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Sample records for enriched uranium targets

  1. Progress on the IPNS Enriched Uranium Booster Target

    SciTech Connect

    Knox, A E; Carpenter, J M; Bailey, J L; Armani, R J; Blomquist, R N; Brown, B S; Henley, D R; Hins, A G; Loomis, B A; Schulke, A W

    1986-09-01

    We describe the Enriched Uranium Booster Target designed for use in Argonne's Intense Pulsed Neutron Source. This report contains a general description of the system, and descriptions of the thermal-hydraulic and loss-of-coolant accident analyses, of the neutronic, criticality and power density calculations, of the assessment of radiation and thermal cycling growth, and of the disk fabrication methods. We also describe the calculations of radionuclide buildup and the related hazards analysis and our calculations of the temperature and stress profiles in the disks, and briefly allude to considerations of security and safeguards.

  2. Progress in alkaline peroxide dissolution of low-enriched uranium metal and silicide targets

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, L.; Dong, D.; Buchholz, B.A.; Vandegrift, G.F.; Wu, D.

    1996-12-31

    This paper reports recent progress on two alkaline peroxide dissolution processes: the dissolution of low-enriched uranium metal and silicide (U{sub 3}Si{sub 2}) targets. These processes are being developed to substitute low-enriched for high-enriched uranium in targets used for production of fission-product {sup 99}Mo. Issues that are addressed include (1) dissolution kinetics of silicide targets, (2) {sup 99}Mo lost during aluminum dissolution, (3) modeling of hydrogen peroxide consumption, (4) optimization of the uranium foil dissolution process, and (5) selection of uranium foil barrier materials. Future work associated with these two processes is also briefly discussed.

  3. Derived enriched uranium market

    SciTech Connect

    Rutkowski, E.

    1996-12-01

    The potential impact on the uranium market of highly enriched uranium from nuclear weapons dismantling in the Russian Federation and the USA is analyzed. Uranium supply, conversion, and enrichment factors are outlined for each country; inventories are also listed. The enrichment component and conversion components are expected to cause little disruption to uranium markets. The uranium component of Russian derived enriched uranium hexafluoride is unresolved; US legislation places constraints on its introduction into the US market.

  4. Continuing investigations for technology assessment of /sup 99/Mo production from LEU (low enriched Uranium) targets

    SciTech Connect

    Vandergrift, G.F.; Kwok, J.D.; Marshall, S.L.; Vissers, D.R.; Matos, J.E.

    1987-01-01

    Currently much of the world's supply of /sup 99m/Tc for medical purposes is produced from /sup 99/Mo derived from the fissioning of high enriched uranium (HEU). The need for /sup 99m/Tc is continuing to grow, especially in developing countries, where needs and national priorities call for internal production of /sup 99/Mo. This paper presents the results of our continuing studies on the effects of substituting low enriched Uranium (LEU) for HEU in targets for the production of fission product /sup 99/Mo. Improvements in the electrodeposition of thin films of uranium metal are reported. These improvements continue to increase the appeal for the substitution of LEU metal for HEU oxide films in cylindrical targets. The process is effective for targets fabricated from stainless steel or hastaloy. A cost estimate for setting up the necessary equipment to electrodeposit uranium metal on cylindrical targets is reported. Further investigations on the effect of LEU substitution on processing of these targets are also reported. Substitution of uranium silicides for the uranium-aluminum alloy or uranium aluminide dispersed fuel used in other current target designs will allow the substitution of LEU for HEU in these targets with equivalent /sup 99/Mo-yield per target and no change in target geometries. However, this substitution will require modifications in current processing steps due to (1) the insolubility of uranium silicides in alkaline solutions and (2) the presence of significant quantities of silicate in solution. Results to date suggest that both concerns can be handled and that substitution of LEU for HEU can be achieved.

  5. 16. VIEW OF THE ENRICHED URANIUM RECOVERY SYSTEM. ENRICHED URANIUM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. VIEW OF THE ENRICHED URANIUM RECOVERY SYSTEM. ENRICHED URANIUM RECOVERY PROCESSED RELATIVELY PURE MATERIALS AND SOLUTIONS AND SOLID RESIDUES WITH RELATIVELY LOW URANIUM CONTENT. URANIUM RECOVERY INVOLVED BOTH SLOW AND FAST PROCESSES. (4/4/66) - Rocky Flats Plant, General Manufacturing, Support, Records-Central Computing, Southern portion of Plant, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

  6. Method for fabricating {sup 99}Mo production targets using low enriched uranium, {sup 99}Mo production targets comprising low enriched uranium

    DOEpatents

    Wiencek, T.C.; Matos, J.E.; Hofman, G.L.

    1997-03-25

    A radioisotope production target and a method for fabricating a radioisotope production target is provided, wherein the target comprises an inner cylinder, a foil of fissionable material circumferentially contacting the outer surface of the inner cylinder, and an outer hollow cylinder adapted to receive the substantially foil-covered inner cylinder and compress tightly against the foil to provide good mechanical contact therewith. The method for fabricating a primary target for the production of fission products comprises preparing a first substrate to receive a foil of fissionable material so as to allow for later removal of the foil from the first substrate, preparing a second substrate to receive the foil so as to allow for later removal of the foil from the second substrate; attaching the first substrate to the second substrate such that the foil is sandwiched between the first substrate and second substrate to prevent foil exposure to ambient atmosphere, and compressing the exposed surfaces of the first and second substrate to assure snug mechanical contact between the foil, the first substrate and the second substrate. 3 figs.

  7. Method for fabricating .sup.99 Mo production targets using low enriched uranium, .sup.99 Mo production targets comprising low enriched uranium

    DOEpatents

    Wiencek, Thomas C.; Matos, James E.; Hofman, Gerard L.

    1997-01-01

    A radioisotope production target and a method for fabricating a radioisotope production target is provided, wherein the target comprises an inner cylinder, a foil of fissionable material circumferentially contacting the outer surface of the inner cylinder, and an outer hollow cylinder adapted to receive the substantially foil-covered inner cylinder and compress tightly against the foil to provide good mechanical contact therewith. The method for fabricating a primary target for the production of fission products comprises preparing a first substrate to receive a foil of fissionable material so as to allow for later removal of the foil from the first substrate, preparing a second substrate to receive the foil so as to allow for later removal of the foil from the second substrate; attaching the first substrate to the second substrate such that the foil is sandwiched between the first substrate and second substrate to prevent foil exposure to ambient atmosphere, and compressing the exposed surfaces of the first and second substrate to assure snug mechanical contact between the foil, the first substrate and the second substrate.

  8. Method for fabricating .sup.99 Mo production targets using low enriched uranium, .sup.99 Mo production targets comprising low enriched uranium

    DOEpatents

    Wiencek, Thomas C.; Matos, James E.; Hofman, Gerard L.

    2000-12-12

    A radioisotope production target and a method for fabricating a radioisotope production target is provided, wherein the target comprises an inner cylinder, a foil of fissionable material circumferentially contacting the outer surface of the inner cylinder, and an outer hollow cylinder adapted to receive the substantially foil-covered inner cylinder and compress tightly against the foil to provide good mechanical contact therewith. The method for fabricating a primary target for the production of fission products comprises preparing a first substrate to receive a foil of fissionable material so as to allow for later removal of the foil from the first substrate, preparing a second substrate to receive the foil so as to allow for later removal of the foil from the second substrate; attaching the first substrate to the second substrate such that the foil is sandwiched between the first substrate and second substrate to prevent foil exposure to ambient atmosphere, and compressing the exposed surfaces of the first and second substrate to assure snug mechanical contact between the foil, the first substrate and the second substrate.

  9. 31 CFR 540.316 - Uranium enrichment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Uranium enrichment. 540.316 Section... FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY HIGHLY ENRICHED URANIUM (HEU) AGREEMENT ASSETS CONTROL REGULATIONS General Definitions § 540.316 Uranium enrichment. The term uranium enrichment means the process...

  10. 31 CFR 540.316 - Uranium enrichment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Uranium enrichment. 540.316 Section... FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY HIGHLY ENRICHED URANIUM (HEU) AGREEMENT ASSETS CONTROL REGULATIONS General Definitions § 540.316 Uranium enrichment. The term uranium enrichment means the process...

  11. 31 CFR 540.316 - Uranium enrichment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Uranium enrichment. 540.316 Section... FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY HIGHLY ENRICHED URANIUM (HEU) AGREEMENT ASSETS CONTROL REGULATIONS General Definitions § 540.316 Uranium enrichment. The term uranium enrichment means the process...

  12. 31 CFR 540.316 - Uranium enrichment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Uranium enrichment. 540.316 Section... FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY HIGHLY ENRICHED URANIUM (HEU) AGREEMENT ASSETS CONTROL REGULATIONS General Definitions § 540.316 Uranium enrichment. The term uranium enrichment means the process...

  13. 31 CFR 540.316 - Uranium enrichment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Uranium enrichment. 540.316 Section... FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY HIGHLY ENRICHED URANIUM (HEU) AGREEMENT ASSETS CONTROL REGULATIONS General Definitions § 540.316 Uranium enrichment. The term uranium enrichment means the process...

  14. Conversion of Molybdenum-99 production process to low enriched uranium: Neutronic and thermal hydraulic analyses of HEU and LEU target plates for irradiation in Pakistan Research Reactor-1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mushtaq, Ahmad; Iqbal, Masood; Bokhari, Ishtiaq Hussain; Mahmood, Tayyab; Muhammad, Atta

    2012-09-01

    Technetium-99m, the daughter product of Molybdenum-99 is the most widely needed radionuclide for diagnostic studies in Pakistan. Molybdenum-99 Production Facility has been established at PINSTECH. Highly enriched uranium (93% 235U) U/Al alloy targets have been irradiated in Pakistan Research Reactor-1 (PARR-1) for the generation of fission Mo-99, while basic dissolution technique is used for separation of Mo-99 from target matrix activity. In line with the international objective of minimizing and eventually eliminating the use of HEU in civil commerce, national and international efforts have been underway to shift the production of medical isotopes from HEU to LEU (LEU; <20% 235U enrichment) targets. To achieve the equivalent amount of 99Mo with LEU targets, approximately 5 times uranium is needed. LEU aluminum uranium dispersion target has been developed, which may replace existing HEU aluminum/uranium alloy targets for production of 99Mo using basic dissolution technique. Neutronic and thermal hydraulic calculations were performed for safe irradiation of targets in the core of PARR-1.

  15. 78 FR 60928 - Request To Amend a License To Export High-Enriched Uranium

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-02

    ... COMMISSION Request To Amend a License To Export High-Enriched Uranium Pursuant to 10 CFR 110.70 (b) ``Public... Nuclear Security Uranium uranium (17.1 targets in France Administration, September 9, (93.35%). kilograms... 10.1 kg uranium to a new cumulative total of 17.1 kg of U-235 contained in 18.4 kg uranium; and...

  16. Production of Mo-99 using low-enriched uranium silicide

    SciTech Connect

    Hutter, J. C.; Srinivasan, B.; Vicek, M.; Vandegrift, G. F.

    1994-09-01

    Over the last several years, uranium silicide fuels have been under development as low-enriched uranium (LEU) targets for Mo-99. The use of LEU silicide is aimed at replacing the UAl{sub x} alloy in the highly-enriched uranium dissolution process. A process to recover Mo-99 from low-enriched uranium silicide is being developed at Argonne National Laboratory. The uranium silicide is dissolved in alkaline hydrogen peroxide. Experiments performed to determine the optimum dissolution procedure are discussed, and the results of dissolving a portion of a high-burnup (>40%) U{sub 3}Si{sub 2} miniplate are presented. Future work related to Mo-99 separation and waste disposal are also discussed.

  17. 77 FR 73055 - Application for a License To Export High-Enriched Uranium

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-07

    ... COMMISSION Application for a License To Export High-Enriched Uranium Pursuant to 10 CFR 110.70 (b) ``Public... kilograms To fabricate targets The Netherlands. Security Complex. Uranium uranium-235 at CERCA AREVA October... XSNM3730 uranium. targets at the HFR 11006054 Research Reactor in the Netherlands, the BR-2 Reactor...

  18. 78 FR 16303 - Request To Amend a License To Export; High-Enriched Uranium

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Request To Amend a License To Export; High-Enriched Uranium Pursuant to 10 CFR 110.70 (b) ``Public... of Energy, High-Enriched Uranium 10 kilograms uranium To manufacture HEU targets in France...

  19. Measurement of uranium enrichment for gaseous uranium at low pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Close, D. A.; Pratt, J. C.; Atwater, H. F.; Malanify, J. J.; Nixon, K. V.; Speir, L. G.

    X-ray fluorescence determines the amount of total uranium present in gaseous UF6 inside cascade header pipes of a uranium centrifuge enrichment facility. A highly collimated source, highly collimated detctor, and a very rigid, reproducible geometry are required. Two measurements of the 185.7 keV gamma ray from U-235 using two collimators determine the amount of U-235 present only in the gas phase. The ratio of the gas only U235 signal to the total uranium gas only signal is directly proportional to the enrichment of the process UF6 gas. This measurement technique is independent of the deposit that forms on a surface in contact with UF6. This measurement technique is independent of the pressure of the gaseous UF6. This technique has the required sensitivity to determine whether the process gas is of uranium enrichment less than or equal to 20% or 20%.

  20. Profile of World Uranium Enrichment Programs - 2007

    SciTech Connect

    Laughter, Mark D

    2007-11-01

    It is generally agreed that the most difficult step in building a nuclear weapon is acquiring weapons grade fissile material, either plutonium or highly enriched uranium (HEU). Plutonium is produced in a nuclear reactor, while HEU is produced using a uranium enrichment process. Enrichment is also an important step in the civil nuclear fuel cycle, in producing low enriched uranium (LEU) for use in fuel for nuclear reactors. However, the same equipment used to produce LEU for nuclear fuel can also be used to produce HEU for weapons. Safeguards at an enrichment plant are the array of assurances and verification techniques that ensure uranium is only enriched to LEU, no undeclared LEU is produced, and no uranium is enriched to HEU or secretly diverted. There are several techniques for enriching uranium. The two most prevalent are gaseous diffusion, which uses older technology and requires a lot of energy, and gas centrifuge separation, which uses more advanced technology and is more energy efficient. Gaseous diffusion plants (GDPs) provide about 40% of current world enrichment capacity, but are being phased out as newer gas centrifuge enrichment plants (GCEPs) are constructed. Estimates of current and future enrichment capacity are always approximate, due to the constant upgrades, expansions, and shutdowns occurring at enrichment plants, largely determined by economic interests. Currently, the world enrichment capacity is approximately 53 million kg-separative work units (SWU) per year, with 22 million in gaseous diffusion and 31 million in gas centrifuge plants. Another 23 million SWU/year of capacity are under construction or planned for the near future, almost entirely using gas centrifuge separation. Other less-efficient techniques have also been used in the past, including electromagnetic and aerodynamic separations, but these are considered obsolete, at least from a commercial perspective. Laser isotope separation shows promise as a possible enrichment technique

  1. 31 CFR 540.306 - Highly Enriched Uranium (HEU).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Highly Enriched Uranium (HEU). 540.306... OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY HIGHLY ENRICHED URANIUM (HEU) AGREEMENT ASSETS CONTROL REGULATIONS General Definitions § 540.306 Highly Enriched Uranium (HEU). The term highly...

  2. 31 CFR 540.308 - Low Enriched Uranium (LEU).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Low Enriched Uranium (LEU). 540.308... OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY HIGHLY ENRICHED URANIUM (HEU) AGREEMENT ASSETS CONTROL REGULATIONS General Definitions § 540.308 Low Enriched Uranium (LEU). The term low...

  3. 31 CFR 540.306 - Highly Enriched Uranium (HEU).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Highly Enriched Uranium (HEU). 540.306... OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY HIGHLY ENRICHED URANIUM (HEU) AGREEMENT ASSETS CONTROL REGULATIONS General Definitions § 540.306 Highly Enriched Uranium (HEU). The term highly...

  4. 31 CFR 540.306 - Highly Enriched Uranium (HEU).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Highly Enriched Uranium (HEU). 540.306... OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY HIGHLY ENRICHED URANIUM (HEU) AGREEMENT ASSETS CONTROL REGULATIONS General Definitions § 540.306 Highly Enriched Uranium (HEU). The term highly...

  5. 31 CFR 540.306 - Highly Enriched Uranium (HEU).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Highly Enriched Uranium (HEU). 540.306... OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY HIGHLY ENRICHED URANIUM (HEU) AGREEMENT ASSETS CONTROL REGULATIONS General Definitions § 540.306 Highly Enriched Uranium (HEU). The term highly...

  6. 31 CFR 540.308 - Low Enriched Uranium (LEU).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Low Enriched Uranium (LEU). 540.308... OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY HIGHLY ENRICHED URANIUM (HEU) AGREEMENT ASSETS CONTROL REGULATIONS General Definitions § 540.308 Low Enriched Uranium (LEU). The term low...

  7. 31 CFR 540.306 - Highly Enriched Uranium (HEU).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Highly Enriched Uranium (HEU). 540...) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY HIGHLY ENRICHED URANIUM (HEU) AGREEMENT ASSETS CONTROL REGULATIONS General Definitions § 540.306 Highly Enriched Uranium (HEU). The term...

  8. 31 CFR 540.308 - Low Enriched Uranium (LEU).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Low Enriched Uranium (LEU). 540.308... OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY HIGHLY ENRICHED URANIUM (HEU) AGREEMENT ASSETS CONTROL REGULATIONS General Definitions § 540.308 Low Enriched Uranium (LEU). The term low...

  9. 31 CFR 540.308 - Low Enriched Uranium (LEU).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Low Enriched Uranium (LEU). 540.308... OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY HIGHLY ENRICHED URANIUM (HEU) AGREEMENT ASSETS CONTROL REGULATIONS General Definitions § 540.308 Low Enriched Uranium (LEU). The term low...

  10. 31 CFR 540.308 - Low Enriched Uranium (LEU).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Low Enriched Uranium (LEU). 540.308... OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY HIGHLY ENRICHED URANIUM (HEU) AGREEMENT ASSETS CONTROL REGULATIONS General Definitions § 540.308 Low Enriched Uranium (LEU). The term low...

  11. Conversion and Blending Facility Highly enriched uranium to low enriched uranium as uranium hexafluoride. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    1995-07-05

    This report describes the Conversion and Blending Facility (CBF) which will have two missions: (1) convert surplus HEU materials to pure HEU UF{sub 6} and a (2) blend the pure HEU UF{sub 6} with diluent UF{sub 6} to produce LWR grade LEU-UF{sub 6}. The primary emphasis of this blending be to destroy the weapons capability of large, surplus stockpiles of HEU. The blended LEU product can only be made weapons capable again by the uranium enrichment process. The chemical and isotopic concentrations of the blended LEU product will be held within the specifications required for LWR fuel. The blended LEU product will be offered to the United States Enrichment Corporation (USEC) to be sold as feed material to the commercial nuclear industry.

  12. 77 FR 73056 - Application for a License To Export High-Enriched Uranium

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-07

    ... August 2007, 72 FR 49139 (Aug. 28, 2007). Information about filing electronically is available on the NRC... COMMISSION Application for a License To Export High-Enriched Uranium Pursuant to 10 CFR 110.70 (b) ``Public... targets Belgium. Security Complex. Uranium (93.2%). uranium-235 at CERCA AREVA Romans October 10,...

  13. 75 FR 6223 - Application For a License To Export High-Enriched Uranium

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-08

    ... FR 49139 (Aug. 28, 2007). Information about filing electronically is available on timely electronic... COMMISSION Application For a License To Export High-Enriched Uranium Pursuant to 10 CFR 110.70(c) ``Public... fabricate Canada. Complex December 21, 2009, Uranium (93.35%). uranium (16.3 targets for December 28,...

  14. 78 FR 33448 - Application for a License To Export High-Enriched Uranium

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-04

    ... August 2007, 72 FR 49139 (Aug. 28, 2007). Information about filing electronically is available on the NRC... COMMISSION Application for a License To Export High-Enriched Uranium Pursuant to 10 CFR 110.70 (b) ``Public... targets Canada. Security Complex, May 13, Uranium (93.35%). uranium-235 at the National 2013, May 21,...

  15. 77 FR 1956 - Application for a License To Export High-Enriched Uranium

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-12

    ... August 2007, 72 FR 49139 (Aug. 28, 2007). Information about filing electronically is available on the NRC... COMMISSION Application for a License To Export High-Enriched Uranium Pursuant to 10 CFR 110.70(b) ``Public... Netherlands. Security Complex. Uranium uranium (9.3 targets at December 21, 2011 (93.35%). kilograms U-...

  16. Possibility of nuclear pumped laser experiment using low enriched uranium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Obara, Toru; Takezawa, Hiroki

    2012-06-01

    Possibility to perform experiments for nuclear pumped laser oscillation by using low enriched uranium is investigated. Kinetic analyses are performed for two types of reactor design, one is using highly enriched uranium and the other is using low enriched uranium. The reactor design is based on the experiment reactor in IPPE. The results show the oscillation of nuclear pumped laser in the case of low enriched uranium reactor is also possible. The use of low enriched uranium in the experiment will make experiment easier.

  17. Profile of World Uranium Enrichment Programs-2009

    SciTech Connect

    Laughter, Mark D

    2009-04-01

    It is generally agreed that the most difficult step in building a nuclear weapon is acquiring fissile material, either plutonium or highly enriched uranium (HEU). Plutonium is produced in a nuclear reactor, whereas HEU is produced using a uranium enrichment process. Enrichment is also an important step in the civil nuclear fuel cycle, in producing low enriched uranium (LEU) for use as fuel for nuclear reactors to generate electricity. However, the same equipment used to produce LEU for nuclear reactor fuel can also be used to produce HEU for weapons. Safeguards at an enrichment plant are the array of assurances and verification techniques that ensure uranium is not diverted or enriched to HEU. There are several techniques for enriching uranium. The two most prevalent are gaseous diffusion, which uses older technology and requires a lot of energy, and gas centrifuge separation, which uses more advanced technology and is more energy efficient. Gaseous diffusion plants (GDPs) provide about 40% of current world enrichment capacity but are being phased out as newer gas centrifuge enrichment plants (GCEPs) are constructed. Estimates of current and future enrichment capacity are always approximate, due to the constant upgrades, expansions, and shutdowns occurring at enrichment plants, largely determined by economic interests. Currently, the world enrichment capacity is approximately 56 million kilogram separative work units (SWU) per year, with 22.5 million in gaseous diffusion and more than 33 million in gas centrifuge plants. Another 34 million SWU/year of capacity is under construction or planned for the near future, almost entirely using gas centrifuge separation. Other less-efficient techniques have also been used in the past, including electromagnetic and aerodynamic separations, but these are considered obsolete, at least from a commercial perspective. Laser isotope separation shows promise as a possible enrichment technique of the future but has yet to be

  18. Uranium enrichment export control guide: Gaseous diffusion

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-09-01

    This document was prepared to serve as a guide for export control officials in their interpretation, understanding, and implementation of export laws that relate to the Zangger International Trigger List for gaseous diffusion uranium enrichment process components, equipment, and materials. Particular emphasis is focused on items that are especially designed or prepared since export controls are required for these by States that are party to the International Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty.

  19. Supply of enriched uranium for research reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Mueller, H.

    1997-08-01

    Since the RERTR-meeting In Newport/USA in 1990 the author delivered a series of papers in connection with the fuel cycle for research reactors dealing with its front-end. In these papers the author underlined the need for unified specifications for enriched uranium metal suitable for the production of fuel elements and made proposals with regard to the re-use of in Europe reprocessed highly enriched uranium. With regard to the fuel cycle of research reactors the research reactor community was since 1989 more concentrating on the problems of its back-end since the USA stopped the acceptance of spent research reactor fuel on December 31, 1988. Now, since it is apparent that these back-end problem have been solved by AEA`s ability to reprocess and the preparedness of the USA to again accept physically spent research reactor fuel the author is focusing with this paper again on the front-end of the fuel cycle on the question whether there is at all a safe supply of low and high enriched uranium for research reactors in the future.

  20. Assuaging Nuclear Energy Risks: The Angarsk International Uranium Enrichment Center

    SciTech Connect

    Myers, Astasia

    2011-06-28

    The recent nuclear renaissance has motivated many countries, especially developing nations, to plan and build nuclear power reactors. However, domestic low enriched uranium demands may trigger nations to construct indigenous enrichment facilities, which could be redirected to fabricate high enriched uranium for nuclear weapons. The potential advantages of establishing multinational uranium enrichment sites are numerous including increased low enrichment uranium access with decreased nuclear proliferation risks. While multinational nuclear initiatives have been discussed, Russia is the first nation to actualize this concept with their Angarsk International Uranium Enrichment Center (IUEC). This paper provides an overview of the historical and modern context of the multinational nuclear fuel cycle as well as the evolution of Russia's IUEC, which exemplifies how international fuel cycle cooperation is an alternative to domestic facilities.

  1. Assuaging Nuclear Energy Risks: The Angarsk International Uranium Enrichment Center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Myers, Astasia

    2011-06-01

    The recent nuclear renaissance has motivated many countries, especially developing nations, to plan and build nuclear power reactors. However, domestic low enriched uranium demands may trigger nations to construct indigenous enrichment facilities, which could be redirected to fabricate high enriched uranium for nuclear weapons. The potential advantages of establishing multinational uranium enrichment sites are numerous including increased low enrichment uranium access with decreased nuclear proliferation risks. While multinational nuclear initiatives have been discussed, Russia is the first nation to actualize this concept with their Angarsk International Uranium Enrichment Center (IUEC). This paper provides an overview of the historical and modern context of the multinational nuclear fuel cycle as well as the evolution of Russia's IUEC, which exemplifies how international fuel cycle cooperation is an alternative to domestic facilities.

  2. An Optically Stimulated Luminescence Uranium Enrichment Monitor

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, Steven D.; Tanner, Jennifer E.; Simmons, Kevin L.; Conrady, Matthew M.; Benz, Jacob M.; Greenfield, Bryce A.

    2010-08-11

    The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has pioneered the use of Optically Stimulated Luminescence (OSL) technology for use in personnel dosimetry and high dose radiation processing dosimetry. PNNL has developed and patented an alumina-based OSL dosimeter that is being used by the majority of medical X-ray and imaging technicians worldwide. PNNL has conceived of using OSL technology to passively measure the level of UF6 enrichment by attaching the prototype OSL monitor to pipes containing UF6 gas within an enrichment facility. The prototype OSL UF6 monitor utilizes a two-element approach with the first element open and unfiltered to measure both the low energy and high energy gammas from the UF6, while the second element utilizes a 3-mm thick tungsten filter to eliminate the low energy gammas and pass only the high energy gammas from the UF6. By placing a control monitor in the room away from the UF6 pipes and other ionizing radiation sources, the control readings can be subtracted from the UF6 pipe monitor measurements. The ratio of the shielded to the unshielded net measurements provides a means to estimate the level of uranium enrichment. PNNL has replaced the commercially available MicroStar alumina-based dosimeter elements with a composite of polyethylene plastic, high-Z glass powder, and BaFBr:Eu OSL phosphor powder at various concentrations. The high-Z glass was added in an attempt to raise the average “Z” of the composite dosimeter and increase the response. Additionally, since BaFBr:Eu OSL phosphor is optimally excited and emits light at different wavelengths compared to alumina, the commercially available MicroStar reader was modified for reading BaFBr:Eu in a parallel effort to increase reader sensitivity. PNNL will present the design and performance of our novel OSL uranium enrichment monitor based on a combination of laboratory and UF6 test loop measurements. PNNL will also report on the optimization effort to achieve the highest possible

  3. Conversion and Blending Facility highly enriched uranium to low enriched uranium as oxide. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    1995-07-05

    This Conversion and Blending Facility (CBF) will have two missions: (1) convert HEU materials into pure HEU oxide and (2) blend the pure HEU oxide with depleted and natural uranium oxide to produce an LWR grade LEU product. The primary emphasis of this blending operation will be to destroy the weapons capability of large, surplus stockpiles of HEU. The blended LEU product can only be made weapons capable again by the uranium enrichment process. To the extent practical, the chemical and isotopic concentrations of blended LEU product will be held within the specifications required for LWR fuel. Such blended LEU product will be offered to the United States Enrichment Corporation (USEC) to be sold as feed material to the commercial nuclear industry. Otherwise, blended LEU will be produced as a waste suitable for storage or disposal.

  4. Low-resolution gamma-ray measurements of uranium enrichment

    SciTech Connect

    Sprinkle, J.K. Jr.; Christiansen, A.; Cole, R.; Collins, M.L.

    1996-11-01

    Facilities that process special nuclear material perform periodic inventories. In bulk facilities that process low-enriched uranium, these inventories and their audits are based primarily on weight and enrichment measurements. Enrichment measurements determine the {sup 211}U weight fraction of the uranium compound from the passive gamma-ray emissions of the sample. Both international inspectors and facility operators rely on the capability to make in-field gamma-ray measurements of uranium enrichment. These users require rapid, portable measurement capability. Some in-field measurements have been biased, forcing the inspectors to resort to high-resolution measurements or mass spectrometry to accomplish their goals.

  5. Delays hit conversion to low enriched uranium fuel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, Michael

    2016-03-01

    Eliminating highly enriched uranium (HEU) fuel from civilian research reactors around the world will take a lot longer than anticipated, according to a new study by the US National Academies of Sciences, Engineering and Medicine.

  6. 15. DETAILED VIEW OF ENRICHED URANIUM STORAGE TANK. THE ADDITION ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. DETAILED VIEW OF ENRICHED URANIUM STORAGE TANK. THE ADDITION OF THE GLASS RINGS SHOWN AT THE TOP OF THE TANK HELPS PREVENT THE URANIUM FROM REACHING CRITICALITY LIMITS. (4/12/62) - Rocky Flats Plant, General Manufacturing, Support, Records-Central Computing, Southern portion of Plant, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

  7. Dilution of Recycled Uranium with Low-Enriched and Waste Uranium in a Cascade with Three Feeds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smirnov, A. Yu.; Sulaberidze, G. A.

    The five-flow cascade to enrich recycled uranium with simultaneous its dilution with low-enriched uranium and waste uranium is proposed. The results of computational experiments show that the proposed cascade has the advantages in the consumption of natural uranium value of the separation work in comparison to both the previously proposed multi-flow cascades, and the standard cascade to enrich natural uranium.

  8. 77 FR 51579 - Application for a License To Export High-Enriched Uranium

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-24

    ... COMMISSION Application for a License To Export High-Enriched Uranium Pursuant to 10 CFR 110.70 (b) ``Public... kilograms For the export of Canada. Complex, July 30, 2012, August Uranium (93.35%). uranium-235 high-enriched 1, 2012, XSNM3726, 11006037. contained in 7.5 uranium in the kilograms uranium. form of...

  9. Perimeter safeguards techniques for uranium-enrichment plants

    SciTech Connect

    Fehlau, P.E.; Chamber, W.H.

    1981-09-01

    In 1972, a working group of the International Atomic Energy Agency identified a goal to develop and evaluate perimeter safeguards for uranium isotope enrichment plants. As part of the United State's response to that goal, Los Alamos Detection and Verification personnel studied gamma-ray and neutron emissions from uranium hexafluoride. They developed instruments that use the emissions to verify uranium enrichment and to monitor perimeter personnel and shipping portals. Unattended perimeter monitors and hand-held verification instruments were evaluated in field measurements and, when possible, were loaned to enrichment facilities for trials. None of the seven package monitoring techniques that were investigated proved entirely satisfactory for an unattended monitor. They either revealed proprietary information about centrifuge design or were subject to interference by shielding materials that could be present in a package. Further evaluation in a centrifuge facility may help in developing an acceptable attended package monitor. 34 figures, 9 tables.

  10. 77 FR 13367 - General Electric-Hitachi Global Laser Enrichment, LLC, Proposed Laser-Based Uranium Enrichment...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-06

    ... Preparation, 75 FR 1819 (January 13, 2010). Documents related to this notice are available on the NRC's GE... COMMISSION General Electric-Hitachi Global Laser Enrichment, LLC, Proposed Laser-Based Uranium Enrichment...- Hitachi Global Laser Enrichment, LLC (GLE) Uranium Enrichment Facility. On June 26, 2009, GLE submitted...

  11. Evaluating the effectiveness of dilution of the recovered uranium with depleted uranium and low-enriched uranium to obtain fuel for VVER reactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smirnov, A. Yu; Sulaberidze, G. A.; Dudnikov, A. A.; Nevinitsa, V. A.

    2016-09-01

    The possibility of the recovered uranium enrichment in a cascade of gas centrifuges with three feed flows (depleted uranium, low-enriched uranium, recovered uranium) with simultaneous dilution of U-232,234,236 isotopes was shown. A series of numerical experiments were performed for different content of U-235 in low-enriched uranium. It has been demonstrated that the selected combination of diluents can simultaneously reduce the cost of separative work and the consumption of natural uranium, not only with respect to the previously used multi-flow cascade schemes, but also in comparison to the standard cascade for uranium enrichment.

  12. Nickel container of highly-enriched uranium bodies and sodium

    DOEpatents

    Zinn, Walter H.

    1976-01-01

    A fuel element comprises highly a enriched uranium bodies coated with a nonfissionable, corrosion resistant material. A plurality of these bodies are disposed in layers, with sodium filling the interstices therebetween. The entire assembly is enclosed in a fluid-tight container of nickel.

  13. 4. VIEW OF THE FOUNDRY. IN THE FOUNDRY, ENRICHED URANIUM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. VIEW OF THE FOUNDRY. IN THE FOUNDRY, ENRICHED URANIUM WAS CAST INTO SLABS OR INGOTS FROM WHICH WEAPONS COMPONENTS WERE FABRICATED. (5/17/62). - Rocky Flats Plant, General Manufacturing, Support, Records-Central Computing, Southern portion of Plant, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

  14. 5. VIEW OF THE FOUNDRY. IN THE FOUNDRY, ENRICHED URANIUM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. VIEW OF THE FOUNDRY. IN THE FOUNDRY, ENRICHED URANIUM WAS CAST INTO SLABS OR INGOTS FROM WHICH WEAPONS COMPONENTS WERE FABRICATED. (4/4/66) - Rocky Flats Plant, General Manufacturing, Support, Records-Central Computing, Southern portion of Plant, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

  15. Tank 41H bounding uranium enrichment. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Cavin, W.S.

    1994-09-30

    The intent of this document is to combine data from salt samples and historical process information to bound the uranium (U-235) enrichment which could be expected in the upper portion of the salt in Tank 41H. This bounding enrichment will be used in another document to establish a nuclear safety basis for initial salt removal operations. Any number of mixing scenarios could have been examined for the components which fed the evaporator during the formation of the last five feet of salt. The scenario presented was designed to be conservative, while still incorporating process knowledge and available data where possible. In the scenario, the lowest enrichment seen in any feed material was for the L4 feed which was evaporated to form the top part of the salt in Tank 41H. The lowest enrichment of 17% is still higher than the 16% (95% confidence) maximum enrichment actually found at the salt surface (from sample results). This leads to the conclusion that the uranium enrichment of the material (L1) which was being fed to the evaporate when the last five feet began to form, was lower than 22%. The conservatism used in this analysis, combined with the available sample data are believed to provide a defensible basis for establishing an upper bounding enrichment of 22% for the top five feet of salt.

  16. 77 FR 60482 - Regulatory Guide 5.67, Material Control and Accounting for Uranium Enrichment Facilities...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-03

    ... COMMISSION Regulatory Guide 5.67, Material Control and Accounting for Uranium Enrichment Facilities... withdrawing Regulatory Guide (RG) 5.67, ``Material Control and Accounting for Uranium Enrichment Facilities...) Plan Required for Low-Enriched Uranium Facilities'' which was issued in November 1991....

  17. 77 FR 18272 - Uranium Enrichment Fuel Cycle Facility Inspection Reports Regarding Louisiana Energy Services LLC...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-27

    ... COMMISSION Uranium Enrichment Fuel Cycle Facility Inspection Reports Regarding Louisiana Energy Services LLC... 1954, as amended. The introduction of uranium hexafluoride into any module of the National Enrichment.... Brian W. Smith, Chief, Uranium Enrichment Branch, Division of Fuel Cycle Safety and Safeguards,...

  18. 77 FR 1059 - Low Enriched Uranium From France: Initiation of Antidumping Duty Changed Circumstances Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-09

    ... International Trade Administration Low Enriched Uranium From France: Initiation of Antidumping Duty Changed... review of the antidumping duty order on low enriched uranium (LEU) from France with respect to Eurodif S... deadline for re-exporting the LEU entry at issue. \\1\\ See Letter from AREVA, ``Low Enriched Uranium...

  19. Criticality Safety of Low-Enriched Uranium and High-Enriched Uranium Fuel Elements in Heavy Water Lattices

    SciTech Connect

    Pesic, Milan P

    2003-10-15

    The RB reactor was designed as a natural-uranium, heavy water, nonreflected critical assembly in the Vinca Institute of Nuclear Sciences, Belgrade, Yugoslavia, in 1958. From 1962 until 2002, numerous critical experiments were carried out with low-enriched uranium and high-enriched uranium fuel elements of tubular shape, known as the Russian TVR-S fuel assembly type, placed in various heavy water square lattices within the RB cylindrical aluminum tank. Some of these well-documented experiments were selected, described, evaluated, and accepted for inclusion in the 'International Handbook of Evaluated Criticality Safety Benchmark Experiments', contributing to the preservation of a rather small number of heavy water benchmark critical experiments.

  20. 78 FR 72123 - Request To Amend a License to Export High-Enriched Uranium

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-02

    ... COMMISSION Request To Amend a License to Export High-Enriched Uranium Pursuant to 10 CFR 110.70 (b) ``Public... in Belgium. National Nuclear Security Uranium (HEU) uranium France for irradiation in Administration... contained in 6.2 kg uranium to a new cumulative total of 12.615 kg of U-235 contained in 13.5 kg uranium;...

  1. Measurement of enriched uranium and uranium-aluminum fuel materials with the AWCC

    SciTech Connect

    Krick, M.S.; Menlove, H.O.; Zick, J.; Ikonomou, P.

    1985-05-01

    The active well coincidence counter (AWCC) was calibrated at the Chalk River Nuclear Laboratories (CRNL) for the assay of 93%-enriched fuel materials in three categories: (1) uranium-aluminum billets, (2) uranium-aluminum fuel elements, and (3) uranium metal pieces. The AWCC was a standard instrument supplied to the International Atomic Energy Agency under the International Safeguards Project Office Task A.51. Excellent agreement was obtained between the CRNL measurements and previous Los Alamos National Laboratory measurements on similar mockup fuel material. Calibration curves were obtained for each sample category. 2 refs., 8 figs., 15 tabs.

  2. Simulation of transportation of low enriched uranium solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Hope, E.P.; Ades, M.J.

    1996-08-01

    A simulation of the transportation by truck of low enriched uranium solutions has been completed for NEPA purposes at the Savannah River Site. The analysis involves three distinct source terms, and establishes the radiological risks of shipment to three possible destinations. Additionally, loading accidents were analyzed to determine the radiological consequences of mishaps during handling and delivery. Source terms were developed from laboratory measurements of chemical samples from low enriched uranium feed materials being stored at SRS facilities, and from manufacturer data on transport containers. The transportation simulations were accomplished over the INTERNET using the DOE TRANSNET system at Sandia National Laboratory. The HIGHWAY 3.3 code was used to analyze routing scenarios, and the RADTRAN 4 code was used to analyze incident free and accident risks of transporting radiological materials. Loading accidents were assessed using the Savannah River Site AXAIR89Q and RELEASE 2 codes.

  3. Assay of Low-Enriched Uranium using Spontaneous Fission Neutrons

    SciTech Connect

    Zucker, M. S.; Fainberg, A.

    1980-01-01

    Low-enriched uranium oxide in bulk containers can be assayed for safeguards purposes, using the neutrons from spontaneous fission of 238U as a signature, to complement enrichment and mass measurement. The penetrability of the fast fission neutrons allows the inner portion of bulk samples to register. The measurement may also be useful for measuring moisture content, of significance in process control. The apparatus used can be the same as for neutron correlation counting for Pu assay. The neutron multiplication observed in 238U is of intrinsic interest.

  4. 24. VIEW OF THE SECOND FLOOR PLAN. ENRICHED URANIUM AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    24. VIEW OF THE SECOND FLOOR PLAN. ENRICHED URANIUM AND STAINLESS STEEL WEAPONS COMPONENT PRODUCTION-RELATED ACTIVITIES OCCURRED PRIMARILY ON THE SECOND FLOOR. THE ORIGINAL DRAWING HAS BEEN ARCHIVED ON MICROFILM. THE DRAWING WAS REPRODUCED AT THE BEST QUALITY POSSIBLE. LETTERS AND NUMBERS IN THE CIRCLES INDICATE FOOTER AND/OR COLUMN LOCATIONS. - Rocky Flats Plant, General Manufacturing, Support, Records-Central Computing, Southern portion of Plant, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

  5. Microfluidic droplet enrichment for targeted sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Eastburn, Dennis J.; Huang, Yong; Pellegrino, Maurizio; Sciambi, Adam; Ptáček, Louis J.; Abate, Adam R.

    2015-01-01

    Targeted sequence enrichment enables better identification of genetic variation by providing increased sequencing coverage for genomic regions of interest. Here, we report the development of a new target enrichment technology that is highly differentiated from other approaches currently in use. Our method, MESA (Microfluidic droplet Enrichment for Sequence Analysis), isolates genomic DNA fragments in microfluidic droplets and performs TaqMan PCR reactions to identify droplets containing a desired target sequence. The TaqMan positive droplets are subsequently recovered via dielectrophoretic sorting, and the TaqMan amplicons are removed enzymatically prior to sequencing. We demonstrated the utility of this approach by generating an average 31.6-fold sequence enrichment across 250 kb of targeted genomic DNA from five unique genomic loci. Significantly, this enrichment enabled a more comprehensive identification of genetic polymorphisms within the targeted loci. MESA requires low amounts of input DNA, minimal prior locus sequence information and enriches the target region without PCR bias or artifacts. These features make it well suited for the study of genetic variation in a number of research and diagnostic applications. PMID:25873629

  6. 10 CFR 140.13b - Amount of liability insurance required for uranium enrichment facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Amount of liability insurance required for uranium... required for uranium enrichment facilities. Each holder of a license issued under Parts 40 or 70 of this chapter for a uranium enrichment facility that involves the use of source material or special...

  7. 10 CFR 140.13b - Amount of liability insurance required for uranium enrichment facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Amount of liability insurance required for uranium... required for uranium enrichment facilities. Each holder of a license issued under Parts 40 or 70 of this chapter for a uranium enrichment facility that involves the use of source material or special...

  8. 10 CFR 140.13b - Amount of liability insurance required for uranium enrichment facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Amount of liability insurance required for uranium... required for uranium enrichment facilities. Each holder of a license issued under Parts 40 or 70 of this chapter for a uranium enrichment facility that involves the use of source material or special...

  9. 78 FR 23312 - Uranium Enrichment Fuel Cycle Inspection Reports Regarding Louisiana Energy Services, National...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-18

    ... COMMISSION Uranium Enrichment Fuel Cycle Inspection Reports Regarding Louisiana Energy Services, National... introduction of uranium hexafluoride (UF 6 ) into cascades numbered 2.9, 2.10, 2.11, 2.12, 3.1, 3.2, 3.3, 3.4..., Uranium Enrichment Branch, Division of Fuel Cycle Safety, and Safeguards Office of Nuclear Material...

  10. 77 FR 65729 - Uranium Enrichment Fuel Cycle Facility Inspection Reports Regarding Louisiana Energy Services LLC...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-30

    ... COMMISSION Uranium Enrichment Fuel Cycle Facility Inspection Reports Regarding Louisiana Energy Services LLC... Act of 1954, as amended. The introduction of uranium hexafluoride into any module of the National... Regulatory Commission Brian W. Smith, Chief, Uranium Enrichment Branch, Division of Fuel Cycle Safety...

  11. 10 CFR 140.13b - Amount of liability insurance required for uranium enrichment facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Amount of liability insurance required for uranium... required for uranium enrichment facilities. Each holder of a license issued under Parts 40 or 70 of this chapter for a uranium enrichment facility that involves the use of source material or special...

  12. 10 CFR 140.13b - Amount of liability insurance required for uranium enrichment facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Amount of liability insurance required for uranium... required for uranium enrichment facilities. Each holder of a license issued under Parts 40 or 70 of this chapter for a uranium enrichment facility that involves the use of source material or special...

  13. Selective Recovery of Enriched Uranium from Inorganic Wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Kimura, R. T.

    2003-02-26

    Uranium as U(IV) and U(VI) can be selectively recovered from liquids and sludge containing metal precipitates, inorganic salts, sand and silt fines, debris, other contaminants, and slimes, which are very difficult to de-water. Chemical processes such as fuel manufacturing and uranium mining generate enriched and natural uranium-bearing wastes. This patented Framatome ANP (FANP) uranium recovery process reduces uranium losses, significantly offsets waste disposal costs, produces a solid waste that meets mixed-waste disposal requirements, and does not generate metal-contaminated liquids. At the head end of the process is a floating dredge that retrieves liquids, sludge, and slimes in the form of a slurry directly from the floor of a lined surface impoundment (lagoon). The slurry is transferred to and mixed in a feed tank with a turbine mixer and re-circulated to further break down the particles and enhance dissolution of uranium. This process uses direct steam injection and sodium hypochlorite addition to oxidize and dissolves any U(IV). Cellulose is added as a non-reactive filter aid to help filter slimes by giving body to the slurry. The slurry is pumped into a large recessed-chamber filter press then de-watered by a pressure cycle-controlled double-diaphragm pump. U(VI) captured in the filtrate from this process is then precipitated by conversion to U(IV) in another Framatome ANP-patented process which uses a strong reducing agent to crystallize and settle the U(IV) product. The product is then dewatered in a small filter press. To-date, over 3,000 Kgs of U at 3% U-235 enrichment were recovered from a 8100 m2 hypalon-lined surface impoundment which contained about 10,220 m3 of liquids and about 757 m3 of sludge. A total of 2,175 drums (0.208 m3 or 55 gallon each) of solid mixed-wastes have been packaged, shipped, and disposed. In addition, 9463 m3 of low-U liquids at <0.001 KgU/m3 were also further processed and disposed.

  14. Photon and neutron active interrogation of highly enriched uranium.

    SciTech Connect

    Myers, W. L.; Goulding, C. A.; Hollas, C. L.; Moss, C. E.

    2004-01-01

    The physics of photon and neutron active interrogation of highly enriched uranium (HEU) using the delayed neutron reinterrogation method is described in this paper. Two sets of active interrogation experiments were performed using a set of subcritical configurations of cocentric HEU metal hemishells. One set of measurements utilized a pulsed 14-MeV neutron generator as the active source. The second set of measurements utilized a linear accelerator-based bremsstrahlung photon source as an active interrogation source. The neutron responses were measured for both sets of experiments. The operational details and results for both measurement sets are described.

  15. Preliminary investigations on the use of uranium silicide targets for fission Mo-99 production

    SciTech Connect

    Cols, H.; Cristini, P.; Marques, R.

    1997-08-01

    The National Atomic Energy Commission (CNEA) of Argentine Republic owns and operates an installation for production of molybdenum-99 from fission products since 1985, and, since 1991, covers the whole national demand of this nuclide, carrying out a program of weekly productions, achieving an average activity of 13 terabecquerel per week. At present they are finishing an enlargement of the production plant that will allow an increase in the volume of production to about one hundred of terabecquerel. Irradiation targets are uranium/aluminium alloy with 90% enriched uranium with aluminium cladding. In view of international trends held at present for replacing high enrichment uranium (HEU) for enrichment values lower than 20 % (LEU), since 1990 the authors are in contact with the RERTR program, beginning with tests to adapt their separation process to new irradiation target conditions. Uranium silicide (U{sub 3}Si{sub 2}) was chosen as the testing material, because it has an uranium mass per volume unit, so that it allows to reduce enrichment to a value of 20%. CNEA has the technology for manufacturing miniplates of uranium silicide for their purposes. In this way, equivalent amounts of Molybdenum-99 could be obtained with no substantial changes in target parameters and irradiation conditions established for the current process with Al/U alloy. This paper shows results achieved on the use of this new target.

  16. High Accuracy U-235 Enrichment Verification Station for Low Enriched Uranium Alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Lillard, C. R.; Hayward, J. P.; Williamson, M. R.

    2012-06-07

    The Y-12 National Security Complex is playing a role in the U.S. High Performance Research Reactor (USHPRR) Conversion program sponsored by the U.S. National Nuclear Security Administration's Office of Global Threat Reduction. The USHPRR program has a goal of converting remaining U.S. reactors that continue to use highly enriched uranium (HEU) fuel to low enriched uranium (LEU) fuel. The USHPRR program is currently developing a LEU Uranium-Molybdenum (U-Mo) monolithic fuel for use in the U.S. high performance research reactors.Y-12 is supporting both the fuel development and fuel fabrication efforts by fabricating low enriched U-Mo foils from its own source material for irradiation experiments and for optimizing the fabrication process in support of scaling up the process to a commercial production scale. Once the new fuel is qualified, Y-12 will produce and ship U-Mo coupons with verified 19.75% +0.2% - 0.3% U-235 enrichment to be fabricated into fuel elements for the USHPRRs. Considering this small enrichment tolerance and the transition into HEU being set strictly at 20% U-235, a characterization system with a measurement uncertainty of less than or equal to 0.1% in enrichment is desired to support customer requirements and minimize production costs. Typical uncertainty for most available characterization systems today is approximately 1-5%; therefore, a specialized system must be developed which results in a reduced measurement uncertainty. A potential system using a High-Purity Germanium (HPGe) detector has been procured, and tests have been conducted to verify its capabilities with regards to the requirements. Using four U-Mo enrichment standards fabricated with complete isotopic and chemical characterization, infinite thickness and peak-ratio enrichment measurement methods have been considered for use. As a result of inhomogeneity within the U-Mo samples, FRAM, an isotopic analysis software, has been selected for initial testing. A systematic approach

  17. Quality assurance in the enriched uranium operations NDA facility

    SciTech Connect

    May, P.K.; Ceo, R.N.

    1997-11-01

    The Nondestructive Analysis (NDA) Facility at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant has characterized process wastes for Enriched Uranium Operations since 1978. Since that time, over 50,000 items have been analyzed. Analysis results are used to determine whether or not recovery of uranium from process wastes is economically feasible. Our instrument complement includes one large segmented gamma scanner (SGS), two smaller SGS, two solution assay systems (SAS), and Active Well Coincidence Counter (AWCC). The large SGS is used for analyzing High Efficiency Particulate Air (HEPA) filters ant 208-L drums filled with combustible contaminated waste. The smaller SGS are used to analyze 4-L containers of ash and leached residues. The SAS are used to analyze 125 ml bottles of aqueous or organic waste solutions that may contain uranium. The gamma-based NDA techniques are used to identify which process wastes can be discarded, and which must be recycled. The AWCC is used to analyze high-density materials which are not amenable to gamma-ray analysis. 1 ref., 4 figs.

  18. Accelerating the Reduction of Excess Russian Highly Enriched Uranium

    SciTech Connect

    Benton, J; Wall, D; Parker, E; Rutkowski, E

    2004-02-18

    This paper presents the latest information on one of the Accelerated Highly Enriched Uranium (HEU) Disposition initiatives that resulted from the May 2002 Summit meeting between Presidents George W. Bush and Vladimir V. Putin. These initiatives are meant to strengthen nuclear nonproliferation objectives by accelerating the disposition of nuclear weapons-useable materials. The HEU Transparency Implementation Program (TIP), within the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) is working to implement one of the selected initiatives that would purchase excess Russian HEU (93% 235U) for use as fuel in U.S. research reactors over the next ten years. This will parallel efforts to convert the reactors' fuel core from HEU to low enriched uranium (LEU) material, where feasible. The paper will examine important aspects associated with the U.S. research reactor HEU purchase. In particular: (1) the establishment of specifications for the Russian HEU, and (2) transportation safeguard considerations for moving the HEU from the Mayak Production Facility in Ozersk, Russia, to the Y-12 National Security Complex in Oak Ridge, TN.

  19. Conversion and Blending Facility highly enriched uranium to low enriched uranium as uranyl nitrate hexahydrate. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    1995-07-05

    This Conversion and Blending Facility (CBF) will have two missions: (1) convert HEU materials to pure HEU uranyl nitrate (UNH) and (2) blend pure HEU UNH with depleted and natural UNH to produce HEU UNH crystals. The primary emphasis of this blending operation will be to destroy the weapons capability of large, surplus stockpiles of HEU. The blended LEU product can only be made weapons capable again by the uranium enrichment process. To the extent practical, the chemical and isotopic concentrations of blended LEU product will be held within the specifications required for LWR fuel. Such blended LEU product will be offered to the United States Enrichment Corporation (USEC) to be sold as feed material to the commercial nuclear industry. Otherwise, blended LEU Will be produced as a waste suitable for storage or disposal.

  20. Converting {sup 99}Mo production from high- to low-enriched uranium

    SciTech Connect

    Vandegrift, G.F.; Conner, C.J.; Sedlet, J.; Wygmans, D.G.

    1997-09-01

    This paper discusses efforts towards LEU substitution in two HEU targets. One type is the Cintichem target, a closed cylinder with a thin coating of uranium dioxide electroplated ion the inside wall. To successfully increase the amount of uranium per target, we are developing a target that uses LEU metal foil. Uranium surface preparation is discussed.

  1. Uranium mineralization in fluorine-enriched volcanic rocks

    SciTech Connect

    Burt, D.M.; Sheridan, M.F.; Bikun, J.; Christiansen, E.; Correa, B.; Murphy, B.; Self, S.

    1980-09-01

    Several uranium and other lithophile element deposits are located within or adjacent to small middle to late Cenozoic, fluorine-rich rhyolitic dome complexes. Examples studied include Spor Mountain, Utah (Be-U-F), the Honeycomb Hills, Utah (Be-U), the Wah Wah Mountains, Utah (U-F), and the Black Range-Sierra Cuchillo, New Mexico (Sn-Be-W-F). The formation of these and similar deposits begins with the emplacement of a rhyolitic magma, enriched in lithophile metals and complexing fluorine, that rises to a shallow crustal level, where its roof zone may become further enriched in volatiles and the ore elements. During initial explosive volcanic activity, aprons of lithicrich tuffs are erupted around the vents. These early pyroclastic deposits commonly host the mineralization, due to their initial enrichment in the lithophile elements, their permeability, and the reactivity of their foreign lithic inclusions (particularly carbonate rocks). The pyroclastics are capped and preserved by thick topaz rhyolite domes and flows that can serve as a source of heat and of additional quantities of ore elements. Devitrification, vapor-phase crystallization, or fumarolic alteration may free the ore elements from the glassy matrix and place them in a form readily leached by percolating meteoric waters. Heat from the rhyolitic sheets drives such waters through the system, generally into and up the vents and out through the early tuffs. Secondary alteration zones (K-feldspar, sericite, silica, clays, fluorite, carbonate, and zeolites) and economic mineral concentrations may form in response to this low temperature (less than 200 C) circulation. After cooling, meteoric water continues to migrate through the system, modifying the distribution and concentration of the ore elements (especially uranium).

  2. 75 FR 15743 - Application for a License To Export High-Enriched Uranium

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-30

    ... FR 49139 (Aug. 28, 2007). Information about filing electronically is available on the NRC's public... COMMISSION Application for a License To Export High-Enriched Uranium Pursuant to 10 CFR 110.70(c) ``Public... fabricate fuel France. Complex, March 3, 2010. Uranium (93.35%). uranium (149.36 elements in March 9,...

  3. 75 FR 7525 - Application for a License To Export High-Enriched Uranium

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-19

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Application for a License To Export High-Enriched Uranium Pursuant to 10 CFR 110.70(c) ``Public... fuel France; Belgium. Security Complex, February 2, Uranium (93.35%). uranium (87.3 elements in...

  4. New Prototype Safeguards Technology Offers Improved Confidence and Automation for Uranium Enrichment Facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Brim, Cornelia P.

    2013-04-01

    An important requirement for the international safeguards community is the ability to determine the enrichment level of uranium in gas centrifuge enrichment plants and nuclear fuel fabrication facilities. This is essential to ensure that countries with nuclear nonproliferation commitments, such as States Party to the Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty, are adhering to their obligations. However, current technologies to verify the uranium enrichment level in gas centrifuge enrichment plants or nuclear fuel fabrication facilities are technically challenging and resource-intensive. NNSA’s Office of Nonproliferation and International Security (NIS) supports the development, testing, and evaluation of future systems that will strengthen and sustain U.S. safeguards and security capabilities—in this case, by automating the monitoring of uranium enrichment in the entire inventory of a fuel fabrication facility. One such system is HEVA—hybrid enrichment verification array. This prototype was developed to provide an automated, nondestructive assay verification technology for uranium hexafluoride (UF6) cylinders at enrichment plants.

  5. 10 CFR 40.33 - Issuance of a license for a uranium enrichment facility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... License Applications § 40.33 Issuance of a license for a uranium enrichment facility. (a) The Commission will hold a hearing pursuant to 10 CFR part 2, subparts A, G, and I, on each application with regard to... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Issuance of a license for a uranium enrichment...

  6. 10 CFR 70.23a - Hearing required for uranium enrichment facility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... MATERIAL License Applications § 70.23a Hearing required for uranium enrichment facility. The Commission will hold a hearing under 10 CFR part 2, subparts A, C, G, and I, on each application for issuance of a... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Hearing required for uranium enrichment facility....

  7. 10 CFR 70.23a - Hearing required for uranium enrichment facility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... MATERIAL License Applications § 70.23a Hearing required for uranium enrichment facility. The Commission will hold a hearing under 10 CFR part 2, subparts A, C, G, and I, on each application for issuance of a... 10 Energy 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Hearing required for uranium enrichment facility....

  8. 10 CFR 40.33 - Issuance of a license for a uranium enrichment facility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... License Applications § 40.33 Issuance of a license for a uranium enrichment facility. (a) The Commission will hold a hearing pursuant to 10 CFR part 2, subparts A, G, and I, on each application with regard to... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Issuance of a license for a uranium enrichment...

  9. 10 CFR 70.23a - Hearing required for uranium enrichment facility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... MATERIAL License Applications § 70.23a Hearing required for uranium enrichment facility. The Commission will hold a hearing under 10 CFR part 2, subparts A, C, G, and I, on each application for issuance of a... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Hearing required for uranium enrichment facility....

  10. 10 CFR 70.23a - Hearing required for uranium enrichment facility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... MATERIAL License Applications § 70.23a Hearing required for uranium enrichment facility. The Commission will hold a hearing under 10 CFR part 2, subparts A, C, G, and I, on each application for issuance of a... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Hearing required for uranium enrichment facility....

  11. 10 CFR 40.33 - Issuance of a license for a uranium enrichment facility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... License Applications § 40.33 Issuance of a license for a uranium enrichment facility. (a) The Commission will hold a hearing pursuant to 10 CFR part 2, subparts A, G, and I, on each application with regard to... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Issuance of a license for a uranium enrichment...

  12. 10 CFR 70.23a - Hearing required for uranium enrichment facility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... MATERIAL License Applications § 70.23a Hearing required for uranium enrichment facility. The Commission will hold a hearing under 10 CFR part 2, subparts A, C, G, and I, on each application for issuance of a... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Hearing required for uranium enrichment facility....

  13. 10 CFR 40.33 - Issuance of a license for a uranium enrichment facility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... License Applications § 40.33 Issuance of a license for a uranium enrichment facility. (a) The Commission will hold a hearing pursuant to 10 CFR part 2, subparts A, G, and I, on each application with regard to... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Issuance of a license for a uranium enrichment...

  14. 10 CFR 40.33 - Issuance of a license for a uranium enrichment facility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... License Applications § 40.33 Issuance of a license for a uranium enrichment facility. (a) The Commission will hold a hearing pursuant to 10 CFR part 2, subparts A, G, and I, on each application with regard to... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Issuance of a license for a uranium enrichment...

  15. Highly enriched uranium (HEU) storage and disposition program plan

    SciTech Connect

    Arms, W.M.; Everitt, D.A.; O`Dell, C.L.

    1995-01-01

    Recent changes in international relations and other changes in national priorities have profoundly affected the management of weapons-usable fissile materials within the United States (US). The nuclear weapon stockpile reductions agreed to by the US and Russia have reduced the national security requirements for these fissile materials. National policies outlined by the US President seek to prevent the accumulation of nuclear weapon stockpiles of plutonium (Pu) and HEU, and to ensure that these materials are subjected to the highest standards of safety, security and international accountability. The purpose of the Highly Enriched Uranium (HEU) Storage and Disposition Program Plan is to define and establish a planned approach for storage of all HEU and disposition of surplus HEU in support of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Fissile Material Disposition Program. Elements Of this Plan, which are specific to HEU storage and disposition, include program requirements, roles and responsibilities, program activities (action plans), milestone schedules, and deliverables.

  16. Accelerator breeder with uranium, thorium target

    SciTech Connect

    Takahashi, H.; Powell, J.; Kouts, H.

    1983-01-01

    An accelerator breeder, that uses a low-enriched fuel as the target material, can produce substantial amounts of fissile material and electric power. A study of H/sub 2/O- and D/sub 2/O-cooled, UO/sub 2/, U, (depleted U), or thorium indicates that U-metal fuel produces a good fissile production rate and electrical power of about 60% higher than UO/sub 2/ fuel. Thorium fuel has the same order of magnitude as UO/sub 2/ fuel for fissile-fuel production, but the generating electric power is substantially lower than in a UO/sub 2/ reactor. Enriched UO/sub 2/ fuel increases the generating electric power but not the fissile-material production rate. The Na-cooled breeder target has many advantages over the H/sub 2/O-cooled breeder target.

  17. 10 CFR 50.64 - Limitations on the use of highly enriched uranium (HEU) in domestic non-power reactors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Limitations on the use of highly enriched uranium (HEU) in... Permits § 50.64 Limitations on the use of highly enriched uranium (HEU) in domestic non-power reactors. (a... applicant proposes to use highly enriched uranium (HEU) fuel, unless the applicant demonstrates that...

  18. 10 CFR 74.33 - Nuclear material control and accounting for uranium enrichment facilities authorized to produce...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Nuclear material control and accounting for uranium... and accounting for uranium enrichment facilities authorized to produce special nuclear material of low... to possess equipment capable of enriching uranium or operate an enrichment facility, and...

  19. 10 CFR 50.64 - Limitations on the use of highly enriched uranium (HEU) in domestic non-power reactors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Limitations on the use of highly enriched uranium (HEU) in... Permits § 50.64 Limitations on the use of highly enriched uranium (HEU) in domestic non-power reactors. (a... applicant proposes to use highly enriched uranium (HEU) fuel, unless the applicant demonstrates that...

  20. 10 CFR 50.64 - Limitations on the use of highly enriched uranium (HEU) in domestic non-power reactors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Limitations on the use of highly enriched uranium (HEU) in... Permits § 50.64 Limitations on the use of highly enriched uranium (HEU) in domestic non-power reactors. (a... applicant proposes to use highly enriched uranium (HEU) fuel, unless the applicant demonstrates that...

  1. 10 CFR 50.64 - Limitations on the use of highly enriched uranium (HEU) in domestic non-power reactors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Limitations on the use of highly enriched uranium (HEU) in... Permits § 50.64 Limitations on the use of highly enriched uranium (HEU) in domestic non-power reactors. (a... applicant proposes to use highly enriched uranium (HEU) fuel, unless the applicant demonstrates that...

  2. 10 CFR 74.33 - Nuclear material control and accounting for uranium enrichment facilities authorized to produce...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Nuclear material control and accounting for uranium... and accounting for uranium enrichment facilities authorized to produce special nuclear material of low... to possess equipment capable of enriching uranium or operate an enrichment facility, and...

  3. 10 CFR 50.64 - Limitations on the use of highly enriched uranium (HEU) in domestic non-power reactors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Limitations on the use of highly enriched uranium (HEU) in... Permits § 50.64 Limitations on the use of highly enriched uranium (HEU) in domestic non-power reactors. (a... applicant proposes to use highly enriched uranium (HEU) fuel, unless the applicant demonstrates that...

  4. 10 CFR 74.33 - Nuclear material control and accounting for uranium enrichment facilities authorized to produce...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Nuclear material control and accounting for uranium... and accounting for uranium enrichment facilities authorized to produce special nuclear material of low... to possess equipment capable of enriching uranium or operate an enrichment facility, and...

  5. 10 CFR 74.33 - Nuclear material control and accounting for uranium enrichment facilities authorized to produce...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Nuclear material control and accounting for uranium... and accounting for uranium enrichment facilities authorized to produce special nuclear material of low... to possess equipment capable of enriching uranium or operate an enrichment facility, and...

  6. 10 CFR 74.33 - Nuclear material control and accounting for uranium enrichment facilities authorized to produce...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Nuclear material control and accounting for uranium... and accounting for uranium enrichment facilities authorized to produce special nuclear material of low... to possess equipment capable of enriching uranium or operate an enrichment facility, and...

  7. Tungsten-uranium penetrator target interaction

    SciTech Connect

    Dunn, P S; Damkroger, B K

    1994-10-01

    Several studies performed in recent years have been directed at determining the penetration mechanism of long rod kinetic energy penetrators into Rolled Homogeneous Armor (RHA). Much of the work has centered on comparing U-0.75Ti and Tungsten Heavy Alloys (WHA), with the goal being to relate the superior ballistic performance of the uranium materials to a fundamental difference in penetration mechanisms. This has been found to be true, with the dominant mechanisms being adiabatic shear in U-0.75Ti and bulk deformation in WHA. Recent work has sought to achieve improvements in the ballistic performance of the tungsten materials via both mechanical property improvements and alloy modifications designed to bring about adiabatic shear. As an alternative, the authors propose the consideration of materials which utilize mechanisms other than bulk deformation and adiabatic shear to optimize ballistic performance. This paper will present the postmortem analysis of a uranium-20 vol% tungsten composite penetrator fired into RHA at 0{degrees} obliquity. The analysis shows that the penetration mechanism in this material is bulk heating and extensive co-melting of the target and penetrator at the penetration interface. The results of the analysis will then be compared to a similar analysis made of targets into which U-0.75Ti penetrators had been fired.

