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Sample records for enriched subcontinental lithosphere

  1. On the recent enrichment of subcontinental lithosphere: A detailed UPb study of spinel lherzolite xenoliths, Yukon, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carignan, Jean; Ludden, John; Francis, Don

    1996-11-01

    Lead strontium, and osmium isotopic data have been obtained for whole rocks and mineral separates (olivine, orthopyroxene, clinopyroxene, and spinel) for spinel lherzolite xenoliths hosted by lavas of the Quaternary Alligator Lake volcanic centre, southern Yukon. Whole-rock xenolith samples display a large variation of lead concentrations, from 16 ppb for a harzburgite to up to 400 ppb for a lherzolite. However, their lead isotope ratios are relatively homogeneous with 206Pb /204Pb of 19.07 ± 0.08, 207Pb /204Pb of 15.65 ± 0.07, and 208Pb /204Pb of 38.67 ± 0.17 ( n = 7). However, the 238U /204Pb ratios display a large variation, from 12.2 to 46.5, and do not correlate with indices of fertility such as calcium or aluminum content. Mineral separates yield even larger variations in lead isotopic composition and lead and uranium concentrations. Some olivine fractions have both the lowest radiogenic compositions ( 206Pb /204Pb = 18.75 ) and the lowest 238U /204Pb ratios (˜3.1). Clinopyroxenes (cpx) display the highest lead and uranium concentrations (up to 1277 ppb and 195 ppb, respectivelly) and generally similar or more radiogenic lead isotopic composition and higher 238U /204Pb ratios than their whole-rock compositions. Orthopyroxene and spinel fractions yield intermediate compositions between olivine and cpx. Although whole rocks and cpx for individual samples yield almost identical 87Sr /86Sr , the xenoliths ( n = 5) display a large variation of strontium isotopic compositions ( 87Sr /86Sr from 0.07033 to 0.7050), lead and strontium isotope ratios of cpx and the distribution of the data in a UPb isochron diagram suggest that the subcontinental lithosphere under the Yukon was affected by a recent (< ˜30 Ma) enrichment in uranium, lead, and strontium. The metasomatic fluid/magma might have had an isotopic composition close to that of some sediments in the northern Pacific Ocean. When compared to K d values reported in the literature, olivine is enriched in

  2. Primitive off-rift basalts from Iceland and Jan Mayen: Os-isotopic evidence for a mantle source containing enriched subcontinental lithosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Debaille, Vinciane; Trønnes, Reidar G.; Brandon, Alan D.; Waight, Tod E.; Graham, David W.; Lee, Cin-Ty A.

    2009-06-01

    New measurements of Os, He, Sr and Nd isotopes, along with major and trace elements, are presented for basalts from the three volcanic flank zones in Iceland and from Jan Mayen Island. The 187Os/ 188Os ratios in lavas with <30 ppt Os ( n = 4) are elevated compared to ratios in coexisting olivine and appear to be contaminated at a shallow level. The 187Os/ 188Os ratios in the remaining lavas with >30 ppt Os ( n = 17) range between 0.12117 and 0.13324. These values are surprisingly low for oceanic island basalts and include some samples that are less than putative present-day primitive upper mantle (PUM with 187Os/ 188Os of 0.1296). These low 187Os/ 188Os preclude significant shallow-level contamination from oceanic crust. The 187Os/ 188Os ratios for Jan Mayen lavas are less than PUM, severely limiting the presence of any continental crust in their mantle source. A positive correlation between 143Nd/ 144Nd and 187Os/ 188Os ratios in Iceland and Jan Mayen lavas likely reflects the presence in their source of ancient subcontinental lithosphere that has undergone incompatible trace element enrichment that did not affect the Re-Os system. In addition, the Jan Mayen lava isotopic signature cannot be explained solely by the presence of subcontinental lithospheric mantle, and the influence of another geochemical component, such as a mantle plume appears required. Combined 87Sr/ 86Sr, 143Nd/ 144Nd, 3He/ 4He and 187Os/ 188Os data indicate a genetic relationship between Jan Mayen Island and the Iceland mantle plume. Material from the Iceland mantle plume likely migrates at depth until it reaches the tensional setting of the Jan Mayen Fracture Zone, where it undergoes low-degree partial melting. At a first-order, isotopic co-variations can be interpreted as broadly binary mixing curves between two primary end-members. One end-member, characterized in particular by its unradiogenic 187Os/ 188Os and 143Nd/ 144Nd, low 3He/ 4He and high 87Sr/ 86Sr, is represented by subcontinental

  3. Sr, Nd, and Pb isotopes of ultramafic xenoliths in volcanic rocks of Eastern China: enriched components EMI and EMII in subcontinental lithosphere

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tatsumoto, M.; Basu, A.R.; Wankang, H.; Junwen, W.; Guanghong, X.

    1992-01-01

    The UThPb, SmNd, and RbSr isotopic systematics of mafic and ultramafic xenolithic rocks and associated megacrystic inclusions of aluminous augite and garnet, that occur in three alkalic volcanic suites: Kuandian in eastern Liaoning Province, Hanluoba in Hebei Province, and Minxi in western Fujian Province, China are described. In various isotopic data plots, the inclusion data invariably fall outside the isotopic ranges displayed by the host volcanic rocks, testifying to the true xenolithic nature of the inclusions. The major element partitioning data on Ca, Mg, Fe, and Al among the coexisting silicate minerals of the xenoliths establish their growth at ambient mantle temperatures of 1000-1100??C and possible depths of 70-80 km in the subcontinental lithosphere. Although the partitioning of these elements reflects equilibrium between coexisting minerals, equilibria of the Pb, Nd, and Sr isotopic systems among the minerals were not preserved. The disequilibria are most notable with respect to the 206Pb 204Pb ratios of the minerals. On a NdSr isotopic diagram, the inclusion data plot in a wider area than that for oceanic basalts from a distinctly more depleted component than MORB with higher 143Nd 144Nd and a much broader range of 87Sr 86Sr values, paralleling the theoretical trajectory of a sea-water altered lithosphere in NdSr space. The garnets consistently show lower ?? and ?? values than the pyroxenes and pyroxenites, whereas a phlogopite shows the highest ?? and ?? values among all the minerals and rocks studied. In a plot of ??207 and ??208, the host basalts for all three areas show lower ??207 and higher ??208 values than do the xenoliths, indicating derivation of basalts from Th-rich (relative to U) sources and xenoliths from U-rich sources. The xenolith data trends toward the enriched mantle components, EMI and EMII-like, characterized by high 87Sr 86Sr and ??207 values but with slightly higher 143Nd 144Nd. The EMI trend is shown more distinctly by the host

  4. Isotopic characterisation of the sub-continental lithospheric mantle beneath Zealandia, a rifted fragment of Gondwana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waight, Tod E.; Scott, James M.; van der Meer, Quinten H. A.

    2013-04-01

    The greater New Zealand region, known as Zealandia, represents an amalgamation of crustal fragments accreted to the paleo-Pacific Gondwana margin and which underwent significant thinning during the subsequent split from Australia and Antarctica in the mid-Cretaceous following opening of the Tasman Sea and the Southern Ocean. We present Sr, Nd and Pb isotopes and laser ablation trace element data for a comprehensive suite of clinopyroxene separates from spinel peridotite xenoliths (lherzolite to harzburgite) from the sub-continental lithospheric mantle across southern New Zealand. These xenoliths were transported to the surface in intra-plate alkaline volcanics that erupted across the region in the Eocene and Miocene (33-10 m.y.a.). Most of the volcanic suites have similar geochemical and isotopic properties that indicate melting of an OIB-like mantle source in the garnet stability zone and that contained a HIMU component. The volcanics have tapped two adjacent but chemically contrasting upper mantle domains: a fertile eastern domain and an extremely depleted western domain. Both domains underlie Mesozoic metasedimentary crust. Radiogenic isotope compositions of the clinopyroxene have 87Sr/86Sr between 0.7023 to 0.7035, 143Nd/144Nd between 0.5128 and 0.5132 (corresponding to ?Nd between +3 and +13) with a few samples extending to even more depleted compositions, 206Pb/204 Pb between ca. 19.5 to 21.5 and 208Pb/204 Pb between ca. 38.5 to 40.5. No correlations are observed between isotopic composition, age or geographical separation. These isotopic compositions indicate that the sub-continental lithospheric mantle under southern New Zealand has a regionally distinct and pervasive FOZO to HIMU - like signature. The isotopic signatures are also similar to those of the alkaline magmas that transported the xenoliths and suggest that most of the HIMU signature observed in the volcanics could be derived from a major source component in the sub-continental lithospheric mantle

  5. Osmium isotopic evidence for ancient subcontinental lithospheric mantle beneath the kerguelen islands, southern indian ocean

    PubMed

    Hassler; Shimizu

    1998-04-17

    Upper mantle xenoliths found in ocean island basalts are an important window through which the oceanic mantle lithosphere may be viewed directly. Osmium isotopic data on peridotite xenoliths from the Kerguelen Islands, an archipelago that is located on the northern Kerguelen Plateau in the southern Indian Ocean, demonstrate that pieces of mantle of diverse provenance are present beneath the Islands. In particular, peridotites with unradiogenic osmium and ancient rhenium-depletion ages (to 1.36 x 10(9) years old) may be pieces of the Gondwanaland subcontinental lithosphere that were incorporated into the Indian Ocean lithosphere as a result of the rifting process. PMID:9545216

  6. Osmium isotopic evidence for ancient subcontinental lithospheric mantle beneath the kerguelen islands, southern indian ocean

    PubMed

    Hassler; Shimizu

    1998-04-17

    Upper mantle xenoliths found in ocean island basalts are an important window through which the oceanic mantle lithosphere may be viewed directly. Osmium isotopic data on peridotite xenoliths from the Kerguelen Islands, an archipelago that is located on the northern Kerguelen Plateau in the southern Indian Ocean, demonstrate that pieces of mantle of diverse provenance are present beneath the Islands. In particular, peridotites with unradiogenic osmium and ancient rhenium-depletion ages (to 1.36 x 10(9) years old) may be pieces of the Gondwanaland subcontinental lithosphere that were incorporated into the Indian Ocean lithosphere as a result of the rifting process.

  7. Boron Isotopic Variation in the Subcontinental Lithospheric Mantle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guild, M. R.; Bell, D. R.; Hervig, R. L.

    2013-12-01

    Boron contents and isotopic compositions (δ11B) of phlogopite mica, amphibole, and selected coexisting anhydrous phases were measured by secondary ion mass spectrometry in mantle xenolith samples from the Kaapvaal Craton of South Africa, in order to better understand processes of volatile element transfer in the mantle. We have documented a wide range of δ11B (>40‰) and B contents (<10ppb to 10's of ppm) in mica from three broad groups identified based on petrographic and compositional criteria, and B geochemistry. The first group, characterized by light δ11B values (-17‰ to -30‰) and low B contents (a few ppb to 100's ppb), consists of mica megacrysts in kimberlite and mica in garnet harzburgites (gt hz) and lherzolites (gt lz) containing variably abundant metasomatic mica, orthopyroxene (opx) and, in some cases, clinopyroxene (cpx). Boron contents and δ11B show a broad positive correlation with modal intensity of metasomatism from gt hz to mica-rich websteritic gt lz. Metasomatic fluids, parental to this group, are proposed to originate in partially-dehydrated subducting oceanic lithosphere, consistent with high LILE/HFSE mineral chemistry. The second group is characterized by relatively B-rich (~1ppm) micas and amphiboles from MARID xenoliths, cpx and gt in cpx-rich peridotite, and (B-poor) subcalcic cpx megacrysts, which all have δ11B of ~-10‰, indistinguishable from primitive mantle estimates. The fluids associated with the second group of samples may have originated in mantle plumes. The third group is heterogeneous showing δ11B values from ~-5 to +15‰ with B contents from 0.5-10 ppm. These samples (all micas) exhibit secondary textures that appear to result from fluid processes associated with kimberlite emplacement. Other analyzed samples (hydrous and anhydrous) may record contact with multiple fluids. The current dataset shows that boron is a useful tracer of fluids in the mantle and can contribute to the understanding of global geochemical

  8. Subduction initiation, recycling of Alboran lower crust, and intracrustal emplacement of subcontinental lithospheric mantle in the Westernmost Mediterranean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varas-Reus, María Isabel; Garrido, Carlos J.; Bosch, Delphine; Marchesi, Claudio; Hidas, Károly; Booth-Rea, Guillermo; Acosta-Vigil, Antonio

    2015-04-01

    Unraveling the tectonic settings and processes involved in the annihilation of subcontinental mantle lithosphere is of paramount importance for our understanding of the endurance of continents through Earth history. Unlike ophiolites -- their oceanic mantle lithosphere counterparts -- the mechanisms of emplacement of the subcontinental mantle lithosphere in orogens is still poorly known. The emplacement of subcontinental lithospheric mantle peridotites is often attributed to extension in rifted passive margins or continental backarc basins, accretionary processes in subduction zones, or some combination of these processes. One of the most prominent features of the westernmost Mediterranean Alpine orogenic arcs is the presence of the largest outcrops worldwide of diamond facies, subcontinental mantle peridotite massifs; unveiling the mechanisms of emplacement of these massifs may provide important clues on processes involved in the destruction of continents. The western Mediterranean underwent a complex Alpine evolution of subduction initiation, slab fragmentation, and rollback within a context of slow convergence of Africa and Europe In the westernmost Mediterranean, the alpine orogeny ends in the Gibraltar tight arc, which is bounded by the Betic, Rif and Tell belts that surround the Alboran and Algero-Balearic basins. The internal units of these belts are mostly constituted of an allochthonous lithospheric domain that collided and overthrusted Mesozoic and Tertiary sedimentary rocks of the Mesozoic-Paleogene, South Iberian and Maghrebian rifted continental paleomargins. Subcontinental lithospheric peridotite massifs are intercalated between polymetamorphic internal units of the Betic (Ronda, Ojen and Carratraca massifs), Rif (Beni Bousera), and Tell belts. In the Betic chain, the internal zones of the allochthonous Alboran domain include, from bottom to top, polymetamorphic rock of the Alpujarride and Malaguide complexes. The Ronda peridotite massif -- the

  9. Subduction initiation, recycling of Alboran lower crust, and intracrustal emplacement of subcontinental lithospheric mantle in the Westernmost Mediterranean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varas-Reus, María Isabel; Garrido, Carlos J.; Bosch, Delphine; Marchesi, Claudio; Hidas, Károly; Booth-Rea, Guillermo; Acosta-Vigil, Antonio

    2015-04-01

    Unraveling the tectonic settings and processes involved in the annihilation of subcontinental mantle lithosphere is of paramount importance for our understanding of the endurance of continents through Earth history. Unlike ophiolites -- their oceanic mantle lithosphere counterparts -- the mechanisms of emplacement of the subcontinental mantle lithosphere in orogens is still poorly known. The emplacement of subcontinental lithospheric mantle peridotites is often attributed to extension in rifted passive margins or continental backarc basins, accretionary processes in subduction zones, or some combination of these processes. One of the most prominent features of the westernmost Mediterranean Alpine orogenic arcs is the presence of the largest outcrops worldwide of diamond facies, subcontinental mantle peridotite massifs; unveiling the mechanisms of emplacement of these massifs may provide important clues on processes involved in the destruction of continents. The western Mediterranean underwent a complex Alpine evolution of subduction initiation, slab fragmentation, and rollback within a context of slow convergence of Africa and Europe In the westernmost Mediterranean, the alpine orogeny ends in the Gibraltar tight arc, which is bounded by the Betic, Rif and Tell belts that surround the Alboran and Algero-Balearic basins. The internal units of these belts are mostly constituted of an allochthonous lithospheric domain that collided and overthrusted Mesozoic and Tertiary sedimentary rocks of the Mesozoic-Paleogene, South Iberian and Maghrebian rifted continental paleomargins. Subcontinental lithospheric peridotite massifs are intercalated between polymetamorphic internal units of the Betic (Ronda, Ojen and Carratraca massifs), Rif (Beni Bousera), and Tell belts. In the Betic chain, the internal zones of the allochthonous Alboran domain include, from bottom to top, polymetamorphic rock of the Alpujarride and Malaguide complexes. The Ronda peridotite massif -- the

  10. Helium isotopes of the Siberian sub-continental lithospheric mantle: Insights from eclogite xenoliths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barry, P. H.; Hilton, D. R.; Day, J. M.; Pernet-Fisher, J.; Howarth, G. H.; Taylor, L. A.

    2014-12-01

    Helium isotopes (3He/4He) have been extensively used to define distinct segments of Earth's mantle and characterize its chemical structure. Specifically, they have been used to illustrate the long-term isolation and preservation of high-3He/4He (≥50 RA; [1]) plume-derived materials from the well-mixed and more-extensively degassed depleted MORB mantle (DMM) (8 RA; [2]). However, the He-isotope signature of the sub-continental lithospheric mantle (SCLM) remains relatively poorly characterized (6.1 RA; [3]). The Siberian craton hosts >1000 kimberlite intrusions, which carry mantle-derived xenoliths - of varying compositions (i.e., peridotites, dunites, and eclogites) - to the Earth's surface, making it an ideal setting for investigating the chemical evolution of the SCLM. Here, we report new He-isotope and concentration data for a suite of eclogitic xenoliths (n=10) from the Udachnaya pipe, Siberia. He-isotopes and [He] contents were determined by crushing garnet and pyroxene mineral separates from 2.7-3.1 Ga Siberian eclogites. 3He/4He values ranged from 0.11 to 1.0 RA, displaying predominantly radiogenic (i.e., low 3He/4He) He-isotope values. In contrast, Siberian flood basalt values extend up to ~13 RA [4]. Helium concentrations span ~4 orders of magnitude from 60 to 569,000 [4He]C ncm3STP/g. The radiogenic nature of Udachnaya eclogites indicate that they have been largely isolated from basaltic metasomatic fluxes over geological time due to position within the lithosphere and/or lithospheric age. Further, low 3He/4He values may reflect the addition of high U-Th material into the lithosphere by accretion of ancient island-arc terrains. These new data add to the growing He-isotope database [5,6] for the Siberian SCLM, and reveal the heterogeneous nature of this region with respect to He-isotopes, as well as the potential importance of crustal recycling and metasomatic processes. [1] Stuart et al., 2003. Nature. [2] Graham, 2002. Reviews in Mineralogy and

  11. Formation of Secondary Lherzolite and Refertilization of the Subcontinental Lithospheric Mantle: The Record of Orogenic Peridotites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garrido, Carlos J.; Varas-Reus, María Isabel; Bodinier, Jean-Louis; Marchesi, Claudio; Bosch, Delphine; Hidas, Károly

    2016-04-01

    Correlations observed between major and minor transition elements in tectonically-emplaced orogenic peridotites have classically been ascribed to variable degrees of melt extraction. There is a growing body of evidence indicating that these chemical variations mostly reflect melt redistribution and near solidus reactions superimposed onto previous melting depletion events. Here we will assess this hypothesis using a large database of peridotites from orogenic peridotites in the westernmost Mediterranean (Ronda and Beni Bousera peridotites). We show that lherzolite samples show some trends in major elements and modal variations that are inconsistent with their interpretation as depleted MORB mantle (DMM). These trends are more consistent with the secondary formation of lherzolites by refertilization processes involving a least two different near-solidus, melt-processes: refertilization by pyroxenite-derived melts and by hydrous melts leading, respectively, to secondary lherzolites with Ol/Opx and Cpx/Opx ratios greater than those expected from residues from a primitive upper mantle source. Together with their N-MORB, LREE-depleted pattern, their fertile lherzolitic composition may have been acquired as a result of melt-rock interaction processes associated with the thermomechanical erosion of lithospheric mantle by asthenosphere. Major refertilization of depleted subcontinental mantle is an alternative to the small degrees of melt extraction to account for LREE depletion in otherwise fertile orogenic lherzolites.

  12. Survival of Brown Colour in Diamond During Storage in the Subcontinental Lithospheric Mantle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Evan; Helmstaedt, Herwart; Flemming, Roberta

    2010-05-01

    Brown is the most common colour of natural diamond. This colour is generally associated with plastic deformation of the crystal structure, which is imparted during residence in the mantle. Dislocation movement generates vacancies, which aggregate into clusters of perhaps 30-60 vacancies. The resulting electronic configuration leads to the broad, featureless absorption pattern associated with common brown colour. It is well-established that the common brown colour can be removed by high-pressure-high-temperature (HPHT) treatment. The process involves pressures and temperatures in the range of 5-9 GPa and 1800-2700 ° C, respectively. The treatment may take several minutes or hours. It has been suggested that the same colour removal process operates continuously in the subcontinental lithospheric mantle, causing any brown diamonds in the diamond window to quickly lose their colour. The present study examined the validity of this suggestion. Temperature is the important difference between HPHT conditions and diamond window conditions. Higher temperatures result in faster colour removal. HPHT treatment occurs at 1800-2700 ° C, whereas inclusion thermometry places most lithospheric diamonds in the range of 900-1400 ° C. Destruction of the brown colour centre involves breaking up vacancy clusters. How quickly this can be done depends on the concentration of clusters as well as the rate constant. The rate constant is changes with temperature, according to the Arrhenius equation. The key to this relationship is the activation energy required for the breakup of a vacancy cluster. This activation energy can be estimated as the energy of an isolated monovacancy, minus the energy per vacancy of the cluster, plus the vacancy migration energy. A value of 7.7±0.3 eV is obtained using data from recent literature. For any given brown diamond, the rate constant determines the time needed to remove a certain amount of colour. The Arrhenius equation can be rearranged to show how

  13. Subcontinental lithosphere reactivation beneath the Hoggar swell (Algeria): Localized deformation, melt channeling and heat advection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kourim, Fatna; Vauchez, Alain; Bodinier, Jean-Louis; Alard, Olivier; Bendaoud, Abderrahmane

    2015-05-01

    In the Tahalgha district (southwestern Hoggar, Algeria), the Cenozoic volcanism has sampled subcontinental mantle beneath two crustal terranes that collided during the Pan-African orogeny: the "Polycyclic Central Hoggar" to the east and the "Western Hoggar" to the west. Two major lithospheric shear zones separate these terranes: the "4°35" and the "4°50" faults. Mantle xenoliths were collected between the two faults and across the 4°35 fault. In addition to a range in equilibrium temperatures and chemical compositions reported elsewhere, the samples show variations in their microstructures and crystallographic preferred orientations. Equilibrium temperatures and geochemical characteristics allow dividing them into low - (LT; 700-900 °C), intermediate - (IT; 900-1000 °C), and high-temperature (HT; 1000-1100 °C) xenoliths. The LT and IT peridotites occur on both sides of the 4°35 fault; they are usually coarse-grained. HT xenoliths are present only east of the 4°35 fault, in the narrow domain stuck between the two faults; they are fine-grained and extensively affected by annealing and melt-rock reactions. Microstructures and crystallographic textures indicate that deformation in the LT- and IT-xenoliths occurred through dislocation creep under relatively high-temperature, low-pressure conditions, followed by post-kinematic cooling. The fine-grained HT-xenoliths were deformed under relatively high-stress conditions before being annealed. Combining microstructural and CPO data with petrological and geochemical informations suggests that: (1) the LT xenoliths are remnants of the Neoproterozoic lithospheric mantle that preserved microstructural and chemical characteristics inherited from the Pan-African orogeny, and (2) the HT xenoliths record localized Cenozoic deformation associated with melt channeling through feed-back processes that culminated in the formation of high-permeability porous-flow conduits. Limited grain-growth in HT xenoliths suggests that

  14. Noble gas composition of subcontinental lithospheric mantle: An extensively degassed reservoir beneath Southern Patagonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jalowitzki, Tiago; Sumino, Hirochika; Conceição, Rommulo V.; Orihashi, Yuji; Nagao, Keisuke; Bertotto, Gustavo W.; Balbinot, Eduardo; Schilling, Manuel E.; Gervasoni, Fernanda

    2016-09-01

    Patagonia, in the Southern Andes, is one of the few locations where interactions between the oceanic and continental lithosphere can be studied due to subduction of an active spreading ridge beneath the continent. In order to characterize the noble gas composition of Patagonian subcontinental lithospheric mantle (SCLM), we present the first noble gas data alongside new lithophile (Sr-Nd-Pb) isotopic data for mantle xenoliths from Pali-Aike Volcanic Field and Gobernador Gregores, Southern Patagonia. Based on noble gas isotopic compositions, Pali-Aike mantle xenoliths represent intrinsic SCLM with higher (U + Th + K)/(3He, 22Ne, 36Ar) ratios than the mid-ocean ridge basalt (MORB) source. This reservoir shows slightly radiogenic helium (3He/4He = 6.84-6.90 RA), coupled with a strongly nucleogenic neon signature (mantle source 21Ne/22Ne = 0.085-0.094). The 40Ar/36Ar ratios vary from a near-atmospheric ratio of 510 up to 17700, with mantle source 40Ar/36Ar between 31100-6800+9400 and 54000-9600+14200. In addition, the 3He/22Ne ratios for the local SCLM endmember, at 12.03 ± 0.15 to 13.66 ± 0.37, are higher than depleted MORBs, at 3He/22Ne = 8.31-9.75. Although asthenospheric mantle upwelling through the Patagonian slab window would result in a MORB-like metasomatism after collision of the South Chile Ridge with the Chile trench ca. 14 Ma, this mantle reservoir could have remained unhomogenized after rapid passage and northward migration of the Chile Triple Junction. The mantle endmember xenon isotopic ratios of Pali-Aike mantle xenoliths, which is first defined for any SCLM-derived samples, show values indistinguishable from the MORB source (129Xe/132Xe =1.0833-0.0053+0.0216 and 136Xe/132Xe =0.3761-0.0034+0.0246). The noble gas component observed in Gobernador Gregores mantle xenoliths is characterized by isotopic compositions in the MORB range in terms of helium (3He/4He = 7.17-7.37 RA), but with slightly nucleogenic neon (mantle source 21Ne/22Ne = 0.065-0.079). We

  15. Sulfur and selenium systematics of the subcontinental lithospheric mantle: Inferences from the Massif Central xenolith suite (France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lorand, Jean-Pierre; Alard, Olivier; Luguet, Ambre; Keays, Reid R.

    2003-11-01

    Selenium has been analyzed in addition to S in 58 spinel peridotite xenoliths collected in Cenozoic alkali basalts from the Massif Central (France). The S concentration range now available for this suite, calculated from 123 samples, is the largest ever reported for alkali basalt-hosted xenoliths (<3-592 ppm). Likewise, the Se concentrations range between 0.2 and 67 ppb. No partial melting signature can be identified from the S and Se systematic. Half of the analyzed xenoliths have lost S during supergene weathering. By contrast, neither surficial alteration, nor loss of chalcophile elements during eruption can explain the regional-scale variations of S and Se concentrations. A first group of lherzolite xenoliths sampled in Southern Massif Central, from volcanic centers older and spatially unrelated to the Massif Central plume that triggered the Cenozoic volcanism, contains between 20 and 250 ppm S (with occasional S concentrations up to 592 ppm) and 12-67 ppb Se. It is clear that the highest S values, originally interpreted as representing S abundances in the primitive mantle, were in fact enriched by metasomatism. Highly variable S and Se contents (<5-360 ppm; 9-52 ppb) have also been observed in peridotite xenoliths collected in the Northern Massif Central, from volcanic centers mostly older than the plume. Like Group I xenoliths, these Group II xenoliths were strongly metasomatized by volatile-rich carbonated/silicated melts which precipitated Cu-rich sulfides. A third group of xenoliths from Plio-Quaternary basalts spatially related to the Massif Central Plume are uniformly poor in S (10-60 ppm) and Se (9-29 ppb). In this Group III, poikiloblastic textured xenoliths have lost most of their S and Se budget by peridotite-melt interactions at high melt/rock ratios. Taken as a whole, the Massif Central xenolith suite provides further evidence for strong heterogeneities in the S and Se budget of the sub-continental lithospheric mantle. However, the few LREE

  16. Refertilization process in the Patagonian subcontinental lithospheric mantle of Estancia Sol de Mayo (Argentina)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melchiorre, Massimiliano; Coltorti, Massimo; Gregoire, Michel; Benoit, Mathieu

    2015-05-01

    Anhydrous mantle xenoliths equilibrated at 1003-1040 °C from Estancia Sol de Mayo (ESM, Central Patagonia, Argentina) and entrained in post-plateau alkaline lavas belonging to Meseta Lago Buenos Aires have been investigated aiming at reconstructing the depletion and enrichment processes that affected this portion of the Patagonia lithospheric mantle. Xenoliths are characterized by a coarse-grained protogranular texture and are devoid of evident modal metasomatism. They show two texturally different clinopyroxenes: protogranular (cpx1) and texturally related to spinel (cpx2). Three different types of orthopyroxenes are also recognized: large protogranular crystals with exsolution lamellae (opx1); small clean and undeformed grains without exsolution lamellae (opx2) and small grains arranged in a vein (opx3). Major element composition of clinopyroxenes and orthopyroxenes highlights two different trends characterized by i) a high Al2O3 content at almost constant mg# and ii) a slight increase in Al2O3 content with decreasing mg#. Clinopyroxenes are enriched in LREE and are characterized by prominent to slightly negative Nb, Zr and Ti anomalies. No geochemical differences are observed between cpx1 and cpx2, while a discrimination can be observed between opx1 and opx2 (LREE-depleted; prominent to slightly negative Ti and Zr anomalies) and opx3 (prominent positive Zr anomaly). Partial melting modeling using both major and trace elements indicates a melting degree between ~ 5% and ~ 13% (up to ~ 23% according to major element modeling) for lherzolites and between ~ 20% and ~ 30% for harzburgites (down to ~ 5% according to trace element modeling). La/Yb and Al2O3, as well as Sr and Al2O3 negative correlations in clinopyroxenes point to a refertilization event affecting this lithospheric mantle. The agent was most probably a transitional alkaline/subalkaline melt, as indicated by the presence of orthopyroxene in the vein and the similar geochemical features of ESM

  17. The formation of volcanic centers at the Colorado Plateau as a result of the passage of aqueous fluid through the oceanic lithosphere and the subcontinental mantle: New implications for the planetary water cycle in the western United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sommer, Holger; Regenauer-Lieb, Klaus; Gasharova, Biliana; Jung, Haemyeong

    2012-10-01

    We provide new petrological evidence for the strong influence of water on the formation of the oceanic lithospheric mantle, the subcontinental mantle above, and the continental lithosphere. Our analysis throws new light on the hypothesis that new continental lithosphere was formed by the passage of silicate-rich aqueous fluid through the sub-continental mantle. In order to investigate this hypothesis, we analyzed a representative collection of lherzolite and harzburgite xenoliths from the sample volcano known as "The Thumb", located in the center of the Colorado Plateau, western United States. The studied sample collection exhibits multi-stage water enrichment processes along point, line and planar defect structures in nominally anhydrous minerals and the subsequent formation of the serpentine polymorph antigorite along grain boundaries and in totally embedded annealed cracks. Planar defect structures act like monomineralic and interphase grain boundaries in the oceanic lithosphere and the subcontinental mantle beneath the North American plate, which was hydrated by the ancient oceanic Farallon plate during the Cenozoic and Mesozoic eras. We used microspectroscopical, petrological, and seismological techniques to confirm multi-stage hydration from a depth of ˜150 km to just below the Moho depth. High-resolution mapping of the water distribution over homogeneous areas and fully embedded point, line and planar defects in olivine crystals of lherzolitic and harzburgitic origin by synchrotron infrared microspectroscopy enabled us to resolve local wet spots and thus reconstruct the hydration process occurring at a depth of ˜150 km (T ≈ 1225 °C). These lherzolites originated from the middle part of the Farallon mantle slab; they were released during the break up of the Farallon mantle slab, caused by the instability of the dipping slab. The background hydration levels in homogeneous olivines reached ˜138 ppm wt H2O, and the water concentration at the planar defects

  18. Depleted subcontinental lithospheric mantle and its tholeiitic melt metasomatism beneath NE termination of the Eger Rift (Europe): the case study of the Steinberg (Upper Lusatia, SE Germany) xenoliths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kukuła, Anna; Puziewicz, Jacek; Matusiak-Małek, Magdalena; Ntaflos, Theodoros; Büchner, Jörg; Tietz, Olaf

    2015-12-01

    The ca. 30 Ma Steinberg basanite occurs at the NE termination of the Eger (Ohře) Rift in the NW Bohemian Massif, Central Europe, and belongs to the Cenozoic alkaline Central European Volcanic Province. The basanite hosts a suite of mantle xenoliths, most of which are harzburgites containing relatively magnesian olivine (Fo 90.5-91.6) and Al-poor (0.04-0.13 a pfu) orthopyroxene (mg# 0.90-0.92). Some of these harzburgites also contain volumetrically minor clinopyroxene (mg# 0.92-0.95, Al 0.03-0.13 a pfu) and have U-shaped LREE-enriched REE patterns. The Steinberg harzburgites are typical for the Lower Silesian - Upper Lusatian domain of the European subcontinental lithospheric mantle. They represent residual mantle that has undergone extensive partial melting and was subsequently affected by mantle metasomatism by mixed carbonatite-silicate melts. The Steinberg xenolith suite comprises also dunitic xenoliths affected by metasomatism by melt similar to the host basanite, which lowered the Fo content in olivine to 87.6 %. This metasomatism happened shortly before xenolith entrainment in the erupting lava. One of the xenoliths is a wehrlite (olivine Fo 73 %, clinopyroxene mg# 0.83-0.85, subordinate orthopyroxene mg# 0.76-0.77). Its clinopyroxene REE pattern is flat and slightly LREE-depleted. This wehrlite is considered to be a tholeiitic cumulate. One of the studied harzburgites contains clinopyroxene with similar trace element contents to those in wehrlite. This type of clinopyroxene records percolation of tholeiitic melt through harzburgite. The tholeiitic melt might be similar to Cenozoic continental tholeiites occurring in the Central European Volcanic Province (e.g., Vogelsberg, Germany).

  19. Constraining the dynamic response of subcontinental lithospheric mantle to rifting using Re-Os model ages in the Western Ross Sea, Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doherty, C.; Class, C.; Goldstein, S. L.; Shirey, S. B.; Martin, A. P.; Cooper, A. F.; Berg, J. H.; Gamble, J. A.

    2012-12-01

    In order to understand the dynamic response of the subcontinental lithospheric mantle (SCLM) to rifting, it is important to be able to distinguish the geochemical signatures of SCLM vs. asthenosphere. Recent work demonstrates that unradiogenic Os isotope ratios can indicate old depletion events in the convecting upper mantle (e.g. Rudnick & Walker, 2009), and allow us to make these distinctions. Thus, if SCLM can be traced across a rifted margin, its fate during rifting can be established. The Western Ross Sea provides favorable conditions to test the dynamic response of SCLM to rifting. Re-Os measurements from 8 locations extending from the rift shoulder to 200 km into the rift basin reveal 187Os/188Os ranging from 0.1056 at Foster Crater on the shoulder, to 0.1265 on Ross Island within the rift. While individual sample model ages vary widely throughout the margin, 'aluminochron' ages (Reisberg & Lorand, 1995) reveal a narrower range of lithospheric stabilization ages. Franklin Island and Sulfur Cones show a range of Re-depletion ages (603-1522 Ma and 436-1497 Ma) but aluminochrons yield Paleoproterozoic stabilization ages of 1680 Ma and 1789 Ma, respectively. These ages coincide with U-Pb zircon ages from Transantarctic Mountain (TAM) crustal rocks, in support of SCLM stabilization at the time of crust formation along the central TAM. The Paleoproterozoic stabilization age recorded at Franklin Island is especially significant, since it lies 200km off of the rift shoulder. The similar ages beneath the rift shoulder and within the rift suggests stretched SCLM reaches into the rift and thus precludes replacement by asthenospheric mantle. The persistence of thinned Paleoproterozoic SCLM into the rifted zone in WARS suggests that it represents a 'type I' margin of Huismans and Beaumont (2011), which is characterized by crustal breakup before loss of lithospheric mantle. The Archean Re-depletion age of 3.2 Ga observed on the rift shoulder suggests that cratonic

  20. Sub-continental lithospheric mantle structure beneath the Adamawa plateau inferred from the petrology of ultramafic xenoliths from Ngaoundéré (Adamawa plateau, Cameroon, Central Africa)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nkouandou, Oumarou F.; Bardintzeff, Jacques-Marie; Fagny, Aminatou M.

    2015-11-01

    Ultramafic xenoliths (lherzolite, harzburgite and olivine websterite) have been discovered in basanites close to Ngaoundéré in Adamawa plateau. Xenoliths exhibit protogranular texture (lherzolite and olivine websterite) or porphyroclastic texture (harzburgite). They are composed of olivine Fo89-90, orthopyroxene, clinopyroxene and spinel. According to geothermometers, lherzolites have been equilibrated at 880-1060 °C; equilibrium temperatures of harzburgite are rather higher (880-1160 °C), while those of olivine websterite are bracketed between 820 and 1010 °C. The corresponding pressures are 1.8-1.9 GPa, 0.8-1.0 GPa and 1.9-2.5 GPa, respectively, which suggests that xenoliths have been sampled respectively at depths of 59-63 km, 26-33 km and 63-83 km. Texture and chemical compositional variations of xenoliths with temperature, pressure and depth on regional scale may be ascribed to the complex history undergone by the sub-continental mantle beneath the Adamawa plateau during its evolution. This may involve a limited asthenosphere uprise, concomitantly with plastic deformation and partial melting due to adiabatic decompression processes. Chemical compositional heterogeneities are also proposed in the sub-continental lithospheric mantle under the Adamawa plateau, as previously suggested for the whole Cameroon Volcanic Line.

  1. Constraining the Composition of the Subcontinental Lithospheric Mantle Beneath the East African Rift: FTIR Analysis of Water in Spinel Peridotite Mantle Xenoliths

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erickson, Stephanie Gwen; Nelson, Wendy R.; Peslier, Anne H.; Snow, Jonathan E.

    2014-01-01

    The East African Rift System was initiated by the impingement of the Afar mantle plume on the base of the non-cratonic continental lithosphere (assembled during the Pan-African Orogeny), producing over 300,000 kmof continental flood basalts approx.30 Ma ago. The contribution of the subcontinental lithospheric mantle (SCLM) to this voluminous period of volcanism is implied based on basaltic geochemical and isotopic data. However, the role of percolating melts on the SCLM composition is less clear. Metasomatism is capable of hybridizing or overprinting the geochemical signature of the SCLM. In addition, models suggest that adding fluids to lithospheric mantle affects its stability. We investigated the nature of the SCLM using Fourier transform infrared spectrometry (FTIR) to measure water content in mantle xenoliths entrained in young (1 Ma) basaltic lavas from the Ethiopian volcanic province. The mantle xenoliths consist dominantly of spinel lherzolites and are composed of nominally anhydrous minerals, which can contain trace water as H in mineral defects. Eleven mantle xenoliths come from the Injibara-Gojam region and two from the Mega-Sidamo region. Water abundances of olivines in six samples are 1-5ppm H2O while the rest are below the limit of detection (<0.5 ppm H2O); orthopyroxene and clinopyroxene contain 80-238 and 111-340 ppm wt H2O, respectively. Two xenoliths have higher water contents - a websterite (470 ppm) and dunite (229 ppm), consistent with involvement of ascending melts. The low water content of the upper SCLM beneath Ethiopia is as dry as the oceanic mantle except for small domains represented by percolating melts. Consequently, rifting of the East African lithosphere may not have been facilitated by a hydrated upper mantle.

  2. Refertilization-driven destabilization of subcontinental mantle and the importance of initial lithospheric thickness for the fate of continents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, J. P.; Lee, C.-T. A.; Lu, J. G.; Zhao, J. H.; Wu, Y. B.; Xia, B.; Li, X. Y.; Zhang, J. F.; Liu, Y. S.

    2015-01-01

    Continents are underlain by thick, cold thermal boundary layers. Thermal contraction should render these boundary layers negatively buoyant and unstable; this is why old, cold oceanic lithospheres subduct. However, the ancient lithospheric roots of many continents appear to have existed for billions of years. In the common view, this preservation is due to the fact that the thermal boundary layers are compositionally distinct from the ambient mantle in that they are highly melt-depleted and dehydrated; the former provides positive buoyancy and the latter provides strength. Here, we show using mantle xenoliths that the Precambrian South China Block originally was underlain by highly depleted mantle, but has been refertilized via silicate melts generated from the asthenosphere. It is now more fertile than the ambient convecting mantle and is intrinsically denser by more than 1.5%. Achieving sufficient melt generation for refertilization is only possible if the lithosphere is thin enough to provide "headspace" for decompression melting. Thus, continental boundary layers thinner than the maximum depth of melting should experience refertilization, whereas thicker continents would altogether suppress melting and hence the potential for refertilization. We propose that refertilization, once initiated, will destabilize the base of the continent; this in turn will increase the amount of "headspace" and promote further refertilization, resulting in a positive feedback that could culminate in lithospheric destruction. By contrast, continents that are thick enough may not experience significant refertilization. This suggests that initial lithospheric thickness, as well as lithospheric composition, may be important for defining the fate of continents.

  3. Characterization of the sub-continental lithospheric mantle beneath the Cameroon volcanic line inferred from alkaline basalt hosted peridotite xenoliths from Barombi Mbo and Nyos Lakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pintér, Zsanett; Patkó, Levente; Tene Djoukam, Joëlle Flore; Kovács, István; Tchouankoue, Jean Pierre; Falus, György; Konc, Zoltán; Tommasi, Andréa; Barou, Fabrice; Mihály, Judith; Németh, Csaba; Jeffries, Teresa

    2015-11-01

    We carried out detailed petrographic, major and trace element geochemical, microstructural and FTIR analyses on eight characteristic ultramafic xenoliths from Nyos and Barombi Mbo Lakes in the continental sector of the Cameroon Volcanic Line (CVL). The studied xenoliths are spinel lherzolites showing lithologies similar to the other xenoliths reported previously along the CVL. They have protogranular and porphyroclastic textures. One of the Barombi xenolith contains amphibole, which had not been previously reported in this locality. Amphibole is common in the Nyos xenoliths suite. Peridotite xenoliths from both localities show some chemical heterogeneity, but Barombi xenoliths generally are less depleted in basaltic elements with respect to Nyos xenoliths. Trace element compositions of Nyos spinel lherzolites show a moderately depleted initial (premetasomatic) composition and variable enrichment in REE. Evidence for both modal and cryptic metasomatism is present in Nyos xenoliths. Rare earth element patterns of clinopyroxene suggest that interaction between mafic melts and the upper mantle occurred beneath the Nyos locality. Barombi Mbo xenoliths, on the other hand, record a small degree of partial melting. The Barombi Mbo xenoliths have weak, dominantly orthorhombic olivine crystal preferred orientations, whereas Nyos ones have strong axial-[010] patterns, which may have formed in response to transpression. Nominally anhydrous mantle minerals (NAMs) of the Barombi Mbo xenoliths show generally higher bulk concentrations of 'water' (70-127 ppm) than Nyos xenoliths (32-81 ppm). The Barombi Mbo xenoliths could originate from a juvenile segment of the lithospheric mantle, which had been originally part of the asthenosphere. It became a part of the lithosphere in response to thermal relaxation following the extension, forming a weakly deformed lower lithospheric mantle region along the CVL. The Nyos xenoliths, however, represent a shallow lithospheric mantle bearing

  4. Mineral associations and major element compositions of base metal sulphides from the subcontinental lithospheric mantle of NE Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galán, Gumer; Cruz, Erzika; Fernández-Roig, Mercè; Martínez, Francisco J.; Oliveras, Valentí

    2016-02-01

    This study deals with textural types and major element compositions of Cu-Ni-Fe sulphides from spinel lherzolite, harzburgite and olivine websterite xenoliths found in alkali basaltic rocks of the Neogene-Quaternary volcanic zone of Catalonia (NE Spain). Sulphides in harzburgites and websterites are scarce. Four textural types have been distinguished: inclusions in silicates and spinel, trails of small droplets often radiating from inclusions, interstitial grains, and grains related to pyrometamorphic textures. The mineral associations are dominated by one or two low-temperature monosulphide solid solutions: mss1, mss2, occasionally accompanied by pyrrhotite, pentlandite and Cu-rich sulphides. Compositions of mss1 are more Fe-enriched in inclusions and interstitial grains than in grains related to pyrometamorphism. Compositions of mss2 are Ni-rich very close to pentlandite. Sulphide bulk compositions correspond to high-temperature monosulphide solid solution equilibrated with a relatively Cu-Ni enriched sulphide melt at 1100-1000 °C. The breakdown products of these earlier compositions could have been either equilibrated below 600, 300 °C or being at disequilibrium. A restitic origin is consistent with the main sulphide mineral associations, the estimated melt extraction for peridotites (<30 %) and with the fact that lherzolites are less affected by cryptic metasomatism than harzburgites . However, Ni exchange coefficients between olivine and the high-temperature monosulphide solid solution underestimate equilibrium values. This suggests that some lherzolites could derive from pervasive refertilization. The scarcity of sulphides in websterites is explained by S incompatible behaviour during the formation of earlier cumulates from the mafic alkaline magmas which caused the cryptic metasomatism.

  5. Partial melting of an ancient sub-continental lithospheric mantle in the early Paleozoic intracontinental regime and its contribution to petrogenesis of the coeval peraluminous granites in South China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, Yufang; Wang, Lianxun; Zhao, Junhong; Liu, Lei; Ma, Changqian; Zheng, Jianping; Zhang, Zejun; Luo, Biji

    2016-11-01

    The appinite-granite association has been found in various tectonic regimes related to recent subduction, arc-continent or continent-continent collision and post-collision (orogen), and appinites generally originate from recently subduction-modified lithospheric mantle. We conducted a study on a rarely reported appinite-granite association formed in an intracontinental regime, the Zhangjiafang-Qinglongshan complex (ZQC), in which the appinites were derived from an ancient sub-continental lithospheric mantle (SCLM). The ZQC is located in the western Wugongshan domain, and consists of basaltic to intermediate appinites and granitoids. Ten dated samples (including massive and gneissoid granitoids, hornblende gabbro, and diorite) give zircon 206Pb/238U ages ranging from 444 ± 3 Ma to 452 ± 4 Ma, indicating that these various lithologies were emplaced synchronously. The basaltic appinites show radiogenic 87Sr/86Sri (0.71016-0.71431) and negative εNd(t) (- 6.1 to - 8.9) and zircon εHf(t) (- 4.2 to - 7.5) values. Combined with regional geological background, an origin from the Neoproterozoic metasomatised SCLM can be inferred for the appinites in the Wugongshan domain. The granitoids are peraluminous and almost high-K calc-alkaline to shoshonitic. They exhibit a wide range of isotopic compositions (87Sr/86Sri = 0.70828-0.71857, εNd(t) = - 6.2 to - 10.5, zircon εHf(t) = - 9.5 to - 26.6). Some of the granitoids display the most evolved Sr-Nd isotopic signatures among all the studied lithologies, which are consistent with those of the middle to upper crust, suggesting a pure crustal origin. Other granitoids show relatively mafic composition and less evolved isotopic signature. The intermediate appinites have intermediate chemical compositions between those of the basaltic appinites and granitoids, and similar Sr-Nd isotopic compositions to those of the basaltic appinites that have relatively evolved composition and isotopic signature. The petrographical and the

  6. Backarc basin inversion and subcontinental mantle emplacement in the crust: kilometre-scale folding and shearing at the base of the proto-Alborán lithospheric mantle (Betic Cordillera, southern Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hidas, Károly; Garrido, Carlos J.; Guillermo, Booth-Rea; Martínez-Martínez, José M.; Konc, Zotán; Frets, Erwin; Marchesi, Claudio

    2013-04-01

    To constrain the latest evolutionary stages and mechanisms of exhumation and emplacement of subcontinental peridotites in the westernmost Mediterranean, we present here a detailed structural study of the transition from granular spinel peridotite to plagioclase tectonite in the western Ronda Peridotite (Betic Cordillera, southern Spain). We show that the plagioclase tectonite foliation represents an axial surface particularly well developed in the reverse limb of a downward facing moderately plunging and moderately inclined synform at the base of the Ronda massif. The fold limbs are cut by several mylonitic and ultramylonitic shear zones with top-to-the-SW sense of shear. After restoring the middle to late Miocene vertical-axis palaeomagnetic rotation and the early Miocene tectonic tilting of the massif, these studied structures record southward directed kinematics. We propose a geodynamic model in which folding and shearing of an attenuated mantle lithosphere occurred by backarc basin inversion during late Oligocene (23-25 Ma) southward collision of the Alborán Domain with the palaeo-Maghrebian passive margin, leading to the intracrustal emplacement of peridotites in the earliest Miocene (21-23 Ma).

  7. Active Tectonics of the western Mediterranean: GPS evidence for roll back of a delaminated subcontinental lithospheric slab beneath the Rif Mountains, Morocco.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vernant, P.; Fadil, A.; McClusky, S.; Reilinger, R.; Gomez, F.; Ben Sari, D.; Mourabit, T.; Feigl, K.; Barazangi, M.

    2005-12-01

    The location and character of the Africa-Eurasia plate boundary in the western Mediterranean remain equivocal. Miocene to present extension of the interplate Alboran domain occurs within the context of ongoing Africa-Eurasia convergence. Ideas to explain the apparently synchronous subsidence of the Alboran Sea and uplift of the adjacent Betic and Rif mountain belts are still widely debated. To understand better the tectonics of this region, we determine the surface deformation in Morocco from five years of GPS survey observations of a 22-station survey network, 4 continuously recording GPS stations, and 4 IGS stations in Iberia. In addition to the expected Africa-Eurasia relative motion, the results indicate roughly southward motion (~3 mm/yr) of the Rif Mountains, Morocco relative to stable Africa. The associated crustal shortening of the Rif is balanced by extension and opening of the adjacent Alboran Sea. Motion of the Rif is approximately normal to the direction of Africa-Eurasia relative motion, and is difficult to relate to deformation induced by plate boundary interactions. We suggest that Rif-Alboran deformation is the combination of the differential plate motion between Iberia and Africa, and sub-lithospheric dynamic processes. The continental crust characterizing the Alboran region and the N-S asymmetry of the observed deformation (i.e., no evidence for north-directed shortening in the Betic Mountains north of the Alboran Sea) suggests that delamination and south-directed roll back of the African lithospheric mantle under the Rif/Alboran domain is driving the recent geologic evolution of the westernmost Mediterranean region.

  8. Enriched continental flood basalts from depleted mantle melts: modeling the lithospheric contamination of Karoo lavas from Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heinonen, Jussi S.; Luttinen, Arto V.; Bohrson, Wendy A.

    2016-01-01

    Continental flood basalts (CFBs) represent large-scale melting events in the Earth's upper mantle and show considerable geochemical heterogeneity that is typically linked to substantial contribution from underlying continental lithosphere. Large-scale partial melting of the cold subcontinental lithospheric mantle and the large amounts of crustal contamination suggested by traditional binary mixing or assimilation-fractional crystallization models are difficult to reconcile with the thermal and compositional characteristics of continental lithosphere, however. The well-exposed CFBs of Vestfjella, western Dronning Maud Land, Antarctica, belong to the Jurassic Karoo large igneous province and provide a prime locality to quantify mass contributions of lithospheric and sublithospheric sources for two reasons: (1) recently discovered CFB dikes show isotopic characteristics akin to mid-ocean ridge basalts, and thus help to constrain asthenospheric parental melt compositions and (2) the well-exposed basaltic lavas have been divided into four different geochemical magma types that exhibit considerable trace element and radiogenic isotope heterogeneity (e.g., initial ɛ Nd from -16 to +2 at 180 Ma). We simulate the geochemical evolution of Vestfjella CFBs using (1) energy-constrained assimilation-fractional crystallization equations that account for heating and partial melting of crustal wall rock and (2) assimilation-fractional crystallization equations for lithospheric mantle contamination by using highly alkaline continental volcanic rocks (i.e., partial melts of mantle lithosphere) as contaminants. Calculations indicate that the different magma types can be produced by just minor (1-15 wt%) contamination of asthenospheric parental magmas by melts from variable lithospheric reservoirs. Our models imply that the role of continental lithosphere as a CFB source component or contaminant may have been overestimated in many cases. Thus, CFBs may represent major juvenile crustal

  9. Origin of Enriched Geochemical Signatures in Continental Arc Rocks by Antithetic Subduction of Continental Lithosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glazner, A. F.; Brandon, M. T.

    2002-12-01

    The source materials for magmas in continental arcs are not well known. Magmas are typically assumed to be derived from the subducted slab, subducted sediment, and mantle wedge, but some continental arcs have isotopic signatures that are inconsistent with these sources. For example, a large volume of the Sierra Nevada batholith consists of rocks that have initial Sr ratios of about 0.706-0.708 and ɛNd values ranging from -3 to -8. Late Cenozoic volcanic rocks erupted through the batholith, and their entrained xenoliths, have similar isotopic compositions. These characteristics are inconsistent with derivation from only the sources above and are most easily explained by derivation from enriched continental lithospheric mantle. However, there was never enough lithospheric mantle under the arc to produce the observed volume of enriched arc rocks; mass balance fails by one or two orders of magnitude, and lithosphere cannot flow by viscous processes to provide material to the arc. A possible solution to this problem lies in kinematic mass balance of the arc system. In many continental arcs (e.g., Cenozoic Andes, Mesozoic northern Cordillera and Sierra Nevada), thrust faults have carried the arc at least 100-200 km toward the craton. This motion requires moving a comparable amount of sub-detachment lower crust and mantle toward the arc and produces a tremendous cross-sectional balance problem. Geologic field studies and geodynamic modeling indicate that this antithetic subduction feeds continental lithosphere into the convecting mantle wedge where it can contribute to magma genesis. This process provides a large volume of enriched and probably fertile continental lithospheric mantle to the arc system and may account for the unusual geochemical signatures of some arc rocks.

  10. 87Sr/86Sr in spinel peridotites from Borée, Massif Central, France: melt depletion and metasomatism in the sub-continental lithospheric mantle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnett, Caroline; Harvey, Jason

    2016-04-01

    Radiogenic isotopes and elemental concentrations in peridotite xenoliths may be used to model the timing and degree of partial melting in the upper mantle, but this primary melt depletion signature may be overwritten by subsequent episodes of melt or fluid infiltration. Spinel peridotites from the Maar de Borée, Massif Central, France have mainly poikilitic protogranular textures and clear petrographic evidence of a melt phase apparently unrelated to host basalt infiltration. Bulk rock major and compatible trace element concentrations are consistent with varying degrees of partial melting but incompatible trace element concentrations indicate cryptic metasomatism in some samples. Lithophile trace element mass balance cannot always be reconciled by the inclusion of the chemically characterized melt phase and suggest a contribution from a trace abundance grain boundary phase1. 87Sr/86Sr values for unleached bulk rocks and clinopyroxene mineral separates are higher than those for their leached equivalents, consistent with the removal of a radiogenic grain boundary phase. While unleached bulk rock 87Sr/86Sr is sometimes indistinguishable (within error) from its constituent unleached clinopyroxene, in two samples they show distinct patterns, as do the REE trends in these two xenoliths. BO01-01 bulk-rock is LREE-enriched (La/YbN = 3.6)2, and constituent clinopyroxene shows a similar relative enrichment trend. Bulk-rock 87Sr/86Sr is 0.70342±1 while that of clinopyroxene is lower at 0.70332±2. Clinopyroxene modal abundance is 11%. BO01-03 bulk-rock is only slightly LREE-enriched (La/YbN = 1.2) and both bulk-rock and clinopyroxene show a generally flatter profile. Bulk-rock 87Sr/86Sr is 0.70285±1 while that of clinopyroxene is in this case higher at 0.70296±2. Clinopyroxene modal abundance is also higher at 15%, consistent with a greater contribution by clinopyroxene to the bulk-rock Sr-isotope budget. The results appear to be inconsistent with a simple model of single

  11. Metasomatic Enrichment of Oceanic Lithospheric Mantle Documented by Petit-Spot Xenoliths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pilet, S.; Abe, N.; Rochat, L.; Hirano, N.; Machida, S.; Kaczmarek, M. A.; Muntener, O.

    2015-12-01

    represents a global mechanism in subduction zone, a portion of oceanic lithospheric mantle is likely to be metasomatized; recycling of these enriched domains into the convecting mantle is fundamental to understand the generation of small scale mantle isotopic and volatile heterogeneities sampled by OIBs and MORBs.

  12. 187Os/188Os in Spinel Peridotites from Borée, Massif Central, France: Seeing through the Effects of Melt Infiltration in the Sub-continental Lithospheric Mantle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnett, C. J.; Harvey, J.

    2015-12-01

    The Re-Os isotope system can be used to model the timing of melt extraction in peridotites, although secondary metasomatic processes can obscure primary melt depletion signatures, implying that bulk-rock Os model ages should be treated with caution.1Spinel peridotites from the volcanic Maar de Borée (French Massif Central) have equigranular to protogranular and occasionally poikilitic textures. Their bulk-rock chemistry are consistent with moderate degrees of partial melting, but elevated incompatible trace element ratios (e.g. La/YbN) are indicative of subsequent secondary processes. Petrographic observation reveals no infiltration of host basalt, but melt infiltration unrelated to the host basalt has occurred, most likely within the sub-continental lithospheric mantle prior to entrainment as xenoliths. The peridotites have a mean [Os] concentration of 2.35 ng g-1 and 187Os/188Os values from 0.12081 ± 16 to 0.12639 ± 14 (cf. PUM = 0.1296 ± 00082), with rhenium depletion model ages (TRD) ranging from 0.48 to 1.30 Ga. Silicate melt contains up to 2 orders of magnitude less Os than peridotites3 but the 187Os/188Os of melt infiltrated peridotite can be skewed by the precipitation of immiscible sulfide when an infiltrating melt reaches S-saturation4. The Borée peridotites retain an unradiogenic Os-isotope signature despite silicate melt infiltration; this may be due to primary base metal sulfides enclosed in silicate minerals and therefore protected from interaction with infiltrating melts. TRD of enclosed sulphides should therefore be able to 'see through' any secondary metasomatic events and reveal melt depletion ages significantly older than those obtained from bulk-rock analyses (cf. 4). 1. Rudnick & Walker (2009) Lithos 112S, 1083-1095. 2. Meisel et al. (2001) Geochim Cosmochim Ac 65, 1311-1323. 3. Day, J.M.D. (2013) Chem Geol 341, 50-74. 4. Harvey et al. (2010) Geochim Cosmochim Acta 74, 293-320.

  13. Thinning of Refertilized Sub-Continental Lithospheric Mantle (SLCM) beneath the Main Ethiopian Rift During Tertiary Rifting: Petrologic and Thermal Constraints from (Garnet)-Spinel Peridotite Xenoliths (Mega, Ethiopia).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casagli, A.; Frezzotti, M. L.; Peccerillo, A.; Tiepolo, M.; De Astis, G.

    2014-12-01

    The East African Rift System (EARS) represents a key locality for the knowledge of the nature and evolution of SCLM during continental rifting processes, traditionally ascribed to ascending mantle plumes. We report petrological and geothermobarometric data from mantle xenoliths in Quaternary alkali-basalt lava flows and scoria cones at Mega (Sidamo Region; EARS) in the southern Main Ethiopian Rift (MER), that give evidence for refertilization of SCLM and for thinning during Tertiary rifting. Studied samples consist of seven lherzolites, five harzburgites and one olivine-websterite that contain spinel-pyroxene symplectites, interpreted as products of garnet breakdown reactions. These rocks were analyzed for major (whole rock and minerals) and trace elements (pyroxenes). Major element data have been used to reconstruct original garnet composition (pyrope). Equilibration temperatures range from 985 ± 40°C in the garnet facies (2.9-2.2 GPa) to 960 ± 55°C in the spinel facies (1.3 GPa). Xenoliths consist of depleted and fertile peridotites. Five lherzolites have up to 4 wt% of CaO, high CaO/Al2O3 (1.42-4.46), and the most fertile are more enriched than primitive mantle. Variations of major oxides in bulk rocks and minerals are consistent with variable degrees of melt extraction. Evidence for modal and cryptic metasomatism is given by addition of clinopyroxene ± phlogopite, and by LILE and LREE enrichment in clinopyroxene. Refertilization process appears to have been induced by sub-lithospheric volatile-rich melts at high melt/rock ratio, and were followed by cooling. To account for the geodynamic evolution of SCLM beneath the southern MER, which implies a temperature gradient from 50-60 to ˜ 90 mW/m2, we propose that thinning of the base of fertile SCLM from 90-95 to ˜45km depth and associated magmatism occurred along a normal-mantle adiabat above an upwelling asthenosphere (i.e., decompression melting) without the need for significant heat sources.

  14. Non-depleted sub-continental mantle beneath the Superior Province of the Canadian Shield: Nd-Sr isotopic and trace element evidence from Midcontinent Rift basalts

    SciTech Connect

    Paces, J.B. ); Bell, K. )

    1989-08-01

    Midcontinent Rift flood basalts represent a sample of the relatively shallow, sub-continental upper mantle beneath the Canadian Shield at 1.1 Ga. A thick sequence of olivine tholeiite lavas, including minor intermediate to rhyolitic lavas, from the Portage Lake Volcanics (PLV) in northern Michigan have initial Nd and Sr isotopic compositions which cluster near Bulk Earth values. The effects of assimilation of old LREE-enriched continental crust into mantle-derived fractionating liquids are isotopically discernible in evolved lavas as well as in olivine tholeiites from the lowest portion of the volcanic pile. However, the effects of crustal contamination decrease with stratigraphic height and are absent in more primitive lavas in the upper half of the section. The source for PLV tholeiites is substantially less depleted than previously reported mantle values from the Superior Province. An origin for the PLV source is compatible with either of several mantle evolution models. The PLV source may have been associated with upwelling of a LIL element-enriched, asthenospheric plume which emplaced non-depleted material from deeper sources into the shallow sub-continental mantle beneath the Midcontinent Rift during continental break-up. Alternatively, the PLV source may have originated by enrichment of refractory sub-continental lithospheric mantle which was previously depleted in incompatible trace elements during Archean-aged melt extraction and continental crust formation. Concurrent generation of carbonatite magmas in other areas beneath the Superior Province indicates the widespread presence of sub-continental mantle with substantially higher {epsilon}{sub Nd}(T) and lower {epsilon}{sub Sr}(T) than the PLV source.

  15. Evolution of LILE-enriched small melt fractions in the lithospheric mantle: a case study from the East African Rift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bedini, R. M.; Bodinier, J.-L.; Dautria, J.-M.; Morten, L.

    1997-12-01

    Spinel-peridotite xenoliths from Mega (East African Rift, Sidamo region, SE Ethiopia) show variable degrees of recrystallization coupled with trace-element variations. The less recrystallized samples (deformed xenoliths) consist of apatite-bearing porphyroclastic peridotites. They are strongly enriched in LILE (Ba, Th, U, Sr and LREE), with negative anomalies of the HFSE (Nb, Ta, Zr, Hf and Ti). The most recrystallized samples (granular xenoliths) consist of apatite-free peridotites with coarse-grained, granular textures. These samples are depleted or only slightly enriched in LILE and display no significant HFSE anomaly. We suggest that the inverse relationship between recrystallization and trace-element enrichment results from km-scale variation in volume and composition of melts pervasively infiltrated in the lithosphere. The deformed xenoliths record interaction with LILE-enriched small melt fractions, at low melt/rock ratio, while the granular xenoliths were extensively re-equilibrated with a higher fraction of basaltic melt, at higher melt/rock ratio. With a numerical simulation of reactive porous flow at the transition between adiabatic and conductive geotherms in the mantle, it is shown that these two processes were possibly coeval and associated with thermo-mechanical erosion of the lower lithosphere above a mantle plume.

  16. Metasomatic Enrichment of the Lithosphere and its Potential Implications for the Formation of Oceanic and Continental Alkaline Magmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pilet, S.; Baker, M. B.; Stolper, E. M.; Muntener, O.

    2009-04-01

    The generation of oceanic and continental intra-plate magmas implied that the source of these magmas was enriched regarding the primitive mantle [1]. However, the nature and origin of the mantle components that melt below oceanic islands are still in debate. A hypothesis proposed that the enriched components which melt below oceanic islands correspond to recycled oceanic crust [2]. Alternatives suggest that these components could correspond to metasomatized continental or oceanic lithosphere [3-5]. However, if these two hypotheses are frequently presented as mutually exclusive, we suggest that theses hypotheses could be complementary. The fact that oceanic crust produces silica-saturated partial melts seems in agrement with the implication of this material in the generation of tholeiitic (i.e., hy- and qtz- normative) magmas from large oceanic islands and continental lava flows as proposed by [6]; however this fact makes it difficult to envision oceanic crust as a major component in the generation of alkaline (i.e., ne-normative) magmas. Experiments on metasomatic veins (hornblendites) and their dehydrated equivalents demonstrate that high-degree melting of these veins followed by variable amounts of interaction of the liquid with surrounding mantle can reproduce key features of the major- and trace-element compositions of alkaline magmas [7]. We suggest two scenarios for the production of alkaline magmas by melting metasomatized lithosphere: (i) the metasomatized lithosphere experiences a thermal perturbation or decompression and thereby melts in situ; or (ii) the metasomatized lithosphere is recycled into the convecting mantle by subduction or delamination and melts during later upwelling (e.g., in a plume). In continental alkaline magmas, the presence of amphibole xenocrysts compositionally similar to amphibole in metasomatic veins is consistent with the "in situ" hypothesis. While such veins may play a role in alkaline magmas for some oceanic islands and

  17. Cenozoic alkali basalts from Jingpohu, NE China: The role of lithosphere asthenosphere interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Jun; Zhao, Jian-Xin

    2008-06-01

    The geochemistry of Late Cenozoic volcanic rocks from Jingpohu, NE China, provides important constraints on the petrogenesis of continental alkali basalts and lithospheric evolution in the eastern Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB). Miocene-Pleistocene and Holocene basalts from Jingpohu show alkali affinities and are characterized by Ocean Island Basalt (OIB)-like REE and trace element patterns somehow resembling Holocene potassic rocks from Wudalianchi which are considered to be derived from ancient enriched lithospheric mantle. These basalts show depleted Sr-Nd isotopic compositions ( 87Sr/ 86Sr = 0.7039-0.7046, ɛNd = 1.3-6.0) and Dupal-like but unradiogenic Pb isotopic signatures ( 206Pb/ 204Pb = 17.54-17.94, 207Pb/ 204Pb = 15.45-15.54, 208Pb/ 204Pb = 37.71-38.07), comparable to the OIB. The combined geochemical and isotopic signatures are consistent with magma source mixing between a Focal Zone (FOZO)-like asthenospheric mantle component (characterized by enriched Pb and depleted Sr-Nd isotopic compositions) and an isotopically enriched EM1-type subcontinental lithospheric mantle component. Lithospheric thickness inferred from alkali basalts from different regions implies a progressive thinning from west to east in the CAOB, which may be caused by lithosphere-asthenosphere interaction. We propose that upwelling of the asthenosphere and subsequent mechanical and chemical erosion beneath lithospheric mantle induced by subduction of the Pacific plate might have been responsible for the lithospheric thinning in the eastern CAOB. The lithospheric thinning has proceeded in a dischronous way in the western North China Craton, near the Daxinganling-Taihangshan gravity lineament, but this event did not take place in the corresponding area of the CAOB. The lithospheric thinning shows different styles both spatially and temporally in the two tectonic units.

  18. Mechanical heterogeneities and lithospheric extension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duretz, Thibault; Petri, Benoit; Mohn, Geoffroy; Schenker, Filippo L.; Schmalholz, Stefan

    2016-04-01

    Detailed geological and geophysical studies of passive margins have highlighted the multi-stage and depth-dependent aspect of lithospheric thinning. Lithospheric thinning involves a variety of structures (normal faults, low angle detachments, extensional shear zones, extraction faults) and leads to a complex architecture of passive margins (with e.g. necking zone, mantle exhumation, continental allochthons). The processes controlling the generation and evolution of these structures as well as the impact of pre-rift inheritance are so far incompletely understood. In this study, we investigate the impact of pre-rift inheritance on the development of rifted margins using two-dimensional thermo-mechanical models of lithospheric thinning. To first order, we represent the pre-rift mechanical heterogeneities with lithological layering. The rheologies are kept simple (visco-plastic) and do not involve any strain softening mechanism. Our models show that mechanical layering causes multi-stage and depth-dependent extension. In the initial rifting phase, lithospheric extension is decoupled: as the crust undergoes thinning by brittle (frictional-plastic) faults, the lithospheric mantle accommodates extension by symmetric ductile necking. In a second rifting phase, deformation in the crust and lithospheric mantle is coupled and marks the beginning of an asymmetric extension stage. Low angle extensional shear zones develop across the lithosphere and exhume subcontinental mantle. Furthemore, crustal allochthons and adjacent basins develop coevally. We describe as well the thermal evolution predicted by the numerical models and discuss the first-order implications of our results in the context of the Alpine geological history.

  19. Origin of low δ26Mg basalts with EM-I component: Evidence for interaction between enriched lithosphere and carbonated asthenosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Heng-Ci; Yang, Wei; Li, Shu-Guang; Ke, Shan; Chu, Zhu-Yin

    2016-09-01

    This study presents stable Mg isotopic data for Cenozoic potassic basalts from Wudalianchi and Erkeshan in northeastern China to determine the interactions between upwelling carbonated asthenosphere and enriched lithospheric mantle. Although the Wudalianchi and Erkeshan basalts have variable MgO contents of 4.45 to 9.47 wt.%, they exhibit a homogeneous Mg isotopic composition with δ26Mg values ranging from -0.57‰ to -0.46‰ and averaging -0.51 ± 0.06‰ (2SD, n = 18). This Mg isotopic composition is lighter than that of the average mantle (δ26Mg = -0.25 ± 0.07‰) but similar to late Cretaceous (<110 Ma) and Cenozoic basalts from the North China Craton and the South China Block (δ26Mg = -0.60 to -0.35‰). The high CaO/Al2O3 and Ba/Rb, and low Hf/Hf∗ ratios of the Wudalianchi and Erkeshan basalts are typical characteristics of carbonatitic metasomatism, suggesting that the light Mg isotopic composition could derive from involvement of recycled sedimentary carbonates in the mantle source. The high Dy/Er ratios (2.55 to 2.75) and excess of 230Th (230Th/238U = 1.24 to 1.33) suggest presence of garnet in a relatively deep mantle source. Additionally, the seismic tomographic observations show the existence of the stagnant Pacific slab in the mantle transition zone (410-660 km) under eastern China. This carbonated mantle source should be located in the asthenosphere. However, compared to other low δ26Mg basalts from eastern China with MORB-like Sr-Nd-Pb isotopic compositions and OIB-like trace element features, the Wudalianchi and Erkeshan basalts exhibit EM-I Sr-Nd-Pb isotopic compositions combined with high SiO2, Ba, K, Pb and LREE contents, high Ba/Th and low Ce/Pb ratios. These geochemical features require a contribution from another mantle source, most likely an EM-I lithospheric mantle. Therefore, an asthenosphere-lithosphere interaction model is proposed for determine the origin of the Wudalianchi and Erkeshan basalts. The original melt was derived from

  20. Peridotite xenoliths from western Grand Canyon and The Thumb: A probe into the subcontinental mantle of the Colorado Plateau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alibert, Chantal

    1994-11-01

    Rare earth elements (REE) and Sr and Nd isotopic compositions are presented for spinel peridotite xenoliths from western Grand Canyon, on the margin of the Colorado Plateau (CP), and for garnet peridotite inclusions from The Thumb, central CP. The Grand Canyon spinel peridotites show original textures and geochemical characteristics which do not have counterparts in the xenoliths from the nearby Basin and Range. The restricted range of mineral compositions in these 1herzolites suggests that they represent a limited series of residues of partial melting. Pyroxene equilibration temperatures are in the range 800-1000 deg C. The Nd-143/Nd-144 ratios in clinopyroxene (cpx) are extremely variable. Sample TRU 2, with Epsilon(sub Nd) = +147, records an ancient depletion event around 1.2 Ga. More than half of the cpx separates show concave downward REE profiles between Gd and Yb, indicating that partial melting occurred in the garnet stability field before final recrystallization of the residues in the spinel peridotite field, probably during decompressional upwelling. The strong light REE (LREE) depletion in some of the cpx cannot be modeled by batch melting of a LREE-depleted source but requires 5-10% melting with segregation in approximately 1% increments. A second group of xenoliths, characterized by cpx with strong LREE enrichment, includes amphibole-bearing peridotites and has a more limited range of Nd-143/Nd-144 ratios. Interactions with melts of variable composition are inferred on the basis of mineralogical and geochemical evidence. Contrasting with the extreme isotopic heterogeneity of Nd, a high, uniform Sr-87/Sr-86 ratio around 0.7045 is associated with high Sr/Nd ratios. Aqueous fluids derived from a subducted slab could account for this preferential Sr enrichment. Six porphyroclastic garnet 1herzolites from The Thumb sample a deeper part of the subcontinental mantle. One xenolith has a refractory chemistry, low temperature of equilibration and Sr-Nd isotopic

  1. The lithosphere

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-01-01

    This document is the report of a week-long workshop on problems relating to the interpretations of the composition and dynamics of the lithosphere. A wide range of topics was discussed, dealing not only with the lithosphere itself, but also with possible interactions between the lithosphere and underlying mantle, down to and including the core-mantle boundary zone. Emphasis, very broadly, was on the physical and chemical properties of the lower crust and the subcrustal lithosphere: the physical and chemical characteristics of the prominent seismic discontinuities down to the core-mantle boundary; the nature and patterns of possible convection within the mantle and its relation to the generation, subduction, and intermixing of lithospheric and mantle material; the location and nature and evolution of reservoirs supplying magmas to the crust; and the various models that have been proposed to account for the location, nature, and geological history of these magma reservoirs. The general applicability of the plate tectonics model was assumed, but virtually every widely accepted explanation for the dynamics of that model and of possible unrelated phenomena such as deep-mantle plumes and hot spots was brought into question. 83 refs., 19 figs.

  2. Cobalt and precious metals in sulphides of peridotite xenoliths and inferences concerning their distribution according to geodynamic environment: A case study from the Scottish lithospheric mantle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hughes, Hannah S. R.; McDonald, Iain; Faithfull, John W.; Upton, Brian G. J.; Loocke, Matthew

    2016-01-01

    Abundances of precious metals and cobalt in the lithospheric mantle are typically obtained by bulk geochemical analyses of mantle xenoliths. These elements are strongly chalcophile and the mineralogy, texture and trace element composition of sulphide phases in such samples must be considered. In this study we assess the mineralogy, textures and trace element compositions of sulphides in spinel lherzolites from four Scottish lithospheric terranes, which provide an ideal testing ground to examine the variability of sulphides and their precious metal endowments according to terrane age and geodynamic environment. Specifically we test differences in sulphide composition from Archaean-Palaeoproterozoic cratonic sub-continental lithospheric mantle (SCLM) in northern terranes vs. Palaeozoic lithospheric mantle in southern terranes, as divided by the Great Glen Fault (GGF). Cobalt is consistently elevated in sulphides from Palaeozoic terranes (south of the GGF) with Co concentrations > 2.9 wt.% and Co/Ni ratios > 0.048 (chondrite). In contrast, sulphides from Archaean cratonic terranes (north of the GGF) have low abundances of Co (< 3600 ppm) and low Co/Ni ratios (< 0.030). The causes for Co enrichment remain unclear, but we highlight that globally significant Co mineralisation is associated with ophiolites (e.g., Bou Azzer, Morocco and Outokumpu, Finland) or in oceanic peridotite-floored settings at slow-spreading ridges. Thus we suggest an oceanic affinity for the Co enrichment in the southern terranes of Scotland, likely directly related to the subduction of Co-enriched oceanic crust during the Caledonian Orogeny. Further, we identify a distinction between Pt/Pd ratio across the GGF, such that sulphides in the cratonic SCLM have Pt/Pd ≥ chondrite whilst Palaeozoic sulphides have Pt/Pd < chondrite. We observe that Pt-rich sulphides with discrete Pt-minerals (e.g., PtS) are associated with carbonate and phosphates in two xenolith suites north of the GGF. This three

  3. Lithospheric processes

    SciTech Connect

    Baldridge, W.

    2000-12-01

    The authors used geophysical, geochemical, and numerical modeling to study selected problems related to Earth's lithosphere. We interpreted seismic waves to better characterize the thickness and properties of the crust and lithosphere. In the southwestern US and Tien Shari, crust of high elevation is dynamically supported above buoyant mantle. In California, mineral fabric in the mantle correlate with regional strain history. Although plumes of buoyant mantle may explain surface deformation and magmatism, our geochemical work does not support this mechanism for Iberia. Generation and ascent of magmas remains puzzling. Our work in Hawaii constrains the residence of magma beneath Hualalai to be a few hundred to about 1000 years. In the crust, heat drives fluid and mass transport. Numerical modeling yielded robust and accurate predictions of these processes. This work is important fundamental science, and applies to mitigation of volcanic and earthquake hazards, Test Ban Treaties, nuclear waste storage, environmental remediation, and hydrothermal energy.

  4. Using Seismic Discontinuities to Image Melt and Dynamics in the Sub-Continental Upper Mantle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmerr, N. C.; Courtier, A. M.; Hier-Majumder, S.; Lekic, V.

    2014-12-01

    Continents are assembled from multiple Proterozoic and Archean terranes to form stable cratonic platforms with associated deformation typically localized to margins and/or rift zones. Successive episodes of subsequent extension, compression, magmatism, accretion, and rifting have left the sub-continental upper mantle with a complex signature of thermal and chemical heterogeneity. One key interest is the history of melt production, migration, and storage in sub-continental upper mantle as it provides a window into past and present dynamical processes, including the differentiation and formation of continental structure. Here we examine seismic discontinuities within the mantle that arise from a wide range of mechanisms, including changes in mineralogy, major element composition, melt content, volatile abundance, anisotropy, or a combination of the above. Using a dataset of broadband seismograms of underside reflected S-waves arriving as precursors to the seismic phase SS, we determine the depth and impedance contrast of discontinuities in the depth range of 80-410 km. Our observations are compared to predictions for the seismic moduli from a mineral physics database using the software MuMaP (Multiphase Material Properties). MuMaP modeling allows us to vary the average regional temperature, mantle composition and account for the effects of melt (if present). In our initial study of the western North American plate, we detect the presence of the 410 km discontinuity, a discontinuity at 300 km depth (X), and a G discontinuity at 60-80 km depth. The X is indicative of the coesite to stishovite phase transition in the upper mantle and suggests substantial mixing of subducted basalt with the mantle. The presence of the G may indicate partial melt in the asthenosphere, melt frozen into the lithosphere, and/or anisotropic fabrics preserved beneath the continent. These hypotheses are evaluated against MuMap predictions for melt content and anisotropic structure in the upper

  5. Yellowstone hotspot-continental lithosphere interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jean, Marlon M.; Hanan, Barry B.; Shervais, John W.

    2014-03-01

    The Snake River Plain represents 17 m.y. of volcanic activity that took place as the North American continent migrated over a relatively fixed magma source, or hotspot. We present new Pb, Sr, and Nd data for a suite of 25 basalts collected from Western and Central Snake River Plain (SRP). The new isotope data, combined with previously published data from the SRP, provide a traverse of the Wyoming craton margin, from the 87Sr/86Sr = 0.706 line boundary of western SRP with Phanerozoic accreted terranes, east through the central and eastern SRP, to the Yellowstone Plateau. Low-K basalts from the western SRP, overlain by high-K basalts, provide a temporal record of regional source variation from ∼16.8 to 0.2 Ma. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) of the new and previously published SRP basalt Pb isotopes reveals that >97% of the total variability is accounted for by mixing between three end-members and is consistent with a sublithospheric Yellowstone hotspot mantle source with a radiogenic isotope composition similar to the mantle source of the early Columbia River Basalt Group (CRBG) and two continental lithosphere end-members, heterogeneous in age and composition. We use the SRP Pb, Sr, and Nd isotope data to model the Yellowstone Hotspot-continental lithosphere interaction by three component mixing between two continental lithospheric components, Archean lithosphere (CL1) that represents older lithosphere underlying the Yellowstone Plateau in the east, and Paleoproterozoic lithosphere (CL2) representing the younger lithosphere underlying the SRP in the west near the craton margin, and a sublithospheric end-member, representing the Yellowstone hotspot (PL). The results suggest a continuous flow of PL material westward as the NA continental lithosphere migrated over the upwelling hotspot along a shoaling gradient in the sub-continental mantle lithosphere. The model shows a decrease in Total Lithosphere end-members (CL1 + CL2) and the Lithosphere Ratio (CL1/CL2

  6. Neogene to Recent Mafic Volcanism in Death Valley Reveals Architecture of Deep Mojavia Lithosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rämö, O. T.; Calzia, J.

