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Sample records for enrichment selectively increases

  1. Radiosensitivity increases with differentiation status of murine hemopoietic progenitor cells selected using enriched marrow subpopulations and recombinant growth factors

    SciTech Connect

    Baird, M.C.; Hendry, J.H.; Testa, N.G. )

    1990-09-01

    The radiosensitivity of populations of colony-forming cells (CFC) in murine bone marrow was investigated using different recombinant colony-stimulating factors (CSFs; murine IL-3 and granulocyte-macrophage CSF and human granulocyte CSF), or purified murine macrophage CSF. With unfractionated normal bone marrow the CFC increased in radiosensitivity as they progressed through the granulocyte lineage. The D0 values ranged from 129 +/- 12 cGy for CFC stimulated with GM-CSF down to 42 +/- 2 cGy after stimulation with G-CSF. IL-3 stimulated a CFC population which gave the only survival curve with a shoulder (n = 1.9 +/- 0.3). With semipurified populations of primitive or bipotential CFC, D0 values were generally lower with respect to the equivalent values for unpurified bone marrow (range 62 +/- 7 cGy to 135 +/- 7 cGy). Changes in cluster/colony ratio and colony morphology together possibly with products of accessory cells influence the interpretation of the radiosensitivity parameters.

  2. Nutrient Enrichment Increases Mortality of Mangroves

    PubMed Central

    Lovelock, Catherine E.; Ball, Marilyn C.; Martin, Katherine C.; C. Feller, Ilka

    2009-01-01

    Nutrient enrichment of the coastal zone places intense pressure on marine communities. Previous studies have shown that growth of intertidal mangrove forests is accelerated with enhanced nutrient availability. However, nutrient enrichment favours growth of shoots relative to roots, thus enhancing growth rates but increasing vulnerability to environmental stresses that adversely affect plant water relations. Two such stresses are high salinity and low humidity, both of which require greater investment in roots to meet the demands for water by the shoots. Here we present data from a global network of sites that documents enhanced mortality of mangroves with experimental nutrient enrichment at sites where high sediment salinity was coincident with low rainfall and low humidity. Thus the benefits of increased mangrove growth in response to coastal eutrophication is offset by the costs of decreased resilience due to mortality during drought, with mortality increasing with soil water salinity along climatic gradients. PMID:19440554

  3. Enrichment of phosphorylated peptides and proteins by selective precipitation methods.

    PubMed

    Rainer, Matthias; Bonn, Günther K

    2015-01-01

    Protein phosphorylation is one of the most prominent post-translational modifications involved in the regulation of cellular processes. Fundamental understanding of biological processes requires appropriate bioanalytical methods for selectively enriching phosphorylated peptides and proteins. Most of the commonly applied enrichment approaches include chromatographic materials including Fe(3+)-immobilized metal-ion affinity chromatography or metal oxides. In the last years, the introduction of several non-chromatographic isolation technologies has increasingly attracted the interest of many scientists. Such approaches are based on the selective precipitation of phosphorylated peptides and proteins by applying various metal cations. The excellent performance of precipitation-based enrichment methods can be explained by the absence of any stationary phase, resin or sorbent, which usually leads to unspecific binding. This review provides an overview of recently published methods for the selective precipitation of phosphorylated peptides and proteins.

  4. Functionalized periodic mesoporous organosilicas for enhanced and selective peptide enrichment.

    PubMed

    Wan, Jingjing; Qian, Kun; Zhang, Jun; Liu, Fang; Wang, Yunhua; Yang, Pengyuan; Liu, Baohong; Yu, Chengzhong

    2010-05-18

    The analysis of peptides by the mass spectrometry (MS) technique is important in modern life science. The enrichment of peptides can increase the detection efficiency and is sometimes indispensable for collecting the information on proteins with low-abundance. Herein, we first report that functionalized periodic mesoporous organosilica (PMO) materials have a superior peptide enrichment property. It is demonstrated that the PMO materials with an organo-bridged (-CH(2)-) hybrid wall composition display a highly enhanced peptide enrichment ability compared to the pure silica material (SBA-15) with similar mesostructured parameters and morphology. More importantly, by surface modification of PMO with amino groups (denoted NH(2)-PMO), PMO and NH(2)-PMO with opposite charged surfaces (-25.2 and +39.0 mV, respectively) show selective affinities for positively and negatively charged peptides, respectively. By directly adding PMO, NH(2)-PMO as well as pure silica materials to the peptides solution with a low concentration (1-2 fmol/microL), 36 and 28 peptides can be detected from the BSA digestion in the presence of PMO and NH(2)-PMO, respectively, while only 6 and 4 are monitored in the case of SBA-15 enrichment and from solution without enrichment, respectively. Moreover, 69.4% (25 of 36) of enriched peptides by PMO have pI > or = 6 and 80% (21 of 28) of enriched peptides by NH(2)-PMO possess pI < or = 6. Combining the results from the NH(2)-PMO and PMO enrichment together, 51 peptides can be identified with a MOWSE score of 333. It is also noted that similar conclusions can also be obtained from the peptides solution originated from other proteins. This might be an important contribution to the understanding of the interaction between peptides and porous hosts, and the proposed method is promising for the development of both material science and biotechnology.

  5. Selective enrichment and desalting of hydrophilic peptides using graphene oxide.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Miao; Qi, Linyu; Liu, Peiru; Wang, Zijun; Duan, Zhigui; Wang, Ying; Liu, Zhonghua; Chen, Ping

    2016-08-01

    The wide variety and low abundance of peptides in tissue brought great difficulties to the separation and identification of peptides, which is not in favor of the development of peptidomics. RP-HPLC, which could purify small molecules based on their hydrophobicity, has been widely used in the separation and enrichment of peptide due to its fast, good reproducibility and high resolution. However, RP-HPLC requires the instrument and expensive C18 column and its sample capacity is also limited. Recently, graphene oxide has been applied to the adsorption of amino acids. However, the enrichment efficiency and selectivity of graphene oxide for peptides remain unclear. In this study, the adsorption efficiency and selectivity of graphene oxide and RP-C18 matrix were compared on trypsinized α-actin and also on tissue extracts from pituitary gland and hippocampus. For α-actin, there exhibit similar elution peaks for total trypsinized products and those adsorpted by GO and C18 matrix. But peptides adsorbed by GO showed the higher hydrophilic peaks than which adsorbed by C18 matrix. The resulted RP-HPLC profile showed that most of peptides enriched by graphene oxide were eluted at low concentration of organic solvent, while peptides adsorbed by RP-C18 matrix were mostly eluted at relatively high concentration. Moreover, mass spectrometry analysis suggested that, in pituitary sample, there were 495 peptides enriched by graphene oxide, 447 peptides enriched by RP-C18 matrix while in hippocampus sample 333 and 243 peptides respectively. The GRAVY value analysis suggested that the graphene oxide has a stronger adsorption for highly hydrophilic peptides compared to the RP-C18 matrix. Furthermore, the combination of these two methods could notably increase the number of identification peptides but also the number of predicted protein precursors. Our study provided a new thought to the role of graphene oxide during the enrichment of peptides from tissue which should be useful for

  6. Perovskite for the highly selective enrichment of phosphopeptides.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiao-Shui; Chen, Xi; Sun, Huan; Yuan, Bi-Feng; Feng, Yu-Qi

    2015-01-09

    Selective and effective enrichment of phosphopeptides from complex samples is essential in phosphoproteome study by mass spectrometry (MS). In this work, we compared perovskites (MgTiO3, CaTiO3, SrTiO3, BaTiO3 and CaZrO3) with metal oxides (ZrO2 and TiO2) in their capability for the selective enrichment of phosphopeptides. It was found here that perovskites exhibited higher selectivity towards phosphopeptides than commonly used ZrO2 and TiO2, even though they all have high affinity to phosphopeptides. As for perovskites, CaTiO3 exhibited better selectivity for enrichment of phosphopeptides than SrTiO3, MgTiO3, BaTiO3 and CaZrO3, which might be ascribed to their crystal structures and electrophilic abilities. Moreover, to further confirm the performance of CaTiO3, CaTiO3 and TiO2 were applied to the enrichment of phosphopeptides from tryptic digest of proteins of human Jurkat-T cell lysate, respectively. The results showed CaTiO3 has much higher selectivity than TiO2 in the enrichment of phosphopeptides from the complex biological sample. Taken together, here we show that CaTiO3 is an excellent material for the highly selective enrichment of phosphopeptides and it could be potentially used in the large-scale phosphoproteome study.

  7. Selective enrichment of damaged DNA molecules for ancient genome sequencing

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Contamination by present-day human and microbial DNA is one of the major hindrances for large-scale genomic studies using ancient biological material. We describe a new molecular method, U selection, which exploits one of the most distinctive features of ancient DNA—the presence of deoxyuracils—for selective enrichment of endogenous DNA against a complex background of contamination during DNA library preparation. By applying the method to Neanderthal DNA extracts that are heavily contaminated with present-day human DNA, we show that the fraction of useful sequence information increases ∼10-fold and that the resulting sequences are more efficiently depleted of human contamination than when using purely computational approaches. Furthermore, we show that U selection can lead to a four- to fivefold increase in the proportion of endogenous DNA sequences relative to those of microbial contaminants in some samples. U selection may thus help to lower the costs for ancient genome sequencing of nonhuman samples also. PMID:25081630

  8. Loss of environmental enrichment increases vulnerability to cocaine addiction.

    PubMed

    Nader, Joëlle; Chauvet, Claudia; Claudia, Chauvet; Rawas, Rana El; Favot, Laure; Jaber, Mohamed; Thiriet, Nathalie; Solinas, Marcello

    2012-06-01

    Life experiences, especially during critical periods of maturation, such as adolescence, can dramatically affect vulnerability to diseases at adulthood. Early exposure to positive environmental conditions such as environmental enrichment (EE) has been shown to reduce the occurrence and the intensity of neurological and psychiatric disorders including drug addiction. However, whether or not exposure to EE during early stages of life would protect from addiction when, at adulthood, individuals may find themselves in non-enriched conditions has not been investigated. Here we show that switching mice from EE to non-enriched standard environments not only results in the loss of the preventive effects of EE but also increases the rewarding effects of cocaine. This enhanced vulnerability is associated with emotional distress and with increased levels in the mRNA levels of corticotropin releasing factor (CRF) in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST), as well as with increases in CREB phosphorylation in the BNST and in the shell of the nucleus accumbens. The increased sensitivity to the rewarding effects of cocaine is completely blocked by the CRF antagonist antalarmin, confirming a major role of the CRF system in the negative consequences of this environmental switch. These results indicate that positive life conditions during early stages of life, if they are not maintained at adulthood, may have negative emotional consequences and increase the risks to develop drug addiction.

  9. Loss of Environmental Enrichment Increases Vulnerability to Cocaine Addiction

    PubMed Central

    Nader, Joëlle; Claudia, Chauvet; Rawas, Rana El; Favot, Laure; Jaber, Mohamed; Thiriet, Nathalie; Solinas, Marcello

    2012-01-01

    Life experiences, especially during critical periods of maturation, such as adolescence, can dramatically affect vulnerability to diseases at adulthood. Early exposure to positive environmental conditions such as environmental enrichment (EE) has been shown to reduce the occurrence and the intensity of neurological and psychiatric disorders including drug addiction. However, whether or not exposure to EE during early stages of life would protect from addiction when, at adulthood, individuals may find themselves in non-enriched conditions has not been investigated. Here we show that switching mice from EE to non-enriched standard environments not only results in the loss of the preventive effects of EE but also increases the rewarding effects of cocaine. This enhanced vulnerability is associated with emotional distress and with increased levels in the mRNA levels of corticotropin releasing factor (CRF) in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST), as well as with increases in CREB phosphorylation in the BNST and in the shell of the nucleus accumbens. The increased sensitivity to the rewarding effects of cocaine is completely blocked by the CRF antagonist antalarmin, confirming a major role of the CRF system in the negative consequences of this environmental switch. These results indicate that positive life conditions during early stages of life, if they are not maintained at adulthood, may have negative emotional consequences and increase the risks to develop drug addiction. PMID:22334125

  10. Environmental enrichment improves response strength, threshold, selectivity, and latency of auditory cortex neurons.

    PubMed

    Engineer, Navzer D; Percaccio, Cherie R; Pandya, Pritesh K; Moucha, Raluca; Rathbun, Daniel L; Kilgard, Michael P

    2004-07-01

    Over the last 50 yr, environmental enrichment has been shown to generate more than a dozen changes in brain anatomy. The consequences of these physical changes on information processing have not been well studied. In this study, rats were housed in enriched or standard conditions either prior to or after reaching sexual maturity. Evoked potentials from awake rats and extracellular recordings from anesthetized rats were used to document responses of auditory cortex neurons. This report details several significant, new findings about the influence of housing conditions on the responses of rat auditory cortex neurons. First, enrichment dramatically increases the strength of auditory cortex responses. Tone-evoked potentials of enriched rats, for example, were more than twice the amplitude of rats raised in standard laboratory conditions. Second, cortical responses of both young and adult animals benefit from exposure to an enriched environment and are degraded by exposure to an impoverished environment. Third, housing condition resulted in rapid remodeling of cortical responses in <2 wk. Fourth, recordings made under anesthesia indicate that enrichment increases the number of neurons activated by any sound. This finding shows that the evoked potential plasticity documented in awake rats was not due to differences in behavioral state. Finally, enrichment made primary auditory cortex (A1) neurons more sensitive to quiet sounds, more selective for tone frequency, and altered their response latencies. These experiments provide the first evidence of physiologic changes in auditory cortex processing resulting from generalized environmental enrichment.

  11. Contribution of Selective Conditions to Microbial Competition in Four Listeria Selective Enrichment Formulations.

    PubMed

    Keys, Ashley L; Hitchins, Anthony D; Smiley, R Derike

    2016-11-01

    Microbial competition during selective enrichment negatively affects Listeria monocytogenes populations and may hinder the subsequent detection or recovery of this organism. Competition assays among 10 selected strains of Listeria and Citrobacter braakii were performed in buffered Listeria enrichment broth, 3-(N-morpholino)propanesulfonic acid-buffered Listeria enrichment broth, University of Vermont medium-modified Listeria enrichment broth, and Fraser broth. The individual contributions of each selective agent in these media were also assessed, as well as the contribution of incubation temperature. Acriflavine hydrochloride and sodium nalidixate were ineffective at preventing the overgrowth of C. braakii ; this resulted in substantially lower populations of Listeria than when the competitor was absent. At the higher levels, both of these selective agents were detrimental to Listeria populations. The highest enrichment populations of Listeria were observed when either NaCl or LiCl was present. In the absence of selective agents, the final populations of Listeria following competitive growth with C. braakii were not substantially affected by temperature; however, in the presence of selective agents, the Listeria populations were statistically higher at the higher incubation temperature. There are a limited number of selective agents available for use in Listeria -specific enrichment media, resulting in formulations that are only somewhat selective for this species. The optimization of current formulations may help researchers to improve Listeria recovery, particularly from products with a high microbial load. The understanding of the behavior and interactions between target and nontarget microorganisms in the presence of these available selective agents is a necessary step in the optimization of Listeria selective enrichment formulations.

  12. Odour enrichment increases adult-born dopaminergic neurons in the mouse olfactory bulb.

    PubMed

    Bonzano, Sara; Bovetti, Serena; Fasolo, Aldo; Peretto, Paolo; De Marchis, Silvia

    2014-11-01

    The olfactory bulb (OB) is the first brain region involved in the processing of olfactory information. In adult mice, the OB is highly plastic, undergoing cellular/molecular dynamic changes that are modulated by sensory experience. Odour deprivation induces down-regulation of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) expression in OB dopaminergic interneurons located in the glomerular layer (GL), resulting in decreased dopamine in the OB. Although the effect of sensory deprivation is well established, little is known about the influence of odour enrichment on dopaminergic cells. Here we report that prolonged odour enrichment on C57BL/6J strain mice selectively increases TH-immunopositive cells in the GL by nearly 20%. Following odour enrichment on TH-green fluorescent protein (GFP) transgenic mice, in which GFP identified both mature TH-positive cells and putative immature dopaminergic cells expressing TH mRNA but not TH protein, we found a similar 20% increase in GFP-expressing cells, with no changes in the ratio between TH-positive and TH-negative cells. These data suggest that enriched conditions induce an expansion in the whole dopaminergic lineage. Accordingly, by using 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine injections to label adult-generated cells in the GL of TH-GFP mice, we found an increase in the percentage of 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine-positive dopaminergic cells in enriched compared with control conditions, whereas no differences were found for calretinin- and calbindin-positive subtypes. Strikingly, the fraction of newborn cells among the dopaminergic population doubled in enriched conditions. On the whole, our results demonstrate that odour enrichment drives increased integration of adult-generated dopaminergic cells that could be critical to adapt the OB circuits to the environmental incoming information.

  13. Increased predation of nutrient-enriched aposematic prey

    PubMed Central

    Halpin, Christina G.; Skelhorn, John; Rowe, Candy

    2014-01-01

    Avian predators readily learn to associate the warning coloration of aposematic prey with the toxic effects of ingesting them, but they do not necessarily exclude aposematic prey from their diets. By eating aposematic prey ‘educated’ predators are thought to be trading-off the benefits of gaining nutrients with the costs of eating toxins. However, while we know that the toxin content of aposematic prey affects the foraging decisions made by avian predators, the extent to which the nutritional content of toxic prey affects predators' decisions to eat them remains to be tested. Here, we show that European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris) increase their intake of a toxic prey type when the nutritional content is artificially increased, and decrease their intake when nutritional enrichment is ceased. This clearly demonstrates that birds can detect the nutritional content of toxic prey by post-ingestive feedback, and use this information in their foraging decisions, raising new perspectives on the evolution of prey defences. Nutritional differences between individuals could result in equally toxic prey being unequally predated, and might explain why some species undergo ontogenetic shifts in defence strategies. Furthermore, the nutritional value of prey will likely have a significant impact on the evolutionary dynamics of mimicry systems. PMID:24598424

  14. Increased predation of nutrient-enriched aposematic prey.

    PubMed

    Halpin, Christina G; Skelhorn, John; Rowe, Candy

    2014-04-22

    Avian predators readily learn to associate the warning coloration of aposematic prey with the toxic effects of ingesting them, but they do not necessarily exclude aposematic prey from their diets. By eating aposematic prey 'educated' predators are thought to be trading-off the benefits of gaining nutrients with the costs of eating toxins. However, while we know that the toxin content of aposematic prey affects the foraging decisions made by avian predators, the extent to which the nutritional content of toxic prey affects predators' decisions to eat them remains to be tested. Here, we show that European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris) increase their intake of a toxic prey type when the nutritional content is artificially increased, and decrease their intake when nutritional enrichment is ceased. This clearly demonstrates that birds can detect the nutritional content of toxic prey by post-ingestive feedback, and use this information in their foraging decisions, raising new perspectives on the evolution of prey defences. Nutritional differences between individuals could result in equally toxic prey being unequally predated, and might explain why some species undergo ontogenetic shifts in defence strategies. Furthermore, the nutritional value of prey will likely have a significant impact on the evolutionary dynamics of mimicry systems.

  15. Increasing the performance of tritium analysis by electrolytic enrichment.

    PubMed

    Groning, M; Auer, R; Brummer, D; Jaklitsch, M; Sambandam, C; Tanweer, A; Tatzber, H

    2009-06-01

    Several improvements are described for the existing tritium enrichment system at the Isotope Hydrology Laboratory of the International Atomic Energy Agency for processing natural water samples. The improvements include a simple method for pretreatment of electrolytic cells to ensure a high tritium separation factor, an improved design of the exhaust system for explosive gases, and a vacuum distillation line for faster initial preparation of water samples for electrolytic enrichment and for tritium analysis. Achievements included the reduction of variation of individual enrichment parameters of all cells to less than 1% and an improvement of 50% of the stability of the background mean. It resulted in an improved detection limit of less than 0.4 TU (at 2s), important for application of tritium measurements in the future at low concentration levels, and resulted in measurement precisions of+/-0.2 TU and+/-0.15 TU for liquid scintillation counting and for gas proportional counting, respectively.

  16. Selective enrichment and sensitive detection of candidate disease biomarker using a novel surfactant-coated magnetic nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capangpangan, R. Y.; dela Rosa, M. A. C.; Chang, C. H.; Wang, W. C.; Peng, J.; Shih, S. J.; Chiang, M. H.; Tzou, D. L.; Lin, C. C.; Chen, Y. J.

    2014-08-01

    In this study, novel surfactant-coated magnetic nanoparticles were synthesized and evaluated for enrichment performance towards the sensitive detection of disease biomarkers. Surfactants with phosphate ester groups (RD35A and RD66) were used as a coating to reduce aggregation and to enhance the nanoparticle dispersion. Importantly, sensitive enrichment of the target proteins using the antibody-functionalized magnetic nanoparticles (Ab@MNP) was obtained, with a five-fold increase in recovery compared to uncoated magnetic nanoparticles. Similarly, phosphopeptide enrichment using the NTA@MNP in standard samples showed that the nanoparticles could selectively enrich phosphorylated peptides.

  17. Environmental enrichment effects on the neurobehavioral profile of selective outbred trait anxiety rats.

    PubMed

    Ravenelle, Rebecca; Byrnes, Elizabeth M; Byrnes, John J; McInnis, Christine; Park, Jin Ho; Donaldson, S Tiffany

    2013-09-01

    Environmental enrichment attenuates the response to psychostimulants and has been shown to reduce both anxiety and stress-related behaviors. Since stress is a major vulnerability factor for addiction, we investigated whether enrichment could reverse stress profiles in high anxious rats as well as reduce their amphetamine sensitivity. Using selectively-bred high and low anxiety males (filial 3) from enriched, social or isolated environments, we tested elevated plus maze exploration, novelty place preference and amphetamine (AMPH; 0.5mg/kg, IP)-induced hyperactivity. We measured plasma corticosterone (CORT) response after forced novel object exposure, phosphorylation of the tropomyosin-related kinase B receptor (pTrkB) in the hippocampus and striatum, and dopamine (D2) receptor mRNA levels in the striatum and nucleus accumbens. Results indicate that high anxiety animals reared in social or enriched environments spent more time on open arms of the EPM while low anxiety animals raised in enriched environments spent more time on open arms when compared to either isolated or social groups. There were no group differences or interactions found for novelty place preference. Enriched environments decreased the response to AMPH and stress-induced CORT regardless of trait but selectively decreased pTrkB and increased D2 mRNA levels in high anxiety animals. The results suggest that selectively-bred trait anxiety rats show state anxiety that is influenced by rearing environments, and D2 protein levels and BDNF/TrkB signaling may differentially contribute to integrating these effects.

  18. Environmental Enrichment Therapy for Autism: Outcomes with Increased Access

    PubMed Central

    Aronoff, Eyal

    2016-01-01

    We have previously shown in two randomized clinical trials that environmental enrichment is capable of ameliorating symptoms of autism spectrum disorder (ASD), and in the present study, we determined whether this therapy could be effective under real-world circumstances. 1,002 children were given daily Sensory Enrichment Therapy, by their parents, using personalized therapy instructions given over the Internet. Parents were asked to assess the symptoms of their child every 2 weeks for up to 7 months. An intention-to-treat analysis showed significant overall gains for a wide range of symptoms in these children, including learning, memory, anxiety, attention span, motor skills, eating, sleeping, sensory processing, self-awareness, communication, social skills, and mood/autism behaviors. The children of compliant caregivers were more likely to experience a significant improvement in their symptoms. The treatment was effective across a wide age range and there was equal progress reported for males and females, for USA and international subjects, for those who paid and those who did not pay for the therapy, and for individuals at all levels of initial symptom severity. Environmental enrichment, delivered via an online system, therefore appears to be an effective, low-cost means of treating the symptoms of ASD. PMID:27721995

  19. Environmental Enrichment Therapy for Autism: Outcomes with Increased Access.

    PubMed

    Aronoff, Eyal; Hillyer, Robert; Leon, Michael

    2016-01-01

    We have previously shown in two randomized clinical trials that environmental enrichment is capable of ameliorating symptoms of autism spectrum disorder (ASD), and in the present study, we determined whether this therapy could be effective under real-world circumstances. 1,002 children were given daily Sensory Enrichment Therapy, by their parents, using personalized therapy instructions given over the Internet. Parents were asked to assess the symptoms of their child every 2 weeks for up to 7 months. An intention-to-treat analysis showed significant overall gains for a wide range of symptoms in these children, including learning, memory, anxiety, attention span, motor skills, eating, sleeping, sensory processing, self-awareness, communication, social skills, and mood/autism behaviors. The children of compliant caregivers were more likely to experience a significant improvement in their symptoms. The treatment was effective across a wide age range and there was equal progress reported for males and females, for USA and international subjects, for those who paid and those who did not pay for the therapy, and for individuals at all levels of initial symptom severity. Environmental enrichment, delivered via an online system, therefore appears to be an effective, low-cost means of treating the symptoms of ASD.

  20. Selective Recovery of Enriched Uranium from Inorganic Wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Kimura, R. T.

    2003-02-26

    Uranium as U(IV) and U(VI) can be selectively recovered from liquids and sludge containing metal precipitates, inorganic salts, sand and silt fines, debris, other contaminants, and slimes, which are very difficult to de-water. Chemical processes such as fuel manufacturing and uranium mining generate enriched and natural uranium-bearing wastes. This patented Framatome ANP (FANP) uranium recovery process reduces uranium losses, significantly offsets waste disposal costs, produces a solid waste that meets mixed-waste disposal requirements, and does not generate metal-contaminated liquids. At the head end of the process is a floating dredge that retrieves liquids, sludge, and slimes in the form of a slurry directly from the floor of a lined surface impoundment (lagoon). The slurry is transferred to and mixed in a feed tank with a turbine mixer and re-circulated to further break down the particles and enhance dissolution of uranium. This process uses direct steam injection and sodium hypochlorite addition to oxidize and dissolves any U(IV). Cellulose is added as a non-reactive filter aid to help filter slimes by giving body to the slurry. The slurry is pumped into a large recessed-chamber filter press then de-watered by a pressure cycle-controlled double-diaphragm pump. U(VI) captured in the filtrate from this process is then precipitated by conversion to U(IV) in another Framatome ANP-patented process which uses a strong reducing agent to crystallize and settle the U(IV) product. The product is then dewatered in a small filter press. To-date, over 3,000 Kgs of U at 3% U-235 enrichment were recovered from a 8100 m2 hypalon-lined surface impoundment which contained about 10,220 m3 of liquids and about 757 m3 of sludge. A total of 2,175 drums (0.208 m3 or 55 gallon each) of solid mixed-wastes have been packaged, shipped, and disposed. In addition, 9463 m3 of low-U liquids at <0.001 KgU/m3 were also further processed and disposed.

  1. Increased functional protein expression using nucleotide sequence features enriched in highly expressed genes in zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Horstick, Eric J; Jordan, Diana C; Bergeron, Sadie A; Tabor, Kathryn M; Serpe, Mihaela; Feldman, Benjamin; Burgess, Harold A

    2015-04-20

    Many genetic manipulations are limited by difficulty in obtaining adequate levels of protein expression. Bioinformatic and experimental studies have identified nucleotide sequence features that may increase expression, however it is difficult to assess the relative influence of these features. Zebrafish embryos are rapidly injected with calibrated doses of mRNA, enabling the effects of multiple sequence changes to be compared in vivo. Using RNAseq and microarray data, we identified a set of genes that are highly expressed in zebrafish embryos and systematically analyzed for enrichment of sequence features correlated with levels of protein expression. We then tested enriched features by embryo microinjection and functional tests of multiple protein reporters. Codon selection, releasing factor recognition sequence and specific introns and 3' untranslated regions each increased protein expression between 1.5- and 3-fold. These results suggested principles for increasing protein yield in zebrafish through biomolecular engineering. We implemented these principles for rational gene design in software for codon selection (CodonZ) and plasmid vectors incorporating the most active non-coding elements. Rational gene design thus significantly boosts expression in zebrafish, and a similar approach will likely elevate expression in other animal models.

  2. The effects of competition from non-pathogenic foodborne bacteria during the selective enrichment of Listeria monocytogenes using buffered Listeria enrichment broth.

    PubMed

    Dailey, Rachel C; Martin, Keely G; Smiley, R Derike

    2014-12-01

    The growth of Listeria monocytogenes during the pathogen specific enrichment of food samples can be limited by the presence of additional microorganisms that are resistant to the selective conditions being applied. If growth is severely limited and minimum post-enrichment threshold levels are not met then the presence of L. monocytogenes may go undetected. Several food products were screened for non-pathogenic commensal or spoilage microorganisms that are capable of growth under the conditions commonly used by regulatory testing laboratories to select for Listeria species. The effect of these potential competitor microorganisms on the ability to detect L. monocytogenes by several common molecular screening assays was then determined. Eight species of bacteria were isolated from foods that demonstrated the ability to grow in buffered Listeria enrichment broth under selective conditions. Growth of these competitor microorganisms during the enrichment incubation resulted in a decrease ranging from 1 to 4 logs in the 48 h population of L. monocytogenes. Three strains of L. monocytogenes representing serotypes 1/2a, 1/2b, and 4b were included in this study but no one serotype appeared to be most or least sensitive to the presence of competitor microorganisms. One additional strain of L. monocytogenes was identified as displaying minimal growth during the enrichment period in the presence of the Citrobacter braakii with the final population only reaching approximately 2.6 log CFU/ml after 48 h which was a 2 log increase over the initial population. This particular strain was subsequently shown to be difficult to detect following enrichment by an automated immunofluorescence assay and an antibody-based lateral flow device assay. In some enrichments, this strain was also difficult to detect by real-time PCR. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Enhanced Control of PWR Primary Coolant Water Chemistry Using Selective Separation Systems for Recovery and Recycle of Enriched Boric Acid

    SciTech Connect

    Ken Czerwinski; Charels Yeamans; Don Olander; Kenneth Raymond; Norman Schroeder; Thomas Robison; Bryan Carlson; Barbara Smit; Pat Robinson

    2006-02-28

    The objective of this project is to develop systems that will allow for increased nuclear energy production through the use of enriched fuels. The developed systems will allow for the efficient and selective recover of selected isotopes that are additives to power water reactors' primary coolant chemistry for suppression of corrosion attack on reactor materials.

  4. Deuterium enrichment by selective photoinduced dissociation of a multihalogenated organic compound

    DOEpatents

    Marling, John B.; Herman, Irving P.

    1981-01-01

    A method for deuterium enrichment by photoinduced dissociation which uses as the deuterium source a multihalogenated organic compound selected from the group consisting of a dihalomethane, a trihalomethane, a 1,2-dihaloethene, a trihaloethene, a tetrahaloethane and a pentahaloethane. The multihalogenated organic compound is subjected to intense infrared radiation at a preselected wavelength to selectively excite and thereby induce dissociation of substantially only those molecules containing deuterium to provide a deuterium enriched dissociation product. The deuterium enriched product may be combusted with oxygen to provide deuterium enriched water. The deuterium depleted undissociated molecules may be redeuterated by treatment with a deuterium source such as water.

  5. A high boronate avidity monolithic capillary for the selective enrichment of trace glycoproteins.

    PubMed

    Li, Daojin; Li, Yang; Li, Xinglin; Bie, Zijun; Pan, Xianghua; Zhang, Qian; Liu, Zhen

    2015-03-06

    Boronate affinity materials, as effective sample enrichment sorbents for glycoproteomic analysis, have attracted increasing attention in recent years. However, most of boronate affinity materials suffer from an apparent limitation, limited binding strength. As a result, extraction of glycoproteins of trace concentration is rather difficult or impossible. In this study, we present a high boronate avidity monolithic capillary. Branched polyethyleneimine (PEI) was used as a scaffold to amplify the number of boronic acid moieties. While 2,4-difluoro-3-formyl-phenylboronic acid (DFFPBA), which exhibited ultrahigh affinity toward cis-diol-containing compounds, was employed as an affinity ligand. Due to the PEI-assisted synergistic multivalent binding, the monolithic column exhibited high boronate avidity toward glycoproteins, with binding constants of 10(-6)-10(-7)M. Such binding strength was the highest among already reported boronic acid-functionalized materials that can be used for glycoproteomic analysis. Besides, the boronate avidity monolithic column exhibited one additional beneficial feature, lowered binding pH (≥6.5). These features greatly favored the selective enrichment of trace glycoproteins from real samples. The feasibility for practical applications was demonstrated with the selective enrichment of trace glycoproteins in human saliva. As compared with other boronate avidity/affinity materials, the boronate avidity monolithic capillary exhibited the best performance.

  6. Proteomic profiling of maize opaque endosperm mutants reveals selective accumulation of lysine-enriched proteins.

    PubMed

    Morton, Kyla J; Jia, Shangang; Zhang, Chi; Holding, David R

    2016-03-01

    Reduced prolamin (zein) accumulation and defective endoplasmic reticulum (ER) body formation occurs in maize opaque endosperm mutants opaque2 (o2), floury2 (fl2), defective endosperm*B30 (DeB30), and Mucronate (Mc), whereas other opaque mutants such as opaque1 (o1) and floury1 (fl1) are normal in these regards. This suggests that other factors contribute to kernel texture. A liquid chromatography approach coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) proteomics was used to compare non-zein proteins of nearly isogenic opaque endosperm mutants. In total, 2762 proteins were identified that were enriched for biological processes such as protein transport and folding, amino acid biosynthesis, and proteolysis. Principal component analysis and pathway enrichment suggested that the mutants partitioned into three groups: (i) Mc, DeB30, fl2 and o2; (ii) o1; and (iii) fl1. Indicator species analysis revealed mutant-specific proteins, and highlighted ER secretory pathway components that were enriched in selected groups of mutants. The most significantly changed proteins were related to stress or defense and zein partitioning into the soluble fraction for Mc, DeB30, o1, and fl1 specifically. In silico dissection of the most significantly changed proteins revealed novel qualitative changes in lysine abundance contributing to the overall lysine increase and the nutritional rebalancing of the o2 and fl2 endosperm. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  7. Proteomic profiling of maize opaque endosperm mutants reveals selective accumulation of lysine-enriched proteins

    PubMed Central

    Morton, Kyla J.; Jia, Shangang; Zhang, Chi; Holding, David R.

    2016-01-01

    Reduced prolamin (zein) accumulation and defective endoplasmic reticulum (ER) body formation occurs in maize opaque endosperm mutants opaque2 (o2), floury2 (fl2), defective endosperm*B30 (DeB30), and Mucronate (Mc), whereas other opaque mutants such as opaque1 (o1) and floury1 (fl1) are normal in these regards. This suggests that other factors contribute to kernel texture. A liquid chromatography approach coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) proteomics was used to compare non-zein proteins of nearly isogenic opaque endosperm mutants. In total, 2762 proteins were identified that were enriched for biological processes such as protein transport and folding, amino acid biosynthesis, and proteolysis. Principal component analysis and pathway enrichment suggested that the mutants partitioned into three groups: (i) Mc, DeB30, fl2 and o2; (ii) o1; and (iii) fl1. Indicator species analysis revealed mutant-specific proteins, and highlighted ER secretory pathway components that were enriched in selected groups of mutants. The most significantly changed proteins were related to stress or defense and zein partitioning into the soluble fraction for Mc, DeB30, o1, and fl1 specifically. In silico dissection of the most significantly changed proteins revealed novel qualitative changes in lysine abundance contributing to the overall lysine increase and the nutritional rebalancing of the o2 and fl2 endosperm. PMID:26712829

  8. Selective enrichment of commensal gut bacteria protects against Citrobacter rodentium-induced colitis.

    PubMed

    Vong, Linda; Pinnell, Lee J; Määttänen, Pekka; Yeung, C William; Lurz, Eberhard; Sherman, Philip M

    2015-08-01

    The intestinal microbiota plays a key role in shaping the host immune system. Perturbation of gut microbial composition, termed dysbiosis, is associated with an increased susceptibility to intestinal pathogens and is a hallmark of a number of inflammatory, metabolic, and infectious diseases. The prospect of mining the commensal gut microbiota for bacterial strains that can impact immune function represents an attractive strategy to counteract dysbiosis and resulting disease. In this study, we show that selective enrichment of commensal gut lactobacilli protects against the murine pathogen Citrobacter rodentium, a well-characterized model of enteropathogenic and enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli infection. The lactobacilli-enriched bacterial culture prevented the expansion of Gammaproteobacteria and Actinobacteria and was associated with improved indexes of epithelial barrier function (dextran flux), transmissible crypt hyperplasia, and tissue inflammatory cytokine levels. Moreover, cultivation of gut bacteria from Citrobacter rodentium-infected mice reveals the differential capacity of bacterial subsets to mobilize neutrophil oxidative burst and initiate the formation of weblike neutrophil extracellular traps. Our findings highlight the beneficial effects of a lactobacilli-enriched commensal gut microenvironment and, in the context of an intestinal barrier breach, the ability of neutrophils to immobilize both commensal and pathogenic bacteria.

  9. Enrichment of circulating melanoma cells (CMCs) using negative selection from patients with metastatic melanoma

    PubMed Central

    Joshi, Powrnima; Jacobs, Barbara; Derakhshan, Adeeb; Moore, Lee R.; Elson, Paul; Triozzi, Pierre L.; Borden, Ernest; Zborowski, Maciej

    2014-01-01

    Circulating tumor cells have emerged as prognostic biomarkers in the treatment of metastatic cancers of epithelial origins viz., breast, colorectal and prostate. These tumors express Epithelial Cell Adhesion Molecule (EpCAM) on their cell surface which is used as an antigen for immunoaffinity capture. However, EpCAM capture technologies are of limited utility for non-epithelial cancers such as melanoma. We report a method to enrich Circulating Melanoma Cells (CMCs) that does not presuppose malignant cell characteristics. CMCs were enriched by centrifugation of blood samples from healthy (N = 10) and patient (N = 11) donors, followed by RBC lysis and immunomagnetic depletion of CD45-positive leukocytes in a specialized magnetic separator. CMCs were identified by immunocytochemistry using Melan-A or S100B as melanoma markers and enumerated using automated microscopy image analyses. Separation was optimized for maximum sensitivity and recovery of CMCs. Our results indicate large number of CMCs in Stage IV melanoma patients. Analysis of survival suggested a trend toward decreased survival with increased number of CMCs. Moreover, melanoma-associated miRs were found to be higher in CMC-enriched fractions in two patients when compared with the unseparated samples, validating this method as applicable for molecular analyses. Negative selection is a promising approach for isolation of CMCs and other EpCAM -negative CTCs, and is amenable to molecular analysis of CMCs. Further studies are required to validate its efficacy at capturing specific circulating cells for genomic analysis, and xenograft studies. PMID:24811334

  10. Enrichment of circulating melanoma cells (CMCs) using negative selection from patients with metastatic melanoma.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Powrnima; Jacobs, Barbara; Derakhshan, Adeeb; Moore, Lee R; Elson, Paul; Triozzi, Pierre L; Borden, Ernest; Zborowski, Maciej

    2014-05-15

    Circulating tumor cells have emerged as prognostic biomarkers in the treatment of metastatic cancers of epithelial origins viz., breast, colorectal and prostate. These tumors express Epithelial Cell Adhesion Molecule (EpCAM) on their cell surface which is used as an antigen for immunoaffinity capture. However, EpCAM capture technologies are of limited utility for non-epithelial cancers such as melanoma. We report a method to enrich Circulating Melanoma Cells (CMCs) that does not presuppose malignant cell characteristics. CMCs were enriched by centrifugation of blood samples from healthy (N = 10) and patient (N = 11) donors, followed by RBC lysis and immunomagnetic depletion of CD45-positive leukocytes in a specialized magnetic separator. CMCs were identified by immunocytochemistry using Melan-A or S100B as melanoma markers and enumerated using automated microscopy image analyses. Separation was optimized for maximum sensitivity and recovery of CMCs. Our results indicate large number of CMCs in Stage IV melanoma patients. Analysis of survival suggested a trend toward decreased survival with increased number of CMCs. Moreover, melanoma-associated miRs were found to be higher in CMC-enriched fractions in two patients when compared with the unseparated samples, validating this method as applicable for molecular analyses. Negative selection is a promising approach for isolation of CMCs and other EpCAM -negative CTCs, and is amenable to molecular analysis of CMCs. Further studies are required to validate its efficacy at capturing specific circulating cells for genomic analysis, and xenograft studies.

  11. Selective enrichment of STRs for applications in forensic human identification.

    PubMed

    Gadipally, Sreeja R; Sarkar, Anujit; Nandineni, Madhusudan R

    2015-08-01

    Forensic human identification (HID) is currently based on determining repeat length polymorphisms located in short tandem repeat regions in the human genome. Despite the great progress made in the area of multiplex PCR-based approaches, limitations associated with challenging forensic samples such as DNA degradation, cooccurrence of inhabited microbial DNA and PCR inhibitors significantly affect the success rate of human DNA profiling. We have developed a sequence-specific pre-PCR STR enrichment method and evaluated its efficacy using DNA samples doped with various contaminants in view of its application on compromised forensic samples. This strategy has enabled us to generate complete and reproducible DNA profiles from samples doped with fivefold excess of nonhuman DNA and three to fourfold excess of various potent PCR inhibitors than that is claimed to be tolerated by some of the widely used commercial multiplex STR kits, from as little as two nanograms of degraded human DNA. The "hybrid capture"-based STR enrichment strategy described in this study is easily adaptable and offers a sensitive, efficient, and economical approach for successful human DNA profiling from compromised and recalcitrant forensic samples that are usually encountered in mass disaster incidents and missing persons' identifications.

  12. Environmental enrichment increases paired-pulse depression in rat auditory cortex.

    PubMed

    Percaccio, Cherie R; Engineer, Navzer D; Pruette, Autumn L; Pandya, Pritesh K; Moucha, Raluca; Rathbun, Daniel L; Kilgard, Michael P

    2005-11-01

    Temporal features are important for the identification of natural sounds. Earlier studies have shown that cortical processing of temporal information can be altered by long-term experience with modulated sounds. In a previous study, we observed that environmental enrichment dramatically increased the response of cortical neurons to single tone and noise burst stimuli in both awake and anesthetized rats. Here, we evaluate how enrichment influences temporal information processing in the auditory cortex. We recorded responses to repeated tones and noise bursts in awake rats using epidural evoked potentials and in anesthetized rats using microelectrodes. Enrichment increased the response of cortical neurons to stimuli presented at slow rates and decreased the response to stimuli presented at fast rates relative to controls. Our observation that enrichment substantially increased response strength and forward masking is consistent with earlier reports that long-term potentiation of cortical synapses is associated with increased paired-pulse depression. Enrichment also increased response synchronization at slow rates and decreased synchronization at fast rates. Paired-pulse depression increased within days of environmental enrichment and was restored to normal levels after return to standard housing conditions. These results are relevant to several clinical disorders characterized by abnormal gating of sensory information, including autism, schizophrenia, and dyslexia.

  13. Interlaboratory reproducibility of selective reaction monitoring assays using multiple upfront analyte enrichment strategies.

    PubMed

    Prakash, Amol; Rezai, Taha; Krastins, Bryan; Sarracino, David; Athanas, Michael; Russo, Paul; Zhang, Hui; Tian, Yuan; Li, Yan; Kulasingam, Vathany; Drabovich, Andrei; Smith, Christopher R; Batruch, Ihor; Oran, Paul E; Fredolini, Claudia; Luchini, Alessandra; Liotta, Lance; Petricoin, Emanuel; Diamandis, Eleftherios P; Chan, Daniel W; Nelson, Randall; Lopez, Mary F

    2012-08-03

    Over the past few years, mass spectrometry has emerged as a technology to complement and potentially replace standard immunoassays in routine clinical core laboratories. Application of mass spectrometry to protein and peptide measurement can provide advantages including high sensitivity, the ability to multiplex analytes, and high specificity at the amino acid sequence level. In our previous study, we demonstrated excellent reproducibility of mass spectrometry-selective reaction monitoring (MS-SRM) assays when applying standardized standard operating procedures (SOPs) to measure synthetic peptides in a complex sample, as lack of reproducibility has been a frequent criticism leveled at the use of mass spectrometers in the clinical laboratory compared to immunoassays. Furthermore, an important caveat of SRM-based assays for proteins is that many low-abundance analytes require some type of enrichment before detection with MS. This adds a level of complexity to the procedure and the potential for irreproducibility increases, especially across different laboratories with different operators. The purpose of this study was to test the interlaboratory reproducibility of SRM assays with various upfront enrichment strategies and different types of clinical samples (representing real-world body fluids commonly encountered in routine clinical laboratories). Three different, previously published enrichment strategies for low-abundance analytes and a no-enrichment strategy for high-abundance analytes were tested across four different laboratories using different liquid chromatography-SRM (LC-SRM) platforms and previously developed SOPs. The results demonstrated that these assays were indeed reproducible with coefficients of variation of less than 30% for the measurement of important clinical proteins across all four laboratories in real world samples.

  14. Interlaboratory Reproducibility of Selective Reaction Monitoring Assays Using Multiple Upfront Analyte Enrichment Strategies

    PubMed Central

    Prakash, Amol; Rezai, Taha; Krastins, Bryan; Sarracino, David; Athanas, Michael; Russo, Paul; Zhang, Hui; Tian, Yuan; Li, Yan; Kulasingam, Vathany; Drabovich, Andrei; Smith, Christopher R.; Batruch, Ihor; Oran, Paul E.; Fredolini, Claudia; Luchini, Alessandra; Liotta, Lance; Petricoin, Emanuel; Diamandis, Eleftherios P.; Chan, Daniel W.; Nelson, Randall; Lopez, Mary F.

    2013-01-01

    Over the past few years, mass spectrometry has emerged as a technology to complement and potentially replace standard immunoassays in routine clinical core laboratories. Application of mass spectrometry to protein and peptide measurement can provide advantages including high sensitivity, the ability to multiplex analytes, and high specificity at the amino acid sequence level. In our previous study, we demonstrated excellent reproducibility of mass spectrometry-selective reaction monitoring (MS-SRM) assays when applying standardized standard operating procedures (SOPs) to measure synthetic peptides in a complex sample, as lack of reproducibility has been a frequent criticism leveled at the use of mass spectrometers in the clinical laboratory compared to immunoassays. Furthermore, an important caveat of SRM-based assays for proteins is that many low-abundance analytes require some type of enrichment before detection with MS. This adds a level of complexity to the procedure and the potential for irreproducibility increases, especially across different laboratories with different operators. The purpose of this study was to test the interlaboratory reproducibility of SRM assays with various upfront enrichment strategies and different types of clinical samples (representing real-world body fluids commonly encountered in routine clinical laboratories). Three different, previously published enrichment strategies for low-abundance analytes and a no-enrichment strategy for high-abundance analytes were tested across four different laboratories using different liquid chromatography-SRM (LC-SRM) platforms and previously developed SOPs. The results demonstrated that these assays were indeed reproducible with coefficients of variation of less than 30% for the measurement of important clinical proteins across all four laboratories in real world samples. PMID:22639787

  15. Biochar Addition Increases the Rates of Dissimilatory Iron Reduction and Methanogenesis in Ferrihydrite Enrichments

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Guo-Wei; Yang, Xiao-Ru; Marshall, Christopher W.; Li, Hu; Zheng, Bang-Xiao; Yan, Yu; Su, Jian-Qiang; Zhu, Yong-Guan

    2017-01-01

    Biochar contains quinones and aromatic structures that facilitate extracellular electron transfer between microbial cells and insoluble minerals. In this study, granulated biochar (1.2–2 mm) and powdered biochar (<0.15 mm) were amended to two ferrihydrite (in situ ferrihydrite and ex situ ferrihydrite) enrichments to investigate the effect of biochar with different particle sizes on dissimilatory iron(III)-reducing bacteria (DIRB) and methanogens. Biochar addition significantly stimulated the reduction of both in situ ferrihydrite and ex situ ferrihydrite and the production of methane. Powdered biochar amendments increased iron reduction compared to granulated biochar amendment in both the in situ ferrihydrite and ex situ ferrihydrite enrichments. However, no significant difference was observed in methane production between the powdered biochar and granulated biochar amendments in the two ferrihydrite enrichments. Analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that both DIRB and methanogens were enriched after biochar amendments in the in situ ferrihydrite and ex situ ferrihydrite enrichments. Taxa belonging to the Geobacteraceae and methanogenic genus affiliated to Methanosarcina were detected with significantly higher relative abundances in powdered biochar amendments than those in granulated biochar amendments in both the ferrihydrite enrichments. X-ray diffraction analysis indicated green rust [Fe2(CO3) (OH)] and vivianite [Fe3(PO4)2 8(H2O)] formed in the ex situ ferrihydrite and in situ ferrihydrite enrichments without biochar addition, respectively. After granulated biochar amendment, the mineral phase changed from the green rust to vivianite in the ex situ ferrihydrite enrichment, while crystalline vivianite and iron oxide (γ-Fe2O3) were detected simultaneously in the in situ ferrihydrite enrichment. No crystalline iron compound was found in the powdered biochar amendments in both ferrihydrite enrichments. Overall, our study illustrated that the addition of

  16. Biochar Addition Increases the Rates of Dissimilatory Iron Reduction and Methanogenesis in Ferrihydrite Enrichments.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Guo-Wei; Yang, Xiao-Ru; Marshall, Christopher W; Li, Hu; Zheng, Bang-Xiao; Yan, Yu; Su, Jian-Qiang; Zhu, Yong-Guan

    2017-01-01

    Biochar contains quinones and aromatic structures that facilitate extracellular electron transfer between microbial cells and insoluble minerals. In this study, granulated biochar (1.2-2 mm) and powdered biochar (<0.15 mm) were amended to two ferrihydrite (in situ ferrihydrite and ex situ ferrihydrite) enrichments to investigate the effect of biochar with different particle sizes on dissimilatory iron(III)-reducing bacteria (DIRB) and methanogens. Biochar addition significantly stimulated the reduction of both in situ ferrihydrite and ex situ ferrihydrite and the production of methane. Powdered biochar amendments increased iron reduction compared to granulated biochar amendment in both the in situ ferrihydrite and ex situ ferrihydrite enrichments. However, no significant difference was observed in methane production between the powdered biochar and granulated biochar amendments in the two ferrihydrite enrichments. Analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that both DIRB and methanogens were enriched after biochar amendments in the in situ ferrihydrite and ex situ ferrihydrite enrichments. Taxa belonging to the Geobacteraceae and methanogenic genus affiliated to Methanosarcina were detected with significantly higher relative abundances in powdered biochar amendments than those in granulated biochar amendments in both the ferrihydrite enrichments. X-ray diffraction analysis indicated green rust [Fe2(CO3) (OH)] and vivianite [Fe3(PO4)2 8(H2O)] formed in the ex situ ferrihydrite and in situ ferrihydrite enrichments without biochar addition, respectively. After granulated biochar amendment, the mineral phase changed from the green rust to vivianite in the ex situ ferrihydrite enrichment, while crystalline vivianite and iron oxide (γ-Fe2O3) were detected simultaneously in the in situ ferrihydrite enrichment. No crystalline iron compound was found in the powdered biochar amendments in both ferrihydrite enrichments. Overall, our study illustrated that the addition of

  17. Selective tube roughening increases heat transfer capability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carlson, L. W.

    1966-01-01

    Selectively roughening inside surfaces of tubes increases the heat transfer capabilities, but minimizes the pressure drop. This technique is used to construct roughened test sections for hydrogen heat transfer studies.

  18. Microfluidic chip system for the selection and enrichment of cell binding aptamers

    PubMed Central

    Stoll, Heidi; Kiessling, Heiko; Stelzle, Martin; Wendel, Hans Peter; Schütte, Julia; Hagmeyer, Britta; Avci-Adali, Meltem

    2015-01-01

    Aptamers are promising cell targeting ligands for several applications such as for the diagnosis, therapy, and drug delivery. Especially, in the field of regenerative medicine, stem cell specific aptamers have an enormous potential. Using the combinatorial chemistry process SELEX (Systematic Evolution of Ligands by Exponential enrichment), aptamers are selected from a huge oligonucleotide library consisting of approximately 1015 different oligonucleotides. Here, we developed a microfluidic chip system that can be used for the selection of cell specific aptamers. The major drawbacks of common cell-SELEX methods are the inefficient elimination of the unspecifically bound oligonucleotides from the cell surface and the unspecific binding/uptake of oligonucleotides by dead cells. To overcome these obstacles, a microfluidic device, which enables the simultaneous performance of dielectrophoresis and electrophoresis in the same device, was designed. Using this system, viable cells can be selectively assembled by dielectrophoresis between the electrodes and then incubated with the oligonucleotides. To reduce the rate of unspecifically bound sequences, electrophoretic fields can be applied in order to draw loosely bound oligonucleotides away from the cells. Furthermore, by increasing the flow rate in the chip during the iterative rounds of SELEX, the selection pressure can be improved and aptamers with higher affinities and specificities can be obtained. This new microfluidic device has a tremendous capability to improve the cell-SELEX procedure and to select highly specific aptamers. PMID:26180568

  19. Selection of mutations for increased protein stability.

    PubMed

    van den Burg, Bertus; Eijsink, Vincent G H

    2002-08-01

    There are many ways to select mutations that increase the stability of proteins, including rational design, functional screening of randomly generated mutant libraries, and comparison of naturally occurring homologous proteins. The protein engineer's toolbox is expanding and the number of successful examples of engineered protein stability is increasing. Still, the selection of thermostable mutations is not a standard process. Selection is complicated by lack of knowledge of the process that leads to thermal inactivation and by the fact that proteins employ a large variety of structural tricks to achieve stability.

  20. Selective Enrichment of a Methanol-Utilizing Consortium Using Pulp and Paper Mill Waste Streams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mockos, Gregory R.; Smith, William A.; Loge, Frank J.; Thompson, David N.

    Efficient utilization of carbon inputs is critical to the economic viability of the current forest products sector. Input carbon losses occur in various locations within a pulp mill, including losses as volatile organics and wastewater. Opportunities exist to capture this carbon in the form of value-added products such as biodegradable polymers. Wasteactivated sludge from a pulp mill wastewater facility was enriched for 80 days for a methanol-utilizing consortium with the goal of using this consortium to produce biopolymers from methanol-rich pulp mill waste streams. Five enrichment conditions were utilized: three high-methanol streams from the kraft mill foul condensate system, one methanol-amended stream from the mill wastewater plant, and one methanol-only enrichment. Enrichment reactors were operated aerobically in sequencing batch mode at neutral pH and 25°C with a hydraulic residence time and a solids retention time of 4 days. Non-enriched waste activated sludge did not consume methanol or reduce chemical oxygen demand. With enrichment, however, the chemical oxygen demand reduction over 24-h feed/ decant cycles ranged from 79 to 89%, and methanol concentrations dropped below method detection limits. Neither the non-enriched waste-activated sludge nor any of the enrichment cultures accumulated polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) under conditions of nitrogen sufficiency. Similarly, the non-enriched waste activated sludge did not accumulate PHAs under nitrogen-limited conditions. By contrast, enriched cultures accumulated PHAs to nearly 14% on a dry weight basis under nitrogen-limited conditions. This indicates that selectively enriched pulp mill waste activated sludge can serve as an inoculum for PHA production from methanol-rich pulp mill effluents.

  1. Selective enrichment of a methanol-utilizing consortium using pulp and paper mill waste streams.

    PubMed

    Mockos, Gregory R; Smith, William A; Loge, Frank J; Thompson, David N

    2008-03-01

    Efficient utilization of carbon inputs is critical to the economic viability of the current forest products sector. Input carbon losses occur in various locations within a pulp mill, including losses as volatile organics and wastewater. Opportunities exist to capture this carbon in the form of value-added products such as biodegradable polymers. Waste-activated sludge from a pulp mill wastewater facility was enriched for 80 days for a methanol-utilizing consortium with the goal of using this consortium to produce biopolymers from methanol-rich pulp mill waste streams. Five enrichment conditions were utilized: three high-methanol streams from the kraft mill foul condensate system, one methanol-amended stream from the mill wastewater plant, and one methanol-only enrichment. Enrichment reactors were operated aerobically in sequencing batch mode at neutral pH and 25 degrees C with a hydraulic residence time and a solids retention time of 4 days. Non-enriched waste activated sludge did not consume methanol or reduce chemical oxygen demand. With enrichment, however, the chemical oxygen demand reduction over 24-h feed/decant cycles ranged from 79 to 89%, and methanol concentrations dropped below method detection limits. Neither the non-enriched waste-activated sludge nor any of the enrichment cultures accumulated polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) under conditions of nitrogen sufficiency. Similarly, the non-enriched waste activated sludge did not accumulate PHAs under nitrogen-limited conditions. By contrast, enriched cultures accumulated PHAs to nearly 14% on a dry weight basis under nitrogen-limited conditions. This indicates that selectively enriched pulp mill waste activated sludge can serve as an inoculum for PHA production from methanol-rich pulp mill effluents.

  2. Selective enrichment of a methanol-utilizing consortium using pulp & paper mill waste streams

    SciTech Connect

    Gregory R. Mockos; William A. Smith; Frank J. Loge; David N. Thompson

    2007-04-01

    Efficient utilization of carbon inputs is critical to the economic viability of the current forest products sector. Input carbon losses occur in various locations within a pulp mill, including losses as volatile organics and wastewater . Opportunities exist to capture this carbon in the form of value-added products such as biodegradable polymers. Waste activated sludge from a pulp mill wastewater facility was enriched for 80 days for a methanol-utilizing consortium with the goal of using this consortium to produce biopolymers from methanol-rich pulp mill waste streams. Five enrichment conditions were utilized: three high-methanol streams from the kraft mill foul condensate system, one methanol-amended stream from the mill wastewater plant, and one methanol-only enrichment. Enrichment reactors were operated aerobically in sequencing batch mode at neutral pH and 25°C with a hydraulic residence time and a solids retention time of four days. Non-enriched waste activated sludge did not consume methanol or reduce chemical oxygen demand. With enrichment, however, the chemical oxygen demand reduction over 24 hour feed/decant cycles ranged from 79 to 89 %, and methanol concentrations dropped below method detection limits. Neither the non-enriched waste activated sludge nor any of the enrichment cultures accumulated polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) under conditions of nitrogen sufficiency. Similarly, the non-enriched waste activated sludge did not accumulate PHAs under nitrogen limited conditions. By contrast, enriched cultures accumulated PHAs to nearly 14% on a dry weight basis under nitrogen limited conditions. This indicates that selectively-enriched pulp mill waste activated sludge can serve as an inoculum for PHA production from methanol-rich pulp mill effluents.

  3. Selection-by-function: efficient enrichment of cathepsin E inhibitors from a DNA library.

    PubMed

    Naimuddin, Mohammed; Kitamura, Koichirou; Kinoshita, Yasunori; Honda-Takahashi, Yoko; Murakami, Marina; Ito, Masato; Yamamoto, Kenji; Hanada, Kazunori; Husimi, Yuzuru; Nishigaki, Koichi

    2007-01-01

    A method for efficient enrichment of protease inhibitors out of a DNA library was developed by introducing SF-link technology. A two-step selection strategy was designed consisting of the initial enrichment of aptamers based on binding function while the second enrichment step was based on the inhibitory activity to a protease, cathepsin E (CE). The latter was constructed by covalently linking of a biotinylated peptide substrate to each of the ssDNA molecule contained in the preliminarily selected DNA library, generating 'SF-link'. Gradual enrichment of inhibitory DNAs was attained in the course of selection. One molecule, SFR-6-3, showed an IC(50) of around 30 nM, a K(d) of around 15 nM and high selectivity for CE. Sequence and structure analysis revealed a C-rich sequence without any guanine and possibly an i-motif structure, which must be novel to be found in in vitro-selected aptamers. SF-link technology, which is novel as the screening technology, provided a remarkable enrichment of specific protease inhibitors and has a potential to be further developed.

  4. LDL particle core enrichment in cholesteryl oleate increases proteoglycan binding and promotes atherosclerosis[S

    PubMed Central

    Melchior, John T.; Sawyer, Janet K.; Kelley, Kathryn L.; Shah, Ramesh; Wilson, Martha D.; Hantgan, Roy R.; Rudel, Lawrence L.

    2013-01-01

    Several studies in humans and animals suggest that LDL particle core enrichment in cholesteryl oleate (CO) is associated with increased atherosclerosis. Diet enrichment with MUFAs enhances LDL CO content. Steroyl O-acyltransferase 2 (SOAT2) is the enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis of much of the CO found in LDL, and gene deletion of SOAT2 minimizes CO in LDL and protects against atherosclerosis. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that the increased atherosclerosis associated with LDL core enrichment in CO results from an increased affinity of the LDL particle for arterial proteoglycans. ApoB-100-only Ldlr−/− mice with and without Soat2 gene deletions were fed diets enriched in either cis-MUFA or n-3 PUFA, and LDL particles were isolated. LDL:proteogylcan binding was measured using surface plasmon resonance. Particles with higher CO content consistently bound with higher affinity to human biglycan and the amount of binding was shown to be proportional to the extent of atherosclerosis of the LDL donor mice. The data strongly support the thesis that atherosclerosis was induced through enhanced proteoglycan binding of LDL resulting from LDL core CO enrichment. PMID:23804810

  5. Human Erythrocytes Selectively Bind and Enrich Infectious HIV-1 Virions

    PubMed Central

    Beck, Zoltan; Brown, Bruce K.; Wieczorek, Lindsay; Peachman, Kristina K.; Matyas, Gary R.; Polonis, Victoria R.; Rao, Mangala; Alving, Carl R.

    2009-01-01

    Although CD4(+) cells represent the major target for HIV infection in blood, claims of complement-independent binding of HIV-1 to erythrocytes and the possible role of Duffy blood group antigen, have generated controversy. To examine the question of binding to erythrocytes, HIV-1 was incubated in vitro with erythrocytes from 30 healthy leukapheresis donors, and binding was determined by p24 analysis and adsorption of HIV-1 with reduction of infectivity for CD4(+) target cells. All of the cells, regardless of blood group type, bound HIV-1 p24. A typical preparation of erythrocytes bound <2.4% of the added p24, but erythrocytes selectively removed essentially all of the viral infectivity as determined by decreased infection of CD4(+) target cells; however, cell-associated HIV-1 was approximately 100-fold more efficient, via trans infection, than unadsorbed virus for infection of CD4(+) cells. All of the bound HIV-1 p24 was released by treatment of the cells with EDTA, and binding was optimized by adding Ca2+ and Mg2+ during the washing of erythrocytes containing bound HIV-1. Although the small number of contaminating leukocytes in the erythrocyte preparation also bound HIV-1 p24, there was no significant binding to CD4, and it thus appears that the binding occurred on leukocytes at non-CD4 sites. Furthermore, binding occurred to erythrocyte ghosts from which contaminating leukocytes had been previously removed. The results demonstrate that erythrocytes incubated in vitro with HIV-1 differentially adsorb all of the infectious HIV-1 virions (as opposed to non-infectious or degraded virions) in the absence of complement and independent of blood group, and binding is dependent on divalent cations. By analogy with HIV-1 bound to DC-SIGN on dendritic cells, erythrocyte-bound HIV-1 might comprise an important surface reservoir for trans infection of permissive cells. PMID:20011536

  6. Prospecting for ice association: characterization of freeze-thaw selected enrichment cultures from latitudinally distant soils.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Sandra L; Grogan, Paul; Walker, Virginia K

    2012-04-01

    Freeze-thaw stress has previously been shown to alter soil community structure and function. We sought to further investigate this stress on enriched microbial consortia with the aim of identifying microbes with ice-associating adaptations that facilitate survival. Enrichments were established to obtain culturable psychrotolerant microbes from soil samples from the latitudinal extremes of the Canadian Shield plateau. The resulting consortia were subjected to consecutive freeze-thaw cycles, and survivors were putatively identified by their 16S rRNA gene sequences. Even though the northerly site was exposed to longer, colder winters and large spring-time temperature fluctuations, the selective regime similarly affected both enriched consortia. Quantitative PCR and metagenomic sequencing were used to determine the frequency of a subset of the resistant microbes in the original enrichments. The metagenomes showed 22 initial genera, only 6 survived and these were not dominant prior to selection. When survivors were assayed for ice recrystallization inhibition and ice nucleation activities, over 60% had at least one of these properties. These phenotypes were not more prevalent in the northern enrichment, indicating that regarding these adaptations, the enrichment strategy yielded seemingly functionally similar consortia from each site.

  7. Development of Hf(4+)-immobilized polydopamine-coated magnetic graphene for highly selective enrichment of phosphopeptides.

    PubMed

    Lin, Haizhu; Deng, Chunhui

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we first designed and synthesized an IMAC material with Hf(4+) immobilized on polydopamine-coated magnetic graphene and applied it to phosphopeptides enrichment successfully. The newly prepared material gathered the advantages of large specific surface area of graphene, good hydrophilicity and biocompatibility of polydopamine and superparamagnetism of Fe3O4. We investigated the performance of Hf(4+)-immobilized polydopamine-coated magnetic graphene (denoted as magG@PDA-Hf(4+)) in phosphopeptides enrichment and the results showed high selectivity and sensitivity of the new material. Finally, we successfully applied magG@PDA-Hf(4+) to phosphopeptides enrichment from non-fat milk digests and human serum, further demonstrating excellent performance of this new material in phosphopeptides enrichment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Prefrontal microRNA-221 Mediates Environmental Enrichment-Induced Increase of Locomotor Sensitivity to Nicotine

    PubMed Central

    Gomez, Adrian M.; Altomare, Diego; Sun, Wei-Lun; Midde, Narasimha M.; Ji, Hao; Shtutman, Michael; Turner, Jill R.; Creek, Kim E.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Environmental enrichment alters susceptibility in developing drug addiction. We have demonstrated that rats raised in an enriched condition are more sensitive than rats raised in an impoverished condition to nicotine-induced locomotor activity, and this is associated with alterations of phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 within the prefrontal cortex. This study determined the impact of microRNA-221 in the prefrontal cortex on phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 and the enriched environment-dependent behavioral changes in response to nicotine. Methods: A microRNA array was conducted to profile microRNA expression in the prefrontal cortex of enriched condition and impoverished condition rats in response to repeated nicotine (0.35mg/kg, s.c.) administration. microRNA-221 in the prefrontal cortex, nucleus accumbens, and striatum was further verified by quantitative real-time PCR. Lentiviral-mediated overexpression of microRNA-221 in PC12 cells and the medial prefrontal cortex was performed to determine the effects of microRNA-221 on nicotine-mediated phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2, phosphorylated cAMP-response element-binding protein, and locomotor activity. Results: microRNA-221 was profoundly upregulated in the prefrontal cortex but not in nucleus accumbens and striatum of enriched condition rats relative to impoverished condition rats following repeated administration of nicotine. Overexpression of lentiviral-microRNA-221 attenuated nicotine-induced increase in phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 in PC12 cells. Lentiviral-microRNA-221 overexpression in the medial prefrontal cortex further increased locomotor activity in impoverished condition but not in enriched condition rats in response to repeated nicotine administration. Accordingly, lentiviral-microRNA-221 attenuated nicotine-induced increases in phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 and

  9. Chronic nutrient enrichment increases prevalence and severity of coral disease and bleaching.

    PubMed

    Vega Thurber, Rebecca L; Burkepile, Deron E; Fuchs, Corinne; Shantz, Andrew A; McMinds, Ryan; Zaneveld, Jesse R

    2014-02-01

    Nutrient loading is one of the strongest drivers of marine habitat degradation. Yet, the link between nutrients and disease epizootics in marine organisms is often tenuous and supported only by correlative data. Here, we present experimental evidence that chronic nutrient exposure leads to increases in both disease prevalence and severity and coral bleaching in scleractinian corals, the major habitat-forming organisms in tropical reefs. Over 3 years, from June 2009 to June 2012, we continuously exposed areas of a coral reef to elevated levels of nitrogen and phosphorus. At the termination of the enrichment, we surveyed over 1200 scleractinian corals for signs of disease or bleaching. Siderastrea siderea corals within enrichment plots had a twofold increase in both the prevalence and severity of disease compared with corals in unenriched control plots. In addition, elevated nutrient loading increased coral bleaching; Agaricia spp. of corals exposed to nutrients suffered a 3.5-fold increase in bleaching frequency relative to control corals, providing empirical support for a hypothesized link between nutrient loading and bleaching-induced coral declines. However, 1 year later, after nutrient enrichment had been terminated for 10 months, there were no differences in coral disease or coral bleaching prevalence between the previously enriched and control treatments. Given that our experimental enrichments were well within the ranges of ambient nutrient concentrations found on many degraded reefs worldwide, these data provide strong empirical support to the idea that coastal nutrient loading is one of the major factors contributing to the increasing levels of both coral disease and coral bleaching. Yet, these data also suggest that simple improvements to water quality may be an effective way to mitigate some coral disease epizootics and the corresponding loss of coral cover in the future. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Hydrophilic modification of titania nanomaterials as a biofunctional adsorbent for selective enrichment of phosphopeptides.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hailong; Yang, Tianyi; Dai, Junyong; Zhu, Jiayu; Li, Xiaoran; Wen, Rui; Yang, Xinghao

    2015-10-07

    TiO2-based metal oxide affinity chromatography (MOAC) nanomaterials show high potential in phosphoproteome mass-spectrometric (MS) analysis. However, a drawback of TiO2 nanomaterials is poor water solubility, which greatly reduces the enrichment efficiency of phosphopeptides and eventually limits their use in phosphoproteome MS analysis. In this work, a hydrophilic TiO2 hybrid material (denoted as NH2@TiO2) is successfully designed with 1,6-hexanediamine modified on the surface of TiO2 nanoparticles and applied as a biofunctional adsorbent for selective enrichment of phosphopeptides. The novel TiO2 hybrid material with high hydrophilicity and biocompatibility is characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) and infrared (IR) spectroscopy, and its performance in selective enrichment of phosphopeptides is evaluated with the standard protein digests, human serum and the tryptic digests of nonfat milk.

  11. A new selective enrichment procedure for isolating Pasteurella multocida from avian and environmental samples

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moore, M.K.; Cicnjak-Chubbs, L.; Gates, R.J.

    1994-01-01

    A selective enrichment procedure, using two new selective media, was developed to isolate Pasteurella multocida from wild birds and environmental samples. These media were developed by testing 15 selective agents with six isolates of P. multocida from wild avian origin and seven other bacteria representing genera frequently found in environmental and avian samples. The resulting media—Pasteurella multocida selective enrichment broth and Pasteurella multocida selective agar—consisted of a blood agar medium at pH 10 containing gentamicin, potassium tellurite, and amphotericin B. Media were tested to determine: 1) selectivity when attempting isolation from pond water and avian carcasses, 2) sensitivity for detection of low numbers of P. multocida from pure and mixed cultures, 3) host range specificity of the media, and 4) performance compared with standard blood agar. With the new selective enrichment procedure, P. multocida was isolated from inoculated (60 organisms/ml) pond water 84% of the time, whereas when standard blood agar was used, the recovery rate was 0%.

  12. Glycoprotein enrichment method using a selective magnetic nano-probe platform (MNP) functionalized with lectins.

    PubMed

    Cova, Marta; Oliveira-Silva, Rui; Ferreira, José Alexandre; Ferreira, Rita; Amado, Francisco; Daniel-da-Silva, Ana Luísa; Vitorino, Rui

    2015-01-01

    Protein post-translational modifications (PTMs) have increasingly become a research field of incredible importance to fully understand the regulation of biological processes in health and disease. Among PTMs, glycosylation is one of the most studied for which contributed the development and improvement of enrichment techniques. Nowadays, glycoprotein enrichment methods are based on lectin affinity, covalent interactions, and hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography (HILIC). Nonetheless, the nanotechnology era has fetched new methods to enrich glycoproteins from complex samples as human biological fluids. For instance, magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) are being used as an interesting enrichment approach allowing a better characterization of glycoproteins and glycopeptides.In this chapter, we describe an enrichment method based on MNPs functionalized with lectins (Concavalin A, wheat germ agglutinin, and Maackia amurensis lectin) to enrich specific sets of glycoproteins from biological fluids. Moreover, it is proposed a bioinformatic strategy to deal with data retrieved from mass spectrometry analysis of enriched samples aiming the identification of relevant biological processes modulated by a given stimuli and, ultimately, of new biomarkers for disease screening/management.

  13. Larval quality of aquacultured Florida pompano, Trachinotus carolinus L. fed rotifers enriched with selected commercial diets

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Development of larviculture methods for marine finfish has been a major bottleneck to ensure a consistent and reliable source of seed stock. This study examined the effect of selected rotifer enrichment diets on growth, survival, and fatty acid content of larval Florida pompano, Trachinotus carolin...

  14. Larval performance of aquacultured Florida pompano, Trachinotus carolinus L. fed rotifers enriched with selected commercial diets

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Development of larviculture methods for marine finfish has been a major bottleneck to ensure a consistent and reliable source of seed stock. This study examined the effect of selected rotifer enrichment diets on growth, survival, and fatty acid content of larval Florida pompano, Trachinotus carolin...

  15. Molecular and Kinetic Characterization of Planktonic Nitrospira spp. Selectively Enriched from Activated Sludge.

    PubMed

    Park, Mee-Rye; Park, Hongkeun; Chandran, Kartik

    2017-03-07

    Nitrospira spp. are chemolithoautotrophic nitrite-oxidizing bacteria (NOB), which are ubiquitous in natural and engineered environments. However, there exist few independent biokinetic studies on Nitrospira spp., likely because their isolation and selective enrichment from environmental consortia such as activated sludge can be challenging. Herein, planktonic Nitrospira spp. cultures closely related to Candidatus Nitrospira defluvii (Nitrospira lineage I) were successfully enriched from activated sludge in a sequencing batch reactor by maintaining sustained limiting extant nitrite and dissolved oxygen concentrations. Morphologically, the enrichment consisted largely of planktonic cells with an average characteristic diameter of 1.3 ± 0.6 μm. On the basis of respirometric assays, estimated maximum specific growth rate (μmax), nitrite half saturation coefficient (KS), oxygen half saturation coefficient (KO), and biomass yield coefficient (Y) of the enriched cultures were 0.69 ± 0.10 d(-1), 0.52 ± 0.14 mg-N/L, 0.33 ± 0.14 mg-O2/L, and 0.14 ± 0.02 mg-COD/mg-N, respectively. These parameters collectively reflect not just higher affinities of this enrichment for nitrite and oxygen, respectively, but also a higher biomass yield and energy transfer efficiency relative to Nitrobacter spp. Used in combination, these kinetic and thermodynamic parameters can help toward the development and application of energy-efficient biological nutrient removal processes through effective Nitrospira out-selection.

  16. Silica-lanthanum oxide: pioneer composite of rare-Earth metal oxide in selective phosphopeptides enrichment.

    PubMed

    Jabeen, Fahmida; Hussain, Dilshad; Fatima, Batool; Musharraf, S Ghulam; Huck, Christian W; Bonn, Gűnther K; Najam-ul-Haq, Muhammad

    2012-12-04

    Relying on the successful journey of metal oxides in phosphoproteomics, lanthanum oxide is employed for the engineering of an affinity material for phosphopeptide enrichment. The lanthanum oxide is chemically modified on the surface of silica and characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The obtained silica-lanthanum oxide composite is applied for the selective enrichment of phosphopeptides from tryptic digest of standard protein (α-casein, β-casein, and commercially available casein mixtures from bovine milk). The enriched entities are analyzed by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). The mass spectroscopy (MS) results show that the silica-lanthanum oxide composite exhibits enhanced capability for phosphopeptide enrichment with sensitivity assessed to be 50 fmol. Sequence coverage of casein is interpreted showing successful recovery. As a real sample, a protein digest of nonfat milk is applied. Also, the ability of lanthanum in different formats is checked in the selective phosphopeptides enrichment. The composite holds promising future in economic ground as it also possesses the regenerative ability for repetitive use.

