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Sample records for enteric protozoa causing

  1. Enteric pathogenic protozoa in homosexual men from San Francisco.

    PubMed

    Ortega, H B; Borchardt, K A; Hamilton, R; Ortega, P; Mahood, J

    1984-01-01

    The prevalence of enteric protozoa was studied in a survey conducted among 150 male homosexual patients in San Francisco. All patients were from a private practice in internal medicine. Each was asked to complete a questionnaire and to submit multiple stool specimens for examination. Of this group, 47% were positive for one or more potentially pathogenic intestinal protozoa; Entamoeba histolytica was found in 36%, Entamoeba hartmanni in 35%, Giardia lamblia in 5%, and Dientamoeba fragilis in 1.3%. Symptoms were unreliable as a diagnostic index of intestinal protozoan infection. Colonization rates could not be correlated with any specific sexual technique. The large number of homosexuals at risk, combined with the potential for difficulties in diagnosis and contact-tracing, indicate the possibility that enteric pathogenic protozoa will cause future health problems in this population.

  2. Enteric Protozoa in the Developed World: a Public Health Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Fletcher, Stephanie M.; Stark, Damien; Harkness, John

    2012-01-01

    Summary: Several enteric protozoa cause severe morbidity and mortality in both humans and animals worldwide. In developed settings, enteric protozoa are often ignored as a cause of diarrheal illness due to better hygiene conditions, and as such, very little effort is used toward laboratory diagnosis. Although these protozoa contribute to the high burden of infectious diseases, estimates of their true prevalence are sometimes affected by the lack of sensitive diagnostic techniques to detect them in clinical and environmental specimens. Despite recent advances in the epidemiology, molecular biology, and treatment of protozoan illnesses, gaps in knowledge still exist, requiring further research. There is evidence that climate-related changes will contribute to their burden due to displacement of ecosystems and human and animal populations, increases in atmospheric temperature, flooding and other environmental conditions suitable for transmission, and the need for the reuse of alternative water sources to meet growing population needs. This review discusses the common enteric protozoa from a public health perspective, highlighting their epidemiology, modes of transmission, prevention, and control. It also discusses the potential impact of climate changes on their epidemiology and the issues surrounding waterborne transmission and suggests a multidisciplinary approach to their prevention and control. PMID:22763633

  3. Clinical Significance of Enteric Protozoa in the Immunosuppressed Human Population

    PubMed Central

    Stark, D.; Barratt, J. L. N.; van Hal, S.; Marriott, D.; Harkness, J.; Ellis, J. T.

    2009-01-01

    Summary: Globally, the number of immunosuppressed people increases each year, with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) pandemic continuing to spread unabated in many parts of the world. Immunosuppression may also occur in malnourished persons, patients undergoing chemotherapy for malignancy, and those receiving immunosuppressive therapy. Components of the immune system can be functionally or genetically abnormal as a result of acquired (e.g., caused by HIV infection, lymphoma, or high-dose steroids or other immunosuppressive medications) or congenital illnesses, with more than 120 congenital immunodeficiencies described to date that either affect humoral immunity or compromise T-cell function. All individuals affected by immunosuppression are at risk of infection by opportunistic parasites (such as the microsporidia) as well as those more commonly associated with gastrointestinal disease (such as Giardia). The outcome of infection by enteric protozoan parasites is dependent on absolute CD4+ cell counts, with lower counts being associated with more severe disease, more atypical disease, and a greater risk of disseminated disease. This review summarizes our current state of knowledge on the significance of enteric parasitic protozoa as a cause of disease in immunosuppressed persons and also provides guidance on recent advances in diagnosis and therapy for the control of these important parasites. PMID:19822892

  4. Molecular diagnosis of infectious diarrhea: focus on enteric protozoa.

    PubMed

    Verkerke, Hans P; Sobuz, Shihab U; Petri, William A

    2014-11-01

    Robust detection of enteric protozoa is a critical step toward determining the etiology of diarrhea. Widespread use of conventional microscopy, culturing and antigen detection in both industrial and developing countries is limited by relatively low sensitivity and specificity. Refinements of these conventional approaches that reduce turnaround time and instrumentation have yielded strong alternatives for clinical and research use. However, advances in molecular diagnostics for protozoal, bacterial, viral and helminth infections offer significant advantages in studies seeking to understand pathogenesis, transmission and long-term consequences of infectious diarrhea. Quantitation of enteropathogen burden and highly multiplexed platforms for molecular detection dramatically improve predictive power in emerging models of diarrheal etiology, while eliminating the expense of multiple tests.

