that exposure of jarosite to iron-reducing conditions at neutral pH is likely to promote the mobility of hazardous constituents and should therefore be considered in evaluating waste disposal and/or reclamation options involving jarosite-bearing materials.

  9. Role of microbial iron reduction in the dissolution of iron hydroxysulfate minerals

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jones, E.J.P.; Nadeau, T.-L.; Voytek, M.A.; Landa, E.R.

    2006-01-01

    Iron-hydroxysulfate minerals can be important hosts for metals such as lead, mercury, copper, zinc, silver, chromium, arsenic, and selenium and for radionuclides such as 226Ra. These mineral-bound contaminants are considered immobilized under oxic conditions. However, when anoxic conditions develop, the activities of sulfate- or iron-reducing bacteria could result in mineral dissolution, releasing these bound contaminants. Reduction of structural sulfate in the iron-hydroxysulfate mineral jarosite by sulfate-reducing bacteria has previously been demonstrated. The primary objective of this work was to evaluate the potential for anaerobic dissolution of the iron-hydroxysulfate minerals jarosite and schwertmannite at neutral PH by iron-reducing bacteria. Mineral dissolution was tested using a long-term cultivar, Geobacter metallireducens strain GS-15, and a fresh isolate Geobacter sp. strain ENN1, previously undescribed. ENN1 was isolated from the discharge site of Shadle Mine, in the southern anthracite coalfield of Pennsylvania, where schwertmannite was the predominant iron-hydroxysulfate mineral. When jarosite from Elizabeth Mine (Vermont) was provided as the sole terminal electron acceptor, resting cells of both G. metallireducens and ENN1 were able to reduce structural Fe(III), releasing Fe+2, SO4-2, and K+ ions. A lithified jarosite sample from Utah was more resistant to microbial attack, but slow release of Fe+2 was observed. Neither bacterium released Fe+2 from poorly crystalline synthetic schwertmannite. Our results indicate that exposure of jarosite to iron-reducing conditions at neutral pH is likely to promote the mobility of hazardous constituents and should therefore be considered in evaluating waste disposal and/or reclamation options involving jarosite-bearing materials.

  10. Estimating the Organizational Cost of Sexual Assault in the U.S. Military

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-12-01

    DoD under the DoD’s homosexual - conduct policy (United States Government Accountability Office, 2011). In an NPS thesis by Freddy A. Morales entitled...5,300 in 2008 (Dertouzosn & Garber, 2008). In the GAO’s report on costs associated with implementing the DoD’s homosexual conduct policy, the agency...Cost of Attrition: Army and Navy Results for FY2008” (2012) and the GAO’s report on implementing the DoD’s homosexual -conduct policy. Enns reported

  11. Analysis of Energy-Absorbing Foundations.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-12-15

    1ENN51YVAN&A 5TATL UNIV UNIVERSITY PARK DEPT OF ENGI-CYTC F/S 13/h ANALYSIS OF ENERGY -ABSORBING POUNDATIONS.(U) ECC 78 V H NEUBERT, S Ji YIN DNA01-78...C-0036 UNCLASSIFIED DNA-48OFP NL "M~ENOMOEE MIflfl END ______ 1 32 112.2 MICROCOPY RILSOLUTION TEST CHIART LELL ,NA 480 MIL ANALYSIS OF ENERGY ...8217 REPORT & PERIOD COVERED Final Report for Period ANALYSIS OF ENERGY -ABSORBING FOUNDATIONS I Dee 77-1S Dee 78 6. PERFORMING ORG, REPORT NUMBER 7AUTHOR

  12. Conclusions of ESA 1st Optical Wireless Onboard Communications Workshop: Current Status and the Road Forward

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-07-13

    article est basé sur les contributions fournies par les industries de communications optiques sans fil, les industries spatiales et les universités ou...présenté à l’échelle Européenne l’état de l’art des techniques et des technologies ’communications optiques sans fil’ et de leur applicabilité dans le...emerges as a very interesting technology for coupling onto detectors or even into optical fibres , allowing on the other hand the modification of

  13. Engineer’s Refractive Effects Prediction System (EREPS). Revision 2.0

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-02-01

    summary for Marsden square 142 ..................... 142 1 30. PROPR display for X band frequency and geometries in the Greek Island experiment within...contains water vapor is given as N (n I) 106 77.6 p 3.73 x 10 eN-n- 0 ___ + _ ____ , ( 2) T T 2 I where e is the partial pressure of water vapor in...millibars or 3 e = x 6.105 exp( x ) 3) 100 where x - 25.22 x (T - 273.2) 5.31 x log e T T e 273. 2I p - atmosphere’s barometric pressure in millibars I T

  14. Fisheries Handbook of Engineering Requirements and Biological Criteria

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-01-01

    ganlons/24 hrs - 694 gallons/minute 1 acre 43.560 square feet I knot = 1.1508 miles per hr 1 calorie = 0.0003968 BTU 1 calorie = 4.19 joules 1 joule ...Kerr, James E., "Studies on fish preservation at the smolt stages in relation to salinity and temperature." Contra Costa steam plant of the Pacific Gas...Kotkas, Enn, "Studies of the swimming speeds of 30. Gray, James , "How fishes swim." Scientific Ameri- some anadromous fishes found below Conowingo can

  15. Evidence-based Mobile Medical Applications in Diabetes.

    PubMed

    Drincic, Andjela; Prahalad, Priya; Greenwood, Deborah; Klonoff, David C

    2016-12-01

    This article reviews mobile medical applications that are commercially available in the United States or European Union (EU) and are (1) associated with published data of clinical outcomes in the peer-reviewed literature during the past 5 years, (2) cleared by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in the United States, or (3) a recipient of a CE (Conformité Européenne) mark by the EU. Many of these applications have been shown to positively affect outcomes in the short term, but long-term studies are needed. Until more data are available, consumers and professionals can consider guidance based on FDA/CE status.

  16. Interaction between complement regulators and Streptococcus pyogenes: binding of C4b-binding protein and factor H/factor H-like protein 1 to M18 strains involves two different cell surface molecules.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Caballero, David; García-Laorden, Isabel; Cortés, Guadalupe; Wessels, Michael R; de Córdoba, Santiago Rodríguez; Albertí, Sebastián

    2004-12-01

    Streptococcus pyogenes, or group A Streptococcus, is one of the most frequent causes of pharyngitis and skin infections in humans. Many virulence mechanisms have been suggested to be involved in the infectious process. Among them is the binding to the bacterial cell surface of the complement regulatory proteins factor H, factor H-like protein 1 (FHL-1), and C4b-binding protein. Previous studies indicate that binding of these three regulators to the streptococcal cell involves the M protein encoded by the emm gene. M-type 18 strains are prevalent among clinical isolates and have been shown to interact with all three complement regulators simultaneously. Using isogenic strains lacking expression of the Emm18 or the Enn18 proteins, we demonstrate in this study that, in contradistinction to previously described S. pyogenes strains, M18 strains bind the complement regulators factor H, FHL-1, and C4b-binding protein through two distinct cell surface proteins. Factor H and FHL-1 bind to the Emm18 protein, while C4BP binds to the Enn18 protein. We propose that expression of two distinct surface structures that bind complement regulatory proteins represents a unique adaptation of M18 strains that enhances their resistance to opsonization by human plasma and increases survival of this particular S. pyogenes strain in the human host. These new findings illustrate that S. pyogenes has evolved diverse mechanisms for recruitment of complement regulatory proteins to the bacterial surface to evade immune clearance in the human host.

  17. Computer-aided diagnosis system for classifying benign and malignant thyroid nodules in multi-stained FNAB cytological images.

    PubMed

    Gopinath, Balasubramanian; Shanthi, Natesan

    2013-06-01

    An automated computer-aided diagnosis system is developed to classify benign and malignant thyroid nodules using multi-stained fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) cytological images. In the first phase, the image segmentation is performed to remove the background staining information and retain the appropriate foreground cell objects in cytological images using mathematical morphology and watershed transform segmentation methods. Subsequently, statistical features are extracted using two-level discrete wavelet transform (DWT) decomposition, gray level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM) and Gabor filter based methods. The classifiers k-nearest neighbor (k-NN), Elman neural network (ENN) and support vector machine (SVM) are tested for classifying benign and malignant thyroid nodules. The combination of watershed segmentation, GLCM features and k-NN classifier results a lowest diagnostic accuracy of 60 %. The highest diagnostic accuracy of 93.33 % is achieved by ENN classifier trained with the statistical features extracted by Gabor filter bank from the images segmented by morphology and watershed transform segmentation methods. It is also observed that SVM classifier results its highest diagnostic accuracy of 90 % for DWT and Gabor filter based features along with morphology and watershed transform segmentation methods. The experimental results suggest that the developed system with multi-stained thyroid FNAB images would be useful for identifying thyroid cancer irrespective of staining protocol used.

  18. Highlights of recent studies and future plans for the French human biomonitoring (HBM) programme.

    PubMed

    Fréry, Nadine; Vandentorren, Stéphanie; Etchevers, Anne; Fillol, Clémence

    2012-02-01

    This manuscript presents highlights of recent studies and perspectives from the French human biomonitoring (HBM) programme. Until recently, HBM studies focused on specific populations or pollutants to gain a better understanding of exposure to environmental chemicals, to help regulators reduce environmental exposure and to monitor existing policies on specific concerns. Highlights of recent multicentre biomonitoring studies with specific population or pollutant focus are given. These French HBM studies have been implemented to know: (1) the influence of living near an incinerator on serum dioxin and polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) levels, (2) the influence of consuming river fish contaminated by PCBs on serum PCBs of fishermen, and (3) the evolution of blood lead levels in children from 1 to 6 years old since 1995. Special emphasis is placed on the use of an integrated (HBM coupled with nutrition and health studies), multipollutant approach. This approach has been initiated in France with a recent national population-based biomonitoring survey, the Etude Nationale Nutrition Santé (ENNS; French Nutrition and Health Survey). This survey will provide the first reference distribution for 42 biomarkers in the French population. The current national HBM strategy will build upon the ENNS and include a national survey of people aged between 6 and 74 years complemented for the neonatal period and childhood by the Etude Longitudinale Française depuis l'Enfance (ELFE; French longitudinal study of children). France also contributes to the harmonization of HBM activities in Europe through participation in European HBM projects.

  19. PBPK and population modelling to interpret urine cadmium concentrations of the French population.

    PubMed

    Béchaux, Camille; Bodin, Laurent; Clémençon, Stéphan; Crépet, Amélie

    2014-09-15

    As cadmium accumulates mainly in kidney, urinary concentrations are considered as relevant data to assess the risk related to cadmium. The French Nutrition and Health Survey (ENNS) recorded the concentration of cadmium in the urine of the French population. However, as with all biomonitoring data, it needs to be linked to external exposure for it to be interpreted in term of sources of exposure and for risk management purposes. The objective of this work is thus to interpret the cadmium biomonitoring data of the French population in terms of dietary and cigarette smoke exposures. Dietary and smoking habits recorded in the ENNS study were combined with contamination levels in food and cigarettes to assess individual exposures. A PBPK model was used in a Bayesian population model to link this external exposure with the measured urinary concentrations. In this model, the level of the past exposure was corrected thanks to a scaling function which account for a trend in the French dietary exposure. It resulted in a modelling which was able to explain the current urinary concentrations measured in the French population through current and past exposure levels. Risk related to cadmium exposure in the general French population was then assessed from external and internal critical values corresponding to kidney effects. The model was also applied to predict the possible urinary concentrations of the French population in 2030 assuming there will be no more changes in the exposures levels. This scenario leads to significantly lower concentrations and consequently lower related risk.

  20. Deoxynivalenol and other selected Fusarium toxins in Swedish oats--occurrence and correlation to specific Fusarium species.

    PubMed

    Fredlund, Elisabeth; Gidlund, Ann; Sulyok, Michael; Börjesson, Thomas; Krska, Rudolf; Olsen, Monica; Lindblad, Mats

    2013-10-15

    Fusarium moulds frequently contaminate oats and other cereals world-wide, including those grown in Northern Europe. To investigate the presence of toxigenic Fusarium species and their toxins in oats, samples were taken during 2010 and 2011 in three geographical regions of Sweden (east, west, south). The samples were analysed by real-time PCR for the specific infection level of seven Fusarium species associated with oats and other cereals (Fusarium poae, Fusarium graminearum, Fusarium langsethiae, Fusarium culmorum, Fusarium tricinctum, Fusarium sporotrichioides and Fusarium avenaceum) and with a multi-mycotoxin method based on liquid chromatography/electrospray ionisation-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC/ESI-MS/MS) for the detection of many fungal metabolites, including deoxynivalenol (DON), zearalenone (ZEA), nivalenol (NIV), T-2 toxin, HT-2 toxins, moniliformin (MON), beauvericin (BEA) and enniatins (ENNs). Most samples contained at least four of the seven Fusarium species analysed and F. poae, F. langsethiae and F. avenaceum were present in approximately 90-100% of all samples. The most common toxins detected were DON, NIV, BEA and ENNs, which were present in more than 90% of samples. Most Fusarium species and their toxins occurred in higher concentrations in 2010 than in 2011, with the exception of DON and its main producer F. graminearum. Significant regional differences were detected for some moulds and mycotoxins, with higher levels of F. graminearum, DON and ZEA in western Sweden than in the east (P<0.05) and higher levels of F. tricinctum and MON in the south (P<0.05). Correlation analysis showed significant correlations between many Fusarium species and toxin levels. For example, F. tricinctum was significantly correlated to F. avenaceum (r = 0.72, P<0.001), DON to ZEA (r = 0.52, P<0.001), DON to F. graminearum (r = 0.77, P<0.001) and the sum of T-2 and HT-2 to F. langsethiae (r = 0.77, P<0.001). The multi-toxin approach employed allowed simultaneous

  1. 20. 'Erection Plan, Renewal of Bridge 210 C over Sacramento ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. 'Erection Plan, Renewal of Bridge 210 C over Sacramento River near Tehama, Calif., 3 140'-0' S. T. Riveted Thru Truss Spans, 17'-9' C. to C. Trusses, 31'-0' C. To C. Chords. U.S.S. P. Co. Pacific Coast Dept., Order No. SF 604, Southern Pacific Co., Order No. 51168-P-38428, 1925 Specifications, Scale in. ft., American Bridge Co., Ambridge Plant, Dwgs. made at Ambridge No. 5 in charge of Reehl, Detailed by W.F.R., Date, Checked by L.A.E., Date 1/5/29, Fld. conn. chk. by ENN, Date 3/9/29, Order No. F5659, Sheet No. E3.' - Southern Pacific Railroad Shasta Route, Bridge No. 210.52, Milepost 210.52, Tehama, Tehama County, CA

  2. Bernard Zappoli's contribution to the French scientific life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prud'homme, Roger

    2017-01-01

    In November 2014, at the annual meeting of the research group "Fundamental and Applied Microgravity" held in Carqueiranne, France, I was asked to speak on Bernard Zappoli and his accomplishments. The following is an edited transcription of the speech delivered in his honor following his recent retirement as the Head of The Physical Science Programme at the French Space Agency (CNES). After an introduction outlining his human qualities and retirement as engineer emeritus, his career is summarized. It then details the scientific activities he has undertaken during different periods of his career at several universities, the European Society of Propulsion ("Société européenne de propulsion", SEP), and the CNES. Special attention is devoted to the research groups at the CNES/CNRS that we initiated and the management of which I had been sharing with him for several years. Allusion is made to his recent and new retiree activities.

  3. Italian Exposition

    SciTech Connect

    2006-10-11

    Le DG parle dans son allocution à l'occasion de l'exposition (suivi d'une visite)de la contribution du Cern à la création d'une espace de la technologie européenne. Il parle de la manière comment organiser des formes fructueuses de coopération et coordination internationales dans ce domaine. "Afin de renforcer encore notre relation avec l'industrie et intensifier le transfert de la technologie nous proposerons au ministre de recherche de poursuivre dans le cadre du programme EUREKA ensemble avec les industries des programmes concrètes." Le ministre italien prend ensuite la parole.

  4. Peer Ratings: Scoring Strategy Development and Reliability Demonstration on Air Force Basic Trainees

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-09-01

    IIfl.tN.G’l P CtP e eIeec see gItg deee Seoe atV LLr Igg4 ~?eeoe ae eeee esseaeeeee x : 4o em eN..N w C g, IIge ee e, e g v iee eew ee ea satee (A 0...lAum o 0 C ILd IA 02 1 0C w W Li -t 0 It.4 ~N NNSmf* .tAoL 10 a .- 0m e .4 N " 0) S in to% to to It . o401 aaP a C j% 4CtC 4CI . j-S$ 4 UN*** to

  5. About SEFI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruprecht, Robert

    SEFI stands for Société Européenne pour la Formation des Ingénieurs (European Society of Engineering Education). This society, founded in 1973, is presented on the background of European educational tradition. SEFI is one of two European societies dedicated to the question of engineering education. For a long time, SEFI represented rather the western and northern part of Europe, while its sister organization IGIP (Internationale Gesellschaft für Ingenieurpädagogik - International Society for Engineering Pedagogy) concentrated on Middle and Eastern Europe. Nowadays, the two societies are working together and cover more or less all of Europe. SEFI’s activities, outreach, links, projects, and prospects are described and characterized. SEFI is not just involved with didactical questions. The society also takes an active role in the shaping of the European landscape of engineering education being member or partner of in a number of societies and contributing actively to EU projects.