  8. Environmental Survey preliminary report, Portsmouth Uranium Enrichment Complex, Piketon, Ohio

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-08-01

    This report presents the preliminary findings from the first phase of the Environmental Survey of the United States Department of Energy (DOE) Portsmouth Uranium Enrichment Complex (PUEC), conducted August 4 through August 15, 1986. The Survey is being conducted by an interdisciplinary team of environmental specialists, led and managed by the Office of Environment, Safety and Health's Office of Environmental Audit. Team specialists are being supplied by a private contractor. The objective of the Survey is to identify environmental problems and areas of environmental regulation. It is being performed in accordance with the DOE Environmental Survey Manual. This phase of the Survey involves the review of existing site environmental data, observations of the operations performed at PUEC, and interviews with site personnel. The Survey team developed a Sampling and Analysis Plan to assist in further assessing certain of the environmental problems identified during its on-site activities. The Sampling and Analysis Plan will be executed by Argonne National Laboratory. When completed, the results will be incorporated into the PUEC Environmental Survey Interim Report. The Interim Report will reflect the final determinations of the PUEC Survey. 55 refs., 22 figs., 21 tabs.

  9. Critical masses of highly enriched uranium diluted with matrix material

    SciTech Connect

    Sanchez, R.; Kimpland, R.; Jaegers, P.; Butterfield, K.; Casson, W.; Bounds, J.; Myers, W.; Densmore, J. Rendon, G.

    2000-07-01

    Radioactive waste containing fissile material is frequently encountered in decontamination and decommissioning activities. Most of this waste is placed in containers or drums and stored in storage facilities. The amount of fissile material in each drum is generally small because criticality safety limits have been calculated with computer transport codes utilizing cross-section sections with large uncertainties. To the best of their knowledge, no experimental critical mass data are available to ensure the correctness of these calculations or any calculations for systems containing fissile material ({sup 235}U, {sup 239}Pu, or {sup 233}U) in contact with matrix material such as Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, CaO, SiO{sub 2}, Al, MgO, etc. The experiments discussed in this paper establish the critical masses of highly enriched uranium foils diluted in various X/{sup 235}U ratios with polyethylene and SiO{sub 2}, polyethylene and aluminum, and polyethylene and MgO. In addition, these critical mass experimental data will be used to validate computer transport codes and cross-section data.

  10. 75 FR 44817 - Notice of Availability of Uranium Enrichment Fuel Cycle Facility Inspection Reports Regarding...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-29

    ... satisfies the requirements of 10 CFR 70.32(k) and section 193(c) of the Atomic Energy Act of 1954, as amended. The introduction of uranium hexafluoride into any module of the National Enrichment Facility...

  11. 78 FR 63518 - Uranium Enrichment Fuel Cycle Inspection Reports Regarding Louisiana Energy Services, National...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-24

    ... COMMISSION Uranium Enrichment Fuel Cycle Inspection Reports Regarding Louisiana Energy Services, National..., New Mexico, and has authorized the introduction of uranium hexafluoride (UF 6 ) into cascades numbered... 4th day of October, 2013. For the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Brian W. Smith, Chief,...

  12. 77 FR 19642 - Low Enriched Uranium From France: Final Results of Antidumping Duty Changed Circumstances Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-02

    ... Uranium From France, 67 FR 6680 (February 13, 2002). As for evaluating AREVA's request, the Department... Circumstances Review, 77 FR 7128 (February 10, 2012) (Preliminary Results). DATES: Effective Date: April 2, 2012... International Trade Administration Low Enriched Uranium From France: Final Results of Antidumping Duty...

  13. Realities of verifying the absence of highly enriched uranium (HEU) in gas centrifuge enrichment plants

    SciTech Connect

    Swindle, D.W.

    1990-03-01

    Over a two and one-half year period beginning in 1981, representatives of six countries (United States, United Kingdom, Federal Republic of Germany, Australia, The Netherlands, and Japan) and the inspectorate organizations of the International Atomic Energy Agency and EURATOM developed and agreed to a technically sound approach for verifying the absence of highly enriched uranium (HEU) in gas centrifuge enrichment plants. This effort, known as the Hexapartite Safeguards Project (HSP), led to the first international concensus on techniques and requirements for effective verification of the absence of weapons-grade nuclear materials production. Since that agreement, research and development has continued on the radiation detection technology-based technique that technically confirms the HSP goal is achievable. However, the realities of achieving the HSP goal of effective technical verification have not yet been fully attained. Issues such as design and operating conditions unique to each gas centrifuge plant, concern about the potential for sensitive technology disclosures, and on-site support requirements have hindered full implementation and operator support of the HSP agreement. In future arms control treaties that may limit or monitor fissile material production, the negotiators must recognize and account for the realities and practicalities in verifying the absence of HEU production. This paper will describe the experiences and realities of trying to achieve the goal of developing and implementing an effective approach for verifying the absence of HEU production. 3 figs.

  14. Active-Interrogation Measurements of Fast Neutrons from Induced Fission in Low-Enriched Uranium

    SciTech Connect

    J. L. Dolan; M. J. Marcath; M. Flaska; S. A. Pozzi; D. L. Chichester; A. Tomanin; P. Peerani

    2014-02-01

    A detection system was designed with MCNPX-PoliMi to measure induced-fission neutrons from U-235 and U-238 using active interrogation. Measurements were then performed with this system at the Joint Research Centre (JRC) in Ispra, Italy on low-enriched uranium samples. Liquid scintillators measured induced fission neutron to characterize the samples in terms of their uranium mass and enrichment. Results are presented to investigate and support the use of organic liquid scintillators with active interrogation techniques to characterize uranium containing materials.

  15. Dry Blending to Achieve Isotopic Dilution of Highly Enriched Uranium Oxide Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Henry, Roger Neil; Chipman, Nathan Alan; Rajamani, R. K.

    2001-04-01

    The end of the cold war produced large amounts of excess fissile materials in the United States and Russia. The Department of Energy has initiated numerous activities to focus on identifying material management strategies for disposition of these excess materials. To date, many of these planning strategies have included isotopic dilution of highly enriched uranium as a means of reducing the proliferation and safety risks. Isotopic dilution by dry blending highly enriched uranium with natural and/or depleted uranium has been identified as one non-aqueous method to achieve these risk (proliferation and criticality safety) reductions. This paper reviews the technology of dry blending as applied to free flowing oxide materials.

  16. 78 FR 17942 - Request To Amend a License To Export High-Enriched Uranium

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-25

    ... promulgated in August 2007, 72 FR 49139 (Aug. 28, 2007). Information about filing electronically is available... COMMISSION Request To Amend a License To Export High-Enriched Uranium Pursuant to 10 CFR 110.70 (b) ``Public... Security material (High- kilograms U-235 LVR-15 Research will ultimately Administration. Enriched...

  17. Low-Enriched Uranium Fuel Design with Two-Dimensional Grading for the High Flux Isotope Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Ilas, Germina; Primm, Trent

    2011-05-01

    An engineering design study of the conversion of the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) from high-enriched uranium (HEU) to low-enriched uranium (LEU) fuel is ongoing at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The computational models developed during fiscal year 2010 to search for an LEU fuel design that would meet the requirements for the conversion and the results obtained with these models are documented and discussed in this report. Estimates of relevant reactor performance parameters for the LEU fuel core are presented and compared with the corresponding data for the currently operating HEU fuel core. The results obtained indicate that the LEU fuel design would maintain the current performance of the HFIR with respect to the neutron flux to the central target region, reflector, and beam tube locations under the assumption that the operating power for the reactor fueled with LEU can be increased from the current value of 85 MW to 100 MW.

  18. Containment and storage of uranium hexafluoride at US Department of Energy uranium enrichment plants

    SciTech Connect

    Barlow, C.R.; Alderson, J.H.; Blue, S.C.; Boelens, R.A.; Conkel, M.E.; Dorning, R.E.; Ecklund, C.D.; Halicks, W.G.; Henson, H.M.; Newman, V.S.; Philpot, H.E.; Taylor, M.S.; Vournazos, J.P.; Russell, J.R.; Pryor, W.A.; Ziehlke, K.T.

    1992-07-01

    Isotopically depleted UF{sub 6} (uranium hexafluoride) accumulates at a rate five to ten times greater than the enriched product and is stored in steel vessels at the enrichment plant sites. There are approximately 55,000 large cylinders now in storage at Paducah, Kentucky; Portsmouth, Ohio; and Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Most of them contain a nominal 14 tons of depleted UF{sub 6}. Some of these cylinders have been in the unprotected outdoor storage environment for periods approaching 40 years. Storage experience, supplemented by limited corrosion data, suggests a service life of about 70 years under optimum conditions for the 48-in. diameter, 5/16-in.-wall pressure vessels (100 psi working pressure), using a conservative industry-established 1/4-in.-wall thickness as the service limit. In the past few years, however, factors other than atmospheric corrosion have become apparent that adversely affect the serviceability of small numbers of the storage containers and that indicate the need for a managed program to ensure maintenance ofcontainment integrity for all the cylinders in storage. The program includes periodic visual inspections of cylinders and storage yards with documentation for comparison with other inspections, a group of corrosion test programs to permit cylinder life forecasts, and identification of (and scheduling for remedial action) situations in which defects, due to handling damage or accelerated corrosion, can seriously shorten the storage life or compromise the containment integrity of individual cylinders. The program also includes rupture testing to assess the effects of certain classes of damage on overall cylinder strength, aswell as ongoing reviews of specifications, procedures, practices, and inspection results to effect improvements in handling safety, containment integrity, and storage life.

  19. Optimization of enrichment distributions in nuclear fuel assemblies loaded with uranium and plutonium via a modified linear programming technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuevas Vivas, Gabriel Francisco

    A methodology to optimize enrichment distributions in Light Water Reactor (LWR) fuel assemblies is developed and tested. The optimization technique employed is the linear programming revised simplex method, and the fuel assembly's performance is evaluated with a neutron transport code that is also utilized in the calculation of sensitivity coefficients. The enrichment distribution optimization procedure begins from a single-value (flat) enrichment distribution until a target, maximum local power peaking factor, is achieved. The optimum rod enrichment distribution, with 1.00 for the maximum local power peaking factor and with each rod having its own enrichment, is calculated at an intermediate stage of the analysis. Later, the best locations and values for a reduced number of rod enrichments is obtained as a function of a target maximum local power peaking factor by applying sensitivity to change techniques. Finally, a shuffling process that assigns individual rod enrichments among the enrichment groups is performed. The relative rod power distribution is then slightly modified and the rod grouping redefined until the optimum configuration is attained. To verify the accuracy of the relative rod power distribution, a full computation with the neutron transport code using the optimum enrichment distribution is carried out. The results are compared and tested for assembly designs loaded with fresh Low Enriched Uranium (LEU) and plutonium Mixed OXide (MOX) fuels. MOX isotopics for both reactor-grade and weapons-grade plutonium were utilized to demonstrate the wide-range of applicability of the optimization technique. The features of the assembly designs used for evaluation purposes included burnable absorbers and internal water regions, and were prepared to resemble the configurations of modern assemblies utilized in commercial Boiling Water Reactors (BWRs) and Pressurized Water Reactors (PWRs). In some cases, a net improvement in the relative rod power distribution or

  20. Compact reaction cell for homogenizing and down-blanding highly enriched uranium metal

    DOEpatents

    McLean, II, William; Miller, Philip E.; Horton, James A.

    1995-01-01

    The invention is a specialized reaction cell for converting uranium metal to uranium oxide. In a preferred form, the reaction cell comprises a reaction chamber with increasing diameter along its length (e.g. a cylindrical chamber having a diameter of about 2 inches in a lower portion and having a diameter of from about 4 to about 12 inches in an upper portion). Such dimensions are important to achieve the necessary conversion while at the same time affording criticality control and transportability of the cell and product. The reaction chamber further comprises an upper port and a lower port, the lower port allowing for the entry of reactant gasses into the reaction chamber, the upper port allowing for the exit of gasses from the reaction chamber. A diffuser plate is attached to the lower port of the reaction chamber and serves to shape the flow of gas into the reaction chamber. The reaction cell further comprises means for introducing gasses into the reaction chamber and a heating means capable of heating the contents of the reaction chamber. The present invention also relates to a method for converting uranium metal to uranium oxide in the reaction cell of the present invention. The invention is useful for down-blending highly enriched uranium metal by the simultaneous conversion of highly enriched uranium metal and natural or depleted uranium metal to uranium oxide within the reaction cell.

  1. Compact reaction cell for homogenizing and down-blending highly enriched uranium metal

    DOEpatents

    McLean, W. II; Miller, P.E.; Horton, J.A.

    1995-05-02

    The invention is a specialized reaction cell for converting uranium metal to uranium oxide. In a preferred form, the reaction cell comprises a reaction chamber with increasing diameter along its length (e.g. a cylindrical chamber having a diameter of about 2 inches in a lower portion and having a diameter of from about 4 to about 12 inches in an upper portion). Such dimensions are important to achieve the necessary conversion while at the same time affording criticality control and transportability of the cell and product. The reaction chamber further comprises an upper port and a lower port, the lower port allowing for the entry of reactant gases into the reaction chamber, the upper port allowing for the exit of gases from the reaction chamber. A diffuser plate is attached to the lower port of the reaction chamber and serves to shape the flow of gas into the reaction chamber. The reaction cell further comprises means for introducing gases into the reaction chamber and a heating means capable of heating the contents of the reaction chamber. The present invention also relates to a method for converting uranium metal to uranium oxide in the reaction cell of the present invention. The invention is useful for down-blending highly enriched uranium metal by the simultaneous conversion of highly enriched uranium metal and natural or depleted uranium metal to uranium oxide within the reaction cell. 4 figs.

  2. Age determination of highly enriched uranium: separation and analysis of 231Pa.

    PubMed

    Morgenstern, A; Apostolidis, C; Mayer, K

    2002-11-01

    An analytical procedure has been developed for the age determination of highly enriched uranium samples exploiting the mother/daughter pair 235U/231Pa. Protactinium is separated from bulk uranium through highly selective sorption to silica gel and is subsequently quantified using alpha-spectrometry. The method has been validated using uranium standard reference materials of known ages. It affords decontamination factors exceeding 2.5 x 10(7), overall recoveries in the range of 80-85%, and a combined uncertainty below 5%.

  3. Age determination of highly enriched uranium: separation and analysis of 231Pa.

    PubMed

    Morgenstern, A; Apostolidis, C; Mayer, K

    2002-11-01

    An analytical procedure has been developed for the age determination of highly enriched uranium samples exploiting the mother/daughter pair 235U/231Pa. Protactinium is separated from bulk uranium through highly selective sorption to silica gel and is subsequently quantified using alpha-spectrometry. The method has been validated using uranium standard reference materials of known ages. It affords decontamination factors exceeding 2.5 x 10(7), overall recoveries in the range of 80-85%, and a combined uncertainty below 5%. PMID:12433081

  4. Heterogeneous reactivity effects in medium- and high-enriched uranium metal-water systems

    SciTech Connect

    Lichtenwalter, J.J.

    1997-07-01

    The effect of heterogeneity on reactivity of low-, medium-, and high-enriched, water-moderated uranium metal systems has been examined for various hydrogen-to-fissile (H/X) ratios using the CSAS1X sequence in SCALE and MCNP. For the calculations, an infinite array of close-packed unit cells was modeled which consisted of centered uranium metal spheres surrounded by water. The enrichments used correspond to the average enrichments of fragmented fuel plates in three proposed waste shipments from Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The analysis performed to obtain peak reactivity for each enrichment as a function of particle size and H/X ratio led to the development of the topic discussed in this paper.

  5. Higher Resolution Neutron Velocity Spectrometer Measurements of Enriched Uranium

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Rainwater, L. J.; Havens, W. W. Jr.

    1950-08-09

    The slow neutron transmission of a sample of enriched U containing 3.193 gm/cm2 was investigated with a resolution width of 1 microsec/m. Results of transmission measurements are shown graphically. (B.J.H.)

  6. 78 FR 19311 - Low Enriched Uranium From France; Notice of Commission Determination to Conduct a Full Five-Year...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-29

    ... the domestic interested party group response to its notice of institution (77 FR 71626, December 3... COMMISSION Low Enriched Uranium From France; Notice of Commission Determination to Conduct a Full Five-Year... low enriched uranium from France would be likely to lead to continuation or recurrence of...

  7. 77 FR 71626 - Low Enriched Uranium From France; Institution of a Five-Year Review Concerning the Antidumping...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-03

    ... low enriched uranium from France (67 FR 6680). Following the five-year reviews by Commerce and the... imports of low enriched uranium from France (73 FR 449). The Commission is now conducting a second review..., and F (19 CFR part 207), as most recently amended at 74 FR 2847 (January 16, 2009). \\1\\ No response...

  8. Uranium Enrichment Standards of the Y-12 Nuclear Detection and Sensor Testing Center

    SciTech Connect

    Cantrell, J.

    2012-05-23

    The Y-12 National Security Complex has recently fabricated and characterized a new series of metallic uranium standards for use in the Nuclear Detection and Sensor Testing Center (NDSTC). Ten uranium metal disks with enrichments varying from 0.2 to 93.2% {sup 235}U were designed to provide researchers access to a wide variety of measurement scenarios in a single testing venue. Special care was taken in the selection of the enrichments in order to closely bracket the definitions of reactor fuel at 4% {sup 235}U and that of highly enriched uranium (HEU) at 20% {sup 235}U. Each standard is well characterized using analytical chemistry as well as a series of gamma-ray spectrometry measurements. Gamma-ray spectra of these standards are being archived in a reference library for use by customers of the NDSTC. A software database tool has been created that allows for easier access and comparison of various spectra. Information provided through the database includes: raw count data (including background spectra), regions of interest (ROIs), and full width half maximum calculations. Input is being sought from the user community on future needs including enhancements to the spectral database and additional Uranium standards, shielding configurations and detector types. A related presentation are planned for the INMM 53rd Annual Meeting (Hull, et al.), which describe new uranium chemical compound standards and testing opportunities at Y-12 Nuclear Detection and Sensor Testing Center (NDSTC).

  9. 77 FR 7128 - Low Enriched Uranium From France: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty Changed Circumstances...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-10

    ... following the March 11, 2011, earthquake and tsunami that struck Japan, AREVA's Japanese end-use customer..., 77 FR 1059 (January 9, 2012) (CCR Initiation Notice). DATES: Effective Date: February 10, 2012. FOR... Determination and Notice of Countervailing Duty Order: Low Enriched Uranium From France, 67 FR 6689 (February...

  10. 78 FR 52905 - Low Enriched Uranium From France: Initiation of Expedited Changed Circumstances Review, and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-27

    ... Antidumping Duty Order: Low Enriched Uranium From France, 67 FR 6680 (February 13, 2002). foreign utility end...: Final Results of Antidumping Duty Changed Circumstances Review, 77 FR 19642 (April 2, 2012) (Final... earthquake and tsunami in Japan, the Department extended the 18-month period for the re-exportation of...

  11. 78 FR 77650 - Low Enriched Uranium From France: Continuation of Antidumping Duty Order

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-24

    ... Duty Order, 78 FR 21100 (April 9, 2013). \\3\\ See Low Enriched Uranium from France (Investigation No. 731- TA-909 (Second Review), 78 FR 75579 (December 12, 2013). Scope of the Order The product covered... foreseeable time.\\3\\ \\1\\ See Initiation of Five-Year (``Sunset'') Review, 77 FR 71684 (December 3, 2013)....

  12. 76 FR 72984 - Revised Application for a License To Export High-Enriched Uranium

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-28

    ... published in the Federal Register on Tuesday, March 30, 2010 (75 FR 15743-15744). Pursuant to 10 CFR 110.70... promulgated in August 2007, 72 FR 49139 (Aug. 28, 2007). Information about filing electronically is available... COMMISSION Revised Application for a License To Export High-Enriched Uranium The application for a license...

  13. Quantum cascade laser absorption spectroscopy of UF6 at 7.74 μm for analytical uranium enrichment measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewicki, Rafal; Kosterev, Anatoliy A.; Toor, Fatima; Yao, Yu; Gmachl, Claire; Tsai, Tracy; Wysocki, Gerard; Wang, Xiaojun; Troccoli, Mariano; Fong, Mary; Tittel, Frank K.

    2010-01-01

    The ν1+ν3 combination band of uranium hexafluoride (UF6) is targeted to perform analytical enrichment measurements using laser absorption spectroscopy. A high performance widely tunable EC-QCL sources emitting radiation at 7.74 μm (1291 cm-1) is employed as an UF6-LAS optical source to measure the unresolved rotational-vibrational spectral structure of several tens of wavenumbers (cm-1). A preliminary spectroscopic measurement based on a direct laser absorption spectroscopy of methane (CH4) as an appropriate UF6 analyte simulant, was demonstrated.

  14. Technical basis in support of the conversion of the University of Missouri Research Reactor (MURR) core from highly-enriched to low-enriched uranium - core neutron physics

    SciTech Connect

    Stillman, J.; Feldman, E.; Foyto, L; Kutikkad, K; McKibben, J C; Peters, N.; Stevens, J.

    2012-09-01

    This report contains the results of reactor design and performance for conversion of the University of Missouri Research Reactor (MURR) from the use of highly-enriched uranium (HEU) fuel to the use of low-enriched uranium (LEU) fuel. The analyses were performed by staff members of the Global Threat Reduction Initiative (GTRI) Reactor Conversion Program at the Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) and the MURR Facility. The core conversion to LEU is being performed with financial support of the U. S. government.

  15. Critical experiments on low-enriched uranium oxide systems with H/U = 2. 03

    SciTech Connect

    Rothe, R E; Goebel, G R

    1982-02-01

    Seven critical experiments were performed on a horizontal split table machine using 4.48% enriched /sup 235/U uranium oxide (U/sub 3/O/sub 8/). The oxide was compacted to a density of 4.68 g/cm/sup 3/ and placed in 152-mm cubical aluminum cans. Water was added to achieve an H/U atomic ratio of 2.03. Various arrays of oxide cans were distributed on each half of the split table and the separation between halves reduced until criticality occurred. The critical table separation varied from 4.3 mm to 29.3 mm. These experiments were performed in both plastic and concrete reflectors. The first five experiments required the addition of a high-enriched (approx. 93% /sup 235/U) metal driver to achieve criticality. Critical uranium driver masses ranged from 2.765 kg to 13.730 kg for 5 x 5 x 5 arrays of uranium oxide cans. In all five cases, the center can of the array was deleted to accommodate the driver. The uranium oxide mass was 1859.6 kg. Two additional experiments in the plastic reflector contained either 9.3-mm- or 24.3-mm-thick plastic moderator material between the oxide cans. These latter experiments did not require a driver to achieve criticality; and the uranium oxide mass was 723.9 kg for the configuration having the thinner interstitial moderator and 452.4 kg for the other.

  16. Assessment of liquid disposal originated by uranium enrichment at Aramar Experimental Center São Paulo--Brazil.

    PubMed

    Gerenutti, Marli; Gonçalves, Marcos Moisés; Rissato, Sandra Regina; de Oliveira, José Martins; dos Santos Reigota, Marco Antonio; Galhiane, Mário Sergio

    2012-07-01

    This work presents a liquid disposal monitoring originated from uranium enrichment process at Aramar Experimental Center from 1990 to 1998. Assessment of uranium, fluorides, ammoniacal nitrogen, chemical oxygen demand, and pH measurements were made in water samples and compared with results achieved in other countries, as North America and India. The liquid disposal evaluation, generated by uranium enrichment process, showed low levels, considering most parameters established by Federal and State Legislation, aiming environmental pollution control. However, uranium levels were above the limits established by Conselho Nacional do Meio Ambiente, Environment Protection Agency and mainly by the World Health Organization. PMID:21814717

  17. Moderation control in low enriched {sup 235}U uranium hexafluoride packaging operations and transportation

    SciTech Connect

    Dyer, R.H.; Kovac, F.M.; Pryor, W.A.

    1993-12-31

    Moderation control is the basic parameter for ensuring nuclear criticality safety during the packaging and transport of low {sup 235}U enriched uranium hexafluoride before its conversion to nuclear power reactor fuel. Moderation control has permitted the shipment of bulk quantities in large cylinders instead of in many smaller cylinders and, therefore, has resulted in economies without compromising safety. Overall safety and uranium accountability have been enhanced through the use of the moderation control. This paper discusses moderation control and the operating procedures to ensure that moderation control is maintained during packaging operations and transportation.

  18. Moderation control in low enriched {sup 235}U uranium hexafluoride packaging operations and transportation

    SciTech Connect

    Dyer, R.H.; Kovac, F.M.; Pryor, W.A.

    1993-10-01

    Moderation control is the basic parameter for ensuring nuclear criticality safety during the packaging and transport of low {sup 235}U enriched uranium hexafluoride before its conversion to nuclear power reactor fuel. Moderation control has permitted the shipment of bulk quantities in large cylinders instead of in many smaller cylinders and, therefore, has resulted in economies without compromising safety. Overall safety and uranium accountability have been enhanced through the use of the moderation control. This paper discusses moderation control and the operating procedures to ensure that moderation control is maintained during packaging operations and transportation.

  19. Operating limit evaluation for disposal of uranium enrichment plant wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, D.W.; Kocher, D.C.; Wang, J.C.

    1996-02-01

    A proposed solid waste landfill at Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP) will accept wastes generated during normal plant operations that are considered to be non-radioactive. However, nearly all solid waste from any source or facility contains small amounts of radioactive material, due to the presence in most materials of trace quantities of such naturally occurring radionuclides as uranium and thorium. This paper describes an evaluation of operating limits, which are protective of public health and the environment, that would allow waste materials containing small amounts of radioactive material to be sent to a new solid waste landfill at PGDP. The operating limits are expressed as limits on concentrations of radionuclides in waste materials that could be sent to the landfill based on a site-specific analysis of the performance of the facility. These limits are advantageous to PGDP and DOE for several reasons. Most importantly, substantial cost savings in the management of waste is achieved. In addition, certain liabilities that could result from shipment of wastes to a commercial off-site solid waste landfill are avoided. Finally, assurance that disposal operations at the PGDP landfill are protective of public health and the environment is provided by establishing verifiable operating limits for small amounts of radioactive material; rather than relying solely on administrative controls. The operating limit determined in this study has been presented to the Commonwealth of Kentucky and accepted as a condition to be attached to the operating permit for the solid waste landfill.

  20. Radiological health aspects of commercial uranium conversion, enrichment, and fuel fabrication

    SciTech Connect

    Stoetzel, G.A.; Hoenes, G.R.; Cummings, F.M.; McCormack, W.D.

    1982-11-01

    Detailed information concerning occupational exposures, health physics practices, and regulatory procedures at commercial conversion, enrichment and fuel fabrication facilities is given. Sites visits were the primary source of information, which is divided into four sections. The first section discusses health physics practices that are common to the conversion, enrichment, and fuel fabrication phases of the commercial uranium industry. The next three sections review process descriptions, radiological health practices, and regulatory procedures for the three phases. Nonradiological exposures are considered only as they influence the interpretation of the health effects of radiological exposures. The review of regulatory procedures indicates the types of exposure evaluation records being kept on uranium workers and the responsibility for maintaining the records.

  1. Establishing Specifications for Low Enriched Uranium Fuel Operations Conducted Outside the High Flux Isotope Reactor Site

    SciTech Connect

    Pinkston, Daniel; Primm, Trent; Renfro, David G; Sease, John D

    2010-10-01

    The National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) has funded staff at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to study the conversion of the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) from the current, high enriched uranium fuel to low enriched uranium fuel. The LEU fuel form is a metal alloy that has never been used in HFIR or any HFIR-like reactor. This report provides documentation of a process for the creation of a fuel specification that will meet all applicable regulations and guidelines to which UT-Battelle, LLC (UTB) the operating contractor for ORNL - must adhere. This process will allow UTB to purchase LEU fuel for HFIR and be assured of the quality of the fuel being procured.

  2. PREPARING THE HIGH FLUX ISOTOPE REACTOR FOR CONVERSION TO LOW ENRICHED URANIUM FUEL ? EXTENDING CYCLE BURNUP

    SciTech Connect

    Primm, Trent; Chandler, David

    2009-01-01

    Reactor performance studies have been completed for conceptual plate designs and show that maintaining reactor performance while converting HFIR from high enriched to low enriched uranium (20 wt % 235U) fuel requires extending the end-of-life burnup value for HFIR fuel from the current nominal value of 2200 MWD to 2600 MWD. The current fuel fabrication procedure is discussed and changes that would be required to this procedure are identified. Design and safety related analyses that are required for the certification of a new fuel are identified. Qualification tests and comments regarding the regulatory approval process are provided along with a conceptual schedule.

  3. Measurement of the enrichment of uranium in the pipework of a gas centrifuge enrichment plant

    SciTech Connect

    Packer, T.W.; Lees, E.W.; Close, D.; Nixon, K.V.; Pratt, J.C.; Strittmatter, R.

    1985-01-01

    The US and UK have been separately working on the development of a NDA instrument to determine the enrichment of gaseous UF/sub 6/ at low pressures in cascade header pipework in line with the conclusions of the Hexapartite Safeguards Project viz. the instrument is capable of making a ''go/no go'' decision of whether the enrichment is less than/greater than 20%. Recently, there has been a series of very useful technical exchanges of ideas and information between the two countries. This has led to a technical formulation for such an instrumentation based on ..gamma..-ray spectrometry which, although plant-specific in certain features, nevertheless is based on the same physical principles. Experimental results from commercially operating enrichment plants are very encouraging and indicate that a complete measurement including set up time on the pipe should be attainable in about 30 minutes when measuring pipes of diameter around 110 mm.

  4. Measurement of the enrichment of uranium in the pipework of a gas centrifuge enrichment plant

    SciTech Connect

    Packer, T.W.; Lees, E.W.; Close, D.; Nixon, K.V.; Pratt, J.C.; Strittmatter, R.

    1985-01-01

    The US and UK have been separately working on the development of a NDA instrument to determine the enrichment of gaseous UF/sub 6/ at low pressures in cascade header pipework in line with the conclusions of the Hexapartite Safeguards Project viz. the instrument is capable of making a ''go/no go'' decision of whether the enrichment is less than/greater than 20%. Recently, there has been a series of very useful technical exchanges of ideas and information between the two countries. This has led to a technical formulation for such an instrumentation based on ..gamma..-ray spectrometry which, although plant-specific in certain features, nevertheless is based on the same physical principles. Experimental results from commercially operating enrichment plants are very encouraging and indicate that a complete measurement including set up time on the pipe should be attainable in about 30 minutes when measuring pipes of diameter around 110 mm. 5 refs., 4 figs.

  5. Negative Enrichment of Target Cells by Microfluidic Affinity Chromatography

    PubMed Central

    Li, Peng; Gao, Yan; Pappas, Dimitri

    2011-01-01

    A three-dimensional microfluidic channel was developed for high purity cell separations. This system featured high capture affinity using multiple vertical inlets to an affinity surface. In cell separations, positive selection (capture of the target cell) is usually employed. Negative enrichment, the capture of non-target cells and elution of target cells, has distinct advantages over positive selection. In negative enrichment, target cells are not labeled, and are not subjected to strenuous elution conditions or dilution. As a result, negative enrichment systems are amenable to multi-step processes in microfluidic systems. In previous work, we reported cell capture enhancement effects at vertical inlets to the affinity surface. In this study, we designed a chip that has multiple vertical and horizontal channels, forming a three-dimensional separation system. Enrichment of target cells showed separation purities of 92-96%, compared with straight-channel systems (77% purity). A parallelized chip was also developed for increased sample throughput. A two-channel showed similar separation purity with twice the sample flow rate. This microfluidic system, featuring high separation purity, ease of fabrication and use, is suitable for cell separations when subsequent analysis of target cells is required. PMID:21939198

  6. Design Study for a Low-Enriched Uranium Core for the High Flux Isotope Reactor, Annual report for FY 2009

    SciTech Connect

    Chandler, David; Freels, James D; Ilas, Germina; Miller, James Henry; Primm, Trent; Sease, John D; Guida, Tracey; Jolly, Brian C

    2010-02-01

    This report documents progress made during FY 2009 in studies of converting the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) from high enriched uranium (HEU) fuel to low enriched uranium (LEU) fuel. Conversion from HEU to LEU will require a change in fuel form from uranium oxide to a uranium-molybdenum alloy. With axial and radial grading of the fuel foil and an increase in reactor power to 100 MW, calculations indicate that the HFIR can be operated with LEU fuel with no degradation in reactor performance from the current level. Results of selected benchmark studies imply that calculations of LEU performance are accurate. Studies are reported of the application of a silicon coating to surrogates for spheres of uranium-molybdenum alloy. A discussion of difficulties with preparing a fuel specification for the uranium-molybdenum alloy is provided. A description of the progress in developing a finite element thermal hydraulics model of the LEU core is provided.

  7. Determination of the uranium enrichment with the NaIGEM code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mortreau, Patricia; Berndt, Reinhard

    2004-09-01

    The traditional method used to non-destructively determine the uranium enrichment with an NaI detector is based on the "enrichment meter principle" (Progress report LA-4605-MS, Los Alamos National Laboratory, NNM, 1970, p. 19), which involves measuring the intensity of the 186 keV line of 235U by selecting two regions of interest for the peak and the background. This type of method suffers from several limitations, the most limiting of which are the impossibility to make wall thickness correction or to take the inference of foreign radioisotopes into account. The NaIGEM software (A guide for using NaIGEM code, version 1.5 for DOS and Windows, 2001; Nucl. Instr. and Meth. A 458 (2001) 196) was developed to overcome these limitations by calculating the 186 keV line intensity with a fitting procedure. The code was tested in different measurement conditions on the wide variety of certified samples, in particular, on reprocessed uranium and on depleted material with thick steel filters interposed between the source and the detector. The results are presented to illustrate the performance and limitations of the tested version (A guide for using NaIGEM code, version 1.5 for DOS and Windows, 2001). The general performance is good except in the case of low-enriched uranium in thick containers.

  8. Research Reactor Preparations for the Air Shipment of Highly Enriched Uranium from Romania

    SciTech Connect

    K. J. Allen; I. Bolshinsky; L. L. Biro; M. E. Budu; N. V. Zamfir; M. Dragusin; C. Paunoiu; M. Ciocanescu

    2010-03-01

    In June 2009 two air shipments transported both unirradiated (fresh) and irradiated (spent) Russian-origin highly enriched uranium (HEU) nuclear fuel from two research reactors in Romania to the Russian Federation for conversion to low enriched uranium. The Institute for Nuclear Research at Pitesti (SCN Pitesti) shipped 30.1 kg of HEU fresh fuel pellets to Dimitrovgrad, Russia and the Horia Hulubei National Institute of Physics and Nuclear Engineering (IFIN-HH) shipped 23.7 kilograms of HEU spent fuel assemblies from the VVR S research reactor at Magurele, Romania, to Chelyabinsk, Russia. Both HEU shipments were coordinated by the Russian Research Reactor Fuel Return Program (RRRFR) as part of the U.S. Department of Energy Global Threat Reduction Initiative (GTRI), were managed in Romania by the National Commission for Nuclear Activities Control (CNCAN), and were conducted in cooperation with the Russian Federation State Corporation Rosatom and the International Atomic Energy Agency. Both shipments were transported by truck to and from respective commercial airports in Romania and the Russian Federation and stored at secure nuclear facilities in Russia until the material is converted into low enriched uranium. These shipments resulted in Romania becoming the 3rd country under the RRRFR program and the 14th country under the GTRI program to remove all HEU. This paper describes the research reactor preparations and license approvals that were necessary to safely and securely complete these air shipments of nuclear fuel.

  9. MCNP5 CRITICALITY VALIDATION AND BIAS FOR INTERMEDIATE ENRICHED URANIUM SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect

    FINFROCK SH

    2009-12-10

    The purpose of this analysis is to validate the Monte Carlo N-Particle 5 (MCNP5) code Version 1.40 (LA-UR-03-1987, 2005) and its cross-section database for k-code calculations of intermediate enriched uranium systems on INTEL{reg_sign} processor based PC's running any version of the WINDOWS operating system. Configurations with intermediate enriched uranium were modeled with the moderator range of 39 {le} H/Fissile {le} 1438. See Table 2-1 for brief descriptions of selected cases and Table 3-1 for the range of applicability for this validation. A total of 167 input cases were evaluated including bare and reflected systems in a single body or arrays. The 167 cases were taken directly from the previous (Version 4C [Lan 2005]) validation database. Section 2.0 list data used to calculate k-effective (k{sub eff}) for the 167 experimental criticality benchmark cases using the MCNP5 code v1.40 and its cross section database. Appendix B lists the MCNP cross-section database entries validated for use in evaluating the intermediate enriched uranium systems for criticality safety. The dimensions and atom densities for the intermediate enriched uranium experiments were taken from NEA/NSC/DOC(95)03, September 2005, which will be referred to as the benchmark handbook throughout the report. For these input values, the experimental benchmark k{sub eff} is approximately 1.0. The MCNP validation computer runs ran to an accuracy of approximately {+-} 0.001. For the cases where the reported benchmark k{sub eff} was not equal to 1.0000 the MCNP calculational results were normalized. The difference between the MCNP validation computer runs and the experimentally measured k{sub eff} is the MCNP5 v1.40 bias. The USLSTATS code (ORNL 1998) was utilized to perform the statistical analysis and generate an acceptable maximum k{sub eff} limit for calculations of the intermediate enriched uranium type systems.

  10. MOBILE SYSTEMS FOR DILUTION OF HIGHLY ENRICHED URANIUM AND URANIUM CONTAINING COMPONENTS

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, T

    2007-05-02

    A mobile melt-dilute (MMD) module for the treatment of aluminum research reactor spent fuel is being developed. The process utilizes a closed system approach to retain fission products/gases inside a sealed canister after treatment. The MMD process melts and dilutes spent fuel with depleted uranium to obtain a fissile fraction of less than 0.2. The final ingot is solidified inside the sealed canister and can be stored safely either wet or dry until final disposition or reprocessing. The MMD module can be staged at or near the research reactor fuel storage sites to facilitate the melt-dilute treatment of the spent fuel into a stable non-proliferable form.

  11. Conversion and Evaluation of the University of Massachusetts Lowell Research Reactor From High-Enriched To Low-Enriched Uranium Fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Leo M. Bobek

    2003-11-19

    The process for converting the University of Massachusetts Lowell Research Reactor (UMLRR) from high-enrichment uranium (HEU) fuel to low-enrichment uranium (LEU) fuel began in 1988. Several years of design reviews, computational modeling, and thermal hydraulic analyses resulted in a preliminary reference core design and configuration based on 20 standard, MTR-type, flat-plate, 19.75% enriched, uranium silicide (u3Si2) fuel elements. A final safety analysis for the fuel conversion was submitted to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) in 1993. The NRC made two additional requests for additional information and supplements were submitted in 1994 and 1997. The new UMLRR Reactor Supervisor initiated an effort to change the LEU reference core configuration to eliminate a complicated control rod modification needed for the smaller core.

  12. Minimum mass of moderator required for criticality of homogeneous low-enriched uranium systems

    SciTech Connect

    Jordan, W.C.; Turner, J.C.

    1992-12-01

    A parametric calculational analysis has been performed in order to estimate the minimum mass of moderator required for criticality of homogeneous low-enriched uranium systems. The analysis was performed using a version of the SCALE-4.0 code system and the 27-group ENDF/B-IV cross-section library. Water-moderated uranyl fluoride (UO{sub 2}F{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O) and hydrofluoric-acid-moderated uranium hexaflouride (UF{sub 6} and HF) systems were considered in the analysis over enrichments of 1.4 to 5 wt % {sup 235}U. Estimates of the minimum critical volume, minimum critical mass of uranium, and the minimum mass of moderator required for criticality are presented. There was significant disagreement between the values generated in this study when compared with a similar undocumented study performed in 1983 using ANISN and the Knight-modified Hansen-Roach cross sections. An investigation into the cause of the disagreement was made, and the results are presented.

  13. Minimum mass of moderator required for criticality of homogeneous low-enriched uranium systems

    SciTech Connect

    Jordan, W.C.; Turner, J.C.

    1992-12-01

    A parametric calculational analysis has been performed in order to estimate the minimum mass of moderator required for criticality of homogeneous low-enriched uranium systems. The analysis was performed using a version of the SCALE-4.0 code system and the 27-group ENDF/B-IV cross-section library. Water-moderated uranyl fluoride (UO[sub 2]F[sub 2] and H[sub 2]O) and hydrofluoric-acid-moderated uranium hexaflouride (UF[sub 6] and HF) systems were considered in the analysis over enrichments of 1.4 to 5 wt % [sup 235]U. Estimates of the minimum critical volume, minimum critical mass of uranium, and the minimum mass of moderator required for criticality are presented. There was significant disagreement between the values generated in this study when compared with a similar undocumented study performed in 1983 using ANISN and the Knight-modified Hansen-Roach cross sections. An investigation into the cause of the disagreement was made, and the results are presented.

  14. Experimental critical parameters of enriched uranium solution in annular tank geometries

    SciTech Connect

    Rothe, R.E.

    1996-04-01

    A total of 61 critical configurations are reported for experiments involving various combinations of annular tanks into which enriched uranium solution was pumped. These experiments were performed at two widely separated times in the 1980s under two programs at the Rocky Flats Plant`s Critical Mass Laboratory. The uranyl nitrate solution contained about 370 g of uranium per liter, but this concentration varied a little over the duration of the studies. The uranium was enriched to about 93% [sup 235]U. All tanks were typical of sizes commonly found in nuclear production plants. They were about 2 m tall and ranged in diameter from 0.6 m to 1.5 m. Annular thicknesses and conditions of neutron reflection, moderation, and absorption were such that criticality would be achieved with these dimensions. Only 13 of the entire set of 74 experiments proved to be subcritical when tanks were completely filled with solution. Single tanks of several radial thicknesses were studied as well as small line arrays (1 x 2 and 1 x 3) of annular tanks. Many systems were reflected on four sides and the bottom by concrete, but none were reflected from above. Many experiments also contained materials within and outside the annular regions that contained strong neutron absorbers. One program had such a thick external moderator/absorber combination that no reflector was used at all.

  15. DESIGN STUDY FOR A LOW-ENRICHED URANIUM CORE FOR THE HIGH FLUX ISOTOPE REACTOR, ANNUAL REPORT FOR FY 2010

    SciTech Connect

    Cook, David Howard; Freels, James D; Ilas, Germina; Jolly, Brian C; Miller, James Henry; Primm, Trent; Renfro, David G; Sease, John D; Pinkston, Daniel

    2011-02-01

    This report documents progress made during FY 2010 in studies of converting the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) from high enriched uranium (HEU) fuel to low enriched uranium (LEU) fuel. Conversion from HEU to LEU will require a change in fuel form from uranium oxide to a uranium-molybdenum alloy. With axial and radial grading of the fuel foil and an increase in reactor power to 100 MW, calculations indicate that the HFIR can be operated with LEU fuel with no degradation in performance to users from the current level. Studies are reported of support to a thermal hydraulic test loop design, the implementation of finite element, thermal hydraulic analysis capability, and infrastructure tasks at HFIR to upgrade the facility for operation at 100 MW. A discussion of difficulties with preparing a fuel specification for the uranium-molybdenum alloy is provided. Continuing development in the definition of the fuel fabrication process is described.

  16. ZPR-3 Assembly 6F : A spherical assembly of highly enriched uranium, depleted uranium, aluminum and steel with an average {sup 235}U enrichment of 47 atom %.

    SciTech Connect

    Lell, R. M.; McKnight, R. D; Schaefer, R. W.; Nuclear Engineering Division

    2010-09-30

    Over a period of 30 years, more than a hundred Zero Power Reactor (ZPR) critical assemblies were constructed at Argonne National Laboratory. The ZPR facilities, ZPR-3, ZPR-6, ZPR-9 and ZPPR, were all fast critical assembly facilities. The ZPR critical assemblies were constructed to support fast reactor development, but data from some of these assemblies are also well suited for nuclear data validation and to form the basis for criticality safety benchmarks. A number of the Argonne ZPR/ZPPR critical assemblies have been evaluated as ICSBEP and IRPhEP benchmarks. Of the three classes of ZPR assemblies, engineering mockups, engineering benchmarks and physics benchmarks, the last group tends to be most useful for criticality safety. Because physics benchmarks were designed to test fast reactor physics data and methods, they were as simple as possible in geometry and composition. The principal fissile species was {sup 235}U or {sup 239}Pu. Fuel enrichments ranged from 9% to 95%. Often there were only one or two main core diluent materials, such as aluminum, graphite, iron, sodium or stainless steel. The cores were reflected (and insulated from room return effects) by one or two layers of materials such as depleted uranium, lead or stainless steel. Despite their more complex nature, a small number of assemblies from the other two classes would make useful criticality safety benchmarks because they have features related to criticality safety issues, such as reflection by soil-like material. ZPR-3 Assembly 6 consisted of six phases, A through F. In each phase a critical configuration was constructed to simulate a very simple shape such as a slab, cylinder or sphere that could be analyzed with the limited analytical tools available in the 1950s. In each case the configuration consisted of a core region of metal plates surrounded by a thick depleted uranium metal reflector. The average compositions of the core configurations were essentially identical in phases A - F. ZPR-3

  17. Monte Carlo modeling of spallation targets containing uranium and americium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malyshkin, Yury; Pshenichnov, Igor; Mishustin, Igor; Greiner, Walter

    2014-09-01

    Neutron production and transport in spallation targets made of uranium and americium are studied with a Geant4-based code MCADS (Monte Carlo model for Accelerator Driven Systems). A good agreement of MCADS results with experimental data on neutron- and proton-induced reactions on 241Am and 243Am nuclei allows to use this model for simulations with extended Am targets. It was demonstrated that MCADS model can be used for calculating the values of critical mass for 233,235U, 237Np, 239Pu and 241Am. Several geometry options and material compositions (U, U + Am, Am, Am2O3) are considered for spallation targets to be used in Accelerator Driven Systems. All considered options operate as deep subcritical targets having neutron multiplication factor of k∼0.5. It is found that more than 4 kg of Am can be burned in one spallation target during the first year of operation.

  18. CONCEPTUAL PROCESS DESCRIPTION FOR THE MANUFACTURE OF LOW-ENRICHED URANIUM-MOLYBDENUM FUEL

    SciTech Connect

    Daniel M. Wachs; Curtis R. Clark; Randall J. Dunavant

    2008-02-01

    The National Nuclear Security Agency Global Threat Reduction Initiative (GTRI) is tasked with minimizing the use of high-enriched uranium (HEU) worldwide. A key component of that effort is the conversion of research reactors from HEU to low-enriched uranium (LEU) fuels. The GTRI Convert Fuel Development program, previously known as the Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactors program was initiated in 1978 by the United States Department of Energy to develop the nuclear fuels necessary to enable these conversions. The program cooperates with the research reactors’ operators to achieve this goal of HEU to LEU conversion without reduction in reactor performance. The programmatic mandate is to complete the conversion of all civilian domestic research reactors by 2014. These reactors include the five domestic high-performance research reactors (HPRR), namely: the High Flux Isotope Reactor at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, the Advanced Test Reactor at the Idaho National Laboratory, the National Bureau of Standards Reactor at the National Institute of Standards and Technology, the Missouri University Research Reactor at the University of Missouri–Columbia, and the MIT Reactor-II at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Characteristics for each of the HPRRs are given in Appendix A. The GTRI Convert Fuel Development program is currently engaged in the development of a novel nuclear fuel that will enable these conversions. The fuel design is based on a monolithic fuel meat (made from a uranium-molybdenum alloy) clad in Al-6061 that has shown excellent performance in irradiation testing. The unique aspects of the fuel design, however, necessitate the development and implementation of new fabrication techniques and, thus, establishment of the infrastructure to ensure adequate fuel fabrication capability. A conceptual fabrication process description and rough estimates of the total facility throughput are described in this document as a basis for

  19. Process for producing enriched uranium having a {sup 235}U content of at least 4 wt. % via combination of a gaseous diffusion process and an atomic vapor laser isotope separation process to eliminate uranium hexafluoride tails storage

    DOEpatents

    Horton, J.A.; Hayden, H.W. Jr.

    1995-05-30

    An uranium enrichment process capable of producing an enriched uranium, having a {sup 235}U content greater than about 4 wt. %, is disclosed which will consume less energy and produce metallic uranium tails having a lower {sup 235}U content than the tails normally produced in a gaseous diffusion separation process and, therefore, eliminate UF{sub 6} tails storage and sharply reduce fluorine use. The uranium enrichment process comprises feeding metallic uranium into an atomic vapor laser isotope separation process to produce an enriched metallic uranium isotopic mixture having a {sup 235} U content of at least about 2 wt. % and a metallic uranium residue containing from about 0.1 wt. % to about 0.2 wt. % {sup 235} U; fluorinating this enriched metallic uranium isotopic mixture to form UF{sub 6}; processing the resultant isotopic mixture of UF{sub 6} in a gaseous diffusion process to produce a final enriched uranium product having a {sup 235}U content of at least 4 wt. %, and up to 93.5 wt. % or higher, of the total uranium content of the product, and a low {sup 235}U content UF{sub 6} having a {sup 235}U content of about 0.71 wt. % of the total uranium content of the low {sup 235}U content UF{sub 6}; and converting this low {sup 235}U content UF{sub 6} to metallic uranium for recycle to the atomic vapor laser isotope separation process. 4 figs.

  20. Process for producing enriched uranium having a .sup.235 U content of at least 4 wt. % via combination of a gaseous diffusion process and an atomic vapor laser isotope separation process to eliminate uranium hexafluoride tails storage

    DOEpatents

    Horton, James A.; Hayden, Jr., Howard W.

    1995-01-01

    An uranium enrichment process capable of producing an enriched uranium, having a .sup.235 U content greater than about 4 wt. %, is disclosed which will consume less energy and produce metallic uranium tails having a lower .sup.235 U content than the tails normally produced in a gaseous diffusion separation process and, therefore, eliminate UF.sub.6 tails storage and sharply reduce fluorine use. The uranium enrichment process comprises feeding metallic uranium into an atomic vapor laser isotope separation process to produce an enriched metallic uranium isotopic mixture having a .sup.235 U content of at least about 2 wt. % and a metallic uranium residue containing from about 0.1 wt. % to about 0.2 wt. % .sup.235 U; fluorinating this enriched metallic uranium isotopic mixture to form UF.sub.6 ; processing the resultant isotopic mixture of UF.sub.6 in a gaseous diffusion process to produce a final enriched uranium product having a .sup.235 U content of at least 4 wt. %, and up to 93.5 wt. % or higher, of the total uranium content of the product, and a low .sup.235 U content UF.sub.6 having a .sup.235 U content of about 0.71 wt. % of the total uranium content of the low .sup.235 U content UF.sub.6 ; and converting this low .sup.235 U content UF.sub.6 to metallic uranium for recycle to the atomic vapor laser isotope separation process.

  1. Analysis of civilian processing programs in reduction of excess separated plutonium and high-enriched uranium

    SciTech Connect

    Persiani, P.J.

    1995-12-31

    The purpose of this preliminary investigation is to explore alternatives and strategies aimed at the gradual reduction of the excess inventories of separated plutonium and high-enriched uranium (HEU) in the civilian nuclear power industry. The study attempts to establish a technical and economic basis to assist in the formation of alternative approaches consistent with nonproliferation and safeguards concerns. The analysis addresses several options in reducing the excess separated plutonium and HEU, and the consequences on nonproliferation and safeguards policy assessments resulting from the interacting synergistic effects between fuel cycle processes and isotopic signatures of nuclear materials.

  2. Environmental assessment: Transfer of normal and low-enriched uranium billets to the United Kingdom, Hanford Site, Richland, Washington

    SciTech Connect

    1995-11-01

    Under the auspices of an agreement between the U.S. and the United Kingdom, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has an opportunity to transfer approximately 710,000 kilograms (1,562,000 pounds) of unneeded normal and low-enriched uranium (LEU) to the United Kingdom; thus, reducing long-term surveillance and maintenance burdens at the Hanford Site. The material, in the form of billets, is controlled by DOE`s Defense Programs, and is presently stored as surplus material in the 300 Area of the Hanford Site. The United Kingdom has expressed a need for the billets. The surplus uranium billets are currently stored in wooden shipping containers in secured facilities in the 300 Area at the Hanford Site (the 303-B and 303-G storage facilities). There are 482 billets at an enrichment level (based on uranium-235 content) of 0.71 weight-percent. This enrichment level is normal uranium; that is, uranium having 0.711 as the percentage by weight of uranium-235 as occurring in nature. There are 3,242 billets at an enrichment level of 0.95 weight-percent (i.e., low-enriched uranium). This inventory represents a total of approximately 532 curies. The facilities are routinely monitored. The dose rate on contact of a uranium billet is approximately 8 millirem per hour. The dose rate on contact of a wooden shipping container containing 4 billets is approximately 4 millirem per hour. The dose rate at the exterior of the storage facilities is indistinguishable from background levels.

  3. Uranium enrichment in lacustrine oil source rocks of the Chang 7 member of the Yanchang Formation, Erdos Basin, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Hua; Zhang, Wenzheng; Wu, Kai; Li, Shanpeng; Peng, Ping'an; Qin, Yan

    2010-09-01

    The oil source rocks of the Chang 7 member of the Yanchang Formation in the Erdos Basin were deposited during maximum lake extension during the Late Triassic and show a remarkable positive uranium anomaly, with an average uranium content as high as 51.1 μg/g. Uranium is enriched together with organic matter and elements such as Fe, S, Cu, V and Mo in the rocks. The detailed biological markers determined in the Chang 7 member indicate that the lake water column was oxidizing during deposition of the Chang 7 member. However, redox indicators for sediments such as S 2- content, V/Sc and V/(V + Ni) ratios demonstrate that it was a typical anoxic diagenetic setting. The contrasted redox conditions between the water column and the sediment with a very high content of organic matter provided favorable physical and chemical conditions for syngenetic uranium enrichment in the oil source rocks of the Chang 7 member. Possible uranium sources may be the extensive U-rich volcanic ash that resulted from contemporaneous volcanic eruption and uranium material transported by hydrothermal conduits into the basin. The uranium from terrestrial clastics was unlike because uranium concentration was not higher in the margin area of basin where the terrestrial material input was high. As indicated by correlative analysis, the oil source rocks of the Chang 7 member show high gamma-ray values for radioactive well log data that reflect a positive uranium anomaly and are characterized by high resistance, low electric potential and low density. As a result, well log data can be used to identify positive uranium anomalies and spatial distribution of the oil source rocks in the Erdos Basin. The estimation of the total uranium reserves in the Chang 7 member attain 0.8 × 10 8 t.

  4. Design Study for a Low-Enriched Uranium Core for the High Flux Isotope Reactor, Annual Report for FY 2008

    SciTech Connect

    Primm, Trent; Chandler, David; Ilas, Germina; Miller, James Henry; Sease, John D; Jolly, Brian C

    2009-03-01

    This report documents progress made during FY 2008 in studies of converting the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) from highly enriched uranium (HEU) fuel to low-enriched uranium (LEU) fuel. Conversion from HEU to LEU will require a change in fuel form from uranium oxide to a uranium-molybdenum alloy. With axial and radial grading of the fuel foil and an increase in reactor power to 100 MW, calculations indicate that the HFIR can be operated with LEU fuel with no degradation in reactor performance from the current level. Results of selected benchmark studies imply that calculations of LEU performance are accurate. Scoping experiments with various manufacturing methods for forming the LEU alloy profile are presented.

  5. Reactor Physics Measurements and Benchmark Specifications for Oak Ridge Highly Enriched Uranium Sphere (ORSphere)

    SciTech Connect

    Marshall, Margaret A.

    2014-11-04

    In the early 1970s Dr. John T. Mihalczo (team leader), J.J. Lynn, and J.R. Taylor performed experiments at the Oak Ridge Critical Experiments Facility (ORCEF) with highly enriched uranium (HEU) metal (called Oak Ridge Alloy or ORALLOY) in an effort to recreate GODIVA I results with greater accuracy than those performed at Los Alamos National Laboratory in the 1950s. The purpose of the Oak Ridge ORALLOY Sphere (ORSphere) experiments was to estimate the unreflected and unmoderated critical mass of an idealized sphere of uranium metal corrected to a density, purity, and enrichment such that it could be compared with the GODIVA I experiments. Additionally, various material reactivity worths, the surface material worth coefficient, the delayed neutron fraction, the prompt neutron decay constant, relative fission density, and relative neutron importance were all measured. The critical assembly, material reactivity worths, the surface material worth coefficient, and the delayed neutron fraction were all evaluated as benchmark experiment measurements. The reactor physics measurements are the focus of this paper; although for clarity the critical assembly benchmark specifications are briefly discussed.

  6. Pajarito Monitor: a high-sensitivity monitoring system for highly enriched uranium

    SciTech Connect

    Fehlau, P.E.; Coop, K.; Garcia, C. Jr.; Martinez, J.

    1984-01-01

    The Pajarito Monitor for Special Nuclear Material is a high-sensitivity gamma-ray monitoring system for detecting small quantities of highly enriched uranium transported by pedestrians or motor vehicles. The monitor consists of two components: a walk-through personnel monitor and a vehicle monitor. The personnel monitor has a plastic-scintillator detector portal, a microwave occupancy monitor, and a microprocessor control unit that measures the radiation intensity during background and monitoring periods to detect transient diversion signals. The vehicle monitor examines stationary motor vehicles while the vehicle's occupants pass through the personnel portal to exchange their badges. The vehicle monitor has four groups of large plastic scintillators that scan the vehicle from above and below. Its microprocessor control unit measures separate radiation intensities in each detector group. Vehicle occupancy is sensed by a highway traffic detection system. Each monitor's controller is responsible for detecting diversion as well as serving as a calibration and trouble-shooting aid. Diversion signals are detected by a sequential probability ratio hypothesis test that minimizes the monitoring time in the vehicle monitor and adapts itself well to variations in individual passage speed in the personnel monitor. Designed to be highly sensitive to diverted enriched uranium, the monitoring system also exhibits exceptional sensitivity for plutonium. 6 references, 9 figures, 2 tables.

  7. Partial Safety Analysis for a Reduced Uranium Enrichment Core for the High Flux Isotope Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Primm, Trent; Gehin, Jess C

    2009-04-01

    A computational model of the reactor core of the High Flux Isotope Rector (HFIR) was developed in order to analyze non-destructive accidents caused by transients during reactor operation. The reactor model was built for the latest version of the nuclear analysis software package called Program for the Analysis of Reactor Transients (PARET). Analyses performed with the model constructed were compared with previous data obtained with other tools in order to benchmark the code. Finally, the model was used to analyze the behavior of the reactor under transients using a different nuclear fuel with lower enrichment of uranium (LEU) than the fuel currently used, which has a high enrichment of uranium (HEU). The study shows that the presence of fertile isotopes in LEU fuel, which increases the neutron resonance absorption, reduces the impact of transients on the fuel and enhances the negative reactivity feedback, thus, within the limitations of this study, making LEU fuel appear to be a safe alternative fuel for the reactor core.

  8. Reactor Physics Measurements and Benchmark Specifications for Oak Ridge Highly Enriched Uranium Sphere (ORSphere)

    DOE PAGES

    Marshall, Margaret A.

    2014-11-04

    In the early 1970s Dr. John T. Mihalczo (team leader), J.J. Lynn, and J.R. Taylor performed experiments at the Oak Ridge Critical Experiments Facility (ORCEF) with highly enriched uranium (HEU) metal (called Oak Ridge Alloy or ORALLOY) in an effort to recreate GODIVA I results with greater accuracy than those performed at Los Alamos National Laboratory in the 1950s. The purpose of the Oak Ridge ORALLOY Sphere (ORSphere) experiments was to estimate the unreflected and unmoderated critical mass of an idealized sphere of uranium metal corrected to a density, purity, and enrichment such that it could be compared with themore » GODIVA I experiments. Additionally, various material reactivity worths, the surface material worth coefficient, the delayed neutron fraction, the prompt neutron decay constant, relative fission density, and relative neutron importance were all measured. The critical assembly, material reactivity worths, the surface material worth coefficient, and the delayed neutron fraction were all evaluated as benchmark experiment measurements. The reactor physics measurements are the focus of this paper; although for clarity the critical assembly benchmark specifications are briefly discussed.« less

  9. Air Shipment of Highly Enriched Uranium Spent Nuclear Fuel from Romania

    SciTech Connect

    K. J. Allen; I. Bolshinsky; L. L. Biro; M. E. Budu; N. V. Zamfir; M. Dragusin

    2010-07-01

    Romania safely air shipped 23.7 kilograms of Russian origin highly enriched uranium (HEU) spent nuclear fuel from the VVR S research reactor at Magurele, Romania, to the Russian Federation in June 2009. This was the world’s first air shipment of spent nuclear fuel transported in a Type B(U) cask under existing international laws without special exceptions for the air transport licenses. This shipment was coordinated by the Russian Research Reactor Fuel Return Program (RRRFR), part of the U.S. Department of Energy Global Threat Reduction Initiative (GTRI), in cooperation with the Romania National Commission for Nuclear Activities Control (CNCAN), the Horia Hulubei National Institute of Physics and Nuclear Engineering (IFIN-HH), and the Russian Federation State Corporation Rosatom. The shipment was transported by truck to and from the respective commercial airports in Romania and the Russian Federation and stored at a secure nuclear facility in Russia where it will be converted into low enriched uranium. With this shipment, Romania became the 3rd country under the RRRFR program and the 14th country under the GTRI program to remove all HEU. This paper describes the work, equipment, and approvals that were required to complete this spent fuel air shipment.

  10. ZPR-3 Assembly 12 : A cylindrical assembly of highly enriched uranium, depleted uranium and graphite with an average {sup 235}U enrichment of 21 atom %.

    SciTech Connect

    Lell, R. M.; McKnight, R. D.; Perel, R. L.; Wagschal, J. J.; Nuclear Engineering Division; Racah Inst. of Physics

    2010-09-30

    Over a period of 30 years, more than a hundred Zero Power Reactor (ZPR) critical assemblies were constructed at Argonne National Laboratory. The ZPR facilities, ZPR-3, ZPR-6, ZPR-9 and ZPPR, were all fast critical assembly facilities. The ZPR critical assemblies were constructed to support fast reactor development, but data from some of these assemblies are also well suited for nuclear data validation and to form the basis for criticality safety benchmarks. A number of the Argonne ZPR/ZPPR critical assemblies have been evaluated as ICSBEP and IRPhEP benchmarks. Of the three classes of ZPR assemblies, engineering mockups, engineering benchmarks and physics benchmarks, the last group tends to be most useful for criticality safety. Because physics benchmarks were designed to test fast reactor physics data and methods, they were as simple as possible in geometry and composition. The principal fissile species was {sup 235}U or {sup 239}Pu. Fuel enrichments ranged from 9% to 95%. Often there were only one or two main core diluent materials, such as aluminum, graphite, iron, sodium or stainless steel. The cores were reflected (and insulated from room return effects) by one or two layers of materials such as depleted uranium, lead or stainless steel. Despite their more complex nature, a small number of assemblies from the other two classes would make useful criticality safety benchmarks because they have features related to criticality safety issues, such as reflection by soil-like material. ZPR-3 Assembly 12 (ZPR-3/12) was designed as a fast reactor physics benchmark experiment with an average core {sup 235}U enrichment of approximately 21 at.%. Approximately 68.9% of the total fissions in this assembly occur above 100 keV, approximately 31.1% occur below 100 keV, and essentially none below 0.625 eV - thus the classification as a 'fast' assembly. This assembly is Fast Reactor Benchmark No. 9 in the Cross Section Evaluation Working Group (CSEWG) Benchmark Specifications

  11. TYPE AF CERTIFICATE FOR TRANSPORTATION OF LOW ENRICHED URANIUM OXIDE (LEUO) FOR DISPOSAL

    SciTech Connect

    Opperman, E; Kenneth Yates, K

    2007-10-19

    Washington Savannah River Company (WSRC) operates the Savannah River Site (SRS) in Aiken, SC under contract with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). SRS had the need to ship 227 drums of low enriched uranium oxide (LEUO) to a disposal site. The LEUO had been packaged nearly 25 years ago in U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) 17C 55-gallon drums and stored in a warehouse. Since the 235U enrichment was just above 1 percent by weight (wt%) the material did not qualify for the fissile material exceptions in 49 CFR 173.453, and therefore was categorized as 'fissile material' for shipping purposes. WSRC evaluated all existing Type AF packages and did not identify any feasible packaging. Applying for a new Type AF certificate of compliance was considered too costly for a one-time/one-way shipment for disposal. Down-blending the material with depleted uranium (to reduce enrichment below 1 wt% and enable shipment as low specific activity (LSA) radioactive material) was considered, but appropriate blending facilities do not exist at SRS. After reviewing all options, WSRC concluded that seeking a DOT Special Permit was the best option to enable shipment of the material for permanent disposal. WSRC submitted the Special Permit application to the DOT, and after one request-for-additional-information (RAI) the permit was considered acceptable. However, in an interesting development that resulted from the DOT Special Permit application process, it was determined that it was more appropriate for the DOE to issue a Type AF certificate [Ref. 1] for this shipping campaign. This paper will outline the DOT Special Permit application and Type AF considerations, and will discuss the issuance of the new DOE Type AF certificate of compliance.

  12. PREPARING THE HIGH FLUX ISOTOPE REACTOR FOR CONVERSION TO LOW ENRICHED URANIUM FUEL ? RETURN TO 100 MW

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Kevin Arthur; Primm, Trent

    2009-01-01

    The feasibility of low-enriched uranium (LEU) fuel as a replacement for the current, high enriched uranium (HEU) fuel for the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) has been under study since 2006. Reactor performance studies have been completed for conceptual plate designs and show that maintaining reactor performance while converting to LEU fuel requires returning the reactor power to 100 MW from 85 MW. The analyses required to up-rate the reactor power and the methods to perform these analyses are discussed. Comments regarding the regulatory approval process are provided along with a conceptual schedule.