  5. Prevalence, characteristics and correlates of enteric pathogenic protozoa in drinking water sources in Molyko and Bomaka, Cameroon: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Nsoh, Fuh Anold; Wung, Buh Amos; Atashili, Julius; Benjamin, Pokam Thumamo; Marvlyn, Eba; Ivo, Keumami Katte; Nguedia, Assob Jules Clément

    2016-11-08

    Access to potable water remains a major challenge particularly in resource-limited settings. Although the potential contaminants of water are varied, enteric pathogenic protozoa are known to cause waterborne diseases greatly. This study aimed at investigating the prevalence, characteristics and correlates of enteric pathogenic protozoa in drinking water sources in Buea, Cameroon. A cross-sectional study was conducted using 155 water samples collected from various drinking sources (boreholes, springs, taps and wells). Each sample was subjected to physicochemical examinations (pH, turbidity, odour and sliminess) and parasitological analysis (wet mount, modified Ziehl-Neelsen stain) to determine the presence of enteric pathogenic protozoa. A data collection tool was used to note characteristics of collected samples and the data was analysed using EPI-INFO Version 3.5.3. The overall prevalence of enteric pathogenic protozoa in water sources was 62.6 %. Eight species of enteric protozoa were observed with Cryptosporidium parvum being the most predominant (45.8 %). Spring water was the most contaminated source with enteric protozoa (85.7 %) while pipe borne water had all eight species of protozoa identified. A pH of 6 was the only significant factor associated with the prevalence of these pathogens in water sources. The prevalence of enteric protozoa in water sources in Molyko and Bomaka is high, spring water is the most contaminated water source and Cryptosporidium parvum is the most common protozoa contaminating water. A water pH of 6 is associated to the prevalence of protozoa. Community members need to be educated to treat water before drinking to avoid infection by enteric protozoa in water and further studies with larger samples of water need to be conducted to find other correlates of the presence of protozoa in water.

  6. Protozoa as a cause of recurrent abdominal pain in children.

    PubMed

    Gijsbers, Carolien F M; Schweizer, Joachim J; Büller, Hans A

    2013-11-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether protozoa can be identified as a cause of recurrent abdominal pain (RAP), and whether protozoan infections can be recognized by a specific clinical presentation. For 2 years, all patients (ages 4-16 years) fulfilling the Apley criteria of RAP referred to secondary care were prospectively evaluated for protozoa (Giardia lamblia, Dientamoeba fragilis, Blastocystis hominis) and treated if positive. Re-examination followed at least 10 days after treatment. Disappearance of pain with eradication and a pain-free follow-up of at least 6 months were considered to be indicative of a causal relation with RAP. The predictive value of the characteristics of the pain for protozoan infections was calculated. Of 220 included patients (92 boys, mean age 8.8 years), 215 brought a stool sample; 73 (34%) carried parasites, 10 of whom had 2 parasites, 2 had 3 parasites. Sixty-five patients were treated. Twenty-five (11%) were pain-free after eradication (21 had D fragilis, 8 B hominis, 4 G lamblia), of whom 11 had another infection (2) or constipation (9) as second diagnosis for the pain. Five had recurrence of infection with D fragilis and were again pain-free with eradication. Patients with protozoa as cause of their pain did not show differences with respect to their presentation when compared with patients with an asymptomatic infection and patients without protozoa. Protozoa were found as the cause of pain in 6% to 11% of children with RAP. These patients did not show a characteristic presentation when compared with patients with other causes of abdominal pain.

  7. INACTIVATION AND REMOVAL OF ENTERIC PROTOZOA IN WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Protozoan parasites including Giardia, Cryptosporidium, and Entamoeba can be transmitted through water and cause disease in humans and animals. Control of waterborne infection can be accomplished through a variety of physical and chemical means, resulting in the production of sa...

  8. INACTIVATION AND REMOVAL OF ENTERIC PROTOZOA IN WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Protozoan parasites including Giardia, Cryptosporidium, and Entamoeba can be transmitted through water and cause disease in humans and animals. Control of waterborne infection can be accomplished through a variety of physical and chemical means, resulting in the production of sa...

  9. Enteric protozoa of cats and their zoonotic potential-a field study from Austria.

    PubMed

    Hinney, Barbara; Ederer, Christina; Stengl, Carina; Wilding, Katrin; Štrkolcová, Gabriela; Harl, Josef; Flechl, Eva; Fuehrer, Hans-Peter; Joachim, Anja

    2015-05-01

    Domestic cats can be infected with a variety of enteric protozoa. Genotyping of protozoan species, especially Giardia as the most common, can improve assessment of their relevance as zoonotic agents. For an overview on the occurrence of feline enteric protozoa, 298 faecal samples of cats from private households, catteries and animal shelters in Austria were collected. All samples were examined by flotation and using a rapid test for Giardia (FASTest). For the detection of Tritrichomonas blagburni, freshly voided faeces (n = 40) were processed using a commercial culturing system (InPouch TF-Feline). Genotyping was done at the β-giardin gene loci (each sample) and triosephosphate isomerase gene loci (positive samples) for Giardia and at the 18S rRNA gene (positive samples) for Cryptosporidium. Thirty-seven samples (12.4%) were positive for Giardia by flotation and/or using a rapid test. Cryptosporidium was present in 1.7%, Cystoisospora in 4.0%, Sarcocystis in 0.3% and T. blagburni in 2.5% of the samples. Genotyping revealed Giardia cati, the potentially zoonotic Giardia duodenalis and Cryptosporidium felis. Most of the infected cats had no diarrhoea. Cats from shelters were significantly more often infected than owned cats (p = 0.01). When comparing Giardia detection methods, the rapid test had a higher sensitivity than flotation. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) results were mostly independent from the other two tests.

  10. Molecular Analysis of the Enteric Protozoa Associated with Acute Diarrhea in Hospitalized Children

    PubMed Central

    Boughattas, Sonia; Behnke, Jerzy M.; Al-Ansari, Khalid; Sharma, Aarti; Abu-Alainin, Wafa; Al-Thani, Asma; Abu-Madi, Marawan A.