  6. Paralysie flasque en début de grossesse: penser à l'hypokaliémie due aux vomissements gravidiques, à propos de deux observations dans un pays en voie de développement

    PubMed Central

    Fall, Maouly

    2015-01-01

    Les vomissements gravidiques peuvent être responsables de rares complications neuromusculaires mais graves notamment la paralysie hypokaliémique. Nous rapportons des observations de deux jeunes femmes d'origine guinéenne, sans histoires familiales ni antécédents particuliers, admises pour paralysie flasque des quatre membres dans un contexte de vomissements incoercibles en début de grossesse. Le bilan retrouvait une hypokaliémie majeure associée à quelques troubles électro-cardiographiques. L'apport de potassium par voie parentérale avait permis une récupération motrice totale. La paralysie hypokaliémique est une complication rare des vomissements gravidiques. Une supplémentation potassique prudente avec une surveillance électro-cardiographique et biologique permet une disparition spectaculaire des troubles neuromusculaires. PMID:26327956

  7. Italian Exposition

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    Le DG parle dans son allocution à l'occasion de l'exposition (suivi d'une visite)de la contribution du Cern à la création d'une espace de la technologie européenne. Il parle de la manière comment organiser des formes fructueuses de coopération et coordination internationales dans ce domaine. "Afin de renforcer encore notre relation avec l'industrie et intensifier le transfert de la technologie nous proposerons au ministre de recherche de poursuivre dans le cadre du programme EUREKA ensemble avec les industries des programmes concrètes." Le ministre italien prend ensuite la parole.

  8. The Ultimaster Biodegradable-Polymer Sirolimus-Eluting Stent: An Updated Review of Clinical Evidence.

    PubMed

    Chisari, Alberto; Pistritto, Anna Maria; Piccolo, Raffaele; La Manna, Alessio; Danzi, Gian Battista

    2016-09-06

    The Ultimaster coronary stent system (Terumo Corporation, Tokyo, Japan) represents a new iteration in drug-eluting stent (DES) technology that has recently received the Conformité Européenne (CE) mark approval for clinical use. The Ultimaster is a thin-strut, cobalt chromium, biodegradable-polymer, sirolimus-eluting coronary stent. The high elasticity of the biodegradable-polymer (PDLLA-PCL) and the abluminal gradient coating technology are additional novel features of this coronary device. The Ultimaster DES has undergone extensive clinical evaluation in two studies: The CENTURY I and II trials. Results from these two landmark studies suggested an excellent efficacy and safety profile of the Ultimaster DES across several lesion and patient subsets, with similar clinical outcomes to contemporary, new-generation DES. The aim of this review is to summarize the rationale behind this novel DES technology and to provide an update of available evidence about the clinical performance of the Ultimaster DES.

  9. The Ultimaster Biodegradable-Polymer Sirolimus-Eluting Stent: An Updated Review of Clinical Evidence

    PubMed Central

    Chisari, Alberto; Pistritto, Anna Maria; Piccolo, Raffaele; La Manna, Alessio; Danzi, Gian Battista

    2016-01-01

    The Ultimaster coronary stent system (Terumo Corporation, Tokyo, Japan) represents a new iteration in drug-eluting stent (DES) technology that has recently received the Conformité Européenne (CE) mark approval for clinical use. The Ultimaster is a thin-strut, cobalt chromium, biodegradable-polymer, sirolimus-eluting coronary stent. The high elasticity of the biodegradable-polymer (PDLLA-PCL) and the abluminal gradient coating technology are additional novel features of this coronary device. The Ultimaster DES has undergone extensive clinical evaluation in two studies: The CENTURY I and II trials. Results from these two landmark studies suggested an excellent efficacy and safety profile of the Ultimaster DES across several lesion and patient subsets, with similar clinical outcomes to contemporary, new-generation DES. The aim of this review is to summarize the rationale behind this novel DES technology and to provide an update of available evidence about the clinical performance of the Ultimaster DES. PMID:27608017

  10. Les Brulures Chimiques Par Le Laurier Rose

    PubMed Central

    Bakkali, H.; Ababou, M.; Nassim Sabah, T.; Moussaoui, A.; Ennouhi, A.; Fouadi, F.Z.; Siah, S.; Ihrai, H.

    2010-01-01

    Summary Le laurier rose ou Nerium oleander est un arbuste qui pousse naturellement dans les régions méditerranéennes. Au Maroc on le trouve dans les lieux humides. Il est réputé par ses risques de toxicité systémique en cas d'empoisonnement à cause de la présence de deux alcaloïdes, surtout l'oléandrine. La littérature illustre des cas d'utilisation locale des feuilles de cette plante contre la gale, les hémorroïdes et les furoncles. Nous rapportons deux cas de brûlures chimiques par le laurier rose de gravité différente. Cela doit aboutir à une information élargie de la population, ainsi qu'une réglementation stricte de sa commercialisation. PMID:21991211

  11. Surface EMG-based Sketching Recognition Using Two Analysis Windows and Gene Expression Programming

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Zhongliang; Chen, Yumiao

    2016-01-01

    Sketching is one of the most important processes in the conceptual stage of design. Previous studies have relied largely on the analyses of sketching process and outcomes; whereas surface electromyographic (sEMG) signals associated with sketching have received little attention. In this study, we propose a method in which 11 basic one-stroke sketching shapes are identified from the sEMG signals generated by the forearm and upper arm muscles from 4 subjects. Time domain features such as integrated electromyography, root mean square and mean absolute value were extracted with analysis windows of two length conditions for pattern recognition. After reducing data dimensionality using principal component analysis, the shapes were classified using Gene Expression Programming (GEP). The performance of the GEP classifier was compared to the Back Propagation neural network (BPNN) and the Elman neural network (ENN). Feature extraction with the short analysis window (250 ms with a 250 ms increment) improved the recognition rate by around 6.4% averagely compared with the long analysis window (2500 ms with a 2500 ms increment). The average recognition rate for the eleven basic one-stroke sketching patterns achieved by the GEP classifier was 96.26% in the training set and 95.62% in the test set, which was superior to the performance of the BPNN and ENN classifiers. The results show that the GEP classifier is able to perform well with either length of the analysis window. Thus, the proposed GEP model show promise for recognizing sketching based on sEMG signals. PMID:27790083

  12. Relationship between Fusarium spp. diversity and mycotoxin contents of mature grains in southern Belgium.

    PubMed

    Hellin, Pierre; Dedeurwaerder, Géraldine; Duvivier, Maxime; Scauflaire, Jonathan; Huybrechts, Bart; Callebaut, Alfons; Munaut, Françoise; Legrève, Anne

    2016-07-01

    Over a 4-year period (2010-13), a survey aiming at determining the occurrence of Fusarium spp. and their relations to mycotoxins in mature grains took place in southern Belgium. The most prevalent species were F. graminearum, F. avenaceum, F. poae and F. culmorum, with large variations between years and locations. An even proportion of mating type found for F. avenaceum, F. culmorum, F. cerealis and F. tricinctum is usually a sign of ongoing sexual recombination. In contrast, an unbalanced proportion of mating type was found for F. poae and no MAT1-2 allele was present in the F. langsethiae population. Genetic chemotyping indicates a majority of deoxynivalenol (DON)-producing strains in F. culmorum (78%, all 3-ADON producers) and F. graminearum (95%, mostly 15-ADON producers), while all F. cerealis strains belong to the nivalenol (NIV) chemotype. Between 2011 and 2013, DON, NIV, enniatins (ENNs) and moniliformin (MON) were found in each field in various concentrations. By comparison, beauvericin (BEA) was scarcely detected and T-2 toxin, zearalenone and α- and β-zearalenols were never detected. Principal component analysis revealed correlations of DON with F. graminearum, ENNs and MON with F. avenaceum and NIV with F. culmorum, F. cerealis and F. poae. BEA was associated with the presence of F. tricinctum and, to a lesser extent, with the presence of F. poae. The use of genetic chemotype data revealed that DON concentrations were mostly influenced by DON-producing strains of F. graminearum and F. culmorum, whereas the concentrations of NIV were influenced by the number of NIV-producing strains of both species added to the number of F. cerealis and F. poae strains. This study emphasises the need to pay attention to less-studied Fusarium spp. for future Fusarium head blight management strategies, as they commonly co-occur in the field and are associated with a broad spectrum of mycotoxins.

  13. PBPK and population modelling to interpret urine cadmium concentrations of the French population

    SciTech Connect

    Béchaux, Camille; Bodin, Laurent; Clémençon, Stéphan; Crépet, Amélie

    2014-09-15

    As cadmium accumulates mainly in kidney, urinary concentrations are considered as relevant data to assess the risk related to cadmium. The French Nutrition and Health Survey (ENNS) recorded the concentration of cadmium in the urine of the French population. However, as with all biomonitoring data, it needs to be linked to external exposure for it to be interpreted in term of sources of exposure and for risk management purposes. The objective of this work is thus to interpret the cadmium biomonitoring data of the French population in terms of dietary and cigarette smoke exposures. Dietary and smoking habits recorded in the ENNS study were combined with contamination levels in food and cigarettes to assess individual exposures. A PBPK model was used in a Bayesian population model to link this external exposure with the measured urinary concentrations. In this model, the level of the past exposure was corrected thanks to a scaling function which account for a trend in the French dietary exposure. It resulted in a modelling which was able to explain the current urinary concentrations measured in the French population through current and past exposure levels. Risk related to cadmium exposure in the general French population was then assessed from external and internal critical values corresponding to kidney effects. The model was also applied to predict the possible urinary concentrations of the French population in 2030 assuming there will be no more changes in the exposures levels. This scenario leads to significantly lower concentrations and consequently lower related risk. - Highlights: • Interpretation of urine cadmium concentrations in France • PBPK and Bayesian population modelling of cadmium exposure • Assessment of the historic time-trend of the cadmium exposure in France • Risk assessment from current and future external and internal exposure.

  14. Surface EMG-based Sketching Recognition Using Two Analysis Windows and Gene Expression Programming.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zhongliang; Chen, Yumiao

    2016-01-01

    Sketching is one of the most important processes in the conceptual stage of design. Previous studies have relied largely on the analyses of sketching process and outcomes; whereas surface electromyographic (sEMG) signals associated with sketching have received little attention. In this study, we propose a method in which 11 basic one-stroke sketching shapes are identified from the sEMG signals generated by the forearm and upper arm muscles from 4 subjects. Time domain features such as integrated electromyography, root mean square and mean absolute value were extracted with analysis windows of two length conditions for pattern recognition. After reducing data dimensionality using principal component analysis, the shapes were classified using Gene Expression Programming (GEP). The performance of the GEP classifier was compared to the Back Propagation neural network (BPNN) and the Elman neural network (ENN). Feature extraction with the short analysis window (250 ms with a 250 ms increment) improved the recognition rate by around 6.4% averagely compared with the long analysis window (2500 ms with a 2500 ms increment). The average recognition rate for the eleven basic one-stroke sketching patterns achieved by the GEP classifier was 96.26% in the training set and 95.62% in the test set, which was superior to the performance of the BPNN and ENN classifiers. The results show that the GEP classifier is able to perform well with either length of the analysis window. Thus, the proposed GEP model show promise for recognizing sketching based on sEMG signals.

  15. Early enteral nutrition after total gastrectomy for gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wei; Zhang, Zheng; Xiong, Maoming; Meng, Xiangling; Dai, Fen; Fang, Jun; Wan, Hong; Wang, Miaofeng

    2014-01-01

    目的:评价胃癌患者全胃切除术后,早期肠内营养(EEN)与全肠外营养 (TPN)的差异。方法:收集2011 年5 月至2013 年5 月我科收治的胃癌全胃 切除患者,术后随机选择EEN 或TPN,对EEN 组和TPN 组患者术前及术后 的营养指标、肝功能、癌症患者营养评估标准(PG-SGA)、术后并发症、住 院时间以及住院费用进行对照研究。结果:符合入选标准的胃癌全胃切除患 者共72 例,其中EEN 组37 例,TPN 组35 例。EEN 组在术后3~5 天低白蛋 白血症逐渐改善,而TPN 组术后21 天才逐渐恢复。EEN 组术后14 天体重较 术前减轻,术后21 天逐渐恢复,而TPN 组在术后21 天内体重无明显恢复 (p<0.05)。两组营养指标有明显统计学差异(p<0.05)。ENN 组和TPN 组 并发症发生率分别为8.1%和25.7%,两组间无明显统计学差异(p>0.05)。 ENN 组住院时间为12.2±2.5 天,TPN 组为14.9±2.9 天(p<0.05),ENN 组和 TPN 组住院费用分别为36472±4833 元人民币和40140±3927 元人民币 (p<0.05)。结论:与TPN 相比,胃癌全胃切除术后选择EEN 安全、患者耐 受性好,并且可以缩短住院时间,减少住院总费用。

  16. Towards the development of innovative multi-mycotoxin reference materials as promising metrological tool for emerging and regulated mycotoxin analyses.

    PubMed

    Tangni, E K; Debongnie, P; Huybrechts, B; Van Hove, F; Callebaut, A

    2017-02-01

    The interest in LC-MS/MS multi-mycotoxin methods unveiled an urgent need for multi-mycotoxin reference material. A multi-fusariotoxin, including deoxynivalenol (DON); zearalenone (ZEN); T-2 toxin (T-2); HT-2 toxin (HT-2); enniatin A, A1, B, and B1 (ENNs); and beauvericin (BEA), contaminated wheat flour was obtained by inoculation Fusarium spp. strains. The candidate material has successfully passed the homogeneity test and submitted to an international interlaboratory study achieved by 19 laboratories from 11 countries using their routine analytical method. The dispersion of the results for ZEN and BEA did not allow the derivation of reliable consensus values, while the assignment was only possible for DON, HT-2, T-2, and ENN A. No link was found between the methods used by the participants and the results. Significant changes in dry matter contents (≥±1.4 % of the initial dry matter) and significant changes in ergosterol contents (≥±10 %) did not occur. Using the mycotoxin contents in wheat flour stored at -80 °C as reference values, statistically significant decreases were observed only for T-2 contents at +24 °C, in contrast to the storage at -20 and +4 °C. For the other involved toxins, the candidate material was found to be stable at -20, +4, or +24 °C. Based on the T-2 decreases, a shelf life of 6 years was derived from isochronous study when the material is kept at -20 °C. At room temperature (e.g., +24 °C) or higher, this time validity drastically decreases down to 6 months. The development of this metrological tool is an important step towards food and feed quality control using multi-mycotoxin analyses. In vivo animal experiments using multi-mycotoxin-contaminated feeds dealing with the carryover or mitigation could further benefit from the methodology of this work.

  17. Fluvial terrace gravels of the "Hochterrasse" (N-Alpine Foreland, Austria): luminescence characteristics of quartz and feldspar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bickel, L.; Lomax, J.; Fiebig, M.

    2012-04-01

    The Northern Alpine Foreland has played a major role in the investigation of glacial and furthermore paleo-climatic events. It was at the beginning of the 20th century, when Albrecht Penck developed the idea of four big alpine glaciations which extended into the alpine foreland. He developed the model of the glacial series in which he correlated terminal moraines with distinguishable terrace bodies. In the case of the fluvial sediments of the Hochterrasse (correlated with marine isotope stage (MIS) 6 in Austrian geological maps) the existence of numerical ages in the Austrian Alpine Foreland is sparse. This study is aimed at shedding light on the luminescence properties of quartz and feldspar derived from Hochterrasse systems in foreland valleys (Traun, Enns and Ybbs valley) so far attributed to the penultimate glaciation. Coarse grain (100-200 µm) K-feldspar and quartz are analyzed by Infrared stimulated luminescence (IRSL), post-Infrared Infrared stimulated luminescence (pIRIR) and optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) methods. One of the issues that arise when dating glaciofluvial quartz from this area is the apparent underestimation of the quartz ages which can vary up to 50% from the calculated IRSL ages. Linearly modulated OSL shows a big contribution of thermally unstable components to the overall equivalent dose (De) which can add to the general underestimation of quartz. Also the measurement of feldspar aliquots is anything but trivial. Luminescence signal intensities are very viable for the samples from the Enns and Traun valley. The samples derived from the Ybbs valley in contrast show very low feldspar signal intensities on most aliquots. Thermal transfer has shown to have negligible impact on the overall paleodose for the feldspar samples (maximum 1% of the paleodose attributed to thermal transfer). In contrast anomalous fading seems to be affecting all feldspar samples. However an assessment of the amount of signal loss in time is difficult to

  18. An Intelligent Ensemble Neural Network Model for Wind Speed Prediction in Renewable Energy Systems.

    PubMed

    Ranganayaki, V; Deepa, S N

    2016-01-01

    Various criteria are proposed to select the number of hidden neurons in artificial neural network (ANN) models and based on the criterion evolved an intelligent ensemble neural network model is proposed to predict wind speed in renewable energy applications. The intelligent ensemble neural model based wind speed forecasting is designed by averaging the forecasted values from multiple neural network models which includes multilayer perceptron (MLP), multilayer adaptive linear neuron (Madaline), back propagation neural network (BPN), and probabilistic neural network (PNN) so as to obtain better accuracy in wind speed prediction with minimum error. The random selection of hidden neurons numbers in artificial neural network results in overfitting or underfitting problem. This paper aims to avoid the occurrence of overfitting and underfitting problems. The selection of number of hidden neurons is done in this paper employing 102 criteria; these evolved criteria are verified by the computed various error values. The proposed criteria for fixing hidden neurons are validated employing the convergence theorem. The proposed intelligent ensemble neural model is applied for wind speed prediction application considering the real time wind data collected from the nearby locations. The obtained simulation results substantiate that the proposed ensemble model reduces the error value to minimum and enhances the accuracy. The computed results prove the effectiveness of the proposed ensemble neural network (ENN) model with respect to the considered error factors in comparison with that of the earlier models available in the literature.