  17. Using targeted enrichment of nuclear genes to increase phylogenetic resolution in the neotropical rain forest genus Inga (Leguminosae: Mimosoideae)

    PubMed Central

    Nicholls, James A.; Pennington, R. Toby; Koenen, Erik J. M.; Hughes, Colin E.; Hearn, Jack; Bunnefeld, Lynsey; Dexter, Kyle G.; Stone, Graham N.; Kidner, Catherine A.

    2015-01-01

    Evolutionary radiations are prominent and pervasive across many plant lineages in diverse geographical and ecological settings; in neotropical rainforests there is growing evidence suggesting that a significant fraction of species richness is the result of recent radiations. Understanding the evolutionary trajectories and mechanisms underlying these radiations demands much greater phylogenetic resolution than is currently available for these groups. The neotropical tree genus Inga (Leguminosae) is a good example, with ~300 extant species and a crown age of 2–10 MY, yet over 6 kb of plastid and nuclear DNA sequence data gives only poor phylogenetic resolution among species. Here we explore the use of larger-scale nuclear gene data obtained though targeted enrichment to increase phylogenetic resolution within Inga. Transcriptome data from three Inga species were used to select 264 nuclear loci for targeted enrichment and sequencing. Following quality control to remove probable paralogs from these sequence data, the final dataset comprised 259,313 bases from 194 loci for 24 accessions representing 22 Inga species and an outgroup (Zygia). Bayesian phylogenies reconstructed using either all loci concatenated or a gene-tree/species-tree approach yielded highly resolved phylogenies. We used coalescent approaches to show that the same targeted enrichment data also have significant power to discriminate among alternative within-species population histories within the widespread species I. umbellifera. In either application, targeted enrichment simplifies the informatics challenge of identifying orthologous loci associated with de novo genome sequencing. We conclude that targeted enrichment provides the large volumes of phylogenetically-informative sequence data required to resolve relationships within recent plant species radiations, both at the species level and for within-species phylogeographic studies. PMID:26442024

  18. Using targeted enrichment of nuclear genes to increase phylogenetic resolution in the neotropical rain forest genus Inga (Leguminosae: Mimosoideae).

    PubMed

    Nicholls, James A; Pennington, R Toby; Koenen, Erik J M; Hughes, Colin E; Hearn, Jack; Bunnefeld, Lynsey; Dexter, Kyle G; Stone, Graham N; Kidner, Catherine A

    2015-01-01

    Evolutionary radiations are prominent and pervasive across many plant lineages in diverse geographical and ecological settings; in neotropical rainforests there is growing evidence suggesting that a significant fraction of species richness is the result of recent radiations. Understanding the evolutionary trajectories and mechanisms underlying these radiations demands much greater phylogenetic resolution than is currently available for these groups. The neotropical tree genus Inga (Leguminosae) is a good example, with ~300 extant species and a crown age of 2-10 MY, yet over 6 kb of plastid and nuclear DNA sequence data gives only poor phylogenetic resolution among species. Here we explore the use of larger-scale nuclear gene data obtained though targeted enrichment to increase phylogenetic resolution within Inga. Transcriptome data from three Inga species were used to select 264 nuclear loci for targeted enrichment and sequencing. Following quality control to remove probable paralogs from these sequence data, the final dataset comprised 259,313 bases from 194 loci for 24 accessions representing 22 Inga species and an outgroup (Zygia). Bayesian phylogenies reconstructed using either all loci concatenated or a gene-tree/species-tree approach yielded highly resolved phylogenies. We used coalescent approaches to show that the same targeted enrichment data also have significant power to discriminate among alternative within-species population histories within the widespread species I. umbellifera. In either application, targeted enrichment simplifies the informatics challenge of identifying orthologous loci associated with de novo genome sequencing. We conclude that targeted enrichment provides the large volumes of phylogenetically-informative sequence data required to resolve relationships within recent plant species radiations, both at the species level and for within-species phylogeographic studies.

  19. Detection of Salmonella spp. in veterinary samples by combining selective enrichment and real-time PCR.

    PubMed

    Goodman, Laura B; McDonough, Patrick L; Anderson, Renee R; Franklin-Guild, Rebecca J; Ryan, James R; Perkins, Gillian A; Thachil, Anil J; Glaser, Amy L; Thompson, Belinda S

    2017-08-01

    Rapid screening for enteric bacterial pathogens in clinical environments is essential for biosecurity. Salmonella found in veterinary hospitals, particularly Salmonella enterica serovar Dublin, can pose unique challenges for culture and testing because of its poor growth. Multiple Salmonella serovars including Dublin are emerging threats to public health given increasing prevalence and antimicrobial resistance. We adapted an automated food testing method to veterinary samples and evaluated the performance of the method in a variety of matrices including environmental samples ( n = 81), tissues ( n = 52), feces ( n = 148), and feed ( n = 29). A commercial kit was chosen as the basis for this approach in view of extensive performance characterizations published by multiple independent organizations. A workflow was established for efficiently and accurately testing veterinary matrices and environmental samples by use of real-time PCR after selective enrichment in Rappaport-Vassiliadis soya (RVS) medium. Using this method, the detection limit for S. Dublin improved by 100-fold over subculture on selective agars (eosin-methylene blue, brilliant green, and xylose-lysine-deoxycholate). Overall, the procedure was effective in detecting Salmonella spp. and provided next-day results.

  20. Deuterium enrichment by selective photo-induced dissociation of an organic carbonyl compound

    DOEpatents

    Marling, John B.

    1981-01-01

    A method for producing a deuterium enriched material by photoinduced dissociation which uses as the working material a gas phase photolytically dissociable organic carbonyl compound containing at least one hydrogen atom bonded to an atom which is adjacent to a carbonyl group and consisting of molecules wherein said hydrogen atom is present as deuterium and molecules wherein said hydrogen atom is present as another isotope of hydrogen. The organic carbonyl compound is subjected to intense infrared radiation at a preselected wavelength to selectively excite and thereby induce dissociation of the deuterium containing species to yield a deuterium enriched stable molecular product. Undissociated carbonyl compound, depleted in deuterium, is preferably redeuterated for reuse.

  1. Dietary fatty acid enrichment increases egg size and quality of yellow seahorse Hippocampus kuda.

    PubMed

    Saavedra, M; Masdeu, M; Hale, P; Sibbons, C M; Holt, W V

    2014-02-01

    Seahorses populations in the wild have been declining and to restore them a better knowledge of seahorse reproduction is required. This study examines the effect of dietary quality on seahorse fecundity and egg quality. Two different diets were tested with Hippocampus kuda females: frozen mysis (control) and frozen mysis enriched with a liposome spray containing essential fatty acids. Diets were given to females (two groups of five) over a seven week period. After this period, males (fed the control diet) and females were paired and the eggs dropped by the females were collected. Fatty acid profile were analysed and eggs were counted and measured. Results showed that females fed on enriched mysis had larger eggs and that these had a higher content of total polyunsaturated fatty acids. The size of the egg was especially affected in the first spawn, where egg size for females fed the enriched diet was significantly higher than the egg size from control females. This effect was reduced in the following spawning where no significant differences were found. Egg size is an important quality descriptor as seahorse juveniles originating from smaller eggs and/or eggs of poor quality will have less chances of overcoming adverse conditions in the wild and consequently have lower survival and growth rates. This study shows that enriching frozen mysis with polyunsaturated fatty acids increases egg size and egg quality of H. kuda.

  2. PHOS-Select Iron Affinity beads enrich peptides for detection of organophosphorus adducts on albumin

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Wei; Dubrovskii, Yaroslav A; Podolskaya, Ekaterina P; Murashko, Ekaterina A; Babakov, Vladimir; Nachon, Florian; Masson, Patrick; Schopfer, Lawrence M; Lockridge, Oksana

    2013-01-01

    Albumin is covalently modified by organophosphorus toxicants (OP) on tyrosine 411, but less than 1% of albumin is modified in humans by lethal OP doses that inhibit 95% of plasma butyrylcholinesterase. A method that enriches OP-modified albumin peptides could aid analysis of low dose exposures. Soman or chlorpyrifos oxon treated human plasma was digested with pepsin. Albumin peptides were enriched by binding to Fe3+ beads at pH 11 and eluted with pH 2.6 buffer. Similarly, mouse and guinea pig albumin modified by chlorpyrifos oxon were digested with pepsin and enriched by binding to Fe3+ beads. Peptides were identified by MALDI-TOF/TOF mass spectrometry. PHOS-select Iron Affinity beads specifically enriched albumin peptides VRY411TKKVPQVST and LVRY411TKKVPQVST in a pepsin digest of human plasma. The unmodified as well as OP-modified peptides bound to the beads. The binding capacity of 500 μl beads was the pepsin digest of 2.1 μL human plasma. The limit of detection was 0.2% of OP-modified albumin peptide in 0.43 μL plasma. Enrichment of OP-modified albumin peptides by binding to Fe3+ beads is a method with potential application to diagnosis of OP pesticide and nerve agent exposure in humans, mice, and guinea pigs. PMID:24187955

  3. Development of immobilized Sn(4+) affinity chromatography material for highly selective enrichment of phosphopeptides.

    PubMed

    Lin, Haizhu; Deng, Chunhui

    2016-11-01

    In this work, we first immobilized tin(IV) ion on polydopamine-coated magnetic graphene (magG@PDA) to synthesize Sn(4+) -immobilized magG@PDA (magG@PDA-Sn(4+) ) and successfully applied the material to highly selective enrichment of phosphopeptides. The material gathered the advantages of large surface area of graphene, superparamagnetism of Fe3 O4 , good hydrophilicity and biocompatibility of polydopamine, and strong interaction between Sn(4+) and phosphopeptides. The enrichment performance of magG@PDA-Sn(4+) toward phosphopeptides from digested β-casein at different concentrations, with and without added digested BSA was investigated and compared with magG@PDA-Ti(4+) . The results showed high selectivity and sensitivity of the Sn(4+) -IMAC material toward phosphopeptides, as good as the Ti(4+) -IMAC material. Finally, magG@PDA-Sn(4+) was applied to the analysis of endogenous phosphopeptides from a real sample, human saliva, with both MALDI-TOF MS and nano-LC-ESI-MS/MS. The results indicated that the as-synthesized Sn(4+) -IMAC material not only has good enrichment performance, but also could serve as a supplement to the Ti(4+) -IMAC material and expand the phosphopeptide coverage enriched by the single Ti(4+) -IMAC material, demonstrating the broad application prospects of magG@PDA-Sn(4+) in phosphoproteome research.

  4. Preparation of Concanavalin A-Chelating Magnetic Nanoparticles for Selective Enrichment of Glycoproteins.

    PubMed

    Dong, Liping; Feng, Shun; Li, Shanshan; Song, Peipei; Wang, Jide

    2015-07-07

    In this work, a soft and nondestructive approach was developed to prepare concanavalin A-chelating magnetic nanoparticles (Con A-MNPs) for selective enrichment of glycoproteins. Ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid-modified-MNPs (EDTA-MNPs) were prepared by a one-pot chemical coprecipitation method first, and then, Cu(II) cations were used as bridge groups to immobilize Con A on EDTA-MNPs. The as-prepared absorbents with a mean diameter of 15 nm showed a strong magnetic response to an externally applied magnetic field. The results of thermogravimetric analysis showed the content of immobilized Con A was up to 28 wt %. For glycoprotein ovalbumin, the maximum capacity and equilibrium constant were 72.41 mg/g and 0.6035 L/mg, respectively. The as-prepared nanocomposites exhibited a remarkable selectivity for glycoproteins and can enrich glycoproteins specifically from a mixture of glycoprotein and nonglycoprotein even at a molar ratio of 1:600. It was also successfully applied for the enrichment of glycoproteins from real egg white samples. We expect that our finding will serve as a helpful template for others to design new adsorbents for enriching glycoproteins.

  5. [Determinants of food consumption enriched in vitamins and minerals--selected aspects].

    PubMed

    Jezewska-Zychowicz, Marzena; Babicz-Zielińska, Ewa; Laskowski, Wacław

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the research was to estimate to what extent the selected socio-cognitive variable, and subjective variables concerning the health status and the way of nutrition determine consumers' behaviours on the market of food enriched in vitamins and minerals. The survey was conducted in September 2008 within the group of 1005 consumers. The data were collected via Centre of Public Opinions Research (TNO OOP) within the representative group of Polish inhabitants aged over 15 years. The questionnaire was developed by the authors of this study. It includes closed-end questions concerning familiarity with food enriched in vitamins and minerals, frequency of eating it, and selected opinions on this food The level of consumers" innovativeness was also assessed. All variables, except of subjective variable concerning health status, significantly correlated with the familiarity and the frequency of eating enriched food and with the declared intention to eat it next 3 months. The strongest correlations were indicated between beliefs on health value, benefits and variables describing consumers' behaviours. There were observed stronger correlations between socio-cognitive and subjective variables concerning the way of nutrition in the case of the declared intention to eat compared to the familiarity and frequency of eating food enriched in vitamins and minerals.

  6. Selectively inducing the synthesis of a key structural exopolysaccharide in aerobic granules by enriching for Candidatus "Competibacter phosphatis".

    PubMed

    Seviour, Thomas William; Lambert, Lynette K; Pijuan, Maite; Yuan, Zhiguo

    2011-12-01

    A gel-forming exopolysaccharide was previously shown to play an important structural role in aerobic granules treating nutrient-rich industrial wastewater. To identify whether this exopolysaccharide performs a similar role in other granular biomass and if conditions favouring its production can be more precisely elucidated, extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) were extracted from granules grown under four different operating conditions. (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy of their EPS indicated that the gel-forming exopolysaccharide was expressed in two granular sludges both enriched in Candidatus "Competibacter phosphatis". In contrast, it was not expressed in granules performing denitrification with methanol as a carbon source and nitrate as the electron acceptor or granules enriched in Candidatus "Accumulibacter phosphatis" performing enhanced biological phosphorus removal from synthetic wastewater. In one of the first two sludges, the exopolysaccharide contained in the seeding granular sludge continued to be a major component of the granule EPS while Competibacter was being enriched. In the second sludge, a floccular sludge not containing the gel-forming exopolysaccharide initially was also enriched for Competibacter. In this sludge, an increase in particle size was detected coinciding with a yield increase of EPS. NMR spectroscopy confirmed its yield increase to be attributable to the production of this structural gel-forming exopolysaccharide. The results show that (1) the particular gel-forming exopolysaccharide previously identified is not necessarily a key structural exopolysaccharide for all granule types, and (2) synthesis of this exopolysaccharide is induced under conditions favouring the selective enrichment of Competibacter. This indicates that Competibacter may be involved in its production.

  7. BDNF increases with behavioral enrichment and an antioxidant diet in the aged dog.

    PubMed

    Fahnestock, Margaret; Marchese, Monica; Head, Elizabeth; Pop, Viorela; Michalski, Bernadeta; Milgram, William N; Cotman, Carl W

    2012-03-01

    The aged canine (dog) is an excellent model for investigating the neurobiological changes that underlie cognitive impairment and neurodegeneration in humans, as canines and humans undergo similar pathological and behavioral changes with aging. Recent evidence indicates that a combination of environmental enrichment and antioxidant-fortified diet can be used to reduce the rate of age-dependent neuropathology and cognitive decline in aged dogs, although the mechanisms underlying these changes have not been established. We examined the hypothesis that an increase in levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is one of the factors underlying improvements in learning and memory. Old, cognitively impaired animals that did not receive any treatment showed a significant decrease in BDNF mRNA in the temporal cortex when compared with the young group. Animals receiving either an antioxidant diet or environmental enrichment displayed intermediate levels of BDNF mRNA. However, dogs receiving both an antioxidant diet and environmental enrichment showed increased levels of BDNF mRNA when compared with untreated aged dogs, approaching levels measured in young animals. BDNF receptor TrkB mRNA levels did not differ between groups. BDNF mRNA levels were positively correlated with improved cognitive performance and inversely correlated with cortical Aβ((1-42)) and Aβ((1-40)) levels. These findings suggest that environmental enrichment and antioxidant diet interact to maintain brain levels of BDNF, which may lead to improved cognitive performance. This is the first demonstration in a higher animal that nonpharmacological changes in lifestyle in advanced age can upregulate BDNF to levels approaching those in the young brain.

  8. Chemoselective enrichment as a tool to increase access to bioactive natural products: Case study borrelidin.

    PubMed

    Trader, Darci J; Carlson, Erin E

    2015-11-01

    Chemoselective purification technologies have seen great success in biomolecule isolation, with a classic example being the genetically-encoded His tag utilized to enrich desired proteins from a crude lysate. We sought to translate this purification tactic into a powerful tool for the isolation of natural products and demonstrate that chemoselective enrichment can reduce the number of purification steps required and increase the yield obtained for important natural products, as compared to the use of traditional chromatography methods alone. To date, we have reported reversible enrichment tags for three functional groups, carboxylic acids and aliphatic or aryl hydroxyls. To illustrate the power of chemoselectivity-mediated purification of natural products, we present here an improved isolation of borrelidin. Application of our carboxylic acid tag yielded pure borrelidin in only two steps and with double the yield acquired with traditional chromatography methods. These results highlight the utility of this orthogonal strategy to facilitate the isolation of natural products, which are often present in minute quantities in their source materials. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. An integrated microfluidic platform for negative selection and enrichment of cancer cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Wen-Yi; Tsai, Sung-Chi; Hsieh, Kuangwen; Lee, Gwo-Bin

    2015-08-01

    Circulating tumor cells (CTCs), tumor cells that disseminate from primary tumors to the bloodstream, have recently emerged as promising indicators for cancer diagnosis and prognosis. However, the technical difficulties in isolating and detecting rare CTCs have limited the widespread applicability of this method to date. In this work, a new integrated microfluidic system integrating micromixers and micropumps capable of performing ‘negative selection and enrichment’ of CTCs was developed. By using anti-human CD45 antibodies-coated magnetic beads, leukocytes were effectively removed by applying an external magnetic force, leaving behind an enriched target cell population. The on-chip CTC recovery rate was experimentally found to be 70   ±   5% after a single round of negative selection and enrichment. Meanwhile, CD45 depletion efficiency was 83.99   ±   1.00% and could be improved to 99.84   ±   0.04% after three consecutive rounds of depletion. Notably, on-chip negative selection and enrichment was 58% faster and the repeated depletion could be processed automatically. These promising results suggested the developed microfluidic chip is potentiated for a standardized CTC isolation platform. Preliminary results of the current paper were presented at Micro TAS 2014, San Antonio, Texas, USA, October 26-30, 2014.

  10. Selective enrichment of phenols from coal liquefaction oil by solid phase extraction method

    SciTech Connect

    Tian, M.; Feng, J.

    2009-07-01

    This study focuses on the solid phase extraction method for the enrichment and separation of phenol from coal liquefaction oil. The phenols' separation efficiency was compared on different solid phase extraction (SPE) cartridges, and the effect of solvents with different polarity and solubility parameter on amino-bonded silica was compared for selection of optimal elution solution. The result showed that amino-bonded silica has the highest selectivity and best extraction capability due to two factors, weak anion exchange adsorption and polar attraction adsorption.

  11. Selective weathering of shocked minerals and chondritic enrichment of the Martian fines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boslough, M. B.

    1987-01-01

    In a recent paper, Boslough and Cygan reported the observation of shock-enhanced chemical weathering kinetics of three silicate minerals. Based on the experimental data and on those of Tyburczy and Ahrens for enhanced dehydration kinetics of shocked serpentine, a mechnaism is proposed by which shock-activated minerals are selectively weathered on the surface of Mars. The purpose of the present abstract is to argue on the basis of relative volumes of shocked materials that, as a direct consequence of selective weathering, the composition of the weathered surface units on Mars should be enriched in meteoritic material.

  12. Increasing breeding behaviors in a captive colony of Northern Bald Ibis through conspecific acoustic enrichment.

    PubMed

    Clark, J Alan; Haseley, Alison; Van Genderen, Garry; Hofling, Mark; Clum, Nancy J

    2012-01-01

    The goal of this study was to increase reproductive behaviors in a captive colony of Northern Bald Ibis (Geronticus eremita) at the Bronx Zoo. The Northern Bald Ibis is classified as critically endangered by the IUCN, with only about 100 known breeding pairs in the wild. Our analysis of zoo breeding and colony size data confirmed earlier observations that small captive colonies of this species do not breed as well as larger colonies, possibly because of insufficient social cues. Using principles from social facilitation theory, we attempted to provide such social cues by presenting acoustic enrichment in the form of conspecific breeding vocalization playbacks. In May 2009, we tracked multiple breeding behaviors during playbacks and control periods. Although breeding behaviors increased in response to playbacks, the colony produced no eggs. We repeated this experiment in April 2010 using playbacks of higher quality recordings acquired from a semi-wild breeding colony of Northern Bald Ibis in Austria. Breeding behaviors again increased during playbacks. In addition, five pairs in this colony of 15 birds produced 13 eggs, and six chicks successfully fledged--the first reproductive success in this colony since 2007. The acoustic enrichment techniques we employed may encourage increased breeding activity in captive populations of colonial species as well as wild colonies with small populations. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Nutrient enrichment can increase the susceptibility of reef corals to bleaching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiedenmann, Jörg; D'Angelo, Cecilia; Smith, Edward G.; Hunt, Alan N.; Legiret, François-Eric; Postle, Anthony D.; Achterberg, Eric P.

    2013-02-01

    Mass coral bleaching, resulting from the breakdown of coral-algal symbiosis has been identified as the most severe threat to coral reef survival on a global scale. Regionally, nutrient enrichment of reef waters is often associated with a significant loss of coral cover and diversity. Recently, increased dissolved inorganic nitrogen concentrations have been linked to a reduction of the temperature threshold of coral bleaching, a phenomenon for which no mechanistic explanation is available. Here we show that increased levels of dissolved inorganic nitrogen in combination with limited phosphate concentrations result in an increased susceptibility of corals to temperature- and light-induced bleaching. Mass spectrometric analyses of the algal lipidome revealed a marked accumulation of sulpholipids under these conditions. Together with increased phosphatase activities, this change indicates that the imbalanced supply of dissolved inorganic nitrogen results in phosphate starvation of the symbiotic algae. Based on these findings we introduce a conceptual model that links unfavourable ratios of dissolved inorganic nutrients in the water column with established mechanisms of coral bleaching. Notably, this model improves the understanding of the detrimental effects of coastal nutrient enrichment on coral reefs, which is urgently required to support knowledge-based management strategies to mitigate the effects of climate change.

  14. Enriched environment increases neurogenesis and improves social memory persistence in socially isolated adult mice.

    PubMed

    Monteiro, Brisa M M; Moreira, Fabrício A; Massensini, André R; Moraes, Márcio F D; Pereira, Grace S

    2014-02-01

    Social memory consists of the information necessary to identify and recognize cospecifics and is essential to many forms of social interaction. Social memory persistence is strongly modulated by the animal's experiences. We have shown in previous studies that social isolation (SI) in adulthood impairs social memory persistence and that an enriched environment (EE) prevents this impairment. However, the mechanisms involved in the effects of SI and EE on social memory persistence remain unknown. We hypothesized that the mechanism by which SI and EE affect social memory persistence is through their modulation of neurogenesis. To investigate this hypothesis, adult mice were submitted to 7 days of one of the following conditions: group-housing in a standard (GH) or enriched environment (GH+EE); social isolation in standard (SI) or enriched environment (SI+EE). We observed an increase in the number of newborn neurons in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus (DG) and glomerular layer of the olfactory bulb (OB) in both GH+EE and SI+EE mice. However, this increase of newborn neurons in the granule cell layer of the OB was restricted to the GH+EE group. Furthermore, both SI and SI+EE groups showed less neurogenesis in the mitral layer of the OB. Interestingly, the performance of the SI mice in the buried food-finding task was inferior to that of the GH mice. To further analyze whether increased neurogenesis is in fact the mechanism by which the EE improves social memory persistence in SI mice, we administered the mitotic inhibitor AraC or saline directly into the lateral ventricles of the SI+EE mice. We found that the AraC treatment decreased cell proliferation in both the DG and OB, and impaired social memory persistence in the SI+EE mice. Taken together, our results strongly suggest that neurogenesis is what supports social memory persistence in socially isolated mice.

  15. Increase in Alphaproteobacteria in association with a polychaete, Capitella sp. I, in the organically enriched sediment

    PubMed Central

    Kunihiro, Tadao; Takasu, Hiroyuki; Miyazaki, Tomoaki; Uramoto, Yuuta; Kinoshita, Kyoko; Yodnarasri, Supaporn; Hama, Daigo; Wada, Minoru; Kogure, Kazuhiro; Ohwada, Kouichi; Tsutsumi, Hiroaki

    2011-01-01

    We conducted bioremediation experiments on the organically enriched sediment on the sea floor just below a fish farm, introducing artificially mass-cultured colonies of deposit-feeding polychaete, Capitella sp. I. To clarify the association between the Capitella and bacteria on the efficient decomposition of the organic matter in the sediment in the experiments, we tried to identify the bacteria that increased in the microbial community in the sediment with dense patches of the Capitella. The relationship between TOC and quinone content of the sediment as an indicator of the bacterial abundance was not clear, while a significant positive correlation was found between Capitella biomass and quinone content of the sediment. In particular, ubiquinone-10, which is present in members of the class Alphaproteobacteria, increased in the sediment with dense patches of the Capitella. We performed denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analyses to identify the alphaproteobacterial species in the sediment with dense patches of the worm, using two DGGE fragments obtained from the sediment samples and one fragment from the worm body. The sequences of these DGGE fragments were closely related to the specific members of the Roseobacter clade. In the associated system with the Capitella and the bacteria in the organically enriched sediment, the decomposition of the organic matter may proceed rapidly. It is very likely that the Capitella works as a promoter of bacteria in the organically enriched sediment, and feeds the increased bacteria as one of the main foods, while the bacteria decompose the organic matter in the sediment with the assistance of the Capitella. PMID:21544104

  16. Selective enrichment media bias the types of Salmonella enterica strains isolated from mixed strain cultures and complex enrichment broths.

    PubMed

    Gorski, Lisa

    2012-01-01

    For foodborne outbreak investigations it can be difficult to isolate the relevant strain from food and/or environmental sources. If the sample is contaminated by more than one strain of the pathogen the relevant strain might be missed. In this study mixed cultures of Salmonella enterica were grown in one set of standard enrichment media to see if culture bias patterns emerged. Nineteen strains representing four serogroups and ten serotypes were compared in four-strain mixtures in Salmonella-only and in cattle fecal culture enrichment backgrounds using Salmonella enrichment media. One or more strain(s) emerged as dominant in each mixture. No serotype was most fit, but strains of serogroups C2 and E were more likely to dominate enrichment culture mixtures than strains of serogroups B or C1. Different versions of Rappaport-Vassiliadis (RV) medium gave different patterns of strain dominance in both Salmonella-only and fecal enrichment culture backgrounds. The fittest strains belonged to serogroups C1, C2, and E, and included strains of S. Infantis, S. Thompson S. Newport, S. 6,8:d:-, and S. Give. Strains of serogroup B, which included serotypes often seen in outbreaks such as S. Typhimurium, S. Saintpaul, and S. Schwarzengrund were less likely to emerge as dominant strains in the mixtures when using standard RV as part of the enrichment. Using a more nutrient-rich version of RV as part of the protocol led to a different pattern of strains emerging, however some were still present in very low numbers in the resulting population. These results indicate that outbreak investigations of food and/or other environmental samples should include multiple enrichment protocols to ensure isolation of target strains of Salmonella.

  17. Pseudomorphic synthesis of monodisperse magnetic mesoporous silica microspheres for selective enrichment of endogenous peptides.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Gang-Tian; Li, Xiao-Shui; Gao, Qiang; Zhao, Ning-Wei; Yuan, Bi-Feng; Feng, Yu-Qi

    2012-02-10

    In this work, we describe a novel synthetic strategy of magnetic mesoporous silica spheres (Fe3O4@mSiO2) for the selective enrichment of endogenous peptides. Fe3O4 particles were coated with silica shell by a sol-gel method, followed by pseudomorphic synthesis to transform nonporous silica shell into ordered mesoporous silica shell. The core/shell structure and mesostructure were individually fabricated in two steps, which can be expedient to independently optimize the properties of monodispersion, magnetization and mesostructure. Actually, it was confirmed that the produced Fe3O4@mSiO2 particles possess good monodispersion, high magnetization, superparamagnetism, uniform accessible mesopores, and large surface area and pore volume. With these good properties, Fe3O4@mSiO2 spheres were applied to the rapid enrichment of peptides. Based on the size-exclusion mechanism and hydrophobic interaction with siloxane bridge group mainly on the surface of inside pores, Fe3O4@mSiO2 can selectively capture peptides and exclude high-MW proteins and salts. Furthermore, peptides in human plasma were successfully enriched by Fe3O4@mSiO2. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. A Method for Selectively Enriching Microbial DNA from Contaminating Vertebrate Host DNA

    PubMed Central

    Feehery, George R.; Yigit, Erbay; Oyola, Samuel O.; Langhorst, Bradley W.; Schmidt, Victor T.; Stewart, Fiona J.; Dimalanta, Eileen T.; Amaral-Zettler, Linda A.; Davis, Theodore; Quail, Michael A.; Pradhan, Sriharsa

    2013-01-01

    DNA samples derived from vertebrate skin, bodily cavities and body fluids contain both host and microbial DNA; the latter often present as a minor component. Consequently, DNA sequencing of a microbiome sample frequently yields reads originating from the microbe(s) of interest, but with a vast excess of host genome-derived reads. In this study, we used a methyl-CpG binding domain (MBD) to separate methylated host DNA from microbial DNA based on differences in CpG methylation density. MBD fused to the Fc region of a human antibody (MBD-Fc) binds strongly to protein A paramagnetic beads, forming an effective one-step enrichment complex that was used to remove human or fish host DNA from bacterial and protistan DNA for subsequent sequencing and analysis. We report enrichment of DNA samples from human saliva, human blood, a mock malaria-infected blood sample and a black molly fish. When reads were mapped to reference genomes, sequence reads aligning to host genomes decreased 50-fold, while bacterial and Plasmodium DNA sequences reads increased 8–11.5-fold. The Shannon-Wiener diversity index was calculated for 149 bacterial species in saliva before and after enrichment. Unenriched saliva had an index of 4.72, while the enriched sample had an index of 4.80. The similarity of these indices demonstrates that bacterial species diversity and relative phylotype abundance remain conserved in enriched samples. Enrichment using the MBD-Fc method holds promise for targeted microbiome sequence analysis across a broad range of sample types. PMID:24204593

  19. Zirconia enrichment in zircon sand by selective fungus-mediated bioleaching of silica.

    PubMed

    Bansal, Vipul; Syed, Asad; Bhargava, Suresh K; Ahmad, Absar; Sastry, Murali

    2007-04-24

    One of the important routes for the production of zirconia is by chemical treatment and removal of silica from zircon sand (ZrSixOy). We present here a completely green chemistry approach toward enrichment of zirconia in zircon sand; this is based on the reaction of the fungus Fusarium oxysporum with zircon sand by a process of selective extracellular bioleaching of silica nanoparticles. Since this reaction does not result in zirconia being simultaneously leached out from the sand, there is a consequent enrichment of the zirconia component in zircon sand. We believe that fungal enzymes specifically hydrolyze the silicates present in the sand to form silicic acid, which on condensation by certain other fungal enzymes results in room-temperature synthesis of silica nanoparticles. This fungus-mediated twofold approach might have vast commercial implications in low-cost, ecofriendly, room-temperature syntheses of technologically important oxide nanomaterials from potentially cheap naturally available raw materials like zircon sand.

  20. L-Lactate-selective microbial sensor based on flavocytochrome b2-enriched yeast cells using recombinant and nanotechnology approaches.

    PubMed

    Karkovska, Maria; Smutok, Oleh; Stasyuk, Nataliya; Gonchar, Mykhailo

    2015-11-01

    In the recent years, nanotechnology is the most developing branch due to a wide variety of potential applications in biomedical, biotechnological and agriculture fields. The binding nanoparticles with various biological molecules makes them attractive candidates for using in sensor technologies. The particularly actual is obtaining the bionanomembranes based on biocatalytic elements with improved sensing characteristics. The aim of this investigation is to study the properties of microbial L-lactate-selective sensor based on using the recombinant Hansenula polymorpha yeast cells overproducing flavocytochrome b2 (FC b2), as well as additionally enriched by the enzyme bound with gold nanoparticles (FC b2-nAu). Although, the high permeability of the living cells to nanoparticles is being intensively studied (mostly for delivery of drugs), the idea of using both recombinant technology and nanotechnology to increase the amount of the target enzyme in the biosensing layer is really novel. The FC b2-nAu-enriched living and permeabilized yeast cells were used for construction of a bioselective membrane of microbial L-lactate-selective amperometric biosensor. Phenazine methosulphate was served as a free defusing electron transfer mediator which provides effective electron transfer from the reduced enzyme to the electrode surface. It was shown that the output to L-lactate of FC b2-nAu-enriched permeabilized yeast cells is 2.5-fold higher when compared to the control cells. The obtained results confirm that additional enrichment of the recombinant yeast cell by the enzyme bound with nanoparticles improves the analytical parameters of microbial sensor.

  1. [Selective enrichment of Pseudomonas spp. in the rhizoplane of different plant species].

    PubMed

    Marrero, Mariana A; Agaras, Betina; Wall, Luis G; Valverde, Claudio

    2015-01-01

    In contrast to rhizobia-legume symbiosis, the specificity for root colonization by pseudomonads seems to be less strict. However, several studies about bacterial diversity in the rhizosphere highlight the influence of plant species on the selective enrichment of certain microorganisms from the bulk soil community. In order to evaluate the effect that different crops have on the structure of pseudomonad community on the root surface, we performed plant trap experiments, using surface-disinfected maize, wheat or soybean seeds that were sown in pots containing the same pristine soil as substrate. Rhizoplane suspensions were plated on a selective medium for Pseudomonas, and pooled colonies served as DNA source to carry out PCR-RFLP community structure analysis of the pseudomonads-specific marker genes oprF and gacA. PCR-RFLP profiles were grouped by plant species, and were distinguished from those of bulk soil samples. Partial sequencing of 16S rDNA genes of some representative colonies of Pseudomonas confirmed the selective enrichment of distinctive genotypes in the rhizoplane of each plant species. These results support the idea that the root systems of agricultural crops such as soybean, maize and wheat, select differential sets of pseudomonads from the native microbial repertoire inhabiting the bulk soil. Copyright © 2014 Asociación Argentina de Microbiología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  2. Selective enrichment in bioactive compound from Kniphofia uvaria by super/subcritical fluid extraction and centrifugal partition chromatography.

    PubMed

    Duval, Johanna; Destandau, Emilie; Pecher, Virginie; Poujol, Marion; Tranchant, Jean-François; Lesellier, Eric

    2016-05-20

    Nowadays, a large portion of synthetic products (active cosmetic and therapeutic ingredients) have their origin in natural products. Kniphofia uvaria is a plant from Africa which has proved in the past by in-vivo tests an antioxidant activity due to compounds present in roots. Recently, we have observed anthraquinones in K. uvaria seeds extracts. These derivatives are natural colorants which could have interesting bioactive potential. The aim of this study was to obtain an extract enriched in anthraquinones from K. uvaria seeds which mainly contains glycerides. First, the separation of the seed compounds was studied by using supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC) in the goal to provide a rapid quantification method of these bioactive compounds. A screening of numerous polar stationary phases was achieved for selecting the most suited phase to the separation of the four anthraquinones founded in the seeds. A gradient elution was optimized for improving the separation of the bioactive compounds from the numerous other families of major compounds of the extracts (fatty acids, di- and triglycerides). Besides, a non-selective and green Supercritical Fluid Extraction (SFE) with pure CO2 was applied to seeds followed by a Centrifugal Partition Chromatography (CPC). The CPC system was optimized by using the Arizona phase system, to enrich the extract in anthraquinones. Two systems were selected to isolate the bioactive compounds from the oily extract with varied purity target. The effect of the injection mode for these very viscous samples was also studied. Finally, in order to directly apply a selective process of extraction to the seeds, the super/subcritical fluid extraction was optimized to increase the anthraquinone yield in the final extract, by studying varied modifier compositions and nature, as well as different temperatures and backpressures. Conditions suited to favour an enrichment factor bases on the ratio of anthraquinone and trilycerides extracted are

  3. Goat milk fat naturally enriched with conjugated linoleic acid increased lipoproteins and reduced triacylglycerol in rats.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Raphaela; Soares, Juliana; Garcia, Hugo; Nascimento, Claudenice; Medeiros, Maria; Bomfim, Marco; Medeiros, Maria Carmo; Queiroga, Rita

    2014-03-24

    Goat milk is source of different lipids, including conjugated linoleic acid (CLA). CLA reduces body fat and protect against cardiovascular diseases. In the present study fat from goat milk naturally enriched with CLA was used. Male Wistar rats were divided into three groups that received during a 10 week diet with different lipid sources: soybean oil (CON), coconut oil (CO) and goat milk fat naturally enriched with CLA (GM-CLA). We evaluated the effects of a GM-CLA on biochemistry parameters--high density lipoprotein (HDL), triacylglycerol (TAG), TAG/HDL ratio, total cholesterol and glucose, body weight and histopathological aspects of the intestine and liver. GM-CLA increased body weight from the second to the fifth week of the experiment compared to CON. Feed intake differed between the CON group and GM-CLA early in the first to third week of the experiments and later between the ninth and tenth week. The CLA-diet group showed increased levels of HDL, reduced levels of TAG and TAG/HDL ratio and no effect on LDL, but enhanced total cholesterol. Serum glucose of the GM-CLA group showed no difference from the control group. Thus, a GM-CLA diet promoted growth in young rats and acted as protector of cardiovascular function, but further studies are still needed to clarify these effects.

  4. Enhanced accumulation of PCB congeners by Baltic Sea blue mussels, Mytilus edulis, with increased algae enrichment

    SciTech Connect

    Gilek, M.; Bjoerk, M.; Broman, D.; Kautsky, N.; Naef, C.

    1996-09-01

    The objective of this study was to examine if natural variations in the quantity of phytoplankton-derived particulate and dissolved organic carbon influences the accumulation of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in the tissues of Baltic Sea blue mussels (Mytilus edulis L.). In a laboratory flow-through experiment the authors exposed M. edulis to the technical PCB mixture Aroclor{reg_sign} 1248 for 21 d at three different enrichments of the unicellular green algae Chlamydomonas sp., 0.10, 0.16, and 0.32 mg particulate organic carbon (POC)/L. Tissue and water concentrations were determined for seven PCB congeners and 21-d bioaccumulation factors were calculated against total water concentrations. Contrary to what would be expected, an increase in algae enrichment from 0.10 to 0.32 mg POC/L resulted in an enhanced PCB accumulation by a factor of approx. 2. This increase in PCB accumulation was more pronounced for PCB congeners with lower hydrophobicity. These observations have implications for the design of laboratory accumulation studies and potentially for PCB accumulation and cycling in field populations of suspension-feeding mussels in response to changes in eutrophication status.

  5. A grape-enriched diet increases bone calcium retention and cortical bone properties in ovariectomized rats.

    PubMed

    Hohman, Emily E; Weaver, Connie M

    2015-02-01

    Grapes and their associated phytochemicals have been investigated for beneficial effects on cardiovascular health, cancer prevention, and other chronic diseases, but the effect of grape consumption on bone health has not been fully determined. We previously found short-term benefits of grape products on reducing bone turnover in ovariectomized rats. The objective of this study was to determine the long-term benefits of a grape-enriched diet on bone in ovariectomized rats. Rats were ovariectomized at 3 mo of age and were administered a single dose of (45)Ca to prelabel bones at 4 mo of age. After a 1-mo equilibration period, baseline urinary (45)Ca excretion was determined. Rats (n = 22/group) were then randomly assigned to a modified AIN93M diet containing 25% freeze-dried grape powder or to a control diet for 8 wk. Urinary (45)Ca excretion was monitored throughout the study to determine changes in bone (45)Ca retention. Calcium balance was assessed after 1 and 8 wk of consuming the experimental diets, and a calcium kinetic study was performed at 8 wk. After 8 wk, femurs were collected for micro-computed tomographic imaging, 3-point bending, and reference point indentation. Rats fed the grape-enriched diet had 44% greater net bone calcium retention than did rats fed the control diet. There were no differences in calcium balance due to diet at either week 1 or week 8, but there was a significant increase in net calcium absorption (10.6%) and retention (5.7%) from week 1 to week 8 in the grape-enriched diet group only. Grape-enriched diet-fed rats had 3% greater cortical thickness and 11% greater breaking strength. There were no differences in femur bone mineral density, trabecular microarchitecture, or reference point indentation variables due to diet. This study of ovariectomized rats indicates that the consumption of grape products may improve calcium utilization and suppress bone turnover, resulting in improvements in bone quality. © 2015 American Society for

  6. Top-down Feedback Exacerbates Effects of Nutrient Enrichment in Detritus-based Ecosystems via Increased Loss of Basal Carbon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosemond, A. D.; Suberkropp, K.; Cross, W. F.; Greenwood, J. L.; Eggert, S. L.; Taylor, N.; Wallace, J.

    2005-05-01

    In primary producer-based food webs faced with chronic nutrient enrichment, increased plant biomass may ultimately be suppressed by consumers. Effects of chronic enrichment of detritus-based ecosystems may be fundamentally different, with consumers exacerbating, rather than suppressing, the effects of enrichment on basal resources. We have continuously enriched a headwater stream at the Coweeta LongTerm Ecological Research site (North Carolina, USA) with N & P (to ca. 400 ug/L dissolved inorganic nitrogen and 50 ug/L soluble reactive phosphorus) for 4.5 yrs and quantified leaf breakdown rates, microbial production, invertebrate production, and leaf litter standing crop in the enriched stream and in an adjacent reference stream. Whereas nutrient enrichment largely increases basal carbon in primary producer-based systems, detrital carbon in the treatment stream was drastically diminished relative to the reference stream. During each successive year of enrichment, rates of leaf breakdown were progressively faster and standing crops of detrital carbon were progressively lower. This `ramping up' of loss rates of carbon appear to be driven by increased consumption by invertebrates, rather than increased microbial activity. Our results illustrate that fundamentally different trophic feedback effects can potentially occur in detrital vs primary producer components of food webs in response to increased nutrient concentrations.

  7. Increased antioxidant content in juice enriched with dried extract of pomegranate (Punica granatum) peel.

    PubMed

    Mastrodi Salgado, Jocelem; Baroni Ferreira, Tânia Rachel; de Oliveira Biazotto, Fúvia; Dos Santos Dias, Carlos Tadeu

    2012-03-01

    Antioxidants are compounds responsible for free radical scavenging in the body. They protect the organism from oxidative modification of cells and tissues. These modifications have been associated with degenerative diseases, atherosclerosis and carcinogenesis. Punica granatum displays high antioxidant potential due to the presence of phenolic compounds, which are capable of disease prevention. The present study showed the highest antioxidant activity in pomegranate peel than in seeds and pulp. Based on these results, pomegranate peel was used to produce dried extract that was added to commercial tomato juice and orange juice with strawberries. Analysis to determine the content of phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity was performed on pomegranate pulp, seeds and peel and in juices enriched with dried extract of pomegranate peel. The dried extract was responsible for a significant increase in antioxidant activity of the juices, proportional to the concentrations added. However, although both flavors of enriched juices displayed high antioxidant levels, the samples with higher dried extract concentrations received the lowest scores from sensory analysis participants due to the characteristic astringent flavor of pomegranate peels. Therefore, to obtain greater acceptance in the consumer market, we concluded that the maximum addition of dried pomegranate peel extract is 0.5% in tomato juice and orange juice with strawberries.

  8. Increased dimethyl sulphide concentrations in sea water from in situ iron enrichment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turner, Suzanne M.; Nightingale, Philip D.; Spokes, Lucinda J.; Liddicoat, Malcolm I.; Liss, Peter S.

    1996-10-01

    THE concentrations of bioavailable iron in the surface waters of some ocean regions may indirectly modulate climate by controlling phytoplankton productivity and thus the amounts of carbon dioxide1 and dimethyl sulphide (DMS) that are exchanged with the atmosphere. Oxidation of DMS is involved in the formation of atmospheric sulphate particles, which can exert a climate cooling effect2 directly (by scattering and absorbing solar radiation), and indirectly (by affecting cloudiness and hence global albedo). But direct evidence supporting the hypothesis that DMS production in the ocean is affected by iron availability is lacking. Here we report changes in the concentrations of DMS in response to in situ iron-enrichment during two ecosystem-scale experiments designed to investigate the biological and chemical effects of iron fertilization of under-productive surface ocean waters3,4. The first such experiment revealed a limited overall biological response3 and no significant changes in DMS concentrations, although the concentrations of its biochemical precursor doubled5. The second experiment, designed to better mimic the natural process of iron enrichment, elicited a much stronger biological response4, and DMS concentrations increased by a factor of 3.5. This result provides direct support for an important link in the iron-DMS-climate hypothesis.

  9. Selective Enrichment of Omega-3 Fatty Acids in Oils by Phospholipase A1.

    PubMed

    Ranjan Moharana, Tushar; Byreddy, Avinesh R; Puri, Munish; Barrow, Colin; Rao, Nalam Madhusudhana

    2016-01-01

    Omega fatty acids are recognized as key nutrients for healthier ageing. Lipases are used to release ω-3 fatty acids from oils for preparing enriched ω-3 fatty acid supplements. However, use of lipases in enrichment of ω-3 fatty acids is limited due to their insufficient specificity for ω-3 fatty acids. In this study use of phospholipase A1 (PLA1), which possesses both sn-1 specific activity on phospholipids and lipase activity, was explored for hydrolysis of ω-3 fatty acids from anchovy oil. Substrate specificity of PLA1 from Thermomyces lenuginosus was initially tested with synthetic p-nitrophenyl esters along with a lipase from Bacillus subtilis (BSL), as a lipase control. Gas chromatographic characterization of the hydrolysate obtained upon treatment of anchovy oil with these enzymes indicated a selective retention of ω-3 fatty acids in the triglyceride fraction by PLA1 and not by BSL. 13C NMR spectroscopy based position analysis of fatty acids in enzyme treated and untreated samples indicated that PLA1 preferably retained ω-3 fatty acids in oil, while saturated fatty acids were hydrolysed irrespective of their position. Hydrolysis of structured triglyceride,1,3-dioleoyl-2-palmitoylglycerol, suggested that both the enzymes hydrolyse the fatty acids at both the positions. The observed discrimination against ω-3 fatty acids by PLA1 appears to be due to its fatty acid selectivity rather than positional specificity. These studies suggest that PLA1 could be used as a potential enzyme for selective concentrationof ω-3 fatty acids.

  10. Selection Based on FOXA2 Expression Is Not Sufficient to Enrich for Dopamine Neurons From Human Pluripotent Stem Cells.

    PubMed

    Aguila, Julio Cesar; Blak, Alexandra; van Arensbergen, Joris; Sousa, Amaia; Vázquez, Nerea; Aduriz, Ariane; Gayosso, Mayela; Lopez Mato, Maria Paz; Lopez de Maturana, Rakel; Hedlund, Eva; Sonntag, Kai-Christian; Sanchez-Pernaute, Rosario

    2014-09-01

    Human embryonic and induced pluripotent stem cells are potential cell sources for regenerative approaches in Parkinson disease. Inductive differentiation protocols can generate midbrain dopamine neurons but result in heterogeneous cell mixtures. Therefore, selection strategies are necessary to obtain uniform dopamine cell populations. Here, we developed a selection approach using lentivirus vectors to express green fluorescent protein under the promoter region of FOXA2, a transcription factor that is expressed in the floor plate domain that gives rise to dopamine neurons during embryogenesis. We first validated the specificity of the vectors in human cell lines against a promoterless construct. We then selected FOXA2-positive neural progenitors from several human pluripotent stem cell lines, which demonstrated a gene expression profile typical for the ventral domain of the midbrain and floor plate, but failed to enrich for dopamine neurons. To investigate whether this was due to the selection approach, we overexpressed FOXA2 in neural progenitors derived from human pluripotent stem cell lines. FOXA2 forced expression resulted in an increased expression of floor plate but not mature neuronal markers. Furthermore, selection of the FOXA2 overexpressing fraction also failed to enrich for dopamine neurons. Collectively, our results suggest that FOXA2 is not sufficient to induce a dopaminergic fate in this system. On the other hand, our study demonstrates that a combined approach of promoter activation and lentivirus vector technology can be used as a versatile tool for the selection of a defined cell population from a variety of human pluripotent stem cell lines. ©AlphaMed Press.

  11. Chasing Phosphoarginine Proteins: Development of a Selective Enrichment Method Using a Phosphatase Trap*

    PubMed Central

    Trentini, Débora Broch; Fuhrmann, Jakob; Mechtler, Karl; Clausen, Tim

    2014-01-01

    Arginine phosphorylation is an emerging post-translational protein modification implicated in the bacterial stress response. Although early reports suggested that arginine phosphorylation also occurs in higher eukaryotes, its overall prevalence was never studied using modern mass spectrometry methods, owing to technical difficulties arising from the acid lability of phosphoarginine. As shown recently, the McsB and YwlE proteins from Bacillus subtilis function as a highly specific protein arginine kinase and phosphatase couple, shaping the phosphoarginine proteome. Using a B. subtilis ΔywlE strain as a source for arginine-phosphorylated proteins, we were able to adapt mass spectrometry (MS) protocols to the special chemical properties of the arginine modification. Despite this progress, the analysis of protein arginine phosphorylation in eukaryotes is still challenging, given the great abundance of serine/threonine phosphorylations that would compete with phosphoarginine during the phosphopeptide enrichment procedure, as well as during data-dependent MS acquisition. We thus set out to establish a method for the selective enrichment of arginine-phosphorylated proteins as an initial step in the phosphoproteomic analysis. For this purpose, we developed a substrate-trapping mutant of the YwlE phosphatase that retains binding affinity toward arginine-phosphorylated proteins but cannot hydrolyze the captured substrates. By testing a number of active site substitutions, we identified a YwlE mutant (C9A) that stably binds to arginine-phosphorylated proteins. We further improved the substrate-trapping efficiency by impeding the oligomerization of the phosphatase mutant. The engineered YwlE trap efficiently captured arginine-phosphorylated proteins from complex B. subtilis ΔywlE cell extracts, thus facilitating identification of phosphoarginine sites in the large pool of cellular protein modifications. In conclusion, we present a novel tool for the selective enrichment and

  12. Survival of the fastest: Selective removal of the side population for enhanced PHA production in a mixed substrate enrichment.

    PubMed

    Korkakaki, Emmanouela; van Loosdrecht, Mark C M; Kleerebezem, Robbert

    2016-09-01

    The success of enriching PHA-producers in a feast/famine regime strongly depends on the substrate utilized. A distinction can be made between substrates that select for PHA-producers (e.g. volatile fatty acids) and substrates that select for growing organisms (e.g. methanol). In this study the feasibility of using such a mixed substrate was evaluated. A sedimentation step was introduced in the cycle after acetate depletion and the supernatant containing methanol was discharged. This process configuration resulted in an increased maximum PHA storage capacity of the biomass from 48wt% to 70wt%. A model based on the experimental results indicated that the length of the pre-settling period and the supernatant volume that is discharged play a significant role for the elimination of the side population. However, the kinetic properties of the two different populations determine the success of the proposed strategy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Synthesis and NMR of RNA with selective isotopic enrichment in the bases.

    PubMed Central

    SantaLucia, J; Shen, L X; Cai, Z; Lewis, H; Tinoco, I

    1995-01-01

    Efficient syntheses of pyrimidine and purine nucleosides and nucleotides with selective 13C enrichment in the base moieties are described. Uridine and cytidine are labeled at position C6 and adenosine and guanosine are labeled at position C8. The selectively labeled nucleosides were converted to nucleoside triphosphates and used with in vitro transcription to synthesize labeled RNA. Isotope-edited 12C and 13C sub-spectra of a omega 1-1/2-X-filtered NOESY experiment are demonstrated to be useful for making resonance assignments and for deriving structural information in large (> 20 nt) RNA molecules. The labeled RNAs also allow heteronuclear J-couplings and relaxation parameters to be measured without complications from 13C-13C J-couplings. PMID:8532537

  14. Synthesis and NMR of RNA with selective isotopic enrichment in the bases.

    PubMed

    SantaLucia, J; Shen, L X; Cai, Z; Lewis, H; Tinoco, I

    1995-12-11

    Efficient syntheses of pyrimidine and purine nucleosides and nucleotides with selective 13C enrichment in the base moieties are described. Uridine and cytidine are labeled at position C6 and adenosine and guanosine are labeled at position C8. The selectively labeled nucleosides were converted to nucleoside triphosphates and used with in vitro transcription to synthesize labeled RNA. Isotope-edited 12C and 13C sub-spectra of a omega 1-1/2-X-filtered NOESY experiment are demonstrated to be useful for making resonance assignments and for deriving structural information in large (> 20 nt) RNA molecules. The labeled RNAs also allow heteronuclear J-couplings and relaxation parameters to be measured without complications from 13C-13C J-couplings.

  15. Maximizing power generation from dark fermentation effluents in microbial fuel cell by selective enrichment of exoelectrogens and optimization of anodic operational parameters.

    PubMed

    Varanasi, Jhansi L; Sinha, Pallavi; Das, Debabrata

    2017-05-01

    To selectively enrich an electrogenic mixed consortium capable of utilizing dark fermentative effluents as substrates in microbial fuel cells and to further enhance the power outputs by optimization of influential anodic operational parameters. A maximum power density of 1.4 W/m(3) was obtained by an enriched mixed electrogenic consortium in microbial fuel cells using acetate as substrate. This was further increased to 5.43 W/m(3) by optimization of influential anodic parameters. By utilizing dark fermentative effluents as substrates, the maximum power densities ranged from 5.2 to 6.2 W/m(3) with an average COD removal efficiency of 75% and a columbic efficiency of 10.6%. A simple strategy is provided for selective enrichment of electrogenic bacteria that can be used in microbial fuel cells for generating power from various dark fermentative effluents.

  16. Whole-system nutrient enrichment increases secondary production in a detritus-based ecosystem

    Treesearch

    W.F. Cross; J.B. Wallace; A.D. Rosemond; S.L. Eggert

    2006-01-01

    Although the effects of nutrient enrichment on consumer-resource dynamics are relatively well studied in ecosystems based on living plants, little is known about the manner in which enrichment influences the dynamics and productivity of consumers and resources in detritus-based ecosystems. Because nutrients can stimulate loss of carbon at the base of detrital food webs...

  17. Using Enrichment Reading Practices to Increase Reading Fluency, Comprehension, and Attitudes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reis, Sally M.; Eckert, Rebecca D.; McCoach, D. Betsy; Jacobs, Joan K.; Coyne, Michael

    2008-01-01

    The authors used a randomized design to investigate the effects of an enriched reading program, Schoolwide Enrichment Reading Model (SEM-R), with blocks of independent reading on oral reading fluency (ORF), reading comprehension, and attitudes toward reading for students in Grades 3-5. The authors used SEM-R in comparison with basal reading…

  18. Development of a titanium dioxide nanoparticle pipette-tip for the selective enrichment of phosphorylated peptides.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Hui-Ching; Sheu, Calvin; Shi, Fong-Ku; Li, Ding-Tzai

    2007-09-21

    The selective enrichment of specific proteins or peptides on micropipette tips prior to mass spectrometry analysis, which can minimize non-specific interferences as well as sample loss, has been an important issue in current proteomics field. In this paper, we have developed an easy-to-use phosphopeptide-selective pipette tip in which titanium dioxide nanoparticles were embedded in monolithic structure photopolymerized from ethylene glycol dimethacrylate. The simple and convenient fabrication was feasible in a commercial polypropylene pipette tip. Phosphorylated peptides were isolated from non-phosphopeptides by TiO(2) nanoparticle and eluted by 100 mM ammonium phosphate (pH 8.5), which was compatible with 2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid (DHB)/1% phosphoric acid matrix and allowed for direct analysis of the elution fraction by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS) without the necessity of desalting pretreatment. Tryptic digested alpha-casein and beta-casein spiked into bovine serum albumin (BSA) nonphosphorylated peptides (molar ratio 1:1:10) were used to assess the selectivity of TiO(2) tips. The effect of 50 mM ammonium hydrogencarbonate, pH 8 in 50% acetonitrile used as a wash buffer in reduction of nonspecific bound peptide to TiO(2) tip was dramatic. Almost all non-phosphopeptides were not detected by MALDI-MS analysis. The lowest detectable amount of phosphopeptide was estimated at low femtomole level. The easy-to-use TiO(2)-embeded tips operated in combination with the modified wash and elution conditions enable an efficient phosphopeptide enrichment for mass spectrometric analysis.

  19. Selective Enrichment of Omega-3 Fatty Acids in Oils by Phospholipase A1

    PubMed Central

    Puri, Munish; Barrow, Colin; Rao, Nalam Madhusudhana

    2016-01-01

    Omega fatty acids are recognized as key nutrients for healthier ageing. Lipases are used to release ω-3 fatty acids from oils for preparing enriched ω-3 fatty acid supplements. However, use of lipases in enrichment of ω-3 fatty acids is limited due to their insufficient specificity for ω-3 fatty acids. In this study use of phospholipase A1 (PLA1), which possesses both sn-1 specific activity on phospholipids and lipase activity, was explored for hydrolysis of ω-3 fatty acids from anchovy oil. Substrate specificity of PLA1 from Thermomyces lenuginosus was initially tested with synthetic p-nitrophenyl esters along with a lipase from Bacillus subtilis (BSL), as a lipase control. Gas chromatographic characterization of the hydrolysate obtained upon treatment of anchovy oil with these enzymes indicated a selective retention of ω-3 fatty acids in the triglyceride fraction by PLA1 and not by BSL. 13C NMR spectroscopy based position analysis of fatty acids in enzyme treated and untreated samples indicated that PLA1 preferably retained ω-3 fatty acids in oil, while saturated fatty acids were hydrolysed irrespective of their position. Hydrolysis of structured triglyceride,1,3-dioleoyl-2-palmitoylglycerol, suggested that both the enzymes hydrolyse the fatty acids at both the positions. The observed discrimination against ω-3 fatty acids by PLA1 appears to be due to its fatty acid selectivity rather than positional specificity. These studies suggest that PLA1 could be used as a potential enzyme for selective concentrationof ω-3 fatty acids. PMID:26978518

  20. Formulation of Biocides Increases Antimicrobial Potency and Mitigates the Enrichment of Nonsusceptible Bacteria in Multispecies Biofilms.

    PubMed

    Forbes, Sarah; Cowley, Nicola; Humphreys, Gavin; Mistry, Hitesh; Amézquita, Alejandro; McBain, Andrew J

    2017-04-01

    The current investigation aimed to generate data to inform the development of risk assessments of biocide usage. Stabilized domestic drain biofilm microcosms were exposed daily over 6 months to increasing concentrations (0.01% to 1%) of the biocide benzalkonium chloride (BAC) in a simple aqueous solution (BAC-s) or in a complex formulation (BAC-f) representative of a domestic cleaning agent. Biofilms were analyzed by culture, differentiating by bacterial functional group and by BAC or antibiotic susceptibility. Bacterial isolates were identified by 16S rRNA sequencing, and changes in biofilm composition were assessed by high-throughput sequencing. Exposure to BAC-f resulted in significantly larger reductions in levels of viable bacteria than exposure to BAC-s, while bacterial diversity greatly decreased during exposure to both BAC-s and BAC-f, as evidenced by sequencing and viable counts. Increases in the abundance of bacteria exhibiting reduced antibiotic or BAC susceptibility following exposure to BAC at 0.1% were significantly greater for BAC-s than BAC-f. Bacteria with reduced BAC and antibiotic susceptibility were generally suppressed by higher BAC concentrations, and formulation significantly enhanced this effect. Significant decreases in the antimicrobial susceptibility of bacteria isolated from the systems before and after long-term BAC exposure were not detected. In summary, dose-dependent suppression of bacterial viability by BAC was enhanced by formulation. Biocide exposure decreased bacterial diversity and transiently enriched populations of organisms with lower antimicrobial susceptibility, and the effects were subsequently suppressed by exposure to 1% BAC-f, the concentration most closely reflecting deployment in formulated products.IMPORTANCE Assessment of the risks of biocide use has been based mainly on the exposure of axenic cultures of bacteria to biocides in simple aqueous solutions. The current investigation aimed to assess the effects of

  1. Enriched environment increases the total number of CNPase positive cells in the corpus callosum of middle-aged rats.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yuan-Yu; Shi, Xiao-Yan; Qiu, Xuan; Zhang, Lei; Lu, Wei; Yang, Shu; Li, Chen; Cheng, Guo-Hua; Yang, Zheng-Wei; Tang, Yong

    2011-01-01

    It had been reported that enriched environment was beneficial for the brain cognition, neurons and synapses in cortex and hippocampus. With diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), several studies recently found the trained-induced larger corpus callosum. However, the effect of enriched environment on the oligodendrocytes in corpus callosum has not been explored with the unbiased stereological methods. In current study, the effect of enriched environment on the total number of 2',3'-cyclic nucleotide 3'-phosphodiesterase (CNPase) positive cells in middle-aged rat corpus callosum was investigated by means of immunohistochemical techniques and the unbiased stereological methods. We found that, when compared to standard rats, the spatial learning capacity of enriched-environment rats was significantly increased. The total number of the CNPase positive cells in the corpus callosum of enriched-environment middle-aged rats was significantly increased when compared to standard rats. The present study provided, to the best of our knowledge, the first evidence of environmental enrichment-induced increases in the total number of CNPase positive cells in the corpus callosum of middle-aged rats.

  2. SHAPE Selection (SHAPES) enrich for RNA structure signal in SHAPE sequencing-based probing data.

    PubMed

    Poulsen, Line Dahl; Kielpinski, Lukasz Jan; Salama, Sofie R; Krogh, Anders; Vinther, Jeppe

    2015-05-01

    Selective 2' Hydroxyl Acylation analyzed by Primer Extension (SHAPE) is an accurate method for probing of RNA secondary structure. In existing SHAPE methods, the SHAPE probing signal is normalized to a no-reagent control to correct for the background caused by premature termination of the reverse transcriptase. Here, we introduce a SHAPE Selection (SHAPES) reagent, N-propanone isatoic anhydride (NPIA), which retains the ability of SHAPE reagents to accurately probe RNA structure, but also allows covalent coupling between the SHAPES reagent and a biotin molecule. We demonstrate that SHAPES-based selection of cDNA-RNA hybrids on streptavidin beads effectively removes the large majority of background signal present in SHAPE probing data and that sequencing-based SHAPES data contain the same amount of RNA structure data as regular sequencing-based SHAPE data obtained through normalization to a no-reagent control. Moreover, the selection efficiently enriches for probed RNAs, suggesting that the SHAPES strategy will be useful for applications with high-background and low-probing signal such as in vivo RNA structure probing. © 2015 Poulsen et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press for the RNA Society.

  3. SHAPE Selection (SHAPES) enrich for RNA structure signal in SHAPE sequencing-based probing data

    PubMed Central

    Poulsen, Line Dahl; Kielpinski, Lukasz Jan; Salama, Sofie R.; Krogh, Anders; Vinther, Jeppe

    2015-01-01

    Selective 2′ Hydroxyl Acylation analyzed by Primer Extension (SHAPE) is an accurate method for probing of RNA secondary structure. In existing SHAPE methods, the SHAPE probing signal is normalized to a no-reagent control to correct for the background caused by premature termination of the reverse transcriptase. Here, we introduce a SHAPE Selection (SHAPES) reagent, N-propanone isatoic anhydride (NPIA), which retains the ability of SHAPE reagents to accurately probe RNA structure, but also allows covalent coupling between the SHAPES reagent and a biotin molecule. We demonstrate that SHAPES-based selection of cDNA–RNA hybrids on streptavidin beads effectively removes the large majority of background signal present in SHAPE probing data and that sequencing-based SHAPES data contain the same amount of RNA structure data as regular sequencing-based SHAPE data obtained through normalization to a no-reagent control. Moreover, the selection efficiently enriches for probed RNAs, suggesting that the SHAPES strategy will be useful for applications with high-background and low-probing signal such as in vivo RNA structure probing. PMID:25805860

  4. Zirconium-doped magnetic microspheres for the selective enrichment of cis-diol-containing ribonucleosides.

    PubMed

    Fan, Hua; Chen, Peihong; Wang, Chaozhan; Wei, Yinmao

    2016-05-27

    Zirconium-doped magnetic microspheres (Zr-Fe3O4) for the selective enrichment of cis-diol-containing biomolecules were easily synthesized via a one-step hydrothermal method. Characterization of the microspheres revealed that zirconium was successfully doped into the lattice of Fe3O4 at a doping level of 4.0 at%. Zr-Fe3O4 possessed good magnetic properties and high specificity towards cis-diol molecules, as shown using 28 compounds. For ribonucleosides, the adsorbent not only has favorable anti-interferential abilities but also has a high adsorption capacity up to 159.4μmol/g. As an example of a real application, four ribonucleosides in urine were efficiently enriched and detected via magnetic solid-phase extraction coupled with high-performance liquid chromatography. Under the optimized extraction conditions, the detection limits were determined to be between 0.005 and 0.017μg/mL, and the linearities ranged from 0.02 to 5.00μg/mL (R≥0.996) for these analytes. The accuracy of the analytical method was examined by studying the relative recoveries of the analytes in real urine samples, with recoveries varying from 77.8% to 119.6% (RSDs<10.6%, n=6). The results indicate that Zr-Fe3O4 is a suitable adsorbent for the analysis of cis-diol-containing biomolecules in practical applications.

  5. Selective Enrichment and Fractionation of Phosphopeptides from Peptide Mixtures by Isoelectric Focusing after Methyl Esterification

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Chong-Feng; Wang, Huaibin; Li, Daming; Kong, Xiang-Peng; Neubert, Thomas A.

    2008-01-01

    Summary We have developed a new strategy to enrich and fractionate phosphopeptides from peptide mixtures based on difference in their isoelectric points (pIs) after methyl esterification. After isoelectric focusing (IEF) of a methylated tryptic digest of a mixture of α-S-casein and β-casein, phosphopeptides were selectively enriched at acidic and neutral pHs while nonphosphopeptides left the focusing gel because their pIs are higher than the upper limit of the immobilized pH gradient (IPG). We wrote a web-based program, pIMethylation, to predict the pIs for peptides with and without methyl esterification. Theoretical calculations using pIMethylation indicated that methylated phosphopeptides and non-phosphopeptides can be grouped based on the number of phosphate groups and basic residues in each peptide. Our IEF results were consistent with theoretical pIs of methylated peptides calculated by pIMethylation. We also showed that 2, 6-dihydroxyacetophenone (DHAP) is superior to 2, 5-dihydroxybenzoic acid (DHB) as a matrix for MALDI Q-TOF MS of methylated phosphopeptides in both positive and negative ion modes. PMID:17249638

  6. A rapid procedure for selective enrichment of photosynthetic electron transport mutants.

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, G W; Matlin, K S; Chua, N H

    1977-01-01

    Metronidazole (2-methyl-5-nitroimidazole-l-ethanol) is shown to be effective for the selective enrichment of mutants of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii that posses impaired photosynthetic electron transport. More than 99.9% of wild-type cells are killed when incubated in the presence of 6-10 mM metronidazole for 24 hr under illumination of 7500 lux. Survival of wild-type cells in darkness and of mutants that are blocked at different steps in photosynthetic electron transport is nearly 100% when incubated in the presence of the drug under identical conditions. The toxicity of metronidazole is demonstrated to depend upon its reduction by photosynthetic electron transport. Light-dependent oxygen uptake mediated by metronidazole is shown to require active photosystem l in vitro and in vivo. Ferredoxin is necessary for metronidazole reduction by thylakoid membrane fractions enriched in photosystem l activity. We propose that the toxicity of metronidazole is due to the formation of lethal derivatives of the drug or to the accumulation of hydrogen peroxide, which could occur upon autooxidation of metronidazole reduced by one electron. The results indicate that mutants of C. reinhardtii, and probably other photosynthetic organisms, with any lesion in photosynthetic electron transport from the oxidizing side of photosystem ll to ferredoxin can be isolated by metronidazole treatment of mutagenized cultures. PMID:265526

  7. Selective enrichment and production of highly urease active bacteria by non-sterile (open) chemostat culture.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Liang; Cord-Ruwisch, Ralf

    2013-10-01

    In general, bioprocesses can be subdivided into naturally occurring processes, not requiring sterility (e.g., beer brewing, wine making, lactic acid fermentation, or biogas digestion) and other processes (e.g., the production of enzymes and antibiotics) that typically require a high level of sterility to avoid contaminant microbes overgrowing the production strain. The current paper describes the sustainable, non-sterile production of an industrial enzyme using activated sludge as inoculum. By using selective conditions (high pH, high ammonia concentration, and presence of urea) for the target bacterium, highly active ureolytic bacteria, physiologically resembling Sporosarcina pasteurii were reproducibly enriched and then continuously produced via chemostat operation of the bioreactor. When using a pH of 10 and about 0.2 M urea in a yeast extract-based medium, ureolytic bacteria developed under aerobic chemostat operation at hydraulic retention times of about 10 h with urease levels of about 60 μmol min⁻¹ ml⁻¹ culture. For cost minimization at an industrial scale the costly protein-rich yeast extract medium could be replaced by commercial milk powder or by lysed activated sludge. Glutamate, molasses, or glucose-based media did not result in the enrichment of ureolytic bacteria by the chemostat. The concentration of intracellular urease was sufficiently high such that the produced raw effluent from the reactor could be used directly for biocementation in the field.

  8. The Use of Titanium Dioxide for Selective Enrichment of Phosphorylated Peptides.

    PubMed

    Thingholm, Tine E; Larsen, Martin R

    2016-01-01

    Titanium dioxide (TiO2) has very high affinity for phosphopeptides and in recent years it has become one of the most popular methods for phosphopeptide enrichment from complex biological samples. Peptide loading onto TiO2 resin in a highly acidic environment in the presence of 2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid (DHB), phthalic acid, lactic acid, or glycolic acid has been shown to improve selectivity significantly by reducing unspecific binding of non-phosphorylated peptides. The phosphopeptides bound to the TiO2 are subsequently eluted from the chromatographic material using an alkaline buffer. TiO2 chromatography is extremely tolerant towards most buffers used in biological experiments, highly robust and as such it has become the method of choice in large-scale phosphoproteomics. Here we describe a batch mode protocol for phosphopeptide enrichment using TiO2 chromatographic material followed by desalting and concentration of the sample by reversed phase micro-columns prior to downstream MS and LC-MS/MS analysis.

  9. Maltodextrin-modified magnetic microspheres for selective enrichment of maltose binding proteins.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Jin; Ma, Chongjun; Sun, Yangfei; Pan, Miaorong; Li, Li; Hu, Xiaojian; Yang, Wuli

    2014-03-12

    In this work, maltodextrin-modified magnetic microspheres Fe3O4@SiO2-Maltodextrin (Fe3O4@SiO2-MD) with uniform size and fine morphology were synthesized through a facile and low-cost method. As the maltodextrins on the surface of microspheres were combined with maltose binding proteins (MBP), the magnetic microspheres could be applied to enriching standard MBP fused proteins. Then, the application of Fe3O4@SiO2-MD in one-step purification and immobilization of MBP fused proteins was demonstrated. For the model protein we examined, Fe3O4@SiO2-MD showed excellent binding selectivity and capacity against other Escherichia coli proteins in the crude cell lysate. Additionally, the maltodextrin-modified magnetic microspheres can be recycled for several times without significant loss of binding capacity.

  10. Evaluation of the ability of primary selective enrichment to resuscitate heat-injured and freeze-injured Listeria monocytogenes cells.

    PubMed Central

    Budu-Amoako, E; Toora, S; Ablett, R F; Smith, J

    1992-01-01

    Resuscitation rates of injured Listeria monocytogenes on conventional selective Listeria enrichment broth and nonselective Trypticase soy broth containing 0.6% yeast extract were compared. Cells were heated to 60 degrees C for 5 min or frozen at -20 degrees C for 7 days. Inoculation of Trypticase soy broth-yeast extract with the stressed cells resulted in growth that was superior to that in Listeria enrichment broth. Injured cells were fully recovered at 6 to 8 h. PMID:1444432

  11. Oxidation in fish oil enriched mayonnaise: ascorbic acid and low pH increase oxidative deterioration.

    PubMed

    Jacobsen, C; Timm, M; Meyer, A S

    2001-08-01

    The effect of ascorbic acid (0-4000 ppm) and pH (3.8-6.2) on oxidation and levels of iron and copper in various fractions of mayonnaise enriched with 16% fish oil was investigated. Ascorbic acid induced release of iron from the assumed oil-water interface into the aqueous phase at all pH levels, but this effect of ascorbic acid was strongest at low pH (pH 3.8-4.2). Ascorbic acid generally promoted formation of volatile oxidation compounds and reduced the peroxide value in mayonnaises. Peroxide values and total volatiles generally increased with decreasing pH values, suggesting that low pH promoted oxidation. It is proposed that iron bridges between the egg yolk proteins low-density lipoproteins, lipovitellin, and phosvitin at the oil-water interface are broken at low pH values, whereby iron ions become accessible as oxidation initiators. In the presence of ascorbic acid, oxidation is further enhanced due to the reduction of Fe(3+) to Fe(2+) that rapidly catalyzes lipid oxidation via lipid hydroperoxide decomposition at the oil-water interface in mayonnaise.

  12. Mesoporous Silica Chips for Selective Enrichment and Stabilization of Low Molecular Weight Proteome

    PubMed Central

    Bouamrani, Ali; Hu, Ye; Tasciotti, Ennio; Li, Li; Chiappini, Ciro; Liu, Xuewu; Ferrari, Mauro

    2010-01-01

    The advanced properties of mesoporous silica have been demonstrated in applications which include chemical sensing, filtration, catalysis, drug-delivery and selective biomolecular uptake. These properties depend on the architectural, physical and chemical properties of the material, which in turn are determined by the processing parameters in evaporation-induced self-assembly. In this study, we introduce a combinatorial approach for the removal of the high molecular weight proteins and for the specific isolation and enrichment of low molecular weight species. This approach is based on Mesoporous Silica Chips able to fractionate, selectively harvest and protect from enzymatic degradation, peptides and proteins present in complex human biological fluids. We present the characterization of the harvesting properties of a wide range of mesoporous chips using a library of peptides and proteins standard and their selectivity on the recovery of serum peptidome. Using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry, we established the correlation between the harvesting specificity and the physico-chemical properties of mesoporous silica surfaces. The introduction of this mesoporous material with fine controlled properties will provide a powerful platform for proteomics application offering a rapid and efficient methodology for low molecular weight biomarker discovery. PMID:20013801

  13. An Elementary Overview of the Selection of Materials for Service in Oxygen-Enriched Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Samuel Eddie

    2012-01-01

    The process for selecting materials for use in oxygen or oxygen-enriched environments is one that continues to be investigated by many industries due to the importance to those industries of oxygen systems. There are several excellent resources available to assist oxygen systems design engineers and end-users, with the most comprehensive being ASTM MNL-36, Safe Use of Oxygen and Oxygen Systems: Handbook for Design, Operation and Maintenance, 2nd Edition. ASTM also makes available several standards for oxygen systems. However, the ASTM publications are extremely detailed, and typically designed for professionals who already possess a working knowledge of oxygen systems. No notable resource exists, whether an ASTM or other organizational publication, which can be used to educate engineers or technicians who have no prior knowledge of the nuances of oxygen system design and safety. This paper will fill the void for information needed by organizations that design or operate oxygen systems. The information in this paper is not new information, but is a concise and easily understood summary of selecting materials for oxygen systems. This paper will serve well as an employee s first introduction to oxygen system materials selection, and probably the employee s first introduction to ASTM.