    2017-01-01

    Pediatric diarrhea is a common cause of death among children under 5 years of age. In the current study, we investigated the frequency of intestinal parasites among 580 pediatric patients with chronic diarrhea. Parasitic protozoa (all species combined) were detected by molecular tools in 22.9% of the children and the most common parasite was Cryptosporidium spp. (15.1%). Blastocystis hominis was detected in 4.7%, Dientamoeba fragilis in 4%, Giardia duodenalis in 1.7%, and Entamoeba histolytica in 0.17%. Protozoan infections were observed among all regional groups, but prevalence was highest among Qatari subjects and during the winter season. Typing of Cryptosporidium spp. revealed a predominance of Cryptosporidium parvum in 92% of cases with mostly the IIdA20G1 subtype. Subtypes IIdA19G2, IIdA18G2, IIdA18G1, IIdA17G1, IIdA16G1, and IIdA14G1 were also detected. For Cryptosporidium hominis, IbA10G2 and IbA9G3 subtypes were identified. This study provides supplementary information for implementing prevention and control strategies to reduce the burden of these pediatric protozoan infections. Further analyses are required to better understand the local epidemiology and transmission of Cryptosporidium spp. in Qatar. PMID:28824878

  11. First molecular characterization of enteric protozoa and the human pathogenic microsporidian, Enterocytozoon bieneusi, in captive snakes in China.

    PubMed

    Karim, Md Robiul; Yu, Fuchang; Li, Jian; Li, Junqiang; Zhang, Longxian; Wang, Rongjun; Rume, Farzana Islam; Jian, Fuchun; Zhang, Sumei; Ning, Changshen

    2014-08-01

    Enteric protozoa are frequently found in snakes. Nevertheless, few studies regarding genetic characterization of these parasites have been carried out. We describe here the first molecular survey of protozoan pathogens from snakes in China and the first report on Enterocytozoon bieneusi genotyping in snakes in the world. Here, 240 fecal specimens were collected from two species of captive snakes, Naja naja (Indian cobra) and Ptyas mucosus (Oriental rat snake), in Guangxi Province, China, and examined by PCR amplification of the small subunit-ribosomal RNA of enteric protozoa and the internal transcribed spacer of ribosomal RNA of E. bieneusi. Cryptosporidium serpentis was identified in three specimens (2.1%) of Oriental rat snakes. Caryospora was found in 5.4% specimens, including eight from cobras (8.1%) and five from rat snakes (3.6%), and represented six new species-Caryospora sp. SKC-2014a to Caryospora sp. SKC-2014 f. Three new Eimeria species, Eimeria sp. SKE-2014a to Eimeria sp. SKE-2014c, were detected in three specimens (2.1%) from rat snakes. Additionally, Sarcocystis sp. SKS-2014 was detected in one specimen from a cobra. The infection rates of E. bieneusi were 3.0% in cobras and 5.7% in rat snakes. Sequence analysis of 11 PCR products revealed the presence of six E. bieneusi genotypes-two known genotypes (type IV and Henan V) and four new genotypes (CRep-1 to CRep-4). All six E. bieneusi genotypes belonged to the zoonotic group (group 1). This result raised the possibility that E. bieneusi could be present in animals consumed by snakes. This should be taken into consideration to better understand the diversity of the parasite, its transmission through the predator-prey relationship, and public health implications.

  12. Bronchopulmonary Disease Caused by Flagellated Protozoa Infection in 15 Chinese Children.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jinrong; Li, Shaogang; Li, Huimin; Fan, Yimu; Yang, Haiming; Xu, Hui; Shen, Yuelin; Zhao, Shunying

    2017-04-01

    Bronchopulmonary disease caused by flagellated protozoa infection (BPFP) is thought to be rare in children but may be an emerging or underestimated disease, especially in developing countries. In this study, we retrospectively reviewed records of 15 patients who were presented with a cough, wheezing or bronchopulmonary disease of unknown causes during admission, and patients who were finally diagnosed with BPFP from January 2014 to January 2015 were enrolled. Protozoa were observed in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid by light microscopy. A total of 15 pediatric cases (11 male and 4 female individuals, from 1 year 8 months to 12 years 1 month of age) with flagellated protozoa infection diagnosed by light microscopy were recruited. The course of the disease at the time of diagnosis was from 10 days to 11 months. Patients presented with a fever (N = 9), cough (N = 11), wheezing (N = 5) and chest pain (N = 5). Laboratory data showed elevated peripheral blood leucocytes (N = 6), eosinophilic granulocytes (N = 3), C-reactive protein (N = 5) and immunoglobulin E (N = 3). Bronchoscopy revealed a mucus plug (N = 3) and bronchiectasis (N = 1). Lung computed tomography results indicated ground-glass opacification (N = 2), atelectasis (N = 3), bronchiectasis (N = 1), bronchial wall thickening (N = 3) or nodular opacity (N = 6, including 1 case of pulmonary embolism). All children responded to metronidazole for a 2- to 5-week treatment period. Patients with BPFP often have a chronic or recurrent course and present with recurrent fever, cough, wheezing and chest pain. Chest imaging may reveal ground-glass opacification, atelectasis, bronchiectasis or nodular opacity (including pulmonary embolism). BPFP responds favorably to metronidazole treatment.