  19. Measuring unconscious cognition: Beyond the zero-awareness criterion

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    Visual masking can be employed to manipulate observers’ awareness of critical stimuli in studies of masked priming. This paper discusses two different lines of attack for establishing unconscious cognition in such experiments. Firstly, simple dissociations between direct measures (D) of visual awareness and indirect measures (I) of processing per se occur when I has some nonzero value while D is at chance level; the traditional requirement of zero awareness is necessary for this criterion only. In contrast, double dissociations occur when some experimental manipulation has opposite effects on I and D, for instance, increasing priming effects despite decreasing prime identification performance (Schmidt & Vorberg, 2006). Double dissociations require much weaker measurement assumptions than other criteria. An attractive alternative to this dissociation approach would be to use tasks that are known to violate necessary conditions of visual awareness altogether. In particular, it is argued here that priming effects in speeded pointing movements (Schmidt, Niehaus, & Nagel, 2006) occur in the absence of the recurrent processing that is often assumed to be a necessary condition for awareness (for instance, DiLollo, Enns, & Rensink, 2000; Lamme & Roelfsema, 2000). Feedforward tasks such as this might thus be used to measure the time-course of unconscious processing directly, before intracortical feedback and awareness come into play. PMID:20517514

  20. LPI Radar Waveform Recognition Based on Time-Frequency Distribution.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ming; Liu, Lutao; Diao, Ming

    2016-10-12

    In this paper, an automatic radar waveform recognition system in a high noise environment is proposed. Signal waveform recognition techniques are widely applied in the field of cognitive radio, spectrum management and radar applications, etc. We devise a system to classify the modulating signals widely used in low probability of intercept (LPI) radar detection systems. The radar signals are divided into eight types of classifications, including linear frequency modulation (LFM), BPSK (Barker code modulation), Costas codes and polyphase codes (comprising Frank, P1, P2, P3 and P4). The classifier is Elman neural network (ENN), and it is a supervised classification based on features extracted from the system. Through the techniques of image filtering, image opening operation, skeleton extraction, principal component analysis (PCA), image binarization algorithm and Pseudo-Zernike moments, etc., the features are extracted from the Choi-Williams time-frequency distribution (CWD) image of the received data. In order to reduce the redundant features and simplify calculation, the features selection algorithm based on mutual information between classes and features vectors are applied. The superiority of the proposed classification system is demonstrated by the simulations and analysis. Simulation results show that the overall ratio of successful recognition (RSR) is 94.7% at signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of -2 dB.

  1. Sources et impacts potentiels des micropolluants chimiques sur un écosystème littoral exploité: l'exemple des côtes des Charente-Maritime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miramand, P.; Guyot, T.; Pigeot, J.

    2003-06-01

    Le littoral picto-charentais est une zone à fortes activités économiques liées à l'aquaculture, à la pêche et au tourisme. Toutes ces activités demandent une très bonne qualité des eaux et de l'environnement en général. Or, cette zone littorale est soumise à de nombreux apports de micropolluants: métaux lourds, phytosanitaires, hydrocarbures, organochlorés.... Les sources en sont nombreuses: apports fluviatiles et atmosphériques, rejets diffus et rejets directs. Les risques dus à cette pollution sont multiples que ce soit au niveau dcs organismes, au niveau des écosystèmes ou des consommateurs. De ce fait, les contaminants majeurs (métaux lourds, organochlorés. hydrocarbures aromatiques polycycliques) et leurs impacts éventuels sur les écosystèmes font l'objet de veille environnementale (réseaux de surveillance ou d'observatoires de l'environnement) et de mesures de prévention se traduisant par la définition de normes de rejets ou de contamination décidées à l'échelle européenne.

  2. Success Stories in Control: Nonlinear Dynamic Inversion Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bosworth, John T.

    2010-01-01

    NASA plays an important role in advancing the state of the art in flight control systems. In the case of Nonlinear Dynamic Inversion (NDI) NASA supported initial implementation of the theory in an aircraft and demonstration in a space vehicle. Dr. Dale Enns of Honeywell Aerospace Advanced Technology performed this work in cooperation with NASA and under NASA contract. Honeywell and Lockheed Martin were subsequently contracted by AFRL to create "Design Guidelines for Multivariable Control Theory". This foundational work directly contributed to the advancement of the technology and the credibility of the control law as a design option. As a result Honeywell collaborated with Lockheed Martin to produce a Nonlinear Dynamic Inversion controller for the X-35 and subsequently Lockheed Martin did the same for the production Lockheed Martin F-35 vehicle. The theory behind NDI is to use a systematic generalized approach to controlling a vehicle. Using general aircraft nonlinear equations of motion and onboard aerodynamic, mass properties, and engine models specific to the vehicle, a relationship between control effectors and desired aircraft motion can be formulated. Using this formulation a control combination is used that provides a predictable response to commanded motion. Control loops around this formulation shape the response as desired and provide robustness to modeling errors. Once the control law is designed it can be used on a similar class of vehicle with only an update to the vehicle specific onboard models.

  3. An Intelligent Ensemble Neural Network Model for Wind Speed Prediction in Renewable Energy Systems

    PubMed Central

    Ranganayaki, V.; Deepa, S. N.

    2016-01-01

    Various criteria are proposed to select the number of hidden neurons in artificial neural network (ANN) models and based on the criterion evolved an intelligent ensemble neural network model is proposed to predict wind speed in renewable energy applications. The intelligent ensemble neural model based wind speed forecasting is designed by averaging the forecasted values from multiple neural network models which includes multilayer perceptron (MLP), multilayer adaptive linear neuron (Madaline), back propagation neural network (BPN), and probabilistic neural network (PNN) so as to obtain better accuracy in wind speed prediction with minimum error. The random selection of hidden neurons numbers in artificial neural network results in overfitting or underfitting problem. This paper aims to avoid the occurrence of overfitting and underfitting problems. The selection of number of hidden neurons is done in this paper employing 102 criteria; these evolved criteria are verified by the computed various error values. The proposed criteria for fixing hidden neurons are validated employing the convergence theorem. The proposed intelligent ensemble neural model is applied for wind speed prediction application considering the real time wind data collected from the nearby locations. The obtained simulation results substantiate that the proposed ensemble model reduces the error value to minimum and enhances the accuracy. The computed results prove the effectiveness of the proposed ensemble neural network (ENN) model with respect to the considered error factors in comparison with that of the earlier models available in the literature. PMID:27034973

  4. Astronomical Books and Charts in the Book of Bibliographie Coreenne

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Ki-Won; Yang, Hong-Jin; Park, Myeong-Gu

    2008-06-01

    We investigate astronomical materials listed in the book of Bibliographie Coréenne written by Maurice Courant. He classified ancient Korean books into nine Divisions (?) and thirty six Classes (?), and published them as three volumes (ranging from 1894 to 1896) and one supplement (in 1901). In total, 3,821 books including astronomical ones are listed together with information on physical size, possessional place, bibliographical note, and so forth. Although this book is an essential one in the field of Korea bibliography and contains many astronomical materials such as Cheon-Mun-Ryu-Cho ????, Si-Heon-Seo ??????, and Cheon-Sang-Yeol-Cha-Bun-Ya-Ji-Do ????????, it has not been well known to the public nor to astronomical society. Of 3,821 catalogues, we found that about 50 Items (?) are related to astronomy or astrology, and verified that most ! of them are located in the Kyujanggak Royal Library ???. We also found an unknown astronomical chart, Hon-Cheon-Chong-Seong-Yeol-Cha-Bun-Ya-Ji-Do ??????????. Because those astronomical materials are not well known to international astronomical community and there have been few studies on the materials in Korea, we here introduce and review them, particularly with the astronomical viewpoint.

  5. Maladie de kaposi classique avec atteinte surrénalienne: un nouveau cas

    PubMed Central

    Bouzidi, Hanae; Gallouj, Salim; Krich, Sanae; Mernissi, Fatima Zahra

    2014-01-01

    La maladie de kaposi est une pathologie connue généralement dans sa forme épidémique associée au sida ou celle endémique présente dans l'Afrique subsaharienne. La forme classique de cette maladie ou dite également méditerranéenne n'est pas bien connue étant assez rare. Elle touche les hommes âgés HIV séronégatifs originaires de l'Europe centrale, l'Europe de l'Est et les méditerranéens. Elle se manifeste essentiellement par une atteinte cutanée, éventuellement muqueuse mais l'atteinte viscérale reste moins fréquente, dominée par l'atteinte osseuse, pulmonaire et gastrique. La localisation surrénalienne est inhabituelle et très rare. Nous rapportons ce nouveau cas pour mettre le point sur cette pathologie rare et signaler cette localisation atypique. PMID:25170378

  6. Two Invaders Instead of One: The True Identity of Species under the Name Ceracis cucullatus (Coleoptera: Ciidae)

    PubMed Central

    Antunes-Carvalho, Caio; Lopes-Andrade, Cristiano

    2013-01-01

    The Neotropical obligate fungivorous beetle Ceracis cucullatus (Mellié) has attracted attention of coleopterists due to the increasing number of records of populations in Africa. Although its disjunct populations have been interpreted as a cohesive taxonomic unity, previous comparisons between African and Neotropical specimens revealed differences in their external morphology, causing uncertainty about the true unity of the species. Here, we compare the external morphology of specimens named Cer. cucullatus from several localities of the Neotropical, Palearctic, Afrotropical, Afrotemperate and Oriental regions. As results, we reverse three previous junior synonymies of Cer. cucullatus, proposing Cer. lamellatus (Pic) and Cer. tabellifer (Mellié), both reinstated status and new combinations, as separate species. We also propose Enn. bilamellatum Pic as a new synonym of Cer. tabellifer. In face of these taxonomic changes, we identify Cer. tabellifer as the actual invasive species on African lands, instead of Cer. cucullatus as was previously accepted. Then, through historical records gathered from scientific collections and literature, and through examination of recently collected specimens from South Africa and Brazil, we provide data on host fungi and geographic distribution of Cer. tabellifer. Based on these data, we discuss possible explanations to the successful invasion of Cer. tabellifer in Africa and elsewhere and its potential threat to native faunas of ciids. This study helps to fulfil an old gap in the literature on biological invasions, with considerably more studies on predatory species, disease vectors or potential pests of agricultural crops, than on non-pest fungivorous organisms. PMID:24015233

  7. Limited Awareness of the Essences of Certification or Compliance Markings on Medical Devices.

    PubMed

    Foo, Jong Yong Abdiel; Tan, Xin Ji Alan

    2016-11-28

    Medical devices have been long used for odiagnostic, therapeutic or rehabilitation purposes. Currently, they can range from a low-cost portable device that is often used for personal health monitoring to high-end sophisticated equipment that can only be operated by trained professionals. Depending on the functional purposes, there are different certification or compliance markings on the device when it is sold. One common certification marking is the Conformité Européenne affixation but this has a range of certification mark numbering for a variety of functional purposes. While the regulators and medical device manufacturers understand the associated significance and clinical implications, these may not be apparent to the professionals (using or maintaining the device) and the general public. With portable healthcare devices and mobile applications gaining popularity, better awareness of certification marking will be needed. Particularly, there are differences in the allowed functional purposes and the associated cost derivations of devices with a seemingly similar nature. A preferred approach such as an easy-to-understand notation next to any certification marking on a device can aid in differentiation without the need to digest mountainous regulatory details.

  8. Gap Shape Classification using Landscape Indices and Multivariate Statistics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Chih-Da; Cheng, Chi-Chuan; Chang, Che-Chang; Lin, Chinsu; Chang, Kun-Cheng; Chuang, Yung-Chung

    2016-11-01

    This study proposed a novel methodology to classify the shape of gaps using landscape indices and multivariate statistics. Patch-level indices were used to collect the qualified shape and spatial configuration characteristics for canopy gaps in the Lienhuachih Experimental Forest in Taiwan in 1998 and 2002. Non-hierarchical cluster analysis was used to assess the optimal number of gap clusters and canonical discriminant analysis was used to generate the discriminant functions for canopy gap classification. The gaps for the two periods were optimally classified into three categories. In general, gap type 1 had a more complex shape, gap type 2 was more elongated and gap type 3 had the largest gaps that were more regular in shape. The results were evaluated using Wilks’ lambda as satisfactory (p < 0.001). The agreement rate of confusion matrices exceeded 96%. Differences in gap characteristics between the classified gap types that were determined using a one-way ANOVA showed a statistical significance in all patch indices (p = 0.00), except for the Euclidean nearest neighbor distance (ENN) in 2002. Taken together, these results demonstrated the feasibility and applicability of the proposed methodology to classify the shape of a gap.

  9. Advanced tools for astronomical time series and image analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scargle, Jeffrey D.

    The algorithms described here, which I have developed for applications in X-ray and γ-ray astronomy, will hopefully be of use in other ways, perhaps aiding in the exploration of modern astronomy's data cornucopia. The goal is to describe principled approaches to some ubiquitous problems, such as detection and characterization of periodic and aperiodic signals, estimation of time delays between multiple time series, and source detection in noisy images with noisy backgrounds. The latter problem is related to detection of clusters in data spaces of various dimensions. A goal of this work is to achieve a unifying view of several related topics: signal detection and characterization, cluster identification, classification, density estimation, and multivariate regression. In addition to being useful for analysis of data from space-based and ground-based missions, these algorithms may be a basis for a future automatic science discovery facility, and in turn provide analysis tools for the Virtual Observatory. This chapter has ties to those by Larry Bretthorst, Tom Loredo, Alanna Connors, Fionn Murtagh, Jim Berger, David van Dyk, Vicent Martinez & Enn Saar.

  10. Newer-generation ventricular assist devices.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Shvetank; High, Kane M

    2012-06-01

    The latest generation of ventricular assist devices has evolved from the pulsatile, volume-displacement pumps of the 1990s to today's non-pulsatile, constant pressure-generating rotary pumps. These pumps include both centrifugal and axial flow devices that are currently being used or are in advanced development. Rotary pumps have the advantage of a much longer and more reliable duty life than pulsatile pumps. They are also considerably smaller than pulsatile pumps, requiring less invasive surgery for implantation and smaller transcutaneous (electrical rather than pneumatic) drivelines. Most of these devices have been approved as a bridge to transplant (BTT) while some are currently in trials for destination therapy (DT) in Europe (Conformité Européenne (CE) mark) or the United States (Food and Drug Administration (FDA)). This article discusses the current generation of pumps, examining particular design features as highlighted by the designers as well as the current approval status of each device in the United States and Europe.

  11. LPI Radar Waveform Recognition Based on Time-Frequency Distribution

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ming; Liu, Lutao; Diao, Ming

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, an automatic radar waveform recognition system in a high noise environment is proposed. Signal waveform recognition techniques are widely applied in the field of cognitive radio, spectrum management and radar applications, etc. We devise a system to classify the modulating signals widely used in low probability of intercept (LPI) radar detection systems. The radar signals are divided into eight types of classifications, including linear frequency modulation (LFM), BPSK (Barker code modulation), Costas codes and polyphase codes (comprising Frank, P1, P2, P3 and P4). The classifier is Elman neural network (ENN), and it is a supervised classification based on features extracted from the system. Through the techniques of image filtering, image opening operation, skeleton extraction, principal component analysis (PCA), image binarization algorithm and Pseudo–Zernike moments, etc., the features are extracted from the Choi–Williams time-frequency distribution (CWD) image of the received data. In order to reduce the redundant features and simplify calculation, the features selection algorithm based on mutual information between classes and features vectors are applied. The superiority of the proposed classification system is demonstrated by the simulations and analysis. Simulation results show that the overall ratio of successful recognition (RSR) is 94.7% at signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of −2 dB. PMID:27754325

  12. The measurement error analysis when a pitot probe is used in supersonic air flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, XiWen; Hao, PengFei; Yao, ZhaoHui

    2011-04-01

    Pitot probes enable a simple and convenient way of measuring mean velocity in air flow. The contrastive numerical simulation between free supersonic airflow and pitot tube at different positions in supersonic air flow was performed using Navier-Stokes equations, the ENN scheme with time-dependent boundary conditions (TDBC) and the Spalart-Allmaras turbulence model. The physical experimental results including pitot pressure and shadowgraph are also presented. Numerical results coincide with the experimental data. The flow characteristics of the pitot probe on the supersonic flow structure show that the measurement gives actually the total pressure behind the detached shock wave by using the pitot probe to measure the total pressure. The measurement result of the distribution of the total pressure can still represent the real free jet flow. The similar features of the intersection and reflection of shock waves can be identified. The difference between the measurement results and the actual ones is smaller than 10%. When the pitot probe is used to measure the region of L=0-4 D, the measurement is smaller than the real one due to the increase of the shock wave strength. The difference becomes larger where the waves intersect. If the pitot probe is put at L=8 D-10 D, where the flow changes from supersonic to subsonic, the addition of the pitot probe turns the original supersonic flow region subsonic and causes bigger measurement errors.

  13. Attentional gating models of object substitution masking.

    PubMed

    Põder, Endel

    2013-11-01

    Di Lollo, Enns, and Rensink (2000) proposed the computational model of object substitution (CMOS) to explain their experimental results with sparse visual maskers. This model supposedly is based on reentrant hypotheses testing in the visual system, and the modeled experiments are believed to demonstrate these reentrant processes in human vision. In this study, I analyze the main assumptions of this model. I argue that CMOS is a version of the attentional gating model and that its relationship with reentrant processing is rather illusory. The fit of this model to the data indicates that reentrant hypotheses testing is not necessary for the explanation of object substitution masking (OSM). Further, the original CMOS cannot predict some important aspects of the experimental data. I test 2 new models incorporating an unselective processing (divided attention) stage; these models are more consistent with data from OSM experiments. My modeling shows that the apparent complexity of OSM can be reduced to a few simple and well-known mechanisms of perception and memory.

  14. Single string based global optimizer for geometry optimization in strongly coupled finite clusters: An adaptive mutation-driven strategy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarkar, Kanchan; Bhattacharyya, S. P.

    2013-08-01

    We propose and implement a simple adaptive heuristic to optimize the geometries of clusters of point charges or ions with the ability to find the global minimum energy configurations. The approach uses random mutations of a single string encoding the geometry and accepts moves that decrease the energy. Mutation probability and mutation intensity are allowed to evolve adaptively on the basis of continuous evaluation of past explorations. The resulting algorithm has been called Completely Adaptive Random Mutation Hill Climbing method. We have implemented this method to search through the complex potential energy landscapes of parabolically confined 3D classical Coulomb clusters of hundreds or thousands of charges—usually found in high frequency discharge plasmas. The energy per particle (EN/N) and its first and second differences, structural features, distribution of the oscillation frequencies of normal modes, etc., are analyzed as functions of confinement strength and the number of charges in the system. Certain magic numbers are identified. In order to test the feasibility of the algorithm in cluster geometry optimization on more complex energy landscapes, we have applied the algorithm for optimizing the geometries of MgO clusters, described by Coulomb-Born-Mayer potential and finding global minimum of some Lennard-Jones clusters. The convergence behavior of the algorithm compares favorably with those of other existing global optimizers.