  14. Mesoporous silica chips for selective enrichment and stabilization of low molecular weight proteome.

    PubMed

    Bouamrani, Ali; Hu, Ye; Tasciotti, Ennio; Li, Li; Chiappini, Ciro; Liu, Xuewu; Ferrari, Mauro

    2010-02-01

    The advanced properties of mesoporous silica have been demonstrated in applications, which include chemical sensing, filtration, catalysis, drug delivery and selective biomolecular uptake. These properties depend on the architectural, physical and chemical properties of the material, which in turn are determined by the processing parameters in evaporation-induced self-assembly. In this study, we introduce a combinatorial approach for the removal of the high molecular weight proteins and for the specific isolation and enrichment of low molecular weight species. This approach is based on mesoporous silica chips able to fractionate, selectively harvest and protect from enzymatic degradation, peptides and proteins present in complex human biological fluids. We present the characterization of the harvesting properties of a wide range of mesoporous chips using a library of peptides and proteins standard and their selectivity on the recovery of serum peptidome. Using MALDI-TOF-MS, we established the correlation between the harvesting specificity and the physicochemical properties of mesoporous silica surfaces. The introduction of this mesoporous material with fine controlled properties will provide a powerful platform for proteomics application offering a rapid and efficient methodology for low molecular weight biomarker discovery.

  15. Development of erbium phosphate doped poly(glycidyl methacrylate/ethylene dimethacrylate) spin columns for selective enrichment of phosphopeptides.

    PubMed

    Güzel, Yüksel; Rainer, Matthias; Messner, Christoph B; Hussain, Shah; Meischl, Florian; Sasse, Michael; Tessadri, Richard; Bonn, Günther K

    2015-05-01

    In this study, a novel method for the highly selective enrichment of phosphopeptides using erbium phosphate doped poly(glycidyl methacrylate/ethylene dimethacrylate) spin columns is presented. Erbium phosphate was synthesized by precipitation from boiling phosphoric acid and incubated overnight in erbium chloride solutions. The resulting powder was embedded in a monolithic poly(glycidyl methacrylate/ethylene dimethacrylate) polymer. The monolith was synthesized in a spin column by radical polymerization. Erbium phosphate demonstrated a high affinity and selectivity for phosphopeptides due to the strong interaction of trivalent erbium ions with the phosphate groups of phosphopeptides. The high selectivity and performance of the designed spin columns were demonstrated by successfully enriching phosphopeptides from tryptically digested protein mixtures containing the model phosphoproteins α- and β-casein, bovine milk, and human saliva. By the implementation of several washing steps, unspecific components were removed and the enriched phosphopeptides were effectively eluted from the spin columns under alkaline conditions. The selective performance of the presented method was further demonstrated by the enrichment of two synthetic phosphopeptides, which were spiked in tryptically digested and dephosphorylated HeLa cell lysates at low ratios. Finally, the presented approach was compared to conventional phosphopeptide enrichment by titanium oxide and revealed higher recoveries for the erbium phosphate doped monoliths.

  16. Frequency-selective electrokinetic enrichment of biomolecules in physiological media based on electrical double-layer polarization.

    PubMed

    Rohani, Ali; Sanghavi, Bankim J; Salahi, Armita; Liao, Kuo-Tang; Chou, Chia-Fu; Swami, Nathan S

    2017-08-24

    Proteomic biomarkers of interest to the early diagnosis of diseases and infections are present at trace levels versus interfering species. Hence, their selective enrichment is needed within bio-assays for speeding binding kinetics with receptors and for reducing signal interferences. While DC fields can separate biomolecules based on their electrokinetic mobilities, they are unable to selectively enrich biomarkers versus interfering species, which may possess like-charges. We present the utilization of AC electrokinetics to enable frequency-selective enrichment of nanocolloidal biomolecules, based on the characteristic time constant for polarization of their electrical double-layer, since surface conduction in their ion cloud depends on colloidal size, shape and surface charge. In this manner, using DC-offset AC fields, differences in frequency dispersion for negative dielectrophoresis are balanced against electrophoresis in a nanoslit channel to enable the selective enrichment of prostate specific antigen (PSA) versus anti-mouse immunoglobulin antibodies that cause signal interferences to immunoassays. Through coupling enrichment to capture by receptors on graphene-modified surfaces, we demonstrate the elimination of false positives caused by anti-mouse immunoglobulin antibodies to the PSA immunoassay.

  17. Selective Chemoprecipitation to Enrich Nitropeptides from Complex Proteomes for Mass Spectrometric Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Prokai, Laszlo; Guo, Jia; Prokai-Tatrai, Katalin

    2015-01-01

    Posttranslational protein nitration has attracted interest due to its involvement in cellular signaling, effects on protein function, and as a potential biomarker of nitroxidative stress. We describe a procedure for enriching nitropeptides for mass spectrometry-based proteomics that is a simple and reliable alternative to immunoaffinity-based methods. The starting material for this procedure is a proteolytic digest. The peptides are reacted with formaldehyde and sodium cyanoborohydride to dimethylate all the N-terminal and side-chain amino groups. Sodium dithionite is added subsequently to reduce the nitro groups to amines; in theory, the only amino groups present will have originally been nitro groups. The peptide sample is then applied to a solid-phase active ester reagent, and those peptides with amino groups will be selectively and covalently captured. Release of the peptides on hydrolysis with trifluoroacetic acid results in peptides that have a 4-formyl-benzamido group where the nitro group used to be. In qualitative setups, the procedure can be used to identify proteins modified by reactive nitrogen species and to determine the specific sites of their nitration. Quantitative measurements can be performed by stable-isotope labeling of the peptides in the reductive dimethylation step. Preparation of the solid-phase active ester reagent takes about 1 day. Enrichment of nitropeptides requires about 2 days, and sample preparations need 1 to 30 h varying based on experimental design. LC–MS/MS assays take from 4 h to several days and data processing can be done 1 to 7 days. PMID:24651500

  18. Selective extraction and enrichment of multiphosphorylated peptides using polyarginine-coated diamond nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Chang, Chia-Kai; Wu, Chih-Che; Wang, Yi-Sheng; Chang, Huan-Cheng

    2008-05-15

    Despite recent advances in phosphopeptide research, detection and characterization of multiply phosphorylated peptides have been a challenge. This work presents a new strategy that not only can effectively extract phosphorylated peptides from complex samples but also can selectively enrich multiphosphorylated peptides for direct matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometric analysis. Polyarginine-coated diamond nanoparticles are the solid-phase extraction supports used for this purpose. The supports show an exceptionally high affinity for multiphosphorylated peptides due to multiple arginine-phosphate interactions. The efficacy of this method was demonstrated by analyzing a small volume (50 microL) of tryptic digests of proteins such as beta-casein, alpha-casein, and nonfat milk at a concentration as low as 1 x 10 (-9) M. The concentration is markedly lower than that can be achieved by using other currently available technologies. We quantified the enhanced selectivity and detection sensitivity of the method using mixtures composed of mono- and tetraphosphorylated peptide standards. This new affinity-based protocol is expected to find useful applications in characterizing multiple phosphorylation sites on proteins of interest in complex and dilute analytes.

  19. Selective Enrichment of Two Different Types of Nitrospira-like Nitrite-oxidizing Bacteria from a Wastewater Treatment Plant

    PubMed Central

    Fujitani, Hirotsugu; Aoi, Yoshiteru; Tsuneda, Satoshi

    2013-01-01

    Nitrification is an important step in nitrogen removal in biological wastewater treatment processes. Recently, Nitrospira have been recognized as the numerically dominant nitrite-oxidizing bacterial genus primarily responsible for the second step of aerobic nitrification; however, Nitrospira usually resist cultivation under laboratory conditions and only one species enriched from activated sludge has been described. In this study, a novel enrichment method for Nitrospira was successfully developed using continuous feeding bioreactors. By controlling nitrite concentrations strictly in the bioreactor at low levels below 10 mg-N L−1, coexisting members of sublineages I and II of the genus Nitrospira were enriched selectively. The maximum ratios of sublineages I and II to total microbial cells achieved 88.3% and 53.8%, respectively. This enrichment method is potentially applicable to other uncultured Nitrospira. PMID:23657014

  20. High molecular weight dissolved organic matter enrichment selects for methylotrophs in dilution to extinction cultures

    PubMed Central

    Sosa, Oscar A; Gifford, Scott M; Repeta, Daniel J; DeLong, Edward F

    2015-01-01

    The role of bacterioplankton in the cycling of marine dissolved organic matter (DOM) is central to the carbon and energy balance in the ocean, yet there are few model organisms available to investigate the genes, metabolic pathways, and biochemical mechanisms involved in the degradation of this globally important carbon pool. To obtain microbial isolates capable of degrading semi-labile DOM for growth, we conducted dilution to extinction cultivation experiments using seawater enriched with high molecular weight (HMW) DOM. In total, 93 isolates were obtained. Amendments using HMW DOM to increase the dissolved organic carbon concentration 4x (280 μM) or 10x (700 μM) the ocean surface water concentrations yielded positive growth in 4–6% of replicate dilutions, whereas <1% scored positive for growth in non-DOM-amended controls. The majority (71%) of isolates displayed a distinct increase in cell yields when grown in increasing concentrations of HMW DOM. Whole-genome sequencing was used to screen the culture collection for purity and to determine the phylogenetic identity of the isolates. Eleven percent of the isolates belonged to the gammaproteobacteria including Alteromonadales (the SAR92 clade) and Vibrio. Surprisingly, 85% of isolates belonged to the methylotrophic OM43 clade of betaproteobacteria, bacteria thought to metabolically specialize in degrading C1 compounds. Growth of these isolates on methanol confirmed their methylotrophic phenotype. Our results indicate that dilution to extinction cultivation enriched with natural sources of organic substrates has a potential to reveal the previously unsuspected relationships between naturally occurring organic nutrients and the microorganisms that consume them. PMID:25978545

  1. High molecular weight dissolved organic matter enrichment selects for methylotrophs in dilution to extinction cultures.

    PubMed

    Sosa, Oscar A; Gifford, Scott M; Repeta, Daniel J; DeLong, Edward F

    2015-12-01

    The role of bacterioplankton in the cycling of marine dissolved organic matter (DOM) is central to the carbon and energy balance in the ocean, yet there are few model organisms available to investigate the genes, metabolic pathways, and biochemical mechanisms involved in the degradation of this globally important carbon pool. To obtain microbial isolates capable of degrading semi-labile DOM for growth, we conducted dilution to extinction cultivation experiments using seawater enriched with high molecular weight (HMW) DOM. In total, 93 isolates were obtained. Amendments using HMW DOM to increase the dissolved organic carbon concentration 4x (280 μM) or 10x (700 μM) the ocean surface water concentrations yielded positive growth in 4-6% of replicate dilutions, whereas <1% scored positive for growth in non-DOM-amended controls. The majority (71%) of isolates displayed a distinct increase in cell yields when grown in increasing concentrations of HMW DOM. Whole-genome sequencing was used to screen the culture collection for purity and to determine the phylogenetic identity of the isolates. Eleven percent of the isolates belonged to the gammaproteobacteria including Alteromonadales (the SAR92 clade) and Vibrio. Surprisingly, 85% of isolates belonged to the methylotrophic OM43 clade of betaproteobacteria, bacteria thought to metabolically specialize in degrading C1 compounds. Growth of these isolates on methanol confirmed their methylotrophic phenotype. Our results indicate that dilution to extinction cultivation enriched with natural sources of organic substrates has a potential to reveal the previously unsuspected relationships between naturally occurring organic nutrients and the microorganisms that consume them.

  2. Effect of dissolved oxygen concentration (microaerobic and aerobic) on selective enrichment culture for bioaugmentation of acidic industrial wastewater.

    PubMed

    Quan, Ying; Han, Hui; Zheng, Shaokui

    2012-09-01

    The successful application of bioaugmentation is largely dependent on the selective enrichment of culture with regards to pH, temperature, salt, or specific toxic organic pollutants. In this study, we investigated the effect of dissolved oxygen (DO) concentrations (aerobic, >2 mg L(-1); microaerobic, <1 mg L(-1)) on yeast enrichment culture for bioaugmentation of acidic industrial wastewater (pH 3.9-4.7). Clone library analyses revealed that the yeast community shifted in response to different DO levels, and that Candida humilis and Candida pseudolambica were individually dominant in the aerobic and microaerobic enrichment cultures. This would significantly influence the isolation results, and further hinder bioaugmentation due to differences in DO environments during the enrichment and application periods. However, differences in the selective enrichment culture cannot be predicted based on differences in pollutant removal performance. Thus, DO concentrations (aerobic/microaerobic) should be considered a secondary selective pressure to achieve successful bioaugmentation. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Immunomagnetic separation combined with colony immunoblotting for selective enrichment and detection of piliated Lactobacillus rhamnosus strains.

    PubMed

    Yang, Z Q; Wei, Y F; Rao, S Q; Gao, L; Yin, Y Q; Xue, F; Fang, W M; Gu, R X; Jiao, X A

    2016-11-01

    Piliated Lactobacillus rhamnosus (pLR) strains have attracted much attention owing to their excellent mucus adhering capacity and immunomodulatory effects. Here, we aimed to develop a rapid, sensitive method for isolating pLR strains in complex ecosystems using immunomagnetic separation (IMS) with colony immunoblotting (CIB). Magnetic nanobeads (diameter: 180 nm) conjugated with anti-pLR SpaA pilin antibodies (anti-SpaA) were prepared and used to preconcentrate pLR strains in samples, followed by confirmation with anti-SpaA-based CIB analysis. Under optimized experimental conditions, IMS-CIB selectively recovered pLR strains from 10(7)  CFU ml(-1) of faecal microbiota samples spiked with 2·9 × 10(1) to 2·4 × 10(6)  CFU ml(-1) of pLR strains. No positive colonies were detected in samples without addition of pLR strains. The detection limit of IMS-CIB was 29 CFU pLR ml(-1) of faecal microbiota, which is much lower than that of CIB without IMS preconcentration (2·0 × 10(4 ) CFU ml(-1) ). IMS-CIB allowed selective preconcentration of pLR strains in highly heterogeneous bacterial suspensions and direct detection of pLR colonies, which remained readily available for subsequent isolation. Our findings established an effective method for selective enrichment and detection of pLR strains. © 2016 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  4. Enriched environment increases myelinated fiber volume and length in brain white matter of 18-month female rats.

    PubMed

    Yang, Shu; Lu, Wei; Zhou, De-shan; Tang, Yong

    2015-04-23

    Cognition and memory decline with normal aging, which could be partly attributed to the degeneration of brain white matter. Previous studies demonstrated that exposure to an enriched environment (EE) could protect cognition and memory from aging. However, if or how EE might affect the brain white matter has not been thoroughly investigated. In the current study, 24 middle-aged (14-month-old) female Sprague -Dawley (SD) rats were randomly assigned to EE or standard environment (SE) for 4 months. At the end of the environment intervention, the Morris water maze tests were performed. Then, 5 rats were randomly selected from each group for stereological assessment of the brain white matter and its myelinated fibers. The results revealed that middle-aged rats living in EE displayed better spatial learning than SE controls. The white matter volume was 124.6 ± 7.8mm(3) in EE rats, which was significantly enlarged compared with 84.8 ± 3.4mm(3) in SE rats. Likewise, the myelinated fiber volume was markedly increased from 56.6 ± 1.7 mm(3) in SE rats to 87.2 ± 9.0mm(3) in EE rats; so was the myelinated fiber length from 83.5 ± 6.6 km in SE rats to 119.0 ± 10.0 km in EE rats. Our data suggested that EE could protect brain white matter and its myelinated fibers of female rats at middle age.

  5. An Enriched Research Experience for Minority Undergraduates--A Step toward Increasing the Number of Minority Nurse Researchers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leeman, Jennifer; Goeppinger, Jean; Funk, Sandra; Roland, E. Joyce

    2003-01-01

    A partnership between a research university and a minority-serving institution created a research enrichment and apprenticeship program for minority nursing students. The program provides students an opportunity to experience nursing research with the goal of increasing the number of minority researchers in nursing. (Contains 11 references.) (JOW)

  6. An Enriched Research Experience for Minority Undergraduates--A Step toward Increasing the Number of Minority Nurse Researchers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leeman, Jennifer; Goeppinger, Jean; Funk, Sandra; Roland, E. Joyce

    2003-01-01

    A partnership between a research university and a minority-serving institution created a research enrichment and apprenticeship program for minority nursing students. The program provides students an opportunity to experience nursing research with the goal of increasing the number of minority researchers in nursing. (Contains 11 references.) (JOW)

  7. Two-dimensional solid-phase extraction strategy for the selective enrichment of aminoglycosides in milk.

    PubMed

    Shen, Aijin; Wei, Jie; Yan, Jingyu; Jin, Gaowa; Ding, Junjie; Yang, Bingcheng; Guo, Zhimou; Zhang, Feifang; Liang, Xinmiao

    2017-03-01

    An orthogonal two-dimensional solid-phase extraction strategy was established for the selective enrichment of three aminoglycosides including spectinomycin, streptomycin, and dihydrostreptomycin in milk. A reversed-phase liquid chromatography material (C18 ) and a weak cation-exchange material (TGA) were integrated in a single solid-phase extraction cartridge. The feasibility of two-dimensional clean-up procedure that experienced two-step adsorption, two-step rinsing, and two-step elution was systematically investigated. Based on the orthogonality of reversed-phase and weak cation-exchange procedures, the two-dimensional solid-phase extraction strategy could minimize the interference from the hydrophobic matrix existing in traditional reversed-phase solid-phase extraction. In addition, high ionic strength in the extracts could be effectively removed before the second dimension of weak cation-exchange solid-phase extraction. Combined with liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry, the optimized procedure was validated according to the European Union Commission directive 2002/657/EC. A good performance was achieved in terms of linearity, recovery, precision, decision limit, and detection capability in milk. Finally, the optimized two-dimensional clean-up procedure incorporated with liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry was successfully applied to the rapid monitoring of aminoglycoside residues in milk. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Mobility-Selected Ion Trapping and Enrichment Using Structures for Lossless Ion Manipulations

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Tsung-Chi; Ibrahim, Yehia M.; Webb, Ian K.; Garimella, Sandilya V. B.; Zhang, Xing; Hamid, Ahmed M.; Deng, Liulin; Karnesky, William E.; Prost, Spencer A.; Sandoval, Jeremy A.; Norheim, Randolph V.; Anderson, Gordon A.; Tolmachev, Aleksey V.; Baker, Erin Shammel; Smith, Richard D.

    2016-01-11

    The integration of ion mobility spectrometry (IMS) with mass spectrometry (MS) and the ability to trap ions in IMS-MS measurements is of great importance for performing reactions, accumulating ions, and increasing analytical measurement sensitivity. The development of Structures for Lossless Ion Manipulations (SLIM) offers the potential for ion manipulations in a more reliable and cost-effective manner, while opening opportunities for much more complex sequences of manipulations. Here, we demonstrate an ion separation and trapping module and a method based upon SLIM that consists of a linear mobility ion drift region, a switch/tee and a trapping region that allows the isolation and accumulation of mobility-separated species. The operation and optimization of the SLIM switch/tee and trap are described and demonstrated for the enrichment of the low abundance ions. Lastly, we observed a linear increase in ion intensity with the number of trapping/accumulation events using the SLIM trap, illustrating its potential for enhancing the sensitivity of low abundance or targeted species.

  9. Mobility-Selected Ion Trapping and Enrichment Using Structures for Lossless Ion Manipulations

    DOE PAGES

    Chen, Tsung-Chi; Ibrahim, Yehia M.; Webb, Ian K.; ...

    2016-01-11

    The integration of ion mobility spectrometry (IMS) with mass spectrometry (MS) and the ability to trap ions in IMS-MS measurements is of great importance for performing reactions, accumulating ions, and increasing analytical measurement sensitivity. The development of Structures for Lossless Ion Manipulations (SLIM) offers the potential for ion manipulations in a more reliable and cost-effective manner, while opening opportunities for much more complex sequences of manipulations. Here, we demonstrate an ion separation and trapping module and a method based upon SLIM that consists of a linear mobility ion drift region, a switch/tee and a trapping region that allows the isolationmore » and accumulation of mobility-separated species. The operation and optimization of the SLIM switch/tee and trap are described and demonstrated for the enrichment of the low abundance ions. Lastly, we observed a linear increase in ion intensity with the number of trapping/accumulation events using the SLIM trap, illustrating its potential for enhancing the sensitivity of low abundance or targeted species.« less

  10. Selection for niche differentiation in plant communities increases biodiversity effects.

    PubMed

    Zuppinger-Dingley, Debra; Schmid, Bernhard; Petermann, Jana S; Yadav, Varuna; De Deyn, Gerlinde B; Flynn, Dan F B

    2014-11-06

    In experimental plant communities, relationships between biodiversity and ecosystem functioning have been found to strengthen over time, a fact often attributed to increased resource complementarity between species in mixtures and negative plant-soil feedbacks in monocultures. Here we show that selection for niche differentiation between species can drive this increasing biodiversity effect. Growing 12 grassland species in test monocultures and mixtures, we found character displacement between species and increased biodiversity effects when plants had been selected over 8 years in species mixtures rather than in monocultures. When grown in mixtures, relative differences in height and specific leaf area between plant species selected in mixtures (mixture types) were greater than between species selected in monocultures (monoculture types). Furthermore, net biodiversity and complementarity effects were greater in mixtures of mixture types than in mixtures of monoculture types. Our study demonstrates a novel mechanism for the increase in biodiversity effects: selection for increased niche differentiation through character displacement. Selection in diverse mixtures may therefore increase species coexistence and ecosystem functioning in natural communities and may also allow increased mixture yields in agriculture or forestry. However, loss of biodiversity and prolonged selection of crops in monoculture may compromise this potential for selection in the longer term.

  11. Highly Selective Enrichment of Glycopeptides Based on Zwitterionically Functionalized Soluble Nanopolymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Weiqian; Huang, Jiangming; Jiang, Biyun; Gao, Xing; Yang, Pengyuan

    2016-07-01

    Efficient glycopeptides enrichment prior to mass spectrometry analysis is essential for glycoproteome study. ZIC-HILIC (zwitterionic hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography) based glycopeptides enrichment approaches have been attracting more attention for several benefits like easy operating, high enrichment specificity and intact glycopeptide retained. In this study, Poly (amidoamine) dendrimer (PAMAM) was adopted for the synthesis of zwitterionically functionalized (ZICF) materials for glycopeptide enrichment. The multiple branched structure and good solubility of ZICF-PAMAM enables a sufficient interaction with glycopeptides. The ZICF-PAMAM combined with the FASP-mode enrichment strategy exhibits more superior performance compared with the existing methods. It has the minimum detectable concentration of femtomolar level and high recovery rate of over 90.01%, and can efficiently enrich glycopeptides from complex biological samples even for merely 0.1 μL human serum. The remarkable glycopeptides enrichment capacity of ZICF-PAMAM highlights the potential application in in-depth glycoproteome research, which may open up new opportunities for the development of glycoproteomics.

  12. Highly Selective Enrichment of Glycopeptides Based on Zwitterionically Functionalized Soluble Nanopolymers

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Weiqian; Huang, Jiangming; Jiang, Biyun; Gao, Xing; Yang, Pengyuan

    2016-01-01

    Efficient glycopeptides enrichment prior to mass spectrometry analysis is essential for glycoproteome study. ZIC-HILIC (zwitterionic hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography) based glycopeptides enrichment approaches have been attracting more attention for several benefits like easy operating, high enrichment specificity and intact glycopeptide retained. In this study, Poly (amidoamine) dendrimer (PAMAM) was adopted for the synthesis of zwitterionically functionalized (ZICF) materials for glycopeptide enrichment. The multiple branched structure and good solubility of ZICF-PAMAM enables a sufficient interaction with glycopeptides. The ZICF-PAMAM combined with the FASP-mode enrichment strategy exhibits more superior performance compared with the existing methods. It has the minimum detectable concentration of femtomolar level and high recovery rate of over 90.01%, and can efficiently enrich glycopeptides from complex biological samples even for merely 0.1 μL human serum. The remarkable glycopeptides enrichment capacity of ZICF-PAMAM highlights the potential application in in-depth glycoproteome research, which may open up new opportunities for the development of glycoproteomics. PMID:27412817

  13. Pyridoxal 5'-phosphate mediated preparation of immobilized metal affinity material for highly selective and sensitive enrichment of phosphopeptides.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qian; He, Xiao-Mei; Chen, Xi; Zhu, Gang-Tian; Wang, Ren-Qi; Feng, Yu-Qi

    2017-04-01

    Phosphorylation is a crucial post-translational modification, which plays pivotal roles in various biological processes. Analysis of phosphopeptides by mass spectrometry (MS) is intractable on account of their low stoichiometry and the ion suppression from non-phosphopeptides. Thus, enrichment of phosphopeptides before MS analysis is indispensable. In this work, we employed pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP), as an immobilized metal affinity chromatography (IMAC) ligand for the enrichment of phosphopeptides. PLP was grafted onto several substrates such as silica (SiO2), oxidized carbon nanotube (OCNT) and silica coated magnetic nanoparticles (Fe3O4@SiO2). Then the metal ions Fe(3+), Ga(3+) and Ti(4+) were incorporated for the selective enrichment of phosphopeptides. It is indicated that Fe3O4@SiO2-PLP-Ti(4+) has a superior selectivity towards phosphopeptides under as much as 1000-fold interferences of non-phosphopeptides. Further, Fe3O4@SiO2-PLP-Ti(4+) exhibited high efficiency in selective enrichments of phosphopeptides from complex biological samples, including human serum and tryptic digested non-fat milk. Finally, Fe3O4@SiO2-PLP-Ti(4+) was successfully employed in the sample pretreatment for profiling phosphopeptides in a tryptic digest of rat brain proteins. Our experimental results evidenced a great potential of this new chelator-based material in phosphoproteomics study.

  14. Platelet-rich preparations to improve healing. Part II: platelet activation and enrichment, leukocyte inclusion, and other selection criteria.

    PubMed

    Davis, Vicki L; Abukabda, Alaeddin B; Radio, Nicholas M; Witt-Enderby, Paula A; Clafshenkel, William P; Cairone, J Vito; Rutkowski, James L

    2014-08-01

    Multiple platelet-rich preparations have been reported to improve wound and bone healing, such as platelet-rich plasma (PRP) and platelet rich fibrin (PRF). The different methods employed during their preparation are important, as they influence the quality of the product applied to a wound or surgical site. Besides the general protocol for preparing the platelet-rich product (discussed in Part 1 of this review), multiple choices need to be considered during its preparation. For example, activation of the platelets is required for the release and enmeshment of growth factors, but the method of activation may influence the resulting matrix, growth factor availability, and healing. Additionally, some methods enrich leukocytes as well as platelets, but others are designed to be leukocyte-poor. Leukocytes have many important roles in healing and their inclusion in PRP results in increased platelet concentrations. Platelet and growth factor enrichment reported for the different types of platelet-rich preparations are also compared. Generally, TGF-β1 and PDGF levels were higher in preparations that contain leukocytes compared to leukocyte-poor PRP. However, platelet concentration may be the most reliable criterion for comparing different preparations. These and other criteria are described to help guide dental and medical professionals, in large and small practices, in selecting the best procedures for their patients. The healing benefits of platelet-rich preparations along with the low risk and availability of simple preparation procedures should encourage more clinicians to incorporate platelet-rich products in their practice to accelerate healing, reduce adverse events, and improve patient outcomes.

  15. Ciprofloxacin Residues in Municipal Biosolid Compost Do Not Selectively Enrich Populations of Resistant Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Youngquist, Caitlin P.; Liu, Jinxin; Orfe, Lisa H.; Jones, Stephen S.

    2014-01-01

    Biosolids and livestock manure are valuable high-carbon soil amendments, but they commonly contain antibiotic residues that might persist after land application. While composting reduces the concentration of extractable antibiotics in these materials, if the starting concentration is sufficiently high then remaining residues could impact microbial communities in the compost and soil to which these materials are applied. To examine this issue, ciprofloxacin was added to biosolid compost feedstock to achieve a total concentration of 19 ppm, approximately 5-fold higher than that normally detected by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) (1 to 3.5 ppm). This feedstock was placed into mesh bags that were buried in aerated compost bays. Once a week, a set of bags was removed and analyzed (treated and untreated, three replicates of each; 4 weeks). Addition of ciprofloxacin had no effect on the recovery of resistant bacteria at any time point (P = 0.86), and a separate bioassay showed that aqueous extractions from materials with an estimated 59 ppm ciprofloxacin had no effect on the growth of a susceptible strain of Escherichia coli (P = 0.28). Regression analysis showed that growth of the susceptible strain of E. coli can be reduced given a sufficiently high concentration of ciprofloxacin (P < 0.007), a result that is consistent with adsorption being the primary mechanism of sequestration. While analytical methods detected biologically significant concentrations of ciprofloxacin in the materials tested here, the culture-based methods were consistent with the materials having sufficient adsorptive capacity to prevent typical concentrations of ciprofloxacin residues from selectively enriching populations of resistant bacteria. PMID:25261519

  16. Ciprofloxacin residues in municipal biosolid compost do not selectively enrich populations of resistant bacteria.

    PubMed

    Youngquist, Caitlin P; Liu, Jinxin; Orfe, Lisa H; Jones, Stephen S; Call, Douglas R

    2014-12-01

    Biosolids and livestock manure are valuable high-carbon soil amendments, but they commonly contain antibiotic residues that might persist after land application. While composting reduces the concentration of extractable antibiotics in these materials, if the starting concentration is sufficiently high then remaining residues could impact microbial communities in the compost and soil to which these materials are applied. To examine this issue, ciprofloxacin was added to biosolid compost feedstock to achieve a total concentration of 19 ppm, approximately 5-fold higher than that normally detected by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) (1 to 3.5 ppm). This feedstock was placed into mesh bags that were buried in aerated compost bays. Once a week, a set of bags was removed and analyzed (treated and untreated, three replicates of each; 4 weeks). Addition of ciprofloxacin had no effect on the recovery of resistant bacteria at any time point (P = 0.86), and a separate bioassay showed that aqueous extractions from materials with an estimated 59 ppm ciprofloxacin had no effect on the growth of a susceptible strain of Escherichia coli (P = 0.28). Regression analysis showed that growth of the susceptible strain of E. coli can be reduced given a sufficiently high concentration of ciprofloxacin (P < 0.007), a result that is consistent with adsorption being the primary mechanism of sequestration. While analytical methods detected biologically significant concentrations of ciprofloxacin in the materials tested here, the culture-based methods were consistent with the materials having sufficient adsorptive capacity to prevent typical concentrations of ciprofloxacin residues from selectively enriching populations of resistant bacteria. Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  17. Effect of Model Sorptive Phases on Phenanthrene Biodegradation: Different Enrichment Conditions Influence Bioavailability and Selection of Phenanthrene-Degrading Isolates

    PubMed Central

    Grosser, Robert J.; Friedrich, Michael; Ward, David M.; Inskeep, William P.

    2000-01-01

    The sorption of organic contaminants by natural organic matter (NOM) often limits substrate bioavailability and is an important factor affecting microbial degradation rates in soils and sediments. We hypothesized that reduced substrate bioavailability might influence which microbial assemblages are responsible for contaminant degradation under enrichment culture conditions. Our primary goal was to characterize enrichments in which different model organic solid phases were used to establish a range of phenanthrene bioavailabilities for soil microorganisms. Phenanthrene sorption coefficients (expressed as log KD values) ranged from 3.0 liters kg−1 for Amberlite carboxylic acid cation-exchange resin (AMB) to 3.5 liters kg−1 for Biobeads polyacrylic resin (SM7) and 4.2 liters kg−1 for Biobeads divinyl benzene resin (SM2). Enrichment cultures were established for control (no sorptive phase), sand, AMB, SM7, and SM2 treatments by using two contaminated soils (from Dover, Ohio, and Libby, Mont.) as the initial inocula. The effects of sorption by model phases on the degradation of phenanthrene were evaluated for numerous transfers in order to obtain stable microbial assemblages representative of sorptive and nonsorptive enrichment cultures and to eliminate the effects of the NOM present in the initial inoculum. Phenanthrene degradation rates were similar for each soil inoculum and ranged from 4 to 5 μmol day−1 for control and sand treatments to approximately 0.4 μmol day−1 in the presence of the SM7 sorptive phase. The rates of phenanthrene degradation in the highly sorptive SM2 enrichment culture were insignificant; consequently, stable microbial populations could not be obtained. Bacterial isolates obtained from serial dilutions of enrichment culture samples exhibited significant differences in rates of phenanthrene degradation performed in the presence of SM7, suggesting that enrichments performed in the presence of a sorptive phase selected for different

  18. Mobility-Selected Ion Trapping and Enrichment Using Structures for Lossless Ion Manipulations.

    PubMed

    Chen, Tsung-Chi; Ibrahim, Yehia M; Webb, Ian K; Garimella, Sandilya V B; Zhang, Xing; Hamid, Ahmed M; Deng, Liulin; Karnesky, William E; Prost, Spencer A; Sandoval, Jeremy A; Norheim, Randolph V; Anderson, Gordon A; Tolmachev, Aleksey V; Baker, Erin S; Smith, Richard D

    2016-02-02

    The integration of ion mobility spectrometry (IMS) with mass spectrometry (MS) and the ability to trap ions in IMS-MS measurements is of great importance for performing reactions, accumulating ions, and increasing analytical measurement sensitivity. The development of Structures for Lossless Ion Manipulations (SLIM) offers the potential for ion manipulations in an extended and more effective manner, while opening opportunities for many more complex sequences of manipulations. Here, we demonstrate an ion separation and trapping module and a method based upon SLIM that consists of a linear mobility ion drift region, a switch/tee and a trapping region that allows the isolation and accumulation of mobility-separated species. The operation and optimization of the SLIM switch/tee and trap are described and demonstrated for the enrichment of the low abundance ions. A linear improvement in ion intensity was observed with the number of trapping/accumulation events using the SLIM trap, illustrating its potential for enhancing the sensitivity of low abundance or targeted species.

  19. Construction of libraries enriched for sequence repeats and jumping clones, and hybridization selection for region-specific markers

    SciTech Connect

    Kandpal, R.P.; Kandpal, G.; Weissman, S.M. )

    1994-01-04

    The authors describe a simple and rapid method for constructing small-insert genomic libraries highly enriched for dimeric, trimeric, and tetrameric nucleotide repeat motifs. The approach involves use of DNA inserts recovered by PCR amplification of a small-insert sonicated genomic phage library or by a single-primer PCR amplification of Mbo I-digested and adaptor-ligated genomic DNA. The genomic DNA inserts are heat denatured and hybridized to a biotinylated oligonucleotde. The biotinylated hybrids are retained on a Vectrex-avidin matrix and eluted specifically. The eluate is PCR amplified and cloned. More than 90% of the clones in a library enriched for (CA)[sub n] microsatellites with this approach contained clones with inserts containing CA repeats. They have also used this protocol for enrichment of (CAG)[sub n] and (AGAT)[sub n] sequence repeats and for Not I jumping clones. They have used the enriched libraries with an adaptation of the cDNA selection method to enrich for repeat motifs encoded in yeast artificial chromosomes.

  20. Selecting an optimal number of binding site waters to improve virtual screening enrichments against the adenosine A2A receptor.

    PubMed

    Lenselink, Eelke B; Beuming, Thijs; Sherman, Woody; van Vlijmen, Herman W T; IJzerman, Adriaan P

    2014-06-23

    A major challenge in structure-based virtual screening (VS) involves the treatment of explicit water molecules during docking in order to improve the enrichment of active compounds over decoys. Here we have investigated this in the context of the adenosine A2A receptor, where water molecules have previously been shown to be important for achieving high enrichment rates with docking, and where the positions of some binding site waters are known from a high-resolution crystal structure. The effect of these waters (both their presence and orientations) on VS enrichment was assessed using a carefully curated set of 299 high affinity A2A antagonists and 17,337 decoys. We show that including certain crystal waters greatly improves VS enrichment and that optimization of water hydrogen positions is needed in order to achieve the best results. We also show that waters derived from a molecular dynamics simulation - without any knowledge of crystallographic waters - can improve enrichments to a similar degree as the crystallographic waters, which makes this strategy applicable to structures without experimental knowledge of water positions. Finally, we used decision trees to select an ensemble of structures with different water molecule positions and orientations that outperforms any single structure with water molecules. The approach presented here is validated against independent test sets of A2A receptor antagonists and decoys from the literature. In general, this water optimization strategy could be applied to any target with waters-mediated protein-ligand interactions.

  1. Genetic selection increases parthenogenesis in Chinese painted quail (Coturnix chinensis).

    PubMed

    Parker, H M; Kiess, A S; Wells, J B; Young, K M; Rowe, D; McDaniel, C D

    2010-07-01

    Parthenogenesis, embryonic development of an unfertilized egg, occurs naturally in turkey, chicken, and quail species. In fact, parthenogenesis in turkeys and chickens can be increased by genetic selection. However, it is unknown if genetic selection for parthenogenesis is effective in quail or if selection for parthenogenesis affects egg production. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to determine if the incidence of parthenogenesis in quail could be increased by genetic selection and if selection for this trait affects egg production. To prevent fertilization, 1,090 females were caged separately from males at 4 wk of age and then caged individually at 6 wk of age to monitor egg production. Eggs were collected daily, labeled, and stored for 0 to 3 d. After 10 d of incubation, 20 unfertilized eggs from each hen were examined for the occurrence of parthenogenesis and embryonic growth. In the parent (P) generation and subsequent generations (1 to 4), hens laying eggs containing parthenogenetic development and males whose sisters or mothers exhibited parthenogenesis were used for breeding. There was a linear increase in the percentage of hens exhibiting parthenogenesis as generation of selection increased. With each successive generation, there was a quadratic response in the percentage of eggs positive for parthenogenesis. When compared with the P generation, parthenogenesis was almost 3 times greater for eggs laid by the fourth generation (4.6 to 12.5%, respectively). Even when only hens exhibiting parthenogenesis were examined, the percentage of eggs demonstrating embryonic development responded quadratically with generation of selection. The embryonic size at 10 d of incubation was greater for each subsequent generation when compared with the P generation. There was a linear decrease in both egg production and the average position of an egg in a clutch as generation of selection increased. In conclusion, genetic selection for parthenogenesis increased the

  2. Increased physical activity is not enough to recover astrocytic population from dark-rearing. Synergy with multisensory enrichment is required.

    PubMed

    Bengoetxea, Harkaitz; Ortuzar, Naiara; Rico-Barrio, Irantzu; Lafuente, José Vicente; Argandoña, Enrike G

    2013-01-01

    Elimination of sensory inputs (deprivation) modifies the properties of the sensory cortex and serves as a model for studying plasticity during postnatal development. Many studies on the effects of deprivation have been performed in the visual cortex using dark-rearing as a visual deprivation model. It induces changes in all cellular and molecular components, including astrocytes, which play an important role in the development, maintenance, and plasticity of the cortex, mediated by cytokines which have been termed angioglioneurins. When one sense is deprived, a compensatory mechanism called cross-modal plasticity increases performance in the remaining senses. Environmental enrichment is so far the best-known method to compensate sensorial deprivation. The aim of this work is to study the effects of exercise alone, and of an enriched environment combined with exercise, on astroglial population in order to observe the effects of exercise by itself, or the potential synergistic effect during the rat visual system development. Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were raised in one of the following rearing conditions: in total darkness and enriched environment conditions with physical exercise, and in total darkness with voluntary physical exercise. Astrocytic density was estimated by immunohistochemistry for S-100β protein and quantifications were performed in layer IV. The somatosensorial cortex barrel field was also studied as control. Our main result shows that an enriched environment combined with voluntary physical exercise manages to reverse the negative effects induced by darkness over the astroglial population of both the visual and the somatosensory cortices. On the other hand, exercise alone only produces effects upon the astroglial population of the somatosensory cortex, and less so when combined with an enriched environment.

  3. Increased physical activity is not enough to recover astrocytic population from dark-rearing. Synergy with multisensory enrichment is required

    PubMed Central

    Bengoetxea, Harkaitz; Ortuzar, Naiara; Rico-Barrio, Irantzu; Lafuente, José Vicente; Argandoña, Enrike G.

    2013-01-01

    Elimination of sensory inputs (deprivation) modifies the properties of the sensory cortex and serves as a model for studying plasticity during postnatal development. Many studies on the effects of deprivation have been performed in the visual cortex using dark-rearing as a visual deprivation model. It induces changes in all cellular and molecular components, including astrocytes, which play an important role in the development, maintenance, and plasticity of the cortex, mediated by cytokines which have been termed angioglioneurins. When one sense is deprived, a compensatory mechanism called cross-modal plasticity increases performance in the remaining senses. Environmental enrichment is so far the best-known method to compensate sensorial deprivation. The aim of this work is to study the effects of exercise alone, and of an enriched environment combined with exercise, on astroglial population in order to observe the effects of exercise by itself, or the potential synergistic effect during the rat visual system development. Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were raised in one of the following rearing conditions: in total darkness and enriched environment conditions with physical exercise, and in total darkness with voluntary physical exercise. Astrocytic density was estimated by immunohistochemistry for S-100β protein and quantifications were performed in layer IV. The somatosensorial cortex barrel field was also studied as control. Our main result shows that an enriched environment combined with voluntary physical exercise manages to reverse the negative effects induced by darkness over the astroglial population of both the visual and the somatosensory cortices. On the other hand, exercise alone only produces effects upon the astroglial population of the somatosensory cortex, and less so when combined with an enriched environment. PMID:24109431

  4. Porous concrete block as an environmental enrichment device increases activity of laying hens in cages.

    PubMed

    Holcman, A; Gorjanc, G; Stuhec, I

    2008-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to consider the influence of simple and cheap environmental enrichment such as porous concrete on the behavior of laying hens in conventional cages. Forty brown laying hens were housed in individual wire mesh cages: 20 in experimental cages with porous concrete block provided for pecking and 20 in a control group without concrete block provided. Porous concrete block (5 cm length x 5 cm width x 5 cm height) was mounted on the side wall at the height of the hen's head. Behavior was studied from 42 to 48 wk of age. A group of 8 hens was filmed for 24 h, and the camera was moved each day so that all 40 hens were recorded over 5 d each wk. Videotaping was performed in wk 1, 3, 5, and 7 of the experiment. States (long-term behavior) were observed with 5-min interval recording (feeding, preening, resting, and remaining inactive), whereas events (short-term activities) were observed with instantaneous recording (drinking, pecking concrete, pecking neighbors, pecking cage, and attempting to escape). Data were analyzed with generalized linear mixed model with binomial distribution for states, and Poisson distribution for events. Monte Carlo Markov Chain methods were used to estimate model parameters. Because posterior distributions of quantities of interest were skewed, medians and standard errors are reported. Hens in experimental cages were more active in long-term behavior than controls (64.9 +/- 1.9 and 59.3 +/- 1.9% of the light period, respectively). Correspondingly, hens in the control group showed more long-term inactivity. In addition to pecking the porous concrete block, hens in experimental cages also showed other short-term activities with greater frequency (4.10 +/- 0.31 and 3.51 +/- 0.25 events per h, respectively). Our hypothesis that hens in enriched cages would have a greater level of activity was confirmed. Provision of a piece of porous concrete block as a pecking substrate enriched the environment of the birds at negligible

  5. Highly efficient and selective enrichment of glycopeptides using easily synthesized magG/PDA/Au/l-Cys composites.

    PubMed

    Wu, Runqing; Li, Lanting; Deng, Chunhui

    2016-05-01

    Highly selective and efficient enrichment of glycopeptides from complex biological samples is necessary. In this study, novel zwitterionic hydrophilic polydopamine-coated magnetic graphene composites (magG/PDA/Au/l-Cys) were synthesized and applied to the enrichment of glycopeptides. The size, morphology, and composition of magG/PDA/Au/l-Cys composites were investigated by transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, FT-infrared spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction. The composites possessed a number of desirable characteristics, including good biocompatibility easy separation property and excellent hydrophilicity. By virtue of the features contributed by different ingredients, the prepared composites demonstrated superior performance for glycopeptide enrichment with high sensitivity (0.1 fmol), efficiency, selectivity (1:100), and repeatability (at least ten times). In addition, the composites were successfully applied to the enrichment of glycopeptides from human serum and 40 unique N-glycosylation peptides from 31 different N-linked glycoproteins were identified. The superior hydrophilic material is of great potential for the analysis of glycoproteins. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Size-selective separation and overall-amplification of cell-free fetal DNA fragments using PCR-based enrichment.

    PubMed

    Yang, Qiwei; Du, Zhenwu; Song, Yang; Gao, Sujie; Yu, Shan; Zhu, He; Ren, Ming; Zhang, Guizhen

    2017-01-19

    This study aimed to establish a method for the selective amplification of cell-free fetal DNA (cffDNA) in maternal plasma and preserve the integrity of DNA fragments during amplification, thereby providing a sufficient amount of cffDNA to meet the requirement of routine non-invasive prenatal testing. We amplified DNA molecules in a one-reaction system without considering their particular sequences and lengths (overall amplification) by using PCR-based enrichment. We then modified PCR conditions to verify the effect of denaturation temperature on DNA amplification on various lengths of DNA (selective overall amplification). Finally, we used an optimum temperature range to amplify cffDNA selectively. Amplification results were validated by electrophoresis and real-time quantitative PCR. Our PCR-based enrichment efficiently amplified all DNA fragments with differing lengths within a single reaction system, as well as preserving the integrity of the DNA fragments. cffDNA was significantly amplified along with the selective amplification of small fragment maternal plasma DNA in an appropriate range of denaturation temperatures. We have established a PCR-based method for the simultaneous enrichment and amplification of cffDNA in order to meet the requirements of high cffDNA quantity for routine non-invasive prenatal testing.

  7. Size-selective separation and overall-amplification of cell-free fetal DNA fragments using PCR-based enrichment

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Qiwei; Du, Zhenwu; Song, Yang; Gao, Sujie; Yu, Shan; Zhu, He; Ren, Ming; Zhang, Guizhen

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to establish a method for the selective amplification of cell-free fetal DNA (cffDNA) in maternal plasma and preserve the integrity of DNA fragments during amplification, thereby providing a sufficient amount of cffDNA to meet the requirement of routine non-invasive prenatal testing. We amplified DNA molecules in a one-reaction system without considering their particular sequences and lengths (overall amplification) by using PCR-based enrichment. We then modified PCR conditions to verify the effect of denaturation temperature on DNA amplification on various lengths of DNA (selective overall amplification). Finally, we used an optimum temperature range to amplify cffDNA selectively. Amplification results were validated by electrophoresis and real-time quantitative PCR. Our PCR-based enrichment efficiently amplified all DNA fragments with differing lengths within a single reaction system, as well as preserving the integrity of the DNA fragments. cffDNA was significantly amplified along with the selective amplification of small fragment maternal plasma DNA in an appropriate range of denaturation temperatures. We have established a PCR-based method for the simultaneous enrichment and amplification of cffDNA in order to meet the requirements of high cffDNA quantity for routine non-invasive prenatal testing. PMID:28102322

  8. Enrichments of Cellulolytic Communities from Diverse Natural Sources Using a Novel Selection System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ludwig, Evan Joel

    In order to ensure a sustainable future and curb carbon dioxide emissions from the combustion of fossil fuels, it is imperative to develop a cost-competitive manufacturing process for an alternative liquid fuel with low life cycle greenhouse gas emissions. A potential route towards this sustainable future is the large-scale production of fuels derived from plant biomass, biofuels. A major step for the biological conversion of biomass to fuel is the solubilization and utilization of cellulose. However, lignocellulose is a recalcitrant material, and has evolved to resist microbial degradation. Studying cellulolytic communities from nature can reveal the mechanisms by which organisms can utilize lignocellulose, and also reveal the conditions that facilitate the fastest possible rates of cellulose utilization. This thesis used an Automated Repetitive Batch (ARB) system to perform enrichments of cellulolytic communities to test if cellulolytic communities from diverse sources could be reproducibly enriched for rapid cellulose utilization. This thesis first developed a robust method for reproducibly enriching cellulolytic communities in the ARB system with a single environmental source. Using this method, this research then investigated if cellulolytic communities could be enriched for rapid cellulose utilization from different inoculum sources. In all reproducible enrichments, this thesis then confirmed the use of carbon dioxide as a real time proxy for cellulose utilization based on end product analysis. This thesis showed that the ARB system could yield cellulolytic communities capable of rapid cellulose utilization from diverse environmental sources, and laid a strong foundation for determining whether or not these different sources can be enriched to yield functionally similar cellulolytic communities. The work from this thesis also suggests that fermentation conditions, rather than source material, play a more important role in determining enriched community

  9. Early Recovery of Salmonella from Food Using a 6-Hour Non-selective Pre-enrichment and Reformulation of Tetrathionate Broth

    PubMed Central

    Daquigan, Ninalynn; Grim, Christopher J.; White, James R.; Hanes, Darcy E.; Jarvis, Karen G.

    2016-01-01

    Culture based methods are commonly employed to detect pathogens in food and environmental samples. These methods are time consuming and complex, requiring multiple non-selective and selective enrichment broths, and usually take at least 1 week to recover and identify pathogens. Improving pathogen detection in foods is a primary goal for regulatory agencies and industry. Salmonella detection in food relies on a series of culture steps in broth formulations optimized to resuscitate Salmonella and reduce the abundance of competitive bacteria. Examples of non-selective pre-enrichment broths used to isolate Salmonella from food include Lactose, Universal Pre-enrichment, BPW, and Trypticase Soy broths. Tetrathionate (TT) and Rappaport–Vassiliadis (RV) broths are employed after a 24-h non-selective enrichment to select for Salmonella and hamper the growth of competitive bacteria. In this study, we tested a new formulation of TT broth that lacks brilliant green dye and has lower levels of TT . We employed this TT broth formulation in conjunction with a 6-h non-selective pre-enrichment period and determined that Salmonella recovery was possible one day earlier than standard food culture methods. We tested the shortened culture method in different non-selective enrichment broths, enumerated Salmonella in the non-selective enrichments, and used 16S rRNA gene sequencing to determine the proportional abundances of Salmonella in the TT and RV selective enrichments. Together these data revealed that a 6-h non-selective pre-enrichment reduces the levels of competitive bacteria inoculated into the selective TT and RV broths, enabling the recovery of Salmonella 1 day earlier than standard culture enrichment methods. PMID:28082968

  10. Salmonella in foods: new enrichment procedure for TECRA Salmonella Visual Immunoassay using a single rv(R10) only, TT only, or dual rv(R10) and TT selective enrichment broths (AOAC official method 998.09): collaborative study.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Denise; Dailianis, Angela E; Hill, Louise; Curiale, Michael S; Gangar, Vidhya

    2003-01-01

    A collaborative study was conducted to compare a new enrichment procedure for the TECRA Salmonella Visual Immunoassay (TSVIA) with the reference method given in the U.S. Food and Drug Administration's Bacteriological Analytical Manual (7th Ed.). Three food types (milk powder, pepper, and soy flour) were analyzed in Australia and 3 food types (milk chocolate, dried egg, and raw turkey) were analyzed in the United States. Thirty-eight collaborators participated in the study. The TECRA method was evaluated using both Rappaport-Vassiliadis R10 (RV(R10)) and tetrathionate (TT) broths for selective enrichment. M broth cultures arising from each of the 2 selective enrichment broths were tested in the TSVIA using 2 individual wells, one for each selective broth, and a single well to test the pooled selective enrichment broths. The results for the pooled enrichment broths were reported elsewhere. This study presents the results for the use of single enrichment broths, i.e., RV(R10) only or TT only, with the TSVIA. No significant differences (p > 0.05) were observed for the pairwise comparison of the proportion of positive samples for either RV(R10) or TT used as a single enrichment broth for the TSVIA with that for the reference method.

  11. N-3 fatty acid enriched eggs and production of egg yolk powders: an increased risk of lipid oxidation?

    PubMed

    Meynier, A; Leborgne, C; Viau, M; Schuck, P; Guichardant, M; Rannou, C; Anton, M

    2014-06-15

    Lipid oxidation is generally favoured by thermal processing and long-term storage. Oxidised lipids can alter nutritional and sensorial properties of foods. As eggs are widely used in food industries in dried powder form, our aim was to determine whether compositional or processing parameters have an impact on lipid oxidation from the shell eggs up to the dried powders and subsequent storage. Two batches of shell eggs were processed: one issued from hens fed with a standard diet and another receiving a diet enriched in extruded linseed, rich in linolenic acid. The extent of lipid oxidation was evaluated by quantification of conjugated dienes (CD) and malondialdehyde (MDA), but also by assessment of tocopherols, lutein and zeaxanthin losses. Results highlighted the remarkable oxidative stability of control and enriched yolk powders as revealed by a moderate increase of the quantities of CD and MDA, the lack of oxidised cholesterol and small loss of α-tocopherol. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. A Method for Selective Enrichment and Analysis of Nitrotyrosine-Containing Peptides in Complex Proteome Samples

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Qibin; Qian, Weijun; Knyushko, Tanya V.; Clauss, Therese RW; Purvine, Samuel O.; Moore, Ronald J.; Sacksteder, Colette A.; Chin, Mark H.; Smith, Desmond J.; Camp, David G.; Bigelow, Diana J.; Smith, Richard D.

    2007-06-01

    Elevated levels of protein tyrosine nitration have been found in various neurodegenerative diseases and aging related pathologies; however, the lack of an efficient enrichment method has prevented the analysis of this important low level protein modification. We have developed an efficient method for specific enrichment of nitrotyrosine containing peptides that permits nitrotyrosine peptides and specific nitration sites to be unambiguously identified with LC-MS/MS. The method is based on the derivatization of nitrotyrosine into free sulfhydryl groups followed by high efficiency enrichment of sulfhydryl-containing peptides with thiopropyl sepharose beads. The derivatization process starts with acetylation with acetic anhydride to block all primary amines, followed by reduction of nitrotyrosine to aminotyrosine, then derivatization of aminotyrosine with N-Succinimidyl S-Acetylthioacetate (SATA), and finally deprotecting of S-acetyl on SATA to form free sulfhydryl groups. This method was evaluated using nitrotyrosine containing peptides, in-vitro nitrated human histone 1.2, and bovine serum albumin (BSA). 91% and 62% of the identified peptides from enriched histone and BSA samples were nitrotyrosine derivatized peptides, respectively, suggesting relative high specificity of the enrichment method. The application of this method to in-vitro nitrated mouse brain homogenate resulted in 35% of identified peptides containing nitrotyrosine (compared to only 5.9% observed from the global analysis of unenriched sample), and a total of 150 unique nitrated peptides covering 102 proteins were identified with a false discovery rate estimated at 3.3% from duplicate LC-MS/MS analyses of a single enriched sample.

  13. Designed synthesis of MOF-derived magnetic nanoporous carbon materials for selective enrichment of glycans for glycomics analysis.

    PubMed

    Sun, Nianrong; Zhang, Xiangmin; Deng, Chunhui

    2015-04-21

    In this work, magnetic nanoporous carbon (NPC) materials were synthesized by choosing a MOF as a sacrificial template and a carbon precursor. The obtained Co-ZIF-67 materials showed strong magnetic response, high surface area, a uniform size of mesopores and high carbon content. The Co-ZIF-67 materials were successfully applied to glycomics analysis by enriching N-linked glycans in bio-samples with high selectivity and efficiency.

  14. Selective Enrichment and Identification of Azide-tagged Cross-linked Peptides Using Chemical Ligation and Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Vellucci, Danielle; Kao, Athit; Kaake, Robyn M.; Rychnovsky, Scott D.; Huang, Lan

    2010-01-01

    Protein-protein interaction is one of the key regulatory mechanisms for controlling protein function in various cellular processes. Chemical cross-linking coupled with mass spectrometry has proven to be a powerful method not only for mapping protein-protein interactions of all natures including weak and transient ones, but also for determining their interaction interfaces. One critical challenge remaining in this approach is how to effectively isolate and identify cross-linked products from a complex peptide mixture. In this work, we have developed a novel strategy using conjugation chemistry for selective enrichment of cross-linked products. An azide-tagged cross-linker along with two biotinylated conjugation reagents were designed and synthesized. Cross-linking of model peptides and cytochrome c as well as enrichment of the resulting cross-linked peptides has been assessed. Selective conjugation of azide-tagged cross-linked peptides has been demonstrated using two strategies: copper catalyzed cycloaddition and Staudinger ligation. While both methods are effective, Staudinger ligation is better suited for enriching the cross-linked peptides since there are fewer issues with sample handling. LC MSn analysis coupled with database searching using the Protein Prospector software package allowed identification of fifty-eight cytochrome c cross-linked peptides after enrichment and affinity purification. The new enrichment strategy developed in this work provides useful tools for facilitating identification of cross-linked peptides in a peptide mixture by MS, thus presenting a step forward in future studies of protein-protein interactions of protein complexes by cross-linking and mass spectrometry. PMID:20472459

  15. Facile synthesis of titania nanoparticles coated carbon nanotubes for selective enrichment of phosphopeptides for mass spectrometry analysis.

    PubMed

    Yan, Yinghua; Lu, Jin; Deng, Chunhui; Zhang, Xiangmin

    2013-03-30

    In this work, titania nanoparticles coated carbon nanotubes (denoted as CNTs/TiO2 composites) were synthesized through a facile but effective solvothermal reaction using titanium isopropoxide as the titania source, isopropyl alcohol as the solvent and as the basic catalyst in the presence of hydrophilic carbon nanotubes. Characterizations using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) indicate that the CNTs/TiO2 composites consist of CNT core and a rough outer layer formed by titania nanoparticles (5-10nm). Measurements using wide angle X-ray diffraction (WAXRD), zeta potential and N2 sorption reveal that the titania shell is formed by anatase titania nanoparticles, and the composites have a high specific surface area of about 104 m(2)/g. By using their high surface area and affinity to phosphopeptides, the CNTs/TiO2 composites were applied to selectively enrich phosphopeptides for mass spectrometry analysis. The high selectivity and capacity of the CNTs/TiO2 composites have been demonstrated by effective enrichment of phosphopeptides from digests of phosphoprotein, protein mixtures of β-casein and bovine serum albumin, human serum and rat brain samples. These results foresee a promising application of the novel CNTs/TiO2 composites in the selective enrichment of phosphopeptides.

  16. A novel enrichment program using cascading mentorship to increase diversity in the health care professions.

    PubMed

    Afghani, Behnoosh; Santos, Rosanne; Angulo, Marco; Muratori, Walter

    2013-09-01

    The authors describe an innovative summer enrichment program based on a cascading mentorship model to transfer knowledge and skills from faculty to medical students to undergraduate students and finally to high school students. The program was designed to give high school students a glimpse of life in medical school and enhance the teaching and leadership skills of underrepresented undergraduate and medical students. Started in 2010 with 30 high school students and 9 college and medical student coaches, the University of California, Irvine, School of Medicine Summer Premed Program expanded rapidly over the next two summers and enrolled a total of 253 high school students, 48 college students, and 12 medical students. The college and medical student coaches, the majority of whom were underrepresented in medicine (URIM), reported that the program enhanced their teaching and leadership skills and self-confidence, motivated them toward careers in academic medicine, and raised their awareness about the importance of cultural diversity. The authors present the details of this interactive, structured program and describe how URIM student empowerment, near-peer teaching, science socialization, and support from the institution's leadership and faculty members provided a climate that fostered belonging, a sense of personal transformation, and professional development among students from different levels of education and diverse backgrounds. Long-term follow-up of the participants' career choices is needed.

  17. Growing alliums and brassicas in selenium-enriched soils increases their anticarcinogenic potentials.

    PubMed

    Irion, C W

    1999-09-01

    The concentrating of essential minerals, vitamins, and bioactive phytochemicals into human foodstuffs is of vital importance in our rapidly expanding world. Selenium is an essential micronutrient which is currently receiving much publicity for its anticarcinogenic potentials. Unfortunately, this mineral is deficient in most soils worldwide, and as a result most geographical food chains contain highly inadequate amounts of selenium. Scientific evidence in now available which shows that common vegetable members of the allium genus, especially garlic, are seleniferous in that they readily uptake inorganic selenium from the soil and incorporate it into bioactive organic chemicals. The brassicas have also been found to be highly seleniferous in nature and to produce various seleno amino acids and potentially bioactive organic selenium-containing phytochemicals. Upon consumption by humans, these selenium phytochemicals, derived from both plant genus, show anticarcinogenic potentials. Due to the high concentrations of natural phytochemicals, and the additional assimilation of selenium, the commercial or small scale production of selenium-enriched brassicas and garlic is an excellent way of introducing anticarcinogenic phytochemicals into the human diet.

  18. CO2 enrichment increases carbon and nitrogen input from fine roots in a deciduous forest.

    SciTech Connect

    Iversen, Colleen M; Childs, Joanne; Norby, Richard J

    2008-08-01

    Greater root production under elevated [CO2] may drive changes in soil C storage and N cycling. However, this depends on root population turnover and chemistry, and the soil depth at which the roots are produced. We assessed the effect of elevated [CO2] on root biomass and N inputs at several soil depths using a long-term minirhizotron data set combined with continuous, root-specific measurements of root mass per unit length and [N]. Our experiment was conducted in a Liquidambar styraciflua forest stand exposed to current or elevated atmospheric [CO2] for 9 years. CO2-enrichment had no effect on root tissue density or [N] within a given diameter class. Root biomass production, standing crop and mortality were doubled under elevated [CO2]. Over 9 years, root mortality resulted in 681 g m-2 of extra C and 9 g m-2 of extra N input to the soil system under elevated [CO2]. At least half of these inputs were below 30 cm soil depth. Quantification of the effects of elevated CO2 on root detritus, especially at depth in the soil, will provide critical information needed for predicting processes such as long-term soil C storage and N cycling.

  19. Selective enrichment of the degradation products of organophosphorus nerve agents by zirconia based solid-phase extraction.

    PubMed

    Kanaujia, Pankaj K; Pardasani, Deepak; Tak, Vijay; Purohit, Ajay K; Dubey, D K

    2011-09-23

    Selective extraction and enrichment of nerve agent degradation products has been achieved using zirconia based commercial solid-phase extraction cartridges. Target analytes were O-alkyl alkylphosphonic acids and alkylphosphonic acids, the environmental markers of nerve agents such as sarin, soman and VX. Critical extraction parameters such as modifier concentration, nature and volume of washing and eluting solvents were investigated. Amongst other anionic compounds, selectivity in extraction was observed for organophosphorus compounds. Recoveries of analytes were determined by GC-MS which ranged from 80% to 115%. Comparison of zirconia based solid-phase extraction method with anion-exchange solid-phase extraction revealed its selectivity towards phosphonic acids. The limits of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ) with selected analytes were achieved down to 4.3 and 8.5 ng mL(-1), respectively, in selected ion monitoring mode.

  20. Polymeric integrated selective enrichment target (ISET) for solid-phase-based sample preparation in MALDI-TOF MS.

    PubMed

    Ekström, Simon; Wallman, Lars; Helldin, Göran; Nilsson, Johan; Marko-Varga, György; Laurell, Thomas

    2007-11-01

    A polymer microfabricated proteomic sample preparation and MALDI MS sample presentation device, the integrated selective enrichment target (ISET), comprising an array of perforated nanovials is reported. Each perforated nanovial can be filled with selective extraction media (microbeads) for purification and concentration of protein/peptides prior to matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI MS). The main areas covered are the influence of the molding-process-induced surface roughness and how to address the lack of inherent conductivity in the polyetheretherketone (PEEK) material for optimal MALDI MS readout. Application of the disposable polymeric ISET devices for solid-phase extraction and phosphopeptide capture is also demonstrated.

  1. Enrichment increases hippocampal neurogenesis independent of blood monocyte-derived microglia presence following high-dose total body irradiation.

    PubMed

    Ruitenberg, Marc J; Wells, Julia; Bartlett, Perry F; Harvey, Alan R; Vukovic, Jana

    2017-06-01

    Birth of new neurons in the hippocampus persists in the brain of adult mammals and critically underpins optimal learning and memory. The process of adult neurogenesis is significantly reduced following brain irradiation and this correlates with impaired cognitive function. In this study, we aimed to compare the long-term effects of two environmental paradigms (i.e. enriched environment and exercise) on adult neurogenesis following high-dose (10Gy) total body irradiation. When housed in standard (sedentary) conditions, irradiated mice revealed a long-lasting (up to 4 months) deficit in neurogenesis in the granule cell layer of the dentate gyrus, the region that harbors the neurogenic niche. This depressive effect of total body irradiation on adult neurogenesis was partially alleviated by exposure to enriched environment but not voluntary exercise, where mice were single-housed with unlimited access to a running wheel. Exposure to voluntary exercise, but not enriched environment, did lead to significant increases in microglia density in the granule cell layer of the hippocampus; our study shows that these changes result from local microglia proliferation rather than recruitment and infiltration of circulating Cx3cr1(+/gfp) blood monocytes that subsequently differentiate into microglia-like cells. In summary, latent neural precursor cells remain present in the neurogenic niche of the adult hippocampus up to 8 weeks following high-dose total body irradiation. Environmental enrichment can partially restore the adult neurogenic process in this part of the brain following high-dose irradiation, and this was found to be independent of blood monocyte-derived microglia presence. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Enrichment of lung microbiome with supraglottic taxa is associated with increased pulmonary inflammation

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The lung microbiome of healthy individuals frequently harbors oral organisms. Despite evidence that microaspiration is commonly associated with smoking-related lung diseases, the effects of lung microbiome enrichment with upper airway taxa on inflammation has not been studied. We hypothesize that the presence of oral microorganisms in the lung microbiome is associated with enhanced pulmonary inflammation. To test this, we sampled bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) from the lower airways of 29 asymptomatic subjects (nine never-smokers, 14 former-smokers, and six current-smokers). We quantified, amplified, and sequenced 16S rRNA genes from BAL samples by qPCR and 454 sequencing. Pulmonary inflammation was assessed by exhaled nitric oxide (eNO), BAL lymphocytes, and neutrophils. Results BAL had lower total 16S than supraglottic samples and higher than saline background. Bacterial communities in the lower airway clustered in two distinct groups that we designated as pneumotypes. The rRNA gene concentration and microbial community of the first pneumotype was similar to that of the saline background. The second pneumotype had higher rRNA gene concentration and higher relative abundance of supraglottic-characteristic taxa (SCT), such as Veillonella and Prevotella, and we called it pneumotypeSCT. Smoking had no effect on pneumotype allocation, α, or β diversity. PneumotypeSCT was associated with higher BAL lymphocyte-count (P= 0.007), BAL neutrophil-count (P= 0.034), and eNO (P= 0.022). Conclusion A pneumotype with high relative abundance of supraglottic-characteristic taxa is associated with enhanced subclinical lung inflammation. PMID:24450871

  3. CO2 enrichment and N addition increase nutrient loss from decomposing leaf litter in subtropical model forest ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Liu, Juxiu; Fang, Xiong; Deng, Qi; Han, Tianfeng; Huang, Wenjuan; Li, Yiyong

    2015-01-22

    As atmospheric CO2 concentration increases, many experiments have been carried out to study effects of CO2 enrichment on litter decomposition and nutrient release. However, the result is still uncertain. Meanwhile, the impact of CO2 enrichment on nutrients other than N and P are far less studied. Using open-top chambers, we examined effects of elevated CO2 and N addition on leaf litter decomposition and nutrient release in subtropical model forest ecosystems. We found that both elevated CO2 and N addition increased nutrient (C, N, P, K, Ca, Mg and Zn) loss from the decomposing litter. The N, P, Ca and Zn loss was more than tripled in the chambers exposed to both elevated CO2 and N addition than those in the control chambers after 21 months of treatment. The stimulation of nutrient loss under elevated CO2 was associated with the increased soil moisture, the higher leaf litter quality and the greater soil acidity. Accelerated nutrient release under N addition was related to the higher leaf litter quality, the increased soil microbial biomass and the greater soil acidity. Our results imply that elevated CO2 and N addition will increase nutrient cycling in subtropical China under the future global change.

  4. CO2 enrichment and N addition increase nutrient loss from decomposing leaf litter in subtropical model forest ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Juxiu; Fang, Xiong; Deng, Qi; Han, Tianfeng; Huang, Wenjuan; Li, Yiyong

    2015-01-01

    As atmospheric CO2 concentration increases, many experiments have been carried out to study effects of CO2 enrichment on litter decomposition and nutrient release. However, the result is still uncertain. Meanwhile, the impact of CO2 enrichment on nutrients other than N and P are far less studied. Using open-top chambers, we examined effects of elevated CO2 and N addition on leaf litter decomposition and nutrient release in subtropical model forest ecosystems. We found that both elevated CO2 and N addition increased nutrient (C, N, P, K, Ca, Mg and Zn) loss from the decomposing litter. The N, P, Ca and Zn loss was more than tripled in the chambers exposed to both elevated CO2 and N addition than those in the control chambers after 21 months of treatment. The stimulation of nutrient loss under elevated CO2 was associated with the increased soil moisture, the higher leaf litter quality and the greater soil acidity. Accelerated nutrient release under N addition was related to the higher leaf litter quality, the increased soil microbial biomass and the greater soil acidity. Our results imply that elevated CO2 and N addition will increase nutrient cycling in subtropical China under the future global change.

  5. CO2 enrichment and N addition increase nutrient loss from decomposing leaf litter in subtropical model forest ecosystems

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Juxiu; Fang, Xiong; Deng, Qi; Han, Tianfeng; Huang, Wenjuan; Li, Yiyong

    2015-01-01

    As atmospheric CO2 concentration increases, many experiments have been carried out to study effects of CO2 enrichment on litter decomposition and nutrient release. However, the result is still uncertain. Meanwhile, the impact of CO2 enrichment on nutrients other than N and P are far less studied. Using open-top chambers, we examined effects of elevated CO2 and N addition on leaf litter decomposition and nutrient release in subtropical model forest ecosystems. We found that both elevated CO2 and N addition increased nutrient (C, N, P, K, Ca, Mg and Zn) loss from the decomposing litter. The N, P, Ca and Zn loss was more than tripled in the chambers exposed to both elevated CO2 and N addition than those in the control chambers after 21 months of treatment. The stimulation of nutrient loss under elevated CO2 was associated with the increased soil moisture, the higher leaf litter quality and the greater soil acidity. Accelerated nutrient release under N addition was related to the higher leaf litter quality, the increased soil microbial biomass and the greater soil acidity. Our results imply that elevated CO2 and N addition will increase nutrient cycling in subtropical China under the future global change. PMID:25608664

  6. A low-fat diet enriched in fish oil increased lipogenesis and fetal outcome of C57BL/6 mice.

    PubMed

    Akerele, Olatunji A; Cheema, Sukhinder K

    2017-08-01

    There is clear evidence that nutritional strategy employed during pregnancy has profound influence on the offspring health outcomes. However, the effect of the quality and the quantity of maternal fat intake on maternal metabolic profile during different stages of pregnancy and its impact on pregnancy sustainability is not known. Female C57BL/6 mice (7 weeks old) were fed diets varying in the quantity of fat (5% vs 11%) for two weeks prior to mating and throughout pregnancy. The 5% fat diet was enriched with longer chain omega (n)-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) from fish oil. Maternal plasma and tissues were collected before mating and during pregnancy at days 6.5, 12.5 and 18.5. Plasma lipids, glucose, insulin, progesterone and estradiol levels were measured. Cholesterol efflux capacity of maternal plasma as well as the mRNA expression of placental steroidogenic acute regulatory protein and hepatic lipogenic genes (acetyl-CoA carboxylase-1, fatty acid synthase, diacylglycerol acyltransferase-2 and stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1) was determined. Feto-placental weight and fetuses sustained throughout gestation were recorded. A low-fat maternal diet enriched with n-3 PUFA increased maternal plasma triacylglycerol and the mRNA expression of rate-limiting lipogenic enzymes, along with increasing cholesterol efflux capacity (P < 0.05), likely to meet fetal lipid demand during pregnancy. Furthermore, diet enriched with longer chain n-3 PUFA increased the maternal plasma concentration of progesterone and estradiol during pregnancy (P < 0.05), which coincides with an increase in the number of fetuses sustained till day 18.5. These novel findings may be important when designing dietary strategies to optimize reproductive capability and pregnancy outcomes. © 2017 Society for Reproduction and Fertility.

  7. Isolation of Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli from Ground Beef Using Multiple Combinations of Enrichment Broths and Selective Agars.

    PubMed

    Brusa, Victoria; Piñeyro, Pablo E; Galli, Lucía; Linares, Luciano H; Ortega, Emanuel E; Padola, Nora L; Leotta, Gerardo A

    2016-03-01

    Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) are foodborne pathogens, and beef cattle are recognized as the principal reservoir. The aims of this study were (1) to identify the most sensitive combination of selective enrichment broths and agars for STEC isolation in artificially inoculated ground beef samples, and (2) to evaluate the most efficient combination(s) of methods for naturally contaminated ground beef samples. A total of 192 ground beef samples were artificially inoculated with STEC and non-stx bacterial strains. A combination of four enrichment broths and three agars were evaluated for sensitivity, specificity, and positive predictive value for STEC isolation from experimentally inoculated samples. Enrichments with either modified tryptic soy broth (mTSB) containing 8 mg/L novobiocin (mTSB-8) or modified Escherichia coli (mEC) broth followed by isolation in MacConkey agar were the most sensitive combinations for STEC isolation of artificially inoculated samples. Independently, both enrichments media followed by isolation in MacConkey were used to evaluate ground beef samples from 43 retail stores, yielding 65.1% and 58.1% stx-positive samples by RT-PCR, respectively. No difference was observed in the isolate proportions between these two methods (8/25 [32%] and 8/28 [28.6%]). Identical serotypes and stx genotypes were observed in STEC strains isolated from the same samples by either method. In this study, no single enrichment protocol was sufficient to detect all STEC in artificially inoculated samples and had considerable variation in detection ability with naturally contaminated samples. Moreover, none of the single or combinations of multiple isolation agars used were capable of identifying all STEC serogroups in either artificially inoculated or naturally occurring STEC-contaminated ground beef. Therefore, it may be prudent to conclude that there is no single method or combination of isolation methods capable of identifying all STEC serogroups.

  8. Selection based on indirect genetic effects for growth, environmental enrichment and coping style affect the immune status of pigs.

    PubMed

    Reimert, Inonge; Rodenburg, T Bas; Ursinus, Winanda W; Kemp, Bas; Bolhuis, J Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    Pigs living in intensive husbandry systems may experience both acute and chronic stress through standard management procedures and limitations in their physical and social environment, which may have implications for their immune status. Here, the effect of a new breeding method where pigs were selected on their heritable influence on their pen mates' growth, and environmental enrichment on the immune status of pigs was investigated. Hereto, 240 pigs with a relatively positive genetic effect on the growth of their pen mates (+SBV) and 240 pigs with a relatively negative genetic effect on the growth of their pen mates (-SBV) were housed in barren or straw-enriched pens from 4 to 23 weeks of age (n  =  80 pens in total). A blood sample was taken from the pigs before, three days after a 24 h regrouping test, and at week 22. In addition, effects of coping style, as assessed in a backtest, and gender were also investigated. Mainly, +SBV were found to have lower leukocyte, lymphocyte and haptoglobin concentrations than -SBV pigs. Enriched housed pigs had a lower neutrophil to lymphocyte (N:L) ratio and lower haptoglobin concentrations, but had higher antibody titers specific for Keyhole Limpet Hemocyanin (KLH) than barren housed pigs. No interactions were found between SBV class and housing. Furthermore, pigs with a proactive coping style had higher alternative complement activity and, in the enriched pens, higher antibody titers specific for KLH than pigs with a reactive coping style. Lastly, females tended to have lower leukocyte, but higher haptoglobin concentrations than castrated males. Overall, these results suggest that +SBV pigs and enriched housed pigs were less affected by stress than -SBV and barren housed pigs, respectively. Moreover, immune activation might be differently organized in individuals with different coping styles and to a lesser extent in individuals of opposite genders.

  9. Changes in selective pressures associated with human population expansion may explain metabolic and immune related pathways enriched for signatures of positive selection.