  13. Colonization with the enteric protozoa Blastocystis is associated with increased diversity of human gut bacterial microbiota

    PubMed Central

    Audebert, Christophe; Even, Gaël; Cian, Amandine; Safadi, Dima El; Certad, Gabriela; Delhaes, Laurence; Pereira, Bruno; Nourrisson, Céline; Poirier, Philippe; Wawrzyniak, Ivan; Delbac, Frédéric; Morelle, Christelle; Bastien, Patrick; Lachaud, Laurence; Bellanger, Anne-Pauline; Botterel, Françoise; Candolfi, Ermanno; Desoubeaux, Guillaume; Morio, Florent; Pomares, Christelle; Rabodonirina, Meja; Loywick, Alexandre; Merlin, Sophie; Viscogliosi, Eric; Chabé, Magali

    2016-01-01

    Alterations in the composition of commensal bacterial populations, a phenomenon known as dysbiosis, are linked to multiple gastrointestinal disorders, such as inflammatory bowel disease and irritable bowel syndrome, or to infections by diverse enteric pathogens. Blastocystis is one of the most common single-celled eukaryotes detected in human faecal samples. However, the clinical significance of this widespread colonization remains unclear, and its pathogenic potential is controversial. To address the issue of Blastocystis pathogenicity, we investigated the impact of colonization by this protist on the composition of the human gut microbiota. For that purpose, we conducted a cross-sectional study including 48 Blastocystis-colonized patients and 48 Blastocystis-free subjects and performed an Ion Torrent 16S rDNA gene sequencing to decipher the Blastocystis-associated gut microbiota. Here, we report a higher bacterial diversity in faecal microbiota of Blastocystis colonized patients, a higher abundance of Clostridia as well as a lower abundance of Enterobacteriaceae. Our results contribute to suggesting that Blastocystis colonization is usually associated with a healthy gut microbiota, rather than with gut dysbiosis generally observed in metabolic or infectious inflammatory diseases of the lower gastrointestinal tract. PMID:27147260

  14. Enteric pathogens of food sellers in rural Gambia with incidental finding of Myxobolus species (Protozoa: Myxozoa).

    PubMed

    Bradbury, Richard S; Barbé, Barbara; Jacobs, Jan; Jallow, Amadou T; Camara, Karamo C; Colley, Musa; Wegmüller, Rita; Jassey, Babucarr; Cham, Yorro; Baldeh, Ignatius; Prentice, Andrew

    2015-05-01

    Ongoing surveillance of enteric pathogens of public health significance among casual food sellers is undertaken in many resource-limited countries. We report the results of a survey in Kiang West province, The Gambia, and provide an exemplar methodology for such surveys in resource-limited laboratories. Unpreserved, unrefrigerated stool samples were subjected to Salmonella, Shigella and agar plate culture for rhabditoid nematodes. Direct microscopy, formalin-ethyl acetate concentration and iron-hematoxylin staining was performed later, following preservation. Of 128 specimens received, no Shigella spp. was recovered, while four serovars of non-typhoidal Salmonella enterica, including Chandans, were isolated. Pathogenic parasitic infections were Necator americanus 10/128 (7.8%), Strongyloides stercoralis 3/128 (2.8%), Blastocystis species 45/128 (35.1%), Entamoeba histolytica complex 19/128 (14.8%) and Giardia intestinalis 4/128 (3.1%). A single case each of Hymenolepis diminuta and S. mansoni infection were detected. In one participant, myxozoan spores identical to those of Myxobolus species were found. Rare parasitoses and serovars of Salmonella enterica may occur relatively commonly in rural Africa. This paper describes intestinal pathogens found in a cohort of food sellers in such a setting. Furthermore, it describes two parasites rarely recovered from humans and demonstrates the need for methods other than microscopy to detect S. stercoralis infections. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Intestinal protozoa.

    PubMed

    Juckett, G

    1996-06-01

    Giardia is the best known cause of protozoal gastrointestinal disease in North America, producing significant but not life-threatening gastrointestinal distress and diarrhea. Although diagnosis of giardiasis may be challenging, treatment is usually successful. Entamoeba histolytica poses a rarer but far more difficult clinical challenge. Dysentery caused by E. histolytica may be the most feared intestinal protozoal infection, although Cryptosporidium parvum, Balantidium coli, Isospora belli, Sarcocystis species and other newly described protozoa also may cause diarrhea in healthy individuals and may result in intractable, life-threatening illness in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome or other immunosuppressive diseases. Certain protozoa once considered relatively unimportant, such as Cryptosporidium, are now recognized as significant causes of morbidity even in the United States, since transmission readily occurs through contaminated water.