  15. l- and n-changing collisions during interaction of a pulsed beam of Li Rydberg atoms with CO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dubreuil, B.; Harnafi, M.

    1989-07-01

    The pulsed Li atomic beam produced in our experiment is based on controlled transversely-excited-atmospheric CO2 laser-induced ablation of a Li metal target. The atomic beam is propagated in vacuum or in CO2 gas at low pressure. Atoms in the beam are probed by laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy. This allows the determination of time-of-flight and velocity distributions. Li Rydberg states (n=5-13) are populated in the beam by two-step pulsed-laser excitation. The excited atoms interact with CO2 molecules. l- and n-changing cross sections are deduced from the time evolution of the resonant or collision-induced fluorescence following this selective excitation. l-changing cross sections of the order of 104 AṦ are measured; they increase with n as opposed to the plateau observed for Li* colliding with a diatomic molecule. This behavior is qualitatively well explained in the framework of the free-electron model. n-->n' changing processes with large cross sections (10-100 AṦ) are also observed even in the case of large electronic energy change (ΔEnn'>103 cm-1). These results can be interpreted in terms of resonant-electronic to vibrational energy transfers between Li Rydberg states and CO2 vibrational modes.

  16. Gap Shape Classification using Landscape Indices and Multivariate Statistics

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Chih-Da; Cheng, Chi-Chuan; Chang, Che-Chang; Lin, Chinsu; Chang, Kun-Cheng; Chuang, Yung-Chung

    2016-01-01

    This study proposed a novel methodology to classify the shape of gaps using landscape indices and multivariate statistics. Patch-level indices were used to collect the qualified shape and spatial configuration characteristics for canopy gaps in the Lienhuachih Experimental Forest in Taiwan in 1998 and 2002. Non-hierarchical cluster analysis was used to assess the optimal number of gap clusters and canonical discriminant analysis was used to generate the discriminant functions for canopy gap classification. The gaps for the two periods were optimally classified into three categories. In general, gap type 1 had a more complex shape, gap type 2 was more elongated and gap type 3 had the largest gaps that were more regular in shape. The results were evaluated using Wilks’ lambda as satisfactory (p < 0.001). The agreement rate of confusion matrices exceeded 96%. Differences in gap characteristics between the classified gap types that were determined using a one-way ANOVA showed a statistical significance in all patch indices (p = 0.00), except for the Euclidean nearest neighbor distance (ENN) in 2002. Taken together, these results demonstrated the feasibility and applicability of the proposed methodology to classify the shape of a gap. PMID:27901127

  17. The investigation of an amidine-based additive in the perovskite films and solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Guanhaojie; Li, Liang; Wang, Ligang; Gao, Xingyu; Zhou, Huanping

    2017-01-01

    Here, we introduced acetamidine (C2H3N2H3, Aa)-based salt as an additive in the fabrication of perovskite (CH3NH3PbI3) layer for perovskite solar cells. It was found that as an amidine-based salt, this additive successfully enhanced the crystallinity of CH3NH3PbI3 and helped to form smooth and uniform films with comparable grain size and full coverage. Besides, perovskite film with additive showed a much longer carrier lifetime and an obviously enhanced open-circuit voltage in the corresponding devices, indicating that the acetamidine-based salt can reduce the carrier recombination in both the film and device. We further demonstrate a promising perovskite device based on acetamidine salt by using a configuration of ITO/TiO2/Perovskite/Spiro-OMeTAD/Au under < 150 °C fabrication condition. A power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 16.54% was achieved, which is much higher than the control device without acetamidine salt. These results present a simple method for film quality optimization of perovskite to further improve photovoltaic performances of perovskite solar cells, which may also benefit the exploration of A cation in perovskite materials. Project supported by Young Talent Thousand Program and ENN Group.

  18. La chirurgie réfractive de la cataracte: des technologies novatrices élargissent les choix des patients canadiens.

    PubMed

    Potvin, Richard

    2016-11-01

    La chirurgie de la cataracte a toujours consisté à extraire le cristallin opacifié de l'œil pour le remplacer par une lentille artificielle. Cette intervention rend la vision du patient plus nette, sans pour autant corriger l'erreur de réfraction, c'est-à-dire la nécessité de porter des lunettes ou des lentilles cornéennes après l'opération. Les instruments diagnostiques et chirurgicaux modernes permettent désormais de corriger ces erreurs de réfraction au moment de l'opération, ce qui a fait émerger une nouvelle notion, celle de la chirurgie réfractive de la cataracte. Même si cette correction n'est pas nécessaire sur le plan médical, de nombreux patients se réjouissent de la possibilité de ne plus porter de lunettes ou d'en porter moins après l'opération, même s'ils doivent engager des frais.

  19. [Applicability of traditional landscape metrics in evaluating urban heat island effect].

    PubMed

    Chen, Ai-Lian; Sun, Ran-Hao; Chen, Li-Ding

    2012-08-01

    By using 24 landscape metrics, this paper evaluated the urban heat island effect in parts of Beijing downtown area. QuickBird (QB) images were used to extract the landscape type information, and the thermal bands from Landsat Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) images were used to extract the land surface temperature (LST) in four seasons of the same year. The 24 landscape pattern metrics were calculated at landscape and class levels in a fixed window with 120 mx 120 m in size, with the applicability of these traditional landscape metrics in evaluating the urban heat island effect examined. Among the 24 landscape metrics, only the percentage composition of landscape (PLAND), patch density (PD), largest patch index (LPI), coefficient of Euclidean nearest-neighbor distance variance (ENN_CV), and landscape division index (DIVISION) at landscape level were significantly correlated with the LST in March, May, and November, and the PLAND, LPI, DIVISION, percentage of like adjacencies, and interspersion and juxtaposition index at class level showed significant correlations with the LST in March, May, July, and December, especially in July. Some metrics such as PD, edge density, clumpiness index, patch cohesion index, effective mesh size, splitting index, aggregation index, and normalized landscape shape index showed varying correlations with the LST at different class levels. The traditional landscape metrics could not be appropriate in evaluating the effects of river on LST, while some of the metrics could be useful in characterizing urban LST and analyzing the urban heat island effect, but screening and examining should be made on the metrics.

  20. Pregnancy Requires Major Changes in the Quality of the Diet for Nutritional Adequacy: Simulations in the French and the United States Populations

    PubMed Central

    Bianchi, Clélia M.; Mariotti, François; Verger, Eric O.; Huneau, Jean-François

    2016-01-01

    Background Maternal nutrition is critical to the health of both mother and offspring, but there is a paucity of data on the nutritional adequacy of diets during pregnancy. Objective Our objective was to identify to what extent pregnancy reduces the nutritional adequacy of the expecting mother’s diet and if this nutritional gap can be resolved by simple quantitative or qualitative changes in the diet. Materials and Methods We evaluated the observed overall nutritional adequacy of diets of French and American women of childbearing age participating in ENNS (n = 344) and NHANES (n = 563) using the probabilistic approach of the PANDiet system, resulting in a 100-point score. Then, we simulated the changes in the PANDiet scores of women of childbearing age who would remain on their diet during pregnancy. Finally, by either increasing the quantity of consumed foods or using eleven snacks recommended during pregnancy, we simulated the effect of a 150-kcal increase in the energy intake of French women. Results Observed PANDiet scores were equal to 59.3 ± 7.0 and 58.8 ± 9.3 points respectively in France and in the US. Simulation of pregnancy for women of childbearing age led to a decrease in nutritional adequacy for key nutrients during pregnancy and resulted in reducing PANDiet scores by 3.3 ± 0.1 and 3.7 ± 0.1 points in France and in the US. Simulated 150-kcal increases in energy intake proved to be only partially effective in filling the gap both when the quantity of food consumed was increased and when recommended snacks were used. Conclusions The decrease in nutritional adequacy induced by pregnancy cannot be addressed by simply following generic dietary guidelines. PMID:26959492

  1. Updated survey of Fusarium species and toxins in Finnish cereal grains.

    PubMed

    Hietaniemi, Veli; Rämö, Sari; Yli-Mattila, Tapani; Jestoi, Marika; Peltonen, Sari; Kartio, Mirja; Sieviläinen, Elina; Koivisto, Tauno; Parikka, Päivi

    2016-05-01

    The aim of the project was to produce updated information during 2005-14 on the Fusarium species found in Finnish cereal grains, and the toxins produced by them, as the last comprehensive survey study of Fusarium species and their toxins in Finland was carried out at the turn of the 1960s and the 1970s. Another aim was to use the latest molecular and chemical methods to investigate the occurrence and correlation of Fusarium species and their mycotoxins in Finland. The most common Fusarium species found in Finland in the FinMyco project 2005 and 2006 were F. avenaceum, F. culmorum, F. graminearum, F. poae, F. sporotrichioides and F. langsethiae. F. avenaceum was the most dominant species in barley, spring wheat and oat samples. The occurrence of F. culmorum and F. graminearum was high in oats and barley. Infection by Fusarium fungi was the lowest in winter cereal grains. The incidence of Fusarium species in 2005 was much higher than in 2006 due to weather conditions. F. langsethiae has become much more common in Finland since 2001. F. graminearum has also risen in the order of importance. A highly significant correlation was found between Fusarium graminearum DNA and deoxynivalenol (DON) levels in Finnish oats, barley and wheat. When comparing the FinMyco data in 2005-06 with the results of the Finnish safety monitoring programme for 2005-14, spring cereals were noted as being more susceptible to infection by Fusarium fungi and the formation of toxins. The contents of T-2 and HT-2 toxins and the frequency of exceptionally high DON concentrations all increased in Finland during 2005-14. Beauvericin (BEA), enniatins (ENNs) and moniliformin (MON) were also very common contaminants of Finnish grains in 2005-06. Climate change is leading to warmer weather, and this may indicate more changes in Finnish Fusarium mycobiota and toxin contents and profiles in the near future.

  2. Distributed precipitation corrections in Alpine areas for a real-time flood forecasting system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herrnegger, Mathew; Senoner, Tobias; Nachtnebel, Hans-Peter

    2014-05-01

    This contribution presents a method for estimating spatial and temporal distributed precipitation correction factors. The approach is applied for a flood forecasting model in the Upper Enns and Upper Mur catchments in the Central Austrian Alps. Precipitation exhibits a large spatio-temporal variability in Alpine areas. Additionally the density of the monitoring network is low and measurements are subjected to major errors. This can lead to significant deficits in stream flow simulations, e.g. for flood forecasting models. Therefore precipitation correction factors are frequently applied. These correction factors are however mostly applied for whole catchments in a lumped manor, neglecting, that the magnitude of precipitation errors are spatially distributed. For the presented study a multiplicative linear correction model is therefore implemented, which enables a distribution of the correction factors as a function of elevation. The applied rainfall-runoff model COSERO is set up with a spatial resolution of 1x1km2. The correction of the rainfall pattern is thereby applied for every grid cell. To account for the local meteorological conditions, the correction model is derived for two elevation zones: (1) Valley floors to 2000 m a.s.l. and (2) above 2000 m a.s.l. to mountain peaks. Measurement errors also depend on the precipitation type, with higher magnitudes in winter months during snow fall. Therefore additionally separate correction factors for winter and summer months are estimated. The parameters for the correction model are estimated for every catchment based on independent station observations and observed and simulated runoff of the conceptual rainfall-runoff model. As driving input the INCA-precipitation fields of the Austrian Central Institute for Meteorology and Geodynamics (ZAMG) are used. Due to the mentioned errors, these precipitation fields are corrected according to the described method. The results show a significant improvement of the simulated

  3. Task difficulty, risk, effort and comfort in a simulated driving task--Implications for Risk Allostasis Theory.

    PubMed

    Lewis-Evans, Ben; Rothengatter, Talib

    2009-09-01

    Risk Allostasis Theory states that drivers seek to maintain a feeling of risk within a preferred range [Fuller, R., 2008. What drives the driver? Surface tensions and hidden consensus. In: Keynote at the 4th International Conference on Traffic and Transport Psychology, Washington, DC, August 31-September 4, 2008]. Risk Allostasis Theory is the latest version of Task-Difficulty Homeostasis theory, and is in part based on the findings of experiments where participants were asked to rate the task difficulty, feeling of risk and chance of collision of scenes shown in digitally altered video clips [Fuller, R., McHugh, C., Pender, S., 2008b. Task difficulty and risk in the determination of driver behaviour. Revue européenne de psychologie appliqée 58, 13-21]. The focus of the current research was to expand upon the previous video based experiments using a driving simulator. This allowed participants to be in control of the vehicle rather than acting as passive observers, as well as providing additional speed cues. The results support previous findings that ratings of task difficulty and feeling of risk are related, and that they are also highly related to ratings of effort and moderately related to ratings of comfort and habit. However, the linearly increasing trend for task difficulty and feeling of risk described by the previous research was not observed: instead the findings of this experiment support a threshold effect where ratings of risk (feeling of and chance of loss of control/collision), difficulty, effort, and comfort go through a period of stability and only start to increase once a certain threshold has been crossed. It is within the period of stability where subjective experience of risk and difficulty is low, or absent, that drivers generally prefer to operate.

  4. Contemporary formulation and distribution practices for cold-filled acid products: Australian industry survey and modeling of published pathogen inactivation data.

    PubMed

    Chapman, B; Scurrah, K J; Ross, T

    2010-05-01

    A survey of 12 Australian manufacturers indicated that mild-tasting acids and preservatives are used to partially replace acetic acid in cold-filled acid dressings and sauces. In contrast to traditional ambient temperature distribution practices, some manufacturers indicated that they supply the food service sector with cold-filled acid products prechilled for incorporation into ready-to-eat foods. The Comité des Industries des Mayonnaises et Sauces Condimentaires de la Communauté Economique Européenne (CIMSCEE) Code, a formulation guideline used by the industry to predict the safety of cold-filled acid formulations with respect to Salmonella enterica and Escherichia coli, does not extend to the use of acids and preservatives other than acetic acid nor does it consider the effects of chill distribution. We found insufficient data in the published literature to comprehensively model the response of S. enterica and E. coli to all of the predictor variables (i.e., pH, acetic acid, NaCl, sugars, other acids, preservatives, and storage temperature) of relevance for contemporary cold-filled acid products in Australia. In particular, we noted a lack of inactivation data for S. enterica at aqueous-phase NaCl concentrations of >3% (wt/wt). However, our simple models clearly identified pH and 1/absolute temperature of storage as the most important variables generally determining inactivation. To develop robust models to predict the effect of contemporary formulation and storage variables on product safety, additional empirical data are required. Until such models are available, our results support challenge testing of cold-filled acid products to ascertain their safety, as suggested by the CIMSCEE, but suggest consideration of challenging with both E. coli and S. enterica at incubation temperatures relevant to intended product distribution temperatures.

  5. Reconstitution of active catalytic trimer of aspartate transcarbamoylase from proteolytically cleaved polypeptide chains.

    PubMed Central

    Powers, V. M.; Yang, Y. R.; Fogli, M. J.; Schachman, H. K.

    1993-01-01

    Treatment of the catalytic (C) trimer of Escherichia coli aspartate transcarbamoylase (ATCase) with alpha-chymotrypsin by a procedure similar to that used by Chan and Enns (1978, Can. J. Biochem. 56, 654-658) has been shown to yield an intact, active, proteolytically cleaved trimer containing polypeptide fragments of 26,000 and 8,000 MW. Vmax of the proteolytically cleaved trimer (CPC) is 75% that of the wild-type C trimer, whereas Km for aspartate and Kd for the bisubstrate analog, N-(phosphonacetyl)-L-aspartate, are increased about 7- and 15-fold, respectively. CPC trimer is very stable to heat denaturation as shown by differential scanning microcalorimetry. Amino-terminal sequence analyses as well as results from electrospray ionization mass spectrometry indicate that the limited chymotryptic digestion involves the rupture of only a single peptide bond leading to the production of two fragments corresponding to residues 1-240 and 241-310. This cleavage site involving the bond between Tyr 240 and Ala 241 is in a surface loop known to be involved in intersubunit contacts between the upper and lower C trimers in ATCase when it is in the T conformation. Reconstituted holoenzyme comprising two CPC trimers and three wild-type regulatory (R) dimers was shown by enzyme assays to be devoid of the homotropic and heterotropic allosteric properties characteristic of wild-type ATCase. Moreover, sedimentation velocity experiments demonstrate that the holoenzyme reconstituted from CPC trimers is in the R conformation. These results indicate that the intact flexible loop containing Tyr 240 is essential for stabilizing the T conformation of ATCase. Following denaturation of the CPC trimer in 4.7 M urea and dilution of the solution, the separate proteolytic fragments re-associate to form active trimers in about 60% yield. How this refolding of the fragments, docking, and association to form trimers are achieved is not known. PMID:8318885

  6. A recurrent neural network approach to quantitatively studying solar wind effects on TEC derived from GPS; preliminary results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Habarulema, J. B.; McKinnell, L.-A.; Opperman, B. D. L.

    2009-05-01

    This paper attempts to describe the search for the parameter(s) to represent solar wind effects in Global Positioning System total electron content (GPS TEC) modelling using the technique of neural networks (NNs). A study is carried out by including solar wind velocity (Vsw), proton number density (Np) and the Bz component of the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF Bz) obtained from the Advanced Composition Explorer (ACE) satellite as separate inputs to the NN each along with day number of the year (DN), hour (HR), a 4-month running mean of the daily sunspot number (R4) and the running mean of the previous eight 3-hourly magnetic A index values (A8). Hourly GPS TEC values derived from a dual frequency receiver located at Sutherland (32.38° S, 20.81° E), South Africa for 8 years (2000-2007) have been used to train the Elman neural network (ENN) and the result has been used to predict TEC variations for a GPS station located at Cape Town (33.95° S, 18.47° E). Quantitative results indicate that each of the parameters considered may have some degree of influence on GPS TEC at certain periods although a decrease in prediction accuracy is also observed for some parameters for different days and seasons. It is also evident that there is still a difficulty in predicting TEC values during disturbed conditions. The improvements and degradation in prediction accuracies are both close to the benchmark values which lends weight to the belief that diurnal, seasonal, solar and magnetic variabilities may be the major determinants of TEC variability.