    2015-12-01

    At 10-0 m.y., the evolution of the Death Valley region, SE California, was characterized by repeated extrusion of mafic and intermediate lavas. The volume of these lavas appears to have diminished with time, from the relatively extensive (now faulted) Sheephead, Death Valley, Shoshone, and Funeral basalts to small monogenic volcanic centers (Split Cinder Cone, Ubehebe). A common denominator of these lavas is their transitional alkaline character (in general, trachybasalts to trachydacites with Na > K), relatively low MgO (1.5 to 6 wt.%), varying Fe2O3(tot) (4 to 12 wt.%) and Ni (10 to 80 ppm). They are all strongly enriched in the LREE: Chondrite-normalized La/Yb varies between 10 and 28, with the earlier, more voluminous lavas being less enriched (10 to 18) than the youngest volcanics (27 to 28). The initial Nd isotope composition of the lavas is outstandingly varying and does not correlate with fractionation stage. Their epsilon-Nd values vary from -10 to -2 and none of them thus registers a major asthenospheric component. Overall, these transitional mafic magmas probably represent relatively low-degree melts from the subcontinental lithosphere underneath the cratonic Mojavia crust. The 147Sm/144Nd ratios of the lavas show a restricted range (0.0930 to 0.1140) and, together with the measured 143Nd/144Nd ratios of the lavas, define Meso- to Neoproterozoic depleted mantle model ages between 800 and 1200 Ma. These have now spatial control across the Death Valley region and are clearly lower than those measured for the exposed craton. This suggest that the Mojavia cratonic mantle lithosphere may be a random amalgamation of ultramafic domains that vary in the degree of metasomatism and rejuvenation.

  7. Fluid-assisted strain localization in the shallow subcontinental lithospheric mantle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hidas, Károly; Tommasi, Andréa; Garrido, Carlos J.; Padrón-Navarta, José Alberto; Mainprice, David; Vauchez, Alain; Barou, Fabrice; Marchesi, Claudio

    2016-10-01

    We report microstructural evidence for fluid-assisted ductile strain localization in a ≤ 50 m-wide mylonitic-ultramylonitic shear zone in the Ronda Peridotite massif, Southern Spain. Strain localization occurred at relatively low pressure (< 0.8 GPa) and moderate temperature (750-1000 °C). Initial deformation by dislocation creep resulted in formation of mylonites. Focusing of aqueous fluids in the shear zone favored the activation of dissolution-precipitation creep, resulting in further strain localization. This process is recorded by two generations of ultramylonitic bands composed of fine-grained, well-mixed olivine-orthopyroxene aggregates. Microstructural observations in the ultramylonites suggest alternating dissolution and precipitation of olivine and orthopyroxene, which may be explained by local changes in silica molality of the percolating fluid (disequilibrium and mass transfer at scales > mm). In the mylonites, olivine shows a crystal preferred orientation (CPO) coherent with dominant (001)[100] glide, probably due to the presence of interstitial fluids during deformation. In the ultramylonites, olivine CPO is weak to very weak, consistently with a decreasing contribution of dislocation creep to deformation. In contrast, fine-grained orthopyroxene in both mylonites and ultramylonites displays a clear CPO characterized by a [001] maximum normal to the foliation, which is not consistent with dislocation glide in any known slip system for orthopyroxene. We interpret this CPO as formed by oriented crystallization during dissolution-precipitation. In the present study, dissolution-precipitation creep predominates only in small-scale ultramylonite bands due to limited fluid availability and localized dynamic permeability. However, this process may be important in intermediate temperature domains of subduction zones, where it may lead to a feedback between strain localization and fluid transport.

  8. Interaction of Sublithospheric Mantle with a Complex Continental Lithosphere: Radiogenic Isotope Constraints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanan, B. B.; Jean, M. M.; Shervais, J. W.; Graham, D. W.; Vetter, S.

    2012-12-01

    The Yellowstone-Snake River Plain (YSRP) consists of an 800 km swath of bimodal volcanic centers in southern Idaho and western Wyoming formed as the North American continent overrode the Yellowstone hotspot since ˜17 Ma. The rhyolitic centers show a time transgressive relationship with plate motion, but basalt volcanism persisted long after the locus of rhyolitic volcanism moved to the NE. The hotspot track is underlain by a 10-km-thick mafic sill complex that contains much of the basaltic melt produced. Seismic tomography, the age progressive nature, its relationship the Columbia River Basalts, and the isotopic signature of 3He/4He in the basalts suggest presence of a mantle hotspot originating in the sublithospheric mantle. Basalt major and trace element, and He isotope systematics are consistent with a deep mantle source, similar to ocean island basalt (OIB). In contrast, the Pb, Sr, and Nd isotopes are indistinguishable from xenoliths and melts from sub-continental lithospheric mantle (SCLM) underlying the YSRP. The SCLM stabilized in the Late Archean to Early Proterozoic, and was subsequently rejuvenated/enriched during subduction related metasomatism. Initial Pb and Sr isotope ratios are higher, and Nd lower than expected for a depleted upper mantle source of Late Archean age. Incompatible element concentrations in OIB-plume sources are more than 10X lower than found in the SCLM. Assimilation of small percentage partial melts of continental lithosphere into larger degree partial melts derived from the sublithospheric mantle source produces hybrid magmas whose Pb (Nd,Sr,Hf) isotopic compositions are controlled by the isotopic composition of the continental component, while the deeper mantle source dominates the 3He/4He signature. We tested this prediction with analyses of 75 basalts from the YSRP. The Pb isotope results are consistent with mixing between an OIB-like plume component with 1% to 4% melt derived from an enriched SCLM source and show that the

  9. A common Pan-African Lithospheric Mantle (PALM) source for HIMU-like Pb-isotope signatures in circum-Mediterranean magmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, H. P.; Wang, Z.; Brandon, M. T.

    2013-12-01

    conjugate margin of the Atlantic. Its distribution completely overlaps with the distribution of EAR rocks. We therefore propose that the previously termed European Asthenospheric Reservoir (EAR) is actually the Pan-African Lithospheric Mantle (PALM), which is a direct source of alkalic-basaltic melts. A mechanism for the generation of melts from an ancient, veined sub-continental lithospheric mantle is the advection of heat by melts generated in the asthenosphere as a result of extensional decompression which infiltrate or underplate the lithosphere, or alternatively heating by advection of hotter mantle such as by a plume. Cebria, J., and Wilson, M., 1995, Cenozoic mafic magmatism in Western/Central Europe: a common European asthenospheric reservoir: Terra Nova, v. 7, p. 162. Médard, E., Schmidt, M. W., Schiano, P., and Ottolini, L., 2006, Melting of Amphibole-bearing Wehrlites: an Experimental Study on the Origin of Ultra-calcic Nepheline-normative Melts: Journal of Petrology, v. 47, no. 3, p. 481-504. Pilet, S., Baker, M. B., Müntener, O., and Stolper, E. M., 2011, Monte Carlo simulations of metasomatic enrichment in the lithosphere and implications for the source of alkaline basalts: Journal of Petrology, v. 52, no. 7-8, p. 1415-1442. Zindler, A., and Hart, S., 1986, Chemical geodynamics: Annual review of earth and planetary sciences, v. 14, p. 493-571.

  10. Lithospheric processes

    SciTech Connect

    Baldridge, W.S.; Wohletz, K.; Fehler, M.C.

    1997-11-01

    This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The main objective was to improve understanding of the origin and evolution of the Earth`s lithosphere by studying selected processes, such as deformation and magmatic intrusion during crustal extension, formation and extraction of mantle melts, fluid transport of heat and mass, and surface processes that respond to deep-seated events. Additional objectives were to promote and develop innovative techniques and to support relevant educational endeavors. Seismic studies suggest that underplating of crust by mantle melts is an important crustal-growth mechanism, that low-angle faults can be seismogenic, and that shear deformation creates mantle anisotropy near plate boundaries. Results of geochemical work determined that magmas from oceanic intraplate islands are derived from a uniform depth in the upper mantle, whereas melts erupted at mid-ocean ridges are mixed from a range of depths. The authors have determined the extent and style of fluid infiltration and trace-element distribution in natural magmatic systems, and, finally, investigated {sup 21}Ne as a tool for dating of surficial materials.

  11. Melt localization and its relation to deformation in the subcontinental mantle: a case study from layered dunite-harzburgite-lherzolite bodies of the Ronda peridotite massif, Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hidas, Karoly; Garrido, Carlos J.; Bodinier, Jean-Louis; Tommasi, Andrea; Booth-Rea, Guillermo; Gervilla, Fernando; Marchesi, Claudio

    2010-05-01

    The processes that take place during the transport of melts through the convecting mantle are the least understood and, therefore, state-of-the art problems among a series of processes of formation and evolution of mantle magmas. It is widely accepted that, dunite channels might be pathways by which mantle melts easily pass through the overlying mantle (e.g. Kelemen et al., 1997). The role of shear strain during the formation of dunite bodies in ophiolites was considered in details by Kelemen & Dick (1995). It was also shown that the stress field can control the melt migration paths marked by dunite bodies occurring oriented regularly relative to the hinge and axial plane of a harzburgite fold (Savelieva et al., 2008). The localization of melt flow and formation of channels under mechanical instability during the formation of dunites is expected to lead to a stronger olivine crystallographic preferred orientation (CPO) in these rocks than in their surroundings. However, accepted models explain formation of dunitic lithology mostly in oceanic environment, but one would face several challenges trying to apply them to the subcontinental lithospheric mantle. The Ronda massif (southern Spain) is the largest (ca. 300km2) of several orogenic peridotite massifs exposed in the Betic and Rif (northern Morocco) mountain belts in the westernmost part of the Alpine orogen that was tectonically emplaced during early Miocene times. One of the most remarkable features of the Ronda massif is the ‘recrystallization front' that represents the transition from the spinel-tectonite to the coarse granular peridotite domain corresponding to a narrow boundary of a partial melting domain caused by thinning and coeval asthenospheric upwelling formed at the expense of former subcontinental lithospheric mantle and associated with melting and kilometer-scale migration of melts by diffuse porous flow through the ‘asthenospherized' domain (Van der Wal & Bodinier, 1996; Lenoir et al., 2001

  12. Cenozoic magmatism in the South China Basin: Decompression melting and implications of an enriched mantle source

    SciTech Connect

    Flower, M.F.J.; Kan Tu; Ming Zhang ); Guanghong Xie )

    1990-06-01

    A widespread eposide of interplate volcanism followed the cessation of seafloor spreading in the South China Basin (SCB), affecting the South China Sea, and fringing areas of southern China and Indochina. Geochemical data for basalts from South China Sea islands and seamounts, Hainan Island, and Taiwan define an enriched (Dupal-like) mantle domain yielding oceanic island basalt (OIB) suites with {Delta}7/4Pb = 2-13, {Delta}8/4Pb = 45-73, {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr > {approximately}0.70325, Th/Ta > 2, and Th/Ba > 0.02. Opening of the SCB resulted from disaggregation of the South China block in response to the Indo-Eurasian collision, a process involving at least one seafloor spreading episode, terminated by collision of microcontinents with the Philippines and Borneo. The lack of precursive flood basalt suggests that active mantle upwelling was not involved and that melting was a passive effect of lithosphere stretching. However, while mantle decompression at ambient stretching factors ({approximately}1.7-2.5) appears to permit melting on the observed scale, the enriched source may preclude such a simple mantle dynamic. Three alternatives are considered: (1) passive melting of a mature metasomatised boundary layer, (2) active melting of thermally eroded subcontinental lithosphere (deep enrichment) or metasomatised boundary layer (shallow enrichment), and (3) relict diapirs of pre-SCB and/or Java trench subduction slabs (intermediate/deep enrichment). These models are evaluated in terms of chemical and isotopic mass balances associated with the generation and movement of small melt fractions in depleted, nondepleted, and enriched mantle.

  13. On the tectonic emplacement of the Ronda subcontinental mantle peridotites (western Betic Cordillera)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazzoli, Stefano; Martín-Algarra, Agustin; López Sánchez-Vizcaíno, Vicente; Reddy, Steven M.

    2013-04-01

    Composite tectonic emplacement of the Ronda peridotites - the largest outcropping body of subcontinental mantle rocks on Earth -- occurred as a result of a series of geodynamic events including: (i) Mesozoic break-up of Pangaea and opening of the Tethyan Ocean, (ii) Oligocene back-arc lithospheric extension, and (iii) Early Miocene continental subduction associated with oblique plate convergence. Top-to-the-hinterland shear along the upper contact of the peridotites during stage (iii) above is consistent with the kinematics expected for an extrusion wedge consisting of subcontinental mantle rocks. On the other hand, coeval strike-parallel extension and thinning of the crustal rocks overlying the peridotites confirms that, similarly to further Alpine-Mediterranean examples, partitioned transpression resulted in the development of a complex deformation pattern, with kinematically linked shear zones aiding exhumation. Partitioning of transpressional deformation between coeval orogen-parallel wrenching and orogen-perpendicular, pure thrusting components is recorded by shear zone kinematics and dynamothermal metamorphism in the footwall to the ultramafic rocks. Left-lateral shear, characterizing the deeper, high-pressure (eclogitic) portions of the continental subduction system, propagated through the mantle into the overlying continental crust of the overriding plate, while top-to-the foreland frontal thrusting dominated at the leading edge of the hot peridotite body. In this latter area, strongly heterogeneous deformation and extreme metamorphic gradients characterize the dominantly carbonate Nieves Unit in the footwall to the peridotites. A well-developed foliation and mineral lineation, together with isoclinal intrafolial folds, occur in silicate-bearing, calcite/dolomite marbles within a c. 1.5 km-thick metamorphic aureole underlying the peridotites. For the inferred maximum pressure of 300 MPa, petrological investigations allow to define temperature ranges for the

  14. Petrogenesis of basaltic volcanic rocks from the Pribilof Islands, Alaska, by melting of metasomatically enriched depleted lithosphere, crystallization differentiation, and magma mixing

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chang, J.M.; Feeley, T.C.; Deraps, M.R.

    2009-01-01

    trace element characteristics are similar to those of ocean island basalts (OIB), including enrichment in alkalis and incompatible trace elements. These characteristics are interpreted to indicate that their mantle source experienced an ancient melt-removal event that is reflected in depleted radiogenic isotopic compositions and was then re-enriched by metasomatism that elevated incompatible trace element contents, but was too young to produce a time-integrated change in radiogenic isotopic ratios. Evidence suggests that the Pribilof Island basalts did not form in either a plume or a back-arc basin tectonic setting. Rather, they were produced by melting of metasomatically hydrated upper mantle peridotite at relatively low temperatures and were able to erupt at the surface through extensional or transtensional faults that served as conduits for the magmas. ?? The Author 2009. Published by Oxford University Press.

  15. Evolution of the East African rift: Drip magmatism, lithospheric thinning and mafic volcanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furman, Tanya; Nelson, Wendy R.; Elkins-Tanton, Linda T.

    2016-07-01

    The origin of the Ethiopian-Yemeni Oligocene flood basalt province is widely interpreted as representing mafic volcanism associated with the Afar mantle plume head, with minor contributions from the lithospheric mantle. We reinterpret the geochemical compositions of primitive Oligocene basalts and picrites as requiring a far more significant contribution from the metasomatized subcontinental lithospheric mantle than has been recognized previously. This region displays the fingerprints of mantle plume and lithospheric drip magmatism as predicted from numerical models. Metasomatized mantle lithosphere is not dynamically stable, and heating above the upwelling Afar plume caused metasomatized lithosphere with a significant pyroxenite component to drip into the asthenosphere and melt. This process generated the HT2 lavas observed today in restricted portions of Ethiopia and Yemen now separated by the Red Sea, suggesting a fundamental link between drip magmatism and the onset of rifting. Coeval HT1 and LT lavas, in contrast, were not generated by drip melting but instead originated from shallower, dominantly anhydrous peridotite. Looking more broadly across the East African Rift System in time and space, geochemical data support small volume volcanic events in Turkana (N. Kenya), Chyulu Hills (S. Kenya) and the Virunga province (Western Rift) to be derived ultimately from drip melting. The removal of the gravitationally unstable, metasomatized portion of the subcontinental lithospheric mantle via dripping is correlated in each case with periods of rapid uplift. The combined influence of thermo-mechanically thinned lithosphere and the Afar plume together thus controlled the locus of continental rift initiation between Africa and Arabia and provide dynamic support for the Ethiopian plateau.

  16. Abnormal lithium isotope composition from the ancient lithospheric mantle beneath the North China Craton.

    PubMed

    Tang, Yan-Jie; Zhang, Hong-Fu; Deloule, Etienne; Su, Ben-Xun; Ying, Ji-Feng; Santosh, M; Xiao, Yan

    2014-01-01

    Lithium elemental and isotopic compositions of olivines in peridotite xenoliths from Hebi in the North China Craton provide direct evidence for the highly variable δ(7)Li in Archean lithospheric mantle. The δ(7)Li in the cores of olivines from the Hebi high-Mg# peridotites (Fo > 91) show extreme variation from -27 to +21, in marked deviation from the δ(7)Li range of fresh MORB (+1.6 to +5.6) although the Li abundances of the olivines are within the range of normal mantle (1-2 ppm). The Li abundances and δ(7)Li characteristics of the Hebi olivines could not have been produced by recent diffusive-driven isotopic fractionation of Li and therefore the δ(7)Li in the cores of these olivines record the isotopic signature of the subcontinental lithospheric mantle. Our data demonstrate that abnormal δ(7)Li may be preserved in the ancient lithospheric mantle as observed in our study from the central North China Craton, which suggest that the subcontinental lithospheric mantle has experienced modification of fluid/melt derived from recycled oceanic crust. PMID:24589693

  17. Abnormal lithium isotope composition from the ancient lithospheric mantle beneath the North China Craton

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Yan-Jie; Zhang, Hong-Fu; Deloule, Etienne; Su, Ben-Xun; Ying, Ji-Feng; Santosh, M.; Xiao, Yan

    2014-01-01

    Lithium elemental and isotopic compositions of olivines in peridotite xenoliths from Hebi in the North China Craton provide direct evidence for the highly variable δ7Li in Archean lithospheric mantle. The δ7Li in the cores of olivines from the Hebi high-Mg# peridotites (Fo > 91) show extreme variation from −27 to +21, in marked deviation from the δ7Li range of fresh MORB (+1.6 to +5.6) although the Li abundances of the olivines are within the range of normal mantle (1–2 ppm). The Li abundances and δ7Li characteristics of the Hebi olivines could not have been produced by recent diffusive-driven isotopic fractionation of Li and therefore the δ7Li in the cores of these olivines record the isotopic signature of the subcontinental lithospheric mantle. Our data demonstrate that abnormal δ7Li may be preserved in the ancient lithospheric mantle as observed in our study from the central North China Craton, which suggest that the subcontinental lithospheric mantle has experienced modification of fluid/melt derived from recycled oceanic crust. PMID:24589693

  18. Abnormal lithium isotope composition from the ancient lithospheric mantle beneath the North China Craton.

    PubMed

    Tang, Yan-Jie; Zhang, Hong-Fu; Deloule, Etienne; Su, Ben-Xun; Ying, Ji-Feng; Santosh, M; Xiao, Yan

    2014-03-04

    Lithium elemental and isotopic compositions of olivines in peridotite xenoliths from Hebi in the North China Craton provide direct evidence for the highly variable δ(7)Li in Archean lithospheric mantle. The δ(7)Li in the cores of olivines from the Hebi high-Mg# peridotites (Fo > 91) show extreme variation from -27 to +21, in marked deviation from the δ(7)Li range of fresh MORB (+1.6 to +5.6) although the Li abundances of the olivines are within the range of normal mantle (1-2 ppm). The Li abundances and δ(7)Li characteristics of the Hebi olivines could not have been produced by recent diffusive-driven isotopic fractionation of Li and therefore the δ(7)Li in the cores of these olivines record the isotopic signature of the subcontinental lithospheric mantle. Our data demonstrate that abnormal δ(7)Li may be preserved in the ancient lithospheric mantle as observed in our study from the central North China Craton, which suggest that the subcontinental lithospheric mantle has experienced modification of fluid/melt derived from recycled oceanic crust.

  19. The giant Carlin gold province: a protracted interplay of orogenic, basinal, and hydrothermal processes above a lithospheric boundary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emsbo, Poul; Groves, David I.; Hofstra, Albert H.; Bierlein, Frank P.

    2006-09-01

    Northern Nevada hosts the only province that contains multiple world-class Carlin-type gold deposits. The first-order control on the uniqueness of this province is its anomalous far back-arc tectonic setting over the rifted North American paleocontinental margin that separates Precambrian from Phanerozoic subcontinental lithospheric mantle. Globally, most other significant gold provinces form in volcanic arcs and accreted terranes proximal to convergent margins. In northern Nevada, periodic reactivation of basement faults along this margin focused and amplified subsequent geological events. Early basement faults localized Devonian synsedimentary extension and normal faulting. These controlled the geometry of the Devonian sedimentary basin architecture and focused the discharge of basinal brines that deposited syngenetic gold along the basin margins. Inversion of these basins and faults during subsequent contraction produced the complex elongate structural culminations that characterize the anomalous mineral deposit “trends.” Subsequently, these features localized repeated episodes of shallow magmatic and hydrothermal activity that also deposited some gold. During a pulse of Eocene extension, these faults focused advection of Carlin-type fluids, which had the opportunity to leach gold from gold-enriched sequences and deposit it in reactive miogeoclinal host rocks below the hydrologic seal at the Roberts Mountain thrust contact. Hence, the vast endowment of the Carlin province resulted from the conjunction of spatially superposed events localized by long-lived basement structures in a highly anomalous tectonic setting, rather than by the sole operation of special magmatic or fluid-related processes. An important indicator of the longevity of this basement control is the superposition of different gold deposit types (e.g., Sedex, porphyry, Carlin-type, epithermal, and hot spring deposits) that formed repeatedly between the Devonian and Miocene time along the

  20. Composition and thermal structure of the lithospheric mantle beneath kimberlite pipes from the Catoca cluster, Angola

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashchepkov, I. V.; Rotman, A. Y.; Somov, S. V.; Afanasiev, V. P.; Downes, H.; Logvinova, A. M.; Nossyko, S.; Shimupi, J.; Palessky, S. V.; Khmelnikova, O. S.; Vladykin, N. V.

    2012-03-01

    Garnet, clinopyroxene and ilmenite xenocrysts from three Angolan kimberlite pipes belonging to the Catoca cluster (Angola Caquele, Camitongo I and II, and Catoca) from the SW part of the Congo-Kasai craton, reveal similar features which suggest a similarity of mantle structure. PT estimates for pyropes, Cr-diopsides and picroilmenites reveal similar geothermal conditions of ~ 37-40 mW/m2. This is slightly higher than the values determined for the Catoca pipe. Higher temperature conditions ~ 45 mW/m2 were determined for low-Cr pyroxenes and omphacites. The similar general mineralogy and suggested mantle lithology, as well as reconstructed layering of the sub-continental lithospheric mantle (SCLM), are similar for Camitongo I-II as well as for Caquele and Catoca pipes. Heating at depths of 7.5-4.5 GPa (240-140 km) is a general feature of the SCLM beneath the field. The high temperature trend for low-Cr and hybrid pyroxenes from the base of the SCLM up to 30 GPa (100 km) represents the PT path of the protokimberlite melts. PT conditions for ilmenites mainly correspond to colder conditions of crystallization in wall rocks and the outer parts of magmatic channels. Individual geochemical features of the minerals for each SCLM suggest pervasive metasomatism in lower part of the SCLM. Clinopyroxene trace element patterns from the Caquele pipe reveal a lherzolitic affinity; they are LILE-enriched with Ba peaks due to phlogopite melting, while those from Camitongo I-II show Ta-Nb enrichment and Pb troughs. The ilmenite trends trace the mantle column from deep to shallow mantle, evolving to Fe-ilmenites due to advanced AFC of protokimberlite magma that also produced abundant Fe-rich clinopyroxenes. The rise of calculated fO2 correlates with the position of protokimberlites. Comparison with the thermal gradient derived from peridotitic inclusions from Catoca cluster is lower than for Lesotho possibly related to the thicker lithospheric roots beneath the Congo-Kasai craton.

  1. Arctic lithosphere - A review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pease, V.; Drachev, S.; Stephenson, R.; Zhang, X.

    2014-07-01

    This article reviews the characteristics of Arctic lithosphere and the principal tectonic events which have shaped it. The current state-of-knowledge associated with the crust, crustal-scale discontinuities, and their ages, as well as knowledge of the lithosphere as a whole from geophysical data, permits the division of Arctic lithosphere into discrete domains. Arctic continental lithosphere is diverse in age, composition, and structure. It has been affected by at least two periods of thermal overprinting associated with large volumes of magmatism, once in the Permo-Triassic and again in the Aptian. In addition, it was attenuated as the result of at least five phases of rifting (in the late Devonian-early Carboniferous, Permo-Triassic, Jurassic, Early Cretaceous, and Late Cretaceous-Cenozoic). Older phases of consolidation are associated with continental lithosphere and occurred through a series of continent-continent collisions in the Paleozoic. Jurassic and Cretaceous extensional phases are related to the dismembering of Pangea and Eurasia, and were concentrated in the Norway-Greenland and Canadian-Alaskan Arctic regions. Large areas of submarine, hyperextended continental (?) lithosphere developed in parts of the Amerasia Basin. After continental breakup and the accretion of new oceanic lithosphere, the Eurasia and Canada basins were formed.

  2. Lithospheric processes that enhance melting at rifts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elkins-Tanton, L. T.; Furman, T.

    2008-12-01

    Continental rifts are commonly sites for mantle melting, whether in the form of ridge melting to create new oceanic crust, or as the locus of flood basalt activity, or in the long initial period of rifting before lavas evolve fully into MORBs. The high topography in the lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary under a rift creates mantle upwelling and adiabatic melting even in the absence of a plume. This geometry itself, however, is conducive to lithospheric instability on the sides of the rifts. Unstable lithosphere may founder into the mantle, producing more complex aesthenospheric convective patterns and additional opportunities to produce melt. Lithospheric instabilities can produce additional adiabatic melting in convection produced as they sink, and they may also devolatilize as they sink, introducing the possibility of flux melting to the rift environment. We call this process upside-down melting, since devolatilization and melting proceed as the foundering lithosphere sinks, rather than while rising, as in the more familiar adiabatic decompression melting. Both adiabatic melting and flux melting would take place along the edges of the rift and may even move magmatism outside the rift, as has been seen in Ethiopia. In volcanism postdating the flood basalts on and adjacent to the Ethiopian Plateau there is evidence for both lithospheric thinning and volatile enrichment in the magmas, potentially consistent with the upside-down melting model. Here we present a physical model for the conjunction of adiabatic decompression melting to produce new oceanic crust in the rift, while lithospheric gravitational instabilities drive both adiabatic and flux melting at its margins.

  3. The age of the lithospheric mantle beneath the Northern Kerguelen Plateau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Debaille, V.; Mattielli, N. D.; Weis, D. A.

    2009-12-01

    The Kerguelen Plateau, in the Southern part of the Indian Ocean, provides a unique perspective on the building of Large Igneous Provinces. The Kerguelen Plateau by itself is divided in four parts, each presenting different geochemical characteristics that correspond to the various tectonic stages of the plateau evolution with time. The involvement of continental material has been evidenced in the Cretaceous lavas in the South of the plateau (>100 Myr). In contrast, there is no evidence for continental material in the young, Cenozoic lavas of the Kerguelen Archipelago, located in the Northern part of the plateau (NKP). On the other hand, the presence of subcontinental lithospheric material has been invoked in some basic and ultrabasic xenoliths from the archipelago [1]. These xenoliths, disseminated within alkaline lava series in the Southern and South-East part of the archipelago, have PT conditions generally comprised between 0.6 to 1.8 GPa (10-55 km) and 800 to 1000°C, corresponding to lithospheric conditions. Such petrogenetic conditions reflect underplated basaltic magmas and deep cumulates beneath the Kerguelen Plateau [2]. We have undertaken an Hf-Nd isotopic study on various xenoliths from the South East Province of the archipelago to decipher the fine structure of the mantle and the potential distribution of continental components under the NKP. Preliminary 143Nd/144Nd and 176Hf/177Hf results on websterite and spinel ± sapphirine bearing 2-pyroxenes metagabbro xenoliths show isotopic compositions overlapping those of the depleted ~29.5 Myr oldest lavas from the Archipelago (Mont Bureau). These lavas describe an isotopic alignment between the compositions of the South-East Indian Ridge and the flood basalts from Mont Crozier, which are representative of the enriched signature of the Kerguelen mantle plume. There is no evidence for contamination of the xenoliths from their host during their ascent. The xenoliths analyzed so far do not compare to the

  4. Cretaceous potassic intrusives with affinities to aillikites from Jharia area: Magmatic expression of metasomatically veined and thinned lithospheric mantle beneath Singhbhum Craton, Eastern India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srivastava, Rajesh K.; Chalapathi Rao, N. V.; Sinha, Anup K.

    2009-11-01

    Cretaceous potassic dykes and sills at the Jharia area intrude the Permo-carboniferous coal-bearing Gondwana sediments of the Eastern Damodar Valley, Singhbhum craton. These intrusives are widely regarded as a part of the Mesozoic alkaline and Rajmahal flood basalt magmatism in the Eastern Indian shield. Jharia intrusives display a wide petrographic diversity; olivine, phlogopite and carbonate are the predominant phases whereas apatite and rutile constitute important accessories. Impoverishment in sodium, silica and alumina and enrichment in potassium, titanium and phosphorous are the hallmark of these rocks and in this aspect they are strikingly similar to the rift-related aillikites (ultramafic lamprophyres) of Aillik Bay, Labrador. Crustal contamination of the Jharia magmas is minimal and the incompatible trace element ratios demonstrate (i) their generation by greater degrees of partial melting of a sub-continental lithospheric mantle (SCLM) source similar to that of the kimberlites of Dharwar craton, southern India, and (ii) retention of long-term memories of ancient (Archaean) subduction experienced by their source regions. We infer that a metasomatically veined and thinned lithosphere located at the margin of the Singhbhum craton and the inheritance of an ancient (Archaean) subducted component has played a significant role in deciding the diverging petrological and geochemical characters displayed by the Jharia potassic intrusives: those of kimberlites (orangeites) and lamproites (cratonic signature) and those of aillikites (rift-related signature). A substantial melt component of Jharia potassic intrusives was derived from the SCLM and the melt contribution of the Kerguelen plume is inferred to be minimal.

  5. On the nature and origin of garnet in highly-refractory Archean lithosphere: implications for continent stabilisation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibson, Sally

    2014-05-01

    The nature and timescales of garnet formation in the Earth's subcontinental lithospheric mantle (SCLM) are important to our understanding of how this rigid outer shell has evolved and stabilised since the Archean. Nevertheless, the widespread occurrence of pyrope garnet in the sub-cratonic mantle remains one of the 'holy grails' of mantle petrology. The paradox is that garnet often occurs in mantle lithologies (dunites and harzburgites) which represent residues of major melting events (up to 40 %) whereas experimental studies on fertile peridotite suggest this phase should be exhausted by <20 % melting. Furthermore, garnets commonly found in mantle peridotite suites have diverse compositions that are typically in equilibrium with high-pressure, small-fraction, mantle melts suggesting they formed as a result of enrichment of the lithospheric mantle following cratonisation. This refertilisation -- which typically involves addition of Fe, incompatible trace elements and volatiles -- affects the lower 30 km of the lithosphere and potentially leads to negative buoyancy and destabilisation. Pyrope garnets found in mantle xenoliths from the eastern margin of the Tanzanian Craton (Lashaine) have diverse compositions and provide major constraints on how the underlying deep (120 to 160 km) mantle stabilised and evolved during the last 3 billion years. The garnets display systematic trends from ultra-depleted to enriched compositions that have not been recognised in peridotite suites from elsewhere (Gibson et al., 2013). Certain harzburgite members of the xenolith suite contain the first reported occurrence of pyrope garnets with rare-earth element (REE) patterns similar to hypothetical garnets proposed by Stachel et al. (2004) to have formed in the Earth's SCLM during the Archean, prior to metasomatism. These rare ultra-depleted low-Cr garnets occur in low temperature (~1050 oC) xenoliths derived from depths of ~120 km and coexist in chemical and textural equilibrium with

  6. Hydrologic sensitivity of Indian sub-continental river basins to climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishra, Vimal; Lilhare, Rajtantra

    2016-04-01

    Climate change may pose profound implications for hydrologic processes in Indian sub-continental river basins. Using downscaled and bias corrected future climate projections and the Soil Water Assessment Tool (SWAT), we show that a majority of the Indian sub-continental river basins are projected to shift towards warmer and wetter climate in the future. During the monsoon (June to September) season, under the representative concentration pathways (RCP) 4.5 (8.5), the ensemble mean air temperature is projected to increase by more than 0.5 (0.8), 1.0 (2.0), and 1.5 (3.5) °C in the Near (2010-2039), Mid (2040-2069), and End (2070-2099) term climate, respectively. Moreover, the sub-continental river basins may face an increase of 3-5 °C in the post-monsoon season under the projected future climate. While there is a large intermodel uncertainty, robust increases in precipitation are projected in many sub-continental river basins under the projected future climate especially in the Mid and End term climate. A sensitivity analysis for the Ganges and Godavari river basins shows that surface runoff is more sensitive to change in precipitation and temperature than that of evapotranspiration (ET). An intensification of the hydrologic cycle in the Indian sub-continental basins is evident in the projected future climate. For instance, for Mid and End term climate, ET is projected to increase up to 10% for the majority of the river basins under both RCP 4.5 and 8.5 scenarios. During the monsoon season, ensemble mean surface runoff is projected to increase more than 40% in 11 (15) basins under the RCP 4.5 (8.5) scenarios by the end of the 21st century. Moreover, streamflow is projected to increase more than 40% in 8 (9) basins during the monsoon season under the RCP 4.5 (8.5) scenarios. Results show that water availability in the sub-continental river basins is more sensitive towards changes in the monsoon season precipitation rather than air temperature. While in the majority

  7. Oxidation state of the lithospheric mantle beneath the Massif Central,France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uenver-Thiele, L.; Woodland, A. B.; Downes, H.; Altherr, R.

    2012-04-01

    The Tertiary and Quaternary volcanism of the French Massif Central sampled the underlying subcontinental lithospheric mantle (SCLM) in the form of xenoliths over a wide geographic area of ~20.000km2. Such an extensive distribution of xenoliths provides an unique opportunity to investigate regional variations in mantle structure and composition. On the basis of textural and geochemical differences, Lenoir et al. (2000) and later Downes et al. (2003) identified two distinct domains in the SCLM lying north and south of latitude 45° 30' N, respectively. The northern domain is relatively refractory, but has experienced pervasive enrichment of LREE. The southern domain is generally more fertile, exhibiting depletion in LREE. A metasomatic overprint has developed to variable extents in many xenolith suites. The different histories of these two juxtaposed blocks of SCLM should also be reflected in their oxidation state, with local variations also to be expected due to metasomatic interactions. For example, if carbonate-melt metasomatism played a role in the LREE enrichment of the northern domain (Lenoir et al. 2000; Downes et al. 2003), then such mantle should be relatively oxidised. Since surprisingly little redox data are currently available, we are undertaking a study to determine the oxidation state of the SCLM beneath the Massif Central over the largest geographical area possible. All xenoliths investigated are spinel peridotites, mostly with protogranular textures (although some samples are porphyroclastic or equigranular). Most samples are nominally anhydrous although minor amphibole is present in some xenolith suites. Major element compositions of the individual minerals were determined by microprobe. Two-pyroxene temperatures (BKN) range from 750° to ~1200° C. Ferric iron contents of spinel were determined by Mössbauer spectroscopy and gave a range of Fe3+/ Fetot from 0.191 to 0.418, with a conservative uncertainty of ±0.02. These data were used to calculate

  8. Silica- and LREE-enriched spinel peridotite xenoliths from the Quaternary intraplate alkali basalt, Jeju Island, South Korea: Old subarc fragments?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woo, Yonghoon; Yang, Kyounghee; Kil, Youngwoo; Yun, Sung-Hyo; Arai, Shoji

    2014-11-01

    wedge, the upper mantle beneath proto-Jeju Island was transformed from a subarc environment to an intraplate environment. The Jeju peridotites, representing old subarc fragments, were subsequently transported to the surface, incorporated into ascending Quaternary intraplate alkali basalt. The result of this study implies that long term material transfer in the transformation of geotectonic setting from a subarc to intraplate may have played a significant role in the evolution of the subcontinental lithospheric mantle, resulting in the enriched mantle domains, such as EMI or EMII.

  9. The international lithosphere program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flinn, Edward A.

    The International Lithosphere Program is a new international interdisciplinary research program in the solid earth sciences that has been established by the International Council of Scientific Unions (ICSU) at the joint request of the International Union of Geodesy and Geophysics (IUGG) and the International Union of Geological Sciences (IUGS). Its goal is a better understanding of the development of the earth, particularly those aspects upon which human society depends for its well-being.The International Lithosphere Program (ILP) is a natural sequel to a series of international cooperative projects in the geosciences that began with the International Geophysical Year in 1957-58 and continued with the Upper Mantle Project in the 1960's and the International Geodynamics Project (IGP) in the 1970's. In 1977, IUGG and IUGS established an inter-union task group to consider the possibility of a successor to the IGP for the 1980's. The task group, under cochairmen Carl Kisslinger (Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Sciences, University of Colorado), foreign secretary of the American Geophysical Union, and J. Henning Illies (Geophysical Institute, University of Karlsruhe, Federal Republic of Germany), invited suggestions and comments from the two unions and the national committees in the member countries. Their report, which was completed late in 1978, proposed a new project on the dynamics, origin, and evolution of the lithosphere. This proposal was approved by the IUGS Executive Committee in December 1979 and by the IUGS Council in June 1980. An inter-union steering committee, established in 1979 under the joint chairmanship of Kisslinger and Illies, developed the organizational framework and constitution of the new program. These were approved by resolution of the ICSU Governing Board in September 1980, and the Inter-Union Commission on the Lithosphere (ICL) was established to implement the program. National members of ICSU were urged to establish

  10. A lithospheric instability origin for the Cameroon Volcanic Line

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milelli, L.; Fourel, L.; Jaupart, C.

    2012-06-01

    The Cameroon Volcanic Line (CVL) is an enigmatic structure that defies common dynamic models of melt generation and volcanic activity on Earth. There, magma generation and intrusion has been sustained for more than 70 Myr over a 1600 km long chain straddling the ocean-continent boundary, with no detectable spatial age progression. The chain is nearly perpendicular to the coastline and terminates in a Y-shaped structure that has not been affected by absolute plate motions, implying that the mantle upwelling that feeds magmatic activity is attached to the continent. We propose that this form of volcanism is due to a new type of instability that may develop within the subcontinental lithospheric mantle at the edge of a continent. Laboratory experiments document how lithosphere beneath a continental block of finite size can become unstable due to cooling from above. The instability pattern is made of linear upwellings and downwellings that converge radially towards the center of the continent in an outer region and an array of polygonal cells in a central region. The pattern is characterized by branching structures that are reminiscent of the strike and Y-shaped outline of the CVL. The instability develops over long timescales with small rates of upwelling and melting, and is attached to the continent by construction. Downwellings adjacent to upwellings induce compression in the crust, which may account for deformation in the Benue trough just before the onset of CVL magmatism.

  11. Lithospheric controls on magma composition along Earth's longest continental hotspot track.

    PubMed

    Davies, D R; Rawlinson, N; Iaffaldano, G; Campbell, I H

    2015-09-24

    Hotspots are anomalous regions of volcanism at Earth's surface that show no obvious association with tectonic plate boundaries. Classic examples include the Hawaiian-Emperor chain and the Yellowstone-Snake River Plain province. The majority are believed to form as Earth's tectonic plates move over long-lived mantle plumes: buoyant upwellings that bring hot material from Earth's deep mantle to its surface. It has long been recognized that lithospheric thickness limits the rise height of plumes and, thereby, their minimum melting pressure. It should, therefore, have a controlling influence on the geochemistry of plume-related magmas, although unambiguous evidence of this has, so far, been lacking. Here we integrate observational constraints from surface geology, geochronology, plate-motion reconstructions, geochemistry and seismology to ascertain plume melting depths beneath Earth's longest continental hotspot track, a 2,000-kilometre-long track in eastern Australia that displays a record of volcanic activity between 33 and 9 million years ago, which we call the Cosgrove track. Our analyses highlight a strong correlation between lithospheric thickness and magma composition along this track, with: (1) standard basaltic compositions in regions where lithospheric thickness is less than 110 kilometres; (2) volcanic gaps in regions where lithospheric thickness exceeds 150 kilometres; and (3) low-volume, leucitite-bearing volcanism in regions of intermediate lithospheric thickness. Trace-element concentrations from samples along this track support the notion that these compositional variations result from different degrees of partial melting, which is controlled by the thickness of overlying lithosphere. Our results place the first observational constraints on the sub-continental melting depth of mantle plumes and provide direct evidence that lithospheric thickness has a dominant influence on the volume and chemical composition of plume-derived magmas.

  12. Lithospheric Controls on Magma Composition along Earth's Longest Continental Hotspot-Track

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rawlinson, N.; Davies, R.; Iaffaldano, G.; Campbell, I. H.

    2014-12-01

    Hotspots are anomalous regions of volcanism at Earth's surface that show no obvious association with tectonic plate boundaries. Classic examples include the Hawaiian-Emperor chain and the Yellowstone-Snake River Plain province. The majority are believed to form as Earth's tectonic plates move over long-lived mantle plumes: buoyant upwellings that bring hot material from Earth's deep-mantle to its surface. It has long been recognised that lithospheric thickness limits the rise height of plumes and, thereby, their minimum melting pressure. It should, therefore, have a controlling influence on the geochemistry of plume-related magmas, although unambiguous evidence of this has, thus far, been lacking. Here we integrate observational constraints from surface geology, geochronology, plate-motion reconstructions, geochemistry and seismology to ascertain plume melting depths beneath Earth's longest continental hotspot-track, a ~2000 km long track in eastern Australia that displays a record of volcanic activity between ~33 and ~9 Ma, which we call the Cosgrove track. Our analyses highlight a strong correlation between lithospheric thickness and magma composition along this track, with: (i) standard basaltic compositions in regions where lithospheric thickness is less than ~110 km; (ii) volcanic gaps in regions where lithospheric thickness exceeds ~150 km; and (iii) low-volume, leucitite-bearing volcanism in regions of intermediate lithospheric thickness. Trace-element concentrations from samples along this track support the notion that these compositional variations result from different degrees of partial-melting, which is controlled by the thickness of overlying lithosphere. Our results place the first observational constraints on the subcontinental melting depth of mantle plumes and provide direct evidence that lithospheric thickness has a dominant influence on the volume and chemical composition of plume-derived magmas.

  13. Lithospheric controls on magma composition along Earth's longest continental hotspot track

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davies, D. R.; Rawlinson, N.; Iaffaldano, G.; Campbell, I. H.

    2015-09-01

    Hotspots are anomalous regions of volcanism at Earth's surface that show no obvious association with tectonic plate boundaries. Classic examples include the Hawaiian-Emperor chain and the Yellowstone-Snake River Plain province. The majority are believed to form as Earth's tectonic plates move over long-lived mantle plumes: buoyant upwellings that bring hot material from Earth's deep mantle to its surface. It has long been recognized that lithospheric thickness limits the rise height of plumes and, thereby, their minimum melting pressure. It should, therefore, have a controlling influence on the geochemistry of plume-related magmas, although unambiguous evidence of this has, so far, been lacking. Here we integrate observational constraints from surface geology, geochronology, plate-motion reconstructions, geochemistry and seismology to ascertain plume melting depths beneath Earth's longest continental hotspot track, a 2,000-kilometre-long track in eastern Australia that displays a record of volcanic activity between 33 and 9 million years ago, which we call the Cosgrove track. Our analyses highlight a strong correlation between lithospheric thickness and magma composition along this track, with: (1) standard basaltic compositions in regions where lithospheric thickness is less than 110 kilometres; (2) volcanic gaps in regions where lithospheric thickness exceeds 150 kilometres; and (3) low-volume, leucitite-bearing volcanism in regions of intermediate lithospheric thickness. Trace-element concentrations from samples along this track support the notion that these compositional variations result from different degrees of partial melting, which is controlled by the thickness of overlying lithosphere. Our results place the first observational constraints on the sub-continental melting depth of mantle plumes and provide direct evidence that lithospheric thickness has a dominant influence on the volume and chemical composition of plume-derived magmas.

  14. Lithospheric controls on magma composition along Earth's longest continental hotspot track.

    PubMed

    Davies, D R; Rawlinson, N; Iaffaldano, G; Campbell, I H

    2015-09-24

    Hotspots are anomalous regions of volcanism at Earth's surface that show no obvious association with tectonic plate boundaries. Classic examples include the Hawaiian-Emperor chain and the Yellowstone-Snake River Plain province. The majority are believed to form as Earth's tectonic plates move over long-lived mantle plumes: buoyant upwellings that bring hot material from Earth's deep mantle to its surface. It has long been recognized that lithospheric thickness limits the rise height of plumes and, thereby, their minimum melting pressure. It should, therefore, have a controlling influence on the geochemistry of plume-related magmas, although unambiguous evidence of this has, so far, been lacking. Here we integrate observational constraints from surface geology, geochronology, plate-motion reconstructions, geochemistry and seismology to ascertain plume melting depths beneath Earth's longest continental hotspot track, a 2,000-kilometre-long track in eastern Australia that displays a record of volcanic activity between 33 and 9 million years ago, which we call the Cosgrove track. Our analyses highlight a strong correlation between lithospheric thickness and magma composition along this track, with: (1) standard basaltic compositions in regions where lithospheric thickness is less than 110 kilometres; (2) volcanic gaps in regions where lithospheric thickness exceeds 150 kilometres; and (3) low-volume, leucitite-bearing volcanism in regions of intermediate lithospheric thickness. Trace-element concentrations from samples along this track support the notion that these compositional variations result from different degrees of partial melting, which is controlled by the thickness of overlying lithosphere. Our results place the first observational constraints on the sub-continental melting depth of mantle plumes and provide direct evidence that lithospheric thickness has a dominant influence on the volume and chemical composition of plume-derived magmas. PMID:26367795

  15. Lithospheric Controls on Magma Composition along Earth's Longest Continental Hotspot-Track

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rawlinson, N.; Davies, R.; Iaffaldano, G.; Campbell, I. H.

    2015-12-01

    Hotspots are anomalous regions of volcanism at Earth's surface that show no obvious association with tectonic plate boundaries. Classic examples include the Hawaiian-Emperor chain and the Yellowstone-Snake River Plain province. The majority are believed to form as Earth's tectonic plates move over long-lived mantle plumes: buoyant upwellings that bring hot material from Earth's deep-mantle to its surface. It has long been recognised that lithospheric thickness limits the rise height of plumes and, thereby, their minimum melting pressure. It should, therefore, have a controlling influence on the geochemistry of plume-related magmas, although unambiguous evidence of this has, thus far, been lacking. Here we integrate observational constraints from surface geology, geochronology, plate-motion reconstructions, geochemistry and seismology to ascertain plume melting depths beneath Earth's longest continental hotspot-track, a ~2000 km long track in eastern Australia that displays a record of volcanic activity between ~33 and ~9 Ma, which we call the Cosgrove track. Our analyses highlight a strong correlation between lithospheric thickness and magma composition along this track, with: (i) standard basaltic compositions in regions where lithospheric thickness is less than ~110 km; (ii) volcanic gaps in regions where lithospheric thickness exceeds ~150 km; and (iii) low-volume, leucitite-bearing volcanism in regions of intermediate lithospheric thickness. Trace-element concentrations from samples along this track support the notion that these compositional variations result from different degrees of partial-melting, which is controlled by the thickness of overlying lithosphere. Our results place the first observational constraints on the subcontinental melting depth of mantle plumes and provide direct evidence that lithospheric thickness has a dominant influence on the volume and chemical composition of plume-derived magmas.

  16. Lithospheric mantle structure and the diamond potential of kimberlites in southern D.R. Congo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batumike, J. M.; Griffin, W. L.; O'Reilly, S. Y.

    2009-11-01

    Mantle-derived peridotitic garnet xenocrysts from kimberlites in the Mbuji Mayi and Kundelungu areas and from heavy-mineral concentrates collected in the Luebo area, D.R. Congo, have been analysed for major- and trace-element compositions in order to understand the structure and composition of the subcontinental lithospheric mantle (SCLM) and the diamond potential of the kimberlites. The lithosphere beneath the Kundelungu Plateau is ca 175 km thick and has been affected by pronounced melt metasomatism. Garnets from the Kundelungu Plateau indicate an initially cool geotherm (~ 35 mW/m 2), which was disturbed by asthenospheric melts that penetrated the SCLM shortly before kimberlite intrusion ca 32 Ma ago. Harzburgitic garnets are very rare, but some lherzolitic garnets display compositions similar to garnets included in diamond. Garnets from the Mbuji Mayi region indicate a cool geotherm (35 mW/m 2); the SCLM is ~ 210 km thick and was affected by melt-related and phlogopite-related metasomatisms. Harzburgitic garnets form about 33% of the analysed population. The garnets from the Luebo region indicate a cool lithospheric geotherm (35 mW/m 2) typical of cratonic areas. The SCLM from which the garnets were derived was relatively thick (205 km), affected by melt-related and phlogopite-related metasomatisms and characterised by the presence of a ~ 80-km thick harzburgite-rich layer. In terms of peridotitic diamond potential, Mbuji Mayi and Luebo are more prospective than Kundelungu. The initially cool conductive geotherm, the presence of some garnets with compositions similar to garnets included in diamond and the presence of sporadic diamond in the Kundelungu Plateau suggest that diamond initially was present in the lithosphere and the observed paucity of diamond may be due to the melt-related metasomatism that affected the lithosphere in the region. We suggest that the lithospheric mantle beneath Kundelungu is a strongly modified Archean cratonic lithosphere that has

  17. Lithospheric and crustal thinning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moretti, I.

    1985-01-01

    In rift zones, both the crust and the lithosphere get thinner. The amplitude and the mechanism of these two thinning situations are different. The lithospheric thinning is a thermal phenomenon produced by an asthenospherical uprising under the rift zone. In some regions its amplitude can exceed 200%. This is observed under the Baikal rift where the crust is directly underlaid by the mantellic asthenosphere. The presence of hot material under rift zones induces a large negative gravity anomaly. A low seismic velocity zone linked to this thermal anomaly is also observed. During the rifting, the magmatic chambers get progressively closer from the ground surface. Simultaneously, the Moho reflector is found at shallow depth under rift zones. This crustal thinning does not exceed 50%. Tectonic stresses and vertical movements result from the two competing effects of the lithospheric and crustal thinning. On the one hand, the deep thermal anomaly induces a large doming and is associated with extensive deviatoric stresses. On the other hand, the crustal thinning involves the formation of a central valley. This subsidence is increased by the sediment loading. The purpose here is to quantify these two phenomena in order to explain the morphological and thermal evolution of rift zones.

  18. The giant Carlin gold province: A protracted interplay of orogenic, basinal, and hydrothermal processes above a lithospheric boundary

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Emsbo, P.; Groves, D.I.; Hofstra, A.H.; Bierlein, F.P.

    2006-01-01

    Northern Nevada hosts the only province that contains multiple world-class Carlin-type gold deposits. The first-order control on the uniqueness of this province is its anomalous far back-arc tectonic setting over the rifted North American paleocontinental margin that separates Precambrian from Phanerozoic subcontinental lithospheric mantle. Globally, most other significant gold provinces form in volcanic arcs and accreted terranes proximal to convergent margins. In northern Nevada, periodic reactivation of basement faults along this margin focused and amplified subsequent geological events. Early basement faults localized Devonian synsedimentary extension and normal faulting. These controlled the geometry of the Devonian sedimentary basin architecture and focused the discharge of basinal brines that deposited syngenetic gold along the basin margins. Inversion of these basins and faults during subsequent contraction produced the complex elongate structural culminations that characterize the anomalous mineral deposit "trends." Subsequently, these features localized repeated episodes of shallow magmatic and hydrothermal activity that also deposited some gold. During a pulse of Eocene extension, these faults focused advection of Carlin-type fluids, which had the opportunity to leach gold from gold-enriched sequences and deposit it in reactive miogeoclinal host rocks below the hydrologic seal at the Roberts Mountain thrust contact. Hence, the vast endowment of the Carlin province resulted from the conjunction of spatially superposed events localized by long-lived basement structures in a highly anomalous tectonic setting, rather than by the sole operation of special magmatic or fluid-related processes. An important indicator of the longevity of this basement control is the superposition of different gold deposit types (e.g., Sedex, porphyry, Carlin-type, epithermal, and hot spring deposits) that formed repeatedly between the Devonian and Miocene time along the trends

  19. Timescales and mechanisms of plume-lithosphere interactions: 40Ar/ 39Ar geochronology and geochemistry of alkaline igneous rocks from the Paraná-Etendeka large igneous province

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibson, S. A.; Thompson, R. N.; Day, J. A.

    2006-11-01

    We have determined high-precision 40Ar/ 39Ar ages for alkaline igneous rocks from the western margin of the Early-Cretaceous Paraná-Etendeka large igneous province (Paraguay). These show that small-fraction melt generation occurred beneath the region in two phases; at 145 Ma and 127.5 Ma, i.e. before and at the end of the 139-127.5 Ma Paraná-Etendeka flood-basalt eruptions. Previously published 40Ar/ 39Ar ages for alkaline igneous rocks on the proto-Atlantic coastal margins range from 134 to 128 Ma and indicate that small-fraction melt generation in the east of the province was either synchronous or slightly later than the main pulse of tholeiitic volcanism (between 134 and 132 Ma). Our new 40Ar/ 39Ar phlogopite ages confirm that: (i) the earliest melts associated with the initial impact of the Tristan plume were generated in the west of the Paraná-Etendeka large igneous province and (ii) igneous activity was long lived and immediately predates continental break-up. The Early-Cretaceous Paraguayan alkaline magmas are silica-undersaturated, enriched in incompatible-trace elements, have very-low initial ɛNd values and probably represent melts of phlogopite-bearing, carbonate-metasomatised peridotite in the subcontinental lithospheric mantle. Our simple one-dimensional, conductive-heating models suggest that the early-phase (145 Ma) alkaline magmas were emplaced on the margins of the Rio de La Plata craton at the time of sublithospheric impact of the proto-Tristan plume. The late phase (127.5 Ma) of Paraguayan alkaline magmatism is concentrated in an intra-cratonic rift zone and melt generation appears to have been triggered by lithospheric extension, perhaps facilitated by conductive heating and thermal weakening associated with the upwelling Tristan plume. The location and timing of both alkaline and tholeiitic melt generation in the Paraná-Etendeka province appear to have been significantly influenced by the non-uniform composition and thickness of the South

  20. Magnetotelluric deep soundings, gravity and geoid in the south São Francisco craton: Geophysical indicators of cratonic lithosphere rejuvenation and crustal underplating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinto, Luis Gustavo Rodrigues; de Pádua, Marcelo Banik; Ussami, Naomi; Vitorello, Ícaro; Padilha, Antonio Lopes; Braitenberg, Carla

    2010-09-01

    In the south São Francisco craton a circular and 8-m amplitude geoid anomaly coincides with the outcropping terrain of an Archean-Paleoproterozoic basement. Broadband magnetotelluric (MT) data inversions of two radial profiles within the positive geoid and Bouguer gravity anomaly yield geo-electrical crustal sections, whereby the lower crust is locally more conductive (10 to 100 Ωm) in spatial coincidence with a denser lower crust modeled by the gravity data. This anomalous lower crust may have resulted from magmatic underplating, associated with Mesoarchean and Proterozoic episodes of tholeiitic dike intrusion. Long-period MT soundings reveal a low electrical resistivity mantle (20 to 200 Ωm) from depths beyond 120 km. Forward geoid modeling, using the scope of the low electrical resistivity region within the mantle as a constraint, entails a density increase (40 to 50 kg/m 3) possibly due to Fe enrichment of mantle minerals. However, this factor alone does not explain the observed resistivity. A supplemented presence of small amounts of percolated carbonatite melting (~ 0.005 vol.%), dissolved water and enhanced oxygen fugacity within the peridotitic mantle are viable agents that could explain the less resistive upper mantle. We propose that metasomatic processes confined in the sub-continental lithospheric mantle foster the conditions for a low degree melting with variable CO 2, H 2O and Fe content. Even though the precise age of this metasomatism is unknown it might be older than the Early Cretaceous based on the evidence that a high-degree of melting in a lithospheric mantle impregnated with carbonatites originated the tholeiitic dike intrusions dispersed from the southeastern border of the São Francisco craton, during the onset of the lithosphere extension and break-up of the western Gondwana. The proxies are the NE Paraná and Espinhaço (130 Ma, Ar/Ar ages) tholeiitic dikes, which contain (~ 3%) carbonatites in their composition. The occurrence of a

  1. Paleoproterozoic mantle enrichment beneath the Fennoscandian Shield: Isotopic insight from carbonatites and lamprophyres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woodard, Jeremy; Huhma, Hannu

    2015-11-01

    The isotope geochemistry of carbonatite from Naantali, southwest Finland as well as lamprophyres from North Savo, eastern Finland and the NW Ladoga region, northwest Russia has been investigated. These Paleoproterozoic dykes represent melting of an enriched mantle source spread over a ~ 96,000 km2 area within the Fennoscandian Shield and intruded during post-collisional extension. The carbonatites have εNd(T) ranging from -0.8 to + 0.4, while lamprophyres have εNd(T) between -0.8 and + 0.3. 87Sr/86Sr ratios from the primary carbonatite samples from Naantali form a tight cluster between 0.70283 and 0.70303. For the lamprophyres, 87Sr/86Sr ratios range from 0.70327-0.70339 from NW Ladoga and 0.70316-0.70327 from North Savo. These characteristics are consistent with derivation from an enriched mantle showing an EMII trend, formed when sediments of mixed Archean and Proterozoic provenance were recycled back into the mantle via subduction during the preceding Svecofennian orogeny. Linear mixing of these subducted sediments and depleted mantle shows that a multistage process of enrichment is required to produce the observed isotope compositions. Batch melting of the subducted sediment first generated hydrous alkaline silicate melt, which crystallised as mica- and amphibole-rich veins in the mantle wedge. Continued melting of the subducted material under higher P-T conditions produced carbonatite melt, which infiltrated preferentially into this vein network. Assuming the silicate melt exerts greater influence on 87Sr/86Sr ratios while the carbonatite more greatly affects 143Nd/144Nd ratios, the model predicts significant regional variation in the silicate metasomatism with more consistent carbonatite metasomatism throughout the Fennoscandian subcontinental lithospheric mantle. The subducted sediments were likely also rich in organic matter, resulting in highly negative δ13C in mantle carbonates. The model predicts a higher content of organic carbon in the sediments in

  2. Lithospheric structure of North America imaged using waveform inversion of global and USArray data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaeffer, Andrew; Lebedev, Sergei

    2015-04-01

    velocities between the Great Bear Arc and Beaufort Sea provide convincing evidence for the recently proposed 'MacKenzie Craton', unexposed at the surface. Within the continental interior, the lithosphere surrounding the 1 Ga failed Mid-Continental Rift shows a reduction in wavespeeds compared to the surrounding craton, likely indicating thermo-chemical alteration of the sub-continental lithospheric mantle, in agreement with results from geochemical and petrological analyses of diamondiferous kimberlites and peridotites. We examine the spatial extent of the lithospheric mantle root and LAB variations across the continent, and compare them with respect to the spatial location of diamondiferous kimberlites. Finally, we discuss potential lithospheric control on the distribution crustal seismicity.

  3. Development of a real time streamflow monitoring system for the Indian sub-continental basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shah, H. L.; Mishra, V.

    2015-12-01

    Real-time streamflow monitoring is essential in the Indian sub-continental river basins as a large population is affected by floods. Moreover, streamflow monitoring may help in managing the water resources in the agriculture dominated region. In the Indian sub-continental basins, it is challenging to obtain the real time information of streamflow, which is valuable for reservoir operations, water management, and flood forecasts. We setup the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) hydrological model at daily temporal resolution and 0.25◦ spatial resolution using the bias corrected satellite precipitation product from the Tropical rainfall Measurement Mission Real Time (TRMM-3B42RTV7) and bias corrected temperature product from the Global Ensemble Forecast System (GEFS), version 2. Near-real-time precipitation and temperatures are bias corrected using the historic precipitation and temperature data from the India Meteorological Department (IMD). Moreover, we evaluated data assimilation approaches to improve the real-time monitoring of streamflow in the sub-continental basins.

  4. Geochemical and Isotopic Variations of Three Basalt Groups in the Early Permian Tarim Large Igneous Province (NW China): Implications for Plume-Lithosphere Interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Y.; Li, Z.; Langmuir, C. H.; Yang, S.; Chen, H.; Yu, X.; Zou, S.

    2014-12-01

    Several lines of geological, petrological and geochemical evidence have supported that the Early Permian Tarim Large Igneous Province (LIP) in the Tarim cratonic block of northwestern China were generated by a mantle plume. However, the over 200,000 km2 Tarim continental flood basalts, as the dominant part of the Tarim LIP, show little geochemical and isotopic features similar to those plume-derived intrusive rocks in this region. This is mainly because that their parental magmas were more or less contaminated by the thick crust during ascending. Modeling by trace element and Nd isotopic compositions further suggest that the three basalt groups (Groups 1a, 1b and 2) in the Tarim LIP have experienced variable degree of crustal contamination (i.e., Group 1b > Group 1a > Group 2). After eliminating the effect of crustal contamination, the widespread Group 1 basalts (including both Groups 1a and 1b) would have relatively uniform ɛNd(t) values of ca. -1.7. This indicates that they were more likely to be produced by partial melting of some enriched mantle components in the sub-continental lithospheric mantle (SCLM) beneath the Tarim block, probably due to conductive heating that resulted from an incubating mantle plume. The Group 2 basalts, on the other hand, were only found in a small region but display a relatively higher and wider range of ɛNd(t) values roughly between -1.7 and 0.8 (if without crustal contamination). This may suggest that during the generation of Group 2 basalts, the upwelling mantle plume not only provided an enormous amount of heat, but also continuously injected isotopically depleted plume components into the isotopically enriched magma source region in the SCLM. The source isotopic heterogeneity of three basalt groups and other various Tarim LIP rocks (e.g., picrites, ultramafic-mafic intrusive rocks and syenitic rocks), with their ɛNd(t) values varying between ca. -5 and 5, may correlate with the plume-lithosphere interaction during the

  5. SEASAT observations of lithospheric flexure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcadoo, D. C.

    1984-01-01

    Models of lithospheric flexure were tested on SEASAT altimetric observations of the geoid over Outer Rises. These altimeter data were found to provide significant new information about the strength of the oceanic lithosphere. Among the significant results derived from altimeter data is confirmation of the proposition that the effective elastic thickness, T sub e, of the lithosphere increases with age in approximate accord with the relation T sub E approximately equals C times one half the age. SEASAT altimeter data over Outer Rises provide an important constraint on mechanical models of the oceanic lithosphere. These data are quite consistent with an experimentally predicted mechanical model of the lithosphere which indicates that this model may be useful in other geodynamic investigations.

  6. Pyroxenite-derived Early Cretaceous lavas in the Liaodong Peninsula: Implication for metasomatism and thinning of the lithospheric mantle beneath North China Craton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pang, Chong-Jin; Wang, Xuan-Ce; Xu, Yi-Gang; Wen, Shu-Nv; Kuang, Yong-Sheng; Hong, Lu-Bing

    2015-06-01

    The Xiaoling lavas, erupted at ca. 110 Ma in the Liaodong Peninsula, North China, provide vital constraints on the thermochemical state of subcontinental lithospheric mantle (SCLM) during the destruction of the craton. The Xiaoling lavas comprise basalt, andesite and dacite. They are characterized by depletion of high field strength elements (HFSE), enrichment of large ion lithophile elements (LILE) and EM1-like Sr-Nd isotopic compositions (εNd(t) = - 8.7--16.0; 87Sr/86Sri = 0.7046-0.7054), consistent with a derivation from the SCLM. With the exception of TiO2, the studied samples have major element compositions similar to those of experimentally determined partial melts of volatile-free Mid-Ocean-Ridge Basalt (MORB)-like eclogite at 3-5 GPa, but differ from anhydrous peridotite-derived melts. The olivine phenocrysts of the basaltic samples have high Ni and Fe/Mn, and low Ca contents, which are typical of the olivines crystallized from melts derived from a garnet pyroxenitic mantle source. This suggests that the Xiaoling lavas were derived from a pyroxenitic mantle source, which may have been formed by the solid-state reaction between recycled crustal materials and their surrounding peridotites. The presence of abundant amphibole phenocrysts in the Xiaoling lavas suggests a highly hydrated SCLM in this region. The high Rb/Sr but low initial 87Sr/86Sr ratios of the Xiaoling samples require a recent metasomatism in the mantle source, which is most likely related to the Pacific subduction. The genesis of the Xiaoling lavas therefore highlights the important role of water and Pacific subduction in the destruction of the North China Craton.

  7. NSF Continental Lithosphere Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayhew, Michael; MacGregor, Ian

    For several months the Continental Lithosphere Program (CL) of the National Science Foundation has been subject to a major review. The process was stimulated by a series of budget setbacks over the past few years. Although Presidential budget requests have been very favorable for the Division of Earth Sciences (EAR), and there has been strong support within the National Science Foundation and Congress, actual appropriations by Congress have been disappointing.In each year the final allocation to EAR has been affected by external factors beyond the control of the Foundation. In the four fiscal years from 1986 through 1989 the factors include reductions tied to the Gramm-Rudman deficit reduction measures, congressional reaction to the October 1987 stock market crash, and two years of protection for the Ocean Sciences part of the NSF budget that was paid for from the budgets of the Atmospheric and Earth Sciences divisions.

  8. Correlation between mobile continents and elevated temperatures in the subcontinental mantle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jain, Charitra; Rozel, Antoine; Tackley, Paul

    2016-04-01

    Rolf et al. (EPSL, 2012) and Coltice et al. (Science, 2012) have previously shown that continents exert a first order influence on Earth's mantle flow by affecting convective wavelength and surface heat flow. With stationary continents, Heron and Lowman (JGR, 2014) highlighted the decreasing role of continental insulation on subcontinental temperatures with higher Rayleigh number (Ra). However, the question whether there exists a correlation between mobile continents and elevated temperatures in the subcontinental mantle or not remains to be answered. By systematically varying parameters like core-mantle boundary (CMB) temperature, continental size, and mantle heating modes (basal and internal); we model thermo-chemical mantle convection with 2D spherical annulus geometry (Hernlund and Tackley, PEPI 2008) using StagYY (Tackley, PEPI 2008). Starting with a simple incompressible model having mobile continents, we observe this correlation. Furthermore, this correlation still holds when the model complexity is gradually increased by introducing internal heating, compressibility, and melting. In general, downwellings reduce the mantle temperature away from the continents, thereby resulting in correlation between mobile continents and elevated temperatures in the subcontinental mantle. For incompressible models (Boussinesq approximation), correlation exists and the dominant degree of convection varies with the continental distribution. When internal heating is switched on, correlation is observed but it is reduced as there are less cold regions in the mantle. Even for compressible models with melting, big continents are able to focus the heat underneath them. The dominant degree of convection changes with continental breakup. Additionally, correlation is observed to be higher in the upper mantle (300 - 1000 km) compared to the lower mantle (1000 - 2890 km). At present, mobile continents in StagYY are simplified into a compositionally distinct field drifting at the top of

  9. Evidence for recycled Archaean oceanic mantle lithosphere in the Azores plume.

    PubMed

    Schaefer, Bruce F; Turner, Simon; Parkinson, Ian; Rogers, Nick; Hawkesworth, Chris

    2002-11-21

    The compositional differences between mid-ocean-ridge and ocean-island basalts place important constraints on the form of mantle convection. Also, it is thought that the scale and nature of heterogeneities within plumes and the degree to which heterogeneous material endures within the mantle might be reflected in spatial variations of basalt composition observed at the Earth's surface. Here we report osmium isotope data on lavas from a transect across the Azores archipelago which vary in a symmetrical pattern across what is thought to be a mantle plume. Many of the lavas from the centre of the plume have lower 187Os/188Os ratios than most ocean-island basalts and some extend to subchondritic 187Os/188Os ratios-lower than any yet reported from ocean-island basalts. These low ratios require derivation from a depleted, harzburgitic mantle, consistent with the low-iron signature of the Azores plume. Rhenium-depletion model ages extend to 2.5 Gyr, and we infer that the osmium isotope signature is unlikely to be derived from Iberian subcontinental lithospheric mantle. Instead, we interpret the osmium isotope signature as having a deep origin and infer that it may be recycled, Archaean oceanic mantle lithosphere that has delaminated from its overlying oceanic crust. If correct, our data provide evidence for deep mantle subduction and storage of oceanic mantle lithosphere during the Archaean era.

  10. How thick is the lithosphere?

    PubMed

    Kanamori, H; Press, F

    1970-04-25

    A rapid decrease in shear velocity in the suboceanic mantle is used to infer the thickness of the lithosphere. It is proposed that new and highly precise group velocity data constrain the solutions and imply a thickness near 70 km.

  11. Plume-Lithosphere Interaction beneath the Snake River Plain, Idaho: Constraints from Pb, Sr, Nd, and Hf Isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jean, M. M.; Hanan, B. B.; Shervais, J. W.

    2011-12-01

    enriched, i.e., ɛNd (-2 to -4) and 206Pb/204Pb (~18.2-18.6). The geochemical and geospatial observations can be modeled as a mixture between an OIB-like plume source that mixes with subduction-rejuvenated subcontinental lithosphere that varies in age and Sr and Pb isotopic composition from west to east beneath the SRP. The SCLM in the east is indicative of the ancient Wyoming Craton underlying the Yellowstone Plateau (i.e., 87Sr/86Sr (>0.706) and 206Pb/204Pb <18). The SCLM in the west has less radiogenic 87Sr/86Sr (<0.706) and more radiogenic Pb-isotopes (206Pb/204Pb >19), typical of the Mesozoic-Paleozoic margin of the North American craton. The model shows that eastern, central, and western plain low-K tholeiites can be modeled with ~ 97-98% plume component, as opposed to western SRP high-K lavas, which requires ≥ 99% plume component, while the Silver City basalt has essentially the isotopic composition of the plume component. Yellowstone Plateau basalts have the lowest plume component (< 90%). Additionally, the architecture beneath the SRP allows plume material to flow westward and potentially decompress, thus accounting for high-K volcanism millions of years after the North American continent overrode the plume.

  12. Lithospheric Architecture Beneath Hudson Bay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porritt, R. W.; Miller, M. S.; Darbyshire, F. A.

    2015-12-01

    Hudson Bay overlies some of the thickest Precambrian lithosphere on Earth, whose internal structures contain important clues to the earliest workings of plate formation. The terminal collision, the Trans-Hudson Orogen, brought together the Western Churchill craton to the northwest and the Superior craton to the southeast. These two Archean cratons along with the Paleo-Proterozoic Trans-Hudson internides, form the core of the North American craton. We use S to P converted wave imaging and absolute shear velocity information from a joint inversion of P to S receiver functions, new ambient noise derived phase velocities, and teleseismic phase velocities to investigate this region and determine both the thickness of the lithosphere and the presence of internal discontinuities. The lithosphere under central Hudson Bay approaches 􏰂350 km thick but is thinner (􏰂200-250 km) around the periphery of the Bay. Furthermore, the amplitude of the lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary (LAB) conversion from the S receiver functions is unusually large for a craton, suggesting a large thermal contrast across the LAB, which we interpret as direct evidence of the thermal insulation effect of continents on the asthenosphere. Within the lithosphere, midlithospheric discontinuities, significantly shallower than the base of the lithosphere, are often imaged, suggesting the mechanisms that form these layers are common. Lacking time-history information, we infer that these discontinuities reflect reactivation of formation structures during deformation of the craton.

  13. Petrofabric and seismic properties of lithospheric mantle xenoliths from the Calatrava volcanic field (Central Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puelles, P.; Ábalos, B.; Gil Ibarguchi, J. I.; Sarrionandia, F.; Carracedo, M.; Fernández-Armas, S.

    2016-06-01

    The microstructural and petrofabric study of peridotite xenoliths from the El Aprisco (Neogene Calatrava Volcanic Field) has provided new information on deformation mechanisms, ambient conditions and seismic properties of the central Iberian subcontinental mantle. Olivine, orthopyroxene, clinopyroxene, amphibole and spinel constitute the mineral assemblage in equilibrium. Their microstructure indicates that they accommodated crystal-plastic deformation under high water fugacity conditions. Crystallographic preferred orientation patterns of key minerals were determined with the EBSD technique. The xenoliths exhibit B, C and A olivine fabrics. B-type fabrics, involving the (010)[001] slip system, may develop in domains where deformation occurs under comparatively lower temperature, higher water-content and faster strain rates. They are interpreted here as the result of deformation in a suprasubduction mantle setting triggered by changing conditions imposed by a cooler subducting slab that incorporated fluids into the system. Xenoliths with olivine C-type fabrics involve activation of the dominant (100)[001] slip system, denote intracrystalline slip at higher temperatures and water-contents. They are here interpreted to sample lithospheric mantle domains where the impact of those new conditions was not so strong. Finally, the A-type fabrics, characteristic of the (010)[100] slip system, are frequent in the mantle under moderate to high temperature. These fabrics are considered here as characteristic of the mantle prior to subduction. The olivine fabrics constrain heterogeneous seismic properties. Propagation orientation of P waves (8.27-8.51 km/s) coincides with olivine [100] axis concentrations, whereas the fastest S1 waves (5.13-5.22 km/s) propagate parallel to [010] axis minima. The maximum shear wave birefringence (VS1-VS2 = 0.17-0.37 km/s) is close to the direction of the macroscopic lineation. Heterogeneity of calculated seismic properties would concur with

  14. Thermal erosion of cratonic lithosphere as a potential trigger for mass-extinction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pilet, Sebastien; Guex, Jean; Muntener, Othmar; Bartolini, Annachiara; Spangenberg, Jorge; Schoene, Blair; Schaltegger, Urs

    2016-04-01

    studies of the composition of the Kaapvaal craton have shown that sulfide minerals are enclosed in the basal part of the cratonic lithosphere. The formation of these sulfide minerals are linked to multiple refertilization/metasomatic events, which affected the base of the subcontinental lithospheric mantle from the Archean to the Proterozoic. We suggest that the transitions from an initial cool period to greenhouse conditions recorded by T-J and Pl-To sedimentary sections result of changing gas species emitted during the progressive thermal erosion of cratonic lithosphere by plume activity or thermal internal heating of the lithosphere. Our petrological model for LIP magmatism argues that initial gas emission was dominated by sulfur liberated from sulfide-bearing cratonic lithosphere causing global cooling and eustatic regression, which was followed by warming/transgression associated with the progressive increase of CO2 in the atmosphere associated to LIPs emission and metamorphic reactions in sedimentary basins. We suggest that the nature of the underlying lithosphere during large LIP eruption potentially exerts an important control on the consequences at the Earth's surface. This model offers an explanation for why LIPs erupted through oceanic lithosphere are not associated with climatic and biotic crises comparable to LIPs emitted through cratonic lithosphere.

  15. Lithospheric architecture beneath Hudson Bay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porritt, Robert W.; Miller, Meghan S.; Darbyshire, Fiona A.

    2015-07-01

    Hudson Bay overlies some of the thickest Precambrian lithosphere on Earth, whose internal structures contain important clues to the earliest workings of plate formation. The terminal collision, the Trans-Hudson Orogen, brought together the Western Churchill craton to the northwest and the Superior craton to the southeast. These two Archean cratons along with the Paleo-Proterozoic Trans-Hudson internides, form the core of the North American craton. We use S to P converted wave imaging and absolute shear velocity information from a joint inversion of P to S receiver functions, new ambient noise derived phase velocities, and teleseismic phase velocities to investigate this region and determine both the thickness of the lithosphere and the presence of internal discontinuities. The lithosphere under central Hudson Bay approaches ˜350 km thick but is thinner (˜200-250 km) around the periphery of the Bay. Furthermore, the amplitude of the LAB conversion from the S receiver functions is unusually large for a craton, suggesting a large thermal contrast across the LAB, which we interpret as direct evidence of the thermal insulation effect of continents on the asthenosphere. Within the lithosphere, midlithospheric discontinuities, significantly shallower than the base of the lithosphere, are often imaged, suggesting the mechanisms that form these layers are common. Lacking time-history information, we infer that these discontinuities reflect reactivation of formation structures during deformation of the craton.

  16. Re-Os systematics of the Siberian lithosphere: Evidence for melt percolation and lithospheric re-fertilization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pernet-Fisher, J.; Pearson, D.; Barry, P. H.; Howarth, G. H.; Pokhilenko, N. P.; Taylor, L. A.

    2013-12-01

    The Siberian craton underwent multiple episodes of kimberlite magmatism spanning the Silurian to the Jurassic, during which numerous mantle xenoliths from the sub-continental lithospheric mantle (SCLM) were brought to the surface. During this time, kimberlite magmatism was interrupted by the emplacement of the Siberian Flood Basalts (SFB) at ~250 Ma, relating to the main stage of activity of the Siberian Superplume. This makes the Siberian craton an ideal location to characterize metasomatism of the SCLM over the life-cycle of a plume. We report new Re-Os isotope analyses on whole-rock and olivine separates, in parallel with detailed petrographic descriptions of two suites of peridotite xenoliths recovered from the Silurian Udachnaya (360 Ma) and Jurassic Obnazhennaya (160 Ma) kimberlite pipes, bracketing the climax of Superplume activity with eruption of the SFB. The 187Os/188Os values for Udachnaya are within the range of previously reported values [1]. The most depleted harzburgite sample displays the most unradiogenic 187Os/188Os (0.1082) yielding a Neoarchean (3.0-2.5 Ga) calculated model depletion age, consistent with estimated formation age of the Siberian lithospheric keel [1]. Udachnaya lherzolite samples yield younger Proterozoic model depletion ages ranging from ~1-2 Ga (average 1.5 Ga). This age range is consistent with the final stages of craton building [2] and is likely to reflect metasomatic events associated with the re-fertilization of the mantle from harzburgite to lherzolite, at this time. In contrast, the younger Obnazhennaya peridotites contain olivine with Fo >92 associated with radiogenic 187Os/188Os (average 0.1330), within the range of typical fertile mantle. Garnet melt reconstructions of these peridotites show evidence of re-equilibration with basaltic melts derived from the Siberian Superplume [3]. It is clear that extensive percolation of basaltic melts through the SCLM during the main phase of plume activity has had a profound impact

  17. Magnesium isotopic heterogeneity across the cratonic lithosphere in eastern China and its origins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ze-Zhou; Liu, Sheng-Ao; Ke, Shan; Liu, Yi-Can; Li, Shu-Guang

    2016-10-01

    Available data in the literature have demonstrated a broad magnesium (Mg) isotope range for mantle and lower continental crustal rocks, implying an isotopically heterogeneous continental lithosphere, but its origin has not been thoroughly understood. Here, to investigate the primary cause of lithospheric Mg isotopic heterogeneity, we report major-trace elements, Sr and Mg isotope data for thirty deep-seated mafic xenoliths, which sampled different lithospheric depths in the southeastern North China Craton (NCC). The xenoliths are classified into three types based upon petrology and mineralogy, sampling from middle continental crust (Group I), lower continental crust (Group II) and lithospheric mantle (Group III), respectively. The Group I xenoliths have mantle-like to slightly high δ26Mg values (- 0.32 ‰ to + 0.01 ‰), whereas some of the Group II xenoliths have very low δ26Mg values (- 0.93 ‰ to - 0.07 ‰), reflecting substantial reaction with intracrustal carbonate-derived fluids. Combined with data in the literature, the results suggest that the Mg isotopic composition of the lower continental crust is much more heterogeneous and lighter on average relative to the middle continental crust. Except for one sample, the Group III xenoliths have extremely low δ26Mg values (- 1.23 ‰ to - 0.73 ‰), the lightest among values already reported for mantle-derived rocks including peridotites and basalts. They also have highly variable 87Sr/86Sr ratios, of 0.70387 to 0.71675. The covariation of Mg and Sr isotopes in Group III xenoliths can be explained by Mg and Sr isotopic exchange reactions during mantle metasomatism, implying that the sub-continental mantle has been significantly modified by fluids derived from recycled carbonate-pelite bearing oceanic crust. Together with the metasomatism age of ∼400 Ma obtained for one Group III xenolith, the results provide new evidence for the presence of extremely low-δ26Mg rocks in the lithosphere and indicate ancient

  18. Timing of metasomatism in a subcontinental mantle: evidence from zircon at Finero (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Badanina, I. Yu.; Malitch, K. N.