  16. Rumen protozoa and methanogenesis: not a simple cause-effect relationship.

    PubMed

    Morgavi, Diego P; Martin, Cécile; Jouany, Jean-Pierre; Ranilla, Maria José

    2012-02-01

    Understanding the interactions between hydrogen producers and consumers in the rumen ecosystem is important for ruminant production and methane mitigation. The present study explored the relationships between rumen protozoa, methanogens and fermentation characteristics. A total of six donor sheep harbouring (F, faunated) or not (D, defaunated) protozoa in their rumens (D animals were kept without protozoa for a period of a few months (D - ) or for more than 2 years (D+)) were used in in vitro and in vivo experiments. In vitro the absence of protozoa decreased NH3 and butyrate production and had no effect on methane. In contrast, the liquid-associated bacterial and methanogens fraction of D+ inocula produced more methane than D -  and F inoculum (P < 0·05). In vivo fermentation parameters of donor animals showed the same trend on NH3 and butyrate and showed that D+ animals were high methane emitters, while D -  were the lowest ( - 35 %). The concentration of dissolved dihydrogen measured after feeding followed the opposite trend. Methane emissions did not correlate with the relative abundance of methanogens in the rumen measured by quantitative PCR, but there was a trend for higher methanogens concentration in the solid-associated population of D+ animals compared with D -  animals. In contrast, PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis profiles of methanogens' methyl coenzyme-M reductase A gene showed a clear clustering in liquid-associated fractions for all three groups of donors but fewer differences in solid-associated fractions. These results show that the absence of protozoa may affect differently the methanogen community and methane emissions in wethers.

  17. Molecular identification of protozoa causing AIDS-associated cholangiopathy in Buenos Aires, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Nétor Velásquez, Jorge; Marta, Edgardo; Alicia di Risio, Cecilia; Etchart, Cristina; Gancedo, Elisa; Victor Chertcoff, Agustín; Bruno Malandrini, Jorge; Germán Astudillo, Osvaldo; Carnevale, Silvana

    2012-12-01

    Several species of microsporidia and coccidia are protozoa parasites responsible for cholan-giopathy disease in patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The goals of this work were to identift opportunistic protozoa by molecular methods and describe the clinical manifestations at the gastrointestinal tract and the biliary system in patients with AIDS-associated cholangiopathy from Buenos Aires, Argentina. This study included 11 adult HIV-infected individuals with diagnosis ofAIDS- associated cholangiopathy. An upper gastrointestinal endoscopy with biopsy specimen collection and a stool analysis for parasites were performed on each patient. The ultrasound analysis revealed bile ducts compromise. An endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography and a magnetic resonance cholangiography were carried out. The identification to the species level was performed on biopsy specimens by molecular methods. Microorganisms were identified in 10 cases. The diagnosis in patients with sclerosing cholangitis was cryptosporidiosis in 3 cases, cystoisosporosis in 1 and microsporidiosis in 1. In patients with sclerosing cholangitis and papillary stenosis the diagnosis was microsporidiosis in 2 cases, cryptosporidiosis in 2 and cryptosporidiosis associated with microsporidiosis in 1. In 3 cases with cryptosporidiosis the species was Cryptosporidium hominis, 1 of them was associated with Enterocytozoon bieneusi, and the other 2 were coinfected with Cryptosporidium parvum. In the 4 cases with microsporidiosis the species was Enterocytozoon bieneusi. These results suggest that molecular methods may be useful tools to identify emerging protozoa in patients with AIDS-associated cholangiopathy.

  18. Culturing Protozoa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevenson, Paul

    1980-01-01

    Compares various nutrient media, growth conditions, and stock solutions used in culturing protozoa. A hay infusion in Chalkey's solution maintained at a stable temperature is recommended for producing the most dense and diverse cultures. (WB)

  19. Culturing Protozoa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevenson, Paul

    1980-01-01

    Compares various nutrient media, growth conditions, and stock solutions used in culturing protozoa. A hay infusion in Chalkey's solution maintained at a stable temperature is recommended for producing the most dense and diverse cultures. (WB)

  20. Optimization of a Reusable Hollow-Fiber Ultrafilter for Simultaneous Concentration of Enteric Bacteria, Protozoa, and Viruses from Water

    PubMed Central

    Morales-Morales, Hugo A.; Vidal, Guadalupe; Olszewski, John; Rock, Channah M.; Dasgupta, Debanjana; Oshima, Kevin H.; Smith, Geoffrey B.

    2003-01-01

    The detection and identification of pathogens from water samples remain challenging due to variations in recovery rates and the cost of procedures. Ultrafiltration offers the possibility to concentrate viral, bacterial, and protozoan organisms in a single process by using size-exclusion-based filtration. In this study, two hollow-fiber ultrafilters with 50,000-molecular-weight cutoffs were evaluated to concentrate microorganisms from 2- and 10-liter water samples. When known quantities (105 to 106 CFU/liter) of two species of enteric bacteria were introduced and concentrated from 2 liters of sterile water, the addition of 0.1% Tween 80 increased Escherichia coli strain K-12 recoveries from 70 to 84% and Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis recoveries from 36 to 72%. An E. coli antibiotic-resistant strain, XL1-Blue, was recovered at a level (87%) similar to that for strain K-12 (96%) from 10 liters of sterile water. When E. coli XL1-Blue was introduced into 10 liters of nonsterile Rio Grande water with higher turbidity levels (23 to 29 nephelometric turbidity units) at two inoculum levels (9 × 105 and 2.4 × 103 per liter), the recovery efficiencies were 89 and 92%, respectively. The simultaneous addition of E. coli XL1-Blue (9 × 105 CFU/liter), Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts (10 oocysts/liter), phage T1 (105 PFU/liter), and phage PP7 (105 PFU/liter) to 10 liters of Rio Grande surface water resulted in mean recoveries of 96, 54, 59, and 46%, respectively. Using a variety of surface waters from around the United States, we obtained recovery efficiencies for bacteria and viruses that were similar to those observed with the Rio Grande samples, but recovery of Cryptosporidium oocysts was decreased, averaging 32% (the site of collection of these samples had previously been identified as problematic for oocyst recovery). Results indicate that the use of ultrafiltration for simultaneous recovery of bacterial, viral, and protozoan pathogens from variable surface waters

  1. [Acute abdomen caused by eosinophilic enteritis: six observations].