  7. Laboratory medicine in the European Union.

    PubMed

    Oosterhuis, Wytze P; Zerah, Simone

    2015-01-01

    The profession of laboratory medicine differs between countries within the European Union (EU) in many respects. The objective of professional organizations of the promotion of mutual recognition of specialists within the EU is closely related to the free movement of people. This policy translates to equivalence of standards and harmonization of the training curriculum. The aim of the present study is the description of the organization and practice of laboratory medicine within the countries that constitute the EU. A questionnaire covering many aspects of the profession was sent to delegates of the European Federation of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine (EFLM) and Union Européenne de Médecins Spécialistes (UEMS) of the 28 EU countries. Results were sent to the delegates for confirmation. Many differences between countries were identified: predominantly medical or scientific professionals; a broad or limited professional field of interest; inclusion of patient treatment; formal or absent recognition; a regulated or absent formal training program; general or minor application of a quality system based on ISO Norms. The harmonization of the postgraduate training of both clinical chemists and of laboratory physicians has been a goal for many years. Differences in the organization of the laboratory professions still exist in the respective countries which all have a long historical development with their own rationality. It is an important challenge to harmonize our profession, and difficult choices will need to be made. Recent developments with respect to the directive on Recognition of Professional Qualifications call for new initiatives to harmonize laboratory medicine both across national borders, and across the borders of scientific and medical professions.

  8. Training in psychiatry throughout Europe.

    PubMed

    Brittlebank, Andrew; Hermans, Marc; Bhugra, Dinesh; Pinto da Costa, Mariana; Rojnic-Kuzman, Martina; Fiorillo, Andrea; Kurimay, Tamas; Hanon, Cecile; Wasserman, Danuta; van der Gaag, Rutger Jan

    2016-03-01

    Psychiatry is the largest medical specialty in Europe. Despite efforts to bring harmonisation, training in psychiatry in Europe continues to be very diverse. The Union Européenne des Médecins Spécialistes (UEMS) has issued as from 2000 a charter of requirements for the training in psychiatry with an additional European Framework for Competencies in Psychiatry in 2009. Yet these have not been implemented throughout Europe. In this paper, the diversity in training throughout Europe is approached from different angles: the cultural differences between countries with regards to how mental health care is considered and founded on, the cultural differences between people throughout Europe in all states. The position of psychotherapy is emphasised. What once was the cornerstone of psychiatry as medical specialty seems to have become a neglected area. Seeing the patient with mental health problems within his cultural context is important, but considering him within his family context. The purpose of any training is enabling the trainee to gain the knowledge and acquire the competencies necessary to become a well-equipped professional is the subject of the last paragraph in which trainees consider their position and early career psychiatrists look back to see whether what they were trained in matches with what they need in the working situation. Common standard for training and certification are a necessity within Europe, for the benefit of the profession of psychiatrist but also for patient safety. UEMS is advised to join forces with the Council of National Psychiatric Associations (NPAs) within the EPA and trainings and early career psychiatrist, to discuss with the users what standards should be implemented in all European countries and how a European board examination could ensure professional quality of psychiatrists throughout the continent.

  9. Drones as tools for monitoring beach topography changes in the Ligurian Sea (NW Mediterranean)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casella, Elisa; Rovere, Alessio; Pedroncini, Andrea; Stark, Colin P.; Casella, Marco; Ferrari, Marco; Firpo, Marco

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate topographic changes along a stretch of coastline in the Municipality of Borghetto Santo Spirito (Region of Liguria, Italy, north-western Mediterranean) by means of a remotely piloted aircraft system coupled with structure from motion and multi-view stereo techniques. This sector was surveyed three times over 5 months in the fall-winter of 2013-2014 (1 November 2013, 4 December 2013, 17 March 2014) to obtain digital elevation models and orthophotos of the beach. Changes in beach topography associated with storm action and human activities were assessed in terms of gain/loss of sediments and shifting of the wet-dry boundary defining the shoreline. Between the first and second surveys, the study area was hit by two storms (10-11 November 2013 and 21-22 November 2013) with waves approaching from the E-NNE, causing a shoreline retreat which, in some sectors, reached 7 m. Between the second and third surveys, by contrast, four storms (25-27 December 2013, 5-6 January 2014, 17-18 January 2014 and 6-10 February 2014) with waves propagating from the SE produced a general advancement of the shoreline (up to ~5 m) by deposition of sediments along some parts of the beach. The data also reflect changes in beach topography due to human activity during the 2013 fall season, when private beach managers quarried ~178 m3 of sediments on the emerged beach near the shoreline to accumulate them landwards. The results show that drones can be used for regular beach monitoring activities, and that they can provide new insights into the processes related to natural and/or human-related topographic beach changes.

  10. Eligibility for renal denervation: experience at 11 European expert centers.

    PubMed

    Persu, Alexandre; Jin, Yu; Baelen, Marie; Vink, Eva; Verloop, Willemien L; Schmidt, Bernhard; Blicher, Marie K; Severino, Francesca; Wuerzner, Grégoire; Taylor, Alison; Pechère-Bertschi, Antoinette; Jokhaji, Fadi; Fadl Elmula, Fadl Elmula M; Rosa, Jan; Czarnecka, Danuta; Ehret, Georg; Kahan, Thomas; Renkin, Jean; Widimsky, Jiři; Jacobs, Lotte; Spiering, Wilko; Burnier, Michel; Mark, Patrick B; Menne, Jan; Olsen, Michael H; Blankestijn, Peter J; Kjeldsen, Sverre; Bots, Michiel L; Staessen, Jan A

    2014-06-01

    Based on the SYMPLICITY studies and CE (Conformité Européenne) certification, renal denervation is currently applied as a novel treatment of resistant hypertension in Europe. However, information on the proportion of patients with resistant hypertension qualifying for renal denervation after a thorough work-up and treatment adjustment remains scarce. The aim of this study was to investigate the proportion of patients eligible for renal denervation and the reasons for noneligibility at 11 expert centers participating in the European Network COordinating Research on renal Denervation in treatment-resistant hypertension (ENCOReD). The analysis included 731 patients. Age averaged 61.6 years, office blood pressure at screening was 177/96 mm Hg, and the number of blood pressure-lowering drugs taken was 4.1. Specialists referred 75.6% of patients. The proportion of patients eligible for renal denervation according to the SYMPLICITY HTN-2 criteria and each center's criteria was 42.5% (95% confidence interval, 38.0%-47.0%) and 39.7% (36.2%-43.2%), respectively. The main reasons of noneligibility were normalization of blood pressure after treatment adjustment (46.9%), unsuitable renal arterial anatomy (17.0%), and previously undetected secondary causes of hypertension (11.1%). In conclusion, after careful screening and treatment adjustment at hypertension expert centers, only ≈40% of patients referred for renal denervation, mostly by specialists, were eligible for the procedure. The most frequent cause of ineligibility (approximately half of cases) was blood pressure normalization after treatment adjustment by a hypertension specialist. Our findings highlight that hypertension centers with a record in clinical experience and research should remain the gatekeepers before renal denervation is considered.

  11. Considerations for an institution for evaluation of diabetes technology devices to improve their quality in the European Union.

    PubMed

    Heinemann, Lutz; Freckmann, Guido; Koschinsky, Theodor

    2013-03-01

    All medical devices used for self-monitoring of blood glucose (BG), insulin injection, continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion, and continuous glucose monitoring in the European Union (EU) must have a Communauté Européenne (CE) mark. However, the approval process for obtaining this mark is different from that used by the European Medicines Agency in the EU for drugs or by the Food and Drug Administration in the United States for such medical and in vitro diagnostic devices. The notified bodies involved in the CE mark process perform this evaluation in cooperation with the manufacturers. They have only limited diabetes know-how; they have to handle all kinds of medical devices. There are devices for therapy on the market in the EU (i.e., they have market approval) that do not fulfill quality requirements, as indicated, for example, in the international norm ISO 15197 for BG test systems. Evaluation of the performance of such systems is usually provided by the manufacturers. What is missing in the EU is an independent institution that performs regular and critical evaluation of the quality of devices used for diabetes therapy before and also after their market approval. The work of such an institution would focus on BG test systems (these represent two-thirds of the market of medical devices for diabetes treatment) but would also evaluate the performance of other devices. It has to be clarified what legal framework is required for such an institution and how it can be financed; probably this can be done in a shared manner by the manufacturers of such devices and the health insurance companies. Positive evaluation results should be a prerequisite prior to any reimbursement for such devices.

  12. Rickettsiose invasive mortelle diagnostiquée tardivement en reanimation

    PubMed Central

    Ghezala, Hassen Ben; Feriani, Najla

    2016-01-01

    La fièvre boutonneuse méditerranéenne est une maladie infectieuse du groupe des rickettsioses due à une bactérie intracellulaire: Rickettsia Conorii. Les formes pauci symptomatiques et bénignes sont prédominantes. Les formes graves sont rares et de plus en plus rapportées dans la littérature récente avec une atteinte multi systémique sévère pouvant menacer le pronostic vital. Nous rapportons dans ce travail un cas très rare d’un patient de 52 ans admis en réanimation pour convulsions, état de choc septique et insuffisance rénale aiguë. Devant la découverte au deuxième jour de la prise en charge de lésions de type « chancre d’inoculation » et boutonneuses, le diagnostic de rickettsiose grave avec une atteinte multi viscérale sévère a été évoqué puis confirmé par une sérologie. Une antibiothérapie par doxycycline a été alors introduite. Le patient va développer cependant une nécrose tubulaire aiguë nécessitant des séances d’épuration extra-rénale. Il va développer rapidement une défaillance multi viscérale mortelle. La rickettsiose, par la vascularite microcirculatoire qu’elle engendre, peut donner des tableaux aussi sévères. Les mécanismes impliqués et les facteurs pronostiques éventuels sont discutés dans ce travail à travers une revue de la littérature. PMID:28292166

  13. Research and Innovation of Engineering Education in Europe the contribution of SEFI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graaff, Erik De; Borri, Claudio

    The roots of engineering education lie in the workplace. It was not until the 19th century that higher engineering education moved to a more scholarly environment. True to its origins, research in the applied sciences never aimed at pure understanding alone. The goal of engineering investigations has always been to devise solutions to practice problems with a mixture of design, construction and innovation. If the establishing of a research tradition in engineering has taken quite a long time, the time needed to apply an academic mode of thinking to the approach to teaching and learning has been much longer. In fact, most of the design choices concerning the curricula in higher engineering education were made based on intuition, rather than on insight, until well over the half of the last century. Aiming at to support the development of engineering education in Europe, in 1973 the European Society of Engineering Education was established (labelled SEFI according to the French acronym Société. Européenne pour la Formation des Ingénieurs). Presently the society represents 196 institutional members. SEFI promotes cooperation between higher engineering education institutions and other scientific and international bodies on issues of research and development in Engineering Education, for instance through participating in European network projects such as the SOCRATES Thematic Network “TREE” (Teaching and Research in Engineering Education in Europe). SEFI is also engaged in policy development regarding engineering education publishing statements regarding issues like the Bologna process and the proposed European Institute of Technology. In the future SEFI aims to consolidate and strengthen its role in the European arena and to represent Europe on the Global stage.

  14. The new European directive on in vitro diagnostics.

    PubMed

    Dati, Francesco

    2003-10-01

    The Directive on in vitro Diagnostic Medical Devices (IVDD 98/79/EC) was officially adopted by the European Union (EU) on December 7, 1998. The IVDD aims to supplement the legal framework of the European Community, which governs the conditions for the placing on the market of medical devices, by extending the already implemented legislation to the category of in vitro diagnostic medical devices (IVDs). They consist of those devices, including reagents and reagent products, calibrator materials or instruments, as well as specimen receptacles, intended by the manufacturer for the in vitro analysis of specimens derived from the human body. This directive has introduced at the European level common regulatory requirements across Europe for the safety, quality and performance of in vitro diagnostics (IVDs), incorporating them into medical device legislation. It harmonizes the conformity assessment procedures to be applied by manufacturers before they place IVDs on the market. For certain products expressly specified in the directive, of which the most important are used for the evaluation of the safety of blood supply and patient testing, the manufacturer will have to take into account in their performance evaluation the so-called "Common Technical Specifications" (CTS). These are needed to establish the performance characteristics of the IVDs in evaluation and have the same status as harmonized standards. In the meantime, the IVD directive has been transposed into national law in all EU countries. During a transitional period ending in December 2003, manufacturers will have the option of following pre-existing national regulatory processes or taking their IVDs through the new procedures as specified in the directive. Following this, starting from 7th December 2003, adherence to the directive regulations will become mandatory, and only IVDs bearing the "Communautés Européennes (CE) mark" can then be sold in the EU.

  15. Complement-mediated Opsonization of Invasive Group A Streptococcus pyogenes Strain AP53 Is Regulated by the Bacterial Two-component Cluster of Virulence Responder/Sensor (CovRS) System*

    PubMed Central

    Agrahari, Garima; Liang, Zhong; Mayfield, Jeffrey A.; Balsara, Rashna D.; Ploplis, Victoria A.; Castellino, Francis J.

    2013-01-01

    Group A Streptococcus pyogenes (GAS) strain AP53 is a primary isolate from a patient with necrotizing fasciitis. These AP53 cells contain an inactivating mutation in the sensor component of the cluster of virulence (cov) responder (R)/sensor (S) two-component gene regulatory system (covRS), which enhances the virulence of the primary strain, AP53/covR+S−. However, specific mechanisms by which the covRS system regulates the survival of GAS in humans are incomplete. Here, we show a key role for covRS in the regulation of opsonophagocytosis of AP53 by human neutrophils. AP53/covR+S− cells displayed potent binding of host complement inhibitors of C3 convertase, viz. Factor H (FH) and C4-binding protein (C4BP), which concomitantly led to minimal C3b deposition on AP53 cells, further showing that these plasma protein inhibitors are active on GAS cells. This resulted in weak killing of the bacteria by human neutrophils and a corresponding high death rate of mice after injection of these cells. After targeted allelic alteration of covS− to wild-type covS (covS+), a dramatic loss of FH and C4BP binding to the AP53/covR+S+ cells was observed. This resulted in elevated C3b deposition on AP53/covR+S+ cells, a high level of opsonophagocytosis by human neutrophils, and a very low death rate of mice infected with AP53/covR+S+. We show that covRS is a critical transcriptional regulator of genes directing AP53 killing by neutrophils and regulates the levels of the receptors for FH and C4BP, which we identify as the products of the fba and enn genes, respectively. PMID:23928307

  16. Innovation in immediate neonatal care: development of the Bedside Assessment, Stabilisation and Initial Cardiorespiratory Support (BASICS) trolley

    PubMed Central

    Watt, P; Yoxall, C W; Gallagher, A; Burleigh, A; Bewley, S; Heuchan, A M; Duley, L

    2015-01-01

    Objective Babies receive oxygen through their umbilical cord while in the uterus and for a few minutes after birth. Currently, if the baby is not breathing well at birth, the cord is cut so as to transfer the newborn to a resuscitation unit. We sought to develop a mobile resuscitation trolley on which newly born babies can be resuscitated while still receiving oxygenated blood and the ‘placental transfusion’ through the umbilical cord. This would also prevent separation of the mother and baby in the first minutes after birth. Design Multidisciplinary iterative product development. Setting Clinical Engineering Department of a University Teaching Hospital. Methods Following an initial design meeting, a series of prototypes were developed. At each stage, the prototype was reviewed by a team of experts in the laboratory and in the hospital delivery suite to determine ease of use and fitness for purpose. A commercial company was identified to collaborate on the trolley's development and secure marking with the Conformité Européenne mark, allowing the trolley to be introduced into clinical practice. Results The trolley is a small mobile resuscitation unit based on the concept of an overbed hospital table. It can be manoeuvred to within 50 cm of the mother's pelvis so that the umbilical cord can remain intact during resuscitation, irrespective of whether the baby is born naturally, by instrumental delivery or by caesarean section. Warmth for the newborn comes from a heated mattress and the trolley has the facility to provide suction, oxygen and air. Conclusions This is the first mobile resuscitation device designed specifically to facilitate newborn resuscitation at the bedside and with an intact cord. The next step is to assess its safety, its acceptability to clinicians and parents, and to determine whether it allows resuscitation with an intact cord. PMID:26191414

  17. Guidelines by the AAPM and GEC-ESTRO on the use of innovative brachytherapy devices and applications: Report of Task Group 167.

    PubMed

    Nath, Ravinder; Rivard, Mark J; DeWerd, Larry A; Dezarn, William A; Thompson Heaton, H; Ibbott, Geoffrey S; Meigooni, Ali S; Ouhib, Zoubir; Rusch, Thomas W; Siebert, Frank-André; Venselaar, Jack L M

    2016-06-01

    applications. The current report covers regulatory approvals, calibration, dose calculations, radiobiological issues, and overall safety concerns that should be addressed during the commissioning stage preceding clinical use. These guidelines are based on review of requirements of the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, U.S. Department of Transportation, International Electrotechnical Commission Medical Electrical Equipment Standard 60601, U.S. Food and Drug Administration, European Commission for CE Marking (Conformité Européenne), and institutional review boards and radiation safety committees.