    2012-04-01

    .g., 208.6 ± 4.0 Ma, MSWD=2.0; P=0.16, n=8 and 194.9 ± 3.4 Ma, MSWD=0.45; P=0.50, n=3, respectively). Other age clusters are characterized by the cores and rims observed in composite grains. They yielded concordant 206Pb/238U ages of 288.3 ± 7.3 Ma (MSWD=3.3, n=6) and 248.6 ± 3.3 Ma (MSWD=0.13, P=0.72, n=8), respectively. Since the pioneering work of Exley et al. (1982), the complex metasomatic history at Finero has received much attention. New U-Pb results are consistent with the age range obtained for mantle rocks, the phlogopite peridotite (293 ± 13 Ma, Voshage et al. 1987) and chromitite (208 ± 2 Ma, Grieco et al. 2001). The former age estimate, based on a Rb-Sr whole-rock isochron for six phlogopite-bearing peridotites and one phlogopite pyroxenite, has been interpreted as time of K metasomatic enrichment of the harzburgite. This event has been coeval with the intrusion of alkaline ultramafic magmas into the deep crust of the Ivrea Zone during the late Carboniferous (287 ± 3 Ma, Garuti et al. 2001). The U-Pb age of 208±2 Ma for zircon at Alpe Polunia, attributed by Grieco et al. (2001) to one of the major metasomatic episodes, is corroborated by a subordinate subset of zircon grains at Rio Creves. The U-Pb zircon ages identified in this study thus show notable differences. Our U-Pb data do not concur with the assumption of a single metasomatic event during chromitite formation. In contrast, we suggest a prolonged formation and multistage evolution of zircon growth, as mirrored by multiple U-Pb ages. U-Pb results for zircons from two chromitite localities (Alpe Polunia and Rio Creves) place tight constraints on their different temporal evolution. We presume that Hf-isotope data of zircon and Os-isotope data of laurite, to be investigated in the future, will shed new light on the sources of materials involved in a subcontinental mantle at Finero. This investigation was supported by Uralian Branch of Russian Academy of Sciences (grant 12-P-5-1020).

  19. Chromatographic metasomatism of the Arabian—Nubian lithosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stein, Mordechai; Navon, Oded; Kessel, Ronit

    1997-11-01

    Trace elements and isotopic ratios of calc-alkaline and tholeiitic dikes from the very last stage of the late Proterozoic, Pan-African orogeny in the northern Arabian-Nubian Shield (ANS), and alkali basalts from the overlying Phanerozoic section are used to constrain the composition and model the evolution of the lithospheric mantle in this region. The dikes and basalts are interpreted as lithospheric melts formed during the post-orogenic (and post-subduction) history of the shield. While the mafic member of all suites share a primitive La/Th ratio, the Nb/Th and Ce/Pb are distinct for each suite. The (Nb/Th) PM (primitive mantle normalized) is ˜0.2 in the calc-alkaline dikes and 1.4 in the tholeiitic dikes and the Phanerozoic alkali basalts. The (Ce/Pb) PM ratios are low in the dikes (0.4 in the calc-alkaline and 0.3 in the tholeiitic) and high in the Phanerozoic basalts (2.8). We suggest that the variations in the trace element ratios reflect sampling of different zones in the lithospheric mantle, which were formed by subduction related metasomatism of the mantle wedge. We constructed a chromatographic model to explain this zonation. In this model a plume-derived oceanic lithosphere is subducted and dehydrates at depth. Fluids released from the dehydrating slab metasomatize the overlying wedge and form amphibole-rich channels. Nb is preferentially taken by the amphibole and is enriched only in the lower zones of the column. The other elements (U, Th, REE and especially Pb and Rb) behave incompatibly. They are enriched in the fluid and transported efficiently to the melting zone in the centre of the wedge. Dehydration of the base of the wedge as it descends below the amphibole stability field depletes this region in Pb and Rb. After the end of subduction, the wedge is fossilized and forms the lithospheric mantle. The zone above the Nb concentration front is sampled by the calc-alkaline magmas. The tholeiitic magmas sample the zone below the Nb front. The

  20. Chromatographic metasomatism of the Arabian-Nubian lithosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kessel, R.; Navon, O.; Stein, M.

    1997-11-01

    Trace elements and isotopic ratios of calc-alkaline and tholeiitic dikes from the very last stage of the late Proterozoic, Pan-African orogeny in the northern Arabian-Nubian Shield (ANS), and alkali basalts from the overlying Phanerozoic section are used to constrain the composition and model the evolution of the lithospheric mantle in this region. The dikes and basalts are interpreted as lithospheric melts formed during the post-orogenic (and post-subduction) history of the shield. While the mafic member of all suites share a primitive La/Th ratio, the Nb/Th and Ce/Pb are distinct for each suite. The (Nb/Th)PM (primitive mantle normalized) is ~0.2 in the calc-alkaline dikes and 1.4 in the tholeiitic dikes and the Phanerozoic alkali basalts. The (Ce/Pb)PM ratios are low in the dikes (0.4 in the calc-alkaline and 0.3 in the tholeiitic) and high in the Phanerozoic basalts (2.8). We suggest that the variations in the trace element ratios reflect sampling of different zones in the lithospheric mantle, which were formed by subduction related metasomatism of the mantle wedge. We constructed a chromatographic model to explain this zonation. In this model a plume-derived oceanic lithosphere is subducted and dehydrates at depth. Fluids released from the dehydrating slab metasomatize the overlying wedge and form amphibole-rich channels. Nb is preferentially taken by the amphibole and is enriched only in the lower zones of the column. The other elements (U, Th, REE and especially Pb and Rb) behave incompatibly. They are enriched in the fluid and transported efficiently to the melting zone in the centre of the wedge. Dehydration of the base of the wedge as it descends below the amphibole stability field depletes this region in Pb and Rb. After the end of subduction, the wedge is fossilized and forms the lithospheric mantle. The zone above the Nb concentration front is sampled by the calc-alkaline magmas. The tholeiitic magmas sample the zone below the Nb front. The Phanerozoic

  1. Start of the Wilson cycle at 3 Ga shown by diamonds from subcontinental mantle.

    PubMed

    Shirey, Steven B; Richardson, Stephen H

    2011-07-22

    Mineral inclusions encapsulated in diamonds are the oldest, deepest, and most pristine samples of Earth's mantle. They provide age and chemical information over a period of 3.5 billion years--a span that includes continental crustal growth, atmospheric evolution, and the initiation of plate tectonics. We compiled isotopic and bulk chemical data of silicate and sulfide inclusions and found that a compositional change occurred 3.0 billion years ago (Ga). Before 3.2 Ga, only diamonds with peridotitic compositions formed, whereas after 3.0 Ga, eclogitic diamonds became prevalent. We suggest that this resulted from the capture of eclogite and diamond-forming fluids in subcontinental mantle via subduction and continental collision, marking the onset of the Wilson cycle of plate tectonics.

  2. Start of the Wilson cycle at 3 Ga shown by diamonds from subcontinental mantle.

    PubMed

    Shirey, Steven B; Richardson, Stephen H

    2011-07-22

    Mineral inclusions encapsulated in diamonds are the oldest, deepest, and most pristine samples of Earth's mantle. They provide age and chemical information over a period of 3.5 billion years--a span that includes continental crustal growth, atmospheric evolution, and the initiation of plate tectonics. We compiled isotopic and bulk chemical data of silicate and sulfide inclusions and found that a compositional change occurred 3.0 billion years ago (Ga). Before 3.2 Ga, only diamonds with peridotitic compositions formed, whereas after 3.0 Ga, eclogitic diamonds became prevalent. We suggest that this resulted from the capture of eclogite and diamond-forming fluids in subcontinental mantle via subduction and continental collision, marking the onset of the Wilson cycle of plate tectonics. PMID:21778395

  3. Failure strength of icy lithospheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Golombek, M. P.; Banerdt, W. B.

    1987-01-01

    Lithospheric strengths derived from friction on pre-existing fractures and ductile flow laws show that the tensile strength of intact ice under applicable conditions is actually an order of magnitude stronger than widely assumed. It is demonstrated that this strength is everywhere greater than that required to initiate frictional sliding on pre-existing fractures and faults. Because the tensile strength of intact ice increases markedly with confining pressure, it actually exceeds the frictional strength at all depths. Thus, icy lithospheres will fail by frictional slip along pre-existing fractures at yeild stresses greater than previously assumed rather than opening tensile cracks in intact ice.

  4. Subcontinental-scale crustal velocity changes along the Pacific-North America plate boundary.

    PubMed

    Davis, J L; Wernicke, B P; Bisnath, S; Niemi, N A; Elósegui, P

    2006-06-29

    Transient tectonic deformation has long been noted within approximately 100 km of plate boundary fault zones and within active volcanic regions, but it is unknown whether transient motions also occur at larger scales within plates. Relatively localized transients are known to occur as both seismic and episodic aseismic events, and are generally ascribed to motions of magma bodies, aseismic creep on faults, or elastic or viscoelastic effects associated with earthquakes. However, triggering phenomena and systematic patterns of seismic strain release at subcontinental (approximately 1,000 km) scale along diffuse plate boundaries have long suggested that energy transfer occurs at larger scale. Such transfer appears to occur by the interaction of stresses induced by surface wave propagation and magma or groundwater in the crust, or from large-scale stress diffusion within the oceanic mantle in the decades following clusters of great earthquakes. Here we report geodetic evidence for a coherent, subcontinental-scale change in tectonic velocity along a diffuse approximately 1,000-km-wide deformation zone. Our observations are derived from continuous GPS (Global Positioning System) data collected over the past decade across the Basin and Range province, which absorbs approximately 25 per cent of Pacific-North America relative plate motion. The observed changes in site velocity define a sharp boundary near the centre of the province oriented roughly parallel to the north-northwest relative plate motion vector. We show that sites to the west of this boundary slowed relative to sites east of it by approximately 1 mm yr(-1) starting in late 1999.

  5. Correlation Between Mobile Continents and Elevated Temperatures in the Subcontinental Mantle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jain, C.; Rozel, A. B.; Tackley, P.

    2015-12-01

    Rolf et al. (EPSL, 2012) and Coltice et al. (Science, 2012) have previously shown that continents exert a first order influence on Earth's mantle flow by affecting convective wavelength and surface heat flow. With stationary continents, Heron and Lowman (JGR, 2014) highlighted the decreasing role of continental insulation on subcontinental temperatures with higher Rayleigh number (Ra). However, the question whether there exists a correlation between mobile continents and elevated temperatures in the subcontinental mantle or not remains to be answered. Continental motion is attributed to the viscous stresses imparted by the convecting mantle and the extent of this motion depends on the heat budget of the mantle. Core-mantle boundary (CMB) heat flux, internal heating from decay of radioactive elements, and mantle cooling contribute to this heat budget. Out of these sources, CMB heat flux is not well defined. However, the recent determination of core's high thermal conductivity requires a CMB heat flow of at least 12 TW (de Koker et al., PNAS 2012; Pozzo et al., Nature 2012; Gomi et al., PEPI 2013). Thus it is necessary to characterize the impact of basal heating on mantle dynamics with mobile continents and self-consistent plate tectonics. By systematically varying parameters such as CMB temperature, continental size, mantle heating modes, and Rayleigh number; we model Boussinesq, incompressible, thermo-chemical mantle convection with 2D spherical annulus geometry using StagYY (Tackley, PEPI 2008). We observe the aforementioned correlation irrespective of the variations in basal heating and continental size (except for very small continents). Moreover, we see episodicity between correlation-anticorrelation with increasing convective vigour. Furthermore, the effect of radioactivity in the continental crust on this correlation is investigated. At present, mobile continents in StagYY are simplified into a compositionally distinct field drifting at the top of the mantle

  6. Subcontinental-scale crustal velocity changes along the Pacific-North America plate boundary.

    PubMed

    Davis, J L; Wernicke, B P; Bisnath, S; Niemi, N A; Elósegui, P

    2006-06-29

    Transient tectonic deformation has long been noted within approximately 100 km of plate boundary fault zones and within active volcanic regions, but it is unknown whether transient motions also occur at larger scales within plates. Relatively localized transients are known to occur as both seismic and episodic aseismic events, and are generally ascribed to motions of magma bodies, aseismic creep on faults, or elastic or viscoelastic effects associated with earthquakes. However, triggering phenomena and systematic patterns of seismic strain release at subcontinental (approximately 1,000 km) scale along diffuse plate boundaries have long suggested that energy transfer occurs at larger scale. Such transfer appears to occur by the interaction of stresses induced by surface wave propagation and magma or groundwater in the crust, or from large-scale stress diffusion within the oceanic mantle in the decades following clusters of great earthquakes. Here we report geodetic evidence for a coherent, subcontinental-scale change in tectonic velocity along a diffuse approximately 1,000-km-wide deformation zone. Our observations are derived from continuous GPS (Global Positioning System) data collected over the past decade across the Basin and Range province, which absorbs approximately 25 per cent of Pacific-North America relative plate motion. The observed changes in site velocity define a sharp boundary near the centre of the province oriented roughly parallel to the north-northwest relative plate motion vector. We show that sites to the west of this boundary slowed relative to sites east of it by approximately 1 mm yr(-1) starting in late 1999. PMID:16810252

  7. Mid-lithospheric discontinuity and its roles in the dynamic evolution of the craton-example from the North China Craton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Ling; Wei, Zigen; Jiang, Mingming; Ling, Yuan

    2016-04-01

    recent seismic studies that reveal similar discontinuities at ~100 km depth under stable continental regions worldwide, suggesting the common presence of vertical heterogeneities and layering in the sub-continental lithospheric mantle (SCLM). The ~100-km depth discontinuity and the corresponding velocity decrease in the SCLM may indicate an ancient, mechanically weak layer within the overall strong cratonic lithosphere, which probably also existed beneath the eastern NCC before its Mesozoic destruction. The presence of such a weak layer could have facilitated simultaneous lithospheric modification at the base and in the middle of the lithosphere in the eastern NCC, especially under the strong influence of the Mesozoic Pacific subduction, eventually leading to the severe lithospheric thinning and destruction recorded in this part of the craton. The weak layer probably did not strongly affect the stability and evolution of the central and western NCC and other cratonic regions where effects from plate boundary processes were weak. Our seismic images, integrated with geological data, provide new insights into structural heterogeneities in the subcontinental lithospheric mantle and their roles in the dynamic evolution of continents.

  8. A sharp lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary imaged beneath eastern North America.

    PubMed

    Rychert, Catherine A; Fischer, Karen M; Rondenay, Stéphane

    2005-07-28

    Plate tectonic theory hinges on the concept of a relatively rigid lithosphere moving over a weaker asthenosphere, yet the nature of the lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary remains poorly understood. The gradient in seismic velocity that occurs at this boundary is central to constraining the physical and chemical properties that create differences in mechanical strength between the two layers. For example, if the lithosphere is simply a thermal boundary layer that is more rigid owing to colder temperatures, mantle flow models indicate that the velocity gradient at its base would occur over tens of kilometres. In contrast, if the asthenosphere is weak owing to volatile enrichment or the presence of partial melt, the lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary could occur over a much smaller depth range. Here we use converted seismic phases in eastern North America to image a very sharp seismic velocity gradient at the base of the lithosphere-a 3-11 per cent drop in shear-wave velocity over a depth range of 11 km or less at 90-110 km depth. Such a strong, sharp boundary cannot be reconciled with a purely thermal gradient, but could be explained by an asthenosphere that contains a few per cent partial melt or that is enriched in volatiles relative to the lithosphere.

  9. Lithospheric structure of the Canadian Shield as characterised by its seismic anisotropy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snyder, D. B.

    2011-12-01

    Distinct domains or layers of seismic anisotropy are increasingly recognized within Precambrian shields worldwide. Several relatively well-defined examples are now known from the Canadian Shield in North America. These benefit from a significantly large public suite of xenoliths produced during diamond exploration that provide calibration as to rock types found within these layers as well as increasingly resolved paleogeotherms. Independent parts of the seismic wave field provide consistent results; SKS, Ps conversions and Rayleigh waves were used to define sub-horizontal layers and to characterize deep lateral transitions associated with the edges of cratons previously defined by surface geological domain boundaries. The Slave and Rae cratons have received more intense study to date and can be shown to have formed by wedge tectonics that accreted smaller ancient blocks over time to first form the cratons in Archean times and the Canadian Shield in Proterozoic times. Differing mantle domains have distinct seismic anisotropy polarizations, inferred to represent both mineral fabrics (LPO) and larger scale dyke stockworks (SPO). Boundaries between these domains and layers appear as seismic discontinuities, primarily on sections constructed using transverse components of the seismic wavefield. This suggests that structures themselves, rather than greatly diverse physical properties and rock types, are key to imaging the sub-continental mantle lithosphere architecture and why gradual transitions such as the lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary may be difficult to characterize beneath shields.

  10. The continental lithosphere: Reconciling thermal, seismic, and petrologic data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Artemieva, Irina M.

    2009-04-01

    The goal of the present study is to extract non-thermal signal from seismic tomography models in order to distinguish compositional variations in the continental lithosphere and to examine if geochemical and petrologic constraints on global-scale compositional variations in the mantle are consistent with modern geophysical data. In the lithospheric mantle of the continents, seismic velocity variations of a non-thermal origin (calculated from global Vs seismic tomography data [Grand S.P., 2002. Mantle shear-wave tomography and the fate of subducted slabs. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series A, 360, 2475-2491.; Shapiro N.M., Ritzwoller M.H. 2002. Monte-Carlo inversion for a global shear velocity model of the crust and upper mantle. Geophysical Journal International 151, 1-18.] and lithospheric temperatures [Artemieva I.M., Mooney W.D., 2001. Thermal structure and evolution of Precambrian lithosphere: A global study. Journal of Geophysical Research 106, 16387-16414.] show strong correlation with tectono-thermal ages and with regional variations in lithospheric thickness constrained by surface heat flow data and seismic velocities. In agreement with xenolith data, strong positive velocity anomalies of non-thermal origin (attributed to mantle depletion) are clearly seen for all of the cratons; their amplitude, however, varies laterally and decreases with depth, reflecting either a peripheral growth of the cratons in Proterozoic or their peripheral reworking. These cratonic regions where kimberlite magmas erupted show only weakly positive compositional velocity anomalies, atypical for the "intact" cratonic mantle. A reduction in the amplitude of compositional velocity anomalies in kimberlite provinces is interpreted to result from metasomatic enrichment (prior or during kimberlite emplacement) of the cratonic mantle, implying that xenolith data maybe non-representative of the "intact" cratonic mantle.

  11. Isotopic and trace element compositions of upper mantle and lower crustal xenoliths, Cima volcanic field, California: Implications for evolution of the subcontinental lithospheric mantle

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mukasa, S.B.; Wilshire, H.G.

    1997-01-01

    Ultramafic and mafic xenoliths from the Cima volcanic field, southern California, provide evidence of episodic modification of the upper mantle and underplating of the crust beneath a portion of the southern Basin and Range province. The upper mantle xenoliths include spinel peridotite and anhydrous and hydrous pyroxenite, some cut by igneous-textured pyroxenite-gabbro veins and dikes and some by veins of amphibole ?? plagioclase. Igneous-textured pyroxenites and gabbros like the dike rocks also occur abundantly as isolated xenoliths inferred to represent underplated crust. Mineral and whole rock trace element compositions among and within the different groups of xenoliths are highly variable, reflecting multiple processes that include magma-mantle wall rock reactions, episodic intrusion and it filtration of basaltic melts of varied sources into the mantle wall rock, and fractionation. Nd, Sr, and Pb isotopic compositions mostly of clinopyroxene and plagioclase mineral separates show distinct differences between mantle xenoliths (??Nd = -5.7 to +3.4; 87Sr/86Sr = 0.7051 - 0.7073; 206Pb/204Pb = 19.045 - 19.195) and the igneous-textured xenoliths (??Nd = +7.7 to +11.7; 87Sr/86Sr = 0.7027 - 0.7036 with one carbonate-affected outlier at 0.7054; and 206Pb/204Pb = 18.751 - 19.068), so that they cannot be related. The igneous-textured pyroxenites and gabbros are similar in their isotopic compositions to the host basaltic rocks, which have ??Nd of+5.1 to +9.3; 87Sr/86Sr of 0.7028 - 0.7050, and 206Pb/204Pb of 18.685 - 21.050. The igneous-textured pyroxenites and gabbros are therefore inferred to be related to the host rocks as earlier cogenetic intrusions in the mantle and in the lower crust. Two samples of peridotite, one modally metasomatized by amphibole and the other by plagioclase, have isotopic compositions intermediate between the igneous-textured xenoliths and the mantle rock, suggesting mixing, but also derivation of the metasomatizing magmas from two separate and distinct sources. Sm-Nd two-mineral "isochrons" yield apparent ages for petrographically identical rocks believed to be coeval ranging from -0 to 113 ?? 26 Ma, indicating the unreliability of dating these rocks with this method. Amphibole and plagioclase megacrysts are isotopically like the host basalts and probably originate by mechanical breakup of veins comagmatic with the host basaltic rocks. Unlike other Basin and Range localities, Cima Cr-diopside group isotopic compositions do not overlap with those of the host basalts. Copyright 1997 by the American Geophysical Union.

  12. Generation of Continental Rifts, Basins and Swells by Lithosphere Instabilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milelli, L.; Fourel, L.; Jaupart, C. P.

    2012-12-01

    blocks of finite size that became unstable due to cooling from above and describe the peculiar horizontal planform that developed. Dynamical behaviour depends on three dimensionless numbers, a Rayleigh number for the unstable block, a buoyancy number that scales the intrinsic density contrast to the thermal one and the aspect ratio of the block. Within the block, instability develops in two different ways in an outer annulus and in an inner region. In the outer annulus, upwellings and downwellings take the form of radial rolls spaced regularly. In the interior region, the planform adopts the more familiar form of polygonal cells. Translated to geological conditions, such instabilities should manifest themselves as linear rifts striking at a right angle to the continent-ocean boundary and an array of domal uplifts, volcanic swells and basins in the continental interior. The laboratory data lead to simple scaling laws for the dimensions and spacings of the convective structures. For the sub-continental lithospheric mantle, these dimensions and distances take values in the 500-1000 km range, close to geological examples. The large intrinsic buoyancy of Archean lithospheric roots prevents this type of instability, which explains why the widespread volcanic activity that currently affects Western Africa is confined to post-Archean domains.

  13. Lithospheric dynamics near plate boundaries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Solomon, Sean C.

    1992-01-01

    The progress report on research conducted between 15 Mar. - 14 Sep. 1992 is presented. The focus of the research during the first grant year has been on several problems broadly related to the nature and dynamics of time-dependent deformation and stress along major seismic zones, with an emphasis on western North America but with additional work on seismic zones in oceanic lithosphere as well. The principal findings of our research to date are described in the accompanying papers and abstract. Topics covered include: (1) Global Positioning System measurements of deformations associated with the 1987 Superstition Hills earthquake: evidence for conjugate faulting; (2) Global Positioning System measurements of strain accumulation across the Imperial Valley, California: 1986-1989; (3) present-day crustal deformation in the Salton Trough, southern California; (4) oceanic transform earthquakes with unusual mechanisms or locations: relation to fault geometry and state of stress in the lithosphere; and (5) crustal strain and the 1992 Mojave Desert earthquakes.

  14. Structure and evolution of the lithospheric mantle beneath Siberian craton, thermobarometric study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashchepkov, Igor V.; Pokhilenko, Nikolai P.; Vladykin, Nikolai V.; Logvinova, Alla M.; Afanasiev, Valentin P.; Pokhilenko, Lyudmila N.; Kuligin, Sergei S.; Malygina, Elena V.; Alymova, Natalia A.; Kostrovitsky, Sergey I.; Rotman, Anatolii Y.; Mityukhin, Sergey I.; Karpenko, Mikhail A.; Stegnitsky, Yuri B.; Khemelnikova, Olga S.

    2010-04-01

    70 kbar. Sub-continental lithospheric mantle (SCLM) beneath the Alakite field has been subjected to pervasive multistage metasomatism, as indicated by Fe-enriched Cr-diopsides and Ti-rich low-Ca garnets. Ilmenite PT trends were formed by rising protokimberlites that underwent AFC. In the Upper Muna field the mantle is similar in structure to that of the Alakite region. Fe-rich clinopyroxene-bearing rocks (60-55 kbar) are located between the ilmenite-forming systems (70-60 and 55-40 kbar), sub-Ca garnets start from 40 kbar and become more abundant downward. Beneath the Nakyn field, rhythmic layering is found for peridotites in the lower part ( P > 40 kbar), fertilization by Fe-Cpx (40-50 kbar) follow the Ilm-forming system ˜ 55-60 kbar correlating with the occurrence of depleted (low-Ca) peridotites. Beneath the Anabar fields highly depleted mantle at depth > 40 kbar has been subjected to Fe-metasomatism and pervasive metasomatism that accompanied protokimberlite feeders marked by low Cr-ilmenites accompanied by fertilization. In the upper section abundant garnet- and clinopyroxene-rich peridotites are typical. Comparison of mantle sections reconstructed from monomineral PT estimates from Paleozoic and Mesozoic kimberlites show differences in entrainment levels which were elevated after the Permian-Triassic superplume to > 55-40 kbar without delamination.

  15. Spatial analysis of toxic emissions in LCA: a sub-continental nested USEtox model with freshwater archetypes.

    PubMed

    Kounina, Anna; Margni, Manuele; Shaked, Shanna; Bulle, Cécile; Jolliet, Olivier

    2014-08-01

    This paper develops continent-specific factors for the USEtox model and analyses the accuracy of different model architectures, spatial scales and archetypes in evaluating toxic impacts, with a focus on freshwater pathways. Inter-continental variation is analysed by comparing chemical fate and intake fractions between sub-continental zones of two life cycle impact assessment models: (1) the nested USEtox model parameterized with sub-continental zones and (2) the spatially differentiated IMPACTWorld model with 17 interconnected sub-continental regions. Substance residence time in water varies by up to two orders of magnitude among the 17 zones assessed with IMPACTWorld and USEtox, and intake fraction varies by up to three orders of magnitude. Despite this variation, the nested USEtox model succeeds in mimicking the results of the spatially differentiated model, with the exception of very persistent volatile pollutants that can be transported to polar regions. Intra-continental variation is analysed by comparing fate and intake fractions modelled with the a-spatial (one box) IMPACT Europe continental model vs. the spatially differentiated version of the same model. Results show that the one box model might overestimate chemical fate and characterisation factors for freshwater eco-toxicity of persistent pollutants by up to three orders of magnitude for point source emissions. Subdividing Europe into three archetypes, based on freshwater residence time (how long it takes water to reach the sea), improves the prediction of fate and intake fractions for point source emissions, bringing them within a factor five compared to the spatial model. We demonstrated that a sub-continental nested model such as USEtox, with continent-specific parameterization complemented with freshwater archetypes, can thus represent inter- and intra-continental spatial variations, whilst minimizing model complexity. PMID:24815341

  16. The strength of Miranda's lithosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pappalardo, Robert; Greeley, Ronald

    1991-01-01

    In attempting to understand the endogenic processes which have shaped the surface of an icy satellite, it is desirable to quantify the failure strength of the satellite's lithosphere. In a crust that is fractured on a large scale, frictional sliding along pre-existing fractures occurs in response to lower differential stresses than required to initiate fracture of pristine rock, thus governing failure of a brittle lithosphere. Failure is predicted along favorably oriented fracture planes; if fractures of all orientations are assumed to be present in the crust (as is expected of a heavily cratered lithosphere), frictional failure relations are directly applicable. The Coulomb criterion predicts that the shear stress (sigma sub t) and normal stress (sigma sub n) components on a fracture plane at failure are related as sigma sub t = mu-sigma sub n + S sub o, where S sub o is the cohesion and mu is the coefficient of friction. At moderate to high pressures, the frictional sliding strength of most materials is found to be sigma sub t = 0.85 sigma sub n.

  17. Fate and Characterization Factors of Nanoparticles in Seventeen Subcontinental Freshwaters: A Case Study on Copper Nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Pu, Yubing; Tang, Feng; Adam, Pierre-Michel; Laratte, Bertrand; Ionescu, Rodica Elena

    2016-09-01

    The lack of characterization factors (CFs) for engineered nanoparticles (ENPs) hampers the application of life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology in evaluating the potential environmental impacts of nanomaterials. Here, the framework of the USEtox model has been selected to solve this problem. On the basis of colloid science, a fate model for ENPs has been developed to calculate the freshwater fate factor (FF) of ENPs. We also give the recommendations for using the hydrological data from the USEtox model. The functionality of our fate model is proved by comparing our computed results with the reported scenarios in North America, Switzerland, and Europe. As a case study, a literature survey of the nano-Cu toxicology values has been performed to calculate the effect factor (EF). Seventeen freshwater CFs of nano-Cu are proposed as recommended values for subcontinental regions. Depending on the regions and the properties of the ENPs, the region most likely to be affected by nano-Cu is Africa (CF of 11.11 × 10(3) CTUe, comparative toxic units) and the least likely is north Australia (CF of 3.87 × 10(3) CTUe). Furthermore, from the sensitivity analysis of the fate model, 13 input parameters (such as depth of freshwater, radius of ENPs) show vastly different degrees of influence on the outcomes. The characterization of suspended particles in freshwater and the dissolution rate of ENPs are two significant factors.

  18. Origin of enriched components in the South Atlantic: Evidence from 40 Ma geochemical zonation of the Discovery Seamounts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwindrofska, Antje; Hoernle, Kaj; Hauff, Folkmar; van den Bogaard, Paul; Werner, Reinhard; Garbe-Schönberg, Dieter

    2016-05-01

    Spatial geochemical zonation is being increasingly recognized in Pacific and Atlantic hotspot tracks and is believed to reflect zonation within plumes upwelling from the margins of the Large Low Shear Velocity Provinces (LLSVPs) at the base of Earth's mantle. We present new 40Ar/39Ar age data for the Discovery Rise (South Atlantic Ocean) that show an age progression in the direction of plate motion from 23 Ma in the southwest to 40 Ma in the northeast of the Rise, consistent with formation of the Rise above a mantle plume. The lavas have incompatible element and Sr-Nd-Pb-Hf radiogenic isotope characteristics similar to the enriched DUPAL anomaly occurring in the southern hemisphere. The northern chain of seamounts is compositionally similar to the adjacent Gough subtrack of the bilaterally-zoned Tristan-Gough hotspot track, whereas the southern chain has some of the most extreme DUPAL compositions found in South Atlantic intraplate lavas thus far. The nearby southern Mid-Atlantic Ridge, believed to interact with the Discovery hotspot, shows a similar spatial geochemical distribution, consistent with the Discovery hotspot being zoned over its entire 40 Ma history. Our study implies a deep origin for the DUPAL anomaly, suggesting recycling of subcontinental lithospheric mantle (± lower crust) and oceanic crust through the lower mantle. The presence of an additional (Southern Discovery) DUPAL-like component, in addition to the Tristan and Gough/Northern Discovery components, in long-term zoned South Atlantic hotspots, points to the presence of a third lower mantle reservoir and thus is not consistent with the simple model that bilaterally-zoned plumes sample a chemically distinct LLSVP and the ambient mantle outside of the LLSVP.

  19. Venus Chasmata: A Lithospheric Stretching Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Solomon, S. C.; Head, J. W.

    1985-01-01

    An outstanding problem for Venus is the characterization of its style of global tectonics, an issue intimately related to the dominant mechanism of lithospheric heat loss. Among the most spectacular and extensive of the major tectonic features on Venus are the chasmata, deep linear valleys generally interpreted to be the products of lithospheric extension and rifting. Systems of chasmata and related features can be traced along several tectonic zones up to 20,000 km in linear extent. A lithospheric stretching model was developed to explain the topographic characteristics of Venus chasmata and to constrain the physical properties of the Venus crust and lithosphere.

  20. Evidence for the Mesozoic and Cenozoic Evolution of the Lithosphere in the Trans-European Suture Zone from Surface Wave Tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meier, Thomas; Soomro, Riaz; Lebedev, Sergei; Weidle, Christian; Viereck, Lothar; Behrmann, Jan; Cristiano, Luigia; Hanemann, Ricarda

    2016-04-01

    The Trans-European Suture Zone marks the transition between the East European Craton and Phanerozoic central Europe. Subduction of the Thor ocean and collision of Avalonia resulted in a Caledonian terrane assemblage that has been strongly affected by Permian volcanism, sedimentation in Post-Permian basins and recently by Cenozoic inversion tectonics. Whereas the structure of the crust in the area has been extensively studied by Deep Seismic Soundings, properties of the subcontinental mantle lithosphere are less well known. Surface waves are well suited to study the structure of the lithosphere and the sublithospheric mantle being mainly sensitive to the S-wave velocity structure at those depths. It has been shown before that the Tornquist-Teisseyre Zone representing the boundary to the East-European Craton in the southwest of the Trans-European Suture Zone is associated with a sharp transition between thick cratonic lithosphere in the northeast and thinner lithosphere to the southwest. Here we present results of a tomographic surface wave study based on automated broad-band measurements of average inter-station Rayleigh wave phase velocities providing higher resolution especially at lithospheric depths. All available broad-band recordings including data of temporary deployments like the TOR and PASSEQ experiments have been processed. At shorter periods phase velocities are sensitive to the sedimentary basins providing a 3D image of average shear-wave velocities. At intermediate periods differences in the crustal thickness and the structure of the uppermost mantle in the regions of the North German Basin and the Polish Basin become obvious. The latter is characterized by larger crustal thickness and rather low sub-Moho S-wave velocities. Also, lithospheric thickness varies along the Trans-European Suture Zone. In the region of the Sorgenfrei-Tornquist Zone a rather gradual decrease of lithospheric thickness towards central Europe is observed, whereas a shallow

  1. Lithospheric influences on magma compositions of late Mesozoic and Cenozoic intraplate basalts (the Older Volcanics) of Victoria, south-eastern Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Price, Richard C.; Nicholls, Ian A.; Day, Arthur

    2014-10-01

    distinctive convex upwards patterns but are characterised by strong depletions of K, Rb and Ba relative to Nb. In both groups there is additional subtle variation with some samples having patterns with relative enrichments in Nb, Sr and Eu and/or depletions in Pb. Group 1 basalt compositions can be approximated by quantitative models involving 2 to 10% partial melting of an originally depleted mantle composition that has been metasomatised by the addition of 2 to 3% of an enriched component with a composition similar to EM1 intraplate basalt. The trace element patterns of Group 2 basalts can be modelled by 2 to 10% partial melting of an originally depleted mantle metasomatised by the addition of 1% of a calci-carbonatite composition. When Sr isotope data for Older Volcanics are projected onto an east-west profile across the state of Victoria, they outline distinctive discontinuities in isotopic composition that appear to be related to surface and subsurface structural features within the basement. One such discontinuity has previously been identified using data for the Newer Volcanics of the Western District Province of Victoria. Lithospheric blocks present beneath southern Victoria range in age from NeoProterozoic or Cambrian to Palaeozoic and some of the lowest 87Sr/86Sr ratios are observed in basalts erupted above an older basement unit (the Selwyn Block). The inference is that there is some form of lithospheric control on basaltic magma chemistry and since a substantial proportion of Older Volcanics have the geochemical characteristics of primary magmas (high Mg# and moderate to high abundances of Ni and Cr), this could indicate that magmas have been sourced from regionally heterogeneous, variably metasomatised, sub-continental lithospheric mantle. Neither the temporal and spatial relationships of the magmatic activity that followed continental breakup nor the uplift history of the south-eastern Australian passive margin are readily explained in terms of deep mantle plume

  2. Re-Os systematics of the lithospheric mantle beneath the Western Ross Sea area, Antarctica: depletion ages and dynamic response during rifting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doherty, C.; Class, C.; Goldstein, S. L.; Shirey, S. B.; Martin, A. P.; Cooper, A. F.; Berg, J. H.; Gamble, J. A.

    2013-12-01

    that the lithospheric mantle beneath Mount Morning, Pipecleaner Glacier, and White Island stabilized between 1.6-1.7 Ga, while Sulfur Cones and Franklin Island stabilized between 1.9-2.0 Ga. Conical Hill stabilized at ~2.3 Ga. The 2.0 Ga aluminachron stabilization age at Franklin Island supports the persistence of thinned subcontinental lithosphere 200 km into the rift basin. Based on our findings, we propose a Paleoproterozoic stabilization of the lithosphere now located beneath the western WARS in the study area, which may be coeval with the formation of crust along the central Transantarctic Mountains [8], although it is older than the directly overlying crust. We attribute the 3.2 and 3.3 Ga Re-depletion ages of the lithospheric mantle beneath Foster Crater to the formation of the East Antarctic Shield in the Archean and suggest the persistence of the Archean lithosphere through the Pan-African and Ross orogenies. [1] Behrendt, 1999 Global Planet Change (23) 25-44, [2] Bannister et al., 2003 Geophys J Int (155) 870-884, [3] Baranov 2011 Izv Phys Earth (47)1058-1070, [4] Ritzwoller et al 2001 JGR (106) 30645-30670, [5] Handler et al. 1997 EPSL (151) 61-75, [6] Janney et al. 1997 J Petrol (51) 1849-1890, [7] Walker et al. 1989 GCA (53) 1583-1595, [8] Goodge 1999 Geology (27) 1007-1010

  3. Density and P-wave velocity structure beneath the Paraná Magmatic Province: Refertilization of an ancient lithospheric mantle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaves, Carlos; Ussami, Naomi; Ritsema, Jeroen

    2016-08-01

    We estimate density and P-wave velocity perturbations in the mantle beneath the southeastern South America plate from geoid anomalies and P-wave traveltime residuals to constrain the structure of the lithosphere underneath the Paraná Magmatic Province (PMP) and conterminous geological provinces. Our analysis shows a consistent correlation between density and velocity anomalies. The P-wave speed and density are 1% and 15 kg/m3 lower, respectively, in the upper mantle under the Late Cretaceous to Cenozoic alkaline provinces, except beneath the Goiás Alkaline Province (GAP), where density (+20 kg/m3) and velocity (+0.5%) are relatively high. Underneath the PMP, the density is higher by about 50 kg/m3 in the north and 25 kg/m3 in the south, to a depth of 250 - 300 km. These values correlate with high-velocity perturbations of +0.5% and +0.3%, respectively. Profiles of density perturbation versus depth in the upper mantle are different for the PMP and the adjacent Archean São Francisco (SFC) and Amazonian (AC) cratons. The Paleoproterozoic PMP basement has a high-density root. The density is relatively low in the SFC and AC lithospheres. A reduction of density is a typical characteristic of chemically depleted Archean cratons. A more fertile Proterozoic and Phanerozoic subcontinental lithospheric mantle has a higher density, as deduced from density estimates of mantle xenoliths of different ages and composition. In conjunction with Re-Os isotopic studies of the PMP basalts, chemical and isotopic analyses of peridodite xenoliths from the GAP in the northern PMP, and electromagnetic induction experiments of the PMP lithosphere, our density and P-wave speed models suggest that the densification of the PMP lithosphere and flood basalt generation are related to mantle refertilization. Metasomatic refertilization resulted from the introduction of asthenospheric components from the mantle wedge above Proterozoic subduction zones, which surrounded the Paraná lithosphere

  4. Widespread refertilization of cratonic and circum-cratonic lithospheric mantle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Yan-Jie; Zhang, Hong-Fu; Ying, Ji-Feng; Su, Ben-Xun

    2013-03-01

    Studies of mantle xenoliths have confirmed that Archean subcontinental lithospheric mantle (SCLM) is highly depleted in basaltic components (such as Al, Ca and Na) due to high-degree extraction of mafic and ultramafic melts and thus is refractory and buoyant, which made it chronically stable as tectonically independent units. However, increasing studies show that ancient SCLM can be refertilized by episodic rejuvenation events like infiltration of upwelling fertile material. The North China Craton is one of the most typical cases for relatively complete destruction of its Archean keel since the eruption of Paleozoic kimberlites, as is evidenced by a dramatic change in the compositions of mantle xenoliths sampled by Paleozoic to Cenozoic magmas, reflecting significant lithospheric thinning and the change in the character of the SCLM. The compositional change has been interpreted as the result of refertilization of Archean SCLM via multiple-stage peridotite-melt reactions, suggested by linear correlations between MgO and indices of fertility, covariations of Al2O3 with CaO, La/Yb, 87Sr/86Sr, 143Nd/144Nd, 187Os/188Os and Re-depletion ages (TRD), high Re abundances, scatter in Re-Os isotopic plot, variable in situ TRD ages of sulfides, and correlation between TRD ages and olivine Fo of peridotite xenoliths in Paleozoic kimberlites and Cenozoic basalts on the craton. By integrating major and trace element, Sr, Nd and Os isotopic compositions of peridotite xenoliths and orogenic massif peridotites from the continents of Europe, Asia, America, Africa and Australia, together with previous studies of petrology and geochemistry of global peridotites, we suggest that (1) refertilization of cratonic and circum-cratonic lithospheric mantle is widespread; (2) Archean SCLM worldwide has experienced a multi-stage history of melt depletion and refertilization since segregation from the convecting mantle; (3) cratonic SCLM may be more susceptible to compositional change caused by

  5. The subduction of young lithosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sacks, I. S.

    1983-04-01

    Studies, using a variety of techniques, of the subduction beneath western South America and the southwest Honshu-Kyushu region of Japan indicate that volcano-free segments occur where the subducted and continental lithospheres remain in contact without intervening asthenosphere. The subduction is initiated at normal dip angles, but the plate deforms at some depth (100 km under central Peru) to travel horizontally immediately beneath continental lithosphere. The most plausible reason for this geometry is that the subducted plate is buoyant. A model is developed constrained by age of the plate, bathymetry, and heat flow. Estimates of the density of oceanic plates as a function of age show that younger ocean floor may be less dense than the asthenosphere into which it subducts. If the high-density tranformation of crustal basalt to eclogite is retarded by low temperatures, the plate can remain buoyant to considerable depth for long periods of time. Heat flow data from western South America are consistent with this model.

  6. Anatomy of lithosphere necking during orthogonal rifting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nestola, Yago; Cavozzi, Cristian; Storti, Fabrizio

    2013-04-01

    The evolution of lithosphere necking is a fundamental parameter controlling the structural architecture and thermal-state of rifted margin. The necking shape depends on several parameters, including the extensional strain-rate and thermal layering of the lithosphere. Despite a large number of analogue and numerical modelling studies on lithosphere extension, a quantitative description of the evolution of necking through time is still lacking. We used analogue modelling to simulate in three-dimension the progression of lithosphere thinning and necking during orthogonal rifting. In our models we simulated a typical "cold and young" 4-layer lithosphere stratigraphy: brittle upper crust (loose quartz sand), ductile lower crust (silicon-barite mixture), brittle upper mantle (loose quartz sand), and ductile lower mantle (silicon-barite mixture). The experimental lithosphere rested on a glucose syrup asthenosphere. We monitored model evolution by periodic and coeval laser scanning of both the surface topography and the lithosphere base. After model completion, each of the four layers was removed and the top of the underlying layer was scanned. This technical approach allowed us to quantify the evolution in space and time of the thinning factors for both the whole lithosphere (βz) and the crust (γ). The area of incremental effective stretching (βy) parallel to the extensional direction was obtained from the βz maps.

  7. The origin of thin lithosphere in continental backarcs: Effect of hydration on mantle lithosphere stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Currie, C. A.; Huismans, R. S.; Beaumont, C.

    2006-12-01

    Nearly all continental backarcs have thin (~ 60 km) lithosphere for 100's of km behind the volcanic arc, even where there has been no extension. One mechanism to produce thin lithosphere is the erosion of normal thickness lithosphere by subduction-related mantle flow. The susceptibility of lithosphere to thinning largely depends on its rheology, which may be related to its state of hydration. Thin backarc lithosphere may reflect (1) a pre-existing weak rheology of lithosphere that has not been extensively dehydrated or (2) a response to rheological weakening by infiltration of slab-derived fluids. To study these processes, we use thermal- mechanical models of subduction of an old (90 Ma) oceanic plate beneath 120 km thick continental lithosphere. For (1), the backarc mantle lithosphere in the reference model has a wet olivine rheology. Subduction-induced mantle flow produces perturbations to the lowermost lithosphere, which are removed through gravitational instability and flow entrainment. The lithosphere then heats conductively, leading to subsequent thinning. Lithosphere that is stronger than wet olivine (less hydrated) does not thin, while weaker lithosphere undergoes more rapid thinning. Mantle lithosphere density influences stability, such that depleted (more buoyant) lithosphere is more stable. Thin backarc lithosphere may be limited to continental mantle that is both hydrated and fertile. This may explain why thin lithosphere of western North and South America backarcs coincides with Phanerozoic terranes that were accreted to older cratons, which may be drier, more refractory and resistant to thinning. For (2), the backarc mantle lithosphere is initially dehydrated with a scaled viscosity of wet olivine x 10 and the source of hydrating fluids is determined by tracking slab dehydration reactions (e.g., basalt-eclogite, serpentine breakdown). As most slab dehydration occurs at shallow depth, thinning of water-weakened lithosphere is restricted to the volcanic

  8. Oceanic provenance of lithospheric mantle beneath Lower Silesia (SW Poland) and the two kinds of its "Fe-metasomatism"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puziewicz, Jacek; Matusiak-Małek, Magdalena; Ntaflos, Theodoros; Kukuła, Anna; Ćwiek, Mateusz

    2016-04-01

    Our recent studies (Puziewicz et al. 2015, IJES 104:1913-1924, and references therein) show that the subcontinental lithospheric mantle (SCLM) beneath Lower Silesia (SW Poland) and neighbouring part of Upper Lusatia (SE Germany) is dominated by harzburgites. Part of them contain small amounts of clinopyroxene which, despite its primary textural appearance, is a late addition to the protoliths which are residues after extensive (up to 30 %) partial melting. This clinopyroxene was added to the harzburgites in Cenozoic times by alkaline basaltic melts migrating upwards from their asthenospheric sources during rifting in the Variscan foreland of the Alpine-Carpathian chain. The pre-rifting history of the SCLM beneath the region is thus recorded in the olivine and orthopyroxene. The forsterite content in olivine divides the Lower Silesian harzburgites into two groups: A (olivine Fo 90.5 - 92.0), and B (olivine Fo 84.0 - 90.0; for data see Puziewicz et al. 2015, op. cit.). The Al content in orthopyroxene is low and similar in both A and part of B harzburgites, called B1 in the following. The orthopyroxene occurring in the B1 harzburgites contains typically 0.05 - 0.10 atoms of Al per formula unit (corresponding to 0.5 - 2.5 wt. % Al2O3), although slightly lower (down to 0.02 a pfu) and slightly higher (up to 0.13 a pfu) Al contents occur in subordinate number of samples. The Al content in the B1 orthopyroxene is not correlated with forsterite content in coexisting olivine. The B2 harzburgites occur only in one site (Księginki). They contain orthopyroxene which Al content exhibits negative correlation with forsterite content in coexisting olivine. The most Al -rich orthopyroxene (0.24 atoms of Al pfu, corresponding to ca. 5.7 wt % Al2O3) coexists with olivine Fo 86.5 in Księginki. The low contents of Al in orthopyroxene is specific for the Lower Silesian/Upper Lusatian domain of European lithospheric mantle. The Al-poor mantle domain below Lower Silesia and upper

  9. Deformation in the continental lithosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The Physical Properties of Earth Materials Committee, a technical committee of AGU's Tectonophysics Section, is organizing a dinner/colloquium as part of the Fall Meeting in San Francisco, Calif. This event will be held Monday, December 3rd, in the Gold Rush Room of the Holiday Inn Golden Gateway Hotel at 1500 Van Ness St. There will be a no-host bar from 6:30 to 7:30 P.M., followed by dinner from 7:30 to 8:30 P.M. Paul Tapponnier will deliver the after-dinner talk, “Large-Scale Deformation Mechanisms in the Continental Lithosphere: Where Do We Stand?” It will start at 8:30 P.M. and a business meeting will follow at 9:30 P.M.

  10. The role of mechanical heterogeneities during continental breakup: a 3D lithospheric-scale modelling approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duclaux, Guillaume; Huismans, Ritske S.; May, Dave

    2015-04-01

    How and why do continents break? More than two decades of analogue and 2D plane-strain numerical experiments have shown that despite the origin of the forces driving extension, the geometry of continental rifts falls into three categories - or modes: narrow rift, wide rift, or core complex. The mode of extension itself is strongly influenced by the rheology (and rheological behaviour) of the modelled layered system. In every model, an initial thermal or mechanical heterogeneity, such as a weak seed or a notch, is imposed to help localise the deformation and avoid uniform stretching of the lithosphere by pure shear. While it is widely accepted that structural inheritance is a key parameter for controlling rift localisation - as implied by the Wilson Cycle - modelling the effect of lithospheric heterogeneities on the long-term tectonic evolution of an extending plate in full 3D remains challenging. Recent progress in finite-element methods applied to computational tectonics along with the improved accessibility to high performance computers, now enable to switch from plane strain thermo-mechanical experiments to full 3D high-resolution experiments. Here we investigate the role of mechanical heterogeneities on rift opening, linkage and propagation during extension of a layered lithospheric systems with pTatin3d, a geodynamics modeling package utilising the material-point-method for tracking material composition, combined with a multigrid finite-element method to solve heterogeneous, incompressible visco-plastic Stokes problems. The initial model setup consists in a box of 1200 km horizontally by 250 km deep. It includes a 35 km layer of continental crust, underlaid by 85 km of sub-continental lithospheric mantle, and an asthenospheric mantle. Crust and mantle have visco-plastic rheologies with a pressure dependent yielding, which includes strain weakening, and a temperature, stress, strain-rate-dependent viscosity based on wet quartzite rheology for the crust, and wet

  11. Recycled dehydrated lithosphere observed in plume-influenced mid-ocean-ridge basalt.

    PubMed

    Dixon, Jacqueline Eaby; Leist, Loretta; Langmuir, Charles; Schilling, Jean-Guy

    2002-11-28

    A substantial uncertainty in the Earth's global geochemical water cycle is the amount of water that enters the deep mantle through the subduction and recycling of hydrated oceanic lithosphere. Here we address the question of recycling of water into the deep mantle by characterizing the volatile contents of different mantle components as sampled by ocean island basalts and mid-ocean-ridge basalts. Although all mantle plume (ocean island) basalts seem to contain more water than mid-ocean-ridge basalts, we demonstrate that basalts associated with mantle plume components containing subducted lithosphere--'enriched-mantle' or 'EM-type' basalts--contain less water than those associated with a common mantle source. We interpret this depletion as indicating that water is extracted from the lithosphere during the subduction process, with greater than 92 per cent efficiency.

  12. The Sandvik peridotite, Gurskøy, Norway: Three billion years of mantle evolution in the Baltica lithosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lapen, Thomas J.; Medaris, L. Gordon, Jr.; Beard, Brian L.; Johnson, Clark M.

    2009-05-01

    The Sandvik ultramafic body, Island of Gurskøy, Western Gneiss Region, Norway, is a mantle fragment that contains polymetamorphic mineral assemblages and affords a unique view into the response of subcontinental lithospheric mantle to repeated orogenic/magmatic events. The Sandvik peridotite body and nearby outcrops record four paragenetic stages: 1) pre-exsolution porphyroclasts of ol + grt + opx (high-Ca ) + cpx (low-Ca), which equilibrated at 1100-1200 °C and 6.5-7.0 GPa; 2) kelyphite containing ol + grt + spl +opx (low-Ca) + am (high-Al), as well as exsolved pyroxene containing opx + cpx + spl in equilibrium with matrix olivine, at 725 °C and 1.5 GPa; 3) granoblastic matrix of ol + spl + opx (low-Ca) + am (high-Al), at 700 °C and 1.0 GPa. A nearby outcrop contains a fourth assemblage consisting of ol + chl + opx + am. Lu-Hf and Re-Os model ages of garnet peridotite indicate melt depletion at 3.3 Ga [Beyer, E.E., Brueckner, H.K., Griffin, W.L., O'Reilly, S.Y., Graham, S., 2004. Archean mantle fragments in Proterozoic crust, Western Gneiss Region, Norway. Geology 32, 609-612.; Lapen, T.J., Medaris, L.G. Jr., Johnson, C.M., and Beard, B.L., 2005. Archean to Middle Proterozoic evolution of Baltica subcontinental lithosphere: evidence from combined Sm-Nd and Lu-Hf isotope analyses of the Sandvik ultramafic body, Norway. Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology 150, 131-145.], marking the time of separation from the convecting mantle. Lu-Hf whole rock and mineral isochron ages of constituent garnet peridotite and garnet pyroxenite layers in the Sandvik body reflect cooling and emplacement at ~ 1.25 Ga and ~ 1.18 Ga, respectively, whereas Sm-Nd whole rock and mineral ages of the garnet pyroxenite layers and the garnet peridotite are consistent with metasomatic alteration at ~ 1.15 Ga [Lapen, T.J., Medaris, L.G. Jr., Johnson, C.M., and Beard, B.L., 2005. Archean to Middle Proterozoic evolution of Baltica subcontinental lithosphere: evidence from combined Sm-Nd and

  13. Episodic Instabilities of Thick Continental Lithosphere (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaupart, C. P.; Fourel, L.; Farnetani, C. G.

    2009-12-01

    Although continental interiors are commonly described as stable, many have been subjected to major perturbations. The North American continent, for example, saw the formation or reactivation of four intracratonic basins (Williston, Hudson Bay, Illinois and Michigan) in the Paleozoic about 500 million years ago. These events occurred far from ocean basins and are not related to other tectonic events, and hence have usually been explained as late consequences of earlier orogenies or of mantle plumes impinging the base of the lithosphere. Why and how subsidence affected four neighbouring basins simultaneously in the Paleozoic has not been explained, however. Other important observations are that intracratonic basins and subsidence events tend to recur at the same locations, and that subsidence is rarely preceded by domal uplift. These observations can be explained by the behaviour of thick compositionally buoyant lithosphere that becomes unstable because it is being cooled from above. Laboratory analog experiments, stability theory and numerical simulations in 2-D and 3-D have been conducted to specify the necessary conditions for instability and to illustrate how flow develops and deforms the lithosphere. Numerical solutions accounting for temperature-dependent viscosity show that the compositional viscosity contrast between the lithospheric mantle and the underlying asthenosphere has only a weak effect on flow and deformation. Lithosphere behaviour depends on the Rayleigh number and the buoyancy ratio, which is equal to the ratio of compositional density contrast over the thermal density contrast through the unstable part of the lithosphere. Episodic instabilities are generated at small buoyancy numbers appropriate for geological conditions. Scaling laws for temperature-dependent viscosity fluids will be presented. Little uplift is generated by the instability because the hot upwelling asthenospheric mantle displaces compositionally buoyant colder lithospheric

  14. Anisotropic tomography of the European lithospheric structure from surface wave studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nita, Blanka; Maurya, Satish; Montagner, Jean-Paul

    2016-06-01

    We present continental-scale seismic isotropic and anisotropic imaging of shear wave upper-mantle structure of tectonically diversified terranes creating the European continent. Taking into account the 36-200 s period range of surface waves enables us to model the deep subcontinental structure at different vertical scale-lengths down to 300 km. After very strict quality selection criteria, we have obtained phase wave speeds at different periods for fundamental Rayleigh and Love modes from about 9000 three-component seismograms. Dispersion measurements are performed by using Fourier-domain waveform inversion technique named "roller-coaster-type" algorithm. We used the reference model with a varying average crustal structure for each source-station path. That procedure led to significant improvement of the quality and number of phase wave speed dispersion measurements compared to the common approach of using a reference model with one average crustal structure. Surface wave dispersion data are inverted at depth for retrieving isotropy and anisotropy parameters. The fast axis directions related to azimuthal anisotropy at different depths constitute a rich database for geodynamical interpretations. Shear wave anomalies of the horizontal dimension larger than 200 km are imaged in our models. They correlate with tectonic provinces of varying age-provenance. Different anisotropy patterns are observed along the most distinctive feature on our maps-the bordering zone between the Palaeozoic and Precambrian Europe. We discuss the depth changes of the lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary along the profiles crossing the chosen tectonic units of different origin and age: Fennoscandia, East European Craton, Anatolia, Mediterranean subduction zones. Within the flat and stable cratonic lithosphere, we find traces of the midlithospheric discontinuity.

  15. Can compaction, caused by melt extraction and intrusion, generate tectonically effective stresses in the lithosphere?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wallner, Herbert; Schmeling, Harro

    2016-04-01

    Aim of our study is to deepen understanding the role of melt processes while the lithospheric evolution by means of numerical modeling. In the sense of plate tectonics, on the one hand, stresses are transferred by stiff lithospheric plates, on the other, lithosphere is deformed, broken, or modified in various ways. Melting often plays an important role but is not easy to model numerically due to all the interactions of physics, phase changes, non-linearities, time scales, petrology, heterogeneities and chemical reactions. Here we restrict on a thermo-mechanical model of visco-plastic two phase flow with partial melting. Viscosity is temperature-, stress- and depth-dependent. Freezing and melting are determined by a simplified linear binary solid solution model. The fast melt transport through and into the lithosphere, acting on a short time scale, is replaced by melt extraction and intrusion in a given emplacement level. Numerical approximation is done in 2D with Finite Differences with markers in an Eulerian formulation. A scenario of continental rifting serves for a model of lithosphere above asthenosphere under extensional conditions. An anomaly of increased temperature at the bottom produces a low fraction of melt initially in the asthenosphere. Above a porosity limit melt is extracted and leads to compaction at its origin which induces under-pressure attracting ambient melt and contracting the depleted matrix. In a higher, colder lithospheric level the emplaced melt extends the matrix, immediately freezes; an increase of enrichment and heating takes place. The dilatation of the rock matrix generates relative high compaction pressures if it's viscosity is high as in the uppermost mantle lithosphere. Local and temporary varying stresses provide deviatoric components which sometimes may be the origin of tectonic activity in nature. Divergence terms of the full compaction formulation, responsible for viscous stress, are tested and reviewed. Quality and stability

  16. Rifting Thick Lithosphere - Canning Basin, Western Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Czarnota, Karol; White, Nicky

    2016-04-01

    The subsidence histories and architecture of most, but not all, rift basins are elegantly explained by extension of ~120 km thick lithosphere followed by thermal re-thickening of the lithospheric mantle to its pre-rift thickness. Although this well-established model underpins most basin analysis, it is unclear whether the model explains the subsidence of rift basins developed over substantially thick lithosphere (as imaged by seismic tomography beneath substantial portions of the continents). The Canning Basin of Western Australia is an example where a rift basin putatively overlies lithosphere ≥180 km thick, imaged using shear wave tomography. Subsidence modelling in this study shows that the entire subsidence history of the <300 km wide and <6 km thick western Canning Basin is adequately explained by mild Ordovician extension (β≈1.2) of ~120 km thick lithosphere followed by post-rift thermal subsidence. This is consistent with the established model, described above, albeit with perturbations due to transient dynamic topography support which are expressed as basin-wide unconformities. In contrast the <150 km wide and ~15 km thick Fitzroy Trough of the eastern Canning Basin reveals an almost continuous period of normal faulting between the Ordovician and Carboniferous (β<2.0) followed by negligible post-rift thermal subsidence. These features cannot be readily explained by the established model of rift basin development. We attribute the difference in basin architecture between the western and eastern Canning Basin to rifting of thick lithosphere beneath the eastern part, verified by the presence of ~20 Ma diamond-bearing lamproites intruded into the basin depocentre. In order to account for the observed subsidence, at standard crustal densities, the lithospheric mantle is required to be depleted in density by 50-70 kg m-3, which is in line with estimates derived from modelling rare-earth element concentrations of the ~20 Ma lamproites and global isostatic

  17. Did diamond-bearing orangeites originate from MARID-veined peridotites in the lithospheric mantle?

    PubMed

    Giuliani, Andrea; Phillips, David; Woodhead, Jon D; Kamenetsky, Vadim S; Fiorentini, Marco L; Maas, Roland; Soltys, Ashton; Armstrong, Richard A

    2015-04-17

    Kimberlites and orangeites (previously named Group-II kimberlites) are small-volume igneous rocks occurring in diatremes, sills and dykes. They are the main hosts for diamonds and are of scientific importance because they contain fragments of entrained mantle and crustal rocks, thus providing key information about the subcontinental lithosphere. Orangeites are ultrapotassic, H2O and CO2-rich rocks hosting minerals such as phlogopite, olivine, calcite and apatite. The major, trace element and isotopic compositions of orangeites resemble those of intensely metasomatized mantle of the type represented by MARID (mica-amphibole-rutile-ilmenite-diopside) xenoliths. Here we report new data for two MARID xenoliths from the Bultfontein kimberlite (Kimberley, South Africa) and we show that MARID-veined mantle has mineralogical (carbonate-apatite) and geochemical (Sr-Nd-Hf-O isotopes) characteristics compatible with orangeite melt generation from a MARID-rich source. This interpretation is supported by U-Pb zircon ages in MARID xenoliths from the Kimberley kimberlites, which confirm MARID rock formation before orangeite magmatism in the area.

  18. Did diamond-bearing orangeites originate from MARID-veined peridotites in the lithospheric mantle?

    PubMed

    Giuliani, Andrea; Phillips, David; Woodhead, Jon D; Kamenetsky, Vadim S; Fiorentini, Marco L; Maas, Roland; Soltys, Ashton; Armstrong, Richard A

    2015-01-01

    Kimberlites and orangeites (previously named Group-II kimberlites) are small-volume igneous rocks occurring in diatremes, sills and dykes. They are the main hosts for diamonds and are of scientific importance because they contain fragments of entrained mantle and crustal rocks, thus providing key information about the subcontinental lithosphere. Orangeites are ultrapotassic, H2O and CO2-rich rocks hosting minerals such as phlogopite, olivine, calcite and apatite. The major, trace element and isotopic compositions of orangeites resemble those of intensely metasomatized mantle of the type represented by MARID (mica-amphibole-rutile-ilmenite-diopside) xenoliths. Here we report new data for two MARID xenoliths from the Bultfontein kimberlite (Kimberley, South Africa) and we show that MARID-veined mantle has mineralogical (carbonate-apatite) and geochemical (Sr-Nd-Hf-O isotopes) characteristics compatible with orangeite melt generation from a MARID-rich source. This interpretation is supported by U-Pb zircon ages in MARID xenoliths from the Kimberley kimberlites, which confirm MARID rock formation before orangeite magmatism in the area. PMID:25882074

  19. Did diamond-bearing orangeites originate from MARID-veined peridotites in the lithospheric mantle?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giuliani, Andrea; Phillips, David; Woodhead, Jon D.; Kamenetsky, Vadim S.; Fiorentini, Marco L.; Maas, Roland; Soltys, Ashton; Armstrong, Richard A.

    2015-04-01

    Kimberlites and orangeites (previously named Group-II kimberlites) are small-volume igneous rocks occurring in diatremes, sills and dykes. They are the main hosts for diamonds and are of scientific importance because they contain fragments of entrained mantle and crustal rocks, thus providing key information about the subcontinental lithosphere. Orangeites are ultrapotassic, H2O and CO2-rich rocks hosting minerals such as phlogopite, olivine, calcite and apatite. The major, trace element and isotopic compositions of orangeites resemble those of intensely metasomatized mantle of the type represented by MARID (mica-amphibole-rutile-ilmenite-diopside) xenoliths. Here we report new data for two MARID xenoliths from the Bultfontein kimberlite (Kimberley, South Africa) and we show that MARID-veined mantle has mineralogical (carbonate-apatite) and geochemical (Sr-Nd-Hf-O isotopes) characteristics compatible with orangeite melt generation from a MARID-rich source. This interpretation is supported by U-Pb zircon ages in MARID xenoliths from the Kimberley kimberlites, which confirm MARID rock formation before orangeite magmatism in the area.

  20. Lithospheric controls on Earth evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mole, D. R.; Fiorentini, M.; Thebaud, N.; McCuaig, C.; Cassidy, K.; Kirkland, C.; Belousova, E.

    2011-12-01

    The Archean eon represents an important time in the evolution of our planet, during which tectonic activity was vigorous and the rate of crustal recycling extremely energetic [Hawkesworth and Kemp, 2006]. Although apparently inhospitable to complex forms of life, the Archean Earth was shaped by geological processes, which prepared the ground for the establishment of a complex biosphere-hydrosphere-atmosphere at ~2.0 Ga [Kump and Barley, 2007]. Therefore, a more comprehensive understanding of Archean cratonic architecture may provide crucial insights into the geodynamic and ecological evolution of our planet. Spatially distributed felsic crustal rocks (granitoids/volcanics) from the Yilgarn Craton of Western Australia were analysed for U-Pb zircon geochronology, Lu-Hf zircon and Sm-Nd whole-rock isotopes. Using this data, a number of 'time-slices' (isotopic contour maps constrained by U-Pb zircon age) were plotted. The isotope maps show a network of lithospheric blocks of varying age and genesis which represent the intra-cratonic architecture of the Yilgarn Craton. Within this architecture, there are multiple Earth systems which vary in space and time. The major systems under first-order control appear to be heat flux, magmatism, sedimentary environment and isostacy. Whether an area is juvenile (eHf>0) or evolved (eHf<0) indicates the level of mantle input and by proxy heat input into the crust. In turn, isotopic nature can be used as a proxy for lithospheric thickness, with evolved blocks having more extensive vertical accretion and addition of plume head restites than juvenile regions. These thickness contrasts are believed to control the localisation of plume melts and subsequent volcanism into shallower, juvenile, craton-margins [Begg et al., 2010]. Thickness variations also control the level of isostatic equilibrium of a 'block' relative to the geoid, with implications for emergence, topography and subsequent depositional and ecological environments. Spatial

  1. Geochronology and geochemistry of Eocene-aged volcanic rocks around the Bafra (Samsun, N Turkey) area: Constraints for the interaction of lithospheric mantle and crustal melts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Temizel, İrfan; Arslan, Mehmet; Yücel, Cem; Abdioğlu, Emel; Ruffet, Gilles

    2016-08-01

    40Ar-39Ar age, whole-rock chemical, and Sr-Nd isotope data are presented for the post-collisional, Eocene (51.3-44.1 Ma)-aged volcanic rocks from the Bafra (Samsun) area in the western part of the Eastern Pontides (N Turkey) aiming to unravel their sources and evolutionary history. The studied Eocene volcanic rocks can be divided into two groups: analcime-bearing (tephritic lava flows and dykes) and analcime-free (basaltic to trachytic lava flows and basaltic dykes). The analcime-bearing volcanic rocks have a fine-grained porphyritic texture with clinopyroxene phenocrysts, whereas analcime-free volcanic rocks show a variety of textures including hyalo-microlitic microgranular porphyritic, intersertal, trachytic, fluidal, and glomeroporphyritic. The volcanic rocks also show evidence of mineral-melt disequilibrium textures such as sieved, rounded, and corroded plagioclases, partially melted and dissolved clinopyroxenes and poikilitic texture. Petrochemically, the parental magmas of the volcanic rocks evolved from alkaline to calc-alkaline lava suites and include high-K and shoshonitic compositions. They display enrichments in light rare earth and large ion lithophile elements such as Sr, K, and Rb, as well as depletions in high field strength elements such as Nb, Ta, Zr, and Ti, resembling subduction-related magmas. The analcime-bearing and -free volcanic rocks share similar incompatible element ratios and chondrite-normalised rare rearth element patterns, indicating that they originated from similar sources. They also have relatively low to moderate initial 87Sr/86Sr (0.7042-0.7051), high positive εNd(t) values (+ 0.20 to + 3.32), and depleted mantle Nd model ages (TDM1 = 0.63-0.93 Ga, TDM2 = 0.58-0.84 Ga). The bulk-rock chemical and Sr-Nd isotope features as well as the high Rb/Y and Th/Zr, but low Nb/Zr and Nb/Y ratios, indicate that the volcanic rocks were derived from a lithospheric mantle source that had been metasomatised by slab-derived fluids. Trace element

  2. Rifting on Venus: Implications for lithospheric structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banerdt, W. B.; Golombek, M. P.

    1985-01-01

    Lithospheric strength envelopes on Venus are reviewed and their implications for large scale rifting are discussed. Their relationship to crustal thicnesses and thermal gradients are explored. Also considered are the implications of a theory for rift formation.

  3. Helium isotope evidence for plume metasomatism of Siberian continental lithosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barry, P. H.; Hilton, D. R.; Howarth, G. H.; Pernet-Fisher, J. F.; Day, J. M.; Taylor, L. A.

    2013-12-01

    The Siberian craton contains more than 1000 kimberlite intrusions of various ages (Silurian to Jurassic), making it an ideal setting for understanding temporal and spatial variations in subcontinental lithospheric mantle (SCLM) composition and metasomatism. This region also experienced one of the largest flood basalt events in the geologic record. The Permo-Triassic Siberian Flood Basalts (SFB) are considered to have erupted in response to plume-head impingement under the Siberian SCLM. Here we present new He-isotope data for a suite of peridotitic xenoliths (n=19) from two temporally and petrologically-distinct kimberlite pipes (i.e., Late-Devonian Udachnaya and Jurassic Obnazhennaya) in Siberia that span the age of eruption of the SFB. All samples have previously been well-characterized, mineralogically, petrographically, and for major- and trace-element abundance geochemistry. He-isotope ratios (3He/4He) of garnet, pyroxene and olivine separates from 2.7-3.1 Ga Siberian peridotites range from 0.11 to 8.4 RA, displaying both strongly radiogenic (i.e., low 3He/4He) and mantle-like (i.e., SCLM = 6.1 × 0.9 RA; MORB = 8 × 1 RA) values. In contrast, SFB values extend up to ~13 RA [1]. Helium concentrations span ~ five orders of magnitude from 0.05 to 350 [4He]C (×10-6) cm3STP/g. These findings are consistent with previous studies [2], which suggested that the SCLM is heterogeneous with respect to He and that this heterogeneity is strongly dependent on lithospheric age. Notably, all but one Obnazhennaya sample displays 3He/4He values in the mantle range and are He depleted. In contrast, all but one Udachnaya samples are radiogenic and have higher He contents. Previous studies have suggested that partially-melted subducted ocean crust amalgamated to form the Siberian craton at ~3 Ga [3], followed by a complex history of metasomatism until eruption of xenolith samples within kimberlites [4]. For example, during the main stage of SFB emplacement (i.e., Siberian plume

  4. A New View of Cenozoic Lithosphere Degradation ("Delamination") Beneath the Sierra Nevada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Putirka, K. D.

    2011-12-01

    There presently exists a conflict in our understanding of basaltic volcanism in the Sierra Nevada. Some geophysical studies (Fliedner and Ruppert, 1996; Savage et al., 2004; Jones et al., 2004) indicate that the continental crust beneath the southern Sierra lies directly upon asthenosphere. In contrast, volcanic rock and mantle xenolith compositions show that enriched mantle lithosphere currently exists beneath the eastern Sierra range front (Leeman, 1974; Beard and Glazner, 1995; Cousens, 1996; Lee, 2005; Putirka and Busby, 2007; Cousens et al., 2008; Blondes et al., 2008). For example, volcanic rocks have 87Sr/86Sr ratios (at MgO>8%) >0.705, and 143Nd/144Nd <0.5127, which are unlike asthenosphere (at the EPR, 87Sr/86Sr <0.7027; 143Nd/144Nd > 0.5129), but very much like Cordilleran mantle lithosphere. Sierran volcanic rocks also have continental mantle lithosphere-like trace element ratios, with La/Nb>3 and Th/Nb>1 (asthenosphere-derived melts have La/Nb<1.5, Th/Nb<0.08). Finally, spinel-bearing mantle xeonoliths from the eastern Sierra have 87Sr/86Sr and ɛNd ratios that range to 0.7065 and -3.4 respectively. To test where such enriched mantle may exist, we calculate melt extraction depths using Si activity barometers (Putirka, 2008; Lee et al. 2009); these models show that such enriched mantle occurs at 40-75 km, and so extends to the base of the crust, and occupies precisely the depth range where Savage et al. (2004) indicate that continental mantle lithosphere is absent. Melt extraction depths estimated from mineralogy-sensitive trace element ratios (Sm/Yb, Lu/Hf) are consistent with the Si-activity results, and require partial melting depths for high K2O Pliocene volcanics to extend to 110 km, i.e., into the garnet-peridotite stability field. These results show that garnet-bearing lithologies could not have been dislodged from beneath the Sierra during or before the eruption of Pliocene-age magmas; they do allow for removal of garnet-bearing mantle

  5. Numerical models of mantle lithosphere weakening, erosion and delamination induced by melt extraction and emplacement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wallner, Herbert; Schmeling, Harro

    2016-09-01

    Continental rifting caused by extension and heating from below affects the lithosphere or cratons in various ways. Volcanism and melt intrusions often occur along with thinning, weakening and even breaking lithosphere. Although mechanical necking models of the lithosphere are often applied, the aspects of melting and the implications due to melt transport and emplacement at shallower depths are not well understood. A two-phase flow approach employing melt extraction and shallow emplacement associated with thermal weakening is developed and compared with observations. The results of this comparison indicate the importance of partial melts and an asthenospheric magma source for increasing the rising rate of the lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary during extension. Thermo-mechanical physics of visco-plastic flow is approximated using the Finite Difference method with Eulerian formulation in 2D. The conservation of mass, momentum and energy equations are solved for a multi-component (crust-mantle) and two-phase (melt-matrix) system. Rheology is temperature- and stress-dependent. In consideration of depletion and enrichment melting and solidification are controlled by a simplified linear binary solid solution model. Melt is extracted and emplaced in predefined depth regions (emplacement zones) in the lithospheric mantle and crust. The Compaction Boussinesq Approximation was applied; its validity was tested against the Full Compaction formulation and found fully satisfactory for the case of sublithospheric melting models. A simple model guided by the geodynamic situation of the Rwenzori region typically results in updoming asthenosphere with melt-assisted erosion of the lithosphere's base. Even with a conservative approach for a temperature anomaly melting alone doubles the lithospheric erosion rate in comparison with a model without melting. With melt extraction and intrusion lithospheric erosion and upwelling of the lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary speeds up by a

  6. Oceanic provenance of lithospheric mantle beneath Lower Silesia (SW Poland) and the two kinds of its "Fe-metasomatism"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puziewicz, Jacek; Matusiak-Małek, Magdalena; Ntaflos, Theodoros; Kukuła, Anna; Ćwiek, Mateusz

    2016-04-01

    Our recent studies (Puziewicz et al. 2015, IJES 104:1913-1924, and references therein) show that the subcontinental lithospheric mantle (SCLM) beneath Lower Silesia (SW Poland) and neighbouring part of Upper Lusatia (SE Germany) is dominated by harzburgites. Part of them contain small amounts of clinopyroxene which, despite its primary textural appearance, is a late addition to the protoliths which are residues after extensive (up to 30 %) partial melting. This clinopyroxene was added to the harzburgites in Cenozoic times by alkaline basaltic melts migrating upwards from their asthenospheric sources during rifting in the Variscan foreland of the Alpine-Carpathian chain. The pre-rifting history of the SCLM beneath the region is thus recorded in the olivine and orthopyroxene. The forsterite content in olivine divides the Lower Silesian harzburgites into two groups: A (olivine Fo 90.5 - 92.0), and B (olivine Fo 84.0 - 90.0; for data see Puziewicz et al. 2015, op. cit.). The Al content in orthopyroxene is low and similar in both A and part of B harzburgites, called B1 in the following. The orthopyroxene occurring in the B1 harzburgites contains typically 0.05 - 0.10 atoms of Al per formula unit (corresponding to 0.5 - 2.5 wt. % Al2O3), although slightly lower (down to 0.02 a pfu) and slightly higher (up to 0.13 a pfu) Al contents occur in subordinate number of samples. The Al content in the B1 orthopyroxene is not correlated with forsterite content in coexisting olivine. The B2 harzburgites occur only in one site (Księginki). They contain orthopyroxene which Al content exhibits negative correlation with forsterite content in coexisting olivine. The most Al -rich orthopyroxene (0.24 atoms of Al pfu, corresponding to ca. 5.7 wt % Al2O3) coexists with olivine Fo 86.5 in Księginki. The low contents of Al in orthopyroxene is specific for the Lower Silesian/Upper Lusatian domain of European lithospheric mantle. The Al-poor mantle domain below Lower Silesia and upper

  7. A radiogenic Os component in the oceanic lithosphere? Constraints from Hawaiian pyroxenite xenoliths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sen, Indra Sekhar; Bizimis, Michael; Sen, Gautam; Huang, Shichun

    2011-09-01

    Platinum Group Element (PGE) concentrations in garnet pyroxenite xenoliths from Oahu, Hawaii, are significantly lower than those in mantle peridotites and show fractionated patterns (e.g. Pd N/Os N = 2-10, Pd N/Ir N = 4-24; N = chondrite normalized) and very high Re N/Os N ratios (˜9-248). Mass balance calculations show that the bulk rock pyroxenite PGE inventory is controlled by the presence of sulfide phases. The 187Os/ 188Os ratios of these pyroxenites vary from subchondritic to suprachondritic (0.123-0.164); and the 187Os/ 188Os ratios show good correlations with bulk rock and clinopyroxene major and trace element compositions, and bulk rock PGE and sulfur abundances. These observations suggest that the Os isotope compositions in these pyroxenites largely reflect primary processes in the oceanic mantle and Pacific lithosphere. In contrast, bulk rock 187Os/ 188Os ratios do not correlate with other lithophile isotopic tracers (e.g. Rb-Sr, Sm-Nd, Lu-Hf) which show limited isotopic variability ( Bizimis et al., 2005). This and the lack of 187Os/ 188Os vs. Re/Os correlations suggest that the range in Os isotope ratios is not likely the result of mixing between long-lived depleted and enriched components or aging of these pyroxenites within the Pacific lithosphere after its formation at a mid-oceanic ridge setting some 80-100 million years ago. We interpret the Os isotopes, PGE and lithophile element systematics as the result of melt-lithosphere interaction at the base of the Pacific lithosphere. The major and trace element systematics of the clinopyroxenes and bulk rock pyroxenites and the relatively constant lithophile element isotope systematics are best explained by fractional crystallization of a rather homogenous parental magma. We suggest that during melt crystallization and percolation within the lithosphere, the parental pyroxenite melt assimilated radiogenic Os from the grain boundaries of the peridotitic lithosphere. This radiogenic Os component may

  8. Permeability Barrier Generation in the Martian Lithosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schools, Joe; Montési, Laurent

    2015-11-01

    Permeability barriers develop when a magma produced in the interior of a planet rises into the cooler lithosphere and crystallizes more rapidly than the lithosphere can deform (Sparks and Parmentier, 1991). Crystallization products may then clog the porous network in which melt is propagating, reducing the permeability to almost zero, i.e., forming a permeability barrier. Subsequent melts cannot cross the barrier. Permeability barriers have been useful to explain variations in crustal thickness at mid-ocean ridges on Earth (Magde et al., 1997; Hebert and Montési, 2011; Montési et al., 2011). We explore here under what conditions permeability barriers may form on Mars.We use the MELTS thermodynamic calculator (Ghiorso and Sack, 1995; Ghiorso et al., 2002; Asimow et al., 2004) in conjunction with estimated Martian mantle compositions (Morgan and Anders, 1979; Wänke and Dreibus, 1994; Lodders and Fegley, 1997; Sanloup et al., 1999; Taylor 2013) to model the formation of permeability barriers in the lithosphere of Mars. In order to represent potential past and present conditions of Mars, we vary the lithospheric thickness, mantle potential temperature (heat flux), oxygen fugacity, and water content.Our results show that permeability layers can develop in the thermal boundary layer of the simulated Martian lithosphere if the mantle potential temperature is higher than ~1500°C. The various Martian mantle compositions yield barriers in the same locations, under matching variable conditions. There is no significant difference in barrier location over the range of accepted Martian oxygen fugacity values. Water content is the most significant influence on barrier development as it reduces the temperature of crystallization, allowing melt to rise further into the lithosphere. Our lower temperature and thicker lithosphere model runs, which are likely the most similar to modern Mars, show no permeability barrier generation. Losing the possibility of having a permeability

  9. Geophysical Signatures of Adjoining Lithospheric Domains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gradmann, S.; Kaiser, J.

    2014-12-01

    Lithospheres of different age have distinctly different characteristics regarding their composition, thermal and density structure. Major differences exist between cratons and the Phanerozoic domains and mobile belts. We here investigate how the lateral transition from one lithospheric domain to another is reflected in the geophysical signatures, the seismic velocities, gravity, topography and geoid. We combine geophysical-petrological forward modeling with a comparison to worldwide occurrences of adjoining lithospheric domains. Three distinctly different mantle types (Archean, Proterozoic, Phanerozoic) are used to calculate the geophysical signatures of a range of possible lateral transition zones. The mantle types are characterized by their different elemental composition, from which stable mineral phases and bulk physical properties are derived. Usually, older SCLM (sub-lithospheric mantle) is more depleted in heavier minerals and thereby lighter, but this effect is mainly counterbalanced by the increased density caused by long-term thermal cooling. At the edges of cratons, changes in the thermal structure affect this balance. A range of models is tested for the effects of lateral variations in the crustal and SCLM structure (thickness, smoothness of thickness changes) and mantle compositions. Abrupt changes in composition and lithosphere thickness generally cause distinct topographic lows or ridges. In the real world, these may be offset by respective adjustments in Moho depth, crustal structure or sediment infill. Gradual variations in lithosphere thickness, however, only show minor geophysical signatures. A possible expression of adjoining lithospheric domains is the Scandinavian Mountain Belt in Norway at the edge of Proterozoic Baltica. Although many of the present-day topographic features are unlikely to have existed since the Precambrian, the evolution of the cratons (rejuvenation of the craton edges) may have assisted in shaping the present

  10. Helium isotopes in lithospheric mantle: Evidence from Tertiary basalts of the western USA

    SciTech Connect

    Dodson, A.; DePaolo, D.J.; Kennedy, B.M. |

    1998-12-01

    The isotopic compositions of He, Sr, and Nd were measured in Tertiary-age basalts from the Basin and Range province of the western USA to evaluate models for the He isotopic character of subcontinental mantle lithosphere (SCML) and assess the role of recycled SCML in models of mantle evolution. Previous isotopic and trace element measurements suggested that most of these basalts were formed by melting of SCML. {sup 3}He/{sup 4}He ratios, measured by in-vacuo crushing of olivine phenocrysts, vary from 2.9 to 7.8 times the atmospheric value (2.9 to 7.8 Ra) consistently below the MORB value of 8.7 {+-} 0.5 Ra. The lowest R/Ra values, associated with low {epsilon}{sub Nd}, high {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr, and high La/Nb, are attributable to lithosphere mantle, and indicate that SCML is not dominated by MORB-type He, nor by high R/Ra, plume-type He. Consideration of geographic variability indicates there are two, and possibly three, distinct regions of SCML with differing He isotopic characteristics. SCML beneath the eastern Sierra Nevada is inferred to have {sup 3}He/{sup 4}He of {approximately}5.5 Ra and a He/Nd ratio slightly less than MORB-type mantle; SCML beneath the central Basin and Range has {sup 3}He/{sup 4}He of {approximately}4 Ra and a higher He/Nd ratio than MORB-type mantle. The SCML under southwestern Utah shows less systematic correlation of He isotopes with other geochemical parameters, but also has a lower bound R/Ra value of about 4 Ra. The inferred SCML helium ratios are consistent with retention of radiogenic {sup 4}He over 800 Ma for the eastern Sierra Nevada and 1700 Ma for the other two regions. The results are not consistent with models of He infiltration from the underlying asthenosphere and suggest the lithosphere of the Basin and Range region was not delaminated during the early Tertiary. The He, Sr, Nd, and Pb isotopic compositions inferred for the SCML of the southwestern USA are a reasonably good match to the characteristics of the EMII

  11. Tracing ancient events in the lithospheric mantle: A case study from ophiolitic chromitites of SW Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akbulut, Mehmet; González-Jiménez, José María; Griffin, William L.; Belousova, Elena; O'Reilly, Suzanne Y.; McGowan, Nicole; Pearson, Norman J.