    PubMed

    Martínez-Ubieto, Fernando; Bueno-Delgado, Alvaro; Jiménez-Bernadó, Teresa; Santero Ramírez, María Pilar; Arribas-Del Amo, Dolores; Martínez-Ubieto, Javier

    2013-01-01

    Eosinophilic enteritis is a rather rare condition characterized by infiltration of the gastrointestinal tract by eosinophils; as a casue of acute abdomen it is really exceptional. The etiology is unclear and its description in the literature is sparse, but associations have been made with collagen vascular disease, inflammatory bowel disease, food allergy and parasitic infections as it was confirmed in one of our pathologic studies. From 1997 to 2011 six cases of eosinophilic enteritis that involved a small bowel segment were diagnosed. A partial resection by an irreversible necrosis was necessary in three of them; in the other three only a biopsy was necessary due to the inflammatory aspect of the affected loop causing the acute abdomen. Eosinophilic enteritis can originate acute abdomen processes where an urgent surgical treatment is necessary. The intraoperative aspect can be from a segment of small bowel with inflammatory signs up to a completely irrecoverable loop, where removing of the affected segment is the correct treatment, which can be done laparoscopically.

  2. A FILTERABLE VIRUS CAUSING ENTERITIS AND PNEUMONIA IN CALVES

    PubMed Central

    Baker, James A.

    1943-01-01

    An infectious disease of calves has been described which is characterized by fever, diarrhea, and pneumonia, followed soon by recovery. On autopsy of animals killed at the height of the disease, there is found a catarrhal enteritis and a bronchopneumonia that is usually confined to the anterior lobes of the lungs. From this disease an agent has been secured by the serial inoculation of lung extracts that produces a pneumonia in white mice. Attempts to demonstrate by the same means a similar agent in uninoculated mice from the same stock have yielded negative results. Suspensions of the lungs of the mice with pneumonia, when inoculated intranasally or intratracheally into calves, cause a disease like the natural infection, characterized by fever, diarrhea, and pneumonia. In two experiments pen contact of normal calves with calves inoculated with the passed material resulted in the typical disease. Early in its course the causative agent is found only in the lungs and intestines, but at its height is generally distributed throughout the body. Calves that have recovered from the induced disease are resistant to subsequent infection and their blood serum will neutralize the causative agent as not previously. Sera from calves that have recovered from the natural disease also neutralize the agent. Cultures from the infected lungs of calves and mice as a rule show no growth, and material that has been passed through Berkefeld N filters produces the characteristic disease. It is therefore concluded that this disease of calves is caused by a filterable virus. PMID:19871340

  3. Enteritis

    MedlinePlus

    ... disease The inflammation can also involve the stomach ( gastritis ) and large intestine ( colitis ). Risk factors include: Recent ... Crohn disease Dehydration Diarrhea - overview Fever Food poisoning Gastritis Radiation enteritis Salmonella enterocolitis Shigellosis Review Date 5/ ...

  4. Extremely rare cause of congenital diarrhea: enteric anendocrinosis.

    PubMed

    Sayar, Ersin; Islek, Ali; Yilmaz, Aygen; Akcam, Mustafa; Flanagan, Sarah E; Artan, Reha

    2013-10-01

    Congenital diarrheal disorders consist of a variety of chronic enteropathies. There are approximately 30 different diseases that can be classified into four groups according to the mechanisms involved in pathogenesis: (i) absorption and transport of nutrients and electrolytes; (ii) enterocyte differentiation and polarization; (iii) enteroendocrine cell differentiation; and (iv) modulation of the intestinal immune response. Affected patients often present with life-threatening diarrhea, in the first few weeks of life. A new disorder, enteric anendocrinosis, which is characterized by severe malabsorptive diarrhea and a lack of intestinal enteroendocrine cells has recently been described in six patients with recessively inherited mutations in the Neurogenin-3 gene. In this report we describe a seventh case with a review of the literature.

  5. Tick-borne protozoa

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Tick-borne protozoa impose a significant health burden on humans and animals throughout the world. The virulence of tick-borne protozoa, and the geographic distribution of their tick vectors and vertebrate hosts remain in flux as they adapt to changing environmental and climatic conditions. Babesios...