  13. [Enrichment and release of uranium during weathering of sedimentary rocks in Wujiang catchments].

    PubMed

    Song, Zhao-Liang; Liu, Cong-Qiang; Han, Gui-Lin; Wang, Zhong-Liang; Yang, Cheng; Liu, Zhan-Min

    2006-11-01

    Thirteen weathering profiles of typical rocks such as limestone, dolomitic limestone, dolomite, sillcalite, black shale and purple sandrock from Wujiang catchments were selected for discussing enrichment and release behavior of uranium (U) during rock weathering, and studying its impact on riverine U distribution in the catchments during weathering of these rocks with methods of correlation analysis and mass balance calculation. The purpose of this study is to improve our understanding on biogechemical cycling of U and set a basis for catchment protection against U pollution. The results show that the enrichment extent of U in soils from the Wujiang catchments is usually higher than that of upper continental crust (UCC), China soil (CS) and world soil (WS). The ability of enrichment and release of U is partly controlled by content of U in bedrocks, contents and adsorption ability of clay minerals and Fe-oxides/hydroxides in weathering profiles. Our study also reveals that release of U mainly from weathering of limestone and partly from weathering of dolomite and clastic rocks exerts an important control on riverine U distribution.

  14. RADIO FREQUENCY IDENTIFICATION DEVICES: EFFECTIVENESS IN IMPROVING SAFEGUARDS AT GAS-CENTRIFUGE URANIUM-ENRICHMENT PLANTS.

    SciTech Connect

    JOE,J.

    2007-07-08

    Recent advances in radio frequency identification devices (RFIDs) have engendered a growing interest among international safeguards experts. Potentially, RFIDs could reduce inspection work, viz. the number of inspections, number of samples, and duration of the visits, and thus improve the efficiency and effectiveness of international safeguards. This study systematically examined the applications of RFIDs for IAEA safeguards at large gas-centrifuge enrichment plants (GCEPs). These analyses are expected to help identify the requirements and desirable properties for RFIDs, to provide insights into which vulnerabilities matter most, and help formulate the required assurance tests. This work, specifically assesses the application of RFIDs for the ''Option 4'' safeguards approach, proposed by Bruce Moran, U. S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), for large gas-centrifuge uranium-enrichment plants. The features of ''Option 4'' safeguards include placing RFIDs on all feed, product and tails (F/P/T) cylinders, along with WID readers in all FP/T stations and accountability scales. Other features of Moran's ''Option 4'' are Mailbox declarations, monitoring of load-cell-based weighing systems at the F/P/T stations and accountability scales, and continuous enrichment monitors. Relevant diversion paths were explored to evaluate how RFIDs improve the efficiency and effectiveness of safeguards. Additionally, the analysis addresses the use of RFIDs in conjunction with video monitoring and neutron detectors in a perimeter-monitoring approach to show that RFIDs can help to detect unidentified cylinders.

  15. Uranium series disequilibrium and high thorium and radium enrichments in Karst formations

    SciTech Connect

    Gunten, H.R. von; Roessler, E.; Surbeck, H.

    1996-04-01

    We found, in limestone Karst soils of the Jura Mountains and of the mountains in the central part of Switzerland, an enrichment up to a factor 20 of {sup 230}Th and {sup 226}Ra with respect to the activities of their progenitors, {sup 234}U and {sup 238}U. Thus, a significant radioactive disequilibrium exists between {sup 238/234}U and {sup 230}Th and {sup 226}Ra. The enrichment of {sup 226}Ra leads to locally high concentrations of its decay product, the noble gas {sup 222}Rn. We propose continuous chemical weathering of limestone (calcite) fragments within the soil column as a plausible cause for the high {sup 230}Th, {sup 226}Ra, and {sup 222}Rn activities. Uranium, contained within calcite, is released during weathering and migrates as stable uranyl carbonate complexes through the soil column. In contrast, its decay products ({sup 230}Th and {sup 226}Ra) hydrolyze, are strongly sorbed to soil particles, and/or form insoluble compounds that become more and more enriched in the soil as this process continues in time. 39 refs., 3 figs., 5 tabs.

  16. Accident Analyses for Conversion of the University of Missouri Research Reactor (MURR) from Highly-Enriched to Low-Enriched Uranium

    SciTech Connect

    Stillman, J. A.; Feldman, E. E.; Wilson, E. H.; Foyto, L. P.; Kutikkad, K.; McKibben, J. C.; Peters, N. J.; Cowherd, W. M.; Rickman, B.

    2014-12-01

    This report contains the results of reactor accident analyses for the University of Missouri Research Reactor (MURR). The calculations were performed as part of the conversion from the use of highly-enriched uranium (HEU) fuel to the use of low-enriched uranium (LEU) fuel. The analyses were performed by staff members of the Global Threat Reduction Initiative (GTRI) Reactor Conversion Program at the Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), the MURR Facility, and the Nuclear Engineering Program – College of Engineering, University of Missouri-Columbia. The core conversion to LEU is being performed with financial support from the U. S. government. This report contains the results of reactor accident analyses for the University of Missouri Research Reactor (MURR). The calculations were performed as part of the conversion from the use of highly-enriched uranium (HEU) fuel to the use of low-enriched uranium (LEU) fuel. The analyses were performed by staff members of the Global Threat Reduction Initiative (GTRI) Reactor Conversion Program at the Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), the MURR Facility, and the Nuclear Engineering Program – College of Engineering, University of Missouri-Columbia. The core conversion to LEU is being performed with financial support from the U. S. government. In the framework of non-proliferation policies, the international community presently aims to minimize the amount of nuclear material available that could be used for nuclear weapons. In this geopolitical context most research and test reactors, both domestic and international, have started a program of conversion to the use of LEU fuel. A new type of LEU fuel based on an alloy of uranium and molybdenum (U-Mo) is expected to allow the conversion of U.S. domestic high performance reactors like MURR. This report presents the results of a study of core behavior under a set of accident conditions for MURR cores fueled with HEU U-Alx dispersion fuel or LEU monolithic U-Mo alloy fuel with 10 wt% Mo

  17. RUSSIAN-ORIGIN HIGHLY ENRICHED URANIUM SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL SHIPMENT FROM BULGARIA

    SciTech Connect

    Kelly Cummins; Igor Bolshinsky; Ken Allen; Tihomir Apostolov; Ivaylo Dimitrov

    2009-07-01

    In July 2008, the Global Threat Reduction Initiative and the IRT 2000 research reactor in Sofia, Bulgaria, operated by the Institute for Nuclear Research and Nuclear Energy (INRNE), safely shipped 6.4 kilograms of Russian origin highly enriched uranium (HEU) spent nuclear fuel (SNF) to the Russian Federation. The shipment, which resulted in the removal of all HEU from Bulgaria, was conducted by truck, barge, and rail modes of transport across two transit countries before reaching the final destination at the Production Association Mayak facility in Chelyabinsk, Russia. This paper describes the work, equipment, organizations, and approvals that were required to complete the spent fuel shipment and provides lessons learned that might assist other research reactor operators with their own spent nuclear fuel shipments.

  18. Why is weapons grade plutonium more hazardous to work with than highly enriched uranium?

    DOE PAGES

    Cournoyer, Michael E.; Costigan, Stephen A.; Schake, Bradley S.

    2015-08-01

    Highly Enriched Uranium and Weapons grade plutonium have assumed positions of dominant importance among the actinide elements because of their successful uses as explosive ingredients in nuclear weapons and the place they hold as key materials in the development of industrial use of nuclear power. While most chemists are familiar with the practical interest concerning HEU and WG Pu, fewer know the subtleties among their hazards. In this study, a primer is provided regarding the hazards associated with working with HEU and WG Pu metals and oxides. The care that must be taken to safely handle these materials is emphasizedmore » and the extent of the hazards is described. The controls needed to work with HEU and WG Pu metals and oxides are differentiated. Given the choice, one would rather work with HEU metal and oxides than WG Pu metal and oxides.« less

  19. Calculation of parameters for inspection planning and evaluation: low enriched uranium conversion and fuel fabrication facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Reardon, P.T.; Mullen, M.F.; Harms, N.L.

    1981-02-01

    As part of Task C.35 (Calculation of Parameters for Inspection Planning and Evaluation) of the US Program of Technical Assistance to IAEA Safeguards, Pacific Northwest Laboratory has performed some quantitative analyses of IAEA inspection activities at low-enriched uranium (LEU) conversion and fuel fabrication facilities. This report presents the results and conclusions of those analyses. Implementation of IAEA safeguards at LEU conversion and fuel fabrication facilities must take into account a variety of practical problems and constraints. One of the key concerns is the problem of flow verification, especially product verification. The objective of this report is to help put the problem of flow verification in perspective by presenting the results of some specific calculations of inspection effort and probability of detection for various product measurement strategies. In order to provide quantitative information about the advantages and disadvantages of the various strategies, eight specific cases were examined.

  20. Why is weapons grade plutonium more hazardous to work with than highly enriched uranium?

    SciTech Connect

    Cournoyer, Michael E.; Costigan, Stephen A.; Schake, Bradley S.

    2015-08-01

    Highly Enriched Uranium and Weapons grade plutonium have assumed positions of dominant importance among the actinide elements because of their successful uses as explosive ingredients in nuclear weapons and the place they hold as key materials in the development of industrial use of nuclear power. While most chemists are familiar with the practical interest concerning HEU and WG Pu, fewer know the subtleties among their hazards. In this study, a primer is provided regarding the hazards associated with working with HEU and WG Pu metals and oxides. The care that must be taken to safely handle these materials is emphasized and the extent of the hazards is described. The controls needed to work with HEU and WG Pu metals and oxides are differentiated. Given the choice, one would rather work with HEU metal and oxides than WG Pu metal and oxides.

  1. Natural phenomena hazards evaluation of equipment and piping of Gaseous Diffusion Plant Uranium Enrichment Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Singhal, M.K.; Kincaid, J.H.; Hammond, C.R.; Stockdale, B.I.; Walls, J.C.; Brock, W.R.; Denton, D.R.

    1995-12-31

    In support of the Gaseous Diffusion Plant Safety Analysis Report Upgrade program (GDP SARUP), a natural phenomena hazards evaluation was performed for the main process equipment and piping in the uranium enrichment buildings at Paducah and Portsmouth gaseous diffusion plants. In order to reduce the cost of rigorous analyses, the evaluation methodology utilized a graded approach based on an experience data base collected by SQUG/EPRI that contains information on the performance of industrial equipment and piping during past earthquakes. This method consisted of a screening walkthrough of the facility in combination with the use of engineering judgment and simple calculations. By using these screenings combined with evaluations that contain decreasing conservatism, reductions in the time and cost of the analyses were significant. A team of experienced seismic engineers who were trained in the use of the DOE SQUG/EPRI Walkdown Screening Material was essential to the success of this natural phenomena hazards evaluation.

  2. Active-Interrogation Measurements of Induced-Fission Neutrons from Low-Enriched Uranium

    SciTech Connect

    J. L. Dolan; M. J. Marcath; M. Flaska; S. A. Pozzi; D. L. Chichester; A. Tomanin; P. Peerani; G. Nebbia

    2012-07-01

    Protection and control of nuclear fuels is paramount for nuclear security and safeguards; therefore, it is important to develop fast and robust controlling mechanisms to ensure the safety of nuclear fuels. Through both passive- and active-interrogation methods we can use fast-neutron detection to perform real-time measurements of fission neutrons for process monitoring. Active interrogation allows us to use different ranges of incident neutron energy to probe for different isotopes of uranium. With fast-neutron detectors, such as organic liquid scintillation detectors, we can detect the induced-fission neutrons and photons and work towards quantifying a sample’s mass and enrichment. Using MCNPX-PoliMi, a system was designed to measure induced-fission neutrons from U-235 and U-238. Measurements were then performed in the summer of 2010 at the Joint Research Centre in Ispra, Italy. Fissions were induced with an associated particle D-T generator and an isotopic Am-Li source. The fission neutrons, as well as neutrons from (n, 2n) and (n, 3n) reactions, were measured with five 5” by 5” EJ-309 organic liquid scintillators. The D-T neutron generator was available as part of a measurement campaign in place by Padova University. The measurement and data-acquisition systems were developed at the University of Michigan utilizing a CAEN V1720 digitizer and pulse-shape discrimination algorithms to differentiate neutron and photon detections. Low-enriched uranium samples of varying mass and enrichment were interrogated. Acquired time-of-flight curves and cross-correlation curves are currently analyzed to draw relationships between detected neutrons and sample mass and enrichment. In the full paper, the promise of active-interrogation measurements and fast-neutron detection will be assessed through the example of this proof-of-concept measurement campaign. Additionally, MCNPX-PoliMi simulation results will be compared to the measured data to validate the MCNPX-PoliMi code

  3. Criticality of a Neptunium-237 sphere surrounded with highly enriched uranium shells and an iron reflector

    SciTech Connect

    Sanchez, R. G.; Loaiza, D. J.; Hayes, D. K.; Kimpland, R. H.

    2004-01-01

    An additional experiment has been performed using the recently cast 6-kg {sup 237}Np sphere. The experiment consisted of surrounding the neptunium sphere with highly enriched uranium and an iron reflector. The purpose of the critical experiment is to provide additional criticality data that can be used to validate criticality safety evaluations involving the deposition of neptunium. It is well known that {sup 237}Np is primarily produced by successive neutron capture events in {sup 235}U or through the (n, 2n) reaction in {sup 238}U. These nuclear reactions lead to the production of {sup 237}U, which decays by beta emission into {sup 237}Np. In addition, in the spent fuel, {sup 241}Am decays by alpha emission into {sup 237}Np. Because {sup 237}Np is a threshold fissioner, the best reflectors for critical systems containing neptunium are those materials that exhibit good neutron scattering properties such as low carbon steel (99 wt % Fe). In this experiment, the iron reflector reduced the amount of uranium used in the critical experiment and increased the importance of the neptunium sphere.

  4. Validity of Hansen-Roach cross sections in low-enriched uranium systems

    SciTech Connect

    Busch, R.D. ); O'Dell, R.D. )

    1991-01-01

    Within the nuclear criticality safety community, the Hansen-Roach 16 group cross section set has been the standard'' for use in k{sub eff} calculations over the past 30 years. Yet even with its widespread acceptance, there are still questions about its validity and adequacy, about the proper procedure for calculating the potential scattering cross section, {sigma}{sub p}, for uranium and plutonium, and about the concept of resonance self shielding and its impact on cross sections. This paper attempts to address these questions. It provides a brief background on the Hansen-Roach cross sections. Next is presented a review of resonances in cross sections, self shielding of these resonances, and the use of {sigma}{sub p} to characterize resonance self shielding. Three prescriptions for calculating {sigma}{sub p} are given. Finally, results of several calculations of k{sub eff} on low-enriched uranium systems are provided to confirm the validity of the Hansen-Roach cross sections when applied to such systems.

  5. Enrichment of specific protozoan populations during in situ bioremediation of uranium-contaminated groundwater

    SciTech Connect

    Holmes, Dawn; Giloteaux, L.; Williams, Kenneth H.; Wrighton, Kelly C.; Wilkins, Michael J.; Thompson, Courtney A.; Roper, Thomas J.; Long, Philip E.; Lovley, Derek

    2013-07-28

    The importance of bacteria in the anaerobic bioremediation of groundwater polluted with organic and/or metal contaminants is well-recognized and in some instances so well understood that modeling of the in situ metabolic activity of the relevant subsurface microorganisms in response to changes in subsurface geochemistry is feasible. However, a potentially significant factor influencing bacterial growth and activity in the subsurface that has not been adequately addressed is protozoan predation of the microorganisms responsible for bioremediation. In field experiments at a uranium-contaminated aquifer located in Rifle, CO, acetate amendments initially promoted the growth of metal-reducing Geobacter species followed by the growth of sulfate-reducers, as previously observed. Analysis of 18S rRNA gene sequences revealed a broad diversity of sequences closely related to known bacteriovorous protozoa in the groundwater prior to the addition of acetate. The bloom of Geobacter species was accompanied by a specific enrichment of sequences most closely related to the amoeboid flagellate, Breviata anathema, which at their peak accounted for over 80% of the sequences recovered. The abundance of Geobacter species declined following the rapid emergence of B. anathema. The subsequent growth of sulfate-reducing Peptococcaceae was accompanied by another specific enrichment of protozoa, but with sequences most similar to diplomonadid flagellates from the family Hexamitidae, which accounted for up to 100% of the sequences recovered during this phase of the bioremediation. These results suggest a prey-predator response with specific protozoa responding to increased availability of preferred prey bacteria. Thus, quantifying the influence of protozoan predation on the growth, activity, and composition of the subsurface bacterial community is essential for predictive modeling of in situ uranium bioremediation strategies.

  6. Enrichment of specific protozoan populations during in situ bioremediation of uranium-contaminated groundwater

    PubMed Central

    Holmes, Dawn E; Giloteaux, Ludovic; Williams, Kenneth H; Wrighton, Kelly C; Wilkins, Michael J; Thompson, Courtney A; Roper, Thomas J; Long, Philip E; Lovley, Derek R

    2013-01-01

    The importance of bacteria in the anaerobic bioremediation of groundwater polluted with organic and/or metal contaminants is well recognized and in some instances so well understood that modeling of the in situ metabolic activity of the relevant subsurface microorganisms in response to changes in subsurface geochemistry is feasible. However, a potentially significant factor influencing bacterial growth and activity in the subsurface that has not been adequately addressed is protozoan predation of the microorganisms responsible for bioremediation. In field experiments at a uranium-contaminated aquifer located in Rifle, CO, USA, acetate amendments initially promoted the growth of metal-reducing Geobacter species, followed by the growth of sulfate reducers, as observed previously. Analysis of 18S rRNA gene sequences revealed a broad diversity of sequences closely related to known bacteriovorous protozoa in the groundwater before the addition of acetate. The bloom of Geobacter species was accompanied by a specific enrichment of sequences most closely related to the ameboid flagellate, Breviata anathema, which at their peak accounted for over 80% of the sequences recovered. The abundance of Geobacter species declined following the rapid emergence of B. anathema. The subsequent growth of sulfate-reducing Peptococcaceae was accompanied by another specific enrichment of protozoa, but with sequences most similar to diplomonadid flagellates from the family Hexamitidae, which accounted for up to 100% of the sequences recovered during this phase of the bioremediation. These results suggest a prey–predator response with specific protozoa responding to increased availability of preferred prey bacteria. Thus, quantifying the influence of protozoan predation on the growth, activity and composition of the subsurface bacterial community is essential for predictive modeling of in situ uranium bioremediation strategies. PMID:23446832

  7. 77 FR 33253 - Regulatory Guide 8.24, Revision 2, Health Physics Surveys During Enriched Uranium-235 Processing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-05

    ...- 8040 on March 22, 2010 (75 FR 13599). This guide specifies the types and frequencies of surveys that... March 22, 2010, DG-8040 was published with a request for public comments (75 FR 13599). The public... COMMISSION Regulatory Guide 8.24, Revision 2, Health Physics Surveys During Enriched Uranium-235...

  8. 78 FR 21416 - Low Enriched Uranium From France; Scheduling of a Full Five-year Review Concerning the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-10

    ... institution of the subject five-year review, pursuant to section 751(c)(5) of the Act (78 FR 19311, March 29... amended. The amendments took effect on November 7, 2011. See 76 FR 61937 (Oct. 6, 2011) and the newly... COMMISSION Low Enriched Uranium From France; Scheduling of a Full Five-year Review Concerning the...

  9. 78 FR 21100 - Low Enriched Uranium From France: Final Results of the Expedited Second Sunset Review of the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-09

    ... FR 6680 (February 13, 2002). On December 1, 2012, the Department initiated the second sunset review... Initiation of Five-Year (``Sunset'') Review, 77 FR 71684 (December 3, 2012). The Department received a notice... International Trade Administration Low Enriched Uranium From France: Final Results of the Expedited...

  10. Improved accountability method for measuring enriched uranium in H-Canyon dissolver solution at the Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    Maxwell, S.L. III; Satkowski, J.; Mahannah, R.N.

    1992-01-01

    At the Savannah River Site (SRS), accountability measurement of enriched uranium dissolved in H-Canyon is performed using isotope dilution mass spectrometry (IDMS). In the IDMS analytical method, a known quantity of uranium{sup 233} is added to the sample solution containing enriched uranium and fission products. The resulting uranium mixture must first be purified using a separation technique in the shielded analytical( hot'') cells to lower radioactivity levels by removing fission products. Following this purification, the sample is analyzed by mass spectrometry to determine the total uranium content and isotopic abundance. The magnitude of the response of each uranium isotope in the sample solution and the response of the U{sup 233} spike is measured. By ratioing these responses, relative to the known quantity of the U{sup 233} spike, the uranium content can be determined. A hexane solvent extraction technique, used for years at SRS to remove fission products prior to the mass spectrometry analysis of uranium, has several problems. The hexone method is tedious, requires additional sample clean-up after the purified sample is removed from the shielded cells and requires the use of Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA)-listed hazardous materials (hexone and chromium compounds). A new high speed separation method that enables a rapid removal of fission products in a shielded cells environment has been developed by the SRS Central Laboratory to replace the hexone method. The new high speed column extraction chromatography technique employs applied vacuum and columns containing tri (2-ethyl-hexyl) phosphate (TEHP) solvent coated on a small particle inert support (SM-7 Bio Beads). The new separation is rapid, user friendly, eliminates the use of the RCA-listed hazardous chemicals and reduces the amount of solid waste generated by the separation method. 2 tabs. 4 figs.

  11. Improved accountability method for measuring enriched uranium in H-Canyon dissolver solution at the Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    Maxwell, S.L. III; Satkowski, J.; Mahannah, R.N.

    1992-08-01

    At the Savannah River Site (SRS), accountability measurement of enriched uranium dissolved in H-Canyon is performed using isotope dilution mass spectrometry (IDMS). In the IDMS analytical method, a known quantity of uranium{sup 233} is added to the sample solution containing enriched uranium and fission products. The resulting uranium mixture must first be purified using a separation technique in the shielded analytical(``hot``) cells to lower radioactivity levels by removing fission products. Following this purification, the sample is analyzed by mass spectrometry to determine the total uranium content and isotopic abundance. The magnitude of the response of each uranium isotope in the sample solution and the response of the U{sup 233} spike is measured. By ratioing these responses, relative to the known quantity of the U{sup 233} spike, the uranium content can be determined. A hexane solvent extraction technique, used for years at SRS to remove fission products prior to the mass spectrometry analysis of uranium, has several problems. The hexone method is tedious, requires additional sample clean-up after the purified sample is removed from the shielded cells and requires the use of Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA)-listed hazardous materials (hexone and chromium compounds). A new high speed separation method that enables a rapid removal of fission products in a shielded cells environment has been developed by the SRS Central Laboratory to replace the hexone method. The new high speed column extraction chromatography technique employs applied vacuum and columns containing tri (2-ethyl-hexyl) phosphate (TEHP) solvent coated on a small particle inert support (SM-7 Bio Beads). The new separation is rapid, user friendly, eliminates the use of the RCA-listed hazardous chemicals and reduces the amount of solid waste generated by the separation method. 2 tabs. 4 figs.

  12. The use of targeted and non-targeted advertising to enrich skin cancer screening samples.

    PubMed

    Katris, P; Donovan, R J; Gray, B N

    1996-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether the risk factor profile of persons attending skin cancer screening clinics could be enriched by appropriate advertising prior to the screening events. Eleven screening clinics were held in eight rural and three suburban communities. Matched communities were randomly assigned to either a target or non-target condition. Targeted communities received an advertisement designed to attract high-risk individuals. The advertisement listed a number of risk factors and encouraged readers with one or more of the listed risk factors to attend the screening. Non-targeted communities received a general advertisement requesting individuals who felt they were at risk of skin cancer to attend the clinic. Risk factor profiles of all participants were measured on the factors listed in the targeted advertisement. The risk factor profiles of screenees and the referral rates for skin lesions requiring attention were significantly higher in the targeted communities than in the non-targeted communities. Lesions suspicious of malignant melanoma or Hutchinson's melanotic freckle also were higher, but not statistically significant, in the targeted communities. Population samples attending community-based skin cancer screening clinics can be enriched by appropriate targeted advertising prior to the screening events. This has important implications for determining the potential cost-effectiveness of population screening programmes.

  13. LABORATORY DEMONSTRATION OF A MULTISENSOR UNATTENDED CYLINDER VERIFICATION STATION FOR URANIUM ENRICHMENT PLANT SAFEGUARDS

    SciTech Connect

    Goodman, David I; Rowland, Kelly L; Smith, Sheriden; Miller, Karen A.; Flynn, Eric B.

    2014-01-10

    The objective of safeguards is the timely detection of the diversion of a significant quantity of nuclear materials, and safeguarding uranium enrichment plants is especially important in preventing the spread of nuclear weapons. The IAEA’s proposed Unattended Cylinder Verification Station (UCVS) for UF6 cylinder verification would combine the operator’s accountancy scale with a nondestructive assay system such as the Passive Neutron Enrichment Meter (PNEM) and cylinder identification and surveillance systems. In this project, we built a laboratory-scale UCVS and demonstrated its capabilities using mock UF6 cylinders. We developed a signal processing algorithm to automate the data collection and processing from four continuous, unattended sensors. The laboratory demonstration of the system showed that the software could successfully identify cylinders, snip sensor data at the appropriate points in time, determine the relevant characteristics of the cylinder contents, check for consistency among sensors, and output the cylinder data to a file. This paper describes the equipment, algorithm and software development, laboratory demonstration, and recommendations for a full-scale UCVS.

  14. Highly enriched isotope samples of uranium and transuranium elements for scientific investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vesnovskii, Stanislav P.; Polynov, Vladimir N.; Danilin, Lev. D.

    1992-02-01

    The paper describes the production of highly enriched isotopes of uranium, plutonium, americium and curium by electromagnetic separation for scientific and applied researches in physics, chemistry, geology, medicine, biology and other fields. Using the equipment described, the isotopes are produced in quantities sufficient to set up nuclear physical experiments, to produce nuclear reference materials and standard sources for calibration of radiometrical and mass spectrometrical equipment, in radionuclide metrology, etc. For the following isotopes the indicated degrees of isotopic enrichment were achieved: 233U - 99.97%; 235U - 99.97%; 236U - 98.0%; 238U - 99.997%; 238Pu - 99.6%; 239Pu - 99.9977%; 240Pu - 99.9-100%; 241Pu - 96.998%; 242Pu - 97.8-99.96%; 244Pu - 96.7%; 241Am - 99.6%; 242Am - 73.6%; 243Am - 99.2-99.94%; 243Cm - 99.99%; 245Cm - 99.998%; 246Cm - 99.8%; 247Cm - 90%; 248Cm - 97%. Methods for preparing layers of highly enriched isotopes on various substances are presented: - electrochemical deposition of transuranic elements from aqueous-organic and organic media and vacuum spraying: - the method of foil and coating formation via compounds in the vapour phase; - the method of fabrication of layers of transuranic elements on superthin (1-2 μm) metal substrates with additional isolating polymer-metal coatings (0.2-0.4 μm), that substantially decrease material transfer from the active layer and increase safety of product handling.

  15. Neutralization of Plutonium and Enriched Uranium Solutions Containing Gadolinium as a Neutron Poison

    SciTech Connect

    BRONIKOWSKI, MG.

    2004-04-01

    Materials currently being dissolved in the HB-Line Facility will result in an accumulated solution containing an estimated uranium:plutonium (U:Pu) ratio of 4.3:1 and an 235U enrichment estimated at 30 per cent The U:Pu ratio and the enrichment are outside the evaluated concentration range for disposition to high level waste (HLW) using gadolinium (Gd) as a neutron poison. To confirm that the solution generated during the current HB-Line dissolving campaign can be poisoned with Gd, neutralized and discarded to the Savannah River Site (SRS) high level waste (HLW) system without undue nuclear safety concerns the caustic precipitation of surrogate solutions was examined. Experiments were performed with a U/Pu/Gd solution representative of the HB-Line estimated concentration ratio and also a U/Gd solution. Depleted U was used in the experiments as the enrichment of the U will not affect the chemical behavior during neutralization, but will affect the amount of Gd added to the solution. Settling behavior of the neutralized solutions was found to be comparable to previous studies. The neutralized solutions mixed easily and had expected densities of typical neutralized waste. The neutralized solids were found to be homogeneous and less than 20 microns in size. Partially neutralized solids were more amorphous than the fully neutralized solids. Based on the results of these experiments, Gd was found to be a viable poison for neutralizing a U/Pu/Gd solution with a U:Pu mass ratio of 4.3:1 thus extending the U:Pu mass ratio from the previously investigated 0-3:1 to 4.3:1. However, further work is needed to allow higher U concentrations or U:Pu ratios greater than investigated in this work.

  16. Progress in developing processes for converting {sup 99}Mo production from high- to low-enriched uranium--1998.

    SciTech Connect

    Conner, C.

    1998-10-28

    During 1998, the emphasis of our activities was focused mainly on target fabrication. Successful conversion requires a reliable irradiation target; the target being developed uses thin foils of uranium metal, which can be removed from the target hardware for dissolution and processing. This paper describes successes in (1) improving our method for heat-treating the uranium foil to produce a random-small grain structure, (2) improving electrodeposition of zinc and nickel fission-fragment barriers onto the foil, and (3) showing that these fission fragment barriers should be stable during transport of the targets following irradiation. A method was also developed for quantitatively electrodepositing uranium and plutonium contaminants in the {sup 99}Mo. Progress was also made in broadening international cooperation in our development activities.

  17. The Complete Burning of Weapons Grade Plutonium and Highly Enriched Uranium with (Laser Inertial Fusion-Fission Energy) LIFE Engine

    SciTech Connect

    Farmer, J C; Diaz de la Rubia, T; Moses, E

    2008-12-23

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF) project, a laser-based Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) experiment designed to achieve thermonuclear fusion ignition and burn in the laboratory, is under construction at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and will be completed in April of 2009. Experiments designed to accomplish the NIF's goal will commence in late FY2010 utilizing laser energies of 1 to 1.3 MJ. Fusion yields of the order of 10 to 20 MJ are expected soon thereafter. Laser initiated fusion-fission (LIFE) engines have now been designed to produce nuclear power from natural or depleted uranium without isotopic enrichment, and from spent nuclear fuel from light water reactors without chemical separation into weapons-attractive actinide streams. A point-source of high-energy neutrons produced by laser-generated, thermonuclear fusion within a target is used to achieve ultra-deep burn-up of the fertile or fissile fuel in a sub-critical fission blanket. Fertile fuels including depleted uranium (DU), natural uranium (NatU), spent nuclear fuel (SNF), and thorium (Th) can be used. Fissile fuels such as low-enrichment uranium (LEU), excess weapons plutonium (WG-Pu), and excess highly-enriched uranium (HEU) may be used as well. Based upon preliminary analyses, it is believed that LIFE could help meet worldwide electricity needs in a safe and sustainable manner, while drastically shrinking the nation's and world's stockpile of spent nuclear fuel and excess weapons materials. LIFE takes advantage of the significant advances in laser-based inertial confinement fusion that are taking place at the NIF at LLNL where it is expected that thermonuclear ignition will be achieved in the 2010-2011 timeframe. Starting from as little as 300 to 500 MW of fusion power, a single LIFE engine will be able to generate 2000 to 3000 MWt in steady state for periods of years to decades, depending on the nuclear fuel and engine configuration. Because the fission blanket in a fusion

  18. ZPR-3 Assembly 11 : A cylindrical sssembly of highly enriched uranium and depleted uranium with an average {sup 235}U enrichment of 12 atom % and a depleted uranium reflector.

    SciTech Connect

    Lell, R. M.; McKnight, R. D.; Tsiboulia, A.; Rozhikhin, Y.; National Security; Inst. of Physics and Power Engineering

    2010-09-30

    Over a period of 30 years, more than a hundred Zero Power Reactor (ZPR) critical assemblies were constructed at Argonne National Laboratory. The ZPR facilities, ZPR-3, ZPR-6, ZPR-9 and ZPPR, were all fast critical assembly facilities. The ZPR critical assemblies were constructed to support fast reactor development, but data from some of these assemblies are also well suited for nuclear data validation and to form the basis for criticality safety benchmarks. A number of the Argonne ZPR/ZPPR critical assemblies have been evaluated as ICSBEP and IRPhEP benchmarks. Of the three classes of ZPR assemblies, engineering mockups, engineering benchmarks and physics benchmarks, the last group tends to be most useful for criticality safety. Because physics benchmarks were designed to test fast reactor physics data and methods, they were as simple as possible in geometry and composition. The principal fissile species was {sup 235}U or {sup 239}Pu. Fuel enrichments ranged from 9% to 95%. Often there were only one or two main core diluent materials, such as aluminum, graphite, iron, sodium or stainless steel. The cores were reflected (and insulated from room return effects) by one or two layers of materials such as depleted uranium, lead or stainless steel. Despite their more complex nature, a small number of assemblies from the other two classes would make useful criticality safety benchmarks because they have features related to criticality safety issues, such as reflection by soil-like material. ZPR-3 Assembly 11 (ZPR-3/11) was designed as a fast reactor physics benchmark experiment with an average core {sup 235}U enrichment of approximately 12 at.% and a depleted uranium reflector. Approximately 79.7% of the total fissions in this assembly occur above 100 keV, approximately 20.3% occur below 100 keV, and essentially none below 0.625 eV - thus the classification as a 'fast' assembly. This assembly is Fast Reactor Benchmark No. 8 in the Cross Section Evaluation Working Group

  19. REMOVAL OF SOLIDS FROM HIGHLY ENRICHED URANIUM SOLUTIONS USING THE H-CANYON CENTRIFUGE

    SciTech Connect

    Rudisill, T; Fernando Fondeur, F

    2009-01-15

    Prior to the dissolution of Pu-containing materials in HB-Line, highly enriched uranium (HEU) solutions stored in Tanks 11.1 and 12.2 of H-Canyon must be transferred to provide storage space. The proposed plan is to centrifuge the solutions to remove solids which may present downstream criticality concerns or cause operational problems with the 1st Cycle solvent extraction due to the formation of stable emulsions. An evaluation of the efficiency of the H-Canyon centrifuge concluded that a sufficient amount (> 90%) of the solids in the Tank 11.1 and 12.2 solutions will be removed to prevent any problems. We based this conclusion on the particle size distribution of the solids isolated from samples of the solutions and the calculation of particle settling times in the centrifuge. The particle size distributions were calculated from images generated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The mean particle diameters for the distributions were 1-3 {micro}m. A significant fraction (30-50%) of the particles had diameters which were < 1 {micro}m; however, the mass of these solids is insignificant (< 1% of the total solids mass) when compared to particles with larger diameters. It is also probable that the number of submicron particles was overestimated by the software used to generate the particle distribution due to the morphology of the filter paper used to isolate the solids. The settling times calculated for the H-Canyon centrifuge showed that particles with diameters less than 1 to 0.5 {micro}m will not have sufficient time to settle. For this reason, we recommend the use of a gelatin strike to coagulate the submicron particles and facilitate their removal from the solution; although we have no experimental basis to estimate the level of improvement. Incomplete removal of particles with diameters < 1 {micro}m should not cause problems during purification of the HEU in the 1st Cycle solvent extraction. Particles with diameters > 1 {micro}m account for > 99% of the

  20. Impact of the use of low or medium enriched uranium on the masses of space nuclear reactor power systems

    SciTech Connect

    1994-12-01

    The design process for determining the mass increase for the substitution of low-enriched uranium (LEU) for high-enriched uranium (HEU) in space nuclear reactor systems is an optimization process which must simultaneously consider several variables. This process becomes more complex whenever the reactor core operates on an in-core thermionic power conversion, in which the fissioning of the nuclear fuel is used to directly heat thermionic emitters, with the subsequent elimination of external power conversion equipment. The increased complexity of the optimization process for this type of system is reflected in the work reported herein, where considerably more information has been developed for the moderated in-core thermionic reactors.

  1. Stationary and protable instruments for assay of HEU (highly enriched uranium) solids holdup

    SciTech Connect

    Russo, P.A.; Sprinkle, J.K. Jr.; Stephens, M.M.; Brumfield, T.L.; Gunn, C.S.; Watson, D.R.

    1987-01-01

    Two NaI(Tl)-based instruments, one stationary and one portable, designed for automated assay of highly enriched uranium (HEU) solids holdup, are being evaluated at the scrap recovery facility of the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant. The stationary instrument, a continuous monitor of HEU within the filters of the chip burner exhaust system, measures the HEU deposits that accumulate erratically and rapidly during chip burner operation. The portable system was built to assay HEU in over 100 m of elevated piping used to transfer UO/sub 3/, UO/sub 2/, and UF/sub 4/ powder to, from, and between the fluid bed conversion furnances and the powder storage hoods. Both instruments use two detector heads. Both provide immediate automatic readout of accumulated HEU mass. The 186-keV /sup 235/U gamma ray is the assay signature, and the 60-keV gamma ray from an /sup 241/Am source attached to each detector is used to normalize the 186-keV rate. The measurement geometries were selected for compatibility with simple calibration models. The assay calibrations were calculated from these models and were verified and normalized with measurements of HEU standards built to match geometries of uniform accumulations on the surfaces of the process equipment. This instrumentation effort demonstrates that simple calibration models can often be applied to unique measurement geometries, minimizing the otherwise unreasonable requirements for calibration standards and allowing extension of the measurements to other process locations.

  2. Immobilization of uranium by biomaterial stabilized FeS nanoparticles: Effects of stabilizer and enrichment mechanism.

    PubMed

    Shao, Dadong; Ren, Xuemei; Wen, Jun; Hu, Sheng; Xiong, Jie; Jiang, Tao; Wang, Xiaolin; Wang, Xiangke

    2016-01-25

    Iron sulfide (FeS) nanoparticles have been recognized as effective scavengers for multi-valent metal ions. However, the aggregation of FeS nanoparticles in aqueous solution greatly restricts their application in real work. Herein, different biomaterial-FeS nanoparticles were developed for the in-situ immobilization of uranium(VI) in radioactive waste management. TEM images suggested that sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) and gelatin can effectively suppress the aggregation of FeS nanoparticles in aqueous solutions. The resulting CMC-FeS and gelatin-FeS were stable in aqueous solutions and showed high adsorption capacity for U(VI). Specially, gelatin-FeS showed the best performance in U(VI) adsorption-reduction immobilization under experimental conditions. The maximum enrichment capacity of U(VI) on CMC-FeS and gelatin-FeS at pH 5.0 and 20 °C achieved to ∼430 and ∼556 mg/g, respectively. Additionally, gelatin-FeS and CMC-FeS nanoparticles presented excellent tolerance to environmental salinity. The immobilized U(VI) on the surfaces of CMC-FeS and gelatin-FeS remained stable more than one year. These findings highlight the possibility of using ggelatin-FeS for efficient immobilization of U(VI) from radioactive wastewater.

  3. Enhanced Low-Enriched Uranium Fuel Element for the Advanced Test Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Pope, M. A.; DeHart, M. D.; Morrell, S. R.; Jamison, R. K.; Nef, E. C.; Nigg, D. W.

    2015-03-01

    Under the current US Department of Energy (DOE) policy and planning scenario, the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) and its associated critical facility (ATRC) will be reconfigured to operate on low-enriched uranium (LEU) fuel. This effort has produced a conceptual design for an Enhanced LEU Fuel (ELF) element. This fuel features monolithic U-10Mo fuel foils and aluminum cladding separated by a thin zirconium barrier. As with previous iterations of the ELF design, radial power peaking is managed using different U-10Mo foil thicknesses in different plates of the element. The lead fuel element design, ELF Mk1A, features only three fuel meat thicknesses, a reduction from the previous iterations meant to simplify manufacturing. Evaluation of the ELF Mk1A fuel design against reactor performance requirements is ongoing, as are investigations of the impact of manufacturing uncertainty on safety margins. The element design has been evaluated in what are expected to be the most demanding design basis accident scenarios and has met all initial thermal-hydraulic criteria.

  4. Safeguards Guidance for Designers of Commercial Nuclear Facilities – International Safeguards Requirements for Uranium Enrichment Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Philip Casey Durst; Scott DeMuth; Brent McGinnis; Michael Whitaker; James Morgan

    2010-04-01

    For the past two years, the United States National Nuclear Security Administration, Office of International Regimes and Agreements (NA-243), has sponsored the Safeguards-by-Design Project, through which it is hoped new nuclear facilities will be designed and constructed worldwide more amenable to nuclear safeguards. In the course of this project it was recognized that commercial designer/builders of nuclear facilities are not always aware of, or understand, the relevant domestic and international safeguards requirements, especially the latter as implemented by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). To help commercial designer/builders better understand these requirements, a report was prepared by the Safeguards-by-Design Project Team that articulated and interpreted the international nuclear safeguards requirements for the initial case of uranium enrichment plants. The following paper summarizes the subject report, the specific requirements, where they originate, and the implications for design and construction. It also briefly summarizes the established best design and operating practices that designer/builder/operators have implemented for currently meeting these requirements. In preparing the subject report, it is recognized that the best practices are continually evolving as the designer/builder/operators and IAEA consider even more effective and efficient means for meeting the safeguards requirements and objectives.

  5. Immobilization of uranium by biomaterial stabilized FeS nanoparticles: Effects of stabilizer and enrichment mechanism.

    PubMed

    Shao, Dadong; Ren, Xuemei; Wen, Jun; Hu, Sheng; Xiong, Jie; Jiang, Tao; Wang, Xiaolin; Wang, Xiangke

    2016-01-25

    Iron sulfide (FeS) nanoparticles have been recognized as effective scavengers for multi-valent metal ions. However, the aggregation of FeS nanoparticles in aqueous solution greatly restricts their application in real work. Herein, different biomaterial-FeS nanoparticles were developed for the in-situ immobilization of uranium(VI) in radioactive waste management. TEM images suggested that sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) and gelatin can effectively suppress the aggregation of FeS nanoparticles in aqueous solutions. The resulting CMC-FeS and gelatin-FeS were stable in aqueous solutions and showed high adsorption capacity for U(VI). Specially, gelatin-FeS showed the best performance in U(VI) adsorption-reduction immobilization under experimental conditions. The maximum enrichment capacity of U(VI) on CMC-FeS and gelatin-FeS at pH 5.0 and 20 °C achieved to ∼430 and ∼556 mg/g, respectively. Additionally, gelatin-FeS and CMC-FeS nanoparticles presented excellent tolerance to environmental salinity. The immobilized U(VI) on the surfaces of CMC-FeS and gelatin-FeS remained stable more than one year. These findings highlight the possibility of using ggelatin-FeS for efficient immobilization of U(VI) from radioactive wastewater. PMID:26448488

  6. Fission Yield Measurements from Highly Enriched Uranium Irradiated Inside a Boron Carbide Capsule

    SciTech Connect

    Metz, Lori A.; Friese, Judah I.; Finn, Erin C.; Greenwood, Lawrence R.; Kephart, Rosara F.; Hines, Corey C.; King, Matthew D.; Henry, Kelley; Wall, Donald E.

    2013-05-01

    A boron carbide capsule was previously designed and tested by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and Washington State University (WSU) for spectral-tailoring in mixed spectrum reactors. The presented work used this B4C capsule to create a fission product sample from the irradiation of highly enriched uranium (HEU) with a fast fission neutron spectrum. An HEU foil was irradiated inside of the capsule in WSU’s 1 MW TRIGA reactor at full power for 200 min to produce 5.8 × 1013 fissions. After three days of cooling, the sample was shipped to PNNL for radiochemical separations and analysis by gamma and beta spectroscopy. Fission yields for products were calculated from the radiometric measurements and compared to measurements from thermal neutron induced fission (analyzed in parallel with the non-thermal sample at PNNL) and published evaluated fast-pooled and thermal nuclear data. Reactor dosimetry measurements were also completed to fully characterize the neutron spectrum and total fluence of the irradiation.

  7. ES-3100: A New Generation Shipping Container for Bulk Highly Enriched Uranium and Other Fissile Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Arbital, J.G.; Byington, G.A.; Tousley, D.R.

    2004-07-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) is shipping bulk quantities of surplus fissile materials, primarily highly enriched uranium (HEU), over the next 15 to 20 years for disposition purposes. The U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) specification 6M container is the package of choice for most of these shipments. However, the 6M does not conform to the Type B packaging requirements in the ''Code of Federal Regulations'' (10CFR71) and, for that reason, is being phased out for use in the secure transportation system of DOE. BWXT Y-12 is currently developing a package to replace the DOT 6M container for HEU disposition shipping campaigns. The new package is based on state-of-the-art, proven, and patented insulation technologies that have been successfully applied in the design of other packages. The new package, designated the ES-3100, will have a 50% greater capacity for HEU than the 6M and will be easier to use. Engineering analysis on the new package includes detailed dynamic impact finite element analysis (FEA). This analysis gives the ES-3100 a high probability of complying with regulatory requirements.

  8. Design Study for a Low-Enriched Uranium Core for the High Flux Isotope Reactor, Annual Report for FY 2006

    SciTech Connect

    Primm, R. T.; Ellis, R. J.; Gehin, J. C.; Clarno, K. T.; Williams, K. A.; Moses, D. L.

    2006-11-01

    Neutronics and thermal-hydraulics studies show that, for equivalent operating power [85 MW(t)], a low-enriched uranium (LEU) fuel cycle based on uranium-10 wt % molybdenum (U-10Mo) metal foil with radially, “continuously graded” fuel meat thickness results in a 15% reduction in peak thermal flux in the beryllium reflector of the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) as compared to the current highly enriched uranium (HEU) cycle. The uranium-235 content of the LEU core is almost twice the amount of the HEU core when the length of the fuel cycle is kept the same for both fuels. Because the uranium-238 content of an LEU core is a factor of 4 greater than the uranium-235 content, the LEU HFIR core would weigh 30% more than the HEU core. A minimum U-10Mo foil thickness of 84 μm is required to compensate for power peaking in the LEU core although this value could be increased significantly without much penalty. The maximum U-10Mo foil thickness is 457μm. Annual plutonium production from fueling the HFIR with LEU is predicted to be 2 kg. For dispersion fuels, the operating power for HFIR would be reduced considerably below 85 MW due to thermal considerations and due to the requirement of a 26-d fuel cycle. If an acceptable fuel can be developed, it is estimated that $140 M would be required to implement the conversion of the HFIR site at Oak Ridge National Laboratory from an HEU fuel cycle to an LEU fuel cycle. To complete the conversion by fiscal year 2014 would require that all fuel development and qualification be completed by the end of fiscal year 2009. Technological development areas that could increase the operating power of HFIR are identified as areas for study in the future.

  9. NUCLEAR ISOTOPIC DILUTION OF HIGHLY ENRICHED URANIUM BY DRY BLENDING VIA THE RM-2 MILL TECHNOLOGY

    SciTech Connect

    Raj K. Rajamani; Sanjeeva Latchireddi; Vikas Devrani; Harappan Sethi; Roger Henry; Nate Chipman

    2003-08-01

    DOE has initiated numerous activities to focus on identifying material management strategies to disposition various excess fissile materials. In particular the INEEL has stored 1,700 Kg of offspec HEU at INTEC in CPP-651 vault facility. Currently, the proposed strategies for dispositioning are (a) aqueous dissolution and down blending to LEU via facilities at SRS followed by shipment of the liquid LEU to NFS for fabrication into LWR fuel for the TVA reactors and (b) dilution of the HEU to 0.9% for discard as a waste stream that would no longer have a criticality or proliferation risk without being processed through some type of enrichment system. Dispositioning this inventory as a waste stream via aqueous processing at SRS has been determined to be too costly. Thus, dry blending is the only proposed disposal process for the uranium oxide materials in the CPP-651 vault. Isotopic dilution of HEU to typically less than 20% by dry blending is the key to solving the dispositioning issue (i.e., proliferation) posed by HEU stored at INEEL. RM-2 mill is a technology developed and successfully tested for producing ultra-fine particles by dry grinding. Grinding action in RM-2 mill produces a two million-fold increase in the number of particles being blended in a centrifugal field. In a previous study, the concept of achieving complete and adequate blending and mixing (i.e., no methods were identified to easily separate and concentrate one titanium compound from the other) in remarkably short processing times was successfully tested with surrogate materials (titanium dioxide and titanium mono-oxide) with different particle sizes, hardness and densities. In the current project, the RM-2 milling technology was thoroughly tested with mixtures of natural uranium oxide (NU) and depleted uranium oxide (DU) stock to prove its performance. The effects of mill operating and design variables on the blending of NU/DU oxides were evaluated. First, NU and DU both made of the same oxide

  10. Low-Enriched Uranium Fuel Conversion Activities for the High Flux Isotope Reactor, Annual Report for FY 2011

    SciTech Connect

    Renfro, David G; Cook, David Howard; Freels, James D; Griffin, Frederick P; Ilas, Germina; Sease, John D; Chandler, David

    2012-03-01

    This report describes progress made during FY11 in ORNL activities to support converting the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) from high-enriched uranium (HEU) fuel to low-enriched uranium (LEU) fuel. Conversion from HEU to LEU will require a change in fuel form from uranium oxide to a uranium-molybdenum (UMo) alloy. With both radial and axial contouring of the fuel foil and an increase in reactor power to 100 MW, calculations indicate that the HFIR can be operated with LEU fuel with no degradation in performance to users from the current levels achieved with HEU fuel. Studies are continuing to demonstrate that the fuel thermal safety margins can be preserved following conversion. Studies are also continuing to update other aspects of the reactor steady state operation and accident response for the effects of fuel conversion. Technical input has been provided to Oregon State University in support of their hydraulic testing program. The HFIR conversion schedule was revised and provided to the GTRI program. In addition to HFIR conversion activities, technical support was provided directly to the Fuel Fabrication Capability program manager.

  11. Preliminary Evaluation of Alternate Designs for HFIR Low-Enriched Uranium Fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Renfro, David G; Chandler, David; Cook, David Howard; Ilas, Germina; Jain, Prashant K; Valentine, Jennifer R

    2014-11-01

    Engineering design studies of the feasibility of conversion of the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) from high-enriched uranium (HEU) to low-enriched uranium (LEU) fuel are ongoing at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) as part of an effort sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy s Global Threat Reduction Initiative (GTRI)/Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactors (RERTR) program. The fuel type selected by the program for the conversion of the five high-power research reactors in the U.S. that still use HEU fuel is a new U-Mo monolithic fuel. Studies by ORNL have previously indicated that HFIR can be successfully converted using the new fuel provided (1) the reactor power can be increased from 85 MW to 100 MW and (2) the fuel can be fabricated to a specific reference design. Fabrication techniques for the new fuel are under development by the program but are still immature, especially for the complex aspects of the HFIR fuel design. In FY 2012, the program underwent a major shift in focus to emphasize developing and qualifying processes for the fabrication of reliable and affordable LEU fuel. In support of this new focus and in an effort to ensure that the HFIR fuel design is as suitable for reliable fabrication as possible, ORNL undertook the present study to propose and evaluate several alternative design features. These features include (1) eliminating the fuel zone axial contouring in the previous reference design by substituting a permanent neutron absorber in the lower unfueled region of all of the fuel plates, (2) relocating the burnable neutron absorber from the fuel plates of the inner fuel element to the side plates of the inner fuel element (the fuel plates of the outer fuel element do not contain a burnable absorber), (3) relocating the fuel zone inside the fuel plate to be centered on the centerline of the depth of the plate, and (4) reshaping the radial contour of the relocated fuel zone to be symmetric about this centerline. The present

  12. Preliminary Evaluation of Alternate Designs for HFIR Low-Enriched Uranium Fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Renfro, David; Chandler, David; Cook, David; Ilas, Germina; Jain, Prashant; Valentine, Jennifer

    2014-10-30

    Engineering design studies of the feasibility of conversion of the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) from high-enriched uranium (HEU) to low-enriched uranium (LEU) fuel are ongoing at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) as part of an effort sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy’s Global Threat Reduction Initiative (GTRI)/Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactors (RERTR) program. The fuel type selected by the program for the conversion of the five high-power research reactors in the U.S. that still use HEU fuel is a new U-Mo monolithic fuel. Studies by ORNL have previously indicated that HFIR can be successfully converted using the new fuel provided (1) the reactor power can be increased from 85 MW to 100 MW and (2) the fuel can be fabricated to a specific reference design. Fabrication techniques for the new fuel are under development by the program but are still immature, especially for the “complex” aspects of the HFIR fuel design. In FY 2012, the program underwent a major shift in focus to emphasize developing and qualifying processes for the fabrication of reliable and affordable LEU fuel. In support of this new focus and in an effort to ensure that the HFIR fuel design is as suitable for reliable fabrication as possible, ORNL undertook the present study to propose and evaluate several alternative design features. These features include (1) eliminating the fuel zone axial contouring in the previous reference design by substituting a permanent neutron absorber in the lower unfueled region of all of the fuel plates, (2) relocating the burnable neutron absorber from the fuel plates of the inner fuel element to the side plates of the inner fuel element (the fuel plates of the outer fuel element do not contain a burnable absorber), (3) relocating the fuel zone inside the fuel plate to be centered on the centerline of the depth of the plate, and (4) reshaping the radial contour of the relocated fuel zone to be symmetric about this centerline. The

  13. Bone as a possible target of chemical toxicity of natural uranium in drinking water.

    PubMed

    Kurttio, Päivi; Komulainen, Hannu; Leino, Aila; Salonen, Laina; Auvinen, Anssi; Saha, Heikki

    2005-01-01

    Uranium accumulates in bone, affects bone metabolism in laboratory animals, and when ingested in drinking water increases urinary excretion of calcium and phosphate, important components in the bone structure. However, little is known about bone effects of ingested natural uranium in humans. We studied 146 men and 142 women 26-83 years of age who for an average of 13 years had used drinking water originating from wells drilled in bedrock, in areas with naturally high uranium content. Biochemical indicators of bone formation were serum osteocalcin and amino-terminal propeptide of type I procollagen, and a marker for bone resorption was serum type I collagen carboxy-terminal telopeptide (CTx). The primary measure of uranium exposure was uranium concentration in drinking water, with additional information on uranium intake and uranium concentration in urine. The data were analyzed separately for men and women with robust regression (which suppresses contributions of potential influential observations) models with adjustment for age, smoking, and estrogen use. The median uranium concentration in drinking water was 27 microg/L (interquartile range, 6-116 microg/L). The median of daily uranium intake was 36 microg (7-207 microg) and of cumulative intake 0.12 g (0.02-0.66 g). There was some suggestion that elevation of CTx (p = 0.05) as well as osteocalcin (p = 0.19) could be associated with increased uranium exposure (uranium in water and intakes) in men, but no similar relationship was found in women. Accordingly, bone may be a target of chemical toxicity of uranium in humans, and more detailed evaluation of bone effects of natural uranium is warranted.

  14. Transmutation Analysis of Enriched Uranium and Deep Burn High Temperature Reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Michael A. Pope

    2012-07-01

    High temperature reactors (HTRs) have been under consideration for production of electricity, process heat, and for destruction of transuranics for decades. As part of the transmutation analysis efforts within the Fuel Cycle Research and Development (FCR&D) campaign, a need was identified for detailed discharge isotopics from HTRs for use in the VISION code. A conventional HTR using enriched uranium in UCO fuel was modeled having discharge burnup of 120 GWd/MTiHM. Also, a deep burn HTR (DB-HTR) was modeled burning transuranic (TRU)-only TRU-O2 fuel to a discharge burnup of 648 GWd/MTiHM. For each of these cases, unit cell depletion calculations were performed with SCALE/TRITON. Unit cells were used to perform this analysis using SCALE 6.1. Because of the long mean free paths (and migration lengths) of neutrons in HTRs, using a unit cell to represent a whole core can be non-trivial. The sizes of these cells were first set by using Serpent calculations to match a spectral index between unit cell and whole core domains. In the case of the DB-HTR, the unit cell which was arrived at in this way conserved the ratio of fuel to moderator found in a single block of fuel. In the conventional HTR case, a larger moderator-to-fuel ratio than that of a single block was needed to simulate the whole core spectrum. Discharge isotopics (for 500 nuclides) and one-group cross-sections (for 1022 nuclides) were delivered to the transmutation analysis team. This report provides documentation for these calculations. In addition to the discharge isotopics, one-group cross-sections were provided for the full list of 1022 nuclides tracked in the transmutation library.

  15. AIR SHIPMENT OF HIGHLY ENRICHED URANIUM SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL FROM ROMANIA AND LIBYA

    SciTech Connect

    Christopher Landers; Igor Bolshinsky; Ken Allen; Stanley Moses

    2010-07-01

    In June 2009 Romania successfully completed the world’s first air shipment of highly enriched uranium (HEU) spent nuclear fuel transported in Type B(U) casks under existing international laws and without special exceptions for the air transport licenses. Special 20-foot ISO shipping containers and cask tiedown supports were designed to transport Russian TUK 19 shipping casks for the Romanian air shipment and the equipment was certified for all modes of transport, including road, rail, water, and air. In December 2009 Libya successfully used this same equipment for a second air shipment of HEU spent nuclear fuel. Both spent fuel shipments were transported by truck from the originating nuclear facilities to nearby commercial airports, were flown by commercial cargo aircraft to a commercial airport in Yekaterinburg, Russia, and then transported by truck to their final destinations at the Production Association Mayak facility in Chelyabinsk, Russia. Both air shipments were performed under the Russian Research Reactor Fuel Return Program (RRRFR) as part of the U.S. National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) Global Threat Reduction Initiative (GTRI). The Romania air shipment of 23.7 kg of HEU spent fuel from the VVR S research reactor was the last of three HEU fresh and spent fuel shipments under RRRFR that resulted in Romania becoming the 3rd RRRFR participating country to remove all HEU. Libya had previously completed two RRRFR shipments of HEU fresh fuel so the 5.2 kg of HEU spent fuel air shipped from the IRT 1 research reactor in December made Libya the 4th RRRFR participating country to remove all HEU. This paper describes the equipment, preparations, and license approvals required to safely and securely complete these two air shipments of spent nuclear fuel.

  16. Critical experiments on an enriched uranium solution system containing periodically distributed strong thermal neutron absorbers

    SciTech Connect

    Rothe, R.E.

    1996-09-30

    A series of 62 critical and critical approach experiments were performed to evaluate a possible novel means of storing large volumes of fissile solution in a critically safe configuration. This study is intended to increase safety and economy through use of such a system in commercial plants which handle fissionable materials in liquid form. The fissile solution`s concentration may equal or slightly exceed the minimum-critical-volume concentration; and experiments were performed for high-enriched uranium solution. Results should be generally applicable in a wide variety of plant situations. The method is called the `Poisoned Tube Tank` because strong neutron absorbers (neutron poisons) are placed inside periodically spaced stainless steel tubes which separate absorber material from solution, keeping the former free of contamination. Eight absorbers are investigated. Both square and triangular pitched lattice patterns are studied. Ancillary topics which closely model typical plant situations are also reported. They include the effect of removing small bundles of absorbers as might occur during inspections in a production plant. Not taking the tank out of service for these inspections would be an economic advantage. Another ancillary topic studies the effect of the presence of a significant volume of unpoisoned solution close to the Poisoned Tube Tank on the critical height. A summary of the experimental findings is that boron compounds were excellent absorbers, as expected. This was true for granular materials such as Gerstley Borate and Borax; but it was also true for the flexible solid composed of boron carbide and rubber, even though only thin sheets were used. Experiments with small bundles of absorbers intentionally removed reveal that quite reasonable tanks could be constructed that would allow a few tubes at a time to be removed from the tank for inspection without removing the tank from production service.

  17. Neutron-rich isotope production using a uranium carbide - carbon nanotubes SPES target prototype

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corradetti, S.; Biasetto, L.; Manzolaro, M.; Scarpa, D.; Carturan, S.; Andrighetto, A.; Prete, G.; Vasquez, J.; Zanonato, P.; Colombo, P.; Jost, C. U.; Stracener, D. W.

    2013-05-01

    The SPES (Selective Production of Exotic Species) project, under development at the Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare - Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro (INFN-LNL), is a new-generation Isotope Separation On-Line (ISOL) facility for the production of radioactive ion beams by means of the proton-induced fission of uranium. In the framework of the research on the SPES target, seven uranium carbide discs, obtained by reacting uranium oxide with graphite and carbon nanotubes, were irradiated with protons at the Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility (HRIBF) of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). In the following, the yields of several fission products obtained during the experiment are presented and discussed. The experimental results are then compared to those obtained using a standard uranium carbide target. The reported data highlights the capability of the new type of SPES target to produce and release isotopes of interest for the nuclear physics community.

  18. Neutron-Rich Isotope Production Using a Uranium Carbide Carbon Nanotubes SPES Target Prototype

    SciTech Connect

    Corradetti, Stefano; Biasetto, Lisa; Manzolaro, Mattia; Scarpa, Daniele; Carturan, S.; Andrighetto, Alberto; Prete, Gianfranco; Vasquez, Jose L; Zanonato, P.; Colombo, P.; Jost, Carola; Stracener, Daniel W

    2013-01-01

    The SPES (Selective Production of Exotic Species) project, under development at the Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare - Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro (INFN-LNL), is a new-generation Isotope Separation On-Line (ISOL) facility for the production of radioactive ion beams by means of the proton-induced fission of uranium. In the framework of the research on the SPES target, seven uranium carbide discs, obtained by reacting uranium oxide with graphite and carbon nanotubes, were irradiated with protons at the Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility (HRIBF) of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). In the following, the yields of several fission products obtained during the experiment are presented and discussed. The experimental results are then compared to those obtained using a standard uranium carbide target. The reported data highlights the capability of the new type of SPES target to produce and release isotopes of interest for the nuclear physics community.

  19. Monte Carlo modeling and analyses of YALINA booster subcritical assembly, Part III : low enriched uranium conversion analyses.

    SciTech Connect

    Talamo, A.; Gohar, Y.

    2011-05-12

    This study investigates the performance of the YALINA Booster subcritical assembly, located in Belarus, during operation with high (90%), medium (36%), and low (21%) enriched uranium fuels in the assembly's fast zone. The YALINA Booster is a zero-power, subcritical assembly driven by a conventional neutron generator. It was constructed for the purpose of investigating the static and dynamic neutronics properties of accelerator driven subcritical systems, and to serve as a fast neutron source for investigating the properties of nuclear reactions, in particular transmutation reactions involving minor-actinides. The first part of this study analyzes the assembly's performance with several fuel types. The MCNPX and MONK Monte Carlo codes were used to determine effective and source neutron multiplication factors, effective delayed neutron fraction, prompt neutron lifetime, neutron flux profiles and spectra, and neutron reaction rates produced from the use of three neutron sources: californium, deuterium-deuterium, and deuterium-tritium. In the latter two cases, the external neutron source operates in pulsed mode. The results discussed in the first part of this report show that the use of low enriched fuel in the fast zone of the assembly diminishes neutron multiplication. Therefore, the discussion in the second part of the report focuses on finding alternative fuel loading configurations that enhance neutron multiplication while using low enriched uranium fuel. It was found that arranging the interface absorber between the fast and the thermal zones in a circular rather than a square array is an effective method of operating the YALINA Booster subcritical assembly without downgrading neutron multiplication relative to the original value obtained with the use of the high enriched uranium fuels in the fast zone.

  20. Extrapolated experimental critical parameters of unreflected and steel-reflected massive enriched uranium metal spherical and hemispherical assemblies

    SciTech Connect

    Rothe, R.E.

    1997-12-01

    Sixty-nine critical configurations of up to 186 kg of uranium are reported from very early experiments (1960s) performed at the Rocky Flats Critical Mass Laboratory near Denver, Colorado. Enriched (93%) uranium metal spherical and hemispherical configurations were studied. All were thick-walled shells except for two solid hemispheres. Experiments were essentially unreflected; or they included central and/or external regions of mild steel. No liquids were involved. Critical parameters are derived from extrapolations beyond subcritical data. Extrapolations, rather than more precise interpolations between slightly supercritical and slightly subcritical configurations, were necessary because experiments involved manually assembled configurations. Many extrapolations were quite long; but the general lack of curvature in the subcritical region lends credibility to their validity. In addition to delayed critical parameters, a procedure is offered which might permit the determination of prompt critical parameters as well for the same cases. This conjectured procedure is not based on any strong physical arguments.

  1. An integrated video- and weight-monitoring system for the surveillance of highly enriched uranium blend down operations

    SciTech Connect

    Lenarduzzi, R.; Castleberry, K.; Whitaker, M.; Martinez, R.

    1998-11-01

    An integrated video-surveillance and weight-monitoring system has been designed and constructed for tracking the blending down of weapons-grade uranium by the US Department of Energy. The instrumentation is being used by the International Atomic Energy Agency in its task of tracking and verifying the blended material at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant, Portsmouth, Ohio. The weight instrumentation developed at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory monitors and records the weight of cylinders of the highly enriched uranium as their contents are fed into the blending facility while the video equipment provided by Sandia National Laboratory records periodic and event triggered images of the blending area. A secure data network between the scales, cameras, and computers insures data integrity and eliminates the possibility of tampering. The details of the weight monitoring instrumentation, video- and weight-system interaction, and the secure data network is discussed.

  2. Mung Bean Nuclease Treatment Increases Capture Specificity of Microdroplet-PCR Based Targeted DNA Enrichment

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Zhenming; Cao, Kajia; Tischler, Tanya; Stolle, Catherine A.; Santani, Avni B.