    2016-04-01

    New major-, minor- and trace-element data on high-Cr chromites from several ophiolitic podiform chromitites from Lycian and Antalya peridotites in southwestern Turkey reveal a polygenetic origin from a range of arc-type melts within forearc and back-arc settings. These forearc and the back-arc related high-Cr chromitites are interpreted to reflect the tectonic juxtaposition of different lithospheric mantle segments during the obduction. The diversity of the γOs(t=0) values (-8.28 to +13.92) in the Antalya and Lycian chromitite PGMs and their good correlations with the sub- to supra-chondritic 187Os/188Os ratios (0.1175-0.1459) suggests a heterogeneous mantle source that incorporated up to 40% recycled crust, probably due to subduction processes of the orogenic events. The few model ages calculated define two significant peaks in TRD model ages at 1.5 and 0.25 Ga, suggesting that the chromitites are younger than 0.25 Ga and include relics of an at least Mesoproterozoic or older (>1.0 Ga) mantle protolith. Eight of the nine zircon grains separated from the chromitites, are interpreted as detrital and/or resorbed xenocrystic relics, whilst a significantly less reworked/resorbed one is considered to be of metasomatic origin. In-situ U-Pb dating of the xenocrystic zircon grains yielded a spread of ages within ca 0.6-2.1 Ga, suggesting recycling of crustal rocks younger than 0.6 Ga (Late Neoproterozoic). The notable coincidence between the lower age limit of the older zircons (ca 1.6 Ga) and the oldest Os model age peak (ca 1.5 Ga) from the PGM may suggest a Mesoproterozoic rifting stage. These findings imply a Paleoproterozoic sub-continental lithospheric mantle (SCLM) protolith for the SW Anatolian mantle which was later converted into an oceanic lithospheric mantle domain possibly following a rifting and continental break-up initiated during Mesoproterozoic (ca 1.5-1.0 Ga). The single metasomatic zircon of ca 0.09 Ga age coinciding with the initiation of the

  12. Pseudotachylites and Earthquakes: New Evidence for the "Jelly Sandwich" Rheology of Continental Lithosphere (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, W.; Yang, Z.

    2009-12-01

    The occurrence of pseudotachylite, an often-used proxy for brittle, seismogenic deformation, in mafic granulite facies has been cited as key evidence for the lower continental crust being stronger than the underlying uppermost mantle (“crème brûlée” model). Such reasoning seems unsound in that spectacular examples of pseudotachylite, exceeding 100 meters in length, occur in outcrops of the upper mantle. So if pseudotachylites indicate high mechanical strength, then the mantle lithosphere must be strong, supporting the “jelly sandwich” model of rheology. Moreover, pseudotachylites do occur in rocks of amphibolite facies where hydrous minerals are abundant, ruling out the notion that pseudotachylite implies dry conditions in the crust. Recent results from laboratory experiments also indicate that in general, mafic granulite is weaker than peridotite (Wang et al. [2008] and H. Green, personal communication). Perhaps the only stone left unturned is the pathological case where absolute-dry, mafic granulite were to juxtapose with hydrous peridotite - a hypothetical situation not observed in nature and yet to be linked with any specific, known geological processes. Meanwhile, cases of well-established, large- to moderate-sized earthquakes in the sub-continental mantle lithosphere (SCML) have been steadily accumulating, including events that generated clear underside reflections off the Moho above the hypocenters. Furthermore, a continent-wide analysis of precisely determined focal depths along and near the East African rift system (EARS) shows that different segments of the EARS exhibit three distinct patterns in focal depths, with a clear bimodal distribution beneath well-known but amagmatic rift valleys. The peaks of seismic moment release occur in the upper to mid-crust and near and below the Moho - a pattern established in several regions more than 25 years ago that implies a similar vertical distribution in limiting stress of the continental lithosphere

  13. Multi-dimensional Crustal and Lithospheric Structure of the Atlas Mountains of Morocco by Magnetotelluric Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiyan, D.; Jones, A. G.; Fullea, J.; Ledo, J.; Siniscalchi, A.; Romano, G.

    2014-12-01

    The PICASSO (Program to Investigate Convective Alboran Sea System Overturn) project and the concomitant TopoMed (Plate re-organization in the western Mediterranean: Lithospheric causes and topographic consequences - an ESF EUROSCORES TOPO-EUROPE project) project were designed to collect high resolution, multi-disciplinary lithospheric scale data in order to understand the tectonic evolution and lithospheric structure of the western Mediterranean. The over-arching objectives of the magnetotelluric (MT) component of the projects are (i) to provide new electrical conductivity constraints on the crustal and lithospheric structure of the Atlas Mountains, and (ii) to test the hypotheses for explaining the purported lithospheric cavity beneath the Middle and High Atlas inferred from potential-field lithospheric modeling. We present the results of an MT experiment we carried out in Morocco along two profiles: an approximately N-S oriented profile crossing the Middle Atlas, the High Atlas and the eastern Anti-Atlas to the east (called the MEK profile, for Meknes) and NE-SW oriented profile through western High Atlas to the west (called the MAR profile, for Marrakech). Our results are derived from three-dimensional (3-D) MT inversion of the MT data set employing the parallel version of Modular system for Electromagnetic inversion (ModEM) code. The distinct conductivity differences between the Middle-High Atlas (conductive) and the Anti-Atlas (resistive) correlates with the South Atlas Front fault, the depth extent of which appears to be limited to the uppermost mantle (approx. 60 km). In all inverse solutions, the crust and the upper mantle show resistive signatures (approx. 1,000 Ωm) beneath the Anti-Atlas, which is the part of stable West African Craton. Partial melt and/or exotic fluids enriched in volatiles produced by the melt can account for the high middle to lower crustal and uppermost mantle conductivity in the Folded Middle Atlas, the High Moulouya Plain and the

  14. Observational Constraints on Lithospheric Rheology and Their Implications for Lithospheric Dynamics and Plate Tectonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, S.; Watts, A. B.

    2014-12-01

    Lithospheric rheology and strength are important for understanding crust and lithosphere dynamics, and the conditions for plate tectonics. Laboratory studies suggest that lithospheric rheology is controlled by frictional sliding, semi-brittle, low-temperature plasticity, and high-temperature creep deformation mechanisms as pressure and temperature increase from shallow to large depths. Although rheological equations for these deformation mechanisms have been determined in laboratory settings, it is necessary to validate them using field observations. Here we present an overview of lithospheric rheology constrained by observations of seismic structure and load-induced flexure. Together with mantle dynamic modeling, rheological equations for high-temperature creep derived from laboratory studies (Hirth and Kohlstedt, 2003; Karato and Jung, 2003) satisfactorily explain the seismic structure of the Pacific upper mantle (Hunen et al., 2005) and Hawaiian swell topography (Asaadi et al., 2011). In a recent study that compared modeled surface flexure and stress induced by volcano loads in the Hawaiian Islands region with the observed flexure and seismicity, Zhong and Watts (2013) showed that the coefficient of friction is between 0.25 and 0.7, and is consistent with laboratory studies and also in-situ borehole measurements. However, this study indicated that the rheological equation for the low-temperature plasticity from laboratory studies (e.g., Mei et al., 2010) significantly over-predicts lithospheric strength and viscosity. Zhong and Watts (2013) also showed that the maximum lithospheric stress beneath Hawaiian volcano loads is about 100-200 MPa, which may be viewed as the largest lithospheric stress in the Earth's lithosphere. We show that the relatively weak lithospheric strength in the low-temperature plasticity regime is consistent with seismic observation of reactivated mantle lithosphere in the western US and the eastern North China. We discuss here the causes

  15. Os, Sr, Nd, and Pb isotope systematics of southern African peridotite xenoliths - Implications for the chemical evolution of subcontinental mantle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, R. J.; Carlson, R. W.; Shirey, S. B.; Boyd, F. R.

    1989-01-01

    Isotope analyses of Os, Sr, Nd, and Pb elements were caried out on twelve peridotite xenoliths from the Jagersfontein, Letseng-la-terae, Thaba Patsoa, Mothae, and Premier kimberlites of southern Africa, to investigate the timing and the nature of melt extraction from the continental lithosphere and its relation to the continent formation and stabilization. The distinct Os and Pb isotopic characteristics found in these samples suggested that both the low- and the high-temperature peridotites reside in an ancient stable lithospheric 'keel' to the craton that has been isolated from chemical exchange with the sublithospheric mantle for time periods in excess of 2 Ga.

  16. Lithospheric buoyancy and continental intraplate stresses

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zoback, M.L.; Mooney, W.D.

    2003-01-01

    Lithospheric buoyancy, the product of lithospheric density and thickness, is an important physical property that influences both the long-term stability of continents and their state of stress. We have determined lithospheric buoyancy by applying the simple isostatic model of Lachenbruch and Morgan (1990). We determine the crustal portion of lithospheric buoyancy using the USGS global database of more than 1700 crustal structure determinations (Mooney et al., 2002), which demonstrates that a simple relationship between crustal thickness and surface elevation does not exist. In fact, major regions of the crust at or near sea level (0-200 m elevation) have crustal thicknesses that vary between 25 and 55 km. Predicted elevations due to the crustal component of buoyancy in the model exceed observed elevations in nearly all cases (97% of the data), consistent with the existence of a cool lithospheric mantle lid that is denser than the asthenosphere on which it floats. The difference between the observed and predicted crustal elevation is assumed to be equal to the decrease in elevation produced by the negative buoyancy of the mantle lid. Mantle lid thickness was first estimated from the mantle buoyancy and a mean lid density computed using a basal crust temperature determined from extrapolation of surface heat flow, assuming a linear thermal gradient in the mantle lid. The resulting values of total lithosphere thickness are in good agreement with thicknesses estimated from seismic data, except beneath cratonic regions where they are only 40-60% of the typical estimates (200-350 km) derived from seismic data. This inconsistency is compatible with petrologic data and tomography and geoid analyses that have suggested that cratonic mantle lids are ??? 1% less dense than mantle lids elsewhere. By lowering the thermally determined mean mantle lid density in cratons by 1%, our model reproduces the observed 200-350+ km cratonic lithospheric thickness. We then computed

  17. Martian lithospheric thickness from elastic flexure theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thurber, C. H.; Toksoz, M. N.

    1978-01-01

    The thickness of the elastic lithosphere in the Tharsis region of Mars is estimated from effects due to the surface load of Olympus Mons. Deformation (vertical displacement) and stress are calculated using elastic flexure theory for a range of possible lithospheric thicknesses (T), modeling the lithosphere as a thin elastic shell and the interior as a Newtonian fluid. For T below 150 km, displacement and stress rise rapidly with decreasing thickness. For T near 100 km, deformation of the region surrounding the volcano would be clearly visible in the topography, and resulting tensional stresses exceeding 5 kbar should produce observable fracturing at the surface. In contrast, for T near 200 km deformation is minimal and the tensional stress, being less than a kilobar, would not result in extensive fracturing. Since significant deformation and fracturing are not observed, it is concluded that the Martian elastic lithosphere is at least 150 km in thickness. Seismic, tectonic, and gravity observations all suggest a thick Martian lithosphere as well.

  18. LIMA U-Pb ages link lithospheric mantle metasomatism to Karoo magmatism beneath the Kimberley region, South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giuliani, Andrea; Phillips, David; Maas, Roland; Woodhead, Jon D.; Kendrick, Mark A.; Greig, Alan; Armstrong, Richard A.; Chew, David; Kamenetsky, Vadim S.; Fiorentini, Marco L.

    2014-09-01

    The Karoo igneous rocks (174-185 Ma) of southern Africa represent one of the largest continental flood basalt provinces on Earth. Available evidence indicates that Karoo magmas either originated in the asthenosphere and were extensively modified by interaction with the lithospheric mantle prior to emplacement in the upper crust; or were produced by partial melting of enriched mantle lithosphere. However, no direct evidence of interaction by Karoo melts (or their precursors) with lithospheric mantle rocks has yet been identified in the suites of mantle xenoliths sampled by post-Karoo kimberlites in southern Africa. Here we report U-Pb ages for lindsleyite-mathiasite (LIMA) titanate minerals (crichtonite series) from three metasomatised, phlogopite and clinopyroxene-rich peridotite xenoliths from the ∼84 Ma Bultfontein kimberlite (Kimberley, South Africa), located in the southern part of the Karoo magmatic province. The LIMA minerals appear to have formed during metasomatism of the lithospheric mantle by fluids enriched in HFSE (Ti, Zr, Hf, Nb), LILE (K, Ba, Ca, Sr) and LREE. LIMA U-Pb elemental and isotopic compositions were measured in situ by LA-ICP-MS methods, and potential matrix effects were evaluated by solution-mode analysis of mineral separates. LIMA minerals from the three samples yielded apparent U-Pb ages of 177±12 Ma, 178±29 Ma and 190±24 Ma (±2σ). A single zircon grain extracted from the ∼190 Ma LIMA-bearing sample produced a similar U-Pb age of 184±6 Ma, within uncertainty of the LIMA ages. These data provide the first robust evidence of fluid enrichment in the lithospheric mantle beneath the Kimberley region at ∼180-190 Ma, and suggest causation of mantle metasomatism by Karoo melts or their precursor(s). The results further indicate that U-Pb dating of LIMA minerals provides a new, accurate tool for dating metasomatic events in the lithospheric mantle.

  19. Lithospheric stress patterns: A global view

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zoback, Mary Lou; Burke, Kevin

    The present-day lithospheric stress state is the result of a variety of forces that act on and within the tectonic plates forming the Iithosphere. Knowledge of this stress state provides important constraints on forces acting at a variety of scales and, hence, helps to solve scientific problems of interest to a wide spectrum of scientists and engineers.Six years of effort by scientists from all over the world (listed at end of article) brought together under the International Lithosphere Program (ILP) of the joint International Union of Geodesy and Geophysics/International Union of Geological Sciences (IUGG/IUGS) Interunion Commission on the Lithosphere culminated in the July 1992 publication of the World Stress Map and nineteen accompanying research papers in a special issue of the Journal of Geophysical Research-Solid Earth (volume 87, number B8). Figure 1 shows a reduced version of the published 1:40,000,000 color map.

  20. Uppermantle anisotropy and the oceanic lithosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, D. L.; Regan, J.

    1983-01-01

    Published Rayleigh and Love wave phase and group velocity data have been inverted taking into account sphericity, anelastic dispersion, and transverse isotropy. For a PREM-type modular parameterization, the thickness of the high velocity mantle seismic lithosphere (LID) varies in thickness from about 30 km for young ocean to about 50 km for old ocean, much less than previous estimates based on isotropic inversion of similar data. This LID thickness is comparable to the elastic or flexural thickness found from studies of seamount loading and flexure at trenches, suggesting that the thickness of the lithosphere may be controlled by mineralogy, composition, or crystal orientation rather than by temperature alone.

  1. Water in the Cratonic Mantle Lithosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peslier, A. H.

    2016-01-01

    The fact that Archean and Proterozoic cratons are underlain by the thickest (>200 km) lithosphere on Earth has always puzzled scientists because the dynamic convection of the surrounding asthenosphere would be expected to delaminate and erode these mantle lithospheric "keels" over time. Although density and temperature of the cratonic lithosphere certainly play a role in its strength and longevity, the role of water has only been recently addressed with data on actual mantle samples. Water in mantle lithologies (primarily peridotites and pyroxenites) is mainly stored in nominally anhydrous minerals (olivine, pyroxene, garnet) where it is incorporated as hydrogen bonded to structural oxygen in lattice defects. The property of hydrolytic weakening of olivine [4] has generated the hypothesis that olivine, the main mineral of the upper mantle, may be dehydrated in cratonic mantle lithospheres, contributing to its strength. This presentation will review the distribution of water concentrations in four cratonic lithospheres. The distribution of water contents in olivine from peridotite xenoliths found in kimberlites is different in each craton (Figure 1). The range of water contents of olivine, pyroxene and garnet at each xenolith location appears linked to local metasomatic events, some of which occurred later then the Archean and Proterozoic when these peridotites initially formed via melting. Although the low olivine water contents (<10 ppm wt H2O) at > 6 GPa at the base of the Kaapvaal cratonic lithosphere may contribute to its strength, and prevent its delamination, the wide range of those from Siberian xenoliths is not compatible with providing a high enough viscosity contrast with the asthenophere. The water content in olivine inclusions from Siberian diamonds, on the other hand, have systematically low water contents (<20 ppm wt H2O). The xenoliths may represent a biased sample of the cratonic lithosphere with an over-­abundance of metasomatized peridotites with

  2. Lithospheric thinning beneath rifted regions of Southern California.

    PubMed

    Lekic, Vedran; French, Scott W; Fischer, Karen M

    2011-11-11

    The stretching and break-up of tectonic plates by rifting control the evolution of continents and oceans, but the processes by which lithosphere deforms and accommodates strain during rifting remain enigmatic. Using scattering of teleseismic shear waves beneath rifted zones and adjacent areas in Southern California, we resolve the lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary and lithospheric thickness variations to directly constrain this deformation. Substantial and laterally abrupt lithospheric thinning beneath rifted regions suggests efficient strain localization. In the Salton Trough, either the mantle lithosphere has experienced more thinning than the crust, or large volumes of new lithosphere have been created. Lack of a systematic offset between surface and deep lithospheric deformation rules out simple shear along throughgoing unidirectional shallow-dipping shear zones, but is consistent with symmetric extension of the lithosphere.

  3. Lithospheric thinning beneath rifted regions of Southern California.

    PubMed

    Lekic, Vedran; French, Scott W; Fischer, Karen M

    2011-11-11

    The stretching and break-up of tectonic plates by rifting control the evolution of continents and oceans, but the processes by which lithosphere deforms and accommodates strain during rifting remain enigmatic. Using scattering of teleseismic shear waves beneath rifted zones and adjacent areas in Southern California, we resolve the lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary and lithospheric thickness variations to directly constrain this deformation. Substantial and laterally abrupt lithospheric thinning beneath rifted regions suggests efficient strain localization. In the Salton Trough, either the mantle lithosphere has experienced more thinning than the crust, or large volumes of new lithosphere have been created. Lack of a systematic offset between surface and deep lithospheric deformation rules out simple shear along throughgoing unidirectional shallow-dipping shear zones, but is consistent with symmetric extension of the lithosphere. PMID:21979933

  4. Lithosphere-Asthenosphere boundary from a petrological perspective: Results form the Basin and Range, Western USA (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gazel, E.; Plank, T.; Rau, C. J.; Forsyth, D. W.

    2010-12-01

    The lithosphere is the strong lid at the surface of the earth that defines the different tectonic plates and consists of the crust and rigid uppermost-mantle that moves on top of the viscous asthenospheric mantle. Magmas carry in their chemical codes the conditions of their mantle origin, and can be powerful tools for constraining the location of the LAB. Isotopic and trace element data are the traditional means by which magmas are ascribed to sub-continental lithospheric vs. asthenospheric sources, despite the fact that these tools provide no information on the depths or temperatures of melting. The causes of mantle melting and widespread mafic volcanism across the Basin and Range (B&R), Western USA, over the past 10 Ma is still debated. Lithospheric extension, mantle hydration, and local convective upwellings are different possible mechanisms. Constraining mantle temperature, compositional structure, and the relationship to the continental lithosphere are key to understanding the conditions of melt generation. Quantitative information is now becoming available due to improved mantle-melt thermobarometers, and our new data on the water content and oxidation state (fO2) of magmas in the B&R. Our work focuses on modeled primary magmas calibrated with data from undegassed melt inclusions trapped in olivine from young cinders. Preliminary work reveals large variations in melting conditions across the region, from cool (< 1300°C) and shallow (40-50 km) melting beneath in the west volcanic fields (e.g., Big Pine, CA) to higher temperatures (~1450°C) and deeper melting (80-100km) in the east volcanic fields (e.g., Hurricane, UT). These melting pressures are interpreted as the final melting pressures and coincide with a boundary at the top of the low velocity region in recent surface wave models using EarthScope data. Recent work on Big Pine lavas suggests that the depth of melting relates to the trace element composition of the magmas (e.g., Ce/Pb). Deeper melts have

  5. Global lithospheric imaging using teleseismic receiver functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rondenay, S.; Spieker, K.; Halpaap, F.; Farestveit, M.; Sawade, L.; Zijerveld, L.

    2015-12-01

    Project GLImER (Global Lithospheric Imagining using Earthquake Recordings) aims to conduct a global survey of lithospheric interfaces using converted teleseismic body waves. Data from permanent and temporary seismic networks worldwide will be processed automatically to produce global maps of key interfaces (Moho, intra-lithospheric interfaces, lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary). In this presentation, we discuss the challenges associated with automating the analysis of converted waves and the potential of the resulting data products to be used in novel imaging approaches. With regards to automation, we address in particular the search for an optimal deconvolution method in receiver function analysis. To do so, we carry out a systematic comparison of various commonly used deconvolution methods and find that all methods produce equally robust receiver functions provided that a suitable regularization parameter is found. We further note that a suitable regularization can be found objectively for most approaches, thus challenging the belief that only time-domain deconvolution is a viable option for receiver function automation. With regards to imaging applications, we investigate how the resulting global database of receiver functions will be amenable to existing processing approaches as well as new approaches adapted from seismic exploration, including industry-based interpretation tools.

  6. Variations in lithospheric thickness on Venus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, C. L.; Sandwell, David T.

    1992-01-01

    Recent analyses of Magellan data have indicated many regions exhibiting topograhic flexure. On Venus, flexure is associated predominantly with coronae and the chasmata with Aphrodite Terra. Modeling of these flexural signatures allows the elastic and mechanical thickness of the lithosphere to be estimated. In areas where the lithosphere is flexed beyond its elastic limit the saturation moment provides information on the strength of the lithosphere. Modeling of 12 flexural features on Venus has indicated lithospheric thicknesses comparable with terrestrial values. This has important implications for the venusian heat budget. Flexure of a thin elastic plate due simultaneously to a line load on a continuous plate and a bending moment applied to the end of a broken plate is considered. The mean radius and regional topographic gradient are also included in the model. Features with a large radius of curvature were selected so that a two-dimensional approximation could be used. Comparisons with an axisymmetric model were made for some features to check the validity of the two-dimensional assumption. The best-fit elastic thickness was found for each profile crossing a given flexural feature. In addition, the surface stress and bending moment at the first zero crossing of each profile were also calculated. Flexural amplitudes and elastic thicknesses obtained for 12 features vary significantly. Three examples of the model fitting procedures are discussed.

  7. Imaging Lithospheric Structure beneath the Indian continent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maurya, S.; Montagner, J. P.; Mangalampally, R. K.; Stutzmann, E.; Burgos, G.; Kumar, P.; Davuluri, S.

    2015-12-01

    The lithospheric structure and thickness to the LAB are the most debated issues, especially beneath continents. In this context, the structure and thickness of the Indian lithosphere has been controversial. Paleomagnetic data reveals that the Indian continent moved northwards at exceptionally high speeds (18-20 cm/year) and subsequently slowed down to 4-5 cm/year after its collision with Asia ≈40 Myr ago. This super mobility has been explained by an unusually thin Indian lithosphere (≈100 km; Kumar et al., 2007) in contradiction with the thick lithosphere that commonly underlies old cratonic nuclei. It is pertinent to note that the thermobarometric estimates on the ultramafic xenoliths from 65 Myr kimberlites of the Central India (Babu et al. 2009) suggest an approximately 175 km thick lithosphere. Also, recent results of P and S wave travel time tomography of India suggest that the lithospheric roots are not uniformly thick on a regional scale. Although high velocity roots typical of Precambrian shields are preserved beneath a few cratons of the Indian shield, they seem to have suffered attrition, in the plume ravaged regions like the NDVP and the Southern SGT (Singh et al., 2014). We assembled a new massive surface wave database towards obtaining 3D isotropic and anisotropic models for the Indian sub-continent, using surface waves. This necessitated processing of data from more than 500 seismic broadband stations across India and surrounding regions. Surface waves group and phase dispersion measurements are performed in a broad frequency range (16-250s). Our phase velocity anomaly maps recover most of the known geological structures. The cratons are associated with high velocity (4-6%) anomalies till 200 sec, with the WDC being faster than the EDC. Slow velocities in NW India and very high velocity anomalies (6-8%) beneath the central part of the Indo-Gangetic plains are possibly associated with the subducting Indian lithosphere. The LAB depths inferred from

  8. Magnetic mineralogy of the Mercurian lithosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strauss, Becky; Feinberg, Joshua; Johnson, Catherine

    2016-04-01

    Mercury and Earth are the only inner solar system planets with present-day core-dynamo magnetic fields, in contrast to the past fields of Mars and the Moon and the absence of evidence for a past or present field at Venus. Recently, the MESSENGER mission also measured magnetic fields from lithospheric magnetization on Mercury for the first time. These fields are consistent with remanent magnetization held by rocks exposed to an ancient, internally generated planetary magnetic field. However, the conditions for magnetization in the lithosphere of Mercury are unique among terrestrial planets, and the mechanisms for the acquisition (induced versus remanent) and alteration of magnetization are still unknown. We investigate the physical and chemical environment of Mercury's crust, past and present, to establish the conditions in which magnetization may have been acquired and subsequently modified. Three factors are particularly crucial to the determination of crustal composition and iron mineralogy: the temperature profile of the lithosphere and its evolution over time, redox conditions in the planet's crust and mantle, and the iron content of the lithosphere. We explore potential mechanisms for remanence acquisition and alteration on Mercury, whose surface environment is distinct from that of other inner solar system planets in that it is both very hot and highly reducing. The long-term thermal history of Mercury's crust plays an important role in the longevity of any crustal magnetization, which may be subject to remagnetization through thermal, viscous, and shock mechanisms. This thermal and compositional framework isused to constrain plausible candidate magnetic mineralogies, which can then be analyzed in terms of their capacity to acquire and retain magnetic remanence that is detectable from satellite orbit. We propose a suite of minerals and materials that could be carriers of remanence in the lithosphere of Mercury, including iron alloys, silicides, and sulfides.

  9. Estimating lithospheric properties at Atla Regio, Venus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phillips, Roger J.

    1994-01-01

    Magellan spehrical harmonic gravity and topography models are used to estimate lithospheric properties at Alta Regio, Venus, a proposed hotspot with dynamic support from mantle plume(s). Global spherical harmonic and local representations of the gravity field share common properties in the Atla region interms of their spectral behavior over a wavelength band from approximately 2100 to approximately 700 km. The estimated free-air admittance spectrum displays a rather featureless long-wavelength portion followed by a sharp rise at wavelengths shorter than about 1000 km. This sharp rise requires significant flexural support of short-wavelength structures. The Bouguer coherence also displays a sharp drop in this wavelength band, indicating a finite flexural rigidity of the lithosphere. A simple model for lithospheric loading from above and below is introduced (D. W. Forsyth, 1985) with four parameters: f, the ratio of bottom loading to top loading; z(sub m), crustal thickness; z(sub l) depth to bottom loading source; and T(sub e) elastic lithosphere thickness. A dual-mode compensation model is introduced in which the shorter wavelengths (lambda approximately less than 1000 km) might be explained best by a predominance of top loading by the large shield volcanoes Maat Mons, Ozza Mons, and Sapas Mons, and the longer wavelengths (lambda approximately greater than 1500 km) might be explained best by a deep depth of compensation, possibly representing bottom loading by a dynamic source. A Monte Carlo inversion technique is introduced to thoroughly search out the four-space of the model parameters and to examine parameter correlation in the solutions. Venus either is a considerabe deficient in heat sources relative to Earth, or the thermal lithosphere is overthickened in response to an earlier episode of significant heat loss from the planet.

  10. A composite, isotopically-depleted peridotite and enriched pyroxenite source for Madeira magmas: Insights from olivine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gurenko, Andrey A.; Geldmacher, Jörg; Hoernle, Kaj A.; Sobolev, Alexander V.

    2013-06-01

    relatively young (< 1 Ga) recycled oceanic crust. The isotopically depleted, DMM-like (peridotitic) component sampled by the younger post-erosional stage magmas is thought to reflect the ultramafic portion of the recycled oceanic lithosphere, whereas the HIMU-type pyroxenite of similar age to the peridotite is derived from recycled oceanic crust. Combining our new results with the data from the Canary hotspot, we conclude that the < 1 Ga recycled crustal component is common to both plume sources. The Canary volcanism also reflects the presence of older (> 1 Ga) recycled crust and a contribution from African subcontinental lithosphere.

  11. Asthenosphere versus lithosphere as possible sources for basaltic magmas erupted during formation of the Red Sea: constraints from Sr, Pb and Nd isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altherr, Rainer; Henjes-Kunst, Friedhelm; Baumann, Albrecht

    1990-01-01

    Representative basalts from the axial trough of the Red Sea and from volcanic fields of the Arabian Peninsula ranging in composition from N-type MORB to basanite and in age from Early Miocene to Recent show a limited variation in their isotopic compositions: 87Sr/ 86Sr= 0.70240-0.70361 , 206Pb/ 204Pb= 18.040-19.634 , 207Pb/ 204Pb= 15.496-15.666 , 208Pb/ 204Pb= 37.808-39.710 , 143Nd/ 144Nd= 0.513194-0.512670 . There is a poorly constrained correlation between chemical composition and isotope ratios: with increasing alkalinity, Sr and Pb isotope ratios increase and the Nd isotope ratio tends to decrease. In Pb isotope variation diagrams most of the basalts plot significantly above the NHRLs, irrespective of tectonic setting, i.e. thickness of underlying crust and/or lithosphere. MORBs from the axial trough of the Red Sea have higher Pb isotope ratios for a given 87Sr/ 86Sr than MORBs from the Indian Ocean ridges, including the Carlsberg Ridge. It is therefore suggested that both spreading ridges tap different convective systems in the asthenosphere. The tectonic setting of the basalts is reflected in their Nd sbnd Sr isotope characteristics. Basalts from areas where the continental lithosphere is drastically thinned or absent (i.e. Red Sea axial trough and coastal plain, Afar) plot along a reference line defined by N-type MORB and Tristan da Cunha. Basalts erupted in areas with Pan-African crust of normal thickness and moderately thinned lithospheric mantle (i.e. rift shoulder) are characterized by relative low 143Nd/ 144Nd ratios and plot below the reference line towards an EM I component which is also found in the subcontinental lithospheric mantle. These differences in the Nd sbnd Sr isotopic compositions of the basalts are independent of bulk-rock chemistry and are therefore controlled by tectonic setting alone. It is suggested that the low- 143Nd/ 144Nd trend of basalts from the Arabian rift shoulder is caused by a significant contribution of the pre

  12. Electrical conductivity in the precambrian lithosphere of western canada

    PubMed

    Boerner; Kurtz; Craven; Ross; Jones; Davis

    1999-01-29

    The subcrustal lithosphere underlying the southern Archean Churchill Province (ACP) in western Canada is at least one order of magnitude more electrically conductive than the lithosphere beneath adjacent Paleoproterozoic crust. The measured electrical properties of the lithosphere underlying most of the Paleoproterozoic crust can be explained by the conductivity of olivine. Mantle xenolith and geological mapping evidence indicate that the lithosphere beneath the southern ACP was substantially modified as a result of being trapped between two nearly synchronous Paleoproterozoic subduction zones. Tectonically induced metasomatism thus may have enhanced the subcrustal lithosphere conductivity of the southern ACP.

  13. Carbonatite melt-peridotite interaction at 5.5-7.0 GPa: Implications for metasomatism in lithospheric mantle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sokol, Alexander G.; Kruk, Alexey N.; Chebotarev, Dimity A.; Palyanov, Yury N.

    2016-04-01

    Interaction between carbonatite melt and peridotite is studied experimentally by melting samples of interlayered peridotite-carbonatite-peridotite in graphite containers at 1200-1350 °C and 5.5-7.0 GPa in a split-sphere multianvil apparatus. Starting compositions are lherzolite and harzburgite, as well as carbonatite which may form in the upper part of a slab or in a plume-related source. Most experimental runs were of 150 h duration in order for equilibrium to be achieved. The interaction produced carbonatitic melts with low SiO2 (≤ 7 wt.%) and high alkalis. At 1200 °C, melt-peridotite interaction occurs through Mg-Ca exchange, resulting in elimination of orthopyroxene and crystallization of magnesite and clinopyroxene. At 1350 °C hybridization of the carbonatite and magnesite-bearing peridotite melts occurred with consumption of clinopyroxene and magnesite, and crystallization of orthopyroxene at MgO/CaO ≥ 4.3. The resulting peridotite-saturated melt has Ca# (37-50) depending on primary carbonatite composition. Compositions of silicate phases are similar to those of high-temperature peridotite but are different from megacrysts in kimberlites. CaO and Cr2O3 changes in garnet produced from the melt-harzburgite interaction at 1200 and 1350 °C perfectly match the observed trend in garnet from metasomatized peridotite of the Siberian subcontinental lithospheric mantle. K-rich carbonatite melts equilibrated with peridotite at 5.5-7.0 GPa and 1200-1350 °C correspond to high-Mg inclusions in fibrous diamond. Carbonatite melt is a weak solvent of entrained xenoliths and therefore cannot produce kimberlitic magma if temperatures are ~ 1350 °C on separation from the lithospheric peridotite source and ~ 1000 °C on eruption.

  14. Thin and layered subcontinental crust of the great Basin western north America inherited from Paleozoic marginal ocean basins?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Churkin, M.; McKee, E.H.

    1974-01-01

    The seismic profile of the crust of the northern part of the Basin and Range province by its thinness and layering is intermediate between typical continental and oceanic crust and resembles that of marginal ocean basins, especially those with thick sedimentary fill. The geologic history of the Great Basin indicates that it was the site of a succession of marginal ocean basins opening and closing behind volcanic arcs during much of Paleozoic time. A long process of sedimentation and deformation followed throughout the Mesozoic modifying, but possibly not completely transforming the originally oceanic crust to continental crust. In the Cenozoic, after at least 40 m.y. of quiescence and stable conditions, substantial crustal and upper-mantle changes are recorded by elevation of the entire region in isostatic equilibrium, crustal extension resulting in Basin and Range faulting, extensive volcanism, high heat flow and a low-velocity mantle. These phenomena, apparently the result of plate tectonics, are superimposed on the inherited subcontinental crust that developed from an oceanic origin in Paleozoic time and possibly retained some of its thin and layered characteristics. The present anomalous crust in the Great Basin represents an accretion of oceanic geosynclinal material to a Precambrian continental nucleus apparently as an intermediate step in the process of conversion of oceanic crust into a stable continental landmass or craton. ?? 1974.

  15. Simulating temperature-dependent ecological processes at the sub-continental scale: male gypsy moth flight phenology as an example

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Régnière, J.; Sharov, Alexei

    We simulated male gypsy moth flight phenology for the location of 1371 weather stations east of 100° W longitude and north of 35° N latitude in North America. The output of these simulations, based on average weather conditions from 1961 to 1990, was submitted to two map-interpolation methods: multiple regression and universal kriging. Multiple regression was found to be as accurate as universal kriging and demands less computing power. A map of the date of peak male gypsy moth flight was generated by universal kriging. This map itself constitutes a useful pest-management planning tool; in addition, the map delineates the potential range of the gypsy moth based on its seasonality at the northern edge of its current distribution in eastern North America. The simulation and map-interpolation methods described in this paper thus constitute an interesting approach to the study and monitoring of the ecological impacts of climate change and shifts in land-use patterns at the sub-continental level.

  16. Geochemistry of peridotite xenoliths in basalt from Hannuoba, eastern China: Implications for subcontinental mantle heterogeneity

    SciTech Connect

    Yan Song; Frey, F.A. )

    1989-01-01

    Based on geochemical studies of six anhydrous spinel peridotite xenoliths in basanite, the upper mantle beneath Hannuoba, eastern China is compositionally heterogeneous. These samples range in Sr and Nd isotopic ratios from MORB-like to near bulk-earth estimates. The low {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr and high {sup 143}Nd/{sup 144}Nd samples contain the largest amount of a basaltic component, but they are relatively depleted in light rare earth elements compared to chondrites. Other samples have U-shaped chondrite-normalized REE patterns. Trace element and radiogenic isotopic data require enrichment processes acting on depleted mantle. Constraints on these processes are: (a) inverse correlations between basaltic constituents, such as CaO and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, and La/Sm; and, (b) samples most depleted in CaO and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} have the highest {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr and lowest {sup 143}Nd/{sup 144}Nd. These trends can be explained by a model whereby garnet peridotite zoned in isotopic composition undergoes partial melting. Because of a gradient in degree of melting, e.g., from the wall-rock contact to hotter interior, or as a function of depth in a diapir, melts initially segregate from regions where the degree of melting is high. Subsequently, the recently created residues are infiltrated by slower segregating incipient melts. Preferential mixing of these incipient melts with residues from high degrees of melting can explain the observed complex geochemical trends seen in Hannuoba and many other peridotite xenolith suites. Clinopyroxene-rich veins in some of the peridotites may reflect pathways of ascending melt.

  17. On the nature and origin of highly-refractory Archean lithosphere: Petrological and geophysical constraints from the Tanzanian craton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibson, S. A.; McMahon, S. C.; Day, J. A.; Dawson, J. B.

    2012-12-01

    The nature and timescales of garnet formation are important to understanding how subcontinental lithospheric mantle (SCLM) has evolved since the Archean, and also to mantle dynamics, because the presence of garnet greatly influences the density of the lower lithosphere and hence the long-term stability of thick (150 to 220 km) subcratonic lithosphere. Nevertheless, the widespread occurrence of garnet in the SCLM remains one of the 'holy grails' of mantle petrology. Garnets found in mantle xenoliths from the eastern margin of the Tanzanian Craton (Lashaine) have diverse compositions and provide major constraints on how the underlying deep (120 to 160 km) mantle evolved during the last 3 billion years. Certain harzburgite members of the xenolith suite contain the first reported occurrence of pyrope garnets with rare-earth element patterns similar to hypothetical garnets proposed to have formed in the Earth's SCLM during the Archean, prior to metasomatism [Stachel et al., 2004]. These rare ultradepleted low-Cr garnets occur in low temperature (~1050 oC) xenoliths derived from depths of ~120 km and coexist in chemical and textural equilibrium with highly-refractory olivine (Fo95.4) and orthopyroxene (Mg#=96.4). These phases are all more magnesian than generally encountered in global mantle harzburgites and diamond inclusions. The ultradepleted garnets form interconnecting networks around grains of orthopyroxene which give the rocks a banded appearance: we propose that the increase in pressure associated with cratonization may have caused isochemical exsolution of ultradepleted garnet from orthopyroxene. These unique garnets have not previously been identified in global suites of mantle xenoliths or diamond inclusions. We believe they are rare because their low concentrations of trace elements make them readily susceptible to geochemical overprinting. This highly-refractory low-density peridotite may be common in the 'shallow' SCLM but not normally brought to the

  18. Rapid Cenozoic ingrowth of isotopic signatures simulating "HIMU" in ancient lithospheric mantle: Distinguishing source from process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCoy-West, Alex J.; Bennett, Vickie C.; Amelin, Yuri

    2016-08-01

    Chemical and isotopic heterogeneities in the lithospheric mantle are increasingly being recognised on all scales of examination, although the mechanisms responsible for generating this variability are still poorly understood. To investigate the relative behaviour of different isotopic systems in off-cratonic mantle, and specifically the origin of the regional southwest Pacific "HIMU" (high time integrated 238U/204Pb) Pb isotopic signature, we present the first U-Th-Pb, Rb-Sr, Sm-Nd and Re-Os isotopic dataset for spinel peridotite xenoliths sampling the subcontinental lithospheric mantle (SCLM) beneath Zealandia. Strongly metasomatised xenoliths converge to a restricted range of Sr and Nd isotopic compositions (87Sr/86Sr = 0.7028-0.7033; εNd ≈ +3-+6) reflecting pervasive overprinting of their original melt depletion signatures by carbonatite-rich melts. In contrast, rare, weakly metasomatised samples possess radiogenic Nd isotopic compositions (εNd > +15) and unradiogenic Sr isotopic compositions (87Sr/86Sr < 0.7022). This is consistent with melt extraction at ca. 2.0 Ga and in accord with widespread Paleoproterozoic Re-Os model ages from both weakly metasomatised and the more numerous, strongly metasomatised xenoliths. The coupling of chalcophile (Os), and lithophile (Sr and Nd) melt depletion ages from peridotite xenoliths on a regional scale under Zealandia argues for preservation of a significant mantle keel (⩾2 million km3) associated with a large-scale Paleoproterozoic melting event. Lead isotopic compositions are highly variable with 206Pb/204Pb = 17.3-21.3 (n = 34) and two further samples with more extreme compositions of 22.4 and 25.4, but are not correlated with other isotopic data or U/Pb and Th/Pb ratios in either strongly or weakly metasomatised xenoliths; this signature is thus a recent addition to the lithospheric mantle. Lead model ages suggest that this metasomatism occurred in the last 200 m.y., with errorchrons from individual localities

  19. International lithosphere program - Exploiting the geodynamics revolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flinn, E. A.

    1984-01-01

    After presenting a development history of the application of spacecraft technology in the field of earth dynamics, which encompasses the measurement of the motion and the large scale deformation of the tectonic plates as well as the monitoring of earth's gravity and magnetic fields, attention is given to the International Lithosphere Program (ILP). ILP studies the dynamics and evolution of the lithosphere, with a view to earth resources identification and geological hazard reduction. Among the major problems being addressed is the mechanism by which magmas are generated, extruded, and intruded, at convergent and divergent plate boundaries and within plates. By contrast to current understanding of rifting, almost nothing is known about how the process of subduction begins. The methods used to measure tectonic plate phenomena are: laser ranging to both the moon and man-made satellites, and VLBI.

  20. Flexural deformation of the continental lithosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    Prior work focused primarily on the Adriatic and northern Ionian regions. The results of these studies have been summarized previously, and so are only briefly discussed. More recent work focuses on two different topics: (1) analysis of foredeep basin geometry, sedimentary style, and thrust belt structure in light of the kinematics at the associated plate boundary and subduction zone dynamics; and (2) the evolution and plate strength of early Proterozoic lithosphere.

  1. Flexure and rheology of Pacific oceanic lithosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hunter, Johnny; Watts, Tony

    2016-04-01

    The idea of a rigid lithosphere that supports loads through flexural isostasy was first postulated in the late 19th century. Since then, there has been much effort to investigate the spatial and temporal variation of the lithosphere's flexural rigidity, and to understand how these variations are linked to its rheology. We have used flexural modelling to first re-assess the variation in the rigidity of oceanic lithosphere with its age at the time of loading, and then to constrain mantle rheology by testing the predictions of laboratory-derived flow laws. A broken elastic plate model was used to model trench-normal, ensemble-averaged profiles of satellite-derived gravity at the trench-outer rise system of circum-Pacific subduction zones, where an inverse procedure was used to find the best-fit Te and loading conditions. The results show a first-order increase in Te with plate age, which is best fit by the depth to the 400 ± 35°C plate-cooling isotherm. Fits to the observed gravity are significantly improved by an elastic plate that weakens landward of the outer rise, which suggests that bending-induced plate weakening is a ubiquitous feature of circum-Pacific subduction zones. Two methods were used to constrain mantle rheology. In the first, the Te derived by modelling flexural observations was compared to the Te predicted by laboratory-derived yield strength envelopes. In the second, flexural observations were modelled using elastic-plastic plates with laboratory-derived, depth-dependent yield strength. The results show that flow laws for low-temperature plasticity of dry olivine provide a good fit to the observations at circum-Pacific subduction zones, but are much too strong to fit observations of flexure in the Hawaiian Islands region. We suggest that this discrepancy can be explained by differences in the timescale of loading combined with moderate thermal rejuvenation of the Hawaiian lithosphere.

  2. Adakites from collision-modified lithosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haschke, M.; Ben-Avraham, Z.

    2005-08-01

    Adakitic melts from Papua New Guinea (PNG) show adakitic geochemical characteristics, yet their geodynamic context is unclear. Modern adakites are associated with hot-slab melting and/or remelting of orogenic mafic underplate at convergent margins. Rift-propagation over collision-modified lithosphere may explain the PNG adakite enigma, as PNG was influenced by rapid creation and subduction of oceanic microplates since Mesozoic times. In a new (rift) tectonic regime, decompressional rift melts encountered and melted remnant mafic eclogite and/or garnet-amphibolite slab fragments in arc collisional-modified mantle, and partially equilibrated with metasomatized mantle. Alternatively, hot-slab melting in a proposed newborn subduction zone along the Trobriand Trough could generate adakitic melts, but recent seismic P-wave tomographic models lack evidence for subducting oceanic lithosphere in the adakite melt region; however they do show deep subduction zone remnants as a number of high P-wave anomalies at lithospheric depths, which supports our proposed scenario.

  3. The anomalous lithium isotopic signature of Himalayan collisional zone carbonatites in western Sichuan, SW China: Enriched mantle source and petrogenesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Shihong; Hou, Zengqian; Su, Aina; Qiu, Lin; Mo, Xuanxue; Hou, Kejun; Zhao, Yue; Hu, Wenjie; Yang, Zhusen

    2015-06-01

    Lithium concentrations and isotopic compositions of 38 carbonatites and associated syenites from the Maoniuping, Lizhuang, and Dalucao in western Sichuan, along with previously published and new Pb-Sr-Nd-C-O isotope data and whole-rock analyses, are used to constrain their mantle source and genesis. Carbonatites and syenites are characterized by extremely varying Li concentrations (0.8-120 ppm) and highly variable Li isotopic compositions (-4.5‰ to +10.8‰). Among them, the majority of the carbonatites and syenites have δ7Li values between +0.2‰ and +5.8‰, which overlap with the reported values for MORB and OIB; 3 carbonatites have higher δ7Li values between +8.7‰ and +10.8‰; 5 carbonatites and 4 syenites have lighter δ7Li values between -4.5‰ and -0.3‰. These highly variable δ7Li compositions could not have been produced by diffusive-driven isotopic fractionation of Li and thus may record the isotopic signature of the late Proterozoic subcontinental lithospheric mantle (SCLM). This paper demonstrates the existence of anomalous δ7Li within the late Proterozoic subcontinental lithospheric mantle, suggesting that the ancient SCLM beneath western Sichuan was modified by interaction with fluids derived from the subducted oceanic crust and marine sediments. The modeling curves of fluids derived from a dehydrated slab (ratios: AOC80-SED20 to AOC40-SED60) with a representative mantle composition can account for the majority of lithium compositional variations. Some samples with unusual Pb-Sr-Nd-O isotopic compositions and highly variable δ7Li compositions are affected by significant involvement of marine sediments in their source region, not contaminated by crustal materials. The carbonatites and syenites in western Sichuan were generated by the partial melting of subcontinental lithospheric mantle, which was metasomatized by the Li-rich fluids derived from the subducted oceanic crust and marine sediments. This melting was most likely triggered by a

  4. Lithospheric Thickness Modeled from Long Period Surface Wave Dispersion

    SciTech Connect

    Pasyanos, M E

    2008-05-15

    The behavior of surface waves at long periods is indicative of subcrustal velocity structure. Using recently published dispersion models, we invert surface wave group velocities for lithospheric structure, including lithospheric thickness, over much of the Eastern Hemisphere, encompassing Eurasia, Africa, and the Indian Ocean. Thicker lithosphere under Precambrian shields and platforms are clearly observed, not only under the large cratons (West Africa, Congo, Baltic, Russia, Siberia, India), but also under smaller blocks like the Tarim Basin and Yangtze craton. In contrast, it is found that remobilized Precambrian structures like the Saharan Shield and Sino-Korean Paraplatform do not have well-established lithospheric keels. The thinnest lithospheric thickness is found under oceanic and continental rifts, as well as along convergence zones. We compare our results to thermal models of continental lithosphere, lithospheric cooling models of oceanic lithosphere, lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary (LAB) estimates from S-wave receiver functions, and velocity variations of global tomography models. In addition to comparing results for the broad region, we examine in detail the regions of Central Africa, Siberia, and Tibet. While there are clear differences in the various estimates, overall the results are generally consistent. Inconsistencies between the estimates may be due to a variety of reasons including lateral and depth resolution differences and the comparison of what may be different lithospheric features.

  5. The chemical evolution of oceanic and continental lithosphere: Case studies in the US Cordillera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jean, Marlon Mauricio

    Investigations into ophiolite from California demonstrated that these ultramafic rocks formed within the mantle wedge of a subduction zone. Fore-arc locales are dominated by highly refractory peridotite, formed by hydrous-fractional partial melting that began in the garnet stability field and ended in the spinel stability field. These ophiolites also displayed enriched fluid-mobile element concentrations. Based on melt models, these elements should have extremely low concentrations, yet all pyroxenes display enriched compositions. A new algorithm was derived to model this fluid enrichment process, which represents the total addition of material to the mantle wedge source region and can be applied to any refractory mantle peridotite that has been modified by melt extraction and/or metasomatism. Investigations into the interaction of a mantle plume with continental lithosphere demonstrated that Yellowstone-Snake River Plain olivine tholeiites are compatible with genesis from a deep-seated mantle plume and were modeled via mixing of three components. The variable age, thickness, and composition of North American lithosphere guide this process. Drill core near Twin Falls, ID was examined to assess (1) the chemical evolution of olivine tholeiite, (2) how basalt evolves in continental settings, and (3) the dominant fractionation process, e.g., fractional crystallization, Raleigh fractional crystallization, or assimilation fractional crystallization.

  6. Integrative Analysis of Mantle Lithosphere Rheology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirth, G.; Collins, J. A.; Molnar, P. H.; Kelemen, P. B.

    2014-12-01

    We will present an analysis of the rheology of mantle lithosphere based on extrapolation of lab-based flow laws, microstructural characterization of mantle shear zones and xenoliths, and the spatial distribution of mantle earthquakes and seismic anisotropy. As a starting point, we illustrate the similarity in the evolution of olivine lattice preferred orientation (LPO) for cm-scale lab samples (e.g., Zhang et al., 2000) and 100 meter-scale shear zones (e.g., Warren et al., 2008; Skemer et al., 2010). This correlation provides strong support for the extrapolation of lab data in both time and scale. The extrapolation of these results to plate-scale processes is supported by the analysis of shear wave splitting across the Alpine Fault on the South Island of New Zealand and its surrounding ocean basins (Zietlow et al., 2014). For the same region, the similarity in the fast Pn azimuth with the fast shear wave polarization directions indicates high strain deformation of relatively cold (~500-700oC) mantle lithosphere across a region 100-200 km wide (Collins and Molnar, 2014). This latter observation suggests that the lithosphere is significantly weaker than predicted by the extrapolation of dislocation creep or Peierls creep flow laws. Weakening via promotion of grain size sensitive creep mechanisms (diffusion creep and DisGBS) is likely at these conditions; however, studies of exhumed mantle shear zones generally indicate that the activation of these processes leads to strain localization at scales <<200 km. These observations motivate us to consider rheological constraints derived from geodetic studies and earthquake depths in regions where deformation of the lithosphere occurs at similar conditions. At face value, these data provide additional support for the extrapolation of lab data; the depth extent of earthquakes is consistent with estimates for the conditions where a transition from stable to unstable frictional sliding occurs (e.g., Boettcher et al., 2007) - and

  7. LAB and other lithospheric discontinuities below Cratons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sodoudi, Forough

    2013-04-01

    Cratons are extremely stable continental areas of the Earth's crust, which have been formed and remained largely unchanged since Precambrian. However, their formation and how they survived destruction over billions of years remains a subject of debate. Seismic properties of the cratonic lithosphere reflect its composition and physical state and obtain basic constraints on processes of the formation and evolution of continents. Insight on these issues may be gained by determining the depth and the nature of the Lithosphere-Asthenosphere Boundary (LAB), which is a necessary element of the plate tectonic theory. However, It has proved quite "elusive" beneath the oldest continental areas. What is missing to date is a consensus on the feature that would correspond to the LAB and whether such a feature exists everywhere beneath cratons. The relatively recently developed S receiver function technique employing S-to-P conversions appears promising for detecting the LAB with a sufficiently high resolution and density. A growing number of regional observations obtained from S receiver function studies has detected discontinuities characterized by a significant negative velocity contrast in the upper mantle. However, challenges still remain in detecting the S-to-P conversions from the LAB beneath the Precambrian cratons. Some recent SRF studies observed a deep (> 160 km) negative velocity contrast beneath cratons and interpreted it as the LAB. For example, a deep LAB at about 250 km was reported beneath the Kalahari craton by different authors. Similar results were also obtained beneath some parts of the Canadian shield, East European Craton, Australia, the Arabian Shield and Tanzania craton. In contrast, other SRF studies found no evidence for negative discontinuities at these depths in the North American craton, in Kalahari craton or in Australia. Instead they revealed a very sharp negative velocity gradient at much shallower depth (60-150 km), leading some authors to infer

  8. Geochemical Evolution of Cratonic Lithospheric Mantle: A 3.6 Ga Story of Persistence and Transformation (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Reilly, S. Y.; Griffin, W. L.; Pearson, N. J.

    2013-12-01

    of this Mg-rich ancient SCLM relative to the asthenosphere, results in the persistence today of low-density, rheologically coherent Archean domains (including relict blobs in rifted ocean basins and commonly, preservation of old crustal domains (the 'life-raft' model)). Secondly, the enduring (and volumetrically dominating) Archean lithospheric mantle domains represent a reservoir for metasomatic enrichment over their 3.5 billion year history, creating a potentially metallogenicalally ly fertile mantle impregnated with critical elements (e.g. Au, Cu, Ni? and platinum group elements). Thirdly, the formation of Archean cratons provided an architectural lithospheric mantle-scape of regions with contrasting rheology, composition and depth penetration. The cohesive Archean domains control magma and fluid pathways around their margins, and may act as both sinks and sources for element exchange; they may explain the occurrence of basaltic magmas with the geochemical signatures of ancient lithospheric components.

  9. Origin and Distribution of Water Contents in Continental and Oceanic Lithospheric Mantle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peslier, Anne H.

    2013-01-01

    The water content distribution of the upper mantle will be reviewed as based on the peridotite record. The amount of water in cratonic xenoliths appears controlled by metasomatism while that of the oceanic mantle retains in part the signature of melting events. In both cases, the water distribution is heterogeneous both with depth and laterally, depending on localized water re-enrichments next to melt/fluid channels. The consequence of the water distribution on the rheology of the upper mantle and the location of the lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary will also be discussed.

  10. New Elemental and Isotopic Data From Mafic Lavas on the Puna Plateau and Re-Examining the Geochemical Signature of Convective Lithospheric Removal in the Central Andes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murray, K. E.; Ducea, M. N.; Reiners, P. W.

    2009-12-01

    Foundering or delamination of the lower lithosphere into the convecting mantle is required by mass balance in convergent orogens such as the central Andes. In the central Andean volcanic zone (CVZ), late Miocene to Recent mafic lavas erupted on the Puna plateau are small volume fissure flows and cinder cones classically cited as evidence of convective lithospheric removal, in concert with a suite of observations including high surface elevation (>4000m) and anomalously thin lithosphere relative to other parts of the CVZ. Mafic lavas provide the best available geochemical window into the recent history of the upper mantle in this and other regions. However, an increasing number of elemental and isotopic data suggest that these melts are less distinct from the neighboring arc magmatism than originally predicted. This observation weakens the hypothesis that there is a distinct geochemical fingerprint for so-called delamination magmatism, while advancing our understanding of the size of delaminating bodies and the timescales over which they detach from the lithosphere and interact with the mantle wedge. In this contribution, we present elemental and radiogenic isotopic data from 20 newly sampled mafic lavas from the Puna plateau (24.5°S to 27°S). Preliminary major element analyses show that the Puna lavas are high-K to shoshonitic in composition, in broad agreement with other mafic lavas sampled though out the region. Several sampled flows contain xenotliths of granitoid composition, which likely represent the crustal end member that contributed to the more evolved lavas. Along with major, trace and rare earth element analyses, we will present 87Sr/86Sr and 143Nd/144Nd data to further characterize source regions of these melts. In sum, these data will allow us to (1) expand the spatial coverage of this dataset in the central Andes, (2) contribute to the effort to parse contributions from the subcontinental lithosphere, asthenosphere, subduction-related fluids, and

  11. Helium as a tracer for fluids released from Juan de Fuca lithosphere beneath the Cascadia forearc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCrory, P. A.; Constantz, J. E.; Hunt, A. G.; Blair, J. L.

    2016-06-01

    Helium isotopic ratios (3He/4He) observed in 25 mineral springs and wells above the Cascadia forearc provide a marker for fluids derived from Juan de Fuca lithosphere. This exploratory study documents a significant component of mantle-derived helium within forearc springs and wells, and in turn, documents variability in helium enrichment across the Cascadia forearc. Sample sites arcward of the forearc mantle corner generally yield significantly higher ratios (˜1.2-4.0 RA) than those seaward of the corner (˜0.03-0.7 RA). 3He detected above the inner forearc mantle wedge may represent a mixture of both oceanic lithosphere and forearc mantle sources, whereas 3He detected seaward of the forearc mantle corner likely has only an oceanic source. The highest ratios in the Cascadia forearc coincide with slab depths (˜40-45 km) where metamorphic dehydration of young oceanic lithosphere is expected to release significant fluid and where tectonic tremor occurs, whereas little fluid is expected to be released from the slab depths (˜25-30 km) beneath sites seaward of the corner. These observations provide independent evidence that tremor is associated with deep fluids, and further suggest that high pore pressures associated with tremor may serve to keep fractures open for 3He migration through the ductile upper mantle and lower crust.

  12. Preface to "Insights into the Earth's Deep Lithosphere"

    SciTech Connect

    Pasyanos, M E

    2009-11-19

    Dear Readers: I am pleased to present a special issue of Tectonophysics entitled 'Insights into the Earth's Deep Lithosphere.' This compilation sought to capture the flavor of the increasing number of studies that are emerging to investigate the complex lithospheric structure of the earth. This issue evolved out of a Fall 2007 AGU special session entitled 'Understanding the Earth's Deep Lithosphere' that I organized with Irina Artemieva from the University of Copenhagen. For that session, we solicited talks that discussed the increasing number of methods that have surfaced to study various aspects of the earth's deep lithosphere. These methods include seismic, gravity, thermal, geochemical, and various combinations of these methods. The quality of the presentations (2 oral sessions with 16 talks and 23 associated poster presentations) was such that we felt that the emerging topic deserved a dedicated forum to address these questions in greater detail. The availability of new data sets has also improved the number and quality of lithospheric studies. With many new studies and methodologies, a better understanding of both continental and oceanic lithospheres is starting to emerge. Questions remain about the thickness and evolution of the lithosphere, the presence of lithospheric keels, the density and anisotropy of lithospheric roots, mechanisms of lithospheric thinning, and differences between mechanical, thermal and chemical boundary layers. While we did not get contributions on the full gamut of methods and regions, a lot of ground was covered in this issue's manuscripts. Like any collection of papers on the deep lithosphere, the topics are quite varied in methodology, geographic location, and what aspect of the lithosphere being studied. Still, the results highlight the rewarding aspects of earth structure, history, and evolution that can be gleaned. A brief synopsis of the papers contained in this issue is given.

  13. Foundering lithosphere imaged beneath the southern Sierra Nevada, California, USA.

    PubMed

    Boyd, Oliver S; Jones, Craig H; Sheehan, Anne F

    2004-07-30

    Seismic tomography reveals garnet-rich crust and mantle lithosphere descending into the upper mantle beneath the southeastern Sierra Nevada. The descending lithosphere consists of two layers: an iron-rich eclogite above a magnesium-rich garnet peridotite. These results place descending eclogite above and east of high P wave speed material previously imaged beneath the southern Great Valley, suggesting a previously unsuspected coherence in the lithospheric removal process. PMID:15286370

  14. Foundering lithosphere imaged beneath the southern Sierra Nevada, California, USA.

    PubMed

    Boyd, Oliver S; Jones, Craig H; Sheehan, Anne F

    2004-07-30

    Seismic tomography reveals garnet-rich crust and mantle lithosphere descending into the upper mantle beneath the southeastern Sierra Nevada. The descending lithosphere consists of two layers: an iron-rich eclogite above a magnesium-rich garnet peridotite. These results place descending eclogite above and east of high P wave speed material previously imaged beneath the southern Great Valley, suggesting a previously unsuspected coherence in the lithospheric removal process.

  15. Study of the time evolution of the lithosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roufosse, M. C.

    1983-01-01

    The behavior and mechanical properties of the lithosphere were studied. This is a prerequisite to an understanding of the mechanisms and processes that occur in the Earth's mantle, which are masked by the lithospere. Geoid heights derived from the GEOS-3 and SEASAT radar altimeters were used. The correlation between bathymetry and geoid heights gives information on the mechanical properties of the lithosphere, such as its thickness, which is related to the age of the lithospheric plate. By probing in several locations spanning various temporal situations, the time evolution of the lithospheric plates were retraced.

  16. Transient creep and convective instability of the lithosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Birger, Boris I.

    2012-12-01

    Laboratory experiments with rock samples show that transient creep, at which strain grows with time and strain rate decrease at constant stress, occurs while creep strains are sufficiently small. The transient creep at high temperatures is described by the Andrade rheological model. Since plate tectonics allows only small deformations in lithospheric plates, creep of the lithosphere plates is transient whereas steady-state creep, described by non-Newtonian power-law rheological model, takes place in the underlying mantle. At the transient creep, the effective viscosity, found in the study of postglacial flows, differs significantly from the effective viscosity, which characterizes convective flow, since timescales of these flows are very different. Besides, the transient creep changes the elastic crust thickness estimated within the power-law rheology of the lithosphere. Two problems of convective stability for the lithosphere with the Andrade rheology are solved. The solution of the first problem shows that the state, in which large-scale convective flow in the mantle occurs under lithospheric plates, is unstable and must bifurcate into another more stable state at which the lithospheric plates become mobile and plunge into the mantle at subduction zones. If the lithosphere had the power-law fluid rheology, the effective viscosity of the stagnant lithospheric plates would be extremely high and the state, in which large-scale convection occurs under the stagnant plates, would be stable that contradicts plate tectonics. The mantle convection forms mobile lithospheric plates if the effective viscosity of the plate is not too much higher than the effective viscosity of the underlying mantle. The Andrade rheology lowers the plate effective viscosity corresponding to the power-law fluid rheology and, thus, leads to instability of the state in which the plates are stagnant. The solution of the second stability problem shows that the state, in which the lithospheric plate

  17. Lithospheric models of the North American continent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tesauro, Magdala; Kaban, Mikhail; Mooney, Walter; Cloetingh, Sierd

    2015-04-01

    We constructed NACr14, a 3D model of the North American (NA) crust, based on the most recent seismic data from the USGS database. In comparison with the global crustal model CRUST 1.0, NACr14 is more heterogeneous, showing a larger spatial variability of the thickness and average velocities of the crustal layers. Velocities of the lower crust vary in a larger range than those of the other layers, while the thickness of all the three layers is on average between 11 and 13 km. The largest velocities of the crystalline crust (>6.6 km/s) reflect the presence of a 7.x layer (>7.0 km/s) in the lowermost part of the crust. Using NACr2014, a regional (NA07) and a global (SL201sv) tomography model, and gravity data, we apply an iterative technique, which jointly interprets seismic tomography and gravity data, to estimate temperature and compositional variations in the NA upper mantle. The results obtained demonstrate that temperature of the cratonic mantle is up to 150°C higher than when using a uniform compositional model. The differences between the two tomography models influence the results more strongly than possible changes of the depth distribution of compositional variations. Strong negative compositional density anomalies, corresponding to Mg # >92, characterize the upper mantle of the northwestern part of the Superior craton and the central part of the Slave and Churchill craton. The Proterozoic upper mantle of the western and more deformed part of the NA cratons, appears weakly depleted (Mg# ~91) when NA07 is used, in agreement with the results based on the interpretation of xenolith data. When we use SL2013sv, the same areas are locally characterized by high density bodies, which might be interpreted as the effect due to fragments of subducted slabs, as those close to the suture of the Appalachians and Grenville province. We used the two thermal models to estimate the integrated strength and the effective elastic thickness (Te) of the lithosphere. In the

  18. Stability of Continental Lithosphere based on Analogue Experiments with Microwave Induced Internal Heating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fourel, Loic; Limare, Angela; Surducan, Emanoil; Surducan, Vasile; Neamtu, Camelia; Vilella, Kenny; Farnetani, Cinzia; Kaminski, Edouard; Jaupart, Claude

    2015-04-01

    Continental lithosphere is usually depicted as the upper conductive layer of the Earth. Its formation is achieved through melt depletion that generates a residue that is less dense and more viscous than the underlying convecting mantle. As it is cooled from above, continental lithosphere can develop its own convective currents and may become unstable depending on its thickness and density contrast with the mantle. But chemical differentiation due to mantle magmatism also enriches continental lithosphere in heat producing elements. According to present estimates, the Earth's mantle may have lost as much as half of its radioactive elements in favour of continental crust and this stratified redistribution of heat sources has two main effects. First, mantle convection vigor decreases and becomes increasingly sensitive to heat supply from the core. Second, localized heat production at the top surface increases the continental insulating effects and competes against lithospheric instabilities. In the present study, we focus on the later and we determine which amount of internal heating is required to keep the lithosphere stable for a given rate of cooling from the top. The physics underlying instability triggering corresponds to the problem of a two differentially heated layered system cooled from above, where the top layer is less dense and more viscous than the bottom one, representative of the lithosphere-mantle system. Few studies have been devoted to the intrinsic characteristics of this layered type of convection. Here, we present a state of the art laboratory setup to generate internal heating in controlled conditions based on microwave (MW) absorption. The volumetric heat source can be localized in space and its intensity can be varied in time. Our tank prototype has horizontal dimensions of 30 cm x 30 cm and 5 cm height. A uniform and constant temperature is maintained at the upper boundary by an aluminium heat exchanger and adiabatic conditions are imposed at

  19. Seismic structure of the crust and lithospheric mantle of the southern African cratonic region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Youssof, M.; Thybo, H.; Artemieva, I. M.; Levander, A.

    2013-12-01

    We present a new seismic model for the structure of the crust and lithospheric mantle in southern Africa constrained by a joint study of seismic receiver functions and finite-frequency tomography, using the high-quality data from the South Africa Seismic Experiment (SASE). A) The crust has a highly heterogeneous structure with short wavelength variations in (i) thickness, (ii) composition (reflected in Vp/Vs-ratio calculated for all SASE stations), and (iii) Moho sharpness (which is quantified and mapped for the entire region) (Youssof et al., Tectonophysics, in review). By mapping these three parameters, we distinguish ~20 crustal blocks that do not everywhere coincide with surface tectonic features. Our RFs also demonstrate strong azimuthal anisotropy in the crust, with a typical crustal contribution to the total S-wave splitting of at least 30%. Spatial correlation of the S-wave polarization directions of crustal and mantle anisotropy indicates (i) the presence of three distinct Archean lithospheric terranes and (ii) coupling between the crust and lithospheric mantle in most of the study area, with a strong decoupling in western Kaapvaal where the crustal anisotropy is strongest. The similarity of anisotropy directions in the crust and mantle beneath much of the Kaapvaal craton indicates that (a) the seismic anisotropy originates at the time of cratonization and (b) the observed correspondence between the present direction of absolute plate motion (APM) and lithosphere anisotropy is coincidental. B) A new 3D high-resolution seismic model of the lithospheric mantle has been determined from finite frequency tomographic inversions of teleseismic P- and S- body wave data. The two velocity models are very similar in structure, but differ in the relative P- and S-wave velocity anomalies. We find that: 1) the fast lithospheric keels extends very deep, perhaps to depths of 300-350 km and 250 km beneath the Kaapvaal and Zimbabwe cratons, respectively, and 2) the Archean

  20. Cenozoic basaltic volcanism in W Turkey: Implications for lithospheric thinning and extension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altunkaynak, S.

    2013-05-01

    Western Anatolia (Turkey) is regarded as an eastern extension of the Alpine collision belt and was affected dominantly by convergent tectonics preceding current extensional tectonics. Three major episodes of magmatic flare-up were identified in western Anatolia: the Early to late Eocene, late Oligocene to middle Miocene and late Miocene to Quaternary. Ranging from basalt, basaltic andesite to basaltic trachyandesite, Early to late Eocene volcanic rocks include both calc-alkaline and transitional (calc-alkaline to tholeiitic) affinity. They are slightly-moderately enriched in large ion lithophile elements and light rare earth elements with respect to high field strength elements and show negative Nb, Ta, and Ti anomalies. Basaltic lavas and dikes are characterized by 87Sr/86Sr(i) compositions ranging from 0.70530 to 0.70415, positive ɛNd (2.7-6.6) and restricted Pb-isotope compositions. Late Oligocene to Middle Miocene volcanic activity produced High-K calc-alkaline basic to acid lava flows/dikes and associated pyroclastic rocks that exhibit features similar to those of Early Cenozoic Western U.S Cordillera, Great Basin, where magmatism and crustal extension overlapped in space and time. The geochemical and Sr-Nd-Pb isotopic features of the Late Oligocene-Middle Miocene volcanic units suggest that both lithospheric and asthenospheric mantle melts were involved in the evolution of volcanism during this episode, with a decreasing lithospheric geochemical fingerprint by the middle Miocene, when the asthenospheric mantle source became more dominant. Late Miocene to Quaternary volcanism produced alkaline basalts that show OIB-type trace-element patterns and 87Sr/86Sr (i) (0.7033 to 0.7030) and ɛNd (i) (+6.5 to +2.5) values. These features suggest enriched asthenospheric mantle-derived melts as their main magma source. Geochemical and temporal evolution of basaltic volcanism in western Turkey indicate that the geochemical changes in the nature of volcanism from calc

  1. Global equivalent magnetization of the oceanic lithosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dyment, J.; Choi, Y.; Hamoudi, M.; Lesur, V.; Thebault, E.

    2015-11-01

    As a by-product of the construction of a new World Digital Magnetic Anomaly Map over oceanic areas, we use an original approach based on the global forward modeling of seafloor spreading magnetic anomalies and their comparison to the available marine magnetic data to derive the first map of the equivalent magnetization over the World's ocean. This map reveals consistent patterns related to the age of the oceanic lithosphere, the spreading rate at which it was formed, and the presence of mantle thermal anomalies which affects seafloor spreading and the resulting lithosphere. As for the age, the equivalent magnetization decreases significantly during the first 10-15 Myr after its formation, probably due to the alteration of crustal magnetic minerals under pervasive hydrothermal alteration, then increases regularly between 20 and 70 Ma, reflecting variations in the field strength or source effects such as the acquisition of a secondary magnetization. As for the spreading rate, the equivalent magnetization is twice as strong in areas formed at fast rate than in those formed at slow rate, with a threshold at ∼40 km/Myr, in agreement with an independent global analysis of the amplitude of Anomaly 25. This result, combined with those from the study of the anomalous skewness of marine magnetic anomalies, allows building a unified model for the magnetic structure of normal oceanic lithosphere as a function of spreading rate. Finally, specific areas affected by thermal mantle anomalies at the time of their formation exhibit peculiar equivalent magnetization signatures, such as the cold Australian-Antarctic Discordance, marked by a lower magnetization, and several hotspots, marked by a high magnetization.

  2. Isostasy and Flexure of the Lithosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McNutt, Marcia

    When I first began graduate work in geophysics nearly 30 years ago, there was, thankfully only a small body of written material I needed to read and comprehend prior to diving into my own research. Much has happened since then, and I often wonder how new graduate students today come up to speed in their areas of specialization. The answer is now obvious for any students undertaking research in broadly-defined areas involving lithospheric flexure and isostasy: they simply read Tony Watts' new book.

  3. Basaltic magmatism in the North Sea and its relationship to lithospheric extension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Latin, Dave; Waters, Frances G.

    1992-07-01

    Mesozoic magmatism in the North Sea rift system varies from mildly to strongly alkaline in character. In the 'triple-junction', which occurs at the intersection of the Viking Graben-Moray Firth-Central Graben, large volumes of alkali basalt erupted to form the Forties volcanic province. These basalts are located in the most extended region of the rift which underwent lithospheric stretching by a factor of two. Much smaller volumes of distinctive undersaturated volatile-rich ultrapotassic and nephelinitic rocks were erupted and intruded in off-axis regions in which β is generally less than 1.2. The average thickness (~ 1 km) and composition of the Forties basalts is most easily explained in terms of mixing of melt components derived from the asthenosphere and the more easily fusible volatile-enriched parts of the continental lithosphere. Using recent work by McKenzie and O'Nions (1991) we show that asthenosphere of normal potential temperature will melt if it is brought rapidly to depths of less than 80 km. The asthenosphere rose to ~ 60 km during rifting in the Forties region of the North Sea. The thickness (0.66 km) and composition of melt produced from the asthenosphere is calculated using the results of a REE inversion scheme (McKenzie and O'Nions, 1991). The composition of the lithospheric melt component appears to be some mixture of nephelinite and ultrapotassic melt. Mixing asthenospheric and lithospheric melts in approximately equal proportions appears to be able to produce ~ 1.2 km of melt whose elemental and isotopic composition is very similar to that of the Forties basalts.

  4. Water in Hawaiian peridotite minerals: A case for a dry metasomatized oceanic mantle lithosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peslier, Anne H.; Bizimis, Michael

    2015-04-01

    The distribution of water concentrations in the oceanic upper mantle has drastic influence on its melting, rheology, and electrical and thermal conductivities and yet is primarily known indirectly from analyses of OIB and MORB. Here, actual mantle samples, eight peridotite xenoliths from Salt Lake Crater (SLC) and one from Pali in Oahu in Hawaii were analyzed by FTIR. Water contents of orthopyroxene, clinopyroxene, and the highest measured in olivine are 116-222, 246-442, and 10-26 ppm weight H2O, respectively. Although pyroxene water contents correlate with indices of partial melting, they are too high to be explained by simple melting modeling. Mantle-melt interaction modeling reproduces best the SLC data. These peridotites represent depleted oceanic mantle older than the Pacific lithosphere that has been refertilized by nephelinite melts containing <5 weight % H2O. Metasomatism in the Hawaiian peridotites resulted in an apparent decoupling of water and LREE that can be reconciled via assimilation and fractional crystallization. Calculated bulk-rock water contents for SLC (50-96 ppm H2O) are on the low side of that of the MORB source (50-200 ppm H2O). Preceding metasomatism, the SLC peridotites must have been even drier, with a water content similar to that of the Pali peridotite (45 ppm H2O), a relatively unmetasomatized fragment of the Pacific lithosphere. Moreover, our data show that the oceanic mantle lithosphere above plumes is not necessarily enriched in water. Calculated viscosities using olivine water contents allow to estimate the depth of the lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary beneath Hawaii at ˜90 km.

  5. Recycling of Oceanic Lithosphere: Water, fO2 and Fe-isotope Constraints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bizmis, M.; Peslier, A. H.; McCammon, C. A.; Keshav, S.; Williams, H. M.

    2014-01-01

    Spinel peridotite and garnet pyroxenite xenoliths from Hawaii provide important clues about the composition of the oceanic lithosphere, and can be used to assess its contribution to mantle heterogeneity upon recycling. The peridotites have lower bulk H2O (approximately 70-114 ppm) than the MORB source, qualitatively consistent with melt depletion. The garnet pyroxenites (high pressure cumulates) have higher H2O (200-460 ppm, up to 550 ppm accounting for phlogopite) and low H2O/Ce ratios (less than 100). The peridotites have relatively light Fe-isotopes (delta Fe -57 = -0.34 to 0.13) that decrease with increasing depletion, while the pyroxenites are significantly heavier (delta Fe-57 up to 0.3). The observed xenolith, as well as MORB and OIB total Fe-isotope variability is larger that can be explained by existing melting models. The high H2O and low H2O/Ce ratios of pyroxenites are similar to estimates of EM-type OIB sources, while their heavy delta Fe-57 are similar to some Society and Cook-Austral basalts. Therefore, recycling of mineralogically enriched oceanic lithosphere (i.e. pyroxenites) may contribute to OIB sources and mantle heterogeneity. The Fe(3+)/Sigma? systematics of these xenoliths also suggest that there might be lateral redox gradients within the lithosphere, between juxtaposed oxidized spinel peridotites (deltaFMQ = -0.7 to 1.6, at 15 kb) and more reduced pyroxenites (deltaFMQ = -2 to -0.4, at 20-25kb). Such mineralogically and compositionally imposed fO2 gradients may generate local redox melting due to changes in fluid speciation (e.g. reduced fluids from pyroxenite encountering more oxidized peridotite). Formation of such incipient, small degree melts could further contribute to metasomatic features seen in peridotites, mantle heterogeneity, as well as the low velocity and high electrical conductivity structures near the base of the lithosphere and upper mantle.

  6. Deformation of Indian Ocean Lithosphere Implies Highly Non-linear Rheological Law for Oceanic Lithosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gordon, Richard; Houseman, Gregory

    2015-04-01

    The width of diffuse oceanic plate boundaries is determined by the rheology of oceanic lithosphere. Here we apply thin viscous sheet models, which have been successfully applied to deformation in several continental deforming zones, to investigate the deformation of oceanic lithosphere in the diffuse oceanic plate boundaries between the India, Capricorn, and Australia plates. We apply kinematic boundary conditions based on the current motion between these plates. We neglect buoyancy forces due to plate thinning or thickening and assume that the thin viscous sheet has the same depth-integrated non-linear viscosity coefficient everywhere. Our initial models have only one adjustable parameter, n, the power-law exponent, with n=1, 3, 10, 30, 100. The predicted width of the deforming zone decreases with increasing n, with n ≥ 30 explaining the observations. This n-value is higher than has been estimated for continental lithosphere, and suggests that more of the strength of oceanic lithosphere lies in layers deforming by faulting or by dislocation glide than for continental lithosphere. To obtain a stress field that better fits the distribution and type of earthquake focal mechanisms in the diffuse oceanic plate boundary, we add a second adjustable parameter, representing the effect of slab-pull stretching the oceanic plate near the Sumatra trench. We show that an average velocity increment on this boundary segment of 5 mm/a (relative to the average velocity of the India and Australia plates) fits the observed distribution of fault types better than velocities of 3.3 mm/a or 10 mm/a.

  7. Melting of metasomatized subcontinental mantle: New experiments and a new predictive models for plagioclase, spinel and garnet lherzolite melting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grove, T. L.; Till, C. B.; Barr, J. A.; Krawczynski, M. J.