  6. Protease activities of rumen protozoa.

    PubMed Central

    Forsberg, C W; Lovelock, L K; Krumholz, L; Buchanan-Smith, J G

    1984-01-01

    Intact, metabolically active rumen protozoa prepared by gravity sedimentation and washing in a mineral solution at 10 to 15 degrees C had comparatively low proteolytic activity on azocasein and low endogenous proteolytic activity. Protozoa washed in 0.1 M potassium phosphate buffer (pH 6.8) at 4 degrees C and stored on ice autolysed when they were warmed to 39 degrees C. They also exhibited low proteolytic activity on azocasein, but they had a high endogenous proteolytic activity with a pH optimum of 5.8. The endogenous proteolytic activity was inhibited by cysteine proteinase inhibitors, for example, iodoacetate (63.1%) and the aspartic proteinase inhibitor, pepstatin (43.9%). Inhibitors specific for serine proteinases and metalloproteinases were without effect. The serine and cysteine proteinase inhibitors of microbial origin, including antipain, chymostatin, and leupeptin, caused up to 67% inhibition of endogenous proteolysis. Hydrolysis of casein by protozoa autolysates was also inhibited by cysteine proteinase inhibitors. Some of the inhibitors decreased endogenous deamination, in particular, phosphoramidon, which had little inhibitory effect on proteolysis. Protozoal and bacterial preparations exhibited low hydrolytic activities on synthetic proteinase and carboxypeptidase substrates, although the protozoa had 10 to 78 times greater hydrolytic activity (per milligram of protein) than bacteria on the synthetic aminopeptidase substrates L-leucine-p-nitroanilide, L-leucine-beta-naphthylamide, and L-leucinamide. The aminopeptidase activity was partially inhibited by bestatin. It was concluded that cysteine proteinases and, to a lesser extent, aspartic proteinases are primarily responsible for proteolysis in autolysates of rumen protozoa. The protozoal autolysates had high aminopeptidase activity; low deaminase activity was observed on endogenous amino acids. PMID:6364968

  7. Enteric fever caused by Salmonella isolates with decreased susceptibility to ciprofloxacin.

    PubMed

    Karunanayake, Lilani; Atukorala, S D

    2004-12-01

    With emerging drug resistance, ciprofloxacin became the frontline antibiotic against Salmonella strains causing enteric fevers worldwide. However, strains with decreased susceptibility to flouroquinolones have recently emerged as a problem in our region. Such strains are not detected by the routine disc diffusion method unless a nalidixic acid disc is also used. They are, however, important clinically since they show poor clinical responses and have higher faecal carriage rates following treatment with fluoroquinolones in usual doses. We report the first two cases of such strains in Sri Lanka, both acquired locally. We recommend the routine use of a nalidixic acid disc in sensitivity testing of Salmonella species, causing enteric fever in laboratories not determining minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) for fluoroquinolones in order to detect such strains, so that appropriate clinical decisions regarding antibiotic therapy can be made.

  8. Enteric hyperoxaluria: an important cause of end-stage kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Nazzal, Lama; Puri, Sonika; Goldfarb, David S

    2016-03-01

    Hyperoxaluria is a frequent complication of inflammatory bowel diseases, ileal resection and Roux-en-Y gastric bypass and is well-known to cause nephrolithiasis and nephrocalcinosis. The associated prevalence of chronic kidney disease and end-stage kidney disease (ESKD) is less clear but may be more consequential than recognized. In this review, we highlight three cases of ESKD due to enteric hyperoxaluria following small bowel resections. We review current information on the pathophysiology, complications and treatment of this complex disease.

  9. [Malaria and intestinal protozoa].

    PubMed

    Rojo-Marcos, Gerardo; Cuadros-González, Juan

    2016-03-01

    Malaria is life threatening and requires urgent diagnosis and treatment. Incidence and mortality are being reduced in endemic areas. Clinical features are unspecific so in imported cases it is vital the history of staying in a malarious area. The first line treatments for Plasmodium falciparum are artemisinin combination therapies, chloroquine in most non-falciparum and intravenous artesunate if any severity criteria. Human infections with intestinal protozoa are distributed worldwide with a high global morbid-mortality. They cause diarrhea and sometimes invasive disease, although most are asymptomatic. In our environment populations at higher risk are children, including adopted abroad, immune-suppressed, travelers, immigrants, people in contact with animals or who engage in oral-anal sex. Diagnostic microscopic examination has low sensitivity improving with antigen detection or molecular methods. Antiparasitic resistances are emerging lately. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.

  10. [Protozoa and protozoan infections of humans in Central Europe].

    PubMed

    Walochnik, Julia; Aspöck, Horst

    2014-10-01

    This article is a condensed review of the medically relevant protozoa in Central Europe and the infections and diseases caused by them. Information is given on modes and sources of infection, organs involved in the disease, prevalence, diagnostics, therapy, and prophylaxis. Moreover, travel-associated infections with protozoa are briefly outlined.

  11. [Contamination of protozoa by enteroviruses in fresh water and sewages].

    PubMed

    Skachkov, M V; Al'misheva, A Sh; Plotnikov, A O; Nemtseva, N V; Skvortsov, V O

    2009-01-01

    To determine rate of infection of protozoa by enteroviruses to assess the potential role of protozoa as a natural reservoir of enteroviruses. The samples were collected from flowing and stagnant water reservoirs in Orenburg region in summer and autumn. The samples of sewages were taken in all stages of their treatment. Cultures of protozoa were isolated with micromanipulator equipped with micropipette, incubated on Pratt's medium at 25 degrees C and fed with Pseudomonas fluorescens culture. RNA of enteroviruses was detected by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Seventy-two protozoan species were found in Ural river, whereas 15 and 38 species were found in lakes and sewages respectively. Enteroviruses were detected by RT-PCR in 61.8% cultures of protozoa belonging to 23 species of flagellates, amoebae and ciliates isolated from natural water bodies undergoing anthropogenic impact as well as from sewages in all stages of their treatment. Predominant localization of enteroviruses in dominant taxons of protozoa (Paraphysomonas sp., Spumella sp., Petalomonas poosilla, Amoeba sp.) was noted. Obtained data confirm presence of enteroviruses in protozoa living both in flowing and stagnant recreation natural water bodies as well as in sewages and confirm the hypothesis of persistence of enteroviruses in protozoa and the reservoir role of the latter. Contingency of life cycles of viruses and protozoa allows to explain the seasonality of aseptic meningitis incidence caused by enteroviruses, which peaks in summer and autumn when protozoa massively multiply in water bodies.