    PubMed

    Vatsiou, Alexandra I; Bazin, Eric; Gaggiotti, Oscar E

    2016-07-21

    The study of local adaptation processes is a very important research topic in the field of population genomics. There is a particular interest in the study of human populations because they underwent a process of rapid spatial expansion and faced important environmental changes that translated into changes in selective pressures. New mutations may have been selected for in the new environment and previously existing genetic variants may have become detrimental. Immune related genes may have been released from the selective pressure exerted by pathogens in the ancestral environment and new variants may have been positively selected due to pathogens present in the newly colonized habitat. Also, variants that had a selective advantage in past environments may have become deleterious in the modern world due to external stimuli including climatic, dietary and behavioral changes, which could explain the high prevalence of some polygenic diseases such as diabetes and obesity. We performed an enrichment analysis to identify gene sets enriched for signals of positive selection in humans. We used two genome scan methods, XPCLR and iHS to detect selection using a dense coverage of SNP markers combined with two gene set enrichment approaches. We identified immune related gene sets that could be involved in the protection against pathogens especially in the African population. We also identified the glycolysis & gluconeogenesis gene set, related to metabolism, which supports the thrifty genotype hypothesis invoked to explain the current high prevalence of diseases such as diabetes and obesity. Extending our analysis to the gene level, we found signals for 23 candidate genes linked to metabolic syndrome, 13 of which are new candidates for positive selection. Our study provides a list of genes and gene sets associated with immunity and metabolic syndrome that are enriched for signals of positive selection in three human populations (Europeans, Africans and Asians). Our results

  10. Utilization of magnetic effects as a means of selective isotopic enrichment. Progress report, August 1, 1981-July 1, 1982. [Endoperoxides of anthracene and naphthalenes

    SciTech Connect

    Turro, N.J.

    1982-01-01

    A brief review of our publications on magnetic isotope effects for the above period is presented, along with a discussion of papers in press. The following current research is discussed next: (1) further increases in the efficiency of /sup 13/C enrichment achieved by photolysis of ketones in restricted spaces; (2) the development of novel and efficient schemes for the selective separation of /sup 17/O from /sup 16/O and /sup 18/O; (3) the production of singlet molecular oxygen and the measurement of its lifetime under a variety of conditions relevant to the /sup 17/O separation problem.

  11. Facile preparation of mesoporous carbon-silica-coated graphene for the selective enrichment of endogenous peptides.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Quanqing; Zhang, Qinghe; Xiong, Zhichao; Wan, Hao; Chen, Xiaoting; Li, Hongmei; Zou, Hanfa

    2016-01-01

    A sandwich-like composite composed of ordered mesoporous carbon-silica shell-coated graphene (denoted as graphene@mSiO2-C) was prepared by an in-situ carbonation strategy. A mesoporous silica shell was synthesized by a sol-gel method, and cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide inside the mesopores were in-situ carbonized as a carbon source to obtain a carbon-silica shell. The resulting mesoporous carbon-silica material with a sandwich structure possesses a high surface area (600 m(2) g(-1)), large pore volume (0.587 cm(3) g(-1)), highly ordered mesoporous pore (3 nm), and high carbon content (30%). This material shows not only high hydrophobicity of graphene and mesoporous carbon but also a hydrophilic silica framework that ensures excellent dispersibility in aqueous solution. The material can capture many more peptides from bovine serum albumin tryptic digests than mesoporous silica shell-coated graphene, demonstrating great enrichment efficiency for peptides. Furthermore, the prepared composite was applied to the enrichment of low-abundance endogenous peptides in human serum. Based on Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/ Ionization Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry identification, the graphene@mSiO2-C could efficiently size-exclude proteins and enriches the low-abundant peptides on the graphene and mesoporous carbon. And based on the LC-MS/MS results, 892 endogenous peptides were obtained by graphene@mSiO2-C, hinting at its great potential in peptides analysis.

  12. On-plate-selective enrichment of glycopeptides using boronic acid-modified gold nanoparticles for direct MALDI-QIT-TOF MS analysis.

    PubMed

    Tang, Jia; Liu, Yingchao; Qi, Dawei; Yao, Guoping; Deng, Chunhui; Zhang, Xiangmin

    2009-11-01

    In this study, an on-plate-selective enrichment method is developed for fast and efficient glycopeptide investigation. Gold nanoparticles were first spotted and sintered on a stainless-steel plate, then modified with 4-mercaptophenylboronic acid to provide porous substrate with large specific surface and dual functions. These spots were used to selectively capture glycopeptides from peptide mixtures and the captured target peptides could be analyzed by MALDI-MS simply by deposition of 2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid matrix. Horseradish peroxidase was employed as a standard glycoprotein to investigate the enrichment efficiency. In this way, the enrichment, washing and detection steps can all be fulfilled on a single MALDI target plate. The relatively small sample amount needed, low detection limit and rapid selective enrichment have made this on-plate strategy promising for online enrichment of glycopeptides, which could be applied in high-throughput proteome research.

  13. Selecting iodine-enriched vegetables and the residual effect of iodate application to soil.

    PubMed

    Dai, Jiu-Lan; Zhu, Yong-Guan; Zhang, Min; Huang, Yi-Zhong

    2004-12-01

    A greenhouse pot experiment was conducted to select vegetables for iodine uptake. The residual effect of iodate fertilization on the growth of and iodine uptake by spinach plants were also investigated. Six vegetables, including leafy vegetables (pakchoi [Brassica chinensis L.], spinach [Spinacia oleracea L.]), tuber vegetables (onion [Allium cepa L.]), shoot vegetables (water spinach [Ipomoea aquatica Forsk.], celery [Apium graveolens L.]), and root vegetables (carrot [Daucus carota var. sativa DC.]) were examined. Results showed that the concentrations of iodate in soil had significant effect on the biomass of edible parts of pakchoi and spinach (p<0.01), whereas the concentrations of iodate in soil had no significant effect on that of carrots, water spinach, celery, and onion. Iodine concentrations in edible parts of vegetables and the transfer factors (TFedible parts) of soil-to-edible parts of vegetables significantly increased with increasing iodine concentrations in soil (p<0.001), and iodine concentrations in edible parts and TFedible parts of spinach were much higher than those of other vegetables at any treatment. Both transfer coefficients for edible parts (TCedible parts) and for aerial parts (TCaerial parts) of vegetables changed differently with increasing iodine concentrations in the soil, and TCedible parts and TCaerial parts of spinach were higher than those of other vegetables. Therefore, spinach was considered as an efficient vegetable for iodine biofortification. Further experiment showed that there is considerable residual effect of soil fertilization with iodate.

  14. Early enriched environment induces an increased conversion of proBDNF to BDNF in the adult rat's hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Cao, Wenyu; Duan, Juan; Wang, Xueqin; Zhong, Xiaolin; Hu, Zhaolan; Huang, Fulian; Wang, Hongtao; Zhang, Juan; Li, Fang; Zhang, Jianyi; Luo, Xuegang; Li, Chang-Qi

    2014-05-15

    An enriched environment has been shown to influence brain plasticity and function by involving the action of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). BDNF, which is synthesized as a precursor molecule (proBDNF) that undergoes proteolytic cleavage, plays an important role in synaptic plasticity and contributes to several brain functions such as memory, learning, and behavior. The neurotrophins and proneurotrophins often play opposite roles in the brain, suggesting that proteolytic cleavage of proneurotrophins controls the action of neurotrophins. However, few studies have focused on the expression and cleavage of proBDNF after exposure to an enriched environment. Our study aimed to explore the effects of an early-enriched environment on the conversion of proBDNF to BDNF in the adult rats' hippocampus. We found that there was no difference in the expression of proBDNF in the hippocampus between the SE (standard environment) and EE (enriched environment) rats, but a significantly increased BDNF protein level was found in the EE rats. Thus, a remarkably enhanced ratio of BDNF to proBDNF (BDNF/proBDNF) was observed in the EE rats. In addition, the EE resulted in a remarkably up-regulated matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) in the hippocampus, which played a key role in converting proBDNF to BDNF in the extracellular space. Furthermore, the expression of synapse-related proteins (NR1 and NR2A) was analyzed, and the results indicated that EE could significantly increase the expression of NR1 and NR2A in the hippocampus. In addition, the behavioral results showed that EE reduced anxiety-like behavior in the elevated-plus maze test and reduced immobility time in the forced swimming test. Moreover, the EE resulted in an increased preference for sucrose compared to the SE. These results suggested that the EE up-regulated MMP-9 levels within the hippocampus, which might facilitate the conversion of proBDNF to BDNF, thereby contributing to the long lasting alterations of

  15. CO2 enrichment increases element concentrations in grass mixtures by changing species abundances

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The continuing rise in atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration may increase plant growth relatively more than the uptake of soil-derived chemical elements that are essential for herbivores. Rising CO2 also may alter the nutritional quality of forage or fodder derived from multi-species veget...

  16. Monoacylglycerol-enriched oil increases EPA/DHA delivery to circulatory system in humans with induced lipid malabsorption conditions.

    PubMed

    Cruz-Hernandez, Cristina; Destaillats, Frédéric; Thakkar, Sagar K; Goulet, Laurence; Wynn, Emma; Grathwohl, Dominik; Roessle, Claudia; de Giorgi, Sara; Tappy, Luc; Giuffrida, Francesca; Giusti, Vittorio

    2016-12-01

    It was hypothesized that under induced lipid malabsorption/maldigestion conditions, an enriched sn-1(3)-monoacylglycerol (MAG) oil may be a better carrier for n-3 long-chain PUFAs (LC-PUFAs) compared with triacylglycerol (TAG) from fish oil. This monocentric double blinded clinical trial examined the accretion of EPA (500 mg/day) and DHA (300 mg/day) when consumed as TAG or MAG, into the erythrocytes, plasma, and chylomicrons of 45 obese (BMI ≥30 kg/m(2) and ≤40 kg/m(2)) volunteers who were and were not administered Orlistat, an inhibitor of pancreatic lipases. Intake of MAG-enriched oil resulted in higher accretion of LC-PUFAs than with TAG, the concentrations of EPA and DHA in erythrocytes being, respectively, 72 and 24% higher at 21 days (P < 0.001). In addition, MAG increased the plasma concentration of EPA by 56% (P < 0.001) as compared with TAG. In chylomicrons, MAG intake yielded higher levels of EPA with the area under the curve (0-10 h) of EPA being 55% greater (P = 0.012). In conclusion, in obese human subjects with Orlistat-induced lipid maldigestion/malabsorption conditions, LC-PUFA MAG oil increased LC-PUFA levels in erythrocytes, plasma, and chylomicrons to a greater extent than TAG. These results indicate that MAG oil might require minimal enzymatic digestion prior to intestinal uptake and transfer across the epithelial barrier.

  17. Selection strategies for limiting the increase in ascites while increasing growth in broilers.

    PubMed

    McMillan, I; Quinton, V M

    2002-06-01

    The objective of the current study was to compare the changes in a fitness trait when selection is performed for 5, 10, and 20 generations on a production trait that influenced its expression. Responses to single-trait selection for growth based on phenotype or animal model predictions were compared by computer simulation. Two-trait index selection was performed when a trait, related to the fitness trait, was included in the index with the production trait. The phenotypic expression of the fitness trait among the sibs was also considered as a selection factor for single-trait and two-trait index selection. For a fixed increase in the expression of the fitness trait, mass selection produced a larger increase in the production trait than did use of standard animal model best linear unbiased prediction under single-trait selection. The reduction in the genotypic mean of the fitness trait was accompanied by an increase in its phenotypic expression. The use of sib information and an indicator trait reduced the level of expression reached by the fitness trait.

  18. Aerobic exercise is the critical variable in an enriched environment that increases hippocampal neurogenesis and water maze learning in male C57BL/6J mice

    PubMed Central

    Mustroph, Martina L.; Chen, Shi; Desai, Shalin C.; Cay, Edward B.; DeYoung, Erin K.; Rhodes, Justin S.

    2012-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that housing mice with toys and running wheels increases adult hippocampal neurogenesis and enhances performance on the water maze. However, the relative contribution of running versus enrichment to the neurogenic and pro-cognitive effects is not clear. Recently, it was demonstrated that enrichment devoid of running wheels does not significantly enhance adult hippocampal neurogenesis in female C57BL/6J mice. However, novel toys were not rotated into the cages, and dietary enrichment was not included, so it could be argued that the environment was not enriched enough. In addition, only females were studied, and animals were group-housed, making it impossible to record individual running behavior or to determine the time spent running versus exploring the toys. Therefore, we repeated the study in singly housed male C57BL/6J mice and enhanced enrichment by rotating novel tactile, visual, dietary, auditory, and vestibular stimuli into the cages. Mice were housed for 32 days in one of 4 groups: running-only, enrichment-only, running plus enrichment, and standard cage. The first 10 days BrdU (bromodeoxyuridine) was administered to label dividing cells. The last 5 days mice were tested on the water maze, and then euthanized to measure number of BrdU cells co-labeled with NeuN (neuronal nuclear marker) in the dentate gyrus. Mice in the running-only group ran, on average, greater distances than animals in the running plus enrichment group. The combination of enrichment and running did not significantly increase hippocampal neurogenesis any more than running alone did. Animals in the running-only condition were the only group to show enhanced acquisition on water maze relative to standard cage controls. We confirm and extend the conclusion that environmental enrichment alone does not significantly increase hippocampal neurogenesis or bestow spatial learning benefits in male C57BL/6J mice, even when the modalities of enrichment are very broad. PMID

  19. Selection by parasites may increase host recombination frequency.

    PubMed

    Fischer, O; Schmid-Hempel, P

    2005-06-22

    Meiotic recombination destroys successful genotypes and it is therefore thought to evolve only under a very limited set of conditions. Here, we experimentally show that recombination rates across two linkage groups of the host, the red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum, increase with exposure to the microsporidian parasite, Nosema whitei, particularly when parasites were allowed to coevolve with their hosts. Selection by randomly varied parasites resulted in smaller effects, while directional selection for insecticide resistance initially reduced recombination slightly. These results, at least tentatively, suggest that short-term benefits of recombination--and thus the evolution of sex--may be related to parasitism.

  20. Genetically engineered flavonol enriched tomato fruit modulates chondrogenesis to increase bone length in growing animals.

    PubMed

    Choudhary, Dharmendra; Pandey, Ashutosh; Adhikary, Sulekha; Ahmad, Naseer; Bhatia, Chitra; Bhambhani, Sweta; Trivedi, Prabodh Kumar; Trivedi, Ritu

    2016-02-26

    Externally visible body and longitudinal bone growth is a result of proliferation of chondrocytes. In growth disorder, there is delay in the age associated increase in height. The present study evaluates the effect of extract from transgenic tomato fruit expressing AtMYB12 transcription factor on bone health including longitudinal growth. Constitutive expression of AtMYB12 in tomato led to a significantly enhanced biosynthesis of flavonoids in general and the flavonol biosynthesis in particular. Pre-pubertal ovary intact BALB/c mice received daily oral administration of vehicle and ethanolic extract of wild type (WT-TOM) and transgenic AtMYB12-tomato (MYB12-TOM) fruits for six weeks. Animal fed with MYB12-TOM showed no inflammation in hepatic tissues and normal sinusoidal Kupffer cell morphology. MYB12-TOM extract significantly increased tibial and femoral growth and subsequently improved the bone length as compared to vehicle and WT-TOM. Histomorphometry exhibited significantly wider distal femoral and proximal tibial growth plate, increased number and size of hypertrophic chondrocytes in MYB12-TOM which corroborated with micro-CT and expression of BMP-2 and COL-10, marker genes for hypertrophic cells. We conclude that metabolic reprogramming of tomato by AtMYB12 has the potential to improve longitudinal bone growth thus helping in achievement of greater peak bone mass during adolescence.

  1. Genetically engineered flavonol enriched tomato fruit modulates chondrogenesis to increase bone length in growing animals

    PubMed Central

    Choudhary, Dharmendra; Pandey, Ashutosh; Adhikary, Sulekha; Ahmad, Naseer; Bhatia, Chitra; Bhambhani, Sweta; Trivedi, Prabodh Kumar; Trivedi, Ritu

    2016-01-01

    Externally visible body and longitudinal bone growth is a result of proliferation of chondrocytes. In growth disorder, there is delay in the age associated increase in height. The present study evaluates the effect of extract from transgenic tomato fruit expressing AtMYB12 transcription factor on bone health including longitudinal growth. Constitutive expression of AtMYB12 in tomato led to a significantly enhanced biosynthesis of flavonoids in general and the flavonol biosynthesis in particular. Pre-pubertal ovary intact BALB/c mice received daily oral administration of vehicle and ethanolic extract of wild type (WT-TOM) and transgenic AtMYB12-tomato (MYB12-TOM) fruits for six weeks. Animal fed with MYB12-TOM showed no inflammation in hepatic tissues and normal sinusoidal Kupffer cell morphology. MYB12-TOM extract significantly increased tibial and femoral growth and subsequently improved the bone length as compared to vehicle and WT-TOM. Histomorphometry exhibited significantly wider distal femoral and proximal tibial growth plate, increased number and size of hypertrophic chondrocytes in MYB12-TOM which corroborated with micro-CT and expression of BMP-2 and COL-10, marker genes for hypertrophic cells. We conclude that metabolic reprogramming of tomato by AtMYB12 has the potential to improve longitudinal bone growth thus helping in achievement of greater peak bone mass during adolescence. PMID:26917158

  2. Triclosan Resistome from Metagenome Reveals Diverse Enoyl Acyl Carrier Protein Reductases and Selective Enrichment of Triclosan Resistance Genes

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Raees; Kong, Hyun Gi; Jung, Yong-Hoon; Choi, Jinhee; Baek, Kwang-Yeol; Hwang, Eul Chul; Lee, Seon-Woo

    2016-01-01

    Triclosan (TCS) is a widely used antimicrobial agent and TCS resistance is considered to have evolved in diverse organisms with extensive use of TCS, but distribution of TCS resistance has not been well characterized. Functional screening of the soil metagenome in this study has revealed that a variety of target enoyl acyl carrier protein reductases (ENR) homologues are responsible for the majority of TCS resistance. Diverse ENRs similar to 7-α-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (7-α-HSDH), FabG, or the unusual YX7K-type ENR conferred extreme tolerance to TCS. The TCS-refractory 7-α HSDH-like ENR and the TCS-resistant YX7K-type ENR seem to be prevalent in human pathogenic bacteria, suggesting that a selective enrichment occurred in pathogenic bacteria in soil. Additionally, resistance to multiple antibiotics was found to be mediated by antibiotic resistance genes that co-localize with TCS resistance determinants. Further comparative analysis of ENRs from 13 different environments has revealed a huge diversity of both prototypic and metagenomic TCS-resistant ENRs, in addition to a selective enrichment of TCS-resistant specific ENRs in presumably TCS-contaminated environments with reduced ENR diversity. Our results suggest that long-term extensive use of TCS can lead to the selective emergence of TCS-resistant bacterial pathogens, possibly with additional resistance to multiple antibiotics, in natural environments. PMID:27577999

  3. Selective extraction and enrichment of glycoproteins based on boronate affinity SPME and determination by CIEF-WCID.

    PubMed

    Li, Lixian; Xia, Zhining; Pawliszyn, Janusz

    2015-07-30

    In this study, a new thin-film boronic acid coating was developed for solid-phase microextraction (SPME) followed by capillary isoelectric focusing with whole-column imaging detection (CIEF-WCID). Boronate functionalized particles of phenylboronic acid (PBA) and 3-aminophenylboronic acid (3-aPBA) were utilized as boronate affinity solid phase coating on thin-film stainless steel blades for selective extraction and enrichment of glycoproteins. The process of extraction and elution could be easily controlled by adjusting pH. To test specificity, asialofetuin and lactoferrin were selected as glycoproteins test molecules, while BSA and myoglobin were used as control non-glycoproteins in this study. The boronate affinity coating was characterized. The effect of buffer, pH, extraction profiles and elution profiles were investigated. The developed method was successfully applied to extract glycoproteins from standard buffer, PBS, human plasma and 10-fold diluted human blood using two kinds of boronate affinity blades. Boronate affinity SPME could be a promising tool for selective extraction and enrichment of low-abundance glycoproteins in real biological samples.

  4. Photocatalytically patterned TiO2 arrays for on-plate selective enrichment of phosphopeptides and direct MALDI MS analysis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hui; Duan, Jicheng; Cheng, Quan

    2011-03-01

    We report the development of photocatalytically patterned TiO(2) arrays for selective on-plate enrichment and direct matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS) analysis of phosphopeptides. A thin TiO(2) nanofilm with controlled porosity is prepared on gold-covered glass slides by a layer-by-layer (LbL) deposition/calcination process. The highly porous and rough nanostructure offers high surface area for selective binding of phosphorylated species. The patterned arrays are generated using an octadecyltrichlorosilane (OTS) coating in combination of UV irradiation with a photomask, followed by NaOH etching. The resulting hydrophilic TiO(2) spots are thus surrounded by a hydrophobic OTS layer, which can facilitate the enrichment of low-abundance components by confining a large volume sample into a small area. The TiO(2) arrays exhibit high specificity toward phosphopeptides in complex samples including phosphoprotein digests and human serum, and the detection can be made in the fmole range. Additional advantages of the arrays include excellent stability, reusability/reproducibility, and low cost. This method has been successfully applied to the analysis of phosphopeptides in nonfat milk. The patterned TiO(2) arrays provide an attractive interface for performing on-plate reactions, including selective capture of target species for MALDI-MS analysis, and can serve as a versatile lab-on-a-chip platform for high throughput analysis in phosphoproteome research.

  5. The mouse X chromosome is enriched for sex-biased genes not subject to selection by meiotic sex chromosome inactivation.

    PubMed

    Khil, Pavel P; Smirnova, Natalya A; Romanienko, Peter J; Camerini-Otero, R Daniel

    2004-06-01

    Sex chromosomes are subject to sex-specific selective evolutionary forces. One model predicts that genes with sex-biased expression should be enriched on the X chromosome. In agreement with Rice's hypothesis, spermatogonial genes are over-represented on the X chromosome of mice and sex- and reproduction-related genes are over-represented on the human X chromosome. Male-biased genes are under-represented on the X chromosome in worms and flies, however. Here we show that mouse spermatogenesis genes are relatively under-represented on the X chromosome and female-biased genes are enriched on it. We used Spo11(-/-) mice blocked in spermatogenesis early in meiosis to evaluate the temporal pattern of gene expression in sperm development. Genes expressed before the Spo11 block are enriched on the X chromosome, whereas those expressed later in spermatogenesis are depleted. Inactivation of the X chromosome in male meiosis may be a universal driving force for X-chromosome demasculinization.

  6. Fluorouracil selectively enriches stem-like cells in the lung adenocarcinoma cell line SPC.

    PubMed

    Shi, Mu-mu; Xiong, Yan-lei; Jia, Xin-shan; Li, Xin; Zhang, Li; Li, Xiao-lei; Wang, En-Hua

    2013-06-01

    Most adult stem cells are in the G0 or quiescent phase of the cell cycle and account for only a small percentage of the cells in the tissue. Thus, isolation of stem cells from tissues for further study represents a major challenge. This study sought to enrich cancer stem cells and explore cancer stem-like cell clones using 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) in the lung adenocarcinoma cell line, SPC. Proliferation inhibition was analyzed using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assays, according to which half maximal inhibitory concentration values were calculated. Expression levels of stem cell markers after treatment with 5-FU were examined using immunofluorescence and Western blotting. Additionally, side population (SP) cells were sorted using FACS. Properties of SP cells were evaluated by using Transwell, colony-forming assays, and tumor formation experiments. 5-FU greatly inhibits proliferation, especially of cells in S phase. SP cells possess greater invasive potential, higher clone-forming potential, and greater tumor-forming ability than non-SP cells. Treatment with 5-FU enriches the SP cells with stem cell properties in human lung adenocarcinoma cell lines.

  7. Selective Enrichment Establishes a Stable Performing Community for Microbial Electrosynthesis of Acetate from CO₂.

    PubMed

    Patil, Sunil A; Arends, Jan B A; Vanwonterghem, Inka; van Meerbergen, Jarne; Guo, Kun; Tyson, Gene W; Rabaey, Korneel

    2015-07-21

    The advent of renewable energy conversion systems exacerbates the existing issue of intermittent excess power. Microbial electrosynthesis can use this power to capture CO2 and produce multicarbon compounds as a form of energy storage. As catalysts, microbial populations can be used, provided side reactions such as methanogenesis are avoided. Here a simple but effective approach is presented based on enrichment of a robust microbial community via several culture transfers with H2:CO2 conditions. This culture produced acetate at a concentration of 1.29 ± 0.15 g L(-1) (maximum up to 1.5 g L(-1); 25 mM) from CO2 at a fixed current of -5 Am(-2) in fed-batch bioelectrochemical reactors at high N2:CO2 flow rates. Continuous supply of reducing equivalents enabled acetate production at a rate of 19 ± 2 gm(-2)d(-1) (projected cathode area) in several independent experiments. This is a considerably high rate compared with other unmodified carbon-based cathodes. 58 ± 5% of the electrons was recovered in acetate, whereas 30 ± 10% of the electrons was recovered in H2 as a secondary product. The bioproduction was most likely H2 based; however, electrochemical, confocal microscopy, and community analyses of the cathodes suggested the possible involvement of the cathodic biofilm. Together, the enrichment approach and galvanostatic operation enabled instant start-up of the electrosynthesis process and reproducible acetate production profiles.

  8. Selective isotopic enrichment of synthetic RNA: application to the HIV-1 TAR element.

    PubMed

    Michnicka, M J; Harper, J W; King, G C

    1993-01-19

    The introduction of isotopically enriched nucleotides into NMR quantities of a synthetic 29-mer RNA derived from the HIV-1 TAR element is described. RNA enriched in 13C and/or 15N is produced by a procedure which involves isolation of whole cellular RNA from Escherichia coli, nucleolysis, separation of mononucleotides, chemical or enzymatic pyrophosphorylation, and in vitro transcription by T7 RNA polymerase. Spectral characteristics of each residue type are examined in isolation. 13C chemical shifts provide an alternative method to determine ribose puckers for larger RNAs. Nonprotonated sites such as purine N7 groups can now be monitored through the use of multiple-bond 1H-15N coupling. When applied conservatively, coordinate analysis of chemical shift values should prove valuable for NMR studies of RNA structure and recognition. 1H, 13C, and 15N chemical shift data suggest that TAR residue A35 has an unusual local environment, consistent with extrusion of its base from the terminal loop.

  9. Charged ultrafiltration membranes increase the selectivity of whey protein separations.

    PubMed

    Bhushan, S; Etzel, M R

    2009-04-01

    Ultrafiltration is widely used to concentrate proteins, but fractionation of one protein from another is much less common. This study examined the use of positively charged membranes to increase the selectivity of ultrafiltration and allow the fractionation of proteins from cheese whey. By adding a positive charge to ultrafiltration membranes, and adjusting the solution pH, it was possible to permeate proteins having little or no charge, such as glycomacropeptide, and retain proteins having a positive charge. Placing a charge on the membrane increased the selectivity by over 600% compared to using an uncharged membrane. The data were fit using the stagnant film model that relates the observed sieving coefficient to membrane parameters such as the flux, mass transfer coefficient, and membrane Peclet number. The model was a useful tool for data analysis and for the scale up of membrane separations for whey protein fractionation.

  10. In vivo protein quality of selected cereal-based staple foods enriched with soybean proteins.

    PubMed

    Acevedo-Pacheco, Laura; Serna-Saldívar, Sergio O

    2016-01-01

    One way to diminish protein malnutrition in children is by enriching cereal-based flours for the manufacturing of maize tortillas, wheat flour tortillas, and yeast-leavened breads, which are widely consumed among low socio-economic groups. The aim was to determine and compare the essential amino acid (EAA) scores, protein digestibility corrected amino acid scores (PDCAAS), and in vivo protein quality (protein digestibility, protein efficiency ratio (PER), biological values (BV), and net protein utilization (NPU) values) of regular versus soybean-fortified maize tortillas, yeast-leavened bread, and wheat flour tortillas. To comparatively assess differences in protein quality among maize tortillas, wheat flour tortillas, and yeast-leavened breads, EAA compositions and in vivo studies with weanling rats were performed. The experimental diets based on regular or soybean-fortified food products were compared with a casein-based diet. Food intake, weight gains, PER, dry matter and protein digestibility, BV, NPU, and PDCAAS were assessed. The soybean-fortified tortillas contained 6% of defatted soybean flour, whereas the yeast-leavened bread flour contained 4.5% of soybean concentrate. The soybean-fortified tortillas and bread contained higher amounts of lysine and tryptophan, which improved their EAA scores and PDCAAS. Rats fed diets based on soybean-fortified maize or wheat tortillas gained considerably more weight and had better BV and NPU values compared with counterparts fed with respective regular products. As a result, fortified maize tortillas and wheat flour tortillas improved PER from 0.73 to 1.64 and 0.69 to 1.77, respectively. The PER improvement was not as evident in rats fed the enriched yeast-leavened bread because the formulation contained sugar that decreased lysine availability possibly to Maillard reactions. The proposed enrichment of cereal-based foods with soybean proteins greatly improved PDCAAS, animal growth, nitrogen retention, and PER primarily

  11. In vivo protein quality of selected cereal-based staple foods enriched with soybean proteins

    PubMed Central

    Acevedo-Pacheco, Laura; Serna-Saldívar, Sergio O.

    2016-01-01

    Background One way to diminish protein malnutrition in children is by enriching cereal-based flours for the manufacturing of maize tortillas, wheat flour tortillas, and yeast-leavened breads, which are widely consumed among low socio-economic groups. Objective The aim was to determine and compare the essential amino acid (EAA) scores, protein digestibility corrected amino acid scores (PDCAAS), and in vivo protein quality (protein digestibility, protein efficiency ratio (PER), biological values (BV), and net protein utilization (NPU) values) of regular versus soybean-fortified maize tortillas, yeast-leavened bread, and wheat flour tortillas. Design To comparatively assess differences in protein quality among maize tortillas, wheat flour tortillas, and yeast-leavened breads, EAA compositions and in vivo studies with weanling rats were performed. The experimental diets based on regular or soybean-fortified food products were compared with a casein-based diet. Food intake, weight gains, PER, dry matter and protein digestibility, BV, NPU, and PDCAAS were assessed. The soybean-fortified tortillas contained 6% of defatted soybean flour, whereas the yeast-leavened bread flour contained 4.5% of soybean concentrate. Results The soybean-fortified tortillas and bread contained higher amounts of lysine and tryptophan, which improved their EAA scores and PDCAAS. Rats fed diets based on soybean-fortified maize or wheat tortillas gained considerably more weight and had better BV and NPU values compared with counterparts fed with respective regular products. As a result, fortified maize tortillas and wheat flour tortillas improved PER from 0.73 to 1.64 and 0.69 to 1.77, respectively. The PER improvement was not as evident in rats fed the enriched yeast-leavened bread because the formulation contained sugar that decreased lysine availability possibly to Maillard reactions. Conclusions The proposed enrichment of cereal-based foods with soybean proteins greatly improved PDCAAS, animal

  12. Nutrient enrichment increased species richness of leaf litter fungal assemblages in a tropical forest.

    PubMed

    Kerekes, Jennifer; Kaspari, Michael; Stevenson, Bradley; Nilsson, R Henrik; Hartmann, Martin; Amend, Anthony; Bruns, Thomas D

    2013-05-01

    Microbial communities play a major role in terrestrial ecosystem functioning, but the determinates of their diversity and functional interactions are not well known. In this study, we explored leaf litter fungal diversity in a diverse Panama lowland tropical forest in which a replicated factorial N, P, K and micronutrient fertilization experiment of 40 × 40 m plots had been ongoing for nine years. We extracted DNA from leaf litter samples and used fungal-specific amplification and a 454 pyrosequencing approach to sequence two loci, the nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region and the nuclear ribosomal large subunit (LSU) D1 region. Using a 95% sequence similarity threshold for ITS1 spacer recovered a total of 2523 OTUs, and the number of unique ITS1 OTUs per 0.5-1.0 g leaf litter sample ranged from 55 to 177. Ascomycota were the dominant phylum among the leaf litter fungi (71% of the OTUs), followed by Basidiomycota (26% of the OTUs). In contrast to our expectations based on temperate ecosystems, long-term addition of nutrients increased, rather than decreased, species richness relative to controls. Effect of individual nutrients was more subtle and seen primarily as changes in community compositions especially at lower taxonomic levels, rather than as significant changes in species richness. For example, plots receiving P tended to show a greater similarity in community composition compared to the other nutrient treatments, the +PK, +NK and +NPK plots appeared to be more dominated by the Nectriaceae than other treatments, and indicator species for particular nutrient combinations were identified.

  13. Increasing systematicity leads to better selection decisions: Evidence from a computer paradigm for evaluating selection tools

    PubMed Central

    Björklund, Fredrik

    2017-01-01

    A computerized paradigm was created to allow for testing in the laboratory whether increasing systematicity helps the recruiter make better selection decisions. Participants were introduced to the job and the applicants on the computer screen and asked to select who they thought should be considered for the job and who should not. Level of systematicity, i.e. the extent to which the recruitment is methodical and uses prepared tools, was manipulated between subjects. Depending on experimental condition participants were helped by means of a tool for extracting judgment criteria (job analysis) and a tool for making judgments related to selected criteria (including calculation of a final score). The general prediction that increased systematicity leads to the selection of more qualified candidates was supported by the results, particularly when the motivation to put time and effort into the task was higher. The results support the claim from Industrial/Organizational psychologists that systematicity is a desirable characteristic in selection processes. The fact that increasing systematicity led to better selection decisions in a controlled laboratory experiment, along with process-related measures, suggests that this kind of paradigm could be useful when evaluating new tools for improving selection decisions, before they are tested in large (and costly) field studies of actual personnel selection. PMID:28542456

  14. Selective enrichment yields robust ethene-producing dechlorinating cultures from microcosms stalled at cis-dichloroethene.

    PubMed

    Delgado, Anca G; Kang, Dae-Wook; Nelson, Katherine G; Fajardo-Williams, Devyn; Miceli, Joseph F; Done, Hansa Y; Popat, Sudeep C; Krajmalnik-Brown, Rosa

    2014-01-01

    Dehalococcoides mccartyi strains are of particular importance for bioremediation due to their unique capability of transforming perchloroethene (PCE) and trichloroethene (TCE) to non-toxic ethene, through the intermediates cis-dichloroethene (cis-DCE) and vinyl chloride (VC). Despite the widespread environmental distribution of Dehalococcoides, biostimulation sometimes fails to promote dechlorination beyond cis-DCE. In our study, microcosms established with garden soil and mangrove sediment also stalled at cis-DCE, albeit Dehalococcoides mccartyi containing the reductive dehalogenase genes tceA, vcrA and bvcA were detected in the soil/sediment inocula. Reductive dechlorination was not promoted beyond cis-DCE, even after multiple biostimulation events with fermentable substrates and a lengthy incubation. However, transfers from microcosms stalled at cis-DCE yielded dechlorination to ethene with subsequent enrichment cultures containing up to 10(9) Dehalococcoides mccartyi cells mL(-1). Proteobacterial classes which dominated the soil/sediment communities became undetectable in the enrichments, and methanogenic activity drastically decreased after the transfers. We hypothesized that biostimulation of Dehalococcoides in the cis-DCE-stalled microcosms was impeded by other microbes present at higher abundances than Dehalococcoides and utilizing terminal electron acceptors from the soil/sediment, hence, outcompeting Dehalococcoides for H2. In support of this hypothesis, we show that garden soil and mangrove sediment microcosms bioaugmented with their respective cultures containing Dehalococcoides in high abundance were able to compete for H2 for reductive dechlorination from one biostimulation event and produced ethene with no obvious stall. Overall, our results provide an alternate explanation to consolidate conflicting observations on the ubiquity of Dehalococcoides mccartyi and occasional stalling of dechlorination at cis-DCE; thus, bringing a new perspective to

  15. Selective Enrichment Yields Robust Ethene-Producing Dechlorinating Cultures from Microcosms Stalled at cis-Dichloroethene

    PubMed Central

    Delgado, Anca G.; Kang, Dae-Wook; Nelson, Katherine G.; Fajardo-Williams, Devyn; Miceli, Joseph F.; Done, Hansa Y.; Popat, Sudeep C.; Krajmalnik-Brown, Rosa

    2014-01-01

    Dehalococcoides mccartyi strains are of particular importance for bioremediation due to their unique capability of transforming perchloroethene (PCE) and trichloroethene (TCE) to non-toxic ethene, through the intermediates cis-dichloroethene (cis-DCE) and vinyl chloride (VC). Despite the widespread environmental distribution of Dehalococcoides, biostimulation sometimes fails to promote dechlorination beyond cis-DCE. In our study, microcosms established with garden soil and mangrove sediment also stalled at cis-DCE, albeit Dehalococcoides mccartyi containing the reductive dehalogenase genes tceA, vcrA and bvcA were detected in the soil/sediment inocula. Reductive dechlorination was not promoted beyond cis-DCE, even after multiple biostimulation events with fermentable substrates and a lengthy incubation. However, transfers from microcosms stalled at cis-DCE yielded dechlorination to ethene with subsequent enrichment cultures containing up to 109 Dehalococcoides mccartyi cells mL−1. Proteobacterial classes which dominated the soil/sediment communities became undetectable in the enrichments, and methanogenic activity drastically decreased after the transfers. We hypothesized that biostimulation of Dehalococcoides in the cis-DCE-stalled microcosms was impeded by other microbes present at higher abundances than Dehalococcoides and utilizing terminal electron acceptors from the soil/sediment, hence, outcompeting Dehalococcoides for H2. In support of this hypothesis, we show that garden soil and mangrove sediment microcosms bioaugmented with their respective cultures containing Dehalococcoides in high abundance were able to compete for H2 for reductive dechlorination from one biostimulation event and produced ethene with no obvious stall. Overall, our results provide an alternate explanation to consolidate conflicting observations on the ubiquity of Dehalococcoides mccartyi and occasional stalling of dechlorination at cis-DCE; thus, bringing a new perspective to better

  16. Functional dual hydrophilic dendrimer-modified metal-organic framework for the selective enrichment of N-glycopeptides.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yanan; Wang, Jiaxi; Gao, Mingxia; Zhang, Xiangmin

    2017-04-08

    Analysis of protein glycosylation remains a significant challenge due to the low abundance of glycoproteins or N-glycopeptides. Here we have synthesized an amino-functionalized metal-organic framework (MOF) MIL-101(Cr)-NH2 whose surface is grafted with a hydrophilic dendrimer poly(amidoamine) (PAMAM) for N-glycopeptide enrichment based on the hydrophilic interactions. The selected substrate MOF MIL-101(Cr) owns high surface area which provides nice support for peptide adsorption. In addition, the MOF displayed a good hydrophilic property after being modified with amino groups. Most importantly, the grafted hydrophilic dendrimer PAMAM was firstly applied in the post-synthetic modification (PSM) of MOFs. And this functionalization route using macromolecular dendrimer opens a new perspective in MOFs design. Owing to its long dendritic chains and abundant amino groups, our material displayed dual hydrophilic property. In the enrichment of standard glycoprotein horseradish peroxidase (HRP) digestion, the functional MOF material was shown to have low detection limit (1 fmol/μL) and good selectivity when the concentration of nonglycopeptides was 100 fold higher than the target N-glycopeptides. All the results proved that MIL-101(Cr)-NH2 @PAMAM has great potential in the glycoproteome analysis. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  17. Carbon-Decorated TiO2 Nanotube Membranes: A Renewable Nanofilter for Charge-Selective Enrichment of Proteins.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jingwen; Yang, Lingling; Han, Yuyao; Wang, Yongmei; Zhou, Xuemei; Gao, Zhida; Song, Yan-Yan; Schmuki, Patrik

    2016-08-31

    In this work, we design a TiO2 nanomembrane (TiNM) that can be used as a nanofilter platform for selective enrichment of specific proteins. After a first use, the photocatalytic properties of TiO2 allow the decomposition of unwanted remnants on the substrate and thus make the platform reusable. To construct this platform, we fabricate a free-standing TiO2 nanotube array and remove the bottom oxide to form a both-end-open TiNM. By pyrolysis of the natural tube wall contamination, the walls become decorated with graphitic carbon patches (C/TiNM). Owing to the large surface area, the amphiphilic nature and the charge-adjustable character, this C/TiNM can be used to extract and enrich hydrophobic charged biomolecules. Using human serum albumin (HSA) as a model protein as well as protein mixtures, we show that the composite membrane exhibits a highly enhanced loading capacity and protein selectivity and is reusable after a short UV treatment.

  18. Control of selectivity via nanochemistry: monolithic capillary column containing hydroxyapatite nanoparticles for separation of proteins and enrichment of phosphopeptides.

    PubMed

    Krenkova, Jana; Lacher, Nathan A; Svec, Frantisek

    2010-10-01

    New monolithic capillary columns with embedded commercial hydroxyapatite nanoparticles have been developed and used for protein separation and selective enrichment of phosphopeptides. The rod-shaped hydroxyapatite nanoparticles were incorporated into the poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate-co-ethylene dimethacrylate) monolith by simply admixing them in the polymerization mixture followed by in situ polymerization. The effect of percentages of monomers and hydroxyapatite nanoparticles in the polymerization mixture on the performance of the monolithic column was explored in detail. We found that the loading capacity of the monolith is on par with other hydroxyapatite separation media. However, the speed at which these columns can be used is higher due to the fast mass transport. The function of the monolithic columns was demonstrated with the separations of a model mixture of proteins including ovalbumin, myoglobin, lysozyme, and cytochrome c as well as a monoclonal antibody and its aggregates with protein A. Selective enrichment and MALDI/MS characterization of phosphopeptides fished-out from complex peptide mixtures of ovalbumin, α-casein, and β-casein digests were also achieved using the hydroxyapatite monolith.

  19. Designed synthesis of MOF-derived magnetic nanoporous carbon materials for selective enrichment of glycans for glycomics analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Nianrong; Zhang, Xiangmin; Deng, Chunhui

    2015-04-01

    In this work, magnetic nanoporous carbon (NPC) materials were synthesized by choosing a MOF as a sacrificial template and a carbon precursor. The obtained Co-ZIF-67 materials showed strong magnetic response, high surface area, a uniform size of mesopores and high carbon content. The Co-ZIF-67 materials were successfully applied to glycomics analysis by enriching N-linked glycans in bio-samples with high selectivity and efficiency.In this work, magnetic nanoporous carbon (NPC) materials were synthesized by choosing a MOF as a sacrificial template and a carbon precursor. The obtained Co-ZIF-67 materials showed strong magnetic response, high surface area, a uniform size of mesopores and high carbon content. The Co-ZIF-67 materials were successfully applied to glycomics analysis by enriching N-linked glycans in bio-samples with high selectivity and efficiency. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Experimental section, characterization results and additional MALDI-TOF MS spectra. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr00244c

  20. Phytoplankton Species Richness Increases Marine Primary Productivity through Selection Effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cermeno, P.

    2016-02-01

    Despite half of global primary production being mediated by the activity of microscopic algae called phytoplankton, the effect of phytoplankton species richness on marine primary productivity lacks a mechanistic understanding. We show that phytoplankton species richness increases the productivity of marine ecosystems through selection effect. Using concurrent measurements of phytoplankton community structure, nitrate fluxes into the euphotic zone and productivity (measured with the 14C-uptake technique) from a temperate coastal ecosystem, we failed to predict observed productivities from monoculture growth models based on extracellular nitrate concentrations, nitrate stores uniquely assigned to rare species or random physiological parameterizations. Observed productivities were best described by a model in which the dominant species of the community approached their maximum productivities at the expense of intracellular nitrate stores. We interpret these results as evidence of species' selection in communities containing a vast repertory. This differs from the positive effect of species richness in terrestrial plants, which is mainly driven by complementarity in resource use among species. The prevalence of selection effect was supported by open ocean data that show an increase in community dominance across a gradient of nutrient availability. These results highlight fundamental differences in the way terrestrial plant communities and marine phytoplankton control resource use and sustain world food stocks. We suggest that the maintenance of phytoplankton species richness is essential to sustain marine primary productivity.

  1. Enrichment of tomato paste with 6% tomato peel increases lycopene and beta-carotene bioavailability in men.

    PubMed

    Reboul, Emmanuelle; Borel, Patrick; Mikail, Céline; Abou, Lydia; Charbonnier, Monique; Caris-Veyrat, Catherine; Goupy, Pascale; Portugal, Henri; Lairon, Denis; Amiot, Marie-Josèphe

    2005-04-01

    A high intake of tomato products is associated with a lower incidence of upper aerodigestive tract and prostate cancers. This beneficial effect might be explained by a higher intake of carotenoids such as lycopene and/or beta-carotene. Because tomato peels, usually eliminated during tomato processing, are a valuable source of these carotenoids, we designed a study to examine whether a tomato paste enriched in tomato peels (ETP, 6% peel) increases the absorption of these carotenoids compared to a classically made tomato paste (CTP). Carotenoid bioaccessibility was evaluated using an in vitro digestion model by measuring the amount of carotenoids transferred from the pastes to micelles. Carotenoid absorption by human intestinal cells (Caco-2) was evaluated after the addition of carotenoid-rich micelles (obtained from the in vitro digestion of the 2 pastes). Carotenoid bioavailability in humans was assessed by measuring chylomicron carotenoid responses in a postprandial experiment in which 8 healthy men consumed 2 meals containing either the ETP or the CTP. ETP contained 47.6 mg lycopene (58% more than CTP) and 1.75 mg beta-carotene (99% more than CTP) per 100 g of paste. In micelles, 30% more lycopene and 81% more beta-carotene were recovered after ETP than after CTP in vitro digestion. The amount of carotenoids absorbed by Caco-2 cells was 75% greater (P < or = 0.05) for lycopene and 41% greater (P < or = 0.05) for beta-carotene after the addition of micelles from ETP than from CTP. After ETP intake the chylomicron beta-carotene response was 74% greater than after CTP intake, and the lycopene response tended to be greater (34.1%, P = 0.093). Peel enrichment of tomato paste with tomato peel is an interesting option for increasing lycopene and beta-carotene intakes.

  2. Comparative analysis of 16S rRNA and amoA genes from archaea selected with organic and inorganic amendments in enrichment culture.

    PubMed

    Xu, Mouzhong; Schnorr, Jon; Keibler, Brandon; Simon, Holly M

    2012-04-01

    We took advantage of a plant-root enrichment culture system to characterize mesophilic soil archaea selected through the use of organic and inorganic amendments. Comparative analysis of 16S rRNA and amoA genes indicated that specific archaeal clades were selected under different conditions. Three amoA sequence clades were identified, while for a fourth group, identified by 16S rRNA gene analysis alone and referred to as the "root" clade, we detected no corresponding amoA gene. The amoA-containing archaea were present in media with either organic or inorganic amendments, whereas archaea representing the root clade were present only when organic amendment was used. Analysis of amoA gene abundance and expression, together with nitrification-coupled growth assays, indicated potential growth by autotrophic ammonia oxidation for members of two group 1.1b clades. Increased abundance of one of these clades, however, also occurred upon the addition of organic amendment. Finally, although amoA-containing group 1.1a archaea were present in enrichments, we detected neither expression of amoA genes nor evidence for nitrification-coupled growth of these organisms. These data support a model of a diverse metabolic community in mesophilic soil archaea that is just beginning to be characterized.

  3. Comparative Analysis of 16S rRNA and amoA Genes from Archaea Selected with Organic and Inorganic Amendments in Enrichment Culture

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Mouzhong; Schnorr, Jon; Keibler, Brandon

    2012-01-01

    We took advantage of a plant-root enrichment culture system to characterize mesophilic soil archaea selected through the use of organic and inorganic amendments. Comparative analysis of 16S rRNA and amoA genes indicated that specific archaeal clades were selected under different conditions. Three amoA sequence clades were identified, while for a fourth group, identified by 16S rRNA gene analysis alone and referred to as the “root” clade, we detected no corresponding amoA gene. The amoA-containing archaea were present in media with either organic or inorganic amendments, whereas archaea representing the root clade were present only when organic amendment was used. Analysis of amoA gene abundance and expression, together with nitrification-coupled growth assays, indicated potential growth by autotrophic ammonia oxidation for members of two group 1.1b clades. Increased abundance of one of these clades, however, also occurred upon the addition of organic amendment. Finally, although amoA-containing group 1.1a archaea were present in enrichments, we detected neither expression of amoA genes nor evidence for nitrification-coupled growth of these organisms. These data support a model of a diverse metabolic community in mesophilic soil archaea that is just beginning to be characterized. PMID:22267662

  4. Proteomic identification of mammalian cell surface derived glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored proteins through selective glycan enrichment

    PubMed Central

    Cortes, Leslie K; Vainauskas, Saulius; Dai, Nan; McClung, Colleen M; Shah, Manesh; Benner, Jack S; Corrêa, Ivan R; VerBerkmoes, Nathan C; Taron, Christopher H

    2014-01-01

    Glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored proteins (GPI-APs) are an important class of glycoproteins that are tethered to the surface of mammalian cells via the lipid GPI. GPI-APs have been implicated in many important cellular functions including cell adhesion, cell signaling, and immune regulation. Proteomic identification of mammalian GPI-APs en masse has been limited technically by poor sensitivity for these low abundance proteins and the use of methods that destroy cell integrity. Here, we present methodology that permits identification of GPI-APs liberated directly from the surface of intact mammalian cells through exploitation of their appended glycans to enrich for these proteins ahead of LC-MS/MS analyses. We validate our approach in HeLa cells, identifying a greater number of GPI-APs from intact cells than has been previously identified from isolated HeLa membranes and a lipid raft preparation. We further apply our approach to define the cohort of endogenous GPI-APs that populate the distinct apical and basolateral membrane surfaces of polarized epithelial cell monolayers. Our approach provides a new method to achieve greater sensitivity in the identification of low abundance GPI-APs from the surface of live cells and the nondestructive nature of the method provides new opportunities for the temporal or spatial analysis of cellular GPI-AP expression and dynamics. PMID:25262930

  5. Enrichment and oral bioaccessibility of selected trace elements in fly ash-derived magnetic components.

    PubMed

    Bourliva, Anna; Papadopoulou, Lambrini; Aidona, Elina; Simeonidis, Konstantinos; Vourlias, George; Devlin, Eamonn; Sanakis, Yiannis

    2016-11-04

    The mineralogy, morphology, and chemical composition of magnetic fractions separated from fly ashes (FAs) originating from Greek lignite-burning power plants was investigated. The oral bioaccessibility of potentially harmful elements (PHEs) from the fly ash magnetic fractions (FAMFs) was also assessed using in vitro gastrointestinal extraction (BARGE Unified Bioaccessibility Method, UBM). The FAMFs isolated were in the range 4.6-18.4%, and their mass specific magnetic susceptibility ranged from 1138 × 10(-8) to 1682 × 10(-8) m(3)/kg. XRD analysis and Mossbauer spectroscopy indicated that the dominant iron species were Fe-rich aluminosilicate glass along with magnetite, hematite, and maghemite (in decreasing order). The raw FAs exhibited differences in their chemical composition, indicating the particularity of every lignite basin. The elemental contents of FAMFs presented trends with fly ash type; thus, the FAMFs of high-Ca FAs were enriched in siderophile (Cr, Co, Ni) and lithophile (Cs, Li, Rb) elements and those separated from low-Ca FAs were presented depleted in chalcophile elements. Based on UBM extraction tests, the PHEs were more bioaccessible from the non-magnetic components of the FAs compared to the magnetic ones; however, the bioaccessible fractions estimated for the FAMFs were exceeding 40 % in many cases. Arsenic was found to be significantly bioaccessible (median ~ 80 %) from FAMFs despite the lower As contents in the magnetic fraction.

  6. Active Lyn protein tyrosine kinase is selectively enriched within membrane microdomains of resting platelets.

    PubMed Central

    Dorahy, D J; Burns, G F

    1998-01-01

    Circulating platelets are primed to respond very rapidly to thrombogenic stimuli, but most platelets complete their lifespan without ever becoming activated. Platelet activation is accompanied by waves of sequential tyrosine phosphorylation thought to involve members of the Src family of protein tyrosine kinases (PTKs). We show here that resting platelets contain highly active pp53/56(Lyn) PTK within membrane microdomains (rafts) isolated biochemically with or without the use of detergent. This fraction is also greatly enriched in the transmembrane glycoprotein CD36, known to associate with Lyn PTK, but in transfection studies we could find no evidence to suggest that CD36 affects the distribution or function of Lyn. Upon platelet activation Lyn activity remains constant or diminishes and pp60(c-src) PTK within this fraction becomes highly activated, indicating the dynamic nature of the membrane microdomains. It is suggested that the function of active Lyn PTK in the resting platelet is to allow prolonged survival of this anucleate cell. PMID:9657978

  7. Neuroproteomic profiling of human brain tissue using multidimensional separation techniques and selective enrichment of membrane proteins.

    PubMed

    Musunuri, Sravani; Shevchenko, Ganna; Bergquist, Jonas

    2012-12-01

    Hydrophobic membrane proteins (MPs) occupy a unique niche in the brain proteome research due to their important physiological roles. Therefore, the extraction, separation, and identification of MPs are of great interest in proteomic analysis. We applied various proteomic techniques to enrich, separate, and analyze the human brain proteome, including membrane proteome. Temperature-induced phase fractionation with the nonionic surfactant Triton X-114 was used to simultaneously extract, separate, and concentrate low abundant hydrophobic and high abundant hydrophilic proteins from human brain tissue. The extracted and delipidated proteins were analyzed by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2DE). Approximately 600 spots were detected in the gels. In-solution digestion was performed on 3 kDa spin filters. Tryptic peptides were separated using RP nano-LC and analyzed using two different high performance mass spectrometers, linear ion trap-Fourier transform and a linear ion trap-Orbitrap to reveal the low abundant MPs. In total, 837 and 780 unique proteins were identified by using linear ion trap-Fourier transform and linear ion trap-Orbitrap mass spectrometers, respectively. More than 29% of the identified proteins were classified as MPs with significant biological functions such as ion channels and transporters. Our study establishes a simple and rapid shotgun approach for the characterization of the brain proteome, and allows comprehensive analysis of brain membrane proteomes.

  8. Cognitive Load During Route Selection Increases Reliance on Spatial Heuristics.

    PubMed

    Brunyé, Tad T; Martis, Shaina B; Taylor, Holly A

    2017-03-22

    Planning routes from maps involves perceiving the symbolic environment, identifying alternate routes, and applying explicit strategies and implicit heuristics to select an option. Two implicit heuristics have received considerable attention, the southern route preference and initial segment strategy. The current study tested a prediction from decision making theory, that increasing cognitive load during route planning will increase reliance on these heuristics. In two experiments, participants planned routes while under conditions of minimal (0-back) or high (2-back) working memory load. In Experiment 1, we examined how memory load impacts the southern route heuristic. In Experiment 2, we examined how memory load impacts the initial segment heuristic. Results replicated earlier results demonstrating a southern route preference (Experiment 1) and initial segment strategy (Experiment 2), and further demonstrated that evidence for heuristic reliance is more likely under conditions of concurrent working memory load. Furthermore, the extent to which participants maintained efficient route selection latencies in the 2-back condition predicted the magnitude of this effect. Together, results demonstrate that working memory load increases the application of heuristics during spatial decision making, particularly when participants attempt to maintain quick decisions while managing concurrent task demands.

  9. Environmental enrichment improves age-related immune system impairment: long-term exposure since adulthood increases life span in mice.

    PubMed

    Arranz, Lorena; De Castro, Nuria M; Baeza, Isabel; Maté, Ianire; Viveros, Maria Paz; De la Fuente, Mónica

    2010-08-01

    Age-related changes in immunity have been shown to highly influence morbidity and mortality. The aim of the present work was to study the effects of environmental enrichment (EE) (8-16 weeks) on several functions and oxidative stress parameters of peritoneal leukocytes, previously described as health and longevity markers, in mice at different ages, namely adult (44 +/- 4 weeks), old (69 +/- 4 weeks), and very old (92 +/- 4 weeks). Mortality rates were monitored in control and enriched animals, and effects on survival of long-term exposure to EE until natural death were determined. The results showed that exposure to EE was efficient in improving the function (i.e., macrophage chemotaxis and phagocytosis, lymphocyte chemotaxis and proliferation, natural killer cell activity, interleukin-2 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha levels) and decreasing the oxidative-inflammatory stress (i.e., lowered oxidized glutathione content, xanthine oxidase activity, expression of Toll-like receptors 2 and 4 on CD4 and CD8 cells, and increased reduced glutathione and glutathione peroxidase and catalase activities) of immune cells. These positive effects of EE were especially remarkable in animals at older ages. Importantly, long-term exposure to EE from adult age and until natural death stands out as a useful strategy to extend longevity. Thus, the present work confirms the importance of maintaining active mental and/or physical activity aiming to improve quality of life in terms of immunity, and demonstrates that this active life must be initiated at early stages of the aging process and preserved until death to improve life span.

  10. Increased Oxidative Stress as a Selective Anticancer Therapy

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are closely related to tumorgenesis. Under hypoxic environment, increased levels of ROS induce the expression of hypoxia inducible factors (HIFs) in cancer stem cells (CSCs), resulting in the promotion of the upregulation of CSC markers, and the reduction of intracellular ROS level, thus facilitating CSCs survival and proliferation. Although the ROS level is regulated by powerful antioxidant defense mechanisms in cancer cells, it is observed to remain higher than that in normal cells. Cancer cells may be more sensitive than normal cells to the accumulation of ROS; consequently, it is supposed that increased oxidative stress by exogenous ROS generation therapy has an effect on selectively killing cancer cells without affecting normal cells. This paper reviews the mechanisms of redox regulation in CSCs and the pivotal role of ROS in anticancer treatment. PMID:26273420

  11. Common Starlings (Sturnus vulgaris) increasingly select for grazed areas with increasing distance-to-nest

    PubMed Central

    Fox, Anthony D.; Thellesen, Peder V.; Dalby, Lars; Sunde, Peter

    2017-01-01

    The abundant and widespread Common Starling (Sturnus vulgaris) is currently declining across much of Europe due to landscape changes caused by agricultural intensification. The proximate mechanisms causing adverse effects to breeding Starlings are unclear, hampering our ability to implement cost-efficient agri-environmental schemes to restore populations to former levels. This study aimed to show how this central foraging farmland bird uses and selects land cover types in general and how use of foraging habitat changes in relation to distance from the nest. We attached GPS-loggers to 17 breeding Starlings at a Danish dairy cattle farm in 2015 and 2016 and analysed their use of different land cover types as a function of distance intervals from the nest and their relative availability. As expected for a central place forager, Starlings increasingly avoided potential foraging areas with greater distance-to-nest: areas ≥ 500 m were selected > 100 times less frequently than areas within 100 m. On average, Starlings selected the land cover category Grazed most frequently, followed by Short Grass, Bare Ground, Meadow and Winter Crops. Starlings compensated for elevated travel costs by showing increasing habitat selection the further they foraged from the nest. Our results highlight the importance of Grazed foraging habitats close to the nest site of breeding Starlings. The ecological capacity of intensively managed farmlands for insectivorous birds like the Starling is decreasing through conversion of the most strongly selected land cover type (Grazed) to the least selected (Winter Crops) which may be further exacerbated through spatial segregation of foraging and breeding habitats. PMID:28771556

  12. Environmental enrichment preceding early adulthood methylphenidate treatment leads to long term increase of corticosterone and testosterone in the rat.

    PubMed

    Avital, Avi; Dolev, Talya; Aga-Mizrachi, Shlomit; Zubedat, Salman

    2011-01-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADD/ADHD) has been emerging as a world-wide psychiatric disorder. There appears to be an increasing rate of stimulant drug abuse, specifically methylphenidate (MPH) which is the most common treatment for ADHD, among individuals who do not meet the criteria for ADHD and particularly for cognitive enhancement among university students. However, the long term effects of exposure to MPH are unknown. Thus, in light of a developmental approach in humans, we aimed to test the effects of adolescence exposure to enriched environment (EE) followed by MPH administration during early adulthood, on reactions to stress in adulthood. Specifically, at approximate adolescence [post natal days (PND) 30-60] rats were reared in EE and were treated with MPH during early adulthood (PND 60-90). Adult (PND 90-92) rats were exposed to mild stress and starting at PND 110, the behavioral and endocrine effects of the combined drug and environmental conditions were assessed. Following adolescence EE, long term exposure to MPH led to decreased locomotor activity and increased sucrose preference. EE had a beneficial effect on PPI (attentive abilities), which was impaired by long term exposure to MPH. Finally, the interaction between EE and, exposure to MPH led to long-term elevated corticosterone and testosterone levels. In view of the marked increase in MPH consumption over the past decade, vigilance is crucial in order to prevent potential drug abuse and its long term detrimental consequences.

  13. Selenium enrichment of broccoli sprout extract increases chemosensitivity and apoptosis of LNCaP prostate cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Broccoli is a Brassica vegetable that is believed to possess chemopreventive properties. Selenium also shows promise as an anticancer agent. Thus, selenium enrichment of broccoli has the potential to enhance the anticancer properties of broccoli sprouts. Method Selenium-enriched broccoli sprouts were prepared using a sodium selenite solution. Their anticancer properties were evaluated in human prostate cancer cell lines and compared with those of a control broccoli sprout extract. Results Selenium-enriched broccoli sprouts were superior to normal broccoli sprouts in inhibiting cell proliferation, decreasing prostate-specific antigen secretion, and inducing apoptosis of prostate cancer cells. Furthermore, selenium-enriched broccoli sprouts but, not normal broccoli sprouts, induced a downregulation of the survival Akt/mTOR pathway. Conclusion Our results suggest that selenium-enriched broccoli sprouts could potentially be used as an alternative selenium source for prostate cancer prevention and therapy. PMID:19943972

  14. Brain-expressed exons under purifying selection are enriched for de novo mutations in autism spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    Uddin, Mohammed; Tammimies, Kristiina; Pellecchia, Giovanna; Alipanahi, Babak; Hu, Pingzhao; Wang, Zhuozhi; Pinto, Dalila; Lau, Lynette; Nalpathamkalam, Thomas; Marshall, Christian R; Blencowe, Benjamin J; Frey, Brendan J; Merico, Daniele; Yuen, Ryan K C; Scherer, Stephen W

    2014-07-01

    A universal challenge in genetic studies of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) is determining whether a given DNA sequence alteration will manifest as disease. Among different population controls, we observed, for specific exons, an inverse correlation between exon expression level in brain and burden of rare missense mutations. For genes that harbor de novo mutations predicted to be deleterious, we found that specific critical exons were significantly enriched in individuals with ASD relative to their siblings without ASD (P < 1.13 × 10(-38); odds ratio (OR) = 2.40). Furthermore, our analysis of genes with high exonic expression in brain and low burden of rare mutations demonstrated enrichment for known ASD-associated genes (P < 3.40 × 10(-11); OR = 6.08) and ASD-relevant fragile-X protein targets (P < 2.91 × 10(-157); OR = 9.52). Our results suggest that brain-expressed exons under purifying selection should be prioritized in genotype-phenotype studies for ASD and related neurodevelopmental conditions.

  15. BAD-lectins: boronic acid-decorated lectins with enhanced binding affinity for the selective enrichment of glycoproteins.

    PubMed

    Lu, Ying-Wei; Chien, Chih-Wei; Lin, Po-Chiao; Huang, Li-De; Chen, Chang-Yang; Wu, Sz-Wei; Han, Chia-Li; Khoo, Kay-Hooi; Lin, Chun-Cheng; Chen, Yu-Ju

    2013-09-03

    The weak and variable binding affinities exhibited by lectin-carbohydrate interactions have often compromised the practical utility of lectin in capturing glycoproteins for glycoproteomic applications. We report here the development and applications of a new type of hybrid biomaterial, namely a boronic acid-decorated lectin (BAD-lectin), for efficient bifunctional glycoprotein labeling and enrichment. Our binding studies showed an enhanced affinity by BAD-lectin, likely to be mediated via the formation of boronate ester linkages between the lectin and glycan subsequent to the initial recognition process and thus preserving its glycan-specificity. Moreover, when attached to magnetic nanoparticles (BAD-lectin@MNPs), 2 to 60-fold improvement on detection sensitivity and enrichment efficiency for specific glycoproteins was observed over the independent use of either lectin or BA. Tested at the level of whole cell lysates for glycoproteomic applications, three different types of BAD-lectin@MNPs exhibited excellent specificities with only 6% overlapping among the 295 N-linked glycopeptides identified. As many as 236 N-linked glycopeptides (80%) were uniquely identified by one of the BAD-lectin@MNPs. These results indicated that the enhanced glycan-selective recognition and binding affinity of BAD-lectin@MNPs will facilitate a complementary identification of the under-explored glycoproteome.

  16. Hyperoxaluria leads to dysbiosis and drives selective enrichment of oxalate metabolizing bacterial species in recurrent kidney stone endures

    PubMed Central

    Suryavanshi, Mangesh V.; Bhute, Shrikant S.; Jadhav, Swapnil D.; Bhatia, Manish S.; Gune, Rahul P.; Shouche, Yogesh S.

    2016-01-01

    Hyperoxaluria due to endogenously synthesized and exogenously ingested oxalates is a leading cause of recurrent oxalate stone formations. Even though, humans largely rely on gut microbiota for oxalate homeostasis, hyperoxaluria associated gut microbiota features remain largely unknown. Based on 16S rRNA gene amplicons, targeted metagenomic sequencing of formyl-CoA transferase (frc) gene and qPCR assay, we demonstrate a selective enrichment of Oxalate Metabolizing Bacterial Species (OMBS) in hyperoxaluria condition. Interestingly, higher than usual concentration of oxalate was found inhibitory to many gut microbes, including Oxalobacter formigenes, a well-characterized OMBS. In addition a concomitant enrichment of acid tolerant pathobionts in recurrent stone sufferers is observed. Further, specific enzymes participating in oxalate metabolism are found augmented in stone endures. Additionally, hyperoxaluria driven dysbiosis was found to be associated with oxalate content, stone episodes and colonization pattern of Oxalobacter formigenes. Thus, we rationalize the first in-depth surveillance of OMBS in the human gut and their association with hyperoxaluria. Our findings can be utilized in the treatment of hyperoxaluria associated recurrent stone episodes. PMID:27708409

  17. Towards the selection of a produced water enrichment for biological gas hydrate inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Sandra L; Voordouw, Gerrit; Walker, Virginia K

    2014-09-01

    Economic concerns associated with the recovery of non-conventional hydrocarbon reserves include unexpected ice as well as ice-like gas hydrate formation. Antifreeze proteins (AFPs) inhibit ice growth, and experiments with fish, plant, and insect AFPs have shown promise of effective gas hydrate inhibition in lab-scale experiments. If produced on an industrial scale, AFPs could provide a more environmentally friendly alternative to kinetic inhibitors, but a large-scale production of these AFPs is not currently feasible. We believe that these difficulties could be surmounted by the production of microbial AFPs, but to date, only a few such proteins have been identified and purified, and none of these are associated with hydrocarbon reserves. Here, we have used ice-affinity and freeze-thaw stress to select microbes derived from oil and gas formation water, or produced water, as a source of anaerobic microbial communities. Ice-affinity successfully incorporated anaerobic bacteria under aerobic conditions, and the mixed culture had ice-associating properties. Under these conditions, ice-affinity selection does not result in cultivatable isolates, but similar, cultivable microbes were obtained following freeze-thaw selection under anaerobic conditions. Since these mixed cultures inhibited the growth of ice crystals, they also have the potential to inhibit hydrate growth. Overall, freeze-thaw selection provides a promising first step towards the isolation of microbes capable of the inhibition of ice and gas hydrate growth, for possible application for energy exploration and recovery at high-latitudes and in-deep, cold waters.

  18. Selective enrichment and separation of phosphotyrosine peptides by thermosensitive molecularly imprinted polymers.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xiaoqing; Xia, Yan

    2016-01-01

    Novel thermosensitive molecularly imprinted polymers were successfully prepared using the epitope imprinting approach in the presence of the mimic template phenylphosphonic acid, the functional monomer vinylphosphonic acid-Ti(4+) , the temperature-sensitive monomer N-isopropylacrylamide and the crosslinker N,N'-methylenebisacrylamide. The ratio of the template/thermosensitive monomers/crosslinker was optimized, and when the ratio was 2:2:1, the prepared thermosensitive molecularly imprinted polymers had the highest imprinting factor. The synthetic thermosensitive molecularly imprinted polymers were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy to reveal the combination and elution processes of the template. Then, the adsorption capacity and thermosensitivity was measured. When the temperature was 28°C, the imprinting factor was the highest. The selectivity and adsorption capacity of the thermosensitive molecularly imprinted polymers for phosphotyrosine peptides from a mixture of three tailor-made peptides were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography. The results showed that the thermosensitive molecularly imprinted polymers have good selectivity for phosphotyrosine peptides. Finally, the imprinted hydrogels were applied to specifically adsorb phosphotyrosine peptides from a sample mixture containing phosphotyrosine and a tryptic digest of β-casein, which demonstrated high selectivity. After four rebinding cycles, 78.9% adsorption efficiency was still retained.

  19. Graphene-Templated Synthesis of Magnetic Metal Organic Framework Nanocomposites for Selective Enrichment of Biomolecules.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Gong; Wang, Zhi-Gang; Denagamage, Sachira; Zheng, Si-Yang

    2016-04-27

    Successful control of homogeneous and complete coating of graphene or graphene-based composites with well-defined metal organic framework (MOF) layers is a great challenge. Herein, novel magnetic graphene MOF composites were constructed via a simple strategy for self-assembly of well-distributed, dense, and highly porous MOFs on both sides of graphene nanosheets. Graphene functionalized with magnetic nanoparticles and carboxylic groups on both sides was explored as the backbone and template to direct the controllable self-assembly of MOFs. The prepared composite materials have a relatively high specific surface area (345.4 m(2) g(-1)), and their average pore size is measured to be 3.2 nm. Their relatively high saturation magnetization (23.8 emu g(-1)) indicates their strong magnetism at room temperature. Moreover, the multifunctional composite was demonstrated to be a highly effective affinity material in selective extraction and separation of low-concentration biomolecules from biological samples, in virtue of the size-selection property of the unique porous structure and the excellent affinity of the composite materials. Besides providing a solution for the construction of well-defined functional graphene-based MOFs, this work could also contribute to selective extraction of biomolecules, in virtue of the universal affinity between immobilized metal ions and biomolecules.

  20. Consumption of selenium-enriched broccoli increases cytokine production in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells stimulated ex vivo, a preliminary human intervention study.

    PubMed

    Bentley-Hewitt, Kerry L; Chen, Ronan K-Y; Lill, Ross E; Hedderley, Duncan I; Herath, Thanuja D; Matich, Adam J; McKenzie, Marian J

    2014-12-01

    Selenium (Se) is a micronutrient essential for human health, including immune function. Previous research indicates that Se supplementation may cause a shift from T helper (Th)1- to Th2-type immune responses. We aim to test the potential health promoting effects of Se-enriched broccoli. In a human trial, 18 participants consumed control broccoli daily for 3 days. After a 3-day wash-out period, the participants were provided with Se-enriched broccoli containing 200 μg of Se per serving for 3 days. Plasma and peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) samples were collected at the start and end of each broccoli feeding period for analysis of total Se and measurement of cytokine production from PBMC stimulated with antigens ex vivo. Plasma Se content remained consistent throughout the control broccoli feeding period and the baseline of the Se-enriched broccoli period (1.22 μmol/L) and then significantly increased following 3 days of Se-enriched broccoli feeding. Interleukin (IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, IL-13, and IL-22) production from PBMC significantly increased after 3 days of Se-enriched broccoli feeding compared with baseline. This study indicates that consumption of Se-enriched broccoli may increase immune responses toward a range of immune challenges. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. On-plate selective enrichment and self-desalting of peptides/proteins for direct MALDI MS analysis.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Zhoufang; Wang, Yandong; Shi, Shoulei; Wang, Lifeng; Guo, Xinhua; Lu, Nan

    2012-03-06

    In this paper, a new technique has been proposed to achieve simultaneous peptides/proteins enrichment and wash-free self-desalting on a novel sample support with a circle hydrophobic-hydrophilic-hydrophobic pattern. Upon deposition, the sample solution is first concentrated in a small area by repulsion of the hydrophobic outer layer, and then, the peptides/proteins and coexisting salt contaminants are selectively captured in different regions of the pattern through strong hydrophobic and hydrophilic attractions, respectively. As a result, the detection sensitivity is improved by 2 orders of magnitude better than the use of the traditional MALDI plate, and high-quality mass spectra are obtained even in the presence of NaCl (1 M), NH(4)HCO(3) (100 mM), or urea (1 M). The practical application of this method is further demonstrated by the successful analysis of myoglobin digests with high sequence coverage, demonstrating the great potential in proteomic research.

  2. High conjugated linoleic acid enriched ghee (clarified butter) increases the antioxidant and antiatherogenic potency in female Wistar rats

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Hypercholesterolemia and oxidative stress are the main stimulating factors responsible for coronary artery disease and progression of atherosclerosis. Dairy food products are rich in conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) which is considered as an important component due to its potential health benefits such as anticarcinogenic, antiatherogenic, antidiabetic and antiadipogenic properties. In the present study, the effect of CLA enriched ghee on the antioxidant enzyme system and antiatherogenic properties in Wistar rats has been studied. Methods Female Wistar rats of 21 days were taken for the study and fed with soybean diet (Control diet), low CLA diet and high CLA ghee diet (treatments) for thirty five days for studying antioxidative enzymes and sixteen weeks in case of antiatherogenic studies. Results Feeding of high CLA enhanced ghee during pubescent period in rats lead to an increase in catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) enzyme activities in blood and increased CAT, SOD and glutathione transferase (GST) enzymes activities in liver by 27, 130 and 168 percent, respectively. Plasma nitrate concentration and Haemoglobin levels remained the same in all the treatments. Feeding of high CLA ghee resulted in lower (P < 0.01) plasma cholesterol & triglyceride level (52.17 and 30.27%), and higher high density lipoproteins (33.26%) than feeding of soybean oil (control group) and thus manifested in decreased (P < 0.05) atherogenic index (from 0.472 to 0.244). Lesser cholesterol and triglyceride levels were observed in the liver and aorta of high CLA fed rats than in those of the other groups. Histopathological studies of liver showed normal hepatic cords with portal triad in the high CLA ghee fed rats whereas fatty degeneration of hepatocytes containing fat vacuoles was observed in the liver of the other groups. Conclusion This paper is the first report of the antioxidant and antiatherogenic properties of the high CLA enriched ghee suggesting that

  3. Delayed transmission selects for increased survival of vesicular stomatitis virus.

    PubMed

    Wasik, Brian R; Bhushan, Ambika; Ogbunugafor, C Brandon; Turner, Paul E

    2015-01-01

    Life-history theory predicts that traits for survival and reproduction cannot be simultaneously maximized in evolving populations. For this reason, in obligate parasites such as infectious viruses, selection for improved between-host survival during transmission may lead to evolution of decreased within-host reproduction. We tested this idea using experimental evolution of RNA virus populations, passaged under differing transmission times in the laboratory. A single ancestral genotype of vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV), a negative-sense RNA Rhabdovirus, was used to found multiple virus lineages evolved in either ordinary 24-h cell-culture passage, or in delayed passages of 48 h. After 30 passages (120 generations of viral evolution), we observed that delayed transmission selected for improved extracellular survival, which traded-off with lowered viral fecundity (slower exponential population growth and smaller mean plaque size). To further examine the confirmed evolutionary trade-off, we obtained consensus whole-genome sequences of evolved virus populations, to infer phenotype-genotype associations. Results implied that increased virus survival did not occur via convergence; rather, improved virion stability was gained via independent mutations in various VSV structural proteins. Our study suggests that RNA viruses can evolve different molecular solutions for enhanced survival despite their limited genetic architecture, but suffer generalized reproductive trade-offs that limit overall fitness gains. © 2014 The Author(s). Evolution © 2014 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  4. Centrifugal enrichment of zinc isotopes, their application in medicine and in increasing radiation safety in nuclear power plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tcheltsov, A. N.; Sosnin, L. Yu.; Shipilov, Yu. D.; Zaozersky, Yu. P.; Khamylov, V. K.; Pochekutova, T. S.