  18. The relief operation in puno district, peru, after the 1986 floods of lake titicaca.

    PubMed

    Sztorch, L; Gicquel, V; Desenclos, J C

    1989-03-01

    The 1985-86 rainy season in Peru was disastrous due to very high precipitation. Because of the unusual level of floods in the Lake Titicaca area and the increasing number of affected people, the Peruvian Government established an emergency relief plan and appealed for international aid. At that time the situation was already very critical. The lack of preparedness made the implementation of the relief operation difficult. Our paper describes the intervention of a French N.G.O. (Médecins Sans Trontières), requested by the Peruvian authorities. The early phase of the relief programme and its methodology are described. Problems within this relief programme and the further long-term development action that should be undertaken are discussed. Au Pérou, la saison des pluies 85-86 a été catastrophique par l'importance des précipitations. Au cours des premiers mois de l'année 1986, devant l'ampleur inhabituelle des inondations dans la région du lac Titicaca et le nombre sans cesse croissant de sinistrés, le gouvernement pbruvien décide de mettre en route un plan national de secours d'urgence enfaisant appel à l'aide internationale. Mais la réponse est déjá tardive et le manque de mesures préventives fait que l'organisation des secours se heurte à un grand nombre de difficultés. Notre étude se situe dans le cadre de l'intervention d'une organisation non gouvernementale européenne, sollicitée par le gouvernement péruvien pour une collaboration dans la phase des premiers secours à cette population. Les problémes posés lors de cette opération et la suite à donner à l'assistance a moyen et a long terme sont discutés.

  19. Comparison of rates of safety issues and reporting of trial outcomes for medical devices approved in the European Union and United States: cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Thomas J; Sokolov, Elisaveta; Franklin, Jessica M; Kesselheim, Aaron S

    2016-01-01

    Objective To evaluate safety alerts and recalls, publication of key trial outcomes, and subsequent US approval of high profile medical devices introduced in the European Union. Design Cohort study. Setting Novel cardiovascular, orthopedic, and neurologic devices approved in the EU through Conformité Européenne marking between 2005 and 2010. Data sources Public and commercial databases searched up to January 2016 for press releases and announcements of approvals; public Food and Drug Administration and European regulatory authority databases for US approvals and safety alerts and recalls; and Medline, Embase, and Web of Science for peer reviewed publications. Main outcome measures We categorized the novelty of the devices in the study sample as a “major innovation” or an “other change,” and extracted descriptive data about the devices and information on any safety alerts and withdrawals. Linear regression models examined factors associated with differential EU and US approvals. Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to evaluate factors associated with safety alerts and recalls and the publication of trial outcomes for devices categorized as major innovations. Models controlled for time, therapeutic category, regulatory pathway, size of sponsoring company, and indicator variables for devices approved first in the EU and devices approved only in the EU. Results 67% (206/309) of devices identified were approved in both the US and the EU, of which 63% (129/206) were approved first in the EU. The unadjusted rate of safety alerts and recalls for devices approved first in the EU was 27% (62/232) compared with 14% (11/77) for devices approved first in the US. The adjusted hazard ratio for safety alerts and recalls was 2.9 (95% confidence interval 1.4 to 6.2) for devices approved first in the EU. The results of pivotal trials were published for 49% (37/75) of devices categorized as major innovations, with an overall publication rate of 37% five

  20. Diversity of the Insect Visitors on Calluna vulgaris (Ericaceae) in Southern France Heathlands

    PubMed Central

    Descamps, Charlotte; Moquet, Laura; Migon, Marc; Jacquemart, Anne-Laure

    2015-01-01

    As part of an ongoing research project on the pollination networks in European heathlands, the objective of this study was to assess the insect visitor guild on Calluna vulgaris (L.) Hull (Ericaceae). We focused the study on a region renowned for its largely well-preserved heathlands, the Cévennes National Park, Southern France. In 2013, flower visitors were observed over 3 d per site, in four heathland sites at mont Lozère. Honeybees (Apis mellifera L.) were the main visitors (62–88% of total visitors). Besides honeybees, a high diversity of visitors was detected with 57 different species identified (42 Diptera and 15 Hymenoptera). Hoverflies (Syrphidae, Diptera) visitors were abundant and diverse, especially individuals belonging to the genera Eristalis and Episyrphus. The reported diversity of visitors was probably due to the preservation of large heathland areas at mont Lozère and to the generalist pollination system of C. vulgaris. RESUME. Cette étude fait partie d’un projet de recherche en cours sur les réseaux de pollinisation dans les landes européennes. Son objectif est d’évaluer la guilde des insectes visiteurs de Calluna vulgaris (L.) Hull (Ericaceae). Cette étude se déroule dans une région réputée pour ses landes globalement bien préservées: le Parc natinal des Cévennes, situé dans le sud de la France. En 2013, les insectes visiteurs ont été observés durant trois jours par site, dans quatre sites au mont Lozère. Les abeilles domestiques (A. mellifera L.) sont les visiteurs principaux (62–88% du nombre total de visiteurs). Outre les abeilles domestiques, une diversité importante de visiteurs est constatée: 57 espèces ont été identifiées (42 appartenant à l'ordre des Diptères et 15 à l'ordre des Hyménoptères). Les syrphes (Syrphidae, Diptera) sont abondants et diversifiés, en particulier les genres Eristalis et Episyrphus. La diversité de visiteurs observée peut certainement s’expliquer par la préservation de

  1. Dissolution along faults-fractures and hypogenic karst in carbonates: examples from Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ennes-Silva, Renata; Cazarin, Caroline; Bezerra, Francisco; Auler, Augusto; Klimchouk, Alexander

    2015-04-01

    Dissolution along faults-fractures and hypogenic karst in carbonates: examples from Brazil Ennes-Silva, R.A; Cazarin, C.L.; Bezerra, F.H.; Auler, A.S.; Klimchouk, A.B. Dissolution along zones of preferential flow enhances anisotropy in geological media and increases its complexity. Changes in parameters such as porosity and permeability due to diagenesis and presence of ascendant fluids along fractures and faults can be responsible for hypogenic karstic system. The present study investigates the relationship between lithofacies, tectonics and karstification in the Neoproterozoic Salitre Formation, located in the central-eastern Brazil. This unit comprises several systems of caves including the Toca da Boa Vista and da Barriguda hypogenic caves, the largests in South America, and focus of this study. We focused on cave mapping and morphogenetic analysis, determination of petrophysical properties, thin-section description, micro-tomography, and isotopic analysis. The Salitre Formation, deposited in an epicontinental sea, comprises mud/wakestones, grainstones, microbial facies, and fine siliciclastic rocks. Passages occur in several levels within ca. 60 m thick cave-forming section, limited at the top by lithofacies with low permeability and fractures. Cave development occurred in phreatic sluggish-flow environment with overall upwelling flow. Fluids rise via cross-formational fractures and were distributed laterally within the cave-forming section using geological heterogeneities to eventually discharge up through outlets breaching across the upper confining beds. Maps of conduits show preferred directions for development of conduits: NNE-SSW and E-W. These two directions represents a relation between structures and hypogenic morphology. Joints, axis fold and fractures allowed pathways to the fluid rises, and then development of channels of entrance (feeders), outputs (outlets) and some cupolas, which are clearly aligned to fractures. Our data indicate several events

  2. Successive motor nerve blocks to identify the muscles causing a spasticity pattern: example of the arm flexion pattern.

    PubMed

    Genet, F; Schnitzler, A; Droz-Bartholet, F; Salga, M; Tatu, L; Debaud, C; Denormandie, P; Parratte, B

    2017-01-01

    Botulinum Toxin A has been the main treatment for spasticity since the beginning of the 1990s. Surprisingly, there is still no consensus regarding injection parameters or, importantly, how to determine which muscles to target to improve specific functions. The aim of this study was to develop a systematic approach to determine this, using the example of the arm flexion pattern. We first determined anatomical landmarks for selective motor block of the brachialis nerve, using 20 forearms from 10 fresh cadavers in Ecole Européenne de Chirurgie and a university-based dissection centre, Paris, France. We then carried out selective blocks of the motor nerves to the brachialis, brachioradialis and biceps brachii in patients with stroke with an arm flexion pattern, in a University Rehabilitation Hospital, Garches, France. We measured: the resting angle of the elbow angle in standing (manual goniometer), active and passive range of extension, and spasticity using the Held and Tardieu and the Modified Ashworth scales. Range of passive elbow extension was also measured with the shoulder in 90° of flexion. The resting angle of the elbow in standing decreased by 35.0° (from 87.6 ± 23.7 to 52.6 ± 24.2°) with inhibition of brachialis, by a further 3.9° (from 52.6 ± 24.2 to 48.7 ± 23.7°) with inhibition of brachioradialis and a further 14.5° (from 48.7 ± 23.7to 34.2 ± 20.7°) with inhibition of biceps brachii. These results were consistent with the clinical evaluation of passive elbow range of motion with the shoulder at 90°. Sequential blocking of the nerves to the three main elbow flexors revealed that the muscle that limited elbow extension the most, was brachialis. This muscle should be the main target to improve the arm flexion pattern. These results show that it is important not simply to inject the most superficial or powerful muscles to treat a spastic deformity. A comprehensive assessment is required. The strategy proposed in this paper should

  3. 'Lysi-T-FACE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herndl, Markus; Pötsch, Erich; Kandolf, Matthias; Bohner, Andreas; Schaumberger, Andreas; Resch, Reinhard; Graiss, Wilhelm; Krautzer, Bernhard; Buchgraber, Karl

    2010-05-01

    During the past century the average global surface air temperature has already increased by 1°C. A doubling of atmospheric concentration of CO2 near the end of the 21st century is predicted to result in a 3°C temperature increase. The Alpine region has experienced above average warming over the last century and is considered particularly vulnerable to global change. In Austria in some regions, grassland production suffered severe droughts during the last decade leading to serious damages and even temporal shortage in feed supply. Changes in temperature and precipitation have evident consequences for grassland vegetation. Increasing atmospheric CO2 concentration is a major driver of climate change. Photosynthesis and productivity of most grassland species might be stimulated by increasing CO2 when soil nutrients and water are not limiting. On dry grassland sites increasing CO2 also reduces plant water loss, thereby increasing plant water use efficiency. When plant production is limited by seasonal cold temperatures as e.g. in the inner Alpine parts of Austria and in high altitude or high latitude grasslands, combined warming and higher CO2 might continue to enhance plant production. However, it is still unknown to what extend a further increase of temperature and CO2 will result in higher biomass yield in different grassland communities. To study the effects of global warming on future grassland communities and management, the application of a heating treatment combined with free-air controlled enhancement of CO2 (T-FACE) to open-field plant canopies at lysimeters is an innovative approach which allows studying responses of the plant-soil-systems as well as carbon- water and nutrient fluxes under expected future climate. The experiment is scheduled to run in the first phase 6 years (2011-2017) and is located at the AREC Raumberg-Gumpenstein, Upper Enns Valley, Austria (47,49; 14,10). Heater arrays and miniFACE rings are installed in 1.6 m diameter plots and expose

  4. Intérêt de la thérapie antivirale par voie orale dans le traitement des nécroses rétiniennes aigues

    PubMed Central

    Haouzi, Samia El; Jait, Amina; Lezrek, Omar; Samira, Tachfouti; Amina, Laghmari; Cherkaoui, Ouafa; Abdellouahed, Karman; Daoudi, Rajae

    2016-01-01

    Le syndrome de nécrose rétinienne aiguë (RNA) est un syndrome uvéitique rare mais dévastateur pour la vue (pronostic visuel ++). Son diagnostic doit être précoce du fait de sa gravité et du risque de bilatéralisation. C’est une entité rare causée par les virus du groupe Herpès. Chez les patients immunodéprimés, les complications de l’ARN syndrome conduisent souvent à une perte d’acuité visuelle. La confirmation de ce diagnostic dès la découverte de la maladie par la réaction de polymérase en chaîne (PCR) et par le coefficient de charge immunitaire (CCI) le plus souvent par ponction d’humeur aqueuse permet d’optimiser la prise en charge en diminuant le temps nécessaire à une confirmation diagnostique. L’ARN syndrome est de très mauvais pronostic spontané. Des études récentes ont montré que la thérapie orale antivirale (valaciclovir, famciclovir et valganciclovir) et intravitréenne sans traitement intraveineux initial est un traitement efficace de l’ARN. Nous présentons ici le tableau clinique d’un jeune patient âgé de 39 ans admis aux urgences pour baisse d’acuité visuelle. L’examen ophtalmologique a objectivé une nécrose rétinienne aigue unilatérale. Il fut traité par une thérapie antivirale orale (valaciclovir) associée à une corticothérapie et l’évolution était très favorable. Le pronostic de la nécrose rétinienne aiguë ou ARN syndrome est le plus souvent sévère. Le traitement de cette affection doit être le plus précoce possible afin de limiter une bilatéralisation et la survenue des complications. Cette observation confirme que la thérapie orale antivirale (valaciclovir, famciclovir et valganciclovir) sans traitement intraveineux initial est un traitement efficace de l’ARN. PMID:27795766

  5. CO2 and CH4 fluxes of an Alpine peatland during extraordinary summer drought

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drollinger, Simon; Glatzel, Stephan

    2016-04-01

    In peatland ecosystems, plant production exceeds decomposition due to their typical characteristic of waterlogged soils leading to peatland growth and an accumulation of thick organic soil layers. As a result, peatlands constitute a major global storage of carbon (C) by storing about 612 PgC in their peat, thus representing the most space-effective C stocks of all terrestrial ecosystems, similar in magnitude as the increasing atmospheric C pool (~ 850 PgC). However, little is known about the effects of climate change on peatlands and the contribution of Alpine peatlands as a source of greenhouse gases in the course of a changing climate. It is debatable how land-use changes and ongoing degradation of Alpine peatlands affect the peatland-atmosphere C exchange. On the one hand, more C may sequester due to increased plant growth in a warmer climate, on the other hand large amounts of respired C may release as a consequence of higher temperatures and lowered peatland water table depths due to increasing evaporation rates and extending drought periods. To examine the potential effects of climate change on the peatland carbon exchange with the atmosphere, we calculated CO2 and CH4 fluxes using the eddy covariance method. The investigated ombrotrophic peatland is located on the bottom of the Styrian Enns valley at an altitude of 632 m above sea level. It is a slightly degraded pine peat bog (62 ha) with a closed peat moss cover featuring the three plant associations Pino mugo-Sphagnetum magellanici, Sphagnetum magellanici, and Caricetum limosae, according to the prevailing hydrological site conditions. During summer drought in 2015, the water level decreased from an annual average water level of -10.44 cm to -28.50 cm below surface at the centre of the peat bog. Here, we present diurnal pattern of CO2 and CH4 fluxes during an extraordinary dry summer and compare them to calculated fluxes during periods characterised by precipitation and higher peat water levels of the

  6. Chronostratigraphical investigations on Pleistocene fluvioglacial terraces of NW-Austria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terhorst, B.

    2009-04-01

    Investigations on paleopedology and Quaternary stratigraphy were carried out in the area of fluvioglacial terraces of the rivers Inn and Traun/Enns. Research projects have been financed by the German Research Foundation (DFG) and the ICSU Grant Programme. Detailed studies were carried out on paleosols and loess sequences of different ages. The investigations of the research group were focused on loess/paleosol sequences located on top of Riss terraces (OIS 6 and older) as well as in areas with Mindel and Günz terraces. Loess records of the last glacial/interglacial cycle can be well observed in the study areas. Generally, the Eemian soil (O/S 5e) is developed as a reddish Bt-horizon in fluvioglacial gravels. U/Th-datings of calcites in the fluvioglacial sediments are indicating that soil formation took place in the catchment area about 113.000 ± 4.400 ka (Terhorst et al., 2002). The interglacial paleosol was truncated and a redeposited colluvial layer was deposited on top of the Bt-horizons containing charcaol with characteristic relicts of coniferous trees. After this land surface destabilisation phase, sedimentation of loess became the predominant process. Pedogenesis in form of a brown paleosol occurred, which partly has been redeposited. The pedocomplex is characterized by intense bioturbation of steppe animals. OSL-datings show that this part of the sequence belong to the Middle Würmian stage. The pedocomplex is overlain by a Cambisol corresponding to the youngest Middle Würmian interstadial. The paleosol is covered by thick loess deposits of the Upper Pleniglacial. Well-developed Tundragleysols subdivide the loess deposits. The uppermost soil corresponds to the Holocene Luvisol that includes hydromorphic properties. Older fluvioglacial terraces of Mindel and Günz age (in the classical stratigraphy) show a completely different structure of the covering layers (c.f. Kohl, 1999). In this case, several thick interglacial paleosols are embedded within records

  7. Urinary arsenic levels in the French adult population: the French National Nutrition and Health Study, 2006-2007.

    PubMed

    Saoudi, Abdessattar; Zeghnoun, Abdelkrim; Bidondo, Marie-Laure; Garnier, Robert; Cirimele, Vincent; Persoons, Renaud; Fréry, Nadine

    2012-09-01

    The French Nutrition and Health Survey (ENNS) was conducted to describe dietary intakes, nutritional status, physical activity, and levels of various biomarkers for environmental chemicals (heavy metals and pesticides) in the French population (adults aged 18-74 years and children aged 3-17 years living in continental France in 2006-2007). The aim of this paper was to describe the distributions of total arsenic and the sum of iAs+MMA+DMA in the general adult population, and to present their main risk factors. In the arsenic study, 1500 and 1515 adults (requested to avoid seafood intake in the previous 3 days preceding urine collection) were included respectively for the analysis of the sum of inorganic arsenic (iAs) and its two metabolites, monomethylarsonic acid (MMA) and dimethylarsinic acid (DMA), and for the total arsenic. Results were presented as geometric means and selected percentiles of urinary arsenic concentrations (μg/L) and creatinine-adjusted urinary arsenic (μg/g of creatinine) for total arsenic, and the sum of inorganic arsenic and metabolites (iAs+MMA+DMA). The geometric mean concentration of the sum of iAs+MMA+DMA in the adult population living in France was 3.34 μg/g of creatinine [3.23-3.45] (3.75 μg/L [3.61-3.90]) with a 95th percentile of 8.9 μg/g of creatinine (10.68 μg/L). The geometric mean concentration of total arsenic was 11.96 μg/g of creatinine [11.41-12.53] (13.42 μg/L [12.77-14.09]) with a 95th percentile of 61.29 μg/g of creatinine (72.75 μg/L). Urinary concentrations of total arsenic and iAS+MMA+DMA were influenced by sociodemographic and economic factors, and by risk factors such as consumption of seafood products and of wine. In our study, covariate-adjusted geometric means demonstrated several slight differences, due to consumption of fish, shellfish/crustaceans or wine. This study provides the first reference value for arsenic in a representative sample of the French population not particularly exposed to high levels

  8. Modelling the unexpected effect of acetic and lactic acid in combination with pH and aw on the growth/no growth interface of Zygosaccharomyces bailii.