    2014-01-01

    Targeted DNA enrichment coupled with next generation sequencing has been increasingly used for interrogation of select sub-genomic regions at high depth of coverage in a cost effective manner. Specificity measured by on-target efficiency is a key performance metric for target enrichment. Non-specific capture leads to off-target reads, resulting in waste of sequencing throughput on irrelevant regions. Microdroplet-PCR allows simultaneous amplification of up to thousands of regions in the genome and is among the most commonly used strategies for target enrichment. Here we show that carryover of single-stranded template genomic DNA from microdroplet-PCR constitutes a major contributing factor for off-target reads in the resultant libraries. Moreover, treatment of microdroplet-PCR enrichment products with a nuclease specific to single-stranded DNA alleviates off-target load and improves enrichment specificity. We propose that nuclease treatment of enrichment products should be incorporated in the workflow of targeted sequencing using microdroplet-PCR for target capture. These findings may have a broad impact on other PCR based applications for which removal of template DNA is beneficial. PMID:25058678

  3. 76 FR 67765 - Notice of Availability of Uranium Enrichment Fuel Cycle Facility's Inspection Reports Regarding...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-02

    ... requirements of Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations (10 CFR) 70.32 (k) and Section 193(c) of the Atomic Energy Act of 1954, as amended. The introduction of uranium hexafluoride into any module of the...

  4. Nonproliferation and safeguards aspects of fuel cycle programs in reduction of excess separated plutonium and high-enriched uranium

    SciTech Connect

    Persiani, P.J.

    1995-06-01

    The purpose of this preliminary investigation is to explore alternatives and strategies aimed at the gradual reduction of the excess inventories of separated plutonium and high-enriched uranium (HEU) in the civilian nuclear power industry. The study attempts to establish a technical and economic basis to assist in the formation of alternative approaches consistent with nonproliferation and safeguards concerns. Reference annual mass flows and inventories for a representative 1,400 Mwe Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) fuel cycle have been investigated for three cases: the 100 percent uranium oxide UO{sub 2} fuel loading once through cycle, and the 33 percent mixed oxide MOX loading configuration for a first and second plutonium recycle. The analysis addresses fuel cycle developments; plutonium and uranium inventory and flow balances; nuclear fuel processing operations; UO{sub 2} once-through and MOX first and second recycles; and the economic incentives to draw-down the excess separated plutonium stores. The preliminary analysis explores several options in reducing the excess separated plutonium arisings and HEU, and the consequences of the interacting synergistic effects between fuel cycle processes and isotopic signatures of nuclear materials on nonproliferation and safeguards policy assessments.

  5. The Role of COMSOL Toward a Low-Enriched Uranium Fuel Design for the High Flux Isotope Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Freels, James D; Arimilli, Rao V; Lowe, Kirk T; Bodey, Isaac T

    2009-01-01

    Design and safety analyses are underway to convert the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) from a high-enriched uranium (HEU) fuel to a low-enriched uranium (LEU) fuel. The primary constraint for the project is that the overall fuel plate dimensions and the current neutron flux performance must remain unchanged. This allows minimal impact on the facility and cost for the conversion, and provides transparency to the HFIR customer base and research projects that depend on the facility for isotopes and neutron flux. As a consequence, the LEU design demands more accuracy and less margin in the analysis efforts than the original design. Several technical disciplines are required to complete this conversion including nuclear reactor physics, heat transfer, fluid dynamics, structural mechanics, fuel fabrication, and engineering design. The role of COMSOL is to provide the fully-coupled 3D multi-physics analysis for heat transfer, turbulent flow, and structural mechanics of the fuel plates and flow channels. A goal is for COMSOL to simulate the entire fuel element array of fuel plates (171 inner, 369 outer). This paper describes the progress that has been made toward development of benchmark validation models of the existing HEU inner-element fuel plates.

  6. Transportation of foreign-owned enriched uranium from the Republic of Georgia. Environmental assessment for Project Partnership

    SciTech Connect

    1998-03-31

    The Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Nonproliferation and National Security (NN) has prepared a classified environmental assessment to evaluate the potential environmental impact for the transportation of 5.26 kilograms of enriched uranium-235 in the form of nuclear fuel, from the Republic of Georgia to the United Kingdom. The nuclear fuel consists of primarily fresh fuel, but also consists of a small quantity (less than 1 kilogram) of partially-spent fuel. Transportation of the enriched uranium fuel would occur via US Air Force military aircraft under the control of the Defense Department European Command (EUCOM). Actions taken in a sovereign nation (such as the Republic of Georgia and the United Kingdom) are not subject to analysis in the environmental assessment. However, because the action would involve the global commons of the Black Sea and the North Sea, the potential impact to the global commons has been analyzed. Because of the similarities in the two actions, the Project Sapphire Environmental Assessment was used as a basis for assessing the potential impacts of Project Partnership. However, because Project Partnership involves a small quantity of partially-spent fuel, additional analysis was conducted to assess the potential environmental impacts and to consider reasonable alternatives as required by NEPA. The Project Partnership Environmental Assessment found the potential environmental impacts to be well below those from Project Sapphire.

  7. Calibration Tools for Measurement of Highly Enriched Uranium in Oxide and Mixed Uranium-Plutonium Oxide with a Passive-Active Neutron Drum Shuffler

    SciTech Connect

    Mount, M; O'Connell, W; Cochran, C; Rinard, P

    2003-06-13

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has completed an extensive effort to calibrate the LLNL passive-active neutron drum (PAN) shuffler (Canberra Model JCC-92) for accountability measurement of highly enriched uranium (HEU) oxide and HEU in mixed uranium-plutonium (U-Pu) oxide. Earlier papers described the PAN shuffler calibration over a range of item properties by standards measurements and an extensive series of detailed simulation calculations. With a single normalization factor, the simulations agree with the HEU oxide standards measurements to within {+-}1.2% at one standard deviation. Measurement errors on mixed U-Pu oxide samples are in the {+-}2% to {+-}10% range, or {+-}20 g for the smaller items. The purpose of this paper is to facilitate transfer of the LLNL procedure and calibration algorithms to external users who possess an identical, or equivalent, PAN shuffler. Steps include (1) measurement of HEU standards or working reference materials (WRMs); (2) MCNP simulation calculations for the standards or WRMs and a range of possible masses in the same containers; (3) a normalization of the calibration algorithms using the standard or WRM measurements to account for differences in the {sup 252}Cf source strength, the delayed-neutron nuclear data, effects of the irradiation protocol, and detector efficiency; and (4) a verification of the simulation series trends against like LLNL results. Tools include EXCEL/Visual Basic programs which pre- and post-process the simulations, control the normalization, and embody the calibration algorithms.

  8. In-Solution Hybridization for the Targeted Enrichment of the Whole Mitochondrial Genome.

    PubMed

    Bekaert, B; Ellerington, R; Van den Abbeele, L; Decorte, R

    2016-01-01

    A detailed protocol is presented for the targeted enrichment of whole mitochondrial genomes based on an in-solution hybridization strategy. Bait is produced in-house by sonication of two long-range PCR amplicons and ligation of biotinylated double-stranded adapters. Indexed target DNA is hybridized with the bait in a multiplex enrichment reaction and pulled down using magnetic streptavidin beads followed by subsequent post-enrichment PCR and sequencing on an Illumina MiSeq. This strategy removes the need for expensive commercial bait probes while allowing enrichment of multiple samples in a single hybridization reaction. The method is particularly suitable for degraded DNA as it is able to enrich short DNA fragments and is not susceptible to polymerase artifacts introduced during PCR-based assays. PMID:27259740

  9. [Research progress in developing reporter systems for the enrichment of positive cells with targeted genome modification].

    PubMed

    Bai, Yichun; Xu, Kun; Wei, Zehui; Ma, Zheng; Zhang, Zhiying

    2016-01-01

    Targeted genome editing technology plays an important role in studies of gene function, gene therapy and transgenic breeding. Moreover, the efficiency of targeted genome editing is increased dramatically with the application of recently developed artificial nucleases such as ZFNs, TALENs and CRISPR/Cas9. However, obtaining positive cells with targeted genome modification is restricted to some extent by nucleases expression plasmid transfection efficiency, nucleases expression and activity, and repair efficiency after genome editing. Thus, the enrichment and screening of positive cells with targeted genome modification remains a problem that need to be solved. Surrogate reporter systems could be used to reflect the efficiency of nucleases indirectly and enrich genetically modified positive cells effectively, which may increase the efficiency of the enrichment and screening of positive cells with targeted genome modification. In this review, we mainly summarized principles and applications of reporter systems based on NHEJ and SSA repair mechanisms, which may provide references for related studies in future.

  10. Laser and gas centrifuge enrichment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heinonen, Olli

    2014-05-01

    Principles of uranium isotope enrichment using various laser and gas centrifuge techniques are briefly discussed. Examples on production of high enriched uranium are given. Concerns regarding the possibility of using low end technologies to produce weapons grade uranium are explained. Based on current assessments commercial enrichment services are able to cover the global needs of enriched uranium in the foreseeable future.

  11. Laser and gas centrifuge enrichment

    SciTech Connect

    Heinonen, Olli

    2014-05-09

    Principles of uranium isotope enrichment using various laser and gas centrifuge techniques are briefly discussed. Examples on production of high enriched uranium are given. Concerns regarding the possibility of using low end technologies to produce weapons grade uranium are explained. Based on current assessments commercial enrichment services are able to cover the global needs of enriched uranium in the foreseeable future.

  12. Evaluation of a RF-Based Approach for Tracking UF6 Cylinders at a Uranium Enrichment Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Pickett, Chris A; Younkin, James R; Kovacic, Donald N; Laughter, Mark D; Hines, Jairus B; Boyer, Brian; Martinez, B.

    2008-01-01

    Approved industry-standard cylinders are used globally to handle and store uranium hexafluoride (UF{sub 6}) feed, product, tails, and samples at uranium enrichment plants. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) relies on time-consuming physical inspections to verify operator declarations and detect possible diversion of UF{sub 6}. Development of a reliable, automated, and tamper-resistant system for near real-time tracking and monitoring UF{sub 6} cylinders (as they move within an enrichment facility) would greatly improve the inspector function. This type of system can reduce the risk of false or misreported cylinder tare weights, diversion of nuclear material, concealment of excess production, utilization of undeclared cylinders, and misrepresentation of the cylinders contents. This paper will describe a proof-of-concept approach that was designed to evaluate the feasibility of using radio frequency (RF)-based technologies to track individual UF{sub 6} cylinders throughout a portion of their life cycle, and thus demonstrate the potential for improved domestic accountability of materials, and a more effective and efficient method for application of site-level IAEA safeguards. The evaluation system incorporates RF-based identification devices (RFID) which provide a foundation for establishing a reliable, automated, and near real-time tracking system that can be set up to utilize site-specific, rules-based detection algorithms. This paper will report results from a proof-of-concept demonstration at a real enrichment facility that is specifically designed to evaluate both the feasibility of using RF to track cylinders and the durability of the RF equipment to survive the rigors of operational processing and handling. The paper also discusses methods for securely attaching RF devices and describes how the technology can effectively be layered with other safeguard systems and approaches to build a robust system for detecting cylinder diversion. Additionally

  13. A multi-instrumental geochemical study of anomalous uranium enrichment in coal.

    PubMed

    Havelcová, Martina; Machovič, Vladimír; Mizera, Jiří; Sýkorová, Ivana; Borecká, Lenka; Kopecký, Lubomír

    2014-11-01

    Contents of uranium in coals from Odeř in the northernmost part of the Sokolov Basin, Czech Republic, in the vicinity of the well known St. Joachimsthal uranium ore deposits, reach extremely high values. In the present work, coal samples with contents of uranium ranging from 0.02 to 6 wt.% were studied. The study employing a whole complex of analytical techniques has been aimed at identification of changes in the structure of coal organic matter, which are associated with the high contents of uranium in coal. The study includes proximate and ultimate analyses, multielement analysis by instrumental neutron and photon activation analyses, micropetrographic analysis by optical microscopy, ESEM/EDX analysis of mineral matter, infrared and Raman spectroscopies, solvent extraction followed by gas chromatography with mass spectroscopy (GC/MS), and analytical pyrolysis (Py-GC/MS). The study has confirmed previously proposed explanation of uraniferous mineralization in sedimentary carboniferous substances by the mechanism of reduction and fixation of soluble U(VI) (uranyl, UO2(2+)) species (e.g., humic, carbonate/hydroxo/phosphate complexes) by sedimentary organic matter under diagenetic or hydrothermal conditions, and formation of insoluble U(IV) species as phosphate minerals and uraninite. The process is accompanied with alteration and destruction of the coal organic matter. The changes in the structure of coal organic matter involve dehydrogenation and oxidation mainly in the aliphatic, aromatic and hydroxyl structures, and an increase in aromaticity, content of ether bonds, and the degree of coalification.

  14. A multi-instrumental geochemical study of anomalous uranium enrichment in coal.

    PubMed

    Havelcová, Martina; Machovič, Vladimír; Mizera, Jiří; Sýkorová, Ivana; Borecká, Lenka; Kopecký, Lubomír

    2014-11-01

    Contents of uranium in coals from Odeř in the northernmost part of the Sokolov Basin, Czech Republic, in the vicinity of the well known St. Joachimsthal uranium ore deposits, reach extremely high values. In the present work, coal samples with contents of uranium ranging from 0.02 to 6 wt.% were studied. The study employing a whole complex of analytical techniques has been aimed at identification of changes in the structure of coal organic matter, which are associated with the high contents of uranium in coal. The study includes proximate and ultimate analyses, multielement analysis by instrumental neutron and photon activation analyses, micropetrographic analysis by optical microscopy, ESEM/EDX analysis of mineral matter, infrared and Raman spectroscopies, solvent extraction followed by gas chromatography with mass spectroscopy (GC/MS), and analytical pyrolysis (Py-GC/MS). The study has confirmed previously proposed explanation of uraniferous mineralization in sedimentary carboniferous substances by the mechanism of reduction and fixation of soluble U(VI) (uranyl, UO2(2+)) species (e.g., humic, carbonate/hydroxo/phosphate complexes) by sedimentary organic matter under diagenetic or hydrothermal conditions, and formation of insoluble U(IV) species as phosphate minerals and uraninite. The process is accompanied with alteration and destruction of the coal organic matter. The changes in the structure of coal organic matter involve dehydrogenation and oxidation mainly in the aliphatic, aromatic and hydroxyl structures, and an increase in aromaticity, content of ether bonds, and the degree of coalification. PMID:24998749

  15. Compton DIV: Using a Compton-Based Gamma-Ray Imager for Design Information Verification of Uranium Enrichment Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Burks, M; Verbeke, J; Dougan, A; Wang, T; Decman, D

    2009-07-04

    A feasibility study has been performed to determine the potential usefulness of Compton imaging as a tool for design information verification (DIV) of uranium enrichment plants. Compton imaging is a method of gamma-ray imaging capable of imaging with a 360-degree field of view over a broad range of energies. These systems can image a room (with a time span on the order of one hour) and return a picture of the distribution and composition of radioactive material in that room. The effectiveness of Compton imaging depends on the sensitivity and resolution of the instrument as well the strength and energy of the radioactive material to be imaged. This study combined measurements and simulations to examine the specific issue of UF{sub 6} gas flow in pipes, at various enrichment levels, as well as hold-up resulting from the accumulation of enriched material in those pipes. It was found that current generation imagers could image pipes carrying UF{sub 6} in less than one hour at moderate to high enrichment. Pipes with low enriched gas would require more time. It was also found that hold-up was more amenable to this technique and could be imaged in gram quantities in a fraction of an hour. another questions arises regarding the ability to separately image two pipes spaced closely together. This depends on the capabilities of the instrument in question. These results are described in detail. In addition, suggestions are given as to how to develop Compton imaging as a tool for DIV.

  16. Design Study for a Low-enriched Uranium Core for the High Flux Isotope Reactor, Annual Report for FY 2007

    SciTech Connect

    Primm, Trent; Ellis, Ronald James; Gehin, Jess C; Ilas, Germina; Miller, James Henry; Sease, John D

    2007-11-01

    This report documents progress made during fiscal year 2007 in studies of converting the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) from highly enriched uranium (HEU) fuel to low enriched uranium fuel (LEU). Conversion from HEU to LEU will require a change in fuel form from uranium oxide to a uranium-molybdenum alloy. A high volume fraction U/Mo-in-Al fuel could attain the same neutron flux performance as with the current, HEU fuel but materials considerations appear to preclude production and irradiation of such a fuel. A diffusion barrier would be required if Al is to be retained as the interstitial medium and the additional volume required for this barrier would degrade performance. Attaining the high volume fraction (55 wt. %) of U/Mo assumed in the computational study while maintaining the current fuel plate acceptance level at the fuel manufacturer is unlikely, i.e. no increase in the percentage of plates rejected for non-compliance with the fuel specification. Substitution of a zirconium alloy for Al would significantly increase the weight of the fuel element, the cost of the fuel element, and introduce an as-yet untried manufacturing process. A monolithic U-10Mo foil is the choice of LEU fuel for HFIR. Preliminary calculations indicate that with a modest increase in reactor power, the flux performance of the reactor can be maintained at the current level. A linearly-graded, radial fuel thickness profile is preferred to the arched profile currently used in HEU fuel because the LEU fuel media is a metal alloy foil rather than a powder. Developments in analysis capability and nuclear data processing techniques are underway with the goal of verifying the preliminary calculations of LEU flux performance. A conceptual study of the operational cost of an LEU fuel fabrication facility yielded the conclusion that the annual fuel cost to the HFIR would increase significantly from the current, HEU fuel cycle. Though manufacturing can be accomplished with existing technology

  17. Enrichment of target sequences for next-generation sequencing applications in research and diagnostics.

    PubMed

    Altmüller, Janine; Budde, Birgit S; Nürnberg, Peter

    2014-02-01

    Abstract Targeted re-sequencing such as gene panel sequencing (GPS) has become very popular in medical genetics, both for research projects and in diagnostic settings. The technical principles of the different enrichment methods have been reviewed several times before; however, new enrichment products are constantly entering the market, and researchers are often puzzled about the requirement to take decisions about long-term commitments, both for the enrichment product and the sequencing technology. This review summarizes important considerations for the experimental design and provides helpful recommendations in choosing the best sequencing strategy for various research projects and diagnostic applications.

  18. Parametric Evaluation of Active Neutron Interrogation for the Detection of Shielded Highly-Enriched Uranium in the Field

    SciTech Connect

    D. L. Chcihester; E. H. Seabury; S. J. Thompson; R. R. C. Clement

    2011-10-01

    Parametric studies using numerical simulations are being performed to assess the performance capabilities and limits of active neutron interrogation for detecting shielded highly enriched uranium (HEU). Varying the shield material, HEU mass, HEU depth inside the shield, and interrogating neutron source energy, the simulations account for both neutron and photon emission signatures from the HEU with resolution in both energy and time. The results are processed to represent different irradiation timing schemes and several different classes of radiation detectors, and evaluated using a statistical approach considering signal intensity over background. This paper describes the details of the modeling campaign and some preliminary results, weighing the strengths of alternative measurement approaches for the different irradiation scenarios.

  19. Gamma/neutron time-correlation for special nuclear material detection – Active stimulation of highly enriched uranium

    SciTech Connect

    Paff, Marc G.; Monterial, Mateusz; Marleau, Peter; Kiff, Scott; Nowack, Aaron; Clarke, Shaun D.; Pozzi, Sara A.

    2014-06-21

    A series of simulations and experiments were undertaken to explore and evaluate the potential for a novel new technique for fissile material detection and characterization, the timecorrelated pulse-height (TCPH) method, to be used concurrent with active stimulation of potential nuclear materials. In previous work TCPH has been established as a highly sensitive method for the detection and characterization of configurations of fissile material containing Plutonium in passive measurements. By actively stimulating fission with the introduction of an external radiation source, we have shown that TCPH is also an effective method of detecting and characterizing configurations of fissile material containing Highly Enriched Uranium (HEU). The TCPH method is shown to be robust in the presence of the proper choice of external radiation source. An evaluation of potential interrogation sources is presented.

  20. Automated instruments for in-line accounting of highly enriched uranium at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Russo, P.A.; Strittmatter, R.B.; Sandford, E.L.; Stephens, M.M.; Brumfield, T.L.; Smith, S.E.; McCullough, E.E.; Jeter, I.W.; Bowers, G.L.

    1985-02-01

    Two automated nondestructive assay instruments developed at Los Alamos in support of nuclear materials accounting needs are currently operating in-line at the Oak Ridge Y-12 facility for recovery of highly enriched uranium (HEU). One instrument provides the HEU inventory in the secondary solvent extraction system, and the other monitors HEU concentration in the secondary intermediate evaporator. Both instruments were installed in December 1982. Operational evaluation of these instruments was a joint effort of Y-12 and Los Alamos personnel. This evaluation included comparison of the solvent extraction system inventories with direct measurements performed on the dumped solution components of the solvent extraction system and comparison of concentration assay results with the external assays of samples withdrawn from the process. The function and design of the instruments and detailed results of the operational evaluation are reported.

  1. Gamma/neutron time-correlation for special nuclear material detection – Active stimulation of highly enriched uranium

    DOE PAGES

    Paff, Marc G.; Monterial, Mateusz; Marleau, Peter; Kiff, Scott; Nowack, Aaron; Clarke, Shaun D.; Pozzi, Sara A.

    2014-06-21

    A series of simulations and experiments were undertaken to explore and evaluate the potential for a novel new technique for fissile material detection and characterization, the timecorrelated pulse-height (TCPH) method, to be used concurrent with active stimulation of potential nuclear materials. In previous work TCPH has been established as a highly sensitive method for the detection and characterization of configurations of fissile material containing Plutonium in passive measurements. By actively stimulating fission with the introduction of an external radiation source, we have shown that TCPH is also an effective method of detecting and characterizing configurations of fissile material containing Highlymore » Enriched Uranium (HEU). The TCPH method is shown to be robust in the presence of the proper choice of external radiation source. An evaluation of potential interrogation sources is presented.« less

  2. Utilization of non-weapons-grade plutonium and highly enriched uranium with breeding of the 233U isotope in the VVER reactors using thorium and heavy water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marshalkin, V. E.; Povyshev, V. M.

    2015-12-01

    A method for joint utilization of non-weapons-grade plutonium and highly enriched uranium in the thorium-uranium—plutonium oxide fuel of a water-moderated reactor with a varying water composition (D2O, H2O) is proposed. The method is characterized by efficient breeding of the 233U isotope and safe reactor operation and is comparatively simple to implement.

  3. Verification of the MCU precision code and ROSFOND neutron data in application to the calculations of criticality of fast reactors with highly enriched uranium

    SciTech Connect

    Alekseev, N. I.; Kalugin, M. A.; Kulakov, A. S.; Novosel’tsev, A. P.; Sergeev, G. S.; Shkarovskiy, D. A.; Yudkevich, M. S.

    2014-12-15

    Calculation of 335 critical assemblies (benchmark experiments) with the core of highly enriched uranium and reflectors of various materials is performed. The statistical analysis of the results shows that, for all 16 materials studied, the absolute value of the most probable deviation of the calculated value of K{sub eff} from the experimental one does not exceed 0.005.

  4. Assumptions and Criteria for Performing a Feasability Study of the Conversion of the High Flux Isotope Reactor Core to Use Low-Enriched Uranium Fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Primm, R.T., III; Ellis, R.J.; Gehin, J.C.; Moses, D.L.; Binder, J.L.; Xoubi, N.

    2006-02-01

    A computational study will be initiated during fiscal year 2006 to examine the feasibility of converting the High Flux Isotope Reactor from highly enriched uranium fuel to low-enriched uranium. The study will be limited to steady-state, nominal operation, reactor physics and thermal-hydraulic analyses of a uranium-molybdenum alloy that would be substituted for the current fuel powder--U{sub 3}O{sub 8} mixed with aluminum. The purposes of this document are to (1) define the scope of studies to be conducted, (2) define the methodologies to be used to conduct the studies, (3) define the assumptions that serve as input to the methodologies, (4) provide an efficient means for communication with the Department of Energy and American research reactor operators, and (5) expedite review and commentary by those parties.

  5. RERTR program activities related to the development and application of new LEU fuels. [Reduced Enrichment Research and Test Reactor; low-enriched uranium

    SciTech Connect

    Travelli, A.

    1983-01-01

    The statue of the U.S. Reduced Enrichment Research and Test Reactor (RERTR) Program is reviewed. After a brief outline of RERTR Program objectives and goals, program accomplishments are discussed with emphasis on the development, demonstration and application of new LEU fuels. Most program activities have proceeded as planned, and a combination of two silicide fuels (U/sub 3/Si/sub 2/-Al and U/sub 3/Si-Al) holds excellent promise for achieving the long-term program goals. Current plans and schedules project the uranium density of qualified RERTR fuels for plate-type reactors to grow by approximately 1 g U/cm/sup 3/ each year, from the current 1.7 g U/cm/sup 3/ to the 7.0 g U/cm/sup 3/ which will be reached in late 1988. The technical needs of research and test reactors for HEU exports are also forecasted to undergo a gradual but dramatic decline in the coming years.

  6. Simple calculation of the critical mass for highly enriched uranium and plutonium-239

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chyba, Christopher F.; Milne, Caroline R.

    2014-10-01

    The correct calculation of and values for the critical mass of uranium or plutonium necessary for a nuclear fission weapon have long been understood and publicly available. The calculation requires solving the radial component in spherical coordinates of a diffusion equation with a source term, so is beyond the reach of most public policy and many first-year college physics students. Yet it is important for the basic physical ideas behind the calculation to be understood by those without calculus who are nonetheless interested in international security, arms control, or nuclear non-proliferation. This article estimates the critical mass in an intuitive way that requires only algebra.

  7. Proteome changes in rat serum after a chronic ingestion of enriched uranium: Toward a biological signature of internal contamination and radiological effect.

    PubMed

    Petitot, F; Frelon, S; Chambon, C; Paquet, F; Guipaud, O

    2016-08-22

    The civilian and military use of uranium results in an increased risk of human exposure. The toxicity of uranium results from both its chemical and radiological properties that vary with isotopic composition. Validated biomarkers of health effects associated with exposure to uranium are neither sensitive nor specific to uranium radiotoxicity and/or radiological effect. This study aimed at investigating if serum proteins could be useful as biomarkers of both uranium exposure and radiological effect. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were chronically exposed through drinking water to low levels (40mg/L, corresponding to 1mg of uranium per animal per day) of either 4% (235)U-enriched uranium (EU) or 12% EU during 6 weeks. A proteomics approach based on two-dimensional electrophoresis (2D-DIGE) and mass spectrometry (MS) was used to establish protein expression profiles that could be relevant for discriminating between groups, and to identify some differentially expressed proteins following uranium ingestion. It demonstrated that the expressions of 174 protein spots over 1045 quantified spots were altered after uranium exposure (p<0.05). Using both inferential and non-supervised multivariate statistics, we show sets of spots features that lead to a clear discrimination between controls and EU exposed groups on the one hand (21 spots), and between 4% EU and 12% EU on the other hand (7 spots), showing that investigation of the serum proteome may possibly be of relevance to address both uranium contamination and radiological effect. Finally, using bioinformatics tools, pathway analyses of differentially expressed MS-identified proteins find that acute phase, inflammatory and immune responses as well as oxidative stress are likely involved in the response to contamination, suggesting a physiological perturbation, but that does not necessarily lead to a toxic effect. PMID:27267564

  8. Steady-State Thermal-Hydraulics Analyses for the Conversion of BR2 to Low Enriched Uranium Fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Licht, J.; Bergeron, A.; Dionne, B.; Van den Branden, G; Kalcheva, S; Sikik, E; Koonen, E

    2015-01-01

    The code PLTEMP/ANL version 4.2 was used to perform the steady-state thermal-hydraulic analyses of the BR2 research reactor for conversion from Highly-Enriched to Low Enriched Uranium fuel (HEU and LEU, respectively). Calculations were performed to evaluate different fuel assemblies with respect to the onset of nucleate boiling (ONB), flow instability (FI), critical heat flux (CHF) and fuel temperature at beginning of cycle conditions. The fuel assemblies were characteristic of fresh fuel (0% burnup), highest heat flux (16% burnup), highest power (32% burnup) and highest burnup (46% burnup). Results show that the high heat flux fuel element is limiting for ONB, FI, and CHF, for both HEU and LEU fuel, but that the high power fuel element produces similar margin in a few cases. The maximum fuel temperature similarly occurs in both the high heat flux and high power fuel assemblies for both HEU and LEU fuel. A sensitivity study was also performed to evaluate the variation in fuel temperature due to uncertainties in the thermal conductivity degradation associated with burnup.

  9. Assessment of enriched uranium storage safety issues at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant

    SciTech Connect

    1996-08-01

    This document is an assessment of the technical safety issues pertaining to the storage of EU at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant. The purpose of the assessment is to serve as the basis for defining the technical standards for storage of EU at Y-12. A formal assessment of the Y-12 materials acceptance criteria for EU is currently being conducted by a task force cochaired by B. G. Eddy of DOE Oak Ridge Operations and S. 0. Cox of Y-12 Defense Programs. The mission of this technical assessment for storage is obviously dependent on results of the acceptance assessment. Clearly, the two efforts require coordination to avoid inconsistencies. In addition, both these Assessments must be consistent with the Environmental Assessment for EU storage at Y-12.1 Both the Storage Assessment and the Criteria for Acceptance must take cognizance of the fact that a portion of the EU to be submitted for storage in the future is expected to be derived from foreign sources and to include previously irradiated uranium containing significant levels of transuranics, radioactive daughter products, and unstable uranium isotopes that do not occur in the EU stream of the DOE weapons complex. National security considerations may dictate that these materials be accepted despite the fact that they fail to conform to the Acceptance Criteria. This document will attempt to address the complexities inherent in this situation.

  10. BaitFisher: A Software Package for Multispecies Target DNA Enrichment Probe Design.

    PubMed

    Mayer, Christoph; Sann, Manuela; Donath, Alexander; Meixner, Martin; Podsiadlowski, Lars; Peters, Ralph S; Petersen, Malte; Meusemann, Karen; Liere, Karsten; Wägele, Johann-Wolfgang; Misof, Bernhard; Bleidorn, Christoph; Ohl, Michael; Niehuis, Oliver

    2016-07-01

    Target DNA enrichment combined with high-throughput sequencing technologies is a powerful approach to probing a large number of loci in genomes of interest. However, software algorithms that explicitly consider nucleotide sequence information of target loci in multiple reference species for optimizing design of target enrichment baits to be applicable across a wide range of species have not been developed. Here we present an algorithm that infers target DNA enrichment baits from multiple nucleotide sequence alignments. By applying clustering methods and the combinatorial 1-center sequence optimization to bait design, we are able to minimize the total number of baits required to efficiently probe target loci in multiple species. Consequently, more loci can be probed across species with a given number of baits. Using transcript sequences of 24 apoid wasps (Hymenoptera: Crabronidae, Sphecidae) from the 1KITE project and the gene models of Nasonia vitripennis, we inferred 57,650, 120-bp-long baits for capturing 378 coding sequence sections of 282 genes in apoid wasps. Illumina reduced-representation library sequencing confirmed successful enrichment of the target DNA when applying these baits to DNA of various apoid wasps. The designed baits furthermore enriched a major fraction of the target DNA in distantly related Hymenoptera, such as Formicidae and Chalcidoidea, highlighting the baits' broad taxonomic applicability. The availability of baits with broad taxonomic applicability is of major interest in numerous disciplines, ranging from phylogenetics to biodiversity monitoring. We implemented our new approach in a software package, called BaitFisher, which is open source and freely available at https://github.com/cmayer/BaitFisher-package.git.

  11. BaitFisher: A Software Package for Multispecies Target DNA Enrichment Probe Design.

    PubMed

    Mayer, Christoph; Sann, Manuela; Donath, Alexander; Meixner, Martin; Podsiadlowski, Lars; Peters, Ralph S; Petersen, Malte; Meusemann, Karen; Liere, Karsten; Wägele, Johann-Wolfgang; Misof, Bernhard; Bleidorn, Christoph; Ohl, Michael; Niehuis, Oliver

    2016-07-01

    Target DNA enrichment combined with high-throughput sequencing technologies is a powerful approach to probing a large number of loci in genomes of interest. However, software algorithms that explicitly consider nucleotide sequence information of target loci in multiple reference species for optimizing design of target enrichment baits to be applicable across a wide range of species have not been developed. Here we present an algorithm that infers target DNA enrichment baits from multiple nucleotide sequence alignments. By applying clustering methods and the combinatorial 1-center sequence optimization to bait design, we are able to minimize the total number of baits required to efficiently probe target loci in multiple species. Consequently, more loci can be probed across species with a given number of baits. Using transcript sequences of 24 apoid wasps (Hymenoptera: Crabronidae, Sphecidae) from the 1KITE project and the gene models of Nasonia vitripennis, we inferred 57,650, 120-bp-long baits for capturing 378 coding sequence sections of 282 genes in apoid wasps. Illumina reduced-representation library sequencing confirmed successful enrichment of the target DNA when applying these baits to DNA of various apoid wasps. The designed baits furthermore enriched a major fraction of the target DNA in distantly related Hymenoptera, such as Formicidae and Chalcidoidea, highlighting the baits' broad taxonomic applicability. The availability of baits with broad taxonomic applicability is of major interest in numerous disciplines, ranging from phylogenetics to biodiversity monitoring. We implemented our new approach in a software package, called BaitFisher, which is open source and freely available at https://github.com/cmayer/BaitFisher-package.git. PMID:27009209

  12. An Assessment of the Detection of Highly Enriched Uranium and its Use in an Improvised Nuclear Device using the Monte Carlo Computer Code MCNP-5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cochran, Thomas

    2007-04-01

    In 2002 and again in 2003, an investigative journalist unit at ABC News transported a 6.8 kilogram metallic slug of depleted uranium (DU) via shipping container from Istanbul, Turkey to Brooklyn, NY and from Jakarta, Indonesia to Long Beach, CA. Targeted inspection of these shipping containers by Department of Homeland Security (DHS) personnel, included the use of gamma-ray imaging, portal monitors and hand-held radiation detectors, did not uncover the hidden DU. Monte Carlo analysis of the gamma-ray intensity and spectrum of a DU slug and one consisting of highly-enriched uranium (HEU) showed that DU was a proper surrogate for testing the ability of DHS to detect the illicit transport of HEU. Our analysis using MCNP-5 illustrated the ease of fully shielding an HEU sample to avoid detection. The assembly of an Improvised Nuclear Device (IND) -- a crude atomic bomb -- from sub-critical pieces of HEU metal was then examined via Monte Carlo criticality calculations. Nuclear explosive yields of such an IND as a function of the speed of assembly of the sub-critical HEU components were derived. A comparison was made between the more rapid assembly of sub-critical pieces of HEU in the ``Little Boy'' (Hiroshima) weapon's gun barrel and gravity assembly (i.e., dropping one sub-critical piece of HEU on another from a specified height). Based on the difficulty of detection of HEU and the straightforward construction of an IND utilizing HEU, current U.S. government policy must be modified to more urgently prioritize elimination of and securing the global inventories of HEU.

  13. A targeted enrichment strategy for massively parallel sequencing of angiosperm plastid genomes1

    PubMed Central

    Stull, Gregory W.; Moore, Michael J.; Mandala, Venkata S.; Douglas, Norman A.; Kates, Heather-Rose; Qi, Xinshuai; Brockington, Samuel F.; Soltis, Pamela S.; Soltis, Douglas E.; Gitzendanner, Matthew A.

    2013-01-01

    • Premise of the study: We explored a targeted enrichment strategy to facilitate rapid and low-cost next-generation sequencing (NGS) of numerous complete plastid genomes from across the phylogenetic breadth of angiosperms. • Methods and Results: A custom RNA probe set including the complete sequences of 22 previously sequenced eudicot plastomes was designed to facilitate hybridization-based targeted enrichment of eudicot plastid genomes. Using this probe set and an Agilent SureSelect targeted enrichment kit, we conducted an enrichment experiment including 24 angiosperms (22 eudicots, two monocots), which were subsequently sequenced on a single lane of the Illumina GAIIx with single-end, 100-bp reads. This approach yielded nearly complete to complete plastid genomes with exceptionally high coverage (mean coverage: 717×), even for the two monocots. • Conclusions: Our enrichment experiment was highly successful even though many aspects of the capture process employed were suboptimal. Hence, significant improvements to this methodology are feasible. With this general approach and probe set, it should be possible to sequence more than 300 essentially complete plastid genomes in a single Illumina GAIIx lane (achieving ∼50× mean coverage). However, given the complications of pooling numerous samples for multiplex sequencing and the limited number of barcodes (e.g., 96) available in commercial kits, we recommend 96 samples as a current practical maximum for multiplex plastome sequencing. This high-throughput approach should facilitate large-scale plastid genome sequencing at any level of phylogenetic diversity in angiosperms. PMID:25202518

  14. Conceptual Process for the Manufacture of Low-Enriched Uranium/Molybdenum Fuel for the High Flux Isotope Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Sease, J.D.; Primm, R.T. III; Miller, J.H.

    2007-09-30

    The U.S. nonproliferation policy 'to minimize, and to the extent possible, eliminate the use of HEU in civil nuclear programs throughout the world' has resulted in the conversion (or scheduled conversion) of many of the U.S. research reactors from high-enriched uranium (HEU) to low-enriched uranium (LEU). A foil fuel appears to offer the best option for using a LEU fuel in the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) without degrading the performance of the reactor. The purpose of this document is to outline a proposed conceptual fabrication process flow sheet for a new, foil-type, 19.75%-enriched fuel for HFIR. The preparation of the flow sheet allows a better understanding of the costs of infrastructure modifications, operating costs, and implementation schedule issues associated with the fabrication of LEU fuel for HFIR. Preparation of a reference flow sheet is one of the first planning steps needed in the development of a new manufacturing capacity for low enriched fuels for U.S. research and test reactors. The flow sheet can be used to develop a work breakdown structure (WBS), a critical path schedule, and identify development needs. The reference flow sheet presented in this report is specifically for production of LEU foil fuel for the HFIR. The need for an overall reference flow sheet for production of fuel for all High Performance Research Reactors (HPRR) has been identified by the national program office. This report could provide a starting point for the development of such a reference flow sheet for a foil-based fuel for all HPRRs. The reference flow sheet presented is based on processes currently being developed by the national program for the LEU foil fuel when available, processes used historically in the manufacture of other nuclear fuels and materials, and processes used in other manufacturing industries producing a product configuration similar to the form required in manufacturing a foil fuel. The processes in the reference flow sheet are within the

  15. Economic and Non-proliferation Policy Considerations of Uranium Enrichment in Brazil and Argentina

    SciTech Connect

    Short, Steven M.; Phillips, Jon R.; Weimar, Mark R.; Mahy, Heidi A.

    2008-09-01

    The nuclear development programs of both Argentina and Brazil have, since the 1970s, been premised on the desire for self-sufficiency and assurance of nuclear fuel supply. While military rivalry and mutual distrust led to nuclear weapons related development programs in the 1970s and 1980s, both countries have since terminated these programs. Furthermore, the governments of both countries have pledged their commitment to exclusively non-explosive use of nuclear energy and have signed the Non Proliferation Treaty (NPT). Utilizing rights provided for under the NPT, both Argentina and Brazil have nuclear fuel production facilities, with the notable exception of enrichment plants, that provide much of the current indigenous fuel requirements for their nuclear power plants. However, both countries are actively developing enrichment capability to fill this gap. The purpose of this report is to assess the economic basis and non-proliferation policy considerations for indigenous enrichment capability within the context of their desired self-sufficiency and to evaluate possible United States Government policy options.

  16. Environmental assessment for the purchase of Russian low enriched uranium derived from the dismantlement of nuclear weapons in the countries of the former Soviet Union

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-01-01

    The United States is proposing to purchase from the Russian Federation low enriched uranium (LEU) derived from highly enriched uranium (HEU) resulting from the dismantlement of nuclear weapons in the countries of the former Soviet Union. The purchase would be accomplished through a proposed contract requiring the United States to purchase 15,250 metric tons (tonnes) of LEU (or 22,550 tonnes of UF{sub 6}) derived from blending 500 metric tones uranium (MTU) of HEU from nuclear warheads. The LEU would be in the form of uranium hexafluoride (UF{sub 6}) and would be converted from HEU in Russia. The United States Enrichment Corporation (USEC) is the entity proposing to undertake the contract for purchase, sale, and delivery of the LEU from the Russian Federation. The US Department of Energy (DOE) is negotiating the procedure for gaining confidence that the LEU is derived from HEU that is derived from dismantled nuclear weapons (referred to as ``transparency),`` and would administer the transparency measures for the contract. There are six environments that could potentially be affected by the proposed action; marine (ocean); US ports of entry; truck or rail transportation corridors; the Portsmouth GDP; the electric power industry; and the nuclear fuel cycle industry. These environmental impacts are discussed.

  17. Enriched transcription factor signatures in triple negative breast cancer indicates possible targeted therapies with existing drugs

    PubMed Central

    Willis, Scooter; De, Pradip; Dey, Nandini; Long, Bradley; Young, Brandon; Sparano, Joseph A.; Wang, Victoria; Davidson, Nancy E.; Leyland-Jones, Brian R.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Triple negative (TN) breast cancers which lack expression of the estrogen (ER), progesterone (PR), and human epidermal growth factor 2 (HER2) receptors convey a poor prognosis due in part to a lack of targeted therapies. Methods To identify viable targets for the treatment of TN disease, we have conducted a gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA) on seven different breast cancer whole genome gene expression cohorts comparing TN vs. ER + HER2 − to identify consistently enriched genes that share a common promoter motif. The seven cohorts were profiled on three different genome expression platforms (Affymetrix, Illumina and RNAseq) consisting in total of 2088 samples with IHC metadata. Results GSEA identified enriched gene expression patterns in TN samples that share common promoter motifs associated with SOX9, E2F1, HIF1A, HMGA1, MYC BACH2, CEBPB, and GCNF/NR6A1. Unexpectedly, NR6A1 an orphan nuclear receptor normally expressed in germ cells of gonads is highly expressed in TN and ER + HER2 − samples making it an ideal drug target. Conclusion With the increasing number of large sample size breast cancer cohorts, an exploratory analysis of genes that are consistently enriched in TN sharing common promoter motifs allows for the identification of possible therapeutic targets with extensive validation in patient derived data sets. PMID:26005638

  18. Technology for increasing the uranium-235 isotopic abundance in natural uranium feed on a productive scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, E. C.

    1985-04-01

    The uses of enriched uranium are discussed. The technologies used to enrich uranium, the development of and application of these, and the current and future supplies of enriched uranium compared to forecasts of demand are explained.

  19. Cyclotron production of {sup 61}Cu using natural Zn and enriched {sup 64}Zn targets

    SciTech Connect

    Asad, A. H.; Smith, S. V.; Chan, S.; Jeffery, C. M.; Morandeau, L.; Price, R. I.

    2012-12-19

    Copper-61 ({sup 61}Cu) shares with {sup 64}Cu certain advantages for PET diagnostic imaging, but has a shorter half-life (3.4hr vs. 12.7hr) and a greater probability of positron production per disintegration (61% vs. 17.9%). One important application is for in vivo imaging of hypoxic tissue. In this study {sup 61}Cu was produced using the {sup 64}Zn(p,{alpha}){sup 61}Cu reaction on natural Zn or enriched {sup 64}Zn targets. The enriched {sup 64}Zn (99.82%) was electroplated onto high purity gold or silver foils or onto thin Al discs. A typical target bombardment used 30{mu}A; at 11.7, 14.5 or 17.6MeV over 30-60min. The {sup 61}Cu (radiochemical purity of >95%) was separated using a combination of cation and anion exchange columns. The {sup 64}Zn target material was recovered after each run, for re-use. In a direct comparison with enriched {sup 64}Zn-target results, {sup 61}Cu production using the cheaper {sup nat}Zn target proved to be an effective alternative.

  20. Quantitative PCR as a predictor of aligned ancient DNA read counts following targeted enrichment.

    PubMed

    Enk, Jacob; Rouillard, Jean-Marie; Poinar, Hendrik

    2013-12-01

    Targeted DNA enrichment through hybridization capture (EHC) is rapidly replacing PCR as the method of choice for enrichment prior to genomic resequencing. This is especially true in the case of ancient DNA (aDNA) from long-dead organisms, where targets tend to be highly fragmented and outnumbered by contaminant DNA. However, the behavior of EHC using aDNA has been quite variable, making success difficult to predict and preventing efficient sample equilibration during multiplexed sequencing runs. Here, we evaluate whether quantitative PCR (qPCR) measurements of aDNA samples correlate with on-target read counts before and after EHC. Our data indicate that not only do simple target qPCRs correlate strongly with high-throughput sequencing (HTS) data but that certain sample characteristics, such as overall target abundance as well as experimental parameters (e.g., bait concentration and secondary structure propensity), consistently influenced enrichment of our diverse set of aDNA samples. Taken together, our results should help guide experimental design, screening strategies, and multiplexed sample equilibration, increasing yield and reducing the expected and actual cost of aDNA EHC high-throughput sequencing projects in the future.

  1. Quantitative PCR as a predictor of aligned ancient DNA read counts following targeted enrichment.

    PubMed

    Enk, Jacob; Rouillard, Jean-Marie; Poinar, Hendrik

    2013-12-01

    Targeted DNA enrichment through hybridization capture (EHC) is rapidly replacing PCR as the method of choice for enrichment prior to genomic resequencing. This is especially true in the case of ancient DNA (aDNA) from long-dead organisms, where targets tend to be highly fragmented and outnumbered by contaminant DNA. However, the behavior of EHC using aDNA has been quite variable, making success difficult to predict and preventing efficient sample equilibration during multiplexed sequencing runs. Here, we evaluate whether quantitative PCR (qPCR) measurements of aDNA samples correlate with on-target read counts before and after EHC. Our data indicate that not only do simple target qPCRs correlate strongly with high-throughput sequencing (HTS) data but that certain sample characteristics, such as overall target abundance as well as experimental parameters (e.g., bait concentration and secondary structure propensity), consistently influenced enrichment of our diverse set of aDNA samples. Taken together, our results should help guide experimental design, screening strategies, and multiplexed sample equilibration, increasing yield and reducing the expected and actual cost of aDNA EHC high-throughput sequencing projects in the future. PMID:24344679

  2. Direct fissile assay of enriched uranium using random self-interrogation and neutron coincidence response

    DOEpatents

    Menlove, Howard O.; Stewart, James E.

    1986-01-01

    Apparatus and method for the direct, nondestructive evaluation of the .sup.235 U nuclide content of samples containing UF.sub.6, UF.sub.4, or UO.sub.2 utilizing the passive neutron self-interrogation of the sample resulting from the intrinsic production of neutrons therein. The ratio of the emitted neutron coincidence count rate to the total emitted neutron count rate is determined and yields a measure of the bulk fissile mass. The accuracy of the method is 6.8% (1.sigma.) for cylinders containing UF.sub.6 with enrichments ranging from 6% to 98% with measurement times varying from 3-6 min. The samples contained from below 1 kg to greater than 16 kg. Since the subject invention relies on fast neutron self-interrogation, complete sampling of the UF.sub.6 takes place, reducing difficulties arising from inhomogeneity of the sample which adversely affects other assay procedures.

  3. Direct fissile assay of enriched uranium using random self-interrogation and neutron coincidence response

    DOEpatents

    Menlove, H.O.; Stewart, J.E.

    1985-02-04

    Apparatus and method for the direct, nondestructive evaluation of the /sup 235/U nuclide content of samples containing UF/sub 6/, UF/sub 4/, or UO/sub 2/ utilizing the passive neutron self-interrogation of the sample resulting from the intrinsic production of neutrons therein. The ratio of the emitted neutron coincidence count rate to the total emitted neutron count rate is determined and yields a measure of the bulk fissile mass. The accuracy of the method is 6.8% (1sigma) for cylinders containing UF/sub 6/ with enrichments ranging from 6% to 98% with measurement times varying from 3-6 min. The samples contained from below 1 kg to greater than 16 kg. Since the subject invention relies on fast neutron self-interrogation, complete sampling of the UF/sub 6/ takes place, reducing difficulties arising from inhomogeneity of the sample which adversely affects other assay procedures. 4 figs., 1 tab.

  4. Progress in converting {sup 99}Mo production from high- to low-enriched uranium--1999.

    SciTech Connect

    Snelgrove, J. L.; Vandegrift, G. F.; Conner, C.; Wiencek, T. C.; Hofman, G. L.

    1999-09-29

    Over this past year, extraordinary progress has been made in executing our charter to assist in converting Mo-99 production worldwide from HEU to LEU. Building on the successful development of the experimental LEU-foil target, we have designed a new, economical irradiation target. We have also successfully demonstrated, in collaboration with BATAN in Indonesia, that LEU can be substituted for HEU in the Cintichem target without loss of product yield or purity; in fact, conversion may make economic sense. We are interacting with a number of commercial producers--we have begun active collaborations with the CNEA and ANSTO; we are working to define the scope of collaborations with MDS Nordion and Mallinckrodt; and IRE has offered its services to irradiate and test a target at the appropriate time. Conversion of the CNEA process is on schedule. Other papers presented at this meeting will present specific results on the demonstration of the LEU-modified Cintichem process, the development of the new target, and progress in converting the CNEA process.

  5. Hyb-Seq: Combining target enrichment and genome skimming for plant phylogenomics1

    PubMed Central

    Weitemier, Kevin; Straub, Shannon C. K.; Cronn, Richard C.; Fishbein, Mark; Schmickl, Roswitha; McDonnell, Angela; Liston, Aaron

    2014-01-01

    • Premise of the study: Hyb-Seq, the combination of target enrichment and genome skimming, allows simultaneous data collection for low-copy nuclear genes and high-copy genomic targets for plant systematics and evolution studies. • Methods and Results: Genome and transcriptome assemblies for milkweed (Asclepias syriaca) were used to design enrichment probes for 3385 exons from 768 genes (>1.6 Mbp) followed by Illumina sequencing of enriched libraries. Hyb-Seq of 12 individuals (10 Asclepias species and two related genera) resulted in at least partial assembly of 92.6% of exons and 99.7% of genes and an average assembly length >2 Mbp. Importantly, complete plastomes and nuclear ribosomal DNA cistrons were assembled using off-target reads. Phylogenomic analyses demonstrated signal conflict between genomes. • Conclusions: The Hyb-Seq approach enables targeted sequencing of thousands of low-copy nuclear exons and flanking regions, as well as genome skimming of high-copy repeats and organellar genomes, to efficiently produce genome-scale data sets for phylogenomics. PMID:25225629

  6. Successful Completion of the Largest Shipment of Russian Research Reactor High-Enriched Uranium Spent Nuclear Fuel from Czech Republic to Russian Federation

    SciTech Connect

    Michael Tyacke; Dr. Igor Bolshinsky; Jeff Chamberlin

    2008-07-01

    On December 8, 2007, the largest shipment of high-enriched uranium spent nuclear fuel was successfully made from a Russian-designed nuclear research reactor in the Czech Republic to the Russian Federation. This accomplishment is the culmination of years of planning, negotiations, and hard work. The United States, Russian Federation, and the International Atomic Energy Agency have been working together on the Russian Research Reactor Fuel Return (RRRFR) Program in support of the Global Threat Reduction Initiative. In February 2003, RRRFR Program representatives met with the Nuclear Research Institute in Rež, Czech Republic, and discussed the return of their high-enriched uranium spent nuclear fuel to the Russian Federation for reprocessing. Nearly 5 years later, the shipment was made. This paper discusses the planning, preparations, coordination, and cooperation required to make this important international shipment.

  7. Safety evaluation report related to the evaluation of low-enriched uranium silicide-aluminum dispersion fuel for use in non-power reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-07-01

    Low-enriched uranium silicide-aluminum dispersion plate-type fuels have been extensively researched and developed under the international program, Reduced Enrichment in Research and Test Reactors. The international effort was led by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) in the United States. This evaluation is based primarily on reports issued by ANL that discuss and summarize the developmental tests and experiments, including postirradiation examinations, of both miniature and full-sized plates of prototypical fuel compositions. This evaluation concludes that plate-type fuels suitable and acceptable for use in research and test reactors can be fabricated with U/sub 3/Si/sub 2/-Al dispersion compacts with uranium densities up to 4.8 g/cm/sup 3/. 4 refs., 1 fig.

  8. Department of Energy`s Uranium Enrichment Decontamination and Decommissioning Fund fiscal year 1997 financial statement audit

    SciTech Connect

    1998-08-21

    This report presents the results of the independent certified public accountants` audit of the Department of Energy`s Uranium Enrichment Decontamination and Decommissioning Fund (D&D Fund) financial statements as of September 30, 1997. The auditors have expressed an unqualified opinion on the 1997 statement of financial position and the related statements of operations and changes in net position and cash flows. The 1997 financial statement audit was made under provisions of the Inspector General Act (5 U.S.C. App.) as amended, the Government Management Reform Act (31 U.S.C. 3515), and Office of Management and Budget implementing guidance. The auditor`s work was conducted in accordance with generally accepted government auditing standards. To fulfill our audit responsibilities, we contracted with the independent public accounting firm of KPMG Peat Marwick LLP (KPMG) to conduct the audit for us, subject to our review. The auditors` report on the D&D Fund`s internal control structure disclosed no reportable conditions. The auditors` report on compliance with laws and regulations disclosed one instance of noncompliance. This instance of noncompliance relates to the shortfall in Government appropriations. Since this instance was addressed in a previous audit, no further recommendation is made at this time. During the course of the audit, KPMG also identified other matters that, although not material to the financial statements, nevertheless, warrant management`s attention. These items are fully discussed in a separate letter to management.

  9. Experience with IPNS targets

    SciTech Connect

    Carpenter, J.M.; Hins, A.G.

    1993-12-31

    Three targets have operated in the IPNS Neutron Scattering Facility. The first, a depleted Uranium target, served from 1981 until it was replaced in 1988 by the Enriched Uranium Booster Target. The Booster Target had operated for nearly three years when it suffered a cladding leak and was replaced with the retired depleted Uranium target. That target reached its end-of-life after less than one year`s further operation, and was replaced with an identical one newly assembled from spare components, which is still operating satisfactorily. This paper reviews the operating history of the IPNS targets and the findings reached during analysis of the failures. Similarities with ISIS target experience, preliminary conclusions and plans for providing spares and improved targets are discussed. We present some preliminary results from the hot cell examination of the failed depleted Uranium target.

  10. Sampling Enrichment toward Target Structures Using Hybrid Molecular Dynamics-Monte Carlo Simulations

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Kecheng; Różycki, Bartosz; Cui, Fengchao; Shi, Ce; Chen, Wenduo; Li, Yunqi

    2016-01-01

    Sampling enrichment toward a target state, an analogue of the improvement of sampling efficiency (SE), is critical in both the refinement of protein structures and the generation of near-native structure ensembles for the exploration of structure-function relationships. We developed a hybrid molecular dynamics (MD)-Monte Carlo (MC) approach to enrich the sampling toward the target structures. In this approach, the higher SE is achieved by perturbing the conventional MD simulations with a MC structure-acceptance judgment, which is based on the coincidence degree of small angle x-ray scattering (SAXS) intensity profiles between the simulation structures and the target structure. We found that the hybrid simulations could significantly improve SE by making the top-ranked models much closer to the target structures both in the secondary and tertiary structures. Specifically, for the 20 mono-residue peptides, when the initial structures had the root-mean-squared deviation (RMSD) from the target structure smaller than 7 Å, the hybrid MD-MC simulations afforded, on average, 0.83 Å and 1.73 Å in RMSD closer to the target than the parallel MD simulations at 310K and 370K, respectively. Meanwhile, the average SE values are also increased by 13.2% and 15.7%. The enrichment of sampling becomes more significant when the target states are gradually detectable in the MD-MC simulations in comparison with the parallel MD simulations, and provide >200% improvement in SE. We also performed a test of the hybrid MD-MC approach in the real protein system, the results showed that the SE for 3 out of 5 real proteins are improved. Overall, this work presents an efficient way of utilizing solution SAXS to improve protein structure prediction and refinement, as well as the generation of near native structures for function annotation. PMID:27227775

  11. Sampling Enrichment toward Target Structures Using Hybrid Molecular Dynamics-Monte Carlo Simulations.

    PubMed

    Yang, Kecheng; Różycki, Bartosz; Cui, Fengchao; Shi, Ce; Chen, Wenduo; Li, Yunqi

    2016-01-01

    Sampling enrichment toward a target state, an analogue of the improvement of sampling efficiency (SE), is critical in both the refinement of protein structures and the generation of near-native structure ensembles for the exploration of structure-function relationships. We developed a hybrid molecular dynamics (MD)-Monte Carlo (MC) approach to enrich the sampling toward the target structures. In this approach, the higher SE is achieved by perturbing the conventional MD simulations with a MC structure-acceptance judgment, which is based on the coincidence degree of small angle x-ray scattering (SAXS) intensity profiles between the simulation structures and the target structure. We found that the hybrid simulations could significantly improve SE by making the top-ranked models much closer to the target structures both in the secondary and tertiary structures. Specifically, for the 20 mono-residue peptides, when the initial structures had the root-mean-squared deviation (RMSD) from the target structure smaller than 7 Å, the hybrid MD-MC simulations afforded, on average, 0.83 Å and 1.73 Å in RMSD closer to the target than the parallel MD simulations at 310K and 370K, respectively. Meanwhile, the average SE values are also increased by 13.2% and 15.7%. The enrichment of sampling becomes more significant when the target states are gradually detectable in the MD-MC simulations in comparison with the parallel MD simulations, and provide >200% improvement in SE. We also performed a test of the hybrid MD-MC approach in the real protein system, the results showed that the SE for 3 out of 5 real proteins are improved. Overall, this work presents an efficient way of utilizing solution SAXS to improve protein structure prediction and refinement, as well as the generation of near native structures for function annotation.

  12. Feasibility studies to establish at the Kazakhstan Ulba metallurgical plant the manufacturing capability to produce low-enriched uranium certified reference materials

    SciTech Connect

    Kuzminski, Jozef; Nesuhoff, J; Cratto, P; Pfennigwerth, G; Mikhailenko, A; Maliutina, I; Nations, J

    2009-01-01

    One of the salient features of the transition plan that the United States Department of Energy/National Nuclear Security Administration (DOE/NNSA) is presently implementing in the Former Soviet Union countries is the availability of uranium certified reference materials for calibration of nondestructive assay (NDA) measurement equipment. To address this challenge, DOE/NNSA and U.S. national laboratories have focused their cooperative efforts on establishing a reliable source for manufacturing, certifying, and supplying of such standards. The Ulba Metallurgical Plant (UMP), Kazakhstan, which processes large quantities of low-enriched uranium to produce ceramic fuel pellets for nuclear-powered reactors, is well situated to become a key supplier of low-enriched uranium certified reference materials for the country and Central Asia region. We have recently completed Phase I of a feasibility study to establish at UMP capabilities of manufacturing these standards. In this paper we will discuss details of a proposed methodology for uranium down-blending, material selection and characterization, and a proposed methodology of measurement by destructive (DA) and non-destructive (NDA) analysis to form a database for material certification by the competent State authorities in the Republic of Kazakhstan. In addition, we will discuss the prospect for manufacturing of such standards at UMP.

  13. Finding of no significant impact: Interim storage of enriched uranium above the maximum historical level at the Y-12 Plant Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared an Environmental Assessment (EA) for the Proposed Interim Storage of Enriched Uranium Above the Maximum Historical Storage Level at the Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee (DOE/EA-0929, September, 1994). The EA evaluates the environmental effects of transportation, prestorage processing, and interim storage of bounding quantities of enriched uranium at the Y-12 Plant over a ten-year period. The State of Tennessee and the public participated in public meetings and workshops which were held after a predecisional draft EA was released in February 1994, and after the revised pre-approval EA was issued in September 1994. Comments provided by the State and public have been carefully considered by the Department. As a result of this public process, the Department has determined that the Y-12 Plant-would store no more than 500 metric tons of highly enriched uranium (HEU) and no more than 6 metric tons of low enriched uranium (LEU). The bounding storage quantities analyzed in the pre-approval EA are 500 metric tons of HEU and 7,105.9 metric tons of LEU. Based on-the analyses in the EA, as revised by the attachment to the Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI), DOE has determined that interim storage of 500 metric tons of HEU and 6 metric tons of LEU at the Y-12 Plant does not constitute a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment, within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969. Therefore, an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) is not required and the Department is issuing this FONSI.

  14. Utilization of non-weapons-grade plutonium and highly enriched uranium with breeding of the {sup 233}U isotope in the VVER reactors using thorium and heavy water

    SciTech Connect

    Marshalkin, V. E. Povyshev, V. M.

    2015-12-15

    A method for joint utilization of non-weapons-grade plutonium and highly enriched uranium in the thorium–uranium—plutonium oxide fuel of a water-moderated reactor with a varying water composition (D{sub 2}O, H{sub 2}O) is proposed. The method is characterized by efficient breeding of the {sup 233}U isotope and safe reactor operation and is comparatively simple to implement.

  15. Isotopic fractionation of uranium in sandstone

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rosholt, J.N.; Shields, W.R.; Garner, E.L.

    1963-01-01

    Relatively unoxidized black uranium ores from sandstone deposits in the western United States show deviations in the uranium-235 to uranium-234 ratio throughout a range from 40 percent excess uranium-234 to 40 percent deficient uranium-234 with respect to a reference uranium-235 to uranium-234 ratio. The deficient uranium-234 is leached preferentially to uranium-238 and the excess uranium-234 is believed to result from deposition of uranium-234 enriched in solutions from leached deposits.

  16. Preliminary Assessment of the Impact on Reactor Vessel dpa Rates Due to Installation of a Proposed Low Enriched Uranium (LEU) Core in the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR)

    SciTech Connect

    Daily, Charles R.

    2015-10-01

    An assessment of the impact on the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) reactor vessel (RV) displacements-per-atom (dpa) rates due to operations with the proposed low enriched uranium (LEU) core described by Ilas and Primm has been performed and is presented herein. The analyses documented herein support the conclusion that conversion of HFIR to low-enriched uranium (LEU) core operations using the LEU core design of Ilas and Primm will have no negative impact on HFIR RV dpa rates. Since its inception, HFIR has been operated with highly enriched uranium (HEU) cores. As part of an effort sponsored by the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), conversion to LEU cores is being considered for future HFIR operations. The HFIR LEU configurations analyzed are consistent with the LEU core models used by Ilas and Primm and the HEU balance-of-plant models used by Risner and Blakeman in the latest analyses performed to support the HFIR materials surveillance program. The Risner and Blakeman analyses, as well as the studies documented herein, are the first to apply the hybrid transport methods available in the Automated Variance reduction Generator (ADVANTG) code to HFIR RV dpa rate calculations. These calculations have been performed on the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Institutional Cluster (OIC) with version 1.60 of the Monte Carlo N-Particle 5 (MCNP5) computer code.

  17. Commercially available antibodies can be applied in quantitative multiplexed peptide immunoaffinity enrichment targeted mass spectrometry assays

    PubMed Central

    Schoenherr, Regine M.; Zhao, Lei; Ivey, Richard G.; Voytovich, Uliana J.; Kennedy, Jacob; Yan, Ping; Lin, Chenwei; Whiteaker, Jeffrey R.; Paulovich, Amanda G.

    2016-01-01

    Immunoaffinity enrichment of peptides coupled to multiple reaction monitoring-mass spectrometry (immuno-MRM) enables highly specific, sensitive, and precise quantification of peptides and post-translational modifications. Major obstacles to developing a large number of immuno-MRM assays are the poor availability of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) validated for immunoaffinity enrichment of peptides and the cost and lead time of developing the antibodies de novo. Although many thousands of mAbs are commercially offered, few have been tested for application to immunoaffinity enrichment of peptides. In this study we tested the success rate of using commercially available mAbs for peptide immuno-MRM assays. We selected 105 commercial mAbs (76 targeting non-modified “pan” epitopes, 29 targeting phosphorylation) to proteins associated with the DNA damage response network. We found that 8 of the 76 pan (11%) and 5 of the 29 phospho-specific mAbs (17%) captured tryptic peptides (detected by LC-MS/MS) of their protein targets from human cell lysates. Seven of these mAbs were successfully used to configure and analytically characterize immuno-MRM assays. By applying selection criteria upfront, the results indicate that a screening success rate of up to 24% is possible, establishing the feasibility of screening a large number of catalog antibodies to provide readily-available assay reagents. PMID:27094115

  18. SUB-LEU-METAL-THERM-001 SUBCRITICAL MEASUREMENTS OF LOW ENRICHED TUBULAR URANIUM METAL FUEL ELEMENTS BEFORE & AFTER IRRADIATION

    SciTech Connect

    SCHWINKENDORF, K.N.

    2006-05-12

    With the shutdown of the Hanford PUREX (Plutonium-Uranium Extraction Plant) reprocessing plant in the 1970s, adequate storage capacity for spent Hanford N Reactor fuel elements in the K and N Reactor pools became a concern. To maximize space utilization in the pools, accounting for fuel burnup was considered. Calculations indicated that at typical fuel exposures for N Reactor, the spent-fuel critical mass would be twice the critical mass for green fuel. A decision was reached to test the calculational result with a definitive experiment. If the results proved positive, storage capacity could be increased and N Reactor operation could be prolonged. An experiment to be conducted in the N Reactor spent-fuel storage pool was designed and assembled and the services of the Battelle Northwest Laboratories (BNWL) (now Pacific Northwest National Laboratory [PNNL]) critical mass laboratory were procured for the measurements. The experiments were performed in April 1975 in the Hanford N Reactor fuel storage pool. The fuel elements were MKIA fuel assemblies, comprising two concentric tubes of low-enriched metallic uranium. Two separate sets of measurements were performed: one with ''green'' (fresh) fuel and one with spent fuel. Both the green and spent fuel, were measured in the same geometry. The spent-fuel MKIA assemblies had an average burnup of 2865 MWd (megawatt days)/t. A constraint was imposed restricting the measurements to a subcritical limit of k{sub eff} = 0.97. Subcritical count rate data was obtained with pulsed-neutron and approach-to-critical measurements. Ten (10) configurations with green fuel and nine (9) configurations with spent fuel are described and evaluated. Of these, 3 green fuel and 4 spent fuel loading configurations were considered to serve as benchmark models. However, shortcomings in experimental data failed to meet the high standards for a benchmark problem. Nevertheless, the data provided by these subcritical measurements can supply useful

  19. Uranium enrichment measurements using the intensity ratios of self-fluorescence X-rays to 92* keV gamma ray in UXK alpha spectral region.