    2010-12-01

    Data from new experiments where liquid is in equilibrium with olivine + orthopyroxene + high-Ca clinopyroxene + Al-phase (plagioclase, spinel or garnet) have allowed us to recalibrate and update the melting model of Kinzler and Grove (K&G, JGR 97: 6885-6926, 1992) for melting under nominally anhydrous conditions over a larger range of pressure. We use existing literature data along with new experiments on melting of a high K2O primitive high alumina olivine tholeiite (HAOT) from the Oregon High Lava Plains, a high-K olivine leucitite from the Tibetan Plateau and low alkali, high FeO + MgO lunar ultramafic glasses. The new spinel lherzolite model is constrained by 114 experimental data that span a temperature range of 1200 to 1580 oC, a pressure range of 1 to 2.7 GPa and liquid alkali contents of up to 4.5 wt. % K2O and 5 wt. % Na2O. The garnet-lherzolite melting model uses 26 experimental constraints with new experiments containing up to 3.4 wt. % K2O. We use the following dependent variables to represent the melt composition in terms of oxygen-based mineral components: Olivine - Clinopyroxene - Plagioclase - Quartz and temperature. The independent variables are: pressure (P), molar Mg/(Mg+Fe) (Mg#), wt. % (K2O + Na2O)/(Na2O + K2O + CaO) (1-Ca#), wt.% Al2O3/(Al2O3+SiO2) (Al#), wt% K2O and wt. % TiO2. These variables describe the departure of melting behavior from the simplified lherzolite analog in CMAS (CaO-MgO-Al2O3-SiO2) in which melting behavior in univariant. This revised model facilitates a prediction of the liquid composition and temperature of multiple saturation with a mantle mineral assemblage for a given pressure. The new model allows compositional dependent calibration of the spinel to garnet lherzolite transition in sub-continental mantle environments. For example, beneath the Tibetan Plateau melting occurs near this transition and primitive high-K lavas show evidence of derivation from spinel- and garnet-bearing lherzolite. In addition, the HAOT lavas

  8. Multiple episodes of fluid and melt migration in the Kaapvaal Craton lithospheric mantle associated with group-I kimberlite activity: evidence from a harzburgite containing a unique assemblage of metasomatic Zr-phases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konzett, Jürgen; Wirth, Richard; Whitehouse, Martin; Hauzenberger, Christoph

    2013-04-01

    Nowadays it is widely accepted that volatile-rich magmas forming kimberlites, orangeites and lamproites require a peridotitic mantle source that was enriched in H2O-(CO2)-REE-HFS-LIL elements with respect to primitive mantle. When injected into cool subcontinental lithospheric mantle, these magmas again release large amounts of hydrous incompatible element-enriched fluids during cooling and differentiation which may lead to extensive but localized metasomatism. Whether metasomatism took place as a single event or as a more complex succession of repeated fluid/melt-rock interaction episodes can usually not be decided based on available textural and compositional information. Here we present results of a mineral chemical-structural and textural investigation of a metasomatized harzburgite xenolith sampled by one of the group-I kimberlites of the Kimberley cluster from the Kaapvaal Craton, South Africa, for which such a distinction is possible. Based on textures and phase compositions we propose three episodes of rock-melt/fluid interaction involving both silicate and carbonatite melts/fluids. These events gave rise to a uniquely complex assemblage of LILE-HFSE-rich phases rich in Zr including zircon together with both monoclinic (baddeleyite) and cubic (tazheranite) zirconium oxide, srilankite and a new Mn-Fe-rich member of the pyrochlore-group of phases. The primary pre-metasomatic assemblage is olivine + orthopyroxene + chromite + traces of clinopyroxene. Subsequent modal metasomatism formed phlogopite + K-richterite + crichtonite-group (lindsleyite-mathiasite) phases + Nb-Cr-rich rutile + srilankite + zircon + Fe-Ni-sulfide. K-richterites are strongly zoned in Ca, Na, Fe and Cr with up to 2.0 wt% Cr2O3 which is the highest Cr-concentration reported so far for K-richterite. SIMS U-Pb dating of the zircons yields ages in the range 81±2 to 91±2 (2σ) Ma which are indistinguishable from emplacement ages of the host group-I kimberlites. This coincidence in ages

  9. The Subcontinental Surge

    PubMed Central

    CARROLL, JOHN

    2004-01-01

    Biotech is following big pharma to India, where R&D costs are a fraction of those in the U.S. India itself is working hard to make it happen. Ultimately, this could reduce the price of biotech therapies. But what about India’s reputation for disregarding intellectual property rights? PMID:23393438

  10. Magmatic evidence for Neogene lithospheric evolution of the central Andean ``flat-slab'' between 30°S and 32°S

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kay, S. M.; Abbruzzi, J. M.

    1996-06-01

    Geochemical data from Andean Miocene magmas erupted through the now volcanically-inactive "flat-slab" between 30°S to 32°S, coupled with geological and geophysical data, illuminate details on magmatic and continental lithospheric evolution over a progressively shallowing subduction zone. Pb, Sr and Nd isotopic and trace-element data show that Main Cordilleran, Precordilleran and Pampean magmas were contaminated in both the mantle and crust, and that the nature of the contaminants varied in time and space, reflecting tectonic events. Contaminants included both "enriched" (high LIL-element, high Sr and Pb, and low Nd isotopic ratios) and "depleted" (low LILE-element, low Sr and Pb, and high Nd isotopic ratios) types. In the western region, Main Cordilleran earlier Miocene lavas had contaminants with less "enriched" signatures than later Miocene lavas. Progressive "enrichment" is attributed to: (a) increasing amounts of sediment and tectonically eroded crust being subducted into the mantle wedge; and (b) contamination in a thickening Main Cordilleran lower crust whose composition was progressively "enriched". This "enrichment" occurred through addition of upper crust by an intracrustal mixing process driven by a propagating wedge tip associated with westward wedging, heating and deformation of crust from beneath the shortening Precordillera thrust belt to the east. Further east, magmas erupted through back-arc crust have more "depleted" signatures. Those erupted in the central part through the evolving Precordilleran thrust belt were contaminated by an older, thinner Grenville (˜ 1100 Ma) basement whose "depleted" signature is unique among Central Andean terranes. Late Miocene Pocho lavas erupted further east in conjunction with uplift of the Sierras Pampeanas show "enrichment" through time. Arguably, these magmas could contain a component mechanically removed from the base of the thinning continental lithosphere to the west, and progressively incorporated into the

  11. Lithosphere structure beneath the Phanerozoic intracratonic basins of North America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaminski, Edouard; Jaupart, Claude

    2000-05-01

    Four intracratonic basins of North America, the Hudson Bay, Michigan, Illinois and Williston basins, have similar ages and are close to one another. Yet, they exhibit different subsidence histories characterised by different time-scales and sediment thicknesses. They can be explained by local lithosphere thinning and by the cooling of the induced thermal anomaly. Within the framework of 1D thermal models for vertical heat transport, each basin requires a different lithosphere thickness or a different boundary condition at the base of the lithosphere. Heat flow and seismic studies show that, beneath the North American craton, the lithosphere is too thick for the assumption of purely vertical heat transfer to be valid. Thermal models are developed to account for finite thermal anomaly width and for two types of basal boundary conditions, fixed temperature or fixed heat flux. Different subsidence histories are explained by deep lithospheric anomalies of different sizes. The stability of thick continental roots requires the mantle part of the lithosphere to be compositionally buoyant with respect to 'normal' convecting mantle. Localised lithospheric thinning, due for example to plume penetration, results in the emplacement of compositionally denser mantle into the lithosphere. This represents a load which drives permanent flexure. The cooling time and the characteristics of flexure allow constraints on the dimensions of these deep lithospheric anomalies. There are no solutions for lithosphere thicknesses less than 170 km. The Williston and Illinois basins are associated with wide (˜200 km) and thin anomalies (˜100 km), whereas the Michigan and Hudson Bay are located on top of narrow (˜100 km) and tall (˜200 km) anomalies.

  12. Sedimentary loading, lithospheric flexure and subduction initiation at passive margins

    SciTech Connect

    Erickson, S.G. . Dept. of Earth Sciences)

    1992-01-01

    Recent theoretical models have demonstrated the difficulty of subduction initiation at passive margins, whether subduction is assumed to initiate by overcoming the shear resistance on a thrust fault through the lithosphere or by failure of the entire lithosphere in bending due to sedimentary loading. A mechanism for subduction initiation at passive margins that overcomes these difficulties incorporates the increased subsidence of a marginal basin during decoupling of a previously locked margin. A passive margin may decouple by reactivation of rift-related faults in a local extensional or strike-slip setting. Flexure of marginal basins by sedimentary loading is modeled here by the bending of infinite and semi-infinite elastic plates under a triangular load. The geometry of a mature marginal basin fits the deflection produced by loading of an infinite plate in which the flexural rigidity of continental lithosphere is larger than that of oceanic lithosphere. Decoupling of such a locked passive margin by fault reactivation may cause the lithospheric bending behavior of the margin to change from that of an infinite plate to that of a semi-infinite plate, with a resultant increase in deflection of the marginal basin. The increase in deflection depends on the flexural rigidities of continental and oceanic lithosphere. For flexural rigidities of 10[sup 30]-10[sup 31] dyn-cm (elastic lithosphere thicknesses 24--51 km), the difference in deflections between infinite and semi-infinite plates is 15--17 km, so that decoupling sinks the top of the oceanic lithosphere to depths of ca 35 km. Additional sedimentation within the basin and phase changes within the oceanic crust may further increase this deflection. Subduction may initiate if the top of the oceanic lithosphere sinks to the base of the adjacent elastic lithosphere.

  13. Subduction-driven recycling of continental margin lithosphere.

    PubMed

    Levander, A; Bezada, M J; Niu, F; Humphreys, E D; Palomeras, I; Thurner, S M; Masy, J; Schmitz, M; Gallart, J; Carbonell, R; Miller, M S

    2014-11-13

    Whereas subduction recycling of oceanic lithosphere is one of the central themes of plate tectonics, the recycling of continental lithosphere appears to be far more complicated and less well understood. Delamination and convective downwelling are two widely recognized processes invoked to explain the removal of lithospheric mantle under or adjacent to orogenic belts. Here we relate oceanic plate subduction to removal of adjacent continental lithosphere in certain plate tectonic settings. We have developed teleseismic body wave images from dense broadband seismic experiments that show higher than expected volumes of anomalously fast mantle associated with the subducted Atlantic slab under northeastern South America and the Alboran slab beneath the Gibraltar arc region; the anomalies are under, and are aligned with, the continental margins at depths greater than 200 kilometres. Rayleigh wave analysis finds that the lithospheric mantle under the continental margins is significantly thinner than expected, and that thin lithosphere extends from the orogens adjacent to the subduction zones inland to the edges of nearby cratonic cores. Taking these data together, here we describe a process that can lead to the loss of continental lithosphere adjacent to a subduction zone. Subducting oceanic plates can viscously entrain and remove the bottom of the continental thermal boundary layer lithosphere from adjacent continental margins. This drives surface tectonics and pre-conditions the margins for further deformation by creating topography along the lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary. This can lead to development of secondary downwellings under the continental interior, probably under both South America and the Gibraltar arc, and to delamination of the entire lithospheric mantle, as around the Gibraltar arc. This process reconciles numerous, sometimes mutually exclusive, geodynamic models proposed to explain the complex oceanic-continental tectonics of these subduction zones

  14. Lithospheric cooling as a basin forming mechanism within accretionary crust.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holt, P. J.; Allen, M.; van Hunen, J.; Björnseth, H. M.

    2009-04-01

    Widely accepted basin forming mechanisms are limited to flexure of the lithosphere, lithospheric stretching, lithospheric cooling following rifting and, possibly, dynamic topography. In this work forward models have been used to investigate lithospheric growth due to cooling beneath accretionary crust, as a new basin forming mechanism. Accretionary crust is formed from collision of island arcs, accretionary complexes and fragments of reworked older crust at subduction zones, and therefore has thin lithosphere due to melting and increased convection. This is modeled using a 1D infinite half space cooling model similar to lithospheric cooling models for the oceans. The crustal composition and structure used in the models has been varied around average values of accretionary crust to represent the heterogeneity of accretionary crust. The initial mantle lithosphere thickness used in the model was 20 km. The model then allows the lithosphere to thicken as it cools and calculates the subsidence isostatically. The model produces sediment loaded basins of 2-7 km for the various crustal structures over 250 Myrs. Water-loaded tectonic subsidence curves from the forward models were compared to tectonic subsidence curves produced from backstripping wells from the Kufrah and Ghadames basins, located on the accretionary crust of North Africa. A good match between the subsidence curves for the forward model and backstripping is produced when the best estimates for the crustal structure, composition and the present day thickness of the lithosphere for North Africa are used as inputs for the forward model. This shows that lithospheric cooling provides a good method for producing large basins with prolonged subsidence in accretionary crust without the need for initial extension.

  15. Temperature-dependent transient creep and dynamics of cratonic lithosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Birger, Boris I.

    2013-11-01

    Large-scale mantle convection forms the upper boundary layer (lithosphere) where the vertical temperature drop is about 1300 K. Theoretical rheology and laboratory experiments with rock samples show that transient creep occurs while creep strains are sufficiently small. The transient creep is described by the temperature-dependent Andrade rheological model. Since plate tectonics allows only small deformations in lithospheric plates, creep of the lithosphere plates is transient whereas steady-state creep, described by non-Newtonian power-law rheological model, takes place in the underlying mantle. The solution of stability problem shows that the lithosphere is stable but small-scale convective oscillations are attenuated very weakly in regions of thickened lithosphere beneath continental cratons (subcratonic roots) where the thickness of the lithosphere is about 200 km. These oscillations create small-scale convective cells (the horizontal dimensions of the cells are of the order of the subcratonic lithosphere thickness). Direction of motion within the cells periodically changes (the period of convective oscillations is of the order of 3 × 108 yr). In this study, the oscillations of cratonic lithosphere caused by initial relief perturbation are considered. This relief perturbation is assumed to be created by overthrusting in orogenic belts surrounding cratons. The perturbation of the Earth's surface relief leads to a fast isothermal process of isostatic recovery. In the presence of vertical temperature gradient, vertical displacements, associated with the recovery process in the lithosphere interior, instantly produce the initial temperature perturbations exciting thermoconvective oscillations in the cratonic lithosphere. These small-amplitude convective oscillations cause oscillatory crustal movements which form sedimentary basins on cratons.

  16. Subduction-driven recycling of continental margin lithosphere.

    PubMed

    Levander, A; Bezada, M J; Niu, F; Humphreys, E D; Palomeras, I; Thurner, S M; Masy, J; Schmitz, M; Gallart, J; Carbonell, R; Miller, M S

    2014-11-13

    Whereas subduction recycling of oceanic lithosphere is one of the central themes of plate tectonics, the recycling of continental lithosphere appears to be far more complicated and less well understood. Delamination and convective downwelling are two widely recognized processes invoked to explain the removal of lithospheric mantle under or adjacent to orogenic belts. Here we relate oceanic plate subduction to removal of adjacent continental lithosphere in certain plate tectonic settings. We have developed teleseismic body wave images from dense broadband seismic experiments that show higher than expected volumes of anomalously fast mantle associated with the subducted Atlantic slab under northeastern South America and the Alboran slab beneath the Gibraltar arc region; the anomalies are under, and are aligned with, the continental margins at depths greater than 200 kilometres. Rayleigh wave analysis finds that the lithospheric mantle under the continental margins is significantly thinner than expected, and that thin lithosphere extends from the orogens adjacent to the subduction zones inland to the edges of nearby cratonic cores. Taking these data together, here we describe a process that can lead to the loss of continental lithosphere adjacent to a subduction zone. Subducting oceanic plates can viscously entrain and remove the bottom of the continental thermal boundary layer lithosphere from adjacent continental margins. This drives surface tectonics and pre-conditions the margins for further deformation by creating topography along the lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary. This can lead to development of secondary downwellings under the continental interior, probably under both South America and the Gibraltar arc, and to delamination of the entire lithospheric mantle, as around the Gibraltar arc. This process reconciles numerous, sometimes mutually exclusive, geodynamic models proposed to explain the complex oceanic-continental tectonics of these subduction zones.

  17. Cratonic lithosphere: an electrifying view (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, A. G.

    2013-12-01

    Deep-probing electromagnetic studies reveal the vertical and lateral electrical conductivity structure of cratonic lithosphere. At lithospheric temperatures and for silicate mantle minerals, semi-conduction is from small polaron hopping and, in the presence of water, proton conduction, both of which is thermally-driven and can be described by an Arrhenius equation. There is little compositional sensitivity, save for the far higher water contents prevalent in pyroxenes (typically 200-400 wt ppm) compared to olivine (typically 10-100 wt ppm), with the latter exhibiting a depth dependence and the former none. Seismological methods are sensitive to temperature and composition, and virtually insensitive to low amounts of water. Taken together, the two are highly complementary. Seismological and magnetotelluric studies across Southern Africa can be employed together to constraint temperature and water content, where there is a significant difference at 100 km depth between the Kaapvaal Craton compared to the Angola (Congo) Craton compared to the Zimbabwe Craton. The Congo Craton is driest but hottest, the Kaapvaal Craton exhibits laterally-varying water content and is coldest, and the Zimbabwe Craton is the wettest and intermediate in temperature. Such thermal and water content variation results in lateral rheological variation, with the wettest and warmest being more deformable. For the Canadian Shield, there is again significant lateral variation at 100 km, with the Superior Province being mostly dry, and the Slave Craton and Rae/Hearne Provinces being far wetter. By 200 km however, all of the Canadian Shield is dry, consistent with the xenolith-based observations from the Kaapvaal Craton of far higher water contents in olivine at 100 km (50-100 wt ppm) decreasing with depth to around 10 wt ppm at 200 km. The lithosphere beneath the Kimberley area of the Kaapvaal Craton has been forward modeled in a manner that is self-consistent not only with the seismological and

  18. Introduction of sub-lithospheric component into melted lithospheric base by propagating crack: Case study of migrated Quaternary volcanoes in Wudalianchi, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chuvashova, Irina; Sun, Yi-min

    2016-04-01

    mantle beneath the northern Songliao basin and that admixture of the common sub-lithospheric component was locally introduced into the melted region by mechanism of propagating crack. This study is based on analytical data obtained for volcanic rocks in the Chinese-Russian Wudalianchi-Baikal Research Center on recent volcanism and environment. Major oxides were determined by "wet chemistry" at the Institute of the Earth's Crust SB RAS, Irkutsk. Trace-elements were measured by ICP-MS technique using mass-spectrometer Agilent 7500ce of the Center for collective use "Microanalysis" (Limnological Institute of SB RAS, Irkutsk) and Nd, Pb, and Sr isotopes by TIMS technique using mass-spectrometer Finnigan MAT 262 of the Center for collective use "Geodynamics and geochronology" (Institute of the Earth's Crust SB RAS). The work was supported by the RFBR grant № 16-05-00774. References Chuvashova, I.S., Rasskazov, S.V., Liu, J., Meng, F., Yasnygina, T.A., Fefelov, N.N., Saranina, E.V., 2009. Isotopically-enriched components in evolution of Late Cenozoic potassic magmatism in Heilongjiang province, northeast China, Proceedings of the Irkutsk State University. Series of Earth Sciences, 2 (2), pp. 181-198. Guide book for field mission to Wudalianchi National Park, China, 2010. Prepared by Wudalianchi National Park and Nature Management Committee Heilongjiang province, 50 p. Foulger, G.R., 2010. Plates vs. plumes: a geological controversy. Wiley-Blackwell, 328 p. Rasskazov, S.V., Yasnygina, T.A., Chuvashova, I.S. Mantle sources of the Cenozoic volcanic rocks of East Asia: Derivatives of slabs, the sub-lithospheric convection, and the lithosphere. Russian Journal of Pacific Geology. 2014. V. 8 (5), 355-371. Wang, Y., Chen, H., 2005. Tectonic controls on the Pleistocene-Holocene Wudalianchi volcanic field (northeastern China), Journal of Asian Earth Sciences, 24, pp. 419-431.

  19. Plume-cratonic lithosphere interaction recorded by water and other trace elements in peridotite xenoliths from the Labait volcano, Tanzania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hui, Hejiu; Peslier, Anne H.; Rudnick, Roberta L.; Simonetti, Antonio; Neal, Clive R.

    2015-06-01

    Water and other trace element concentrations in olivine (1-39 ppm H2O), orthopyroxene (10-150 ppm H2O), and clinopyroxene (16-340 ppm H2O) of mantle xenoliths from the Labait volcano, located on the edge of the Tanzanian craton along the eastern branch of the East African Rift, record melting and subsequent refertilization by plume magmas in a stratified lithosphere. These water contents are at the lower end of the range observed in other cratonic mantle lithospheres. Despite correlations between water content and indices of melting in orthopyroxene from the shallow peridotites, and in both olivine and orthopyroxene from the deep peridotites, water concentrations are too high for the peridotites to be simple residues. Instead, the Labait water contents are best explained as reflecting interaction between residual peridotite with a melt having relatively low water content (<1 wt.% H2O). Plume-derived melts are the likely source of water and other trace element enrichments in the Labait peridotites. Only garnet may have undergone addition of water from the host magma as evidenced by water content increasing toward the kelyphite rim in one otherwise homogeneous garnet. Based on modeling of the diffusion profile, magma ascent occurred at 4-28 m/s. In summary, plume-craton interaction appears to result in only moderate water enrichment of the lithosphere.

  20. Lithospheric Instabilities within the Northern Basin and Range Province

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porter, R. C.; Fouch, M. J.

    2012-12-01

    Flat slab subduction and the subsequent removal of the subducting Farallon slab beneath the western United States has had a profound impact on the state of the North American lithosphere. In order to provide new constraints on the structure and evolution of the region's crust and upper mantle, we use surface wave tomography and receiver functions to image the earth beneath the Northern Basin and Range (NBR) and surrounding regions. We combine these results with published geophysical and geochemical data to further characterize lithospheric and asthenospheric processes and relate these to geological observations at the surface. Our initial results show high-velocity upper mantle, interpreted as lithosphere, beneath the center of the NBR and thinner lithosphere along its western, southern, and eastern margins. The zone of thickest lithosphere corresponds to areas with relatively thick crust, high elevations, and an absence of historic seismicity greater than magnitude 5.0. This region of thicker lithosphere also underlies a zone of reduced volcanic rock exposure relative to surrounding regions. Further, within the region there are no volcanic rocks in the NAVDAT database younger than 10 Ma, with the exception of Lunar Craters located in the south-central NBR. The shallow lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary observed along the margins of the NBR suggests that significant lithospheric thinning has occurred in these areas. This thinning is likely related to either extensional shear stresses or to the removal of lithospheric material, perhaps leading to accentuated strain along the margins of the Basin and Range. We interpret these data in the context of gravitational instabilities resulting in the removal of lithospheric material. A lithospheric downwelling has previously been identified within the center of the NBR based on high-velocity upper-mantle material observed in body wave tomography, a zone of weak or absent horizontal anisotropic fabric observed in shear

  1. Limiting depth of magnetization in cratonic lithosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Toft, Paul B.; Haggerty, Stephen E.

    1988-01-01

    Values of magnetic susceptibility and natural remanent magnetization (NRM) of clino-pyroxene-garnet-plagioclase granulite facies lower crustal xenoliths from a kimberlite in west Africa are correlated to bulk geochemistry and specific gravity. Thermomagnetic and alternating-field demagnetization analyses identify magnetite (Mt) and native iron as the dominant magnetic phases (totaling not more than 0.1 vol pct of the rocks) along with subsidiary sulfides. Oxidation states of the granulites are not greater than MW, observed Mt occurs as rims on coarse (about 1 micron) Fe particles, and inferred single domain-pseudosingle domain Mt may be a result of oxidation of fine-grained Fe. The deepest limit of lithospheric ferromagnetism is 95 km, but a limit of 70 km is most reasonable for the West African Craton and for modeling Magsat anomalies over exposed Precambrian shields.

  2. Deep thermal structure and thickness of the continental lithosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaupart, C.; Mareschal, J.; Kaminski, E.

    2002-12-01

    There is no doubt that cratonic lithosphere is much thicker than oceanic lithosphere, but large uncertainties remain on its thickness, deep thermal structure, physical properties (density, rheology) and composition. Heat flow and crustal heat production data in North America demonstrate that, in steady-state conditions, heat flow variations are essentially due to changes of crustal heat production. Crustal models in several different geological provinces and considerations on the thermal stability of the crust through geological time constrain the mantle heat flow to be in the range 11-16 mWm-2. For such low values, heat flow data are not sensitive to small, but significant, lateral variations of the mantle heat flow (≈ 20%). Downward extrapolation of temperature profiles requires knowledge of thermal conductivity and heat production in the lithospheric mantle. For a thick lithosphere, surface heat flow is not in equilibrium with the instantaneous heat production and basal heat flow, and surface measurements record a time-average. With current estimates of heat production in the lithospheric mantle (≈ 0.02 mWm-3), thermal models rule out that lithospheric thickness is greater than 330 km. Using heat flow data and other constraints on lithospheric temperatures, such as xenolith (P,T) equilibration conditions, one can only construct geotherms in a stable conductive layer. Thus, comparison with seismic constraints cannot be made without considering the dynamical interactions with the convective mantle. A small-scale convection model shows that temperatures at the base of the continental lithosphere may not be equal to those of the well-mixed (isentropic) oceanic convecting mantle. Constraints on deep lithospheric structure can also be obtained using thermal transients, as recorded for example by sedimentary accumulations in intracratonic basins. The stability of thick roots requires the lithospheric mantle to be compositionally buoyant. Localized thinning results

  3. Neodymium Isotope Variability at the Grain Scale in the Sub-Continental Lithospheric Mantle: NdO+ Analyses of Individual Clinopyroxene Grains (<5 ng Nd aliquots) from a Kilbourne Hole Harzburgitic Xenolith.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harvey, J.; Honn, D.; Baxter, E. F.; Warren, J. M.; Hammond, S.; Walshaw, R.

    2014-12-01

    It is evident that at scales of 102 to 10-2 m there is significant isotopic heterogeneity in the mantle that is not always reflected in primitive melts. The "Os isotopic gap"[1] is one such manifestation of this phenomenon but a similar offset exists between the Nd isotope composition of abyssal peridotites and the mid-ocean ridge basalts that they are inferred to have produced[2]. This study takes advantage of recent advances in the analysis of Nd isotopes as NdO+[3,4] which permit the precise analysis of single clinopyroxene grains (<1 mg mass; <5 ng Nd) from a continental harzburgitic xenolith from Kilbourne Hole, NM. Analyses of aggregates of clinopyroxenes from 5 Kilbourne Hole xenoliths reveal a wide range of 143Nd/144Nd (0.513011 ± 28 to 0.513615 ±19)[5]. This study demonstrates significant grain-to-grain isotopic heterogeneity at a scale of 10-2 m (143Nd/144Nd = 0.513089 ± 78 to 0.513364 ± 74) which (i) is equivalent to the range of values for Pacific MORB[6] and (ii) is more primitive than local basalts with an asthenospheric signature[7]. This suggests that small-scale refractory domains exist within the mantle which are either not sampled during partial melting or whose presence is obscured by the melting of higher volumes of more fusible material. Ref:[1]Alard et al. (2005) Nature 436, 1005-1008 [2]Warren et al. (2009) JGR 114, B12203, doi:10.1029/2008JB006186 [3]Harvey and Baxter (2009) Chem. Geol. 258, 251-257 [4]Honn et al. (2013) AGU Fall abstr. V33-2722 [5]Harvey et al. (2012) J. Petrol. 53, 1709-1742 [6]Hofmann (1997) Nature 385, 219-229 [7]Thompson et al. (2005) J. Petrol. 46, 1603-1643

  4. Evolution of the lithosphere in Pakistan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farah, Abul; Abbas, Ghazanfar; De Jong, Kees A.; Lawrence, Robert D.

    1984-06-01

    The geological setting of Pakistan in the framework of the modern concept of plate tectonics is unique in the sense that, within an area of about 800,000 km 2, critical tectonic junctions of different interacting plates and microplates are present in an environment where field exposures are excellent. Here we discuss the dynamics of these various plate boundaries. Two types of active plate boundaries are conspicuous: (1) convergent boundaries characterized by continent-continent collision, obduction, and thrusting in the northern region of the Himalaya and by oceanic crust subduction with a volcanic arc and a wide accretionary wedge in the southern region of Chagai and Makran; (2) a transform boundary, the Chaman transform zone, characterized by very large strike-slip and lesser thrusting. The Chaman transform zone connects the Makran convergence zone, where oceanic lithosphere is being subducted beneath the Lut and Afghan microplates, with the Himalayan convergence zone, where the Indo-Pakistan lithosphere is underthrusting Eurasia. The Chaman zone is at present an intracontinental plate boundary with oblique motion, characterized by north-south strike-slip faults and eastward thrusting and folding in the Kirthar-Sulaiman mountain belt. This mountain belt, the northwestern margin of the Indo-Pak subcontinent, was an Atlantic-type margin from the late Paleozoic until the Cretaceous. In the Cretaceous, the continental margin became a plate boundary; a thrust belt was formed in the Paleocene, and fragments of the oceanic crust were obducted, either as thrust sheets (Muslimbagh) or as an ophiolitic melange (Bela and Waziristan).

  5. Lithospheric Architecture of the Hudson Bay Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eaton, D.; Darbyshire, F.

    2009-05-01

    Hudson Bay is a vast inland sea that penetrates deeply into north-central Canada, forming a conspicuous element of the coastline and concealing several fundamental tectonic elements of North America, including most of the Paleoproterozoic Trans Hudson orogen (THO) and the Paleozoic Hudson Bay basin. The THO formed due to a collision between two Archean domains, the Superior and Churchill Provinces of the Canadian Shield, and is similar in scale and tectonic style to the modern Himalayan-Karakorum orogen. Tectonic reconstructions suggest that the lobate shape of the indentor (Superior Province) formed an orogenic template that exerted a persistent influence on the tectonic evolution of the region, resulting in anomalous preservation of juvenile crustal material. Based on analysis of gravity and magnetic data, we propose a model in which juvenile crust in the southeastern part of Hudson Bay formed within an island-arc setting proximal to the Superior Province, in contrast to the Reindeer Zone of Saskatchewan and Manitoba which accreted first to the Churchill Province. Thick, cold and refractory lithosphere that underlies the Bay is well imaged by surface-wave studies and comprises a large component of the cratonic mantle keel that forms the nucleus of the North American continent. The existence of an unusually thick mantle root beneath Hudson Bay indicates that subduction and collision are root-forming (or at least root-preserving) processes. Although the Hudson Bay basin is the largest by surface area of four major intracratonic basins in North America, it is also the shallowest. Available evidence suggests that basin subsidence may have been triggered by eclogitization of crust that was previously thickened during the Trans-Hudson orogeny. Relatively stiff Early Paleozoic lithosphere may have inhibited subsidence of the Hudson Bay basin relative to other basins of similar age in North America.

  6. Lithospheric Evolution of Magmas from the Northern Galapagos Province

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, M.; Geist, D.; Harpp, K. S.; Mittelstaedt, E. L.

    2010-12-01

    Volcanoes of the Northern Galapagos Providence (NGP) are crucial to understanding the interaction between the Galapagos Plume and the Galapagos Spreading Center (GSC). The NGP consists of five islands and nine volcanic lineaments, all located south of the GSC. Major and trace element compositions of seamounts within the NGP provide insight into the lithospheric evolution of magma within the province. The FLAMINGO cruise (June, 2010) dredged forty-seven localities in the NGP. Major element compositions were determined by XRF and microprobe analysis of submarine rocks and glasses. Crystallization as a function of pressure and temperature is modeled with MELTS and projections into ternary phase diagrams. The Wolf-Darwin Lineament (WDL) is divided into three groups for evaluation of the lavas’ petrology: Northern Wolf-Darwin lineament (that closest to the GSC including Darwin Island), Middle Wolf-Darwin lineament (MWDL, which includes Wolf Island), and Southern Wolf-Darwin lineament (that closest to the Galapagos Platform). Lavas from two other lineaments to the east of the WDL and around Pinta Island are assessed as well. Two parental compositions are modeled, one enriched and one depleted (K2O/TiO2 >0.23 as enriched and K2O/TiO2 =0.04 as depleted). CaO/Al2O3 and Al2O3 variations with Mg# vary considerably as a function of pressure. Magmas from most of the subregions of the NGP evolved by crystallization of olivine and plagioclase, with little CPX crystallization. This indicates that crystallization beneath these volcanoes is limited to pressures < 1 kb. In contrast, some MWDL magmas evolve by extensive crystallization of clinopyroxene-bearing assemblages, and our best pressure estimate is 3 kb. CPX crystallization is most likely due to polybaric crystal fractionation at the MWDL. Some of the NGP glasses are very rich in Al2O3, especially those of the MWDL, which peak at Al2O3 17.0 wt.% at Mg# of 59. The maximum Al2O3 of the other WDL subprovinces is 16.7 wt.%, at

  7. The continental lithospheric mantle: characteristics and significance as a mantle reservoir.

    PubMed

    Pearson, D G; Nowell, G M

    2002-11-15

    The continental lithospheric mantle (CLM) is a small-volumed (ca. 2.5% of the total mantle), chemically distinct mantle reservoir that has been suggested to play a role in the source of continental and oceanic magmatism. It is our most easily identifiable reservoir for preserving chemical heterogeneity in the mantle. Petrological and geophysical constraints indicate that the maximum depth of the CLM is ca. 250 km. There is a clear secular variation of CLM composition, such that CLM formed in the last 2 Gyr is less depleted and therefore less dynamically stable than ancient CLM formed in the Archean. We present new trace-element data for kimberlite-hosted lithospheric peridotites and metasomites. These data, combined with other data for spinel peridotites from non-cratonic regions, show that neither hydrous nor anhydrous lithospheric mantle xenoliths make suitable sources for continental or oceanic basalts. Addition of a hydrous phase, either amphibole or phlogopite, to depleted peridotite results in positive Nb and Ti anomalies that are the opposite of those predicted for some flood-basalt sources on the basis of their trace-element abundances. Overall, the Sr and Nd isotopic composition of cratonic and non-cratonic CLM is close to bulk Earth, with cratonic CLM showing small numbers of extreme compositions. Thus, while the CLM is certainly ancient in many locations, its average composition is not significantly 'enriched' over primitive upper mantle, in terms of either radiogenic isotopes or trace elements. These characteristics, plus a change in lithospheric chemistry with depth, indicate that the elemental and isotopic composition of lithospheric mantle likely to be re-incorporated into convecting mantle via delamination/thermal erosion processes is probably not very distinct from that of the convecting mantle. These observations lead us to question the requirement for CLM participation in the source of oceanic magmas and to promote consideration of a mantle that

  8. The continental lithospheric mantle: characteristics and significance as a mantle reservoir.

    PubMed

    Pearson, D G; Nowell, G M

    2002-11-15

    The continental lithospheric mantle (CLM) is a small-volumed (ca. 2.5% of the total mantle), chemically distinct mantle reservoir that has been suggested to play a role in the source of continental and oceanic magmatism. It is our most easily identifiable reservoir for preserving chemical heterogeneity in the mantle. Petrological and geophysical constraints indicate that the maximum depth of the CLM is ca. 250 km. There is a clear secular variation of CLM composition, such that CLM formed in the last 2 Gyr is less depleted and therefore less dynamically stable than ancient CLM formed in the Archean. We present new trace-element data for kimberlite-hosted lithospheric peridotites and metasomites. These data, combined with other data for spinel peridotites from non-cratonic regions, show that neither hydrous nor anhydrous lithospheric mantle xenoliths make suitable sources for continental or oceanic basalts. Addition of a hydrous phase, either amphibole or phlogopite, to depleted peridotite results in positive Nb and Ti anomalies that are the opposite of those predicted for some flood-basalt sources on the basis of their trace-element abundances. Overall, the Sr and Nd isotopic composition of cratonic and non-cratonic CLM is close to bulk Earth, with cratonic CLM showing small numbers of extreme compositions. Thus, while the CLM is certainly ancient in many locations, its average composition is not significantly 'enriched' over primitive upper mantle, in terms of either radiogenic isotopes or trace elements. These characteristics, plus a change in lithospheric chemistry with depth, indicate that the elemental and isotopic composition of lithospheric mantle likely to be re-incorporated into convecting mantle via delamination/thermal erosion processes is probably not very distinct from that of the convecting mantle. These observations lead us to question the requirement for CLM participation in the source of oceanic magmas and to promote consideration of a mantle that

  9. The Lithospheric Structure of Southern Africa from Magnetotelluric Sounding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, R. L.; Jones, A. G.; Atekwana, E. A.

    2014-12-01

    Measurements of mantle electrical conductivity, made through the magnetotelluric method, offer considerable insight into the structure of cratonic lithosphere. A particularly expansive data set has been collected in Southern Africa, started through the Southern Africa Magnetotelluric Experiment (SAMTEX) experiment, now continuing north through Zambia as part of the Project for Rift Initiation Development and Evolution (PRIDE) experiment. The combined data set highlights large variability in lithospheric structure that broadly correlates with surface geology: cratonic lithosphere is generally thick and electrically resistive, while much thinner lithosphere is seen beneath mobile belts. In areas of relatively uniform resistivity structure, we have constructed resistivity-depth profiles and use new laboratory data to place constraints on the water content of lithospheric mantle. Uncertainty in our estimates arises from differences between different laboratory results, but our data are generally consistent with a slightly damp upper lithospheric mantle above a dry and strong cratonic root. Other areas show complexity of structure that is difficult to understand using current knowledge of conductivity -the Bushveld complex, where the mantle is highly conductive, is one such example. In southwestern Zambia, the lithosphere is seen to be very thin (around 50km) beneath mobile belt terrain, as was inferred nearly 40 years ago on the basis of high heatflow. The mantle is highly conductive, most likely due to a combination of elevated temperatures, water content and perhaps a trace amount of melting. This anomalous structure may be linked to the southwest propagation of the East African Rift system.

  10. SEASAT observations of lithospheric flexure seaward of trenches

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcadoo, D. C.; Martin, C. F.

    1983-01-01

    Lithospheric flexure seaward of deep ocean trenches in SEASAT altimeter observations of the marine geoid. In fact, mechanical models of lithospheric flexure can be tested directly on the SEASAT altimeter data. A simple elastic model was used for the oceanic lithosphere and, after least squares adjustments, estimates of model parameters were recovered including Outer Rise (OR) amplitude, OR wavelength, and effective lithospheric thickness. Effective lithospheric thickness was recovered for five regions: the Mariana, the Kuril, the Philippine, the Aleutian and the Middle America OR. These results support the suggestion of Bodine et al. (1981) that effective thickness, T, increased with age of lithosphere in approximate accord with the relation T approximately equals x age to the 1/2 power where C approximately equals 4 km x my to the -1/2 power. Altimetric results agree more closely with this relation than do published results based on bathymetric data. The close agreement with the thickness-age relation suggests that there is no longer any need to assume that significant horizontal compression acts across the Kuril, Marianas and Izo-Bonin trenches. This thickness-age relation implies that flexural strength of the oceanic lithosphere is temperature controlled.

  11. Rejuvenation of the lithosphere by the Hawaiian plume.

    PubMed

    Li, Xueqing; Kind, Rainer; Yuan, Xiaohui; Wölbern, Ingo; Hanka, Winfried

    2004-02-26

    The volcanism responsible for creating the chain of the Hawaiian islands and seamounts is believed to mark the passage of the oceanic lithosphere over a mantle plume. In this picture hot material rises from great depth within a fixed narrow conduit to the surface, penetrating the moving lithosphere. Although a number of models describe possible plume-lithosphere interactions, seismic imaging techniques have not had sufficient resolution to distinguish between them. Here we apply the S-wave 'receiver function' technique to data of three permanent seismic broadband stations on the Hawaiian islands, to map the thickness of the underlying lithosphere. We find that under Big Island the lithosphere is 100-110 km thick, as expected for an oceanic plate 90-100 million years old that is not modified by a plume. But the lithosphere thins gradually along the island chain to about 50-60 km below Kauai. The width of the thinning is about 300 km. In this zone, well within the larger-scale topographic swell, we infer that the rejuvenation model (where the plume thins the lithosphere) is operative; however, the larger-scale topographic swell is probably supported dynamically.

  12. Lithospheric structure of Venus from gravity and topography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiménez-Díaz, Alberto; Ruiz, Javier; Kirby, Jon F.; Romeo, Ignacio; Tejero, Rosa; Capote, Ramón

    2015-11-01

    There are many fundamental and unanswered questions on the structure and evolution of the venusian lithosphere, which are key issues for understanding Venus in the context of the origin and evolution of the terrestrial planets. Here we investigate the lithospheric structure of Venus by calculating its crustal and effective elastic thicknesses (Tc and Te, respectively) from an analysis of gravity and topography, in order to improve our knowledge of the large scale and long-term mechanical behaviour of its lithosphere. We find that the venusian crust is usually 20-25 km thick with thicker crust under the highlands. Our effective elastic thickness values range between 14 km (corresponding to the minimum resolvable Te value) and 94 km, but are dominated by low to moderate values. Te variations deduced from our model could represent regional variations in the cooling history of the lithosphere and/or mantle processes with limited surface manifestation. The crustal plateaus are near-isostatically compensated, consistent with a thin elastic lithosphere, showing a thickened crust beneath them, whereas the lowlands exhibit higher Te values, maybe indicating a cooler lithosphere than that when the venusian highlands were emplaced. The large volcanic rises show a complex signature, with a broad range of Te and internal load fraction (F) values. Finally, our results also reveal a significant contribution of the upper mantle to the strength of the lithosphere in many regions.

  13. Tectonic determinations of lithospheric thickness on Ganymede and Callisto

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Croft, S. K.

    1985-01-01

    The concept of the Maxwell time of a viscoelastic material (4.5) is used in conjunction with calculated thermal profiles to evaluate the significance of tectonic estimates of lithospheric thickness. Thermal lithospheric thicknesses provide fundamental constraints on planetary thermal histories that complement the constraints provided by dateable surface deposits of endogenic origin. Lithospheric constraints are of particular value on the icy satellites where our understanding of both rheology and surface ages is considerably poorer than it is for the terrestrial planets. Certain extensional tectonic features can and have been used to estimate lithospheric thicknesses on Ganymede and Callisto. These estimates, however, refer to the depth of the elastic lithosphere defined by the zone of brittle failure. The relation between the elastic lithosphere and the thermal lithosphere (generally defined by the zone of conductive heat transport) is not straightforward, because the depth of brittle failure depends not only on the thermal profile, but also on rheology and strain rate (or the characteristic time over which stresses build towards failure). Characteristic time considerations are not trivial in this context because stresses generating brittle failure on the icy satellites may be produced by impacts, with characteristic times of seconds to days, or by geologic processes with time scales of hundreds of millions of years.

  14. Hudson Bay Lithospheric Experiment: Constraints on Lithospheric Thickness From Surface Waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darbyshire, F. A.

    2008-12-01

    HuBLE (Hudson Bay Lithospheric Experiment) is an international initiative to study the structure, dynamics and evolution of the Hudson Bay region. In particular, we seek to understand the interaction between the Archean cratons surrounding the region and the underlying Paleoproterozoic Trans-Hudson Orogen, which formed during the collision of the Superior and Churchill Provinces at 1.9-1.8 Ga. Global and continental- scale tomographic models indicate a thick, cold and refractory lithosphere beneath Hudson Bay. Most tomographic models suggest that this region is associated with the highest velocities and thickest seismological lithosphere of the Canadian Shield. The HuBLE project commenced in 2006, with the deployment of a number of telemetered broadband seismograph stations on the east and west coasts of Hudson Bay. Along with existing stations from the POLARIS/FedNor initiative in northern Ontario, and permanent Canadian stations, the deployment ringed Hudson Bay on three sides. A second phase of deployment in 2007, using non-telemetered broadband stations, completed the coverage of the region. A considerable number of large teleseismic earthquakes have been recorded by the array since its installation, and the data are generally of high quality. We measure Rayleigh wave phase velocities for paths crossing Hudson Bay, using the two-station cross-correlation method of Meier et al. (2004). Average phase velocity dispersion curves are constructed using data from multiple earthquakes along each path, resulting in a set of reliable dispersion measurements in the period range ~15--250~seconds. The data set therefore permits constraint of lithospheric shear wave velocity structure from mid-crustal to asthenospheric depths beneath the continent. Preliminary 1D shear wave velocity models of path-averaged structure are estimated using a smooth linearised inversion technique (Maupin & Cara, 1992). The models show a typically 'shield- type' signature, with a high

  15. Lithospheric cooling and thickening as a basin forming mechanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holt, Peter J.; Allen, Mark B.; van Hunen, Jeroen; Bjørnseth, Hans Morten

    2010-12-01

    Widely accepted basin forming mechanisms are limited to flexure of the lithosphere, and lithospheric stretching followed by cooling and thermal subsidence. Neither of these mechanisms works for a group of large basins, sometimes known as "intracontinental sags". In this paper we investigate cooling and thickening of initially thin lithosphere as a basin forming mechanism, by a combination of forward modelling and a backstripping study of two Palaeozoic North African basins: Ghadames and Al Kufrah. These are two of a family of basins, once unified, which lie over the largely accretionary crust of North Africa and Arabia. Such accretionary crust tends to be juvenile, consisting of amalgamated island arcs, accretionary prisms and melanges, and typically has near-normal crustal thicknesses but initially thin mantle lithosphere. Post-accretion subsidence is modelled using a plate cooling model similar to cooling models for oceanic lithosphere. The crustal composition and thickness used in the models are varied around average values of accretionary crust to represent likely heterogeneity. The model allows the lithosphere to thicken as it cools and calculates the resulting isostatic subsidence. Water-loaded tectonic subsidence curves from these forward models are compared to tectonic subsidence curves produced from backstripped wells from Al Kufrah and Ghadames Basins. A good match between the subsidence curves for the forward model and backstripping is produced when the best estimates for the crustal structure, composition and the present day thickness of the lithosphere for North Africa are used as inputs for the forward model. The model produces sediment loaded basins of 2-7 km thickness for the various crustal assemblies over ~ 250 Myr. This shows that lithospheric cooling provides a viable method for producing large basins with prolonged subsidence, without the need for initial extension, provided the condition of initially thin mantle lithosphere is met.

  16. Re-Os isotopic composition of peridotitic sulphide inclusions in diamonds from Ellendale, Australia: Age constraints on Kimberley cratonic lithosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smit, K. V.; Shirey, S. B.; Richardson, S. H.; le Roex, A. P.; Gurney, J. J.

    2010-06-01

    Sulphide-bearing diamonds recovered from the ˜20 Ma Ellendale 4 and 9 lamproite pipes in north-western Australia were investigated to determine the nitrogen aggregation state of the diamonds and Re-Os isotope geochemistry of the sulphide inclusions. The majority of diamond studies have been based on diamonds formed in the sub-continental lithospheric mantle (SCLM) below stable cratons, whereas the Ellendale lamproites intrude the King Leopold Orogen, south of the Kimberley craton. The sulphide inclusions consist of pyrrhotite-pentlandite-chalcopyrite assemblages, and can be divided into peridotitic and eclogitic parageneses on the basis of their Ni and Os contents. A lherzolitic paragenesis for the high-Ni sulphide inclusions is suggested from their Re and Os concentrations. Regression analysis of the Re-Os isotope data for the lherzolitic sulphides yields an age of 1426 ± 130 Ma, with an initial 187Os/ 188Os ratio of 0.1042 ± 0.0034. The upper limit of the uncertainty on the 187Os/ 188Os initial ratio gives a Re depletion age of 2.96 Ga, indicating the presence of SCLM beneath Ellendale since at least the Mesoarchaean, with the lherzolitic diamond-forming event much younger and unrelated to the craton keel stabilisation. The nitrogen aggregation state of the diamonds and calculated mantle residence temperatures suggest an origin and storage of the Ellendale diamonds in a stable cratonic SCLM, consistent with the King Leopold Orogen being cratonised by about 1.8 Ga. The diamonds do not show evidence for pervasive deformation or platelet degradation, which suggests that the diamonds had a relatively undisturbed 1.4 billion year mantle storage history.

  17. Petrology and geochemistry of mantle xenoliths from the Kapsiki Plateau (Cameroon Volcanic Line): Implications for lithospheric upwelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamen, Jules; Nkoumbou, Charles; Reusser, Eric; Tchoua, Felix

    2015-01-01

    Mantle xenoliths hosted by Oligocene alkaline basalts of the Kapsiki Plateau, northern end of the Cameroon Volcanic Line consist of group I spinel and plagioclase peridotites, mainly protogranular and accessorily porphyroclastic. The sub-continental lithospheric mantle here is heterogeneous and encloses both depleted and fertile components. Minerals exhibit wide range major element compositions compared to Nyos and Kumba grabens equivalent rocks. Spinel occurs as homogeneous brown crystals or as composite (brown-core-dark-rim) crystals when in contact with diopside or swatted in melt pools. Clinopyroxene crystals are either spinel exsolution-bearing or exsolution-free, the latter being often skeletal or frameworked and riddled with intracrystalline melt pools. Intraxenolith melt pockets and veinlets are always associated to plagioclase-bearing samples. Feldspars depict two distinctive compositions (An37-66Ab57-32Or6-2 and An3-7Ab52-62Or31-48) partly attributed to host xenolith type and to the involvement in the spinel and/or diopside melting reaction of an infiltrating alkali and carbonate-rich liquid. Petrographic and geochemical data discriminate melt pockets from their host basalts, excluding thus infiltration of basaltic melt as prospective origin. Thermo-barometric estimates reveal that prior to their entrainment the Kapsiki mantle xenoliths experienced two P-T equilibrium stages resulting in subsolidus re-equilibration from spinel- to plagioclase-facies conditions. Furthermore mineral textural relations show that the occurrence of plagioclase and melts inclusions is linked to spinel and/or diopside breakdown, likely subsequent to decompression and/or metasomatic induced melting events predating Oligo-Miocene volcanism.

  18. Lithospheric structure on Venus from tectonic modelling of compressional features

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banerdt, W. B.; Golombek, M. P.

    1987-01-01

    In previous studies, extensional models were used that incorporated realistic rheologies in order to constrain lithospheric structure. Lithospheric modelling is considered herein from the standpoint of compressional deformation. Features of presumed compressional tectonic origin are reviewed and a model for compressional folding based on lithospheric strength envelopes are presented that include the effects of both brittle and ductile yielding as well as finite elastic strength. Model predictions are then compared with the widths and spacings of observed tectonic features and it is concluded that the results are consistent with a thin crust overlying a relatively stronger mantle, with thermal gradients probably in the range of 10 to 15 deg/km.

  19. Subduction-Driven Recycling of Continental Margin Lithosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levander, Alan; Bezada, Maximiliano; Niu, Fenglin; Palomeras, Imma; Humphreys, Eugene; Carbonell, Ramon; Gallart, Josep; Schmitz, Michael; Miller, Meghan

    2016-04-01

    Subduction recycling of oceanic lithosphere, a central theme of plate tectonics, is relatively well understood. Recycling continental lithosphere is more difficult to recognize, can take a number of different forms, and appears to require an external trigger for initiation. Delamination and localized convective downwelling are two processes invoked to explain the removal of lithospheric mantle under or adjacent to orogenic belts. We describe a related process that can lead to the loss of continental lithosphere adjacent to a subduction zone: Subducting oceanic plates can entrain and recycle lithospheric mantle from an adjacent continent and disrupt the continental lithosphere far inland from the subduction zone. Body wave tomograms from dense broadband seismograph arrays in northeastern South America (SA) and the western Mediterranean show larger than expected volumes of positive velocity anomalies which we identify as the subducted Atlantic slab under northeastern SA, and the Alboran slab beneath the Gibraltar arc (GA). The positive anomalies lie under and are aligned with the continental margins at sublithospheric depths. The continental margins along which the subduction zones have traversed, i.e. the northeastern SA plate boundary and east of GA, have significantly thinner lithosphere than expected. The thinner than expected lithosphere extends inland as far as the edges of nearby cratons as determined from receiver function images and surface wave tomography. These observations suggest that subducting oceanic plates viscously entrain and remove continental mantle lithosphere from beneath adjacent continental margins, modulating the surface tectonics and pre-conditioning the margins for further deformation. The latter can include delamination of the entire lithospheric mantle and include the lower crust, as around GA, inferred by results from active and passive seismic experiments. Viscous removal of continental margin lithosphere creates LAB topography leading

  20. Inverse modeling of Central American lavas: old lithospheric and young asthenospheric heterogeneities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feigenson, M.; Gazel, E.; Carr, M. J.

    2009-12-01

    In recent years, there have been a number of models proposed to account for the OIB-like geochemical characteristics of lavas from central Costa Rica. The source for most basalts of the Central American volcanic front (ranging from Guatemala to northern Costa Rica) is dominantly DM (depleted MORB-source mantle) fluxed by subduction-derived fluids. In contrast, central Costa Rican basalts display striking isotopic similarities to the Galapagos hotspot. How the Galapagos signature is introduced into the Central American source is at the heart of the conflicting theories. Several models incorporate asthenospheric flow of this enriched mantle, either around the Central American arc via South America, or through a slab window, which may have opened about 5 my ago beneath central Costa Rica. Alternatively, passage of the Caribbean plate over the Galapagos hotspot may have left veins of unerupted melt within the sub-Caribbean lithosphere. These veins may be preferentially tapped during later superimposed arc volcanism. Although these models yield identical isotopic systematics, it may be possible to distinguish between them by a geochemical technique that can indicate the presence of garnet in the source region. This method, developed by Hofmann and coworkers in the 1980s, is termed inverse modeling, and uses the variation of REEs in lavas to assess the relative importance of garnet vs. clinopyroxene during partial melting. We have applied this method to new REE data from back arc lavas throughout Central America, and preliminary results indicate that garnet is not present in their sources. In contrast, direct slab melts (adakites) from Central America, as well as volcanic front lavas and alkaline basalt (with minimal slab signature) from central Costa Rica and Panama, require a source with garnet. Therefore, enriched mantle in the back arc is likely stored in the shallow lithosphere rather than introduced through asthenospheric flow. Enriched material in the volcanic

  1. Late Mesozoic-Cenozoic Evolution of the North American Cordillera: Lithospheric Response to Plume-Slab Interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ihinger, P. D.; Watkins, J. M.; Bernhardt, J. E.; Johnson, B. R.

    2003-12-01

    Throughout the late Mesozoic and Cenozoic eras, western North America experienced widespread deformation and volcanism. The nature and extent of this activity does not fit conveniently into the plate tectonic framework for crustal evolution. To date, there is no satisfying explanation that integrates the Laramide Orogeny, Basin and Range extensional activity, and the rise of the Colorado Plateau with the voluminous Tertiary volcanism including Eocene high-K magmatism, the mid-Tertiary ignimbrite `flare-up' in and around the Great Basin, and the more recent out-pouring of the Columbia River flood basalts (CRB). In fact, the unusual spatial and temporal relationship between the CRB and the on-going time-progressive basaltic and rhyolitic volcanism associated with the Yellowstone hot-spot track has led some researchers to question whether upwelling plumes do, indeed, exist. We note that magmas produced in western North America throughout the Cenozoic were derived from two compositionally distinct source regions: the sub-continental lithosphere (representing >95% of the magmatism) and the OIB source region (<5%). The two magma types occur at the same place and time throughout the province. We propose that the impingement of the positively buoyant plume head of the Yellowstone hot spot with the underside of the negatively buoyant, subducting Farallon plate at 80 My is responsible for the widespread Tertiary deformation and magmatic activity in the North American Cordillera. The dynamics of mantle flow required to accommodate the mutual passing of the two bodies led to a crisis in the normal mantle flow regime. Upwelling of the plume head was accommodated by shallowing both the Farallon slab and the overlying mantle wedge. This activity drove the subsequent tectonics of the over-riding continental lithosphere for nearly 80 My. We argue that this model is consistent with existing geological, geochemical and geophysical observations of the Cordillera; it provides a new

  2. Olympus Mons shaped by lithospheric flexure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Byrne, P. K.; van Wyk de Vries, B.; Holohan, E. P.; Murray, J. B.; Troll, V.

    2009-12-01

    Olympus Mons is the biggest volcano on Mars, towering 22 km above the NW flank of the Tharsis-Syria upland. Olympus has a characteristic morphology featuring a flat summit, convex upper flanks, concave lower flanks, and a basal escarpment. The summit hosts a six-caldera collapse complex. The upper flanks are terraced in a circumferential, imbricate pattern, whilst the lower flanks are covered in leveed lava channels and lava fans. The basal scarp surrounds much of the shield and reaches heights of 6 km in places. Beyond the escarpment lie aureole deposits, particularly prominent to the NW, downslope from the Tharsis Rise. Although the caldera complex probably developed due to multi-cyclic recharge and evacuation of magma chambers within the edifice, the origin of the remaining features is contentious. Flank terraces have been ascribed to lithospheric flexure, magma chamber tumescence, or volcano spreading. The basal scarp has been linked to tectonic, eruptive, and mass movement processes. The aureole deposits are generally regarded as causally related to the escarpment, but they too have been attributed to a range of formation mechanisms. Previous attempts to explain the genesis of this suite of structures have primarily invoked lithospheric flexure or volcano spreading, but no holistic model yet exists. Here we show that lithospheric flexure, with coeval slip along a basal décollement, is the leading candidate mechanism for the formation of the terraces, scarp, and aureole deposits of Olympus Mons. In a set of scaled analogue experiments, we loaded a ductile silicone putty “lithosphere” with a brittle sand cone “edifice”; a thin layer of putty below the cone served as a detachment surface. Flexure of the underlying silicone produced imbricate, outward-verging convexities on the cone’s upper- and mid flanks, a concave-upward annular trough on its lower flanks, and a prominent scarp at its base. The convexities closely resembled the geometry of terraces

  3. Investigating the Lithospheric Structure of Southern Madagascar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tilmann, F. J.; Yuan, X.; Rumpker, G.; Heit, B.; Rambolamana, G.; Rindraharisaona, E.; Priestley, K. F.

    2013-12-01

    The island of Madagascar occupies a key region in both the assembly and the multi-stage breakup of Gondwanaland, itself part of the super-continent Pangaea. Madagascar consists of an amalgamation of continental material, with the oldest rocks being of Archaean age. Its ancient fabric is characterised by several shear zones, some of them running oblique to the N-S trend, in particular in the south of the island. More recently during the Neogene, moderate volcanism has occurred in the Central and Northern part of the island, and there are indications of uplift throughout Eastern Madagascar over the last 10 Ma. Although Madagascar is now located within the interior of the African plate and far away from major plate boundaries (> 1000 km from the East African rift system and even further from the Central and South-West Indian Ridges), its seismic activity indicates that some deformation is taking place, and present-day kinematic models based on geodetic data and earthquake moment tensors in the global catalogues identify a diffuse N-S-oriented minor boundary separating two microplates, which appears to pass through Madagascar. In spite of the presence of Archaean and Proterozoic rocks continent-wide scale studies indicate a thin lithosphere (<120 km) throughout Madagascar, but are based on sparse data and cannot resolve the difference between eastern and western Madagascar. We are operating a ENE-WSW oriented linear array of 25 broadband stations in southern Madagascar, extending from coast to coast and sampling the sedimentary basins in the west as well as the metamorphic rocks in the East, cutting geological boundaries seen at the surface at high angle. The array crosses the prominent Bongolava-Ranotsara shear zone which is thought to have been formed during Gondwanaland assembly. The array recorded the magnitude 5.3 earthquake of January 25, 2013 which occurred just off its western edge. In addition, in May 2013 we have deployed 25 short period sensors in the

  4. Determination of the Earth's lithospheric magnetic field with satellite data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotsiaros, Stavros; Olsen, Nils; Finlay, Christopher

    2016-07-01

    Satellites such as Magsat, Ørsted, CHAMP and Swarm provide the most effective means of determining on a global scale the Earth's lithospheric magnetic field. In particular, the Swarm three-satellite constellation mission aims at capturing the smallest-scale features of the lithospheric field that have ever been captured from space. To achieve that, explicit advantage of the constellation aspect of Swarm has to be taken by using gradient estimates. We derive lithospheric field models using more than one year of magnetic gradient data, which are approximated by first differences of field vector data between the two lower Swarm satellites and along each satellite orbit, respectively. We find that gradient data are less sensitive to large-scale external field fluctuations. Moreover, gradient data appear to be a very efficient way of increasing the resolution of lithospheric field models and thus providing an initial validation of the gradient concept underlying the Swarm mission.

  5. The redox conditions of anhydrous and hydrous xenoliths of suprasubduction and intraplate lithospheric mantle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonadiman, C.; Coltorti, M.

    2012-12-01

    The oxidation state of the upper mantle, its relationship with C-H-O fluids speciation and tectonic settings has been debated for decades and the various modelling have considered the prevalent role of the hydrous minerals over nominally anhydrous minerals (and the opposite) as well as the dissolution of silicate minerals (as providers of Fe3+ to the system) as directly related to water activity and oxygen fugacity. Each of these modelling has different implications for mantle rheology, seismic structure, and the evolution of the lithosphere (i.e.: Karato and Jung, 1998, Hirshmann, 2006). Upper mantle is the only part of the Earth's mantle where the oxygen fugacity can be directly measured, its values/variation being dependent on various processes such as partial melting and metasomatism often operating in time and space without solution of continuity. Recent general reviews of oxygen thermobarometry measurements (Forst & McCammon, 2008; Foley, 2011) indicate that the oxygen fugacity at the top of the upper mantle falls within ±2 log units of the fayalite-magnetite-quartz (FMQ) oxygen buffer. There is also a general consensus in considering H2O as the strongest oxidizing agent in mantle metasomatic fluids, its activity leading to the formation of amphibole and raising the mantle redox state. This contribution presents fO2 and water activity results from three spinel-bearing mantle xenolith localities and distinct geodynamic settings: Ichinomegata (Japan) amphibole-bearing peridotites entrained in calc-alkaline basalts and Cerro Fraile (South Patagonia, Argentina), mostly anhydrous lherzolites and pirossenites brought up to the surface by alkaline basalts representing fragments of sub-arc mantle and Baker Rocks, Victoria Land (Antarctica), amphibole-bearing lherzolites representing portion of intraplate subcontinental lithospheric mantle. The three mantle sectors records fO2 values in the range of -1.9 to +0.8 log units of the FQM buffer. and low to very low aH2O

  6. Issues of oxygen excess in the crust and upper mantle lithosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balashov, Y. A.; Martynov, E. V.

    2012-04-01

    Application of a new geochemical buffer, 'CeB' - Ce+4/Ce+3 for zircons, is promising for oxygen fugacity (FO2) estimation in crust and mantle. Absence of Ce+4 and Eu+2-enriched zircons are typical of the lower lithosphere. Reducing setting dominate in mantle rocks. Subduction adds oxidized substance for lithosphere into deeper mantle (Balashov ea, 2011-2012). The zircons in upper lithosphere are oxidized. Peridotites minerals show increased H2O and OH- preserves to 150-160 km at ΔFMQ -1.4 - -0.1 (Babushkina et al, 2009) comparable with CeB 2.2 - 3.9. Increasing oceanic mass in the geological time controls water efflux and oxidation of upper the lithosphere. Oxygen source in crust and upper mantle is the most important, yet outstanding issues in geochemistry of Earth's upper shells. Oxygen excess in atmosphere correlating with long-term emergence and evolution of Earth's biosphere is an approach reflected in the schemes of cycle- and phase-wise biosphere evolution (Dobretsov et al, 2006; Sorokhtin et al, 2010). The both schemes demonstrate ideas for oxygen evolution of atmosphere, but are not confirmed by geochronology. Applying these outlines an actual picture FO2 evolution. Precambrian granitoids, detrital zircons and upper mantle lithosphere have similar CeB. The initial data include Australian Hadean and Archaean detrital zircons (Peck et al, 2001), CeB: 27.1 -1.96, and Eu+2/Eu+3: 0.015-0.12 (Balashov, Skublov, 2011). Greenland tonalities (3813 Ma) and granodiorite (3638 Ma) (Whitehouse, Kamber, 2002) CeB: 34 - 0.5. In oldest crust rocks dominated zircons with generation under high and heterogeneous FO2. Zircons in younger mantle-crustal rocks of S. American subduction zones (Ballard et al, 2002; Hoskin et al, 2000, etc.) show the same. Upper mantle lithosphere and crust represent continuously interacted with oxygen. If Progressively oxygen increase from Hadean to modern state (Dobretsov ea, 2006; Sorokhtin ea, 2010), contradicts with actual Archaean data. We

  7. Lithospheric Stress and Deformation (Paper 7R0323)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McNutt, Marcia

    1987-07-01

    The study of the mechanisms, magnitudes, and modes of lithospheric stress and deformation occupies a central position in the discipline of Tectonophysics. It is therefore difficult in assembling a comprehensive review to place limits on what should be included. For example, one cannot discuss stress and deformation apart from considerations of the rheological models of the lithosphere which link the two and ultimately control the behavior of plates at their margins and in their interiors. Once admitting to the importance of rheological considerations in discussing stress and deformation, one is then compelled to include information relating to the thermal state of the lithosphere, since temperature is one of the foremost environmental variables controlling rheology. Furthermore, lithospheric processes cannot be considered in isolation from those affecting the asthenosphere, since surely there exists some coupling between the motion of the lithosphere and convection in the Earth's interior. In fact, an understanding of lithospheric stress and deformation can be considered a prerequisite to solving problems in geodynamics because it is through the lithospheric filter that one detects the consequences of thermal and compositional anomalies at greater depth. The topic of this report cannot even be cleanly separated from reviews in other disciplines such as Seismology and Geodesy. The magnitude and orientation of lithospheric stress is often indicated by earthquakes, while lithospheric strain can be observed geodetically. The philosophy I have adopted here is that some overlap with other review papers in this series is unavoidable, and probably desirable from the standpoint of emphasizing how recent work n other areas of geophysics has contributed to the advancement in our understanding of the lithosphere's state-of-stress and mechanisms of deformation. I have, however, resisted the temptation to include extraterrestrial studies, presumably covered in the Planetary

  8. Juvenile psittacine environmental enrichment.

    PubMed

    Simone-Freilicher, Elisabeth; Rupley, Agnes E

    2015-05-01

    Environmental enrichment is of great import to the emotional, intellectual, and physical development of the juvenile psittacine and their success in the human home environment. Five major types of enrichment include social, occupational, physical, sensory, and nutritional. Occupational enrichment includes exercise and psychological enrichment. Physical enrichment includes the cage and accessories and the external home environment. Sensory enrichment may be visual, auditory, tactile, olfactory, or taste oriented. Nutritional enrichment includes variations in appearance, type, and frequency of diet, and treats, novelty, and foraging. Two phases of the preadult period deserve special enrichment considerations: the development of autonomy and puberty.

  9. The effects of strain heating in lithospheric stretching models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stanton, M.; Hodge, D.; Cozzarelli, F.

    1985-01-01

    The deformation by stretching of a continental type lithosphere has been formulated so that the problem can be solved by a continuum mechanical approach. The deformation, stress state, and temperature distribution are constrained to satisfy the physical laws of conservation of mass, energy, momentum, and an experimentally defined rheological response. The conservation of energy equation including a term of strain energy dissipation is given. The continental lithosphere is assumed to have the rheology of an isotropic, incompressible, nonlinear viscous, two layered solid.

  10. Lithospheric structure of the Yukon, northern Canadian Cordillera, obtained from magnetotelluric data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ledo, Juanjo; Jones, Alan G.; Ferguson, Ian J.; Wolynec, Lisa

    2004-04-01

    Two goals of Lithoprobe's geoscientific studies in the Phanerozoic accretionary cordillera of western North America were to define the subsurface geometries of the terranes and to infer the physical conditions of the crust. These questions were addressed in Canada's southern cordillera a decade ago and have more recently been addressed in the northern cordillera, of which one component of the new studies is magnetotelluric (MT) profiling from ancestral North American rocks to the coast. We present a resistivity cross section, and its interpretation, of the northern cordillera derived from modeling data from 42 MT sites along a 470-km-long NE-SW profile. Beneath the Coast Belt (southwestern end of the profile) a deep crustal low-resistivity layer dips inland; we interpret the crustal part of this conductor as being due to metasedimentary rocks emplaced and metamorphosed during Paleocene Kula plate subduction. A strong lateral transition in lithospheric mantle resistivity exists below the Intermontane Belt that is spatially coincident with changes in chemical and isotopic characteristics of Tertiary to recent alkaline lavas, suggesting that isotopically enriched lithosphere related to the Coast Belt basalts extends partly beneath the Intermontane Belt. The unusually high lower crustal resistivity in the Intermontane and Omineca Belts, similar in value to the resistivity found in the unextended part of central British Columbia, excludes the presence of fluids or conducting metasediments. Finally, our resistivity model displays strong lateral variation of the middle and lower crust between different terranes within the same belt, as a result of the complex structural evolution of the lithosphere.

  11. Temporal and Spatial Scales of Sub-Continental Mantle Convection: Comparison of Modern and Geological Observations of Dynamic Support

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, S. M.; Lovell, B.; Crosby, A. G.

    2011-12-01

    The topographies of Africa and Antarctica form patterns of interlocking swells. The admittance between swell topography and free-air gravity indicates that these swells are dynamically supported by mantle convection, with swell diameters of 1850±450 km and full heights between 800 and 1800 m. The implication is that mantle convection not only supports swells surrounding hotspots but also influences topography across the entire surface areas of Africa and Antarctica. Topographic swells and associated gravity anomalies with diameters over 1000 km are observed on other continents and throughout the oceans. Numerical models support the idea that dynamically supported swell topography is a worldwide phenomenon. We investigate whether dynamically supported swells are also observed throughout the geological record, focussing on intensively studied Mesozoic- Cenozoic sedimentary rocks around Britain and Ireland. Since 200 Ma, this region was affected by three dynamically supported swells that peaked during the Middle Jurassic, Early Cretaceous and Eocene (c. 175, 146 and 56 Ma), each several thousand kilometres in diameter, and the region now lies on the edge of the modern swell centred on Iceland. The diameters and maximum heights of the Mesozoic British swells and the modern African and Antarctic swells are similar. The ancient British swells grew in 5--10 Myr and decayed over 20--30 Myr, suggesting vertical motion rates comparable to those estimated from geomorphological studies of Africa. Igneous production rate and swell height are not correlated in the modern and the geological records. Vertical motions of Britain and Ireland, a typical piece of continental lithosphere far from a destructive plate boundary, have been demonstrably affected by convective support for over half of the past 200 Ma period. Mantle convection should be considered as a common control on regional sea-level at time periods from 10s down to 1 Myr or less, and with vertical motion rates in the

  12. Lithospheric imaging via teleseismic scattering tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frederiksen, A. W.; Revenaugh, J.

    2004-12-01

    The coda of the teleseismic P phase consists largely of energy scattered by small inhomogeneities in the receiver-side lithosphere. Given large collections of teleseismic data from dense permanent networks, previous workers have successfully back-propagated coda energy back to scattering source points using various kinematic migration schemes, as well as by inverting using an inverse scattering/radon transform approach. Under the Born approximation, seismic scattering is a linear process; therefore it is possible to approach coda scattering as a linear waveform inversion problem, mathematically similar to transmission-based tomography. Assuming ray-theoretical propagation and Rayleigh scattering, we pose the inverse scattering problem in tomographic form, and recover perturbations in density and P and S velocities from Pp and Ps scattered data. The method is applied to data from the Southern California Seismic Network (SCSN) covering the San Jacinto-Anza region. The results show a considerable correlation between seismicity and velocity perturbation structure, particularly in the region between the Mission Creek and Banning fault branches. Features connecting the Coyote Creek and Elsinore faults at right angles are correlated with seismicity lineations and may represent conjugate faulting with no surface expression.

  13. Swarm magnetic gradients for lithospheric modelling (SLIM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouman, Johannes; Ebbing, Jörg; Kotsiaros, Stavros; Brönner, Marco; Haagmans, Roger; Fuchs, Martin; Holzrichter, Nils; Olsen, Nils; Baykiev, Eldar

    2016-04-01

    We present first results of a feasibility study to use magnetic gradient information derived from Swarm data for crustal field modelling. The study is part of ESA's Support To Science Element (STSE) Swarm+ Innovations. In a first step, magnetic gradients have been derived from the observations taken by the three Swarm satellites, with emphasis on the two side-by-side flying spacecraft. Next, these gradients are used to compute magnetic gradient grids at 450 km altitude (the present mean altitude of the lower Swarm satellites) for one example region, North-West Europe. The suggested area comprise both exposed basement geology in southern Sweden and Norway with crustal scale magnetic anomalies and the Sorgenfrei-Tornquist Zone, a well-studied large scale tectonic fault system. With sensitivity analysis we studied the added benefit of the information from the gradient grids for lithospheric magnetic field modelling. A wealth of aeromagnetic data and additional constraining information for the example area allows us to validate our modelling results in great detail.

  14. Re-Os isotopic evidence for an enriched-mantle source for the Noril'sk-type, ore-bearing intrusions, Siberia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Walker, R.J.; Morgan, J.W.; Horan, M.F.; Czamanske, G.K.; Krogstad, E.J.; Fedorenko, V.A.; Kunilov, V.E.

    1994-01-01

    Magmatic Cu-Ni sulfide ores and spatially associated ultramafic and mafic rocks from the Noril'sk I, Talnakh, and Kharaelakh intrusions are examined for Re-Os isotopic systematics. Neodymium and lead isotopic data also are reported for the ultramafic and mafic rocks. The Re-Os data for most samples indicate closed-system behavior since the ca. 250 Ma igneous crystallization age of the intrusions. There are small but significant differences in the initial osmium isotopic compositions of samples from the three intrusions. Ores from the Noril'sk I intrusion have ??Os values that vary from +0.4 to +8.8, but average +5.8. Ores from the Talnakh intrusion have ??Os values that range from +6.7 to +8.2, averaging +7.7. Ores from the Kharaelakh intrusion have ??Os values that range from +7.8 to +12.9, with an average value of +10.4. The osmium isotopic compositions of the ore samples from the Main Kharaelakh orebody exhibit minimal overlap with those for the Noril'sk I and Talnakh intrusions, indicating that these Kharaelakh ores were derived from a more radiogenic source of osmium than the other ores. Combined osmium and lead data for major orebodies in the three intrusions plot in three distinct fields, indicating derivation of osmium and lead from at least three isotopically distinct sources. Some of the variation in lead isotopic compositions may be the result of minor lower-crustal contamination. However, in contrast to most other isotopic and trace element data, Os-Pb variations are generally inconsistent with significant crustal contamination or interaction with the subcontinental lithosphere. Thus, the osmium and lead isotopic compositions of these intrusions probably reflect quite closely the compositions of their mantle source, and suggest that these two isotope systems were insensitive to lithospheric interaction. Ultramafic and mafic rocks have osmium and lead isotopic compositions that range only slightly beyond the compositions of the ores. These rocks also

  15. Metasomatism in the lithospheric mantle beneath southern Patagonia, Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolosova-Satlberger, Olesya; Ntaflos, Theodoros; Bjerg, Ernesto

    2015-04-01

    Mantle xenoliths from Gobernador Gregores, southern Patagonia are spinel- lherzolites, harzburgites and wehrlites. Composite xenoliths consisting of websterites, olivine-websterites and spinel- lherzolites or harzburgites are present as well. The lithospheric mantle beneath Gobernador Gregores region was affected by multiple modal metasomatic events as can be inferred by the presence of amphibole, phlogopite and apatite. The existence of amphibole as inclusion in clinopyroxene suggests dehydration reaction of peridotites, which previously experienced modal metasomatism. This textural evidence records the earliest detectable metasomatic event. A second distinct modal metasomatic event consists of disseminated up to 6 mm in diameter coarse grained amphiboles (100*mg# =89.9) which show breakdown reactions and pseudomorphic replacement by glass and fine grained second generation of olivine, clinopyroxene and spinel. The intensity of the breakdown reaction is variable. In most cases amphibole occurs as a relict within these pseudomorphs. However, melt pockets of up to 10 mm in diameter are abundant, irregular in shape and having the same minerals such as in the pseudomorphs, indicate clearly amphibole breakdown because remnants of it were found enclosed by second generation clinopyroxene. Similar breakdown reactions experienced the phlogopite in the samples where is present. The Phlogopite (100*mg# =88.6) breakdown produces the same mineral phases as the amphibole. The second generation minerals formed after breakdown of amphibole and phlogopite show minor differences in their composition. However, the chemical composition of glass varies considerably. The glasses formed after breakdown of amphibole and phlogopite have trachyandesitic and tephriphonolitic composition, respectively. Some harzburgites and composite xenoliths reveal another metasomatic event: peridotite, enriched in orthopyroxene (mainly orthopyroxenite veinlets, rare websterite), suggests interaction with

  16. Thermal thickness and evolution of Precambrian lithosphere: A global study

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Artemieva, I.M.; Mooney, W.D.

    2001-01-01

    The thermal thickness of Precambrian lithosphere is modeled and compared with estimates from seismic tomography and xenolith data. We use the steady state thermal conductivity equation with the same geothermal constraints for all of the Precambrian cratons (except Antarctica) to calculate the temperature distribution in the stable continental lithosphere. The modeling is based on the global compilation of heat flow data by Pollack et al. [1993] and more recent data. The depth distribution of heat-producing elements is estimated using regional models for ???300 blocks with sizes varying from 1?? ?? 1?? to about 5?? ?? 5?? in latitude and longitude and is constrained by laboratory, seismic and petrologic data and, where applicable, empirical heat flow/heat production relationships. Maps of the lateral temperature distribution at depths 50, 100, and 150 km are presented for all continents except Antarctica. The thermal thickness of the lithosphere is calculated assuming a conductive layer overlying the mantle with an adiabat of 1300??C. The Archean and early Proterozoic lithosphere is found to have two typical thicknesses, 200-220 km and 300-350 km. In general, thin (???220 km) roots are found for Archean and early Proterozoic cratons in the Southern Hemisphere (South Africa, Western Australia, South America, and India) and thicker (>300 km) roots are found in the Northern Hemisphere (Baltic Shield, Siberian Platform, West Africa, and possibly the Canadian Shield). We find that the thickness of continental lithosphere generally decreases with age from >200 km beneath Archean cratons to intermediate values of 200 ?? 50 km in early Proterozoic lithosphere, to about 140 ?? 50 km in middle and late Proterozoic cratons. Using known crustal thickness, our calculated geotherms, and assuming that isostatic balance is achieved at the base of the lithosphere, we find that Archean and early Proterozoic mantle lithosphere is 1.5% less dense (chemically depleted) than the

  17. Lithospheric Structure and Earthquakes beneath Kashmir Himalaya

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wanchoo, S. K.; Powali, D.; Sharma, S.; Mitra, S.; Priestley, K. F.; Gaur, V. K.

    2014-12-01

    Over the last two centuries, convergence between India and Tibet has outpaced the cumulative slip released through Himalayan earthquakes and have resulted in seismic gap across Kashmir Himalaya. Recent GPS geodetic data from Kashmir show that the ongoing convergence is accumulated as elastic strain within a ~200 km wide locked decollement and is sufficiently stressed to drive a magnitude 8 or greater event. Recently published focal mechanism of the mb 5.7 (2013) Kishtwar earthquake and hypocentral distribution of small-to-moderate seismicity for the past 60 years, showed that the down dip end of the locked decollement is currently active and could possibly be the site of initiation of a future great earthquake. In order to assess the seismic hazard in this Kashmir gap, we require a detailed knowledge of the lithospheric structure and use it to reliably locate active faults. A pilot seismological experiment, of nine broadband seismographs, have been deployed across the Kashmir Himalaya to achieve this goal. These stations are sited on the Siwalik Himalaya (AKNR, NGRT, SMVD, SUND and TAPN), the Lesser Himalaya (RAMN and UDHM) and the Higher Himalaya (BADR and PHAG), and straddle major Himalayan thrust zones. Most of these stations have recorded high quality broadband data for a year, which has been used to compute receiver functions and relocate local earthquakes. The Moho Ps is the strongest arrival on all the receiver functions, and highlights the base of the underthrusting Indian crust as a large impedance contrast boundary. Forward modeling of receiver functions show that the crustal thickness increases from ~40 km beneath the Siwalik Himalaya to ~48 km beneath the Lesser Himalaya and to ~52 km beneath the Higher Himalaya. The average crustal Vp/Vs points to a felsic Indian crust underthrusting the Kashmir Himalaya. Relocated local earthquakes cluster around the hypocenter of the Kishtwar earthquake and attests to the active downdip end of the locked decollement.

  18. Mid-Lithospheric boundary below oceans from seismic surface waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montagner, Jean-Paul; Burgos, Gael; Beucler, Eric; Capdeville, Yann; Mocquet, Antoine

    2014-05-01

    The nature of LithosphereAsthenosphere boundary (LAB) is controversial according to different types of observations. Using a massive dataset of surface wave dispersions in a broad frequency range (15300s), we have developed a 3D tomographic model (1st order perturbation theory) of the upper mantle at the global scale. It is used to derive maps of LAB from the resolved elastic parameters. The key effects of shallow layers and anisotropy are taken into account in the inversion process. We investigate LAB distributions primarily below oceans according to three different proxies which corresponds to the base of the lithosphere from the vertically polarized shear velocity variation at depth, from the changes in orientation of the fast axis of azimuthal anisotropy and from the maximum of the gradient of the radial anisotropy positive anomaly. The LAB depth determinations of the different proxies are consistent for the different oceanic regions. The estimations of the LAB depth based on the shear velocity proxy increase from thin (20 km) lithosphere in the ridges to thick (120-130 km) old ocean lithosphere. LAB depths inferred from azimuthal anisotropy proxy show deeper values for the increasing oceanic lithosphere (130-135 km). The radial anisotropy proxy presents a very fast increase of the LAB depth from the ridges, from 50 km to older ocean where it reaches a remarkable monotonic sub horizontal profile (70-80 km). The results present two types of pattern of the age of oceanic lithosphere evolution with the LAB depth. The shear velocity and azimuthal anisotropy proxies show age dependent profiles in agreement with thermal plate models while the LAB based on radial anisotropy is characterized by a shallower depth, defining a sub horizontal interface (mid-lithospheric boundary) with a very small age dependence for all three main oceans (Pacific, Atlantic and Indian). These different patterns raise questions about the nature of the LAB in the oceanic regions, and of the

  19. Global model for the lithospheric strength and effective elastic thickness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tesauro, Magdala; Kaban, Mikhail K.; Cloetingh, Sierd A. P. L.