    PubMed

    Vermeulen, A; Dang, T D T; Geeraerd, A H; Bernaerts, K; Debevere, J; Van Impe, J; Devlieghere, F

    2008-05-10

    Microbial spoilage of shelf-stable acidified sauces is predominantly caused by lactic acid bacteria and yeasts. A specific spoilage yeast in these products is Zygosaccharomyces bailii, as this fructophilic, osmotolerant, and weak acid resistant yeast is difficult to control. A growth/no growth model was developed describing the influence of (i) pH in a range from pH 3.0 to pH 5.0 (5 levels), (ii) acetic acid in a range from 0 to 3.5% (w/v), and (iii) lactic acid in a range from 0 to 3.0% (w/v). aw was fixed at a level of 0.95 which is representative for acidified sauces with high sugar content. Modified Sabouraud medium was inoculated at +/- 10(4) CFU/ml, incubated at 30 degrees C and growth was assessed by optical density measurements. All combinations of environmental conditions were tested in at least twelve replicates, yielding precise values for the probability of growth. Results showed that replacing acetic acid by lactic acid, which has a milder taste, may imply some risks on food spoilage because, under some conditions, stimulation of growth by lactic acid was observed. This stimulation had also consequences on the model development: (i) only ordinary logistic regression models were able to describe this phenomenon due to their flexible behaviour, (ii) it was necessary to split up the data set into two subsets to have the best description of the obtained data. Two different ordinary logistic regression models were fitted on these data sets taking either the total acid concentration as one of the explanatory variables or differentiating between the undissociated and dissociated acid concentrations. The obtained models were compared with the CIMSCEE code [CIMSCEE, 1992. Code for the production of microbiologically safe and stable emulsified and non-emulsified sauces containing acetic acid. Comité des Industries des Mayonnaise et Sauces Condimentaires, de la Communauté Economique Européenne, Brussels, Belgium], a formula which is nowadays often used by the

  9. PREFACE: 5th International EEIGM/AMASE/FORGEMAT Conference on Advanced Materials Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayadi, Zoubir; Czerwiec, Thierry; Horwat, David; Jamart, Brigitte

    2009-07-01

    This issue of IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering, contains manuscripts of talks that will be presented at the 5th International EEIGM/AMASE/FORGEMAT Conference on Advanced Materials Research that will be held at the Ecole Européenne d'Ingénieurs en Génie des Matériaux - European School of Materials Science and Engineering (EEIGM) in Nancy on November 4-5 2009. The conference will be organized by the EEIGM. The aim of the conference is to bring together scientists from the six European universities involved in the EEIGM and in the ''Erasmus Mundus'' AMASE Master (Advanced Materials Science and Engineering) programmes and in the Tempus FORGEMAT European project: Nancy-Université - EEIGM/INPL (Nancy, France), Universität des Saarlandes (Saarbrücken, Germany), Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya - ETSEIB (Barcelona, Spain), Luleå Tekniska Universitet (Luleå, Sweden), Universidad Politecnica de Valencia - ETSII (Valencia, Spain) and AGH University of Science and Technology, (Kralow, Poland). This conference is also open to other universities who have strong links with the EEIGM and it will provide a forum for exchange of ideas, cooperation and future directions by means of regular presentations, posters and a round-table discussion. After careful refereeing of all manuscripts, equally shared between the four editors, 26 papers have been selected for publication in this issue. The papers are grouped together into different subject categories: polymers, metallurgy, ceramics, composites and nanocomposites, simulation and characterization. The editors would like to take this opportunity to thank all the participants who submitted their manuscripts during the conference and responded in time to the editors' request at every stage from reviewing to final acceptance. The editors are indebted to all the reviewers for painstakingly reviewing the papers at very short notice. Special thanks are called for the sponsors of the conference including

  10. Façons d’identifier et de prendre en charge la dyslipidémie athérogène

    PubMed Central

    Bosomworth, N. John

    2013-01-01

    Résumé Objectif Passer en revue les données probantes concernant la reconnaissance et la prise en charge de la dyslipidémie athérogène. Sources des données Des études randomisées et des méta-analyses de grande qualité ont été trouvées pour répondre à la plupart des questions. Les lignes directrices nord-américaines et européennes ont été examinées. Parmi celles-ci, les lignes directrices de la Société canadienne de cardiologie étaient les plus congruentes avec les ouvrages scientifiques récents. Message principal La dyslipidémie athérogène se caractérise par de faibles taux de lipoprotéines de haute densité (HDL), de hauts niveaux de triglycérides et un nombre élevé de particules de lipoprotéines de basse densité (LDL). Ce problème est étroitement associé à des maladies cardiovasculaires (MCV) et il n’est pas bien cerné par les scores de risque de Framingham et les dosages des LDL. L’obésité, l’intolérance au glucose, le diabète et le syndrome métabolique deviennent rapidement de plus en plus fréquents et sont souvent associés avec la dyslipidémie athérogène, ce qui affecte le risque à long terme de MCV. Pour la reconnaître en cabinet, il est préférable de recourir au dosage du cholestérol non HDL ou au ratio du cholestérol total par rapport au HDL. La réussite du traitement repose sur l’optimisation du régime alimentaire et de l’activité physique. Parmi les médicaments disponibles, ce sont les statines qui procurent le plus de bienfaits et elles peuvent être titrées en fonction de la tolérance du patient plutôt que selon les valeurs ciblées de LDL, qui ne sont pas appuyées par de solides données probantes. L’ajout de fénofibrate peut être envisagé chez les patients ayant des niveaux élevés de triglycérides et de bas niveaux de HDL qui n’ont pas répondu de façon satisfaisante aux statines ou ne les ont pas tolérées. Conclusion La prévalence grandissante de l’obésité cr

  11. Sinking of spherical slablets through a non-Newtonian mantle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crameri, Fabio; Stegman, Dave; Petersen, Robert; Tackley, Paul

    2014-05-01

    -sided subduction. REFERENCES Crameri, F., H. Schmeling, G. J. Golabek, T. Duretz, R. Orendt, S. J. H. Buiter, D. A. May, B. J. P. Kaus, T. V. Gerya, and P. J. Tackley (2012), Geophys. J. Int., 189(1), 38-54. Matsumoto, T., and Y. Tomoda (1983), J. Phys. Earth, 31(3), 183-194. Schmeling, H., A. Babeyko, A. Enns, C. Faccenna, F. Funiciello, T. Gerya, G. Golabek, S. Grigull, B. Kaus, G. Morra, S. Schmalholz, and J. van Hunen (2008), Phys. Earth Planet. Int., 171(1-4), 198-223. Tackley, P. J. (2008), Phys. Earth Planet. Int., 171(1-4), 7-18. Weinberg, R. F. (1993), Tectonophys., 228(3-4), 141-150. Weinberg, R. F., and Y. Podladchikov (1994), J. Geophys. Res., 99(B5), 9543-9559

  12. Proposing buffer zones and simple technical solutions for safeguarding river water quality and public health

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Podimata, M. V.; Bekri, E. S.; Yannopoulos, P. C.

    2012-04-01

    Framework Directive (WFD) 2000/60, but a practical necessity for the safeguarding of public health and ecosystem health, in general. The present study aims at developing a simple methodology for assessing spatial distribution characteristics of pollution in Erymanthos catchment. Pollution loads at various sites in Erymanthos watershed were illustrated with Geographical Information System (GIS). Flow rates of Erymanthos River were also taken into consideration. Based on previous studies, in situ river discharges have been compared to simulated discharges in order to calibrate the rainfall-runoff model ENNS which can then predict future scenarios regarding the river flow rates with consideration of climate change effects. The goal of this study is to detect the pertinent points and suggest a) suitable buffer zones in areas with high pollution risk and b) simple technical works in order to prevent the main channel of Erymanthos River from direct polluting discharges. The above systems could also act supportively in groundwater enrichment, forest protection and soil erosion prevention. Authors believe that the results of the study could assist authorities and engineers to design and develop strategies of improving river water quality and safeguarding public health. The proposed measures may be applicable to other catchments as well.

  13. [The estimated economic burden of overweight and obesity in Hungary].

    PubMed

    Iski, Gabriella; Rurik, Imre

    2014-08-31

    Bevezetés: A túlsúly és az elhízás folyamos és globális elterjedése Magyarországot is érinti. Az egészségügyi kiadások egyre nagyobb hányadát költik az elhízás és a vele szoros oki kapcsolatban álló betegségek kezelésére. Célkitűzés: A szerzők az elhízáshoz köthető leggyakoribb betegségekkel kapcsolatos 2012. évi egészségügyi közkiadások és a betegek kiadásainak elemzését, valamint a korábbi adatokkal való összevetését tűzték ki célul. Módszer: Az elemzés alapjául az Országos Egészségbiztosítási Pénztár 2012-es ellátási és kifizetési adatai szolgáltak a járó- és fekvőbeteg-intézményekben elhízás, diabetes és magas vérnyomás miatt kezelt és így jelentett betegek ellátása, valamint ugyanezen diagnózisokon alapuló táppénzes utalványozás alapján. A diabetesben szenvedők körében 80%-os, a hypertoniások körében pedig 60%-os a túlsúlyos vagy elhízott betegek aránya. Eredmények: A szerzők számítása szerint az elhízott vagy túlsúlyos betegek ellátásának költsége legalább 207 milliárd Ft volt, ami a teljes E-Alap kiadásainak 11,6%-át és a bruttó hazai termék 0,73%-át tette ki. A betegek hozzájárulása a kezeléshez legkevesebb 22 milliárd Ft-ot igényelt. Figyelembe véve az elhízottaknál nagyobb arányban kialakuló és nagyobb kezelési költséget jelentő betegségeket, továbbá az esetlegesen magasabb incidenciaarányt, a valódi költségek ennél lényegesen nagyobbak lehettek (az összes egészségügyi közkiadás 15–18%-a, illetve a bruttó hazai termék legalább 1%-a). Következtetések: A túlsúllyal vagy elhízással kapcsolatos egészségügyi közkiadás és egyéni hozzájárulás jelentős gazdasági terhet jelent. Orv. Hetil., 2014, 155(35), 1406–1412.

  14. Préface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cornet, Alain

    2004-11-01

    Le premier colloque Rayons X et Matière (Rx 95) s'est tenu à Strasbourg en 1995. Il était destiné à célébrer le centenaire de la découverte des rayons X par ROENTGEN et a alors réuni plus de cent trente chercheurs et industriels concernés par les rayons X et les matériaux. Parmi eux se trouvaient les Professeurs André GUINIER et Hans NEFF ainsi que Monsieur Michel BRUNEL qui hélas ne sont plus parmi nous à ce jour. La qualité et la convivialité des échanges entre les participants lors de cette première réunion ne pouvaient que nous inciter à la reconduire et nous avons pris rendez vous pour 1997, puis 1999, puis 2001 et enfin pour 2003, soient cinq colloques, un tous les deux ans pendant dix ans. Au cours des années, nous avons essayé d'adapter les thèmes abordés à l'évolution de la recherche et des techniques. Ces thèmes se sont naturellement ajoutés aux thèmes classiques comme la diffraction et la fluorescence. Les nanomatériaux, les microfaisceaux en sont des exemples. A de très rares exceptions les communications présentées étaient de très bon niveau et nous avons toujours eu beaucoup de plaisir à les publier. Ces colloques ont bien fonctionné en raison de la participation des industriels qui, dans leur grande majorité, nous ont accompagnés régulièrement. Ces colloques présentent l'avantage, par rapport à des colloques spécialisés, de couvrir (presque) tout le champ des applications des rayons X et seulement ce domaine. Toutefois il est clair que les données économiques évoluent et que la situation est chaque aimée plus difficile pour tout le monde, chercheurs et industriels. Temps et moyens sont comptés et maintenant chacun doit faire de plus en plus de choix, rentabilité oblige ! Le maintien du colloque Rayons X et Matière passera obligatoirement par une réflexion globale : redéfinition des objectifs, augmentation de l'ouverture européenne, recherche d'autres formes de participation associant mieux les

  15. La place de la double arthrodèse dans la prise en charge du pied bot varus équin invétéré

    PubMed Central

    Atarraf, Karima; Arroud, Mounir; Chater, Lamiae; Afifi, My Abderrahmane

    2014-01-01

    La prise en charge du pied bot varus équin invétéré ( PBVEI) pose d’énormes problèmes thérapeutiques. La double arthrodèse sous-talienne et médio-tarsienne longtemps considérée comme la solution de sécurité pour ces déformations est encore couramment utilisée. Nous rapportons une série de 13 enfants opérés pour un pied bot varus équin invétérés (16 pieds) par Arthrodèse sous-talienne et médio tarsienne réalisée au service d'orthopédie pédiatrique du CHU Hassan II; de Fès au Maroc sur une période de 4 ans; étalée de janvier 2009 à décembre 2012. L’âge moyen de nos patients était de 12,6 ans avec prédominance féminine. L'origine congénitale était retrouvée chez 10 patients. L'atteinte était gauche chez 8 patients avec une localisation bilatérale chez 3 patients. La radiographie standard du pied de face et de profil a révélée une divergence talo-calcanéenne qui variait entre 5 et 20°, l'angle talus-1er métatarsien entre 20 et 40° (avec une moyenne de 28°) et l'angle calcanéus-5ème métatarsien entre 15° et 45° (avec une moyenne de 30°). Tous les patients ont bénéficiés d'une arthrodèse sous-talienne et médio tarsienne. Les résultats étaient satisfaisants dans 98% des cas. Le pied était plantigrade dans 9 cas, le varus de l'arrière pied persistait dans 4 pieds alors que l’équin et le varus de l'avant pied étaient notés chez 2 cas. La double arthrodèse est l'intervention idéale pour stabiliser et corriger les déformations rencontrées dans le PBVE invétéré, elle assure totalement le verrouillage du couple de torsion. Elle permet outre une correction des diverses déformations et une ré-axation de l'arrière-pied dans les 3 plans de l'espace. PMID:25829977

  16. Impact of cattle grazing on soil and vegetation - a case study in a mountainous region of Austria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bohner, Andreas; Foldal, Cecilie; Jandl, Robert

    2015-04-01

    In mountainous regions of Austria and of many other European countries, climate change may cause a further intensification of grassland management. Therefore, the effects of intensive cattle grazing on selected soil chemical and physical properties, above- and below-ground phytomass, forage quality, plant species composition and plant species richness at the scale of a representative paddock in a mountainous region of Austria were investigated. At the study site (Styrian Enns valley; 675 m a.s.l.), climate is relatively cool and humid, with a mean annual air temperature of 6.7°C and a mean annual precipitation of 970 mm, of which 66% falls during the vegetation period (April-October). The soil is a deep, base-rich Cambisol with a loamy sand texture. The paddock investigated has a total area of about 2 ha and had been grazed by dairy cows (Brown Swiss) five times per grazing season. The stocking density was 4 cows ha-1 during 180 days from early May to the end of October with a grazing time of about 8 hours per day. The strip grazed permanent pasture was manured annually for a long time, mostly with cattle slurry. Vegetation surveys were carried out using the method of Braun-Blanquet. Above- and below-ground phytomass, forage quality and mineral element concentration in the harvestable above-ground plant biomass were determined by using standard methods. During the grazing season surface soil samples (0-10 cm depth) for chemical analyses were collected before each grazing period (5 analyses of composite samples per site). At the beginning and the end of the grazing season also soil samples for physical analyses were taken from the topsoil (0-15 cm depth). Heavy cattle treading led to a substantial soil compaction especially in the 5-10 cm layer and to a deterioration of topsoil structure. The porous crumb structure was replaced by a compact platy structure. The topsoil was enriched with nutrients (mainly nitrogen, potassium, phosphorus and boron). The degree of

  17. Flood risk assessment in France: comparison of extreme flood estimation methods (EXTRAFLO project, Task 7)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garavaglia, F.; Paquet, E.; Lang, M.; Renard, B.; Arnaud, P.; Aubert, Y.; Carre, J.

    2013-12-01

    of five watersheds located in the South of France. References : O. CAYLA : Probability calculation of design floods abd inflows - SPEED. Waterpower 1995, San Francisco, California 1995 CFGB : Design flood determination by the gradex method. Bulletin du Comité Français des Grands Barrages News 96, 18th congress CIGB-ICOLD n2, nov:108, 1994. F. GARAVAGLIA et al. : Introducing a rainfall compound distribution model based on weather patterns subsampling. Hydrology and Earth System Sciences, 14, 951-964, 2010. J. LAVABRE et al. : SHYREG : une méthode pour l'estimation régionale des débits de crue. application aux régions méditerranéennes françaises. Ingénierie EAT, 97-111, 2003. M. MARGOUM : Estimation des crues rares et extrêmes : le modèle AGREGEE. Conceptions et remières validations. PhD, Ecole des Mines de Paris, 1992. R. NAULET et al. : Flood frequency analysis on the Ardèche river using French documentary sources from the two last centuries. Journal of Hydrology, 313:58-78, 2005. E. PAQUET et al. : The SCHADEX method: A semi-continuous rainfall-runoff simulation for extreme flood estimation, Journal of Hydrology, 495, 23-37, 2013.