    PubMed

    Yücel, H; Dikmen, H

    2009-04-30

    In this paper, the known multigroup gamma-ray analysis method for uranium (MGAU) as one of the non-destructive gamma-ray spectrometry methods has been applied to certified reference nuclear materials (depleted, natural and enriched uranium) containing (235)U isotope in the range of 0.32-4.51% atom (235)U. Its analysis gives incorrect results for the low component (235)U in depleted and natural uranium samples where the build-up of the decay products begins to interfere with the analysis. The results reveal that the build-up of decay products seems to be significant and thus the algorithms for the presence of decay products should be improved to resulting in the correct enrichment value. For instance, for the case of (235)U analysis in depleted uranium or natural ore samples, self-induced X-rays such as 94.6 keV and 98.4 keV lying in UXK(alpha) spectral region used by MGAU can be excluded from the calculation. Because the significant increases have been observed in the intensities of uranium self-induced X-rays due to gamma-ray emissions with above 100 keV energy arising from decay products of (238)U and (235)U and these parents. Instead, the use of calibration curve to be made between the intensity ratios of self-fluorescence X-rays to 92(*)keV gamma-ray and the certified (235)U abundances is suggested for the determination of (235)U when higher amounts of decay products are detected in the gamma-ray spectrum acquired for the MGAU analysis. PMID:19203602

  20. Highly enriched uranium (HEU) politics: An enigma wrapped up in a warhead and boxed in political chaos

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-10-01

    It could be fairly said that while the Cold War arose in an atmosphere of mutual mistrust and hostility, it is ending with an equal amount of confusion and uncertainty. More than a year has passed since the US and Russia signed a tentative HEU agreement in August 1992. Many of the details have been worked out, but major questions remain. And they're not just on the Russian side. The fine points of President Clinton's overall nuclear policy are only now beginning to emerge. In his first major foreign policy address, before the United Nations in late September, Clinton called for a worldwide ban on the production of plutonium and HEU for nuclear weapons. [open quotes]Growing global stockpiles of plutonium and highly enriched uranium are raising the danger of nuclear terrorism for all nations,[close quotes] said Clinton before the UN. [open quotes]We will press for an international agreement that would ban production of these materials for weapons forever.[close quotes] As the veil lifts from Clinton's nuclear policy, it appears the Administration realizes that Russia may have more HEU than originally thought. That possibility has been confirmed by Minatom Minister Mikhailov's disclosures to the NUKEM Market Report, which brought a greater degree of certainty to estimates that had been floating around for some time. When the Bush Administration signed the HEU pact, it apparently thought the 500 metric tons comprised most of the former Soviet Union's nuclear arsenal. Now that the number appears higher, Clinton may propose to accelerate and enlarge the HEU deal. He is due to summit with Yeltsin, if Yeltsin survives, next spring. The 500-metric-ton deal may only be the first step.

  1. Feasibility and options for purchasing nuclear weapons, highly enriched uranium (HEU) and plutonium from the former Soviet Union (FSU)

    SciTech Connect

    1994-12-31

    In response to a recent tasking from the National Security Council, this report seeks to analyze the possible options open to the US for purchasing, from the former Soviet Union (FSU) substantial quantities of plutonium and highly enriched uranium recovered from the accelerated weapons retirements and dismantlements that will soon be taking place. The purpose of this paper is to identify and assess the implications of some of the options that now appear to be open to the United States, it being recognized that several issues might have to be addressed in further detail if the US Government, on its own, or acting with others seeks to negotiate any such purchases on an early basis. As an outgrowth of the dissolution of the Soviet Union three of the C.I.S. republics now possessing nuclear weapons, namely the Ukraine, Belarus, and Kazakhstan, have stated that it is their goal, without undue delay, to become non-nuclear weapon states as defined in the Non-Proliferation Treaty. Of overriding US concern is the proliferation of nuclear weapons in the Third World, and the significant opportunity that the availability of such a large quantity of surplus weapons grade material might present in this regard, especially to a cash-starved FSU Republic. Additionally, the US, in its endeavor to drawdown its own arsenal, needs to assure itself that these materials are not being reconfigured into more modern weapons within the CIS in a manner which would be inconsistent with the stated intentions and publicized activities. The direct purchase of these valuable materials by the US government or by interested US private enterprises could alleviate these security concerns in a straightforward and very expeditious manner, while at the same time pumping vitally needed hard currency into the struggling CIS economy. Such a purchase would seem to be entirely consistent with the Congressional mandate indicated by the Soviet Nuclear Threat Reduction Act of 1991.

  2. Target-dependent enrichment of virions determines the reduction of high-throughput sequencing in virus discovery.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Randi Holm; Mollerup, Sarah; Mourier, Tobias; Hansen, Thomas Arn; Fridholm, Helena; Nielsen, Lars Peter; Willerslev, Eske; Hansen, Anders Johannes; Vinner, Lasse

    2015-01-01

    Viral infections cause many different diseases stemming both from well-characterized viral pathogens but also from emerging viruses, and the search for novel viruses continues to be of great importance. High-throughput sequencing is an important technology for this purpose. However, viral nucleic acids often constitute a minute proportion of the total genetic material in a sample from infected tissue. Techniques to enrich viral targets in high-throughput sequencing have been reported, but the sensitivity of such methods is not well established. This study compares different library preparation techniques targeting both DNA and RNA with and without virion enrichment. By optimizing the selection of intact virus particles, both by physical and enzymatic approaches, we assessed the effectiveness of the specific enrichment of viral sequences as compared to non-enriched sample preparations by selectively looking for and counting read sequences obtained from shotgun sequencing. Using shotgun sequencing of total DNA or RNA, viral targets were detected at concentrations corresponding to the predicted level, providing a foundation for estimating the effectiveness of virion enrichment. Virion enrichment typically produced a 1000-fold increase in the proportion of DNA virus sequences. For RNA virions the gain was less pronounced with a maximum 13-fold increase. This enrichment varied between the different sample concentrations, with no clear trend. Despite that less sequencing was required to identify target sequences, it was not evident from our data that a lower detection level was achieved by virion enrichment compared to shotgun sequencing.

  3. Modeling spallation reactions in tungsten and uranium targets with the Geant4 toolkit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malyshkin, Yury; Pshenichnov, Igor; Mishustin, Igor; Greiner, Walter

    2012-02-01

    We study primary and secondary reactions induced by 600 MeV proton beams in monolithic cylindrical targets made of natural tungsten and uranium by using Monte Carlo simulations with the Geant4 toolkit [1-3]. Bertini intranuclear cascade model, Binary cascade model and IntraNuclear Cascade Liège (INCL) with ABLA model [4] were used as calculational options to describe nuclear reactions. Fission cross sections, neutron multiplicity and mass distributions of fragments for 238U fission induced by 25.6 and 62.9 MeV protons are calculated and compared to recent experimental data [5]. Time distributions of neutron leakage from the targets and heat depositions are calculated. This project is supported by Siemens Corporate Technology.

  4. Resolving phylogenetic relationships of the recently radiated carnivorous plant genus Sarracenia using target enrichment.

    PubMed

    Stephens, Jessica D; Rogers, Willie L; Heyduk, Karolina; Cruse-Sanders, Jennifer M; Determann, Ron O; Glenn, Travis C; Malmberg, Russell L

    2015-04-01

    The North American carnivorous pitcher plant genus Sarracenia (Sarraceniaceae) is a relatively young clade (<3 million years ago) displaying a wide range of morphological diversity in complex trapping structures. This recently radiated group is a promising system to examine the structural evolution and diversification of carnivorous plants; however, little is known regarding evolutionary relationships within the genus. Previous attempts at resolving the phylogeny have been unsuccessful, most likely due to few parsimony-informative sites compounded by incomplete lineage sorting. Here, we applied a target enrichment approach using multiple accessions to assess the relationships of Sarracenia species. This resulted in 199 nuclear genes from 75 accessions covering the putative 8-11 species and 8 subspecies/varieties. In addition, we recovered 42kb of plastome sequence from each accession to estimate a cpDNA-derived phylogeny. Unsurprisingly, the cpDNA had few parsimony-informative sites (0.5%) and provided little information on species relationships. In contrast, use of the targeted nuclear loci in concatenation and coalescent frameworks elucidated many relationships within Sarracenia even with high heterogeneity among gene trees. Results were largely consistent for both concatenation and coalescent approaches. The only major disagreement was with the placement of the purpurea complex. Moreover, results suggest an Appalachian massif biogeographic origin of the genus. Overall, this study highlights the utility of target enrichment using multiple accessions to resolve relationships in recently radiated taxa.

  5. Resolving phylogenetic relationships of the recently radiated carnivorous plant genus Sarracenia using target enrichment.

    PubMed

    Stephens, Jessica D; Rogers, Willie L; Heyduk, Karolina; Cruse-Sanders, Jennifer M; Determann, Ron O; Glenn, Travis C; Malmberg, Russell L

    2015-04-01

    The North American carnivorous pitcher plant genus Sarracenia (Sarraceniaceae) is a relatively young clade (<3 million years ago) displaying a wide range of morphological diversity in complex trapping structures. This recently radiated group is a promising system to examine the structural evolution and diversification of carnivorous plants; however, little is known regarding evolutionary relationships within the genus. Previous attempts at resolving the phylogeny have been unsuccessful, most likely due to few parsimony-informative sites compounded by incomplete lineage sorting. Here, we applied a target enrichment approach using multiple accessions to assess the relationships of Sarracenia species. This resulted in 199 nuclear genes from 75 accessions covering the putative 8-11 species and 8 subspecies/varieties. In addition, we recovered 42kb of plastome sequence from each accession to estimate a cpDNA-derived phylogeny. Unsurprisingly, the cpDNA had few parsimony-informative sites (0.5%) and provided little information on species relationships. In contrast, use of the targeted nuclear loci in concatenation and coalescent frameworks elucidated many relationships within Sarracenia even with high heterogeneity among gene trees. Results were largely consistent for both concatenation and coalescent approaches. The only major disagreement was with the placement of the purpurea complex. Moreover, results suggest an Appalachian massif biogeographic origin of the genus. Overall, this study highlights the utility of target enrichment using multiple accessions to resolve relationships in recently radiated taxa. PMID:25689607

  6. NPC1 is enriched in unexplained early onset ataxia: a targeted high-throughput screening.

    PubMed

    Synofzik, Matthis; Harmuth, Florian; Stampfer, Miriam; Müller Vom Hagen, Jennifer; Schöls, Ludger; Bauer, Peter

    2015-11-01

    Niemann-Pick disease type C (NP-C) is a rare autosomal-recessive neurodegenerative disease featuring pleiotropic neurological, psychiatric and visceral manifestations. Since many of the adult manifestations can be non-specific or missed, NP-C often goes undetected in adult-onset patients. Here we hypothesized that targeted high-throughput sequencing allows identifying NP-C patients among subjects with unexplained early-onset ataxia (EOA) and, moreover, that this population is enriched for NPC1 mutations. From 204 consecutive EOA patients, all 108 subjects with an established diagnosis were removed (including 4 NPC1 patients), yielding a target cohort of 96 subjects with unexplained EOA, but without primary suspicion of NP-C. This cohort was investigated for NPC1/NPC2 mutations using a high-coverage HaloPlex gene panel including 122 ataxia genes. Among 96 samples, we identified 4 known NPC1 mutations, 3 novel NPC1 missense variants of uncertain significance (VUS) and 1 novel NPC2 missense VUS. The total mutant allele frequency (8/192 = 4.17 %) was significantly enriched compared with control population data (1.57 %; p = 0.011). Two NPC1-positive patients were identified (both with non-specific incipient clinical features), giving a NPC1 patient frequency of 2/96 = 2.1 % in unexplained EOA and of 6/204 = 2.9 % in the total EOA series. NPC1 mutations are substantially enriched in unexplained EOA, demonstrating EOA as a risk-group for NP-C disease. Targeted high-throughput sequencing allows to identify also those NP-C patients with non-specific conditions where the diagnosis has initially been missed. This method does not require having considered NP-C during differential diagnosis, but allows identification of NP-C as part of the default analysis.

  7. Detection of circulating tumor cells using targeted surface-enhanced Raman scattering nanoparticles and magnetic enrichment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Wei; Paproski, Robert J.; Moore, Ronald; Zemp, Roger

    2014-05-01

    While more than 90% of cancer deaths are due to metastases, our ability to detect circulating tumor cells (CTCs) is limited by low numbers of these cells in the blood and factors confounding specificity of detection. We propose a magnetic enrichment and detection technique for detecting CTCs with high specificity. We targeted both magnetic and surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) nanoparticles to cancer cells. Only cells that are dual-labeled with both kinds of nanoparticles demonstrate an increasing SERS signal over time due to magnetic trapping.

  8. A cellular automaton method to simulate the microstructure and evolution of low-enriched uranium (LEU) U-Mo/Al dispersion type fuel plates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drera, Saleem S.; Hofman, Gerard L.; Kee, Robert J.; King, Jeffrey C.

    2014-10-01

    Low-enriched uranium (LEU) fuel plates for high power materials test reactors (MTR) are composed of nominally spherical uranium-molybdenum (U-Mo) particles within an aluminum matrix. Fresh U-Mo particles typically range between 10 and 100 μm in diameter, with particle volume fractions up to 50%. As the fuel ages, reaction-diffusion processes cause the formation and growth of interaction layers that surround the fuel particles. The growth rate depends upon the temperature and radiation environment. The cellular automaton algorithm described in this paper can synthesize realistic random fuel-particle structures and simulate the growth of the intermetallic interaction layers. Examples in the present paper pack approximately 1000 particles into three-dimensional rectangular fuel structures that are approximately 1 mm on each side. The computational approach is designed to yield synthetic microstructures consistent with images from actual fuel plates and is validated by comparison with empirical data on actual fuel plates.

  9. SUB-LEU-METAL-THERM-001 SUBCRITICAL MEASUREMENTS OF LOW ENRICHED TUBULAR URANIUM METAL FUEL ELEMENTS BEFORE & AFTER IRRADIATION

    SciTech Connect

    TOFFER, H.

    2006-07-18

    With the shutdown of the Hanford PUREX (Plutonium-Uranium Extraction Plant) reprocessing plant in the 1970s, adequate storage capacity for spent Hanford N Reactor fuel elements in the K and N Reactor pools became a concern. To maximize space utilization in the pools, accounting for fuel burnup was considered. Fuel that had experienced a neutron environment in a reactor is known as spent, exposed, or irradiated fuel. In contrast fuel that has not yet been placed in a reactor is known as green, unexposed, or unirradiated fuel. Calculations indicated that at typical fuel exposures for N Reactor, the spent-fuel critical mass would be twice the critical mass for green fuel. A decision was reached to test the calculational result with a definitive experiment. If the results proved positive, storage capacity could be increased and N Reactor operation could be prolonged. An experiment to be conducted in the N Reactor spent-fuel storage pool was designed and assembled (References 1 and 2) and the services of the Battelle Northwest Laboratories (BNWL) (now Pacific Northwest National Laboratory [PNNL]) critical mass laboratory were procured for the measurements (Reference 3). The experiments were performed in April 1975 in the Hanford N Reactor fuel storage pool. The fuel elements were MKIA fuel assemblies, comprised of two concentric tubes of low-enriched metallic uranium. Two separate sets of measurements were performed: one with unirradiated fuel and one with irradiated fuel. Both the unirradiated and irradiated fuel, were measured in the same geometry. The spent-fuel MKIA assemblies had an average burnup of 2865 MWd (megawatt days)/t. A constraint was imposed restricting the measurements to a subcritical limit of k{sub eff} = 0.97. Subcritical count rate data was obtained with pulsed-neutron and approach-to-critical measurements. Ten (10) configurations with green fuel and nine (9) configurations with spent fuel are described and evaluated. Of these, three (3) green fuel

  10. Calibration of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Passive-Active Neutron Drum Shuffler for Measurement of Highly Enriched Uranium in Mixed Oxide

    SciTech Connect

    Mount, M; O'Connell, W; Cochran, C; Rinard, P; Dearborn, D; Endres, E

    2002-05-23

    As a follow-on to the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) effort to calibrate the LLNL passive-active neutron drum (PAN) shuffler for measurement of highly enriched uranium (HEU) oxide, a method has been developed to extend the use of the PAN shuffler to the measurement of HEU in mixed uranium-plutonium (U-Pu) oxide. This method uses the current LLNL HEU oxide calibration algorithms, appropriately corrected for the mixed U-Pu oxide assay time, and recently developed PuO{sub 2} calibration algorithms to yield the mass of {sup 235}U present via differences between the expected count rate for the PuO{sub 2} and the measured count rate of the mixed U-Pu oxide. This paper describes the LLNL effort to use PAN shuffler measurements of units of certified reference material (CRM) 149 [uranium (93% Enriched) Oxide - U{sub 3}O{sub 8} Standard for Neutron Counting Measurements] and CRM 146 [Uranium Isotopic Standard for Gamma Spectrometry Measurements] and a selected set of LLNL PuO{sub 2}-bearing containers in consort with Monte Carlo simulations of the PAN shuffler response to each to (1) establish and validate a correction to the HEU calibration algorithm for the mixed U-Pu oxide assay time, (2) develop a PuO{sub 2} calibration algorithm that includes the effect of PuO{sub 2} density (2.4 g/cm{sup 3} to 4.8 g/cm{sup 3}) and container size (8.57 cm to 9.88 cm inside diameter and 9.60 cm to 13.29 cm inside height) on the PAN shuffler response, and (3) develop and validate the method for establishing the mass of {sup 235}U present in an unknown of mixed U-Pu oxide.

  11. India's Worsening Uranium Shortage

    SciTech Connect

    Curtis, Michael M.

    2007-01-15

    As a result of NSG restrictions, India cannot import the natural uranium required to fuel its Pressurized Heavy Water Reactors (PHWRs); consequently, it is forced to rely on the expediency of domestic uranium production. However, domestic production from mines and byproduct sources has not kept pace with demand from commercial reactors. This shortage has been officially confirmed by the Indian Planning Commission’s Mid-Term Appraisal of the country’s current Five Year Plan. The report stresses that as a result of the uranium shortage, Indian PHWR load factors have been continually decreasing. The Uranium Corporation of India Ltd (UCIL) operates a number of underground mines in the Singhbhum Shear Zone of Jharkhand, and it is all processed at a single mill in Jaduguda. UCIL is attempting to aggrandize operations by establishing new mines and mills in other states, but the requisite permit-gathering and development time will defer production until at least 2009. A significant portion of India’s uranium comes from byproduct sources, but a number of these are derived from accumulated stores that are nearing exhaustion. A current maximum estimate of indigenous uranium production is 430t/yr (230t from mines and 200t from byproduct sources); whereas, the current uranium requirement for Indian PHWRs is 455t/yr (depending on plant capacity factor). This deficit is exacerbated by the additional requirements of the Indian weapons program. Present power generation capacity of Indian nuclear plants is 4350 MWe. The power generation target set by the Indian Department of Atomic Energy (DAE) is 20,000 MWe by the year 2020. It is expected that around half of this total will be provided by PHWRs using indigenously supplied uranium with the bulk of the remainder provided by breeder reactors or pressurized water reactors using imported low-enriched uranium.

  12. Insights into the nature of uranium target proteins within zebrafish gills after chronic and acute waterborne exposures.

    PubMed

    Bucher, Guillaume; Mounicou, Sandra; Simon, Olivier; Floriani, Magali; Lobinski, Ryszard; Frelon, Sandrine

    2016-03-01

    New data on the nature of the protein targets of uranium (U) within zebrafish gills were collected after waterborne exposure, with the aim of a better understanding of U toxicity mechanisms. Some common characteristics of the U protein target binding properties were found, such as their role in the regulation of other essential metals and their phosphorus content. In total, 21 potential protein targets, including hemoglobin, are identified and discussed in terms of the literature.

  13. A new fast neutron collar for safeguards inspection measurements of fresh low enriched uranium fuel assemblies containing burnable poison rods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, Louise G.; Swinhoe, Martyn T.; Menlove, Howard O.; Schwalbach, Peter; Baere, Paul De; Browne, Michael C.

    2013-11-01

    Safeguards inspection measurements must be performed in a timely manner in order to detect the diversion of significant quantities of nuclear material. A shorter measurement time can increase the number of items that a nuclear safeguards inspector can reliably measure during a period of access to a nuclear facility. In turn, this improves the reliability of the acquired statistical sample, which is used to inform decisions regarding compliance. Safeguards inspection measurements should also maintain independence from facility operator declarations. Existing neutron collars employ thermal neutron interrogation for safeguards inspection measurements of fresh fuel assemblies. A new fast neutron collar has been developed for safeguards inspection measurements of fresh low-enriched uranium (LEU) fuel assemblies containing gadolinia (Gd2O3) burnable poison rods. The Euratom Fast Collar (EFC) was designed with high neutron detection efficiency to make a fast (Cd) mode measurement viable whilst meeting the high counting precision and short assay time requirements of the Euratom safeguards inspectorate. A fast mode measurement reduces the instrument sensitivity to burnable poison rod content and therefore reduces the applied poison correction, consequently reducing the dependence on the operator declaration of the poison content within an assembly. The EFC non-destructive assay (NDA) of typical modern European pressurized water reactor (PWR) fresh fuel assembly designs have been simulated using Monte Carlo N-particle extended transport code (MCNPX) simulations. Simulations predict that the EFC can achieve 2% relative statistical uncertainty on the doubles neutron counting rate for a fast mode measurement in an assay time of 600 s (10 min) with the available 241AmLi (α,n) interrogation source strength of 5.7×104 s-1. Furthermore, the calibration range of the new collar has been extended to verify 235U content in variable PWR fuel designs in the presence of up to 32

  14. Distribution and surface enrichment of radionuclides in lead-bismuth eutectic from spallation targets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammer-Rotzler, Bernadette; Neuhausen, Jörg; Boutellier, Viktor; Wohlmuther, Michael; Zanini, L.; David, J.-C.; Türler, Andreas; Schumann, Dorothea

    2016-07-01

    With the development of new high-power neutron spallation sources --both for scientific application and as neutron production tool for accelerator-driven systems-- the demand for experimentally obtained nuclear data on the residue nuclei production in the target is constantly increasing. In the present work, we examined two lead-bismuth-eutectic targets, irradiated with high-energy protons, concerning their radionuclide content and the spatial distribution of selected isotopes. The first one was the so-called ISOLDE target, being irradiated with 1-1.4GeV protons at CERN-ISOLDE, the second one was the MEGAPIE target, irradiated at PSI with 590MeV protons. In particular, we investigated the phenomenon of radionuclide enrichment on free surfaces in both targets. It turned out that considerable accumulation can be found especially in the case of lanthanides. The depletion process is enhanced at increased temperatures. The results are compared with theoretical predictions; some possible consequences of the findings are illustrated.

  15. Update on Calibration of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Passive-Active Neutron Drum Shuffler for Measurement of Highly Enriched Uranium Oxide

    SciTech Connect

    Mount, M; O'Connell, W; Cochran, C; Rinard, P; Dearborn, D; Endres, E

    2002-05-17

    In October of 1999, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) began an effort to calibrate the LLNL passive-active neutron (PAN) drum shuffler for measurement of highly enriched uranium (HEU) oxide. A single unit of certified reference material (CRM) 149 [Uranium (93% Enriched) Oxide - U{sub 3}O{sub 8} Standard for Neutron Counting Measurements] was used to (1) develop a mass calibration curve for HEU oxide in the nominal range of 393 g to 3144 g {sup 235}U, and (2) perform a detailed axial and radial mapping of the detector response over a wide region of the PAN shuffler counting chamber. Results from these efforts were reported at the Institute of Nuclear Materials Management 41st Annual Meeting in July 2000. This paper describes subsequent efforts by LLNL to use a unit of CRM 146 [Uranium Isotopic Standard for Gamma Spectrometry Measurements] in consort with Monte Carlo simulations of the PAN shuffler response to CRM 149 and CRM 146 units and a selected set of containers with CRM 149-equivalent U{sub 3}O{sub 8} to (1) extend the low range of the reported mass calibration curve to 10 g {sup 235}U, (2) evaluate the effect of U{sub 3}O{sub 8} density (2.4 g/cm{sup 3} to 4.8 g/cm{sup 3}) and container size (5.24 cm to 12.17 cm inside diameter and 6.35 cm to 17.72 cm inside height) on the PAN shuffler response, and (3) develop mass calibration curves for U{sub 3}O{sub 8} enriched to 20.1 wt% {sup 235}U and 52.5 wt% {sup 235}U.

  16. Comparison of Commercially Available Target Enrichment Methods for Next-Generation Sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Bodi, K.; Perera, A. G.; Adams, P. S.; Bintzler, D.; Dewar, K.; Grove, D. S.; Kieleczawa, J.; Lyons, R. H.; Neubert, T. A.; Noll, A. C.; Singh, S.; Steen, R.; Zianni, M.

    2013-01-01

    Isolating high-priority segments of genomes greatly enhances the efficiency of next-generation sequencing (NGS) by allowing researchers to focus on their regions of interest. For the 2010–11 DNA Sequencing Research Group (DSRG) study, we compared outcomes from two leading companies, Agilent Technologies (Santa Clara, CA, USA) and Roche NimbleGen (Madison, WI, USA), which offer custom-targeted genomic enrichment methods. Both companies were provided with the same genomic sample and challenged to capture identical genomic locations for DNA NGS. The target region totaled 3.5 Mb and included 31 individual genes and a 2-Mb contiguous interval. Each company was asked to design its best assay, perform the capture in replicates, and return the captured material to the DSRG-participating laboratories. Sequencing was performed in two different laboratories on Genome Analyzer IIx systems (Illumina, San Diego, CA, USA). Sequencing data were analyzed for sensitivity, specificity, and coverage of the desired regions. The success of the enrichment was highly dependent on the design of the capture probes. Overall, coverage variability was higher for the Agilent samples. As variant discovery is the ultimate goal for a typical targeted sequencing project, we compared samples for their ability to sequence single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) as a test of the ability to capture both chromosomes from the sample. In the targeted regions, we detected 2546 SNPs with the NimbleGen samples and 2071 with Agilent's. When limited to the regions that both companies included as baits, the number of SNPs was ∼1000 for each, with Agilent and NimbleGen finding a small number of unique SNPs not found by the other. PMID:23814499

  17. Detection of inherited mutations for hereditary cancer using target enrichment and next generation sequencing.

    PubMed

    Guan, Yanfang; Hu, Hong; Peng, Yin; Gong, Yuhua; Yi, Yuting; Shao, Libin; Liu, Tengfei; Li, Gairui; Wang, Rongjiao; Dai, Pingping; Bignon, Yves-Jean; Xiao, Zhe; Yang, Ling; Mu, Feng; Xiao, Liang; Xie, Zeming; Yan, Wenhui; Xu, Nan; Zhou, Dongxian; Yi, Xin

    2015-03-01

    Hereditary cancers occur because of inherited gene mutations. Genetic testing has been approved to provide information for risk assessment and rationale for appropriate intervention. Testing methods currently available for clinical use have some limitations, including sensitivity and testing throughput, etc. Next generation sequencing (NGS) has been rapidly evolving to increase testing sensitivity and throughput. It can be potentially used to identify inherited mutation in clinical diagnostic setting. Here we develop an effective method employing target enrichment and NGS platform to detect common as well as rare mutations for all common hereditary cancers in a single assay. Single base substitution across 115 hereditary cancer related genes using YH (the first Asian genome) was characterized to validate our method. Sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of 93.66, 99.98 and 99.97 %, were achieved, respectively. In addition, we correctly identified 53 SNVs and indels of BRCA1 and BRCA2 in two breast cancer specimens, all confirmed by Sanger sequencing. Accuracy in detecting copy number variation (CNV) was corroborated in 4 breast cancer specimens with known CNVs in BRAC1. Application of the method to 85 clinical cases revealed 22 deleterious mutations, 11 of which were novel. In summary, our studies demonstrate that the target enrichment combined with NGS method provides the accuracy, sensitivity, and high throughput for genetic testing for patients with high risk of hereditary or familial cancer.

  18. Environmental Assessment for the Transportation of Highly Enriched Uranium from the Russian Federation for the Y-12 National Security Complex and Finding of No Significant Impact

    SciTech Connect

    2004-01-01

    The United States (U.S.) Department of Energy (DOE) proposes to transport highly enriched uranium (HEU) from Russia to a secure storage facility in Oak Ridge, TN. This proposed action would allow the United States and Russia to accelerate the disposition of excess nuclear weapons materials in the interest of promoting nuclear disarmament, strengthening nonproliferation, and combating terrorism. The HEU would be used for a non-weapons purpose in the U.S. – as fuel in research reactors performing solely peaceful missions.

  19. 31 CFR 540.317 - Uranium feed; natural uranium feed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Uranium feed; natural uranium feed... (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY HIGHLY ENRICHED URANIUM (HEU) AGREEMENT ASSETS CONTROL REGULATIONS General Definitions § 540.317 Uranium feed; natural uranium feed....

  20. 31 CFR 540.317 - Uranium feed; natural uranium feed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Uranium feed; natural uranium feed... (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY HIGHLY ENRICHED URANIUM (HEU) AGREEMENT ASSETS CONTROL REGULATIONS General Definitions § 540.317 Uranium feed; natural uranium feed....

  1. 31 CFR 540.317 - Uranium feed; natural uranium feed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Uranium feed; natural uranium feed... (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY HIGHLY ENRICHED URANIUM (HEU) AGREEMENT ASSETS CONTROL REGULATIONS General Definitions § 540.317 Uranium feed; natural uranium feed....

  2. 31 CFR 540.317 - Uranium feed; natural uranium feed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Uranium feed; natural uranium feed... (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY HIGHLY ENRICHED URANIUM (HEU) AGREEMENT ASSETS CONTROL REGULATIONS General Definitions § 540.317 Uranium feed; natural uranium feed....

  3. 31 CFR 540.317 - Uranium feed; natural uranium feed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Uranium feed; natural uranium feed... (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY HIGHLY ENRICHED URANIUM (HEU) AGREEMENT ASSETS CONTROL REGULATIONS General Definitions § 540.317 Uranium feed; natural uranium feed....

  4. Determination of Depleted Uranium in Environmental Bio-monitor Samples and Soil from Target sites in Western Balkan Region

    SciTech Connect

    Sahoo, Sarata K.; Enomoto, Hiroko; Tokonami, Shinji; Ishikawa, Tetsuo; Ujic, Predrag; Celikovic, Igor; Zunic, Zora S.

    2008-08-07

    Lichen and Moss are widely used to assess the atmospheric pollution by heavy metals and radionuclides. In this paper, we report results of uranium and its isotope ratios using mass spectrometric measurements (followed by chemical separation procedure) for mosses, lichens and soil samples from a depleted uranium (DU) target site in western Balkan region. Samples were collected in 2003 from Han Pijesak (Republika Srpska in Bosnia and Hercegovina). Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) measurements show the presence of high concentration of uranium in some samples. Concentration of uranium in moss samples ranged from 5.2-755.43 Bq/Kg. We have determined {sup 235}U/{sup 238}U isotope ratio using thermal ionization mass spectrometry (TIMS) from the samples with high uranium content and the ratios are in the range of 0.002097-0.002380. TIMS measurement confirms presence of DU in some samples. However, we have not noticed any traces of DU in samples containing lesser amount of uranium or from any samples from the living environment of same area.

  5. Genome-wide enrichment screening reveals multiple targets and resistance genes for triclosan in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Yu, Byung Jo; Kim, Jung Ae; Ju, Hyun Mok; Choi, Soo-Kyung; Hwang, Seung Jin; Park, Sungyoo; Kim, Euijoong; Pan, Jae-Gu

    2012-10-01

    Triclosan is a widely used biocide effective against different microorganisms. At bactericidal concentrations, triclosan appears to affect multiple targets, while at bacteriostatic concentrations, triclosan targets FabI. The site-specific antibiotic-like mode-of-action and a widespread use of triclosan in household products claimed to possibly induce cross-resistance to other antibiotics. Thus, we set out to define more systematically the genes conferring resistance to triclosan; A genomic library of Escherichia coli strain W3110 was constructed and enriched in a selective medium containing a lethal concentration of triclosan. The genes enabling growth in the presence of triclosan were identified by using a DNA microarray and confirmed consequently by ASKA clones overexpressing the selected 62 candidate genes. Among these, forty-seven genes were further confirmed to enhance the resistance to triclosan; these genes, including the FabI target, were involved in inner or outer membrane synthesis, cell-surface material synthesis, transcriptional activation, sugar phosphotransferase (PTS) systems, various transporter systems, cell division, and ATPase and reductase/dehydrogenase reactions. In particular, overexpression of pgsA, rcsA, or gapC conferred to E. coli cells a similar level of triclosan resistance induced by fabI overexpression. These results indicate that triclosan may have multiple targets other than well-known FabI and that there are several undefined novel mechanisms for the resistance development to triclosan, thus probably inducing cross antibiotic resistance.

  6. Experiments and Simulations of the Use of Time-Correlated Thermal Neutron Counting to Determine the Multiplication of an Assembly of Highly Enriched Uranium

    SciTech Connect

    David L. Chichester; Mathew T. Kinlaw; Scott M. Watson; Jeffrey M. Kalter; Eric C. Miller; William A. Noonan

    2014-11-01

    A series of experiments and numerical simulations using thermal-neutron time-correlated measurements has been performed to determine the neutron multiplication, M, of assemblies of highly enriched uranium available at Idaho National Laboratory. The experiments used up to 14.4 kg of highly-enriched uranium, including bare assemblies and assemblies reflected with high-density polyethylene, carbon steel, and tungsten. A small 252Cf source was used to initiate fission chains within the assembly. Both the experiments and the simulations used 6-channel and 8-channel detector systems, each consisting of 3He proportional counters moderated with polyethylene; data was recorded in list mode for analysis. 'True' multiplication values for each assembly were empirically derived using basic neutron production and loss values determined through simulation. A total of one-hundred and sixteen separate measurements were performed using fifty-seven unique measurement scenarios, the multiplication varied from 1.75 to 10.90. This paper presents the results of these comparisons and discusses differences among the various cases.

  7. Nuclear safety analyses and core design calculations to convert the Texas A & M University Nuclear Science Center reactor to low enrichment uranium fuel. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Parish, T.A.

    1995-03-02

    This project involved performing the nuclear design and safety analyses needed to modify the license issued by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to allow operation of the Texas A& M University Nuclear Science Center Reactor (NSCR) with a core containing low enrichment uranium (LEU) fuel. The specific type of LEU fuel to be considered was the TRIGA 20-20 fuel produced by General Atomic. Computer codes for the neutronic analyses were provided by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) and the assistance of William Woodruff of ANL in helping the NSCR staff to learn the proper use of the codes is gratefully acknowledged. The codes applied in the LEU analyses were WIMSd4/m, DIF3D, NCTRIGA and PARET. These codes allowed full three dimensional, temperature and burnup dependent calculations modelling the NSCR core to be performed for the first time. In addition, temperature coefficients of reactivity and pulsing calculations were carried out in-house, whereas in the past this modelling had been performed at General Atomic. In order to benchmark the newly acquired codes, modelling of the current NSCR core with highly enriched uranium fuel was also carried out. Calculated results were compared to both earlier licensing calculations and experimental data and the new methods were found to achieve excellent agreement with both. Therefore, even if an LEU core is never loaded at the NSCR, this project has resulted in a significant improvement in the nuclear safety analysis capabilities established and maintained at the NSCR.

  8. Safeguards Guidance Document for Designers of Commercial Nuclear Facilities: International Nuclear Safeguards Requirements and Practices For Uranium Enrichment Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Robert Bean; Casey Durst

    2009-10-01

    This report is the second in a series of guidelines on international safeguards requirements and practices, prepared expressly for the designers of nuclear facilities. The first document in this series is the description of generic international nuclear safeguards requirements pertaining to all types of facilities. These requirements should be understood and considered at the earliest stages of facility design as part of a new process called “Safeguards-by-Design.” This will help eliminate the costly retrofit of facilities that has occurred in the past to accommodate nuclear safeguards verification activities. The following summarizes the requirements for international nuclear safeguards implementation at enrichment plants, prepared under the Safeguards by Design project, and funded by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), Office of NA-243. The purpose of this is to provide designers of nuclear facilities around the world with a simplified set of design requirements and the most common practices for meeting them. The foundation for these requirements is the international safeguards agreement between the country and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), pursuant to the Treaty on the Non-proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT). Relevant safeguards requirements are also cited from the Safeguards Criteria for inspecting enrichment plants, found in the IAEA Safeguards Manual, Part SMC-8. IAEA definitions and terms are based on the IAEA Safeguards Glossary, published in 2002. The most current specification for safeguards measurement accuracy is found in the IAEA document STR-327, “International Target Values 2000 for Measurement Uncertainties in Safeguarding Nuclear Materials,” published in 2001. For this guide to be easier for the designer to use, the requirements have been restated in plainer language per expert interpretation using the source documents noted. The safeguards agreement is fundamentally a

  9. Targeted genome enrichment for efficient purification of endosymbiont DNA from host DNA.

    PubMed

    Geniez, Sandrine; Foster, Jeremy M; Kumar, Sanjay; Moumen, Bouziane; Leproust, Emily; Hardy, Owen; Guadalupe, Moraima; Thomas, Stephen J; Boone, Braden; Hendrickson, Cynthia; Bouchon, Didier; Grève, Pierre; Slatko, Barton E

    2012-12-01

    Wolbachia endosymbionts are widespread in arthropods and are generally considered reproductive parasites, inducing various phenotypes including cytoplasmic incompatibility, parthenogenesis, feminization and male killing, which serve to promote their spread through populations. In contrast, Wolbachia infecting filarial nematodes that cause human diseases, including elephantiasis and river blindness, are obligate mutualists. DNA purification methods for efficient genomic sequencing of these unculturable bacteria have proven difficult using a variety of techniques. To efficiently capture endosymbiont DNA for studies that examine the biology of symbiosis, we devised a parallel strategy to an earlier array-based method by creating a set of SureSelect™ (Agilent) 120-mer target enrichment RNA oligonucleotides ("baits") for solution hybrid selection. These were designed from Wolbachia complete and partial genome sequences in GenBank and were tiled across each genomic sequence with 60 bp overlap. Baits were filtered for homology against host genomes containing Wolbachia using BLAT and sequences with significant host homology were removed from the bait pool. Filarial parasite Brugia malayi DNA was used as a test case, as the complete sequence of both Wolbachia and its host are known. DNA eluted from capture was size selected and sequencing samples were prepared using the NEBNext® Sample Preparation Kit. One-third of a 50 nt paired-end sequencing lane on the HiSeq™ 2000 (Illumina) yielded 53 million reads and the entirety of the Wolbachia genome was captured. We then used the baits to isolate more than 97.1 % of the genome of a distantly related Wolbachia strain from the crustacean Armadillidium vulgare, demonstrating that the method can be used to enrich target DNA from unculturable microbes over large evolutionary distances.

  10. Targeted genome enrichment for efficient purification of endosymbiont DNA from host DNA.

    PubMed

    Geniez, Sandrine; Foster, Jeremy M; Kumar, Sanjay; Moumen, Bouziane; Leproust, Emily; Hardy, Owen; Guadalupe, Moraima; Thomas, Stephen J; Boone, Braden; Hendrickson, Cynthia; Bouchon, Didier; Grève, Pierre; Slatko, Barton E

    2012-12-01

    Wolbachia endosymbionts are widespread in arthropods and are generally considered reproductive parasites, inducing various phenotypes including cytoplasmic incompatibility, parthenogenesis, feminization and male killing, which serve to promote their spread through populations. In contrast, Wolbachia infecting filarial nematodes that cause human diseases, including elephantiasis and river blindness, are obligate mutualists. DNA purification methods for efficient genomic sequencing of these unculturable bacteria have proven difficult using a variety of techniques. To efficiently capture endosymbiont DNA for studies that examine the biology of symbiosis, we devised a parallel strategy to an earlier array-based method by creating a set of SureSelect™ (Agilent) 120-mer target enrichment RNA oligonucleotides ("baits") for solution hybrid selection. These were designed from Wolbachia complete and partial genome sequences in GenBank and were tiled across each genomic sequence with 60 bp overlap. Baits were filtered for homology against host genomes containing Wolbachia using BLAT and sequences with significant host homology were removed from the bait pool. Filarial parasite Brugia malayi DNA was used as a test case, as the complete sequence of both Wolbachia and its host are known. DNA eluted from capture was size selected and sequencing samples were prepared using the NEBNext® Sample Preparation Kit. One-third of a 50 nt paired-end sequencing lane on the HiSeq™ 2000 (Illumina) yielded 53 million reads and the entirety of the Wolbachia genome was captured. We then used the baits to isolate more than 97.1 % of the genome of a distantly related Wolbachia strain from the crustacean Armadillidium vulgare, demonstrating that the method can be used to enrich target DNA from unculturable microbes over large evolutionary distances. PMID:23482460

  11. Target enrichment of ultraconserved elements from arthropods provides a genomic perspective on relationships among Hymenoptera

    PubMed Central

    Faircloth, Brant C; Branstetter, Michael G; White, Noor D; Brady, Seán G

    2015-01-01

    Gaining a genomic perspective on phylogeny requires the collection of data from many putatively independent loci across the genome. Among insects, an increasingly common approach to collecting this class of data involves transcriptome sequencing, because few insects have high-quality genome sequences available; assembling new genomes remains a limiting factor; the transcribed portion of the genome is a reasonable, reduced subset of the genome to target; and the data collected from transcribed portions of the genome are similar in composition to the types of data with which biologists have traditionally worked (e.g. exons). However, molecular techniques requiring RNA as a template, including transcriptome sequencing, are limited to using very high-quality source materials, which are often unavailable from a large proportion of biologically important insect samples. Recent research suggests that DNA-based target enrichment of conserved genomic elements offers another path to collecting phylogenomic data across insect taxa, provided that conserved elements are present in and can be collected from insect genomes. Here, we identify a large set (n = 1510) of ultraconserved elements (UCEs) shared among the insect order Hymenoptera. We used in silico analyses to show that these loci accurately reconstruct relationships among genome-enabled hymenoptera, and we designed a set of RNA baits (n = 2749) for enriching these loci that researchers can use with DNA templates extracted from a variety of sources. We used our UCE bait set to enrich an average of 721 UCE loci from 30 hymenopteran taxa, and we used these UCE loci to reconstruct phylogenetic relationships spanning very old (≥220 Ma) to very young (≤1 Ma) divergences among hymenopteran lineages. In contrast to a recent study addressing hymenopteran phylogeny using transcriptome data, we found ants to be sister to all remaining aculeate lineages with complete support, although this result could be explained by

  12. Target enrichment of ultraconserved elements from arthropods provides a genomic perspective on relationships among Hymenoptera.

    PubMed

    Faircloth, Brant C; Branstetter, Michael G; White, Noor D; Brady, Seán G

    2015-05-01

    Gaining a genomic perspective on phylogeny requires the collection of data from many putatively independent loci across the genome. Among insects, an increasingly common approach to collecting this class of data involves transcriptome sequencing, because few insects have high-quality genome sequences available; assembling new genomes remains a limiting factor; the transcribed portion of the genome is a reasonable, reduced subset of the genome to target; and the data collected from transcribed portions of the genome are similar in composition to the types of data with which biologists have traditionally worked (e.g. exons). However, molecular techniques requiring RNA as a template, including transcriptome sequencing, are limited to using very high-quality source materials, which are often unavailable from a large proportion of biologically important insect samples. Recent research suggests that DNA-based target enrichment of conserved genomic elements offers another path to collecting phylogenomic data across insect taxa, provided that conserved elements are present in and can be collected from insect genomes. Here, we identify a large set (n = 1510) of ultraconserved elements (UCEs) shared among the insect order Hymenoptera. We used in silico analyses to show that these loci accurately reconstruct relationships among genome-enabled hymenoptera, and we designed a set of RNA baits (n = 2749) for enriching these loci that researchers can use with DNA templates extracted from a variety of sources. We used our UCE bait set to enrich an average of 721 UCE loci from 30 hymenopteran taxa, and we used these UCE loci to reconstruct phylogenetic relationships spanning very old (≥220 Ma) to very young (≤1 Ma) divergences among hymenopteran lineages. In contrast to a recent study addressing hymenopteran phylogeny using transcriptome data, we found ants to be sister to all remaining aculeate lineages with complete support, although this result could be explained by

  13. Sensitive Targeted Quantification of ERK Phosphorylation Dynamics and Stoichiometry in Human Cells without Affinity Enrichment

    SciTech Connect

    Shi, Tujin; Gao, Yuqian; Gaffrey, Matthew J.; Nicora, Carrie D.; Fillmore, Thomas L.; Chrisler, William B.; Gritsenko, Marina A.; Wu, Chaochao; He, Jintang; Bloodsworth, Kent J.; Zhao, Rui; Camp II, David G.; Liu, Tao; Rodland, Karin D.; Smith, Richard D.; Wiley, H. Steven; Qian, Weijun

    2014-12-17

    Mass spectrometry-based targeted quantification is a promising technology for site-specific quantification of posttranslational modifications (PTMs). However, a major constraint of most targeted MS approaches is the limited sensitivity for quantifying low-abundance PTMs, requiring the use of affinity reagents to enrich specific PTMs. Herein, we demonstrate the direct site-specific quantification of ERK phosphorylation isoforms (pT, pY, pTpY) and their relative stoichiometries using a highly sensitive targeted MS approach termed high-pressure, high-resolution separations with intelligent selection and multiplexing (PRISM). PRISM provides effective enrichment of target peptides within a given fraction from complex biological matrix with minimal sample losses, followed by selected reaction monitoring (SRM) quantification. The PRISM-SRM approach enabled direct quantification of ERK phosphorylation in human mammary epithelial cells (HMEC) from as little as 25 µg tryptic peptides from whole cell lysates. Compared to immobilized metal-ion affinity chromatography, PRISM provided >10-fold improvement in signal intensities, presumably due to the better peptide recovery of PRISM for handling small size samples. This approach was applied to quantify ERK phosphorylation dynamics in HMEC treated by different doses of EGF at both the peak activation (10 min) and steady state (2 h). At 10 min, the maximal ERK activation was observed with 0.3 ng/mL dose, whereas the maximal steady state level of ERK activation at 2 h was at 3 ng/ml dose, corresponding to 1200 and 9000 occupied receptors, respectively. At 10 min, the maximally activated pTpY isoform represented ~40% of total ERK, falling to less than 10% at 2 h. The time course and dose-response profiles of individual phosphorylated ERK isoforms indicated that singly phosphorylated pT-ERK never increases significantly, while the increase of pY-ERK paralleled that of pTpY-ERK. This data supports for a processive, rather than

  14. Sensitive Targeted Quantification of ERK Phosphorylation Dynamics and Stoichiometry in Human Cells without Affinity Enrichment

    DOE PAGES

    Shi, Tujin; Gao, Yuqian; Gaffrey, Matthew J.; Nicora, Carrie D.; Fillmore, Thomas L.; Chrisler, William B.; Gritsenko, Marina A.; Wu, Chaochao; He, Jintang; Bloodsworth, Kent J.; et al

    2014-12-17

    Mass spectrometry-based targeted quantification is a promising technology for site-specific quantification of posttranslational modifications (PTMs). However, a major constraint of most targeted MS approaches is the limited sensitivity for quantifying low-abundance PTMs, requiring the use of affinity reagents to enrich specific PTMs. Herein, we demonstrate the direct site-specific quantification of ERK phosphorylation isoforms (pT, pY, pTpY) and their relative stoichiometries using a highly sensitive targeted MS approach termed high-pressure, high-resolution separations with intelligent selection and multiplexing (PRISM). PRISM provides effective enrichment of target peptides within a given fraction from complex biological matrix with minimal sample losses, followed by selected reactionmore » monitoring (SRM) quantification. The PRISM-SRM approach enabled direct quantification of ERK phosphorylation in human mammary epithelial cells (HMEC) from as little as 25 µg tryptic peptides from whole cell lysates. Compared to immobilized metal-ion affinity chromatography, PRISM provided >10-fold improvement in signal intensities, presumably due to the better peptide recovery of PRISM for handling small size samples. This approach was applied to quantify ERK phosphorylation dynamics in HMEC treated by different doses of EGF at both the peak activation (10 min) and steady state (2 h). At 10 min, the maximal ERK activation was observed with 0.3 ng/mL dose, whereas the maximal steady state level of ERK activation at 2 h was at 3 ng/ml dose, corresponding to 1200 and 9000 occupied receptors, respectively. At 10 min, the maximally activated pTpY isoform represented ~40% of total ERK, falling to less than 10% at 2 h. The time course and dose-response profiles of individual phosphorylated ERK isoforms indicated that singly phosphorylated pT-ERK never increases significantly, while the increase of pY-ERK paralleled that of pTpY-ERK. This data supports for a processive, rather than

  15. Calculating Atomic Number Densities for Uranium

    1993-01-01

    Provides method to calculate atomic number densities of selected uranium compounds and hydrogenous moderators for use in nuclear criticality safety analyses at gaseous diffusion uranium enrichment facilities.

  16. Study of uranium oxide milling in order to obtain nanostructured UCx target

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guillot, Julien; Tusseau-Nenez, Sandrine; Roussière, Brigitte; Barré-Boscher, Nicole; Brisset, François; Mhamed, Maher Cheikh; Lau, Christophe; Nowak, Sophie

    2016-05-01

    A R&D program is developed at the ALTO facility to provide new beams of exotic neutron-rich nuclei, as intense as possible. In the framework of European projects, it has been shown that the use of refractory targets with nanometric structure allows us to obtain beams of nuclei unreachable until now. The first parameter to be controlled in the processing to obtain targets with a homogeneous nanostructure is the grinding of uranium dioxide, down to 100 nm grain size. In this study, dry and wet grinding routes are studied and the powders are analyzed in terms of phase stabilization, specific surface area and grain morphology. It appears that the grinding, as well dry as wet, leads to the decrease of the particle size. The oxidation of UO2 is observed whatever the grinding. However, the dry grinding is the most efficient and leads to the oxidation of UO2 into U4O9 and U3O7 whose quantities increase with the grinding time while crystallite sizes decrease.

  17. Results from a "Proof-of-Concept" Demonstration of RF-Based Tracking of UF6 Cylinders during a Processing Operation at a Uranium Enrichment Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Pickett, Chris A; Kovacic, Donald N; Whitaker, J Michael; Younkin, James R; Hines, Jairus B; Laughter, Mark D; Morgan, Jim; Carrick, Bernie; Boyer, Brian; Whittle, K.

    2008-01-01

    Approved industry-standard cylinders are used globally for processing, storing, and transporting uranium hexafluoride (UF{sub 6}) at uranium enrichment plants. To ensure that cylinder movements at enrichment facilities occur as declared, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) must conduct time-consuming periodic physical inspections to validate facility records, cylinder identity, and containment. By using a robust system design that includes the capability for real-time unattended monitoring (of cylinder movements), site-specific rules-based event detection algorithms, and the capability to integrate with other types of monitoring technologies, one can build a system that will improve overall inspector effectiveness. This type of monitoring system can provide timely detection of safeguard events that could be used to ensure more timely and appropriate responses by the IAEA. It also could reduce reliance on facility records and have the additional benefit of enhancing domestic safeguards at the installed facilities. This paper will discuss the installation and evaluation of a radio-frequency- (RF-) based cylinder tracking system that was installed at a United States Enrichment Corporation Centrifuge Facility. This system was installed primarily to evaluate the feasibility of using RF technology at a site and the operational durability of the components under harsh processing conditions. The installation included a basic system that is designed to support layering with other safeguard system technologies and that applies fundamental rules-based event processing methodologies. This paper will discuss the fundamental elements of the system design, the results from this site installation, and future efforts needed to make this technology ready for IAEA consideration.

  18. A Simple Multiplex PCR Approach for Target Enrichment in Next-Gen Sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Qi; Hebel, Chris; Zhou, Xiaochun

    2014-01-01

    Multiplexing PCR is a simple way to extract genomic regions of interest for various medical and genetic tests. Somatic mutations lead to various diseases including cancer. These mutations are unlikely to be best detected using regular whole genome sequencing. Clinical samples often consist of disease cells, e.g. cancer cells, surrounded by normal cells. Thus, deep sequencing of hundreds to thousands fold coverage is required to detect the mutations. In clinical research many doctors are interested in specific genes or genomic regions and they want to extract the regions from genomic DNA or RNA before sequencing. Many current clinical, forensic, and heretical genetic test workflows start with multiplexing PCR to extract genetic marker carrying regions from whole genomes before running hybridization, sequencing, or electrophoresis tests to identify the markers. Personal medicine and prognosis mostly involve examining sequence variations of a number of targeted genes and metabolic pathway genes so as to predict drug efficacies and drug toxicities. We have developed a new multiplexing PCR approach with a significantly simplified workflow and significantly improved robustness. When applied to sequencing target enrichment application, the workflow for producing amplified targets involves only one hands-on step and one PCR run. The approach is designed to require low sample input and to produce superior amplicon uniformity and sequence specificity. The approach involves a novel primer design and a proprietary reaction composition. A PCR run consists of two functionally separated reaction phases, namely target capture and library amplification, without any hands-on step in between. The performance of the new approach will be demonstrated by a caner panel data.

  19. Theoretical modeling of yields for proton-induced reactions on natural and enriched molybdenum targets.

    PubMed

    Celler, A; Hou, X; Bénard, F; Ruth, T

    2011-09-01

    Recent acute shortage of medical radioisotopes prompted investigations into alternative methods of production and the use of a cyclotron and ¹⁰⁰Mo(p,2n)(99m)Tc reaction has been considered. In this context, the production yields of (99m)Tc and various other radioactive and stable isotopes which will be created in the process have to be investigated, as these may affect the diagnostic outcome and radiation dosimetry in human studies. Reaction conditions (beam and target characteristics, and irradiation and cooling times) need to be optimized in order to maximize the amount of (99m)Tc and minimize impurities. Although ultimately careful experimental verification of these conditions must be performed, theoretical calculations can provide the initial guidance allowing for extensive investigations at little cost. We report the results of theoretically determined reaction yields for (99m)Tc and other radioactive isotopes created when natural and enriched molybdenum targets are irradiated by protons. The cross-section calculations were performed using a computer program EMPIRE for the proton energy range 6-30 MeV. A computer graphical user interface for automatic calculation of production yields taking into account various reaction channels leading to the same final product has been created. The proposed approach allows us to theoretically estimate the amount of (99m)Tc and its ratio relative to (99g)Tc and other radioisotopes which must be considered reaction contaminants, potentially contributing to additional patient dose in diagnostic studies.

  20. Uranium Industry Annual, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-10-28

    The Uranium Industry Annual provides current statistical data on the US uranium industry for the Congress, Federal and State agencies, the uranium and electric utility industries, and the public. The feature article, ``Decommissioning of US Conventional Uranium Production Centers,`` is included. Data on uranium raw materials activities including exploration activities and expenditures, resources and reserves, mine production of uranium, production of uranium concentrate, and industry employment are presented in Chapter 1. Data on uranium marketing activities including domestic uranium purchases, commitments by utilities, procurement arrangements, uranium imports under purchase contracts and exports, deliveries to enrichment suppliers, inventories, secondary market activities, utility market requirements, and uranium for sale by domestic suppliers are presented in Chapter 2.

  1. Target gene enrichment in the cyclophyllidean cestodes, the most diverse group of tapeworms.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Hao; Jiang, Jiamei; Jiménez, Francisco Agustín; Hoberg, Eric P; Cook, Joseph A; Galbreath, Kurt E; Li, Chenhong

    2016-09-01

    The Cyclophyllidea is the most diverse order of tapeworms, encompassing species that infect all classes of terrestrial tetrapods including humans and domesticated animals. Available phylogenetic reconstructions based either on morphology or molecular data lack the resolution to allow scientists to either propose a solid taxonomy or infer evolutionary associations. Molecular markers available for the Cyclophyllidea mostly include ribosomal DNA and mitochondrial loci. In this study, we identified 3641 single-copy nuclear coding loci by comparing the genomes of Hymenolepis microstoma, Echinococcus granulosus and Taenia solium. We designed RNA baits based on the sequence of H. microstoma, and applied target enrichment and Illumina sequencing to test the utility of those baits to recover loci useful for phylogenetic analyses. We captured DNA from five species of tapeworms representing two families of cyclophyllideans. We obtained an average of 3284 (90%) of the targets from the test samples and then used captured sequences (2 181 361 bp in total; fragment size ranging from 301 to 6969 bp) to reconstruct a phylogeny for the five test species plus the three species for which genomic data are available. The results were consistent with the current consensus regarding cyclophyllidean relationships. To assess the potential for our method to yield informative genetic variation at intraspecific scales, we extracted 14 074 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from alignments of four Arostrilepis macrocirrosa and two A. cooki and successfully inferred their relationships. The results showed that our target gene tools yield data sets that provide robust inferences at a range of taxonomic scales in the Cyclophyllidea. PMID:27037792

  2. Inhalation of uranium nanoparticles: respiratory tract deposition and translocation to secondary target organs in rats.

    PubMed

    Petitot, Fabrice; Lestaevel, Philippe; Tourlonias, Elie; Mazzucco, Charline; Jacquinot, Sébastien; Dhieux, Bernadette; Delissen, Olivia; Tournier, Benjamin B; Gensdarmes, François; Beaunier, Patricia; Dublineau, Isabelle

    2013-03-13

    Uranium nanoparticles (<100 nm) can be released into the atmosphere during industrial stages of the nuclear fuel cycle and during remediation and decommissioning of nuclear facilities. Explosions and fires in nuclear reactors and the use of ammunition containing depleted uranium can also produce such aerosols. The risk of accidental inhalation of uranium nanoparticles by nuclear workers, military personnel or civilian populations must therefore be taken into account. In order to address this issue, the absorption rate of inhaled uranium nanoparticles needs to be characterised experimentally. For this purpose, rats were exposed to an aerosol containing 10⁷ particles of uranium per cm³ (CMD=38 nm) for 1h in a nose-only inhalation exposure system. Uranium concentrations deposited in the respiratory tract, blood, brain, skeleton and kidneys were determined by ICP-MS. Twenty-seven percent of the inhaled mass of uranium nanoparticles was deposited in the respiratory tract. One-fifth of UO₂ nanoparticles were rapidly cleared from lung (T(½)=2.4 h) and translocated to extrathoracic organs. However, the majority of the particles were cleared slowly (T(½)=141.5 d). Future long-term experimental studies concerning uranium nanoparticles should focus on the potential lung toxicity of the large fraction of particles cleared slowly from the respiratory tract after inhalation exposure. PMID:23296105

  3. Characterization of uranium carbide target materials to produce neutron-rich radioactive beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tusseau-Nenez, Sandrine; Roussière, Brigitte; Barré-Boscher, Nicole; Gottberg, Alexander; Corradetti, Stefano; Andrighetto, Alberto; Cheikh Mhamed, Maher; Essabaa, Saïd; Franberg-Delahaye, Hanna; Grinyer, Joanna; Joanny, Loïc; Lau, Christophe; Le Lannic, Joseph; Raynaud, Marc; Saïd, Abdelhakim; Stora, Thierry; Tougait, Olivier

    2016-03-01

    In the framework of a R&D program aiming to develop uranium carbide (UCx) targets for radioactive nuclear beams, the Institut de Physique Nucléaire d'Orsay (IPNO) has developed an experimental setup to characterize the release of various fission fragments from UCx samples at high temperature. The results obtained in a previous study have demonstrated the feasibility of the method and started to correlate the structural properties of the samples and their behavior in terms of nuclear reaction product release. In the present study, seven UCx samples have been systematically characterized in order to better understand the correlation between their physicochemical characteristics and release properties. Two very different samples, the first one composed of dense UC and the second one of highly porous UCx made of multi-wall carbon nanotubes, were provided by the ActILab (ENSAR) collaboration. The others were synthesized at IPNO. The systems for irradiation and heating necessary for the release studies have been improved with respect to those used in previous studies. The results show that the open porosity is hardly the limiting factor for the fission product release. The homogeneity of the microstructure and the pore size distribution contributes significantly to the increase of the release. The use of carbon nanotubes in place of traditional micrometric graphite particles appears to be promising, even if the homogeneity of the microstructure can still be enhanced.

  4. In-Situ Measurements of Low Enrichment Uranium Holdup Process Gas Piping at K-25 - Paper for Waste Management Symposia 2010 East Tennessee Technology Park Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    Rasmussen B.

    2010-01-01

    This document is the final version of a paper submitted to the Waste Management Symposia, Phoenix, 2010, abstract BJC/OR-3280. The primary document from which this paper was condensed is In-Situ Measurement of Low Enrichment Uranium Holdup in Process Gas Piping at K-25 Using NaI/HMS4 Gamma Detection Systems, BJC/OR-3355. This work explores the sufficiency and limitations of the Holdup Measurement System 4 (HJVIS4) software algorithms applied to measurements of low enriched uranium holdup in gaseous diffusion process gas piping. HMS4 has been used extensively during the decommissioning and demolition project of the K-25 building for U-235 holdup quantification. The HMS4 software is an integral part of one of the primary nondestructive assay (NDA) systems which was successfully tested and qualified for holdup deposit quantification in the process gas piping of the K-25 building. The initial qualification focused on the measurement of highly enriched UO{sub 2}F{sub 2} deposits. The purpose of this work was to determine if that qualification could be extended to include the quantification of holdup in UO{sub 2}F{sub 2} deposits of lower enrichment. Sample field data are presented to provide evidence in support of the theoretical foundation. The HMS4 algorithms were investigated in detail and found to sufficiently compensate for UO{sub 2}F{sub 2} source self-attenuation effects, over the range of expected enrichment (4-40%), in the North and East Wings of the K-25 building. The limitations of the HMS4 algorithms were explored for a described set of conditions with respect to area source measurements of low enriched UO{sub 2}F{sub 2} deposits when used in conjunction with a 1 inch by 1/2 inch sodium iodide (NaI) scintillation detector. The theoretical limitations of HMS4, based on the expected conditions in the process gas system of the K-25 building, are related back to the required data quality objectives (DQO) for the NBA measurement system established for the K-25

  5. i-cisTarget 2015 update: generalized cis-regulatory enrichment analysis in human, mouse and fly

    PubMed Central

    Imrichová, Hana; Hulselmans, Gert; Kalender Atak, Zeynep; Potier, Delphine; Aerts, Stein

    2015-01-01

    i-cisTarget is a web tool to predict regulators of a set of genomic regions, such as ChIP-seq peaks or co-regulated/similar enhancers. i-cisTarget can also be used to identify upstream regulators and their target enhancers starting from a set of co-expressed genes. Whereas the original version of i-cisTarget was focused on Drosophila data, the 2015 update also provides support for human and mouse data. i-cisTarget detects transcription factor motifs (position weight matrices) and experimental data tracks (e.g. from ENCODE, Roadmap Epigenomics) that are enriched in the input set of regions. As experimental data tracks we include transcription factor ChIP-seq data, histone modification ChIP-seq data and open chromatin data. The underlying processing method is based on a ranking-and-recovery procedure, allowing accurate determination of enrichment across heterogeneous datasets, while also discriminating direct from indirect target regions through a ‘leading edge’ analysis. We illustrate i-cisTarget on various Ewing sarcoma datasets to identify EWS-FLI1 targets starting from ChIP-seq, differential ATAC-seq, differential H3K27ac and differential gene expression data. Use of i-cisTarget is free and open to all, and there is no login requirement. Address: http://gbiomed.kuleuven.be/apps/lcb/i-cisTarget. PMID:25925574

  6. i-cisTarget 2015 update: generalized cis-regulatory enrichment analysis in human, mouse and fly.

    PubMed

    Imrichová, Hana; Hulselmans, Gert; Atak, Zeynep Kalender; Potier, Delphine; Aerts, Stein

    2015-07-01

    i-cisTarget is a web tool to predict regulators of a set of genomic regions, such as ChIP-seq peaks or co-regulated/similar enhancers. i-cisTarget can also be used to identify upstream regulators and their target enhancers starting from a set of co-expressed genes. Whereas the original version of i-cisTarget was focused on Drosophila data, the 2015 update also provides support for human and mouse data. i-cisTarget detects transcription factor motifs (position weight matrices) and experimental data tracks (e.g. from ENCODE, Roadmap Epigenomics) that are enriched in the input set of regions. As experimental data tracks we include transcription factor ChIP-seq data, histone modification ChIP-seq data and open chromatin data. The underlying processing method is based on a ranking-and-recovery procedure, allowing accurate determination of enrichment across heterogeneous datasets, while also discriminating direct from indirect target regions through a 'leading edge' analysis. We illustrate i-cisTarget on various Ewing sarcoma datasets to identify EWS-FLI1 targets starting from ChIP-seq, differential ATAC-seq, differential H3K27ac and differential gene expression data. Use of i-cisTarget is free and open to all, and there is no login requirement. Address: http://gbiomed.kuleuven.be/apps/lcb/i-cisTarget.

  7. Field test of short-notice random inspections for inventory-change verification at a low-enriched-uranium fuel-fabrication plant

    SciTech Connect

    Fishbone, L.G. |; Moussalli, G.; Naegele, G.

    1995-05-01

    An approach of short-notice random inspections (SNRIs) for inventory-change verification can enhance the effectiveness and efficiency of international safeguards at natural or low-enriched uranium (LEU) fuel fabrication plants. According to this approach, the plant operator declares the contents of nuclear material items before knowing if an inspection will occur to verify them. Additionally, items about which declarations are newly made should remain available for verification for an agreed time. Then a statistical inference can be made from verification results for items verified during SNRIs to the entire populations, i.e. the entire strata, even if inspectors were not present when many items were received or produced. A six-month field test of the feasibility of such SNRIs took place at the Westinghouse Electric Corporation Commercial Nuclear Fuel Division during 1993. Westinghouse personnel made daily declarations about both feed and product items, uranium hexafluoride cylinders and finished fuel assemblies, using a custom-designed computer ``mailbox``. Safeguards inspectors from the IAEA conducted eight SNRIs to verify these declarations. They arrived unannounced at the plant, in most cases immediately after travel from Canada, where the IAEA maintains a regional office. Items from both strata were verified during the SNRIs by meant of nondestructive assay equipment.