    2006-05-01

    This paper contains the results of our research on the complete cycle of centrifuge enrichment of all zinc isotopes. The centrifuge cascade that was used to obtain the world's first zinc isotope, 70Zn, with an enrichment of more than 99.3% in gram quantities, is described. As a result of this work, gram quantities of all highly enriched zinc isotopes and hundreds of grams of depleted zinc (in the form of ZnO) with concentrations of less than 0.5% 64Zn were obtained.

  5. The Ebola virus matrix protein VP40 selectively induces vesiculation from phosphatidylserine-enriched membranes.

    PubMed

    Soni, Smita P; Stahelin, Robert V

    2014-11-28

    Ebola virus is from the Filoviridae family of viruses and is one of the most virulent pathogens known with ∼ 60% clinical fatality. The Ebola virus negative sense RNA genome encodes seven proteins including viral matrix protein 40 (VP40), which is the most abundant protein found in the virions. Within infected cells VP40 localizes at the inner leaflet of the plasma membrane (PM), binds lipids, and regulates formation of new virus particles. Expression of VP40 in mammalian cells is sufficient to form virus-like particles that are nearly indistinguishable from the authentic virions. However, how VP40 interacts with the PM and forms virus-like particles is for the most part unknown. To investigate VP40 lipid specificity in a model of viral egress we employed giant unilamellar vesicles with different lipid compositions. The results demonstrate VP40 selectively induces vesiculation from membranes containing phosphatidylserine (PS) at concentrations of PS that are representative of the PM inner leaflet content. The formation of intraluminal vesicles was not significantly detected in the presence of other important PM lipids including cholesterol and polyvalent phosphoinositides, further demonstrating PS selectivity. Taken together, these studies suggest that PM phosphatidylserine may be an important component of Ebola virus budding and that VP40 may be able to mediate PM scission.

  6. Bottlenecks and selective sweeps during domestication have increased deleterious genetic variation in dogs.

    PubMed

    Marsden, Clare D; Ortega-Del Vecchyo, Diego; O'Brien, Dennis P; Taylor, Jeremy F; Ramirez, Oscar; Vilà, Carles; Marques-Bonet, Tomas; Schnabel, Robert D; Wayne, Robert K; Lohmueller, Kirk E

    2016-01-05

    Population bottlenecks, inbreeding, and artificial selection can all, in principle, influence levels of deleterious genetic variation. However, the relative importance of each of these effects on genome-wide patterns of deleterious variation remains controversial. Domestic and wild canids offer a powerful system to address the role of these factors in influencing deleterious variation because their history is dominated by known bottlenecks and intense artificial selection. Here, we assess genome-wide patterns of deleterious variation in 90 whole-genome sequences from breed dogs, village dogs, and gray wolves. We find that the ratio of amino acid changing heterozygosity to silent heterozygosity is higher in dogs than in wolves and, on average, dogs have 2-3% higher genetic load than gray wolves. Multiple lines of evidence indicate this pattern is driven by less efficient natural selection due to bottlenecks associated with domestication and breed formation, rather than recent inbreeding. Further, we find regions of the genome implicated in selective sweeps are enriched for amino acid changing variants and Mendelian disease genes. To our knowledge, these results provide the first quantitative estimates of the increased burden of deleterious variants directly associated with domestication and have important implications for selective breeding programs and the conservation of rare and endangered species. Specifically, they highlight the costs associated with selective breeding and question the practice favoring the breeding of individuals that best fit breed standards. Our results also suggest that maintaining a large population size, rather than just avoiding inbreeding, is a critical factor for preventing the accumulation of deleterious variants.

  7. Bottlenecks and selective sweeps during domestication have increased deleterious genetic variation in dogs

    PubMed Central

    Marsden, Clare D.; Ortega-Del Vecchyo, Diego; O’Brien, Dennis P.; Taylor, Jeremy F.; Ramirez, Oscar; Vilà, Carles; Marques-Bonet, Tomas; Schnabel, Robert D.; Wayne, Robert K.; Lohmueller, Kirk E.

    2016-01-01

    Population bottlenecks, inbreeding, and artificial selection can all, in principle, influence levels of deleterious genetic variation. However, the relative importance of each of these effects on genome-wide patterns of deleterious variation remains controversial. Domestic and wild canids offer a powerful system to address the role of these factors in influencing deleterious variation because their history is dominated by known bottlenecks and intense artificial selection. Here, we assess genome-wide patterns of deleterious variation in 90 whole-genome sequences from breed dogs, village dogs, and gray wolves. We find that the ratio of amino acid changing heterozygosity to silent heterozygosity is higher in dogs than in wolves and, on average, dogs have 2–3% higher genetic load than gray wolves. Multiple lines of evidence indicate this pattern is driven by less efficient natural selection due to bottlenecks associated with domestication and breed formation, rather than recent inbreeding. Further, we find regions of the genome implicated in selective sweeps are enriched for amino acid changing variants and Mendelian disease genes. To our knowledge, these results provide the first quantitative estimates of the increased burden of deleterious variants directly associated with domestication and have important implications for selective breeding programs and the conservation of rare and endangered species. Specifically, they highlight the costs associated with selective breeding and question the practice favoring the breeding of individuals that best fit breed standards. Our results also suggest that maintaining a large population size, rather than just avoiding inbreeding, is a critical factor for preventing the accumulation of deleterious variants. PMID:26699508

  8. Strong Selection Significantly Increases Epistatic Interactions in the Long-Term Evolution of a Protein

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Aditi; Adami, Christoph

    2016-01-01

    Epistatic interactions between residues determine a protein’s adaptability and shape its evolutionary trajectory. When a protein experiences a changed environment, it is under strong selection to find a peak in the new fitness landscape. It has been shown that strong selection increases epistatic interactions as well as the ruggedness of the fitness landscape, but little is known about how the epistatic interactions change under selection in the long-term evolution of a protein. Here we analyze the evolution of epistasis in the protease of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) using protease sequences collected for almost a decade from both treated and untreated patients, to understand how epistasis changes and how those changes impact the long-term evolvability of a protein. We use an information-theoretic proxy for epistasis that quantifies the co-variation between sites, and show that positive information is a necessary (but not sufficient) condition that detects epistasis in most cases. We analyze the “fossils” of the evolutionary trajectories of the protein contained in the sequence data, and show that epistasis continues to enrich under strong selection, but not for proteins whose environment is unchanged. The increase in epistasis compensates for the information loss due to sequence variability brought about by treatment, and facilitates adaptation in the increasingly rugged fitness landscape of treatment. While epistasis is thought to enhance evolvability via valley-crossing early-on in adaptation, it can hinder adaptation later when the landscape has turned rugged. However, we find no evidence that the HIV-1 protease has reached its potential for evolution after 9 years of adapting to a drug environment that itself is constantly changing. We suggest that the mechanism of encoding new information into pairwise interactions is central to protein evolution not just in HIV-1 protease, but for any protein adapting to a changing environment. PMID

  9. Selenium-Enriched Foods Are More Effective at Increasing Glutathione Peroxidase (GPx) Activity Compared with Selenomethionine: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Bermingham, Emma N.; Hesketh, John E.; Sinclair, Bruce R.; Koolaard, John P.; Roy, Nicole C.

    2014-01-01

    Selenium may play a beneficial role in multi-factorial illnesses with genetic and environmental linkages via epigenetic regulation in part via glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity. A meta-analysis was undertaken to quantify the effects of dietary selenium supplementation on the activity of overall GPx activity in different tissues and animal species and to compare the effectiveness of different forms of dietary selenium. GPx activity response was affected by both the dose and form of selenium (p < 0.001). There were differences between tissues on the effects of selenium supplementation on GPx activity (p < 0.001); however, there was no evidence in the data of differences between animal species (p = 0.95). The interactions between dose and tissue, animal species and form were significant (p < 0.001). Tissues particularly sensitive to changes in selenium supply include red blood cells, kidney and muscle. The meta-analysis identified that for animal species selenium-enriched foods were more effective than selenomethionine at increasing GPx activity. PMID:25268836

  10. Increasing selection response by Bayesian modeling of heterogeneous environmental variances

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Heterogeneity of environmental variance among genotypes reduces selection response because genotypes with higher variance are more likely to be selected than low-variance genotypes. Modeling heterogeneous variances to obtain weighted means corrected for heterogeneous variances is difficult in likel...

  11. SOIL NITRATE AND AMMONIUM THROUGH 2 YEARS OF SELECTIVE HERBIVORY AND CHRONIC NITROGEN ENRICHMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    -The effects of increased amounts and flux of bioavailable nitrogenous compounds in the ecosystem is of great interest to ecological researchers and longstanding concern to land-managers. Excess nitrogen in the environment is associated with many large-scale environmental concer...

  12. SOIL NITRATE AND AMMONIUM THROUGH 2 YEARS OF SELECTIVE HERBIVORY AND CHRONIC NITROGEN ENRICHMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    -The effects of increased amounts and flux of bioavailable nitrogenous compounds in the ecosystem is of great interest to ecological researchers and longstanding concern to land-managers. Excess nitrogen in the environment is associated with many large-scale environmental concer...

  13. Larval quality of aquacultured Florida pompano fed rotifers enriched with selected commercial diets

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Interest regarding cobia Rachycentron canadum aquaculture in the US has increased greatly in the last decade due to their excellent consumer appeal, extremely rapid growth rates, and the observed success of rearing this species in Taiwan. However, limited information exists with respect to nutritio...

  14. LA-ICP-MS analysis of isolated phosphatic grains indicates selective rare earth element enrichment during reworking and transport processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Auer, Gerald; Reuter, Markus; Hauzenberger, Christoph A.; Piller, Werner E.

    2016-04-01

    water chemistry under certain well constrained circumstances of primary authigenesis. Are these conditions not met, REE patterns are more likely to reflect complex enrichment processes that likely already started to occur during reworking over geologically relatively short time frames. Similarities in the REE patterns of clearly detrital and biogenic phosphate further suggest that the often observed 'hat-shaped' pattern in biogenic phosphates can easily result from increased middle REE (Neodymium to Holmium) scavenging during taphonomic processes prior to final deposition. Finally, cluster analysis coupled with sedimentological considerations proved a valuable tool for the characterization of REE patterns of phosphates in terms of their formation conditions and depositional history, such as the distinction of phosphates formed in situ from reworked and transported phosphate grains.

  15. Enrichment of hepatocytes in a HepaRG culture using spatially selective photodynamic treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bednarkiewicz, Artur; Rodrigues, Robim M.; Whelan, Maurice P.

    2010-03-01

    The human hepatoma HepaRG cell line is an in vitro cell model that is becoming an important tool in drug metabolism, hepatotoxicity, genotoxicity, and enzyme induction studies. The cells are highly proliferative during their undifferentiated state but once committed, they differentiate into two distinctly different cell types, namely, hepatocyte-like and biliary epithelial-like cells. The presence of the latter in the cell culture is considered to be a drawback of the cell model. Since the proliferating undifferentiated HepaRG cells have a bipotent character, the only way to improve the content ratio of hepatic versus biliary cells of differentiated HepaRG cells is to eradicate biliary cells in situ, in a way that free surface space does not become available and thus no transdifferentiation can occur. Spatially selective photodynamic therapy has proven to be effective for that purpose. First, all the cells were administered aminolevulinic acid (δ-ALA) to stimulate the synthesis of protoporphyrin IX (PpIX), a naturally occurring photosensitizer. Then, the biliary cells were automatically identified and outlined by bright-field image processing. Last, UV light patterns were projected onto the epithelial cells alone by a spatial light modulation device connected to an optical microscope; therefore, only these cells were destroyed by photodynamic therapy.

  16. Characterisation and evaluation of metal-loaded iminodiacetic acid-silica of different porosity for the selective enrichment of phosphopeptides.

    PubMed

    Trojer, L; Stecher, G; Feuerstein, I; Lubbad, S; Bonn, G K

    2005-06-24

    Silica particles of different porosity were functionalised with iminodiacetic acid (IDA) and loaded with Fe(III) to yield immobilised metal affinity chromatography stationary phases (Fe(III)-IDA-silica) for phosphopeptide enrichment. The elution step of bound phosphopeptides was optimised with a 32P radioactive labelled peptide by a comprehensive study. Several elution systems, including phosphate buffers of different pH and concentration and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid solutions were employed. Furthermore the effect of support porosity on elution behaviour was investigated. Under best conditions recoveries higher than 90% were achieved. A solid-phase extraction (SPE) protocol was developed for fractionation of phosphorylated and non-phosphorylated peptides and desalting of the fractions which is essential for subsequent mass spectrometric analysis by the combination of Fe(III)-IDA-silica and C18-silica particles. The pH of the loading buffer was found to be a critical parameter for the efficiency of the SPE protocol. As tryptic digests of alpha-lactalbumin, lysozyme and ribonuclease A mixed with three synthetic phosphopeptides were fractionated, pH 2.5 provided minimal proportion of unspecific bound peptides when comparing the fractions after mu-LC-electrospray ionization MS separation. The effect of a sample derivatisation reaction (methylation) on the efficiency of phosphopeptide enrichment was further investigated. Blocking carboxylate groups by methyl ester formation totally prevented unspecific interaction with the immobilised Fe(III) ions, but generated partially methylated phosphopeptides that increased the complexity of the phosphorylated fraction.

  17. Selective enrichment of hypericin in malignant glioma: pioneering in vivo results.

    PubMed

    Noell, Susan; Mayer, Daniel; Strauss, Wolfgang S L; Tatagiba, Marcos S; Ritz, Rainer

    2011-05-01

    Malignant gliomas are diffuse infiltrative growing tumors with a poor prognosis despite treatment with a combination of surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy. It has been shown recently that complete tumor resection improves the survival time significantly. Hypericin, a component of St. Johns Wort, is one of the most powerful photosensitizers in nature. The aim of the present study was to investigate accumulation of hypericin in intracerebral implanted malignant glioma in vivo. Rats underwent stereotactic implantation of C6 glioma cells. After intravenous administration of hypericin (5 mg per kg body weight), accumulation of the compound was studied in tumor, the infiltration zone surrounding the tumor and healthy brain (contralateral hemisphere) by fluorescence microscopy between 0 and 48 h after injection. Results were compared by one-way analysis of variance. For post hoc pair-wise comparison the Tukey-Kramer HSD test was used. Accumulation of hypericin was significantly higher in C6 glioma as compared to normal tissue. Maximum hypericin uptake was achieved at 24 h after injection. Ratios of fluorescence intensity between tumor and normal tissue as well as infiltration zone and normal tissue of about 6.1:1 and 1.4:1 were found. Considering tissue auto-fluorescence, fluorescence ratios of about 19.8:1 and 2.5:1 were calculated, respectively. Therefore, hypericin seems to be quite an effective fluorescence marker for the detection of glioma in vivo. To the best of our knowledge, the present study demonstrates for the first time that hypericin accumulates selectively in intracerebral implanted C6 glioma in vivo after systemic (intravenous) administration.

  18. Both increases in immature dentate neuron number and decreases of immobility time in the forced swim test occurred in parallel after environmental enrichment of mice.

    PubMed

    Llorens-Martín, M V; Rueda, N; Martínez-Cué, C; Torres-Alemán, I; Flórez, J; Trejo, J L

    2007-07-13

    A direct relation between the rate of adult hippocampal neurogenesis in mice and the immobility time in a forced swim test after living in an enriched environment has been suggested previously. In the present work, young adult mice living in an enriched environment for 2 months developed considerably more immature differentiating neurons (doublecortin-positive, DCX(+)) than control, non-enriched animals. Furthermore, we found that the more DCX(+) cells they possessed, the lower the immobility time they scored in the forced swim test. This DCX(+) subpopulation is composed of mostly differentiating dentate neurons independently of the birthdates of every individual cell. However, variations found in this subpopulation were not the result of a general effect on the survival of any newborn neuron in the granule cell layer, as 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine (BrdU)-labeled cells born during a narrow time window included in the longer lifetime period of DCX(+) cells, were not significantly modified after enrichment. In contrast, the survival of the mature population of neurons in the granule cell layer of the dentate gyrus in enriched animals increased, although this did not influence their performance in the Porsolt test, nor did it influence the dentate gyrus volume or granule neuronal nuclei size. These results indicate that the population of immature, differentiating neurons in the adult hippocampus is one factor directly related to the protective effect of an enriched environment against a highly stressful event.

  19. Neonatal handling and environmental enrichment increase the expression of GAP-43 in the hippocampus and promote cognitive abilities in prenatally stressed rat offspring.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhengyu; Zhang, Hua; Du, Baoling; Chen, Zhiqiang

    2012-07-26

    Neonatal handling and environmental enrichment have been used to aid the treatment and recovery of a diverse variety of brain dysfunctions. However, the underlying mechanism and the effects on cognitive function following neonatal handling and environmental enrichment are still unclear. In this study, we investigated GAP-43 protein levels in the hippocampus of prenatally stressed rat pups by Western blot on postnatal day (P) 10, P20 and P45. The cognitive ability of prenatally stressed rat pups was tested by using the Morris water maze on P45. GAP-43 protein levels were upregulated on P10 in the prenatal restraint stress (RS) group and the prenatal restraint stress plus neonatal handling and environmental enrichment (RE) group compared to the negative control (NC) group. However, the expression of GAP-43 in RS pups was lower on P20 and P45 than that in NC and RE pups. Exposure to prenatal stress prolonged average latency and total swim distance, but neonatal handling and environmental enrichment could reverse the change. Differences were also observed in the selection of search strategies. These results indicate that neonatal handling and environmental enrichment can improve the spatial learning and memory ability of prenatally stressed offspring, and the possible mechanism is the upregulation of GAP-43. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  20. Ultrathin-yttrium phosphate-shelled polyacrylate-ferriferrous oxide magnetic microspheres for rapid and selective enrichment of phosphopeptides.

    PubMed

    Sun, Ye; Wang, He-Fang

    2013-11-05

    Rapid and selective enrichment of phosphopeptides from complex biological samples is essential and challenging in phosphorylated proteomics. We present the direct growth of the ultrathin YPO4 shell on the surface of polyacrylate capped secondary Fe3O4 microspheres (PA-Fe3O4@YPO4) for the rapid and selective trapping phosphopeptides from complex samples. The prepared PA-Fe3O4@YPO4 could be rapidly harvested in the presence of an applied magnetic field and easily re-dispersed in solutions after removing the external magnet. The ultrathin YPO4 shell on super-hydrophilic PA-Fe3O4 has the advantages of fast adsorption/desorption dynamics and low non-specific adsorption, thus trapping of phosphopeptides from the tryptic digests mixture of β-casein/BSA with molar ratio of 1/300 is achieved in 20s adsorption/desorption time. Two phosphopeptides can still be detected with a signal to noise ratio (S/N) over 3 when the amount of β-casein was as low as 8 fmol.

  1. Stable acetate production in extreme-thermophilic (70°C) mixed culture fermentation by selective enrichment of hydrogenotrophic methanogens.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Fang; Zhang, Yan; Ding, Jing; Dai, Kun; van Loosdrecht, Mark C M; Zeng, Raymond J

    2014-06-12

    The control of metabolite production is difficult in mixed culture fermentation. This is particularly related to hydrogen inhibition. In this work, hydrogenotrophic methanogens were selectively enriched to reduce the hydrogen partial pressure and to realize efficient acetate production in extreme-thermophilic (70°C) mixed culture fermentation. The continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR) was stable operated during 100 days, in which acetate accounted for more than 90% of metabolites in liquid solutions. The yields of acetate, methane and biomass in CSTR were 1.5 ± 0.06, 1.0 ± 0.13 and 0.4 ± 0.05 mol/mol glucose, respectively, close to the theoretical expected values. The CSTR effluent was stable and no further conversion occurred when incubated for 14 days in a batch reactor. In fed-batch experiments, acetate could be produced up to 34.4 g/L, significantly higher than observed in common hydrogen producing fermentations. Acetate also accounted for more than 90% of soluble products formed in these fed-batch fermentations. The microbial community analysis revealed hydrogenotrophic methanogens (mainly Methanothermobacter thermautotrophicus and Methanobacterium thermoaggregans) as 98% of Archaea, confirming that high temperature will select hydrogenotrophic methanogens over aceticlastic methanogens effectively. This work demonstrated a potential application to effectively produce acetate as a value chemical and methane as an energy gas together via mixed culture fermentation.

  2. Stable acetate production in extreme-thermophilic (70°C) mixed culture fermentation by selective enrichment of hydrogenotrophic methanogens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Fang; Zhang, Yan; Ding, Jing; Dai, Kun; van Loosdrecht, Mark C. M.; Zeng, Raymond J.

    2014-06-01

    The control of metabolite production is difficult in mixed culture fermentation. This is particularly related to hydrogen inhibition. In this work, hydrogenotrophic methanogens were selectively enriched to reduce the hydrogen partial pressure and to realize efficient acetate production in extreme-thermophilic (70°C) mixed culture fermentation. The continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR) was stable operated during 100 days, in which acetate accounted for more than 90% of metabolites in liquid solutions. The yields of acetate, methane and biomass in CSTR were 1.5 +/- 0.06, 1.0 +/- 0.13 and 0.4 +/- 0.05 mol/mol glucose, respectively, close to the theoretical expected values. The CSTR effluent was stable and no further conversion occurred when incubated for 14 days in a batch reactor. In fed-batch experiments, acetate could be produced up to 34.4 g/L, significantly higher than observed in common hydrogen producing fermentations. Acetate also accounted for more than 90% of soluble products formed in these fed-batch fermentations. The microbial community analysis revealed hydrogenotrophic methanogens (mainly Methanothermobacter thermautotrophicus and Methanobacterium thermoaggregans) as 98% of Archaea, confirming that high temperature will select hydrogenotrophic methanogens over aceticlastic methanogens effectively. This work demonstrated a potential application to effectively produce acetate as a value chemical and methane as an energy gas together via mixed culture fermentation.

  3. On-plate glycoproteins/glycopeptides selective enrichment and purification based on surface pattern for direct MALDI MS analysis.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Zhoufang; Wang, Yandong; Guo, Xinhua; Wang, Ling; Lu, Nan

    2013-05-21

    In this paper, a novel method has been proposed to achieve selective enrichment and purification of glycoproteins/glycopeptides on a surface patterned sample support, which consists of a hydrophobic outer layer (F-SAM) and an internal boronic acid-modified gold microspot (900 μm). Upon deposition, the sample solution is firstly concentrated in a small area by repulsion of the hydrophobic outer layer, and then the glycoproteins/glycopeptides are selectively captured through boronic acid covalently binding in the inner layer. However, the non-glycosylated proteins/peptides or high concentration salts are removed after rinsing with alkaline solution. As a result, the detection sensitivity is improved by an order of magnitude greater than when using a stainless steel MALDI plate. With surface patterned sample support, the glycoproteins/glycopeptides can be detected even under interference from the excessive existing non-glycosylated proteins/peptides (10 times more than glycoproteins/glycopeptides). Simultaneously, high-quality mass spectra can be obtained even in the presence of urea (1 M), NaCl (1 M), or NH4HCO3 (200 mM). Therefore, this novel technique may be applied to high-throughput analysis of low-abundance glycoproteins/glycopeptides in complicated proteome research.

  4. Highly selective enrichment of phosphopeptides by on-chip indium oxide functionalized magnetic nanoparticles coupled with MALDI-TOF MS.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Dandan; Song, Naizhong; Li, Xiqian; Ma, Jiutong; Jia, Qiong

    2017-09-01

    Selective and efficient preconcentration is indispensable for low concentration of phosphopeptides in phosphorylated protein-related samples prior to MS-based analysis. Herein, an on-chip system coupled magnetic SPE with MALDI-TOF MS was designed. A metal oxide affinity chromatography material, indium oxide, was coated on the surface of Fe3 O4 magnetic nanoparticles to prepare the adsorbent, spatially confined with an applied magnetic field. The adsorbent exhibited high selectivity for phosphopeptides in tryptic digests of the mixture of β-casein and BSA (1:1000) and the mixture of β-casein, BSA, and ovalbumin (1:100:100). Thanking to the enrichment ability and specificity for phosphopeptides with the adsorbent, the on-chip magnetic SPE-MALDI-TOF MS approach showed high sensitivity with a low detection limit of 4 fmol. In addition, the developed approach was used to analyze phosphopetides in non-fat milk digests and human serum successfully. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Anhydride functionalised calcium ferrite nanoparticles: a new selective magnetic material for enrichment of lead ions from water and food samples.

    PubMed

    Pirouz, Mojgan Jafari; Beyki, Mostafa Hossein; Shemirani, Farzaneh

    2015-03-01

    In this research a sonochemistry route for manufacture of uniform nanocrystalline CaFe2O4 and its anhydride functionalisation were reported. The potential of raw and modified material as a magnetically separable sorbent in selective enrichment of lead ions from water and food samples is outlined. This material was characterised using FT-IR, XRD, SEM and VSM techniques. The SEM and VSM results indicated that the calcium ferrite nanoparticles are sphere-like particles possessing superparamagnetic properties with an average diameter of 40 nm. Various analytical parameters, including pH, contact time, type and concentration of eluent, adsorption capacity, sample volume and interference of ions, were optimised. Following a modification by anhydride, calcium ferrite selectivity toward lead ions was raised more than twofold compared to the unmodified nanoparticles. Finally a pre-concentration procedure was applied for determination of trace Pb(II) in canned tuna fish, canned tomato paste, parsley, milk and well-water samples with satisfactory results.

  6. GABA selectively increases mucin-1 expression in isolated pig jejunum.

    PubMed

    Braun, Hannah-Sophie; Sponder, Gerhard; Pieper, Robert; Aschenbach, Jörg R; Deiner, Carolin

    2015-11-01

    The inhibitory neurotransmitter GABA (γ-aminobutyric acid) is synthesized by glutamic acid decarboxylase, which is expressed in the central nervous system and in various other tissues including the intestine. Moreover, GABA can be ingested in vegetarian diets or produced by bacterial commensals in the gastrointestinal tract. As previous studies in lung have suggested a link between locally increased GABA availability and mucin 5AC production, the present study sought to test whether the presence or lack of GABA (and its precursor glutamine) has an effect on intestinal mucin expression. Porcine jejunum epithelial preparations were incubated with two different amounts of GABA or glutamine on the mucosal side for 4 h, and changes in the relative gene expression of seven different mucins, enzymes involved in mucin shedding, GABA B receptor, enzymes involved in glutamine/GABA metabolism, glutathione peroxidase 2, and interleukin 10 were examined by quantitative PCR (TaqMan(®) assays). Protein expression of mucin-1 (MUC1) was analyzed by Western blot. On the RNA level, only MUC1 was significantly up-regulated by both GABA concentrations compared with the control. Glutamine-treated groups showed the same trend. On the protein level, all treatment groups showed a significantly higher MUC1 expression than the control group. We conclude that GABA selectively increases the expression of MUC1, a cell surface mucin that prevents the adhesion of microorganisms, because of its size and negative charge, and therefore propose that the well-described positive effects of glutamine on enterocytes and intestinal integrity are partly attributable to effects of its metabolite GABA.

  7. Growth differences and competition between Listeria monocytogenes strains determine their predominance on ham slices and lead to bias during selective enrichment with the ISO protocol.

    PubMed

    Zilelidou, Evangelia; Manthou, Evanthia; Skandamis, Panagiotis

    2016-10-17

    Listeria monocytogenes strains are widespread in the environment where they live well mixed, often resulting in multiple strains contaminating a single food sample. The occurrence of different strains in the same food might trigger strain competition, contributing to uneven growth of strains in food and to bias during selective procedures. We tested the growth of seven L. monocytogenes strains (C5, 6179, ScottA, PL24, PL25, PL26, PL27) on ham slices and on nutrient-rich agar at 10°C, singly and in combinations. Strains were made resistant to different antibiotics for their selective enumeration. In addition, growth of single strains (axenic culture) and competition between strains in xenic cultures of two strains was evaluated in enrichment broth and on selective agar. According to ISO 11290-1:1996/Amd 1:2004 standard protocol for detection of L. monocytogenes, two enrichment steps both followed by streaking on ALOA were performed. Strain cultures were directly added in the enrichment broth or used to inoculate minced beef and sliced hams which were then mixed with enrichment broth. 180-360 colonies were used to determine the relative percentage of each strain recovered on plates per enrichment step. The data showed a significant impact of co-cultivation on the growth of six out of seven strains on ham and a bias towards certain strains during selective enrichment. Competition was manifested by: (i) cessation of growth for the outcompeted strain when the dominant strain reached stationary phase, (ii) reduction of growth rates or (iii) total suppression of growth (both on ham and in enrichment broth or ALOA). Outgrowth of strains by their competitors on ALOA resulted in limited to no recovery, with the outcompeting strain accounting for up to 100% of the total recovered colonies. The observed bias was associated with the enrichment conditions (i.e. food type added to the enrichment broth) and the strain-combination. The outcome of growth competition on food or

  8. Potential of marker selection to increase prediction accuracy of genomic selection in soybean (Glycine max L.).

    PubMed

    Ma, Yansong; Reif, Jochen C; Jiang, Yong; Wen, Zixiang; Wang, Dechun; Liu, Zhangxiong; Guo, Yong; Wei, Shuhong; Wang, Shuming; Yang, Chunming; Wang, Huicai; Yang, Chunyan; Lu, Weiguo; Xu, Ran; Zhou, Rong; Wang, Ruizhen; Sun, Zudong; Chen, Huaizhu; Zhang, Wanhai; Wu, Jian; Hu, Guohua; Liu, Chunyan; Luan, Xiaoyan; Fu, Yashu; Guo, Tai; Han, Tianfu; Zhang, Mengchen; Sun, Bincheng; Zhang, Lei; Chen, Weiyuan; Wu, Cunxiang; Sun, Shi; Yuan, Baojun; Zhou, Xinan; Han, Dezhi; Yan, Hongrui; Li, Wenbin; Qiu, Lijuan

    Genomic selection is a promising molecular breeding strategy enhancing genetic gain per unit time. The objectives of our study were to (1) explore the prediction accuracy of genomic selection for plant height and yield per plant in soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.], (2) discuss the relationship between prediction accuracy and numbers of markers, and (3) evaluate the effect of marker preselection based on different methods on the prediction accuracy. Our study is based on a population of 235 soybean varieties which were evaluated for plant height and yield per plant at multiple locations and genotyped by 5361 single nucleotide polymorphism markers. We applied ridge regression best linear unbiased prediction coupled with fivefold cross-validations and evaluated three strategies of marker preselection. For plant height, marker density and marker preselection procedure impacted prediction accuracy only marginally. In contrast, for grain yield, prediction accuracy based on markers selected with a haplotype block analyses-based approach increased by approximately 4 % compared with random or equidistant marker sampling. Thus, applying marker preselection based on haplotype blocks is an interesting option for a cost-efficient implementation of genomic selection for grain yield in soybean breeding.

  9. Increasing Verbal Behavior of a Student Who Is Selectively Mute

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beare, Paul; Torgerson, Colleen; Creviston, Cindy

    2008-01-01

    "Selective mutism" is the term used to describe a disorder in which a person speaks only in restricted stimulus situations. Examination of single-subject research concerning selective mutism reveals the most popular and successful interventions to instate speech involve a combination of behavior modification procedures. The present research…

  10. Increasing long term response by selecting for favorable minor alleles

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Long-term response of genomic selection can be improved by considering allele frequencies of selected markers or quantitative trait loci (QTLs). A previous formula to weight allele frequency of favorable minor alleles was tested, and 2 new formulas were developed. The previous formula used nonlinear...

  11. Increasing Verbal Behavior of a Student Who Is Selectively Mute

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beare, Paul; Torgerson, Colleen; Creviston, Cindy

    2008-01-01

    "Selective mutism" is the term used to describe a disorder in which a person speaks only in restricted stimulus situations. Examination of single-subject research concerning selective mutism reveals the most popular and successful interventions to instate speech involve a combination of behavior modification procedures. The present research…

  12. Evaluation of corn oil as an additive in the pre-enrichment step to increase recovery of Salmonella enterica from oregano.

    PubMed

    Jean-Gilles Beaubrun, Junia; Flamer, Marie-Laure; Addy, Nicole; Ewing, Laura; Gopinath, Gopal; Jarvis, Karen; Grim, Chris; Hanes, Darcy E

    2016-08-01

    Phenolic compounds associated with essential oils of spices and herbs possess a variety of antioxidant and antimicrobial properties that interfere with Salmonella detection from fresh and dried products. Finding a compound to neutralize the effect of these antimicrobial compounds, while allowing Salmonella growth during pre-enrichment, is a crucial step in both traditional pathogen isolation and molecular detection from these foods. This study evaluated the effectiveness of corn oil as a component of the pre-enrichment broth to counteract antimicrobial compounds properties and increase the recovery of Salmonella from spices. Oregano samples artificially contaminated with Salmonella enterica were pre-enriched in modified Buffered Peptone Water (mBPW) supplemented with and without 2% (vol/vol) corn oil respectively. Samples were incubated overnight at 37 °C. The results showed that recovery of Salmonella from oregano samples was increased by ≥50% when pre-enriched with corn oil. Serovars were confirmed using a PCR serotyping method. In addition, shot-gun metagenomics analyses demonstrated bacterial diversity and the effect of corn oil on the relative prevalence of Salmonella in the oregano samples. Modifying pre-enrichment broths with corn oil improved the detection and isolation of Salmonella from oregano, and may provide an alternative method for pathogen detection in dried food matrices such as spices.

  13. By their words ye shall know them: Evidence of genetic selection against general intelligence and concurrent environmental enrichment in vocabulary usage since the mid 19th century.

    PubMed

    Menie, Michael A Woodley Of; Fernandes, Heitor B F; José Figueredo, Aurelio; Meisenberg, Gerhard

    2015-01-01

    It has been theorized that declines in general intelligence (g) due to genetic selection stemming from the inverse association between completed fertility and IQ and the Flynn effect co-occur, with the effects of the latter being concentrated on less heritable non-g sources of intelligence variance. Evidence for this comes from the observation that 19th century populations were more intellectually productive, and also exhibited faster simple reaction times than modern ones, suggesting greater information-processing ability and therefore higher g. This co-occurrence model is tested via examination of historical changes in the utilization frequencies of words from the highly g-loaded WORDSUM test across 5.9 million texts spanning the period 1850-2005. Consistent with predictions, words with higher difficulties (δ parameters from Item Response Theory) and stronger negative correlations between pass rates and completed fertility declined in use over time whereas less difficult and less strongly selected words, increased in use over time, consistent with a Flynn effect stemming in part from the vocabulary enriching effects of increases in population literacy. These findings persisted when explicitly controlled for word age, changing literacy rates and temporal autocorrelation. These trends constitute compelling evidence for the co-occurrence model.

  14. By their words ye shall know them: Evidence of genetic selection against general intelligence and concurrent environmental enrichment in vocabulary usage since the mid 19th century

    PubMed Central

    Menie, Michael A. Woodley of; Fernandes, Heitor B. F.; José Figueredo, Aurelio; Meisenberg, Gerhard

    2015-01-01

    It has been theorized that declines in general intelligence (g) due to genetic selection stemming from the inverse association between completed fertility and IQ and the Flynn effect co-occur, with the effects of the latter being concentrated on less heritable non-g sources of intelligence variance. Evidence for this comes from the observation that 19th century populations were more intellectually productive, and also exhibited faster simple reaction times than modern ones, suggesting greater information-processing ability and therefore higher g. This co-occurrence model is tested via examination of historical changes in the utilization frequencies of words from the highly g-loaded WORDSUM test across 5.9 million texts spanning the period 1850–2005. Consistent with predictions, words with higher difficulties (δ parameters from Item Response Theory) and stronger negative correlations between pass rates and completed fertility declined in use over time whereas less difficult and less strongly selected words, increased in use over time, consistent with a Flynn effect stemming in part from the vocabulary enriching effects of increases in population literacy. These findings persisted when explicitly controlled for word age, changing literacy rates and temporal autocorrelation. These trends constitute compelling evidence for the co-occurrence model. PMID:25954211

  15. Enriched cereal bars are more effective in increasing plasma quercetin compared with quercetin from powder-filled hard capsules.

    PubMed

    Egert, Sarah; Wolffram, Siegfried; Schulze, Beate; Langguth, Peter; Hubbermann, Eva Maria; Schwarz, Karin; Adolphi, Berit; Bosy-Westphal, Anja; Rimbach, Gerald; Müller, Manfred James

    2012-02-01

    The flavonol quercetin, is one of the major flavonoids found in edible plants. The bioavailability of quercetin in humans may be influenced by the food matrix in which it is consumed as well as by its chemical and physical form. The objective of the present study was to investigate the biokinetics of quercetin from quercetin-enriched cereal bars and quercetin powder-filled hard capsules. In a randomised, single-blinded, diet-controlled cross-over study, six healthy women aged 22-28 years took a single oral dose of approximately 130 mg quercetin equivalents from either quercetin-enriched cereal bars (containing 93·3 % quercetin aglycone plus 6·7 % quercetin-4'-glucoside) or quercetin powder-filled hard capsules (100 % quercetin aglycone). Blood samples were drawn before and after quercetin administration over a 24 h period. The concentrations of quercetin and its monomethylated derivatives, isorhamnetin (3'-O-methyl quercetin) and tamarixetin (4'-O-methyl quercetin), were measured by HPLC with fluorescence detection after plasma enzymatic treatment. The systemic availability as determined by comparing the plasma concentration-time curves of quercetin was found to be five times and the cmax values six times higher after ingestion of 130 mg quercetin by quercetin-enriched cereal bars than after ingestion by quercetin capsules. In contrast, tmax did not differ significantly between the two treatments. The cmax values for isorhamnetin and tamarixetin were four and nine times higher after ingestion of quercetin by quercetin-enriched cereal bars than after ingestion by quercetin capsules. In conclusion, quercetin from quercetin-enriched cereal bars is significantly more bioavailable than from quercetin powder-filled hard capsules.

  16. Selective trace enrichment of chlorotriazine pesticides from natural waters and sediment samples using terbuthylazine molecularly imprinted polymers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ferrer, I.; Lanza, F.; Tolokan, A.; Horvath, V.; Sellergren, B.; Horvai, G.; Barcelo, D.

    2000-01-01

    Two molecularly imprinted polymers were synthesized using either dichloromethane or toluene as the porogen and terbuthylazine as the template and were used as solid-phase extraction cartridges for the enrichment of six chlorotriazines (deisopropylatrazine, deethylatrazine, simazine, atrazine, propazine, and terbuthylazine) in natural water and sediment samples. The extracted samples were analyzed by liquid chromatography/diode array detection (LC/DAD). Several washing solvents, as well as different volumes, were tested for their ability to remove the matrix components nonspecifically adsorbed on the sorbents. This cleanup step was shown to be of prime importance to the successful extraction of the pesticides from the aqueous samples. The optimal analytical conditions were obtained when the MIP imprinted using dichloromethane was the sorbent, 2 mL of dichloromethane was used in the washing step, and the preconcentrated analytes were eluted with 8 mL of methanol. The recoveries were higher than 80% for all the chlorotriazines except for propazine (53%) when 50- or 100-mL groundwater samples, spiked at 1 ??g/L level, were analyzed. The limits of detection varied from 0.05 to 0.2 ??g/L when preconcentrating a 100-mL groundwater sample. Natural sediment samples from the Ebre Delta area (Tarragona, Spain) containing atrazine and deethylatrazine were Soxhlet extracted and analyzed by the methodology developed in this work. No significant interferences from the sample matrix were noticed, thus indicating good selectivity of the MIP sorbents used.

  17. Bioelectricity production from wastewater treatment in dual chambered microbial fuel cell (MFC) using selectively enriched mixed microflora: Effect of catholyte.

    PubMed

    Venkata Mohan, S; Saravanan, R; Raghavulu, S Veer; Mohanakrishna, G; Sarma, P N

    2008-02-01

    The performance of aerated and ferricyanide catholytes on the bioelectricity production was evaluated in dual chambered microbial fuel cell (MFC) (mediatroless anode; graphite electrodes) employing selectively enriched H(2) producing mixed consortia as anodic inoculum. Two MFCs with aerated catholyte (MFC(AC)) and ferricyanide catholyte (MFC(FC)) were operated separately to elucidate the difference in power generation potential and carbon removal efficiency under similar operating conditions [ambient pressure; room temperature (28+/-2 degrees C); acidophilic microenvironment (pH 6)]. The experimental data demonstrated the feasibility of in situ bioelectricity generation along with wastewater treatment. Effective power generation and substrate removal efficiency was documented in the fuel cell operated with ferricyanide catholyte (586 mV; 2.37 mA; 0.559 kg COD/m(3) day) than aerated catholyte (572 mV; 1.68 mA; 0.464 kg COD/m(3) day). Maximum power yield (0.635 W/kg COD(R) and 0.440 W/kg COD(R)) and current density (222.59 mA/m(2) and 190.28 mA/m(2)) was observed at 100 Omega resistor with ferricyanide and aerated catholytes, respectively. The study documented both wastewater treatment and electricity production through direct conversion of H(2) in a single system.

  18. Response surface methodology to design a selective enrichment broth for rapid detection of Salmonella spp. by SYBR Green Ι real-time PCR.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qiaoyan; Chen, Tingting; Yang, Shengli; Wang, Xiaofu; Guo, Hui

    2013-05-01

    In order to meet dominant growth of Salmonella spp. in a composed system of five pathogens for accurate detection, designing an appropriate selective enrichment broth was clearly needed. First, we built a high-throughput assay procedure based on SYBR Green Ι real-time PCR, which possessed the necessary specificity for Salmonella spp., a good linear standard curve with typical R (2) value (0.9984) and high amplification efficiency (99.0 %). Further, for the larger target biomass in the mixed microflora, acarbose, LiCl and bile salt were selected to optimize their concentrations using response surface methodology (RSM). A central composite design was employed to collect the data and fit the response. A quadratic polynomial model was derived by computer simulation. Statistical analysis was carried out to explore the action and interaction of the variables on the response. In the end, a novel broth (Sal-5) was formulated to allow the efficient enrichment of Salmonella spp. and inhibit the growth of other tested strains. A detection platform was developed, including selective enrichment in Sal-5, DNA extraction by the boiling lysis method and real-time PCR test based on SYBR Green Ι. This work could extend the application of RSM and real-time PCR in the design of other selective enrichment media for common pathogens.

  19. Novel core-shell cerium(IV)-immobilized magnetic polymeric microspheres for selective enrichment and rapid separation of phosphopeptides.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhi-Gang; Cheng, Gong; Liu, Yan-Lin; Zhang, Ji-Lin; Sun, De-Hui; Ni, Jia-Zuan

    2014-03-01

    In this work, novel magnetic polymeric core-shell structured microspheres with immobilized Ce(IV), Fe3O4@SiO2@PVPA-Ce(IV), were designed rationally and synthesized successfully via a facile route for the first time. Magnetic Fe3O4@SiO2 microspheres were first prepared by directly coating a thin layer of silica onto Fe3O4 magnetic particles using a sol-gel method, a poly(vinylphosphonic acid) (PVPA) shell was then coated on the Fe3O4@SiO2 microspheres to form Fe3O4@SiO2@PVPA microspheres through a radical polymerization reaction, and finally Ce(IV) ions were robustly immobilized onto the Fe3O4@SiO2@PVPA microspheres through strong chelation between Ce(IV) ions and phosphate moieties in the PVPA. The applicability of the Fe3O4@SiO2@PVPA-Ce(IV) microspheres for selective enrichment and rapid separation of phosphopeptides from proteolytic digests of standard and real protein samples was investigated. The results demonstrated that the core-shell structured Fe3O4@SiO2@PVPA-Ce(IV) microspheres with abundant Ce(IV) affinity sites and excellent magnetic responsiveness can effectively purify phosphopeptides from complex biosamples for MS detection taking advantage of the rapid magnetic separation and the selective affinity between Ce(IV) ions and phosphate moieties of the phosphopeptides. Furthermore, they can be effectively recycled and show good reusability, and have better performance than commercial TiO2 beads and homemade Fe3O4@PMAA-Ce(IV) microspheres. Thus the Fe3O4@SiO2@PVPA-Ce(IV) microspheres can benefit greatly the mass spectrometric qualitative analysis of phosphopeptides in phosphoproteome research.

  20. Smooth muscle-selective CPI-17 expression increases vascular smooth muscle contraction and blood pressure

    PubMed Central

    Su, Wen; Xie, Zhongwen; Liu, Shu; Calderon, Lindsay E.; Guo, Zhenheng

    2013-01-01

    Recent data revealed that protein kinase C-potentiated myosin phosphatase inhibitor of 17 kDa (CPI-17), a myosin phosphatase inhibitory protein preferentially expressed in smooth muscle, is upregulated/activated in several diseases but whether this CPI-17 increase plays a causal role in pathologically enhanced vascular smooth muscle contractility and blood pressure remains unclear. To address this possibility, we generated a smooth muscle-specific CPI-17 transgenic mouse model (CPI-17-Tg) and demonstrated that the CPI-17 transgene was selectively expressed in smooth muscle-enriched tissues, including mesenteric arteries. The isometric contractions in the isolated second-order branch of mesenteric artery helical strips from CPI-17-Tg mice were significantly enhanced compared with controls in response to phenylephrine, U-46619, serotonin, ANG II, high potassium, and calcium. The perfusion pressure increases in isolated perfused mesenteric vascular beds in response to norepinephrine were also enhanced in CPI-17-Tg mice. The hypercontractility was associated with increased phosphorylation of CPI-17 and 20-kDa myosin light chain under basal and stimulated conditions. Surprisingly, the protein levels of rho kinase 2 and protein kinase Cα/δ were significantly increased in CPI-17-Tg mouse mesenteric arteries. Radiotelemetry measurements demonstrated that blood pressure was significantly increased in CPI-17-Tg mice. However, no vascular remodeling was detected by morphometric analysis. Taken together, our results demonstrate that increased CPI-17 expression in smooth muscle promotes vascular smooth muscle contractility and increases blood pressure, implicating a pathological significant role of CPI-17 upregulation. PMID:23604714

  1. Negative selection by apoptosis enriches progenitors in naïve and expanded human umbilical cord blood grafts.

    PubMed

    Mizrahi, K; Ash, S; Peled, T; Yaniv, I; Stein, J; Askenasy, N

    2014-07-01

    The influence of TNF-α and Fas-ligand (FasL) on viability and function was evaluated in fresh- and expanded-umbilical cord blood (UCB) cells. CD34(+) progenitors and T cells display outstanding survival, whereas ~30% and >50% B lymphocytes and myeloid cells undergo spontaneous apoptosis within 24 and 48 h, respectively. Although the impact of exposure to toxic doses of FasL and TNF-α was undetectable in measurements of apoptosis; removal of dead cells after 2 days of incubation with the ligands revealed a twofold increase in frequency of colony-forming cells (CFU). The sensitivity of progenitors to apoptosis was also unaffected by Fas cross-linking following TNF-induced upregulation of the receptor, increasing CFU frequency without impairing SCID repopulating cell (SRC) activity. Most significant enrichment in CD34(+) progenitors and corresponding increase in CFU frequency were observed when FasL was applied during the final week of ex vivo expansion under the influence of nicotinamide, without impairing SRC activity. These data emphasize differential sensitivities of UCB progenitors and lineage-positive cells to apoptotic signaling mediated by the Fas and TNF receptors, which might be useful in improving the efficiency of ex vivo expansion and improving UCB cell engraftment.

  2. Increasing Planting Stock by Family Selection in California Ponderosa Pine

    Treesearch

    James L. Jenkison

    1975-01-01

    In the absence of test information to the contrary, the accepted guide for selecting seed for reforestation is "local source is best." This guide prevents plantation failures that result from using stock that is not adapted to the local environment, and it reflects the pronounced variation in growth and survival demonstrated in provenance trials (Silen 1970...

  3. Synthesis of Fe3O4/graphene/TiO2 composites for the highly selective enrichment of phosphopeptides from biological samples.

    PubMed

    Lu, Jin; Deng, Chunhui; Zhang, Xiangmin; Yang, Pengyuan

    2013-08-14

    In this work, Fe3O4/graphene/TiO2 composites with a large surface area were designed and synthesized for the selective extraction and enrichment of phosphopeptides from biological samples. First, magnetic graphene was prepared according to our previous method. Next, we made the Fe3O4/graphene/TiO2 composite precursor using tetrabutyl titanate. Fe3O4/graphene/TiO2 composites were obtained after solvothermal and calcination treatments. We used standard protein-digestion solutions and human liver samples to test the enrichment ability of the obtained Fe3O4/graphene/TiO2 composites. The experimental results demonstrate that Fe3O4/graphene/TiO2 composites have a good phosphopeptide enrichment ability.

  4. Faculty Salary Increases and Evaluation of Selected Performance Variables.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keene, T. Wayne

    At a university of about 800 faculty members offering baccalaureate, masters, and doctorate programs a study was conducted to determine the relationships between recommended salary increases and evaluation of performance. Salary increase proposals were submitted for faculty by department chairpersons. Among other items of information, the…

  5. Environmental enrichment increases doublecortin-associated new neurons and decreases neuronal death without modifying anxiety-like behavior in mice chronically exposed to toluene.

    PubMed

    Paez-Martinez, Nayeli; Flores-Serrano, Zoraida; Ortiz-Lopez, Leonardo; Ramirez-Rodriguez, Gerardo

    2013-11-01

    Toluene misuse is a health problem worldwide with broad effects at the level of the central nervous system; however, therapeutic alternatives for inhalant abusers are limited. Chronic use of volatile substances is associated with different neurological and cognitive alterations, being anxiety a psychiatric condition with high prevalence. At cellular level toluene reduces neurogenesis and induces neuronal death. On the other hand, environmental enrichment has demonstrated to produce positive effects at behavioral and neuronal levels. Thus, the aim of the present work was to model alterations occasioned after repeated exposure to toluene (anxiety, reduction in neurogenesis - measured as doublecortin-labeled cells - and neuronal death). Subsequently, the influence of environmental enrichment on these effects was evaluated. Adolescent mice were exposed to toluene vapors from 1 to 4 weeks. Effects on anxiety were evaluated with the burying behavior test, whereas neurogenesis and hippocampal cell death were analyzed with immunohistochemistry, using anti-doublecortin or anti-active-Caspase-3 antibodies, respectively. Results showed that chronic toluene exposure increased anxiety in the burying behavior test; additionally, toluene decreased neurogenesis and enhanced neuronal death. Environmental enrichment (EE) enhanced the anxiety like response in air-exposed mice but did not modify the toluene anxiety response. Additionally, EE enhanced neurogenesis in toluene-pretreated animals at the same level to that found in animals unexposed to toluene and decreased neuronal death. Overall, the present study showed that environmental enrichment positively impacts some effects produced by repeated exposure to toluene.

  6. New Infestin-4 Mutants with Increased Selectivity against Factor XIIa

    PubMed Central

    Vuimo, Tatiana A.; Surov, Stepan S.; Ovsepyan, Ruzanna A.; Korneeva, Vera A.; Vorobiev, Ivan I.; Orlova, Nadezhda A.; Minakhin, Leonid; Kuznedelov, Konstantin; Severinov, Konstantin V.; Ataullakhanov, Fazoil I.; Panteleev, Mikhail A.

    2015-01-01

    Factor XIIa (fXIIa) is a serine protease that triggers the coagulation contact pathway and plays a role in thrombosis. Because it interferes with coagulation testing, the need to inhibit fXIIa exists in many cases. Infestin-4 (Inf4) is a Kazal-type inhibitor of fXIIa. Its specificity for fXIIa can be enhanced by point mutations in the protease-binding loop. We attempted to adapt Inf4 for the selective repression of the contact pathway under various in vitro conditions, e.g., during blood collection and in ‘global’ assays of tissue factor (TF)-dependent coagulation. First, we designed a set of new Inf4 mutants that, in contrast to wt-Inf4, had stabilized canonical conformations during molecular dynamics simulation. Off-target activities against factor Xa (fXa), plasmin, and other coagulation proteases were either reduced or eliminated in these recombinant mutants, as demonstrated by chromogenic assays. Interactions with fXIIa and fXa were also analyzed using protein-protein docking. Next, Mutant B, one of the most potent mutants (its Ki for fXIIa is 0.7 nM) was tested in plasma. At concentrations 5–20 μM, this mutant delayed the contact-activated generation of thrombin, as well as clotting in thromboelastography and thrombodynamics assays. In these assays, Mutant B did not affect coagulation initiated by TF, thus demonstrating sufficient selectivity and its potential practical significance as a reagent for coagulation diagnostics. PMID:26670620

  7. High Dietary Fat Selectively Increases Catalase Expression within Cardiac Mitochondria*

    PubMed Central

    Rindler, Paul M.; Plafker, Scott M.; Szweda, Luke I.; Kinter, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Obesity is a predictor of diabetes and cardiovascular disease. One consequence of obesity is dyslipidemia characterized by high blood triglycerides. It has been proposed that oxidative stress, driven by utilization of lipids for energy, contributes to these diseases. The effects of oxidative stress are mitigated by an endogenous antioxidant enzyme network, but little is known about its response to high fat utilization. Our experiments used a multiplexed quantitative proteomics method to measure antioxidant enzyme expression in heart tissue in a mouse model of diet-induced obesity. This experiment showed a rapid and specific up-regulation of catalase protein, with subsequent assays showing increases in activity and mRNA. Catalase, traditionally considered a peroxisomal protein, was found to be present in cardiac mitochondria and significantly increased in content and activity during high fat feeding. These data, coupled with the fact that fatty acid oxidation enhances mitochondrial H2O2 production, suggest that a localized catalase increase is needed to consume excessive mitochondrial H2O2 produced by increased fat metabolism. To determine whether the catalase-specific response is a common feature of physiological conditions that increase blood triglycerides and fatty acid oxidation, we measured changes in antioxidant expression in fasted versus fed mice. Indeed, a similar specific catalase increase was observed in mice fasted for 24 h. Our findings suggest a fundamental metabolic process in which catalase expression is regulated to prevent damage while preserving an H2O2-mediated sensing of diet composition that appropriately adjusts insulin sensitivity in the short term as needed to prioritize lipid metabolism for complete utilization. PMID:23204527

  8. Increased calf production in cattle selected for twin ovulations

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The effects of increasing fetal numbers and their distribution between the left and right uterine horns on calf survival, calf BW at birth and weaning, gestation length, dystocia, and calf sex ratio were evaluated for single (n = 1,587), twin (n = 2,440), and triplet calves (n = 147) born to primipa...

  9. Increasing the energy yield of mechanochemical transformations: selected case studies.

    PubMed

    Politov, Anatoly; Golyazimova, Olga

    2014-01-01

    The products of mechanical treatment are surface atoms or molecules, substances with a crystal structure different from their initial one (another polymorph, amorphous), point or linear defects, radicals and new chemical substances. It is often assumed, that to increase the yield of the products of a mechanical treatment, it is necessary to increase the treatment time and the mechanical power input. In view of the low energy yield of many mechanochemical transformations, this leads to high power consumption and contamination of the matter under treatment with the wear products of the material of a mill or reactor, in which the mechanical treatment is carried out. As a result, the technological attractiveness of mechanochemical processes is reduced, so that many mechanochemical transformations that have been discovered recently do not reach the stage of commercialization. In the present paper we describe different examples of increasing successfully the energy yield of mechanochemical processes, by a factor of several times to several orders of magnitude, for inorganic and organic substances. An increase in the energy yield of mechanochemical transformations opens new possibilities for their practical usage. In particular, the methods of preliminary treatment and the modes of conducting enzymatic processes that may find application in the production of second-generation biofuels are discussed using lignocellulose materials as examples.

  10. Increasing Type 1 Poliovirus Capsid Stability by Thermal Selection

    PubMed Central

    Adeyemi, Oluwapelumi O.; Nicol, Clare

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Poliomyelitis is a highly infectious disease caused by poliovirus (PV). It can result in paralysis and may be fatal. Integrated global immunization programs using live-attenuated oral (OPV) and/or inactivated (IPV) PV vaccines have systematically reduced its spread and paved the way for eradication. Immunization will continue posteradication to ensure against reintroduction of the disease, but there are biosafety concerns for both OPV and IPV. They could be addressed by the production and use of virus-free virus-like particle (VLP) vaccines that mimic the “empty” capsids (ECs) normally produced in viral infection. Although ECs are antigenically indistinguishable from mature virus particles, they are less stable and readily convert into an alternative conformation unsuitable for vaccine purposes. Stabilized ECs, expressed recombinantly as VLPs, could be ideal candidate vaccines for a polio-free world. However, although genome-free PV ECs have been expressed as VLPs in a variety of systems, their inherent antigenic instability has proved a barrier to further development. In this study, we selected thermally stable ECs of type 1 PV (PV-1). The ECs are antigenically stable at temperatures above the conversion temperature of wild-type (wt) virions. We have identified mutations on the capsid surface and in internal networks that are responsible for EC stability. With reference to the capsid structure, we speculate on the roles of these residues in capsid stability and postulate that such stabilized VLPs could be used as novel vaccines. IMPORTANCE Poliomyelitis is a highly infectious disease caused by PV and is on the verge of eradication. There are biosafety concerns about reintroduction of the disease from current vaccines that require live virus for production. Recombinantly expressed virus-like particles (VLPs) could address these inherent problems. However, the genome-free capsids (ECs) of wt PV are unstable and readily change antigenicity to a form not

  11. Investigating the effects of high pressure upon the selective enrichment of bacteria from deep-sea sediments: Results from Loihi Seamount

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schrenk, M. O.; Sisley, C. R.; Edwards, K. J.

    2009-12-01

    High hydrostatic pressures relative to the Earth’s surface are a “fact of life” for microorganisms living in the deep-sea and in particular for those inhabiting the underlying subseafloor biosphere. Pioneering studies of deep-sea microbial populations by Zobell and colleagues in the 1950’s documented differences in the abundance and the physiological properties of microbial populations enriched at atmospheric pressure (0.1 MPa) versus those at in situ hydrostatic pressures. However, recently most studies of deep-sea microorganisms have either overlooked the importance of pressure as an enrichment parameter, or have focused on the isolation of pure cultures of piezophiles. Due to the low percentages of culturable bacteria commonly obtained from environmental samples, we investigated the use of in situ hydrostatic pressures (50 MPa) in the selective enrichment of bacterial populations from deep-sea sediments. Iron oxide rich microbial mats were collected from the seafloor at 5000 m depth near Loihi Seamount (FeMO Deep region, Ula Nui mat) in October 2008. Following homogenization, samples were inoculated into three different types of media designed for the enrichment of heterotrophic, oligotrophic, and lithoautotrophic microbial populations. Batch cultures were incubated at deep-sea temperatures of 4 degrees Celsius, at either in situ (50 MPa) or atmospheric (0.1 MPa) for up to 6 months. Following incubation, cell densities and phylogenetic diversity of microbial populations were compared in the various treatments. Growth was observed in each of the treatments, with the growth rates of the heterotrophic microcosms slightly elevated compared to the oligotrophic and lithotrophic cultures. In all cases, the growth rates and overall cell yields (approximately 10^7 cells per ml) were significantly lower than typically observed in room temperature incubations. The phylogenetic diversity of the enrichment cultures was also significantly different between treatments

  12. Increased calf production in cattle selected for twin ovulations.

    PubMed

    Echternkamp, S E; Thallman, R M; Cushman, R A; Allan, M F; Gregory, K E

    2007-12-01

    The effects of increasing fetal numbers and their distribution between the left and right uterine horns on calf survival, calf BW at birth and weaning, gestation length, dystocia, and calf sex ratio were evaluated for single (n = 1,587), twin (n = 2,440), and triplet calves (n = 147) born to primiparous and multiparous females in the Twinner population at the US Meat Animal Research Center between 1994 and 2004. Cattle were distributed equally between the spring and fall breeding seasons. Fetal number and distribution in utero were determined by real-time ultrasonography at 40 to 70 d postbreeding. For cows and heifers combined, number of calves per parturition increased from 1.34 in 1994 to 1.56 in 2004. Gestation length was 6.8 d shorter (P < 0.01) for twins compared with singles (277.5 +/- 0.2 vs. 284.3 +/- 0.2 d) and 12.7 d shorter for triplets (271.6 +/- 0.8 d). Survival and BW of individual calves at birth decreased (P < 0.01) but total calf BW per dam increased (P < 0.01) as fetal number increased from single to triplet births. Twins resulting from bilateral twin ovulations had increased (P < 0.01) survival and BW at birth, a longer (P < 0.01) gestation length, and less (P < 0.01) dystocia than twins resulting from unilateral twin ovulations. Calf survival and BW at birth were 97.2 +/- 0.3% and 48.0 +/- 0.1 kg for singles, 92.0 +/- 0.4% and 39.0 +/- 0.2 kg for bilateral twins, 83.2 +/- 0.4% and 36.7 +/- 0.2 kg for unilateral twins, 73.8 +/- 1.4% and 30.6 +/- 0.7 kg for bilateral triplets, and 51.9 +/- 3.2% and 31.7 +/- 1.6 kg for unilateral triplets. Birth weight of single calves increased by 0.51 kg/d for each additional day of gestation length vs. 0.38 kg/d for individual twins. Calf BW at birth increased (P < 0.01) with age of dam from 2 to 4 yr. Twin and triplet births had a greater (P < 0.01) incidence of dystocia than single births. The ratio of male:female calves (0.52:0.48) at birth was not affected by type of birth. Postnatal calf survival was

  13. Selective enrichment of environmental DNA libraries for genes encoding nonribosomal peptides and polyketides by phosphopantetheine transferase-dependent complementation of siderophore biosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    Charlop-Powers, Zachary; Banik, Jacob J.; Owen, Jeremy G.; Craig, Jeffrey W.; Brady, Sean F.

    2012-01-01

    The cloning of DNA directly from environmental samples provides a means to functionally access biosynthetic gene clusters present in the genomes of the large fraction of bacteria that remains recalcitrant to growth in the laboratory. Herein we demonstrate a method by which complementation of phosphopantetheine transferase deletion mutants can be used to restore siderophore biosynthesis and to therefore selectively enrich eDNA libraries for nonribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS) and polyketide synthase (PKS) gene sequences to unprecedented levels. The common use of NRPS/PKS-derived siderophores across bacterial taxa makes this method generalizable and should allow for the facile selective enrichment of NRPS/PKS-containing biosynthetic gene clusters from large environmental DNA libraries using a wide variety of phylogenetically diverse bacterial hosts. PMID:23072412

  14. Selective enrichment of environmental DNA libraries for genes encoding nonribosomal peptides and polyketides by phosphopantetheine transferase-dependent complementation of siderophore biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Charlop-Powers, Zachary; Banik, Jacob J; Owen, Jeremy G; Craig, Jeffrey W; Brady, Sean F

    2013-01-18

    The cloning of DNA directly from environmental samples provides a means to functionally access biosynthetic gene clusters present in the genomes of the large fraction of bacteria that remains recalcitrant to growth in the laboratory. Herein, we demonstrate a method by which complementation of phosphopantetheine transferase deletion mutants can be used to restore siderophore biosynthesis and to therefore selectively enrich eDNA libraries for nonribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS) and polyketide synthase (PKS) gene sequences to unprecedented levels. The common use of NRPS/PKS-derived siderophores across bacterial taxa makes this method generalizable and should allow for the facile selective enrichment of NRPS/PKS-containing biosynthetic gene clusters from large environmental DNA libraries using a wide variety of phylogenetically diverse bacterial hosts.

  15. The Impact of Carrot Enriched in Iodine through Soil Fertilization on Iodine Concentration and Selected Biochemical Parameters in Wistar Rats

    PubMed Central

    Piątkowska, Ewa; Kopeć, Aneta; Bieżanowska-Kopeć, Renata; Pysz, Mirosław; Kapusta-Duch, Joanna; Koronowicz, Aneta Agnieszka; Smoleń, Sylwester; Skoczylas, Łukasz; Ledwożyw-Smoleń, Iwona; Rakoczy, Roksana; Maślak, Edyta

    2016-01-01

    Iodine is one of the trace elements which are essential for mammalian life. The major objective of iodine biofortification of plants is to obtain food rich in this trace element, which may increase its consumption by various populations. Additionally, it may reduce the risk of iodine deficiency diseases. In this research for the first time we have assessed the bioavailability of iodine from raw or cooked carrot biofortified with this trace element on iodine concentration in selected tissues and various biochemical parameters as well as mRNA expression of some genes involved in iodine metabolism in Wistar rats. Statistically, a significantly higher iodine level was determined in urine, faeces and selected tissues of rats fed a diet containing biofortified raw carrot as compared to a diet without iodine and a diet containing control cooked carrot. Biofortified raw carrot significantly increased triiodothyronine concentration as compared to animals from other experimental groups. The highest thyroid stimulating hormone level was determined in rats fed control cooked carrots. mRNA expression of selected genes was affected by different dietary treatment in rats’ hearts. Biofortified raw and cooked carrot could be taken into account as a potential source of iodine in daily diets to prevent iodine deficiency in various populations. PMID:27043135

  16. The Impact of Carrot Enriched in Iodine through Soil Fertilization on Iodine Concentration and Selected Biochemical Parameters in Wistar Rats.

    PubMed

    Piątkowska, Ewa; Kopeć, Aneta; Bieżanowska-Kopeć, Renata; Pysz, Mirosław; Kapusta-Duch, Joanna; Koronowicz, Aneta Agnieszka; Smoleń, Sylwester; Skoczylas, Łukasz; Ledwożyw-Smoleń, Iwona; Rakoczy, Roksana; Maślak, Edyta

    2016-01-01

    Iodine is one of the trace elements which are essential for mammalian life. The major objective of iodine biofortification of plants is to obtain food rich in this trace element, which may increase its consumption by various populations. Additionally, it may reduce the risk of iodine deficiency diseases. In this research for the first time we have assessed the bioavailability of iodine from raw or cooked carrot biofortified with this trace element on iodine concentration in selected tissues and various biochemical parameters as well as mRNA expression of some genes involved in iodine metabolism in Wistar rats. Statistically, a significantly higher iodine level was determined in urine, faeces and selected tissues of rats fed a diet containing biofortified raw carrot as compared to a diet without iodine and a diet containing control cooked carrot. Biofortified raw carrot significantly increased triiodothyronine concentration as compared to animals from other experimental groups. The highest thyroid stimulating hormone level was determined in rats fed control cooked carrots. mRNA expression of selected genes was affected by different dietary treatment in rats' hearts. Biofortified raw and cooked carrot could be taken into account as a potential source of iodine in daily diets to prevent iodine deficiency in various populations.

  17. Does anthropogenic nitrogen enrichment increase organic nitrogen concentrations in runoff from forested and human-dominated watersheds?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pellerin, B.A.; Kaushal, S.S.; McDowell, W.H.

    2006-01-01

    Although the effects of anthropogenic nitrogen (N) inputs on the dynamics of inorganic N in watersheds have been studied extensively, "the influence of N enrichment on organic N loss" is not as well understood. We compiled and synthesized data on surface water N concentrations from 348 forested and human-dominated watersheds with a range of N loads (from less than 100 to 7,100 kg N km-2 y-1) to evaluate the effects of N loading via atmospheric deposition, fertilization, and wastewater on dissolved organic N (DON) concentrations. Our results indicate that, on average, DON accounts for half of the total dissolved N (TDN) concentrations from forested watersheds, but it accounts for a smaller fraction of TDN in runoff from urban and agricultural watersheds with higher N loading. A significant but weak correlation (r 2 = 0.06) suggests that N loading has little influence on DON concentrations in forested watersheds. This result contrasts with observations from some plot-scale N fertilization studies and suggests that variability in watershed characteristics and climate among forested watersheds may be a more important control on DON losses than N loading from atmospheric sources. Mean DON concentrations were positively correlated, however, with N load across the entire land-use gradient (r 2 = 0.37, P < 0.01), with the highest concentrations found in agricultural and urban watersheds. We hypothesize that both direct contributions of DON from wastewater and agricultural amendments and indirect transformations of inorganic N to organic N represent important sources of DON to surface waters in human-dominated watersheds. We conclude that DON is an important component of N loss in surface waters draining forested and human-dominated watersheds and suggest several research priorities that may be useful in elucidating the role of N enrichment in watershed DON dynamics. ?? 2006 Springer Science+Business Media, Inc.

  18. Fine-scale selection by ovipositing females increases egg survival

    PubMed Central

    Gall, Brian G; Brodie, Edmund D; Brodie, Edmund D

    2012-01-01

    One of the most important defenses for the eggs of ovipositing female organisms is to avoid being laid in the same habitat as their predators. However, for most organisms, completely avoiding an offspring's predators is not possible. One mechanism that has been largely overlooked is for females to partition an oviposition site into microhabitats that differ in quality for offspring survival. We conducted a series of experiments to examine whether female newts avoid microhabitats utilized by their offspring's primary predator, caddisfly larvae. Female newts avoided laying eggs near predatory caddisflies and shifted egg laying upward in the water column when provided with a vertical dimension. Caddisflies were attracted to chemical stimuli from female newts and their eggs, yet primarily used benthic areas in experimental chambers. Finally, results from a field experiment indicate that the behavioral strategy employed by female newts increases offspring survival. This subset of non-genetic maternal effects, micro-oviposition avoidance, is likely an important yet underexplored mechanism by which females increase offspring survival. PMID:23170211

  19. Adding a selective enrichment step to the iQ-Check real-time PCR improves the detection of Salmonella in naturally contaminated retail turkey meat products.

    PubMed

    Fakhr, M K; McEvoy, J M; Sherwood, J S; Logue, C M

    2006-07-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the real-time iQ-Check Salmonella kit (Bio-Rad) with the immunocapture assay RapidCheck Salmonella method, and a conventional culture method (FSIS, USDA) in detecting Salmonella in naturally contaminated turkey meat products. This study was also designed to determine if a selective enrichment step might improve the real-time detection of Salmonella. Using the culture method, Salmonella was recovered from 49 out of 99 retail turkey meat samples collected. RapidCheck failed to detect 11 Salmonella samples that were positive by the culture method. The iQ-Check real-time PCR also failed to detect three samples that were positive by the culture method. However, when carried out after a selective enrichment step, the iQ-Check real-time PCR detected all 49 Salmonella samples recovered by the culture method. The iQ-Check real-time PCR detected the presence of Salmonella in some samples that were not recovered by the culture method. Adding a selective enrichment step to the iQ-Check real-time PCR improves the detection of Salmonella in naturally contaminated turkey meat samples. The iQ-Check Salmonella real-time PCR can be used as a rapid method to monitor Salmonella in turkey meat, together with conventional culture methodology.

  20. Exercise, but not environmental enrichment, improves learning after kainic acid-induced hippocampal neurodegeneration in association with an increase in brain-derived neurotrophic factor.

    PubMed

    Gobbo, O L; O'Mara, S M

    2005-04-15

    Previous studies have suggested that exercise in a running wheel can be neuroprotective, perhaps due to, among others, gene-expression changes after exercise, increases in trophic proteins and/or enhanced cardiovascular responsivity. Here we ask whether physical exercise or environmental enrichment provide protection after brain damage, especially in terms of recovery of cognitive function. To evaluate the neuroprotective effect of these conditions, we used the kainic acid (KA) model of neuronal injury. Systemically-administered KA induces excitotoxicity by overstimulation of glutamate receptors, resulting in neuronal death by necrosis and apoptosis. Our results show that exercise, but not enriched environment, prior to KA-induced brain damage, improved behavioural performance in both Morris watermaze and object exploration tasks. However, prior exercise did not decrease to control levels the hyperactivity normally seen in KA-treated animals, as measured by ambulation in the open field. Furthermore, both exercise and enriched environment did not protect against neuron loss in CA1, CA2 and CA3 areas of the hippocampus, despite a substantial increase in brain-derived neutrophic factor (BDNF) levels in dentate gyrus of the exercise and KA-treated animals.

  1. Selenium-enriched Agaricus bisporus increases expression and activity of glutathione peroxidase-1 and expression of glutathione peroxidase-2 in rat colon.

    PubMed

    Maseko, Tebo; Howell, Kate; Dunshea, Frank R; Ng, Ken

    2014-03-01

    The effect of dietary supplementation with Se-enriched Agaricus bisporus on cytosolic gluthathione peroxidase-1 (GPx-1), gastrointestinal specific glutathione peroxidase-2 (GPx-2), thioredoxin reductase-1 (TrxR-1) and selenoprotein P (SeP) mRNA expression and GPx-1 enzyme activity in rat colon was examined. Rats were fed for 5weeks with control diet (0.15μg Se/g feed) or Se-enriched diet fortified with selenised mushroom (1μg Se/g feed). The mRNA expression levels were found to be significantly (P<0.01) up-regulated by 1.65-fold and 2.3-fold for GPx-1 and GPx-2, respectively, but were not significantly different for TrxR-1 and SeP between the 2 diet treatments. The up-regulation of GPx-1 mRNA expression was consistent with GPX-1 activity level, which was significantly (P<0.05) increased by 1.77-fold in rats fed with the Se-enriched diet compared to the control diet. The results showed that selenised A. bisporus can positively increase GPx-1 and GPx-2 gene expression and GPx-1 enzyme activity in rat colon.

  2. Investigation of the role of chelating ligand in the synthesis of ion-imprinted polymeric resins on the selective enrichment of uranium(VI).

    PubMed

    Metilda, P; Gladis, J Mary; Venkateswaran, G; Prasada Rao, T

    2007-03-28

    Uranyl ion-imprinted polymeric (IIP) resins were prepared by dissolving stoichiometric amounts of uranyl nitrate and selected chelating ligands, viz. salicylaldoxime, catechol, succinicacid, 5,7-dichloroquinoline-8-ol and 4-vinyl pyridine in 2-methoxy ethanol (porogen) and copolymerizing thermally in the presence of 2-hydroxyethylmethacrylate (HEMA) and ethyleneglycol-dimethacrylate (EGDMA), using 2,2'-azobisisobutyronitrile (initiator). Again, IIP resins were also prepared on similar lines by utilizing ternary [uranium-non-vinylated ligand-vinylated ligand (4-vinyl pyridine)] complexes. Non-imprinted polymeric resins were identically prepared in both cases without the use of uranyl imprint ion. The percent enrichment and retention capacity studies showed significant imprinting effect in all cases. However, ion-imprinted polymeric resins formed with succinic acid (SA) or 5,7-dichloroquinoline-8-ol (DCQ) and 4-vinylpyridine (VP) alone gave quantitative enrichment and various parameters that influence the enrichment and elution were then optimized. The percent enrichment of uranium from synthetic seawater solutions was found to be 25.0+/-0.5 and 83.0+/-0.8 for SA-VP and DCQ-VP systems, respectively. The DCQ-VP-based IIP resins were successfully tested for the recovery of uranium from real seawater samples.