  18. Wind Resource Assessment in Complex Terrain with a High-Resolution Numerical Weather Prediction Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gruber, Karin; Serafin, Stefano; Grubišić, Vanda; Dorninger, Manfred; Zauner, Rudolf; Fink, Martin

    2014-05-01

    A crucial step in planning new wind farms is the estimation of the amount of wind energy that can be harvested in possible target sites. Wind resource assessment traditionally entails deployment of masts equipped for wind speed measurements at several heights for a reasonably long period of time. Simplified linear models of atmospheric flow are then used for a spatial extrapolation of point measurements to a wide area. While linear models have been successfully applied in the wind resource assessment in plains and offshore, their reliability in complex terrain is generally poor. This represents a major limitation to wind resource assessment in Austria, where high-altitude locations are being considered for new plant sites, given the higher frequency of sustained winds at such sites. The limitations of linear models stem from two key assumptions in their formulation, the neutral stratification and attached boundary-layer flow, both of which often break down in complex terrain. Consequently, an accurate modeling of near-surface flow over mountains requires the adoption of a NWP model with high horizontal and vertical resolution. This study explores the wind potential of a site in Styria in the North-Eastern Alps. The WRF model is used for simulations with a maximum horizontal resolution of 800 m. Three nested computational domains are defined, with the innermost one encompassing a stretch of the relatively broad Enns Valley, flanked by the main crest of the Alps in the south and the Nördliche Kalkalpen of similar height in the north. In addition to the simulation results, we use data from fourteen 10-m wind measurement sites (of which 7 are located within valleys and 5 near mountain tops) and from 2 masts with anemometers at several heights (at hillside locations) in an area of 1600 km2 around the target site. The potential for wind energy production is assessed using the mean wind speed and turbulence intensity at hub height. The capacity factor is also evaluated

  19. Dynamical implications of single-sided subduction and floating continents in global self-consistent models of mantle convection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crameri, F.; Rolf, T.; Tackley, P. J.

    2012-12-01

    realistic Earth-like evolution of plate tectonics. References Schmeling, H., Babeyko A., Enns A., Faccenna C., Funiciello F., Gerya T., Golabek G., Grigull S., Kaus B. J. P., Morra G., Schmalholz S. & van Hunen J. (2008): A benchmark comparison of spontaneous subduction models - towards a free surface: Phys. Earth Planet. Int. 171, 198-223. Crameri, F., Schmeling, H., Golabek, G. J., Duretz, T., Orendt, R., Buiter, S. J. H., May, D. A., Kaus, B. J. P., Gerya, T. V. and Tackley, P. J. (2012), A comparison of numerical surface topography calculations in geodynamic modelling: an evaluation of the 'sticky air' method. Geophysical Journal International, 189: 38-54. Crameri, F., P. J. Tackley, I. Meilick, T. V. Gerya, and B. J. P. Kaus (2012), A free plate surface and weak oceanic crust produce single-sided subduction on Earth, Geophys. Res. Lett., 39, L03306. Rolf, T. and P. J. Tackley (2011), Focussing of stress by continents in 3D spherical mantle convection with self-consistent plate tectonics, Geophys. Res. Lett., 38, L18301 Tackley, P. J. (2008): Modelling compressible mantle convection with large viscosity contrasts in a three-dimensional spherical shell using the yin-yang grid. Phys. Earth Planet. Int.

  20. Calculation of ejecta thickness and structural uplift for Lunar and Martian complex crater rims.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krüger, Tim; Sturm, Sebastian; Kenkmann, Thomas

    2014-05-01

    Martian crater, the calculated structural uplift has a value of 215.83 m [9]. For Euler and Bessel crater calculated values for the structural uplift are 310.76 m and 262.8 m, respectively [10]. The structural uplift of the crater rim only by dike injection and plastic deformation in the underlying target material seems unlikely at distances ~1 km beyond the transient crater cavity. Other mechanisms, like reverse faulting, beginning in the excavation stage of crater formation, could be responsible for additional structural uplift of the crater rim. Nevertheless, our results show that structural uplift is a more dominant effect than ejecta emplacement for complex impact craters. References: [1] Melosh H.J. (1989) Oxford monographs on geology and geophysics, 11, Impact cratering: a geologic process. [2] Poelchau M.H. et al. (2009) JGR, 114, E01006. [3] Shoemaker E. M. (1963) The Solar System, 4, 301-336. [4] Settle M., and Head J.W. (1977) Icarus, v. 31, p. 123. [5] Sturm, S. et al. (2014) LPSC 45, #1801. [6] Krüger T. et al. (2014) LPSC 45, #1834. [7] Hiesinger H. et al. (2002) GRL, 29. [8] Enns A.C. (2013) LPSC XLIV, #2751. [9] Steward S. T. and Valiant G. J. (2006) Meteoritics & Planet. Sci., 41, 1509-1537. [10] Pike R. J. (1974) EPSL, 23, 265-274. [11]Turtle, E. et al. (2005) GSA-SP. 384, 1.

  1. Catheter Ablation in Combination With Left Atrial Appendage Closure for Atrial Fibrillation

    PubMed Central

    Swaans, Martin J.; Alipour, Arash; Rensing, Benno J.W.M.; Post, Martijn C.; Boersma, Lucas V.A.

    2013-01-01

    LAA closure device. The WATCHMAN device resembles a small parachute. It consists of a nitinol frame covered by fabric polyethyl terephthalate that prevents emboli, but not blood, from exiting during the healing process. Fixation anchors around the perimeter secure the device in the LAA (Figure 1). To date, the WATCHMAN is the only implanted percutaneous device for which a randomized clinical trial has been reported. In this study, implantation of the WATCHMAN was found to be at least as effective as warfarin in preventing stroke (all-causes) and death (all-causes) 18. This device received the Conformité Européenne (CE) mark for use in the European Union for warfarin eligible patients and in those who have a contraindication to anticoagulation therapy 19. Given the proven effectiveness of CA to alleviate AF symptoms and the promising data with regard to reduction of thromboembolic events with both CA and WATCHMAN implantation, combining the two procedures is hoped to further reduce the incidence of stroke in high-risk patients while simultaneously relieving symptoms. The combined procedure may eventually enable patients to undergo implantation of the WATCHMAN device without subsequent warfarin treatment, since the CA procedure itself reduces thromboembolic events. This would present an avenue of treatment previously unavailable to patients ineligible for warfarin treatment because of recurrent bleeding 20 or other warfarin-associated problems. The combined procedure is performed under general anesthesia with biplane fluoroscopy and TEE guidance. Catheter ablation is followed by implantation of the WATCHMAN LAA closure device. Data from a non-randomized trial with 10 patients demonstrates that this procedure can be safely performed in patients with a CHADS2 score of greater than 1 21. Further studies to examine the effectiveness of the combined procedure in reducing symptoms from AF and associated stroke are therefore warranted. PMID:23486416

  2. Characterization of the Lower Aptian Oceanic Anoxic Event (OAE) 1a in the Eastern Iberian Chain (Maestrat Basin, E Spain) by Means of Ammonite Biostratigraphy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreno-Bedmar, J. A.; Company, M.; Bover-Arnal, T.; Delanoy, G.; Martinez, R.; Grauges, A.; Salas, R.

    2008-05-01

    . euglyphus Casey at these levels (Moreno et al., 2007). Thus, these taxa further support the stratigraphic position of these beds into the Deshayesites weissi Zone. Our results imply that OAE1 correlative with the Roloboceras beds in southeastern Spain and at Cassis correspond to the D. weissi Zone, as formerly established (Casey, 1961a, b; Casey et al., 1998; Moreno and Bover, 2007; Moreno et al., 2007). R. Casey, Palaeontology 3, 487-621 (1961a) R. Casey, Palaeontographical Society, London, 119-216 (1961b) R. Casey et al., Cretaceous Research 19, 511-535 (1998) J.A.Moreno and T. Bover, in XXIII Jornadas Sociedad Española de Paleontología, Libro de resúmenes. J. C. Braga, A. Checa and M. Company, Eds (Instituto Geológico y Minero de España y Universidad de Granada (2007) pp. 151-152 J. A. Moreno et al., Geogaceta 42, 75-78 (2007) P. Ropolo et al., Géologie Méditerranéenne 25 (1998), 167-175 (2000)

  3. History of NAMES Conferences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filippov, Lev

    2013-03-01

    Franco-Russian NAMES Seminars are held for the purpose of reviewing and discussing actual developments in the field of materials science by researchers from Russia and from the Lorraine Region of France. In more precise terms, as set down by the organizers of the seminar (the Moscow Institute of Steel and Alloys and the Institut National Polytechnique de Lorraine), the mission of the seminars is as follows: the development of scientific and academic contacts, giving a new impulse to joint fundamental research and technology transfer the development and consolidation of scientific, technical and business collaboration between the regions of Russia and Lorraine through direct contact between the universities, institutes and companies involved The first Seminar took place on 27-29 October 2004, at the Institut National Polytechnique de Lorraine (on the premises of the Ecole Européenne d'Ingénieurs en Génie des Matériaux, Nancy, France). The number, variety and quality of the oral presentations given and posters exhibited at the first Seminar were of high international standard. 30 oral presentations were given and 72 posters were presented by 19 participants from five universities and three institutes of the Russian Academy of Sciences participants from 11 laboratories of three universities from the Lorraine region three industrial companies, including the European Aeronautic Defence and Space Company—EADS, and ANVAR (Agence Nationale de Valorisation de la Recherche) From 2005 onwards, it was decided to organize the Seminar every other year. The second Seminar convened on the occasion of the 75th Anniversary of the Moscow Institute of Steel and Alloys on 10-12 November 2005 in Moscow, Russia. The seminar demonstrated the efficiency of the scientific partnership founded between the research groups of Russia and France during the first Seminar. High productivity of the Franco-Russian scientific cooperation on the basis of the Research-Educational Franco

  4. The Black-Scholes option pricing problem in mathematical finance: generalization and extensions for a large class of stochastic processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouchaud, Jean-Philippe; Sornette, Didier

    1994-06-01

    The ability to price risks and devise optimal investment strategies in thé présence of an uncertain "random" market is thé cornerstone of modern finance theory. We first consider thé simplest such problem of a so-called "European call option" initially solved by Black and Scholes using Ito stochastic calculus for markets modelled by a log-Brownien stochastic process. A simple and powerful formalism is presented which allows us to generalize thé analysis to a large class of stochastic processes, such as ARCH, jump or Lévy processes. We also address thé case of correlated Gaussian processes, which is shown to be a good description of three différent market indices (MATIF, CAC40, FTSE100). Our main result is thé introduction of thé concept of an optimal strategy in the sense of (functional) minimization of the risk with respect to the portfolio. If the risk may be made to vanish for particular continuous uncorrelated 'quasiGaussian' stochastic processes (including Black and Scholes model), this is no longer the case for more general stochastic processes. The value of the residual risk is obtained and suggests the concept of risk-corrected option prices. In the presence of very large deviations such as in Lévy processes, new criteria for rational fixing of the option prices are discussed. We also apply our method to other types of options, `Asian', `American', and discuss new possibilities (`doubledecker'...). The inclusion of transaction costs leads to the appearance of a natural characteristic trading time scale. L'aptitude à quantifier le coût du risque et à définir une stratégie optimale de gestion de portefeuille dans un marché aléatoire constitue la base de la théorie moderne de la finance. Nous considérons d'abord le problème le plus simple de ce type, à savoir celui de l'option d'achat `européenne', qui a été résolu par Black et Scholes à l'aide du calcul stochastique d'Ito appliqué aux marchés modélisés par un processus Log

  5. First- versus second-generation endometrial ablation devices for treatment of menorrhagia: a systematic review, meta-analysis and appraisal of economic evaluations.

    PubMed

    Kroft, Jamie; Liu, Grace

    2013-11-01

    ,001) et pouvaient plus couramment être utilisés en présence d’une anesthésie locale (3 études comptant 558 patientes, ratio des taux 1,87, IC à 95 %, 1,04 - 3,37; P = 0,04). Les patientes traitées au moyen du dispositif Novasure ont présenté un taux d’aménorrhée plus élevé que les patientes traitées au moyen d’autres dispositifs de deuxième génération (4 études comptant 407 patientes, ratio des taux 2.60, IC à 95 %, 1,63 - 4,14; P < 0,001). Trois études européennes ont été incluses dans la synthèse économique, laquelle a constaté que les dispositifs de deuxième génération étaient plus rentables que les dispositifs de première génération. Conclusion : Bien que les dispositifs d’ablation endométriale de deuxième génération et de première génération semblent présenter une efficacité comparable, les dispositifs de deuxième génération sont susceptibles de réduire la durée de l’opération, peuvent plus souvent être utilisés en présence d’une anesthésie locale et donnent lieu à un moins grand nombre de complications. Ils semblent également être plus rentables que les dispositifs de première génération; toutefois, la tenue d’autres évaluations économiques au Canada s’avère requise.

  6. Effects of water extraction in a vulnerable phreatic aquifer: Consequences for groundwater contamination by pesticides, Sint-Jansteen area, The Netherlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaus, Irina

    Pesticides are a potential threat to the quality of extracted groundwater when the water-supply area is used for agricultural activities. This problem is discussed for the water-supply area of Sint-Jansteen, The Netherlands, where measured pesticide concentrations in the extracted water regularly exceed EU limits (0.1μg/L). Groundwater samples taken from the aquifer within the water-supply area show low contamination, but samples taken from the extracted water occasionally contain pesticides, making the water inadequate for drinking-water purposes. The more intense contamination of the extracted water is caused by the change in the natural groundwater flow pattern near the extraction wells. In this area, pesticide use cannot be avoided easily, and an approach is given to differentiate pesticide use in the area according to expected travel time toward the wells and the chemical characteristics of the pesticides. A groundwater flow model for the area is developed and the effects of groundwater extraction on the natural flow pattern are evaluated. Using particle tracking, the travel-time zones are determined. Combining these results and the degradation behavior of certain pesticides led to an optimal scheme to integrate agricultural activities and groundwater extraction in the area. This is illustrated for five different types of pesticides (atrazine, simazine, bentazone, MCPA, and mecoprop). Résumé Les pesticides sont une menace potentielle pour la qualité de l'eau souterraine prélevée lorsque la zone de captage est soumise à des activités agricoles. Ce problème est discuté dans le cas de la zone de captage de Sint-Jansteen (Pays-Bas), où les concentrations mesurées en pesticides dans les eaux pompées dépassent régulièrement les normes européennes (0,1μg/L). Les échantillons d'eau souterraine prélevés dans l'aquifère dans la zone de captage montrent une faible contamination, mais les échantillons d'eau pompée contiennent occasionnellement des

  7. Contemporary attitudes and their ideological representation in Flanders (Belgium), Poland, and the Ukraine.

    PubMed

    Hiel, Alain Van; Kossowska, Malgorzata

    2007-02-01

    'un modèle idéologique d'extrême droite à deux dimensions culturelle et économique ainsi que les relations entre ces dimensions et les attitudes envers les enjeux politiques récents. Les opinions sur l'environnementalisme, sur la guerre contre le terrorisme et sur l'élargissement de l'Union Européenne (UE) ont été sélectionnés comme étant des attitudes contemporaines représentatives. Les présentes questions de recherche ont été examinées dans un échantillon flamand (N = 176), polonais (N = 93) et ukrainien (N = 93). Les résultats ont révélé que deux dimensions sont sous-jacentes au spectre idéologique dans tous les échantillons: une de ces dimensions réfère au conservatisme culturel et à l'autoritarisme d'extrême droite (RWA en anglais) et l'autre réfère au conservatisme économique et à la théorie de la dominance sociale (SDO en anglais). Même si la validité de la différentiation entre ces dimensions idéologiques a été amplement illustrée dans les études sur les échantillons occidentaux, la réplication de ces dimensions dans les anciens pays communistes ajoute à leur validité et à leur généralisabilité parce que ces pays ont une culture et une histoire politique spécifique. Cependant, d'importantes différences trans-culturelles en ce qui concerne la représentation des attitudes contemporaines dans cet espace idéologique à deux dimensions ont également été obtenues. Tandis que la guerre contre le terrorisme a été liée significativement à la dimension culturelle d'extrême droite dans tous les échantillons, les relations pour l'environnementalisme et les attitudes envers l'élargissement de l'UE variaient selon les échantillons. Ces différences trans-culturelles ont été expliquées en termes de degré de saillance du sujet (relations non significatives versus significatives dans le cas de l'environnementalisme) et des soucis pragmatiques quant aux profits et aux coûts (dans le cas de l

  8. Préface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paulus, Werner; Meinnel, Jean

    2003-02-01

    de vue européen, si les sources de l'ILL et d'ISIS peuvent encore être considérées comme des leaders au point de vue mondial, il est évidemment souhaitable que la nouvelle source neutronique à spallation (European Spallation Source : ESS) soit rapidement réalisée. Aujourd'hui ce projet est bien avancé, cette source devrait dépasser le flux des sources actuelles par près de deux ordres de grandeur et ainsi de maintenir au meilleur niveau les compétences Européennes. Il est évident qu'une utilisation efficace et intelligente des sources existantes, mais aussi de celles de la nouvelle génération, implique une certaine infrastructure nationale tant au niveau de la conception, de la réalisation que du fonctionnement des différents spectromètres. Ceci implique un très fort engagement des universités dans les différents projets de recherche. Le devoir des universités qui en résulte est donc d'intégrer l'utilisation des “grands instruments" dans leur programme d'enseignement. Dans ce sens, nous souhaitons que ce cours, entièrement rédigé en français, contribue à la fois à aider les chercheurs “non spécialistes” à accéder plus facilement au domaine neutronique, mais aussi à servir de base aux enseignants pour l'organisation et la préparation de leurs cours.Nous tenons à remercier tous les collègues qui ont accepté de rédiger de façon détaillée les cours qu'ils avaient présentés oralement dans la grande salle du VVF de Trégastel, ainsi que toutes les personnes qui ont contribué à la réussite du séjour ou à la réalisation de ce fascicule. Nous gardons un excellent souvenir de l'atmosphère de l'École qui a eu lieu à Trégastel, en plein centre de la côte de granite rose en Bretagne, en mai 2001 et était jumelée avec les Journées de la diffusion neutronique, elles aussi organisées sous l'égide de la SFN.Nous souhaitons que la lecture de cet ouvrage soit utile à un maximum de chercheurs.