    2013-08-01

    Global distribution of the strength and effective elastic thickness (Te) of the lithosphere are estimated using physical parameters from recent crustal and lithospheric models. For the Te estimation we apply a new approach, which provides a possibility to take into account variations of Young modulus (E) within the lithosphere. In view of the large uncertainties affecting strength estimates, we evaluate global strength and Te distributions for possible end-member 'hard' (HRM) and a 'soft' (SRM) rheology models of the continental crust. Temperature within the lithosphere has been estimated using a recent tomography model of Ritsema et al. (2011), which has much higher horizontal resolution than previous global models. Most of the strength is localized in the crust for the HRM and in the mantle for the SRM. These results contribute to the long debates on applicability of the "crème brulée" or "jelly-sandwich" model for the lithosphere structure. Changing from the SRM to HRM turns most of the continental areas from the totally decoupled mode to the fully coupled mode of the lithospheric layers. However, in the areas characterized by a high thermal regime and thick crust, the layers remain decoupled even for the HRM. At the same time, for the inner part of the cratons the lithospheric layers are coupled in both models. Therefore, rheological variations lead to large changes in the integrated strength and Te distribution in the regions characterized by intermediate thermal conditions. In these areas temperature uncertainties have a greater effect, since this parameter principally determines rheological behavior. Comparison of the Te estimates for both models with those determined from the flexural loading and spectral analysis shows that the 'hard' rheology is likely applicable for cratonic areas, whereas the 'soft' rheology is more representative for young orogens.

  20. Evolution of the lithosphere beneath the Michigan Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahern, Judson L.; Dikeou, Panayes J.

    1989-10-01

    Using depths to formation tops from 480 wells, changes in shape of the Michigan Basin during the Phanerozoic are determined. Flexural rigidity of the lithosphere is then estimated for several time intervals by assuming that changes in shape were caused by deflection of an elastic plate subjected to an axisymmetric load. It is found that the flexural rigidity generally increased over time, from less than 10 22 N m early in the basin's history to more than 10 23 N m late in the basin's development. This increase in rigidity is attributed to cooling and thickening of the elastic portion of the lithosphere as the basin was subsiding. Low flexural rigidity early in the basin's history indicates that the lithosphere was probably rejuvenated (heated, thinned, and possibly uplifted) prior to basin subsidence. The location of the load remained approximately fixed over time. The rejuvenation process is investigated using a one-dimensional finite-difference thermal model in which a 142-km plate is temporarily heated from below. Taking the depth to the 450°C isotherm to be the effective elastic thickness of the lithosphere, rigidity predicted by the thermal model is consistent with the observed increase in rigidity over time. Furthermore, phase changes produced by heating during thermal rejuvenation, combined with the predicted thermal contraction following rejuvenation, explain the two episodes of subsidence observed in the Michigan Basin. We conclude that the lithosphere in this area was rejuvenated approximately 500 m.y. ago. As the lithosphere cooled, it thickened; it also contracted and subsided. Temperatures near the surface of the crust apparently were not raised sufficiently by lithospheric rejuvenation to alter the Keweenawan and older radiometric and paleomagnetic dates of basement rocks.

  1. Temporal evolution of continental lithospheric strength in actively deforming regions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thatcher, W.; Pollitz, F.F.

    2008-01-01

    It has been agreed for nearly a century that a strong, load-bearing outer layer of earth is required to support mountain ranges, transmit stresses to deform active regions and store elastic strain to generate earthquakes. However the dept and extent of this strong layer remain controversial. Here we use a variety of observations to infer the distribution of lithospheric strength in the active western United States from seismic to steady-state time scales. We use evidence from post-seismic transient and earthquake cycle deformation reservoir loading glacio-isostatic adjustment, and lithosphere isostatic adjustment to large surface and subsurface loads. The nearly perfectly elastic behavior of Earth's crust and mantle at the time scale of seismic wave propagation evolves to that of a strong, elastic crust and weak, ductile upper mantle lithosphere at both earthquake cycle (EC, ???10?? to 103 yr) and glacio-isostatic adjustment (GIA, ???103 to 104 yr) time scales. Topography and gravity field correlations indicate that lithosphere isostatic adjustment (LIA) on ???106-107 yr time scales occurs with most lithospheric stress supported by an upper crust overlying a much weaker ductile subtrate. These comparisons suggest that the upper mantle lithosphere is weaker than the crust at all time scales longer than seismic. In contrast, the lower crust has a chameleon-like behavior, strong at EC and GIA time scales and weak for LIA and steady-state deformation processes. The lower crust might even take on a third identity in regions of rapid crustal extension or continental collision, where anomalously high temperatures may lead to large-scale ductile flow in a lower crustal layer that is locally weaker than the upper mantle. Modeling of lithospheric processes in active regions thus cannot use a one-size-fits-all prescription of rheological layering (relation between applied stress and deformation as a function of depth) but must be tailored to the time scale and tectonic

  2. Osmium isotope evidence for Early to Middle Proterozoic mantle lithosphere stabilization and concomitant production of juvenile crust in Dish Hill, CA peridotite xenoliths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armytage, Rosalind M. G.; Brandon, Alan D.; Peslier, Anne H.; Lapen, Thomas J.

    2014-07-01

    The 187Os/188Os compositions in peridotite samples from the sub-continental lithospheric mantle (SCLM) can be used to constrain the timing of melt extraction and potentially test the link between large-scale mantle melting and juvenile crust production. The SCLM has often experienced a complex history such that some lithophile elements such as REEs (rare earth elements) in these rocks typically record overprinting during metasomatism. New 187Os/188Os, major and trace element compositional data were obtained on sixteen Dish Hill peridotite xenoliths (California, USA) and are used to examine these issues. The samples show strong correlations between 187Os/188Os and indicators of melt depletion such as Lu abundance in clinopyroxene, modal abundance of clinopyroxene, bulk rock Al2O3 and the Cr# (Cr/(Cr + Al) in spinel. These relationships indicate that metasomatism did not compromise the 187Os/188Os systematics. The data appear to form two melt depletion trends consistent with Re depletion model ages (TRD) obtained from the two Al2O3 versus 187Os/188Os trends are 2.1 ± 0.5 Ga and 1.3 ± 0.3 Ga (±95% conf.). It has been suggested that the SCLM under Dish Hill may be fragments of oceanic lithosphere emplaced as the result of Farallon plate subduction during the Late Cretaceous (Luffi et al., 2009). However, the strong melt depletion trends, major element compositions and Re-depletion ages are not consistent with the interpretation of this suite of xenoliths having an oceanic lithospheric origin. Rather, the 2.1 Ga age coincides with Nd model ages of 2-2.3 Ga (Bennett and DePaolo, 1987; Rämö and Calzia, 1998) for the overlying Mojavia crustal province. The 1.3 Ga age is consistent with large-scale A-type magmatism in the nearby region at this time that is purported to be the result of mantle plume melting processes. Therefore, data from this study point to the SCLM under Dish Hill being formed by two ancient mantle-melting events, which could be the result of

  3. Geochemical and isotopic characteristics of lithospheric mantle beneath West Kettle River, British Columbia: Evidence from ultramafic xenoliths

    SciTech Connect

    Xue, Xianyu; Baadsgaard, H.; Scarfe, C.M. ); Irving, A.J. )

    1990-09-10

    A group of spinel peridotite xenoliths from West Kettle River, British Columbia, represents essentially undepleted to moderately depleted lithospheric mantle rocks in terms of major and compatible trace elements. Whole rock Sr isotopic composition for most of these xenoliths, and whole rock Sm-Nd isotopic composition and LREE contents for some of them, seem to have been perturbed by near-surface processes. Sr and Nd isotopic results for acid-cleaned clinopyroxenes separated from these spinel peridotites reveal an isotopically mid-ocean ridge basalt (MORB)-like mantle. Seven spinel lherzolites gave Nd model ages of 1.5-3.6 Ga, similar to MORB, and on a Sm-Nd isotope diagram plot close to a reference Nd isochron with an age of 0.7 Ga and an initial {var epsilon}{sub Nd} of +7. These features likely resulted from multiple mantle depletion. The isotopic similarities of these xenoliths with MORB suggest that this area is underlain by oceanic lithospheric mantle, possibly accreted to North America during the mid-Jurassic. The Nd isochron age could record the time when the oceanic lithosphere was isolated from the asthenosphere. Recent enrichment event may have acted on such a depleted mantle, as indicated by the low Sm/Nd ratios of two spinel harzburgites.

  4. Lithospheric structure and compensation mechanisms of the Galapagos Archipelago

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feighner, Mark A.; Richards, Mark A.

    1994-04-01

    Volcanic islands of the Galapagos Archipelago are the most recent subaerial expression of the Galapagos hotspot. These islands and numerous seamounts are constructed mainly upon a broad volcanic platform that overlies very young (less than 10 m.y.) oceanic lithosphere just south of the active Galapagos Spreading Center. The 91 deg W fracture zone crosses the platform and creates an estimated 5-m.y. age discontinuity in the lithosphere. Major tectonic features of the Galapagos include an unusually broad distribution of volcanic centers, pronounced structural trends such as the NW-SE Wolf-Darwin Lineament (WDL), and a steep escarpment along the western and southern margins of the archipelago. We use shipboard gravity and bathymetry data along with Geosat geoid data to explain the tectonic and structural evolution of the Galapagos region. We model the gravity anomalies using a variety of compensation models, including Airy isostasy, continuous elastic flexure of the lithosphere, and an elastic plate with embedded weaknesses, and we infer significant lithospheric strength variations across the archipelago. The outboard parts of the southern and western escarpment are flexurally supported with an effective elastic thickness of approximately 12 km. This area includes the large shield volcanoes of Fernandina and Isabela Islands, where the lithosphere regionally supports these volcanic loads. The central platform is weaker, with an elastic thickness of 6 km or less, and close to Airy isostasy. The greatest depths to the Moho are located beneath eastern Isabela Island and the central platform. Thinner lithosphere in this region may account for the broad distribution of volcanoes, the extended period of eruption of the central volcanoes, and their reduced size. The transition from strong to weak lithosphere along the southern escarpment appears to be abrupt, within the resolution of our models, and can be best represented by a free end or faultlike discontinuity. Also

  5. The evolution of lithosphere deformation due to infiltration of asthenosphere melt into a lithosphere with inherited weakness: insight from 2D numerical models of continental rifts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Havlin, C.; Parmentier, E.; Hirth, G.

    2013-12-01

    Melt formed in the asthenosphere affects lithosphere evolution through its accumulation and subsequent infiltration and heating of the lithosphere. Magmatic weakening of the lithosphere has received particular attention in the context of continental rifting because homogeneous continental lithosphere is too strong to rift under available tectonic forces without a weakening mechanism. But the observation that rifting generally initiates in heterogeneous continental mobile belts suggests that rift zones develop in lithosphere with some inherited compositional weakness, obscuring the importance of magmatic weakening. To test the relative roles of magmatic and compositional weakening, we construct a 2D numerical model that includes both effects. We treat the lithosphere and asthenosphere as separate, but coupled, domains. The lithosphere deforms via a composite brittle-ductile rheology with a strain rate that varies horizontally but is independent of depth. We apply an extensional force that is constant throughout the lithosphere, causing thinned or weakened regions of the lithosphere to extend at higher strain rate. We treat the asthenosphere as a viscous and partially molten and solve the 2D conservation equations for mass, momentum and energy for both the solid and melt phases. Melting and freezing are treated using a hydrated peridotite solidus. Solid velocities in the asthenosphere are calculated using the solid velocities from the lithosphere base as boundary conditions. The asthenosphere and lithosphere are coupled through magma infiltration and subsequent lithosphere heating. Melt fractions accumulating above an imposed critical melt fraction are extracted and emplaced within a few kms of the lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary, where it freezes, releasing latent heat. We test scenarios with a fixed critical melt fraction as well as a variable critical melt fraction determined by our previously published parametrization of dike propagation [Havlin et al., EPSL

  6. Global Seismic Imaging of the Lithosphere Asthenosphere Boundary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tharimena, S.; Rychert, C.; Harmon, N.

    2015-12-01

    The lithosphere asthenosphere boundary (LAB) beneath oceans separates rigid, conductively cooling plates from the underlying warm ductile convecting mantle, characterized by low seismic wave velocities and high attenuation. The depth and nature of the lithosphere asthenosphere boundary is fundamental to our understanding of plate tectonics and mantle convection. Although conductive cooling models establish that oceanic lithosphere cools, thickens and subsides as it ages, this simple realization of the tectonic plates is not well understood. The depth, sharpness, composition and defining mechanism of the LAB remains elusive. Although oceanic lithosphere constitutes the bulk of the tectonic plates, precisely imaging the LAB has proved challenging. Here we use SS precursors from 25 years of seismic data to image and globally map the depth of the LAB across the Pacific, Atlantic and Indian Oceans. The result represents a vast improvement in lateral coverage of discontinuities in comparison to previous results. The depth of the discontinuity varies from 25 to 130 km within an error of ±5 km. We observe a general trend of increasing discontinuity depth with plate age, although some old oceanic lithosphere has shallower discontinuities. Overall, the results are suggestive of two distinct mantle layers.

  7. Strain localisation and weakening of the lithosphere during extension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Regenauer-Lieb, Klaus; Rosenbaum, Gideon; Weinberg, Roberto F.

    2008-10-01

    We explore the sensitivity of extensional systems to the thermal structure of the lithosphere using numerical simulations that fully couple the energy, momentum and continuity equations. The rheology of the lithosphere is controlled by weakening processes, such as shear heating, that localises strain into shear zones and faults. Numerical models show that during extension of an initially unpatterned lithosphere, structures develop spontaneously out of basic thermodynamic energy fluxes, and without the imposition of ad hoc rules on strain localisation. This contrasts with the classical Mohr-Coulomb theory for brittle localisation, which prescribes the angles of faults by a mathematical rule. Our results show that the mode of extension is sensitive to subtle changes in rheology, heat flux and geometry of the system. This sensitivity lies at the core of the variety and complexity observed in extensional systems. Localisation processes make the lithosphere weaker than previously estimated from the Brace-Goetze quasi-static approach. Consequently, typical estimates for plate tectonic forces are capable of splitting the lithosphere under extension, even without the role of active magmatism.

  8. Circum-Arctic lithospheric transects from onshore to offshore

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pease, V.; Coakley, B.; Faleide, J. I.; Jokat, W.; Miller, E. L.; Stephenson, R.; Meisling, K. E.

    2015-12-01

    Understanding the evolution of the lithosphere over time involves the integration and interpretation of geological and geophysical data, combined with good knowledge of the physical processes at work in the lithosphere giving rise to past and present structures. Tectonic activity related to the rifting process created the present-day structure of today's Arctic basins and bathymetric highs, and in the process modified older structures and architecture of the crust and lithosphere. The correlation of circum-Arctic terranes and orogens help to not only reconstruct paleogeography but to also define the role and determine the nature of the lithospheric processes that were active in the complex tectonic evolution of the Arctic. CALE (Circum Arctic Lithosphere Evolution), an international and multidisciplinary effort involving c. 35 geologists and geophysicists from ten different countries working to link the onshore and offshore regions across the circum-Arctic region, is a scientific network in it's last year of a 5-year program. Sedimentary cover and crust to mantle cross-sections from onshore to offshore have been created integrating the latest scientific knowledge and data sets available for the Arctic. The project's principal Arctic transects include: Ellesmere-Canada Basin, Pacific Ocean-Lomonosov Ridge through the Bering Strait, across the Laptev Sea rift to the DeLong Islands, Barents and Kara regions across Timan-Pechora and Taimyr. These sections, the culmination of the CALE project, and their principle findings will be presented for the first time with discussion of outstanding issues yet to be resolved.

  9. Subcontinental rift initiation and ocean-continent transitional setting of the Dinarides and Vardar zone: Evidence from the Krivaja-Konjuh Massif, Bosnia and Herzegovina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faul, Ulrich H.; Garapić, Gordana; Lugović, Boško

    2014-08-01

    The Dinaride and Vardar zone ophiolite belts extend from the south-eastern margins of the Alps to the Albanian and Greek ophiolites. Detailed sampling of the Krivaja-Konjuh massif, one of the largest massifs in the Dinaride belt, reveals fertile compositions and an extensive record of deformation at spinel peridotite facies conditions. High Na2O clinopyroxene and spinel-orthopyroxene symplectites after garnet indicate a relatively high pressure, subcontinental origin of the southern and western part of Krivaja, similar to orogenic massifs such as Lherz, Ronda and the Eastern Central Alpine peridotites. Clinopyroxene and spinel compositions from Konjuh show similarities with fertile abyssal peridotite. In the central parts of the massif the spinel lherzolites contain locally abundant patches of plagioclase, indicating impregnation by melt. The migrating melt was orthopyroxene undersaturated, locally converting the peridotites to massive olivine-rich troctolites. Massive gabbros and more evolved gabbro veins cross-cutting peridotites indicate continued melt production at depth. Overall we infer that the massif represents the onset of rifting and early stages of formation of a new ocean basin. In the south of Krivaja very localized chromitite occurrences indicate that much more depleted melts with supra-subduction affinity traversed the massif that have no genetic relationship with the peridotites. This indicates that volcanics with supra-subduction affinity at the margins of the Krivaja-Konjuh massif record separate processes during closure of the ocean basin. Comparison with published compositional data from other Balkan massifs shows that the range of compositions within the Krivaja-Konjuh massif is similar to the compositional range of the western massifs of the Dinarides. The compositions of the Balkan massifs show a west to east gradient, ranging from subcontinental on the western side of the Dinarides to depleted mid-ocean ridge/arc compositions in the Vardar

  10. Properties of the lithosphere and asthenosphere deduced from geoid observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turcotte, D. L.

    1985-01-01

    Data from the GEOS-3 and SEASAT Satellites provided a very accurate geoid map over the oceans. Broad bathymetric features in the oceans such as oceanic swells and plateaus are fully compensated. It is shown that the geoid anomalies due to the density structures of the lithosphere are proportional to the first moment of the density distribution. The deepening of the ocean basins is attributed to thermal isostasy. The thickness of the oceanic lithosphere increases with age due to the loss of heat to the sea floor. Bathymetry and the geoid provide constraints on the extent of this heat loss. Offsets in the geoid across major fracture zones can also be used to constrain this problem. Geoid bathymetry correlations show that the Hawaiian and Bermuda swells and the Cape Verde Rise are probably due to lithospheric thinning.

  11. A global view of the lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary.

    PubMed

    Rychert, Catherine A; Shearer, Peter M

    2009-04-24

    The lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary divides the rigid lid from the weaker mantle and is fundamental in plate tectonics. However, its depth and defining mechanism are not well known. We analyzed 15 years of global seismic data using P-to-S (Ps) converted phases and imaged an interface that correlates with tectonic environment, varying from 95 +/- 4 kilometers beneath Precambrian shields and platforms to 81 +/- 2 kilometers beneath tectonically altered regions and 70 +/- 4 kilometers at oceanic island stations. High-frequency Ps observations require a sharp discontinuity; therefore, this interface likely represents a boundary in composition, melting, or anisotropy, not temperature alone. It likely represents the lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary under oceans and tectonically altered regions, but it may constitute another boundary in cratonic regions where the lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary is thought to be much deeper.

  12. Lithospheric records of orogeny within the continental U.S.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porter, Ryan; Liu, Yuanyuan; Holt, William E.

    2016-01-01

    In order to better understand the tectonic evolution of the North American continent, we utilize data from the EarthScope Transportable Array network to calculate a three-dimensional shear velocity model for the continental United States. This model was produced through the inversion of Rayleigh wave phase velocities calculated using ambient noise tomography and wave gradiometry, which allows for sensitivity to a broad depth range. Shear velocities within this model highlight the influence of orogenic and postorogenic events on the evolution of the lithosphere. Most notable is the contrast in crustal and upper mantle structure between the relatively slow western and relatively fast eastern North America. These differences are unlikely to stem solely from thermal variations within the lithosphere and highlight both the complexities in lithospheric structure across the continental U.S. and the varying impacts that orogeny can have on the crust and upper mantle.

  13. Oceanic lithosphere and asthenosphere: The thermal and mechanical structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schubert, G.; Froidevaux, C.; Yuen, D. A.

    1976-01-01

    A coupled thermal and mechanical solid state model of the oceanic lithosphere and asthenosphere is presented. The model includes vertical conduction of heat with a temperature dependent thermal conductivity, horizontal and vertical advection of heat, viscous dissipation or shear heating, and linear or nonlinear deformation mechanisms with temperature and pressure dependent constitutive relations between shear stress and strain rate. A constant horizontal velocity u sub 0 and temperature t sub 0 at the surface and zero horizontal velocity and constant temperature t sub infinity at great depth are required. In addition to numerical values of the thermal and mechanical properties of the medium, only the values of u sub 0, t sub 0 and t sub infinity are specified. The model determines the depth and age dependent temperature horizontal and vertical velocity, and viscosity structures of the lithosphere and asthenosphere. In particular, ocean floor topography, oceanic heat flow, and lithosphere thickness are deduced as functions of the age of the ocean floor.

  14. Constraints on Composition, Structure and Evolution of the Lithosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bianchini, Gianluca; Bonadiman, Costanza; Aulbach, Sonja; Schutt, Derek

    2015-05-01

    The idea for this special issue was triggered at the Goldschmidt Conference held in Florence (August 25-30, 2013), where we convened a session titled "Integrated Geophysical-Geochemical Constraints on Composition and Structure of the Lithosphere". The invitation to contribute was extended not only to the session participants but also to a wider spectrum of colleagues working on related topics. Consequently, a diverse group of Earth scientists encompassing geophysicists, geodynamicists, geochemists and petrologists contributed to this Volume, providing a comprehensive overview on the nature and evolution of lithospheric mantle by combining studies that exploit different types of data and interpretative approaches. The integration of geochemical and geodynamic datasets and their interpretation represents the state of the art in our knowledge of the lithosphere and beyond, and could serve as a blueprint for future strategies in concept and methodology to advance our knowledge of this and other terrestrial reservoirs.

  15. A global view of the lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary.

    PubMed

    Rychert, Catherine A; Shearer, Peter M

    2009-04-24

    The lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary divides the rigid lid from the weaker mantle and is fundamental in plate tectonics. However, its depth and defining mechanism are not well known. We analyzed 15 years of global seismic data using P-to-S (Ps) converted phases and imaged an interface that correlates with tectonic environment, varying from 95 +/- 4 kilometers beneath Precambrian shields and platforms to 81 +/- 2 kilometers beneath tectonically altered regions and 70 +/- 4 kilometers at oceanic island stations. High-frequency Ps observations require a sharp discontinuity; therefore, this interface likely represents a boundary in composition, melting, or anisotropy, not temperature alone. It likely represents the lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary under oceans and tectonically altered regions, but it may constitute another boundary in cratonic regions where the lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary is thought to be much deeper. PMID:19390041

  16. Oceanic Lithosphere/Asthenosphere Boundary from surface wave dispersion data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burgos, G.; Montagner, J.; Beucler, E.; Capdeville, Y.; Mocquet, A.

    2013-12-01

    The nature of Lithosphere-Asthenosphere boundary (LAB) is controversial according to different types of observations. Using a massive dataset of surface wave dispersions in a broad frequency range (15-300s), we have developed a 3-D tomographic model (1st order perturbation theory) of the upper-mantle at the global scale. It is used to derive maps of LAB from the resolved elastic parameters. The key effects of shallow layers and anisotropy are taken into account in the inversion process. We investigate LAB distributions primarily below oceans according to three different proxies which corresponds to the base of the lithosphere from the vertically polarized shear velocity variation at depth, the top of the radial anisotropy positive anomaly and from the changes in orientation of the fast axis of azimuthal anisotropy. The LAB depth determinations of the different proxies are basically consistent for each oceanic region. The estimations of the LAB depth based on the shear velocity proxy increase from thin (20 km) lithosphere in the ridges to thick (120--130 km) old ocean lithosphere. The radial anisotropy proxy presents a very fast increase of the LAB depth from the ridges, from 50 km to older ocean where it reaches a remarkable monotonic sub-horizontal profile (70--80 km). LAB depths inferred from azimuthal anisotropy proxy show deeper values for the increasing oceanic lithosphere (130--135 km). The results present two types of pattern of the age of oceanic lithosphere evolution with the LAB depth. The shear velocity and azimuthal anisotropy proxies show age-dependent profiles in agreement with thermal plate models while the LAB based on radial anisotropy is characterized by a shallower depth, defining a sub-horizontal interface with a very small age dependence for all three main oceans (Pacific, Atlantic and Indian). These different patterns raise questions about the nature of the LAB in the oceanic regions, and of the formation of oceanic plates.

  17. Understanding lithospheric stresses in Arctic: constraints and models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Medvedev, Sergei; Minakov, Alexander; Lebedeva-Ivanova, Nina; Gaina, Carmen

    2016-04-01

    This pilot project aims to model stress patterns and analyze factors controlling lithospheric stresses in Arctic. The project aims to understand the modern stresses in Arctic as well as to define the ways to test recent hypotheses about Cenozoic evolution of the region. The regions around Lomonosov Ridge and Barents Sea are of particular interest driven by recent acquisition of high-resolution potential field and seismic data. Naturally, the major contributor to the lithospheric stress distribution is the gravitational potential energy (GPE). The study tries to incorporate available geological and geophysical data to build reliable GPE. In particular, we use the recently developed integrated gravity inversion for crustal thickness which incorporates up-to-date compilations of gravity anomalies, bathymetry, and sedimentary thickness. The modelled lithosphere thermal structure assumes a pure shear extension and the ocean age model constrained by global plate kinematics for the last ca. 120 Ma. The results of this approach are juxtaposed with estimates of the density variation inferred from the upper mantle S-wave velocity models based on previous surface wave tomography studies. Although new data and interpretations of the Arctic lithosphere structure become available now, there are areas of low accuracy or even lack of data. To compensate for this, we compare two approaches to constrain GPE: (1) one that directly integrates density of modelled lithosphere and (2) one that uses geoid anomalies which are filtered to account for density variations down to the base of the lithosphere only. The two versions of GPE compared to each other and the stresses calculated numerically are compared with observations. That allows us to optimize GPE and understand density structure, stress pattern, and factors controlling the stresses in Arctic.

  18. A Sharp Edge of the Cratonic Lithosphere of North America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harper, T. B.; Skryzalin, P. A.; Menke, W. H.; Levin, V. L.; Darbyshire, F. A.

    2015-12-01

    Using teleseismic travel time delays, we develop a tomographic model of the lithosphere beneath northeastern North America, from the shore of James Bay in Quebec to the Atlantic coast of New England and to a depth of 300 km. Three major terranes lie within this cratonic margin: the 2.7 Ga Superior province, the 1 Ga Grenville orogenic belt and the 0.3-0.4 Ga Appalachian terranes, which are bounded by the Grenville Front (GF) and Appalachian Front (AF), respectively. Additionally, the 0.8 Ga Avalon terrain was accreted to coastal New England by strike-skip faulting during the Appalachian orogeny. Our tomographic model uses earthquake seismograms recorded by permanent US and Canadian stations, the Transportable Array and the temporary QMIII deployment. All data were corrected for instrument response and record sections were examined visually to identify gross errors in response and timing. Differential arrival times of P and PKP waves were determined by cross-correlation and have a maximum amplitude of about ±1 second. In our model, lithospheric boundaries do not correlate well with geological boundaries, nor do they strike parallel to them. The seismically-fast (by 5% relative to AK135) cratonic lithosphere of North America is much thicker than that of the younger terranes, extending to 200 km or more depth but with a sharp east-dipping eastern edge located (at Moho depths) 100-250 km northwest of the GF. The lithosphere beneath the Grenville and Appalachian terranes, which were affected by subduction during the Grenville and Appalachian orogenies, is slower (by 4%). A sliver of seismically-fast lithosphere, extending to ~150 km depth, occurs along the Atlantic coast and is interpreted as the Avalonian lithosphere.

  19. Extensional and compressional instabilities in icy satellite lithospheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herrick, D. L.; Stevenson, D. J.

    1990-05-01

    The plausibility of invoking a lithospheric instability mechanism to account for the grooved terrains on Ganymede, Encedalus, and Miranda is presently evaluated in light of the combination of a simple mechanical model of planetary lithospheres and asthenospheres with recent experimental data for the brittle and ductile deformation of ice. For Ganymede, high surface gravity and warm temperatures render the achievement of an instability sufficiently great for the observed topographic relief virtually impossible; an instability of sufficient strength, however, may be able to develop on such smaller, colder bodies as Encedalus and Miranda.

  20. Seismic imaging of the downwelling Indian lithosphere beneath central Tibet.

    PubMed

    Tilmann, Frederik; Ni, James

    2003-05-30

    A tomographic image of the upper mantle beneath central Tibet from INDEPTH data has revealed a subvertical high-velocity zone from approximately 100- to approximately 400-kilometers depth, located approximately south of the Bangong-Nujiang Suture. We interpret this zone to be downwelling Indian mantle lithosphere. This additional lithosphere would account for the total amount of shortening in the Himalayas and Tibet. A consequence of this downwelling would be a deficit of asthenosphere, which should be balanced by an upwelling counterflow, and thus could explain the presence of warm mantle beneath north-central Tibet.

  1. Revisiting the Ridge-Push Force Using the Lithospheric Geoid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richardson, R. M.; Coblentz, D. D.

    2014-12-01

    The geoid anomaly and driving force associated with the cooling oceanic lithosphere ("ridge push") are both proportional to dipole moment of the density-depth distribution, and allow a reevaluation of the ridge push force using the geoid. The challenge with this approach is to isolate the "lithospheric geoid" from the full geoid signal. Our approach is to use a band-pass spherical harmonic filter on the full geoid (e.g., EGM2008-WGS84, complete to spherical harmonic degree and order 2159) between orders 6 and 80. However, even this "lithospheric geoid" is noisy, and thus we average over 100 profiles evenly spaced along the global ridge system to obtain an average geoid step associated with the mid-ocean ridges. Because the positive ridge geoid signal is largest near the ridge (and to capture fast-spreading ridges), we evaluate symmetrical profiles extending ±45 m.y. about the ridge. We find an average ridge geoid anomaly of 4.5m, which is equivalent to a 10m anomaly for 100 m.y. old oceanic lithosphere. This geoid step corresponds to a ridge push force of ~2.4 x1012N/m for old oceanic lithosphere of 100 m.y., very similar to earlier estimates of ~2.5 x1012N/m based on simple half-space models. This simple half-space model also predicts constant geoid slopes of about 0.15 m/m.y. for cooling oceanic lithosphere. Our observed geoid slopes are consistent with this value for ages up to 40-50 m.y., but drop off to lower values at greater ages. We model this using a plate cooling model (with a thickness of the order of 125km) to fit the observation that the geoid anomaly and ridge driving force only increase slowly for ages greater than 40 m.y. (in contrast to the half-space model where the linear dependence on age holds for all ages). This reduction of the geoid slope results in a 20% decrease in the predicted ridge push force. This decrease is due to the combined effects of treating the oceanic lithosphere as a cooling plate (vs. a half-space), and the loss of geoidal

  2. Project Skippy explores lithosphere and mantle beneath Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Hilst, Rob; Kennett, Brian; Christie, Doug; Grant, John

    A new project is probing the seismic structure of the lithosphere and mantle beneath Australia. The Skippy Project, named after the bush kangaroo, exploits Australia's regional seismicity and makes use of recent advances in digital recording technology to collect three-component broadband seismic data from over 60 sites across the continent (Figure 1).The main goal of the Skippy Project, which is run by Australian National University's Research School of Earth Sciences (RSES), is to delineate the three-dimensional seismic structure of the lithosphere and mantle beneath the continent.

  3. Remobilization in the cratonic lithosphere recorded in polycrystalline diamond

    PubMed

    Jacob; Viljoen; Grassineau; Jagoutz

    2000-08-18

    Polycrystalline diamonds (framesites) from the Venetia kimberlite in South Africa contain silicate minerals whose isotopic and trace element characteristics document remobilization of older carbon and silicate components to form the framesites shortly before kimberlite eruption. Chemical variations within the garnets correlate with carbon isotopes in the diamonds, indicating contemporaneous formation. Trace element, radiogenic, and stable isotope variations can be explained by the interaction of eclogites with a carbonatitic melt, derived by remobilization of material that had been stored for a considerable time in the lithosphere. These results indicate more recent formation of diamonds from older materials within the cratonic lithosphere.

  4. The Role of the Mantle Lithosphere in Continent Stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlson, R. W.; Ancuta, L. D.; Fouch, M. J.; Idleman, B. D.; Ionov, D. A.; James, D. E.; Meltzer, A.; Pearson, G.; Shirey, S. B.; Zeitler, P. K.

    2012-12-01

    Most Archean cratons are underlain by up to 200 km thick sections of mantle characterized by high seismic velocities. Xenoliths from cratonic mantle lithosphere show them to consist of refractory peridotites that are the residues of very high degrees of partial melt removal leaving the majority with less than 2% Al2O3. The partial melt removal leaves the lithospheric mantle compositionally buoyant, strong, and with very little internal radioactive heat generating capacity so that even after cooling it contributes to the strength, longevity, and relative geologic inactivity of the overlying crust. Re-Os studies, particularly in the Kaapvaal Craton of southern Africa, show a strong correspondence between the ages of melt depletion of the cratonic mantle and significant crust building events. The main age peak in the Kaapvaal lithospheric mantle is 2.9 Ga, coincident with assembly of the western and eastern blocks of the craton. The only significant disruption to this age pattern is seen below the 2 Ga Bushveld intrusion where the mantle lithosphere is characterized by slower seismic velocities and xenolith ages closer to 2 than 3 Ga. The surrounding Proterozoic mobile belts have even slower seismic velocities and xenolith ages generally less than 1.5 Ga. An interesting contrast to this picture of cold, old, stable cratonic lithosphere is that displayed by central Mongolia. This area, more or less in the middle of the huge Asian continental plate, is far removed from plate boundary processes yet in the Hangay Mountains shows elevations approaching 4 km along with extensive late Cenozoic basaltic volcanism. In contrast to cratonic lithosphere, mantle xenoliths from the Hangay region are dominantly fertile peridotite. Fifty-six percent of a large collection of peridotites from 4 Mongolian localities have more than 3.5% Al2O3 and only 4% have Al2O3 contents of less than 2%. Cenozoic basalts from the region have subchondritic 143Nd/144Nd and MORB-like He isotopic

  5. Seismic Tomography of the Arctic Lithosphere and Asthenosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaeffer, Andrew; Lebedev, Sergei

    2015-04-01

    Lateral variations in seismic velocities in the upper mantle, mapped by seismic tomography, primarily reflect variations in the temperature of the rocks at depth. Seismic tomography thus provides a proxy for lateral changes in the temperature and thickness of the lithosphere, in addition to delineating the deep boundaries between tectonic blocks with different properties and age of the lithosphere. Our new, 3D tomographic model of the upper mantle and the crust of the Arctic region is constrained by an unprecedentedly large global dataset of broadband waveform fits (over one million seismograms) and provides improved resolution of the lithosphere, compared to other available models. The most prominent high-velocity anomalies, seen down to 150-200 km depths, indicate the cold, thick, stable mantle lithosphere beneath Precambrian cratons. The northern boundaries of the Canadian Shield's and Greenland's cratonic lithosphere closely follow the coastlines, with the Greenland and North American cratons clearly separated from each other. Sharp velocity gradients in western Canada indicate that the craton boundary at depth closely follows the Rocky Mountain Front. High velocities between the Great Bear Arc and Beaufort Sea provide convincing evidence for the recently proposed 'MacKenzie Craton', unexposed at the surface. In Eurasia, cratonic continental lithosphere extends northwards beneath the Barents and eastern Kara Seas. The boundaries of the Archean cratons and intervening Proterozoic belts mapped by tomography indicate the likely offshore extensions of major Phanerozoic sutures and deformation fronts. The old oceanic lithosphere of the Canada Basin is much colder and thicker than the younger lithosphere beneath the adjacent Amundsen Basin, north of the Gakkel Ridge. Beneath the slow-spreading Gakkel Ridge, we detect the expected low-velocity anomaly associated with partial melting in the uppermost mantle; the anomaly is weaker, however, than beneath faster

  6. Remobilization in the cratonic lithosphere recorded in polycrystalline diamond

    PubMed

    Jacob; Viljoen; Grassineau; Jagoutz

    2000-08-18

    Polycrystalline diamonds (framesites) from the Venetia kimberlite in South Africa contain silicate minerals whose isotopic and trace element characteristics document remobilization of older carbon and silicate components to form the framesites shortly before kimberlite eruption. Chemical variations within the garnets correlate with carbon isotopes in the diamonds, indicating contemporaneous formation. Trace element, radiogenic, and stable isotope variations can be explained by the interaction of eclogites with a carbonatitic melt, derived by remobilization of material that had been stored for a considerable time in the lithosphere. These results indicate more recent formation of diamonds from older materials within the cratonic lithosphere. PMID:10947983

  7. Derived enriched uranium market

    SciTech Connect

    Rutkowski, E.

    1996-12-01

    The potential impact on the uranium market of highly enriched uranium from nuclear weapons dismantling in the Russian Federation and the USA is analyzed. Uranium supply, conversion, and enrichment factors are outlined for each country; inventories are also listed. The enrichment component and conversion components are expected to cause little disruption to uranium markets. The uranium component of Russian derived enriched uranium hexafluoride is unresolved; US legislation places constraints on its introduction into the US market.

  8. Refertilization of deep continental arc lithosphere: constraints from major element and trace element systematics in mantle xenoliths from the Sierra Nevada, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chin, E. J.; Lee, C.; Luffi, P. I.

    2010-12-01

    Thickening of continental arc lithosphere, either by underplating, magmatic inflation, or other tectonic processes, is an important stage in the maturation of primitive island arcs into Phanerozoic continental crust. The Sierra Nevada continental arc is one example of a mature arc that has experienced significant thickening and recent orogenic collapse. Previous studies of mantle xenoliths from the Sierras point to delamination of a dense mafic root that represented the residua of the evolved crust distilled out of a >90 km thickened lithospheric column. What has not received much attention, however, is how this lithospheric column has been compositionally modified over the lifespan of the Sierra Nevada arc. As the interface between the crust and mantle, the base of the thickened lithospheric column (upper mantle and lowermost crust) is potentially a zone of refertilization, wherein previously depleted mantle is replenished with fertile components from ascending melts and/or fluids. Refertilization of deep lithosphere not only influences the composition of arc magmas in their early stages, but also has implications for the stability of highly melt-depleted, refractory mantle that may become “rejuvenated” by such refertilization. In this study, we evaluate the role of refertilization in continental arc evolution by investigating upper mantle xenoliths from the Sierra Nevada. Cr# in spinel cores is chosen as a baseline index of melt depletion, and is compared to whole-rock major- and trace-element concentrations (Yb, Ti, Mg, Al) to assess the degree of refertilization. Whole-rock trace element patterns indicate depletions in high field strength elements and complementary enrichments in fluid mobile elements, suggesting that the deep Sierran lithosphere was refertilized by a melt containing a large component of slab-derived fluid. Although high degrees of melting (>15%) are recorded by Cr# in spinel, many Sierran peridotites contain diffuse bands comprised of

  9. Some Problems of the Lithosphere (Augustus Love Medal Lecture)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Houseman, Gregory A.

    2015-04-01

    In 1911 Augustus Love published a monograph: Some Problems of Geodynamics which in part dealt with the problem of isostasy and the support of mountain belts. In doing so he was one of the first authors to use the concept of the lithosphere. Although his analysis used the framework of linear elasticity, he clearly recognised that the evident structural heterogeneity of the Earth's crust could not simply be interpreted in terms of elastic displacement, and he had no simple explanation for what processes had produced the major topographic features of the Earth: continents, oceans and mountain belts. Today we have a far more complete understanding of those processes, but there are still unresolved problems. In this presentation I will focus on two of those problems that are of particular interest in understanding the geological evolution of the continents: the relationship of near-surface faults and ductile deformation in the lithosphere, and the stability of continental lithosphere in actively deforming zones. While the lithosphere certainly manifests elastic strain, most notably in the context of earthquakes and seismic waves, the large strains that have shaped the continents result from diffuse ductile strain at the deeper levels, coupled with movement on fault planes in the upper crust. Although plates in many regions move coherently with little internal deformation, the stresses that act on different parts of a plate may cause broad deformation zones to develop within a plate interior. Plate boundaries that cross continental regions also typically involve broadly distributed deformation. In recent years the distribution of deformation in such regions is measured accurately using GPS, and in general is explained well by a model in which the lithosphere behaves as a thin viscous sheet, albeit with a non-linear temperature-dependent viscosity law. Such models are broadly consistent with laboratory deformation experiments on small rock samples. However, the

  10. The crust and lithosphere thicknesses in South America: trying to find the lithosphere- asthenosphere boundary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heit, B.; Sodoudi, F.; Yuan, X.; Bianchi, M.; Kind, R.

    2007-05-01

    During the past years, a series of seismological investigations have been carried out to study the crustal and mantle structures all over the world. In South America, this investigation has not been an easy task as there are different regions where the geodynamics involves the subduction of an oceanic plate, the building of a mountain range as the Andes, the interaction with older lithosphere as the Brazilian Shield and the presence of active deformation fronts between the last two regions. In order to investigate the thickness of the lithosphere in such a complex context we have performed S-wave receiver function analysis (Vinnik and Farra, 2000; Li et al., 2004). The S receiver function technique looks for the S-to-P converted waves at seismic discontinuities beneath a station in the same way as the conventional P receiver function method that deals with P-to-S conversions. The S receiver function technique have proved to be useful to map the Moho and the LAB in many regions where other methods (i.e. surface waves) failed to provide reliable information (e.g. Li et al., 2004; Kumar et al., 2004a, 2004b; Sodoudi et al., 2006). We present here the results of S receiver function technique that has been applied to all the available temporary seismic experiments (e.g. BANJO, SEDA, REFUCA, BLSP) and the permanent stations from the IRIS network. We have been able to investigate the upper mantle discontinuities at all the depths beneath the stations and obtained coherent Moho depths along the entire Andes and in other South American continental regions. The LAB has been clearly detected below some stations, particularly those that are located far away from the subduction zone. By comparing our results with those from the P receiver functions, we have been able to further constrain the thicknesses of the crust and LAB in different regions including shields, mobile belts, basins and mountain ranges. At many stations we have also been able to map the upper mantle

  11. Linking lithosphere deformation and sedimentary basin formation over multiple scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huismans, Ritske S.

    2016-04-01

    Here we focus on the relationships between tectonic deformation and sedimentary basin formation. Resolving the interaction and feedback between tectonic crust-lithosphere scale deformation and surface processes through erosion of elevated areas and formation of sedimentary basins over multiple scales has been a long-standing challenge. While forward process based models have been successful at showing that a feedback is expected between tectonic deformation and redistribution of mass at the earth's surface by erosion, transport, and deposition, demonstrating this coupling for natural systems has been an even greater challenge and is strongly debated. Observational constraints on crust-lithosphere deformation and surface processes are typically collected at highly varying spatial and temporal scales, while forward process based models are typically run at either very large lithosphere-mantle scale, or at the scale of the sedimentary basin making it difficult to investigate and explore the detailed interaction and feedback between these systems. Here I will report on recent advances in forward modelling linking crust-lithosphere deformation with surface processes over a large range of scales resolving tectonic plate scale deformation and sedimentary basin formation at stratigraphic scales. The forward numerical models indicate a linkage and interaction between the structural style of thick-skinned large-scale mountain belt and rift-passive margin formation, erosion-transport-deposition processes operating at the surface, and the thin-skinned deformation occurring in the associated sedimentary basins.

  12. Horizontal stress in planetary lithospheres from vertical processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banerdt, W. B.

    1991-01-01

    Understanding the stress states in a lithosphere is of fundamental importance for planetary geophysics. It is closely linked to the processes which form and modify tectonic features on the surface and reflects the behavior of the planet's interior, providing a constraint for the difficult problem of determining interior structure and processes. The tectonics on many extraterrestrial bodies (Moon, Mars, and most of the outer planet satellites) appears to be mostly vertical, and the horizontal stresses induced by vertical motions and loads are expected to dominate the deformation of their lithospheres. Herein, only changes are examined in the state of stress induced by processes such as sedimentary and volcanic deposition, erosional denudation, and changes in the thermal gradient that induce uplift or subsidence. This analysis is important both for evaluating stresses for specific regions in which the vertical stress history can be estimated, as well as for applying the proper loading conditions to global stress models. All references to lithosphere herein should be understood to refer to the elastic lithosphere, that layer which deforms elastically or brittlely when subjected to geologically scaled stresses.

  13. Seismicity in Romania--evidence for the sinking lithosphere.

    PubMed

    Roman, C

    1970-12-19

    The revision of Romanian earthquakes shows a distribution suggesting a sinking lithosphere under the Carpathian arc. Thermal and gravitational anomalies, as well as petrological and tectonic features, provide further evidence on the cause and character of intermediate earthquakes of Romania. This is consistent with the theory of plate tectonics in south-east Europe.

  14. Lithospheric and atmospheric interaction on the planet Venus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Volkov, Vladislav P.

    1991-01-01

    Lithospheric and atmospheric interaction in the planet Venus are discussed. The following subject areas are covered: (1) manifestation of exogenic processes using photogeological data; (2) the chemical composition and a chemical model of the troposphere of Venus; (3) the mineral composition of surface rock on Venus; and (4) the cycles of volatile components.

  15. Lithosphere-asthenosphere P-wave reflectivity across Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kennett, B. L. N.

    2015-12-01

    A direct image of P-wave reflectivity in the lithosphere and asthenosphere beneath seismic stations is extracted from stacked autocorrelograms of continuous component records. The autocorrelograms emphasise near vertically travelling waves, so that multiples are more muted than in receiver function studies and it is possible to work at higher frequencies than for receiver functions. Across a wide range of geological environments in Australia, in the 0.5-4.0 Hz frequency band, distinct reflections are seen in the crust underlain by weaker reflectivity in the lithosphere and asthenosphere. The base of crustal reflectivity fits well with Moho estimates from other classes of information. Few mantle reflectors have been seen in conventional reflection profiling at frequencies above 10 Hz; the presence of reflections in the 0.5-4.0 Hz band suggests variations on vertical scales of a few hundred metres with amplitudes of the order of 1%. There are slight indications of a change of reflection character in the lower part of the lithosphere in the transition to the asthenosphere. At a few stations there is a very clear lamination at asthenospheric depth, as well as reflections from the base of the S wave low velocity zone. Reflection bands often occur at depths where discontinuities have been inferred from S wave receiver function work at the same station, but would not by themselves be distinctive of a mid-lithosphere discontinuity.

  16. The lithosphere in central Europe—seismological and petrological aspects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babuška, V.; Plomerová, J.

    1992-06-01

    The lithosphere thickness in the Variscan belt of central Europe varies between about 60 and 150 km with typical values of 100-120 km. Our estimates, derived from directionally independent representative P-wave residuals, are in good agreement with magnetotelluric determinations of a layer with increased conductivity in the upper mantle. The large-scale anisotropies of the subcrustal lithosphere beneath four seismological stations determined from spatial variations of relative P residuals vary between 6.5 and 15.2% for P velocities; the S-wave anisotropies determined from SKS polarizations vary between 2.2 and 6.7%. These values are in reasonable agreement with the anisotropies of peridotites determined in laboratory. Systematic spatial variations of the directional terms of relative residuals in dependence on azimuths and incidence angles suggest the existence of large dipping anisotropic structures in the subcrustal lithosphere. The residual patterns at most stations in the Saxothuringicum, Rhenohercynicum and in the Massif Central imply northwesterly orientated dips of the anisotropic structures while stations in the Moldanubicum, the Alpine Foredeep and most of the Alps north of the Insubric line, suggest southeasterly orientated dips. In our interpretation the dipping anisotropic structures may represent paleosubductions which retain olivine preferred orientations originating from an ancient oceanic lithosphere. The Variscides of central Europe may thus represent a collision zone characterized by two systems of paleosubductions divergent relative to the suture between the Moldanubicum and the Saxothuringicum.

  17. Lithosphere delamination and topography evolution in collisional orogens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Z. H.; Liu, M.; Gerya, T.

    2015-12-01

    Systematic high-resolution thermo-mechanical numerical models are conducted in order to better understand the behavior of deep mantle lithosphere and surface topography response during continental collision. In the models with similar rheological properties for the pro- (subducting) and retro- (overriding) continental plates, subduction mode is preferred, with localized topography uplift and mountain building. However, if the effective viscosities of the retro-plate are decreased, then delamination of the lithospheric mantle may occur there, which results in large-scale topography buildup and plateau formation. Several other factors that may also influence the delamination dynamics are further investigated, e.g., plastic weakening of the lithospheric mantle, density contrast between the lithospheric and asthenospheric mantle, convergence velocity, as well as the possible lower crust eclogitization effects. Based on the series of numerical simulations, the delamination processes in collisional orogens are summarized into three modes: (1) pro-plate delamination, (2) retro-plate delamination, and (3) a transitional double-plates (both the pro- and retro-plate) delamination. The controlling factors, as well as the geological applications in nature, of the variable delamination modes are also discussed.

  18. Linking lithosphere deformation and sedimentary basin formation over multiple scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huismans, Ritske S.

    2014-05-01

    In the spirit of Peter Ziegler we are interested in and explore the relationships between tectonic deformation and sedimentary basin formation. Resolving the interaction and feedback between tectonic crust-lithosphere scale deformation and surface processes through erosion of elevated areas and formation of sedimentary basins over multiple scales has been a long-standing challenge. While forward process based models have been successful at showing that a feedback is expected between tectonic deformation and redistribution of mass at the earth's surface by erosion, transport, and deposition, demonstrating this coupling for natural systems has been an even greater challenge and is strongly debated. Observational constraints on crust-lithosphere deformation and surface processes are typically collected at highly varying spatial and temporal scales, while forward process based models are typically run at either very large lithosphere-mantle scale, or at the scale of the sedimentary basin making it difficult to investigate and explore the detailed interaction and feedback between these systems. Here I will report on recent advances in forward modelling linking crust-lithosphere deformation with surface processes over a large range of scales resolving tectonic plate scale deformation and sedimentary basin formation at stratigraphic scales. The forward numerical models indicate a linkage and interaction between the structural style of thick-skinned large-scale mountain belt and rift-passive margin formation, erosion-transport-deposition processes operating at the surface, and the thin-skinned deformation occurring in the associated sedimentary basins.

  19. Osmium Isotope Constraints on the Timing of Production and Destruction of Mantle Lithosphere in the Southwest United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brandon, A. D.

    2013-12-01

    When convecting mantle melts, the residual peridotite becomes less dense and may be become stabilized as lithosphere. The Re-Os isotope chronometer has been successfully applied to determining the timing of melt extraction in mantle peridotite. In continental regions where multiple mantle xenolith locales are present, the Re-Os chronometer can be applied to assessing the timing of mantle melting in relation to juvenile continental crust production, stabilization, and destruction of mantle lithosphere. This is evaluated here for the off-craton mantle lithosphere in the Southwest United States by examining 5 mantle xenolith suites from locales spanning a region hundreds of kilometers north to south and east to west - Dish Hill, California; Lunar Crater Nevada; Grand Canyon and San Carlos, Arizona; and Kilbourne Hole, New Mexico. Because Re is mobile in mantle peridotites at surface conditions, direct Re-Os isochrons representing mantle melting ages are typically absent. Instead melting proxies for Re such as Al2O3 can be used to obtain ';aluminachron' ages or to assess disturbances of the mantle lithosphere following partial melting. The Dish Hill, Grand Canyon, and Kilbourne Hole suites display lithophile element evidence for post-melting, multiple modal and cryptic metasomatic events in combination with positive and well correlated Os isotope versus Al2O3 trends. For example, each of these xenolith suites has samples with light rare earth element (LREE) depleted to LREE-enriched bulk rock and clinopyroxene compositions. However, no correlation exists between LREE differences and their Os isotope, bulk rock Al compositions, or other indices of melt-rock interaction. The Os-aluminachron age obtained for Dish Hill is 2.15 Ga, for Grand Canyon is 2.31 Ga, and for Kilbourne Hole is 1.96 Ga. These ages overlap TDM ages for the overlying crustal provinces confirming a link between melting that creates mantle lithosphere and production of juvenile continental crust. A

  20. Lithospheric Convergence Preceded Extension in the Pannonian-Carpathian System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Houseman, Gregory; Stuart, Graham; Dando, Ben; Hetenyi, Gyorgy; Lorinczi, Piroska; Hegedus, Endre; Brueckl, Ewald

    2010-05-01

    The continuing collision of the Adriatic block with European continental lithosphere has its clearest expression now in the Alpine collision zone. Recent tomographic images of the upper mantle beneath the eastern Alps and western Pannonian Basin support the interpretation that in the Early Miocene the collision zone extended further east: a steeply dipping seismically fast structure stretches downward beneath the Eastern Alps reaching to the base of the transition zone, consistent with the long history of convergence in this region. This high velocity structure also extends eastward beneath the extensional Pannonian Basin. The high velocity anomaly beneath the Basin is strongly developed in transition zone depths (410 to 660 km) but the anomaly weakens upward. High velocities beneath the center of the extensional basin are unexpected because there is substantive evidence that the onset of extension in the Pannonian domain at around 17 Ma produced rapid extension of the lithosphere and replacement of the lower part of the lithosphere by hot asthenosphere. These deeper structures, however, must be explained by the long history of convergence that preceded the extension of the basin. Further evidence of a history of sustained convergence in the present Pannonian region is found in the depression of the 660 km seismic discontinuity beneath the Alps (Lombardi et al., EPSL, 2009) and also beneath the Pannonian Basin (Hetenyi et al., GRL, 2009). The 660 km discontinuity in both places is depressed by as much as 40 km, whereas the 410 km discontinuity is at approximately nominal depths. Evidently in both regions relatively dense material derived from the mid-Miocene collision sits stagnant on top of the 660 km discontinuity, where further descent is obstructed by the negative Clapeyron slope of the spinel-to-perovskite phase transition and/or the high viscosity of the lower mantle. The rapid extension of the Intra-Carpathian Basins in the Mid-Miocene (between about 17 and

  1. Anorogenic plateau formation induced by a heated lithosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duesterhoeft, Erik; Oberhänsli, Roland; Wichura, Henry; Bousquet, Romain

    2013-04-01

    Plateau formation processes in geodynamic settings outside of orogens have not been unambiguously established. Those anorogenic plateaus are topographic barriers that reach medium elevations of approximately 1500 m, e.g. South African-, East African- or Mongolian Plateau. They are inferred to be closely link to mantle plumes away from plate boundaries. Such a heat source at the lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary (LAB) have an influence to the density structure of the crust and lithosphere, due to thermal expansion and mineralogical changes. Consequently, these density variations affect topography and thus we hypothesize topographic variations by lithospheric thermal expansion, due to heating processes at the LAB. Based on this hypothesis, we calculated the density distribution along a one-dimensional depth-profile using two different approaches - with and without mineral reactions. Therefore, we present a new petrologic aspect for plateau uplift, because models on plateau uplift generally do not take into account the effects of metamorphic phase transitions and ignore the fact that chemical reactions influence both, the stability of mineral assemblages and rock density. Our model underscores how metamorphic density of the lithosphere varies with depth and reveals how combination of chemical composition of rocks, mineralogy, and geothermal gradient all have significant effects on the density distribution within the lithosphere and ultimately the evolution of anorogenic plateaus. Furthermore, in order to better understand the temporal characteristics of mantle plume related topography we calculated the timing to generate significant topographic uplift. Our results suggest uplift rates of >20 m/Myr within the first 20 Myr after the onset of heating and considerable primary thermal uplift of approximately 700 m after 20 Myr as a viable mechanism for anorogenic plateau formation. In this way, our model may help to explain pre-rift topography of the East-African Plateau

  2. Numerical modeling of continental lithospheric weak zone over plume

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perepechko, Y. V.; Sorokin, K. E.

    2011-12-01

    The work is devoted to the development of magmatic systems in the continental lithosphere over diffluent mantle plumes. The areas of tension originating over them are accompanied by appearance of fault zones, and the formation of permeable channels, which are distributed magmatic melts. The numerical simulation of the dynamics of deformation fields in the lithosphere due to convection currents in the upper mantle, and the formation of weakened zones that extend up to the upper crust and create the necessary conditions for the formation of intermediate magma chambers has been carried out. Thermodynamically consistent non-isothermal model simulates the processes of heat and mass transfer of a wide class of magmatic systems, as well as the process of strain localization in the lithosphere and their influence on the formation of high permeability zones in the lower crust. The substance of the lithosphere is a rheologic heterophase medium, which is described by a two-velocity hydrodynamics. This makes it possible to take into account the process of penetration of the melt from the asthenosphere into the weakened zone. The energy dissipation occurs mainly due to interfacial friction and inelastic relaxation of shear stresses. The results of calculation reveal a nonlinear process of the formation of porous channels and demonstrate the diversity of emerging dissipative structures which are determined by properties of both heterogeneous lithosphere and overlying crust. Mutual effect of a permeable channel and the corresponding filtration process of the melt on the mantle convection and the dynamics of the asthenosphere have been studied. The formation of dissipative structures in heterogeneous lithosphere above mantle plumes occurs in accordance with the following scenario: initially, the elastic behavior of heterophase lithosphere leads to the formation of the narrow weakened zone, though sufficiently extensive, with higher porosity. Further, the increase in the width of

  3. Rheological implications of the seismological lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer, K. M.; Ford, H. A.; Lekic, V.; Hirth, G.

    2012-12-01

    Evidence from scattered and reflected seismic waves indicates that the transition between the seismologically-defined lithosphere and asthenosphere is relatively rapid in depth in many tectonic settings with the exception of cratons. For example, in non-cratonic regions of Australia and North America Sp receiver functions typically image a downward deccrease in shear-wave velocity whose depth ranges from ~50 to 130 km. Modeling of these Sp phases with synthetic receiver functions indicates significant (4-10%) shear velocity drops over depth ranges of ~30 km or less. Because these Sp phases originate at depths within the transition from high velocity mantle lid to low velocity zone in surface wave tomography models, and because the Sp phases account for most or all of the lid to low velocity zone contrast, they are interpretable as the seismological lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary. Thermal gradients in a wide range of geodynamical models for comparable tectonic environments are typically distributed over much larger depth ranges. The Sp phases are thus difficult to reconcile with an LAB that is governed solely by temperature. Rather, they suggest the presence of other factors that weaken the top of the asthenosphere, for example small amounts of partial melt (0.5-1.5%) or greater volatile content. Beneath cratons, a drop in shear velocity and rotation of azimuthal anisotropy at the base of the lithosphere in surface wave tomography argue for widespread sub-cratonic asthenosphere. However, Sp imaging that we conducted in cratonic regions of Australia and North America did not find coherent converted phases at potential LAB depths, arguing for LAB velocity gradients that are distributed over more than ~60 km in depth. Such gradual velocity gradients are consistent with a purely thermal origin, although slow vertical increases in melt or volatile content cannot be ruled out. To more directly assess the rheological implications of the seismological LAB, we estimated

  4. Seismic constraints on the lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rychert, Catherine A.

    2014-05-01

    The basic tenet of plate tectonics is that a rigid plate, or lithosphere, moves over a weaker asthenospheric layer. However, the exact location and defining mechanism of the boundary at the base of the plate, the lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary (LAB) is debated. The oceans should represent a simple scenario since the lithosphere is predicted to thicken with seafloor age if it thermally defined, whereas a constant plate thickness might indicate a compositional definition. However, the oceans are remote and difficult to constrain, and studies with different sensitivities and resolutions have come to different conclusions. Hotspot regions lend additional insight, since they are relatively well instrumented with seismic stations, and also since the effect of a thermal plume on the LAB should depend on the defining mechanism of the plate. Here I present new results using S-to-P receiver functions to image upper mantle discontinuity structure beneath volcanically active regions including Hawaii, Iceland, Galapagos, and Afar. In particular I focus on the lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary and discontinuities related to the base of melting, which can be used to highlight plume locations. I image a lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary in the 50 - 95 km depth range beneath Hawaii, Galapagos, and Iceland. Although LAB depth variations exist within these regions, significant thinning is not observed in the locations of hypothesized plume impingement from receiver functions (see below). Since a purely thermally defined lithosphere is expected to thin significantly in the presence of a thermal plume anomaly, a compositional component in the definition of the LAB is implied. Beneath Afar, an LAB is imaged at 75 km depth on the flank of the rift, but no LAB is imaged beneath the rift itself. The transition from flank of rift is relatively abrupt, again suggesting something other than a purely thermally defined lithosphere. Melt may also exist in the asthenosphere in these regions

  5. Preseismic Lithosphere-Atmosphere-Ionosphere Coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamogawa, Masashi

    hardly verified so far, a statistical approach has been unique way to promote the research. After the 2000s, several papers showing robust statistical results have arisen. In this paper, we focus on publications satisfying the following identification criteria: 1) A candidate of precursor, namely anomaly, is quantitatively defied. 2) Two time-series of anomalies and earthquake are constructed within the fixed thresholds such as a minimum magnitude, a region, and a lead-time. 3) To obtain a statistical correlation, a statistical process which includes four relations considering all combination among earthquake - no earthquake versus anomaly and no anomalies is applied, e. g., phi correlation. 4) For correlations under various thresholds the results keep consistency. 5) Large anomalies appear before large earthquakes. One of papers based on the identification criteria, which concerns preseismic geoelectrically anomalies, is introduced as an educative example. VAN method in Greece, i. e., Geo-electric potential difference measurement for precursor study in Greece, has been often discussed in the point of view of success and failure performance for practical prediction [Varotsos et al, Springer, 2011] to show a correlation and then less number of papers shows the statistical correlation with satisfying the identification criteria [Geller (ed.), GRL, 1996], so that the phenomena had been controversial. However, recent related study in Kozu-Island, Japan which satisfied the criteria showed the robust correlation [Orihara and Kamogawa et al., PNAS, 2012]. Therefore, the preseismic geoelectric anomalies are expected to be a precursor. Preseismic lithosphere-atmosphere-ionosphere coupling has been intensively discussed [Kamogawa, Eos, 2006]. According to review based on the identification criteria with considering recent publications, plausible precursors have been found, which are tropospheric anomaly [Fujiwara and Kamogawa, GRL, 2004], daytime electron depletion in F region

  6. Lithospheric-scale centrifuge models of pull-apart basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corti, Giacomo; Dooley, Tim P.

    2015-11-01

    We present here the results of the first lithospheric-scale centrifuge models of pull-apart basins. The experiments simulate relative displacement of two lithospheric blocks along two offset master faults, with the presence of a weak zone in the offset area localising deformation during strike-slip displacement. Reproducing the entire lithosphere-asthenosphere system provides boundary conditions that are more realistic than the horizontal detachment in traditional 1 g experiments and thus provide a better approximation of the dynamic evolution of natural pull-apart basins. Model results show that local extension in the pull-apart basins is accommodated through development of oblique-slip faulting at the basin margins and cross-basin faults obliquely cutting the rift depression. As observed in previous modelling studies, our centrifuge experiments suggest that the angle of offset between the master fault segments is one of the most important parameters controlling the architecture of pull-apart basins: the basins are lozenge shaped in the case of underlapping master faults, lazy-Z shaped in case of neutral offset and rhomboidal shaped for overlapping master faults. Model cross sections show significant along-strike variations in basin morphology, with transition from narrow V- and U-shaped grabens to a more symmetric, boxlike geometry passing from the basin terminations to the basin centre; a flip in the dominance of the sidewall faults from one end of the basin to the other is observed in all models. These geometries are also typical of 1 g models and characterise several pull-apart basins worldwide. Our models show that the complex faulting in the upper brittle layer corresponds at depth to strong thinning of the ductile layer in the weak zone; a rise of the base of the lithosphere occurs beneath the basin, and maximum lithospheric thinning roughly corresponds to the areas of maximum surface subsidence (i.e., the basin depocentre).

  7. Support Of The Lunar Fossil Figure By The Elastic Lithosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsuyama, Isamu

    2010-10-01

    The figure of the Moon is triaxial, with three different principal moments of inertia, as expected. However, the moment differences are significantly larger than those predicted assuming hydrostatic equilibrium. This has been explained as due to a fossil bulge that retains a figure for prior rotational and tidal deformation, at a time when the Moon was closer to Earth (Jeffeys, 1915; Lambeck & Pullan, 1980; Garrick-Bethell et al.,2006). Garrick-Bethell et al. (2006) illustrated that a fossil figure can entirely account for the moment differences if it is established at a time when the orbital eccentricity was high. They approximate the Moon as a strengthless homogeneous body; however, a strengthless Moon cannot support a fossil figure over billions of years. We extend the analysis of Garrick-Bethell et al. (2006) by taking into the presence of an elastic lithosphere capable of supporting a fossil figure. The fossil figure is established when the elastic lithosphere forms. For a 50 km thick elastic lithosphere, the moment differences can be explained by a lunar orbit with an initial semimajor axis a=17.1 Earth radii and eccentricity e=0.49 if the Moon remains locked in synchronous rotation. If the fossil figure is established during a 3:2 spin-orbit resonance, a=18.1 Earth radii and e=0.16, or a=20.0 Earth radii and e=0.60. The initial semimajor axis decreases with decreasing elastic lithospheric thickness, as expected. The initial orbital eccentricity is not sensitive to the elastic lithospheric thickness. As Lambeck & Pullan (1980) noted, it is unlikely that the moment differences are due to a fossil figure alone. Therefore, we also consider the effect of including other contributions to the moment differences. This work is supported by the Miller Institute for Basic Research.

  8. Support of the lunar fossil figure by the elastic lithosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsuyama, I.

    2010-12-01

    The figure of the Moon is triaxial, with three different principal moments of inertia, as expected. However, the moment differences are significantly larger than those predicted assuming hydrostatic equilibrium. This has been explained as due to a fossil bulge that retains a figure for prior rotational and tidal deformation, at a time when the Moon was closer to Earth (Jeffeys, 1915; Lambeck & Pullan, 1980; Garrick-Bethell et al.,2006). Garrick-Bethell et al. (2006) illustrated that a fossil figure can entirely account for the moment differences if it is established at a time when the orbital eccentricity was high. They approximate the Moon as a strengthless homogeneous body; however, a strengthless Moon cannot support a fossil figure over billions of years. We extend the analysis of Garrick-Bethell et al. (2006) by taking into the presence of an elastic lithosphere capable of supporting a fossil figure. The fossil figure is established when the elastic lithosphere forms. For a 50 km thick elastic lithosphere, the moment differences can be explained by a lunar orbit with an initial semimajor axis a=17.1 Earth radii and eccentricity e=0.49 if the Moon remains locked in synchronous rotation. If the fossil figure is established during a 3:2 spin-orbit resonance, a=18.1 Earth radii and e=0.16, or a=20.0 Earth radii and e=0.60. The initial semimajor axis decreases with decreasing elastic lithospheric thickness, as expected. The initial orbital eccentricity is not sensitive to the elastic lithospheric thickness. As Lambeck & Pullan (1980) noted, it is unlikely that the moment differences are due to a fossil figure alone. Therefore, we also consider the effect of including other contributions to the moment differences. This work is supported by the Miller Institute for Basic Research.

  9. Southwestward weakening of Wyoming lithosphere during the Laramide orogeny

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Min; Fan, Majie; Moucha, Robert

    2016-08-01

    The mechanism of Laramide deformation in the central Rocky Mountains remains enigmatic. It is generally agreed that the deformation resulted from low-angle subduction of the Farallon plate beneath the North American plate during the latest Cretaceous-early Eocene; however, recent studies have suggested the importance of slab removal or slab rollback in causing this deformation. Here we infer Wyoming lithosphere structure and surface deformation pattern by conducting 2-D flexural subsidence modeling in order to provide constraints on the mechanism of Laramide deformation. We assume that Wyoming lithosphere behaved as an infinite elastic plate subject to tectonic loading of mountain ranges and conduct 2-D flexural subsidence modeling to major Laramide basins to document lithospheric stiffness and mountain load height. Our results show that the stiffness of Wyoming lithosphere varied slightly in each basin during the ~30 Myr duration of the Laramide deformation and decreased from northeastern Wyoming (Te = 32-46 km) to southwestern Wyoming (Te = 6-9 km). Our results also imply that the increase of equivalent load height of major Laramide ranges accelerated during the early Eocene. We propose that the bending stresses induced by the topographic load of the Sevier fold-and-thrust belt combined with crust-mantle decoupling initiated by the overthickened Sevier hinterland and the end loads due to the low-angle subduction at the western edge of the thick Wyoming craton have caused the southwestward decrease of lithospheric stiffness in Wyoming. Moreover, we attribute the accelerated load height gain during the early Eocene to both dynamic and isostatic effects associated with slab rollback.

  10. Distinct Thermal and Metasomatic Characteristics of Mantle Lithosphere Beneath Two Proterozoic Terranes Bordering the Kaapvaal Craton of Southern Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janney, P. E.; Shiimi, E. T.

    2015-12-01

    There is a first order contrast in compositional and thermal properties between cold and infertile Archean cratonic mantle and younger, warmer and more fertile Proterozoic lithosphere, but it has also become apparent that coherent thermal and compositional differences exist between adjacent Proterozoic terranes, even in regions that have been stable for over 1 Ga. We report new thermobarometry and in-situ trace element data for garnet peridotite xenoliths from several late Cretaceous (100-70 Ma) kimberlite localities in the western Namaqua-Natal Belt (NNB) and Rehoboth Province (RP), which bound the Archean Kaapvaal craton to the west and south, respectively. The localities include some for which no data have been reported previously. Re-depletion model ages from Os isotopes indicate that the lithosphere beneath the NNB and RP is mainly Early Proterozoic (Pearson et al., Chem. Geol., 2004; Janney et al. J. Petrol., 2010) and there is no evidence from xenolith modal proportions for significant differences in average fertility between lithospheric terranes. Equilibration pressures for garnet peridotites from both terranes fall in a similar range (2 to 5 GPa). However, peridotites from the RP typically have P and T values that fall on or very close to the Kaapvaal cratonic geotherm (apart from a group of peridotites from the Gibeon kimberlites with pressures > 4 GPa that follow an adiabatic gradient; e.g. Franz et al., J. Geol., 1996) whereas peridotites from the western NNB have temperatures roughly 100°C warmer than the cratonic geotherm over the whole depth range. Peridotites from the 140 Ma Melton Wold kimberlite, also in the western NNB, lack these warmer temperatures and suggest that warming was contemporaneous with Late Cretaceous kimberlite magmatism. Metasomatic enrichment in incompatible elements (consistent with interaction with kimberlitic melts) is more pronounced in NNB as compared to RP peridotites. The association of higher temperatures with a greater

  11. Earthquakes in western Iberia: improving the understanding of lithospheric deformation in a slowly deforming region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Custódio, S.; Dias, N. A.; Carrilho, F.; Góngora, E.; Rio, I.; Marreiros, C.; Morais, I.; Alves, P.; Matias, L.

    2015-10-01

    Mainland Portugal, on the southwestern edge of the European continent, is located directly north of the boundary between the Eurasian and Nubian plates. It lies in a region of slow lithospheric deformation (<5 mm yr-1), which has generated some of the largest earthquakes in Europe, both intraplate (mainland) and interplate (offshore). Some offshore earthquakes are nucleated on old and cold lithospheric mantle, at depths down to 60 km. The seismicity of mainland Portugal and its adjacent offshore has been repeatedly classified as diffuse. In this paper, we analyse the instrumental earthquake catalogue for western Iberia, which covers the period between 1961 and 2013. Between 2010 and 2012, the catalogue was enriched with data from dense broad-band deployments. We show that although the plate boundary south of Portugal is diffuse, in that deformation is accommodated along several distributed faults rather than along one long linear plate boundary, the seismicity itself is not diffuse. Rather, when located using high-quality data, earthquakes collapse into well-defined clusters and lineations. We identify and characterize the most outstanding clusters and lineations of epicentres and correlate them with geophysical and tectonic features (historical seismicity, topography, geologically mapped faults, Moho depth, free-air gravity, magnetic anomalies and geotectonic units). Both onshore and offshore, clusters and lineations of earthquakes are aligned preferentially NNE-SSW and WNW-ESE. Cumulative seismic moment and epicentre density decrease from south to north, with increasing distance from the plate boundary. Only few earthquake lineations coincide with geologically mapped faults. Clusters and lineations that do not match geologically mapped faults may correspond to previously unmapped faults (e.g. blind faults), rheological boundaries or distributed fracturing inside blocks that are more brittle and therefore break more easily than neighbour blocks. The seismicity map

  12. Impact of lithosphere rheology on the dynamic topography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burov, Evgueni; Gerya, Taras; Koptev, Alexander

    2014-05-01

    Dynamic topography is a key observable signature of the Earth's and planetary (e.g. Venus) mantle dynamics. In general view, it reflects complex mantle flow patterns, and hence is supposed to correlate at different extent with seismic tomography, SKS fast orientations, geodetic velocity fields and geoid anomalies. However, identification of dynamic topography had no systematic success, specifically in the Earth's continents. Here we argue that lithosphere rheology, in particular, rheological stratification of continents, results in modulation of dynamic topography, converting commonly expected long-wavelength/small amplitude undulations into short-wavelength surface undulations with wide amplitude spectrum, superimposed onto "tectonic" topography. These ideas are explored in 3D using unprecedentedly high resolution numerical experiments (grid step size 2-3 km for 1500x1500x600 km computational area) incorporating realistic rheologically stratified lithosphere. Such high resolution is actually needed to resolve small-scale crustal faulting and inter-layer coupling/uncoupling that shape surface topography. The results reveal strikingly discordant, counterintuitive features of 3D dynamic topography, going far beyond the inferences from previous models. In particular, even weak anisotropic tectonic stress field results both in large-scale small-amplitude dynamic topography and in strongly anisotropic short-wavelength (at least in one direction) dynamic topography with wide amplitude range (from 100 to 2000-3000 m), including basins and ranges and large-scale linear normal and strike-slip faults. Even very slightly pre-stressed strong lithosphere yields and localizes deformation much easier , than un-prestressed one, in response to plume impact and mantle flow. The results shed new light on the importance of lithosphere rheology and active role of lithosphere in mantle-lithosphere interactions as well as on the role of mantle flow and far-field stresses in tectonic

  13. Variation of olivine composition in the volcanic rocks in the Songliao basin, NE China: lithosphere control on the origin of the K-rich intraplate mafic lavas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, L.-Y.; Prelević, D.; Li, N.; Mertz-Kraus, R.; Buhre, S.

    2016-10-01

    Lithospheric thickness and the heterogeneity of the mantle lithosphere are two major parameters that play a role in determining the final composition of the mafic melts and their minerals. The Songliao basin in northeast China represents an ideal natural laboratory to study the effect of these two parameters on early Pliocene to Holocene K-rich mafic lavas (K2O > 4 wt.%; K2O/Na2O > 1). A series of Cenozoic volcanic edifices (Erkeshan, Wudalianchi, Keluo and Xiaogulihe) are tentatively divided into three groups (Group 1 - thin, Group 2 - middle, and Group 3 - thick) according to the lithosphere thickness. They are located in the northern region of the Songliao basin extending in a near north-south direction along a broad zone where the lithosphere thickness increases gradually. We present a detailed petrographical and geochemical study on olivine macrocrysts in combination with new geochemical data on their host lavas, including major and trace element abundances as well as Sr, Nd, and Pb isotopic signatures. Our ultimate aim is to quantitatively and qualitatively determine the role of lithospheric mantle thickness (named as "lid effect") and composition in the variation of mafic lavas and olivine composition. When corrected to Mg# = 0.72, a number of major elements in the lavas correlate with increasing lithospheric thickness (L): Si72 and Al72 decrease, whereas Mg72, Fe72, Ti72 and P72 increase. Sm/Yb ratios in the lavas increase, implying that lithospheric thickness exerts an important control. Group 3 mafic lavas are ultrapotassic (showing lamproite affinity) with K2O/Na2O > 4: their La/Sm and Pb isotope ratios deviate from the above correlations, indicating that the lavas from the thickest part of the basin exhibit the highest extent of metasomatic enrichment of the mantle source. Several parameters (e.g. [Ni], Ni/Mg, Ni/(Mg/Fe), Mn/Fe and Ca/Fe) in melt-related olivine from Group 1 and Group 2 lavas are controlled by variable lithosphere thickness. Olivine

  14. Mantle-crust differentiation of chalcophile elements in the oceanic lithosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciążela, J.; Dick, H. J.; Koepke, J.; Kuhn, T.; Muszynski, A.; Kubiak, M.

    2014-12-01

    The chalcophile elements, as associated with sulfides, are believed mainly from the study of ophiolites to be generally enriched in the upper mantle, but depleted by magmatic processes in the lower and upper ocean crust. However, studies of some orogenic lherzolites suggest a copper depletion of peridotites in relation to the primitive mantle, suggesting that a portion of the sulfides is melted during decompression and incorporated into the ascending magmas. The rarity of abyssal peridotites and the high degree of their alteration have not allowed these results to be verified in situ in the oceans.Here, we present the first complete study of chalcophile elements based on a suite of rocks from an oceanic core complex (OCC), the Kane Megamullion at 22°30'N at the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. OCCs provide large exposures of mantle and lower crustal rocks on the seafloor on detachment fault footwalls at slow and ultraslow spreading ridges. The Kane Megamullion is one of the best sampled OCCs in the world, with 1342 rocks from 28 dredge sites and 14 dives. We have made XRF, TD-MS and INAA analyses of 129 representative peridotites, gabbroic rocks, diabases and basalts. Our results suggest a depletion of some peridotites in relation to the primitive mantle (28 ppm Cu). Dunites, troctolites and olivine gabbros are relatively enriched in chalcophile elements. The amount of sulfides decreases gradually with progressive differentiation, reaching a minimum in gabbronorites and diabases. The highest bulk abundance of chalcophile elements in our sample suite was observed in dunites (up to ~ 300 ppm Cu in several samples) and a contact zone between residual peridotite and a mafic vein (294 ppm Cu). Plagioclase-bearing harzburgites, generally formed by late-stage melt impregnation in the mantle, are typically more enriched in Cu than unimpregnated residual peridotites. For these reasons, our initial results indicate sulfide melting during mantle melting, and their local precipitation in

  15. Complex metasomatism of lithospheric mantle by asthenosphere-derived melts: Evidence from peridotite xenoliths in Weichang at the northern margin of the North China Craton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zou, Dongya; Zhang, Hongfu; Hu, Zhaochu; Santosh, M.

    2016-11-01

    The petrology, in situ analyses of major and trace elements as well as Sr isotopic compositions of spinel-facies lherzolite and harzburgite xenoliths from Weichang within the northern margin of the North China Craton (NCC) are reported for the first time in this study to evaluate the nature and evolution of the lithospheric mantle. These peridotite xenoliths display porphyroclastic texture and can be subdivided into two groups. Group I peridotites have slightly higher forsterite contents (Fo) (90.6-91.2) and 87Sr/86Sr ratios (0.7025-0.7043) in the cores than those in the rims (89.8-90.8; 0.7025-0.7038) of olivines and clinopyroxenes, respectively. The clinopyroxenes in these rocks exhibit uniform LREE-depleted patterns. These geochemical features suggest that the Group I peridotites were weakly metasomatized by recent asthenospheric melts. In contrast, Group II peridotites show sieve-texture and clear compositional zoning in minerals. The olivines and clinopyroxenes from these rocks have higher Fo (86.9-91.3) and 87Sr/86Sr ratios (0.7035-0.7049) in the cores than those in the rims (76.9-90.6; 0.7021-0.7046). The clinopyroxenes show three types of REE patterns: LREE-enriched, convex-upward and spoon-shaped. The LREE-enriched clinopyroxenes have the highest (La/Yb)N and lowest Ti/Eu and those with spoon-shaped REE patterns show an increase in LREE, Ba, Th and U contents from the cores to the rims. These features indicate that the Group II peridotites witnessed a high degree of refertilization by recent asthenosphere-derived silicate and carbonatite melts or their mixture. Compared with the data of the Mesozoic NCC lithospheric mantle, the heterogeneous and low 87Sr/86Sr ratios (0.7025-0.7049) in the LREE-depleted clinopyroxenes reveal that the ancient lithospheric mantle could have been modified by asthenospheric melts before the recent metasomatism event. We conclude that the lithospheric mantle beneath Weichang underwent multiple modifications through asthenosphere-lithosphere

  16. Water Content in the SW USA Mantle Lithosphere: FTIR Analysis of Dish Hill and Kilbourne Hole Pyroxenites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gibler, Robert; Peslier, Anne H.; Schaffer, Lillian Aurora; Brandon, Alan D.

    2014-01-01

    Kilbourne Hole (NM, USA) and Dish Hill (CA, USA) mantle xenoliths sample continental mantle in two different tectonic settings. Kilbourne Hole (KH) is located in the Rio Grande rift. Dish Hill (DH) is located in the southern Mojave province, an area potentially affected by subduction of the Farallon plate beneath North America. FTIR analyses were obtained on well characterized pyroxenite, dunite and wehrlite xenoliths, thought to represent crystallized melts at mantle depths. PUM normalized REE patterns of the KH bulk-rocks are slightly LREE enriched and consistent with those of liquids generated by < 5% melting of a spinel peridotite source. Clinopyroxenes contain from 272 to 313 ppm weight H2O similar to the lower limit of KH peridotite clinopyroxenes (250-530 ppm H2O). This is unexpected as crystallized melts like pyroxenites should concentrate water more than residual mantle-like peridotites, given that H is incompatible. PUM normalized bulk REE of the DH pyroxenites are characterized by flat to LREE depleted REE profiles consistent with > 6% melting of a spinel peridotite source. Pyroxenite pyroxenes have no detectable water but one DH wehrlite, which bulk-rock is LREE enriched, has 4 ppm H2O in orthopyroxene and <1ppm in clinopyroxene. The DH pyroxenites may thus come from a dry mantle source, potentially unaffected by the subduction of the Farallon plate. These water-poor melts either originated from shallow oceanic lithosphere overlaying the Farallon slab or from continental mantle formed > 2 Ga. The Farallon subduction appears to have enriched in water the southwestern United States lithospheric mantle further east than DH, beneath the Colorado plateau.