  8. Field test of short-notice random inspections for inventory-change verification at a low-enriched-uranium fuel-fabrication plant: Preliminary summary

    SciTech Connect

    Fishbone, L.G. |; Moussalli, G.; Naegele, G.; Ikonomou, P.; Hosoya, M.; Scott, P.; Fager, J.; Sanders, C.; Colwell, D.; Joyner, C.J.

    1994-04-01

    An approach of short-notice random inspections (SNRIs) for inventory-change verification can enhance the effectiveness and efficiency of international safeguards at natural or low-enriched uranium (LEU) fuel fabrication plants. According to this approach, the plant operator declares the contents of nuclear material items before knowing if an inspection will occur to verify them. Additionally, items about which declarations are newly made should remain available for verification for an agreed time. This report details a six-month field test of the feasibility of such SNRIs which took place at the Westinghouse Electric Corporation Commercial Nuclear Fuel Division. Westinghouse personnel made daily declarations about both feed and product items, uranium hexafluoride cylinders and finished fuel assemblies, using a custom-designed computer ``mailbox``. Safeguards inspectors from the IAEA conducted eight SNRIs to verify these declarations. Items from both strata were verified during the SNRIs by means of nondestructive assay equipment. The field test demonstrated the feasibility and practicality of key elements of the SNRI approach for a large LEU fuel fabrication plant.

  9. A study of a zone approach to IAEA (International Atomic Energy Agency) safeguards: The low-enriched-uranium zone of a light-water-reactor fuel cycle

    SciTech Connect

    Fishbone, L.G.; Higinbotham, W.A.

    1986-06-01

    At present the IAEA designs its safeguards approach with regard to each type of nuclear facility so that the safeguards activities and effort are essentially the same for a given type and size of nuclear facility wherever it may be located. Conclusions regarding a state are derived by combining the conclusions regarding the effectiveness of safeguards for the individual facilities within a state. In this study it was convenient to define three zones in a state with a closed light-water-reactor nuclear fuel cycle. Each zone contains those facilities or parts thereof which use or process nuclear materials of the same safeguards significance: low-enriched uranium, radioactive spent fuel, or recovered plutonium. The possibility that each zone might be treated as an extended material balance area for safeguards purposes is under investigation. The approach includes defining the relevant features of the facilities in the three zones and listing the safeguards activities which are now practiced. This study has focussed on the fresh-fuel zone, the several facilities of which use or process low-enriched uranium. At one extreme, flows and inventories would be verified at each material balance area. At the other extreme, the flows into and out of the zone and the inventory of the whole zone would be verified. There are a number of possible safeguards approaches which fall between the two extremes. The intention is to develop a rational approach which will make it possible to compare the technical effectiveness and the inspection effort for the facility-oriented approach, for the approach involving the zone as a material balance area, and for some reasonable intermediate safeguards approaches.

  10. Development of Genetic Markers in Eucalyptus Species by Target Enrichment and Exome Sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Dasgupta, Modhumita Ghosh; Dharanishanthi, Veeramuthu; Agarwal, Ishangi; Krutovsky, Konstantin V.

    2015-01-01

    The advent of next-generation sequencing has facilitated large-scale discovery, validation and assessment of genetic markers for high density genotyping. The present study was undertaken to identify markers in genes supposedly related to wood property traits in three Eucalyptus species. Ninety four genes involved in xylogenesis were selected for hybridization probe based nuclear genomic DNA target enrichment and exome sequencing. Genomic DNA was isolated from the leaf tissues and used for on-array probe hybridization followed by Illumina sequencing. The raw sequence reads were trimmed and high-quality reads were mapped to the E. grandis reference sequence and the presence of single nucleotide variants (SNVs) and insertions/ deletions (InDels) were identified across the three species. The average read coverage was 216X and a total of 2294 SNVs and 479 InDels were discovered in E. camaldulensis, 2383 SNVs and 518 InDels in E. tereticornis, and 1228 SNVs and 409 InDels in E. grandis. Additionally, SNV calling and InDel detection were conducted in pair-wise comparisons of E. tereticornis vs. E. grandis, E. camaldulensis vs. E. tereticornis and E. camaldulensis vs. E. grandis. This study presents an efficient and high throughput method on development of genetic markers for family– based QTL and association analysis in Eucalyptus. PMID:25602379

  11. Using targeted enrichment of nuclear genes to increase phylogenetic resolution in the neotropical rain forest genus Inga (Leguminosae: Mimosoideae)

    PubMed Central

    Nicholls, James A.; Pennington, R. Toby; Koenen, Erik J. M.; Hughes, Colin E.; Hearn, Jack; Bunnefeld, Lynsey; Dexter, Kyle G.; Stone, Graham N.; Kidner, Catherine A.

    2015-01-01

    Evolutionary radiations are prominent and pervasive across many plant lineages in diverse geographical and ecological settings; in neotropical rainforests there is growing evidence suggesting that a significant fraction of species richness is the result of recent radiations. Understanding the evolutionary trajectories and mechanisms underlying these radiations demands much greater phylogenetic resolution than is currently available for these groups. The neotropical tree genus Inga (Leguminosae) is a good example, with ~300 extant species and a crown age of 2–10 MY, yet over 6 kb of plastid and nuclear DNA sequence data gives only poor phylogenetic resolution among species. Here we explore the use of larger-scale nuclear gene data obtained though targeted enrichment to increase phylogenetic resolution within Inga. Transcriptome data from three Inga species were used to select 264 nuclear loci for targeted enrichment and sequencing. Following quality control to remove probable paralogs from these sequence data, the final dataset comprised 259,313 bases from 194 loci for 24 accessions representing 22 Inga species and an outgroup (Zygia). Bayesian phylogenies reconstructed using either all loci concatenated or a gene-tree/species-tree approach yielded highly resolved phylogenies. We used coalescent approaches to show that the same targeted enrichment data also have significant power to discriminate among alternative within-species population histories within the widespread species I. umbellifera. In either application, targeted enrichment simplifies the informatics challenge of identifying orthologous loci associated with de novo genome sequencing. We conclude that targeted enrichment provides the large volumes of phylogenetically-informative sequence data required to resolve relationships within recent plant species radiations, both at the species level and for within-species phylogeographic studies. PMID:26442024

  12. Using targeted enrichment of nuclear genes to increase phylogenetic resolution in the neotropical rain forest genus Inga (Leguminosae: Mimosoideae).

    PubMed

    Nicholls, James A; Pennington, R Toby; Koenen, Erik J M; Hughes, Colin E; Hearn, Jack; Bunnefeld, Lynsey; Dexter, Kyle G; Stone, Graham N; Kidner, Catherine A

    2015-01-01

    Evolutionary radiations are prominent and pervasive across many plant lineages in diverse geographical and ecological settings; in neotropical rainforests there is growing evidence suggesting that a significant fraction of species richness is the result of recent radiations. Understanding the evolutionary trajectories and mechanisms underlying these radiations demands much greater phylogenetic resolution than is currently available for these groups. The neotropical tree genus Inga (Leguminosae) is a good example, with ~300 extant species and a crown age of 2-10 MY, yet over 6 kb of plastid and nuclear DNA sequence data gives only poor phylogenetic resolution among species. Here we explore the use of larger-scale nuclear gene data obtained though targeted enrichment to increase phylogenetic resolution within Inga. Transcriptome data from three Inga species were used to select 264 nuclear loci for targeted enrichment and sequencing. Following quality control to remove probable paralogs from these sequence data, the final dataset comprised 259,313 bases from 194 loci for 24 accessions representing 22 Inga species and an outgroup (Zygia). Bayesian phylogenies reconstructed using either all loci concatenated or a gene-tree/species-tree approach yielded highly resolved phylogenies. We used coalescent approaches to show that the same targeted enrichment data also have significant power to discriminate among alternative within-species population histories within the widespread species I. umbellifera. In either application, targeted enrichment simplifies the informatics challenge of identifying orthologous loci associated with de novo genome sequencing. We conclude that targeted enrichment provides the large volumes of phylogenetically-informative sequence data required to resolve relationships within recent plant species radiations, both at the species level and for within-species phylogeographic studies. PMID:26442024

  13. Demonstration of jackhammer incorporating depleted uranium

    SciTech Connect

    Fischer, L E; Hoard, R W; Carter, D L; Saculla, M D; Wilson, G V

    2000-04-01

    The United States Government currently has an abundance of depleted uranium (DU). This surplus of about 1 billion pounds is the result of an enrichment process using gaseous diffusion to produce enriched and depleted uranium. The enriched uranium has been used primarily for either nuclear weapons for the military or nuclear fuel for the commercial power industry. Most of the depleted uranium remains at the enrichment process plants in the form of depleted uranium hexafluoride (DUF{sub 6}). The Department of Energy (DOE) recently began a study to identify possible commercial applications for the surplus material. One of these potential applications is to use the DU in high-density strikers/hammers in pneumatically driven tools, such as jack hammers and piledrivers to improve their impulse performance. The use of DU could potentially increase tunneling velocity and excavation into target materials with improved efficiency. This report describes the efforts undertaken to analyze the particulars of using DU in two specific striking applications: the jackhammer and chipper tool.

  14. Planning, Preparation, and Transport of the High-Enriched Uranium Spent Nuclear Fuel from the Czech Republic to the Russian Federation

    SciTech Connect

    M. J. Tyacke; I. Bolshinsky; Frantisek Svitak

    2007-10-01

    The United States, Russian Federation, and the International Atomic Energy Agency have been working together on a program called the Russian Research Reactor Fuel Return (RRRFR) Program, which is part of the Global Threat Reduction Initiative. The purpose of this program is to return Soviet or Russian-supplied high-enriched uranium (HEU) fuel, currently stored at Russian-designed research reactors throughout the world, to Russia. In February 2003, the RRRFR Program began discussions with the Nuclear Research Institute (NRI) in Rež, Czech Republic, about returning their HEU spent nuclear fuel to the Russian Federation for reprocessing. In March 2005, the U.S. Department of Energy signed a contract with NRI to perform all activities needed for transporting their HEU spent nuclear fuel to Russia. After 2 years of intense planning, preparations, and coordination at NRI and with three other countries, numerous organizations and agencies, and a Russian facility, this shipment is scheduled for completion before the end of 2007. This paper will provide a summary of activities completed for making this international shipment. This paper contains an introduction and background of the RRRFR Program and the NRI shipment project. It summarizes activities completed in preparation for the shipment, including facility preparations at NRI in Rež and FSUE “Mayak” in Ozyorsk, Russia; a new transportation cask system; regulatory approvals; transportation planning and preparation in the Czech Republic, Slovakia, Ukraine, and the Russian Federation though completion of the Unified Project and Special Ecological Programs. The paper also describes fuel loading and cask preparations at NRI and final preparations/approvals for transporting the shipment across the Czech Republic, Slovakia, Ukraine, and the Russian Federation to FSUE Mayak where the HEU spent nuclear fuel will be processed, the uranium will be downblended and made into low-enriched uranium fuel for commercial reactor

  15. Determination of initial fuel state and number of reactor shutdowns in archived low-burnup uranium targets

    DOE PAGES

    Byerly, Benjamin; Tandon, Lav; Hayes-Sterbenz, Anna; Martinez, Patrick; Keller, Russ; Stanley, Floyd; Spencer, Khalil; Thomas, Mariam; Xu, Ning; Schappert, Michael; et al

    2015-10-26

    This article presents a method for destructive analysis of irradiated uranium (U) targets, with a focus on collection and measurement of long-lived (t1/2 > ~10 years) and stable fission product isotopes of ruthenium and cesium. Long-lived and stable isotopes of these elements can provide information on reactor conditions (e.g. flux, irradiation time, cooling time) in old samples (> 5–10 years) whose short-lived fission products have decayed away. The separation and analytical procedures were tested on archived U reactor targets at Los Alamos National Laboratory as part of an effort to evaluate reactor models at low-burnup.

  16. Determination of initial fuel state and number of reactor shutdowns in archived low-burnup uranium targets

    SciTech Connect

    Byerly, Benjamin; Tandon, Lav; Hayes-Sterbenz, Anna; Martinez, Patrick; Keller, Russ; Stanley, Floyd; Spencer, Khalil; Thomas, Mariam; Xu, Ning; Schappert, Michael; Fulwyler, James

    2015-10-26

    This article presents a method for destructive analysis of irradiated uranium (U) targets, with a focus on collection and measurement of long-lived (t1/2 > ~10 years) and stable fission product isotopes of ruthenium and cesium. Long-lived and stable isotopes of these elements can provide information on reactor conditions (e.g. flux, irradiation time, cooling time) in old samples (> 5–10 years) whose short-lived fission products have decayed away. The separation and analytical procedures were tested on archived U reactor targets at Los Alamos National Laboratory as part of an effort to evaluate reactor models at low-burnup.

  17. Uranium industry annual 1998

    SciTech Connect

    1999-04-22

    The Uranium Industry Annual 1998 (UIA 1998) provides current statistical data on the US uranium industry`s activities relating to uranium raw materials and uranium marketing. It contains data for the period 1989 through 2008 as collected on the Form EIA-858, ``Uranium Industry Annual Survey.`` Data provides a comprehensive statistical characterization of the industry`s activities for the survey year and also include some information about industry`s plans and commitments for the near-term future. Data on uranium raw materials activities for 1989 through 1998, including exploration activities and expenditures, EIA-estimated reserves, mine production of uranium, production of uranium concentrate, and industry employment, are presented in Chapter 1. Data on uranium marketing activities for 1994 through 2008, including purchases of uranium and enrichment services, enrichment feed deliveries, uranium fuel assemblies, filled and unfilled market requirements, and uranium inventories, are shown in Chapter 2. The methodology used in the 1998 survey, including data edit and analysis, is described in Appendix A. The methodologies for estimation of resources and reserves are described in Appendix B. A list of respondents to the ``Uranium Industry Annual Survey`` is provided in Appendix C. The Form EIA-858 ``Uranium Industry Annual Survey`` is shown in Appendix D. For the readers convenience, metric versions of selected tables from Chapters 1 and 2 are presented in Appendix E along with the standard conversion factors used. A glossary of technical terms is at the end of the report. 24 figs., 56 tabs.

  18. Neutronics and Thermal Hydraulics Study for Using a Low-Enriched Uranium Core in the Advanced Test Reactor -- 2008 Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    G. S. Chang; M. A. Lillo; R. G. Ambrosek

    2008-06-01

    The Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) is a high power density and high neutron flux research reactor operating in the United States. Powered with highly enriched uranium (HEU), the ATR has a maximum thermal power rating of 250 MWth. Because of the large test volumes located in high flux areas, the ATR is an ideal candidate for assessing the feasibility of converting an HEU driven reactor to a low-enriched core. The present work investigates the necessary modifications and evaluates the subsequent operating effects of this conversion. A detailed plate-by-plate MCNP ATR 1/8th core model was developed and validated for a fuel cycle burnup comparison analysis. Using the current HEU U 235 enrichment of 93.0 % as a baseline, an analysis was performed to determine the low-enriched uranium (LEU) density and U-235 enrichment required in the fuel meat to yield an equivalent K-eff versus effective full power days (EFPDs) between the HEU and the LEU cores. The MCNP ATR 1/8th core model was used to optimize the U 235 loading in the LEU core, such that the differences in K-eff and heat flux profiles between the HEU and LEU cores were minimized. The depletion methodology MCWO was used to calculate K-eff versus EFPDs in this paper. The MCWO-calculated results for the LEU demonstrated adequate excess reactivity such that the K-eff versus EFPDs plot is similar to the ATR reference HEU case study. Each HEU fuel element contains 19 fuel plates with a fuel meat thickness of 0.508 mm (20 mil). In this work, the proposed LEU (U-10Mo) core conversion case with nominal fuel meat thickness of 0.330 mm (13 mil) and U-235 enrichment of 19.7 wt% is used to optimize the radial heat flux profile by varying the fuel meat thickness from 0.191 mm (7.0 mil) to 0.330 mm (13.0 mil) at the inner 4 fuel plates (1-4) and outer 4 fuel plates (16-19). A 0.8g of Boron-10, a burnable absorber, was added in the inner and outer plates to reduce the initial excess reactivity, and the peak to average ratio of the

  19. Phosphoprotein enriched in astrocytes (PEA)-15: A potential therapeutic target in multiple disease states

    PubMed Central

    Greig, Fiona H.; Nixon, Graeme F.

    2014-01-01

    Phosphoprotein enriched in astrocytes-15 (PEA-15) is a cytoplasmic protein that sits at an important junction in intracellular signalling and can regulate diverse cellular processes, such as proliferation and apoptosis, dependent upon stimulation. Regulation of these processes occurs by virtue of the unique interaction of PEA-15 with other signalling proteins. PEA-15 acts as a cytoplasmic tether for the mitogen-activated protein kinases, extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) preventing nuclear localisation. In order to release ERK1/2, PEA-15 requires to be phosphorylated via several potential pathways. PEA-15 (and its phosphorylation state) therefore regulates many ERK1/2-dependent processes, including proliferation, via regulating ERK1/2 nuclear translocation. In addition, PEA-15 contains a death effector domain (DED) which allows interaction with other DED-containing proteins. PEA-15 can bind the DED-containing apoptotic adaptor molecule, Fas-associated death domain protein (FADD) which is also dependent on the phosphorylation status of PEA-15. PEA-15 binding of FADD can inhibit apoptosis as bound FADD cannot participate in the assembly of apoptotic signalling complexes. Through these protein–protein interactions, PEA-15-regulated cellular effects have now been investigated in a number of disease-related studies. Changes in PEA-15 expression and regulation have been observed in diabetes mellitus, cancer, neurological disorders and the cardiovascular system. These changes have been suggested to contribute to the pathology related to each of these disease states. As such, new therapeutic targets based around PEA-15 and its associated interactions are now being uncovered and could provide novel avenues for treatment strategies in multiple diseases. PMID:24657708

  20. CALIBRATION OF THE HB LINE ACTIVE WELL NEUTRON COINCIDENCE COUNTER FOR MEASUREMENT OF LANL 3013 HIGHLY ENRICHED URANIUM PRODUCT SPLITS

    SciTech Connect

    Dewberry, R; Donald02 Williams, D; Rstephen Lee, R; David-W Roberts, D; Leah Arrigo, L

    2008-01-22

    In this paper we describe set-up, calibration, and testing of the F-Area Analytical Labs active well neutron coincidence counter(HV-221000-NDA-X-1-DK-AWCC-1)in SRNL for use in HB-Line to enable assay of 3013EU/Pu metal product. The instrument was required within a three-month window for availability upon receipt of LANL Category IV uranium oxide samples into the SRS HB-Line facility. We describe calibration of the instrument in the SRNL nuclear nondestructive assay facility in the range 10-400 g HEU for qualification and installation in HB-Line for assay of the initial suite of product samples.

  1. Development and performance of a targeted whole exome sequencing enrichment kit for the dog (Canis Familiaris Build 3.1).

    PubMed

    Broeckx, Bart J G; Coopman, Frank; Verhoeven, Geert E C; Bavegems, Valérie; De Keulenaer, Sarah; De Meester, Ellen; Van Niewerburgh, Filip; Deforce, Dieter

    2014-01-01

    Whole exome sequencing is a technique that aims to selectively sequence all exons of protein-coding genes. A canine whole exome sequencing enrichment kit was designed based on the latest canine reference genome (build 3.1.72). Its performance was tested by sequencing 2 exome captures, each consisting of 4 pre-capture pooled, barcoded Illumina libraries on an Illumina HiSeq 2500. At an average sequencing depth of 102x, 83 to 86% of the target regions were completely sequenced with a minimum coverage of five and 90% of the reads mapped on the target regions. Additionally, it is shown that the reproducibility within and between captures is high and that pooling four samples per capture is a valid option. Overall, we have demonstrated the strong performance of this WES enrichment kit and are confident it will be a valuable tool in future disease association studies.

  2. 31 CFR 540.309 - Natural uranium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Natural uranium. 540.309 Section 540... FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY HIGHLY ENRICHED URANIUM (HEU) AGREEMENT ASSETS CONTROL REGULATIONS General Definitions § 540.309 Natural uranium. The term natural uranium means uranium found...

  3. 31 CFR 540.309 - Natural uranium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Natural uranium. 540.309 Section 540... FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY HIGHLY ENRICHED URANIUM (HEU) AGREEMENT ASSETS CONTROL REGULATIONS General Definitions § 540.309 Natural uranium. The term natural uranium means uranium found...

  4. 31 CFR 540.309 - Natural uranium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Natural uranium. 540.309 Section 540... FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY HIGHLY ENRICHED URANIUM (HEU) AGREEMENT ASSETS CONTROL REGULATIONS General Definitions § 540.309 Natural uranium. The term natural uranium means uranium found...

  5. 31 CFR 540.309 - Natural uranium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Natural uranium. 540.309 Section 540... FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY HIGHLY ENRICHED URANIUM (HEU) AGREEMENT ASSETS CONTROL REGULATIONS General Definitions § 540.309 Natural uranium. The term natural uranium means uranium found...

  6. 31 CFR 540.309 - Natural uranium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Natural uranium. 540.309 Section 540... FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY HIGHLY ENRICHED URANIUM (HEU) AGREEMENT ASSETS CONTROL REGULATIONS General Definitions § 540.309 Natural uranium. The term natural uranium means uranium found...

  7. Research and Development of Multiphysics Models in Support of the Conversion of the High Flux Isotope Reactor to Low Enriched Uranium Fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Bodey, Isaac T.; Curtis, Franklin G.; Arimilli, Rao V.; Ekici, Kivanc; Freels, James D.

    2015-11-01

    ABSTRACT The findings presented in this report are results of a five year effort lead by the RRD Division of the ORNL, which is focused on research and development toward the conversion of the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) fuel from high-enriched uranium (HEU) to low-enriched uranium (LEU). This report focuses on the tasks accomplished by the University of Tennessee Knoxville (UTK) team from the Department of Mechanical, Aerospace, and Biomedical Engineering (MABE) that provided expert support in multiphysics modeling of complex problems associated with the LEU conversion of the HFIR reactor. The COMSOL software was used as the main computational modeling tool, whereas Solidworks was also used in support of computer-aided-design (CAD) modeling of the proposed LEU fuel design. The UTK research has been governed by a statement of work (SOW), which was updated annually to clearly define the specific tasks reported herein. Ph.D. student Isaac T. Bodey has focused on heat transfer and fluid flow modeling issues and has been aided by his major professor Dr. Rao V. Arimilli. Ph.D. student Franklin G. Curtis has been focusing on modeling the fluid-structure interaction (FSI) phenomena caused by the mechanical forces acting on the fuel plates, which in turn affect the fluid flow in between the fuel plates, and ultimately the heat transfer, is also affected by the FSI changes. Franklin Curtis has been aided by his major professor Dr. Kivanc Ekici. M.Sc. student Adam R. Travis has focused two major areas of research: (1) on accurate CAD modeling of the proposed LEU plate design, and (2) reduction of the model complexity and dimensionality through interdimensional coupling of the fluid flow and heat transfer for the HFIR plate geometry. Adam Travis is also aided by his major professor, Dr. Kivanc Ekici. We must note that the UTK team, and particularly the graduate students, have been in very close collaboration with Dr. James D. Freels (ORNL technical monitor and mentor

  8. Forensic analysis of uranium

    SciTech Connect

    Stoyer, N.J.; Moody, K.J.

    1996-10-01

    As more and more offers for illicit {open_quotes}Black Market{close_quotes} radioactive materials are found, the forensic information contained within the radioactive material itself becomes more important. Many {open_quotes}Black Market{close_quotes} offers are for uranium in various forms and enrichments. Although most are scams, some countries have actually interdicted enriched uranium. We will discuss the forensic information that can be obtained from materials containing uranium along with examples of data that has been determined from analysis of uranium samples obtained from legitimate sources.

  9. Proposed rulemaking exemption from licensing requirements for smelted alloys containing residual technetium-99 and low-enriched uranium. Draft environmental statement

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-10-01

    This environmental statement is concerned with the costs and benefits to be incurred in the exemption from federal (NRC) licensing requirements for smelted alloys containing residual technetium-99 and low enriched uranium at concentrations of 5 ppM and 17.5 ppM, respectively. The contaminated metals considered explicitly in the statement for smelting are the scrap copper, nickel, and iron resulting from the improvement and upgrading of the Department of Energy's gaseous diffusion plants. The environmental impacts considered are primarily the radiological doses derived from the smelted metal by the general public including foundary and fabrication workers. Economic impacts associated with building and operating the facilities to smelt the scrap are also considered. In addition, the energy savings through recycling of these materials back into the commercial marketplace instead of burying them is estimated. The principal alternatives to this proposed action are the sale of surface decontaminated scrap, recycle of decontaminated equipment, burial of contaminated scrap, surface storage of contaminated scrap; and issuance of either a general or specific license for scrap disposal.

  10. Targeted gene enrichment and high-throughput sequencing for environmental biomonitoring: a case study using freshwater macroinvertebrates.

    PubMed

    Dowle, Eddy J; Pochon, Xavier; C Banks, Jonathan; Shearer, Karen; Wood, Susanna A

    2016-09-01

    Recent studies have advocated biomonitoring using DNA techniques. In this study, two high-throughput sequencing (HTS)-based methods were evaluated: amplicon metabarcoding of the cytochrome C oxidase subunit I (COI) mitochondrial gene and gene enrichment using MYbaits (targeting nine different genes including COI). The gene-enrichment method does not require PCR amplification and thus avoids biases associated with universal primers. Macroinvertebrate samples were collected from 12 New Zealand rivers. Macroinvertebrates were morphologically identified and enumerated, and their biomass determined. DNA was extracted from all macroinvertebrate samples and HTS undertaken using the illumina miseq platform. Macroinvertebrate communities were characterized from sequence data using either six genes (three of the original nine were not used) or just the COI gene in isolation. The gene-enrichment method (all genes) detected the highest number of taxa and obtained the strongest Spearman rank correlations between the number of sequence reads, abundance and biomass in 67% of the samples. Median detection rates across rare (<1% of the total abundance or biomass), moderately abundant (1-5%) and highly abundant (>5%) taxa were highest using the gene-enrichment method (all genes). Our data indicated primer biases occurred during amplicon metabarcoding with greater than 80% of sequence reads originating from one taxon in several samples. The accuracy and sensitivity of both HTS methods would be improved with more comprehensive reference sequence databases. The data from this study illustrate the challenges of using PCR amplification-based methods for biomonitoring and highlight the potential benefits of using approaches, such as gene enrichment, which circumvent the need for an initial PCR step. PMID:26583904

  11. Targeted gene enrichment and high-throughput sequencing for environmental biomonitoring: a case study using freshwater macroinvertebrates.

    PubMed

    Dowle, Eddy J; Pochon, Xavier; C Banks, Jonathan; Shearer, Karen; Wood, Susanna A

    2016-09-01

    Recent studies have advocated biomonitoring using DNA techniques. In this study, two high-throughput sequencing (HTS)-based methods were evaluated: amplicon metabarcoding of the cytochrome C oxidase subunit I (COI) mitochondrial gene and gene enrichment using MYbaits (targeting nine different genes including COI). The gene-enrichment method does not require PCR amplification and thus avoids biases associated with universal primers. Macroinvertebrate samples were collected from 12 New Zealand rivers. Macroinvertebrates were morphologically identified and enumerated, and their biomass determined. DNA was extracted from all macroinvertebrate samples and HTS undertaken using the illumina miseq platform. Macroinvertebrate communities were characterized from sequence data using either six genes (three of the original nine were not used) or just the COI gene in isolation. The gene-enrichment method (all genes) detected the highest number of taxa and obtained the strongest Spearman rank correlations between the number of sequence reads, abundance and biomass in 67% of the samples. Median detection rates across rare (<1% of the total abundance or biomass), moderately abundant (1-5%) and highly abundant (>5%) taxa were highest using the gene-enrichment method (all genes). Our data indicated primer biases occurred during amplicon metabarcoding with greater than 80% of sequence reads originating from one taxon in several samples. The accuracy and sensitivity of both HTS methods would be improved with more comprehensive reference sequence databases. The data from this study illustrate the challenges of using PCR amplification-based methods for biomonitoring and highlight the potential benefits of using approaches, such as gene enrichment, which circumvent the need for an initial PCR step.

  12. Uranium isotope separation from 1941 to the present

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maier-Komor, Peter

    2010-02-01

    Uranium isotope separation was the key development for the preparation of highly enriched isotopes in general and thus became the seed for target development and preparation for nuclear and applied physics. In 1941 (year of birth of the author) large-scale development for uranium isotope separation was started after the US authorities were warned that NAZI Germany had started its program for enrichment of uranium and might have confiscated all uranium and uranium mines in their sphere of influence. Within the framework of the Manhattan Projects the first electromagnetic mass separators (Calutrons) were installed and further developed for high throughput. The military aim of the Navy Department was to develop nuclear propulsion for submarines with practically unlimited range. Parallel to this the army worked on the development of the atomic bomb. Also in 1941 plutonium was discovered and the production of 239Pu was included into the atomic bomb program. 235U enrichment starting with natural uranium was performed in two steps with different techniques of mass separation in Oak Ridge. The first step was gas diffusion which was limited to low enrichment. The second step for high enrichment was performed with electromagnetic mass spectrometers (Calutrons). The theory for the much more effective enrichment with centrifugal separation was developed also during the Second World War, but technical problems e.g. development of high speed ball and needle bearings could not be solved before the end of the war. Spying accelerated the development of uranium separation in the Soviet Union, but also later in China, India, Pakistan, Iran and Iraq. In this paper, the physical and chemical procedures are outlined which lead to the success of the project. Some security aspects and Non-Proliferation measures are discussed.

  13. Identification of CD146 as a marker enriched for tumor-propagating capacity reveals targetable pathways in primary human sarcoma

    PubMed Central

    Voisin, Veronique; Sato, Shingo; Hirata, Makoto; Whetstone, Heather; Han, Ilkyu; Ailles, Laurie; Bader, Gary D.; Wunder, Jay; Alman, Benjamin A.

    2015-01-01

    Tumor-propagating cells (TPCs) are believed to drive cancer initiation, progression and recurrence. These cells are characterized by enhanced tumorigenicity and self-renewal. The ability to identify such cells in primary human sarcomas relies on the dye exclusion ability of tumor side population (SP) cells. Here, we performed a high-throughput cell surface antigen screen and found that CD146 is enriched in the SP population. In vivo serial transplantation assays showed that CD146+ cells are highly tumorigenic, capable of self-renewal and thus enriches for the TPC population. In addition, depletion of SP cells from the CD146+ population show that CD146+ cells and SP cells are a distinct and overlapping TPC populations. Gene expression profiling of CD146+ and SP cells revealed multiple pathways commonly upregulated in both of these populations. Inhibition of one of these upregulated pathways, Notch signaling, significantly reduced tumor growth and self-renewal. Our data demonstrate that CD146 is an effective cell surface marker for enriching TPCs in primary human sarcomas. Targeting differentially activated pathways in TPCs may provide new therapeutic strategies for treating sarcoma. PMID:26517673

  14. A novel method for the multiplexed target enrichment of MinION next generation sequencing libraries using PCR-generated baits.

    PubMed

    Karamitros, Timokratis; Magiorkinis, Gkikas

    2015-12-15

    The enrichment of targeted regions within complex next generation sequencing libraries commonly uses biotinylated baits to capture the desired sequences. This method results in high read coverage over the targets and their flanking regions. Oxford Nanopore Technologies recently released an USB3.0-interfaced sequencer, the MinION. To date no particular method for enriching MinION libraries has been standardized. Here, using biotinylated PCR-generated baits in a novel approach, we describe a simple and efficient way for multiplexed enrichment of MinION libraries, overcoming technical limitations related with the chemistry of the sequencing-adapters and the length of the DNA fragments. Using Phage Lambda and Escherichia coli as models we selectively enrich for specific targets, significantly increasing the corresponding read-coverage, eliminating unwanted regions. We show that by capturing genomic fragments, which contain the target sequences, we recover reads extending targeted regions and thus can be used for the determination of potentially unknown flanking sequences. By pooling enriched libraries derived from two distinct E. coli strains and analyzing them in parallel, we demonstrate the efficiency of this method in multiplexed format. Crucially we evaluated the optimal bait size for large fragment libraries and we describe for the first time a standardized method for target enrichment in MinION platform.

  15. Uranium and Thorium

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finch, Warren I.

    1978-01-01

    The results of President Carter's policy on non-proliferation of nuclear weapons are expected to slow the growth rate in energy consumption, put the development of the breeder reactor in question, halt plans to reprocess and recycle uranium and plutonium, and expand facilities to supply enriched uranium. (Author/MA)

  16. Evaluating quantitative 3-D image analysis as a design tool for low enriched uranium fuel compacts for the transient reactor test facility: A preliminary study

    DOE PAGES

    Kane, J. J.; van Rooyen, I. J.; Craft, A. E.; Roney, T. J.; Morrell, S. R.

    2016-02-05

    In this study, 3-D image analysis when combined with a non-destructive examination technique such as X-ray computed tomography (CT) provides a highly quantitative tool for the investigation of a material’s structure. In this investigation 3-D image analysis and X-ray CT were combined to analyze the microstructure of a preliminary subsized fuel compact for the Transient Reactor Test Facility’s low enriched uranium conversion program to assess the feasibility of the combined techniques for use in the optimization of the fuel compact fabrication process. The quantitative image analysis focused on determining the size and spatial distribution of the surrogate fuel particles andmore » the size, shape, and orientation of voids within the compact. Additionally, the maximum effect of microstructural features on heat transfer through the carbonaceous matrix of the preliminary compact was estimated. The surrogate fuel particles occupied 0.8% of the compact by volume with a log-normal distribution of particle sizes with a mean diameter of 39 μm and a standard deviation of 16 μm. Roughly 39% of the particles had a diameter greater than the specified maximum particle size of 44 μm suggesting that the particles agglomerate during fabrication. The local volume fraction of particles also varies significantly within the compact although uniformities appear to be evenly dispersed throughout the analysed volume. The voids produced during fabrication were on average plate-like in nature with their major axis oriented perpendicular to the compaction direction of the compact. Finally, the microstructure, mainly the large preferentially oriented voids, may cause a small degree of anisotropy in the thermal diffusivity within the compact. α∥/α⊥, the ratio of thermal diffusivities parallel to and perpendicular to the compaction direction are expected to be no less than 0.95 with an upper bound of 1.« less

  17. Characterization of gene mutations and copy number changes in acute myeloid leukemia using a rapid target enrichment protocol.

    PubMed

    Bolli, Niccolò; Manes, Nicla; McKerrell, Thomas; Chi, Jianxiang; Park, Naomi; Gundem, Gunes; Quail, Michael A; Sathiaseelan, Vijitha; Herman, Bram; Crawley, Charles; Craig, Jenny I O; Conte, Natalie; Grove, Carolyn; Papaemmanuil, Elli; Campbell, Peter J; Varela, Ignacio; Costeas, Paul; Vassiliou, George S

    2015-02-01

    Prognostic stratification is critical for making therapeutic decisions and maximizing survival of patients with acute myeloid leukemia. Advances in the genomics of acute myeloid leukemia have identified several recurrent gene mutations whose prognostic impact is being deciphered. We used HaloPlex target enrichment and Illumina-based next generation sequencing to study 24 recurrently mutated genes in 42 samples of acute myeloid leukemia with a normal karyotype. Read depth varied between and within genes for the same sample, but was predictable and highly consistent across samples. Consequently, we were able to detect copy number changes, such as an interstitial deletion of BCOR, three MLL partial tandem duplications, and a novel KRAS amplification. With regards to coding mutations, we identified likely oncogenic variants in 41 of 42 samples. NPM1 mutations were the most frequent, followed by FLT3, DNMT3A and TET2. NPM1 and FLT3 indels were reported with good efficiency. We also showed that DNMT3A mutations can persist post-chemotherapy and in 2 cases studied at diagnosis and relapse, we were able to delineate the dynamics of tumor evolution and give insights into order of acquisition of variants. HaloPlex is a quick and reliable target enrichment method that can aid diagnosis and prognostic stratification of acute myeloid leukemia patients. PMID:25381129

  18. Reactor Physics Methods and Preconceptual Core Design Analyses for Conversion of the Advanced Test Reactor to Low-Enriched Uranium Fuel Annual Report for Fiscal Year 2012

    SciTech Connect

    David W. Nigg; Sean R. Morrell

    2012-09-01

    Under the current long-term DOE policy and planning scenario, both the ATR and the ATRC will be reconfigured at an appropriate time within the next several years to operate with low-enriched uranium (LEU) fuel. This will be accomplished under the auspices of the Reduced Enrichment Research and Test Reactor (RERTR) Program, administered by the DOE National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA). At a minimum, the internal design and composition of the fuel element plates and support structure will change, to accommodate the need for low enrichment in a manner that maintains total core excess reactivity at a suitable level for anticipated operational needs throughout each cycle while respecting all control and shutdown margin requirements and power distribution limits. The complete engineering design and optimization of LEU cores for the ATR and the ATRC will require significant multi-year efforts in the areas of fuel design, development and testing, as well as a complete re-analysis of the relevant reactor physics parameters for a core composed of LEU fuel, with possible control system modifications. Ultimately, revalidation of the computational physics parameters per applicable national and international standards against data from experimental measurements for prototypes of the new ATR and ATRC core designs will also be required for Safety Analysis Report (SAR) changes to support routine operations with LEU. This report is focused on reactor physics analyses conducted during Fiscal Year (FY) 2012 to support the initial development of several potential preconceptual fuel element designs that are suitable candidates for further study and refinement during FY-2013 and beyond. In a separate, but related, effort in the general area of computational support for ATR operations, the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) is conducting a focused multiyear effort to introduce modern high-fidelity computational reactor physics software and associated validation protocols to replace

  19. Inhibition of recombinase polymerase amplification by background DNA: a lateral flow-based method for enriching target DNA.

    PubMed

    Rohrman, Brittany; Richards-Kortum, Rebecca

    2015-02-01

    Recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA) may be used to detect a variety of pathogens, often after minimal sample preparation. However, previous work has shown that whole blood inhibits RPA. In this paper, we show that the concentrations of background DNA found in whole blood prevent the amplification of target DNA by RPA. First, using an HIV-1 RPA assay with known concentrations of nonspecific background DNA, we show that RPA tolerates more background DNA when higher HIV-1 target concentrations are present. Then, using three additional assays, we demonstrate that the maximum amount of background DNA that may be tolerated in RPA reactions depends on the DNA sequences used in the assay. We also show that changing the RPA reaction conditions, such as incubation time and primer concentration, has little effect on the ability of RPA to function when high concentrations of background DNA are present. Finally, we develop and characterize a lateral flow-based method for enriching the target DNA concentration relative to the background DNA concentration. This sample processing method enables RPA of 10(4) copies of HIV-1 DNA in a background of 0-14 μg of background DNA. Without lateral flow sample enrichment, the maximum amount of background DNA tolerated is 2 μg when 10(6) copies of HIV-1 DNA are present. This method requires no heating or other external equipment, may be integrated with upstream DNA extraction and purification processes, is compatible with the components of lysed blood, and has the potential to detect HIV-1 DNA in infant whole blood with high proviral loads.

  20. Synteny-based mapping-by-sequencing enabled by targeted enrichment.

    PubMed

    Galvão, Vinicius C; Nordström, Karl J V; Lanz, Christa; Sulz, Patric; Mathieu, Johannes; Posé, David; Schmid, Markus; Weigel, Detlef; Schneeberger, Korbinian

    2012-08-01

    Mapping-by-sequencing, as implemented in SHOREmap ('SHOREmapping'), is greatly accelerating the identification of causal mutations. The original SHOREmap approach based on resequencing of bulked segregants required a highly accurate and complete reference sequence. However, current whole-genome or transcriptome assemblies from next-generation sequencing data of non-model organisms do not produce chromosome-length scaffolds. We have therefore developed a method that exploits synteny with a related genome for genetic mapping. We first demonstrate how mapping-by-sequencing can be performed using a reduced number of markers, and how the associated decrease in the number of markers can be compensated for by enrichment of marker sequences. As proof of concept, we apply this method to Arabidopsis thaliana gene models ordered by synteny with the genome sequence of the distant relative Brassica rapa, whose genome has several large-scale rearrangements relative to A. thaliana. Our approach provides an alternative method for high-resolution genetic mapping in species that lack finished genome reference sequences or for which only RNA-seq assemblies are available. Finally, for improved identification of causal mutations by fine-mapping, we introduce a new likelihood ratio test statistic, transforming local allele frequency estimations into a confidence interval similar to conventional mapping intervals.

  1. Comprehensive profiling of retroviral integration sites using target enrichment methods from historical koala samples without an assembled reference genome.

    PubMed

    Cui, Pin; Löber, Ulrike; Alquezar-Planas, David E; Ishida, Yasuko; Courtiol, Alexandre; Timms, Peter; Johnson, Rebecca N; Lenz, Dorina; Helgen, Kristofer M; Roca, Alfred L; Hartman, Stefanie; Greenwood, Alex D

    2016-01-01

    Background. Retroviral integration into the host germline results in permanent viral colonization of vertebrate genomes. The koala retrovirus (KoRV) is currently invading the germline of the koala (Phascolarctos cinereus) and provides a unique opportunity for studying retroviral endogenization. Previous analysis of KoRV integration patterns in modern koalas demonstrate that they share integration sites primarily if they are related, indicating that the process is currently driven by vertical transmission rather than infection. However, due to methodological challenges, KoRV integrations have not been comprehensively characterized. Results. To overcome these challenges, we applied and compared three target enrichment techniques coupled with next generation sequencing (NGS) and a newly customized sequence-clustering based computational pipeline to determine the integration sites for 10 museum Queensland and New South Wales (NSW) koala samples collected between the 1870s and late 1980s. A secondary aim of this study sought to identify common integration sites across modern and historical specimens by comparing our dataset to previously published studies. Several million sequences were processed, and the KoRV integration sites in each koala were characterized. Conclusions. Although the three enrichment methods each exhibited bias in integration site retrieval, a combination of two methods, Primer Extension Capture and hybridization capture is recommended for future studies on historical samples. Moreover, identification of integration sites shows that the proportion of integration sites shared between any two koalas is quite small.

  2. Comprehensive profiling of retroviral integration sites using target enrichment methods from historical koala samples without an assembled reference genome

    PubMed Central

    Alquezar-Planas, David E.; Ishida, Yasuko; Courtiol, Alexandre; Timms, Peter; Johnson, Rebecca N.; Lenz, Dorina; Helgen, Kristofer M.; Roca, Alfred L.; Hartman, Stefanie

    2016-01-01

    Background. Retroviral integration into the host germline results in permanent viral colonization of vertebrate genomes. The koala retrovirus (KoRV) is currently invading the germline of the koala (Phascolarctos cinereus) and provides a unique opportunity for studying retroviral endogenization. Previous analysis of KoRV integration patterns in modern koalas demonstrate that they share integration sites primarily if they are related, indicating that the process is currently driven by vertical transmission rather than infection. However, due to methodological challenges, KoRV integrations have not been comprehensively characterized. Results. To overcome these challenges, we applied and compared three target enrichment techniques coupled with next generation sequencing (NGS) and a newly customized sequence-clustering based computational pipeline to determine the integration sites for 10 museum Queensland and New South Wales (NSW) koala samples collected between the 1870s and late 1980s. A secondary aim of this study sought to identify common integration sites across modern and historical specimens by comparing our dataset to previously published studies. Several million sequences were processed, and the KoRV integration sites in each koala were characterized. Conclusions. Although the three enrichment methods each exhibited bias in integration site retrieval, a combination of two methods, Primer Extension Capture and hybridization capture is recommended for future studies on historical samples. Moreover, identification of integration sites shows that the proportion of integration sites shared between any two koalas is quite small. PMID:27069793

  3. Comprehensive profiling of retroviral integration sites using target enrichment methods from historical koala samples without an assembled reference genome.

    PubMed

    Cui, Pin; Löber, Ulrike; Alquezar-Planas, David E; Ishida, Yasuko; Courtiol, Alexandre; Timms, Peter; Johnson, Rebecca N; Lenz, Dorina; Helgen, Kristofer M; Roca, Alfred L; Hartman, Stefanie; Greenwood, Alex D

    2016-01-01

    Background. Retroviral integration into the host germline results in permanent viral colonization of vertebrate genomes. The koala retrovirus (KoRV) is currently invading the germline of the koala (Phascolarctos cinereus) and provides a unique opportunity for studying retroviral endogenization. Previous analysis of KoRV integration patterns in modern koalas demonstrate that they share integration sites primarily if they are related, indicating that the process is currently driven by vertical transmission rather than infection. However, due to methodological challenges, KoRV integrations have not been comprehensively characterized. Results. To overcome these challenges, we applied and compared three target enrichment techniques coupled with next generation sequencing (NGS) and a newly customized sequence-clustering based computational pipeline to determine the integration sites for 10 museum Queensland and New South Wales (NSW) koala samples collected between the 1870s and late 1980s. A secondary aim of this study sought to identify common integration sites across modern and historical specimens by comparing our dataset to previously published studies. Several million sequences were processed, and the KoRV integration sites in each koala were characterized. Conclusions. Although the three enrichment methods each exhibited bias in integration site retrieval, a combination of two methods, Primer Extension Capture and hybridization capture is recommended for future studies on historical samples. Moreover, identification of integration sites shows that the proportion of integration sites shared between any two koalas is quite small. PMID:27069793

  4. HybPiper: Extracting coding sequence and introns for phylogenetics from high-throughput sequencing reads using target enrichment1

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Matthew G.; Gardner, Elliot M.; Liu, Yang; Medina, Rafael; Goffinet, Bernard; Shaw, A. Jonathan; Zerega, Nyree J. C.; Wickett, Norman J.

    2016-01-01

    Premise of the study: Using sequence data generated via target enrichment for phylogenetics requires reassembly of high-throughput sequence reads into loci, presenting a number of bioinformatics challenges. We developed HybPiper as a user-friendly platform for assembly of gene regions, extraction of exon and intron sequences, and identification of paralogous gene copies. We test HybPiper using baits designed to target 333 phylogenetic markers and 125 genes of functional significance in Artocarpus (Moraceae). Methods and Results: HybPiper implements parallel execution of sequence assembly in three phases: read mapping, contig assembly, and target sequence extraction. The pipeline was able to recover nearly complete gene sequences for all genes in 22 species of Artocarpus. HybPiper also recovered more than 500 bp of nontargeted intron sequence in over half of the phylogenetic markers and identified paralogous gene copies in Artocarpus. Conclusions: HybPiper was designed for Linux and Mac OS X and is freely available at https://github.com/mossmatters/HybPiper. PMID:27437175

  5. Targeted enrichment of the black cottonwood (Populus trichocarpa) gene space using sequence capture

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background High-throughput re-sequencing is rapidly becoming the method of choice for studies of neutral and adaptive processes in natural populations across taxa. As re-sequencing the genome of large numbers of samples is still cost-prohibitive in many cases, methods for genome complexity reduction have been developed in attempts to capture most ecologically-relevant genetic variation. One of these approaches is sequence capture, in which oligonucleotide baits specific to genomic regions of interest are synthesized and used to retrieve and sequence those regions. Results We used sequence capture to re-sequence most predicted exons, their upstream regulatory regions, as well as numerous random genomic intervals in a panel of 48 genotypes of the angiosperm tree Populus trichocarpa (black cottonwood, or ‘poplar’). A total of 20.76Mb (5%) of the poplar genome was targeted, corresponding to 173,040 baits. With 12 indexed samples run in each of four lanes on an Illumina HiSeq instrument (2x100 paired-end), 86.8% of the bait regions were on average sequenced at a depth ≥10X. Few off-target regions (>250bp away from any bait) were present in the data, but on average ~80bp on either side of the baits were captured and sequenced to an acceptable depth (≥10X) to call heterozygous SNPs. Nucleotide diversity estimates within and adjacent to protein-coding genes were similar to those previously reported in Populus spp., while intergenic regions had higher values consistent with a relaxation of selection. Conclusions Our results illustrate the efficiency and utility of sequence capture for re-sequencing highly heterozygous tree genomes, and suggest design considerations to optimize the use of baits in future studies. PMID:23241106

  6. Modification of base-side {sup 99}MO production processes for LEU metal-foil targets.

    SciTech Connect

    Vandegrift, G. F.; Leonard, R. A.; Aase, S.; Sedlet, J.; Koma, Y.; Conner, C.; Clark, C. R.; Meyer, M. K.

    1999-09-30

    Argonne National Laboratory is cooperating with the National Atomic Energy Commission of the Argentine Republic (CNEA) to convert their {sup 99}Mo production process, which uses high enriched uranium (HEU), to low-enriched uranium (LEU), The program is multifaceted; however, discussed in this paper are (1) results of laboratory experiments to develop means for substituting LEU metal-foil targets into the current process and (2) preparation of uranium-alloy or uranium-metal/aluminum-dispersion targets. Although {sup 99}Mo production is a multi-step process, the first two steps (target dissolution and primary molybdenum recovery) are by far the most important in the conversion. Commonly, once molybdenum is separated from the bulk of the uranium, the remainder of the process need not be modified. Our results show that up to this point in our study, conversion of the CNEA process to LEU appears viable.

  7. Targeted capture enrichment and sequencing identifies extensive nucleotide variation in the turkey MHC-B.

    PubMed

    Reed, Kent M; Mendoza, Kristelle M; Settlage, Robert E

    2016-03-01

    Variation in the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) is increasingly associated with disease susceptibility and resistance in avian species of agricultural importance. This variation includes sequence polymorphisms but also structural differences (gene rearrangement) and copy number variation (CNV). The MHC has now been described for multiple galliform species including the best defined assemblies of the chicken (Gallus gallus) and domestic turkey (Meleagris gallopavo). Using this sequence resource, this study applied high-throughput sequencing to investigate MHC variation in turkeys of North America (NA turkeys). An MHC-specific SureSelect (Agilent) capture array was developed, and libraries were created for 14 turkeys representing domestic (commercial bred), heritage breed, and wild turkeys. In addition, a representative of the Ocellated turkey (M. ocellata) and chicken (G. gallus) was included to test cross-species applicability of the capture array allowing for identification of new species-specific polymorphisms. Libraries were hybridized to ∼12 K cRNA baits and the resulting pools were sequenced. On average, 98% of processed reads mapped to the turkey whole genome sequence and 53% to the MHC target. In addition to the MHC, capture hybridization recovered sequences corresponding to other MHC regions. Sequence alignment and de novo assembly indicated the presence of several additional BG genes in the turkey with evidence for CNV. Variant detection identified an average of 2245 polymorphisms per individual for the NA turkeys, 3012 for the Ocellated turkey, and 462 variants in the chicken (RJF-256). This study provides an extensive sequence resource for examining MHC variation and its relation to health of this agriculturally important group of birds.

  8. Automated Microchromatography Enables Multiplexing of Immunoaffinity Enrichment of Peptides to Greater than 150 for Targeted MS-Based Assays.

    PubMed

    Ippoliti, Paul J; Kuhn, Eric; Mani, D R; Fagbami, Lola; Keshishian, Hasmik; Burgess, Michael W; Jaffe, Jacob D; Carr, Steven A

    2016-08-01

    Immunoaffinity enrichment of peptides coupled with analysis by stable isotope dilution multiple reaction mass spectrometry has been shown to have analytical performance and detection limits suitable for many biomarker verification studies and biological applications. Prior studies have shown that antipeptide antibodies can be multiplexed up to 50 in a single assay without significant loss of performance. Achieving higher multiplex levels is relevant to all studies involving precious biological material as this minimizes the amount of sample that must be consumed to measure a given set of analytes and reduces the assay cost per analyte. Here we developed automated methods employing the Agilent AssayMAP Bravo microchromatography platform and used these methods to characterize the performance of immunoaffinity enrichment of peptides up to multiplex levels of 172. Median capture efficiency for the target peptides remained high (88%) even at levels of 150-plex and declined to 70% at 172-plex compared to antibody performance observed at standard lower multiplex levels (n = 25). Subsequently, we developed and analytically characterized a multiplexed immuno-multiple reaction monitoring-mass spectrometry (immuno-MRM-MS) assay (n = 110) and applied it to measure candidate protein biomarkers of cardiovascular disease in plasma of patients undergoing planned myocardial infarction. The median lower limit of detection of all peptides was 71.5 amol/μL (nM), and the coefficient of variation (CV) was less than 15% at the lower limit of quantification. The results demonstrate that high multiplexed immuno-MRM-MS assays are readily achievable using the optimized sample processing and peptide capture methods described here. PMID:27321643

  9. Enrichment of c-Met+ tumorigenic stromal cells of giant cell tumor of bone and targeting by cabozantinib.

    PubMed

    Liu, L; Aleksandrowicz, E; Fan, P; Schönsiegel, F; Zhang, Y; Sähr, H; Gladkich, J; Mattern, J; Depeweg, D; Lehner, B; Fellenberg, J; Herr, I

    2014-10-16

    Giant cell tumor of bone (GCTB) is a very rare tumor entity, which is little examined owing to the lack of established cell lines and mouse models and the restriction of available primary cell lines. The stromal cells of GCTB have been made responsible for the aggressive growth and metastasis, emphasizing the presence of a cancer stem cell population. To identify and target such tumor-initiating cells, stromal cells were isolated from eight freshly resected GCTB tissues. Tumorigenic properties were examined by colony and spheroid formation, differentiation, migration, MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) assay, immunohistochemistry, antibody protein array, Alu in situ hybridization, FACS analysis and xenotransplantation into fertilized chicken eggs and mice. A sub-population of the neoplastic stromal cells formed spheroids and colonies, differentiated to osteoblasts, migrated to wounded regions and expressed the metastasis marker CXC-chemokine receptor type 4, indicating self-renewal, invasion and differentiation potential. Compared with adherent-growing cells, markers for pluripotency, stemness and cancer progression, including the CSC surface marker c-Met, were enhanced in spheroidal cells. This c-Met-enriched sub-population formed xenograft tumors in fertilized chicken eggs and mice. Cabozantinib, an inhibitor of c-Met in phase II trials, eliminated CSC features with a higher therapeutic effect than standard chemotherapy. This study identifies a c-Met(+) tumorigenic sub-population within stromal GCTB cells and suggests the c-Met inhibitor cabozantinib as a new therapeutic option for targeted elimination of unresectable or recurrent GCTB.

  10. Theoretical dosimetry estimations for radioisotopes produced by proton-induced reactions on natural and enriched molybdenum targets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hou, X.; Celler, A.; Grimes, J.; Bénard, F.; Ruth, T.

    2012-03-01

    This study presents a summary of the dosimetry calculations performed for three technetium agents most commonly used in nuclear medicine diagnostic studies, namely sestamibi™, phosphonates and pertechnetate, labeled with cyclotron-produced technetium. Calculated patient doses were compared to those that would be delivered by the same radiotracers labeled with technetium obtained from a generator produced in a reactor. The main difference is that technetium from a generator is pure, i.e. contains only 99mTc and its decay product 99gTc, while in a cyclotron a large number of other stable and radioactive isotopes are created. In our calculations only technetium radioisotopes (ground and isomeric states) were considered as they will be included in the radiotracer labeling process and will contribute to the patient dose. Other elements should be removed by chemical purification. These dose estimates are based on our theoretical calculations of the proton-induced reaction cross sections and radioisotope production yields. Thick targets of enriched (three different compositions) and natural molybdenum, and three initial beam energies (16, 19 and 24 MeV) were considered for irradiation times of 3, 6 and 12 h with a beam current of 200 µA. The doses were calculated for injection times corresponding to 0, 2, 8, 12 and 24 h after the end of beam.

  11. Theoretical dosimetry estimations for radioisotopes produced by proton-induced reactions on natural and enriched molybdenum targets.

    PubMed

    Hou, X; Celler, A; Grimes, J; Bénard, F; Ruth, T

    2012-03-21

    This study presents a summary of the dosimetry calculations performed for three technetium agents most commonly used in nuclear medicine diagnostic studies, namely sestamibi™, phosphonates and pertechnetate, labeled with cyclotron-produced technetium. Calculated patient doses were compared to those that would be delivered by the same radiotracers labeled with technetium obtained from a generator produced in a reactor. The main difference is that technetium from a generator is pure, i.e. contains only (99m)Tc and its decay product (99g)Tc, while in a cyclotron a large number of other stable and radioactive isotopes are created. In our calculations only technetium radioisotopes (ground and isomeric states) were considered as they will be included in the radiotracer labeling process and will contribute to the patient dose. Other elements should be removed by chemical purification. These dose estimates are based on our theoretical calculations of the proton-induced reaction cross sections and radioisotope production yields. Thick targets of enriched (three different compositions) and natural molybdenum, and three initial beam energies (16, 19 and 24 MeV) were considered for irradiation times of 3, 6 and 12 h with a beam current of 200 µA. The doses were calculated for injection times corresponding to 0, 2, 8, 12 and 24 h after the end of beam.

  12. A DNA target-enrichment approach to detect mutations, copy number changes and immunoglobulin translocations in multiple myeloma.

    PubMed

    Bolli, N; Li, Y; Sathiaseelan, V; Raine, K; Jones, D; Ganly, P; Cocito, F; Bignell, G; Chapman, M A; Sperling, A S; Anderson, K C; Avet-Loiseau, H; Minvielle, S; Campbell, P J; Munshi, N C

    2016-01-01

    Genomic lesions are not investigated during routine diagnostic workup for multiple myeloma (MM). Cytogenetic studies are performed to assess prognosis but with limited impact on therapeutic decisions. Recently, several recurrently mutated genes have been described, but their clinical value remains to be defined. Therefore, clinical-grade strategies to investigate the genomic landscape of myeloma samples are needed to integrate new and old prognostic markers. We developed a target-enrichment strategy followed by next-generation sequencing (NGS) to streamline simultaneous analysis of gene mutations, copy number changes and immunoglobulin heavy chain (IGH) translocations in MM in a high-throughput manner, and validated it in a panel of cell lines. We identified 548 likely oncogenic mutations in 182 genes. By integrating published data sets of NGS in MM, we retrieved a list of genes with significant relevance to myeloma and found that the mutational spectrum of primary samples and MM cell lines is partially overlapping. Gains and losses of chromosomes, chromosomal segments and gene loci were identified with accuracy comparable to conventional arrays, allowing identification of lesions with known prognostic significance. Furthermore, we identified IGH translocations with high positive and negative predictive value. Our approach could allow the identification of novel biomarkers with clinical relevance in myeloma. PMID:27588520

  13. Large-Scale SNP Discovery through RNA Sequencing and SNP Genotyping by Targeted Enrichment Sequencing in Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz)

    PubMed Central

    Pootakham, Wirulda; Shearman, Jeremy R.; Ruang-areerate, Panthita; Sonthirod, Chutima; Sangsrakru, Duangjai; Jomchai, Nukoon; Yoocha, Thippawan; Triwitayakorn, Kanokporn; Tragoonrung, Somvong; Tangphatsornruang, Sithichoke

    2014-01-01

    Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) is one of the most important crop species being the main source of dietary energy in several countries. Marker-assisted selection has become an essential tool in plant breeding. Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) discovery via transcriptome sequencing is an attractive strategy for genome complexity reduction in organisms with large genomes. We sequenced the transcriptome of 16 cassava accessions using the Illumina HiSeq platform and identified 675,559 EST-derived SNP markers. A subset of those markers was subsequently genotyped by capture-based targeted enrichment sequencing in 100 F1 progeny segregating for starch viscosity phenotypes. A total of 2,110 non-redundant SNP markers were used to construct a genetic map. This map encompasses 1,785 cM and consists of 19 linkage groups. A major quantitative trait locus (QTL) controlling starch pasting properties was identified and shown to coincide with the QTL previously reported for this trait. With a high-density SNP-based linkage map presented here, we also uncovered a novel QTL associated with starch pasting time on LG 10. PMID:25551642

  14. Large-scale SNP discovery through RNA sequencing and SNP genotyping by targeted enrichment sequencing in cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz).

    PubMed

    Pootakham, Wirulda; Shearman, Jeremy R; Ruang-Areerate, Panthita; Sonthirod, Chutima; Sangsrakru, Duangjai; Jomchai, Nukoon; Yoocha, Thippawan; Triwitayakorn, Kanokporn; Tragoonrung, Somvong; Tangphatsornruang, Sithichoke

    2014-01-01

    Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) is one of the most important crop species being the main source of dietary energy in several countries. Marker-assisted selection has become an essential tool in plant breeding. Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) discovery via transcriptome sequencing is an attractive strategy for genome complexity reduction in organisms with large genomes. We sequenced the transcriptome of 16 cassava accessions using the Illumina HiSeq platform and identified 675,559 EST-derived SNP markers. A subset of those markers was subsequently genotyped by capture-based targeted enrichment sequencing in 100 F1 progeny segregating for starch viscosity phenotypes. A total of 2,110 non-redundant SNP markers were used to construct a genetic map. This map encompasses 1,785 cM and consists of 19 linkage groups. A major quantitative trait locus (QTL) controlling starch pasting properties was identified and shown to coincide with the QTL previously reported for this trait. With a high-density SNP-based linkage map presented here, we also uncovered a novel QTL associated with starch pasting time on LG 10.

  15. A DNA target-enrichment approach to detect mutations, copy number changes and immunoglobulin translocations in multiple myeloma

    PubMed Central

    Bolli, N; Li, Y; Sathiaseelan, V; Raine, K; Jones, D; Ganly, P; Cocito, F; Bignell, G; Chapman, M A; Sperling, A S; Anderson, K C; Avet-Loiseau, H; Minvielle, S; Campbell, P J; Munshi, N C

    2016-01-01

    Genomic lesions are not investigated during routine diagnostic workup for multiple myeloma (MM). Cytogenetic studies are performed to assess prognosis but with limited impact on therapeutic decisions. Recently, several recurrently mutated genes have been described, but their clinical value remains to be defined. Therefore, clinical-grade strategies to investigate the genomic landscape of myeloma samples are needed to integrate new and old prognostic markers. We developed a target-enrichment strategy followed by next-generation sequencing (NGS) to streamline simultaneous analysis of gene mutations, copy number changes and immunoglobulin heavy chain (IGH) translocations in MM in a high-throughput manner, and validated it in a panel of cell lines. We identified 548 likely oncogenic mutations in 182 genes. By integrating published data sets of NGS in MM, we retrieved a list of genes with significant relevance to myeloma and found that the mutational spectrum of primary samples and MM cell lines is partially overlapping. Gains and losses of chromosomes, chromosomal segments and gene loci were identified with accuracy comparable to conventional arrays, allowing identification of lesions with known prognostic significance. Furthermore, we identified IGH translocations with high positive and negative predictive value. Our approach could allow the identification of novel biomarkers with clinical relevance in myeloma. PMID:27588520

  16. Design and synthesis of target-responsive hydrogel for portable visual quantitative detection of uranium with a microfluidic distance-based readout device.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yishun; Fang, Luting; Zhu, Zhi; Ma, Yanli; Zhou, Leiji; Chen, Xi; Xu, Dunming; Yang, Chaoyong

    2016-11-15

    Due to uranium's increasing exploitation in nuclear energy and its toxicity to human health, it is of great significance to detect uranium contamination. In particular, development of a rapid, sensitive and portable method is important for personal health care for those who frequently come into contact with uranium ore mining or who investigate leaks at nuclear power plants. The most stable form of uranium in water is uranyl ion (UO2(2+)). In this work, a UO2(2+) responsive smart hydrogel was designed and synthesized for rapid, portable, sensitive detection of UO2(2+). A UO2(2+) dependent DNAzyme complex composed of substrate strand and enzyme strand was utilized to crosslink DNA-grafted polyacrylamide chains to form a DNA hydrogel. Colorimetric analysis was achieved by encapsulating gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) in the DNAzyme-crosslinked hydrogel to indicate the concentration of UO2(2+). Without UO2(2+), the enzyme strand is not active. The presence of UO2(2+) in the sample activates the enzyme strand and triggers the cleavage of the substrate strand from the enzyme strand, thereby decreasing the density of crosslinkers and destabilizing the hydrogel, which then releases the encapsulated AuNPs. As low as 100nM UO2(2+) was visually detected by the naked eye. The target-responsive hydrogel was also demonstrated to be applicable in natural water spiked with UO2(2+). Furthermore, to avoid the visual errors caused by naked eye observation, a previously developed volumetric bar-chart chip (V-Chip) was used to quantitatively detect UO2(2+) concentrations in water by encapsulating Au-Pt nanoparticles in the hydrogel. The UO2(2+) concentrations were visually quantified from the travelling distance of ink-bar on the V-Chip. The method can be used for portable and quantitative detection of uranium in field applications without skilled operators and sophisticated instruments. PMID:27209576

  17. A Phylogeny of Birds Based on Over 1,500 Loci Collected by Target Enrichment and High-Throughput Sequencing

    PubMed Central

    McCormack, John E.; Harvey, Michael G.; Faircloth, Brant C.; Crawford, Nicholas G.; Glenn, Travis C.; Brumfield, Robb T.