  3. Multiplex Real-Time PCR for Detection of Staphylococcus aureus, mecA and Panton-Valentine Leukocidin (PVL) Genes from Selective Enrichments from Animals and Retail Meat

    PubMed Central

    Velasco, Valeria; Sherwood, Julie S.; Rojas-García, Pedro P.; Logue, Catherine M.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare a real-time PCR assay, with a conventional culture/PCR method, to detect S. aureus, mecA and Panton-Valentine Leukocidin (PVL) genes in animals and retail meat, using a two-step selective enrichment protocol. A total of 234 samples were examined (77 animal nasal swabs, 112 retail raw meat, and 45 deli meat). The multiplex real-time PCR targeted the genes: nuc (identification of S. aureus), mecA (associated with methicillin resistance) and PVL (virulence factor), and the primary and secondary enrichment samples were assessed. The conventional culture/PCR method included the two-step selective enrichment, selective plating, biochemical testing, and multiplex PCR for confirmation. The conventional culture/PCR method recovered 95/234 positive S. aureus samples. Application of real-time PCR on samples following primary and secondary enrichment detected S. aureus in 111/234 and 120/234 samples respectively. For detection of S. aureus, the kappa statistic was 0.68–0.88 (from substantial to almost perfect agreement) and 0.29–0.77 (from fair to substantial agreement) for primary and secondary enrichments, using real-time PCR. For detection of mecA gene, the kappa statistic was 0–0.49 (from no agreement beyond that expected by chance to moderate agreement) for primary and secondary enrichment samples. Two pork samples were mecA gene positive by all methods. The real-time PCR assay detected the mecA gene in samples that were negative for S. aureus, but positive for Staphylococcus spp. The PVL gene was not detected in any sample by the conventional culture/PCR method or the real-time PCR assay. Among S. aureus isolated by conventional culture/PCR method, the sequence type ST398, and multi-drug resistant strains were found in animals and raw meat samples. The real-time PCR assay may be recommended as a rapid method for detection of S. aureus and the mecA gene, with further confirmation of methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) using

  4. The more you test, the more you find: The smallest P-values become increasingly enriched with real findings as more tests are conducted.

    PubMed

    Vsevolozhskaya, Olga A; Kuo, Chia-Ling; Ruiz, Gabriel; Diatchenko, Luda; Zaykin, Dmitri V

    2017-09-14

    The increasing accessibility of data to researchers makes it possible to conduct massive amounts of statistical testing. Rather than follow specific scientific hypotheses with statistical analysis, researchers can now test many possible relationships and let statistics generate hypotheses for them. The field of genetic epidemiology is an illustrative case, where testing of candidate genetic variants for association with an outcome has been replaced by agnostic screening of the entire genome. Poor replication rates of candidate gene studies have improved dramatically with the increase in genomic coverage, due to factors such as adoption of better statistical practices and availability of larger sample sizes. Here, we suggest that another important factor behind the improved replicability of genome-wide scans is an increase in the amount of statistical testing itself. We show that an increase in the number of tested hypotheses increases the proportion of true associations among the variants with the smallest P-values. We develop statistical theory to quantify how the expected proportion of genuine signals (EPGS) among top hits depends on the number of tests. This enrichment of top hits by real findings holds regardless of whether genome-wide statistical significance has been reached in a study. Moreover, if we consider only those "failed" studies that produce no statistically significant results, the same enrichment phenomenon takes place: the proportion of true associations among top hits grows with the number of tests. The enrichment occurs even if the true signals are encountered at the logarithmically decreasing rate with the additional testing. © 2017 WILEY PERIODICALS, INC.

  5. Preparation and application of a novel molecularly imprinted solid-phase microextraction monolith for selective enrichment of cholecystokinin neuropeptides in human cerebrospinal fluid.

    PubMed

    Ji, Xiang; Li, Dan; Li, Hua

    2015-08-01

    A novel molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) monolith for highly selective extraction of cholecystokinin (CCK) neuropeptides was prepared in a micropipette tip. The MIPs were synthesized by epitope imprinting technique and the polymerization conditions were investigated and optimized. The synthesized MIPs were characterized by infrared spectroscopy, elemental analyzer and scanning electron microscope. A molecularly imprinted solid-phase microextraction (MI-μ-SPE) method was developed for the extraction of CCK neuropeptides in aqueous solutions. The parameters affecting MI-μ-SPE were optimized. The results indicated that this MIP monolith exhibited specific recognition capability and high enrichment efficiency for CCK neuropeptides. In addition, it showed excellent reusability. This MIP monolith was used for desalting and enrichment of CCK4, CCK5 and CCK8 from human cerebrospinal fluid prior to matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry analysis, and the results show that this MIP monolith can be a useful tool for effective purification and highly selective enrichment of multiple homologous CCK neuropeptides in cerebrospinal fluid simultaneously. By employing MI-μ-SPE combined with HPLC-ESI-MS/MS analysis, endogenous CCK4 in human cerebrospinal fluid was quantified.

  6. Not All Particles Are Equal: The Selective Enrichment of Particle-Associated Bacteria from the Mediterranean Sea

    PubMed Central

    López-Pérez, Mario; Kimes, Nikole E.; Haro-Moreno, Jose M.; Rodriguez-Valera, Francisco

    2016-01-01

    We have used two metagenomic approaches, direct sequencing of natural samples and sequencing after enrichment, to characterize communities of prokaryotes associated to particles. In the first approximation, different size filters (0.22 and 5 μm) were used to identify prokaryotic microbes of free-living and particle-attached bacterial communities in the Mediterranean water column. A subtractive metagenomic approach was used to characterize the dominant microbial groups in the large size fraction that were not present in the free-living one. They belonged mainly to Actinobacteria, Planctomycetes, Flavobacteria and Proteobacteria. In addition, marine microbial communities enriched by incubation with different kinds of particulate material have been studied by metagenomic assembly. Different particle kinds (diatomaceous earth, sand, chitin and cellulose) were colonized by very different communities of bacteria belonging to Roseobacter, Vibrio, Bacteriovorax, and Lacinutrix that were distant relatives of genomes already described from marine habitats. Besides, using assembly from deep metagenomic sequencing from the particle-specific enrichments we were able to determine a total of 20 groups of contigs (eight of them with >50% completeness) and reconstruct de novo five new genomes of novel species within marine clades (>79% completeness and <1.8% contamination). We also describe for the first time the genome of a marine Rhizobiales phage that seems to infect a broad range of Alphaproteobacteria and live in habitats as diverse as soil, marine sediment and water column. The metagenomic recruitment of the communities found by direct sequencing of the large size filter and by enrichment had nearly no overlap. These results indicate that these reconstructed genomes are part of the rare biosphere which exists at nominal levels under natural conditions. PMID:27446036

  7. Bound simian virus 40 translocates to caveolin-enriched membrane domains, and its entry is inhibited by drugs that selectively disrupt caveolae.

    PubMed

    Anderson, H A; Chen, Y; Norkin, L C

    1996-11-01

    Simian virus 40 (SV40) entry leading to infection occurred only after the virus was at the cell surface for 1.5 to 2 h. SV40 infectious entry was not sensitive to cytosol acidification, a treatment that blocks endocytosis via clathrin-coated vesicles. Instead, SV40 infectious entry was blocked by treating cells with the phorbol ester PMA or nystatin, which selectively disrupts caveolae. In control experiments, transferrin internalization was sensitive to cytosol acidification but was not sensitive to PMA or nystatin. Also, absorbed transferrin entered cells within minutes. Finally, bound SV40 translocated to caveolin-enriched membrane complexes isolated by a Triton X-100 insolubility protocol. Treatment with nystatin did not impair SV40 binding but did block the partitioning of virus into the caveolin-enriched complexes.

  8. Bound simian virus 40 translocates to caveolin-enriched membrane domains, and its entry is inhibited by drugs that selectively disrupt caveolae.

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, H A; Chen, Y; Norkin, L C

    1996-01-01

    Simian virus 40 (SV40) entry leading to infection occurred only after the virus was at the cell surface for 1.5 to 2 h. SV40 infectious entry was not sensitive to cytosol acidification, a treatment that blocks endocytosis via clathrin-coated vesicles. Instead, SV40 infectious entry was blocked by treating cells with the phorbol ester PMA or nystatin, which selectively disrupts caveolae. In control experiments, transferrin internalization was sensitive to cytosol acidification but was not sensitive to PMA or nystatin. Also, absorbed transferrin entered cells within minutes. Finally, bound SV40 translocated to caveolin-enriched membrane complexes isolated by a Triton X-100 insolubility protocol. Treatment with nystatin did not impair SV40 binding but did block the partitioning of virus into the caveolin-enriched complexes. Images PMID:8930903

  9. Preparation of magnetic core-mesoporous shell microspheres with C8-modified interior pore-walls and their application in selective enrichment and analysis of mouse brain peptidome.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shasha; Li, Yan; Deng, Chunhui; Mao, Yu; Zhang, Xiangmin; Yang, Pengyuan

    2011-12-01

    In this paper, magnetic mesoporous silica microspheres with C8-modified interior pore-walls were prepared through a facile one-pot sol-gel coating strategy, and were successfully applied for selective enrichment of endogenous peptides in mouse brain for peptidome analysis. Through the one-pot sol-gel approach with surfactant (CTAB) as a template, tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) and n-ctyltriethoxysilane (C8TEOS) as the precursors, C8-modified magnetic mesoporous microspheres (C8-Fe(3)O(4)@mSiO(2)) consisting magnetic core and mesoporous silica shell with C8-groups exposed in the mesopore channels were synthesized. The obtained microspheres possess highly open mesopores of 3.4 nm, high surface area (162.5 m(2)/g), large pore volume (0.17 cm(3)/g), excellent magnetic responsivity (56.3 emu/g) and good dispersibility in aqueous solution. Based on the abundant surface silanol groups, functional C8 groups and the strong magnetic responsivity of the core-shell C8-Fe(3) O(4) @mSiO(2) microspheres, efficient and fast enrichment of peptides was achieved. Additionally, the C8-Fe(3)O(4)@mSiO(2) microspheres exhibit excellent performance in selective enrichment of endogenous peptides from complex samples that are consist of peptides, large proteins and other compounds, including human serum and mouse brain followed by automated nano-LC-ESI-MS/MS analysis. These results indicate C8-Fe(3)O(4)@mSiO(2) microspheres would be a potential candidate for endogenous peptides enrichment and biomarkers discovery in peptidome analysis.

  10. Facile synthesis of boronate-decorated polyethyleneimine-grafted hybrid magnetic nanoparticles for the highly selective enrichment of modified nucleosides and ribosylated metabolites.

    PubMed

    Li, Hua; Shan, Yuanhong; Qiao, Lizhen; Dou, Abo; Shi, Xianzhe; Xu, Guowang

    2013-12-03

    Ribosylated metabolites, especially modified nucleosides, have been extensively evaluated as cancer-related biomarkers. Boronate adsorbents are considered to be promising materials for extracting them from complex matrices. However, the enrichment of ribosylated metabolites in low abundance is still a challenge due to the limited capacity and selectivity of the existing boronate adsorbents. In this study, a novel type of magnetic nanoparticles named Fe3O4@SiO2@PEI-FPBA was synthesized by grafting polyethyleneimine (PEI) onto the surface of Fe3O4@SiO2 before modification by boronate groups. The high density of the amino groups on the PEI chains supplied a large number of binding sites for boronate groups. Thus, the adsorption capacity (1.34 ± 0.024 mg/g) of the nanoparticles, which is 6- to 7-fold higher than that of analogous materials, was greatly improved. The unreacted secondary amines and tertiary amines of the PEI enhanced the aqueous solubility of the nanoparticles, which could efficiently reduce nonspecific adsorption. The nanoparticles were able to capture 1,2 cis-diol nucleosides from 1000-fold interferences. Moreover, the flexible chains of PEI were favorable for effective enrichment and quick equilibration (<2 min). Finally, 60 ribose conjugates were enriched from human urine using the nanoparticles. Among them, 43 were identified to be nucleosides and other ribosylated metabolites. Nine low abundance modified nucleosides were detected for the first time. In conclusion, Fe3O4@SiO2@PEI-FPBA is an attractive candidate material for the highly selective enrichment of 1,2-cis-diol compounds.

  11. Molecularly imprinted polymers with synthetic dummy template for simultaneously selective removal and enrichment of ginkgolic acids from Ginkgo biloba L. leaves extracts.

    PubMed

    Ji, Wenhua; Ma, Xiuli; Xie, Hongkai; Chen, Lingxiao; Wang, Xiao; Zhao, Hengqiang; Huang, Luqi

    2014-11-14

    Dummy molecularly imprinted polymers (DMIPs) for simultaneously selective removal and enrichment of ginkgolic acids (GAs) during the processing of Ginkgo biloba leaves have been prepared. Two dummy template molecule with similar structural skeleton to GAs, 6-methoxysalicylic acid (MOSA, DT-1) and 6-hexadecyloxysalicylic acid (HOSA, DT-2), have been designed and synthesized. The performance of the DMIPs and NIPs were evaluated including selective recognition capacity, adsorption isotherm, and adsorption kinetics. The selective recognition capacity of the three GAs with four analogues on the sorbents illustrated that the DMIPs sorbents have high specificity for GAs. An efficient method based on DMIP-HOSA coupled with solid-phase extraction (SPE) was developed for simultaneously selective removal and enrichment of ginkgolic acids (GAs) during the processing of Ginkgo biloba leaves. The method showed excellent recoveries (82.5-88.7%) and precision (RSD 0.5-2.6%, n=5) for licorice extracts, Gastrodia elata extracts and pepper extracts spiked at three concentration levels each (50, 100, 200 μg mL(-1)). The results indicated that GAs and standardized Ginkgo biloba leaves extracts could be obtained simultaneously through the DMIP-SPE.

  12. Aptamer-functionalized stir bar sorptive extraction coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry for selective enrichment and determination of polychlorinated biphenyls in fish samples.

    PubMed

    Lin, Saichai; Gan, Ning; Zhang, Jiabin; Qiao, Li; Chen, Yinji; Cao, Yuting

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, a novel aptamer-functionalized stir bar sorptive extraction (SBSE) was developed for selective enrichment of the low abundance polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) from fish samples. This approach was based on the immobilization of aptamer which could recognize 2,3',5,5'-tetrachlorobiphenyl (PCB72) and 2',3',4',5,5'-pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB106) on one kind of metal-organic frameworks (Zn4O(BDC)3, MOF-5). MOF-5 as a substrate was prepared by potential-controlled cathodic electrodeposition on stainless steel. This aptamer-functionalized stir bar sorptive extraction (Apt-MOF SBSE) fiber could be facile synthesized in one-step. PCB72 and PCB106 were employed as target analytes for selective extraction by the developed method. The adsorbed targets could be desorbed easily in pH 3.0 100mM glycine-HCl buffers and then extracted by the methylene chloride. Afterwards, the detection was carried out with gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The Apt-MOF SBSE pretreatment coupled with GC-MS exhibited high selectivity, good binding capacity, stability and reproducibility for the detection of PCBs. It provided a linear range of 0.02-250ngmL(-1) with a good coefficient of determination (R(2)=0.9991-0.9996) and the detection limit was 0.003-0.004ngmL(-1). More importantly, the method was successfully utilized for the determination of PCBs in fish samples with good enrichment factor (1930-2304). Therefore, this new SBSE coating opens up the possibility of selective enrichment of a given target PCBs from complex fish samples.

  13. Cranberry extract-enriched diets increase NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase and catalase activities in obese but not in nonobese mice.

    PubMed

    Boušová, Iva; Bártíková, Hana; Matoušková, Petra; Lněničková, Kateřina; Zappe, Lukáš; Valentová, Kateřina; Szotáková, Barbora; Martin, Jan; Skálová, Lenka

    2015-10-01

    Consumption of antioxidant-enriched diets is 1 method of addressing obesity, which is associated with chronic oxidative stress and changes in the activity/expression of various enzymes. In this study, we hypothesized that the modulation of antioxidant enzymes and redox status through a cranberry extract (CBE)-enriched diet would differ between obese and nonobese mice. The CBE used in this study was obtained from the American cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon, Ericaceae), a popular constituent of dietary supplements that is a particularly rich source of (poly)phenols and has strong antioxidant properties. The present study was designed to test and compare the in vivo effects of 28-day consumption of a CBE-enriched diet (2%) on the antioxidant status of nonobese mice and mice with monosodium glutamate-induced obesity. Plasma, erythrocytes, liver, and small intestine were studied concurrently to obtain more complex information. The specific activities, protein, and messenger RNA expression levels of antioxidant enzymes as well as the levels of malondialdehyde and thiol (SH) groups were analyzed. Cranberry extract treatment increased the SH group content in plasma and the glutathione S-transferase activity in the erythrocytes of the obese and nonobese mice. In addition, in the obese animals, the CBE treatment reduced the malondialdehyde content in erythrocytes and increased quinone oxidoreductase (liver) and catalase (erythrocytes and small intestine) activities. The elevation of hepatic quinone oxidoreductase activity was accompanied by an increase in the corresponding messenger RNA levels. The effects of CBE on the activity of antioxidant enzymes and redox status were more pronounced in the obese mice compared with the nonobese mice. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Light-induced yellowing of selectively 13C-enriched dehydrogenation polymers (DHPs). Part 2, NMR assignments and photoyellowing of aromatic ring 1-, 3-, 4-, and 5-13C DHPs

    Treesearch

    Jim Parkas; Magnus Paulsson; Terashima Noritsugu; Ulla Westermark; Sally Ralph

    2004-01-01

    Light-induced yellowing of lignocellulosicmaterials has been studied using 13C-enriched DHP (dehydrogenation polymer), selectively 13C-enriched at positions 1, 3, 4, and 5 in the aromatic ring, and quantitative solution state 13C NMR spectroscopy. The NMR study confirmed the results of previous studies using side-chain labeled DHP, mainly that coniferyl alcohol end...

  15. An enhanced technique combining pre-enrichment and passive filtration increases the isolation efficiency of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli from water and animal fecal samples.

    PubMed

    Jokinen, Cassandra C; Koot, Jacqueline M; Carrillo, Catherine D; Gannon, Victor P J; Jardine, Claire M; Mutschall, Steven K; Topp, Edward; Taboada, Eduardo N

    2012-12-01

    Improved isolation techniques from environmental water and animal samples are vital to understanding Campylobacter epidemiology. In this study, the efficiency of selective enrichment in Bolton Broth (BB) followed by plating on charcoal cefoperazone deoxycholate agar (CCDA) (conventional method) was compared with an approach combining BB enrichment and passive filtration (membrane method) adapted from a method previously developed for testing of broiler meat, in the isolation of thermophilic campylobacters from surface water and animal fecal samples. The conventional method led to recoveries of Campylobacter from 36.7% of the water samples and 78.0% of the fecal samples and similar numbers, 38.3% and 76.0%, respectively, were obtained with the membrane method. To investigate the genetic diversity of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli obtained by these two methods, isolates were analyzed using Comparative Genomic Fingerprinting, a high-resolution subtyping technique. The conventional and membrane methods yielded similar numbers of Campylobacter subtypes from water (25 and 28, respectively) and fecal (15 and 17, respectively) samples. Although there was no significant difference in recovery rates between the conventional and membrane methods, a significant improvement in isolation efficiency was obtained by using the membrane method, with a false-positive rate of 1.6% compared with 30.7% obtained using the conventional method. In conclusion, although the two methods are comparable in sensitivity, the membrane method had higher specificity, making it a cost-effective procedure for the enhanced isolation of C. jejuni and C. coli from water and animal fecal samples.

  16. Short-term environmental enrichment, in the absence of exercise, improves memory, and increases NGF concentration, early neuronal survival, and synaptogenesis in the dentate gyrus in a time-dependent manner.

    PubMed

    Birch, Amy M; McGarry, Niamh B; Kelly, Aine M

    2013-06-01

    Environmental manipulations can enhance neuroplasticity in the brain, with enrichment-induced cognitive improvements being linked to increased expression of growth factors, such as neurotrophins, and enhanced hippocampal neurogenesis. There is, however, a great deal of variation in environmental enrichment protocols used in the literature, making it difficult to assess the role of particular aspects of enrichment upon memory and the underlying associated mechanisms. This study sought to evaluate the efficacy of environmental enrichment, in the absence of exercise, as a cognitive enhancer and assess the role of Nerve Growth Factor (NGF), neurogenesis and synaptogenesis in this process. We report that rats housed in an enriched environment for 3 and 6 weeks (wk) displayed improved recognition memory, while rats enriched for 6 wk also displayed improved spatial and working memory. Neurochemical analyses revealed significant increases in NGF concentration and subgranular progenitor cell survival (as measured by BrdU+ nuclei) in the dentate gyrus of rats enriched for 6 wk, suggesting that these cellular changes may mediate the enrichment-induced memory improvements. Further analysis revealed a significant positive correlation between recognition task performance and BrdU+ nuclei. In addition, rats enriched for 6 wk showed a significant increase in expression of synaptophysin and synapsin I in the dentate gyrus, indicating that environmental enrichment can increase synaptogenesis. These data indicate a time-dependent cognitive-enhancing effect of environmental enrichment that is independent of physical activity. These data also support a role for increased concentration of NGF in dentate gyrus, synaptogenesis, and neurogenesis in mediating this effect.

  17. Selected heterozygosity at cis-regulatory sequences increases the expression homogeneity of a cell population in humans.

    PubMed

    Sung, Min Kyung; Jang, Juneil; Lee, Kang Seon; Ghim, Cheol-Min; Choi, Jung Kyoon

    2016-07-28

    Examples of heterozygote advantage in humans are scarce and limited to protein-coding sequences. Here, we attempt a genome-wide functional inference of advantageous heterozygosity at cis-regulatory regions. The single-nucleotide polymorphisms bearing the signatures of balancing selection are enriched in active cis-regulatory regions of immune cells and epithelial cells, the latter of which provide barrier function and innate immunity. Examples associated with ancient trans-specific balancing selection are also discovered. Allelic imbalance in chromatin accessibility and divergence in transcription factor motif sequences indicate that these balanced polymorphisms cause distinct regulatory variation. However, a majority of these variants show no association with the expression level of the target gene. Instead, single-cell experimental data for gene expression and chromatin accessibility demonstrate that heterozygous sequences can lower cell-to-cell variability in proportion to selection strengths. This negative correlation is more pronounced for highly expressed genes and consistently observed when using different data and methods. Based on mathematical modeling, we hypothesize that extrinsic noise from fluctuations in transcription factor activity may be amplified in homozygotes, whereas it is buffered in heterozygotes. While high expression levels are coupled with intrinsic noise reduction, regulatory heterozygosity can contribute to the suppression of extrinsic noise. This mechanism may confer a selective advantage by increasing cell population homogeneity and thereby enhancing the collective action of the cells, especially of those involved in the defense systems in humans.

  18. Granulosa cells and retinoic acid co-treatment enrich potential germ cells from manually selected Oct4-EGFP expressing human embryonic stem cells.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hsin-Fu; Jan, Pey-Shynan; Kuo, Hung-Chih; Wu, Fang-Chun; Lan, Chen-Wei; Huang, Mei-Chi; Chien, Chung-Liang; Ho, Hong-Nerng

    2014-09-01

    Differentiation of human embryonic stem (HES) cells to germ cells may become clinically useful in overcoming diseases related to germ-cell development. Niches were used to differentiate HES cell lines, NTU1 and H9 Oct4-enhanced green fluorescence protein (EGFP), including laminin, granulosa cell co-culture or conditioned medium, ovarian stromal cell co-culture or conditioned medium, retinoic acid, stem cell factor (SCF) and BMP4-BMP7-BMP8b treatment. Flow cytometry showed that granulosa cell co-culture (P < 0.001) or conditioned medium (P = 0.007) treatment for 14 days significantly increased the percentages of differentiated H9 Oct4-EGFP cells expressing early germ cell marker stage-specific embryonic antigen 1(SSEA1); sorted SSEA1[+] cells did not express higher levels of germ cell gene VASA and GDF9. Manually collected H9 Oct4-EGFP[+] cells expressed significantly higher levels of VASA (P = 0.005) and GDF9 (P = 0.001). H9 Oct4-EGFP[+] cells developed to ovarian follicle-like structures after culture for 28 days but with low efficiency. Unlike SCF and BMP4, retinoic acid co-treatment enhanced VASA, GDF9 and SCP3 expression. A protocol is recommended to enrich differentiated HES cells with germ-cell potential by culture with granulosa cells, conditioned medium or retinoic acid, manual selection of Oct4-EGFP[+] cells, and analysis of VASA, GDF9 expression, or both. Copyright © 2014 Reproductive Healthcare Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Longevity for free? Increased reproduction with limited trade-offs in Drosophila melanogaster selected for increased life span.

    PubMed

    Wit, Janneke; Sarup, Pernille; Lupsa, Nikolett; Malte, Hans; Frydenberg, Jane; Loeschcke, Volker

    2013-03-01

    Selection for increased life span in Drosophila melanogaster has been shown to correlate with decreased early fecundity and increased fecundity later in life. This phenomenon has been ascribed to the existence of trade-offs in which limited resources can be invested in either somatic maintenance or reproduction. In our longevity selection lines, we did not find such a trade-off. Rather, we find that females have similar or higher fecundity throughout life compared to non-selected controls. To determine whether increased longevity affects responses in other traits, we looked at several stress resistance traits (chill coma recovery, heat knockdown, desiccation and starvation), geotactic behaviour, egg-to-adult viability, body size, developmental time as well as metabolic rate. Longevity selected flies were more starvation resistant. However, in females longevity and fecundity were not negatively correlated with the other traits assayed. Males from longevity selected lines were slower at recovering from a chill induced coma and resting metabolic rate increased with age, but did not correlate with life span. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Hydrophilic Nb⁵⁺-immobilized magnetic core-shell microsphere--A novel immobilized metal ion affinity chromatography material for highly selective enrichment of phosphopeptides.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xueni; Liu, Xiaodan; Feng, Jianan; Li, Yan; Deng, Chunhui; Duan, Gengli

    2015-06-23

    Rapid and selective enrichment of phosphopeptides from complex biological samples is essential and challenging in phosphorylated proteomics. In this work, for the first time, niobium ions were directly immobilized on the surface of polydopamine-coated magnetic microspheres through a facile and effective synthetic route. The Fe3O4@polydopamine-Nb(5+) (denoted as Fe3O4@PD-Nb(5+)) microspheres possess merits of high hydrophilicity and good biological compatibility, and demonstrated low limit of detection (2 fmol). The selectivity was also basically satisfactory (β-casein:BSA=1:500) to capture phosphopeptides. They were also successfully applied for enrichment of phosphopeptides from real biological samples such as human serum and nonfat milk. Compared with Fe3O4@PD-Ti(4+) microspheres, the Fe3O4@PD-Nb(5+) microspheres exhibit superior selectivity to multi-phosphorylated peptides, and thus may be complementary to the conventional IMAC materials. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Selective enrichment and determination of monoamine neurotransmitters by CU(II) immobilized magnetic solid phase extraction coupled with high-performance liquid chromatography-fluorescence detection.

    PubMed

    He, Maofang; Wang, Chaozhan; Wei, Yinmao

    2016-01-15

    In this paper, iminodiacetic acid-Cu(II) functionalized Fe3O4@SiO2 magnetic nanoparticles were prepared and used as new adsorbents for magnetic solid phase extraction (MSPE) of six monoamine neurotransmitters (MNTs) from rabbit plasma. The selective enrichment of MNTs at pH 5.0 was motivated by the specific coordination interaction between amino groups of MNTs and the immobilized Cu(II). The employed weak acidic extraction condition avoided the oxidation of MNTs, and thus facilitated operation and ensured higher recoveries. Under optimal conditions, the recoveries of six MNTs from rabbit plasma were in the range of 83.9-109.4%, with RSD of 2.0-10.0%. When coupled the Cu(II) immobilized MSPE with high-performance liquid chromatography-fluorescence detection, the method exhibited relatively lower detection limits than the previously reported methods, and the method was successfully used to determine the endogenous MNTs in rabbit plasma. The proposed method has potential application for the determination of MNTs in biological samples. Also, the utilization of coordination interaction to improve the selectivity might open another way to selectively enrich small alkaloids from complex samples.

  2. Molecularly imprinted SPE coupled with HPLC for the selective separation and enrichment of alkyl imidazolium ionic liquids in environmental water samples.

    PubMed

    Xia, Gao; Jing, Fan; Guifen, Zhu; Xiaolong, Wang; Jianji, Wang

    2013-10-01

    A novel 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ionic liquid surface imprinted solid-phase sorbent was synthesized. The as-prepared material was characterized by SEM, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller surface area analysis and Fourier Transform IR measurements. Then its adsorption properties for alkyl imidazolium ionic liquids, including adsorption capacities, adsorption kinetics, and properties of selective separation and enrichment were studied in detail. It was shown that the ionic liquid surface imprinted polymer exhibited high selective recognition characteristics for the imidazolium chloride ionic liquids with short alkyl chains (C(n)mimCl, n = 2, 4, 6, 8) and the adsorption equilibrium was achieved within 25 min. Various parameters were optimized for the 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ionic liquid surface imprinted polymer SPE column, such as flow rate, eluent solvent, selectivity, and reusability of the column. Then, the SPE column coupled with HPLC was used for the determination of alkyl imidazolium ionic liquids. Experimental results showed that the existence of their structural analogs and common concomitants in environmental matrices did not affect the enrichment of 1-butyl-3-methyl imidazolium chloride ionic liquid. The average recoveries of 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ionic liquid in spiked water samples were in the range of 92.0-102.0% with the RSD lower than 5.8%.

  3. Increased sensitivity of antigen-experienced T cells through the enrichment of oligomeric T cell receptor complexes.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Rashmi; Ferez, María; Swamy, Mahima; Arechaga, Ignacio; Rejas, María Teresa; Valpuesta, Jose M; Schamel, Wolfgang W A; Alarcon, Balbino; van Santen, Hisse M

    2011-09-23

    Although memory T cells respond more vigorously to stimulation and they are more sensitive to low doses of antigen than naive T cells, the molecular basis of this increased sensitivity remains unclear. We have previously shown that the T cell receptor (TCR) exists as different-sized oligomers on the surface of resting T cells and that large oligomers are preferentially activated in response to low antigen doses. Through biochemistry and electron microscopy, we now showed that previously stimulated and memory T cells have more and larger TCR oligomers at the cell surface than their naive counterparts. Reconstitution of cells and mice with a point mutant of the CD3ζ subunit, which impairs TCR oligomer formation, demonstrated that the increased size of TCR oligomers was directly responsible for the increased sensitivity of antigen-experienced T cells. Thus, we propose that an "avidity maturation" mechanism underlies T cell antigenic memory.

  4. Enrichment of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere increases the capsaicinoids content in Habanero peppers (Capsicum chinense Jacq.).

    PubMed

    Garruña-Hernández, René; Monforte-González, Miriam; Canto-Aguilar, Azucena; Vázquez-Flota, Felipe; Orellana, Roger

    2013-04-01

    The effects of the increase of atmospheric CO2 on agricultural productivity have been mainly analyzed through its impact on biomass yield, and little attention has been directed to quality traits, such as nutritional or organoleptic attributes. For this study, plants of hot Habanero pepper (Capsicum chinense Jacq.) were grown in growth chambers under three different CO2 levels: 380 (normal atmospheric value), 760 and 1140 µmol mol(-1), and their effects on pod yield, size, color and pungency, were monitored. The total number of pods per plant increased by 88.5% at the highest CO2 , in comparison to plants grown at normal CO2 conditions. Pod size and yield per plant also increased when plants were grown at the highest CO2 concentration (partial pressure). Furthermore, total capsaicinoids contents in ripe peppers under a high CO2 atmosphere were 27% higher than those from plants under lower concentrations, but it was not the case for immature pods. These data suggest that the increase of atmospheric CO2 could modify specific routes of secondary metabolism as well as others desirable traits, thus affecting the quality of Capsicum pepper products. © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  5. Ultrasound and phenotypic measures of the reproductive tract of prepubertal gilts selected for increased uterine capacity

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Direct selection for uterine capacity (UC) increases litter size without altering ovulation rate. A method to estimate UC in developing gilts would be beneficial for commercial selection strategies. We tested the hypothesis that selection for UC alters phenotypic characteristics of the reproductiv...

  6. Comparison of direct and enrichment methods for the selective isolation of vancomycin-resistant enterococci from feces of pigs and poultry.

    PubMed

    Butaye, P; Devriese, L A; Haesebrouck, F

    1999-01-01

    Isolation results of vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) of fecal samples from pigs and broiler and layer chickens obtained with two vancomycin-supplemented enrichment media, kanamycin aesculin azide (KAA) broth and Enterococcosel (ECC) broth, and three isolation media, KAA agar, ECC agar, and Slanetz and Bartley (SL) agar, were compared. Direct isolation on vancomycin-containing agar plates was not efficient in swine and layer chickens, which had only low numbers of VRE. In broilers chickens, the VRE content of the samples was high, and SL as well as ECC were found to perform better than KAA agar. The same three agar media were used as selective plating media after 1 and 2 days incubation of the samples in KAA and ECC enrichment broths. Sensitivities of the 12 different enrichment-plate combinations tested ranged from 0 to 81% in layer chickens and from 5 to 44% in samples from pigs. In the high prevalence type of samples from broilers, sensitivities still varied substantially from 52 to 78%. Incubating vancomycin-containing enrichment broths for 2 days compared with 1 day was favorable for the isolation of vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecalis, E. gallinarum, and E. casseliflavus but not for E. faecium and E. hirae/E. durans. ECC broth and ECC plates yielded the highest number of E. gallinarum and E. casseliflavus. In layer as well as in broiler chickens, ECC broth incubated for 2 days and plated on ECC agar was the most sensitive method. In pigs, however, KAA broth incubated for 2 days and plated on ECC medium yielded the highest number of VRE.

  7. Mechanisms of increased survival after lipopolysaccharide-induced endotoxic shock in mice consuming olive oil-enriched diet.

    PubMed

    Leite, Milane S; Pacheco, Patrícia; Gomes, Rachel N; Guedes, Alexandre T; Castro-Faria-Neto, Hugo C; Bozza, Patrícia T; Koatz, Vera Lúcia G

    2005-02-01

    We examined the impact of dietary fatty acid intake on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced endotoxic shock. C57Bl/6J mice were fed for 6 weeks with a commercial laboratory chow (CC) or with test chows containing 7% (w/w) canola oil (CO), sesame oil (SeO), soybean oil (SO), or virgin olive oil (OO). The increase in body weight and energy consumption were similar for all diets tested. In the sixth week, mice were injected intraperitoneally with 400 microg of bacterial LPS to induce endotoxic shock. LPS induced a massive neutrophil infiltration into the peritoneal cavity and an increase in lipid body (LB) formation in leukocytes recovered from the peritoneal fluid of mice fed with CC, CO, SeO, or SO. In addition, there were increases in prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)), leukotriene B4 (LTB(4)), and cytokines IL-6, IL-10, and MCP-1 in peritoneal lavage, as well as in plasma TNF-alpha. In contrast, mice fed with OO exhibited reduced neutrophil accumulation and LB formation, and also had lower levels of PGE(2), LTB(4), MCP-1, and TNF-alpha. All mice fed with CC, CO, SeO, or SO died within 48 to 72 h after LPS injection. Interestingly, mice fed with the OO diet were resistant to endotoxic shock, with 60% survival at 168 h. These data indicate that intake of OO may have a beneficial role, reducing the magnitude of the inflammatory process triggered by endotoxic shock through modulation of LB formation and of the production of inflammatory mediators.

  8. Enriching the drinking water of rats with extracts of Salvia officinalis and Thymus vulgaris increases their resistance to oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Horváthová, Eva; Srančíková, Annamária; Regendová-Sedláčková, Eva; Melušová, Martina; Meluš, Vladimír; Netriová, Jana; Krajčovičová, Zdenka; Slameňová, Darina; Pastorek, Michal; Kozics, Katarína

    2016-01-01

    Nature is an attractive source of therapeutic compounds. In comparison to the artificial drugs, natural compounds cause less adverse side effects and are suitable for current molecularly oriented approaches to drug development and their mutual combining. Medicinal plants represent one of the most available remedy against various diseases. Proper examples are Salvia officinalis L. and Thymus vulgaris L. which are known aromatic medicinal plants. They are very popular and frequently used in many countries. The molecular mechanism of their biological activity has not yet been fully understood. The aim of this study was to ascertain if liver cells of experimental animals drinking extracts of sage or thyme will manifest increased resistance against oxidative stress. Adult Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into seven groups. They drank sage or thyme extracts for 2 weeks. At the end of the drinking period, blood samples were collected for determination of liver biochemical parameters and hepatocytes were isolated to analyze (i) oxidatively generated DNA damage (conventional and modified comet assay), (ii) activities of antioxidant enzymes [superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx)] and (iii) content of glutathione. Intake of sage and thyme had no effect either on the basal level of DNA damage or on the activity of SOD in rat hepatocytes and did not change the biochemical parameters of blood plasma. Simultaneously, the activity of GPx was significantly increased and the level of DNA damage induced by oxidants was decreased. Moreover, sage extract was able to start up the antioxidant protection expressed by increased content of glutathione. Our results indicate that the consumption of S.officinalis and T.vulgaris extracts positively affects resistency of rat liver cells against oxidative stress and may have hepatoprotective potential.

  9. Rearing in enriched environment increases parvalbumin-positive small neurons in the amygdala and decreases anxiety-like behavior of male rats

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Early life experiences including physical exercise, sensory stimulation, and social interaction can modulate development of the inhibitory neuronal network and modify various behaviors. In particular, alteration of parvalbumin-expressing neurons, a gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)ergic neuronal subpopulation, has been suggested to be associated with psychiatric disorders. Here we investigated whether rearing in enriched environment could modify the expression of parvalbumin-positive neurons in the basolateral amygdala and anxiety-like behavior. Results Three-week-old male rats were divided into two groups: those reared in an enriched environment (EE rats) and those reared in standard cages (SE rats). After 5 weeks of rearing, the EE rats showed decreased anxiety-like behavior in an open field than the SE rats. Under another anxiogenic situation, in a beam walking test, the EE rats more quickly traversed an elevated narrow beam. Anxiety-like behavior in the open field was significantly and negatively correlated with walking time in the beam-walking test. Immunohistochemical tests revealed that the number of parvalbumin-positive neurons significantly increased in the basolateral amygdala of the EE rats than that of the SE rats, while the number of calbindin-D28k-positive neurons did not change. These parvalbumin-positive neurons had small, rounded soma and co-expressed the glutamate decarboxylase (GAD67). Furthermore, the number of parvalbumin-positive small cells in the basolateral amygdala tended to positively correlate with emergence in the center arena of the open field and negatively correlated with walking time in the beam walking test. Conclusion Rearing in the enriched environment augmented the number of parvalbumin-containing specific inhibitory neuron in the basolateral amygdala, but not that of calbindin-containing neuronal phenotype. Furthermore, the number of parvalbumin-positive small neurons in the basolateral amygdala was negatively

  10. Moderate (20%) fructose-enriched diet stimulates salt-sensitive hypertension with increased salt retention and decreased renal nitric oxide.

    PubMed

    Gordish, Kevin L; Kassem, Kamal M; Ortiz, Pablo A; Beierwaltes, William H

    2017-04-01

    Previously, we reported that 20% fructose diet causes salt-sensitive hypertension. In this study, we hypothesized that a high salt diet supplemented with 20% fructose (in drinking water) stimulates salt-sensitive hypertension by increasing salt retention through decreasing renal nitric oxide. Rats in metabolic cages consumed normal rat chow for 5 days (baseline), then either: (1) normal salt for 2 weeks, (2) 20% fructose in drinking water for 2 weeks, (3) 20% fructose for 1 week, then fructose + high salt (4% NaCl) for 1 week, (4) normal chow for 1 week, then high salt for 1 week, (5) 20% glucose for 1 week, then glucose + high salt for 1 week. Blood pressure, sodium excretion, and cumulative sodium balance were measured. Systolic blood pressure was unchanged by 20% fructose or high salt diet. 20% fructose + high salt increased systolic blood pressure from 125 ± 1 to 140 ± 2 mmHg (P < 0.001). Cumulative sodium balance was greater in rats consuming fructose + high salt than either high salt, or glucose + high salt (114.2 ± 4.4 vs. 103.6 ± 2.2 and 98.6 ± 5.6 mEq/Day19; P < 0.05). Sodium excretion was lower in fructose + high salt group compared to high salt only: 5.33 ± 0.21 versus 7.67 ± 0.31 mmol/24 h; P < 0.001). Nitric oxide excretion was 2935 ± 256 μmol/24 h in high salt-fed rats, but reduced by 40% in the 20% fructose + high salt group (2139 ± 178 μmol /24 hrs P < 0.01). Our results suggest that fructose predisposes rats to salt-sensitivity and, combined with a high salt diet, leads to sodium retention, increased blood pressure, and impaired renal nitric oxide availability. © 2017 The Authors. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of The Physiological Society and the American Physiological Society.

  11. Spinel-type manganese ferrite (MnFe2O4) microspheres: A novel affinity probe for selective and fast enrichment of phosphopeptides.

    PubMed

    Long, Xing-Yu; Li, Jia-Yuan; Sheng, Dong; Lian, Hong-Zhen

    2017-05-01

    The spinel-type magnetic manganese ferrite (MnFe2O4) microspheres synthesized by simple solvothermal method were used as a novel adsorbent for selective enrichment and effective isolation of phosphopeptides. The uniform MnFe2O4 magnetic affinity microspheres (MAMSs) had a narrow particle size distribution between 250 and 260nm, and displayed superparamagnetism with a saturation magnetization value of 67.0emu/g. Comprehensively, the possible formation mechanism of MnFe2O4 microspheres with ferric and manganous sources as dual precursors was elucidated by comparison with those of Fe3O4 nanoparticles and MnOOH nanosheets respectively with either ferric or manganous source as single precursor. It was suggested that the spherical or sheet nanostructures could be achieved via secondary recrystallization or Ostwald ripening. The MnFe2O4 MAMSs probe exhibited excellent dispersibility in aqueous solution, and rapid magnetic separation within 15s, as well as good reusability. More importantly, MnFe2O4 was highly selective for phosphopeptides because of the strong coordination interaction between metal ions (Fe(3+) and Mn(2+)) and phosphate groups of phosphopeptdies. This high specificity was demonstrated by effectively enriching phosphopeptides from digest mixture of β-casein and bovine serum albumin (BSA) with high content of non-phosphopeptides, and embodied further in phosphopeptides enrichment from non-fat milk digests and human serum. Consequently, the prepared MnFe2O4 affinity materials are expected to possess great potential in phosphoproteome research.

  12. Organic matter production response to CO2 increase in open subarctic plankton communities: Comparison of six microcosm experiments under iron-limited and -enriched bloom conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshimura, Takeshi; Sugie, Koji; Endo, Hisashi; Suzuki, Koji; Nishioka, Jun; Ono, Tsuneo

    2014-12-01

    Increase in seawater pCO2 and the corresponding decrease in pH caused by the increasing atmospheric CO2 concentration (i.e., ocean acidification) may affect organic matter production by phytoplankton communities. Organic matter production forms the basis of marine food webs and plays a crucial role in oceanic CO2 uptake through the biological carbon pump, and hence will potentially affect future marine ecosystem dynamics. However, responses of organic matter production in open ocean plankton ecosystems to CO2 increase have not been fully examined. We conducted on-deck microcosm experiments using high nutrient, low chlorophyll (HNLC) waters in the western subarctic Pacific and oceanic Bering Sea basin in summer 2008 and 2009, respectively, to examine the impacts of elevated CO2 on particulate and dissolved organic matter (i.e., POM and DOM, respectively) production. Iron deficient natural plankton communities were incubated for 7-14 days under multiple CO2 levels with and without iron enrichments (hereafter +Fe and -Fe treatments, respectively). By combining with our previous experiments at two sites, we created a comprehensive dataset on responses of organic matter production to CO2 increase during macronutrient replete conditions in HNLC waters. Significant differences in net particulate organic carbon production among CO2 treatments were observed only in the -Fe treatments, whereas that in net dissolved organic carbon production were mainly observed in the +Fe treatments, suggesting that CO2 may affect different processes depending on the Fe nutritional status. However, impacts of CO2 were not consistent among experiments and were much smaller than the consistent positive effects of Fe enrichment. In contrast, no significant differences among the CO2 treatments were observed for organic carbon partitioning into POM and DOM, and carbon to nitrogen ratio of net produced POM. We conclude that CO2 does not play a primary role, but could have secondary effects on

  13. Increased Selection Response in Larger Populations. I. Selection for Wing-Tip Height in Drosophila Melanogaster at Three Population Sizes

    PubMed Central

    Weber, K. E.

    1990-01-01

    The effect of population size on selection response was investigated with replicated selection lines of 40, 200 and 1000 selected parents, using Drosophila melanogaster homozygous for the mutant raised. Selection for increased wing-tip height was carried out for 55 generations, with an average selection intensity of 0.6 standard deviation. The rank order of responses in the seven individual lines was significantly in order of population size, and the variance of response among lines showed a significant effect of population size. The final mean responses (selected - controls, +/- standard errors) in the three treatments, in order of increasing population size, were 8.6 +/- 1.8 mils (three small lines), 15.1 +/- 1.3 mils (two medium lines), and 19.8 +/- 1.5 mils (two large lines). The differences between treatments seem to have emerged too rapidly to be the result of mutations, and are probably due mainly to the utilization of existing variation with greater efficiency by selection in larger populations. PMID:2116358

  14. Selective Enrichment and MALDI-TOF MS Analysis of Small Molecule Compounds with Vicinal Diols by Boric Acid-Functionalized Graphene Oxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jing; Zheng, Xiaoling; Ni, Yanli

    2015-08-01

    In this study, a 4-vinylphenylboronic acid-functionalized graphene oxide (GO) material was prepared via atom-transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) method and applied for the first time as a novel matrix for the selective enrichment and analysis of small-molecule compounds with vicinal diols, which have been the focus of intense research in the field of life science, by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) in positive-ion mode. There are two main factors playing a decisive role in assisting laser D/I process comparing to some traditional matrices: (1) GO provides π-conjugated system by itself for laser absorption and energy transfer; (2) the modified 4-vinylphenylboronic acid can selectively capture small-molecule compounds with vicinal diols. The results demonstrate that the novel material has distinct advantages over previously reported matrices in enriching and assisting the highly efficient ionization of target molecules for mass spectrometry analysis. This work indicates a new application branch for graphene-based matrices and provides an alternative solution for small-molecules analysis.

  15. Selective Enrichment and MALDI-TOF MS Analysis of Small Molecule Compounds with Vicinal Diols by Boric Acid-Functionalized Graphene Oxide.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jing; Zheng, Xiaoling; Ni, Yanli

    2015-08-01

    In this study, a 4-vinylphenylboronic acid-functionalized graphene oxide (GO) material was prepared via atom-transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) method and applied for the first time as a novel matrix for the selective enrichment and analysis of small-molecule compounds with vicinal diols, which have been the focus of intense research in the field of life science, by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) in positive-ion mode. There are two main factors playing a decisive role in assisting laser D/I process comparing to some traditional matrices: (1) GO provides π-conjugated system by itself for laser absorption and energy transfer; (2) the modified 4-vinylphenylboronic acid can selectively capture small-molecule compounds with vicinal diols. The results demonstrate that the novel material has distinct advantages over previously reported matrices in enriching and assisting the highly efficient ionization of target molecules for mass spectrometry analysis. This work indicates a new application branch for graphene-based matrices and provides an alternative solution for small-molecules analysis.

  16. Metal-organic frameworks@graphene hybrid aerogels for solid-phase extraction of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and selective enrichment of proteins.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaoqiong; Liang, Qionglin; Han, Qiang; Wan, Wei; Ding, Mingyu

    2016-06-20

    Graphene aerogel (GA)-supported metal-organic framework (MOF) particles with a three-dimensional (3D) architecture were fabricated for the first time via a facile template-free "sol-cryo" method. The prepared MOFs@graphene hybrid aerogels exhibit a 3D interconnected macroporous framework of graphene sheets with uniform dispersion of MOF particles. We also report the first attempt at using the hybrid aerogels as adsorbents for the solid-phase extraction (SPE) of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and the selective enrichment of proteins. The macroporous skeletons of GA provide both low backpressure and rapid mass transfer in SPE application, thus overcoming the obstacle of high backpressure caused by directly packing submicron or micron sized MOF particles into SPE cartridges. Excellent performances including satisfactory recoveries, high sensitivity and good reproducibility were achieved in the extraction of five NSAIDs. The hybrid aerogels also showed an interesting ability for selective enrichment of ribonuclease A (RNase A) and simultaneous exclusion of cytochrome C (Cyt C) and lysozyme (Lyz), which could be attributed to the electrostatic interactions between proteins and the positively charged coordinatively unsaturated metal sites (CUS) in MIL-101. We believe that this work will promote the application of MOFs in adsorption and separation, and our synthetic strategy could be further extended to develop other graphene-based hybrid aerogels.

  17. Preparation and characterization of fluorophenylboronic acid-functionalized affinity monolithic columns for the selective enrichment of cis-diol-containing biomolecules.

    PubMed

    Li, Qianjin; Liu, Zhen

    2015-01-01

    Boronate affinity monolithic columns have been developed into an important means for the selective recognition and capture of cis-diol-containing biomolecules, such as glycoproteins, nucleosides and saccharides. The ligands of boronic acids are playing an important role in boronate affinity monolithic columns. Although several boronate affinity monoliths with high affinity toward cis-diol-containing biomolecules have been reported, only few publications are focused on their detailed procedures for preparation and characterization. This chapter describes in detail the preparation and characterization of a boronate affinity monolithic column applying 2,4-difluoro-3-formyl-phenylboronic acid (DFFPBA) as a ligand. The DFFPBA-functionalized monolithic column not only exhibited an ultrahigh boronate affinity toward cis-diol-containing biomolecules, but also showed great potential for the selective enrichment of cis-diol-containing biomolecules in real samples.

  18. SELECTIVE TRACE ENRICHMENT BY IMMUNOAFFINITY CAPILLARY ELECTROCHROMATOGRAPHY ON-LINE WITH CAPILLARY ZONE ELECTROPHORESIS - LASER-INDUCED FLUORESCENCE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Limited by the lack of a sensitive, universal detector, many capillary-based liquid-phase separation techniques might benefit from techniques that overcome modest concentration sensitivity by preconcentrating large injection volumes. The work presented employs selective solid-ph...

  19. SELECTIVE TRACE ENRICHMENT BY IMMUNOAFFINITY CAPILLARY ELECTROCHROMATOGRAPHY ON-LINE WITH CAPILLARY ZONE ELECTROPHORESIS - LASER-INDUCED FLUORESCENCE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Limited by the lack of a sensitive, universal detector, many capillary-based liquid-phase separation techniques might benefit from techniques that overcome modest concentration sensitivity by preconcentrating large injection volumes. The work presented employs selective solid-ph...

  20. Listeria monocytogenes Strains Underrepresented during Selective Enrichment with an ISO Method Might Dominate during Passage through Simulated Gastric Fluid and In Vitro Infection of Caco-2 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Zilelidou, Evangelia; Karmiri, Christina-Vasiliki; Zoumpopoulou, Georgia; Mavrogonatou, Eleni; Kletsas, Dimitris; Tsakalidou, Effie; Papadimitriou, Konstantinos; Drosinos, Eleftherios

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Various Listeria monocytogenes strains may contaminate a single food product, potentially resulting in simultaneous exposure of consumers to multiple strains. However, due to bias in strain recovery, L. monocytogenes strains isolated from foods by selective enrichment (SE) might not always represent those that can better survive the immune system of a patient. We investigated the effect of cocultivation in tryptic soy broth with 0.6% yeast extract (TSB-Y) at 10°C for 8 days on (i) the detection of L. monocytogenes strains during SE with the ISO 11290-1:1996/Amd 1:2004 protocol and (ii) the in vitro virulence of strains toward the Caco-2 human colon epithelial cancer cell line following exposure to simulated gastric fluid (SGF; pH 2.0)-HCl (37°C). We determined whether the strains which were favored by SE would be effective competitors under the conditions of challenges related to gastrointestinal passage of the pathogen. Interstrain competition of L. monocytogenes in TSB-Y determined the relative population of each strain at the beginning of SE. This in turn impacted the outcome of SE (i.e., favoring survival of competitors with better fitness) and the levels exposed subsequently to SGF. However, strong growth competitors could be outcompeted after SGF exposure and infection of Caco-2 cells by strains outgrown in TSB-Y and underdetected (or even missed) during enrichment. Our data demonstrate a preferential selection of certain L. monocytogenes strains during enrichments, often not reflecting a selective advantage of strains during infection. These findings highlight a noteworthy scenario associated with the difficulty of matching the source of infection (food) with the L. monocytogenes isolate appearing to be the causative agent during listeriosis outbreak investigations. IMPORTANCE This report is relevant to understanding the processes involved in selection and prevalence of certain L. monocytogenes strains in different environments (i.e., foods or

  1. Selective enrichment of metal-binding proteins based on magnetic core/shell microspheres functionalized with metal cations.

    PubMed

    Fang, Caiyun; Zhang, Lei; Zhang, Xiaoqin; Lu, Haojie

    2015-06-21

    Metal binding proteins play many important roles in a broad range of biological processes. Characterization of metal binding proteins is important for understanding their structure and biological functions, thus leading to a clear understanding of metal associated diseases. The present study is the first to investigate the effectiveness of magnetic microspheres functionalized with metal cations (Ca(2+), Cu(2+), Zn(2+) and Fe(3+)) as the absorbent matrix in IMAC technology to enrich metal containing/binding proteins. The putative metal binding proteins in rat liver were then globally characterized by using this strategy which is very easy to handle and can capture a number of metal binding proteins effectively. In total, 185 putative metal binding proteins were identified from rat liver including some known less abundant and membrane-bound metal binding proteins such as Plcg1, Acsl5, etc. The identified proteins are involved in many important processes including binding, catalytic activity, translation elongation factor activity, electron carrier activity, and so on.

  2. Increased soil stable nitrogen isotopic ratio following phosphorus enrichment: historical patterns and tests of two hypotheses in a phosphorus-limited wetland.

    PubMed

    Inglett, P W; Reddy, K R; Newman, S; Lorenzen, B

    2007-08-01

    We used a P enrichment gradient in the Everglades to investigate patterns of the stable N isotopic ratio (delta(15)N) in peat profiles as an indicator of historic eutrophication of this wetland. We also tested two hypotheses to explain the effects of P on increased delta(15)N of organic matter including: (1) increased N mineralization/N loss, and (2) reduced isotopic discrimination during macrophyte N uptake. Spatial patterns of delta(15)N in surface litter and soil (0-10 cm) mimic those of the aboveground macrophytes (Typha domingensis Pers. and Cladium jamaicense Crantz). Peat profiles also show increased delta(15)N in the peat accumulated in areas near the historic P discharges since the early 1960s. The increased delta(15)N of bulk peat correlated well with both measured increases in soil total P and the historical beginning of nutrient discharges into this wetland. In 15-day bottle incubations of soil, added P had no effect on the delta(15)N of NH (4) (+) and significantly increased the delta(15)N of water-extractable organic N. Measurements of surface soils collected during a field mesocosm experiment also revealed no significant effect of P on delta(15)N even after 5 years of P addition. In contrast, delta(15)N of leaf and root tissues of hydroponically grown Typha and Cladium were shown to increase up to 12 per thousand when grown at elevated levels of P and fixed levels of N (as NH (4) (+) ). The magnitude of changes in delta(15)N resulting from altered discrimination during N uptake is significant compared with other mechanisms affecting plant delta(15)N, and suggests that this may be the dominant mechanism affecting delta(15)N of organic matter following P enrichment. The results of this study have implications for the interpretation of delta(15)N as an indicator of shifts in relative N limitation in wetland ecosystems, and also stress the importance of experimental validation in interpreting delta(15)N patterns.

  3. Behavioral Traits are Affected by Selective Breeding for Increased Wheel-Running Behavior in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Jónás, I.; Schubert, K. A.; Reijne, A. C.; Scholte, J.; Garland, T.; Gerkema, M. P.; Scheurink, A. J. W.; Nyakas, C.

    2010-01-01

    Voluntary physical activity may be related to personality traits. Here, we investigated these relations in two mouse lines selectively bred for high voluntary wheel-running behavior and in one non-selected control line. Selection lines were more explorative and “information gathering” in the open-field test, either with increased upright positions or horizontal locomotion toward the middle ring. Furthermore, one of the selection lines had an increased risk-taking behavior relative to the control line in approaching a novel object placed in the center of the open field. However, anxiety behavior was increased in selection lines during the plus-maze test. Maze learning was not statistically different among lines, but routine behavior was increased in both selection lines when the maze exit after 2 days of testing was displaced. Specifically, in the displaced maze, selected mice traveled more frequently to the old, habituated exit, bypassing the new exit attached to their home cage. Although the generality of the results would need to be confirmed in future studies including all eight lines in the selection experiment, the increased routine and exploratory behavior (at least in the lines used in the present study) may be adaptive to sustain high activity levels. PMID:20369280

  4. CUE (CULTURE, UNDERSTANDING, ENRICHMENT)--SCIENCE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BROWN, ROBERT M.; AND OTHERS

    THIS PUBLICATION IS A TEACHING GUIDE TO PROVIDE GUIDANCE FOR INTEGRATING CAREFULLY SELECTED AUDIOVISUAL ITEMS INTO EXISTING NINTH-GRADE CURRICULUMS IN SCIENCE. IT IS ONE OF FIVE GUIDES PREPARED FOR USE IN PROJECT CUE, AN EXPERIMENTAL PROGRAM DESIGNED TO INCREASE CULTURAL UNDERSTANDING AND ENRICHMENT IN THE EDUCATIONAL PROGRAMS OF HIGH SCHOOLS. THE…

  5. CUE (CULTURE, UNDERSTANDING, ENRICHMENT)--INDUSTRIAL ARTS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BROWN, ROBERT M.; AND OTHERS

    THIS PUBLICATION IS A TEACHING GUIDE TO PROVIDE GUIDANCE FOR INTEGRATING CAREFULLY SELECTED AUDIOVISUAL ITEMS INTO EXISTING NINTH-GRADE CURRICULUMS IN INDUSTRIAL ARTS. IT IS ONE OF FIVE GUIDES PREPARED FOR USE IN PROJECT CUE, AN EXPERIMENTAL PROGRAM DESIGNED TO INCREASE CULTURAL UNDERSTANDING AND ENRICHMENT IN THE EDUCATIONAL PROGRAMS OF HIGH…

  6. CUE (CULTURE, UNDERSTANDING, ENRICHMENT)--SOCIAL STUDIES.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BROWN, ROBERT M.; AND OTHERS

    THIS PUBLICATION IS A TEACHING GUIDE TO PROVIDE GUIDANCE FOR INTEGRATING CAREFULLY SELECTED AUDIOVISUAL ITEMS INTO EXISTING NINTH-GRADE CURRICULUMS IN SOCIAL STUDIES. IT IS ONE OF FIVE GUIDES PREPARED FOR USE IN PROJECT CUE. AN EXPERIMENTAL PROGRAM DESIGNED TO INCREASE CULTURAL UNDERSTANDING AND ENRICHMENT IN THE EDUCATIONAL PROGRAMS OF HIGH…

  7. CUE (CULTURE, UNDERSTANDING, ENRICHMENT)--SOCIAL STUDIES.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BROWN, ROBERT M.; AND OTHERS

    THIS PUBLICATION IS A TEACHING GUIDE TO PROVIDE GUIDANCE FOR INTEGRATING CAREFULLY SELECTED AUDIOVISUAL ITEMS INTO EXISTING NINTH-GRADE CURRICULUMS IN SOCIAL STUDIES. IT IS ONE OF FIVE GUIDES PREPARED FOR USE IN PROJECT CUE. AN EXPERIMENTAL PROGRAM DESIGNED TO INCREASE CULTURAL UNDERSTANDING AND ENRICHMENT IN THE EDUCATIONAL PROGRAMS OF HIGH…

  8. CUE (CULTURE, UNDERSTANDING, ENRICHMENT)--SCIENCE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BROWN, ROBERT M.; AND OTHERS

    THIS PUBLICATION IS A TEACHING GUIDE TO PROVIDE GUIDANCE FOR INTEGRATING CAREFULLY SELECTED AUDIOVISUAL ITEMS INTO EXISTING NINTH-GRADE CURRICULUMS IN SCIENCE. IT IS ONE OF FIVE GUIDES PREPARED FOR USE IN PROJECT CUE, AN EXPERIMENTAL PROGRAM DESIGNED TO INCREASE CULTURAL UNDERSTANDING AND ENRICHMENT IN THE EDUCATIONAL PROGRAMS OF HIGH SCHOOLS. THE…

  9. Nuclear envelope assembly is promoted by phosphoinositide-specific phospholipase C with selective recruitment of phosphatidylinositol-enriched membranes.

    PubMed

    Byrne, Richard D; Barona, Teresa M; Garnier, Marie; Koster, Grielof; Katan, Matilda; Poccia, Dominic L; Larijani, Banafshé

    2005-04-15

    Nuclear envelope (NE) formation in a cell-free egg extract proceeds by precursor membrane vesicle binding to chromatin in an ATP-dependent manner, followed by a GTP-induced NE assembly step. The requirement for GTP in the latter step of this process can be mimicked by addition of bacterial PI-PLC [phosphoinositide (PtdIns)-specific phospholipase C]. The NE assembly process is here dissected in relation to the requirement for endogenous phosphoinositide metabolism, employing recombinant eukaryotic PI-PLC, inhibitors and direct phospholipid analysis using ESI-MS (electrospray ionization mass spectrometry). PtdIns (phosphatidylinositol) species analysis by ESI-MS indicates that the chromatin-bound NE precursor vesicles are enriched for specific PtdIns species. Moreover, during GTP-induced precursor vesicle fusion, the membrane vesicles become partially depleted of the PtdIns 18:0/20:4 species. These data indicate that eukaryotic PI-PLC can support NE formation, and the sensitivity to exogenous recombinant PtdIns-5-phosphatases shows that the endogenous PLC hydrolyses a 5-phosphorylated species. It is shown further that the downstream target of this DAG (diacylglycerol) pathway does not involve PKC (protein kinase C) catalytic function, but is mimicked by phorbol esters, indicating a possible engagement of one of the non-PKC phorbol ester receptors. The results show that ESI-MS can be used as a sensitive means to measure the lipid composition of biological membranes and their changes during, for example, membrane fusogenic events. We have exploited this and the intervention studies to illustrate a pivotal role for PI-PLC and its product DAG in the formation of NEs.

  10. Nuclear envelope assembly is promoted by phosphoinositide-specific phospholipase C with selective recruitment of phosphatidylinositol-enriched membranes

    PubMed Central

    2004-01-01

    Nuclear envelope (NE) formation in a cell-free egg extract proceeds by precursor membrane vesicle binding to chromatin in an ATP-dependent manner, followed by a GTP-induced NE assembly step. The requirement for GTP in the latter step of this process can be mimicked by addition of bacterial PI-PLC [phosphoinositide (PtdIns)-specific phospholipase C]. The NE assembly process is here dissected in relation to the requirement for endogenous phosphoinositide metabolism, employing recombinant eukaryotic PI-PLC, inhibitors and direct phospholipid analysis using ESI-MS (electrospray ionization mass spectrometry). PtdIns (phosphatidylinositol) species analysis by ESI-MS indicates that the chromatin-bound NE precursor vesicles are enriched for specific PtdIns species. Moreover, during GTP-induced precursor vesicle fusion, the membrane vesicles become partially depleted of the PtdIns 18:0/20:4 species. These data indicate that eukaryotic PI-PLC can support NE formation, and the sensitivity to exogenous recombinant PtdIns-5-phosphatases shows that the endogenous PLC hydrolyses a 5-phosphorylated species. It is shown further that the downstream target of this DAG (diacylglycerol) pathway does not involve PKC (protein kinase C) catalytic function, but is mimicked by phorbol esters, indicating a possible engagement of one of the non-PKC phorbol ester receptors. The results show that ESI-MS can be used as a sensitive means to measure the lipid composition of biological membranes and their changes during, for example, membrane fusogenic events. We have exploited this and the intervention studies to illustrate a pivotal role for PI-PLC and its product DAG in the formation of NEs. PMID:15554872

  11. Mechanisms of H2S Production from Cysteine and Cystine by Microorganisms Isolated from Soil by Selective Enrichment

    PubMed Central

    Morra, Matthew J.; Dick, Warren A.

    1991-01-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is a major component of biogenic gaseous sulfur emissions from terrestrial environments. However, little is known concerning the pathways for H2S production from the likely substrates, cysteine and cystine. A mixed microbial culture obtained from cystine-enriched soils was used in assays (50 min, 37°C) with 0.05 M Tris-HCl (pH 8.5), 25 μmol of l-cysteine, 25 μmol of l-cystine, and 0.04 μmol of pyridoxal 5′-phosphate. Sulfide was trapped in a center well containing zinc acetate, while pyruvate was measured by derivatization with 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine. Sulfide and total pyruvate production were 17.6 and 17.2 nmol mg of protein-1 min-1, respectively. Dithiothreitol did not alter reaction stoichiometry or the amount of H2S and total pyruvate, whereas N-ethylmaleimide reduced both H2S and total pyruvate production equally. The amount of H2S produced was reduced by 96% when only l-cystine was included as the substrate in the assay and by 15% with the addition of propargylglycine, a specific suicide inhibitor of cystathionine γ-lyase. These data indicate that the substrate for the reaction was cysteine and the enzyme responsible for H2S and pyruvate production was cysteine desulfhydrase (EC 4.4.1.1). The enzyme had a Km of 1.32 mM and was inactivated by temperatures greater than 60°C. Because cysteine is present in soil and cysteine desulfhydrase is an inducible enzyme, the potential for H2S production by this mechanism exists in terrestrial environments. The relative importance of this mechanism compared with other processes involved in H2S production from soil is unknown. PMID:16348483

  12. Mechanisms of H sub 2 S production from cysteine and cystine by microorganisms isolated from soil by selective enrichment

    SciTech Connect

    Morra, M.J.; Dick, W.A. )

    1991-05-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S) is a major component of biogenic gaseous sulfur emissions from terrestrial environments. However, little is known concerning the pathways for H{sub 2}S production from the likely substrates, cysteine and cystine. A mixed microbial culture obtained from Cystine-enriched soils was used in assays (50 min, 37C) with 0.05 M Tris-HCI (pH 8.5), 25 {mu}mol of L-cysteine, 25 {mu}mol of L-cystine, and 0.04 {mu}mol of pyridoxal 5 feet-phosphate. Sulfide and total pyruvate production were 17.6 and 17.2 nmol mg of protein{sup {minus}1} min{sup {minus}1}, respectively. Dithiothreitol did not alter reaction stoichiometry or the amount of H{sub 2}S and total pyruvate, whereas N-ethylmaleimide reduced both H{sub 2}S and total pyruvate production in the assay and by 15% with the addition of propargylglycine, a specific suicide inhibitor of cystathionine {gamma}-lyase. These data indicate that the substrate for the reaction was cysteine and the enzyme responsible for H{sub 2}S and pyruvate production was cysteine desulfhydrase. The enzyme had a K{sub m} of 1.32 mM and was inactivated by temperatures greater that 60C. Because cysteine is present in soil and cysteine desulfhydrase is an inducible enzyme, the potential for H{sub 2}S production by this mechanism exists in terrestrial environments.

  13. Use of a Lag Differential Reinforcement Contingency to Increase Varied Selections of Classroom Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cammilleri, Anthony P.; Hanley, Gregory P.

    2005-01-01

    The present study evaluated the effects of a lag differential reinforcement contingency on 2 students' activity selections using reversal designs. Results showed that the lag contingency was responsible for promoting increased novel selections, engagement in diverse activities, and greater progress with respect to programmed academic activities.

  14. Use of a lag differential reinforcement contingency to increase varied selections of classroom activities.

    PubMed

    Cammilleri, Anthony P; Hanley, Gregory P

    2005-01-01

    The present study evaluated the effects of a lag differential reinforcement contingency on 2 students' activity selections using reversal designs. Results showed that the lag contingency was responsible for promoting increased novel selections, engagement in diverse activities, and greater progress with respect to programmed academic activities.

  15. A Diagnostic Approach to Increase Reusable Dinnerware Selection in a Cafeteria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manuel, Jennifer C.; Sunseri, Mary Anne; Olson, Ryan; Scolari, Miranda

    2007-01-01

    The current project tested a diagnostic approach to selecting interventions to increase patron selection of reusable dinnerware in a cafeteria. An assessment survey, completed by a sample of 43 patrons, suggested that the primary causes of wasteful behavior were (a) environmental arrangement of dinnerware options and (b) competing motivational…

  16. Exploring mechanisms of survival in rainbow trout selectively bred for increased resistance to Flavobacterium psychrophilum

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A challenge for selective breeding programs is to better understand how artificial selection alters host pathophysiologic and immunologic response following pathogen exposure. The National Center for Cool and Cold Water Aquaculture is exploring this in rainbow trout bred for increased survival (ARS...

  17. Increased physical protection of soil carbon in the mineral soil of a poplar plantation after five years of free atmospheric CO2 enrichment (FACE)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoosbeek, M. R.; Vos, J. M.; Scarascia-Mugnozza, G. E.

    2006-07-01

    Free air CO2 enrichment (FACE) experiments in aggrading forests and plantations have demonstrated significant increases in net primary production (NPP) and C storage in forest vegetation. The extra C uptake may also be stored in forest floor litter and in forest soil. After five years of FACE treatment at the EuroFACE short rotation poplar plantation, the increase of total soil C% was larger under elevated than under ambient CO2. However, the fate of this additional C allocated belowground remains unclear. The stability of soil organic matter is controlled by the chemical structure of the organic matter and the existence of protection offered by the soil matrix and minerals. Fresh litter entering the soil enhances microbial activity which induces the binding of organic matter and soil particles into macro-aggregates. As the enclosed organic matter is decomposed, microbial and decomposition products become associated with mineral particles. This association results in the formation of micro-aggregates (within macro-aggregates) in which organic matter is stabilized and protected. FACE and N-fertilization treatment did not affect the micro- and macro-aggregate weight, C or N fractions obtained by wet sieving. However, Populus euramericana increased the micro- and small macro-aggregates weight and C fractions. The obtained macro-aggregates were broken up in order to isolate recently formed micro-aggregates within macro-aggregates (iM-micro-aggregates). FACE increased the iM-micro-aggregate weight and C fractions. This study reveals that: 1) Species has an effect on the formation of macro-aggregates. The choice of species in a plantation or the effect of global change on species diversity, may therefore affect the stabilization and protection of soil C in aggregates. And 2) Increased atmospheric CO2 concentration increases the stabilization and protection of soil C in micro-aggregates formed within macro-aggregates. This mechanism increases the C sink of forest soils

  18. Ti(IV) carrying polydopamine-coated, monodisperse-porous SiO2 microspheres with stable magnetic properties for highly selective enrichment of phosphopeptides.

    PubMed

    Salimi, Kouroush; Usta, Duygu Deniz; Çelikbıçak, Ömür; Pinar, Asli; Salih, Bekir; Tuncel, Ali

    2017-02-22

    A marked decrease in the saturation magnetization by the formation of functional shells around the magnetic core is an important disadvantage of magnetic core-shell nanoparticles. Another drawback of Ti(IV)-functionalized immobilized metal affinity chromatography (IMAC) sorbents is the acidic character of the binding medium used for Ti(4+) attachment onto composite magnetic nanoparticles, which causes an additional decrease in the saturation magnetization owing to the chemical interaction between the acidic moiety and the magnetic core. An IMAC sorbent in the form of magnetic microspheres with superior and stable magnetic properties with respect to magnetic core-shell nanoparticles was designed for phosphopeptide enrichment. Magnetic, monodisperse-porous silica microspheres (MagSiO2) 6μm in size were synthesized by a new staged-shape template hydrolysis-condensation protocol. A porous-silica shell layer was generated around the microspheres to protect the magnetic core from the acidic medium during Ti(4+) attachment (MagSiO2@SiO2). The MagSiO2@SiO2 microspheres were coated with a polydopamine shell (MagSiO2@SiO2@PDA) and Ti(4+) was attached onto the composite microspheres (MagSiO2@SiO2@PDA@Ti(IV)). Formation of the PDA layer and Ti(4+) attachment did not cause any significant decrease in the saturation magnetization. The platform exhibited excellent performance for phosphopeptide enrichment from the digests of phosphorylated proteins. Selectivity was investigated by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry. The detection limit for phosphopeptide enrichment by the MagSiO2@SiO2@PDA@Ti(IV) microspheres from the tryptic digests of β-casein was 50 fmol/mL. Usability of the proposed magnetic sorbent with complex biological samples was demonstrated by successful enrichment of four phosphopeptides from human serum. The proposed sorbent showed stable performance over five repeated uses.

  19. Rapid response to selection, competitive release and increased transmission potential of artesunate-selected Plasmodium chabaudi malaria parasites.

    PubMed

    Pollitt, Laura C; Huijben, Silvie; Sim, Derek G; Salathé, Rahel M; Jones, Matthew J; Read, Andrew F

    2014-04-01

    The evolution of drug resistance, a key challenge for our ability to treat and control infections, depends on two processes: de-novo resistance mutations, and the selection for and spread of resistant mutants within a population. Understanding the factors influencing the rates of these two processes is essential for maximizing the useful lifespan of drugs and, therefore, effective disease control. For malaria parasites, artemisinin-based drugs are the frontline weapons in the fight against disease, but reports from the field of slower parasite clearance rates during drug treatment are generating concern that the useful lifespan of these drugs may be limited. Whether slower clearance rates represent true resistance, and how this provides a selective advantage for parasites is uncertain. Here, we show that Plasmodium chabaudi malaria parasites selected for resistance to artesunate (an artemisinin derivative) through a step-wise increase in drug dose evolved slower clearance rates extremely rapidly. In single infections, these slower clearance rates, similar to those seen in the field, provided fitness advantages to the parasite through increased overall density, recrudescence after treatment and increased transmission potential. In mixed infections, removal of susceptible parasites by drug treatment led to substantial increases in the densities and transmission potential of resistant parasites (competitive release). Our results demonstrate the double-edged sword for resistance management: in our initial selection experiments, no parasites survived aggressive chemotherapy, but after selection, the fitness advantage for resistant parasites was greatest at high drug doses. Aggressive treatment of mixed infections resulted in resistant parasites dominating the pool of gametocytes, without providing additional health benefits to hosts. Slower clearance rates can evolve rapidly and can provide a strong fitness advantage during drug treatment in both single and mixed strain

  20. Rapid Response to Selection, Competitive Release and Increased Transmission Potential of Artesunate-Selected Plasmodium chabaudi Malaria Parasites

    PubMed Central

    Pollitt, Laura C.; Huijben, Silvie; Sim, Derek G.; Salathé, Rahel M.; Jones, Matthew J.; Read, Andrew F.

    2014-01-01

    The evolution of drug resistance, a key challenge for our ability to treat and control infections, depends on two processes: de-novo resistance mutations, and the selection for and spread of resistant mutants within a population. Understanding the factors influencing the rates of these two processes is essential for maximizing the useful lifespan of drugs and, therefore, effective disease control. For malaria parasites, artemisinin-based drugs are the frontline weapons in the fight against disease, but reports from the field of slower parasite clearance rates during drug treatment are generating concern that the useful lifespan of these drugs may be limited. Whether slower clearance rates represent true resistance, and how this provides a selective advantage for parasites is uncertain. Here, we show that Plasmodium chabaudi malaria parasites selected for resistance to artesunate (an artemisinin derivative) through a step-wise increase in drug dose evolved slower clearance rates extremely rapidly. In single infections, these slower clearance rates, similar to those seen in the field, provided fitness advantages to the parasite through increased overall density, recrudescence after treatment and increased transmission potential. In mixed infections, removal of susceptible parasites by drug treatment led to substantial increases in the densities and transmission potential of resistant parasites (competitive release). Our results demonstrate the double-edged sword for resistance management: in our initial selection experiments, no parasites survived aggressive chemotherapy, but after selection, the fitness advantage for resistant parasites was greatest at high drug doses. Aggressive treatment of mixed infections resulted in resistant parasites dominating the pool of gametocytes, without providing additional health benefits to hosts. Slower clearance rates can evolve rapidly and can provide a strong fitness advantage during drug treatment in both single and mixed strain

  1. Enriched Astaxanthin Extract from Haematococcus pluvialis Augments Growth Factor Secretions to Increase Cell Proliferation and Induces MMP1 Degradation to Enhance Collagen Production in Human Dermal Fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Chou, Hsin-Yu; Lee, Chelsea; Pan, Jian-Liang; Wen, Zhi-Hong; Huang, Shu-Hung; Lan, Chi-Wei John; Liu, Wang-Ta; Hour, Tzyh-Chyuan; Hseu, You-Cheng; Hwang, Byeong Hee; Cheng, Kuo-Chen; Wang, Hui-Min David

    2016-06-16

    Among many antioxidants that are used for the repairing of oxidative stress induced skin damages, we identified the enriched astaxanthin extract (EAE) from Haematococcus pluvialis as a viable ingredient. EAE was extracted from the red microalgae through supercritical fluid carbon dioxide extraction. To compare the effectiveness, EAE wastreated on human dermal fibroblasts with other components, phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA), and doxycycline. With sirius red staining and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR), we found that PMA decreased the collagen concentration and production while overall the addition of doxycycline and EAE increased the collagen concentration in a trial experiments. EAE increased collagen contents through inhibited MMP1 and MMP3 mRNA expression and induced TIMP1, the antagonists of MMPs protein, gene expression. As for when tested for various proteins through western blotting, it was seen that the addition of EAE increased the expression of certain proteins that promote cell proliferation. Testing those previous solutions using growth factor assay, it was noticeable that EAE had a positive impact on cell proliferation and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) than doxycycline, indicating that it was a better alternative treatment for collagen production. To sum up, the data confirmed the possible applications as medical cosmetology agentsand food supplements.