  17. Evidence for deeply subducting Asian lithosphere beneath the Pamir-Hindu Kush region from lithospheric imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kufner, Sofia-Katerina; Schurr, Bernd; Sippl, Christian; Schneider, Felix; Yuan, Xiaohui; Ischuk, Anatoly; Arib, Arib; Murodkulov, Shohruhk; Haberland, Christian; Mechie, James; Bianchi, Marcelo; Tilmann, Frederik

    2014-05-01

    The Pamir-Hindu Kush region, located north of the western Himalayan syntaxis, remains one of the most puzzling regions in the Indian-Eurasian collision system. In contrast to the Himalaya and Tibet, the Pamir and Hindu Kush feature a narrow, curved zone of intense intermediate depth seismicity, reaching depths greater than 250 km. The Pamir seismicity has been linked to subduction of Eurasian lithosphere. The origin of the material hosting the Hindu Kush earthquakes as well as their relation to the Pamir seismic zone is still a topic of debate. Here we present results from a teleseismic tomography that puts new constraints on the deep structure of this region. We use teleseismic P-wave travel times of approx. 800 earthquakes recorded by 180 seismic stations of several temporary networks (mainly TIPAGE, FERGHANA, and TIPTIMON) that were deployed between 2008 to 2013 and cover significant parts of the western Tien Shan, Pamir and Hindu Kush. In total about 35.000 P-wave travel time residuals are inverted for P-wave velocity perturbation. Beneath the Pamir, our velocity model images an arcuate, slab-like high velocity structure, coinciding with the seismogenic plane at the upper level. In the eastern Pamir the high velocity structure does not extend much deeper than the local seismicity but in the south-western Pamir, the structure can be traced to the bottom of the transition zone at about 600 km, indicating the presence of dense, cold Eurasian lithosphere at much greater depths than the depth extent of the seismicity would suggest. The stress regime derived from source mechanisms of intermediate depth earthquakes suggests that the current driving force, pulling the Pamir slab down seems to be this seismically fast body deep in the mantle. In contrast to the Pamir, the Hindu Kush seismicity does not occur clearly connected to a high velocity structure, but to near average or even low velocities. However a fast anomaly is imaged just below the deepest Hindu Kush

  18. Matching Lithosphere velocity changes to the GOCE gravity signal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braitenberg, Carla

    2016-07-01

    Authors: Carla Braitenberg, Patrizia Mariani, Alberto Pastorutti Department of Mathematics and Geosciences, University of Trieste Via Weiss 1, 34100 Trieste Seismic tomography models result in 3D velocity models of lithosphere and sublithospheric mantle, which are due to mineralogic compositional changes and variations in the thermal gradient. The assignment of density is non-univocal and can lead to inverted density changes with respect to velocity changes, depending on composition and temperature. Velocity changes due to temperature result in a proportional density change, whereas changes due to compositional changes and age of the lithosphere can lead to density changes of inverted sign. The relation between velocity and density implies changes in the lithosphere rigidity. We analyze the GOCE gradient fields and the velocity models jointly, making simulations on thermal and compositional density changes, using the velocity models as constraint on lithosphere geometry. The correlations are enhanced by applying geodynamic plate reconstructions to the GOCE gravity field and the tomography models which places today's observed fields at the Gondwana pre-breakup position. We find that the lithosphere geometry is a controlling factor on the overlying geologic elements, defining the regions where rifting and collision alternate and repeat through time. The study is carried out globally, with focus on the conjugate margins of the African and South American continents. The background for the study can be found in the following publications where the techniques which have been used are described: Braitenberg, C., Mariani, P. and De Min, A. (2013). The European Alps and nearby orogenic belts sensed by GOCE, Boll. Bollettino di Geofisica Teorica ed Applicata, 54(4), 321-334. doi:10.4430/bgta0105---- Braitenberg, C. and Mariani, P. (2015). Geological implications from complete Gondwana GOCE-products reconstructions and link to lithospheric roots. Proceedings of 5th

  19. Lithospheric Decoupling and Rotations: Hints from Ethiopian Rift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muluneh, A. A.; Cuffaro, M.; Doglioni, C.; Kidane, T.

    2014-12-01

    Plates move relative to the mantle because some torques are acting on them. The shear in the low-velocity zone (LVZ) at the base of the lithosphere is the expression of these torques. The decoupling is allowed by the low viscosity in the LVZ, which is likely few orders of magnitudes lower than previously estimated. The viscosity value in the LVZ controls the degree of coupling/decoupling between the lithosphere and the underlying mantle. Lateral variations in viscosity within the LVZ may explain the velocity gradient among tectonic plates as the one determining the Ethiopian Rift (ER) separating Africa from Somalia. While it remains not fully understood the mechanisms of the torques acting on the lithosphere (thermally driven mantle convection or the combination of mantle convection with astronomical forces such as the Earth's rotation and tidal drag), the stresses are transmitted across the different mechanical layers (e.g., the brittle upper crust, down to the viscous-plastic ductile lower crust and upper mantle). Differential basal shear traction at the base of the lithosphere beneath the two sides of the East African Rift System (EARS) is assumed to drive and sustain rifting. In our analysis, the differential torques acting on the lithospheric/crustal blocks drive kinematics and block rotations. Since, ER involves the whole lithosphere, we do not expect large amount of rotation. Rotation can be the result of the whole plate motion on the sphere moving along the tectonic equator, or the second order sub-rotation of a single plate. Further rotation may occur along oblique plate boundaries (e.g., left lateral transtensional setting at the ER). Small amount of vertical axis rotation of blocks in northern ER could be related to the presence of local, shallower decollement layers. Shallow brittle-ductile transition (BDT) zone and differential tilting of crustal blocks in the northern ER could hint a possibility of detachment surface between the flow in the lower

  20. The Lithospheric Geoid as a Constraint on Plate Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richardson, R. M.; Coblentz, D. D.

    2015-12-01

    100 years after Wegener's pioneering work there is still considerable debate about the dynamics of present-day plate motions. A better understanding of present-day dynamics is key to a better understanding of the supercontinent cycle. The Earth's gravity field is one of the primary data sets to help constrain horizontal density contrasts, and hence plate dynamic forces. Previous work has shown that the global average for the geoid step up from old oceanic lithosphere across passive continental margins to stable continental lithosphere is about 6-9m, and the global average for the geoid anomaly associated with cooling oceanic lithosphere (the so-called "ridge push") is 10-12m. The ridge geoid anomaly corresponds to a net force of ~3x1012N/m (averaged over the thickness of the lithosphere) due to 'ridge push.' However, for individual continental margins and mid-ocean ridge systems, there is considerable variation in the geoid step and geoid anomaly and consequently the associated forces contributing to the stress field. We explore the variation in geoid step across passive continental margins looking for correlations with age of continental breakup (and hence place within the supercontinent cycle), hot spot tracks, continental plate velocities, long-wavelength geoid energy (that may be masking signal), and small scale convection. For mid-ocean ridges, we explore variations in geoid anomaly looking for correlations with plate spreading rates, hot spot tracks, long-wavelength geoid energy (that may be masking signal), and small scale convection. We use a band-pass spherical harmonic filter on the full geoid (e.g., EGM2008-WGS84, complete to spherical harmonic degree and order 2159) between orders 6 and 80. The evaluation of the role of spatial variations in the geoid gradient for cooling oceanic lithosphere and across the continental margin in the dynamics of the intraplate stress field requires high spatial resolution modeling. We perform a high resolution finite

  1. Lithosphere-asthenosphere Structure and Active Tectonics In Central Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chimera, G.; Aoudia, A.; Saraò, A.; Panza, G. F.

    We investigate the lithosphere-asthenosphere structure and the active tectonics along a stripe from the Tyrrhenian to the Adriatic with emphasis on the Umbria-Marche area by means of surface-wave tomography, and inversion studies for structure and seismic moment tensor retrieval. The data include seismic waveforms, a large compilation of local group velocities (0.8-4s) and regional phase and group velocity (10-100s) measurements. The local group velocity maps cover the area reactivated by the 1997 Umbria-Marche earthquake sequence. These maps suggest a relation between the lat- eral heterogeneity and distribution of the active faults and related basins. Such relation is confirmed by the non-linear inversion of the local dispersion curves. To image the deeper structure from the Tyrrhenian to the Adriatic coast, we fix the uppermost part of the crust using the Umbria-Marche models along with the CROP03 profile and related shear wave velocity, and invert the additional long period dispersion measure- ments. The results of the inversion show the geometry and lateral heterogeneity of the lithosphere-asthenosphere system. The retrieved models for the Umbria-Marche up- per crust reveal the importance of the inherited compression on the ongoing extension and related seismic activity. The reactivated 1997 normal fault zone displays a thrust fault geometry as evidenced by the lateral extent of the faulted Late Triassic evap- orites that did not yet balance the cumulative normal faulting deformation attesting therefore recent extensional tectonics within the thrust belt. Our data are in favor of a listric geometry of faulting at depth. Source inversion studies of the two main crustal events of September 26 and October 14, 1997 show the dominance of normal faulting mechanisms, whereas selected aftershocks between the reactivated fault segments re- veal that the prevailing deformation at the step-over is of strike-slip faulting type. The rupture of the three distinct and

  2. Mesozoic thermal evolution of the southern African mantle lithosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, David R.; Schmitz, Mark D.; Janney, Philip E.

    2003-12-01

    The thermal structure of Archean and Proterozoic lithospheric terranes in southern Africa during the Mesozoic was evaluated by thermobarometry of mantle peridotite xenoliths erupted in alkaline magmas between 180 and 60 Ma. For cratonic xenoliths, the presence of a 150-200 °C isobaric temperature range at 5-6 GPa confirms original interpretations of a conductive geotherm, which is perturbed at depth, and therefore does not record steady state lithospheric mantle structure. Xenoliths from both Archean and Proterozoic terranes record conductive limb temperatures characteristic of a "cratonic" geotherm (˜40 mW m -2), indicating cooling of Proterozoic mantle following the last major tectonothermal event in the region at ˜1 Ga and the probability of thick off-craton lithosphere capable of hosting diamond. This inference is supported by U-Pb thermochronology of lower crustal xenoliths [Schmitz and Bowring, 2003. Contrib. Mineral. Petrol. 144, 592-618]. The entire region then suffered a protracted regional heating event in the Mesozoic, affecting both mantle and lower crust. In the mantle, the event is recorded at ˜150 Ma to the southeast of the craton, propagating to the west by 108-74 Ma, the craton interior by 85-90 Ma and the far southwest and northwest by 65-70 Ma. The heating penetrated to shallower levels in the off-craton areas than on the craton, and is more apparent on the southern margin of the craton than in its western interior. The focus and spatial progression mimic inferred patterns of plume activity and supercontinent breakup 30-100 Ma earlier and are probably connected. Contrasting thermal profiles from Archean and Proterozoic mantle result from penetration to shallower levels of the Proterozoic lithosphere by heat transporting magmas. Extent of penetration is related not to original lithospheric thickness, but to its more fertile character and the presence of structurally weak zones of old tectonism. The present day distribution of surface heat flow

  3. South China Sea crustal thickness and lithosphere thinning from satellite gravity inversion incorporating a lithospheric thermal gravity anomaly correction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kusznir, Nick; Gozzard, Simon; Alvey, Andy

    2016-04-01

    The distribution of ocean crust and lithosphere within the South China Sea (SCS) are controversial. Sea-floor spreading re-orientation and ridge jumps during the Oligocene-Miocene formation of the South China Sea led to the present complex distribution of oceanic crust, thinned continental crust, micro-continents and volcanic ridges. We determine Moho depth, crustal thickness and continental lithosphere thinning (1- 1/beta) for the South China Sea using a gravity inversion method which incorporates a lithosphere thermal gravity anomaly correction (Chappell & Kusznir, 2008). The gravity inversion method provides a prediction of ocean-continent transition structure and continent-ocean boundary location which is independent of ocean isochron information. A correction is required for the lithosphere thermal gravity anomaly in order to determine Moho depth accurately from gravity inversion; the elevated lithosphere geotherm of the young oceanic and rifted continental margin lithosphere of the South China Sea produces a large lithosphere thermal gravity anomaly which in places exceeds -150 mGal. The gravity anomaly inversion is carried out in the 3D spectral domain (using Parker 1972) to determine 3D Moho geometry and invokes Smith's uniqueness theorem. The gravity anomaly contribution from sediments assumes a compaction controlled sediment density increase with depth. The gravity inversion includes a parameterization of the decompression melting model of White & McKenzie (1999) to predict volcanic addition generated during continental breakup lithosphere thinning and seafloor spreading. Public domain free air gravity anomaly, bathymetry and sediment thickness data are used in this gravity inversion. Using crustal thickness and continental lithosphere thinning factor maps with superimposed shaded-relief free-air gravity anomaly, we improve the determination of pre-breakup rifted margin conjugacy, rift orientation and sea-floor spreading trajectory. SCS conjugate margins

  4. Metasomatized lithosphere and the origin of alkaline lavas.

    PubMed

    Pilet, Sébastien; Baker, Michael B; Stolper, Edward M

    2008-05-16

    Recycled oceanic crust, with or without sediment, is often invoked as a source component of continental and oceanic alkaline magmas to account for their trace-element and isotopic characteristics. Alternatively, these features have been attributed to sources containing veined, metasomatized lithosphere. In melting experiments on natural amphibole-rich veins at 1.5 gigapascals, we found that partial melts of metasomatic veins can reproduce key major- and trace-element features of oceanic and continental alkaline magmas. Moreover, experiments with hornblendite plus lherzolite showed that reaction of melts of amphibole-rich veins with surrounding lherzolite can explain observed compositional trends from nephelinites to alkali olivine basalts. We conclude that melting of metasomatized lithosphere is a viable alternative to models of alkaline basalt formation by melting of recycled oceanic crust with or without sediment.

  5. The Gutenberg discontinuity: melt at the lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary.

    PubMed

    Schmerr, Nicholas

    2012-03-23

    The lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary (LAB) beneath ocean basins separates the upper thermal boundary layer of rigid, conductively cooling plates from the underlying ductile, convecting mantle. The origin of a seismic discontinuity associated with this interface, known as the Gutenberg discontinuity (G), remains enigmatic. High-frequency SS precursors sampling below the Pacific plate intermittently detect the G as a sharp, negative velocity contrast at 40- to 75-kilometer depth. These observations lie near the depth of the LAB in regions associated with recent surface volcanism and mantle melt production and are consistent with an intermittent layer of asthenospheric partial melt residing at the lithospheric base. I propose that the G reflectivity is regionally enhanced by dynamical processes that produce melt, including hot mantle upwellings, small-scale convection, and fluid release during subduction.

  6. Coronae formation on Venus via extension and lithospheric instability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piskorz, Danielle; Elkins-Tanton, Linda T.; Smrekar, Suzanne E.

    2014-12-01

    Over 500 quasi-circular volcano-tectonic features called coronae occur on Venus. They are believed to form via small-scale mantle upwellings, lithospheric instability, or a combination thereof. Coronae and rifts commonly occur together, including many coronae that lie outside of the fracture zone. However, the genetic link between the two has remained unclear. This paper proposes a mechanism for the formation of off-rift coronae due to the rifting process. We model the interaction of a rising mantle plume associated with a rift with a hypothetical preexisting layer of dense material in the lithosphere. We show that a rift and its associated off-rift coronae could be genetically linked by the process of development of secondary ringlike dripping instabilities initiating at the plume margins. We calculate the resulting surface topographies, melt volumes, and Bouguer gravity anomalies and compare them to observations.

  7. Thick plate flexure. [for lithospheric models of Mars and earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Comer, R. P.

    1983-01-01

    Analytical expressions are derived for the displacements and stresses due to loading of a floating, uniform, elastic plate of arbitrary thickness by a plane or axisymmetric harmonic load. The solution is exact except for assumptions of small strains and linear boundary conditions, and gravitation within the plate is neglected. For typical earth parameters its predictions are comparable to those of the usual thin plate theory frequently assumed in studies of lithospheric flexure, gravity and regional isostasy. Even for a very thick lithosphere, which may exist in some regions of Mars, the thin plate theory is a better approximation to the thick plate solution than the elastic half-space limit, except for short-wavelength loads.

  8. On geoid heights and flexure of the lithosphere at seamounts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watts, A. B.; Ribe, N. M.

    1984-12-01

    The sea surface height has now been mapped to an accuracy of better than ±1 m by using radar altimeters on board orbiting satellites. The major influence on the mean sea surface height is the marine geoid which is an equipotential surface. We have carried out preliminary studies of how oceanic volcanoes, which rise above the ocean floor as isolated seamounts and oceanic islands or linear ridges, contribute to the marine geoid. Simple one- and two-dimensional models have been constructed in which it is assumed that the oceanic lithosphere responds to volcanic loads as a thin elastic plate overlying a weak fluid substratum. Previous studies based on gravity and bathymetry data and uplift/subsidence patterns show that the effective flexural rigidity of oceanic lithosphere and the equivalent elastic thickness Te increase with the age of the lithosphere at the time of loading. The models predict that isolated seamounts emplaced on relatively young lithosphere on or near a mid-ocean ridge crest will be associated with relatively low amplitude geoid anomalies (about 0.4-0.5 m/km of height), while seamounts formed on relatively old lithosphere, on ridge flanks, will be associated with much higher amplitude anomalies (1.4-1.5 m/km). Studies of the Seasat altimetric geoid prepared by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory support these model predictions; geoid amplitudes are relatively low over the Mid-Pacific Mountains and Line Islands, which formed on or near a mid-ocean ridge crest, and relatively high over the Magellan Seamounts and Wake Guyots, which formed off ridge. Direct modeling of the altimetric geoid over these features is complicated, however, by the wide spacing of the satellite tracks (which can exceed 100 km) and poor bathymetric control beneath individual satellite tracks. In regions where multibeam bathymetric surveys are available, models can be constructed that fit the altimetric geoid to better than ±1 m. Studies of geoid anomalies over the Emperor seamount

  9. The elastic thickness of the lithosphere in the Pacific Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calmant, Stephane

    1987-09-01

    The effective elastic thickness T(e) of the oceanic lithosphere along the Hawaiian-Emperor, the Marquesas, the Pitcairn-Mururoa-Gloucester (PMG) chains, the Tuamotu archipelago, and the Samoa islands was determined by computing the deflection of a continuous elastic plate under the load of volcanoes and was constrained by the geoid heights over the oceans provided by Seasat. The prediction by Watts (1978) according to which the value of the T(e) should increase with the square root of crustal age of the lithosphere at the time of volcano emplacement was not confirmed; while the T(e) estimate of the Hawaiian-Emperor chain and an isolated estimate in the Samoan group agree with the empirical trend found by Watts, the Marquesas and the PMG chains, as well as the previously analyzed Cook-Austral and Society chains, present anomalously low values which increase only slightly with age.

  10. Thermal stresses due to cooling of a viscoelastic oceanic lithosphere

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Denlinger, R.P.; Savage, W.Z.

    1989-01-01

    Instant-freezing methods inaccurately predict transient thermal stresses in rapidly cooling silicate glass plates because of the temperature dependent rheology of the material. The temperature dependent rheology of the lithosphere may affect the transient thermal stress distribution in a similar way, and for this reason we use a thermoviscoelastic model to estimate thermal stresses in young oceanic lithosphere. This theory is formulated here for linear creep processes that have an Arrhenius rate dependence on temperature. Our results show that the stress differences between instant freezing and linear thermoviscoelastic theory are most pronounced at early times (0-20 m.y. when the instant freezing stresses may be twice as large. The solutions for the two methods asymptotically approach the same solution with time. A comparison with intraplate seismicity shows that both methods underestimate the depth of compressional stresses inferred from the seismicity in a systematic way. -from Authors

  11. Physico-chemical constraints on cratonic lithosphere discontinuities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aulbach, Sonja; Rondenay, Stéphane; Huismans, Ritske

    2014-05-01

    The origins of the mid-lithospheric discontinuity (MLD) and lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary (LAB) have received much attention over the recent years. Peculiarities of cratonic lithosphere construction - compositional and rheological stratification due to thickening in collisional settings or by plume subcretion, multiple metasomatic overprints due to longevity - offer a variety of possibilities for the generation of discontinuities. Interconnected small degrees of conductive partial melt (carbonate-rich melts, such as carbonatites and kimberlites, or highly alkaline melts) at the cratonic LAB, which produce seismic discontinuities, may be generated in the presence of volatiles. These depress the peridotite solidus sufficiently to intersect the mantle adiabat at depths near the cratonic LAB at ~160-220 km, i.e. above the depth of metal saturation where carbonatite becomes unstable. The absence of agreement between the different seismic and magnetotelluric estimates for the depth of the LAB beneath Kaapvaal may be due to impingement of a plume, leading to a pervasively, but heterogeneously metasomatised ('asthenospherised') hot and deep root. Such a root and hot sublithosphere may yield conflicting seismic-thermal-geochemical depths for the LAB. The question arises whether the chemical boundary layer should be defined as above or below the asthenospherised part of the SCLM, which has preserved isotopic, compositional (non-primitive olivine forsterite content) and physical evidence (e.g. from teleseismic tomography and receiver functions) for a cratonic heritage and which therefore is still distinguishable from the asthenospheric mantle. If cratonic lithosphere overlies anomalously hot mantle for extended periods of time, the LAB may be significantly thinned, aided by penetration of relatively high-degree Fe-rich partial melts, as has occurred beneath the Tanzanian craton. Xenoliths from the deep Slave craton show little evidence for 'asthenospherisation'. Its root

  12. Swarm magnetic and GOCE gravity gradient grids for lithospheric modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouman, Johannes; Haagmans, Roger; Olsen, Nils; Ebbing, Jörg; Baykiev, Eldar; Novak, Pavel; Kotsiaros, Stavros; Sebera, Josef; Brönner, Marco; Fuchs, Martin; Holzrichter, Nils

    2016-07-01

    We explore how Swarm magnetic gradient and GOCE gravity gradient data can improve modelling of the Earth's lithosphere and thereby contribute to a better understanding of Earth's dynamic processes. We study the use of gradient grids to provide improved information about the lithosphere and upper mantle in the well-surveyed North-East Atlantic Margin. In particular, we present the computation of magnetic and gravity gradient grids at satellite altitude (roughly 450 km and 250 km above the Earth for Swarm and GOCE respectively). It is shown that regional solutions based on a tesseroid approach may contain more signal content than global models do. The patchwork of regional grids is presented as well as the subsequent error reduction through iterative downward and upward continuation using the Poisson integral equation. The promises and pitfalls are discussed of using grids at mean satellite altitude.

  13. Satellite tidal magnetic signals constrain oceanic lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary

    PubMed Central

    Grayver, Alexander V.; Schnepf, Neesha R.; Kuvshinov, Alexey V.; Sabaka, Terence J.; Manoj, Chandrasekharan; Olsen, Nils

    2016-01-01

    The tidal flow of electrically conductive oceans through the geomagnetic field results in the generation of secondary magnetic signals, which provide information on the subsurface structure. Data from the new generation of satellites were shown to contain magnetic signals due to tidal flow; however, there are no reports that these signals have been used to infer subsurface structure. We use satellite-detected tidal magnetic fields to image the global electrical structure of the oceanic lithosphere and upper mantle down to a depth of about 250 km. The model derived from more than 12 years of satellite data reveals a ≈72-km-thick upper resistive layer followed by a sharp increase in electrical conductivity likely associated with the lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary, which separates colder rigid oceanic plates from the ductile and hotter asthenosphere. PMID:27704045

  14. Enrichment through Creative Arts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krause, Claire S.

    The CREST (Creative Resources Enriching Student Talents) Project, an enrichment approach for elementary gifted, talented, and creative students, is described. The project is explained to incorporate an interdisciplinary approach to instruction in art and science using resources within the community. Chapter 1 outlines the project philosophy,…

  15. Linking petrology and seismology of the southwest Greenland lithosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lesher, C. E.; Vestergaard, C.; Brown, E.; Schutt, D.

    2015-12-01

    Mantle xenoliths from late-Proterozoic diamond-bearing kimberlitic dikes in the Kangerlussuaq, Sarfartoq and Maniitsoq areas of southwestern Greenland provide constraints on the composition and thermal state of lithospheric mantle beneath Greenland to depths of ~200 km [1]. Similarly, surface wave tomography studies carried out as part of the GLATIS project use a range of Rayleigh wave periods sensitive to structures at a similar depth interval within southwestern Greenland lithospheric mantle [2]. Here we link petrologic and seismologic constraints on the mantle lithosphere beneath Greenland utilizing methods of [3] that show that inferred chemical and mineralogical stratification inferred from petrology, showing mantle peridotite transitioning from garnet-free harzburgite to garnet lherzolite between ~70 and 180 km, cannot readily be resolved with fundamental mode Rayleigh waves. On the other hand, comparing phase velocities predicted from xenolith compositions, mineralogy and last equilibration temperatures and pressures, defining the continental geotherm during late-Proterozoic time, with those for the present-day mantle lithosphere suggest significant cooling of the cratonic mantle to a modern geotherm characterized by a heat flux of 30 mW/m2 and average crustal heat production of 0.3 mW/m3 [4]. These preliminary findings point to the weak dependence of shear wave velocities on mantle peridotite composition and mineralogy, and further illustrate its strong temperature dependence. Comparison of ancient and modern continental geotherms made possible by combining petrologic and seismological data, as shown here for southwest Greenland, provide additional constraints on secular cooling of cratonic regions linked to large-scale tectonic processes. [1] Bizzarro et al., 2003, CMP, 146; Sand et al., Lithos, 112. [2] Darbyshire et al., 2004, GJI, 158. [3] Schutt and Lesher, 2006, JGR, 111. [4] Meirerbachtol et al., 2015, JGR/ES, 120.

  16. Geoid data and thermal structure of the oceanic lithosphere

    SciTech Connect

    Richardson, W.P.; Stein, S.; Stein, C.A.

    1995-07-15

    A long-standing question is whether old oceanic lithosphere continues cooling as the boundary layer of a halfspace or approaches thermal equilibrium as modeled by a finite thickness plate. Although the latter is the most direct inference from seafloor depths and heat flow, other explanations have been proposed. We investigate this issue using published results for the derivative of the oceanic geoid with age estimated from geoid offsets across fracture zones. Such data have not been used extensively in analyses of the thermal evolution of the lithosphere, primarily because they are inconsistent with two commonly used thermal models; a halfspace or a 125-km-thick plate. Recent studies, however, find that depth and heat flow data are better fit by a thinner (95 km) plate model. We thus compile published geoid slope results, and find that these data, though scattered, can discriminate between the models. Geoid slope changes with age, rather than being constant as predicted for a cooling halfspace. This variation is greater than predicted for a thick plate and is better fit by a thin plate. Geoid data should thus be useful for improving thermal models of the lithosphere. 30 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  17. Volcanism and Volatile Recycling on Venus from Lithospheric Delamination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elkins-Tanton, L. T.; Hess, P. C.; Smrekar, S. E.; Parmentier, E. M.

    2005-01-01

    Venus has an unmoving lithosphere, a young surface indicative of volcanic resurfacing, and a wide variety of volcanic and tectonic features. The planet s ubiquitous magmatic features include 100,000 small shield volcanoes as well as the descriptively named pancakes, ticks, and arachnoids [1]. Coronae, volcanic and tectonic features up to 2,600 km in diameter, have been attributed to lithospheric interactions with upwelling plumes [e.g., 2], but more recently to delamination of the lower lithosphere with [3] or without [4] a central upwelling. Lavas issuing from different volcanic features appear to have a range of compositions, as evidenced by their apparent viscosities and by data from Soviet landers. Steep-sided or "pancake" domes [e.g., 5] appear to consist of more viscous magma [6], perhaps silicic compositions created by remelting basaltic crust [7]. These steep-sided domes are associated with coronae and with shield volcanoes effusing basaltic magmas [7,8] with apparently low viscosities (low enough to allow fluid flow for hundreds of km, creating channels reminiscent of water rivers on Earth). Pancake domes, in contrast, can be up to 3 km in height and have volumes from 30 to approx.3,000 km3 [calculated from data in 8], and hundreds dot the planet [6-8].

  18. A Top to Bottom Lithospheric Study of Africa and Arabia

    SciTech Connect

    Pasyanos, M

    2006-10-31

    We study the lithospheric structure of Africa, Arabia and adjacent oceanic regions with fundamental-mode surface waves over a wide period range. Including short period group velocities allows us to examine shallower features than previous studies of the whole continent. In the process, we have developed a crustal thickness map of Africa. Main features include crustal thickness increases under the West African, Congo, and Kalahari cratons. We find crustal thinning under Mesozoic and Cenozoic rifts, including the Benue Trough, Red Sea, and East, Central, and West African rift systems. Crustal shear wave velocities are generally faster in oceanic regions and cratons, and slower in more recent crust and in active and formerly active orogenic regions. Deeper structure, related to the thickness of cratons and modern rifting, is generally consistent with previous work. Under cratons we find thick lithosphere and fast upper mantle velocities, while under rifts we find thinned lithosphere and slower upper mantle velocities. There are no consistent effects in areas classified as hotspots, indicating that there seem to be numerous origins for these features. Finally, it appears that the African Superswell has had a significantly different impact in the north and the south, indicating specifics of the feature (temperature, time of influence, etc.) to be dissimilar between the two regions. Factoring in other information, it is likely that the southern portion has been active in the past, but that shallow activity is currently limited to the northern portion of the superswell.

  19. Observations of flexure and the rheology of the oceanic lithosphere

    SciTech Connect

    Bodine, J.H.; Steckler, M.S.; Bodine, J.H.; Watts, A.B.

    1981-05-10

    Observations of flexure indicate that the effective flexural rigidity of oceanic lithosphere is a function of the age of the lithosphere at the time of loading, and hence temperature. We have used a yield stress envelope model constrained by data from experimental rock mechanics to determine how the flexure parameters and rheologic properties of oceanic lithosphere are related. The results of our model for seamounts and oceanic island loads in the interior of plates suggest that following loading, rapid stress relaxation occurs as the plate 'thins' from its short-term to its long-term (>10/sup 6/ years) mechanical thickness. The mechanical thickness, which determines the effective flexural rigidity of the plate, is strongly dependent on temperature and weakly dependent on load size and duration (>1-10 m.y.). The results of our model for convergent plate boundaries suggest that changes in the shape of the Outer Rise along an individual trench system may be due to variations in the horizontal load acting across the boundary (<1 kbar). The model predicts a narrow zone of high strain accumulation seaward of a trench which is in agreement with variations in crustal velocities and seismicity patterns observed along some trench systems.

  20. Improved determination of vector lithospheric magnetic anomalies from MAGSAT data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ravat, Dhananjay

    1993-01-01

    Scientific contributions made in developing new methods to isolate and map vector magnetic anomalies from measurements made by Magsat are described. In addition to the objective of the proposal, the isolation and mapping of equatorial vector lithospheric Magsat anomalies, isolation of polar ionospheric fields during the period were also studied. Significant progress was also made in isolation of polar delta(Z) component and scalar anomalies as well as integration and synthesis of various techniques of removing equatorial and polar ionospheric effects. The significant contributions of this research are: (1) development of empirical/analytical techniques in modeling ionospheric fields in Magsat data and their removal from uncorrected anomalies to obtain better estimates of lithospheric anomalies (this task was accomplished for equatorial delta(X), delta(Z), and delta(B) component and polar delta(Z) and delta(B) component measurements; (2) integration of important processing techniques developed during the last decade with the newly developed technologies of ionospheric field modeling into an optimum processing scheme; and (3) implementation of the above processing scheme to map the most robust magnetic anomalies of the lithosphere (components as well as scalar).

  1. Lithospheric Structure of the Northeastern North China Craton Imaged by S Receiver Functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xingchen; Ding, Zhifeng; Zhu, Lupei

    2016-08-01

    Lithosphere thickness variation is important for understanding the significant tectonic reactivation of the North China Craton (NCC) in the Mesozoic and Cenozoic time. Here, we determined the lithospheric structure in the northeastern NCC using S receiver functions from 305 teleseismic events recorded by 223 seismic stations. The Moho and lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary (LAB) are imaged clearly beneath the region. The Moho depth decreases from ~45 km beneath the western NCC to ~25 km beneath the eastern NCC. We found that the lithospheric thickness varies from 60 to 80 km beneath the Trans-North China Orogen (TNCO) and eastern NCC with no significant change of the LAB depth. The lithosphere thickness beneath the northwestern Ordos plateau is 100-130 km. In addition, there is a mid-lithosphere discontinuity at a depth of 80 km beneath the plateau that is connected to the base of thinned lithosphere in TNCO and eastern NCC. We suggest that the mid-lithosphere discontinuity represents a mechanically weak zone in the original cratonic lithosphere of the NCC. The material in the lower lithosphere of the craton, when warmed and hydrated by water released from the subducting slab of Western Pacific, became weak due to decrease in viscosity and/or partial melting and was subsequently removed through small-scale mantle convections.

  2. New insights on lithospheric foundering from thermo-mechanically coupled numerical modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pastor-Galán, Daniel; Thieulot, Cedric

    2015-04-01

    Earth's lithosphere is recycled into the mantle as required by global mass considerations. At least during the latest 1 G.y. the main mechanism of lithospheric foundering into the mantle has been subduction. Yet other mechanisms of mantle removal such as Rayleigh-Taylor-type instability or delamination have significant influence at present as revealed by mantle anomalies, and are considered to be likely candidates for the main recycling mechanisms of lithospheric during the Archean. Although lithospheric mantle removal has been geophysically imaged, e.g. Carpathians, Colorado Plateau, at many other locations geophysical and geological observations also seem to indicate that mantle lithosphere is anomalously thin or absent. Potential places where lithospheric mantle foundering processes took place are The Urals, the Variscides, underneath the Ibero Armorican Orocline in western Europe, and the Tibetan, Puna and Anatolian Plateaus. Lithospheric foundering has been blamed for, among others, cratonization processes, rapid surface uplift, generation of voluminous magmatism, changes in crustal stress from compression to extension and a long etc. However, its triggering mechanisms are not well studied, and a variety of possible explanations have been given for lithospheric foundering processes, including convective instability following orogenic thickening or some other perturbation of thermal boundary layers, development of eclogitic roots, erosion of the lithosphere by a flat-subducting slab or partial melting of the asthenosphere, and partial intruding pyroxenites into the base of lithosphere. To understand the mechanisms, causes and consequences of lithospheric foundering, we explored lithospheric foundering in an assortment of scenarios using the numerical code, ELEFANT, an user-friendly multipurpose geodynamics code. Preliminary results indicate that changes in geometry, thermal state and composition of the lithosphere, associated with mantle flow, can have a first

  3. Volatile-rich partial melts at the oceanic lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirschmann, M. M.; Ardia, P.

    2011-12-01

    corresponds to temperature near 1000 °C, which is within uncertainty with both freezing of carbonattite to form dolomite peridotite or of hydrous partial melt to form amphibole peridotite. However, temperatures derived from seismic observations may be somewhat cooler than either the carbonated peridotite or amphibole peridotite solidi, and are likely best explained by concentrations of both H2O and CO2 at the base of the lithosphere, derived from volatile-rich melts originating from deeper in the LVZ (or from plumes or off-axis ridge magmatism). These volatile enrichments allow stabilization of either hydrous or carbonated melts near the G discontinuity. Accumulations of such melts below a permeability barrier created by carbonate and/or amphibole precipitation may be the most likely explanation for the G discontinuity. However the increase in observed depth with plate age may require replenishments of melt from the asthenosphere beneath old lithosphere.

  4. Deep Continental Crustal Earthquakes and Lithospheric Structure: A Global Synthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Devlin, S.; Isacks, B. L.

    2007-12-01

    The distribution of earthquake depths within the continental crust defines the seismogenic thickness (TS), over which at least some part of crustal deformation is accommodated by rapid release of stored elastic strains. Intraplate continental seismicity is often thought to be restricted to the upper crust where TS is within the range of 15 to 20 km. This appears consistent with a lithospheric strength profile involving a weak, ductile lower crust located beneath a stronger, brittle upper crust. With the assumption of a strong uppermost mantle lid, this is often referred to the Jelly Sandwich model of lithosphere rheology. Studies in many places, however, document lower crustal earthquakes beneath continents in apparent disagreement with the model. We explore this and related issues through a survey of where and in what tectonic settings deep intraplate earthquakes are well documented in the continental crust. TS reaches Moho depth in many intraplate regions \\--- Sierra Nevada, Colorado Plateau, East African and Baikal Rift Systems, North Island New Zealand, Tien Shan, and the Andean and Alpine forelands. A review of possible deformation mechanisms which could control continental earthquake depth and facilitate seismicity beneath the brittle-ductile transition suggests that the influence of fluids is the only mechanism capable of encouraging earthquake occurrence throughout the continental crust at any tectonic setting. Surface derived fluids can induce pore fluid pressure changes to depths of 25 km and melt-reactions can induce earthquakes at depths throughout continental crust. On a global scale, fluid-enhanced embrittlement is not limited by depth or tectonic environment. We find that deep crustal earthquakes occur where the lithosphere is in a transitional state between primarily stable (e.g., shields) and highly deformed (e.g., U.S. Basin and Range or Southern California). Observations of relative intensity of tectonic deformation and regional percent strain

  5. Lithospheric reworking at the Proterozoic-Phanerozoic transition of Australia imaged using AusLAMP Magnetotelluric data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robertson, Kate; Heinson, Graham; Thiel, Stephan

    2016-10-01

    Seventy-four stations from the long-period Australia-wide AusLAMP (Australian Lithospheric Architecture Magnetotelluric Project) dataset were used to image the electrical resistivity beneath the Neoproterozoic Ikara-Flinders Ranges and adjacent Palaeo-Mesoproterozoic Curnamona Province. Results from 3D inversions using ModEM software show a relatively resistive Ikara-Flinders Ranges, with two parallel arcuate conductors at 20 to 80 km depth in the Nackara Arc. There is a good correlation of diamondiferous kimberlites occurring over conductors, which we interpret as evidence for these conductors to be residing on large lithospheric structures that have been conduits for partial melt and volatile movement in the Jurassic. The Curnamona Province is remarkably conductive for a region that is thought to have a cratonic core, with Delamerian reworking only at its edges. The conductor covers most of the province at depths of 10-40 km, and its presence at lower crustal depths suggests that conductive sediments can not entirely explain it. Fluids associated with subduction may have pervasively modified the crust in the past, resulting in an enrichment of carbon, enhancing the conductivity. Additionally, we conclude that the notion of a single continuous arcuate Flinders Conductivity Anomaly is unlikely and that the anomalous response observed is instead a result of the combined response of three separate anomalies; the Curnamona Province Conductor and the two Nackara Arc Conductors.

  6. Using natural laboratories and modeling to decipher lithospheric rheology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sobolev, Stephan

    2013-04-01

    Rheology is obviously important for geodynamic modeling but at the same time rheological parameters appear to be least constrained. Laboratory experiments give rather large ranges of rheological parameters and their scaling to nature is not entirely clear. Therefore finding rheological proxies in nature is very important. One way to do that is finding appropriate values of rheological parameter by fitting models to the lithospheric structure in the highly deformed regions where lithospheric structure and geologic evolution is well constrained. Here I will present two examples of such studies at plate boundaries. One case is the Dead Sea Transform (DST) that comprises a boundary between African and Arabian plates. During the last 15- 20 Myr more than 100 km of left lateral transform displacement has been accumulated on the DST and about 10 km thick Dead Sea Basin (DSB) was formed in the central part of the DST. Lithospheric structure and geological evolution of DST and DSB is rather well constrained by a number of interdisciplinary projects including DESERT and DESIRE projects leaded by the GFZ Potsdam. Detailed observations reveal apparently contradictory picture. From one hand widespread igneous activity, especially in the last 5 Myr, thin (60-80 km) lithosphere constrained from seismic data and absence of seismicity below the Moho, seem to be quite natural for this tectonically active plate boundary. However, surface heat flow of less than 50-60mW/m2 and deep seismicity in the lower crust ( deeper than 20 km) reported for this region are apparently inconsistent with the tectonic settings specific for an active continental plate boundary and with the crustal structure of the DSB. To address these inconsistencies which comprise what I call the "DST heat-flow paradox", a 3D numerical thermo-mechanical model was developed operating with non-linear elasto-visco-plastic rheology of the lithosphere. Results of the numerical experiments show that the entire set of

  7. Lithosphere extension and magmatism at volcanic passive margins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geoffroy, Laurent; Gernigon, Laurent; Werner, Philippe

    2014-05-01

    We present onshore and offshore evidences suggesting that volcanic passive margins are distinct in origin and evolution from non-volcanic hyper-extended margins. Consecutively, they should not be integrated in a single evolutionary process and do not necessarily represent the ultimate stage of an hyper-extension with or without mantle exhumation. Volcanic passive margins usually form in mobile areas between cratonic areas which may have been submitted to long-term periods of divergence and convergence or strike-slip tectonics. In the NE-Atlantic, for example, a complete illustration of a Wilson cycle is illustrated between Greenland and Baltica cratonic areas. From the Devonian to the end of the Jurassic, the Caledonian orogenic crust has suffered from a number of wrench and extensional tectonic stretching episodes. The late-Jurassic/Early Cretaceous extension was severe, leading to extreme crustal thinning (e.g. Rockall Through, Vøring Basin, Lofoten Basin) and was followed by a long-term regional thermal subsidence of the NE-Atlantic lithosphere. Meanwhile, pre-thinning lithospheric thickness was restored progressively during ~80 Myr, in spite of some tectonic reactivation occurring in Late Cretaceous (e.g. Outer Vøring Basin) resulting in little coeval stretching and thinning. During the Paleocene (or even earlier, especially in the Rockall area) a regional mantle melting event occurred. The mantle melted in specific locations but led ultimately to a large igneous province formation during the onset of breakup. The NE-Atlantic continental crust was at this time extremely heterogeneous due to its tectonic inheritance but we think that generally the lithosphere was much thicker than during the Jurassic-Cretaceous event, and thus much stronger. Although we must consider the existence of some extension during the latest Cretaceous and Paleocene, the main stretching and thinning event leading to volcanic passive margins formations and successful break-up occurred

  8. Variations on the Lower Silesian (SW Poland) lithospheric mantle - the Grodziec xenoliths case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matusiak-Małek, Magdalena; Ćwiek, Mateusz; Puziewicz, Jacek; Ntaflos, Theodoros

    2016-04-01

    The lithospheric mantle underlying the northern margin of Bohemian Massif (Lower Silesia, SW Poland) is in general characterized by presence of two ultramafic lithologies, both of mostly harzburgitic composition. The group A harzburgites are strongly depleted and record variable metasomatic events, which are however always related to reactions with mixed alkaline-carbonatite melts. The group B harzburgites also record reaction with mafic melts, but in this case the reaction resulted in enrichment of the peridotites in Fe ("Fe-metasomatism"). The xenoliths suites from Grodziec (this study), Krzeniów (Matusiak-Małek et al., 2014, JoP) and Wilcza Góra (Matusiak-Małek et al., submitted), all in the Złotoryja volcanic complex, follow the "A" and "B" lithological characteristics. The Grodziec suite contains, however, numerous lherzolitic xenoliths. The group A xenoliths from Grodziec are anhydrous lherzolites, scarcely harzburgites. The Fo content in olivine varies from 90.7 to 91.8%, Mg# in ortho-and clinopyroxene is 0.91-0.92. Al content in orthopyroxene is 0.05-0.14 a pfu (0.70 to 3.44 wt.%), which makes them one of the highest in region. Few lherzolites are characterized by slightly lower Fo content in olivine (89.16-90.10%) and are therefore classified as A- group. The Mg# of pyroxenes in this group varies from 0.89 to 0.90, but orthopyroxene is generally characterized by low Al content (< 0.08 a pfu, corresponding to <2 wt.% in majority of xenoliths). Group B xenoliths are orthopyroxene - free dunites, and wehrlite. Olivine contains from 85.14 to 86.14 % of Fo, the Mg# of clinopyroxene varies from 0.84 to 0.88. Clinopyroxene in all the groups is LREE enriched and has negative Sr, Zf-Hf and Ti anomalies, but the enrichment decreases from group A to B and so are the depths of negative anomalies. Temperatures of major element equilibration of group A and A- pyroxenes are from approximately 1010 to 1100°C with no specific differences between the groups. So high

  9. Constraints on Lithosphere Rheology from Observations of Volcano-induced Deformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, S.; Watts, A. B.

    2011-12-01

    Mantle rheology at lithospheric conditions (i.e., temperature < 1200 oC) is important for understanding fundamental geodynamic problems including the dynamics of plate tectonics, subducted slabs, and lithosphere-mantle interaction. Laboratory studies suggest that the rheology at lithospheric conditions can be approximately divided into three different regimes: brittle or frictional sliding, semi-brittle, and plastic flow. In this study, we seek to constrain lithospheric rheology, using observations of deformation at seamounts and oceanic islands caused by volcanic loading. Volcano-induced surface deformation depends critically on lithospheric rheology at the time of seamount and oceanic island emplacement and while it changes rapidly on short time-scales it does not change significantly on long time-scales. In an earlier study [Watts and Zhong, 2000], we used the effective elastic thickness at seamounts and oceanic islands inferred from the observations of deformation and gravity to determine an effective activation energy of 120 KJ/mol for lithospheric mantle with Newtonian rheology. We have now expanded this study to incorporate non-Newtonian power-law and frictional sliding rheologies, and more importantly, to include realistic 3-D volcanic load geometries. We use the Hawaiian Islands as an example. We construct 3-D loads for the Hawaiian Islands by applying an appropriate median filter to remove Hawaiian swell topography and correcting for lithospheric age effect on the bathymetry. The loads are then used in 3-D finite element loading models with viscoelastic, non-Newtonian and frictional sliding rheologies to determine the lithospheric response including surface vertical motions and lithospheric stresses. Comparisons of our new model predictions to observations suggest that the activation energy of lithospheric mantle is significantly smaller than most experimentally determined values for olivine at high temperatures, but may be consistent with more recent

  10. Lithospheric mantle evolution monitored by overlapping large igneous provinces: Case study in southern Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jourdan, F.; Bertrand, H.; Féraud, G.; Le Gall, B.; Watkeys, M. K.

    2009-02-01

    Most of the studies on the large igneous provinces (LIPs) focus on Phanerozoic times, and in particular, those related to the disruption of Pangea (e.g. CAMP, Karoo, Parana-Etendeka) while Precambrian LIPs (e.g. Ventersdorpf, Fortescue) remain less studied. Although the investigation of Precambrian LIPs is difficult because they are relatively poorly preserved, assessment of their geochemical characteristics in parallel with younger overlapping LIP is fundamental for monitoring the evolution of the mantle composition through time. Recent 40Ar/ 39Ar dating of the Okavango giant dyke swarm (and related sills) in southern Africa showed that ~ 90% of the dykes were emplaced at 179 ± 1 Ma and belong to the Karoo large igneous province whereas ~ 10% of dykes yielded Proterozoic ages (~ 1-1.1 Ga). Here, we provide new major, trace and rare earth elements analyses of the low-Ti Proterozoic Okavango dyke swarm (PODS) that suggest, combined with age data, a cognate origin with the 1.1 Ga Umkondo large igneous province (UIP), southern Africa. The geochemical characteristics of the PODS and UIP basalts are comparable to those of overlapping low-Ti Karoo basalts, and suggest that both LIPs were derived from similar enriched mantle sources. A mantle plume origin for these LIPs is not easily reconciled with the geochemical dataset and the coincidence of two compositionally similar mantle plumes acting 900 Myr apart is unlikely. Instead, we propose that the Umkondo and Karoo large igneous provinces monitored the slight evolution of a shallow enriched lithospheric mantle from Proterozoic to Jurassic.

  11. Shape evolution and finite deformation pattern in analog experiments of lithosphere necking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nestola, Yago; Storti, Fabrizio; Bedogni, Enrico; Cavozzi, Cristian

    2013-10-01

    necking evolution determines the 3-D architecture of crustal and upper mantle thinning and related basins, and the heat flow distribution in rifted regions. Despite a large number of studies, lithosphere necking evolution is still a matter of debate. We present the result from lithospheric-scale analog models designed for investigating the necking shape during extension and the vertical distribution of finite deformation in the mechanical lithosphere. In our experiments, lithosphere necking is asymmetric and, in particular, the 3-D distribution of thinning is cylindrical in the crust and very heterogeneous in the mantle. Overall, the evolution of rifting and necking progresses from delocalized to localized deformation.

  12. Lithospheric evolution of the Northern Arabian Shield: Chemical and isotopic evidence from basalts, xenoliths and granites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stein, M.

    1988-01-01

    The evolution of the upper-mantle and the lower-crust (the conteinental lithosphere), is the area of Israel and Sinai was studied, using the chemical composition and the Nd-Sr isotopic systematics from mantle and crustal nodules, their host basalts, and granites. The magmatism and the metasomatism making the lithosphere are related to uprise of mantle diapirs in the uppermost mantle of the area. These diapirs heated the base of the lithosphere, eroded, and replaced it with new hot material. It caused a domal uplift of the lithosphere (and the crust). The doming resulted in tensional stresses that in turn might develop transport channels for the basalt.

  13. Dating layered websterite formation in the lithospheric mantle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Roux, V.; Nielsen, S. G.; Sun, C.; Yao, L.

    2016-11-01

    Pyroxenites are often documented among exhumed mantle rocks, and can be found in most tectonic environments, from supra-subduction to sub-continental and sub-oceanic mantle. In particular, websterites, i.e. orthopyroxene-clinopyroxene bearing pyroxenites, are found in parallel layers in most orogenic and ophiolitic peridotites. Their formation is often ascribed to melt infiltration and melt-rock reaction processes accompanied by variable amount of deformation. One outstanding question is whether the ubiquitous occurrence of layered websterites in exhumed rocks is generally linked to the exhumation process or truly represents large-scale melt infiltration processes at depth prior to exhumation. These two hypotheses can be distinguished by comparing the exhumation and formation ages of the websterites. However, determination of the layered websterite formation age is challenging. Here we present a novel approach to constrain the formation age of websterite layers using samples from the Lherz massif (France), where layered websterites and lherzolites have formed through melt-rock reaction. By combining high-resolution REE variations, isotope model ages, and diffusive re-equilibration timescales using REE closure temperatures across the websterite layers, we constrain a minimum age and a maximum age for the formation of layered websterites. We show that layered websterites in Lherz formed 1,500-1,800 Ma ago, and are thus clearly disconnected from the process of exhumation at 104 Ma. Multiple generations of layered websterites commonly found in ultramafic massifs, along with the evidence for ancient melt-rock reaction in Lherz, indicate that melt-rock reactions can happen episodically or continuously in the mantle and that layered websterites found in exhumed mantle rocks record ubiquitous melt infiltration processes in the mantle.

  14. Modeling Plume-Triggered, Melt-Enabled Lithospheric Delamination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perry-Houts, J.; Humphreys, G.

    2015-12-01

    It has been suggested that arrival of the Yellowstone plume below North America triggered a lithospheric foundering event which aided the eruption of the Columbia River flood basalts. This hypothesis potentially accounts for some of the biggest mysteries related to the CRB's including their location as "off-track" plume volcanism; and the anomalous chemical signatures of the most voluminous units. The foundered lithosphere appears to be a remnant chunk of Farallon slab, which had been stranded beneath the Blue Mountains terrain since the accretion of Siletzia. If this is the case then the mechanisms by which this slab stayed metastable between Siletzia accretion and CRB time, and then so suddenly broke loose, is unclear. The addition of heat and mantle buoyancy supplied by the Yellowstone plume provides a clue, but the geodynamic process by which the slab was able to detach remains unclear.Efforts to model numerically the underlying processes behind delamination events have been gaining popularity. Typically, such models have relied on drastically weakened regions within the crust, or highly non-linear rheologies to enable initiation and propagation of lithosphere removal. Rather than impose such a weak region a priori, we investigated the role of mantle and crustal melt, generated by the addition of plume heat, as the source of such a rheologic boundary.We track melt generation and migration though geodynamic models using the Eulerian finite element code, ASPECT. Melt moves relative to the permeable, compacting, and viscously-deforming mantle using the approach of (Keller, et al. 2013) with the notable exception that ASPECT currently cannot model elasticity. Dike and sill emplacement is therefore still a work in progress. This work is still in the preliminary stages and results are yet inconclusive.

  15. Melt-Enabled Lithospheric Delamination in the Western US

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perry-Houts, J.; Humphreys, E.

    2014-12-01

    Signs of convective downwelling in non-subduction environments have been increasingly prevalent in recent studies. From seismic images of the "Isabella Anomaly" beneath the southern Sierra Nevada, to studies on the origin of the Columbia River flood basalts, to long standing speculation on the state of the lithosphere beneath the Colorado Plateau, the lithospheric delamination hypothesis potentially accounts for a substantial amount of otherwise anomalous topographic uplift and magmatism in western North America and elsewhere. Efforts to model numerically the underlying processes behind such events have also been gaining popularity. Typically, such models have relied on drastically weakened lithosphere or highly non-linear rheologies at the boundaries of dense regions to allow the propagation of delamination in reasonable timescales. However, these low viscosities are rarely justified by a systematic investigation of mantle rheology.Based on suspected cases of delamination, the process seems to be commonly associated with localized magmatism. For instance, the Columbia River flood basalts, the renewed magmatism in the southern Sierras, and the radially converging magmatism propagating though the Colorado Plateau, all match well temporally with suspected delamination cases. Geochemical signatures are consistent with delamination in all of these cases.Because of the spatial and temporal correlations between delamination and magmatism, we are interested in investigating the rheological role that melt might play in the initiation and propagation of delamination. Moderate melt fraction in the asthenosphere is a potential source for the low viscosity necessary to appropriately predict timescales of these events. To that end, we are working on tracking melt generation and migration though geodynamic models using the Eulerian finite element code, ASPECT. Preliminary results predict melt being generated during delamination events but the magnitudes and rheological

  16. Lithospheric scale model of Merida Andes, Venezuela (GIAME Project)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmitz, M.; Orihuela, N. D.; Klarica, S.; Gil, E.; Levander, A.; Audemard, F. A.; Mazuera, F.; Avila, J.

    2013-05-01

    Merida Andes (MA) is one of the most important orogenic belt in Venezuela and represents the northern culmination of South America Andes. During the last 60 years, several models have been proposed to explain the shallow and deep structure, using different geological, geophysical, seismological, geochemical and petrologic concepts; nevertheless, most of them have applied local observation windows, and do not represent the major structure of MA. Therefore, a multidisciplinary research group, coordinated by FUNVISIS, in close cooperation with UCV, ULA and PDVSA, is proposed in order to get the outlined goals in the project entitled GIAME ("Geociencia Integral de los Andes de MErida") was established, which aims to generate a lithospheric scale model and the development of a temporal dynamic model for the MA. As a base for lithospheric investigations of the Merida Andes, we are proposing three wide angle seismic profiles across the orogen on three representative sites, in order to determine the inner structure and its relation with the orogen's gravimetric root. To the date, there are no seismic studies at lithospheric scale which cross MA. The wide angle seismic will be complemented with the re-processing and re-interpretation of existing reflection seismic data, which will allow to establish a relationship between MA and its associated flexural basins (Maracaibo and Barinas-Apure basins). Depending on the results of the VENCORP Project (VENezuelan COntinental Reflection Profiling), which might show some reliable results about crustal features and Moho reflectors along three long seismic profiles at Caribbean Moutain system, a reflection seismic profile across the central portion of MA is proposed. Additional tasks, consisting in MA quaternary deformation studies, using research methods like neotectonics and paleoseismology, georadar, numerical modeling, cinematic GPS, SAR interferometry, thermocronology, detailed studies on regional geology, flexural modeling

  17. Lithospheric strength variations in Mainland China: tectonic implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Y.; Tesauro, M.

    2015-12-01

    We present new thermal and strength models of Mainland China. We integrate thermal model for the crust, using a 3D steady-state heat conduction equation, with estimates for the upper mantle thermal structure obtained by inverting an S-wave tomography model. Using the new thermal model and attributing to the lithospheric layers a 'soft' and 'hard' rheology, respectively, we estimate the integrated strength of the lithosphere. In the Ordos and the Sichuan basins, characterized by intermediate temperatures, strength is primarily concentrated in the crust, when the rheology is 'soft', and in both the crust and upper mantle, when the rheology is 'hard'. In turn, the Tibetan Plateau and the Tarim basin have a weak/strong lithosphere mainly on account of their high/low temperatures. Deep earthquakes releasing high seismic energy, occurring beneath Tien Shan orogen, may be related to the brittle failure of anhydrous granulite-faciesrocks composing its lower crust. In contrast, the fluids released by the Indian slab favor the triggering of earthquakes located in the deep crust of south Tibet. Comparison of temperatures, strength and effective viscosity variations with the earthquakes distribution and their seismic energy released indicates that both the deep part of the crust and the upper mantle of the Tibetan Plateau are weak and prone to flow towards the adjacent areas. On account of the high strength of some of the tectonic domains surrounding Tibet, the flow is directed northward beneath the Qaidam basin and turns south of the Sichuan basin, moving toward the weak South China block.

  18. Anomalous variations of lithosphere magnetic field before several earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ni, Z.; Chen, B.

    2015-12-01

    Based on the geomagnetic vector data measured each year since 2011 at more than 500 sites with a mean spatial interval of ~70km.we observed anomalous variations of lithospheric magnetic field before and after over 15 earthquakes having magnitude > 5. We find that the field in near proximity (about 50km) to the epicenter of large earthquakes shows high spatial and temporal gradients before the earthquake. Due to the low frequency of repeat measurements it is unclear when these variations occurred and how do them evolve. We point out anomalous magnetic filed using some circles with radius of 50km usually in June of each year, and then we would check whether quake will locat in our circles during one year after that time (June to next June). Now we caught 10 earthquakes of 15 main shocks having magnitude > 5, most of them located at less than10km away from our circles and some of them were in our circles. Most results show that the variations of lithosphere magnetic filed at the epicenter are different with surrending backgroud usually. When we figure out horizontal variations (vector) of lithosphere magnetic field and epicenter during one year after each June, we found half of them show that the earthquakes will locat at "the inlands in a flowing river", that means earthquakes may occur at "quiet"regions while the backgroud show character as"flow" as liquid. When we compared with GPS results, it appears that these variations of lithospere magnetic field may also correlate with displacement of earth's surface. However we do not compared with GPS results for each earthquake, we are not clear whether these anomalous variations of lithospere magnetic field may also correlate with anomalous displacement of earth's surface. Future work will include developing an automated method for identifying this type of anomalous field behavior and trying to short repeat measurement period to 6 month to try to find when these variations occur.

  19. Assimilating lithosphere and slab history in 4-D Earth models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bower, Dan J.; Gurnis, Michael; Flament, Nicolas

    2015-01-01

    We develop methods to incorporate paleogeographical constraints into numerical models of mantle convection. Through the solution of the convection equations, the models honor geophysical and geological data near the surface while predicting mantle flow and structure at depth and associated surface deformation. The methods consist of four constraints determined a priori from a plate history model: (1) plate velocities, (2) thermal structure of the lithosphere, (3) thermal structure of slabs in the upper mantle, and (4) velocity of slabs in the upper mantle. These constraints are implemented as temporally- and spatially-dependent conditions that are blended with the solution of the convection equations at each time step. We construct Earth-like regional models with oceanic and continental lithosphere, trench migration, oblique subduction, and asymmetric subduction to test the robustness of the methods by computing the temperature, velocity, and buoyancy flux of the lithosphere and slab. Full sphere convection models demonstrate how the methods can determine the flow associated with specific tectonic environments (e.g., back-arc basins, intraoceanic subduction zones) to address geological questions and compare with independent data, both at present-day and in the geological past (e.g., seismology, residual topography, stratigraphy). Using global models with paleogeographical constraints we demonstrate (1) subduction initiation at the Izu-Bonin-Mariana convergent margin and flat slab subduction beneath North America, (2) enhanced correlation of model slabs and fast anomalies in seismic tomography beneath North and South America, and (3) comparable amplitude of dynamic and residual topography in addition to improved spatial correlation of dynamic and residual topography lows.

  20. Deformation of olivine single crystals under lithospheric conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demouchy, S.; Tommasi, A.; Cordier, P.

    2012-12-01

    The rheology of mantle rocks at lithospheric temperatures (<1000°C) remains poorly constrained, in contrast to the extensive experimental data on creep of olivine single crystals and polycrystalline aggregates at high temperature (T > 1200°C). Consequently, we have performed tri-axial compression experiments on oriented single crystals and polycrystalline aggregates of San Carlos olivine at temperatures ranging from 800° to 1090°C. The experiments were carried out at a confining pressure of 300 MPa in a high-resolution gas-medium mechanical testing apparatus at constant strain rates ranging from 7 × 10-6 s-1 to 1 × 10-4 s-1 . Compression was applied along three different crystallographic directions: [101]c, [110]c and [011]c, to activate the several slip systems. Yield differential stresses range from 88 to 1076 MPa. To constrain hardening, stick-and-slip, or strain localization behaviors, all samples were deformed at constant displacement rate for finite strains between 4 to 23 %. Hardening was observed in all experiments and the maximum differential stress often overcame the confining pressure. EBSD mapping highlights macroscale bending of the crystalline network in three crystals. TEM observations on several samples show dislocations with [100] and [001] Burgers vectors in all samples, but dislocation arrangements vary. The results from the present study permit to refining the power-law expressing the strain rate dependence on stress and temperature for olivine, allowing its application to the lithospheric mantle. Our experiments confirm that previous published high-temperature power flow laws overestimate the strength of lithospheric mantle and that the transition to low-temperature creep occurs at higher temperatures than it has previously been established.

  1. Three-dimensional density distributions in the Asian lithosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, G.; Li, C.; Wang, X.; Wang, Z.; Fang, J.; Sino-probe-cugb

    2011-12-01

    We have inversed the residual Bouguer gravity anomalies to study the three-dimensional density distributions of the Asian lithosphere (60°~150°E and 15°~60°N). Firstly, we have collected the free-air gravity anomalies (30'×30') and topography data of GTOP030 with 5'×5' grid spacing, and then calculated the Bougouer gravity anomalies by terrain correction and Bougouer correction. We have also collected the depth data of the Moho discontinuity (30'×30') and the discontinuity of sedimentary layer. By using the Oldenburg-Parker formula (Parker, 1972) and the forward modeling method, we calculated the theoretical gravity anomalies which mainly are caused by the Moho discontinuity and the sedimentary layer discontinuity. In our study, the average depths of Moho discontinuity and sedimentary layer discontinuity are 33 km and 4 km, and the density differences are 0.42 g/cm3 and 0.2 g/cm3, respectively. In addition, we have simulated the gravity anomalies of the spherical harmonics with the 2-6 order for the lower mantle by using the formula of Bowin (1983) which represented the relation between the depth of field source and the order of the geopotential spherical harmonics. Using all data mentioned above, we have calculated the residual Bougouer gravity anomalies, which may be caused by anomalous density bodies in the lithosphere. Secondly, we used the calculated residual Bougouer gravity anomalies to inverse the three-dimensional density differences in the Asian lithosphere by using the Algebra Reconstruction Techniques (ART). During the inversion, the densities converted from the P-wave velocity data (with grid spacing of 2°×2°) according to the Birch Law are considered as the initial density model. The grid spacing is set as 2°×2° in the horizontal direction, and it is 25 km, 55 km and 100 km in the vertical direction, respectively. Comparing the density anomalies at the three depths, we can conclude that (1) the density in the lithosphere beneath Asian

  2. Lithospheric Mantle Contribution to High Topography in Central Mongolia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlson, R. W.; Ionov, D. A.

    2014-12-01

    Over 110 spinel peridotite xenoliths collected from four localities in the Tariat region, central Mongolia, show a predominance (over 90%) of fertile lherzolites with subordinant harzburgite and peridotites veined with pyroxenite. Equilibration temperatures are high (~900°C at 1.5 GPa [1]). Major element compositions of the fertile samples are consistent with them being the residues of 0-6% partial melt removal at shallow depths [2]. The clinopyroxenes in the lherzolites are moderately LREE depleted (average chondrite normalized La/Sm = 0.45) and most whole rocks show small, if any, depletions in Re and Pd compared to the other HSE. These data point to minimal metasomatic overprinting of these fertile lherzolites. 187Os/188Os for samples with more than 3.2% Al2O3 range only from 0.126 to 0.131, within the range of modern fertile asthenospheric mantle. In contrast to the indicators of fertility in most samples, Sr, Nd and Hf isotopic composition of acid-leached clinopyroxene separates from the lherzolites plot within the range of modern MORB with 87Sr/86Sr from 0.7021 to 0.7026, eNd from +7.7 to +9.8 and eHf from +13.3 to +18.5. The lherzolites thus appear to sample a section of mantle that has compositional and isotope characteristics consistent with modern fertile asthenosphere. The isotopic composition of the Tariat lherzolites are distinct from that of Cenozoic Mongolian basaltic volcanism pointing to limited involvement of the lithospheric mantle in magma generation in this area. The implied asthenospheric provenance of the mantle lithosphere suggests that it either could be the replacement for recently delaminated lithosphere or, more likely, a section of fertile mantle accreted to the base of the crust earlier, e.g. during construction of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt in the Mesozoic/Paleozoic. Although fertile, and hence compositionally dense, the high temperatures of the shallow lithospheric mantle under this section of Mongolia likely contribute to the

  3. On searching applicants for mechanism of solar-lithosphere relations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kairatkyzy, Dina; Andreyev, Alexey; Zhumabayeva, Saltanat; Seraliyev, Alibek

    2016-04-01

    It is actively discussed at present a question on possible influence of solar activity (high-speed solar wind streams bearing the "frozen" magnetic field lines of the Sun) on the stress status of the lithosphere and, consequently, on the Earth's seismic activity (e.g. Zhang, 1998, Acta Seismologica Sinica; Khachikyan et al., EGU2016-2754-1; IUGG2015-3132). There are at least two ideas on possible applicants for physical mechanism of solar-lithosphere relations: (i) - the muons of cosmic rays, which can penetrate the Earth's crust to a depth of at least the first ten kilometers and in tense seismic environment generate nuclear-electromagnetic cascade which energy can be a trigger of earthquake (Tsarev and Chechin, 1988, Preprint № 179, Physical Institute after Lebedev, Moscow); (ii) - the geomagnetic storms (Sobolev et al., 1998, Physics of the Earth #7) when the high-frequency oscillations of the geomagnetic field during the main phase of the storm generate significant induction currents which electric energy entering into the crust can be converted into mechanical energy increasing the stress status of the lithosphere (Sobolev and Demin, Mechano-electric phenomena into the Earth. M . Nauka. 1980). Besides this, among the possible cosmogenic factors changing the stress state of the lithosphere, could be the variation of the angular velocity of rotation of the Earth (e.g. Bostrom, 2000. Tectonic consequence of the Earth's Rotation), if it depends on solar activity variations. More of 50 years ago, Munk and Donald (The Rotation of the Earth, Cambrige University Press, 1960) suggested that the interaction between solar wind and geomagnetic field would probably influence the short period variation of angular velocity of the Earth. In this work, we check up this suggestion on the base of very precise data on the length of day (LOD) from 1986 to the present, which are presented by the International Earth Rotation and Reference Systems Service (IERS). Using the methods

  4. Lithosphere structure in Northern Canada from receiver function (RF)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barantseva, Olga; Vinnik, Lev; Artemieva, Irina

    2016-04-01

    We present preliminary results of seismic data analysis for Northern Canada (around the Slave craton and NE of the Hudson Bay) in order to infer the lithosphere and asthenosphere structure beneath various Precambrian terrains of the North American craton. Seismic analysis includes data processing for the several stations of the Canadian National Seismic Network, for which P and S-velocity profiles are calculated through the simultaneous inversion of receiver functions. We report variations in the Moho depth and sharpness, as well as the depth to the LAB. The results are compared with regional petrological data for xenoliths.

  5. Fossilized Dipping Fabrics in Continental Mantle Lithosphere as Possible Remnants of Stacked Oceanic Paleosubductions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babuska, V.; Plomerova, J.; Vecsey, L.; Munzarova, H.

    2015-12-01

    We have examined seismic anisotropy within the mantle lithosphere of Archean, Proterozoic and Phanerozoic provinces of Europe by means of shear-wave splitting and P-wave travel-time deviations of teleseismic waves observed at dense arrays of seismic stations (e.g., Vecsey et al., Tectonophys. 2007). Lateral variations of seismic-wave anisotropy delimit domains of the mantle lithosphere, each of them having a consistent fabric. The domains, modeled in 3D by olivine aggregates with dipping lineation a, or foliation (a,c), represent microplates or their fragments that preserved their pre-assembly fossil fabrics in the mantle lithosphere. Evaluating seismic anisotropy in 3D, as well as mapping boundaries of the domains helps to decipher processes of the lithosphere formation. Systematically dipping mantle fabrics and other seismological findings seem to support a model of continental lithosphere built from systems of paleosubductions of plates of ancient oceanic lithosphere (Babuska and Plomerova, AGU Geoph. Monograph 1989), or by stacking of the plates (Helmstaedt and Schulze, Geol. Soc. Spec. Publ. 1989). Seismic anisotropy in the oceanic mantle lithosphere, explained mainly by the olivine A- or D-type fabric (Karato et al., Annu. Rev. Earth Planet. Sci. 2008), was discovered a half century ago (Hess, Nature 1964). Field observations and laboratory experiments indicate the oceanic olivine fabric might be preserved in the subducting lithosphere to a depth of at least 200-300 km. We thus interpret the dipping anisotropic fabrics in domains of the European mantle lithosphere as systems of "frozen" paleosubductions (Babuska and Plomerova, PEPI 2006), and the lithosphere base as a boundary between a fossil anisotropy in the lithospheric mantle and an underlying seismic anisotropy related to present-day flow in the asthenosphere (Plomerova and Babuska, Lithos 2010).

  6. Constraining Lithosphere Deformation Modes during Continental Breakup for the Iberia-Newfoundland Conjugate Margins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeanniot, L.; Kusznir, N. J.; Mohn, G.; Manatschal, G.

    2014-12-01

    How the lithosphere and asthenosphere deforms during continental rifting leading to breakup and sea-floor spreading initiation is poorly understood. Observations at present-day and fossil analogue rifted margins show a complex OCT architecture which cannot be explained by a single simplistic lithosphere deformation modes. This OCT complexity includes hyper-extended continental crust and lithosphere, detachments faults, exhumed mantle, continental slivers and scattered embryonic oceanic crust. We use a coupled kinematic-dynamic model of lithosphere and asthenosphere deformation to determine the sequence of lithosphere deformation modes leading to continental breakup for Iberia-Newfoundland conjugate margin profiles. We quantitatively calibrate the models using observed present-day water loaded subsidence and crustal thickness, together with subsidence history and the age of melt generation. Flow fields, representing a sequence of lithosphere deformation modes, are generated by a 2D finite element viscous flow model (FE-Margin), and used to advect lithosphere and asthenosphere temperature and material. FE-Margin is kinematically driven by divergent deformation in the upper 15-20 km of the lithosphere inducing passive upwelling below. Buoyancy enhanced upwelling (Braun et al. 2000) is also kinematically included. Melt generation by decompressional melting is predicted using the methodology of Katz et al., 2003. The extension magnitudes used in the lithosphere deformation models are taken from Sutra et al (2013). The best fit calibrated models of lithosphere deformation evolution for the Iberia-Newfoundland conjugate margins require (i) an initial broad region of lithosphere deformation and passive upwelling, (ii) lateral migration of deformation, (iii) an increase in extension rate with time, (iv) focussing of deformation and (v) buoyancy induced upwelling. The preferred calibrated models predict faster extension rates and earlier continental crustal rupture and

  7. Lithosphere-Asthenosphere Transition, Mid-Lithosphere Discontinuity and Radial Anisotropy from Multi-mode Surface Wave Tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshizawa, K.; Kennett, B. L. N.

    2015-12-01

    Seismic surface waves are the major source of information to delineate the lateral heterogeneity and anisotropy in the upper mantle. S-wave radial anisotropy representing the difference between SV and SH velocities is often discussed with the seismic properties of the lithosphere-asthenosphere transition (LAT) and the mid-lithosphere discontinuity (MLD). Such boundaries have been studied well by body-wave receiver functions, which have a good sensitivity to the sharpness of boundaries. Surface waves are rather insensitive to the boundary sharpness, but can delineate the spatial distributions of shear wave speeds and radial anisotropy in the upper mantle, which can be alternative constraints on LAT and MLD. We have recently constructed a radially anisotropic 3-D S wave speed model of the Australian continent from multi-mode Love and Rayleigh waves with enhanced ray coverage. In the inversions for S-wave radial anisotropy, we can use either parameterizations for SH and SV velocities, or for dimensionless radially anisotropic parameter ξ=(Vsh/Vsv)2. Both are theoretically the same, but this difference causes non-negligible effects on the estimated radial anisotropy, mainly due to the different sensitivities of Love-wave phase speeds to the structural parameters. Synthetic experiments and data variance reductions suggest the former is the better choice. The LAT throughout the continent can be estimated by the vertical velocity gradient of the isotropic S-wave model. The radial anisotropy with the suitable model parameterization shows strong anisotropy with faster SH velocity in the asthenosphere, suggesting the influence of strong shear beneath the fast drifting Australian continent. We can also identify the clear vertical changes in the radial anisotropy profiles at the MLD depth estimated from earlier receiver function studies in cratonic regions, which can be a key to elucidate the enigmatic MLD in the continental lithosphere.

  8. Intra-slab Fluid Flow and Eclogite-facies Metasomatism in Subducted Oceanic Lithosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Angiboust, Samuel; Pettke, Thomas; Agard, Philippe; De Hoog, Cees-Jan; Collins, Nathan; Oncken, Onno

    2013-04-01

    The Monviso ophiolite Lago Superiore Unit (LSU) constitutes a well-preserved, almost continuous fragment of upper oceanic lithosphere subducted down to ca. 80 km (between 50 and 40 Ma) and later exhumed along the subduction interface. The LSU is made of (i) a variably thick (50-500 m) section of eclogitized mafic crust (associated with minor calcschist lenses) overlying a 100-400 m thick metagabbroic body, and of (ii) a serpentinite sole (ca. 1000 m thick). This section is cut by two 10 to 100m thick eclogite-facies shear zones, found at the boundary between basalts and gabbros (Intermediate Shear Zone), and between gabbros and serpentinites (Lower Shear Zone: LSZ). Fragments of mylonitic basaltic eclogites and calcschists were dragged and dismembered within serpentinite schists along the LSZ during eclogite-facies deformation. Metasomatic rinds formed on these fragments at the contact with the surrounding antigorite schists during lawsonite-eclogite facies metamorphism, testifying to prominent fluid-rock interaction along with deformation. We present new petrological and geochemical data on four types of metasomatically altered eclogites (talc-, chlorite-, lawsonite- and phengite-bearing eclogites) and on a (serpentinite-derived) magnesite-bearing talc schist from the block rind. Bulk-rock compositions, in situ LA-ICP-MS analysis and X-ray maps of garnet demonstrate that (i) these samples underwent significant Cr, Mg, Ni enrichment and Fe, Al, V depletion during eclogitic metasomatism and (ii) garnet composition show strong variation from core to rim. These compositional patterns point to a massive, fluid-mediated element transfer along with deformation, originating from the surrounding serpentinite (locally, with possible contributions from metasediments-equilibrated fluids). Antigorite breakdown, occurring ca. 15 km deeper than the maximum depth reached by these eclogites, could have provided significant amounts of fluid promoting extensive fluid

  9. Impact of far-field stress distributions and thermo-rheological structure of continental lithosphere on mantle-lithosphere interactions.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burov, E. B.; Koptev, A.; Gerya, T.; Calais, E.; Leroy, S. D.

    2015-12-01

    We implement fully-coupled high resolution 3D thermo-mechanical numerical models to investigate the impact of the laterally heterogeneous structure and rheological stratification of the continental lithosphere on the plume-activated rifting and continental break-up processes in presence of preexisting far-field tectonic stresses. In our experiments, "mantle plumes" represent short-lived diapiric upwellings that have no continuous feeding at depth. Such upwellings may be associated with "true" plumes but also with various instabilities in the convective mantle. Numerical models demonstrate strong dependence of crustal strain distributions and surface topography on the rheological composition of the lower crust and the initial thermal structure of the lithosphere. In contrast to the usual inferences from passive rifting models, distributed wide rifting takes place in case of cold (500 °C at Moho depth) initial isotherm and mafic composition of the lower crust, whereas hotter geotherms and weaker (wet quartzite) lower crustal rheology lead to strong localization of rifting. Moreover, it appears that the prerequisite of strongly anisotropic strain localization during plume-lithosphere interaction (linear rift structures instead of axisymmetric radial faulting) refers to simultaneous presence of a mantle upwelling and of (even extremely weak) directional stress field produced by far-field tectonic forces (i.e. ultra-slow far field extension at < 3 mm/y). Higher (than 1.5-3 mm/y) velocities of far-field extension lead to enlargement of the active fault zone for the same lapse of time. Yet, simultaneous rise of the lithospheric geotherm associated with active rifting has an opposite effect leading to the narrowing of the rift zone. Presence of heterogeneities (cratonic blocks) leads to splitting of the plume head onto initially nearly symmetrical parts, each of which flows towards beneath the craton borders. This craton-controlled distribution of plume material causes

  10. Highly Siderophile Elements as Tracers for the Subcontinental Mantle Evolution Beneath the Southwestern USA: The San Carlos and Kilbourne Hole Peridotite Xenoliths Revisited

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    vanAcken, D.; Brandon, A. D.; Peslier, A. H.; Lee, C.-T. A.

    2010-01-01

    Peridotite xenoliths from San Carlos, Arizona, and Kilbourne Hole, New Mexico, have been studied since the 1970 s to give insights into melting and metasomatism in the subcontinental mantle beneath the southwestern USA. More recently, the highly siderophile elements (HSE; Os, Ir, Ru, Rh, Pt, Pd, and Re) and the included Re-Os isotope system have been established as powerful tools for the study of mantle processes because of their range in compatibility during mantle melting and their siderophile and chalcophile geochemical behavior. Model aluminachron Re-Os ages for San Carlos and Kilbourne Hole, as well as for the nearby Dish Hill and Vulcan's Throne sites, give consistent depletion ages of around 2.2 Ga. This age can be interpreted as a single large scale mantle melting event linked to crustal formation and continental growth under the southwestern USA. Highly siderophile elements, however, may be added to depleted peridotites via melt-rock interaction, especially the more incompatible and hence mobile Pt, Pd, and Re. This may result in overprinting of the signature of melt extraction, thus abating the usefulness of Re-Os mantle extraction model ages. A comprehensive characterization of the suite of mantle xenoliths from the SW USA in terms of HSE concentrations is thus necessary to re-assess the Re-Os system for dating purposes. San Carlos peridotites are depleted to moderately fertile, as indicated by their bulk Al2O3 contents between 0.66 wt% and 3.13 wt%. Bulk Os-187/Os-188 in San Carlos peridotites range from 0.1206 to 0.1357. In contrast, Kilbourne Hole peridotites tend to be more fertile with Al2O3 between 2.11 and 3.78 wt%, excluding one extremely depleted sample with 0.30 wt% Al2O3, and have Os-187/Os-188 between 0.1156 and 0.1272, typical for mantle peridotites. No large fractionation between the more compatible HSE Os, Ir, and Ru are observed. The more incompatible HSE Re, Pd, and to a minor extent, Pt, however, are depleted in a number of samples by

  11. Gravity anomaly, lithospheric structure and seismicity of Western Himalayan Syntaxis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tiwari, V. M.; Rajasekhar, R. P.; Mishra, D. C.

    2009-07-01

    A compiled gravity anomaly map of the Western Himalayan Syntaxis is analysed to understand the tectonics of the region around the epicentre of Kashmir earthquake of October 8, 2005 (Mw = 7.6). Isostatic gravity anomalies and effective elastic thickness (EET) of lithosphere are assessed from coherence analysis between Bouguer anomaly and topography. The isostatic residual gravity high and gravity low correspond to the two main seismic zones in this region, viz. Indus-Kohistan Seismic Zone (IKSZ) and Hindu Kush Seismic Zones (HKSZ), respectively, suggesting a connection between siesmicity and gravity anomalies. The gravity high originates from the high-density thrusted rocks along the syntaxial bend of the Main Boundary Thrust and coincides with the region of the crustal thrust earthquakes, including the Kashmir earthquake of 2005. The gravity low of HKSZ coincides with the region of intermediate-deep-focus earthquakes, where crustal rocks are underthrusting with a higher speed to create low density cold mantle. Comparable EET (˜55 km) to the focal depth of crustal earthquakes suggests that whole crust is seismogenic and brittle. An integrated lithospheric model along a profile provides the crustal structure of the boundary zones with crustal thickness of about 60 km under the Karakoram-Pamir regions and suggests continental subduction from either sides (Indian and Eurasian) leading to a complex compressional environment for large earthquakes.