    2013-01-01

    Evolutionary relationships among birds in Neoaves, the clade comprising the vast majority of avian diversity, have vexed systematists due to the ancient, rapid radiation of numerous lineages. We applied a new phylogenomic approach to resolve relationships in Neoaves using target enrichment (sequence capture) and high-throughput sequencing of ultraconserved elements (UCEs) in avian genomes. We collected sequence data from UCE loci for 32 members of Neoaves and one outgroup (chicken) and analyzed data sets that differed in their amount of missing data. An alignment of 1,541 loci that allowed missing data was 87% complete and resulted in a highly resolved phylogeny with broad agreement between the Bayesian and maximum-likelihood (ML) trees. Although results from the 100% complete matrix of 416 UCE loci were similar, the Bayesian and ML trees differed to a greater extent in this analysis, suggesting that increasing from 416 to 1,541 loci led to increased stability and resolution of the tree. Novel results of our study include surprisingly close relationships between phenotypically divergent bird families, such as tropicbirds (Phaethontidae) and the sunbittern (Eurypygidae) as well as between bustards (Otididae) and turacos (Musophagidae). This phylogeny bolsters support for monophyletic waterbird and landbird clades and also strongly supports controversial results from previous studies, including the sister relationship between passerines and parrots and the non-monophyly of raptorial birds in the hawk and falcon families. Although significant challenges remain to fully resolving some of the deep relationships in Neoaves, especially among lineages outside the waterbirds and landbirds, this study suggests that increased data will yield an increasingly resolved avian phylogeny. PMID:23382987

  18. Polymorphism discovery and allele frequency estimation using high-throughput DNA sequencing of target-enriched pooled DNA samples

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The central role of the somatotrophic axis in animal post-natal growth, development and fertility is well established. Therefore, the identification of genetic variants affecting quantitative traits within this axis is an attractive goal. However, large sample numbers are a pre-requisite for the identification of genetic variants underlying complex traits and although technologies are improving rapidly, high-throughput sequencing of large numbers of complete individual genomes remains prohibitively expensive. Therefore using a pooled DNA approach coupled with target enrichment and high-throughput sequencing, the aim of this study was to identify polymorphisms and estimate allele frequency differences across 83 candidate genes of the somatotrophic axis, in 150 Holstein-Friesian dairy bulls divided into two groups divergent for genetic merit for fertility. Results In total, 4,135 SNPs and 893 indels were identified during the resequencing of the 83 candidate genes. Nineteen percent (n = 952) of variants were located within 5' and 3' UTRs. Seventy-two percent (n = 3,612) were intronic and 9% (n = 464) were exonic, including 65 indels and 236 SNPs resulting in non-synonymous substitutions (NSS). Significant (P < 0.01) mean allele frequency differentials between the low and high fertility groups were observed for 720 SNPs (58 NSS). Allele frequencies for 43 of the SNPs were also determined by genotyping the 150 individual animals (Sequenom® MassARRAY). No significant differences (P > 0.1) were observed between the two methods for any of the 43 SNPs across both pools (i.e., 86 tests in total). Conclusions The results of the current study support previous findings of the use of DNA sample pooling and high-throughput sequencing as a viable strategy for polymorphism discovery and allele frequency estimation. Using this approach we have characterised the genetic variation within genes of the somatotrophic axis and related pathways, central to mammalian post

  19. Target and method for the production of fission product molybdenum-99

    DOEpatents

    Vandegrift, George F.; Vissers, Donald R.; Marshall, Simon L.; Varma, Ravi

    1989-01-01

    A target for the reduction of fission product Mo-99 is prepared from uranium of low U-235 enrichment by coating a structural support member with a preparatory coating of a substantially oxide-free substrate metal. Uranium metal is electrodeposited from a molten halide electrolytic bath onto a substrate metal. The electrodeposition is performed at a predetermined direct current rate or by using pulsed plating techniques which permit relaxation of accumulated uranium ion concentrations within the melt. Layers of as much as to 600 mg/cm.sup.2 of uranium can be prepared to provide a sufficient density to produce acceptable concentrations of fission product Mo-99.

  20. Target and method for the production of fission product molybdenum-99

    DOEpatents

    Vandegrift, G.F.; Vissers, D.R.; Marshall, S.L.; Varma, R.

    1987-10-26

    A target for the reduction of fission product Mo-99 is prepared from uranium of low U-235 enrichment by coating a structural support member with a preparatory coating of a substantially oxide-free substrate metal. Uranium metal is electrodeposited from a molten halide electrolytic bath onto a substrate metal. The electrodeposition is performed at a predetermined direct current rate or by using pulsed plating techniques which permit relaxation of accumulated uranium ion concentrations within the melt. Layers of as much as to 600 mg/cm/sup 2/ of uranium can be prepared to provide a sufficient density to produce acceptable concentrations of fission product Mo-99. 2 figs.

  1. Development and processing of LEU targets for {sup 99}Mo production

    SciTech Connect

    Snelgrove, J.L.; Vandegrift, G.F.; Hofman, G.L.

    1997-04-01

    Most of the world`s supply of {sup 99m}Tc for medical purposes is currently produced from the decay of {sup 99}Mo derived from the fissioning of high-enriched uranium (HEU). Substantial progress has been made in developing targets and chemical processes for producing {sup 99}Mo using low-enriched uranium (LEU). Target development has been focused on a uranium-metal foil target as a replacement for the coated-UO{sub 2} Cintichem-type target. Although the first designs were not successful because of ion mixing-induced bonding of the uranium foil to the target tubes, recent irradiations of modified targets have proven successful. Only minor modifications of the Cintichem chemical process are required for the uranium-metal foil targets. A demonstration using prototypically irradiated targets is anticipated in February 1997. Progress has also been made in basic dissolution of both uranium-metal foil and aluminum-clad U{sub 3}Si{sub 2} dispersion fuel targets.

  2. 31 CFR 540.315 - Uranium-235 (U235).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Uranium-235 (U235). 540.315 Section... FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY HIGHLY ENRICHED URANIUM (HEU) AGREEMENT ASSETS CONTROL REGULATIONS General Definitions § 540.315 Uranium-235 (U235). The term uranium-235 or U235 means the...

  3. 31 CFR 540.315 - Uranium-235 (U235).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Uranium-235 (U235). 540.315 Section... FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY HIGHLY ENRICHED URANIUM (HEU) AGREEMENT ASSETS CONTROL REGULATIONS General Definitions § 540.315 Uranium-235 (U235). The term uranium-235 or U235 means the...

  4. 31 CFR 540.315 - Uranium-235 (U235).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Uranium-235 (U235). 540.315 Section... FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY HIGHLY ENRICHED URANIUM (HEU) AGREEMENT ASSETS CONTROL REGULATIONS General Definitions § 540.315 Uranium-235 (U235). The term uranium-235 or U235 means the...

  5. 31 CFR 540.315 - Uranium-235 (U235).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Uranium-235 (U235). 540.315 Section... FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY HIGHLY ENRICHED URANIUM (HEU) AGREEMENT ASSETS CONTROL REGULATIONS General Definitions § 540.315 Uranium-235 (U235). The term uranium-235 or U235 means the...

  6. 31 CFR 540.315 - Uranium-235 (U235).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Uranium-235 (U235). 540.315 Section... FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY HIGHLY ENRICHED URANIUM (HEU) AGREEMENT ASSETS CONTROL REGULATIONS General Definitions § 540.315 Uranium-235 (U235). The term uranium-235 or U235 means the...

  7. 3 CFR - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to the Disposition of Russian Highly Enriched...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... to the Disposition of Russian Highly Enriched Uranium Presidential Documents Other Presidential... Russian Highly Enriched Uranium On June 25, 2012, by Executive Order 13617, I declared a national... Concerning the Disposition of Highly Enriched Uranium Extracted from Nuclear Weapons, dated February 18,...

  8. Addressing Loss of Efficiency Due to Misclassification Error in Enriched Clinical Trials for the Evaluation of Targeted Therapies Based on the Cox Proportional Hazards Model

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, Chen-An; Lee, Kuan-Ting; Liu, Jen-pei

    2016-01-01

    A key feature of precision medicine is that it takes individual variability at the genetic or molecular level into account in determining the best treatment for patients diagnosed with diseases detected by recently developed novel biotechnologies. The enrichment design is an efficient design that enrolls only the patients testing positive for specific molecular targets and randomly assigns them for the targeted treatment or the concurrent control. However there is no diagnostic device with perfect accuracy and precision for detecting molecular targets. In particular, the positive predictive value (PPV) can be quite low for rare diseases with low prevalence. Under the enrichment design, some patients testing positive for specific molecular targets may not have the molecular targets. The efficacy of the targeted therapy may be underestimated in the patients that actually do have the molecular targets. To address the loss of efficiency due to misclassification error, we apply the discrete mixture modeling for time-to-event data proposed by Eng and Hanlon [8] to develop an inferential procedure, based on the Cox proportional hazard model, for treatment effects of the targeted treatment effect for the true-positive patients with the molecular targets. Our proposed procedure incorporates both inaccuracy of diagnostic devices and uncertainty of estimated accuracy measures. We employed the expectation-maximization algorithm in conjunction with the bootstrap technique for estimation of the hazard ratio and its estimated variance. We report the results of simulation studies which empirically investigated the performance of the proposed method. Our proposed method is illustrated by a numerical example. PMID:27120450

  9. Laboratory Enrichment of Radioactive Assemblages and Estimation of Thorium and Uranium Radioactivity in Fractions Separated from Placer Sands in Southeast Bangladesh

    SciTech Connect

    Sasaki, Takayuki; Rajib, Mohammad; Akiyoshi, Masafumi; Kobayashi, Taishi; Takagi, Ikuji; Fujii, Toshiyuki; Zaman, Md. Mashrur

    2015-06-15

    The present study reports the likely first attempt of separating radioactive minerals for estimation of activity concentration in the beach placer sands of Bangladesh. Several sand samples from heavy mineral deposits located at the south-eastern coastal belt of Bangladesh were processed to physically upgrade their radioactivity concentrations using plant and laboratory equipment. Following some modified flow procedure, individual fractions were separated and investigated using gamma-ray spectrometry and powder-XRD analysis. The radioactivity measurements indicated contributions of the thorium and uranium radioactive series and of {sup 40}K. The maximum values of {sup 232}Th and {sup 238}U, estimated from the radioactivity of {sup 208}Tl and {sup 234}Th in secular equilibrium, were found to be 152,000 and 63,300 Bq/kg, respectively. The fraction of the moderately conductive part in electric separation contained thorium predominantly, while that of the non-conductive part was found to be uranium rich. The present arrangement of the pilot plant cascade and the fine tuning of setting parameters were found to be effective and economic separation process of the radioactive minerals from placer sands in Bangladesh. Probable radiological impacts and extraction potentiality of such radioactive materials are also discussed.

  10. Exposure of inner-shelf reefs to nutrient enriched runoff entering the Great Barrier Reef Lagoon: post-European changes and the design of water quality targets.

    PubMed

    Wooldridge, Scott; Brodie, Jon; Furnas, Miles

    2006-11-01

    We used historical flood plume extent data (modelled) to quantify the typical spatial extent of the summer runoff-seawater mixing zone of the Great Barrier Reef (GBR) lagoon. Spatially explicit analysis of the variability of in situ chlorophyll a concentrations (observed) across the runoff-seawater mixing zone, then allowed us to explore regional differences in the nutrient enrichment impact of runoff events from the various river systems that drain the GBR catchment. We demonstrate the existence of a discernable north-south gradient along the length of the GBR, such that for equivalent runoff:seawater dilutions ratios, lower levels of nutrient enrichment (as indicated by chlorophyll alpha observations) result from the river systems that drain the relatively undisturbed northern areas of the GBR catchment, compared to more human-impacted central and south areas. We identify a strong correlation between this north-south enrichment gradient and the flood concentration of dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) entrained by the various river systems. By substituting the nutrient enrichment characteristics of the human-impacted river discharges with those of the undisturbed northern rivers, we provide a means to compare the short-term enriching 'footprint' for existing runoff intrusions with those that are likely to have occurred under pre-European catchment conditions. We demonstrate that under pre-European conditions, the nutrient enriching impact from river runoff was likely to have been largely constrained within 1-2 km of the coast, whereas existing conditions support the impact of reefs some 20-30 km off the coast. By using the developed spatial relations, we show that for the heavily human-impacted river systems, reductions in the end-of-river concentrations of DIN in the order 50-80% are needed in order to restore parity with pre-European conditions. We discuss these results in regard to developing end-of-catchment water quality targets for the region.

  11. Uranium purchases report 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-08-10

    Data reported by domestic nuclear utility companies in their responses to the 1991 through 1993 ``Uranium Industry Annual Survey,`` Form EIA-858, Schedule B,`` Uranium Marketing Activities,`` are provided in response to the requirements in the Energy Policy Act 1992. Appendix A contains an explanation of Form EIA-858 survey methodologies with emphasis on the processing of Schedule B data. Additional information published in this report not included in Uranium Purchases Report 1992, includes a new data table. Presented in Table 1 are US utility purchases of uranium and enrichment services by origin country. Also, this report contains additional purchase information covering average price and contract duration. Table 2 is an update of Table 1 and Table 3 is an update of Table 2 from the previous year`s report. The report contains a glossary of terms.

  12. Finding Needles in a Haystack: Application of Network Analysis and Target Enrichment Studies for the Identification of Potential Anti-Diabetic Phytochemicals

    PubMed Central

    Fayaz, Shaik M.; Suvanish Kumar, Valsala S.; Rajanikant, Krishnamurthy G.

    2014-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a debilitating metabolic disorder and remains a significant threat to public health. Herbal medicines have been proven to be effective anti-diabetic agents compared to synthetic drugs in terms of side effects. However, the complexity in their chemical constituents and mechanism of action, hinder the effort to discover novel anti-diabetic drugs. Hence, understanding the biological and chemical basis of pharmacological action of phytochemicals is essential for the discovery of potential anti-diabetic drugs. Identifying important active compounds, their protein targets and the pathways involved in diabetes would serve this purpose. In this context, the present study was aimed at exploring the mechanism of action of anti-diabetic plants phytochemicals through network and chemical-based approaches. This study also involves a focused and constructive strategy for preparing new effective anti-diabetic formulations. Further, a protocol for target enrichment was proposed, to identify novel protein targets for important active compounds. Therefore, the successive use of network analysis combined with target enrichment studies would accelerate the discovery of potential anti-diabetic phytochemicals. PMID:25396726

  13. Uranium: A Dentist's perspective.

    PubMed

    Toor, R S S; Brar, G S

    2012-01-01

    Uranium is a naturally occurring radionuclide found in granite and other mineral deposits. In its natural state, it consists of three isotopes (U-234, U-235 and U-238). On an average, 1% - 2% of ingested uranium is absorbed in the gastrointestinal tract in adults. The absorbed uranium rapidly enters the bloodstream and forms a diffusible ionic uranyl hydrogen carbonate complex (UO2HCO3+) which is in equilibrium with a nondiffusible uranyl albumin complex. In the skeleton, the uranyl ion replaces calcium in the hydroxyapatite complex of the bone crystal. Although in North India, there is a risk of radiological toxicity from orally ingested natural uranium, the principal health effects are chemical toxicity. The skeleton and kidney are the primary sites of uranium accumulation. Acute high dose of uranyl nitrate delays tooth eruption, and mandibular growth and development, probably due to its effect on target cells. Based on all previous research and recommendations, the role of a dentist is to educate the masses about the adverse effects of uranium on the overall as well as the dental health. The authors recommended that apart from the discontinuation of the addition of uranium to porcelain, the Public community water supplies must also comply with the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) standards of uranium levels being not more than 30 ppb (parts per billion).

  14. Uranium: A Dentist's perspective

    PubMed Central

    Toor, R. S. S.; Brar, G. S.

    2012-01-01

    Uranium is a naturally occurring radionuclide found in granite and other mineral deposits. In its natural state, it consists of three isotopes (U-234, U-235 and U-238). On an average, 1% – 2% of ingested uranium is absorbed in the gastrointestinal tract in adults. The absorbed uranium rapidly enters the bloodstream and forms a diffusible ionic uranyl hydrogen carbonate complex (UO2HCO3+) which is in equilibrium with a nondiffusible uranyl albumin complex. In the skeleton, the uranyl ion replaces calcium in the hydroxyapatite complex of the bone crystal. Although in North India, there is a risk of radiological toxicity from orally ingested natural uranium, the principal health effects are chemical toxicity. The skeleton and kidney are the primary sites of uranium accumulation. Acute high dose of uranyl nitrate delays tooth eruption, and mandibular growth and development, probably due to its effect on target cells. Based on all previous research and recommendations, the role of a dentist is to educate the masses about the adverse effects of uranium on the overall as well as the dental health. The authors recommended that apart from the discontinuation of the addition of uranium to porcelain, the Public community water supplies must also comply with the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) standards of uranium levels being not more than 30 ppb (parts per billion). PMID:24478959

  15. Polyribosome targeting to microtubules: enrichment of specific mRNAs in a reconstituted microtubule preparation from sea urchin embryos

    PubMed Central

    1994-01-01

    A subset of mRNAs, polyribosomes, and poly(A)-binding proteins copurify with microtubules from sea urchin embryos. Several lines of evidence indicate that the interaction of microtubules with ribosomes is specific: a distinct stalk-like structure appears to mediate their association; ribosomes bind to microtubules with a constant stoichiometry through several purification cycles; and the presence of ribosomes in these preparations depends on the presence of intact microtubules. Five specific mRNAs are enriched with the microtubule- bound ribosomes, indicating that translation of specific proteins may occur on the microtubule scaffolding in vivo. PMID:7962079

  16. A protocol for targeted enrichment of intron-containing sequence markers for recent radiations: A phylogenomic example from Heuchera (Saxifragaceae)1

    PubMed Central

    Folk, Ryan A.; Mandel, Jennifer R.; Freudenstein, John V.

    2015-01-01

    Premise of the study: Phylogenetic inference is moving to large multilocus data sets, yet there remains uncertainty in the choice of marker and sequencing method at low taxonomic levels. To address this gap, we present a method for enriching long loci spanning intron-exon boundaries in the genus Heuchera. Methods: Two hundred seventy-eight loci were designed using a splice-site prediction method combining transcriptomic and genomic data. Biotinylated probes were designed for enrichment of these loci. Reference-based assembly was performed using genomic references; additionally, chloroplast and mitochondrial genomes were used as references for off-target reads. The data were aligned and subjected to coalescent and concatenated phylogenetic analyses to demonstrate support for major relationships. Results: Complete or nearly complete (>99%) sequences were assembled from essentially all loci from all taxa. Aligned introns showed a fourfold increase in divergence as opposed to exons. Concatenated analysis gave decisive support to all nodes, and support was also high and relationships mostly similar in the coalescent analysis. Organellar phylogenies were also well-supported and conflicted with the nuclear signal. Discussion: Our approach shows promise for resolving a recent radiation. Enrichment for introns is highly successful with little or no sequencing dropout at low taxonomic levels despite higher substitution and indel frequencies, and should be exploited in studies of species complexes. PMID:26312196

  17. Status of laser enrichment technology updated

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakabe, Y.

    1986-08-01

    The principles of uranium enrichment by a laser method, the technology's current status and future prospects, centered on research and development activity at the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute and the Institute of Physical and Chemical Research are described.

  18. Issues and recommendations related to replacement of CFC-114 at the uranium enrichment gaseous diffusion plant. Task title: Chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) Program Review, Final report, August 1, 1991--October 1, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, B.L.; Banaghan, E.

    1993-03-31

    The operating uranium enrichment gaseous diffusion plants (GDPs) in Portsmouth, Ohio and Paducah, Kentucky, which are operated for the United States Department for Energy by Martin Marietta Energy Systems (MMES), currently use a chlorofluorocarbon (CFC-114) as the primary process stream coolant. Due to recent legislation embodied in the Clean Air Act, the production of this and other related chlorofluorocarbons (CFCS) are to be phased out with no production occurring after 1995. Since the plants lose approximately 500,000 pounds per year of this process stream coolant through various leaks, the GDPs are faced with the challenge of identifying a replacement coolant that will allow continued operation of the plants. MMES formed the CFC Task Team to identify and solve the various problems associated with identifying and implementing a replacement coolant. This report includes a review of the work performed by the CFC Task Team, and recommendations that were formulated based on this review and upon original work. The topics covered include; identifying a replacement coolant, coolant leak detection and repair efforts, coolant safety concerns, coolant level sensors, regulatory issues, and an analytical decision analysis.

  19. Isotopic ratio method for determining uranium contamination

    SciTech Connect

    Miles, R.E.; Sieben, A.K.

    1994-02-03

    The presence of high concentrations of uranium in the subsurface can be attributed either to contamination from uranium processing activities or to naturally occurring uranium. A mathematical method has been employed to evaluate the isotope ratios from subsurface soils at the Rocky Flats Nuclear Weapons Plant (RFP) and demonstrates conclusively that the soil contains uranium from a natural source and has not been contaminated with enriched uranium resulting from RFP releases. This paper describes the method used in this determination which has widespread application in site characterizations and can be adapted to other radioisotopes used in manufacturing industries. The determination of radioisotope source can lead to a reduction of the remediation effort.

  20. MicroRNA-Target Network Inference and Local Network Enrichment Analysis Identify Two microRNA Clusters with Distinct Functions in Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Sass, Steffen; Pitea, Adriana; Unger, Kristian; Hess, Julia; Mueller, Nikola S.; Theis, Fabian J.

    2015-01-01

    MicroRNAs represent ~22 nt long endogenous small RNA molecules that have been experimentally shown to regulate gene expression post-transcriptionally. One main interest in miRNA research is the investigation of their functional roles, which can typically be accomplished by identification of mi-/mRNA interactions and functional annotation of target gene sets. We here present a novel method “miRlastic”, which infers miRNA-target interactions using transcriptomic data as well as prior knowledge and performs functional annotation of target genes by exploiting the local structure of the inferred network. For the network inference, we applied linear regression modeling with elastic net regularization on matched microRNA and messenger RNA expression profiling data to perform feature selection on prior knowledge from sequence-based target prediction resources. The novelty of miRlastic inference originates in predicting data-driven intra-transcriptome regulatory relationships through feature selection. With synthetic data, we showed that miRlastic outperformed commonly used methods and was suitable even for low sample sizes. To gain insight into the functional role of miRNAs and to determine joint functional properties of miRNA clusters, we introduced a local enrichment analysis procedure. The principle of this procedure lies in identifying regions of high functional similarity by evaluating the shortest paths between genes in the network. We can finally assign functional roles to the miRNAs by taking their regulatory relationships into account. We thoroughly evaluated miRlastic on a cohort of head and neck cancer (HNSCC) patients provided by The Cancer Genome Atlas. We inferred an mi-/mRNA regulatory network for human papilloma virus (HPV)-associated miRNAs in HNSCC. The resulting network best enriched for experimentally validated miRNA-target interaction, when compared to common methods. Finally, the local enrichment step identified two functional clusters of mi

  1. Lung cancer diagnosed in the young is associated with enrichment for targetable genomic alterations and poor prognosis

    PubMed Central

    Sacher, Adrian G.; Dahlberg, Suzanne E.; Heng, Jennifer; Mach, Stacy; Jänne, Pasi A.; Oxnard, Geoffrey R.

    2016-01-01

    Importance NSCLC in the young is a rare entity and the genomics and clinical characteristics of this disease are poorly understood. In contrast, young age at diagnosis has been demonstrated to define unique disease biology in other cancers. Here we report on the association of young age with targetable genomic alterations and prognosis in a large cohort of NSCLC patients. Objective To determine the relationship between young age at diagnosis and both the presence of a potentially targetable genomic alteration as well as prognosis and natural history. Design All patients with NSCLC genotyped at the Dana-Farber Cancer Institute between 2002–2014 were identified. Tumor genotype, patient characteristics and clinical outcomes were collected. Multivariate logistic regression was used to analyze the relationship between age and mutation status. Multivariate Cox proportional hazard models were fitted for survival analysis. Setting A National Cancer Institute (NCI) designated comprehensive cancer center. Participants All patients with NSCLC seen at the Dana-Farber Cancer Institute between 2002–2014 who underwent tumor genotyping. Main Outcome Measure The frequency of targetable genomic alterations by defined age categories as well as the association of these age groups with survival. Results 2237 patients with NSCLC were studied. EGFR (p=0.02) and ALK (P<0.01) were associated with younger age, and a similar trend existed for HER2 (p=0.15) and ROS1 (p=0.1) but not BRAF V600E (p=0.43). Amongst patients tested for all 5 targetable genomic alterations, younger age was associated with an increased frequency of a targetable genotype (p<0.01). Those diagnosed at age 50 or younger have a 59% increased likelihood of harboring a targetable genotype. While presence of a potentially targetable genomic alteration treated with a targeted agent was associated with improved survival, the youngest and oldest age groupings had similarly poor outcomes even when a targetable genotype was

  2. Reduced Expression of Brain-Enriched microRNAs in Glioblastomas Permits Targeted Regulation of a Cell Death Gene

    PubMed Central

    Skalsky, Rebecca L.; Cullen, Bryan R.

    2011-01-01

    Glioblastoma is a highly aggressive malignant tumor involving glial cells in the human brain. We used high-throughput sequencing to comprehensively profile the small RNAs expressed in glioblastoma and non-tumor brain tissues. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) made up the large majority of small RNAs, and we identified over 400 different cellular pre-miRNAs. No known viral miRNAs were detected in any of the samples analyzed. Cluster analysis revealed several miRNAs that were significantly down-regulated in glioblastomas, including miR-128, miR-124, miR-7, miR-139, miR-95, and miR-873. Post-transcriptional editing was observed for several miRNAs, including the miR-376 family, miR-411, miR-381, and miR-379. Using the deep sequencing information, we designed a lentiviral vector expressing a cell suicide gene, the herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase (HSV-TK) gene, under the regulation of a miRNA, miR-128, that was found to be enriched in non-tumor brain tissue yet down-regulated in glioblastomas, Glioblastoma cells transduced with this vector were selectively killed when cultured in the presence of ganciclovir. Using an in vitro model to recapitulate expression of brain-enriched miRNAs, we demonstrated that neuronally differentiated SH-SY5Y cells transduced with the miRNA-regulated HSV-TK vector are protected from killing by expression of endogenous miR-128. Together, these results provide an in-depth analysis of miRNA dysregulation in glioblastoma and demonstrate the potential utility of these data in the design of miRNA-regulated therapies for the treatment of brain cancers. PMID:21912681

  3. Reduced expression of brain-enriched microRNAs in glioblastomas permits targeted regulation of a cell death gene.

    PubMed

    Skalsky, Rebecca L; Cullen, Bryan R

    2011-01-01

    Glioblastoma is a highly aggressive malignant tumor involving glial cells in the human brain. We used high-throughput sequencing to comprehensively profile the small RNAs expressed in glioblastoma and non-tumor brain tissues. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) made up the large majority of small RNAs, and we identified over 400 different cellular pre-miRNAs. No known viral miRNAs were detected in any of the samples analyzed. Cluster analysis revealed several miRNAs that were significantly down-regulated in glioblastomas, including miR-128, miR-124, miR-7, miR-139, miR-95, and miR-873. Post-transcriptional editing was observed for several miRNAs, including the miR-376 family, miR-411, miR-381, and miR-379. Using the deep sequencing information, we designed a lentiviral vector expressing a cell suicide gene, the herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase (HSV-TK) gene, under the regulation of a miRNA, miR-128, that was found to be enriched in non-tumor brain tissue yet down-regulated in glioblastomas, Glioblastoma cells transduced with this vector were selectively killed when cultured in the presence of ganciclovir. Using an in vitro model to recapitulate expression of brain-enriched miRNAs, we demonstrated that neuronally differentiated SH-SY5Y cells transduced with the miRNA-regulated HSV-TK vector are protected from killing by expression of endogenous miR-128. Together, these results provide an in-depth analysis of miRNA dysregulation in glioblastoma and demonstrate the potential utility of these data in the design of miRNA-regulated therapies for the treatment of brain cancers.

  4. Pulling out the 1%: Whole-Genome Capture for the Targeted Enrichment of Ancient DNA Sequencing Libraries

    PubMed Central

    Carpenter, Meredith L.; Buenrostro, Jason D.; Valdiosera, Cristina; Schroeder, Hannes; Allentoft, Morten E.; Sikora, Martin; Rasmussen, Morten; Gravel, Simon; Guillén, Sonia; Nekhrizov, Georgi; Leshtakov, Krasimir; Dimitrova, Diana; Theodossiev, Nikola; Pettener, Davide; Luiselli, Donata; Sandoval, Karla; Moreno-Estrada, Andrés; Li, Yingrui; Wang, Jun; Gilbert, M. Thomas P.; Willerslev, Eske; Greenleaf, William J.; Bustamante, Carlos D.

    2013-01-01

    Most ancient specimens contain very low levels of endogenous DNA, precluding the shotgun sequencing of many interesting samples because of cost. Ancient DNA (aDNA) libraries often contain <1% endogenous DNA, with the majority of sequencing capacity taken up by environmental DNA. Here we present a capture-based method for enriching the endogenous component of aDNA sequencing libraries. By using biotinylated RNA baits transcribed from genomic DNA libraries, we are able to capture DNA fragments from across the human genome. We demonstrate this method on libraries created from four Iron Age and Bronze Age human teeth from Bulgaria, as well as bone samples from seven Peruvian mummies and a Bronze Age hair sample from Denmark. Prior to capture, shotgun sequencing of these libraries yielded an average of 1.2% of reads mapping to the human genome (including duplicates). After capture, this fraction increased substantially, with up to 59% of reads mapped to human and enrichment ranging from 6- to 159-fold. Furthermore, we maintained coverage of the majority of regions sequenced in the precapture library. Intersection with the 1000 Genomes Project reference panel yielded an average of 50,723 SNPs (range 3,062–147,243) for the postcapture libraries sequenced with 1 million reads, compared with 13,280 SNPs (range 217–73,266) for the precapture libraries, increasing resolution in population genetic analyses. Our whole-genome capture approach makes it less costly to sequence aDNA from specimens containing very low levels of endogenous DNA, enabling the analysis of larger numbers of samples. PMID:24568772

  5. Pulling out the 1%: whole-genome capture for the targeted enrichment of ancient DNA sequencing libraries.

    PubMed

    Carpenter, Meredith L; Buenrostro, Jason D; Valdiosera, Cristina; Schroeder, Hannes; Allentoft, Morten E; Sikora, Martin; Rasmussen, Morten; Gravel, Simon; Guillén, Sonia; Nekhrizov, Georgi; Leshtakov, Krasimir; Dimitrova, Diana; Theodossiev, Nikola; Pettener, Davide; Luiselli, Donata; Sandoval, Karla; Moreno-Estrada, Andrés; Li, Yingrui; Wang, Jun; Gilbert, M Thomas P; Willerslev, Eske; Greenleaf, William J; Bustamante, Carlos D

    2013-11-01

    Most ancient specimens contain very low levels of endogenous DNA, precluding the shotgun sequencing of many interesting samples because of cost. Ancient DNA (aDNA) libraries often contain <1% endogenous DNA, with the majority of sequencing capacity taken up by environmental DNA. Here we present a capture-based method for enriching the endogenous component of aDNA sequencing libraries. By using biotinylated RNA baits transcribed from genomic DNA libraries, we are able to capture DNA fragments from across the human genome. We demonstrate this method on libraries created from four Iron Age and Bronze Age human teeth from Bulgaria, as well as bone samples from seven Peruvian mummies and a Bronze Age hair sample from Denmark. Prior to capture, shotgun sequencing of these libraries yielded an average of 1.2% of reads mapping to the human genome (including duplicates). After capture, this fraction increased substantially, with up to 59% of reads mapped to human and enrichment ranging from 6- to 159-fold. Furthermore, we maintained coverage of the majority of regions sequenced in the precapture library. Intersection with the 1000 Genomes Project reference panel yielded an average of 50,723 SNPs (range 3,062-147,243) for the postcapture libraries sequenced with 1 million reads, compared with 13,280 SNPs (range 217-73,266) for the precapture libraries, increasing resolution in population genetic analyses. Our whole-genome capture approach makes it less costly to sequence aDNA from specimens containing very low levels of endogenous DNA, enabling the analysis of larger numbers of samples.

  6. Application of targeted enrichment to next-generation sequencing of retroviruses integrated into the host human genome

    PubMed Central

    Miyazato, Paola; Katsuya, Hiroo; Fukuda, Asami; Uchiyama, Yoshikazu; Matsuo, Misaki; Tokunaga, Michiyo; Hino, Shinjiro; Nakao, Mitsuyoshi; Satou, Yorifumi

    2016-01-01

    The recent development and advancement of next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies have enabled the characterization of the human genome at extremely high resolution. In the retrovirology field, NGS technologies have been applied to integration-site analysis and deep sequencing of viral genomes in combination with PCR amplification using virus-specific primers. However, virus-specific primers are not available for some epigenetic analyses, like chromatin immunoprecipitation sequencing (ChIP-seq) assays. Viral sequences are poorly detected without specific PCR amplification because proviral DNA is very scarce compared to human genomic DNA. Here, we have developed and evaluated the use of biotinylated DNA probes for the capture of viral genetic fragments from a library prepared for NGS. Our results demonstrated that viral sequence detection was hundreds or thousands of times more sensitive after enrichment, enabling us to reduce the economic burden that arises when attempting to analyze the epigenetic landscape of proviruses by NGS. In addition, the method is versatile enough to analyze proviruses that have mismatches compared to the DNA probes. Taken together, we propose that this approach is a powerful tool to clarify the mechanisms of transcriptional and epigenetic regulation of retroviral proviruses that have, until now, remained elusive. PMID:27321866

  7. Investigation of Human Cancers for Retrovirus by Low-Stringency Target Enrichment and High-Throughput Sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Vinner, Lasse; Mourier, Tobias; Friis-Nielsen, Jens; Gniadecki, Robert; Dybkaer, Karen; Rosenberg, Jacob; Langhoff, Jill Levin; Cruz, David Flores Santa; Fonager, Jannik; Izarzugaza, Jose M. G.; Gupta, Ramneek; Sicheritz-Ponten, Thomas; Brunak, Søren; Willerslev, Eske; Nielsen, Lars Peter; Hansen, Anders Johannes

    2015-01-01

    Although nearly one fifth of all human cancers have an infectious aetiology, the causes for the majority of cancers remain unexplained. Despite the enormous data output from high-throughput shotgun sequencing, viral DNA in a clinical sample typically constitutes a proportion of host DNA that is too small to be detected. Sequence variation among virus genomes complicates application of sequence-specific, and highly sensitive, PCR methods. Therefore, we aimed to develop and characterize a method that permits sensitive detection of sequences despite considerable variation. We demonstrate that our low-stringency in-solution hybridization method enables detection of <100 viral copies. Furthermore, distantly related proviral sequences may be enriched by orders of magnitude, enabling discovery of hitherto unknown viral sequences by high-throughput sequencing. The sensitivity was sufficient to detect retroviral sequences in clinical samples. We used this method to conduct an investigation for novel retrovirus in samples from three cancer types. In accordance with recent studies our investigation revealed no retroviral infections in human B-cell lymphoma cells, cutaneous T-cell lymphoma or colorectal cancer biopsies. Nonetheless, our generally applicable method makes sensitive detection possible and permits sequencing of distantly related sequences from complex material. PMID:26285800

  8. Application of targeted enrichment to next-generation sequencing of retroviruses integrated into the host human genome.

    PubMed

    Miyazato, Paola; Katsuya, Hiroo; Fukuda, Asami; Uchiyama, Yoshikazu; Matsuo, Misaki; Tokunaga, Michiyo; Hino, Shinjiro; Nakao, Mitsuyoshi; Satou, Yorifumi

    2016-01-01

    The recent development and advancement of next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies have enabled the characterization of the human genome at extremely high resolution. In the retrovirology field, NGS technologies have been applied to integration-site analysis and deep sequencing of viral genomes in combination with PCR amplification using virus-specific primers. However, virus-specific primers are not available for some epigenetic analyses, like chromatin immunoprecipitation sequencing (ChIP-seq) assays. Viral sequences are poorly detected without specific PCR amplification because proviral DNA is very scarce compared to human genomic DNA. Here, we have developed and evaluated the use of biotinylated DNA probes for the capture of viral genetic fragments from a library prepared for NGS. Our results demonstrated that viral sequence detection was hundreds or thousands of times more sensitive after enrichment, enabling us to reduce the economic burden that arises when attempting to analyze the epigenetic landscape of proviruses by NGS. In addition, the method is versatile enough to analyze proviruses that have mismatches compared to the DNA probes. Taken together, we propose that this approach is a powerful tool to clarify the mechanisms of transcriptional and epigenetic regulation of retroviral proviruses that have, until now, remained elusive. PMID:27321866

  9. Targeted disruption of the mouse testis-enriched gene Znf230 does not affect spermatogenesis or fertility

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yunqiang; Tao, Dachang; Lu, Yongjie; Yang, Yuan; Ma, Yongxin; Zhang, Sizhong

    2014-01-01

    The mouse testis-enriched Znf230 gene, which encodes a type of RING finger protein, is present primarily in the nuclei of spermatogonia, the acrosome and the tail of spermatozoa. To investigate the role of Znf230 in spermatogenesis, we generated Znf230-deficient mice by disrupting Znf230 exon-5 and exon-6 using homologous recombination. The homozygous Znf230-knockout (KO) mice did not exhibit Znf230 mRNA expression and Znf230 protein production. Znf230 KO mice exhibited no obvious impairment in body growth or fertility. Male Znf230 KO mice had integral reproductive systems and mature sperm that were regular in number and shape. The developmental stages of male germ cells of Znf230 KO mice were also normal. We further examined variations in the transcriptomes of testicular tissue between Znf230 KO and wild-type mice through microarray analysis. The results showed that the mRNA level of one unclassified transcript 4921513I08Rik was increased and that the mRNA levels of three other transcripts, i.e., 4930448A20Rik, 4931431B13Rik and potassium channel tetramerisation domain containing 14(Kctd14), were reduced more than two-fold in Znf230 KO mice compared with wild-type mice. Using our current examination techniques, these findings suggested that Znf230 deficiency in mice may not affect growth, fertility or spermatogenesis. PMID:25505846

  10. Targeted genomic enrichment and sequencing of CyHV-3 from carp tissues confirms low nucleotide diversity and mixed genotype infections

    PubMed Central

    Hammoumi, Saliha; Vallaeys, Tatiana; Santika, Ayi; Leleux, Philippe; Borzym, Ewa; Klopp, Christophe

    2016-01-01

    Koi herpesvirus disease (KHVD) is an emerging disease that causes mass mortality in koi and common carp, Cyprinus carpio L. Its causative agent is Cyprinid herpesvirus 3 (CyHV-3), also known as koi herpesvirus (KHV). Although data on the pathogenesis of this deadly virus is relatively abundant in the literature, still little is known about its genomic diversity and about the molecular mechanisms that lead to such a high virulence. In this context, we developed a new strategy for sequencing full-length CyHV-3 genomes directly from infected fish tissues. Total genomic DNA extracted from carp gill tissue was specifically enriched with CyHV-3 sequences through hybridization to a set of nearly 2 million overlapping probes designed to cover the entire genome length, using KHV-J sequence (GenBank accession number AP008984) as reference. Applied to 7 CyHV-3 specimens from Poland and Indonesia, this targeted genomic enrichment enabled recovery of the full genomes with >99.9% reference coverage. The enrichment rate was directly correlated to the estimated number of viral copies contained in the DNA extracts used for library preparation, which varied between ∼5000 and ∼2×107. The average sequencing depth was >200 for all samples, thus allowing the search for variants with high confidence. Sequence analyses highlighted a significant proportion of intra-specimen sequence heterogeneity, suggesting the presence of mixed infections in all investigated fish. They also showed that inter-specimen genetic diversity at the genome scale was very low (>99.95% of sequence identity). By enabling full genome comparisons directly from infected fish tissues, this new method will be valuable to trace outbreaks rapidly and at a reasonable cost, and in turn to understand the transmission routes of CyHV-3. PMID:27703859

  11. 31 CFR 540.318 - Uranium Hexafluoride (UF6).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Uranium Hexafluoride (UF6). 540.318... OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY HIGHLY ENRICHED URANIUM (HEU) AGREEMENT ASSETS CONTROL REGULATIONS General Definitions § 540.318 Uranium Hexafluoride (UF6). The term...

  12. 31 CFR 540.318 - Uranium Hexafluoride (UF6).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Uranium Hexafluoride (UF6). 540.318... OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY HIGHLY ENRICHED URANIUM (HEU) AGREEMENT ASSETS CONTROL REGULATIONS General Definitions § 540.318 Uranium Hexafluoride (UF6). The term...

  13. 31 CFR 540.318 - Uranium Hexafluoride (UF6).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Uranium Hexafluoride (UF6). 540.318... OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY HIGHLY ENRICHED URANIUM (HEU) AGREEMENT ASSETS CONTROL REGULATIONS General Definitions § 540.318 Uranium Hexafluoride (UF6). The term...

  14. 31 CFR 540.318 - Uranium Hexafluoride (UF6).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Uranium Hexafluoride (UF6). 540.318... OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY HIGHLY ENRICHED URANIUM (HEU) AGREEMENT ASSETS CONTROL REGULATIONS General Definitions § 540.318 Uranium Hexafluoride (UF6). The term...

  15. 31 CFR 540.318 - Uranium Hexafluoride (UF6).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Uranium Hexafluoride (UF6). 540.318... OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY HIGHLY ENRICHED URANIUM (HEU) AGREEMENT ASSETS CONTROL REGULATIONS General Definitions § 540.318 Uranium Hexafluoride (UF6). The term...

  16. Mitosis Phase Enrichment with Identification of Mitotic Centromere-Associated Kinesin As a Therapeutic Target in Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Sircar, Kanishka; Huang, Heng; Hu, Limei; Liu, Yuexin; Dhillon, Jasreman; Cogdell, David; Aprikian, Armen; Efstathiou, Eleni; Navone, Nora; Troncoso, Patricia; Zhang, Wei

    2012-01-01

    The recently described transcriptomic switch to a mitosis program in castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) suggests that mitotic proteins may be rationally targeted at this lethal stage of the disease. In this study, we showed upregulation of the mitosis-phase at the protein level in our cohort of 51 clinical CRPC cases and found centrosomal aberrations to also occur preferentially in CRPC compared with untreated, high Gleason–grade hormone-sensitive prostate cancer (P<0.0001). Expression profiling of chemotherapy-resistant CRPC samples (n = 25) was performed, and the results were compared with data from primary chemotherapy-naïve CRPC (n = 10) and hormone-sensitive prostate cancer cases (n = 108). Our results showed enrichment of mitosis-phase genes and pathways, with progression to both castration-resistant and chemotherapy-resistant disease. The mitotic centromere-associated kinesin (MCAK) was identified as a novel mitosis-phase target in prostate cancer that was overexpressed in multiple CRPC gene-expression datasets. We found concordant gene expression of MCAK between our parent and murine CRPC xenograft pairs and increased MCAK protein expression with clinical progression of prostate cancer to a castration-resistant disease stage. Knockdown of MCAK arrested the growth of prostate cancer cells suggesting its utility as a potential therapeutic target. PMID:22363599

  17. An efficient and target-oriented sample enrichment method for preparative separation of minor alkaloids by pH-zone-refining counter-current chromatography.

    PubMed

    Feng, Rui-Hong; Hou, Jin-Jun; Zhang, Yi-Bei; Pan, Hui-Qin; Yang, Wenzhi; Qi, Peng; Yao, Shuai; Cai, Lu-Ying; Yang, Min; Jiang, Bao-Hong; Liu, Xuan; Wu, Wan-Ying; Guo, De-An

    2015-08-28

    An efficient and target-oriented sample enrichment method was established to increase the content of the minor alkaloids in crude extract by using the corresponding two-phase solvent system applied in pH-zone-refining counter-current chromatography. The enrichment and separation of seven minor indole alkaloids from Uncaria rhynchophylla (Miq.) Miq. ex Havil(UR) were selected as an example to show the advantage of this method. An optimized two-phase solvent system composed of n-hexane-ethyl acetate-methanol-water (3:7:1:9, v/v) was used in this study, where triethylamine (TEA) as the retainer and hydrochloric acid (HCl) as the eluter were added at the equimolar of 10mM. Crude alkaloids of UR dissolved in the corresponding upper phase (containing 10mM TEA) were extracted twice with lower phase (containing 10mM TEA) and lower phase (containing 10mM HCl), respectively, the second lower phase extract was subjected to pH-zone-refining CCC separation after alkalization and desalination. Finally, from 10g of crude alkaloids, 4g of refined alkaloids was obtained and the total content of seven target indole alkaloids was increased from 4.64% to 15.78%. Seven indole alkaloids, including 54mg isocorynoxeine, 21mg corynoxeine, 46mg isorhynchophylline, 35mg rhynchophylline, 65mg hirsutine, 51mg hirsuteine and 27mg geissoschizine methylether were all simultaneously separated from 2.5g of refined alkaloids, with the purity of 86.4%, 97.5%, 90.3%, 92.1%, 98.5%, 92.3%, and 92.8%, respectively. The total content and purities of the seven minor indole alkaloids were tested by HPLC and their chemical structures were elucidated by ESI-HRMS and (1)H NMR.

  18. Processing of LEU targets for {sup 99}Mo production -- Dissolution of metal foil targets by alkaline hydrogen peroxide

    SciTech Connect

    Dong, D.; Vandegrift, G.F.; Amini, S.; Hersubeno, J.B.; Nasution, H.; Nampira, Y.

    1995-09-01

    In FY 1995, the authors started studies on a new process for dissolution of low-enriched uranium (LEU) targets for {sup 99}Mo production. In this process, an LEU metal foil target is dissolved in a mixture of sodium hydroxide and hydrogen peroxide, then {sup 99}Mo is recovered from the dissolved solution. They focused on the dissolution kinetics to develop a mechanistic model for predicting the products and the rate of uranium dissolution under process conditions. They thoroughly studied the effects of hydrogen peroxide concentration, sodium hydroxide concentration, and temperature on the rate of uranium dissolution. It was found that uranium dissolution can be classified into a low-base (< 0.2M) and a high-base (> 0.2M) process. In the low-base process, both the equilibrium hydrogen peroxide and hydroxide concentrations affect the rate of uranium dissolution; in the high base process, uranium dissolution is a 0.25th order reaction with respect to the equilibrium hydrogen peroxide. The dissolution activation energy was experimentally determined to be 48.8 kJ/mol. Generally, the rate of uranium dissolution increases to a maximum as the hydroxide concentration is increased from 0.01 to about 1.5M, then it decreases as the hydroxide concentration is further increased. The alkalinity of the dissolution solution is an important factor that affects not only the dissolution rate, but also the amount of radioactive waste.

  19. Engineered In-Situ Precipitation of Technetium and Uranium in Groundwater at the Savannah River Site: Treatment Targeting Long-Term Stability (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gillow, J. B.; Lutes, C. C.; Frizzell, A.; Clark, B.; Horst, J.

    2009-12-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Savannah River Site (SRS) is a former nuclear weapons facility that is undergoing clean-up of groundwater and soil contamination. Alternatives to conventional pump-and-treat are being evaluated through DOE’s Advanced Remediation Technologies (ART) program as part of the EM-22 Groundwater and Soil Remediation program. A pilot project is underway to evaluate an emerging approach to remediation through the in-situ precipitation of insoluble forms of technetium and uranium. The demonstration involves the injection of organic carbon into the aquifer to stimulate biogeochemical processes leading to the transformation of soluble radionuclides to insoluble forms. However, once carbon addition is ceased and geochemical conditions return to oxidizing, the insoluble radionuclides may re-dissolve. The pilot project will target long term stability by enhancing the creation of reduced mineral forms in and around the precipitated radionuclides to act as both a redox buffer for oxidizing groundwater and as a sorptive medium for any dissolved uranium and technetium. Successful treatment with respect to in situ radionuclide precipitation extends beyond numeric cleanup goals and invokes a standard of care that considers not only short-term solubility achieved during active remediation, but the range of factors that might erode/compromise the stability of the precipitated solids over the long-term. Long-term stability may be achieved by incorporating the targeted radionuclide in a matrix of other precipitates formed through the treatment process. In the short term, this can include the precipitates of other more abundant metals (e.g., iron) that can preferentially scavenge oxygen. Longer term, this is expected to transition to passivation within a matrix of more stable mineral phases, such that rates of rebound dissolution are sufficiently suppressed to maintain dissolved concentrations below remedial targets. The in situ reactive zone (IRZ

  20. D&D of the French High Enrichment Gaseous Diffusion Plant

    SciTech Connect

    BEHAR, Christophe; GUIBERTEAU, Philippe; DUPERRET, Bernard; TAUZIN, Claude

    2003-02-27

    This paper describes the D&D program that is being implemented at France's High Enrichment Gaseous Diffusion Plant, which was designed to supply France's Military with Highly Enriched Uranium. This plant was definitively shut down in June 1996, following French President Jacques Chirac's decision to end production of Highly Enriched Uranium and dismantle the corresponding facilities.

  1. 49 CFR 173.434 - Activity-mass relationships for uranium and natural thorium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Activity-mass relationships for uranium and....434 Activity-mass relationships for uranium and natural thorium. The table of activity-mass relationships for uranium and natural thorium are as follows: Thorium and uranium enrichment 1(Wt% 235 U...

  2. 49 CFR 173.434 - Activity-mass relationships for uranium and natural thorium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Activity-mass relationships for uranium and....434 Activity-mass relationships for uranium and natural thorium. The table of activity-mass relationships for uranium and natural thorium are as follows: Thorium and uranium enrichment 1(Wt% 235 U...

  3. 49 CFR 173.434 - Activity-mass relationships for uranium and natural thorium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Activity-mass relationships for uranium and....434 Activity-mass relationships for uranium and natural thorium. The table of activity-mass relationships for uranium and natural thorium are as follows: Thorium and uranium enrichment 1(Wt% 235 U...

  4. 49 CFR 173.434 - Activity-mass relationships for uranium and natural thorium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Activity-mass relationships for uranium and....434 Activity-mass relationships for uranium and natural thorium. The table of activity-mass relationships for uranium and natural thorium are as follows: Thorium and uranium enrichment 1(Wt% 235 U...

  5. 49 CFR 173.434 - Activity-mass relationships for uranium and natural thorium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Activity-mass relationships for uranium and....434 Activity-mass relationships for uranium and natural thorium. The table of activity-mass relationships for uranium and natural thorium are as follows: Thorium and uranium enrichment 1(Wt% 235 U...

  6. Beneficial Uses of Depleted Uranium

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, C.; Croff, A.G.; Haire, M. J.

    1997-08-01

    Naturally occurring uranium contains 0.71 wt% {sup 235}U. In order for the uranium to be useful in most fission reactors, it must be enriched the concentration of the fissile isotope {sup 235}U must be increased. Depleted uranium (DU) is a co-product of the processing of natural uranium to produce enriched uranium, and DU has a {sup 235}U concentration of less than 0.71 wt%. In the United States, essentially all of the DU inventory is in the chemical form of uranium hexafluoride (UF{sub 6}) and is stored in large cylinders above ground. If this co-product material were to be declared surplus, converted to a stable oxide form, and disposed, the costs are estimated to be several billion dollars. Only small amounts of DU have at this time been beneficially reused. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has begun the Beneficial Uses of DU Project to identify large-scale uses of DU and encourage its reuse for the primary purpose of potentially reducing the cost and expediting the disposition of the DU inventory. This paper discusses the inventory of DU and its rate of increase; DU disposition options; beneficial use options; a preliminary cost analysis; and major technical, institutional, and regulatory issues to be resolved.

  7. Targeted Identification of SUMOylation Sites in Human Proteins Using Affinity Enrichment and Paralog-specific Reporter Ions*

    PubMed Central

    Lamoliatte, Frederic; Bonneil, Eric; Durette, Chantal; Caron-Lizotte, Olivier; Wildemann, Dirk; Zerweck, Johannes; Wenshuk, Holger; Thibault, Pierre

    2013-01-01

    Protein modification by small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO) modulates the activities of numerous proteins involved in different cellular functions such as gene transcription, cell cycle, and DNA repair. Comprehensive identification of SUMOylated sites is a prerequisite to determine how SUMOylation regulates protein function. However, mapping SUMOylated Lys residues by mass spectrometry (MS) is challenging because of the dynamic nature of this modification, the existence of three functionally distinct human SUMO paralogs, and the large SUMO chain remnant that remains attached to tryptic peptides. To overcome these problems, we created HEK293 cell lines that stably express functional SUMO paralogs with an N-terminal His6-tag and an Arg residue near the C terminus that leave a short five amino acid SUMO remnant upon tryptic digestion. We determined the fragmentation patterns of our short SUMO remnant peptides by collisional activation and electron transfer dissociation using synthetic peptide libraries. Activation using higher energy collisional dissociation on the LTQ-Orbitrap Elite identified SUMO paralog-specific fragment ions and neutral losses of the SUMO remnant with high mass accuracy (< 5 ppm). We exploited these features to detect SUMO modified tryptic peptides in complex cell extracts by correlating mass measurements of precursor and fragment ions using a data independent acquisition method. We also generated bioinformatics tools to retrieve MS/MS spectra containing characteristic fragment ions to the identification of SUMOylated peptide by conventional Mascot database searches. In HEK293 cell extracts, this MS approach uncovered low abundance SUMOylated peptides and 37 SUMO3-modified Lys residues in target proteins, most of which were previously unknown. Interestingly, we identified mixed SUMO-ubiquitin chains with ubiquitylated SUMO proteins (K20 and K32) and SUMOylated ubiquitin (K63), suggesting a complex crosstalk between these two modifications. PMID

  8. A web tool for the design and management of panels of genes for targeted enrichment and massive sequencing for clinical applications.

    PubMed

    Alemán, Alejandro; Garcia-Garcia, Francisco; Medina, Ignacio; Dopazo, Joaquín

    2014-07-01

    Disease targeted sequencing is gaining importance as a powerful and cost-effective application of high throughput sequencing technologies to the diagnosis. However, the lack of proper tools to process the data hinders its extensive adoption. Here we present TEAM, an intuitive and easy-to-use web tool that fills the gap between the predicted mutations and the final diagnostic in targeted enrichment sequencing analysis. The tool searches for known diagnostic mutations, corresponding to a disease panel, among the predicted patient's variants. Diagnostic variants for the disease are taken from four databases of disease-related variants (HGMD-public, HUMSAVAR, ClinVar and COSMIC.) If no primary diagnostic variant is found, then a list of secondary findings that can help to establish a diagnostic is produced. TEAM also provides with an interface for the definition of and customization of panels, by means of which, genes and mutations can be added or discarded to adjust panel definitions. TEAM is freely available at: http://team.babelomics.org. PMID:24861626

  9. A web tool for the design and management of panels of genes for targeted enrichment and massive sequencing for clinical applications.

    PubMed

    Alemán, Alejandro; Garcia-Garcia, Francisco; Medina, Ignacio; Dopazo, Joaquín

    2014-07-01

    Disease targeted sequencing is gaining importance as a powerful and cost-effective application of high throughput sequencing technologies to the diagnosis. However, the lack of proper tools to process the data hinders its extensive adoption. Here we present TEAM, an intuitive and easy-to-use web tool that fills the gap between the predicted mutations and the final diagnostic in targeted enrichment sequencing analysis. The tool searches for known diagnostic mutations, corresponding to a disease panel, among the predicted patient's variants. Diagnostic variants for the disease are taken from four databases of disease-related variants (HGMD-public, HUMSAVAR, ClinVar and COSMIC.) If no primary diagnostic variant is found, then a list of secondary findings that can help to establish a diagnostic is produced. TEAM also provides with an interface for the definition of and customization of panels, by means of which, genes and mutations can be added or discarded to adjust panel definitions. TEAM is freely available at: http://team.babelomics.org.

  10. A web tool for the design and management of panels of genes for targeted enrichment and massive sequencing for clinical applications

    PubMed Central

    Alemán, Alejandro; Garcia-Garcia, Francisco; Medina, Ignacio; Dopazo, Joaquín

    2014-01-01

    Disease targeted sequencing is gaining importance as a powerful and cost-effective application of high throughput sequencing technologies to the diagnosis. However, the lack of proper tools to process the data hinders its extensive adoption. Here we present TEAM, an intuitive and easy-to-use web tool that fills the gap between the predicted mutations and the final diagnostic in targeted enrichment sequencing analysis. The tool searches for known diagnostic mutations, corresponding to a disease panel, among the predicted patient's variants. Diagnostic variants for the disease are taken from four databases of disease-related variants (HGMD-public, HUMSAVAR, ClinVar and COSMIC.) If no primary diagnostic variant is found, then a list of secondary findings that can help to establish a diagnostic is produced. TEAM also provides with an interface for the definition of and customization of panels, by means of which, genes and mutations can be added or discarded to adjust panel definitions. TEAM is freely available at: http://team.babelomics.org. PMID:24861626

  11. Depleted Uranium in Repositories

    SciTech Connect

    Haire, M.J.; Croff, A.G.

    1997-12-31

    For uranium to be useful in most fission nuclear reactors, it must be enriched (i.e. the concentration of the fissile isotope 235U must be increased). Therefore, depleted uranium (DU)-uranium which has less than naturally occurring concentrations of 235U-is a co-product of the enrichment process. Four to six tons of DU exist for every ton of fresh light water reactor fuel. There were 407,006 MgU 407,000 metric tons (t) of DU stored on U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) sites as of July 1993. If this DU were to be declared surplus, converted to a stable oxide form, and emplaced in a near surface disposal facility, the costs are estimated to be several billion dollars. However, the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission has stated that near surface disposal of large quantities of DU tails is not appropriate. Thus, there is the possibility that disposition via disposal will be in a deep geological repository. One alternative that may significantly reduce the cost of DU disposition is to use it beneficially. In fact, DOE has begun the Beneficial Uses of DU Project to identify large scale uses of DU and to encourage its reuse. Several beneficial uses, many of which involve applications in the repository per se or in managing the wastes to go into the repository, are discussed in this report.

  12. Measurement of the High Energy Neutron Flux on the Surface of the Natural Uranium Target Assembly QUINTA Irradiated by Deuterons of 4 and 8 GeV Energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adam, J.; Baldin, A. A.; Chilap, V.; Furman, W.; Katovsky, K.; Khushvaktov, J.; Kumar, V.; Pronskikh, V.; Mar'in, I.; Solnyshkin, A.; Suchopar, M.; Tsupko-Sitnikov, V.; Tyutyunnikov, S.; Vrzalova, J.; Wagner, V.; Zavorka, L.

    Experiments with the natural uranium target assembly "QUINTA" exposed to 4 and 8 GeV deuteron beams of the Nuclotron accelerator at the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (Dubna) are analyzed. The reaction rates of 27Al(n,y1)24Na, 27Al(n,y2)22Na and 27Al(n,y3)7Be reactions with effective threshold energies of 5, 27, and 119 MeV were measured at both 4 GeV and 8 GeV deuteron beam energies. The average neutron fluxes between the effective threshold energies and the effective ends of the neutron spectra (which are 800 or 1000 MeV for 4 or 8 GeV deuterons) were determined. The evidence for the intensity shift of the neutron spectra to higher neutron energies with the increase of the deuteron energy from 4 GeV to 8 GeV was found from the ratios of the average neutron fluxes. The reaction rates and the average neutron fluxes were calculated with the MCNPX 2.7 code.

  13. Domestic utility attitudes toward foreign uranium supply

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-06-01

    The current embargo on the enrichment of foreign-origin uranium for use in domestic utilization facilities is scheduled to be removed in 1984. The pending removal of this embargo, complicated by a depressed worldwide market for uranium, has prompted consideration of a new or extended embargo within the US Government. As part of its on-going data collection activities, Nuclear Resources International (NRI) has surveyed 50 domestic utility/utility holding companies (representing 60 lead operator-utilities) on their foreign uranium purchase strategies and intentions. The most recent survey was conducted in early May 1981. A number of qualitative observations were made during the course of the survey. The major observations are: domestic utility views toward foreign uranium purchase are dynamic; all but three utilities had some considered foreign purchase strategy; some utilities have problems with buying foreign uranium from particular countries; an inducement is often required by some utilities to buy foreign uranium; opinions varied among utilities concerning the viability of the domestic uranium industry; and many utilities could have foreign uranium fed through their domestic uranium contracts (indirect purchases). The above observations are expanded in the final section of the report. However, it should be noted that two of the observations are particularly important and should be seriously considered in formulation of foreign uranium import restrictions. These important observations are the dynamic nature of the subject matter and the potentially large and imbalanced effect the indirect purchases could have on utility foreign uranium procurement.

  14. Inherently safe in situ uranium recovery

    DOEpatents

    Krumhansl, James L; Brady, Patrick V

    2014-04-29

    An in situ recovery of uranium operation involves circulating reactive fluids through an underground uranium deposit. These fluids contain chemicals that dissolve the uranium ore. Uranium is recovered from the fluids after they are pumped back to the surface. Chemicals used to accomplish this include complexing agents that are organic, readily degradable, and/or have a predictable lifetime in an aquifer. Efficiency is increased through development of organic agents targeted to complexing tetravalent uranium rather than hexavalent uranium. The operation provides for in situ immobilization of some oxy-anion pollutants under oxidizing conditions as well as reducing conditions. The operation also artificially reestablishes reducing conditions on the aquifer after uranium recovery is completed. With the ability to have the impacted aquifer reliably remediated, the uranium recovery operation can be considered inherently safe.

  15. URANIUM COMPOSITIONS

    DOEpatents

    Allen, N.P.; Grogan, J.D.

    1959-05-12

    This patent relates to high purity uranium alloys characterized by improved stability to thermal cycling and low thermal neutron absorption. The high purity uranium alloy contains less than 0.1 per cent by weight in total amount of any ore or more of the elements such as aluminum, silicon, phosphorous, tin, lead, bismuth, niobium, and zinc.

  16. Dissolved radon and uranium in groundwater in a potential coal seam gas development region (Richmond River Catchment, Australia).

    PubMed

    Atkins, Marnie L; Santos, Isaac R; Perkins, Anita; Maher, Damien T

    2016-04-01

    The extraction of unconventional gas resources such as shale and coal seam gas (CSG) is rapidly expanding globally and often prevents the opportunity for comprehensive baseline groundwater investigations prior to drilling. Unconventional gas extraction often targets geological layers with high naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) and extraction practices may possibly mobilise radionuclides into regional and local drinking water resources. Here, we establish baseline groundwater radon and uranium levels in shallow aquifers overlying a potential CSG target formation in the Richmond River Catchment, Australia. A total of 91 groundwater samples from six different geological units showed highly variable radon activities (0.14-20.33 Bq/L) and uranium levels (0.001-2.77 μg/L) which were well below the Australian Drinking Water Guideline values (radon; 100 Bq/L and uranium; 17 μg/L). Therefore, from a radon and uranium perspective, the regional groundwater does not pose health risks to consumers. Uranium could not explain the distribution of radon in groundwater. Relatively high radon activities (7.88 ± 0.83 Bq/L) in the fractured Lismore Basalt aquifer coincided with very low uranium concentrations (0.04 ± 0.02 μg/L). In the Quaternary Sediments aquifers, a positive correlation between U and HCO3(-) (r(2) = 0.49, p < 0.01) implied the uranium was present as uranyl-carbonate complexes. Since NORM are often enriched in target geological formations containing unconventional gas, establishing radon and uranium concentrations in overlying aquifers comprises an important component of baseline groundwater investigations. PMID:26867097

  17. Dissolved radon and uranium in groundwater in a potential coal seam gas development region (Richmond River Catchment, Australia).

    PubMed

    Atkins, Marnie L; Santos, Isaac R; Perkins, Anita; Maher, Damien T

    2016-04-01

    The extraction of unconventional gas resources such as shale and coal seam gas (CSG) is rapidly expanding globally and often prevents the opportunity for comprehensive baseline groundwater investigations prior to drilling. Unconventional gas extraction often targets geological layers with high naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) and extraction practices may possibly mobilise radionuclides into regional and local drinking water resources. Here, we establish baseline groundwater radon and uranium levels in shallow aquifers overlying a potential CSG target formation in the Richmond River Catchment, Australia. A total of 91 groundwater samples from six different geological units showed highly variable radon activities (0.14-20.33 Bq/L) and uranium levels (0.001-2.77 μg/L) which were well below the Australian Drinking Water Guideline values (radon; 100 Bq/L and uranium; 17 μg/L). Therefore, from a radon and uranium perspective, the regional groundwater does not pose health risks to consumers. Uranium could not explain the distribution of radon in groundwater. Relatively high radon activities (7.88 ± 0.83 Bq/L) in the fractured Lismore Basalt aquifer coincided with very low uranium concentrations (0.04 ± 0.02 μg/L). In the Quaternary Sediments aquifers, a positive correlation between U and HCO3(-) (r(2) = 0.49, p < 0.01) implied the uranium was present as uranyl-carbonate complexes. Since NORM are often enriched in target geological formations containing unconventional gas, establishing radon and uranium concentrations in overlying aquifers comprises an important component of baseline groundwater investigations.

  18. Uranium from seawater

    SciTech Connect

    Gregg, D.; Folkendt, M.

    1982-09-21

    A novel process for recovering uranium from seawater is proposed and some of the critical technical parameters are evaluated. The process, in summary, consists of two different options for contacting adsorbant pellets with seawater without pumping the seawater. It is expected that this will reduce the mass handling requirements, compared to pumped seawater systems, by a factor of approximately 10/sup 5/, which should also result in a large reduction in initial capital investment. Activated carbon, possibly in combination with a small amount of dissolved titanium hydroxide, is expected to be the preferred adsorbant material instead of the commonly assumed titanium hydroxide alone. The activated carbon, after exposure to seawater, can be stripped of uranium with an appropriate eluant (probably an acid) or can be burned for its heating value (possible in a power plant) leaving the uranium further enriched in its ash. The uranium, representing about 1% of the ash, is then a rich ore and would be recovered in a conventional manner. Experimental results have indicated that activated carbon, acting alone, is not adequately effective in adsorbing the uranium from seawater. We measured partition coefficients (concentration ratios) of approximately 10/sup 3/ in seawater instead of the reported values of 10/sup 5/. However, preliminary tests carried out in fresh water show considerable promise for an extraction system that uses a combination of dissolved titanium hydroxide (in minute amounts) which forms an insoluble compound with the uranyl ion, and the insoluble compound then being sorbed out on activated carbon. Such a system showed partition coefficients in excess of 10/sup 5/ in fresh water. However, the system was not tested in seawater.

  19. Production of {sup 99}Mo using LEU and molybdenum targets in a 1 MW Triga reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Mo, S.C.

    1993-12-31

    The production of {sup 99}Mo using Low Enriched Uranium (LEU) and natural molybdenum targets in a 1 MW Triga reactor is investigated. The successive linear programming technique is applied to minimize the target loadings for different yield constraints. The irradiation time is related to the kinetics of the growth and decay of {sup 99}Mo. The feasibility of a neutron generated based {sup 99}Mo production system is discussed.