  2. Enriched Astaxanthin Extract from Haematococcus pluvialis Augments Growth Factor Secretions to Increase Cell Proliferation and Induces MMP1 Degradation to Enhance Collagen Production in Human Dermal Fibroblasts

    PubMed Central

    Chou, Hsin-Yu; Lee, Chelsea; Pan, Jian-Liang; Wen, Zhi-Hong; Huang, Shu-Hung; Lan, Chi-Wei John; Liu, Wang-Ta; Hour, Tzyh-Chyuan; Hseu, You-Cheng; Hwang, Byeong Hee; Cheng, Kuo-Chen; Wang, Hui-Min David

    2016-01-01

    Among many antioxidants that are used for the repairing of oxidative stress induced skin damages, we identified the enriched astaxanthin extract (EAE) from Haematococcus pluvialis as a viable ingredient. EAE was extracted from the red microalgae through supercritical fluid carbon dioxide extraction. To compare the effectiveness, EAE wastreated on human dermal fibroblasts with other components, phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA), and doxycycline. With sirius red staining and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR), we found that PMA decreased the collagen concentration and production while overall the addition of doxycycline and EAE increased the collagen concentration in a trial experiments. EAE increased collagen contents through inhibited MMP1 and MMP3 mRNA expression and induced TIMP1, the antagonists of MMPs protein, gene expression. As for when tested for various proteins through western blotting, it was seen that the addition of EAE increased the expression of certain proteins that promote cell proliferation. Testing those previous solutions using growth factor assay, it was noticeable that EAE had a positive impact on cell proliferation and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) than doxycycline, indicating that it was a better alternative treatment for collagen production. To sum up, the data confirmed the possible applications as medical cosmetology agentsand food supplements. PMID:27322248

  3. Increased concentrations of nerve growth factor and brain-derived neurotrophic factor in the rat cerebellum after exposure to environmental enrichment.

    PubMed

    Angelucci, Francesco; De Bartolo, Paola; Gelfo, Francesca; Foti, Francesca; Cutuli, Debora; Bossù, Paola; Caltagirone, Carlo; Petrosini, Laura

    2009-12-01

    The molecular mechanism of environmental enrichment (EE) on brain function and anatomy has been partially attributed to the up-regulation of proteins involved in neuronal survival and activity-dependent plasticity, such as the neurotrophins nerve growth factor (NGF) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus of animal models. Nevertheless, at present, little indication is available on the influence of EE on neurotrophin levels in the cerebellum. Thus, in this study, we exposed male Wistar rats to EE from weaning to 5 months of age and evaluated the production of NGF and BDNF in the cerebellum and compared the neurotrophin changes in this region with those obtained in other brain structures where neurotrophins are produced or transported. We found that in rats exposed to EE from 21st until 140th postnatal day, a significant increase of both BDNF and NGF concentrations was observed in the cerebellum, as compared to rats reared in standard conditions. In addition, cerebellum was the brain region where NGF and BDNF levels were more influenced by EE as compared to the changes observed in other regions. EE also caused a concomitant increase in NGF levels in the striatum while in the same brain region, BDNF levels were reduced. In summary, this study shows that a prolonged exposure to EE is associated with an increase in cerebellar NGF and BDNF production, thus suggesting that the beneficial effects of EE on the cerebellum of adult animals could be mediated, at least in part, by neurotrophins.

  4. Measuring long-chain acyl-coenzyme A concentrations and enrichment using liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry with selected reaction monitoring.

    PubMed

    Blachnio-Zabielska, Agnieszka U; Koutsari, Christina; Jensen, Michael D

    2011-08-15

    Long-chain acyl-coenzymes A (acyl-CoAs) (LCACoA) are the activated forms of long-chain fatty acids and serve as key lipid metabolites. Excess accumulation of intracellular LCACoA, diacylglycerols (DAGs) and ceramides may create insulin resistance with respect to glucose metabolism. We present a new method to measure LCACoA concentrations and isotopic enrichment of palmitoyl-CoA ([U-(13) C]16-CoA) and oleoyl-CoA ([U-(13) C]18:1-CoA) using ultra-performance liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC/MS/MS) to quantitate seven different LCACoA (C14-CoA, C16-CoA, C16:1-CoA, C18-CoA, C18:1-CoA, C18:2-CoA, C20-CoA). The molecules are separated on a reversed-phase UPLC column using a binary gradient with ammonium hydroxide (NH(4) OH) in water and NH(4) OH in acetonitrile (ACN). The LCACoA are quantified using selected reaction monitoring (SRM) on a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer in positive electrospray ionization (ESI) mode. All LCACoA ions except enriched palmitate enrichment of palmitoyl-CoA ([U(-13)C]16-CoA) and oleoyl-CoA ([U(-13)C]18:1-CoA) using ultra-performance liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (UPLC/MS/MS) to quantitate seven different LCACoA (C14-CoA, C16-CoA, C16:1-CoA, C18-CoA, C18:1-CoA, C18:2-CoA, C20-CoA). The molecules are separated on a reversed-phase UPLC column using a binary gradient with ammonium hydroxide (NH(4) OH) in water and NH(4) OH in acetonitrile. The LCACoA are quantified using selected reaction monitoring (SRM) on a triple quadrupolemass spectrometer in positive electrospray ionization (ESI) mode. All LCACoA ions except enriched palmitate and oleate were monitored as [M+2+H](+) and [U(13)C]16-CoA and [U(13)C]18:1-CoA were monitored as [M+16+H](+) and [M+18+H](+), respectively. The method is simple, sensitive and efficient (run time as short as 5 min) and allowed us to measure the concentration and detect enrichment in intramyocellular [U(13) C]16-CoA and [U(13) C]18:1-CoA during a low dose intravenous infusion of [U(13

  5. Fish oil LC-PUFAs do not affect blood coagulation parameters and bleeding manifestations: Analysis of 8 clinical studies with selected patient groups on omega-3-enriched medical nutrition.

    PubMed

    Jeansen, Stephanie; Witkamp, Renger F; Garthoff, Jossie A; van Helvoort, Ardy; Calder, Philip C

    2017-03-29

    The increased consumption of fish oil enriched-products exposes a wide diversity of people, including elderly and those with impaired health to relatively high amounts of n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LC-PUFAs). There is an ongoing debate around the possible adverse effects of n-3 LC-PUFAs on bleeding risk, particularly relevant in people with a medical history of cardiovascular events or using antithrombotic drugs. This analysis of 8 clinical intervention studies conducted with enteral medical nutrition products containing fish oil as a source of n-3 LC-PUFAs addresses the occurrence of bleeding-related adverse events and effects on key coagulation parameters (Prothrombin Time [PT], (activated) and Partial Thromboplastin Time [(a)PTT]). In all the patients considered (over 600 subjects treated with the active product in total), with moderate to severe disease, with or without concomitant use of antithrombotic agents, at home or in an Intensive Care Unit (ICU), no evidence of increased risk of bleeding with use of n-3 LC-PUFAs was observed. Furthermore there were no statistically significant changes from baseline in measured coagulation parameters. These findings further support the safe consumption of n-3 LC-PUFAs, even at short-term doses up to 10 g/day of eicosapentaenoic acid + docosahexaenoic acid (EPA + DHA) or consumed for up to 52 weeks above 1.5 g/day, in selected vulnerable and sensitive populations such as subjects with gastrointestinal cancer or patients in an ICU. We found no evidence to support any concern raised with regards to the application of n-3 LC-PUFAs and the potentially increased risk for the occurrence of adverse bleeding manifestations in these selected patient populations consuming fish oil enriched medical nutrition. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  6. Small Prizes Improve Food Selection in a School Cafeteria Without Increasing Waste.

    PubMed

    Hudgens, Michelle E; Barnes, Allison S; Lockhart, Mary Kate; Ellsworth, Samantha C; Beckford, Monna; Siegel, Robert M

    2017-02-01

    We recently demonstrated that small prizes given for a "Power Plate" (plain fat-free milk, entrée, fruit and vegetable) can be used in an elementary school cafeteria to increase healthful food selection by over 300%. The purpose of this study was to measure changes in food waste when the Power Plate (PP) program is implemented. The PP intervention was conducted at an inner-city elementary school. Emoticons were placed next to the preferred foods and children were given a small prize if they selected the PP. Data were obtained by observation and cash register receipts. The trays of 111 students before the intervention and 96 after were examined for content and waste. PP selection increased from 2% to 73% ( P < .001). There was no significant change in waste. We conclude that small prizes as an incentive for better food selection does not lead to an increase food waste.

  7. Immunoaffinity enrichment and liquid chromatography-selected reaction monitoring mass spectrometry for quantitation of carbonic anhydrase 12 in cultured renal carcinoma cells

    PubMed Central

    Rafalko, Agnes; Iliopoulos, Othon; Fusaro, Vincent A.; Hancock, William; Hincapie, Marina

    2010-01-01

    Liquid chromatography-selected reaction monitoring (LC-SRM) is a highly specific and sensitive mass spectrometry (MS) technique that is widely being applied to selectively qualify and validate candidate markers within complex biological samples. However, in order for LC-SRM methods to take on these attributes, target-specific optimization of sample processing is required, in order to reduce analyte complexity, prior to LC-SRM. In this study, we have developed a targeted platform consisting of protein immunoaffinity enrichment on magnetic beads and LC-SRM for measuring carbonic anhydrase 12 (CA12) protein in a renal cell carcinoma (RCC) cell line (PRC3), a candidate biomarker for RCC whose expression at the protein level has not been previously reported. Sample processing and LC-SRM assay were optimized for signature peptides selected as surrogate markers of CA12 protein. Using LC-SRM coupled with stable isotope dilution, we achieved limits of quantitation in the low fmol range sufficient for measuring clinically relevant biomarkers with good intra- and inter-assay accuracy and precision (≤17%). Our results show that using a quantitative immunoaffinity capture approach provides specific, accurate, and robust assays amenable to high-throughput verification of potential biomarkers. PMID:20936840

  8. Temporal increase in thymocyte negative selection parallels enhanced thymic SIRPα(+) DC function.

    PubMed

    Kroger, Charles J; Wang, Bo; Tisch, Roland

    2016-10-01

    Dysregulation of negative selection contributes to T-cell-mediated autoimmunity, such as type 1 diabetes. The events regulating thymic negative selection, however, are ill defined. Work by our group and others suggest that negative selection is inefficient early in ontogeny and increases with age. This study examines temporal changes in negative selection and the thymic DC compartment. Peptide-induced thymocyte deletion in vivo was reduced in newborn versus 4-week-old NOD mice, despite a similar sensitivity of the respective thymocytes to apoptosis induction. The temporal increase in negative selection corresponded with an elevated capacity of thymic antigen-presenting cells to stimulate T cells, along with altered subset composition and function of resident DC. The frequency of signal regulatory protein α(+) (SIRPα(+) ) and plasmacytoid DCs was increased concomitant with a decrease in CD8α(+) DC in 4-week-old NOD thymi. Importantly, 4-week-old versus newborn thymic SIRPα(+) DC exhibited increased antigen processing and presentation via the MHC class II but not class I pathway, coupled with an enhanced T-cell stimulatory capacity not seen in thymic plasmacytoid DC and CD8α(+) DC. These findings indicate that the efficiency of thymic DC-mediated negative selection is limited early after birth, and increases with age paralleling expansion of functionally superior thymic SIRPα(+) DC. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Enrichment of Echinacea angustifolia with Bauer alkylamide 11 and Bauer ketone 23 increased anti-inflammatory potential through interfering with COX-2 enzyme activity

    PubMed Central

    LaLone, Carlie A.; Huang, Nan; Rizshsky, Ludmila; Yum, Man-Yu; Singh, Navrozedeep; Hauck, Cathy; Nikolau, Basil J.; Wurtele, Eve S.; Kohut, Marian L.; Murphy, Patricia A.; Birt, Diane F.

    2013-01-01

    Bauer alkylamide 11 and ketone 23 were partially responsible for Echinacea angustifolia anti-inflammatory properties previously. This study further tested their importance using the inhibition of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and nitric oxide (NO) production by RAW264.7 mouse macrophages in the absence and presence of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and E. angustifolia extracts, phytochemical enriched fractions, or pure synthesized standards. Molecular targets were probed using microarray, qRT-PCR, western blot, and enzyme assays. Fractions with these phytochemicals were more potent inhibitors of LPS induced PGE2 production than E. angustifolia extracts. Microarray did not detect changes in transcripts with phytochemical treatments; however qRT-PCR showed decrease in TNF-α and increase of iNOS transcripts. LPS induced COX-2 protein was increased by an E. angustifolia fraction containing Bauer ketone 23 and by pure phytochemical. COX-2 activity was decreased with all treatments. The phytochemical inhibition of PGE2 production by Echinacea may be due to the direct targeting of COX-2 enzyme. PMID:20681645

  10. Depletion of T regulatory cells through selection of CD127-positive cells results in a population enriched in memory T cells: implications for anti-tumor cell therapy

    PubMed Central

    Touil, Soumia; Rosenzwajg, Michelle; Landau, Dan Avi; Le Corvoisier, Philippe; Frédéric, Charlotte; Klatzmann, David; Maury, Sébastien; Cohen, José L.

    2012-01-01

    Background Donor lymphocyte infusions can induce remissions in patients with relapse after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Nevertheless, some grafted patients never display any signs of alloreactivity, either following allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation or after donor lymphocyte infusions. Consequently, they do not develop graft-versus-host disease and frequently do not respond to donor lymphocyte infusions. In a recently published clinical trial, we observed that elimination of CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ natural regulatory T cells from the donor lymphocyte product could improve alloreactivity and the associated anti-tumor effect in a small proportion of patients with relapsed hematologic malignancies. Here, we aimed to improve the effect of donor lymphocyte infusion by modifying the procedure for depletion of T regulatory cells. Design and Methods We directly compared depletion of regulatory T cells from human peripheral blood mononuclear cells achieved by selection of CD127-positive cells or by selection of CD25-negative cells. We tested the manipulated products (i) in vitro in mixed lymphocyte reactions and against pathogen-derived recall antigens and (ii) in vivo in experimental graft-versus-host disease. Results In vitro, we found that depletion of regulatory T cells through CD127 positive selection improved both alloreactive and pathogen-specific immune responses. In vivo, we observed accelerated donor T-cell division and enhanced graft-versus-host disease due to efficient regulatory T-cell depletion accompanied by enrichment in memory T cells. Conclusions Our results show that the strategy of CD127 positive selection is an efficient way of eliminating regulatory T cells from donor lymphocyte infusions and improves alloreactivity. This supports the investigation of CD127 positive selection in place of elimination of CD25-positive cells for clinical applications. PMID:22581007

  11. Selection for increased voluntary wheel-running affects behavior and brain monoamines in mice

    PubMed Central

    Waters, R.Parrish; Pringle, R.B.; Forster, G.L.; Renner, K.J.; Malisch, J.L.; Garland, T.; Swallow, J.G.

    2013-01-01

    Selective-breeding of house mice for increased voluntary wheel-running has resulted in multiple physiological and behavioral changes. Characterizing these differences may lead to experimental models that can elucidate factors involved in human diseases and disorders associated with physical inactivity, or potentially treated by physical activity, such as diabetes, obesity, and depression. Herein, we present ethological data for adult males from a line of mice that has been selectively bred for high levels of voluntary wheel-running and from a non-selected control line, housed with or without wheels. Additionally, we present concentrations of central monoamines in limbic, striatal, and midbrain regions. We monitored wheel-running for 8 weeks, and observed home-cage behavior during the last 5 weeks of the study. Mice from the selected line accumulated more revolutions per day than controls due to increased speed and duration of running. Selected mice exhibited more active behaviors than controls, regardless of wheel access, and exhibited less inactivity and grooming than controls. Selective-breeding also influenced the longitudinal patterns of behavior. We found statistically significant differences in monoamine concentrations and associated metabolites in brain regions that influence exercise and motivational state. These results suggest underlying neurochemical differences between selected and control lines that may influence the observed differences in behavior. Our results bolster the argument that selected mice can provide a useful model of human psychological and physiological diseases and disorders. PMID:23352668

  12. Selection for increased voluntary wheel-running affects behavior and brain monoamines in mice.

    PubMed

    Waters, R Parrish; Pringle, R B; Forster, G L; Renner, K J; Malisch, J L; Garland, T; Swallow, J G

    2013-05-01

    Selective-breeding of house mice for increased voluntary wheel-running has resulted in multiple physiological and behavioral changes. Characterizing these differences may lead to experimental models that can elucidate factors involved in human diseases and disorders associated with physical inactivity, or potentially treated by physical activity, such as diabetes, obesity, and depression. Herein, we present ethological data for adult males from a line of mice that has been selectively bred for high levels of voluntary wheel-running and from a non-selected control line, housed with or without wheels. Additionally, we present concentrations of central monoamines in limbic, striatal, and midbrain regions. We monitored wheel-running for 8 weeks, and observed home-cage behavior during the last 5 weeks of the study. Mice from the selected line accumulated more revolutions per day than controls due to increased speed and duration of running. Selected mice exhibited more active behaviors than controls, regardless of wheel access, and exhibited less inactivity and grooming than controls. Selective-breeding also influenced the longitudinal patterns of behavior. We found statistically significant differences in monoamine concentrations and associated metabolites in brain regions that influence exercise and motivational state. These results suggest underlying neurochemical differences between selected and control lines that may influence the observed differences in behavior. Our results bolster the argument that selected mice can provide a useful model of human psychological and physiological diseases and disorders. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. Small prizes increased healthful school lunch selection in a Midwestern school district.

    PubMed

    Siegel, Robert; Lockhart, Mary Kate; Barnes, Allison S; Hiller, Elizabeth; Kipp, Roger; Robison, Debora L; Ellsworth, Samantha C; Hudgens, Michelle E

    2016-04-01

    As obesity has become a pressing health issue for American children, greater attention has been focused on how schools can be used to improve how students eat. Previously, we piloted the use of small prizes in an elementary school cafeteria to improve healthful food selection. We hoped to increase healthful food selection in all the elementary schools of a small school district participating in the United States Department of Agriculture Lunch Program by offering prizes to children who selected a Power Plate (PP), which consisted of an entrée with whole grains, a fruit, a vegetable, and plain low-fat milk. In this study, the PP program was introduced to 3 schools sequentially over an academic year. During the kickoff week, green, smiley-faced emoticons were placed by preferred foods, and children were given a prize daily if they chose a PP on that day. After the first week, students were given a sticker or temporary tattoo 2 days a week if they selected a PP. Combining data from the 3 schools in the program, students increased PP selection from 4.5% at baseline to 49.4% (p < 0.0001) during an intervention period of 2.5 school weeks. The school with the longest intervention period, 6 months, showed a PP selection increase of from 3.9% to 26.4% (p < 0.0001). In conclusion, giving small prizes as rewards dramatically improves short-term healthful food selection in elementary school children.

  14. Light-induced yellowing of selectively 13C-enriched dehydrogenation polymers (DHPs). Part 1, Side-chain 13C-enriched DHP ([alpha], [beta], and [gamma]-13C)

    Treesearch

    Jim Parkas; Magnus Paulsson; Terashima Noritsugu; Ulla Westermark; Sally Ralph

    2004-01-01

    Light-induced yellowing has been studied using side-chain ([alpha], [beta], and [gamma]) 13C-enriched DHP (dehydrogenation polymer) and quantitative solution state 13C NMR spectroscopy. The DHP was formed from 13C-enriched coniferin using an enzymatic system consisting of [beta]-glucosidase, glucose oxidase, and peroxidase in a pH 6 buffer solution. The DHP was applied...

  15. Prostate Cancer Heterogeneous High-Metastatic Multi-Organ-Colonizing Chemo-Resistant Variants Selected by Serial Metastatic Passage in Nude Mice Are Highly Enriched for Multinucleate Giant Cells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lei; Wu, Chengyu; Hoffman, Robert M

    2015-01-01

    In order to further understand the role of tumor heterogeneity in metastasis and chemo-resistance, high metastatic PC-3 human prostate cancer variants were selected by injecting parental PC-3 cells, expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP) in the footpad of nude mice, which then metastasize to inguinal lymph nodes. The PC-3-GFP cells which metastasized to the inguinal lymph nodes were collected and were re-injected to the footpad. After 6 such cycles, the PC-3-GFP cells collected from inguinal lymph nodes (PC-3-GFP-LN) were again injected to the footpad. PC-3-GFP-LN showed 100% metastasis to major lymph nodes (popliteal, inguinal, axillary, and cervical), and 100% metastasis to bone and lung. The percent of giant cell variants was enriched in PC-3-GFP-LN-6 compared to parental cells and increased with each cycle of selection, which in turn had increased metastasis. PC-3-GFP-LN-6 cells were resistant to 5-fluorouracil, doxorubicin and cisplatinum, compared to parental PC-3. However, PC-3-GFP-LN-6 was sensitive to the traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) herbal mixture LQ, similar to the parental cells. These results suggest that PC-3 tumors are heterogenous and that subpopulations of highly metastatic, drug-resistant cells can be step-wise selected using a mouse model of tumor progression.

  16. Environmental Enrichment Increases Glucocorticoid Receptors and Decreases GluA2 and Protein Kinase M Zeta (PKMζ) Trafficking During Chronic Stress: A Protective Mechanism?

    PubMed Central

    Zanca, Roseanna M.; Braren, Stephen H.; Maloney, Brigid; Schrott, Lisa M.; Luine, Victoria N.; Serrano, Peter A.

    2015-01-01

    Environmental enrichment (EE) housing paradigms have long been shown beneficial for brain function involving neural growth and activity, learning and memory capacity, and for developing stress resiliency. The expression of the α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) receptor subunit GluA2, which is important for synaptic plasticity and memory, is increased with corticosterone (CORT), undermining synaptic plasticity and memory. Thus, we determined the effect of EE and stress on modulating GluA2 expression in Sprague-Dawley male rats. Several markers were evaluated which include: plasma CORT, the glucocorticoid receptor (GR), GluA2, and the atypical protein kinase M zeta (PKMζ). For 1 week standard-(ST) or EE-housed animals were treated with one of the following four conditions: (1) no stress; (2) acute stress (forced swim test, FST; on day 7); (3) chronic restraint stress (6 h/day for 7 days); and (4) chronic + acute stress (restraint stress 6 h/day for 7 days + FST on day 7). Hippocampi were collected on day 7. Our results show that EE animals had reduced time immobile on the FST across all conditions. After chronic + acute stress EE animals showed increased GR levels with no change in synaptic GluA2/PKMζ. ST-housed animals showed the reverse pattern with decreased GR levels and a significant increase in synaptic GluA2/PKMζ. These results suggest that EE produces an adaptive response to chronic stress allowing for increased GR levels, which lowers neuronal excitability reducing GluA2/PKMζ trafficking. We discuss this EE adaptive response to stress as a potential underlying mechanism that is protective for retaining synaptic plasticity and memory function. PMID:26617502

  17. Higher vitamin D intake in preterm infants fed an isocaloric, protein- and mineral-enriched postdischarge formula is associated with increased bone accretion.

    PubMed

    van de Lagemaat, Monique; Rotteveel, Joost; Schaafsma, Anne; van Weissenbruch, Mirjam M; Lafeber, Harrie N

    2013-09-01

    During the first half of infancy, bone accretion in preterm infants fed an isocaloric, protein- and mineral-enriched postdischarge formula (PDF) is higher compared with those fed term formula (TF) or human milk (HM). This may be related to higher protein, calcium, phosphorus, and vitamin D intakes. This study investigated serum calcium, phosphate, and 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] in relation to bone mineral content (BMC) in PDF-, TF-, and HM-fed preterm infants between term age (40 wk postmenstrual age) and 6 mo corrected age (CA). Between term age and 6 mo CA, 52 preterm infants were fed PDF (per 100 mL: 67 kcal, 1.7 g protein, 65 mg calcium, 38 mg phosphorus, 56 IU vitamin D), 41 were fed TF (per 100 mL: 67 kcal, 1.47 g protein, 50 mg calcium, 30 mg phosphorus, 48 IU vitamin D), and 46 were fed HM. Serum calcium, phosphorus, and 25(OH)D were measured at term age and at 3 and 6 mo CA. BMC (g) was measured by whole-body dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry at term age and at 6 mo CA. Between term age and 6 mo CA, intakes of calcium, phosphorus, and vitamin D were significantly higher in PDF- compared with TF-fed infants, and PDF-fed infants reached significantly higher serum 25(OH)D concentrations at 6 mo CA (103 ± 24.3 vs. 92.8 ± 15.5 nmol/L, P = 0.003). Between term age and 6 mo CA, increases in serum 25(OH)D were associated with an increase in BMC (β = 0.001; 95% CI: 0.00, 0.003; P = 0.046). In conclusion, during the first 6 mo postterm, higher vitamin D intake and greater increase in serum 25(OH)D concentration in PDF-fed preterm infants were associated with increased bone accretion.

  18. Selective Enrichment and Sequencing of Whole Mitochondrial Genomes in the Presence of Nuclear Encoded Mitochondrial Pseudogenes (Numts)

    PubMed Central

    Wolff, Jonci N.; Shearman, Deborah C. A.; Brooks, Rob C.; Ballard, John W. O.

    2012-01-01

    Numts are an integral component of many eukaryote genomes offering a snapshot of the evolutionary process that led from the incorporation of an α-proteobacterium into a larger eukaryotic cell some 1.8 billion years ago. Although numt sequence can be harnessed as molecular marker, these sequences often remain unidentified and are mistaken for genuine mtDNA leading to erroneous interpretation of mtDNA data sets. It is therefore indispensable that during the process of amplifying and sequencing mitochondrial genes, preventive measures are taken to ensure the exclusion of numts to guarantee the recovery of genuine mtDNA. This applies to mtDNA analyses in general but especially to studies where mtDNAs are sequenced de novo as the launch pad for subsequent mtDNA-based research. By using a combination of dilution series and nested rolling circle amplification (RCA), we present a novel strategy to selectively amplify mtDNA and exclude the amplification of numt sequence. We have successfully applied this strategy to de novo sequence the mtDNA of the Black Field Cricket Teleogryllus commodus, a species known to contain numts. Aligning our assembled sequence to the reference genome of Teleogryllus emma (GenBank EU557269.1) led to the identification of a numt sequence in the reference sequence. This unexpected result further highlights the need of a reliable and accessible strategy to eliminate this source of error. PMID:22606342

  19. Selective enrichment of Eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5n-3) in N. oceanica CASA CC201 by natural auxin supplementation.

    PubMed

    Udayan, Aswathy; Arumugam, Muthu

    2017-10-01

    The present study aims to evaluate the effect of different concentration of natural auxin, Indole-3 acetic acid (IAA) on growth, lipid yield, PUFA and EPA accumulation in Nannochloropsis oceanica CASA CC201. It was observed that the, treatment with 10ppm concentration of IAA resulted in high cell number 579.5×10(6)cells/ml than the control (215.5×10(6)cells/ml). Treatment with IAA at a concentration of 40ppm gives the highest cellular lipid accumulation of 60.9% DCW than the control 31.05% DCW). Lipid yield is also found to be increased by the addition of 40ppm IAA (319.5mg/L) compared with the control (121.5mg/L). EPA percentage is increased to 10.76% by the addition of 40ppm IAA compared to the control (1.87%). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. A diagnostic approach to increase reusable dinnerware selection in a cafeteria.

    PubMed

    Manuel, Jennifer C; Sunseri, Mary Anne; Olson, Ryan; Scolari, Miranda

    2007-01-01

    The current project tested a diagnostic approach to selecting interventions to increase patron selection of reusable dinnerware in a cafeteria. An assessment survey, completed by a sample of 43 patrons, suggested that the primary causes of wasteful behavior were (a) environmental arrangement of dinnerware options and (b) competing motivational variables. A functional relation between environmental arrangement and reusable product selection was demonstrated in a reversal design. However, the largest effect occurred as function of a multicomponent intervention involving environmental arrangement, employee involvement, and personal spoken prompts with motivational signs. The results support the use of informant assessments when designing community interventions.

  1. Novel Anti-Campylobacter Compounds Identified Using High Throughput Screening of a Pre-selected Enriched Small Molecules Library

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Anand; Drozd, Mary; Pina-Mimbela, Ruby; Xu, Xiulan; Helmy, Yosra A.; Antwi, Janet; Fuchs, James R.; Nislow, Corey; Templeton, Jillian; Blackall, Patrick J.; Rajashekara, Gireesh

    2016-01-01

    Campylobacter is a leading cause of foodborne bacterial gastroenteritis worldwide and infections can be fatal. The emergence of antibiotic-resistant Campylobacter spp. necessitates the development of new antimicrobials. We identified novel anti-Campylobacter small molecule inhibitors using a high throughput growth inhibition assay. To expedite screening, we made use of a “bioactive” library of 4182 compounds that we have previously shown to be active against diverse microbes. Screening for growth inhibition of Campylobacter jejuni, identified 781 compounds that were either bactericidal or bacteriostatic at a concentration of 200 μM. Seventy nine of the bactericidal compounds were prioritized for secondary screening based on their physico-chemical properties. Based on the minimum inhibitory concentration against a diverse range of C. jejuni and a lack of effect on gut microbes, we selected 12 compounds. No resistance was observed to any of these 12 lead compounds when C. jejuni was cultured with lethal or sub-lethal concentrations suggesting that C. jejuni is less likely to develop resistance to these compounds. Top 12 compounds also possessed low cytotoxicity to human intestinal epithelial cells (Caco-2 cells) and no hemolytic activity against sheep red blood cells. Next, these 12 compounds were evaluated for ability to clear C. jejuni in vitro. A total of 10 compounds had an anti-C. jejuni effect in Caco-2 cells with some effective even at 25 μM concentrations. These novel 12 compounds belong to five established antimicrobial chemical classes; piperazines, aryl amines, piperidines, sulfonamide, and pyridazinone. Exploitation of analogs of these chemical classes may provide Campylobacter specific drugs that can be applied in both human and animal medicine. PMID:27092106

  2. The synthesis of magnetic lysozyme-imprinted polymers by means of distillation-precipitation polymerization for selective protein enrichment.

    PubMed

    Cao, Jiali; Zhang, Xihao; He, Xiwen; Chen, Langxing; Zhang, Yukui

    2014-02-01

    A protein imprinting approach for the synthesis of core-shell structure nanoparticles with a magnetic core and molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) shell was developed using a simple distillation-precipitation polymerization method. In this work, Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticles were first synthesized through a solvothermal method and then were conveniently surface-modified with 3-(methacryloyloxy)propyltrimethoxylsilane as anchor molecules to donate vinyl groups. Next a high-density MIP shell was coated onto the surface of the magnetic nanoparticles by the copolymerization of functional monomer acrylamide (AAm), cross-linking agent N,N'-methylenebisacrylamide (MBA), the initiator azodiisobutyronitrile (AIBN), and protein in acetonitrile heated at reflux. The morphology, adsorption, and recognition properties of the magnetic molecularly imprinted nanoparticles were investigated by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM), and rebinding experiments. The resulting MIP showed a high adsorption capacity (104.8 mg g(-1)) and specific recognition (imprinting factor=7.6) to lysozyme (Lyz). The as-prepared Fe3O4@Lyz-MIP nanoparticles with a mean diameter of 320 nm were coated with an MIP shell that was 20 nm thick, which enabled Fe3O4@Lyz-MIP to easily reach adsorption equilibrium. The high magnetization saturation (40.35 emu g(-1)) endows the materials with the convenience of magnetic separation under an external magnetic field and allows them to be subsequently reused. Furthermore, Fe3O4@Lyz-MIP could selectively extract a target protein from real egg-white samples under an external magnetic field.

  3. Novel Anti-Campylobacter Compounds Identified Using High Throughput Screening of a Pre-selected Enriched Small Molecules Library.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Anand; Drozd, Mary; Pina-Mimbela, Ruby; Xu, Xiulan; Helmy, Yosra A; Antwi, Janet; Fuchs, James R; Nislow, Corey; Templeton, Jillian; Blackall, Patrick J; Rajashekara, Gireesh

    2016-01-01

    Campylobacter is a leading cause of foodborne bacterial gastroenteritis worldwide and infections can be fatal. The emergence of antibiotic-resistant Campylobacter spp. necessitates the development of new antimicrobials. We identified novel anti-Campylobacter small molecule inhibitors using a high throughput growth inhibition assay. To expedite screening, we made use of a "bioactive" library of 4182 compounds that we have previously shown to be active against diverse microbes. Screening for growth inhibition of Campylobacter jejuni, identified 781 compounds that were either bactericidal or bacteriostatic at a concentration of 200 μM. Seventy nine of the bactericidal compounds were prioritized for secondary screening based on their physico-chemical properties. Based on the minimum inhibitory concentration against a diverse range of C. jejuni and a lack of effect on gut microbes, we selected 12 compounds. No resistance was observed to any of these 12 lead compounds when C. jejuni was cultured with lethal or sub-lethal concentrations suggesting that C. jejuni is less likely to develop resistance to these compounds. Top 12 compounds also possessed low cytotoxicity to human intestinal epithelial cells (Caco-2 cells) and no hemolytic activity against sheep red blood cells. Next, these 12 compounds were evaluated for ability to clear C. jejuni in vitro. A total of 10 compounds had an anti-C. jejuni effect in Caco-2 cells with some effective even at 25 μM concentrations. These novel 12 compounds belong to five established antimicrobial chemical classes; piperazines, aryl amines, piperidines, sulfonamide, and pyridazinone. Exploitation of analogs of these chemical classes may provide Campylobacter specific drugs that can be applied in both human and animal medicine.

  4. White bread enriched with polyphenol extracts shows no effect on glycemic response or satiety, yet may increase postprandial insulin economy in healthy participants.

    PubMed

    Coe, Shelly; Ryan, Lisa

    2016-02-01

    Extracts from different plant sources have been shown to modify starch digestion from carbohydrate-rich foods and lower resulting glycemia. It was hypothesized that extracts rich in polyphenols, added to white bread, would improve the glycemic response and insulin response and increase satiety in healthy participants. An in vitro dose-response analysis was performed to determine the optimal dose of a variety of extracts (baobab fruit extract, green tea extract, grape seed extract, and resveratrol) for reducing rapidly digestible starch in white bread. The 2 extracts with the greatest sugar reducing potential were then used for the human study in which 13 volunteers (9 female and 4 male) were recruited for a crossover trial of 3 different meals. On separate days, participants consumed a control white bread, white bread with green tea extract (0.4%), and white bread with baobab fruit extract (1.88%). Glycemic response, insulin response, and satiety were measured 3 hours postprandially. Although enriched breads did not reduce glycemic response or hunger, white bread with added baobab fruit extract significantly (P < .05) reduced the total (0-180 minutes) and segmental insulin area under the curve at 0 to 90, 0 to 120, and 0 to 150 minutes, and therefore reduced the amount of insulin needed for a given blood glucose response. This preliminary research suggests that there is potential for baobab fruit extract added into white bread to improve insulin economy in healthy adults. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Nutrient enrichment is associated with altered nectar and pollen chemical composition in Succisa pratensis Moench and increased larval mortality of its pollinator Bombus terrestris L.

    PubMed

    Ceulemans, Tobias; Hulsmans, Eva; Vanden Ende, Wim; Honnay, Olivier

    2017-01-01

    Pollinators are declining worldwide and possible underlying causes include disease, invasive pest species and large scale land use changes resulting in habitat loss and degradation. One particular cause of habitat degradation is the increased inflow of nutrients due to anthropogenic combustion processes and large scale application of agricultural fertilizers. This nutrient pollution has been shown to affect pollinators through the loss of nectar and pollen-providing plant species. However, it may also affect pollinators through altering the nectar and pollen chemical composition of plant species, hence influencing pollinator food quality. Here, we experimentally investigated the effect of nutrient enrichment on amino acid and sugar composition of nectar and pollen in the grassland plant Sucissa pratensis, and the subsequent colony size and larval mortality of the pollinating bumblebee Bombus terrestris. We found less of the essential amino acids glycine and arginine in the pollen of fertilized plants, and more arginine, ornithine and threonine in the pollen of control plants. Nectar glucose and pollen fructose levels were lower in fertilized plants as compared to control plants. Furthermore, bumblebee colonies visiting fertilized plants showed more dead larvae than colonies visiting control plants. Our results suggest that the fitness of bumblebees can be negatively affected by changes in their food quality following nutrient pollution. If similar patterns hold for other plant and pollinator species, this may have far reaching implications for the maintenance of pollination ecosystem services, as nutrient pollution continues to rise worldwide.

  6. Balanced increases in selectivity and tolerance produce constant sparseness along the ventral visual stream

    PubMed Central

    Rust, Nicole C.; DiCarlo, James J.

    2012-01-01

    While popular accounts suggest that neurons along the ventral visual processing stream become increasingly selective for particular objects, this appears at odds with the fact that inferior temporal cortical (IT) neurons are broadly tuned. To explore this apparent contradiction, we compared processing in two ventral stream stages (V4 and IT) in the rhesus macaque monkey. We confirmed that IT neurons are indeed more selective for conjunctions of visual features than V4 neurons, and that this increase in feature conjunction selectivity is accompanied by an increase in tolerance (“invariance”) to identity-preserving transformations (e.g. shifting, scaling) of those features. We report here that V4 and IT neurons are, on average, tightly matched in their tuning breadth for natural images (“sparseness”), and that the average V4 or IT neuron will produce a robust firing rate response (over 50% of its peak observed firing rate) to ~10% of all natural images. We also observed that sparseness was positively correlated with conjunction selectivity and negatively correlated with tolerance within both V4 and IT, consistent with selectivity-building and invariance-building computations that offset one another to produce sparseness. Our results imply that the conjunction-selectivity-building and invariance-building computations necessary to support object recognition are implemented in a balanced fashion to maintain sparseness at each stage of processing. PMID:22836252

  7. Sexual selection in true fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae): transcriptome and experimental evidences for phytochemicals increasing male competitive ability.

    PubMed

    Kumaran, Nagalingam; Prentis, Peter J; Mangalam, Kalimuthu P; Schutze, Mark K; Clarke, Anthony R

    2014-09-01

    In male tephritid fruit flies of the genus Bactrocera, feeding on secondary plant compounds (sensu lato male lures = methyl eugenol, raspberry ketone and zingerone) increases male mating success. Ingested male lures alter the male pheromonal blend, normally making it more attractive to females and this is considered the primary mechanism for the enhanced mating success. However, the male lures raspberry ketone and zingerone are known, across a diverse range of other organisms, to be involved in increasing energy metabolism. If this also occurs in Bactrocera, then this may represent an additional benefit to males as courtship is metabolically expensive and lure feeding may increase a fly's short-term energy. We tested this hypothesis by performing comparative RNA-seq analysis between zingerone-fed and unfed males of Bactrocera tryoni. We also carried out behavioural assays with zingerone- and cuelure-fed males to test whether they became more active. RNA-seq analysis revealed, in zingerone-fed flies, up-regulation of 3183 genes with homologues transcripts to those known to regulate intermale aggression, pheromone synthesis, mating and accessory gland proteins, along with significant enrichment of several energy metabolic pathways and gene ontology terms. Behavioural assays show significant increases in locomotor activity, weight reduction and successful mating after mounting; all direct/indirect measures of increased activity. These results suggest that feeding on lures leads to complex physiological changes, which result in more competitive males. These results do not negate the pheromone effect, but do strongly suggest that the phytochemical-induced sexual selection is governed by both female preference and male competitive mechanisms. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Resistance to Increasing Chemical Classes of Fungicides by Virtue of "Selection by Association" in Botrytis cinerea.

    PubMed

    Hu, Meng-Jun; Cox, Kerik D; Schnabel, Guido

    2016-12-01

    Previous research has shown that Botrytis cinerea isolates with resistance to multiple chemical classes of fungicides exist in eastern strawberry fields. In this study, the fungicide resistance profiles of 2,130 isolates from flowers of commercial strawberry fields located in multiple states was determined over four consecutive strawberry production seasons. Producers were asked to alternate single-site fungicides that were considered low risk in their specific location based on resistance monitoring results in their fields. This recommendation led to an increase of chemical class diversity used in the spray programs. Results indicated that simultaneous resistance in individual isolates to two, three, four, five, six, and seven classes of fungicides increased over time. The increase in chemical class resistances within isolates was likely due to a process we termed "selection by association", where fungicide resistance traits were often linked to the trait being selected rather than the selectable trait itself. Data analysis also indicated that the odds were highest for isolates resistant to one chemical class (1CCR) to be resistant to thiophanate-methyl; for 2CCR isolates to be resistant to thiophanate-methyl and pyraclostrobin; and for 3CCR isolates to be resistant to thiophanate-methyl, pyraclostrobin, and either cyprodinil or fenhexamid. We hypothesize that the more chemical classes are used in a spray program, the faster isolates will be selected with increasing numbers of chemical class resistances by virtue of selection by association if such isolates preexist in the population.

  9. Project ENRICH.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gwaley, Elizabeth; And Others

    Project ENRICH was conceived in Beaver County, Pennsylvania, to: (1) identify preschool children with learning disabilities, and (2) to develop a program geared to the remediation of the learning disabilities within a school year, while allowing the child to be enrolled in a regular class situation for the following school year. Through…

  10. Job Enrichment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanders, Rick

    1970-01-01

    Job enrichment means giving people more decision-making power, more responsibility, more grasp of the totality of the job, and a sense of their own importance in the company. This article presents evidence of the successful working of this approach (Donnelly Mirrors), and the lack of success with an opposing approach (General Motors). (NL)

  11. Status of gadolinium enrichment technology at LLNL

    SciTech Connect

    Haynam, C.; Comaskey, B.; Conway, J.; Eggert, J.; Glaser, J.; Ng, E.; Paisner, J.; Solarz, R.; Worden, E.

    1993-01-01

    A method based on,polarization selectivity and three step laser photoionization is presented for separation of the odd isotopes of gadolinium. Measurements of the spectroscopic parameters needed to quantify the excitation pathway are discussed. Model results are presented for the efficiency of photoionization. The vapor properties of electron beam vaporized gadolinium are presented which show dramatic cooling during the expansion of the hot dense vapor into a vacuum. This results in a significant increase in the efficiency of conversion of natural feed into enriched product in the AVLIS process. Production of enriched gadolinium for use in commercial power reactors appears to be economically viable using technology in use at LLNL.

  12. Rapid selection of organisms with increasing resistance on subinhibitory concentrations of norfloxacin in agar.

    PubMed Central

    Tenney, J H; Maack, R W; Chippendale, G R

    1983-01-01

    Serial passage of Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853 or Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 on agar with subinhibitory concentrations of norfloxacin rapidly produced isolates with minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of norfloxacin up to 512-fold higher than that for the original strain. Although MICs of seven unrelated antibiotics were unchanged, increasing MICs occurred in parallel with norfloxacin, cinoxacin, and nalidixic acid regardless of which of these three organic acids was used to select for increased resistance. P. aeruginosa with a norfloxacin MIC of greater than 256 micrograms/ml could be selected; however, E. coli with MICs greater than the clinically achievable level of 16 micrograms/ml could not be produced. PMID:6219620

  13. High fat diet enriched with saturated, but not monounsaturated fatty acids adversely affects femur, and both diets increase calcium absorption in older female mice.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yang; Dellatore, Peter; Douard, Veronique; Qin, Ling; Watford, Malcolm; Ferraris, Ronaldo P; Lin, Tiao; Shapses, Sue A

    2016-07-01

    Diet induced obesity has been shown to reduce bone mineral density (BMD) and Ca absorption. However, previous experiments have not examined the effect of high fat diet (HFD) in the absence of obesity or addressed the type of dietary fatty acids. The primary objective of this study was to determine the effects of different types of high fat feeding, without obesity, on fractional calcium absorption (FCA) and bone health. It was hypothesized that dietary fat would increase FCA and reduce BMD. Mature 8-month-old female C57BL/6J mice were fed one of three diets: a HFD (45% fat) enriched either with monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs) or with saturated fatty acids (SFAs), and a normal fat diet (NFD; 10% fat). Food consumption was controlled to achieve a similar body weight gain in all groups. After 8wk, total body bone mineral content and BMD as well as femur total and cortical volumetric BMD were lower in SFA compared with NFD groups (P<.05). In contrast, femoral trabecular bone was not affected by the SFAs, whereas MUFAs increased trabecular volume fraction and thickness. The rise over time in FCA was greater in mice fed HFD than NFD and final FCA was higher with HFD (P<.05). Intestinal calbindin-D9k gene and hepatic cytochrome P450 2r1 protein levels were higher with the MUFA than the NFD diet (P<.05). In conclusion, HFDs elevated FCA overtime; however, an adverse effect of HFD on bone was only observed in the SFA group, while MUFAs show neutral or beneficial effects.

  14. Fabrication of boronate-decorated polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxanes grafted cotton fiber for the selective enrichment of nucleosides in urine.

    PubMed

    Gao, Li; Wei, Yinmao

    2016-06-01

    Various cotton fiber based boronate-affinity adsorbents are recently developed for the sample pretreatment of cis-diol-containing biomolecules, but most do not have efficient capacity due to limited binding sites on the surface of cotton fibers. To increase the density of boronate groups on the surface of cotton fiber, polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxanes were used to modify cotton fiber to provide plentiful reactive sites for subsequent functionalization with 4-formylphenylboronic acid. The new adsorbent showed special recognition ability towards cis-diols and high adsorption capacity (175 μg/g for catechol, 250 μg/g for dopamine, 400 μg/g for adenosine). The in-pipette-tip solid-phase extraction was investigated under different conditions, including pH and ionic strength of solution, adsorbent amount, pipette times, washing solvent, and elution solvent. The in-pipette-tip solid-phase extraction coupled with high-performance liquid chromatography was used to analyze four nucleosides in urine samples. Under the optimal extraction conditions, the detection limits were determined to be between 5.1 and 6.1 ng/mL (S/N  =  3), and the linearity ranged from 20 to 500 ng/mL for these analytes. The accuracy of the analytical method was examined by studying the relative recoveries of analytes in real urine samples with recoveries varying from 83 to 104% (RSD = 3.9-10.2%, n = 3).

  15. Effect of almond-enriched high-monounsaturated fat diet on selected markers of inflammation: a randomised, controlled, crossover study.

    PubMed

    Rajaram, Sujatha; Connell, Kristianne M; Sabaté, Joan

    2010-03-01

    Frequent consumption of nuts lowers the risk of CHD. While lowering blood lipids is one of the mechanisms for cardioprotection, the present study sought to determine whether monounsaturated fat-rich almonds also influence other CHD risk factors such as inflammation and haemostasis. This was a randomised, controlled, crossover feeding study with twenty-five healthy adults (eleven men; fourteen women), age 22-53 years. Following a 2 week run-in phase (34 % energy from fat), subjects were assigned in random order to three diets for 4 weeks each: a heart-healthy control diet with no nuts ( < 30 % energy from fat), low-almond diet and high-almond diet (10 % or 20 % isoenergetic replacement of control diet with almonds, respectively). Serum E-selectin was significantly lower on the high-almond diet compared with the control diet. E-selectin decreased as the percentage of energy from almonds increased (P < 0.0001). C-reactive protein (CRP) was lower in both the almond diets compared with the control diet. A clear dose response was not observed for either E-selectin or CRP. There was no effect of diet on IL-6 or fibrinogen. Tissue plasminogen activator antigen was significantly lower on the control and high-almond diets compared with the low-almond diet, although the values were within normal range. In conclusion, consumption of almonds influenced a few but not all of the markers of inflammation and haemostasis. A clear dose response was not observed for any of the markers studied.

  16. Strong pollinator-mediated selection for increased flower brightness and contrast in a deceptive orchid.

    PubMed

    Sletvold, Nina; Trunschke, Judith; Smit, Mart; Verbeek, Jeffrey; Ågren, Jon

    2016-03-01

    Contrasting flower color patterns that putatively attract or direct pollinators toward a reward are common among angiosperms. In the deceptive orchid Anacamptis morio, the lower petal, which makes up most of the floral display, has a light central patch with dark markings. Within populations, there is pronounced variation in petal brightness, patch size, amount of dark markings, and contrast between patch and petal margin. We tested whether pollinators mediate selection on these color traits and on morphology (plant height, number of flowers, corolla size, spur length), and whether selection is consistent with facilitated or negative frequency-dependent pollination. Pollinators mediated strong selection for increased petal brightness (Δβpoll = 0.42) and contrast (Δβpoll = 0.51). Pollinators also tended to mediate stabilizing selection on brightness (Δγpoll = -0.27, n.s.) favoring the most common phenotype in the population. Selection for reduced petal brightness among hand-pollinated plants indicated a fitness cost associated with brightness. The results demonstrate that flower color traits influence pollination success and seed production in A. morio, indicating that they affect attractiveness to pollinators, efficiency of pollen transfer, or both. The documented selection is consistent with facilitated pollination and selection for color convergence toward cooccurring rewarding species.

  17. As fast and selective as enzymatic ligations: unpaired nucleobases increase the selectivity of DNA-controlled native chemical PNA ligation.

    PubMed

    Ficht, Simon; Dose, Christian; Seitz, Oliver

    2005-11-01

    DNA-controlled reactions offer interesting opportunities in biological, chemical, and nanosciences. In practical applications, such as in DNA sequence analysis, the sequence fidelity of the chemical-ligation reaction is of central importance. We present a ligation reaction that is as fast as and much more selective than enzymatic T4 ligase-mediated oligonucleotide ligations. The selectivity was higher than 3000-fold in discriminating matched from singly mismatched DNA templates. It is demonstrated that this enormous selectivity is the hallmark of the particular ligation architecture, which is distinct from previous ligation architectures designed as "nick ligations". Interestingly, the fidelity of the native chemical ligation of peptide nucleic acids was increased by more than one order of magnitude when performing the ligation in such a way that an abasic-site mimic was formed opposite an unpaired template base. It is shown that the high sequence fidelity of the abasic ligation could facilitate the MALDI-TOF mass-spectrometric analysis of early cancer onset by allowing the detection of as little as 0.2 % of single-base mutant DNA in the presence of 99.8 % wild-type DNA.

  18. Selenium-enriched Agaricus bisporus mushroom protects against increase in gut permeability ex vivo and up-regulates glutathione peroxidase 1 and 2 in hyperthermally-induced oxidative stress in rats.

    PubMed

    Maseko, Tebo; Dunshea, Frank Rowland; Howell, Kate; Cho, Hyun-Jung; Rivera, Leni Rose; Furness, John Barton; Ng, Ken

    2014-06-24

    Dietary effects of organic Se supplementation in the form of Se-enriched Agaricus bisporus mushroom on ileal mucosal permeability and antioxidant selenoenzymes status in heat induced oxidative stress in rats were evaluated. Acute heat stress (40 °C, 21% relative humidity, 90 min exposure) increased ileum baseline short circuit current (Isc; 2.40-fold) and epithelial conductance (Ge; 2.74-fold). Dietary supplementation with Se-enriched A. bisporus (1 µg Se/g feed) reduced (p < 0.05) ileum Isc and Ge during heat stress to 1.74 and 1.91 fold, respectively, indicating protection from heat stress-induced mucosal permeability increase. The expression of ileum glutathione peroxidase (GPx-) 1 and 2 mRNAs were up-regulated (p < 0.05) by 1.90 and 1.87-fold, respectively, for non-heat stress rats on the Se-enriched diet relative to the control. The interplay between heat stress and dietary Se is complex. For rats on the control diet, heat stress alone increased ileum expression of GPx-1 (2.33-fold) and GPx-2 (2.23-fold) relative to thermoneutral conditions. For rats on the Se-enriched diet, heat stress increased (p < 0.05) GPx-1 expression only. Rats on Se-enriched + α-tocopherol diet exhibited increased expression of both genes (p < 0.05). Thus, dietary Se-enriched A. bisporus protected against increase in ileum permeability and up-regulated GPx-1 and GPx-2 expression, selenoenzymes relevant to mitigating oxidative stress.

  19. Biohydrogen production from chemical wastewater treatment in biofilm configured reactor operated in periodic discontinuous batch mode by selectively enriched anaerobic mixed consortia.

    PubMed

    Venkata Mohan, S; Vijaya Bhaskar, Y; Sarma, P N

    2007-06-01

    Molecular hydrogen (H(2)) production with simultaneous wastewater treatment was studied in biofilm configured periodic discontinuous/sequencing batch reactor using chemical wastewater as substrate. Anaerobic mixed consortia was sequentially pretreated with repeated heat-shock (100 degrees C; 2 h) and acid (pH-3.0; 24 h) treatment procedures to selectively enrich the H(2) producing mixed consortia prior to inoculation of the reactor. The bioreactor was operated at mesophilic (room) temperature (28+/-2 degrees C) under acidophilic conditions with a total cycle period of 24 h consisting of FILL (15 min), REACT (23 h), SETTLE (30 min) and DECANT (15 min) phases. Reactor was initially operated with synthetic wastewater (SW) at OLR of 4.8 kg COD/m(3)-day and subsequently operated using composite chemical wastewater (CW) at OLR of 5.6 kg COD/m(3)-day by adjusting pH to 6.0 prior to feeding to inhibit the methanogenic activity. H(2) evolution rate differed significantly with the nature of wastewater used as substrate [SW--volumetric H(2) production rate--12.89 mmol H(2)/m(3)-min and specific H(2) production rate--0.0084 mmol H(2)/min-g COD(L) (0.026 mmol H(2)/min-g COD(R)); CW--volumetric H(2) production rate--6.076 mmol H(2)/m(3)-min and specific H(2) production rate--0.0089 mmol H(2)/min-g COD(L) (0.033 mmol H(2)/min-g COD(R))]. Relatively rapid progress towards higher H(2) yield (2 h) was observed with SW compared to the CW (10 h). Substrate (COD) reduction of 32.4% (substrate degradation rate (SDR)--1.55 kg COD/m(3)-day) and 26.7% (SDR-1.49 kg COD/m(3)-day) was observed with SW and CW, respectively. The system showed rapid stabilization tendency (SW--37 days; CW--40 days) with respect to H(2) generation and COD reduction. H(2) evolution showed relatively good correlation with VFA concentration in the case of SW (R(2)-0.961) compared to CW (R(2)-0.912). A surge in pH values from 5.87 to 4.23 (SW) and 5.93 to 4.62 (CW) was observed during the cycle operation. Integration

  20. Limb contribution to increased self-selected walking speeds during body weight support in individuals poststroke

    PubMed Central

    Hurt, Christopher P.; Burgess, Jamie K.; Brown, David A.

    2015-01-01

    Individuals poststroke walk at faster self-selected speeds under some nominal level of body weight support (BWS) whereas nonimpaired individuals walk slower after adding BWS. The purpose of this study was to determine whether increases in self-selected overground walking speed under BWS conditions of individuals poststroke can be explained by changes in their paretic and nonparetic ground reaction forces (GRF). We hypothesize that increased self-selected walking speed, recorded at some nominal level of BWS, will relate to decreased braking GRFs by the paretic limb. We recruited ten chronic (>12 months post-ictus, 57.5±9.6 y.o.) individuals poststroke and eleven nonimpaired participants (53.3±4.1 y.o.). Participants walked overground in a robotic device, the KineAssist Walking and Balance Training System that provided varying degrees of BWS (0–20% in 5% increments) while individuals self-selected their walking speed. Self-selected walking speed and braking and propulsive GRF impulses were quantified. Out of ten poststroke individuals, eight increased their walking speed 13% (p=0.004) under some level of BWS (5% n=2, 10% n=3, 20% n=3) whereas nonimpaired controls did not change speed (p=0.470). In individuals poststroke, changes to self-selected walking speed were correlated with changes in paretic propulsive impulses (r=0.68, p=0.003) and nonparetic braking impulses (r=−0.80, p=0.006), but were not correlated with decreased paretic braking impulses (r=0.50 p=0.14). This investigation demonstrates that when individuals poststroke are provided with BWS and allowed to self-select their overground walking speed, they are capable of achieving faster speeds by modulating braking impulses on the nonparetic limb and propulsive impulses of the paretic limb. PMID:25770079

  1. Limb contribution to increased self-selected walking speeds during body weight support in individuals poststroke.

    PubMed

    Hurt, Christopher P; Burgess, Jamie K; Brown, David A

    2015-03-01

    Individuals poststroke walk at faster self-selected speeds under some nominal level of body weight support (BWS) whereas nonimpaired individuals walk slower after adding BWS. The purpose of this study was to determine whether increases in self-selected overground walking speed under BWS conditions of individuals poststroke can be explained by changes in their paretic and nonparetic ground reaction forces (GRF). We hypothesize that increased self-selected walking speed, recorded at some nominal level of BWS, will relate to decreased braking GRFs by the paretic limb. We recruited 10 chronic (>12 months post-ictus, 57.5±9.6 y.o.) individuals poststroke and eleven nonimpaired participants (53.3±4.1 y.o.). Participants walked overground in a robotic device, the KineAssist Walking and Balance Training System that provided varying degrees of BWS (0-20% in 5% increments) while individuals self-selected their walking speed. Self-selected walking speed and braking and propulsive GRF impulses were quantified. Out of 10 poststroke individuals, 8 increased their walking speed 13% (p=0.004) under some level of BWS (5% n=2, 10% n=3, 20% n=3) whereas nonimpaired controls did not change speed (p=0.470). In individuals poststroke, changes to self-selected walking speed were correlated with changes in paretic propulsive impulses (r=0.68, p=0.003) and nonparetic braking impulses (r=-0.80, p=0.006), but were not correlated with decreased paretic braking impulses (r=0.50 p=0.14). This investigation demonstrates that when individuals poststroke are provided with BWS and allowed to self-select their overground walking speed, they are capable of achieving faster speeds by modulating braking impulses on the nonparetic limb and propulsive impulses of the paretic limb.

  2. Feeding a DHA-enriched diet increases skeletal muscle protein synthesis in growing pigs: association with increased skeletal muscle insulin action and local mRNA expression of insulin-like growth factor 1.

    PubMed

    Wei, Hong-Kui; Zhou, Yuanfei; Jiang, Shuzhong; Tao, Ya-Xiong; Sun, Haiqing; Peng, Jian; Jiang, Siwen

    2013-08-01

    Dietary n-3 PUFA have been demonstrated to promote muscle growth in growing animals. In the present study, fractional protein synthesis rates (FSR) in the skeletal muscle of growing pigs fed a DHA-enriched (DE) diet (DE treatment) or a soyabean oil (SO) diet (SO treatment) were evaluated in the fed and feed-deprived states. Feeding-induced increases in muscle FSR, as well as the activation of the mammalian target of rapamycin and protein kinase B, were higher in the DE treatment as indicated by the positive interaction between diet and feeding. In the fed state, the activation of eIF4E-binding protein 1 in the skeletal muscle of pigs on the DE diet was higher than that in pigs on the SO diet (P<0·05). Feeding the DE diet increased muscle insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) expression (P<0·05) and insulin action (as demonstrated by increased insulin receptor (IR) phosphorylation, P<0·05), resulting in increased IR substrate 1 activation in the fed state. However, no difference in plasma IGF-1 concentration or hepatic IGF-1 expression between the two treatments was associated. The increased IGF-1 expression in the DE treatment was associated with increased mRNA expression of the signal transducer and activator of transcription 5A and decreased mRNA expression of protein tyrosine phosphatase, non-receptor type 3 in skeletal muscle. Moreover, mRNA expression of protein tyrosine phosphatase, non-receptor type 1 (PTPN1), the activation of PTPN1 and the activation of NF-κB in muscle were significantly lower in the DE treatment (P<0·05). The results of the present study suggest that feeding a DE diet increased feeding-induced muscle protein synthesis in growing pigs, and muscle IGF-1 expression and insulin action were involved in this action.

  3. Work Enrichment for Academic Libraries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martell, Charles; Untawale, Mercedes

    1983-01-01

    Explores important quality of work life strategy--job redesign--and discusses job enlargement and job enrichment. A case study of academic library personnel demonstrates how introduction of automated systems at University of California, Berkeley led to restructuring and enrichment of jobs. References and list of selected resources are appended.…

  4. Plant mortality and natural selection may increase biomass yield in switchgrass swards

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) is an important candidate for bioenergy feedstock production, prompting significant efforts to increase the number of breeding programs and the output of those programs. The objective of this experiment was to determine the potential utility of natural selection for...

  5. Field emergence and plant density of sand bluestem lines selected for increased seed germination.

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Sand bluestem (Andropogon hallii Hack.) populations AB-medium Syn-1 and Syn-2, and CD-tall Syn-1 and Syn-2 were developed from populations AB-medium Syn-0 and CD-tall Syn-0 by recurrent selection for increased seed germination in low water potentials. The objective of this research was to verify if...

  6. Great Basin Native Plant Selection and Increase Project: 2012 progress report

    Treesearch

    Nancy Shaw; Mike Pellant

    2013-01-01

    The Interagency Native Plant Materials Development Program outlined in the 2002 USDA and USDI Report to Congress, USDI Bureau of Land Management programs and policies, and the Great Basin Restoration Initiative encourage the use of native species for rangeland rehabilitation and restoration where feasible. The Great Basin Native Plant Selection and Increase Project was...

  7. Does Tasting Local Sweet Potatoes Increase the Likelihood of Selection by High School Students?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bristow, Kelly; Jenkins, Steven; Kelly, Patrick; Mattfeldt-Beman, Mildred

    2017-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives: Schools are offering more fruits and vegetables; yet consumption of fruits and vegetables among adolescents remains low. Many schools are implementing Farm-to-School programs to help generate excitement and increase selection of fruits and vegetables by students. The purpose of this research was to determine if a simple tasting…

  8. Methylphenidate Increases Selectivity of Visual Scanning in Children Referred for Hyperactivity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flintoff, Margaret M.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Visual scanning patterns were investigated in 32 children (mean age 9.8 years) referred for hyperactivity in a double blind crossover comparison of methylphenidate and placebo treatments. Results suggested that the stimulant drug may increase attentional selectivity even when such a shift fails to produce improvement in task performance. (Author)

  9. Laboratory selection for increased longevity in Drosophila melanogaster reduces field performance.

    PubMed

    Wit, Janneke; Kristensen, Torsten Nygaard; Sarup, Pernille; Frydenberg, Jane; Loeschcke, Volker

    2013-11-01

    Drosophila melanogaster is frequently used in ageing studies to elucidate which mechanisms determine the onset and progress of senescence. Lines selected for increased longevity have often been shown to perform as well as or superior to control lines in life history, stress resistance and behavioural traits when tested in the laboratory. Functional senescence in longevity selected lines has also been shown to occur at a slower rate. However, it is known that performance in a controlled laboratory setting is not necessarily representative of performance in nature. In this study the effect of ageing, environmental temperature and longevity selection on performance in the field was tested. Flies from longevity selected and control lines of different ages (2, 5, 10 and 15 days) were released in an environment free of natural food sources. Control flies were tested at low, intermediate and high temperatures, while longevity selected flies were tested at the intermediate temperature only. The ability of flies to locate and reach a food source was tested. Flies of intermediate age were generally better at locating resources than both younger and older flies, where hot and cold environments accelerate the senescent decline in performance. Control lines were better able to locate a resource compared to longevity selected lines of the same age, suggesting that longevity comes at a cost in early life field fitness, supporting the antagonistic pleiotropy theory of ageing.

  10. Down-regulation of BDNF in cell and animal models increases striatal-enriched protein tyrosine phosphatase 61 (STEP61 ) levels.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jian; Kurup, Pradeep; Azkona, Garikoitz; Baguley, Tyler D; Saavedra, Ana; Nairn, Angus C; Ellman, Jonathan A; Pérez-Navarro, Esther; Lombroso, Paul J

    2016-01-01

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) regulates synaptic strengthening and memory consolidation, and altered BDNF expression is implicated in a number of neuropsychiatric and neurodegenerative disorders. BDNF potentiates N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor function through activation of Fyn and ERK1/2. STriatal-Enriched protein tyrosine Phosphatase (STEP) is also implicated in many of the same disorders as BDNF but, in contrast to BDNF, STEP opposes the development of synaptic strengthening. STEP-mediated dephosphorylation of the NMDA receptor subunit GluN2B promotes internalization of GluN2B-containing NMDA receptors, while dephosphorylation of the kinases Fyn, Pyk2, and ERK1/2 leads to their inactivation. Thus, STEP and BDNF have opposing functions. In this study, we demonstrate that manipulation of BDNF expression has a reciprocal effect on STEP61 levels. Reduced BDNF signaling leads to elevation of STEP61 both in BDNF(+/-) mice and after acute BDNF knockdown in cortical cultures. Moreover, a newly identified STEP inhibitor reverses the biochemical and motor abnormalities in BDNF(+/-) mice. In contrast, increased BDNF signaling upon treatment with a tropomyosin receptor kinase B agonist results in degradation of STEP61 and a subsequent increase in the tyrosine phosphorylation of STEP substrates in cultured neurons and in mouse frontal cortex. These findings indicate that BDNF-tropomyosin receptor kinase B signaling leads to degradation of STEP61 , while decreased BDNF expression results in increased STEP61 activity. A better understanding of the opposing interaction between STEP and BDNF in normal cognitive functions and in neuropsychiatric disorders will hopefully lead to better therapeutic strategies. Altered expression of BDNF and STEP61 has been implicated in several neurological disorders. BDNF and STEP61 are known to regulate synaptic strengthening, but in opposite directions. Here, we report that reduced BDNF signaling leads to elevation of STEP61 both in

  11. Dehydration increases the magnitude of selective brain cooling independently of core temperature in sheep.

    PubMed

    Fuller, Andrea; Meyer, Leith C R; Mitchell, Duncan; Maloney, Shane K

    2007-07-01

    By cooling the hypothalamus during hyperthermia, selective brain cooling reduces the drive on evaporative heat loss effectors, in so doing saving body water. To investigate whether selective brain cooling was increased in dehydrated sheep, we measured brain and carotid arterial blood temperatures at 5-min intervals in nine female Dorper sheep (41 +/- 3 kg, means +/- SD). The animals, housed in a climatic chamber at 23 degrees C, were exposed for nine days to a cyclic protocol with daytime heat (40 degrees C for 6 h). Drinking water was removed on the 3rd day and returned 5 days later. After 4 days of water deprivation, sheep had lost 16 +/- 4% of body mass, and plasma osmolality had increased from 290 +/- 8 to 323 +/- 9 mmol/kg (P < 0.0001). Although carotid blood temperature increased during heat exposure to similar levels during euhydration and dehydration, selective brain cooling was significantly greater in dehydration (0.38 +/- 0.18 degrees C) than in euhydration (-0.05 +/- 0.14 degrees C, P = 0.0008). The threshold temperature for selective brain cooling was not significantly different during euhydration (39.27 degrees C) and dehydration (39.14 degrees C, P = 0.62). However, the mean slope of lines of regression of brain temperature on carotid blood temperature above the threshold was significantly lower in dehydrated animals (0.40 +/- 0.31) than in euhydrated animals (0.87 +/- 0.11, P = 0.003). Return of drinking water at 39 degrees C led to rapid cessation of selective brain cooling, and brain temperature exceeded carotid blood temperature throughout heat exposure on the following day. We conclude that for any given carotid blood temperature, dehydrated sheep exposed to heat exhibit selective brain cooling up to threefold greater than that when euhydrated.

  12. Impact of Supplemental Site Grants to Increase African-American Accrual for SELECT

    PubMed Central

    Cook, Elise D.; Arnold, Kathryn B.; Hermos, John A.; McCaskill-Stevens, Worta; Moody-Thomas, Sarah; Probstfield, Jeffrey L.; Hamilton, Sandra J.; Campbell, Russell D.; Anderson, Karen B.; Minasian, Lori M.

    2014-01-01

    Background Low rates of minority recruitment in prevention studies may reduce the generalizability of study results to minority populations, including African Americans. High African American accrual to prevention studies requires additional resources and focused efforts. Objective To analyze the impact of Minority Recruitment Enhancement Grants (MREGs) on African American recruitment to the Selenium and Vitamin E Cancer Prevention Trial (SELECT). Results Fifteen of 427 SELECT sites received MREGs after they demonstrated early success in minority recruitment. After receiving the grants, the average monthly rate of African American recruitment at these sites increased from 27.2% to 31.5%, and total average monthly recruitment also increased. Sites that did not receive grants, including sites that did not apply, increased average monthly African American recruitment from 11.0% to 14.6% but declined in total average monthly recruitment. Conclusions and Implications Sites who received MREGs modestly increased both the proportion of African American recruits and total recruits. These results are tempered by the high cost of the intervention, the relatively low number of SELECT sites that applied for the grants and the administrative delays in implementation. Nevertheless, targeted grants may be a useful multi-site intervention to increase African American accrual for a prevention study where adequate African American recruitment is essential. PMID:20156960

  13. Designed synthesis of Graphene @titania @mesoporous silica hybrid material as size-exclusive metal oxide affinity chromatography platform for selective enrichment of endogenous phosphopeptides.

    PubMed

    Yao, Jizong; Sun, Nianrong; Deng, Chunhui; Zhang, Xiangming

    2016-04-01

    In this work, a novel size-exclusive metal oxide affinity chromatography (SE-MOAC) platform was built for phosphoproteome research. The operation for preparing graphene @titania @mesoporous silica nanohybrids (denoted as G@TiO2@mSiO2) was facile and easy to conduct by grafting titania nanoparticles on polydopamine (PD)-covered graphene, following a layer of mesoporous silica was coated on the outermost layer. The G@TiO2@mSiO2 nanohybrids exhibited high sensitivity with a low detection limit of 5 amol/μL (a total amount of 1 fmol) and high selectivity for phosphopeptides at a mass ratio of phosphopeptides to non-phosphopeptides (1:1000). The size-exclusive capability of the nanohybrids were also demonstrated by enriching the phosphopeptides from the mixture of Bovine Serum Albumin (BSA), α-casein, and β-casein digests with a high mass ratio (β-casein digests: α-casein: BSA, 1:500:500), which was attributed to the large surface area and ordered mesoporous channels. In addition, the G@TiO2@mSiO2 nanohybrids were employed to capture the endogenous phosphopeptides from human serum successfully.

  14. Worldwide Increase of Obesity Is Related to the Reduced Opportunity for Natural Selection

    PubMed Central

    Budnik, Alicja

    2017-01-01

    Worldwide rise of obesity may be partly related to the relaxation of natural selection in the last few generations. Accumulation of mutations affecting metabolism towards excessive fat deposition is suggested to be a result of less purging selection. Using the WHO and UN data for 159 countries there is a significant correlation (r = 0.60, p<0.01) between an index of the relaxed opportunity for selection (Biological State Index) and prevalence of obesity (percentage of individuals with BMI >30kg/m2). This correlation remains significant (r = 0.32., p<0.01) when caloric intake and insufficient physical activity prevalence are kept statistically constant (partial correlation analysis, N = 82). The correlation is still significant when gross domestic product per capita is also kept constant (r = 0.24, p <0.05, N = 81). In the last decades, prevalence of both obesity and underweight has increased in some countries despite no change in caloric intake nor in physical inactivity prevalence. Relaxed selection against genes affecting energy balance and metabolism may contribute to the increase of fatness independent from commonly considered positive energy balance. Diagnoses of individual predispositions to obesity at an early age and individual counselling on diet and behaviour may be appropriate strategies to limit further increases in body mass. PMID:28107497

  15. A competitive trade-off limits the selective advantage of increased antibiotic production.

    PubMed

    Gerardin, Ylaine; Springer, Michael; Kishony, Roy

    2016-09-26

    In structured environments, antibiotic-producing microorganisms can gain a selective advantage by inhibiting nearby competing species(1). However, despite their genetic potential(2,3), natural isolates often make only small amounts of antibiotics, and laboratory evolution can lead to loss rather than enhancement of antibiotic production(4). Here, we show that, due to competition with antibiotic-resistant cheater cells, increased levels of antibiotic production can actually decrease the selective advantage to producers. Competing fluorescently labelled Escherichia coli colicin producers with non-producing resistant and sensitive strains on solid media, we found that although producer colonies can greatly benefit from the inhibition of nearby sensitive colonies, this benefit is shared with resistant colonies growing in their vicinity. A simple model, which accounts for such local competitive and inhibitory interactions, suggests that the advantage of producers varies non-monotonically with the amount of production. Indeed, experimentally varying the amount of production shows a peak in selection for producers, reflecting a trade-off between benefit gained by inhibiting sensitive competitors and loss due to an increased contribution to resistant cheater colonies. These results help explain the low level of antibiotic production observed for natural species and can help direct laboratory evolution experiments selecting for increased or novel production of antibiotics.

  16. Increased dependence of action selection on recent motor history in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Helmich, Rick C; Aarts, Esther; de Lange, Floris P; Bloem, Bastiaan R; Toni, Ivan

    2009-05-13

    It is well known that the basal ganglia are involved in switching between movement sequences. Here we test the hypothesis that this contribution is an instance of a more general role of the basal ganglia in selecting actions that deviate from the context defined by the recent motor history, even when there is no sequential structure to learn or implement. We investigated the effect of striatal dopamine depletion [in Parkinson's disease (PD)] on the ability to switch between independent action plans. PD patients with markedly lateralized signs performed a hand laterality judgment task that involved action selection of their most and least affected hand. Trials where patients selected the same (repeat) or the alternative (switch) hand as in a previous trial were compared, and this was done separately for the most and least affected hand. Behaviorally, PD patients showed switch-costs that were specific to the most affected hand and that increased with disease severity. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) showed that this behavioral effect was related to the state of the frontostriatal system: as disease severity increased, contributions of the basal ganglia to the selection process and their effective connectivity with the medial frontal cortex (MFC) decreased, whereas involvement of the MFC increased. We conclude that the basal ganglia are important for rapidly switching toward novel motor plans even when there is no sequential structure to learn or implement. The enhanced MFC activity may result either from reduced focusing abilities of the basal ganglia or from compensatory processes.