  12. Local Study of Flexural Rigidity in Old Oceanic Lithosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramirez, C.; Weeraratne, D. S.; Forsyth, D. W.

    2010-12-01

    The half-space cooling model predicts lithosphere thickness and that the depth of the sea floor should increase in proportion to the square root of age due to conductive cooling. For seafloor greater than 70 Ma the seafloor is shallower than the square-root-of-age trend, but global seismic tomography studies are in rough agreement with the half-space cooling model. We conducted a marine bathymetry and seismic study in the western Pacific south of the Shatsky Rise on seafloor ~150 Ma to study this discrepancy. The field area is located at a fossil triple junction straddling a magnetic bight. Several small seamounts located in the study area with excellent bathymetric coverage are surrounded by clear flexural moats. The characteristic wavelength of the flexure indicates that the effective elastic thickness, Te is less than 2 km, suggesting that these seamounts were formed on very young seafloor close to the spreading center 150 My ago. Larger seamounts in the study area appear to have formed later off-axis. We will present admittance results to determine the rigidity and Te of the plate at the time of loading of this later episode of volcanism. These measurements will provide us with a better understanding of how oceanic lithosphere and asthenosphere grow and interact in both time and space.

  13. Colorado Plateau magmatism and uplift by warming of heterogeneous lithosphere.

    PubMed

    Roy, Mousumi; Jordan, Thomas H; Pederson, Joel

    2009-06-18

    The forces that drove rock uplift of the low-relief, high-elevation, tectonically stable Colorado Plateau are the subject of long-standing debate. While the adjacent Basin and Range province and Rio Grande rift province underwent Cenozoic shortening followed by extension, the plateau experienced approximately 2 km of rock uplift without significant internal deformation. Here we propose that warming of the thicker, more iron-depleted Colorado Plateau lithosphere over 35-40 Myr following mid-Cenozoic removal of the Farallon plate from beneath North America is the primary mechanism driving rock uplift. In our model, conductive re-equilibration not only explains the rock uplift of the plateau, but also provides a robust geodynamic interpretation of observed contrasts between the Colorado Plateau margins and the plateau interior. In particular, the model matches the encroachment of Cenozoic magmatism from the margins towards the plateau interior at rates of 3-6 km Myr(-1) and is consistent with lower seismic velocities and more negative Bouguer gravity at the margins than in the plateau interior. We suggest that warming of heterogeneous lithosphere is a powerful mechanism for driving epeirogenic rock uplift of the Colorado Plateau and may be of general importance in plate-interior settings.

  14. Thermal structure of the lithosphere: a petrologic model.

    PubMed

    Macgregor, I D; Basu, A R

    1974-09-20

    A preliminary evaluation of the thermal history of the upper mantle as determined by petrologic techniques indicates a general correspondence with theoretically derived models. The petrologic data supply direct information which may be used as an independent calibration of calculated models, serve as a base for evaluating the assumptions of the theoretical approach, and allow more careful selection of the variables describing mantle thermal properties and processes. Like the theoretical counterpart, the petrological approach indicates that the lithosphere is dominated by two thermal regimes: first, there is a continental regime which cools at rates of the order of 10(9) years and represents the longterm cooling of the earth. Secondly, superimposed on the continental evolution is the thermal event associated with the formation of an oceanic basin, and which may be thought of as a 10(8) year convective perturbation on the continental cycle. Of special interest is petrologic evidence for a sudden steepening of the thermal gradients across the lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary not seen in the theoretical models. The unexpected change of slope points to the need for a critical reevaluation of the thermal processes and properties extant in the asthenosphere. The potential of the petrologic contribution has yet to be fully realized. For a start, this article points to an important body of independent evidence critical to our understanding of the earth's thermal history.

  15. The Cascadia Subduction Zone: two contrasting models of lithospheric structure

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Romanyuk, T.V.; Blakely, R.; Mooney, W.D.

    1998-01-01

    The Pacific margin of North America is one of the most complicated regions in the world in terms of its structure and present day geodynamic regime. The aim of this work is to develop a better understanding of lithospheric structure of the Pacific Northwest, in particular the Cascadia subduction zone of Southwest Canada and Northwest USA. The goal is to compare and contrast the lithospheric density structure along two profiles across the subduction zone and to interpet the differences in terms of active processes. The subduction of the Juan de Fuca plate beneath North America changes markedly along the length of the subduction zone, notably in the angle of subduction, distribution of earthquakes and volcanism, goelogic and seismic structure of the upper plate, and regional horizontal stress. To investigate these characteristics, we conducted detailed density modeling of the crust and mantle along two transects across the Cascadia subduction zone. One crosses Vancouver Island and the Canadian margin, the other crosses the margin of central Oregon.

  16. Corona Formation on Venus Via Extension and Lithospheric Instability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piskorz, D.; Elkins-Tanton, L. T.; Smrekar, S. E.

    2014-12-01

    Given the absence of plate tectonics on Venus, the origin of major rift systems like Parga Chasma is unclear. As Venus and Earth have similar radii and radiogenic abundances, we assume they have a similar internal structure and composition. Venus does not appear to have plate tectonics, and its surface displays a range of volcanic and tectonic features, including those that are both similar and dissimilar to those on Earth. In order to understand how Venus loses its heat, we study coronae at Parga Chasma. There are over 500 quasi-circular volcano-tectonic features called coronae on Venus, 131 of which are associated with Parga Chasma. Are these coronae important in the formation of the rift, or vice versa? How do they contribute to planetary heat loss? Coronae are believed to form via small-scale mantle upwellings, lithospheric instability, or a combination thereof. However, the genetic link between the coronae and rifts has remained unclear. By drawing an analogy to the East African Rift, we propose a mechanism for the formation of off-rift coronae due to the rifting process. We model the interaction of a rising mantle plume associated with a rift with a preexisting layer of dense material at the lithosphere-mantle boundary and show that a rift and its associated off-rift coronae may be genetically linked. We calculate the resulting surface topographies, melt volumes, and Bouguer gravity anomalies and find a correlation to observations.

  17. Groundwater flow as a cooling agent of the continental lithosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kooi, Henk

    2016-03-01

    Groundwater that flows through the outer shell of the Earth as part of the hydrologic cycle influences the distribution of heat and, thereby, the temperature field in the Earth’s crust. Downward groundwater flow in recharge areas lowers crustal temperatures, whereas upward flow in discharge areas tends to raise temperatures relative to a purely conductive geothermal regime. Here I present numerical simulations of generalized topography-driven groundwater flow. The simulations suggest that groundwater-driven convective cooling exceeds groundwater-driven warming of the Earth’s crust, and hence that groundwater flow systems cause net temperature reductions of groundwater basins. Moreover, the simulations demonstrate that this cooling extends into the underlying crust and lithosphere. I find that horizontal components of groundwater flow play a central role in this net subsurface cooling by conveying relatively cold water to zones of upward groundwater flow. The model calculations suggest that the crust and lithosphere beneath groundwater basins can cool by several tens of degrees Celsius where groundwater flows over large distances in basins that consist of crustal rock. In contrast, groundwater-induced cooling is small in unconsolidated sedimentary settings, such as deltas.

  18. Renewal: Continential lithosphere evolution as a function of tectonic environment

    SciTech Connect

    McMillan, N.J.; Baldridge, W.S.

    1995-06-01

    The Cenozoic tectonic environment and stress regime of the southwestern United States have changed dramatically from compression during shallow-angle subduction during the Laramide orogeny in the early Cenozoic to the current mode of Basin and Range extension. Questions remain unresolved concerning the causes of this transition, including the timing of the initiation of extension (estimates range from 36 to 25 Ma), and is the Basin and Range simply an mega-example of back-arc extension, or is extension related to the subduction of an oceanic spreading center about 30 Ma? We have examined the patterns of magmagenesis and geochemical composition through Cenozoic time in southern New Mexico. We have defined four magma sources that have contributed to Cenozoic magmas. Immediately following the Laramide, magmas contain substantial contributions from the lower crust. Mid-Tertiary extension is related to the eruption of rhyolitic ash-flow tuffs and basalts. The basalts were generated by melting of the lithospheric mantle; intercalated rhyolites have a strong upper crustal signature. Eruption of basalts and andesites with sources in the lithospheric mantle and lower crust continued for several million years after rhyolitic volcanism ceased. The region was nearly void of volcanic activity for 16 million years despite continued extension, but at 10 Ma, basalts derived from the asthenosphere began to erupt.

  19. Reflection Character of the Continental Lithosphere and Crustal Evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, L. D.

    2015-12-01

    Reflection images represent the high-frequency end member of the suite of seismological tools commonly used to probe the lithosphere. The global inventory of deep reflection profiles has documented reflection characters as varied as the surface geology that provides the primary boundary condition for the interpretation of reflection images. Past reviews of reflection results have stressed similarities in reflection patterns between various geographic regions and attempted to associate these patterns with specific tectonic processes. Examples include: laminated sequences (shear fabrics formed during extension or collision), reflective Mohos (mafic underplating), bright spots (contemporary and fossil magma bodies), dipping mantle reflections rooted in the lower crust (fossil subduction zones) and subhorizontal mantle reflections (phase changes in the lower lithosphere). Here I focus on relating reflection character to the inversion and/or interpretation of results from broadband techniques such as receiver functions, body wave and surface wave tomography. Among the underappreciated aspects of reflectivity are its dependence upon density as well as velocity, and the limitations of 2D images in a 3D world. A core consideration is the need to meaningfully relate integrated physical properties (e.g. velocity inferred from refraction and surface wave measurements) with the differential physical properties (e.g. reflection coefficients) to which reflection images are primarily sensitive. Examples from Tibet and Eurasia are used to illustrate examples of successful integration of controlled (active) and natural (passive) source observations to constrain models of crustal evolution.

  20. Chapman Conference on Generation of the Oceanic Lithosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Presnall, D. C.; Hales, A. L.; Frey, F. A.

    On April 6-10, 1981, the Chapman conference on Generation of the Oceanic Lithosphere was held at Airlie House, Warrenton, Virginia. It was convened by D.C. Presnall, A.L. Hales (both at the University of Texas at Dallas), and F.A. Frey (Massachusetts Institute of Technology). The purpose of the conference was to bring together scientists with diverse specialties to develop a better understanding of the constraints imposed by geophysics, geochemistry, petrology, and tectonics on processes of oceanic lithosphere generation. Sessions were held on the nature of the crust and upper mantle at spreading centers; trace elements and isotopes; experimental petrology; magma chamber dynamics, melt migration, and mantle flow; slow versus fast spreading ridges; Atlantic spreading centers; Pacific spreading centers; and hydrothermal activity, metasomatism, and metamorphism. Fifty-four oral papers and 47 poster papers were presented. One hundred twenty-eight scientists attended from Australia, Canada, Cyprus, Denmark, France, Iceland, Japan, Mexico, United Kingdom, United States, and the USSR.

  1. Compositional vs. thermal buoyancy and the evolution of subducted lithosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaherty, James B.; Hager, Bradford H.

    1994-01-01

    We formulate 2-D Cartesian finite element models that explore the fate of compositionally defined lithosphere as it encounters a viscosity increase at the boundary between the upper and lower mantle. Subducted lithosphere is represented as a cold, stiff, layered composite of denser eclogite underlain by more buoyant harzburgite. Slabs impinging on a lower mantle 30 and 100 times more viscous than the upper mantle thicken and fold strongly as they penetrate the lower mantle. Approximately a factor of two thickening occurs via pure shear just above the discontinuity, with additional enhancement due to folding by over a factor of two. No separation of the individual slab components occurs at the discontinuity, and direct comparison with models in which compositional buoyancy is explicitly ignored indicates that slab evolution is largely controlled by the thermal buoyancy. These results are at odds with hypotheses about slab evolution in which the compositional buoyancy contributions lead to component separation and the formation of slab megaliths or a compositionally layered upper mantle.

  2. Subduction of the Indian Lithospheric Slab Beneath Tibet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, H.; Murphy, M. A.

    2001-12-01

    In order to characterize the dynamics of continent-continent collisions, it is essential to define its present geometry and physical state. We report the results of a seismic tomography study of the Tibet-Himalayan collision zone, using a global data set, which indicates that the Indian lithospheric slab has been subducted subhorizontally beneath nearly the entire Tibetan plateau to depths of 165-260 km. Tibetan velocity structure is low in the crust and high in mantle lithosphere at depths between 75-120 km. An asthenospheric layer overlies the subducted Indian slab at depths between 120-165 km beneath the Tibetan plateau. There is a large low-velocity anomaly north of the Indus-Yalu suture zone between 85ºE and 93ºE that extends from the crust down to at least 310 km depth beneath the plateau. This low-velocity anomaly is indicative of mantle upwelling through a weakened zone of the subducted slab. The extent to which India has subducted beneath Tibet, as revealed by these seismic images, is comparable to estimates of crustal shortening across the Himalaya. Moreover, we hypothesize that the buoyancy due to heating of the subducted Indian slab and the existence of the asthenospheric layer contribute to the elevation and flatness of the Tibetan plateau.

  3. Lithosphere-Asthenosphere interactions near the San Andreas fault.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Houlie, N.

    2015-12-01

    We decipher the strain history of the upper mantle in California through the comparison of the long-term finite strain field in the mantle and the surface strain-rate field, respectively inferred from fast polarization directions of seismic phases (SKS and SKKS), and Global Positioning System (GPS) surface velocity fields. We show that mantle strain and surface strain-rate fields are consistent in the vicinity of San Andreas Fault (SAF) in California. Such an agreement suggests that the lithosphere and strong asthenosphere have been deformed coherently and steadily since >1 Ma. We find that the crustal stress field rotates (up to 40 degrees of rotation across a 50 km distance from 50 degrees relative to the strike of the SAF, in the near-field of SAF) from San Francisco to the Central Valley. Both observations suggest that the SAF extends to depth, likely through the entire lithosphere. From Central Valley towards the Basin and Range, the orientations of GPS strain-rates, shear wave splitting measurements and seismic stress fields diverge indicating reduced coupling or/and shallow crustal extension and/or presence of frozen anisotropy.

  4. Continents as lithological icebergs: The importance of buoyant lithospheric roots

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Abbott, D.H.; Drury, R.; Mooney, W.D.

    1997-01-01

    An understanding of the formation of new continental crust provides an important guide to locating the oldest terrestrial rocks and minerals. We evaluated the crustal thicknesses of the thinnest stable continental crust and of an unsubductable oceanic plateau and used the resulting data to estimate the amount of mantle melting which produces permanent continental crust. The lithospheric mantle is sufficiently depleted to produce permanent buoyancy (i.e., the crust is unsubductable) at crustal thicknesses greater than 25-27 km. These unsubductable oceanic plateaus and hotspot island chains are important sources of new continental crust. The newest continental crust (e.g., the Ontong Java plateau) has a basaltic composition, not a granitic one. The observed structure and geochemistry of continents are the result of convergent margin magmatism and metamorphism which modify the nascent basaltic crust into a lowermost basaltic layer overlain by a more silicic upper crust. The definition of a continent should imply only that the lithosphere is unsubductable over ??? 0.25 Ga time periods. Therefore, the search for the oldest crustal rocks should include rocks from lower to mid-crustal levels.

  5. Laser and gas centrifuge enrichment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heinonen, Olli

    2014-05-01

    Principles of uranium isotope enrichment using various laser and gas centrifuge techniques are briefly discussed. Examples on production of high enriched uranium are given. Concerns regarding the possibility of using low end technologies to produce weapons grade uranium are explained. Based on current assessments commercial enrichment services are able to cover the global needs of enriched uranium in the foreseeable future.

  6. Laser and gas centrifuge enrichment

    SciTech Connect

    Heinonen, Olli

    2014-05-09

    Principles of uranium isotope enrichment using various laser and gas centrifuge techniques are briefly discussed. Examples on production of high enriched uranium are given. Concerns regarding the possibility of using low end technologies to produce weapons grade uranium are explained. Based on current assessments commercial enrichment services are able to cover the global needs of enriched uranium in the foreseeable future.

  7. Why intracontinental basins subside longer: 3-D feedback effects of lithospheric cooling and sedimentation on the flexural strength of the lithosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cacace, M.; Scheck-Wenderoth, M.

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this study is to reevaluate the character and evolution of the large-scale subsidence of intracontinental basins using 3-D thermomechanical numerical simulations accounting for the coupling between sedimentation, rheology-dependent lithospheric flexure, and thermal contraction by lithospheric cooling. The flexural rigidity of the lithospheric plate is controlled by elastic-brittle-plastic rheology, enabling the computation of thermal and mechanical feedback processes occurring during basin subsidence. Numerical results show that depending on the sediment loading history, a rheological stratified lithosphere can subside over geological time scales without imposition of ad hoc geometric and kinematic initial conditions. Three-dimensional feedback effects of sedimentation on the thermomechanical structure of the plate result in a weakened lower crust mechanically decoupled from the underlying mantle and therefore easily reactivated even under low background stresses. Our results explain the first-order characteristics of the subsidence in intracontinental basins and reconcile basic observations of their deformation history.

  8. Ultramafic xenoliths from the Bearpaw Mountains, Montana, USA: Evidence for multiple metasomatic events in the lithospheric mantle beneath the Wyoming craton

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Downes, H.; Macdonald, R.; Upton, B.G.J.; Cox, K.G.; Bodinier, J.-L.; Mason, P.R.D.; James, D.; Hill, P.G.; Hearn, B.C.

    2004-01-01

    Ultramafic xenoliths in Eocene minettes of the Bearpaw Mountains volcanic field (Montana, USA), derived from the lower lithosphere of the Wyoming craton, can be divided based on textural criteria into tectonite and cumulate groups. The tectonites consist of strongly depleted spinel lherzolites, harzbugites and dunites. Although their mineralogical compositions are generally similar to those of spinel peridotites in off-craton settings, some contain pyroxenes and spinels that have unusually low Al2O3 contents more akin to those found in cratonic spinel peridotites. Furthermore, the tectonite peridotites have whole-rock major element compositions that tend to be significantly more depleted than non-cratonic mantle spinel peridotites (high MgO, low CaO, Al2O3 and TiO2) and resemble those of cratonic mantle. These compositions could have been generated by up to 30% partial melting of an undepleted mantle source. Petrographic evidence suggests that the mantle beneath the Wyoming craton was re-enriched in three ways: (1) by silicate melts that formed mica websterite and clinopyroxenite veins; (2) by growth of phlogopite from K-rich hydrous fluids; (3) by interaction with aqueous fluids to form orthopyroxene porphyroblasts and orthopyroxenite veins. In contrast to their depleted major element compositions, the tectonite peridotites are mostly light rare earth element (LREE)-enriched and show enrichment in fluid-mobile elements such as Cs, Rb, U and Pb on mantle-normalized diagrams. Lack of enrichment in high field strength elements (HFSE; e.g. Nb, Ta, Zr and Hf) suggests that the tectonite peridotites have been metasomatized by a subduction-related fluid. Clinopyroxenes from the tectonite peridotites have distinct U-shaped REE patterns with strong LREE enrichment. They have 143Nd/144Nd values that range from 0??5121 (close to the host minette values) to 0??5107, similar to those of xenoliths from the nearby Highwood Mountains. Foliated mica websterites also have low 143Nd

  9. Lithospheric mantle evolution in the Afro-Arabian domain: Insights from Bir Ali mantle xenoliths (Yemen)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sgualdo, P.; Aviado, K.; Beccaluva, L.; Bianchini, G.; Blichert-Toft, J.; Bryce, J. G.; Graham, D. W.; Natali, C.; Siena, F.

    2015-05-01

    Detailed petrological and geochemical investigations of an extensive sampling of mantle xenoliths from the Neogene-Quaternary Bir Ali diatreme (southern Yemen) indicate that the underlying lithospheric mantle consists predominantly of medium- to fine-grained (often foliated) spinel-peridotites (85-90%) and spinel-pyroxenites (10-15%) showing thermobarometric estimates in the P-T range of 0.9-2.0 GPa and 900-1150 °C. Peridotites, including lherzolites, harzburgites and dunites delineate continuous chemical, modal and mineralogical variations compatible with large extractions of basic melts occurring since the late Proterozoic (~ 2 Ga, according to Lu-Hf model ages). Pyroxenites may represent intrusions of subalkaline basic melts interacting and equilibrated with the host peridotite. Subsequent metasomatism has led to modal changes, with evidence of reaction patches and clinopyroxene and spinel destabilization, as well as formation of new phases (glass, amphibole and feldspar). These changes are accompanied by enrichment of the most incompatible elements and isotopic compositions. 143Nd/144Nd ranges from 0.51419 to 0.51209 (εNd from + 30.3 to - 10.5), 176Hf/177Hf from 0.28459 to 0.28239 (εHf from + 64.4 to - 13.6), and 208Pb/204Pb from 36.85 to 41.56, thus extending from the depleted mantle (DM) towards the enriched OIB mantle (EM and HIMU) components. 3He/4He (R/RA) ratios vary from 7.2 to 7.9 with He concentrations co-varying with the most incompatible element enrichment, in parallel with metasomatic effects. These metasomatic events, particularly effective in harzburgites and dunites, are attributable to the variable interaction with alkaline basic melts related to the general extensional and rifting regime affecting the East Africa-Arabian domain during the Cenozoic. In this respect, Bir Ali mantle xenoliths resemble those occurring along the Arabian margins and the East Africa Rift system, similarly affected by alkaline metasomatism, whereas they are

  10. Uplift of the Colorado Plateau due to lithosphere attenuation during Laramide low-angle subduction

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Spencer, J.E.

    1996-01-01

    The Colorado Plateau is blanketed by Phanerozoic marine and nonmarine strata as young as Cretaceous that are now exposed at elevations of about 2 km. Crustal thickening due to magmatism and horizontal crustal shortening was far less than necessary to cause this uplift, which is commonly attributed to the consequences of mantle lithosphere thinning and heating. The Colorado Plateau and the midcontinent region around Iowa consist of Precambrian bedrock overlain by a similar amount of Paleozoic platformal strata, and thus both regions once had similar lithospheric buoyancy. Mesozoic sedimentation increased the crustal thickness and lithospheric buoyancy of the Colorado Plateau relative to the midcontinent region. Backstripping calculations yield elevation without these sediments and lead to a calculated elevation difference between the two areas of about 1200 m, which represents unexplained plateau uplift. Review of constraints on uplift timing finds little support for a late Cenozoic uplift age and allows early to middle Cenozoic uplift, which is consistent with uplift mechanisms related to low-angle subduction that ended in the middle Cenozoic. Finite element heat flow calculations of low-angle subduction and lithosphere attenuation, using a range of initial lithosphere thicknesses and degree of attenuation, indicate that required uplift can result from tectonic removal of about 120 km of mantle lithosphere from an initially 200-km-thick lithosphere. This allows for partial preservation of North American mantle lithosphere with its distinctive isotopic signature in some late Cenozoic volcanic rocks and is consistent with normal Pn velocities in the uppermost mantle beneath the plateau.

  11. The role of gravitational potential energy in the Martian lithospheric stress field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naliboff, J. B.; Lithgow-Bertelloni, C.

    2006-12-01

    Understanding the lithospheric stress field on Mars is essential in interpreting patterns of surface faulting and geomorphologic features, as well as assessing the accuracy of different lithospheric models. We compute the portion of the lithospheric stress field on Mars produced by variations in crustal density and thickness using data described in Neumann et al. (2004). Our computation consists of two parts: calculation of the gravitational potential energy (GPE) at 1 degree intervals followed by calculation of the stress field derived from variations in the GPE using the commercial finite element program ABAQUS. When calculating the GPE, we consider both Airy and Pratt isostatic compensation models, as well as scenarios where no compensation model is invoked or the Martian crust acts as the Martian lithosphere. The lithosphere is treated as an elastic body and the full 3-D equations for conservation of mass and momentum are solved. In future models variations in lithologic properties and a viscoselastic rheology for the lithosphere will be incorporated. Preliminary results show gradations in the GPE between the southern highland and northern lowland regions of Mars relating to variations in crustal thickness between the two regions. For example, when the crust is assumed to behave as the elastic lithosphere, the southern highlands of Mars exhibit a much higher GPE as a result of their higher on average crustal thickness. If the lithosphere is assumed to contain both crust and mantle sections and a uniform compensation depth is assigned, however, the variation in GPE between the two regions is significantly altered.

  12. Mid-ocean-ridge seismicity reveals extreme types of ocean lithosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlindwein, Vera; Schmid, Florian

    2016-07-01

    Along ultraslow-spreading ridges, where oceanic tectonic plates drift very slowly apart, conductive cooling is thought to limit mantle melting and melt production has been inferred to be highly discontinuous. Along such spreading centres, long ridge sections without any igneous crust alternate with magmatic sections that host massive volcanoes capable of strong earthquakes. Hence melt supply, lithospheric composition and tectonic structure seem to vary considerably along the axis of the slowest-spreading ridges. However, owing to the lack of seismic data, the lithospheric structure of ultraslow ridges is poorly constrained. Here we describe the structure and accretion modes of two end-member types of oceanic lithosphere using a detailed seismicity survey along 390 kilometres of ultraslow-spreading ridge axis. We observe that amagmatic sections lack shallow seismicity in the upper 15 kilometres of the lithosphere, but unusually contain earthquakes down to depths of 35 kilometres. This observation implies a cold, thick lithosphere, with an upper aseismic zone that probably reflects substantial serpentinization. We find that regions of magmatic lithosphere thin dramatically under volcanic centres, and infer that the resulting topography of the lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary could allow along-axis melt flow, explaining the uneven crustal production at ultraslow-spreading ridges. The seismicity data indicate that alteration in ocean lithosphere may reach far deeper than previously thought, with important implications towards seafloor deformation and fluid circulation.

  13. Mid-ocean-ridge seismicity reveals extreme types of ocean lithosphere.

    PubMed

    Schlindwein, Vera; Schmid, Florian

    2016-07-14

    Along ultraslow-spreading ridges, where oceanic tectonic plates drift very slowly apart, conductive cooling is thought to limit mantle melting and melt production has been inferred to be highly discontinuous. Along such spreading centres, long ridge sections without any igneous crust alternate with magmatic sections that host massive volcanoes capable of strong earthquakes. Hence melt supply, lithospheric composition and tectonic structure seem to vary considerably along the axis of the slowest-spreading ridges. However, owing to the lack of seismic data, the lithospheric structure of ultraslow ridges is poorly constrained. Here we describe the structure and accretion modes of two end-member types of oceanic lithosphere using a detailed seismicity survey along 390 kilometres of ultraslow-spreading ridge axis. We observe that amagmatic sections lack shallow seismicity in the upper 15 kilometres of the lithosphere, but unusually contain earthquakes down to depths of 35 kilometres. This observation implies a cold, thick lithosphere, with an upper aseismic zone that probably reflects substantial serpentinization. We find that regions of magmatic lithosphere thin dramatically under volcanic centres, and infer that the resulting topography of the lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary could allow along-axis melt flow, explaining the uneven crustal production at ultraslow-spreading ridges. The seismicity data indicate that alteration in ocean lithosphere may reach far deeper than previously thought, with important implications towards seafloor deformation and fluid circulation. PMID:27362231

  14. Mid-ocean-ridge seismicity reveals extreme types of ocean lithosphere.

    PubMed

    Schlindwein, Vera; Schmid, Florian

    2016-06-29

    Along ultraslow-spreading ridges, where oceanic tectonic plates drift very slowly apart, conductive cooling is thought to limit mantle melting and melt production has been inferred to be highly discontinuous. Along such spreading centres, long ridge sections without any igneous crust alternate with magmatic sections that host massive volcanoes capable of strong earthquakes. Hence melt supply, lithospheric composition and tectonic structure seem to vary considerably along the axis of the slowest-spreading ridges. However, owing to the lack of seismic data, the lithospheric structure of ultraslow ridges is poorly constrained. Here we describe the structure and accretion modes of two end-member types of oceanic lithosphere using a detailed seismicity survey along 390 kilometres of ultraslow-spreading ridge axis. We observe that amagmatic sections lack shallow seismicity in the upper 15 kilometres of the lithosphere, but unusually contain earthquakes down to depths of 35 kilometres. This observation implies a cold, thick lithosphere, with an upper aseismic zone that probably reflects substantial serpentinization. We find that regions of magmatic lithosphere thin dramatically under volcanic centres, and infer that the resulting topography of the lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary could allow along-axis melt flow, explaining the uneven crustal production at ultraslow-spreading ridges. The seismicity data indicate that alteration in ocean lithosphere may reach far deeper than previously thought, with important implications towards seafloor deformation and fluid circulation.

  15. Mantle xenoliths from Marosticano area (Northern Italy): a comparison with Veneto Volcanic Province lithospheric mantle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brombin, Valentina; Bonadiman, Costanza; Coltorti, Massimo

    2016-04-01

    redox conditions (Δlog fO2: +1.2 to -0.7, Ballhaus, 1991) to Lessinean and Val d'Adige xenoliths which may indicate a local oxidation of the mantle below this portion of VVP. References • Beccaluva L., Bianchini G., Bonadiman C., Coltorti M., Milani L., Salvini L., Siena F., Tassinari R. (2007). Intraplate lithospheric and sublithospheric components in the Adriatic domain: Nephelinite to tholeiite magma generation in the Paleogene Veneto Volcanic Province, Southern Alps. Geological Society of America, 131-152. • Beccaluva L., Bonadiman C., Coltorti M., Salvini L., Siena F. (2001). Depletion events, nature of metasomatizing agent and timing of enrichment processes in lithospheric mantle xenoliths from the Veneto Volcanic Province. Journal of Petrology, 42, 173-187. • Gasperini D., Bosch D., Braga R., Bondi M., Macera P., Morten L. (2006). Ultramafic xenoliths from the Veneto Volcanic Province (Italy): Petrological and geochemical evidence for multiple metasomatism of the SE Alps mantle lithospere. Geochemical Journal, 40, 377-404. • Siena F., Coltorti M. (1989). Lithospheric mantle evolution: evidences from ultramafic xenoliths in the Lessinean volcanics (Northern Itlay). Chemical Geology, 77, 347-364.

  16. Origin of the Early Cretaceous continental intraplate volcanism, NW Syria: melting of a metasomatised lithospheric mantle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, G. S.; Malpas, J.; Xenophontos, C.; Suzuki, K.; Lo, C.

    2011-12-01

    The Mesozoic evolution of the Neotethys-Eastern Mediterranean between the African-Arabian and Eurasian continents was accompanied by intermittent eruption of alkaline-transitional basalts in Arabia. The causes of the prolonged volcanism remain controversial, whether related to the arrival(s) of mantle plume [1] or prolonged far-field extension of the passive continental margin [2]. In addition, the source(s) of the volcanism is not well constrained, as previous conclusions were drawn before recent understanding of the origin of intraplate magmas - (i) melting of hydrous metasomatic veins within the lithospheric mantle [3] or (ii) melting of an incompatible-element enriched peridotite source ± eclogites in the presence of CO2 [4, 5]. The Mesozoic basalts (ankaramites and transitional basalts) from the Coastal Ranges, NW Syria analysed in this study were dated at 106.3 ± 0.2 Ma and 103.4 ± 0.3 Ma (bulk-rock 40Ar/39Ar ages), representing the last instance of Mesozoic intraplate magmatism in the Levant region. Isotopic and geochemical analysis reveals distinct compositions between the two lava series (ankaramites: ɛNd(t) = 5.1-5.6, 87Sr/87Sr(t) = 0.70293-0.70302, 187Os/188Os(t) = 0.227-0.242; transitional basalts: ɛNd(t) = 4.0-4.6, 87Sr/87Sr(t) = 0.70320-0.70424, 187Os/188Os(t) = 0.392; and lower SiO2, higher TiO2, Nb/U, Nb/Th, Nb/La and Ce/Pb in the ankaramites). Fractional crystallisation and assimilation-fractional crystallisation modelling suggests minor roles for both processes during the evolution of the lavas, despite the generally high Os isotopic ratios. The modelling also precludes derivation of one lava series from the other, suggesting that the isotopic and geochemical distinctions must be inherited from the source. It is interpreted that the chemical characteristics represent a greater component derived from metasomatic amphibole-rich veins in the source region. Both the ankaramites and transitional basalts were generated from this metasomatised

  17. Melt-induced weakening of the lithosphere: theory and geodynamic implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerya, T.

    2015-12-01

    Melt-induced weakening can play critical role for enabling lithospheric deformation in the areas of intense mantle-derived magmatism, such as mid-ocean ridges, rift zones and hot spots. It implies significant reduction in the long-term brittle strength of the deforming lithosphere subjected to frequent melt percolation episodes. Such weakening corresponds to conditions when shear stress reaches the tensile yield strength of rocks at nearly equal melt and lithostatic pressures. The dominant features of melt transport in this regime are planar, sharply localized zones (dykes) in which melt is transported though the lithosphere from the source region. Mechanical energy dissipation balance shows that the long-term effective strength of the melt-weakened lithosphere is a strain-averaged rather than a time-averaged quantity. Its magnitude is mainly defined by the ratio between melt pressure and lithostatic pressure along dykes during short dyke emplacement episodes, which control most of the lithospheric deformation and mechanical energy dissipation. We quantified the range of expected values of the lithospheric strength by performing 2D numerical hydro-mechanical experiments on melt-bearing rock deformation as well as seismo-mechanical experiments on long-term lithospheric deformation assisted by frequent short-term dyke propagation episodes. These numerical experiments showed that the long-term lithospheric strength in the areas of intense magmatism can be as low as few MPa and is critically dependent on the availability of melt for enabling frequent episodes of dyke propagation through the lithosphere. Short-lived viscous-plastic deformation is localized along propagating weak dykes whereas bulk of the lithosphere only deforms elastically and is subjected to large deviatoric stresses. The experiments suggest that it is not the high strength of the elastically deforming strong lithospheric blocks but the low strength of visco-plastically deforming dykes that define the

  18. Growth, stabilization, and reactivation of Proterozoic lithosphere in the southwestern United States

    SciTech Connect

    Bowring, S.A. ); Karlstrom, K.E. )

    1990-12-01

    Growth of Proterozoic continental lithosphere in the southwestern United States involved assembly of tectonostratigraphic terranes during several pulses of convergent tectonism ca. 1.74, 1.70, and 1.65-1.60 Ga. Prograde metamorphism accompanied orogenic assembly, and peak metamorphic conditions outlasted deformation. Regions now characterized by the highest metamorphic grades underwent slow isobaric cooling and were not uplifted until more than 200 m.y. after assembly. Regions of low metamorphic grade were not uplifted substantially after assembly. The authors suggest that (1) relatively thin lithospheric fragments were assembled into isostatically stable, normal thickness continental lithosphere; (2) assembly did not erase lithospheric-scale heterogeneities; (3) the present juxtaposition of different crustal levels reflects differential uplift related to 1.4-1.1 Ga tectonomagmatic activity; and (4) the boundaries between different lithospheric blocks were repeatedly reactivated from Precambrian through Tertiary time.

  19. Layered structure of the lithospheric mantle changes dynamics of craton extension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, J.; Gerya, T.; Wang, Q.

    2013-11-01

    Although presence of weak layers due to hydration and/or metasomatism in the lithospheric mantle of cratons has been detected by both geophysical and geochemical studies, its influence on craton evolution remains elusive. Using a 2‒D thermomechanical viscoelastoplastic numerical model, we studied the craton extension of a heterogeneous lithospheric mantle with a rheologically weak layer. Our results demonstrate that the effect of the weak mantle layer is twofold: (1) enhances deformation of the overlying lithosphere and (2) inhibits deformation of the underlying lithospheric mantle. Depending on the weak‒layer depth, the Moho temperature and extension rate, three extension patterns are found (1) localized mantle necking with exposed weak layer, (2) widespread mantle necking with exposed weak layer, and (3) widespread mantle necking without exposed weak layer. The presence of the weak mantle layer reduces long‒term acting boundary forces required to sustain extensional deformation of the lithosphere.

  20. High-resolution lithosphere viscosity and dynamics revealed by magnetotelluric imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Lijun; Hasterok, Derrick

    2016-09-01

    An accurate viscosity structure is critical to truthfully modeling lithosphere dynamics. Here, we report an attempt to infer the effective lithospheric viscosity from a high-resolution magnetotelluric (MT) survey across the western United States. The high sensitivity of MT fields to the presence of electrically conductive fluids makes it a promising proxy for determining mechanical strength variations throughout the lithosphere. We demonstrate how a viscosity structure, approximated from electrical resistivity, results in a geodynamic model that successfully predicts short-wavelength surface topography, lithospheric deformation, and mantle upwelling beneath recent volcanism. We further show that this viscosity is physically consistent with and better constrained than that derived from laboratory-based rheology. We conclude that MT imaging provides a practical observational constraint for quantifying the dynamic evolution of the continental lithosphere.

  1. Io: Generation of Silicate Magma by Shear Melting at the Base of a Basaltic Lithosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carr, M. H.

    1985-01-01

    Tidal theory and observational evidence indicates that about 1 w/sq. m. of energy is released at the surface of Io. In order to place limits on how much tidal energy can be dissipated within a rigid lithosphere, depth-temperature profiles were calculated for different lithosphere thickness assuming that the tidal energy was dissipated uniformly throughout the lithosphere. Thus a thick lithosphere implies that a significant fraction of the tidal energy is dissipated below the depth where solidus temperatures are reached. One possibility is that Io has a crust consisting of a low melting temperature fraction such as basalt, overlying a mantle of a high melting temperature fraction such as peridotite. Thus, if the lithosphere of Io is thicker than 30 km, as appears probable, then high rates of silicate volcanism are implied and a significant fraction of the tidal energy must be dissipated by viscous deformation rather than rigid flexure.

  2. Science Student Enrichment Opportunities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Dept. of Education, Sacramento.

    This document was developed with the intention of increasing California public school students' awareness of and participation in science-related enrichment activities. Some of the activities are intended for participation by individuals, while others are meant for teams of students. These annual events are listed in chronological order for a…

  3. EDUCATIONAL ENRICHMENT PROGRAM - 1964.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    FUNK, JOHN H.

    THE EDUCATIONAL ENRICHMENT PROGRAM - 1964 WAS A COOPERATIVE UNDERTAKING OF SIX INDEPENDENT SCHOOLS IN OR NEAR BOSTON AND A NUMBER OF INTERESTED ORGANIZATIONS THAT OFFERED THE USE OF THEIR FACILITIES AND PERSONNEL TO AN URBAN COMMUNITY DURING THE NONSCHOOL MONTHS. THE AIM OF THE PROGRAM WAS TO OFFER CHALLENGING AND EXPLORATORY STUDY WHICH COULD…

  4. CULTURAL ENRICHMENT PROGRAMS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    WASHINGTON, BENNETTA B.

    METHODS BY WHICH CULTURAL ENRICHMENT PROGRAMS CAN HELP TO ELIMINATE JUVENILE DELINQUENCY ARE DISCUSSED. IT IS STRESSED THAT CULTURE IS A SET OF VALUES, RATHER THAN A SERIES OF CONCEPTS. IF CULTURE IS TO BE TRANSMITTED TO STUDENTS, TEACHERS MUST LIVE ITS VALUES. ATTENDING CONCERTS AND PLAYS IS NOT SUFFICIENT. ONLY IN THE BROAD SETTING OF A TOTAL…

  5. Reversing Underachievement through Enrichment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Renzulli, Joseph S.; Baum, Susan M.; Hebert, Thomas; McCluskey, Ken W.

    1999-01-01

    Discusses problems of underachievement, especially among potentially high ability students, and the difficulties inherent in reversing this process. Presents new perspective and strategies that promote success. Describes Type III enrichment experiences as a means to unleash students' potential. Speculates as to what causes turnaround within an…

  6. Economic Analysis. Enrichment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sterling Inst., Washington, DC. Educational Technology Center.

    A multimedia course in economic analysis was prepared for the United States Naval Academy. (ED 043 790 and ED 043 791 are the final reports of the project evaluation and development model.) This report presents enrichment segments for selected core segments in concept areas one and two, covering a spectrum of economic systems, the influence of…

  7. Enriching the Catalog

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tennant, Roy

    2004-01-01

    After decades of costly and time-consuming effort, nearly all libraries have completed the retrospective conversion of their card catalogs to electronic form. However, bibliographic systems still are really not much more than card catalogs on wheels. Enriched content that Amazon.com takes for granted--such as digitized tables of contents, cover…

  8. Enriching Number Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mack, Nancy K.

    2011-01-01

    Exploring number systems of other cultures can be an enjoyable learning experience that enriches students' knowledge of numbers and number systems in important ways. It helps students deepen mental computation fluency, knowledge of place value, and equivalent representations for numbers. This article describes how the author designed her…

  9. Revealing the Fine Structures of the Lithosphere Asthenosphere Boundary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olugboji, Tolulope Morayo

    Earth's near surface layer is made of relatively strong materials and often referred to as tectonic plates (or the lithosphere). Below this layer is a softer layer called the asthenosphere. The transition from strong lithosphere to weak asthenosphere is caused by temperature. However, recent high-resolution seismological observations suggest that the transition from the lithosphere to the asthenosphere cannot be attributed to the temperature alone: the change in seismic wave velocity at the boundary is too sharp and too large to be attributed solely to the gradual increase in temperature. There have been hot debates on what causes the observed sharp transition between two layers. In this dissertation, I synthesize insights from seismological observation, in particular receiver functions, with experiments and theory of anelasticity caused by grain-boundary sliding, to test and assess candidate models for the oceanic lithosphere asthenosphere boundary (LAB) as well as the Mid-lithospheric discontinues (MLD) observed in stable continental regions. I conduct new statistical analysis of the results of mineral physics experiments, providing a description of the uncertainties in the parameters of an elastically accommodated grain boundary sliding model (EAGBS). I extend the EAGBS model originally proposed by Karato (2012) to describe and explain the seismological signatures at the oceanic LAB, showing that this hypothesis suitably explains both the oceanic LAB and MLD in the continents within the limits of uncertainties in both mineral physics studies and seismological models. I then describe new supporting evidence for the specific predictions of the EAGBS model using novel seismological technique and data from stations in the oceanic regions. High-resolution receiver function (RF) stacking techniques can provide robust characterization of the age-dependence in the sharpness, depth, and anisotropic fabric within the normal oceanic LAB and underneath 'anomalous' Pacific

  10. Evolution of large Venusian volcanoes: Insights from coupled models of lithospheric flexure and magma reservoir pressurization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galgana, Gerald A.; McGovern, Patrick J.; Grosfils, Eric B.

    2011-03-01

    The growth and evolution of large volcanic edifices on Venus should reflect interactions between local magma reservoir-induced stresses and broader-scale stresses resulting from flexure of the lithosphere beneath the edifice load. Here, we explore the relationship between magma movement in the lithosphere and the flexural stress state via static, gravitationally loaded, axisymmetric finite element models. We find that reservoirs situated in the lower (extensional) lithosphere fail at the bottom and are therefore not viable long-term conduits for upward magma transport. Furthermore, for high-stress conditions (e.g., large edifices or thin lithospheres), chambers in the lowermost lithosphere exceed the failure criterion even before pressurization and are therefore unstable. In contrast, magma chambers located in the upper (compressional) lithosphere fail at or somewhat above the reservoir midsection, promoting lateral sill injection; continued failure in this mode would tend to produce oblate magma chambers with zones of intrusion at their margins. Reservoirs near the flexural neutral plane require the greatest overpressure to reach failure, emplacing cone sheets that transition to sills further from the chamber. The out-of-plane orientation of principal extensional stresses in the flexed lower lithosphere predicts the presence of radial dikes that are likely the main conduits for any subsequent magma ascent from the mantle melt source region. Our results also explain how the evolving stress state in the lithosphere tends to redirect magma passage over time: magma ascending into the lithosphere beneath the edifice is diverted to lateral sills in the upper lithosphere, inhibiting summit eruptions and possibly shifting eruption locations to the lower flanks at and beyond the distal margins of an oblate chamber or sill complex. We apply these results to interpret the observed structure and tectonism of Sapas Mons, Venus, in terms of flexurally controlled intrusive

  11. Dipping fossil fabrics of continental mantle lithosphere as tectonic heritage of oceanic paleosubductions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babuska, Vladislav; Plomerova, Jaroslava; Vecsey, Ludek; Munzarova, Helena

    2016-04-01

    Subduction and orogenesis require a strong mantle layer (Burov, Tectonophys. 2010) and our findings confirm the leading role of the mantle lithosphere. We have examined seismic anisotropy of Archean, Proterozoic and Phanerozoic provinces of Europe by means of shear-wave splitting and P-wave travel-time deviations of teleseismic waves observed at dense arrays of seismic stations (e.g., Vecsey et al., Tectonophys. 2007). Lateral variations of seismic-velocity anisotropy delimit domains of the mantle lithosphere, each of them having its own consistent fabric. The domains, modeled in 3D by olivine aggregates with dipping lineation a, or foliation (a,c), represent microplates or their fragments that preserved their pre-assembly fossil fabrics. Evaluating seismic anisotropy in 3D, as well as mapping boundaries of the domains helps to decipher processes of the lithosphere formation. Systematically dipping mantle fabrics and other seismological findings seem to support a model of continental lithosphere built from systems of paleosubductions of plates of ancient oceanic lithosphere (Babuska and Plomerova, AGU Geoph. Monograph 1989), or from stacking of the plates (Helmstaedt and Schulze, Geol. Soc. Spec. Publ. 1989). Seismic anisotropy in the oceanic mantle lithosphere, explained mainly by the olivine A- or D-type fabric (Karato et al., Annu. Rev. Earth Planet. Sci. 2008), was discovered a half century ago (Hess, Nature 1964). Field observations and laboratory experiments indicate the oceanic olivine fabric might be preserved in the subducting lithosphere to a depth of at least 200-300 km. We thus interpret the dipping anisotropic fabrics in domains of the European mantle lithosphere as systems of "frozen" paleosubductions (Babuska and Plomerova, PEPI 2006) and the lithosphere base as a boundary between the fossil anisotropy in the lithospheric mantle and an underlying seismic anisotropy related to present-day flow in the asthenosphere (Plomerova and Babuska, Lithos 2010).

  12. Asymmetric vs. symmetric deep lithospheric architecture of intra-plate continental orogens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calignano, Elisa; Sokoutis, Dimitrios; Willingshofer, Ernst; Gueydan, Frédéric; Cloetingh, Sierd

    2015-08-01

    The initiation and subsequent evolution of intra-plate orogens, resulting from continental plate interior deformation due to transmission of stresses over large distances from the active plate boundaries, is controlled by lateral and vertical strength contrasts in the lithosphere. We present lithospheric-scale analogue models combining 1) lateral strength variations in the continental lithosphere, and 2) different vertical rheological stratifications. The experimental continental lithosphere has a four-layer brittle-ductile rheological stratification. Lateral heterogeneity is implemented in all models by increased crustal strength in a central narrow block. The main investigated parameters are strain rate and strength of the lithospheric mantle, both playing an important role in crust-mantle coupling. The experiments show that the presence of a strong crustal domain is effective in localizing deformation along its boundaries. After deformation is localized, the evolution of the orogenic system is governed by the mechanical properties of the lithosphere such that the final geometry of the intra-plate mountain depends on the interplay between crust-mantle coupling and folding versus fracturing of the lithospheric mantle. Underthrusting is the main deformation mode in case of high convergence velocity and/or thick brittle mantle with a final asymmetric architecture of the deep lithosphere. In contrast, lithospheric folding is dominant in case of low convergence velocity and low strength brittle mantle, leading to the development of a symmetric lithospheric root. The presented analogue modelling results provide novel insights for 1) strain localization and 2) the development of the asymmetric architecture of the Pyrenees.

  13. Water and its influence on the lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary.

    PubMed

    Green, David H; Hibberson, William O; Kovács, István; Rosenthal, Anja

    2010-09-23

    The Earth has distinctive convective behaviour, described by the plate tectonics model, in which lateral motion of the oceanic lithosphere of basaltic crust and peridotitic uppermost mantle is decoupled from the underlying mechanically weaker upper mantle (asthenosphere). The reason for differentiation at the lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary is currently being debated with relevant observations from geophysics (including seismology) and geochemistry (including experimental petrology). Water is thought to have an important effect on mantle rheology, either by weakening the crystal structure of olivine and pyroxenes by dilute solid solution, or by causing low-temperature partial melting. Here we present a novel experimental approach to clarify the role of water in the uppermost mantle at pressures up to 6 GPa, equivalent to a depth of 190 km. We found that for lherzolite in which a water-rich vapour is present, the temperature at which a silicate melt first appears (the vapour-saturated solidus) increases from a minimum of 970 °C at 1.5 GPa to 1,350 °C at 6 GPa. We have measured the water content in lherzolite to be approximately 180 parts per million, retained in nominally anhydrous minerals at 2.5 and 4 GPa at temperatures above and below the vapour-saturated solidus. The hydrous mineral pargasite is the main water-storage site in the uppermost mantle, and the instability of pargasite at pressures greater than 3 GPa (equivalent to more than about 90 km depth) causes a sharp drop in both the water-storage capacity and the solidus temperature of fertile upper-mantle lherzolite. The presence of interstitial melt in mantle with more than 180 parts per million of water at pressures greater than 3 GPa alters mantle rheology and defines the lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary. Modern asthenospheric mantle acting as the source for mid-oceanic ridge basalts has a water content of 50-200 parts per million (refs 3-5). We show that this matches the

  14. Water and its influence on the lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary.

    PubMed

    Green, David H; Hibberson, William O; Kovács, István; Rosenthal, Anja

    2010-09-23

    The Earth has distinctive convective behaviour, described by the plate tectonics model, in which lateral motion of the oceanic lithosphere of basaltic crust and peridotitic uppermost mantle is decoupled from the underlying mechanically weaker upper mantle (asthenosphere). The reason for differentiation at the lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary is currently being debated with relevant observations from geophysics (including seismology) and geochemistry (including experimental petrology). Water is thought to have an important effect on mantle rheology, either by weakening the crystal structure of olivine and pyroxenes by dilute solid solution, or by causing low-temperature partial melting. Here we present a novel experimental approach to clarify the role of water in the uppermost mantle at pressures up to 6 GPa, equivalent to a depth of 190 km. We found that for lherzolite in which a water-rich vapour is present, the temperature at which a silicate melt first appears (the vapour-saturated solidus) increases from a minimum of 970 °C at 1.5 GPa to 1,350 °C at 6 GPa. We have measured the water content in lherzolite to be approximately 180 parts per million, retained in nominally anhydrous minerals at 2.5 and 4 GPa at temperatures above and below the vapour-saturated solidus. The hydrous mineral pargasite is the main water-storage site in the uppermost mantle, and the instability of pargasite at pressures greater than 3 GPa (equivalent to more than about 90 km depth) causes a sharp drop in both the water-storage capacity and the solidus temperature of fertile upper-mantle lherzolite. The presence of interstitial melt in mantle with more than 180 parts per million of water at pressures greater than 3 GPa alters mantle rheology and defines the lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary. Modern asthenospheric mantle acting as the source for mid-oceanic ridge basalts has a water content of 50-200 parts per million (refs 3-5). We show that this matches the

  15. Present Lithospheric Deformation and Asthenospheric Flow beneath the Central Mongolia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Q.; Guan, J.; Gao, M.; Munkhuu, U.; Demberel, S. G.

    2013-12-01

    The Central Asian Orogeny Belt (CAOB), which separates the Siberia Shield to the north from the Sino-Korean Craton and Tarim Craton to the south and extends from the Ural Orogeny in the west to the Western Pacific Subduction Zone in the east, is one of the World's largest Paleozoic orogeny zone, with more than 50% juvenile crust. CAOB provides a unique place to study the continental growth process and mechanism. 68 broadband seismometers were deployed for 2 years in the central Mongolian from August 2011, funded by the international cooperation project of Ministry of Science and Technology of China----The Geophysical Investigation and Deep Structure Modeling for Seismic Hazard Assessment in the Far East (2011DFB20120). As a part of the joint project, the aim of the passive seismic observation (CM Array) is to investigate the deep structure of the Central Mongolia. Upper mantle deformation features are deduced from the splitting of the teleseismic shear wave such as SKS and SKKS phases. At the temporary CM array across the central Mongolia, we observe delay times of SKS splitting ranging from 0.8 to more than 2.0s. The observed SKS fast direction at most of the stations is dominated by NW-SE, which is almost orthogonal to the trend of lithospheric structure, striking in NE-SW in the central and eastern Mongolia and thought to be formed by the closure of the Mongol-Okhotsk ocean from the Devonian to Triassic. Such a feature implies that the fossil lithospheric deformation may not be preserved in the central Mongolia, even though the finial closure of the Mongol-Okhostk ocean occurred at the end of Triassic. It is noted that the angular difference between the fast direction and the APM for most of the stations is within 40°; such a difference could be considered to be within the uncertainty but also may reflect a true differential motion between the Earth surface and the convective mantle. The present-day deformation of Mongolia started at the end of the Oligocene

  16. Linking numerical models of lithospheric deformation and magnetotelluric images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sobolev, S. V.

    2012-12-01

    Efficient modeling of geodynamic processes requires constraints from different fields of geosciences. Frequently used are data on crustal structure and composition and their evolution constrained by seismic, gravity and petrological/geochemical studies. However, links between geodynamic modeling and rapidly developing field of magnetotelluric (MT) studies are still insufficient. I'll consider two recent examples of MT observations and geodynamic modeling demonstrating that joint analyses of thermomechanical models of lithospheric deformation and MT images may be useful to understand geodynamic processes. One set of observations is MT data for San Andreas Fault (SAF) in the region close to the SAFOD Site (Becken et al., 2011) that shows high conductivity anomalies in the mantle, that are interpreted as fluid flow feeding creeping part of SAF south of the SAFOD Site. Interestingly, zones of high conductivity do not coincide with the expected zones of the recent active deformation (SAF), but are located to the west of it. Based on thermomechanical model of the evolution of the SAFS in Central and Northern California during the last 20 Mln. years (Popov et al., 2012), I'll demonstrate that high conductivity anomalies precisely coincide with the expected zones of the highest accumulated shear strain. Possible interpretation of this coincidence is that strong preferred orientation of olivine crystals in the highly deformed mantle shear zone causes high permeability of fluids. Another set of observations is MT data showing high conductivity anomalies in the crust of Tibet (Unsworh et al., 2005, Bai et al., 2010) and Pamirs (Sass et al., 2011) that are often interpreted as an evidence for the widely spread partially molten crust. Using 2D thermomechanical models of the collision between India and Eurasia, I'll demonstrate that such structures in the crust cannot appear without delamination of the mantle lithosphere during tectonic shortening. Internal heating of the

  17. A lithospheric 3D temperature study from the South Atlantic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirsch, K. K.; Scheck-Wenderoth, M.; Maystrenko, Y.; Sippel, J.

    2009-04-01

    The East African continental margin is a passive volcanic margin that experienced a long post-rifting history after break up in Early Cretaceous times. The break up resulted in the formation of a number of basins along the margin. The by far largest depocentre in the South Atlantic, the Orange Basin, was the location of previously performed studies. These studies of the Orange Basin have been performed to investigate the crustal structure and the temperature evolution of the basin. In this way, they gave way to new insights and to a number of questions. With 3D gravity modelling we found the crust to include high density bodies. Furthermore, a rifting model was developed which explained both the geometry and the thermal constraints of the basin. Now, this study has been extended spatially to cover a larger area and into depth to include the deep lithosphere. The main goal is to combine information on the geometry and properties of the sedimentary part of the system with data on the geometry and physical properties of the deep crust. It was also aimed to integrate both the continental and the oceanic parts of the margin into a consistent 3D structural model on a lithospheric scale. A 3D temperature model was evaluated for the passive continental margin of the South Atlantic including the lithospheric structure of the margin. We evaluate a case study for different scenarios to estimate the influence of sediments and crustal structures on the thermal field. The calculated conductive field is constrained by temperature measurements and 3D gravity modelling. At the Norwegian continental margin it has been found that a differentiation of the physical properties of the lower crust and the mantle is needed between the oceanic and continental domains to explain the observations. We aim to compare the younger setting of the Norwegian continental margin with the old passive margin in the South Atlantic. In particular, the South Atlantic is interesting since the southern half

  18. Stable isotopic (O, H) evidence for hydration of the central Colorado Plateau lithospheric mantle by slab-derived fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marshall, E. W.; Barnes, J.; Lassiter, J. C.

    2013-12-01

    The Colorado Plateau is a tectonically stable, relatively undeformed Proterozoic lithospheric province in the North America Cordillera. Although the stability of the Colorado Plateau suggests that it is rheologically strong, evidence from xenoliths show that the lithospheric mantle is extensively hydrated (e.g., presence of hydrous minerals, 'high' water contents in nominally anhydrous minerals), and therefore weakened. In addition, LREE enrichments in clinopyroxene (cpx) imply that the lithospheric mantle has been metasomatized ([1],[2]). Here we analyze mineral separates from spinel and garnet peridotite xenoliths from the Navajo Volcanic Field (NVF), located in the center of the Plateau, for their oxygen and hydrogen isotope compositions. These compositions are compared to those of xenoliths at the margins of the Plateau: spinel peridotites from the Grand Canyon Volcanic Field (GCVF) in the west and Zuni-Bandera Volcanic Field (ZBVF) in the east. NVF xenoliths are significantly more hydrous than the xenoliths on the margins of the Colorado Plateau based on modal abundances of hydrous minerals and structural water in olivine (e.g. [3]). All hydrous phases have high δD values (antigorite = -71 to -46‰ (n = 6 xenoliths); chlorite = -49 to -31‰ (n=3); amphibole = -47‰ (n=1)) compared to normal mantle (~-80‰), suggesting the addition of a fluid that is enriched in D compared to typical mantle. δ18O values for the same hydrous minerals range from 6.0 to 6.6‰ (n=6). δ18O values of olivine from NVF spinel peridotites have a narrow range, 5.0 to 5.4‰ (n = 4), near mantle olivine values (~5.2‰). Olivines from spinel peridotites from the GCVF and ZBVF also have mantle-like δ18O values (5.1 to 5.2‰ (n=3) and 5.1 to 5.4‰ (n=7), respectively). However, olivines and orthopyroxenes (opx) from NVF garnet peridotites have a slightly larger range and some record 18O enrichment (olivine = 5.1 to 5.6‰ (n = 3); opx = 5.9‰ (n=1)). The high δ18O values of

  19. Rheology, tectonics, and the structure of the Venus lithosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zuber, M. T.

    1994-01-01

    Given the absence of ground truth information on seismic structure, heat flow, and rock strength, or short wavelength gravity or magnetic data for Venus, information on the thermal, mechanical and compositional nature of the shallow interior must be obtained by indirect methods. Using pre-Magellan data, theoretical models constrained by the depths of impact craters and the length scales of tectonic features yielded estimates on the thickness of Venus' brittle-elastic lithosphere and the allowable range of crustal thickness and surface thermal gradient. The purpose of this study is to revisit the question of the shallow structure of Venus based on Magellan observations of the surface and recent experiments that address Venus' crustal rheology.

  20. Electromagnetic induction studies. [of earth lithosphere and asthenosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hermance, J. F.

    1983-01-01

    Recent developments in electromagnetic induction studies of the lithosphere and the asthenosphere are reviewed. Attention is given to geoelectrical studies of active tectonic areas in terms of the major zones of crustal extension, the basin and range province along western regions of North America, and the Rio Grande rift. Studies have also been performed of tectonic activity around Iceland, the Salton Trough and Cerro Prieto, and the subduction zones of the Cascade Mountains volcanic belt, where magnetotelluric and geomagnetic variation studies have been done. Geomagnetic variations experiments have been reported in the Central Appalachians, and submarine electromagnetic studies along the Juan de Fuca ridge. Controlled source electromagnetic and dc resistivity investigations have been carried out in Nevada, Hawaii, and in the Adirondacks Mountains. Laboratory examinations on the conductivity of representative materials over a broad range of temperature, pressure, and chemistry are described.

  1. Three-dimensional density structure of the lunar upper lithosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Q.; Du, J.; Chen, C.; Li, Y.

    2011-12-01

    The lithosphere of the Moon has a thickness over 1200 km according to the seismology studies. It records the giant impact events during the processes of solidification. The upper lithosphere including the crust and the upper mantle was thought to be a nonuniform layer in thickness and seismic velocity, yet the lateral density structure remains poorly understood. The global gravity data thus provides a significant constraint on the three-dimensional (3-D) density structure of the Moon. Previous studies assumed that the crust and the mantle have constant density the gravity anomalies are only produced by the variations of interface between the crust and the mantle. Therefore, the constant density may give overestimation or underestimation of the Moho depth. In contrast, we apply a 3-D inverse method in spherical coordinate to the lunar gravity anomaly. It is a direct way in recovering the density structures beneath mascon basins or the lateral density heterogeneities in the upper lithosphere. The gravity anomaly we use in this study is the Bouguer gravity anomaly calculated at 1750 km radius relative to the reference radius, 1737.153 km[1], from the newly gravity field model SGM100i[2] and the topography model LRO_LTM02[1]. In order to understand the global feature of density variation, we truncate the long wavelength anomaly up to the order of 30 to reconstruct the density distribution above the depth of 100 km in the Moon. With the inverse technique, we obtain a global 3-D density structure of the lunar lithosphere down to 100 km depth. The major features are dominated by the mascons with dense materials and the broad region of the farside highland with relative low density mass. From this structure, the huge mass concentrations are found beneath the South Pole-Aitken (SPA) basin, meaning that the oblique impact not only excavated the SPA basin into deep but also made the mantle uplifted close to a depth of 30 km (relative to a 1738 km radius). We suggest here that

  2. Upper mantle flow and lithospheric dynamics beneath the Eurasian region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, G.; Jiang, G.; Jia, Z.; Gao, R.; Fu, R.

    2010-12-01

    Evidence from seismic tomography, geothermal and short wavelength geoid anomalies reveals the existence of small-scale convective systems in the upper mantle, with scales ranging from 500 km to 700 km. It is reasonable to suggest that these small-scale convective systems probably control the regional tectonic structure and the dynamical processes of the lithosphere. Here we have calculated the patterns of small-scale convection in the upper mantle for the Eurasian region (20°E~170°E,15°N~75°N), using the anomaly of isostatic gravity. The results show that the regional lithospheric tectonics is strongly correlated with the upper mantle flow in the Eurasian region. Two intensive convective belts against the weak background convection can be recognized from convection patterns in this region: Alpine-Himalayan collision belt and West Pacific island arc-underthrust belt. Alpine-Himalayan belt is caused by the collision between the northern plate (Eurasian plate) and the southern plates (African plate and Indian plate). West Pacific island arc-underthrust belt is caused by the subduction of the Pacific plate beneath the Eurasian plate. Both of them are also seismotectonic belts. The collision and the subduction are two important geological events occurred since Mesozoic era and Cenozoic era in the Eurasian region. Therefore, the mantle flows may be one of the main driving forces of two events. In addition, most plate boundaries in this region can be recognized and the characteristics of upper mantle convection are different completely between the Eurasian plate and the plates around it (African plate, Arabian plate, Indian plate, Philippine Sea plate and Pacific plate). Main structures and geodynamic characteristics of the Eurasian can also be explained by our model results. The Tibet plateau is located in the intensive convective belt. Around the belt, the upwelling materials push the lithosphere to lift unitarily and form the plateau. Towards the north of the Tibet

  3. Pre-seismic Lithosphere, Atmosphere and Ionosphere Coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamogawa, M.

    2006-12-01

    Pre-seismic anomalous states in the atmosphere and ionosphere as well as those in the telluric currents and ultra-low frequency electromagnetic waves have been reported since the 1970s. These pre-seismic phenomena have not yet been universally accepted, partly because the low occurrence frequency of large earthquakes has hindered establishing their statistical significance. Recent achievements in this respect, however, seem to be highly encouraging for promoting further studies on the pre-seismic lithosphere-atmosphere-ionosphere (LAI) coupling. Liu et al. (JGR, 2006) constructed a set of quantitative definitions for ionospheric anomalies (depression of foF2) and examined the statistical correlation between thus defined ionospheric anomalies and all the Taiwan M>=5 earthquakes (184 in number) during the period 1994-1999. The results indicated that anomalies appeared within 5 days before the earthquakes. Examining the validity of the pre-seismic anomalous transmission of VHF electromagnetic waves beyond the line-of-sight, Fujiwara and Kamogawa et al. (GRL, 2004) statistically demonstrated the existence of atmospheric anomalies lasting for a few minutes to several hours before earthquakes. They found that the anomalies were significantly enhanced within 5 days before M>=4.8 earthquakes. If the pre-seismic atmospheric - ionospheric anomalies are real, some phenomena causing them should be detectable on the ground. If such causal phenomena are identified, the concept of lithosphere - atmosphere - ionosphere coupling (LAI coupling) will be greatly strengthened. Possible mechanisms for energy-transport channels from the lithosphere to the atmosphere-ionosphere are summarized as follows: First, the atmospheric electric field generated on/near the ground surface during the pre-seismic period may cause the ionospheric anomalies. Such an atmospheric electric field may be caused by ions generated from radon emissions. Actually, a number of reports have been published for pre

  4. Deformation of island-arc lithosphere due to steady plate subduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukahata, Yukitoshi; Matsu'ura, Mitsuhiro

    2016-02-01

    Steady plate subduction elastically brings about permanent lithospheric deformation in island arcs, though this effect has been neglected in most studies based on elastic dislocation theory. We investigate the characteristics of the permanent lithospheric deformation using a kinematic model, in which steady slip motion is given along a plate interface in the elastic lithosphere overlying the viscoelastic asthenosphere under gravity. As a rule of thumb, long-term lithospheric deformation can be understood as a bending of an elastic plate floating on non-viscous fluid, because the asthenosphere behaves like water on the long term. The steady slip below the lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary does not contribute to long-term lithospheric deformation. Hence, the key parameters that control the lithospheric deformation are only the thickness of the lithosphere and the geometry of the plate interface. Slip on a plate interface generally causes substantial vertical displacement, and gravity always tries to retrieve the original gravitational equilibrium. For a curved plate interface gravity causes convex upward bending of the island-arc lithosphere, while for a planar plate interface gravity causes convex downward bending. Larger curvature and thicker lithosphere generally results in larger deformation. When the curvature changes along the plate interface, internal deformation is also involved intrinsically, which modifies the deformation field due to gravity. Because the plate interface generally has some curvature, at least near the trench, convex upward bending of the island-arc lithosphere, which involves uplift of island-arc and subsidence around the trench, is always realized. On the other hand, the deformation field of the island-arc lithosphere sensitively depends on lithospheric thickness and plate interface geometry. These characteristics obtained by the numerical simulation are consistent with observed topography and free-air gravity anomalies in subduction

  5. On the relations between cratonic lithosphere thickness, plate motions, and basal drag

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Artemieva, I.M.; Mooney, W.D.

    2002-01-01

    An overview of seismic, thermal, and petrological evidence on the structure of Precambrian lithosphere suggests that its local maximum thickness is highly variable (140-350 km), with a bimodal distribution for Archean cratons (200-220 km and 300-350 km). We discuss the origin of such large differences in lithospheric thickness, and propose that the lithospheric base can have large depth variations over short distances. The topography of Bryce Canyon (western USA) is proposed as an inverted analog of the base of the lithosphere. The horizontal and vertical dimensions of Archean cratons are strongly correlated: larger cratons have thicker lithosphere. Analysis of the bimodal distribution of lithospheric thickness in Archean cratons shows that the "critical" surface area for cratons to have thick (>300 km) keels is >6-8 ?? 106 km2 . Extrapolation of the linear trend between Archean lithospheric thickness and cratonic area to zero area yields a thickness of 180 km. This implies that the reworking of Archean crust should be accompanied by thinning and reworking of the entire lithospheric column to a thickness of 180 km in accord with thickness estimates for Proterozoic lithosphere. Likewise, extrapolation of the same trend to the size equal to the total area of all Archean cratons implies that the lithospheric thickness of a hypothesized early Archean supercontinent could have been 350-450 km decreasing to 280-400 km for Gondwanaland. We evaluate the basal drag model as a possible mechanism that may thin the cratonic lithosphere. Inverse correlations are found between lithospheric thickness and (a) fractional subduction length and (b) the effective ridge length. In agreement with theoretical predictions, lithospheric thickness of Archean keels is proportional to the square root of the ratio of the craton length (along the direction of plate motion) to the plate velocity. Large cratons with thick keels and low plate velocities are less eroded by basal drag than small

  6. Lithosphere Structure and Mantle Characterization of the Alpine-Himalayan Belt: Atlas, Zagros and Tibet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiménez-Munt, I.; Tunini, L.; Fernandez, M.; Verges, J.; Garcia-Castellanos, D.

    2015-12-01

    By combining geophysical and petrological information, we investigate the crust and upper mantle of three orogens of the Alpine-Himalayan Belt (Atlas, Zagros and Tibet), characterizing the lithosphere from the thermal, compositional and seismological viewpoint. The modeling is based on an integrated geophysical-petrological methodology combining elevation, gravity, geoid, surface heat flow, seismic and geochemical data.The results show prominent lithospheric mantle thickening beneath the Moroccan margin followed by thinning beneath the Atlas Mountains. Different convergence accommodation between the crust and lithospheric mantle suggests a decoupled crustal-mantle mechanical response. In the northern Zagros the lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary rises sharply below the Sanandaj Sirjan Zone in a narrow region, whereas in the central Zagros the thinning is smoother and affects a wider region. The transition from the Arabian to the Eurasian lithospheric domain is located beneath the Zagros range, and it is marked by a change in the mantle velocity anomaly and in the lithospheric mantle composition. In the western Himalaya-Tibetan orogen, the lithosphere thickening is gradual reaching the maximum below the northern edge of the Plateau. The Indian lithospheric mantle underlies the whole Tibetan Plateau up to the boundary with the Tarim Basin. In the eastern sector, the thickening generates sharp steps beneath the Himalaya Range, and it thins abruptly beneath the Qiangtang and the Songpan Ganzi terrains. The Indian underthrusting is restricted to the southern Plateau. Different Eurasian domains have been also identified beneath the Tarim Basin, the Altaids region and NE Plateau by means of different lithospheric mantle compositions. The lithospheric models crossing Zagros and Tibetan Plateau show that the present-day lithosphere mantle structure of the Arabia-Eurasia and India-Eurasia collision zones are laterally-varying along the strike of both orogens, not just in

  7. Trench curvature and deformation of the subducting lithosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schettino, Antonio; Tassi, Luca

    2012-01-01

    The subduction of oceanic lithosphere is generally accompanied by downdip and lateral deformation. The downdip component of strain is associated with external forces that are applied to the slab during its sinking, namely the gravitational force and the mantle resistance to penetration. Here, we present theoretical arguments showing that a tectonic plate is also subject to a predictable amount of lateral deformation as a consequence of its bending along an arcuate trench zone, independently from the long-term physical processes that have determined the actual curvature of the subduction zone. In particular, we show that the state of lateral strain and the lateral strain rate of a subducting slab depend from geometric and kinematic parameters, such as trench curvature, dip function and subduction velocity. We also demonstrate that the relationship between the state of lateral strain in a subducting slab and the geometry of bending at the corresponding active margin implies a small component of lateral shortening at shallow depths, and may include large extensional lateral deformation at intermediate depths, whereas a state of lateral mechanical equilibrium can only represent a localized exception. Our formulation overcomes the flaws of the classic 'ping-pong ball' model for the bending of the lithosphere at subduction zones, which lead to severe discrepancies with the observed geometry and style of deformation of the modern subducting slabs. A study of the geometry and seismicity of eight modern subduction zones is performed, to assess the validity of the theoretical relationship between trench curvature, slab dip function, and lateral strain rate. The strain pattern within the eight present-day slabs, which is reconstructed through an analysis of Harvard CMT solutions, shows that tectonic plates cannot be considered as flexible-inextensible spherical caps, whereas the lateral intraslab deformation which is accommodated through seismic slip can be explained in terms

  8. Plume- Ridge Lithospheric Interactions: Cases of Afar (Africa)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montagner, J. P.; Stutzmann, E.; Sicilia, D.; Sebai, A.; Beucler, E.; Silveira, G.; Cara, M.; Debayle, E.; Leveque, J. J.

    2003-04-01

    Detection of mantle plumes in geophysical and geochemical data is controversial and trigger vigorous debates. It remains unclear how plumes are formed, their origin at depth, and whether they act independently from plate tectonics. We may learn about the role of plumes in mantle dynamics by studying their interactions with lithosphere and crust below ridges and the way in which they perturb the flow pattern in the uppermost mantle. Several regional tomographic studies of seismic velocity and anisotropy around several hotspots were obtained during the last 2 years. Their lateral resolution is smaller than 1000km and they enable to make qualitative intercomparison between Afar (Horn of Africa Program), Azores (COSEA project) in the Atlantic, La Reunion in the Indian Ocean and Pacific provinces hotspots. These models demonstrate that there is not only one family of plumes but several ones. Some plumes are confined in the uppermost 200km but a few can originate in the transition zone and even at the Core-mantle Boundary for superplumes. Seismic anisotropy which is a good marker of deformation processes and mantle flow pattern, shows that the interaction between a plume and a ridge below the lithosphere can occur over distances larger than 1000km, via sublithospheric channels. The existence of LACs (Low Anisotropy Channels) below the Pacific plate seems to be intimately related to the active hotspots in Central Pacific and indicate a future reorganization of plate boundaries. Another important consequence of the interaction between plume and ridge is the triggering of secondary convection in the asthenosphere, which will be discussed during the presentation.

  9. Constraints on Lithospheric Rheology from Observations of Coronae on Venus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Rourke, Joseph G.; Smrekar, Suzanne; Moresi, Louis N.

    2016-10-01

    Coronae are enigmatic, quasi-circular features found in myriad geological environments. They are primarily distinguished as rings of concentric fractures superimposed on various topographic profiles with at least small-scale volcanism. Mantle plumes may produce coronae with interior rises, whereas coronae with central depressions are often attributed to downwellings like Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities. For almost three decades, modelers have attempted to reproduce the topographic and gravity profiles measured at coronae. Until recently, few studies also considered tectonic deformation and melt production. In particular, "Type 2" coronae have complete topographic rims but arcs of fractures extending less than 180°, signifying both brittle and ductile deformation. Only a narrow range of rheological parameters like temperature and volatile content may be compatible with these observations. Ultimately, identifying how lithospheric properties differ between Earth and Venus is critical to understanding what factors permit plate tectonics on rocky, Earth-sized planets.Here we present a hierarchical approach to study the formation of coronae. First, we discuss an observational survey enabled by a new digital elevation model derived from stereo topography for ~20% of the surface of Venus, which offers an order-of-magnitude improvement over the horizontal resolution (10 to 20 kilometers) of altimetry data from NASA's Magellan mission. Next, we search this new dataset for signs of lithospheric flexure around small coronae. Simple, thin-elastic plate models were fit to topographic profiles of larger coronae in previous studies, but data resolution impeded efforts to apply this method to the entire coronae population. Finally, we show simulations of the formation of coronae using Underworld II, an open-source code adaptable to a variety of geodynamical problems. We benchmark our code using models of pure Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities and then investigate the influence of

  10. Experimental study of lithosphere-troposphere-ionosphere coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korepanov, Valery; Fedorov, Oleh; Lizunov, Georgy

    The ionosphere is the closest to the Earth area of near-Earth space and because of this the powerful natural and man-made processes, such as hurricanes, earthquakes, tsunami, big explosions and starts of heavy rockets to name a few, have to create corresponding disturbances there. Numerous experimental observations evidence the existence of such "terragenic" variations of ionospheric parameters, created by the sources below the ionosphere, in the troposphere and even in the lithosphere. Probably the most important question here is whether it is possible to detect enough reliably the ionospheric disturbances, related to the earthquake preparation state, at the background of the much stronger influences "from above" - of solar and galactic sources. So, the seismo-ionospheric coupling is one of the hottest topics of modern scientific research. The importance to shed more light to this process is connected with the study of possible earthquakes precursors in the ionosphere, monitoring of which could be a further step to the scientifically substantiated solution of the problem of earthquakes warning. The processing results of the data collected at Ukrainian Antarctic Station "Academician Vernadsky" are discussed. Basing on these data the theoretical study was performed and the energy transmission mechanism in the lithosphere-atmosphere-ionosphere system is analyzed. The atmospheric gravity waves are proposed as the most probable energy carriers for troposphere-ionosphere coupling. Basing on this study, as well as on the experience of preparation of several dedicated satellite mission (e. g., WARNING, INTERBALL-PROGNOZ) a new idea of spatial experiment IONOSAT is proposed to study in details the mechanism of seismo-ionospheric coupling and its realization peculiarities are discussed. This study was supported by NSAU contract No 1-02/03.

  11. Lithospheric architecture of the Hudson Bay region (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eaton, D. W.; Darbyshire, F. A.

    2009-12-01

    Hudson Bay conceals several fundamental tectonic elements of North America, including most of the ca. 1.8 Ga Trans Hudson orogen (THO) and the Paleozoic Hudson Bay basin. Formed due to a collision between the Superior and Churchill Provinces of the Canadian Shield, the THO is similar in scale and tectonic style to the modern Himalayan-Karakorum orogen. During collision, the lobate shape of the indentor (Superior Province) formed an orogenic template that, along with the Sask craton of central North America, exerted a persistent influence on the tectonic evolution of the region resulting in anomalous preservation of juvenile crustal material. Juvenile crust in the southeastern part of Hudson Bay is interpreted to have formed within an island-arc setting proximal to the Superior Province, in contrast to the Reindeer Zone of Saskatchewan and Manitoba, which accreted first to the Churchill Province. Thick, cold and refractory lithosphere that underlies the Bay is well imaged by surface-wave and S-Receiver function studies and comprises a large component of the cratonic mantle keel that forms the nucleus of the North American continent. The existence of an unusually thick mantle root beneath Hudson Bay indicates that subduction and plate collision during the Trans-Hudson orogeny were ‘root-preserving’ (if not ‘root-forming’) processes. Although the Hudson Bay basin is the largest by surface area of four major intracratonic basins in North America, it is also the shallowest. Crustal thinning imaged from ambient-noise tomography is consistent with previous models of basin subsidence caused by extension. Compared to other basins of similar age in North America, however, relatively stiff Early Paleozoic lithosphere may have inhibited subsidence of the Hudson Bay basin.

  12. Lithospheric flexure and gravity spreading of Olympus Mons volcano, Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Musiol, S.; Holohan, E. P.; Cailleau, B.; Platz, T.; Dumke, A.; Walter, T. R.; Williams, D. A.; Gasselt, S.

    2016-03-01

    The structural architecture of large volcanoes is governed substantially by gravity-driven deformation that is manifest as distinct processes such as basement flexure or volcanic spreading. Temporal effects and the mutual interplay of these processes have been investigated only to a limited extent, and so we present novel numerical models of the time-dependent deformation associated with them. The models simulate the combined effects of lithospheric flexure and volcanic spreading during growth increments of an elastoplastic volcanic cone. Different spreading scenarios are considered by a variable coupling decoupling behavior at the interface between volcano and basement. We apply our models to Olympus Mons on Mars, which is characterized by upper to middle flank terraces on the shield, is encircled by a basal scarp that has an average slope of 30° and is surrounded by distant deposits that resemble large-scale slumping features on Earth. Our results are consistent with the interpretation that terraces on Olympus Mons' flanks form by thrust faulting that results from lithospheric flexure. The presence and expression of terraces depend on the coupling of volcano and basement, on the time of volcano growth relative to mantle relaxation, and on the cohesion of the edifice. The encircling scarp may be related to a very low friction detachment at the edifice base, which leads to a normal fault regime on the lowermost flanks. With time and volcano growth, predicted stress and faulting regimes migrate only slightly, indicating that the structural architecture of volcanoes is largely set in the very early stages of formation.

  13. Enrichment Strategies in Phosphoproteomics.

    PubMed

    Leitner, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    The comprehensive study of the phosphoproteome is heavily dependent on appropriate enrichment strategies that are most often, but not exclusively, carried out on the peptide level. In this chapter, I give an overview of the most widely used techniques. In addition to dedicated antibodies, phosphopeptides are enriched by their selective interaction with metals in the form of chelated metal ions or metal oxides. The negative charge of the phosphate group is also exploited in a variety of chromatographic fractionation methods that include different types of ion exchange chromatography, hydrophilic interaction chromatography (HILIC), and electrostatic repulsion HILIC (ERLIC) chromatography. Selected examples from the literature will demonstrate how a combination of these techniques with current high-performance mass spectrometry enables the identification of thousands of phosphorylation sites from various sample types. PMID:26584921

  14. Mid-ocean-ridge seismicity reveals extreme types of ocean lithosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlindwein, Vera; Schmid, Florian

    2016-07-01

    Along ultraslow-spreading ridges, where oceanic tectonic plates drift very slowly apart, conductive cooling is thought to limit mantle melting and melt production has been inferred to be highly discontinuous. Along such spreading centres, long ridge sections without any igneous crust alternate with magmatic sections that host massive volcanoes capable of strong earthquakes. Hence melt supply, lithospheric composition and tectonic structure seem to