  20. Laser Isotope Enrichment for Medical and Industrial Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Leonard Bond

    2006-07-01

    Laser Isotope Enrichment for Medical and Industrial Applications by Jeff Eerkens (University of Missouri), Jay Kunze (Idaho State University), and Leonard Bond (Idaho National Laboratory) The principal isotope enrichment business in the world is the enrichment of uranium for commercial power reactor fuels. However, there are a number of other needs for separated isotopes. Some examples are: 1) Pure isotopic targets for irradiation to produce medical radioisotopes. 2) Pure isotopes for semiconductors. 3) Low neutron capture isotopes for various uses in nuclear reactors. 4) Isotopes for industrial tracer/identification applications. Examples of interest to medicine are targets to produce radio-isotopes such as S-33, Mo-98, Mo-100, W-186, Sn-112; while for MRI diagnostics, the non-radioactive Xe-129 isotope is wanted. For super-semiconductor applications some desired industrial isotopes are Si-28, Ga-69, Ge-74, Se-80, Te-128, etc. An example of a low cross section isotope for use in reactors is Zn-68 as a corrosion inhibitor material in nuclear reactor primary systems. Neutron activation of Ar isotopes is of interest in industrial tracer and diagnostic applications (e.g. oil-logging). . In the past few years there has been a sufficient supply of isotopes in common demand, because of huge Russian stockpiles produced with old electromagnetic and centrifuge separators previously used for uranium enrichment. Production of specialized isotopes in the USA has been largely accomplished using old ”calutrons” (electromagnetic separators) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. These methods of separating isotopes are rather energy inefficient. Use of lasers for isotope separation has been considered for many decades. None of the proposed methods have attained sufficient proof of principal status to be economically attractive to pursue commercially. Some of the authors have succeeded in separating sulfur isotopes using a rather new and different method, known as condensation

  1. The neurotoxicology of uranium.

    PubMed

    Dinocourt, Céline; Legrand, Marie; Dublineau, Isabelle; Lestaevel, Philippe

    2015-11-01

    The brain is a target of environmental toxic pollutants that impair cerebral functions. Uranium is present in the environment as a result of natural deposits and release by human applications. The first part of this review describes the passage of uranium into the brain, and its effects on neurological functions and cognitive abilities. Very few human studies have looked at its cognitive effects. Experimental studies show that after exposure, uranium can reach the brain and lead to neurobehavioral impairments, including increased locomotor activity, perturbation of the sleep-wake cycle, decreased memory, and increased anxiety. The mechanisms underlying these neurobehavioral disturbances are not clearly understood. It is evident that there must be more than one toxic mechanism and that it might include different targets in the brain. In the second part, we therefore review the principal mechanisms that have been investigated in experimental models: imbalance of the anti/pro-oxidant system and neurochemical and neurophysiological pathways. Uranium effects are clearly specific according to brain area, dose, and time. Nonetheless, this review demonstrates the paucity of data about its effects on developmental processes and the need for more attention to the consequences of exposure during development.

  2. JACKETING URANIUM

    DOEpatents

    Saller, H.A.; Keeler, J.R.

    1959-07-14

    The bonding to uranium of sheathing of iron or cobalt, or nickel, or alloys thereof is described. The bonding is accomplished by electro-depositing both surfaces to be joined with a coating of silver and amalgamating or alloying the silver layer with mercury or indium. Then the silver alloy is homogenized by exerting pressure on an assembly of the uranium core and the metal jacket, reducing the area of assembly and heating the assembly to homogenize by diffusion.

  3. New generation enrichment monitoring technology for gas centrifuge enrichment plants

    SciTech Connect

    Ianakiev, Kiril D; Alexandrov, Boian S.; Boyer, Brian D.; Hill, Thomas R.; Macarthur, Duncan W.; Marks, Thomas; Moss, Calvin E.; Sheppard, Gregory A.; Swinhoe, Martyn T.

    2008-06-13

    The continuous enrichment monitor, developed and fielded in the 1990s by the International Atomic Energy Agency, provided a go-no-go capability to distinguish between UF{sub 6} containing low enriched (approximately 4% {sup 235}U) and highly enriched (above 20% {sup 235}U) uranium. This instrument used the 22-keV line from a {sup 109}Cd source as a transmission source to achieve a high sensitivity to the UF{sub 6} gas absorption. The 1.27-yr half-life required that the source be periodically replaced and the instrument recalibrated. The instrument's functionality and accuracy were limited by the fact that measured gas density and gas pressure were treated as confidential facility information. The modern safeguarding of a gas centrifuge enrichment plant producing low-enriched UF{sub 6} product aims toward a more quantitative flow and enrichment monitoring concept that sets new standards for accuracy stability, and confidence. An instrument must be accurate enough to detect the diversion of a significant quantity of material, have virtually zero false alarms, and protect the operator's proprietary process information. We discuss a new concept for advanced gas enrichment assay measurement technology. This design concept eliminates the need for the periodic replacement of a radioactive source as well as the need for maintenance by experts. Some initial experimental results will be presented.

  4. High Purity Germanium Gamma-PHA Assay of Uranium Scrap Cans Used in 321-M Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salaymeh, S. R.; Dewberry, R. A.; Casella, V.

    2001-12-01

    The Analytical Development Section of SRTC was requested by the Facilities Disposition Division (FDD) to determine the holdup of enriched uranium in the 321-M facility as part of an overall deactivation project of the facility. The 321-M facility was used to fabricate enriched uranium fuel assemblies, lithium-aluminum target tubes, neptunium assemblies, and miscellaneous components for the production reactors. The facility also includes the 324-M storage building and the passageway connecting it to 321-M. The results of the holdup assays are essential for determining compliance with the Solid Waste's Waste Acceptance Criteria, Material Control & Accountability, and to meet criticality safety controls. This report describes and documents the use of a portable HPGe detector and EG&G DART system that contains a high voltage power supply, signal processing electronics, a personal computer with Gamma-Vision software, and space to store and manipulate multiple 4096-channel gamma-ray spectra to assay for 235U content. The system was used to assay a large number of scrap cans used to store highly enriched uranium (HEU) chips and filings. This report includes a description of two efficiency calibration configurations and also the results of the assay. A description of the quality control checks is included as well.

  5. The ultimate disposition of depleted uranium

    SciTech Connect

    Lemons, T.R.

    1991-12-31

    Depleted uranium (DU) is produced as a by-product of the uranium enrichment process. Over 340,000 MTU of DU in the form of UF{sub 6} have been accumulated at the US government gaseous diffusion plants and the stockpile continues to grow. An overview of issues and objectives associated with the inventory management and the ultimate disposition of this material is presented.

  6. Progress in chemical processing of LEU targets for {sup 99}Mo production -- 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Vandegrift, G.F.; Conner, C.; Sedlet, J.; Wygmans, D.G.; Wu, D.; Iskander, F.; Landsberger, S.

    1997-10-01

    Presented here are recent experimental results of the continuing development activities associated with converting current processes for producing fission-product {sup 99}Mo from targets using high-enriched uranium (HEU) to low-enriched uranium (LEU). Studies were focused in four areas: (1) measuring the chemical behavior of iodine, rhodium, and silver in the LEU-modified Cintichem process, (2) performing experiments and calculations to assess the suitability of zinc fission barriers for LEU metal foil targets, (3) developing an actinide separations method for measuring alpha contamination of the purified {sup 99}Mo product, and (4) developing a cooperation with Sandia National Laboratories and Los Alamos National Laboratory that will lead to approval by the US Federal Drug Administration for production of {sup 99}Mo from LEU targets. Experimental results continue to show the technical feasibility of converting current HEU processes to LEU.

  7. Critical analysis of world uranium resources

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hall, Susan; Coleman, Margaret

    2013-01-01

    report’s analysis of 141 mines that are operating or are being actively developed identifies 2.7 million tU of in-situ uranium resources worldwide, approximately 2.1 million tU recoverable after mining and milling losses were deducted. Sixty-four operating mines report a total of 1.4 million tU of in-situ RAR (about 1 million tU recoverable). Seventy-seven developing mines/production centers report 1.3 million tU in-situ Reasonably Assured Resources (RAR) (about 1.1 million tU recoverable), which have a reasonable chance of producing uranium within 5 years. Most of the production is projected to come from conventional underground or open pit mines as opposed to in-situ leach mines. Production capacity in operating mines is about 76,000 tU/yr, and in developing mines is estimated at greater than 52,000 tU/yr. Production capacity in operating mines should be considered a maximum as mines seldom produce up to licensed capacity due to operational difficulties. In 2010, worldwide mines operated at 70 percent of licensed capacity, and production has never exceeded 89 percent of capacity. The capacity in developing mines is not always reported. In this study 35 percent of developing mines did not report a target licensed capacity, so estimates of future capacity may be too low. The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development’s Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) and International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) estimate an additional 1.4 million tU economically recoverable resources, beyond that identified in operating or developing mines identified in this report. As well, 0.5 million tU in subeconomic resources, and 2.3 million tU in the geologically less certain inferred category are identified worldwide. These agencies estimate 2.2 million tU in secondary sources such as government and commercial stockpiles and re-enriched uranium tails. They also estimate that unconventional uranium supplies (uraniferous phosphate and black shale deposits) may contain up to 7.6 million t

  8. Y-12 Uranium Exposure Study

    SciTech Connect

    Eckerman, K.F.; Kerr, G.D.

    1999-08-05

    Following the recent restart of operations at the Y-12 Plant, the Radiological Control Organization (RCO) observed that the enriched uranium exposures appeared to involve insoluble rather than soluble uranium that presumably characterized most earlier Y-12 operations. These observations necessitated changes in the bioassay program, particularly the need for routine fecal sampling. In addition, it was not reasonable to interpret the bioassay data using metabolic parameter values established during earlier Y-12 operations. Thus, the recent urinary and fecal bioassay data were interpreted using the default guidance in Publication 54 of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP); that is, inhalation of Class Y uranium with an activity median aerodynamic diameter (AMAD) of 1 {micro}m. Faced with apparently new workplace conditions, these actions were appropriate and ensured a cautionary approach to worker protection. As additional bioassay data were accumulated, it became apparent that the data were not consistent with Publication 54. Therefore, this study was undertaken to examine the situation.

  9. Uranium in saline lakes of Northwestern Mongolia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isupov, V. P.; Vladimirov, A. G.; Lyakhov, N. Z.; Shvartsev, S. L.; Ariunbileg, S.; Kolpakova, M. N.; Shatskaya, S. S.; Chupakhina, L. E.; Kuibida, L. V.; Moroz, E. N.

    2011-03-01

    Analysis of major- and trace-element compositions of water in hypersaline soda closed basin lakes of Northwestern Mongolia and Chuya basin (Gorny Altai) shows high enrichment in 238U (up to 1 mg/l). Proceeding from new data, uranium accumulation in water has been attributed to (i) location of the lakes and their watersheds in potential provinces of U-bearing rocks and (ii) uranium complexing with carbonate in presence of carbonate (bicarbonate) anions. Among the explored hypersaline soda lakes of the area, the greatest uranium resources are stored in Lake Hyargas Nuur (about 6000 ton).

  10. Re-exposure and environmental enrichment reveal NPY-Y1 as a possible target for post-traumatic stress disorder.

    PubMed

    Hendriksen, Hendrikus; Bink, Diewertje I; Daniels, Eileen G; Pandit, Rahul; Piriou, Carole; Slieker, Roderick; Westphal, Koen G C; Olivier, Berend; Oosting, Ronald S

    2012-09-01

    Exposure-based cognitive behavioral therapy in post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) patients relieves symptoms caused by fear association as well as symptoms that are not the result of associative learning. We used the inescapable foot shock model (IFS), an animal model for PTSD, to study the possible involvement of glutamate receptors, the corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) system, and the neuropeptide Y (NPY) system in the reduction of stress sensitization following repeated re-exposure to the conditioning context. Starting one week after the IFS procedure, the rats were repeatedly re-exposed to the shock environment. Stress sensitivity was measured in a modified open field test (sudden silence was used as a stressor). Selected mRNAs (GluN1, -2A-C, GluA1-4, GluK1-5, CRF, CRF-R1, NPY, NPY-Y1) were quantified in the amygdala. Repeated re-exposure (RE) to the IFS context reduced both trauma-associated anxiety (to the IFS context) and the enhanced stress sensitivity (in the open field). Changes in glutamate receptor subunits (GluN1, GluN2A-B, GluA1, GluA4, GluK3, GluK4) were detected in the amygdala that were normalized by RE. However, infusion of the AMPA/kainate antagonist NBQX in the BLA (basolateral amygdala) did not improve the anxious behavior. RE normalized IFS-induced increases in CRF-R1 mRNA and increased NPY-Y1 mRNA expression in the amygdala. Previously, and repeated here, we showed that environmental enrichment (EE) enhances recovery from IFS. EE led to similar changes in CRF-R1 and NPY-Y1 expression as RE did. Importantly, administration of [Leu31, Pro34]-NPY (Y1 agonist) in the BLA normalized the enhanced sensitivity to stress after IFS. Our data suggest that the NPY-Y1 receptor in the amygdala may serve as a therapeutic target for the treatment of PTSD.

  11. Uranium bombs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeGroot, Gerard

    2009-11-01

    Enrico Fermi was a brilliant physicist, but he did occasionally get things wrong. In 1934 he famously bombarded a sample of uranium with neutrons. The result was astounding: the experiment had, Fermi concluded, produced element 93, later called neptunium. The German physicist Ida Noddack, however, came to an even more spectacular conclusion, namely that Fermi had split the uranium nucleus to produce lighter elements. Noddack's friend Otto Hahn judged that idea preposterous and advised her to keep quiet, since ridicule could ruin a female physicist. She ignored that advice, and was, indeed, scorned.

  12. Machining of uranium and uranium alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Morris, T.O.

    1981-12-14

    Uranium and uranium alloys can be readily machined by conventional methods in the standard machine shop when proper safety and operating techniques are used. Material properties that affect machining processes and recommended machining parameters are discussed. Safety procedures and precautions necessary in machining uranium and uranium alloys are also covered. 30 figures.

  13. URANIUM ALLOYS

    DOEpatents

    Seybolt, A.U.

    1958-04-15

    Uranium alloys containing from 0.1 to 10% by weight, but preferably at least 5%, of either zirconium, niobium, or molybdenum exhibit highly desirable nuclear and structural properties which may be improved by heating the alloy to about 900 d C for an extended period of time and then rapidly quenching it.

  14. Uranium, natural

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Uranium , natural ; CASRN 7440 - 61 - 1 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogeni

  15. Proceedings of the 1988 International Meeting on Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-07-01

    The international effort to develop and implement new research reactor fuels utilizing low-enriched uranium, instead of highly- enriched uranium, continues to make solid progress. This effort is the cornerstone of a widely shared policy aimed at reducing, and possibly eliminating, international traffic in highly-enriched uranium and the nuclear weapon proliferation concerns associated with this traffic. To foster direct communication and exchange of ideas among the specialists in this area, the Reduced Enrichment Research and Test Reactor (RERTR) Program, at Argonne National Laboratory, sponsored this meeting as the eleventh of a series which began 1978. Individual papers presented at the meeting have been cataloged separately.

  16. Microbial Uranium Immobilization Independent of Nitrate Reduction

    SciTech Connect

    Madden, Andrew; Smith, April; Balkwill, Dr. David; Fagan, Lisa Anne; Phelps, Tommy Joe

    2007-01-01

    At many uranium processing and handling facilities, including sites in the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) complex, high levels of nitrate are present as co-contamination with uranium in groundwater. The daunting prospect of complete nitrate removal prior to the reduction of uranium provides a strong incentive to explore bioremediation strategies that allow for uranium bioreduction and stabilization in the presence of nitrate. Typical in-situ strategies involving the stimulation of metal-reducing bacteria are hindered by low pH environments at this study site and require that the persistent nitrate must first and continuously be removed or transformed prior to uranium being a preferred electron acceptor. This project investigates the possibility of stimulating nitrate-indifferent, pH-tolerant microorganisms to achieve bioreduction of U(VI) despite nitrate persistence. Successful enrichments from U-contaminated sediments demonstrated nearly complete reduction of uranium with very little loss of nitrate from pH 4.9-5.6 using methanol or glycerol as a carbon source. Higher pH enrichments also demonstrated similar U reduction capacity with 5-30% nitrate loss within one week. Bacterial 16S rRNA genes were amplified from uranium-reducing enrichments (pH 5.7-6.7) and sequenced. Phylogenetic analyses classified the clone sequences into four distinct clusters. Data from sequencing and T-RFLP profiles indicated that the majority of the microorganisms stimulated by these enrichment conditions consisted of low G+C Gram-positive bacteria most closely related to Clostridium and Clostridium-like organisms. This research demonstrates that the stimulation of a natural microbial community to immobilize U through bioreduction is possible without the removal of nitrate.

  17. Sputtering of uranium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gregg, R.; Tombrello, T. A.

    1978-01-01

    Results are presented for an experimental study of the sputtering of U-235 atoms from foil targets by hydrogen, helium, and argon ions, which was performed by observing tracks produced in mica by fission fragments following thermal-neutron-induced fission. The technique used allowed measurements of uranium sputtering yields of less than 0.0001 atom/ion as well as yields involving the removal of less than 0.01 monolayer of the uranium target surface. The results reported include measurements of the sputtering yields for 40-120-keV protons, 40-120-keV He-4(+) ions, and 40- and 80-keV Ar-40(+) ions, the mass distribution of chunks emitted during sputtering by the protons and 80-keV Ar-40(+) ions, the total chunk yield during He-4(+) sputtering, and some limited data on molecular sputtering by H2(+) and H3(+). The angular distribution of the sputtered uranium is discussed, and the yields obtained are compared with the predictions of collision cascade theory.

  18. Tags to Track Illicit Uranium and Plutonium

    SciTech Connect

    Haire, M. Jonathan; Forsberg, Charles W.

    2007-07-01

    With the expansion of nuclear power, it is essential to avoid nuclear materials from falling into the hands of rogue nations, terrorists, and other opportunists. This paper examines the idea of detection and attribution tags for nuclear materials. For a detection tag, it is proposed to add small amounts [about one part per billion (ppb)] of {sup 232}U to enriched uranium to brighten its radioactive signature. Enriched uranium would then be as detectable as plutonium and thus increase the likelihood of intercepting illicit enriched uranium. The use of rare earth oxide elements is proposed as a new type of 'attribution' tag for uranium and thorium from mills, uranium and plutonium fuels, and other nuclear materials. Rare earth oxides are chosen because they are chemically compatible with the fuel cycle, can survive high-temperature processing operations in fuel fabrication, and can be chosen to have minimal neutronic impact within the nuclear reactor core. The mixture of rare earths and/or rare earth isotopes provides a unique 'bar code' for each tag. If illicit nuclear materials are recovered, the attribution tag can identify the source and lot of nuclear material, and thus help police reduce the possible number of suspects in the diversion of nuclear materials based on who had access. (authors)

  19. On the flexibility of high temperature reactor cores for high-and low-enriched fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Bzandes, S.; Lonhert, G.

    1982-07-01

    The operational flexibility of a high temperature reactor (HTR) is not restricted to either a low- or a high-enriched fuel cycle. Both fuel cycles are possible for the same core design. The fuel cycle cost is, however, penalized for low-enriched fuel; in addition, higher uranium consumption is required. Hence, an HTR is most economical to operate in the high-enriched thorium-uranium fuel cycle.

  20. A Neutronic Analysis of TRU Recycling in PWRs Loaded with MOX-UE Fuel (MOX with U-235 Enriched U Support)

    SciTech Connect

    G. Youinou; S. Bays

    2009-05-01

    This report presents the results of a study dealing with the homogeneous recycling of either Pu or Pu+Np or Pu+Np+Am or Pu+Np+Am+Cm in PWRs using MOX-UE fuel, i.e. standard MOX fuel with a U235 enriched uranium support instead of the standard tail uranium (0.25%) for standard MOX fuel. This approach allows to multirecycle Pu or TRU (Pu+MA) as long as U235 is available, by keeping the Pu or TRU content in the fuel constant and at a value ensuring a negative moderator void coefficient (i.e. the loss of the coolant brings imperatively the reactor to a subcritical state). Once this value is determined, the U235 enrichment of the MOX-UE fuel is adjusted in order to reach the target burnup (51 GWd/t in this study).

  1. Isotope Enrichment Detection by Laser Ablation - Laser Absorption Spectrometry: Automated Environmental Sampling and Laser-Based Analysis for HEU Detection

    SciTech Connect

    Anheier, Norman C.; Bushaw, Bruce A.

    2010-01-01

    The global expansion of nuclear power, and consequently the uranium enrichment industry, requires the development of new safeguards technology to mitigate proliferation risks. Current enrichment monitoring instruments exist that provide only yes/no detection of highly enriched uranium (HEU) production. More accurate accountancy measurements are typically restricted to gamma-ray and weight measurements taken in cylinder storage yards. Analysis of environmental and cylinder content samples have much higher effectiveness, but this approach requires onsite sampling, shipping, and time-consuming laboratory analysis and reporting. Given that large modern gaseous centrifuge enrichment plants (GCEPs) can quickly produce a significant quantity (SQ ) of HEU, these limitations in verification suggest the need for more timely detection of potential facility misuse. The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is developing an unattended safeguards instrument concept, combining continuous aerosol particulate collection with uranium isotope assay, to provide timely analysis of enrichment levels within low enriched uranium facilities. This approach is based on laser vaporization of aerosol particulate samples, followed by wavelength tuned laser diode spectroscopy to characterize the uranium isotopic ratio through subtle differences in atomic absorption wavelengths. Environmental sampling (ES) media from an integrated aerosol collector is introduced into a small, reduced pressure chamber, where a focused pulsed laser vaporizes material from a 10 to 20-µm diameter spot of the surface of the sampling media. The plume of ejected material begins as high-temperature plasma that yields ions and atoms, as well as molecules and molecular ions. We concentrate on the plume of atomic vapor that remains after the plasma has expanded and then cooled by the surrounding cover gas. Tunable diode lasers are directed through this plume and each isotope is detected by monitoring absorbance

  2. Critical analysis of world uranium resources

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hall, Susan; Coleman, Margaret

    2013-01-01

    report’s analysis of 141 mines that are operating or are being actively developed identifies 2.7 million tU of in-situ uranium resources worldwide, approximately 2.1 million tU recoverable after mining and milling losses were deducted. Sixty-four operating mines report a total of 1.4 million tU of in-situ RAR (about 1 million tU recoverable). Seventy-seven developing mines/production centers report 1.3 million tU in-situ Reasonably Assured Resources (RAR) (about 1.1 million tU recoverable), which have a reasonable chance of producing uranium within 5 years. Most of the production is projected to come from conventional underground or open pit mines as opposed to in-situ leach mines. Production capacity in operating mines is about 76,000 tU/yr, and in developing mines is estimated at greater than 52,000 tU/yr. Production capacity in operating mines should be considered a maximum as mines seldom produce up to licensed capacity due to operational difficulties. In 2010, worldwide mines operated at 70 percent of licensed capacity, and production has never exceeded 89 percent of capacity. The capacity in developing mines is not always reported. In this study 35 percent of developing mines did not report a target licensed capacity, so estimates of future capacity may be too low. The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development’s Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) and International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) estimate an additional 1.4 million tU economically recoverable resources, beyond that identified in operating or developing mines identified in this report. As well, 0.5 million tU in subeconomic resources, and 2.3 million tU in the geologically less certain inferred category are identified worldwide. These agencies estimate 2.2 million tU in secondary sources such as government and commercial stockpiles and re-enriched uranium tails. They also estimate that unconventional uranium supplies (uraniferous phosphate and black shale deposits) may contain up to 7.6 million t

  3. Microbial uranium immobilization independent of nitrate reduction.

    PubMed

    Madden, Andrew S; Smith, April C; Balkwill, David L; Fagan, Lisa A; Phelps, Tommy J

    2007-09-01

    At many uranium processing and handling facilities, including sites in the US Department of Energy (DOE) complex, high levels of nitrate are present as co-contamination with uranium in groundwater. The daunting prospect of complete nitrate removal prior to the reduction of uranium provides a strong incentive to explore bioremediation strategies that allow for uranium bioreduction and stabilization in the presence of nitrate. Typical in situ strategies involving the stimulation of metal-reducing bacteria are hindered by low-pH environments and require that the persistent nitrate must first and continuously be removed or transformed prior to uranium being a preferred electron acceptor. This work investigated the possibility of stimulating nitrate-indifferent, pH-tolerant microorganisms to achieve bioreduction of U(VI) despite nitrate persistence. Enrichments from U-contaminated sediments demonstrated nearly complete reduction of uranium with very little loss of nitrate from pH 5.7-6.2 using methanol or glycerol as a carbon source. Bacterial 16S rRNA genes were amplified from uranium-reducing enrichments (pH 5.7-6.2) and sequenced. Phylogenetic analyses classified the clone sequences into four distinct clusters. Data from sequencing and terminal-restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) profiles indicated that the majority of the microorganisms stimulated by these enrichment conditions consisted of low G+C Gram-positive bacteria most closely related to Clostridium and Clostridium-like organisms. This research demonstrates that the stimulation of a natural microbial community to immobilize U through bioreduction is possible without the removal of nitrate.

  4. PROCESSES OF RECLAIMING URANIUM FROM SOLUTIONS

    DOEpatents

    Zumwalt, L.R.

    1959-02-10

    A process is described for reclaiming residual enriched uranium from calutron wash solutions containing Fe, Cr, Cu, Ni, and Mn as impurities. The solution is adjusted to a pH of between 2 and 4 and is contacted with a metallic reducing agent, such as iron or zinc, in order to reduce the copper to metal and thereby remove it from the solution. At the same time the uranium present is reduced to the uranous state The solution is then contacted with a precipitate of zinc hydroxide or barium carbonate in order to precipitate and carry uranium, iron, and chromium away from the nickel and manganese ions in the solution. The uranium is then recovered fronm this precipitate.

  5. Variations in the uranium isotopic compositions of uranium ores from different types of uranium deposits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uvarova, Yulia A.; Kyser, T. Kurt; Geagea, Majdi Lahd; Chipley, Don

    2014-12-01

    Variations in 238U/235U and 234U/238U ratios were measured in uranium minerals from a spectrum of uranium deposit types, as well as diagenetic phosphates in uranium-rich basins and peraluminous rhyolites and associated autunite mineralisation from Macusani Meseta, Peru. Mean δ238U values of uranium minerals relative to NBL CRM 112-A are 0.02‰ for metasomatic deposits, 0.16‰ for intrusive, 0.18‰ for calcrete, 0.18‰ for volcanic, 0.29‰ for quartz-pebble conglomerate, 0.29‰ for sandstone-hosted, 0.44‰ for unconformity-type, and 0.56‰ for vein, with a total range in δ238U values from -0.30‰ to 1.52‰. Uranium mineralisation associated with igneous systems, including low-temperature calcretes that are sourced from U-rich minerals in igneous systems, have low δ238U values of ca. 0.1‰, near those of their igneous sources, whereas uranium minerals in basin-hosted deposits have higher and more variable values. High-grade unconformity-related deposits have δ238U values around 0.2‰, whereas lower grade unconformity-type deposits in the Athabasca, Kombolgie and Otish basins have higher δ238U values. The δ234U values for most samples are around 0‰, in secular equilibrium, but some samples have δ234U values much lower or higher than 0‰ associated with addition or removal of 234U during the past 2.5 Ma. These δ238U and δ234U values suggest that there are at least two different mechanisms responsible for 238U/235U and 234U/238U variations. The 234U/238U disequilibria ratios indicate recent fluid interaction with the uranium minerals and preferential migration of 234U. Fractionation between 235U and 238U is a result of nuclear-field effects with enrichment of 238U in the reduced insoluble species (mostly UO2) and 235U in oxidised mobile species as uranyl ion, UO22+, and its complexes. Therefore, isotopic fractionation effects should be reflected in 238U/235U ratios in uranium ore minerals formed either by reduction of uranium to UO2 or chemical

  6. Properties, use and health effects of depleted uranium (DU): a general overview.

    PubMed

    Bleise, A; Danesi, P R; Burkart, W

    2003-01-01

    Depleted uranium (DU), a waste product of uranium enrichment, has several civilian and military applications. It was used as armor-piercing ammunition in international military conflicts and was claimed to contribute to health problems, known as the Gulf War Syndrome and recently as the Balkan Syndrome. This led to renewed efforts to assess the environmental consequences and the health impact of the use of DU. The radiological and chemical properties of DU can be compared to those of natural uranium, which is ubiquitously present in soil at a typical concentration of 3 mg/kg. Natural uranium has the same chemotoxicity, but its radiotoxicity is 60% higher. Due to the low specific radioactivity and the dominance of alpha-radiation no acute risk is attributed to external exposure to DU. The major risk is DU dust, generated when DU ammunition hits hard targets. Depending on aerosol speciation, inhalation may lead to a protracted exposure of the lung and other organs. After deposition on the ground, resuspension can take place if the DU containing particle size is sufficiently small. However, transfer to drinking water or locally produced food has little potential to lead to significant exposures to DU. Since poor solubility of uranium compounds and lack of information on speciation precludes the use of radioecological models for exposure assessment, biomonitoring has to be used for assessing exposed persons. Urine, feces, hair and nails record recent exposures to DU. With the exception of crews of military vehicles having been hit by DU penetrators, no body burdens above the range of values for natural uranium have been found. Therefore, observable health effects are not expected and residual cancer risk estimates have to be based on theoretical considerations. They appear to be very minor for all post-conflict situations, i.e. a fraction of those expected from natural radiation.

  7. Development of a non-denaturing 2D gel electrophoresis protocol for screening in vivo uranium-protein targets in Procambarus clarkii with laser ablation ICP MS followed by protein identification by HPLC-Orbitrap MS.

    PubMed

    Xu, Ming; Frelon, Sandrine; Simon, Olivier; Lobinski, Ryszard; Mounicou, Sandra

    2014-10-01

    Limited knowledge about in vivo non-covalent uranium (U)-protein complexes is largely due to the lack of appropriate analytical methodology. Here, a method for screening and identifying the molecular targets of U was developed. The approach was based on non-denaturing 1D and 2D gel electrophoresis (ND-PAGE and ND-2D-PAGE (using ND-IEF as first dimension previously described)) in conjunction with laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP MS) for the detection of U-containing proteins. The proteins were then identified by µbore HPLC-Orbitrap MS/MS. The method was applied to the analysis of cytosol of hepatopancreas (HP) of a model U-bioaccumulating organism (Procambarus clarkii). The imaging of uranium in 2D gels revealed the presence of 11 U-containing protein spots. Six protein candidates (i.e. ferritin, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, triosephosphate isomerase, cytosolic manganese superoxide dismutase (Mn-SOD), glutathione S transferase D1 and H3 histone family protein) were then identified by matching with the data base of crustacea Decapoda species (e.g. crayfish). Among them, ferritin was the most important one. This strategy is expected to provide an insight into U toxicology and metabolism. PMID:25059147

  8. 78 FR 37925 - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to the Disposition of Russian Highly Enriched...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-24

    ... Register and transmitted to the Congress. (Presidential Sig.) THE WHITE HOUSE, June 20, 2013. [FR Doc. 2013... Disposition of Russian Highly Enriched Uranium On June 25, 2012, by Executive Order 13617, I declared a... Russian Federation Concerning the Disposition of Highly Enriched Uranium Extracted from Nuclear...

  9. Detection of depleted uranium in urine of veterans from the 1991 Gulf War.

    PubMed

    Gwiazda, R H; Squibb, K; McDiarmid, M; Smith, D

    2004-01-01

    American soldiers involved in "friendly fire" accidents during the 1991 Gulf War were injured with depleted-uranium-containing fragments or possibly exposed to depleted uranium via other routes such as inhalation, ingestion, and/or wound contamination. To evaluate the presence of depleted uranium in these soldiers eight years later, the uranium concentration and depleted uranium content of urine samples were determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry in (a) depleted uranium exposed soldiers with embedded shrapnel, (b) depleted uranium exposed soldiers with no shrapnel, and (c) a reference group of deployed soldiers not involved in the friendly fire incidents. Uranium isotopic ratios measured in many urine samples injected directly into the inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer and analyzed at a mass resolution m/delta m of 300 appeared enriched in 235U with respect to natural abundance (0.72%) due to the presence of an interference of a polyatomic molecule of mass 234.81 amu that was resolved at a mass resolution m/delta m of 4,000. The 235U abundance measured on uranium separated from these urines by anion exchange chromatography was clearly natural or depleted. Urine uranium concentrations of soldiers with shrapnel were higher than those of the two other groups, and 16 out of 17 soldiers with shrapnel had detectable depleted uranium in their urine. In depleted uranium exposed soldiers with no shrapnel, depleted uranium was detected in urine samples of 10 out of 28 soldiers. The median uranium concentration of urines with depleted uranium from soldiers without shrapnel was significantly higher than in urines with no depleted uranium, though substantial overlap in urine uranium concentrations existed between the two groups. Accordingly, assessment of depleted uranium exposure using urine must rely on uranium isotopic analyses, since urine uranium concentration is not an unequivocal indicator of depleted uranium presence in soldiers with no

  10. Detection of depleted uranium in urine of veterans from the 1991 Gulf War.

    PubMed

    Gwiazda, R H; Squibb, K; McDiarmid, M; Smith, D

    2004-01-01

    American soldiers involved in "friendly fire" accidents during the 1991 Gulf War were injured with depleted-uranium-containing fragments or possibly exposed to depleted uranium via other routes such as inhalation, ingestion, and/or wound contamination. To evaluate the presence of depleted uranium in these soldiers eight years later, the uranium concentration and depleted uranium content of urine samples were determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry in (a) depleted uranium exposed soldiers with embedded shrapnel, (b) depleted uranium exposed soldiers with no shrapnel, and (c) a reference group of deployed soldiers not involved in the friendly fire incidents. Uranium isotopic ratios measured in many urine samples injected directly into the inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer and analyzed at a mass resolution m/delta m of 300 appeared enriched in 235U with respect to natural abundance (0.72%) due to the presence of an interference of a polyatomic molecule of mass 234.81 amu that was resolved at a mass resolution m/delta m of 4,000. The 235U abundance measured on uranium separated from these urines by anion exchange chromatography was clearly natural or depleted. Urine uranium concentrations of soldiers with shrapnel were higher than those of the two other groups, and 16 out of 17 soldiers with shrapnel had detectable depleted uranium in their urine. In depleted uranium exposed soldiers with no shrapnel, depleted uranium was detected in urine samples of 10 out of 28 soldiers. The median uranium concentration of urines with depleted uranium from soldiers without shrapnel was significantly higher than in urines with no depleted uranium, though substantial overlap in urine uranium concentrations existed between the two groups. Accordingly, assessment of depleted uranium exposure using urine must rely on uranium isotopic analyses, since urine uranium concentration is not an unequivocal indicator of depleted uranium presence in soldiers with no

  11. 75 FR 62895 - Notice of Availability of Safety Evaluation Report; AREVA Enrichment Services LLC, Eagle Rock...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-13

    ... COMMISSION Notice of Availability of Safety Evaluation Report; AREVA Enrichment Services LLC, Eagle Rock... Project Manager, Advanced Fuel Cycle, Enrichment, and Uranium Conversion, Division of Fuel Cycle Safety... special nuclear material. This proposed facility is known as the Eagle Rock Enrichment Facility (EREF)...

  12. Depleted uranium disposal options evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Hertzler, T.J.; Nishimoto, D.D.; Otis, M.D.

    1994-05-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management, has chartered a study to evaluate alternative management strategies for depleted uranium (DU) currently stored throughout the DOE complex. Historically, DU has been maintained as a strategic resource because of uses for DU metal and potential uses for further enrichment or for uranium oxide as breeder reactor blanket fuel. This study has focused on evaluating the disposal options for DU if it were considered a waste. This report is in no way declaring these DU reserves a ``waste,`` but is intended to provide baseline data for comparison with other management options for use of DU. To PICS considered in this report include: Retrievable disposal; permanent disposal; health hazards; radiation toxicity and chemical toxicity.

  13. Recovery of uranium from seawater by immobilized tannin

    SciTech Connect

    Sakaguchi, T.; Nakajima, A.

    1987-06-01

    Tannin compounds having multiple adjacent hydroxy groups have an extremely high affinity for uranium. To prevent the leaching of tannins into water and to improve the adsorbing characteristics of these compounds, the authors tried to immobilize tannins. The immobilized tannin has the most favorable features for uranium recovery; high selective adsorption ability to uranium, rapid adsorption rate, and applicability in both column and batch systems. The immobilized tannin can recover uranium from natural seawater with high efficiency. About 2530 ..mu..g uranium is adsorbed per gram of this adsorbent within 22 h. Depending on the concentration in seawater, an enrichment of up to 766,000-fold within the adsorbent is possible. Almost all uranium adsorbed is easily desorbed with a very dilute acid. Thus, the immobilized tannin can be used repeatedly in the adsorption-desorption process.

  14. URANIUM EXTRACTION

    DOEpatents

    Harrington, C.D.; Opie, J.V.

    1958-07-01

    The recovery of uranium values from uranium ore such as pitchblende is described. The ore is first dissolved in nitric acid, and a water soluble nitrate is added as a salting out agent. The resulting feed solution is then contacted with diethyl ether, whereby the bulk of the uranyl nitrate and a portion of the impurities are taken up by the ether. This acid ether extract is then separated from the aqueous raffinate, and contacted with water causing back extractioa of the uranyl nitrate and impurities into the water to form a crude liquor. After separation from the ether extract, this crude liquor is heated to about 118 deg C to obtain molten uranyl nitrate hexahydratc. After being slightly cooled the uranyl nitrate hexahydrate is contacted with acid free diethyl ether whereby the bulk of the uranyl nitrate is dissolved into the ethcr to form a neutral ether solution while most of the impurities remain in the aqueous waste. After separation from the aqueous waste, the resultant ether solution is washed with about l0% of its volume of water to free it of any dissolved impurities and is then contacted with at least one half its volume of water whereby the uranyl nitrate is extracted into the water to form an aqueous product solution.

  15. PRODUCTION OF URANIUM TETRACHLORIDE

    DOEpatents

    Calkins, V.P.

    1958-12-16

    A process is descrlbed for the production of uranium tetrachloride by contacting uranlum values such as uranium hexafluoride, uranlum tetrafluoride, or uranium oxides with either aluminum chloride, boron chloride, or sodium alumlnum chloride under substantially anhydrous condltlons at such a temperature and pressure that the chlorldes are maintained in the molten form and until the uranium values are completely converted to uranlum tetrachloride.

  16. PRODUCTION OF URANIUM MONOCARBIDE

    DOEpatents

    Powers, R.M.

    1962-07-24

    A method of making essentially stoichiometric uranium monocarbide by pelletizing a mixture of uranium tetrafluoride, silicon, and carbon and reacting the mixture at a temperature of approximately 1500 to 1700 deg C until the reaction goes to completion, forming uranium monocarbide powder and volatile silicon tetrafluoride, is described. The powder is then melted to produce uranium monocarbide in massive form. (AEC)

  17. Steady State Sputtering Yields and Surface Compositions of Depleted Uranium and Uranium Carbide bombarded by 30 keV Gallium or 16 keV Cesium Ions.

    SciTech Connect

    Siekhaus, W. J.; Teslich, N. E.; Weber, P. K.

    2014-10-23

    Depleted uranium that included carbide inclusions was sputtered with 30-keV gallium ions or 16-kev cesium ions to depths much greater than the ions’ range, i.e. using steady-state sputtering. The recession of both the uranium’s and uranium carbide’s surfaces and the ion corresponding fluences were used to determine the steady-state target sputtering yields of both uranium and uranium carbide, i.e. 6.3 atoms of uranium and 2.4 units of uranium carbide eroded per gallium ion, and 9.9 uranium atoms and 3.65 units of uranium carbide eroded by cesium ions. The steady state surface composition resulting from the simultaneous gallium or cesium implantation and sputter-erosion of uranium and uranium carbide were calculated to be U₈₆Ga₁₄, (UC)₇₀Ga₃₀ and U₈₁Cs₉, (UC)₇₉Cs₂₁, respectively.

  18. An Investigation into the Transportation of Irradiated Uranium/Aluminum Targets from a Foreign Nuclear Reactor to the Chalk River Laboratories Site in Ontario, Canada - 12249

    SciTech Connect

    Clough, Malcolm; Jackson, Austin

    2012-07-01

    This investigation required the selection of a suitable cask and development of a device to hold and transport irradiated targets from a foreign nuclear reactor to the Chalk River Laboratories in Ontario, Canada. The main challenge was to design and validate a target holder to protect the irradiated HEU-Al target pencils during transit. Each of the targets was estimated to have an initial decay heat of 118 W prior to transit. As the targets have little thermal mass the potential for high temperature damage and possibly melting was high. Thus, the primary design objective was to conceive a target holder to dissipate heat from the targets. Other design requirements included securing the targets during transportation and providing a simple means to load and unload the targets while submerged five metres under water. A unique target holder (patent pending) was designed and manufactured together with special purpose experimental apparatus including a representative cask. Aluminum dummy targets were fabricated to accept cartridge heaters, to simulate decay heat. Thermocouples were used to measure the temperature of the test targets and selected areas within the target holder and test cask. After obtaining test results, calculations were performed to compensate for differences between experimental and real life conditions. Taking compensation into consideration the maximum target temperature reached was 231 deg. C which was below the designated maximum of 250 deg. C. The design of the aluminum target holder also allowed generous clearance to insert and unload the targets. This clearance was designed to close up as the target holder is placed into the cavity of the transport cask. Springs served to retain and restrain the targets from movement during transportation as well as to facilitate conductive heat transfer. The target holder met the design requirements and as such provided data supporting the feasibility of transporting targets over a relatively long period of time

  19. RECALIBRATION OF H CANYON ONLINE SPECTROPHOTOMETER AT EXTENDED URANIUM CONCENTRATION

    SciTech Connect

    Lascola, R

    2008-10-29

    The H Canyon online spectrophotometers are calibrated for measurement of the uranium and nitric acid concentrations of several tanks in the 2nd Uranium Cycle.[1] The spectrometers, flow cells, and prediction models are currently optimized for a process in which uranium concentrations are expected to range from 0-15 g/L and nitric acid concentrations from 0.05-6 M. However, an upcoming processing campaign will involve 'Super Kukla' material, which has a lower than usual enrichment of fissionable uranium. Total uranium concentrations will be higher, spanning approximately 0-30 g/L U, with no change in the nitric acid concentrations. The new processing conditions require the installation of new flow cells with shorter path lengths. As the process solutions have a higher uranium concentration, the shorter path length is required to decrease the absorptivity to values closer to the optimal range for the instrument. Also, new uranium and nitric acid prediction models are required to span the extended uranium concentration range. The models will be developed for the 17.5 and 15.4 tanks, for which nitric acid concentrations will not exceed 1 M. The restricted acid range compared to the original models is anticipated to reduce the measurement uncertainty for both uranium and nitric acid. The online spectrophotometers in H Canyon Second Uranium Cycle were modified to allow measurement of uranium and nitric acid for the Super Kukla processing campaign. The expected uranium concentrations, which are higher than those that have been recently processed, required new flow cells with one-third the optical path length of the existing cells. Also, new uranium and nitric acid calibrations were made. The estimated reading uncertainties (2{sigma}) for Tanks 15.4 and 17.5 are {approx}5% for uranium and {approx}25% for nitric acid.

  20. DECONTAMINATION OF URANIUM

    DOEpatents

    Feder, H.M.; Chellew, N.R.

    1958-02-01

    This patent deals with the separation of rare earth and other fission products from neutron bombarded uranium. This is accomplished by melting the uranium in contact with either thorium oxide, maguesium oxide, alumnum oxide, beryllium oxide, or uranium dioxide. The melting is preferably carried out at from 1150 deg to 1400 deg C in an inert atmosphere, such as argon or helium. During this treatment a scale of uranium dioxide forms on the uranium whtch contains most of the fission products.

  1. Multiple recycle of REMIX fuel based on reprocessed uranium and plutonium mixture in thermal reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Fedorov, Y.S.; Bibichev, B.A.; Zilberman, B.Y.; Baryshnikov, M.V.; Kryukov, O.V.; Khaperskaya, A.V.

    2013-07-01

    REMIX fuel consumption in WWER-1000 is considered. REMIX fuel is fabricated from non-separated mixture of uranium and plutonium obtained during NPP spent fuel reprocessing with further makeup by enriched natural uranium. It makes possible to recycle several times the total amount of uranium and plutonium obtained from spent fuel with 100% loading of the WWER-1000 core. The stored SNF could be also involved in REMIX fuel cycle by enrichment of regenerated uranium. The same approach could be applied to closing the fuel cycle of CANDU reactors. (authors)

  2. Organic geochemical analysis of sedimentary organic matter associated with uranium

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Leventhal, J.S.; Daws, T.A.; Frye, J.S.

    1986-01-01

    Samples of sedimentary organic matter from several geologic environments and ages which are enriched in uranium (56 ppm to 12%) have been characterized. The three analytical techniqyes used to study the samples were Rock-Eval pyrolysis, pyrolysis-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, and solid-state C-13 nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. In samples with low uranium content, the pyrolysis-gas chromatography products contain oxygenated functional groups (as hydroxyl) and molecules with both aliphatic and aromatic carbon atoms. These samples with low uranium content give measurable Rock-Eval hydrocarbon and organic-CO2 yields, and C-13 NMR values of > 30% aliphatic carbon. In contrast, uranium-rich samples have few hydrocarbon pyrolysis products, increased Rock-Eval organic-CO2 contents and > 70% aromatic carbon contents from C-13 NMR. The increase in aromaticity and decrease in hydrocarbon pyrolysis yield are related to the amount of uranium and the age of the uranium minerals, which correspond to the degree of radiation damage. The three analytical techniques give complementary results. Increase in Rock-Eval organic-CO2 yield correlates with uranium content for samples from the Grants uranium region. Calculations show that the amount of organic-CO2 corresponds to the quantity of uranium chemically reduced by the organic matter for the Grants uranium region samples. ?? 1986.

  3. URANIUM DECONTAMINATION

    DOEpatents

    Buckingham, J.S.; Carroll, J.L.

    1959-12-22

    A process is described for reducing the extractability of ruthenium, zirconium, and niobium values into hexone contained in an aqueous nitric acid uranium-containing solution. The solution is made acid-deficient, heated to between 55 and 70 deg C, and at that temperature a water-soluble inorganic thiosulfate is added. By this, a precipitate is formed which carries the bulk of the ruthenium, and the remainder of the ruthenium as well as the zirconium and niobium are converted to a hexone-nonextractable form. The rutheniumcontaining precipitate can either be removed from the solu tion or it can be dissolved as a hexone-non-extractable compound by the addition of sodium dichromate prior to hexone extraction.

  4. NUSIMEP-7: uranium isotope amount ratios in uranium particles.

    PubMed

    Truyens, J; Stefaniak, E A; Aregbe, Y

    2013-11-01

    The Institute for Reference Materials and Measurements (IRMM) has extensive experience in the development of isotopic reference materials and the organization of interlaboratory comparisons (ILC) for nuclear measurements in compliance with the respective international guidelines (ISO Guide 34:2009 and ISO/IEC 17043:2010). The IRMM Nuclear Signatures Interlaboratory Measurement Evaluation Program (NUSIMEP) is an external quality control program with the objective of providing materials for measurements of trace amounts of nuclear materials in environmental matrices. Measurements of the isotopic ratios of the elements uranium and plutonium in small amounts, typical of those found in environmental samples, are required for nuclear safeguards and security, for the control of environmental contamination and for the detection of nuclear proliferation. The measurement results of participants in NUSIMEP are evaluated according to international guidelines in comparison to independent external certified reference values with demonstrated metrological traceability and uncertainty. NUSIMEP-7 focused on measurements of uranium isotope amount ratios in uranium particles aiming to support European Safeguards Directorate General for Energy (DG ENER), the International Atomic Energy Agency's (IAEA) network of analytical laboratories for environmental sampling (NWAL) and laboratories in the field of particle analysis. Each participant was provided two certified test samples: one with single and one with double isotopic enrichment. These NUSIMEP test samples were prepared by controlled hydrolysis of certified uranium hexafluoride in a specially designed aerosol deposition chamber at IRMM. Laboratories participating in NUSIMEP-7 received the test samples of uranium particles on two graphite disks with undisclosed isotopic ratio values n((234)U)/n((238)U), n((235)U)/n((238)U) and n((236)U)/n((238)U). The uranium isotope ratios had to be measured using their routine analytical

  5. NUSIMEP-7: uranium isotope amount ratios in uranium particles.

    PubMed

    Truyens, J; Stefaniak, E A; Aregbe, Y

    2013-11-01

    The Institute for Reference Materials and Measurements (IRMM) has extensive experience in the development of isotopic reference materials and the organization of interlaboratory comparisons (ILC) for nuclear measurements in compliance with the respective international guidelines (ISO Guide 34:2009 and ISO/IEC 17043:2010). The IRMM Nuclear Signatures Interlaboratory Measurement Evaluation Program (NUSIMEP) is an external quality control program with the objective of providing materials for measurements of trace amounts of nuclear materials in environmental matrices. Measurements of the isotopic ratios of the elements uranium and plutonium in small amounts, typical of those found in environmental samples, are required for nuclear safeguards and security, for the control of environmental contamination and for the detection of nuclear proliferation. The measurement results of participants in NUSIMEP are evaluated according to international guidelines in comparison to independent external certified reference values with demonstrated metrological traceability and uncertainty. NUSIMEP-7 focused on measurements of uranium isotope amount ratios in uranium particles aiming to support European Safeguards Directorate General for Energy (DG ENER), the International Atomic Energy Agency's (IAEA) network of analytical laboratories for environmental sampling (NWAL) and laboratories in the field of particle analysis. Each participant was provided two certified test samples: one with single and one with double isotopic enrichment. These NUSIMEP test samples were prepared by controlled hydrolysis of certified uranium hexafluoride in a specially designed aerosol deposition chamber at IRMM. Laboratories participating in NUSIMEP-7 received the test samples of uranium particles on two graphite disks with undisclosed isotopic ratio values n((234)U)/n((238)U), n((235)U)/n((238)U) and n((236)U)/n((238)U). The uranium isotope ratios had to be measured using their routine analytical

  6. Systematization of the yields of products of photonuclear reactions on enriched-tin targets at the bremsstrahlung-photon endpoint energy of 4.5 GeV

    SciTech Connect

    Balabekyan, A. R.

    2008-11-15

    Yields of photonuclear-reaction products formed in targets from separated tin isotopes under the effect of beams of bremsstrahlung photons whose endpoint energy is 4.5 GeV were investigated. The systematization performed on this basis revealed an isoscaling character of the behavior of the production yields for various regions of reaction-product masses.

  7. A Phylogenomic Approach Based on PCR Target Enrichment and High Throughput Sequencing: Resolving the Diversity within the South American Species of Bartsia L. (Orobanchaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Tank, David C.

    2016-01-01

    Advances in high-throughput sequencing (HTS) have allowed researchers to obtain large amounts of biological sequence information at speeds and costs unimaginable only a decade ago. Phylogenetics, and the study of evolution in general, is quickly migrating towards using HTS to generate larger and more complex molecular datasets. In this paper, we present a method that utilizes microfluidic PCR and HTS to generate large amounts of sequence data suitable for phylogenetic analyses. The approach uses the Fluidigm Access Array System (Fluidigm, San Francisco, CA, USA) and two sets of PCR primers to simultaneously amplify 48 target regions across 48 samples, incorporating sample-specific barcodes and HTS adapters (2,304 unique amplicons per Access Array). The final product is a pooled set of amplicons ready to be sequenced, and thus, there is no need to construct separate, costly genomic libraries for each sample. Further, we present a bioinformatics pipeline to process the raw HTS reads to either generate consensus sequences (with or without ambiguities) for every locus in every sample or—more importantly—recover the separate alleles from heterozygous target regions in each sample. This is important because it adds allelic information that is well suited for coalescent-based phylogenetic analyses that are becoming very common in conservation and evolutionary biology. To test our approach and bioinformatics pipeline, we sequenced 576 samples across 96 target regions belonging to the South American clade of the genus Bartsia L. in the plant family Orobanchaceae. After sequencing cleanup and alignment, the experiment resulted in ~25,300bp across 486 samples for a set of 48 primer pairs targeting the plastome, and ~13,500bp for 363 samples for a set of primers targeting regions in the nuclear genome. Finally, we constructed a combined concatenated matrix from all 96 primer combinations, resulting in a combined aligned length of ~40,500bp for 349 samples. PMID:26828929

  8. A Phylogenomic Approach Based on PCR Target Enrichment and High Throughput Sequencing: Resolving the Diversity within the South American Species of Bartsia L. (Orobanchaceae).

    PubMed

    Uribe-Convers, Simon; Settles, Matthew L; Tank, David C

    2016-01-01

    Advances in high-throughput sequencing (HTS) have allowed researchers to obtain large amounts of biological sequence information at speeds and costs unimaginable only a decade ago. Phylogenetics, and the study of evolution in general, is quickly migrating towards using HTS to generate larger and more complex molecular datasets. In this paper, we present a method that utilizes microfluidic PCR and HTS to generate large amounts of sequence data suitable for phylogenetic analyses. The approach uses the Fluidigm Access Array System (Fluidigm, San Francisco, CA, USA) and two sets of PCR primers to simultaneously amplify 48 target regions across 48 samples, incorporating sample-specific barcodes and HTS adapters (2,304 unique amplicons per Access Array). The final product is a pooled set of amplicons ready to be sequenced, and thus, there is no need to construct separate, costly genomic libraries for each sample. Further, we present a bioinformatics pipeline to process the raw HTS reads to either generate consensus sequences (with or without ambiguities) for every locus in every sample or--more importantly--recover the separate alleles from heterozygous target regions in each sample. This is important because it adds allelic information that is well suited for coalescent-based phylogenetic analyses that are becoming very common in conservation and evolutionary biology. To test our approach and bioinformatics pipeline, we sequenced 576 samples across 96 target regions belonging to the South American clade of the genus Bartsia L. in the plant family Orobanchaceae. After sequencing cleanup and alignment, the experiment resulted in ~25,300 bp across 486 samples for a set of 48 primer pairs targeting the plastome, and ~13,500 bp for 363 samples for a set of primers targeting regions in the nuclear genome. Finally, we constructed a combined concatenated matrix from all 96 primer combinations, resulting in a combined aligned length of ~40,500 bp for 349 samples. PMID:26828929

  9. Mitoxantrone loaded superparamagnetic nanoparticles for drug targeting: a versatile and sensitive method for quantification of drug enrichment in rabbit tissues using HPLC-UV.

    PubMed

    Tietze, Rainer; Schreiber, Eveline; Lyer, Stefan; Alexiou, Christoph

    2010-01-01

    In medicine, superparamagnetic nanoparticles bound to chemotherapeutics are currently investigated for their feasibility in local tumor therapy. After intraarterial application, these particles can be accumulated in the targeted area by an external magnetic field to increase the drug concentration in the region of interest (Magnetic-Drug-Targeting). We here present an analytical method (HPLC-UV), to detect pure or ferrofluid-bound mitoxantrone in a complex matrix even in trace amounts in order to perform biodistribution studies. Mitoxantrone could be extracted in high yields from different tissues. Recovery of mitoxantrone in liver tissue (5000 ng/g) was 76 +/- 2%. The limit of quantification of mitoxantrone standard was 10 ng/mL +/-12%. Validation criteria such as linearity, precision, and stability were evaluated in ranges achieving the FDA requirements. As shown for pilot samples, biodistribution studies can easily be performed after application of pure or ferrofluid-bound mitoxantrone. PMID:20490266

  10. Promoting effects of carminic acid-enriched cochineal extracts on capsular invasive thyroid carcinomas through targeting activation of angiogenesis in rats.

    PubMed

    Kemmochi, Sayaka; Shimamoto, Keisuke; Shiraki, Ayako; Onda, Nobuhiko; Hasumi, Keiji; Suzuki, Kazuhiko; Mitsumori, Kunitoshi; Shibutani, Makoto

    2012-01-01

    Cochineal extracts (CE) is a coccid-derived natural food colorant containing carminic acid (CA) as an active ingredient that potentiates inhibition of tissue proteolysis mediated by activation of plasma hyaluronan-binding protein (PHBP). In our previous study, dietary administered CE (CA: 28.5% in CE) has shown to promote the macroscopic development of capsular invasive carcinomas (CICs) associated with up-regulation of angiogenesis-related genes in an intracapsular invasion model of experimental thyroid cancers using rats. However, the promoting effect of CE could not be confirmed histopathologically. The purpose of the present study was to confirm the promoting effect of CE through direct injections to animals on the development of CICs using this cancer invasion model. One week after initiation with N-bis(hydroxypropyl)nitrosamine, male F344/NSlc rats were administered CA-enriched CE (CA: 52.6% in CE) by intraperitoneal injections every other day (10 mg/kg body weight) during the promotion with 0.15% sulfadimethoxine in the drinking water for 8 weeks. The multiplicities of macroscopical CICs and the mean area of early capsular invasive foci estimated by Tenascin (TN)-C-immunoreactivity in the thyroid significantly increased with CE-treatment, while the number of TN-C-positive foci did not change with CE. Transcript level of Phbp and downstream genes unchanged; however, transcript level of angiogenesis-related genes, i.e, Vegfb and its transcription factor gene, Hif1a, those being downstream of phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN)/Akt signaling, up-regulated in the thyroid tissue with CE-administration. These results suggest that CE potentiates promotion activity by facilitating angiogenesis through activation of PTEN/Akt signaling without accompanying modification of PHBP-related proteolysis. PMID:22687987

  11. Application of diode lasers to the isotopically selective determination of uranium in oxides by optogalvanic spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, J. P.; Barshick, C. M.; Shaw, R. W.; Ramsey, J. M.

    1995-04-01

    We have observed isotopically selective diode laser-excited optogalvanic effects in uranium at 778.42 and 776.10 nm. The samples were natural abundance uranium oxide, as well as depleted (0.3% 235U), natural (0.7% 235U) and enriched (9.75% 235U) uranium metal or powders. The measurements were carried out in a demountable-cathode glow discharge cell. Preliminary evaluations of precision for uranium isotopic ratios measured using this technique suggest that it should have broad analytical applications for uranium and other amenable actinides or lanthanides.

  12. Application of diode lasers to the isotopically selective determination of uranium in oxides by optogalvanic spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, J. P.; Barshick, C. M.; Shaw, R. W.; Ramsey, J. M.

    We have observed isotopically selective diode laser-excited optogalvanic effects in uranium at 778.42 and 776.19 nm. The samples were natural abundance uranium oxide, as well as depleted (0.3% U-235), natural (0.7% U-235) and enriched (9.75% U-235) uranium metal or powders. The measurements were carried out in a demountable-cathode glow discharge cell. Preliminary evaluations of precision for uranium isotopic ratios measured using this technique suggest that it should have broad analytical applications for uranium and other amenable actinides or lanthanides.

  13. Process for electroslag refining of uranium and uranium alloys

    DOEpatents

    Lewis, P.S. Jr.; Agee, W.A.; Bullock, J.S. IV; Condon, J.B.

    1975-07-22

    A process is described for electroslag refining of uranium and uranium alloys wherein molten uranium and uranium alloys are melted in a molten layer of a fluoride slag containing up to about 8 weight percent calcium metal. The calcium metal reduces oxides in the uranium and uranium alloys to provide them with an oxygen content of less than 100 parts per million. (auth)

  14. URANIUM RECOVERY PROCESS

    DOEpatents

    Bailes, R.H.; Long, R.S.; Olson, R.S.; Kerlinger, H.O.

    1959-02-10

    A method is described for recovering uranium values from uranium bearing phosphate solutions such as are encountered in the manufacture of phosphate fertilizers. The solution is first treated with a reducing agent to obtain all the uranium in the tetravalent state. Following this reduction, the solution is treated to co-precipitate the rcduced uranium as a fluoride, together with other insoluble fluorides, thereby accomplishing a substantially complete recovery of even trace amounts of uranium from the phosphate solution. This precipitate usually takes the form of a complex fluoride precipitate, and after appropriate pre-treatment, the uranium fluorides are leached from this precipitate and rccovered from the leach solution.

  15. PRODUCTION OF PURIFIED URANIUM

    DOEpatents

    Burris, L. Jr.; Knighton, J.B.; Feder, H.M.

    1960-01-26

    A pyrometallurgical method for processing nuclear reactor fuel elements containing uranium and fission products and for reducing uranium compound; to metallic uranium is reported. If the material proccssed is essentially metallic uranium, it is dissolved in zinc, the sulution is cooled to crystallize UZn/sub 9/ , and the UZn/sub 9/ is distilled to obtain uranium free of fission products. If the material processed is a uranium compound, the sollvent is an alloy of zinc and magnesium and the remaining steps are the same.

  16. Neutron source, linear-accelerator fuel enricher and regenerator and associated methods

    DOEpatents

    Steinberg, Meyer; Powell, James R.; Takahashi, Hiroshi; Grand, Pierre; Kouts, Herbert

    1982-01-01

    A device for producing fissile material inside of fabricated nuclear elements so that they can be used to produce power in nuclear power reactors. Fuel elements, for example, of a LWR are placed in pressure tubes in a vessel surrounding a liquid lead-bismuth flowing columnar target. A linear-accelerator proton beam enters the side of the vessel and impinges on the dispersed liquid lead-bismuth columns and produces neutrons which radiate through the surrounding pressure tube assembly or blanket containing the nuclear fuel elements. These neutrons are absorbed by the natural fertile uranium-238 elements and are transformed to fissile plutonium-239. The fertile fuel is thus enriched in fissile material to a concentration whereby they can be used in power reactors. After use in the power reactors, dispensed depleted fuel elements can be reinserted into the pressure tubes surrounding the target and the nuclear fuel regenerated for further burning in the power reactor.

  17. Blueprint of the world`s largest uranium markets

    SciTech Connect

    Bizal, M.R.

    1996-06-01

    This article is a review of two recently released reports: (1) the EURATOM Supply Agency Annual Report for 1995, and (2) the US Energy Information Administration Uranium Industry Annual for 1995. These reports provide myraid information on uranium production, deliveries, contracts, and prices, as well as enrichment market activity during 1995 in the world`s largest nuclear fuel markets: the European Union and the United States.

  18. URANIUM DETECTION USING SMALL SCINTILLATORS IN A MARITIME ENVIRONMENT

    SciTech Connect

    Hofstetter, K; Donna Beals, D; Ken Odell, K

    2006-05-12

    The performance of several commercially available portable radiation spectrometers containing small NaI(Tl) scintillation detectors has been studied at the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL). These hand-held radioisotope identifiers are used by field personnel to detect and identify the illegal transport of uranium as a deterrent to undeclared nuclear proliferation or nuclear terrorism. The detection of uranium in a variety of chemical forms and isotopic enrichments presents some unique challenges in the maritime environment. This study was conducted using a variety of shielded and unshielded uranium sources in a simulated maritime environment. The results include estimates of the detection sensitivity for various isotopic enrichments and configurations using the manufacturer's spectral analysis firmware. More sophisticated methods for analyzing the spectra off-line are also evaluated to determine the detection limits and enrichment sensitivities from the field measurements.

  19. Reports on investigations of uranium anomalies. National Uranium Resource Evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Goodknight, C.S.; Burger, J.A.

    1982-10-01

    During the National Uranium Resource Evaluation (NURE) program, conducted for the US Department of Energy (DOE) by Bendix Field Engineering Corporation (BFEC), radiometric and geochemical surveys and geologic investigations detected anomalies indicative of possible uranium enrichment. Data from the Aerial Radiometric and Magnetic Survey (ARMS) and the Hydrogeochemical and Stream-Sediment Reconnaissance (HSSR), both of which were conducted on a national scale, yielded numerous anomalies that may signal areas favorable for the occurrence of uranium deposits. Results from geologic evaluations of individual 1/sup 0/ x 2/sup 0/ quadrangles for the NURE program also yielded anomalies, which could not be adequately checked during scheduled field work. Included in this volume are individual reports of field investigations for the following six areas which were shown on the basis of ARMS, HSSR, and (or) geologic data to be anomalous: (1) Hylas zone and northern Richmond basin, Virginia; (2) Sischu Creek area, Alaska; (3) Goodman-Dunbar area, Wisconsin; (4) McCaslin syncline, Wisconsin; (5) Mt. Withington Cauldron, Socorro County, New Mexico; (6) Lake Tecopa, Inyo County, California. Field checks were conducted in each case to verify an indicated anomalous condition and to determine the nature of materials causing the anomaly. The ultimate objective of work is to determine whether favorable conditions exist for the occurrence of uranium deposits in areas that either had not been previously evaluated or were evaluated before data from recent surveys were available. Most field checks were of short duration (2 to 5 days). The work was done by various investigators using different procedures, which accounts for variations in format in their reports. All papers have been abstracted and indexed.

  20. Unattended Environmental Sampling and Laser-based Enrichment Assay for Detection of Undeclared HEU Production in Enrichment Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Anheier, Norman C.; Bushaw, Bruce A.

    2010-04-15

    Nuclear power is enjoying rapid growth as government energy policies and public demand shift toward carbon neutral energy production. Accompanying the growth in nuclear power is the requirement for increased nuclear fuel production, including a significant expansion in uranium enrichment capacity. Essential to the success of the nuclear energy renaissance is the development and implementation of sustainable, proliferation-resistant nuclear power generation. Unauthorized production of highly enriched uranium (HEU) remains the primary proliferation concern for modern gaseous centrifuge enrichment plants (GCEPs). While to date there has been no indication of declared, safeguarded GCEPs producing HEU, the massive separative work unit (SWU) processing power of modern GCEPs presents a significant latent risk of nuclear breakout and suggests the need for more timely detection of potential facility misuse. The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is developing an unattended safeguards instrument, combining continuous aerosol particulate collection with uranium isotope assay, to provide timely HEU detection within a GCEP. This approach is based on laser vaporization of aerosol particulates, followed by laser spectroscopy to characterize the uranium enrichment level. We demonstrate enrichment assay, with relative isotope abundance uncertainty <5%, on individual micron-sized particles that are trace components within a mixture ‘background’ particles