  17. A competitive trade-off limits the selective advantage of increased antibiotic production

    PubMed Central

    Gerardin, Ylaine; Springer, Michael; Kishony, Roy

    2016-01-01

    In structured environments, antibiotic producing microorganisms can gain a selective advantage by inhibiting nearby competing species1. However, despite their genetic potential2,3, natural isolates often make only small amounts of antibiotics, and laboratory evolution can lead to loss rather than enhancement of antibiotic production4. Here we show that, due to competition with antibiotic resistant cheater cells, increased levels of antibiotic production can actually decrease the selective advantage to producers. Competing fluorescently-labeled Escherichia coli colicin producers with non-producing resistant and sensitive strains on solid media, we found that while producer colonies can greatly benefit from the inhibition of nearby sensitive colonies, this benefit is shared with resistant colonies growing in their vicinity. A simple model, which accounts for such local competitive and inhibitory interactions, suggests that the advantage of producers varies non-monotonically with the amount of production. Indeed, experimentally varying the amount of production shows a peak in selection for producers, reflecting a trade-off between benefit gained by inhibiting sensitive competitors and loss due to an increased contribution to resistant cheater colonies. These results help explain the low level of antibiotic production observed for natural species, and can help direct laboratory evolution experiments selecting for increased or novel production of antibiotics. PMID:27668360

  18. Selective removal of stratum corneum by microdermabrasion to increase skin permeability

    PubMed Central

    Gill, Harvinder S.; Andrews, Samantha N.; Sakthivel, Senthilkumar K.; Fedanov, Andrew; Williams, Ifor R.; Garber, David A.; Priddy, Frances H.; Yellin, Seth; Feinberg, Mark B.; Staprans, Silvija I.; Prausnitz, Mark R.

    2009-01-01

    This study sought to determine if microdermabrasion can selectively remove stratum corneum to increase skin permeability. Although, microdermabrasion has been used for cosmetic treatment of skin for decades, no study has assessed the detailed effects of microdermabrasion conditions on the degree of skin tissue removal. Therefore, we histologically characterized the skin of rhesus macaques and human volunteers after microdermabrasion at different conditions. Using mobile tip microdermabrasion, an increase in the number of treatment passes led to greater tissue removal ranging from minimal effects to extensive damage to deeper layers of the skin. Of note, these data showed for the first time that at moderate microdermabrasion conditions selective yet full-thickness removal of stratum corneum could be achieved with little damage to deeper skin tissues. In the stationary mode of microdermabrasion, selective stratum corneum removal was not observed, but micro-blisters could be seen. Similar tissue removal trends were observed in human volunteers. As proof of concept for drug delivery applications, a model fluorescent drug (fluorescein) was delivered through microdermabraded skin and antibodies were generated against vaccinia virus after its topical application in monkeys. In conclusion, microdermabrasion can selectively remove full-thickness stratum corneum with little damage to deeper tissues and thereby increase skin permeability. PMID:19559791

  19. Worldwide Increase of Obesity Is Related to the Reduced Opportunity for Natural Selection.

    PubMed

    Budnik, Alicja; Henneberg, Maciej

    2017-01-01

    Worldwide rise of obesity may be partly related to the relaxation of natural selection in the last few generations. Accumulation of mutations affecting metabolism towards excessive fat deposition is suggested to be a result of less purging selection. Using the WHO and UN data for 159 countries there is a significant correlation (r = 0.60, p<0.01) between an index of the relaxed opportunity for selection (Biological State Index) and prevalence of obesity (percentage of individuals with BMI >30kg/m2). This correlation remains significant (r = 0.32., p<0.01) when caloric intake and insufficient physical activity prevalence are kept statistically constant (partial correlation analysis, N = 82). The correlation is still significant when gross domestic product per capita is also kept constant (r = 0.24, p <0.05, N = 81). In the last decades, prevalence of both obesity and underweight has increased in some countries despite no change in caloric intake nor in physical inactivity prevalence. Relaxed selection against genes affecting energy balance and metabolism may contribute to the increase of fatness independent from commonly considered positive energy balance. Diagnoses of individual predispositions to obesity at an early age and individual counselling on diet and behaviour may be appropriate strategies to limit further increases in body mass.

  20. Thermal breeder fuel enrichment zoning

    DOEpatents

    Capossela, Harry J.; Dwyer, Joseph R.; Luce, Robert G.; McCoy, Daniel F.; Merriman, Floyd C.

    1992-01-01

    A method and apparatus for improving the performance of a thermal breeder reactor having regions of higher than average moderator concentration are disclosed. The fuel modules of the reactor core contain at least two different types of fuel elements, a high enrichment fuel element and a low enrichment fuel element. The two types of fuel elements are arranged in the fuel module with the low enrichment fuel elements located between the high moderator regions and the high enrichment fuel elements. Preferably, shim rods made of a fertile material are provided in selective regions for controlling the reactivity of the reactor by movement of the shim rods into and out of the reactor core. The moderation of neutrons adjacent the high enrichment fuel elements is preferably minimized as by reducing the spacing of the high enrichment fuel elements and/or using a moderator having a reduced moderating effect.

  1. Evolution of Protein Quaternary Structure in Response to Selective Pressure for Increased Thermostability.

    PubMed

    Fraser, Nicholas J; Liu, Jian-Wei; Mabbitt, Peter D; Correy, Galen J; Coppin, Chris W; Lethier, Mathilde; Perugini, Matthew A; Murphy, James M; Oakeshott, John G; Weik, Martin; Jackson, Colin J

    2016-06-05

    Oligomerization has been suggested to be an important mechanism for increasing or maintaining the thermostability of proteins. Although it is evident that protein-protein contacts can result in substantial stabilization in many extant proteins, evidence for evolutionary selection for oligomerization is largely indirect and little is understood of the early steps in the evolution of oligomers. A laboratory-directed evolution experiment that selected for increased thermostability in the αE7 carboxylesterase from the Australian sheep blowfly, Lucilia cuprina, resulted in a thermostable variant, LcαE7-4a, that displayed increased levels of dimeric and tetrameric quaternary structure. A trade-off between activity and thermostability was made during the evolution of thermostability, with the higher-order oligomeric species displaying the greatest thermostability and lowest catalytic activity. Analysis of monomeric and dimeric LcαE7-4a crystal structures revealed that only one of the oligomerization-inducing mutations was located at a potential protein-protein interface. This work demonstrates that by imposing a selective pressure demanding greater thermostability, mutations can lead to increased oligomerization and stabilization, providing support for the hypothesis that oligomerization is a viable evolutionary strategy for protein stabilization. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Strong Artificial Selection in Domestic Mammals Did Not Result in an Increased Recombination Rate

    PubMed Central

    Muñoz-Fuentes, Violeta; Marcet-Ortega, Marina; Alkorta-Aranburu, Gorka; Linde Forsberg, Catharina; Morrell, Jane M.; Manzano-Piedras, Esperanza; Söderberg, Arne; Daniel, Katrin; Villalba, Adrian; Toth, Attila; Di Rienzo, Anna; Roig, Ignasi; Vilà, Carles

    2015-01-01

    Recombination rates vary in intensity and location at the species, individual, sex and chromosome levels. Despite the fundamental biological importance of this process, the selective forces that operate to shape recombination rate and patterns are unclear. Domestication offers a unique opportunity to study the interplay between recombination and selection. In domesticates, intense selection for particular traits is imposed on small populations over many generations, resulting in organisms that differ, sometimes dramatically, in morphology and physiology from their wild ancestor. Although earlier studies suggested increased recombination rate in domesticates, a formal comparison of recombination rates between domestic mammals and their wild congeners was missing. In order to determine broad-scale recombination rate, we used immunolabeling detection of MLH1 foci as crossover markers in spermatocytes in three pairs of closely related wild and domestic species (dog and wolf, goat and ibex, and sheep and mouflon). In the three pairs, and contrary to previous suggestions, our data show that contemporary recombination rate is higher in the wild species. Subsequently, we inferred recombination breakpoints in sequence data for 16 genomic regions in dogs and wolves, each containing a locus associated with a dog phenotype potentially under selection during domestication. No difference in the number and distribution of recombination breakpoints was found between dogs and wolves. We conclude that our data indicate that strong directional selection did not result in changes in recombination in domestic mammals, and that both upper and lower bounds for crossover rates may be tightly regulated. PMID:25414125

  3. Selection for increased production and the welfare of dairy cows: are new breeding goals needed?

    PubMed

    Oltenacu, Pascal A; Algers, Bo

    2005-06-01

    In many European countries, milk production per cow has more than doubled in the last 40 years. The increase in production has been accompanied by declining ability to reproduce, increasing incidence of health problems, and declining longevity in modern dairy cows. Genetic selection for increased milk yield increasingly is viewed as increasing profit at the expense of reducing animal welfare. The economic future of the dairy industry is related directly to public acceptance of its breeding and production practices. It is important to the dairy industry that welfare problems should be addressed before there is widespread condemnation of breeding and management practices. A new breeding goal aimed at improving fitness and tolerance of metabolic stress is necessary to prevent the decrease in the quality of life of dairy cows and instead, perhaps, enhance it.

  4. Quality of ω-3 fatty acid enriched low-fat chicken meat patties incorporated with selected levels of linseed flour/oil and canola flour/oil.

    PubMed

    Singh, Ripudaman; Chatli, Manish K; Biswas, Ashim K; Sahoo, Jhari

    2014-02-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare the nutritional, processing and sensory characteristics of low-fat ω-3 enriched fatty acids chicken meat patties (CMP) prepared with the incorporation of 4% linseed flour (T1), 2% canola flour (T2), 3% linseed oil (T3), and 4% canola oil (T4) and to estimate their cost of production. The total fat and crude fiber content was increased (P < 0.05) with the incorporation of linseed flour. The emulsion stability and cooking yield was greater (P < 0.05) in T4 among all the treatments. The percent shrinkage was lower (P < 0.05) in linseed/canola oil incorporated CMP than their respective flours. The colour and appearance and flavour scores were lower (P < 0.05) in canola flour than canola oil incorporated CMP. The texture scores were not influenced (P < 0.05) in linseed-and canola-treated products. The overall acceptability was greatest (P < 0.05) in T4 whereas, lowest (P < 0.05) in T2 among all treated products. The cost of production was increased by 3-5% with the incorporation of linseed and canola oil whereas it was almost same for control and linseed flour.

  5. Using negative reinforcement to increase self-feeding in a child with food selectivity.

    PubMed

    Vaz, Petula C M; Volkert, Valerie M; Piazza, Cathleen C

    2011-01-01

    We examined the effects of a negative reinforcement-based treatment on the self-feeding of 1 child with food selectivity by type and texture. Self-feeding increased when the child could choose to either self-feed 1 bite of a target food or be fed 1 bite of the target food and 5 bites of another food. Possible mechanisms that underlie the effectiveness of the intervention and implications for future research are discussed.

  6. Using Negative Reinforcement to Increase Self-Feeding in a Child with Food Selectivity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaz, Petula C. M.; Volkert, Valerie M.; Piazza, Cathleen C.

    2011-01-01

    We examined the effects of a negative reinforcement-based treatment on the self-feeding of 1 child with food selectivity by type and texture. Self-feeding increased when the child could choose to either self-feed 1 bite of a target food or be fed 1 bite of the target food and 5 bites of another food. Possible mechanisms that underlie the…

  7. Mid-life environmental enrichment increases synaptic density in CA1 in a mouse model of Aβ-associated pathology and positively influences synaptic and cognitive health in healthy ageing.

    PubMed

    Stuart, Kimberley E; King, Anna E; Fernandez-Martos, Carmen M; Dittmann, Justin; Summers, Mathew J; Vickers, James C

    2016-12-17

    Early-life cognitive enrichment may reduce the risk of experiencing cognitive deterioration and dementia in later-life. However, an intervention to prevent or delay dementia is likely to be taken up in mid to later-life. Hence, we investigated the effects of environmental enrichment in wildtype mice and in a mouse model of Aβ neuropathology (APPSWE /PS1dE9 ) from 6 months of age. After 6 months of housing in standard laboratory cages, APPSWE /PS1dE9 (n = 27) and healthy wildtype (n = 21) mice were randomly assigned to either enriched or standard housing. At 12 months of age, wildtype mice showed altered synaptic protein levels and relatively superior cognitive performance afforded by environmental enrichment. Environmental enrichment was not associated with alterations to Aβ plaque pathology in the neocortex or hippocampus of APPSWE /PS1dE9 mice. However, a significant increase in synaptophysin immunolabelled puncta in the hippocampal subregion, CA1, in APPSWE /PS1dE9 mice was detected, with no significant synaptic density changes observed in CA3, or the Fr2 region of the prefrontal cortex. Moreover, a significant increase in hippocampal BDNF was detected in APPSWE /PS1dE9 mice exposed to EE, however no changes were detected in neocortex or between Wt animals. These results demonstrate that mid to later-life cognitive enrichment has the potential to promote synaptic and cognitive health in ageing, and to enhance compensatory capacity for synaptic connectivity in pathological ageing associated with Aβ deposition. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  8. Evolution of increased adult longevity in Drosophila melanogaster populations selected for adaptation to larval crowding.

    PubMed

    Shenoi, V N; Ali, S Z; Prasad, N G

    2016-02-01

    In holometabolous animals such as Drosophila melanogaster, larval crowding can affect a wide range of larval and adult traits. Adults emerging from high larval density cultures have smaller body size and increased mean life span compared to flies emerging from low larval density cultures. Therefore, adaptation to larval crowding could potentially affect adult longevity as a correlated response. We addressed this issue by studying a set of large, outbred populations of D. melanogaster, experimentally evolved for adaptation to larval crowding for 83 generations. We assayed longevity of adult flies from both selected (MCUs) and control populations (MBs) after growing them at different larval densities. We found that MCUs have evolved increased mean longevity compared to MBs at all larval densities. The interaction between selection regime and larval density was not significant, indicating that the density dependence of mean longevity had not evolved in the MCU populations. The increase in longevity in MCUs can be partially attributed to their lower rates of ageing. It is also noteworthy that reaction norm of dry body weight, a trait probably under direct selection in our populations, has indeed evolved in MCU populations. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of the evolution of adult longevity as a correlated response of adaptation to larval crowding.

  9. Selectable traits to increase crop photosynthesis and yield of grain crops.

    PubMed

    Richards, R A

    2000-02-01

    The grain yield of cereals has almost doubled this century as a result of genetic manipulation by plant breeding. Surprisingly, there has been no change in the rate of photosynthesis per unit leaf area to accompany these increases. However, total photosynthesis has increased as a result of an increase in leaf area, daily duration of photosynthesis or leaf area duration. There remain substantial opportunities to continue to improve total photosynthesis and crop yield genetically using conventional breeding practices. Selectable traits are discussed here in the context of increasing total above-ground biomass under favourable conditions. Opportunities exist to alter crop duration and the timing of crop development to match it better to radiation, temperature and vapour pressure during crop growth, and to increase the rate of development of early leaf area to achieve rapid canopy closure. The importance of these traits will depend on the environment in which the crop is grown. Increases in crop photosynthesis through breeding are also likely to come via indirect means. Selection for a high and sustained stomatal conductance during the period of stem elongation is one way. Increasing assimilate allocation to the reproductive primordia so as to establish a large potential sink should also indirectly increase total crop photosynthesis. Evidence in the major grain crops suggests that by anthesis the capacity for photosynthesis is high and that photosynthesis is not limiting during grain filling. To use this surplus capacity it is suggested that carbon and nitrogen partitioning to the reproductive meristem be increased so as to establish a high potential grain number and the potential for a large grain size. It is then expected that additional photosynthesis will follow, either by a longer daily duration of photosynthesis or by an extended leaf area duration.

  10. Selecting informative subsets of sparse supermatrices increases the chance to find correct trees

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Character matrices with extensive missing data are frequently used in phylogenomics with potentially detrimental effects on the accuracy and robustness of tree inference. Therefore, many investigators select taxa and genes with high data coverage. Drawbacks of these selections are their exclusive reliance on data coverage without consideration of actual signal in the data which might, thus, not deliver optimal data matrices in terms of potential phylogenetic signal. In order to circumvent this problem, we have developed a heuristics implemented in a software called mare which (1) assesses information content of genes in supermatrices using a measure of potential signal combined with data coverage and (2) reduces supermatrices with a simple hill climbing procedure to submatrices with high total information content. We conducted simulation studies using matrices of 50 taxa × 50 genes with heterogeneous phylogenetic signal among genes and data coverage between 10–30%. Results With matrices of 50 taxa × 50 genes with heterogeneous phylogenetic signal among genes and data coverage between 10–30% Maximum Likelihood (ML) tree reconstructions failed to recover correct trees. A selection of a data subset with the herein proposed approach increased the chance to recover correct partial trees more than 10-fold. The selection of data subsets with the herein proposed simple hill climbing procedure performed well either considering the information content or just a simple presence/absence information of genes. We also applied our approach on an empirical data set, addressing questions of vertebrate systematics. With this empirical dataset selecting a data subset with high information content and supporting a tree with high average boostrap support was most successful if information content of genes was considered. Conclusions Our analyses of simulated and empirical data demonstrate that sparse supermatrices can be reduced on a formal basis outperforming the

  11. Increasing cocoa butter-like lipid production of Saccharomyces cerevisiae by expression of selected cocoa genes.

    PubMed

    Wei, Yongjun; Gossing, Michael; Bergenholm, David; Siewers, Verena; Nielsen, Jens

    2017-12-01

    Cocoa butter (CB) extracted from cocoa beans mainly consists of three different kinds of triacylglycerols (TAGs), 1,3-dipalmitoyl-2-oleoyl-glycerol (POP, C16:0-C18:1-C16:0), 1-palmitoyl-3-stearoyl-2-oleoyl-glycerol (POS, C16:0-C18:1-C18:0) and 1,3-distearoyl-2-oleoyl-glycerol (SOS, C18:0-C18:1-C18:0), but CB supply is limited. Therefore, CB-like lipids (CBL, which are composed of POP, POS and SOS) are in great demand. Saccharomyces cerevisiae produces TAGs as storage lipids, which are also mainly composed of C16 and C18 fatty acids. However, POP, POS and SOS are not among the major TAG forms in yeast. TAG synthesis is mainly catalyzed by three enzymes: glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase (GPAT), lysophospholipid acyltransferase (LPAT) and diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT). In order to produce CBL in S. cerevisiae, we selected six cocoa genes encoding GPAT, LPAT and DGAT potentially responsible for CB biosynthesis from the cocoa genome using a phylogenetic analysis approach. By expressing the selected cocoa genes in S. cerevisiae, we successfully increased total fatty acid production, TAG production and CBL production in some S. cerevisiae strains. The relative CBL content in three yeast strains harboring cocoa genes increased 190, 230 and 196% over the control strain, respectively; especially, the potential SOS content of the three yeast strains increased 254, 476 and 354% over the control strain. Moreover, one of the three yeast strains had a 2.25-fold increased TAG content and 6.7-fold higher level of CBL compared with the control strain. In summary, CBL production by S. cerevisiae were increased through expressing selected cocoa genes potentially involved in CB biosynthesis.

  12. Identifying circumstances under which high insecticide dose increases or decreases resistance selection.

    PubMed

    Helps, J C; Paveley, N D; van den Bosch, F

    2017-09-07

    Insect management strategies for agricultural crop pests must reduce selection for insecticide resistant mutants while providing effective control of the insect pest. One management strategy that has long been advocated is the application of insecticides at the maximum permitted dose. This has been found, under some circumstances, to be able to prevent the resistance allele frequency from increasing. However this approach may, under different circumstances, lead to rapid selection for resistance to the insecticide. To test when a high dose would be an effective resistance management strategy, we present a flexible deterministic model of a population of an insect pest of agricultural crops. The model includes several possible life-history traits including sexual or asexual reproduction, diploid or haplodiploid genetics, univoltine or multivoltine life cycle, so that the high dose strategy can be tested for many different insect pests. Using this model we aim to identify the key characteristics of pests that make either a high dose or a low dose of insecticide optimal for resistance management. Two outputs are explored: firstly whether the frequency of the resistance allele increases over time or remains low indefinitely; and secondly whether lowering the dose of insecticide applied reduces or increases the rate of selection for the resistance allele. It is demonstrated that with high immigration resistance can be suppressed. This suppression however, is rarely lost if the insecticide dose is reduced, and is absent altogether when individuals move from the treated population back into an untreated population. Reducing the dose of insecticide often resulted in slower development of resistance, except where the population combined a high influx of less resistant individuals into the treated population, a recessive resistance gene and a high efficacy, in which case reducing the dose of insecticide could result in faster selection for resistance. Copyright © 2017

  13. Pharmacogenetic Selection of Volunteers Increases Stringency of Bioequivalence Studies; The Case of Clopidogrel

    PubMed Central

    Garcés-Eisele, J.; Ruiz-Argüelles, A.; Estrada-Marín, Larisa; Reyes-Núñez, Virginia; Vázquez-Pérez, R.; Guzmán-García, Olga; Coutiño-Medina, R.; Acosta-Sandria, Leticia; Cedillo-Carvallo, Beatriz

    2014-01-01

    Clinical response to clopidogrel varies widely due to under-dosing, drug interactions and intrinsic interindividual differences resulting from genetic polymorphisms. Cytochrome P450-2C19 is the principal enzyme involved in the activation of the prodrug and loss-of-function alleles have been described. Upon expiration of the pharmaceutical patent of clopidogrel, generic manufacturers have started to subject interchangeable formulations to bioequivalence studies. The purpose of the current investigation was to study the effect of selection of volunteers homozygous for the CYP2C19*1 haplotype on the bioavailability of clopidogrel. A regular 2×2 bioequivalence study between two formulations of clopidogrel was performed in volunteers selected and unselected for relevant CYP2C19 haplotypes for the Mexican population. It was found that selection of volunteers homozygous for the CYP2C19*1 haplotype, increased the stringency of bioequivalence statistics and resulted in bioinequivalence of a generic clopidogrel compound that otherwise proved equivalent when tested in an open unselected population. Augmentation of bioequivalence strictness is expected to result from pharmacogenetic selection of volunteers. PMID:25284925

  14. Pharmacogenetic selection of volunteers increases stringency of bioequivalence studies; the case of clopidogrel.

    PubMed

    Garcés-Eisele, J; Ruiz-Argüelles, A; Estrada-Marín, Larisa; Reyes-Núñez, Virginia; Vázquez-Pérez, R; Guzmán-García, Olga; Coutiño-Medina, R; Acosta-Sandria, Leticia; Cedillo-Carvallo, Beatriz

    2014-07-01

    Clinical response to clopidogrel varies widely due to under-dosing, drug interactions and intrinsic interindividual differences resulting from genetic polymorphisms. Cytochrome P450-2C19 is the principal enzyme involved in the activation of the prodrug and loss-of-function alleles have been described. Upon expiration of the pharmaceutical patent of clopidogrel, generic manufacturers have started to subject interchangeable formulations to bioequivalence studies. The purpose of the current investigation was to study the effect of selection of volunteers homozygous for the CYP2C19*1 haplotype on the bioavailability of clopidogrel. A regular 2×2 bioequivalence study between two formulations of clopidogrel was performed in volunteers selected and unselected for relevant CYP2C19 haplotypes for the Mexican population. It was found that selection of volunteers homozygous for the CYP2C19*1 haplotype, increased the stringency of bioequivalence statistics and resulted in bioinequivalence of a generic clopidogrel compound that otherwise proved equivalent when tested in an open unselected population. Augmentation of bioequivalence strictness is expected to result from pharmacogenetic selection of volunteers.

  15. Differentially Expressed Genes in Endometrium and Corpus Luteum of Holstein Cows Selected for High and Low Fertility Are Enriched for Sequence Variants Associated with Fertility.

    PubMed

    Moore, Stephen G; Pryce, Jennie E; Hayes, Ben J; Chamberlain, Amanda J; Kemper, Kathryn E; Berry, Donagh P; McCabe, Matt; Cormican, Paul; Lonergan, Pat; Fair, Trudee; Butler, Stephen T

    2016-01-01

    Despite the importance of fertility in humans and livestock, there has been little success dissecting the genetic basis of fertility. Our hypothesis was that genes differentially expressed in the endometrium and corpus luteum on Day 13 of the estrous cycle between cows with either good or poor genetic merit for fertility would be enriched for genetic variants associated with fertility. We combined a unique genetic model of fertility (cattle that have been selected for high and low fertility and show substantial difference in fertility) with gene expression data from these cattle and genome-wide association study (GWAS) results in ∼20,000 cattle to identify quantitative trait loci (QTL) regions and sequence variants associated with genetic variation in fertility. Two hundred and forty-five QTL regions and 17 sequence variants associated primarily with prostaglandin F2alpha, steroidogenesis, mRNA processing, energy status, and immune-related processes were identified. Ninety-three of the QTL regions were validated by two independent GWAS, with signals for fertility detected primarily on chromosomes 18, 5, 7, 8, and 29. Plausible causative mutations were identified, including one missense variant significantly associated with fertility and predicted to affect the protein function of EIF4EBP3. The results of this study enhance our understanding of 1) the contribution of the endometrium and corpus luteum transcriptome to phenotypic fertility differences and 2) the genetic architecture of fertility in dairy cattle. Including these variants in predictions of genomic breeding values may improve the rate of genetic gain for this critical trait. © 2016 by the Society for the Study of Reproduction, Inc.

  16. Selective trace enrichment of acidic pharmaceuticals in real water and sediment samples based on solid-phase extraction using multi-templates molecularly imprinted polymers.

    PubMed

    Duan, Yan-Ping; Dai, Chao-Meng; Zhang, Ya-Lei; Ling-Chen

    2013-01-03

    A novel multi-templates molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP), using acidic pharmaceuticals mixture (ibuprofen (IBP), naproxen (NPX), ketoprofen (KEP), diclofenac (DFC), and clofibric acid (CA)) as the template, was prepared as solid-phase extraction (SPE) material for the quantitative enrichment of acidic pharmaceuticals in environmental samples and off-line coupled with liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS). Washing solvent was optimized in terms of kind and volume for removing the matrix constituents nonspecifically adsorbed on the MIP. When 1L of water sample spiked at 1μg/L was loaded onto the cartridge, the binding capacity of the MIP cartridge were 48.7μg/g for KEP, 60.7μg/g for NPX, 52μg/g for CA, 61.3μg/g for DFC and 60.7μg/g for IBP, respectively, which are higher than those of the commercial single template MIP in organic medium (e.g. toluene) reported in the literature. Recoveries of the five acidic pharmaceuticals extracted from 1L of real water samples such as lake water and wastewater spiked at 1μg/L were more than 95%. The recoveries of acidic pharmaceuticals extracted from 10-g sediment sample spiked at the 10ng/g level were in the range of 77.4-90.6%. To demonstrate the potential of the MIP obtained, a comparison with commercial C18 SPE cartridge was performed. Molecularly imprinted solid-phase extraction (MISPE) cartridge showed higher recoveries than commercial C18 SPE cartridge for acidic pharmaceuticals. These results showed the suitability of the MISPE method for the selective extraction of a group of structurally related compounds such as acidic pharmaceuticals.

  17. Chelating effect in short polymers for the design of bidentate binders of increased affinity and selectivity

    PubMed Central

    Fortuna, Sara; Fogolari, Federico; Scoles, Giacinto

    2015-01-01

    The design of new strong and selective binders is a key step towards the development of new sensing devices and effective drugs. Both affinity and selectivity can be increased through chelation and here we theoretically explore the possibility of coupling two binders through a flexible linker. We prove the enhanced ability of double binders of keeping their target with a simple model where a polymer composed by hard spheres interacts with a spherical macromolecule, such as a protein, through two sticky spots. By Monte Carlo simulations and thermodynamic integration we show the chelating effect to hold for coupling polymers whose radius of gyration is comparable to size of the chelated particle. We show the binding free energy of flexible double binders to be higher than that of two single binders and to be maximized when the binding sites are at distances comparable to the mean free polymer end-to-end distance. The affinity of two coupled binders is therefore predicted to increase non linearly and in turn, by targeting two non-equivalent binding sites, this will lead to higher selectivity. PMID:26496975

  18. Perspectives on Job Enrichment and Productivity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suojanen, Waino W., Ed.; And Others

    The book of reading focuses on the state of job enrichment in the United States today, as well as some of its international implications. Featured in the book are 20 selected working papers analyzing the development and use of job enrichment in various types of organizations, union response to job enrichment, and its outlook for the future. The…

  19. Science Student Enrichment Opportunities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Dept. of Education, Sacramento.

    This document was developed with the intention of increasing California public school students' awareness of and participation in science-related enrichment activities. Some of the activities are intended for participation by individuals, while others are meant for teams of students. These annual events are listed in chronological order for a…

  20. Sulindac sulfide selectively increases sensitivity of ABCC1 expressing tumor cells to doxorubicin and glutathione depletion.

    PubMed

    Whitt, Jason D; Keeton, Adam B; Gary, Bernard D; Sklar, Larry A; Sodani, Kamlesh; Chen, Zhe-Sheng; Piazza, Gary A

    2016-03-01

    ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters ABCC1 (MRP1), ABCB1 (P-gp), and ABCG2 (BCRP) contribute to chemotherapy failure. The primary goals of this study were to characterize the efficacy and mechanism of the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID), sulindac sulfide, to reverse ABCC1 mediated resistance to chemotherapeutic drugs and to determine if sulindac sulfide can influence sensitivity to chemotherapeutic drugs independently of drug efflux. Cytotoxicity assays were performed to measure resistance of ABC-expressing cell lines to doxorubicin and other chemotherapeutic drugs. NSAIDs were tested for the ability to restore sensitivity to resistance selected tumor cell lines, as well as a large panel of standard tumor cell lines. Other experiments characterized the mechanism by which sulindac sulfide inhibits ABCC1 substrate and co-substrate (GSH) transport in isolated membrane vesicles and intact cells. Selective reversal of multi-drug resistance (MDR), decreased efflux of doxorubicin, and fluorescent substrates were demonstrated by sulindac sulfide and a related NSAID, indomethacin, in resistance selected and engineered cell lines expressing ABCC1, but not ABCB1 or ABCG2. Sulindac sulfide also inhibited transport of leukotriene C4 into membrane vesicles. Sulindac sulfide enhanced the sensitivity to doxorubicin in 24 of 47 tumor cell lines, including all melanoma lines tested (7-7). Sulindac sulfide also decreased intracellular GSH in ABCC1 expressing cells, while the glutathione synthesis inhibitor, BSO, selectively increased sensitivity to sulindac sulfide induced cytotoxicity. Sulindac sulfide potently and selectively reverses ABCC1-mediated MDR at clinically achievable concentrations. ABCC1 expressing tumors may be highly sensitive to the direct cytotoxicity of sulindac sulfide, and in combination with chemotherapeutic drugs that induce oxidative stress.

  1. Sulindac sulfide selectively increases sensitivity of ABCC1 expressing tumor cells to doxorubicin and glutathione depletion

    PubMed Central

    Whitt, Jason D.; Keeton, Adam B.; Gary, Bernard D.; Sklar, Larry A.; Sodani, Kamlesh; Chen, Zhe-Sheng; Piazza, Gary A.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transpo rters ABCC1 (MRP1), ABCB1 (P-gp), and ABCG2 (BCRP) contribute to chemotherapy failure. The primary goals of this study were to characterize the efficacy and mechanism of the non­steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID), sulindac sulfide, to reverse ABCC1 mediated resistance to chemother­apeutic drugs and to determine if sulindac sulfide can influence sensitivity to chemotherapeutic drugs independently of drug efflux. Cytotoxicity assays were performed to measure resistance of ABC-expressing cell lines to doxoru­bicin and other chemotherapeutic drugs. NSAIDs were tested for the ability to restore sensitivity to resistance selected tumor cell lines, as well as a large panel of standard tumor cell lines. Other experiments characterized the mechanism by which sulindac sulfide inhibits ABCC1 substrate and co-substrate (GSH) transport in isolated membrane vesicles and intact cells. Selective reversal of multi-drug resistance (MDR), decreased efflux of doxor­ubicin, and fluorescent substrates were demonstrated by sulindac sulfide and a related NSAID, indomethacin, in resistance selected and engineered cell lines expressing ABCC1, but not ABCB1 or ABCG2. Sulindac sulfide also inhibited transport of leukotriene C4 into membrane vesicles. Sulindac sulfide enhanced the sensitivity to doxoru­bicin in 24 of 47 tumor cell lines, including all melanoma lines tested (7-7). Sulindac sulfide also decreased intra­cellular GSH in ABCC1 expressing cells, while the glutathione synthesis inhibitor, BSO, selectively increased sensitivity to sulindac sulfide induced cytotoxicity. Sulindac sulfide potently and selectively reverses ABCC1-mediated MDR at clinically achievable concentrations. ABCC1 expressing tumors may be highly sensitive to the direct cytotoxicity of sulindac sulfide, and in combination with chemotherapeutic drugs that induce oxidative stress. PMID:28276667

  2. Cost Accounting as a Tool for Increasing Cost Transparency in Selective Hepatic Transarterial Chemoembolization.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Osman; Patel, Mikin; Ward, Thomas; Sze, Daniel Y; Telischak, Kristen; Kothary, Nishita; Hofmann, Lawrence V

    2015-12-01

    To increase cost transparency and uncover potential areas for savings in patients receiving selective transarterial chemoembolization at a tertiary care academic center. The hospital cost accounting system charge master sheet for direct and total costs associated with selective transarterial chemoembolization in fiscal years 2013 and 2014 was queried for each of the four highest volume interventional radiologists at a single institution. There were 517 cases (range, 83-150 per physician) performed; direct costs incurred relating to care before, during, and after the procedure with respect to labor, supply, and equipment fees were calculated. A median of 48 activity codes were charged per selective transarterial chemoembolization from five cost centers, represented by the angiography suite, units for care before and after the procedure, pharmacy, and observation floors. The average direct cost of selective transarterial chemoembolization did not significantly differ among operators at $9,126.94, $8,768.77, $9,027.33, and $8,909.75 (P = .31). Intraprocedural costs accounted for 82.8% of total direct costs and provided the greatest degree in cost variability ($7,268.47-$7,691.27). The differences in intraprocedural expense among providers were not statistically significant (P = .09), even when separated into more specific procedure-related labor and supply costs. Cost accounting systems could effectively be interrogated as a method for calculating direct costs associated with selective transarterial chemoembolization. The greatest source of expenditure and variability in cost among providers was shown to be intraprocedural labor and supplies, although the effect did not appear to be operator dependent. Copyright © 2015 SIR. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. pY RNA1-s2: A Highly Retina-Enriched Small RNA That Selectively Binds to Matrin 3 (Matr3)

    PubMed Central

    Yamazaki, Fumiyoshi; Kim, Hyun Hee; Lau, Pierre; Hwang, Christopher K.; Iuvone, P. Michael; Klein, David; Clokie, Samuel J. H.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to expand our knowledge of small RNAs, which are known to function within protein complexes to modulate the transcriptional output of the cell. Here we describe two previously unrecognized, small RNAs, termed pY RNA1-s1 and pY RNA1-s2 (processed Y RNA1-stem −1 and −2), thereby expanding the list of known small RNAs. pY RNA1-s1 and pY RNA1-s2 were discovered by RNA sequencing and found to be 20-fold more abundant in the retina than in 14 other rat tissues. Retinal expression of pY RNAs is highly conserved, including expression in the human retina, and occurs in all retinal cell layers. Mass spectrometric analysis of pY RNA1-S2 binding proteins in retina indicates that pY RNA1-s2 selectively binds the nuclear matrix protein Matrin 3 (Matr3) and to a lesser degree to hnrpul1 (heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein U-like protein). In contrast, pY RNA1-s1 does not bind these proteins. Accordingly, the molecular mechanism of action of pY RNA1-s2 is likely be through an action involving Matr3; this 95 kDa protein has two RNA recognition motifs (RRMs) and is implicated in transcription and RNA-editing. The high affinity binding of pY RNA1-s2 to Matr3 is strongly dependent on the sequence of the RNA and both RRMs of Matr3. Related studies also indicate that elements outside of the RRM region contribute to binding specificity and that phosphorylation enhances pY RNA-s2/Matr3 binding. These observations are of significance because they reveal that a previously unrecognized small RNA, pY RNA1-s2, binds selectively to Matr3. Hypothetically, pY RNA1-S2 might act to modulate cellular function through this molecular mechanism. The retinal enrichment of pY RNA1-s2 provides reason to suspect that the pY RNA1-s2/Matr3 interaction could play a role in vision. PMID:24558381

  4. CNTF variants with increased biological potency and receptor selectivity define a functional site of receptor interaction.

    PubMed Central

    Saggio, I; Gloaguen, I; Poiana, G; Laufer, R

    1995-01-01

    Human CNTF is a neurocytokine that elicits potent neurotrophic effects by activating a receptor complex composed of the ligand-specific alpha-receptor subunit (CNTFR alpha) and two signal transducing proteins, which together constitute a receptor for leukemia inhibitory factor (LIFR). At high concentrations, CNTF can also activate the LIFR and possibly other cross-reactive cytokine receptors in the absence of CNTFR alpha. To gain a better understanding of its structure-function relationships and to develop analogs with increased receptor specificity, the cytokine was submitted to affinity maturation using phage display technology. Variants with greatly increased CNTFR alpha affinity were selected from a phage-displayed library of CNTF variants carrying random amino acid substitutions in the putative D helix. Selected variants contained substitutions of the wild-type Gln167 residue, either alone or in combination with neighboring mutations. These results provide evidence for an important functional role of the mutagenized region in CNTFR alpha binding. Affinity enhancing mutations conferred to CNTF increased potency to trigger biological effects mediated by CNTFR alpha and enhanced neurotrophic activity on chicken ciliary neurons. In contrast, the same mutations did not potentiate the CNTFR alpha-independent receptor actions of CNTF. These CNTF analogs thus represent receptor-specific superagonists, which should help to elucidate the mechanisms underlying the pleiotropic actions of the neurocytokine. PMID:7621819

  5. Advanced Neutron Source enrichment study

    SciTech Connect

    Bari, R.A.; Ludewig, H.; Weeks, J.R.

    1994-12-31

    A study has been performed of the impact on performance of using low enriched uranium (20% {sup 235}U) or medium enriched uranium (35% {sup 235}U) as an alternative fuel for the Advanced Neutron Source, which is currently designed to use uranium enriched to 93% {sup 235}U. Higher fuel densities and larger volume cores were evaluated at the lower enrichments in terms of impact on neutron flux, safety, safeguards, technical feasibility, and cost. The feasibility of fabricating uranium silicide fuel at increasing material density was specifically addressed by a panel of international experts on research reactor fuels. The most viable alternative designs for the reactor at lower enrichments were identified and discussed. Several sensitivity analyses were performed to gain an understanding of the performance of the reactor at parametric values of power, fuel density, core volume, and enrichment that were interpolations between the boundary values imposed on the study or extrapolations from known technology.

  6. Does widowhood increase mortality risk?: testing for selection effects by comparing causes of spousal death.

    PubMed

    Boyle, Paul J; Feng, Zhiqiang; Raab, Gillian M

    2011-01-01

    We consider whether widowhood increases mortality risk. Although commonly observed, this "widowhood effect" could be due to selection effects, as married couples share various characteristics related to the risk of death. We therefore consider the widowhood effect by various causes of spousal death; some causes of death are correlated with shared characteristics in couples, while others are not. Using data from the Scottish Longitudinal Study, we compare outcomes for men and women by the causes of death of their spouse, controlling for a range of individual- and household-level characteristics. The widowhood effect in these data is greater than has been found in other recent studies, with adjusted hazard ratios of 1.40 (95% confidence interval = 1.33-1.47) for men and 1.36 (1.30-1.44) for women. The risk is highest shortly after widowhood, but remains raised for at least 10 years. There was little evidence that these hazard ratios differed by any classification of the cause of death of the spouse, but interactions were found for those with pre-existing illness or other risk factors. The hazard ratios for widowhood were lower for persons with preexisting risks. Our analysis of the widowhood effect uses 3 methods of classifying the causes of spousal death in an attempt to control for potential selection effects. Our results are highly consistent and suggest that this is a causal effect, rather than a result of selection.

  7. Interlocus sexually antagonistic coevolution can create indirect selection for increased recombination.

    PubMed

    Dapper, Amy L; Lively, Curtis M

    2014-04-01

    The ubiquity of recombination in nature is a paradox because it breaks up combinations of alleles favored by natural selection. Theoretical work has shown that antagonistic coevolution between hosts and parasites can result in rapid fluctuations in epistasis that can create a short-term advantage to recombination. Here, we show that another kind of antagonistic coevolution, interlocus sexually antagonistic coevolution (SAC), can also create indirect selection for modifiers that increase the rate of recombination, and that it can lead to very high levels of recombination at equilibrium. Recombination is favored because interlocus SAC creates heterogeneity in the strength and direction of selection, both within and between generations, which maintains an excess of disadvantageous haplotypes in the population. This result is similar to and consistent with dynamics of fluctuating epistasis produced in models of host-parasite coevolution. However, the conditions under which interlocus SAC provides an advantage to recombination are more permissive. © 2013 The Author(s). Evolution © 2013 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  8. Selective capture of water using microporous adsorbents to increase the lifetime of lubricants.

    PubMed

    Ng, Eng-Poh; Delmotte, Luc; Mintova, Svetlana

    2009-01-01

    Long live lubricants: The selective capture of water from lubricants using nanosized microporous aluminophosphate (AEI) and aluminosilicate materials was studied. Nearly 98 % of the moisture was removed from the lubricating oil under ambient conditions, resulting in a significant improvement in the lubricating service lifetime. Moreover, both the lubricant and the microporous sorbents can be recovered and reused.The selective capture of water from lubricants using nanosized microporous aluminophosphate and aluminosilicate materials was studied with an aim to increase the lifetime of the lubricating mineral oil. The amount of water present in oxidized lubricating oil before and after treatment with microporous materials was studied by FTIR spectroscopy and determined quantitatively using the Karl Fischer titration method. Nanosized aluminophosphate revealed a high selectivity for water without adsorbing other additives, in contrast to nanosized aluminosilicates which also adsorb polar oxidation products and ionic additives. About 98 % of the initial moisture could be removed from the lubricating oil under ambient conditions, resulting in a significant improvement in the lubricating service lifetime. Moreover, no by-products are formed during the process and both the lubricant and the sorbents can be recovered and reused, thus the method is environmentally friendly.

  9. Fast growth increases the selective advantage of a mutation arising recurrently during evolution under metal limitation.

    PubMed

    Chou, Hsin-Hung; Berthet, Julia; Marx, Christopher J

    2009-09-01

    Understanding the evolution of biological systems requires untangling the molecular mechanisms that connect genetic and environmental variations to their physiological consequences. Metal limitation across many environments, ranging from pathogens in the human body to phytoplankton in the oceans, imposes strong selection for improved metal acquisition systems. In this study, we uncovered the genetic and physiological basis of adaptation to metal limitation using experimental populations of Methylobacterium extorquens AM1 evolved in metal-deficient growth media. We identified a transposition mutation arising recurrently in 30 of 32 independent populations that utilized methanol as a carbon source, but not in any of the 8 that utilized only succinate. These parallel insertion events increased expression of a novel transporter system that enhanced cobalt uptake. Such ability ensured the production of vitamin B(12), a cobalt-containing cofactor, to sustain two vitamin B(12)-dependent enzymatic reactions essential to methanol, but not succinate, metabolism. Interestingly, this mutation provided higher selective advantages under genetic backgrounds or incubation temperatures that permit faster growth, indicating growth-rate-dependent epistatic and genotype-by-environment interactions. Our results link beneficial mutations emerging in a metal-limiting environment to their physiological basis in carbon metabolism, suggest that certain molecular features may promote the emergence of parallel mutations, and indicate that the selective advantages of some mutations depend generically upon changes in growth rate that can stem from either genetic or environmental influences.

  10. Fast Growth Increases the Selective Advantage of a Mutation Arising Recurrently during Evolution under Metal Limitation

    PubMed Central

    Chou, Hsin-Hung; Berthet, Julia; Marx, Christopher J.

    2009-01-01

    Understanding the evolution of biological systems requires untangling the molecular mechanisms that connect genetic and environmental variations to their physiological consequences. Metal limitation across many environments, ranging from pathogens in the human body to phytoplankton in the oceans, imposes strong selection for improved metal acquisition systems. In this study, we uncovered the genetic and physiological basis of adaptation to metal limitation using experimental populations of Methylobacterium extorquens AM1 evolved in metal-deficient growth media. We identified a transposition mutation arising recurrently in 30 of 32 independent populations that utilized methanol as a carbon source, but not in any of the 8 that utilized only succinate. These parallel insertion events increased expression of a novel transporter system that enhanced cobalt uptake. Such ability ensured the production of vitamin B12, a cobalt-containing cofactor, to sustain two vitamin B12–dependent enzymatic reactions essential to methanol, but not succinate, metabolism. Interestingly, this mutation provided higher selective advantages under genetic backgrounds or incubation temperatures that permit faster growth, indicating growth-rate–dependent epistatic and genotype-by-environment interactions. Our results link beneficial mutations emerging in a metal-limiting environment to their physiological basis in carbon metabolism, suggest that certain molecular features may promote the emergence of parallel mutations, and indicate that the selective advantages of some mutations depend generically upon changes in growth rate that can stem from either genetic or environmental influences. PMID:19763169

  11. Serum factor induces selective increase in Na-channel expression in cultured skeletal muscle

    SciTech Connect

    Brodie, C.; Sampson, S.R. )

    1991-07-01

    The authors have examined effects of horse serum (HS) and various fractions (1 million-1M, 300K, 100K, and 30K nominal molecular weight limit) obtained by ultrafiltration on expression of TTX-sensitive Na-channels and on activities of the Na-K pump and glucose transport systems in cultured myotubes obtained from 1-2-day-old neonatal rat pups. Five-day-old cells were transferred to serum-free medium with no hormone or growth factor supplements (DMEM) for 24 hr and then treated with the various serum fractions for 48 hr. Measurements were made of specific (3H)-saxitoxin (STX) binding, action potential properties, 86Rb-uptake and 2-deoxyglucose (2-DG) uptake. HS significantly increased all parameters compared to DMEM (increases in STX-binding, 69%; Rb-uptake, 65%; 2-DG uptake, 93%). Results of treatment with the separate fractions showed that the 300K fraction caused a significantly greater increase in STX-binding than either HS or the other fractions. In contrast, the increases in Rb and 2-DG uptakes induced by the different fractions were not different from that obtained with HS. They conclude that serum contains a factor that selectively increases expression of TTX-sensitive Na-channels in skeletal muscle.

  12. Increased efficiency of luminescent solar concentrators after application of organic wavelength selective mirrors.

    PubMed

    Verbunt, Paul P C; Tsoi, Shufen; Debije, Michael G; Broer, Dirk J; Bastiaansen, Cees W M; Lin, Chi-Wen; de Boer, Dick K G

    2012-09-10

    Organic wavelength-selective mirrors are used to reduce the loss of emitted photons through the surface of a luminescent solar concentrator (LSC). A theoretical calculation suggests that application of a 400 nm broad reflector on top of an LSC containing BASF Lumogen Red 305 as a luminophore can reflect 91% of all surface emitted photons back into the device. Used in this way, such broad reflectors could increase the edge-emission efficiency of the LSC by up to 66%. Similarly, 175 nm broad reflectors could increase efficiency up to 45%. Measurements demonstrate more limited effectiveness and dependency on the peak absorbance of the LSC. At higher absorbance, the increased number of internal re-absorption events reduces the effectiveness of the reflectors, leading to a maximum increase in LSC efficiency of ~5% for an LSC with a peak absorbance of 1. Reducing re-absorption by reducing dye concentration or the coverage of the luminophore coating results in an increase in LSC efficiency of up to 30% and 27%, respectively.

  13. Stress-induced colibacillosis and turkey osteomyelitis complex in turkeys selected for increased body weight.

    PubMed

    Huff, G; Huff, W; Rath, N; Balog, J; Anthony, N B; Nestor, K

    2006-02-01

    Two stress models were used to induce colibacillosis and turkey osteomyelitis complex (TOC): Escherichia coli challenge following dexamethasone injection (Dex) and E. coli challenge preceding transport stress (Transport). A total of 160 birds from 3 lines of turkeys: a slow-growing line selected for egg production (Egg), a line selected for 16-wk BW (F line), and a Commercial line (Comm), were studied in a 3 x 3 x 2 (line x treatment x sex) factorial design. At 14 wk, the Dex group was treated with 3 injections of 2 mg of Dex/kg of BW followed by airsac challenge with 100 cfu of E. coli. The Transport group was given 5,000 cfu of the same E. coli and 8 d later was transported for 3 h and held for an additional 9 h in the transport vehicle. Controls of each line were neither stressed nor challenged with E. coli. Birds were necropsied 2 wk postchallenge. All birds were sexed, scored for airsacculitis (AS) and TOC, and knee synovia were cultured for E. coli. Percent mortality was unaffected by sex, was increased by the Dex treatment, and was higher in Dex-treated male Comm-line birds and Dex-treated female F-line birds compared with their respective nonchallenged controls. Both treatments increased AS scores, and scores of Dex-treated male Comm-line birds and female F-line birds were also higher compared with their respective controls. Male Comm birds under Transport had higher AS scores as compared with nonchallenged males and challenged females. The TOC incidence was increased by Dex only. There was no TOC in Egg-line birds, whereas TOC incidence approached significance in both Comm and F lines compared with the Egg line (P = 0.06). Males had twice as much TOC as females, and this approached significance in the F line (P = 0.06). There was a low level of TOC in male Transport birds of both large-bodied lines, whereas no female Transport birds had TOC lesions. Dex-treated male birds of both the F line and Comm line had significantly higher incidence of TOC compared

  14. Selected adjunct cultures remarkably increase the content of bioactive peptides in Bulgarian white brined cheese.

    PubMed

    Dimitrov, Zhechko; Chorbadjiyska, Elena; Gotova, Irina; Pashova, Kalinka; Ilieva, Svetla

    2015-01-02

    Some lactic acid bacteria strains in milk media are capable of releasing bioactive peptides. In this study, we evaluated the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE)inhibitory activity of 180 lactic acid bacteria and selected several Lactobacillus helveticus, L. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus and L. casei strains that demonstrated strong ACE-inhibitory activity. The aim was to carry out a molecular study on the bioactive peptides released by the strains with the best ACE-inhibitory properties and by the strains demonstrating a calcium-binding effect. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study of bioactive peptides in Bulgarian white cheese. Peptides with the strongest ACE-inhibitory activity were purified and sequenced. The strains were assessed for production of peptides with calcium-binding properties. These peptides were isolated, purified and sequenced. Two strains releasing bioactive peptides with the strongest ACE-inhibitory and calcium-binding activities were selected for development of cheese starters. The strain with the best ACE-inhibitory activity was L. helveticus A1, which releases the peptide Ala-Leu-Pro-Met as a main contributor to the ACE inhibition. The strain with the best calcium-binding activity was L. casei C3 releasing the peptide SpLSpSpSpE (fraction 15-20 of ß-casein) as a main contributor to calcium binding. After pilot production of cheeses with the developed starters, the ACE-inhibitory and calcium-binding effects were confirmed during the cheese ripening. The addition of the two selected adjunct cultures led to increased production of bioactive peptides in the cheese. In this way, it is possible to increase the functional properties of Bulgarian white brined cheese.

  15. Selection for tameness, a key behavioral trait of domestication, increases adult hippocampal neurogenesis in foxes.

    PubMed

    Huang, Shihhui; Slomianka, Lutz; Farmer, Andrew J; Kharlamova, Anastasiya V; Gulevich, Rimma G; Herbeck, Yury E; Trut, Lyudmila N; Wolfer, David P; Amrein, Irmgard

    2015-08-01

    Work on laboratory and wild rodents suggests that domestication may impact on the extent of adult hippocampal neurogenesis and its responsiveness to regulatory factors. There is, however, no model of laboratory rodents and their nondomesticated conspecifics that would allow a controlled comparison of the effect of domestication. Here, we present a controlled within-species comparison of adult hippocampal neurogenesis in farm-bred foxes (Vulpes vulpes) that differ in their genetically determined degree of tameness. Quantitative comparisons of cell proliferation (Ki67) and differentiating cells of neuronal lineage (doublecortin, DCX) in the hippocampus of foxes were performed as a proxy for neurogenesis. Higher neurogenesis was observed in tameness-selected foxes, notably in an extended subgranular zone of the middle and temporal compartments of the hippocampus. Increased neurogenesis is negatively associated with aggressive behavior. Across all animals, strong septotemporal gradients were found, with higher numbers of proliferating cells and young neurons relative to resident granule cells in the temporal than in the septal hippocampus. The opposite gradient was found for the ratio of DCX/Ki67- positive cells. When tameness-selected and unselected foxes are compared with rodents and primates, proliferation is similar, while the number of young neurons is higher. The difference may be mediated by an extended period of differentiation or higher rate of survival. On the background of this species-specific neurogenic pattern, selection of foxes for a single behavioral trait key to domestication, i.e., genetic tameness, is accompanied by global and region-specific increases in neurogenesis.

  16. Selective Pressure to Increase Charge in Immunodominant Epitopes of the H3 Hemagglutinin Influenza Protein

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Keyao; Long, Jinxue; Sun, Haoxin; Tobin, Gregory J.; Nara, Peter L.

    2010-01-01

    The evolutionary speed and the consequent immune escape of H3N2 influenza A virus make it an interesting evolutionary system. Charged amino acid residues are often significant contributors to the free energy of binding for protein–protein interactions, including antibody–antigen binding and ligand–receptor binding. We used Markov chain theory and maximum likelihood estimation to model the evolution of the number of charged amino acids on the dominant epitope in the hemagglutinin protein of circulating H3N2 virus strains. The number of charged amino acids increased in the dominant epitope B of the H3N2 virus since introduction in humans in 1968. When epitope A became dominant in 1989, the number of charged amino acids increased in epitope A and decreased in epitope B. Interestingly, the number of charged residues in the dominant epitope of the dominant circulating strain is never fewer than that in the vaccine strain. We propose these results indicate selective pressure for charged amino acids that increase the affinity of the virus epitope for water and decrease the affinity for host antibodies. The standard PAM model of generic protein evolution is unable to capture these trends. The reduced alphabet Markov model (RAMM) model we introduce captures the increased selective pressure for charged amino acids in the dominant epitope of hemagglutinin of H3N2 influenza (R2 > 0.98 between 1968 and 1988). The RAMM model calibrated to historical H3N2 influenza virus evolution in humans fit well to the H3N2/Wyoming virus evolution data from Guinea pig animal model studies. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s00239-010-9405-4) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users. PMID:21086120

  17. Cationization increases brain distribution of an amyloid-beta protofibril selective F(ab')2 fragment.

    PubMed

    Syvänen, Stina; Edén, Desirée; Sehlin, Dag

    2017-11-04

    Antibodies and fragments thereof are, because of high selectivity for their targets, considered as potential therapeutics and biomarkers for several neurological disorders. However, due to their large molecular size, antibodies/fragments do not easily penetrate into the brain. The aim of the present study was to improve the brain distribution via adsorptive-mediated transcytosis of an amyloid-beta (Aβ) protofibril selective F(ab')2 fragment (F(ab')2-h158). F(ab')2-h158 was cationized to different extents and the specific and unspecific binding was studied in vitro. Next, cationized F(ab')2-h158 was labelled with iodine-125 and its brain distribution and pharmacokinetics was studied in mice. Cationization did not alter the in vitro affinity to Aβ protofibrils, but increased the unspecific binding somewhat. Ex vivo experiments revealed a doubling of brain concentrations compared with unmodified F(ab')2-h158 and in vivo imaging with single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) showed that the cationized F(ab')2-h158, but not the unmodified F(ab')2-h158 could be visualized in the brain. To conclude, cationization is a means to increase brain concentrations of therapeutic antibodies or fragments and may facilitate the use of antibodies/fragments as imaging biomarkers in the brain. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Selective Estrogen Receptor Modulation Increases Hippocampal Activity during Probabilistic Association Learning in Schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Kindler, Jochen; Weickert, Cynthia Shannon; Skilleter, Ashley J; Catts, Stanley V; Lenroot, Rhoshel; Weickert, Thomas W

    2015-09-01

    People with schizophrenia show probabilistic association learning impairment in conjunction with abnormal neural activity. The selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERM) raloxifene preserves neural activity during memory in healthy older men and improves memory in schizophrenia. Here, we tested the extent to which raloxifene modifies neural activity during learning in schizophrenia. Nineteen people with schizophrenia participated in a twelve-week randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over adjunctive treatment trial of the SERM raloxifene administered orally at 120 mg daily to assess brain activity during probabilistic association learning using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Raloxifene improved probabilistic association learning and significantly increased fMRI BOLD activity in the hippocampus and parahippocampal gyrus relative to placebo. A separate region of interest confirmatory analysis in 21 patients vs 36 healthy controls showed a positive association between parahippocampal neural activity and learning in patients, but no such relationship in the parahippocampal gyrus of healthy controls. Thus, selective estrogen receptor modulation by raloxifene concurrently increases activity in the parahippocampal gyrus and improves probabilistic association learning in schizophrenia. These results support a role for estrogen receptor modulation of mesial temporal lobe neural activity in the remediation of learning disabilities in both men and women with schizophrenia.

  19. Selective Estrogen Receptor Modulation Increases Hippocampal Activity during Probabilistic Association Learning in Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Kindler, Jochen; Weickert, Cynthia Shannon; Skilleter, Ashley J; Catts, Stanley V; Lenroot, Rhoshel; Weickert, Thomas W

    2015-01-01

    People with schizophrenia show probabilistic association learning impairment in conjunction with abnormal neural activity. The selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERM) raloxifene preserves neural activity during memory in healthy older men and improves memory in schizophrenia. Here, we tested the extent to which raloxifene modifies neural activity during learning in schizophrenia. Nineteen people with schizophrenia participated in a twelve-week randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over adjunctive treatment trial of the SERM raloxifene administered orally at 120 mg daily to assess brain activity during probabilistic association learning using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Raloxifene improved probabilistic association learning and significantly increased fMRI BOLD activity in the hippocampus and parahippocampal gyrus relative to placebo. A separate region of interest confirmatory analysis in 21 patients vs 36 healthy controls showed a positive association between parahippocampal neural activity and learning in patients, but no such relationship in the parahippocampal gyrus of healthy controls. Thus, selective estrogen receptor modulation by raloxifene concurrently increases activity in the parahippocampal gyrus and improves probabilistic association learning in schizophrenia. These results support a role for estrogen receptor modulation of mesial temporal lobe neural activity in the remediation of learning disabilities in both men and women with schizophrenia. PMID:25829142

  20. Intensive aquaculture selects for increased virulence and interference competition in bacteria.

    PubMed

    Sundberg, Lotta-Riina; Ketola, Tarmo; Laanto, Elina; Kinnula, Hanna; Bamford, Jaana K H; Penttinen, Reetta; Mappes, Johanna

    2016-03-16

    Although increased disease severity driven by intensive farming practices is problematic in food production, the role of evolutionary change in disease is not well understood in these environments. Experiments on parasite evolution are traditionally conducted using laboratory models, often unrelated to economically important systems. We compared how the virulence, growth and competitive ability of a globally important fish pathogen, Flavobacterium columnare, change under intensive aquaculture. We characterized bacterial isolates from disease outbreaks at fish farms during 2003-2010, and compared F. columnare populations in inlet water and outlet water of a fish farm during the 2010 outbreak. Our data suggest that the farming environment may select for bacterial strains that have high virulence at both long and short time scales, and it seems that these strains have also evolved increased ability for interference competition. Our results are consistent with the suggestion that selection pressures at fish farms can cause rapid changes in pathogen populations, which are likely to have long-lasting evolutionary effects on pathogen virulence. A better understanding of these evolutionary effects will be vital in prevention and control of disease outbreaks to secure food production. © 2016 The Author(s).

  1. Application of a beta-cyclodextrin sulfate-immobilized precolumn to selective on-line enrichment and separation of heparin-binding proteins by column-switching high-performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Ishimura, K; Fukunaga, K; Irie, T; Uekama, K; Ohta, T; Nakamura, H

    1997-05-09

    A column-switching high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) system which consisted of a beta-cyclodextrin (beta-CD) sulfate-immobilized hydrophilic vinyl-polymer gel precolumn and a reversed-phase analytical column was developed for the selective on-line enrichment and separation of heparin-binding proteins. Of 15 proteins investigated, 10 proteins having heparin-binding activity were retained on the beta-CD sulfate precolumn almost quantitatively, in contrast 5 proteins having no heparin-binding activity were not retained. Calibration graphs for basic fibroblast growth factor constructed at various sample volumes were nearly identical, indicating that the protein could be enriched by this system. The system was successfully used for the selective separation of lysozyme in egg white. The beta-CD sulfate-immobilized precolumn showed no loss of analytical performance over 2 years during which about 400 samples were analysed.

  2. Genetic selection for increased mean and reduced variance of twinning rate in Belclare ewes.

    PubMed

    Cottle, D J; Gilmour, A R; Pabiou, T; Amer, P R; Fahey, A G

    2016-04-01

    It is sometimes possible to breed for more uniform individuals by selecting animals with a greater tendency to be less variable, that is, those with a smaller environmental variance. This approach has been applied to reproduction traits in various animal species. We have evaluated fecundity in the Irish Belclare sheep breed by analyses of flocks with differing average litter size (number of lambs per ewe per year, NLB) and have estimated the genetic variance in environmental variance of lambing traits using double hierarchical generalized linear models (DHGLM). The data set comprised of 9470 litter size records from 4407 ewes collected in 56 flocks. The percentage of pedigreed lambing ewes with singles, twins and triplets was 30, 54 and 14%, respectively, in 2013 and has been relatively constant for the last 15 years. The variance of NLB increases with the mean in this data; the correlation of mean and standard deviation across sires is 0.50. The breeding goal is to increase the mean NLB without unduly increasing the incidence of triplets and higher litter sizes. The heritability estimates for lambing traits were NLB, 0.09; triplet occurrence (TRI) 0.07; and twin occurrence (TWN), 0.02. The highest and lowest twinning flocks differed by 23% (75% versus 52%) in the proportion of ewes lambing twins. Fitting bivariate sire models to NLB and the residual from the NLB model using a double hierarchical generalized linear model (DHGLM) model found a strong genetic correlation (0.88 ± 0.07) between the sire effect for the magnitude of the residual (VE ) and sire effects for NLB, confirming the general observation that increased average litter size is associated with increased variability in litter size. We propose a threshold model that may help breeders with low litter size increase the percentage of twin bearers without unduly increasing the percentage of ewes bearing triplets in Belclare sheep.

  3. Selective separation and enrichment of glibenclamide in health foods using surface molecularly imprinted polymers prepared via dendritic grafting of magnetic nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ruoyu; Wang, Yang; Xue, Cheng; Wen, Tingting; Wu, Jinhua; Hong, Junli; Zhou, Xuemin

    2013-03-01

    In this paper, the novel surface molecularly imprinted polymers based on dendritic-grafting magnetic nanoparticles were developed to enrich and separate glibenclamide in health foods. The density functional theory method was used to give theoretical directions to the synthesis of molecularly imprinted polymers. The polymers were prepared by using magnetic nanoparticles as supporting materials, methacrylic acid as the functional monomer, and ethylene glycol dimethacrylate as the cross-linker. The characteristics of magnetic nanoparticles and polymers were measured by transmission electron microscope and SEM, respectively. The enriching ability of molecularly imprinted polymers was measured by Freundlich Isotherm. The molecularly imprinted polymers were used as dispersive SPE materials to enrich, separate, and detect glibenclamide in health foods by HPLC. The average recoveries of glibenclamide in spiked health foods were 81.46-93.53% with the RSD < 4.07%.

  4. Selective depletion of FOXP3(high) cells by Fas-Fas-L-induced apoptosis occurs in CD4(+)CD25(+)-enriched populations during repeated expansion.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wei; Nair, Sindu; Danby, Robert; Peniket, Andy; Roberts, David J

    2013-10-01

    Expansion of anti-CD25 bead-isolated human Tregs culture has paradoxically resulted in reduced suppressive activity, but the mechanism(s) responsible for these observations are poorly defined. Magnetic-bead isolated human CD25(+) cells were expanded with anti-CD3/CD28 beads and high doses of rhIL-2. Detection of Fas and Fas ligand (Fas-L) expression, activation of Caspase 8, cell proliferation and cytokine production was evaluated by multi-color fluorescence-activated cell sorting analysis. The role of Fas-Fas-L-mediated cell death was dissected through the use of agonist or antagonist monoclonal antibodies directed at Fas and Fas-L. Repeated expansion of bead-enriched CD4(+)CD25(+) cells generated a cellular product with markedly reduced suppressive activity and with significantly increased CD8(+) T cells and CD4(+) T cells producing interferon-γ and/or interleukin-2. We showed that Fas-Fas-L-mediated apoptosis of CD4(+)FOXP3(high) cells and rapid cell-cycling of CD8(+) T cells were collectively responsible for the reduced proportion of CD4(+)FOXP3(high) cells in expanded cultures. The depletion of CD4(+)FOXP3(high) cells and activation of Caspase 8 in CD4(+)FOXP3(high) cells was attenuated by Fas antagonist antibody, ZB4, in short-term culture. However, the loss of CD4(+)FOXP3(high) cells during expansion was not prevented by either Fas or Fas-L antagonist antibodies. Taken together, the data show that Fas-Fas-L-mediated apoptosis may limit the expansion of anti-CD25 bead-isolated cells in vitro. Copyright © 2013 International Society for Cellular Therapy. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Antisense oligonucleotides targeting translation inhibitory elements in 5' UTRs can selectively increase protein levels.

    PubMed

    Liang, Xue-Hai; Sun, Hong; Shen, Wen; Wang, Shiyu; Yao, Joyee; Migawa, Michael T; Bui, Huynh-Hoa; Damle, Sagar S; Riney, Stan; Graham, Mark J; Crooke, Rosanne M; Crooke, Stanley T

    2017-09-19

    A variety of diseases are caused by deficiencies in amounts or activity of key proteins. An approach that increases the amount of a specific protein might be of therapeutic benefit. We reasoned that translation could be specifically enhanced using trans-acting agents that counter the function of negative regulatory elements present in the 5' UTRs of some mRNAs. We recently showed that translation can be enhanced by antisense oligonucleotides (ASOs) that target upstream open reading frames. Here we report the amount of a protein can also be selectively increased using ASOs designed to hybridize to other translation inhibitory elements in 5' UTRs. Levels of human RNASEH1, LDLR, and ACP1 and of mouse ACP1 and ARF1 were increased up to 2.7-fold in different cell types and species upon treatment with chemically modified ASOs targeting 5' UTR inhibitory regions in the mRNAs encoding these proteins. The activities of ASOs in enhancing translation were sequence and position dependent and required helicase activity. The ASOs appear to improve the recruitment of translation initiation factors to the target mRNA. Importantly, ASOs targeting ACP1 mRNA significantly increased the level of ACP1 protein in mice, suggesting that this approach has therapeutic and research potentials. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  6. Intermittent hypoxia selects for genotypes and phenotypes that increase survival, invasion, and therapy resistance.

    PubMed

    Verduzco, Daniel; Lloyd, Mark; Xu, Liping; Ibrahim-Hashim, Arig; Balagurunathan, Yoganand; Gatenby, Robert A; Gillies, Robert J

    2015-01-01

    Hypoxia in tumors correlates with greater risk of metastases, increased invasiveness, and resistance to systemic and radiation therapy. The evolutionary dynamics that links specific adaptations to hypoxia with these observed tumor properties have not been well investigated. While some tumor populations may experience fixed hypoxia, cyclical and stochastic transitions from normoxia to hypoxia are commonly observed in vivo. Although some phenotypic adaptations to this cyclic hypoxia are likely reversible, we hypothesize that some adaptations may become fixed through mutations promoted by hypoxia-induced genomic instability. Here we seek to identify genetic alterations and corresponding stable phenotypes that emerge following cyclic hypoxia. Although these changes may originate as adaptations to this specific environmental stress, their fixation in the tumor genome may result in their observation in tumors from regions of normoxia, a condition known as pseudohypoxia. We exposed several epithelial cell lines to 50 cycles of hypoxia-normoxia, followed by culture in normoxia over a period of several months. Molecular analyses demonstrated permanent changes in expression of several oncogenes and tumor-suppressors, including p53, E-cadherin, and Hif-1α. These changes were associated with increased resistance to multiple cytotoxins, increased survival in hypoxia and increased anchorage-independent growth. These results suggest cycles of hypoxia encountered in early cancers can select for specific and stable genotypic and phenotypic properties that persist even in normoxic conditions, which may promote tumor progression and resistance to therapy.

  7. Selection for growth in brown trout increases feed intake capacity without affecting maintenance and growth requirements.

    PubMed

    Mambrini, M; Médale, F; Sanchez, M P; Recalde, B; Chevassus, B; Labbé, L; Quillet, E; Boujard, T

    2004-10-01

    The correlated responses in feed intake and G:F ratio with selection for increased growth rate were evaluated by comparing selected (S) and control (C) brown trout (Salmo trutta) reared under conditions known to affect feed efficiency: feed restriction and periods of compensatory growth. Nitrogen and energy requirements for maintenance and growth were also measured. Trout were allotted at comparable BW (3.7+/-0.06 and 3.8+/-0.04 g, for C and S respectively) to triplicate groups per treatment. The experiment lasted a total of 198 d, during which animals were successively submitted to a 116-d feeding phase and fed 10, 30, 50, 70, 100, and 140% of their usual daily ration (UDR), a 35-d phase of food deprivation, and a 47-d refeeding phase. The G:F of C and S were comparable in all experimental conditions tested. During the feeding phase, S grew better than C only when fed 100 and 140% UDR (P < 0.001). This was explained by a higher feed intake capacity. The requirements for growth and maintenance were similar among the lines, which is in agreement with their comparable loss of weight (mean energy loss of -53 and -55 kJ/(kg x d) for C and S, respectively; P > 0.38) observed during the feed deprivation phase and the lack of differences in carcass composition (fat, P > 0.35; protein, P > 0.54). During the refeeding phase, growth performance and G:F were high in all groups. The daily growth coefficient was higher in S than in C (P < 0.001) because of a higher feed intake (P < 0.001). An increase in absolute individual variability in final BW and length was associated with the level of food restriction in both lines; however, it always remained lower in S than in C. In conclusion, fish selected for growth under ad libitum conditions will only exhibit growth superiority when fed diets close to ad libitum, and there was no evidence that selection was associated with an improvement in efficiency of maintenance nor in retention of body tissues.

  8. Overweight female rats selectively breed for low aerobic capacity exhibit increased myocardial fibrosis and diastolic dysfunction.

    PubMed

    DeMarco, Vincent G; Johnson, Megan S; Ma, Lixin; Pulakat, Lakshmi; Mugerfeld, Irina; Hayden, Melvin R; Garro, Mona; Knight, William; Britton, Steven L; Koch, Lauren G; Sowers, James R

    2012-04-15

    The statistical association between endurance exercise capacity and cardiovascular disease suggests that impaired aerobic metabolism underlies the cardiovascular disease risk in men and women. To explore this connection, we applied divergent artificial selection in rats to develop low-capacity runner (LCR) and high-capacity runner (HCR) rats and found that disease risks segregated strongly with low running capacity. Here, we tested if inborn low aerobic capacity promotes differential sex-related cardiovascular effects. Compared with HCR males (HCR-M), LCR males (LCR-M) were overweight by 34% and had heavier retroperitoneal, epididymal, and omental fat pads; LCR females (LCR-F) were 20% heavier than HCR females (HCR-F), and their retroperitoneal, but not perireproductive or omental, fat pads were heavier as well. Unlike HCR-M, blood pressure was elevated in LCR-M, and this was accompanied by left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy. Like HCR-F, LCR-F exhibited normal blood pressure and LV weight as well as increased spontaneous cage activity compared with males. Despite normal blood pressures, LCR-F exhibited increased myocardial interstitial fibrosis and diastolic dysfunction, as indicated by increased LV stiffness, a decrease in the initial filling rate, and an increase in diastolic relaxation time. Although females exhibited increased arterial stiffness, ejection fraction was normal. Increased interstitial fibrosis and diastolic dysfunction in LCR-F was accompanied by the lowest protein levels of phosphorylated AMP-actived protein kinase [phospho-AMPK (Thr(172))] and silent information regulator 1. Thus, the combination of risk factors, including female sex, intrinsic low aerobic capacity, and overweightness, promote myocardial stiffness/fibrosis sufficient to induce diastolic dysfunction in the absence of hypertension and LV hypertrophy.

  9. Enriched Environment Increases PCNA and PARP1 Levels in Octopus vulgaris Central Nervous System: First Evidence of Adult Neurogenesis in Lophotrochozoa.

    PubMed

    Bertapelle, Carla; Polese, Gianluca; Di Cosmo, Anna

    2017-03-02

    Organisms showing a complex and centralized nervous system, such as teleosts, amphibians, reptiles, birds and mammals, and among invertebrates, crustaceans and insects, can adjust their behavior according to the environmental challenges. Proliferation, differentiation, migration, and axonal and dendritic development of newborn neurons take place in brain areas where structural plasticity, involved in learning, memory, and sensory stimuli integration, occurs. Octopus vulgaris has a complex and centralized nervous system, located between the eyes, with a hierarchical organization. It is considered the most "intelligent" invertebrate for its advanced cognitive capabilities, as learning and memory, and its sophisticated behaviors. The experimental data obtained by immunohistochemistry and western blot assay using proliferating cell nuclear antigen and poli (ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 as marker of cell proliferation and synaptogenesis, respectively, reviled cell proliferation in areas of brain involved in learning, memory, and sensory stimuli integration. Furthermore, we showed how enriched environmental conditions affect adult neurogenesis.

  10. Job Enrichment and the Mentally Retarded Worker.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Jerry L.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    The effect of job enrichment on the production rate of 14 mentally retarded adult workers was evaluated. Job enrichment led to increases in standard rates of production for high IQ Ss and lower rates for low IQ Ss. (Author)

  11. Helicobacter pylori related hypergastrinaemia is the result of a selective increase in gastrin 17.

    PubMed Central

    Mulholland, G; Ardill, J E; Fillmore, D; Chittajallu, R S; Fullarton, G M; McColl, K E

    1993-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori infection increases the serum concentration of gastrin, and this may be one of the mechanisms by which it predisposes to duodenal ulceration. Different forms of circulating gastrin were studied both basally and postprandially in 13 duodenal ulcer patients before and one month after eradication of H pylori. Three antisera that are specific for particular regions of the gastrin molecules were used. Gel chromatography indicated that > 90% of the circulating gastrin consisted of gastrin (G) 17 and G34 both before and after eradicating the infection. The basal median total immunoreactive gastrin concentration fell from 26 pmol/l (range 11-43) to 19 pmol/l (8-39) (p < 0.05), entirely because of a fall in G17 from 6 pmol/l (< 2.4-25) to < 2.4 pmol/l (< 2.4-23) (p < 0.001). The median (range) basal G34 values were similar before (15 pmol (2-36)) and after (10 pmol (2-30)) eradication. The median total immunoreactive gastrin concentration determined 20 minutes postprandially fell from 59 pmol/l (38-114) to 33 pmol/l (19-88) (p < 0.005), and again this was entirely the result of a fall in G17 from 43 pmol/l (9-95) to 17 pmol/l (< 2.4-52) (p < 0.001). The median postprandial G34 values were similar before (13 pmol/l, range 6-42) and after (15 pmol/l, range 6-30) eradication. Eating stimulated a noticeable rise in G17 but little change in G34, both in the presence and absence of H pylori. The finding that H pylori infection selectively increases G17 explains why the infection causes mainly postprandial hypergastrinaemia. G17 is increased selectively because H pylori predominantly affects the antral mucosa which is the main source of G17 whereas G34 is mainly duodenal in origin. This study also indicates that the increased concentration of gastrin in H pylori infection is the result of an increase in one of the main biologically active forms of the hormone. PMID:8314507

  12. Metabolic rates associated with membrane fatty acids in mice selected for increased maximal metabolic rate

    PubMed Central

    Wone, Bernard W. M.; Donovan, Edward R.; Cushman, John C.; Hayes, Jack P.

    2014-01-01

    Aerobic metabolism of vertebrates is linked to membrane fatty acid (FA) composition. Although the membrane pacemaker hypothesis posits that desaturation of FAs accounts for variation in resting or basal metabolic rate (BMR), little is known about the FA profiles that underpin variation in maximal metabolic rate (MMR). We examined membrane FA composition of liver and skeletal muscle in mice after seven generations of selection for increased MMR. In both liver and skeletal muscle, unsaturation index did not differ between control and high-MMR mice. We also examined