  12. Listeria Monocytogenes Septicemia and Meningitis Caused by Listeria Enteritis Complicating Ulcerative Colitis.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Takahiro; Itani, Toshinao; Inomata, Noriko; Hara, Kazuya; Takimoto, Ikuhisa; Iseki, Shunya; Hamada, Kensuke; Adachi, Kanna; Okuyama, Shunsuke; Shimada, Yukari; Hayashi, Motohito; Mimura, Jun

    2017-10-01

    An 80-year-old man, who had been diagnosed with ulcerative colitis, was admitted due to a fever and bloody diarrhea and was treated with a glucocorticoid and azathioprine. After 5 days, he developed an impaired consciousness, headache, and neck stiffness. A sample of the colonic mucosa, blood cultures, and cerebrospinal fluid revealed Listeria monocytogenes infection. Intravenous ampicillin improved the symptoms of fever, bloody diarrhea, and headache without any neurological sequelae. Physicians should consider that Listeria enteritis complicating ulcerative colitis can cause septicemia and meningitis in immunosuppressed patients. A patient's central nervous system can avoid the effects of Listeria meningitis by an early diagnosis and appropriate treatment.

  13. Putative bronchopulmonary flagellated protozoa in immunosuppressed patients.

    PubMed

    Kilimcioglu, Ali Ahmet; Havlucu, Yavuz; Girginkardesler, Nogay; Celik, Pınar; Yereli, Kor; Özbilgin, Ahmet

    2014-01-01

    Flagellated protozoa that cause bronchopulmonary symptoms in humans are commonly neglected. These protozoal forms which were presumed to be "flagellated protozoa" have been previously identified in immunosuppressed patients in a number of studies, but have not been certainly classified so far. Since no human cases of bronchopulmonary flagellated protozoa were reported from Turkey, we aimed to investigate these putative protozoa in immunosuppressed patients who are particularly at risk of infectious diseases. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid samples of 110 immunosuppressed adult patients who were admitted to the Department of Chest Diseases, Hafsa Sultan Hospital of Celal Bayar University, Manisa, Turkey, were examined in terms of parasites by light microscopy. Flagellated protozoal forms were detected in nine (8.2%) of 110 cases. Metronidazole (500 mg b.i.d. for 30 days) was given to all positive cases and a second bronchoscopy was performed at the end of the treatment, which revealed no parasites. In conclusion, immunosuppressed patients with bronchopulmonary symptoms should attentively be examined with regard to flagellated protozoa which can easily be misidentified as epithelial cells.

  14. Symbiosis and Rumen Protozoa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dillon, Raymond D.

    1970-01-01

    Protozoa inhabiting the rumen of large grazing animals can be used to illustrate symbiotic animal associations. Gives a key to the ciliates most commonly found, several drawings, and a chart relating rumen fauna to the phylogenetic tree of the hosts. (EB)

  15. Symbiosis and Rumen Protozoa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dillon, Raymond D.

    1970-01-01

    Protozoa inhabiting the rumen of large grazing animals can be used to illustrate symbiotic animal associations. Gives a key to the ciliates most commonly found, several drawings, and a chart relating rumen fauna to the phylogenetic tree of the hosts. (EB)

  16. Enteric pathogens and soil: a short review.

    PubMed

    Santamaría, Johanna; Toranzos, Gary A

    2003-03-01

    It is known that soil is a recipient of solid wastes able to contain enteric pathogens in high concentrations. Although the role of soil as a reservoir of certain bacterial pathogens is not in question, recent findings show that soil may have a larger role in the transmission of enteric diseases than previously thought. Many of the diseases caused by agents from soil have been well characterized, although enteric diseases and their link to soil have not been so well studied. Gastrointestinal infections are the most common diseases caused by enteric bacteria. Some examples are salmonellosis ( Salmonella sp.), cholera ( Vibrio cholerae), dysentery ( Shigella sp.) and other infections caused by Campylobacter jejuni, Yersinia sp. and Escherichia coli O157:H7 and many other strains. Viruses are the most hazardous and have some of the lowest infectious doses of any of the enteric pathogens. Hepatitis A, hepatitis E, enteric adenoviruses, poliovirus types 1 and 2, multiple strains of echoviruses and coxsackievirus are enteric viruses associated with human wastewater. Among the most commonly detected protozoa in sewage are Entamoeba histolytica, Giardia intestinalis and Cryptosporidium parvum. This article reviews the existing literature of more than two decades on waste disposal practices that favor the entry of enteric pathogens to soil and the possible consequent role of the soil as a vector and reservoir of enteric pathogens.

  17. Epidemiology and Geographical Distribution of Enteric Protozoan Infections in Sydney, Australia

    PubMed Central

    Fletcher, Stephanie; Caprarelli, Graziella; Merif, Juan; Andresen, David; Hal, Sebastian Van; Stark, Damien; Ellis, John

    2014-01-01

    Background Enteric protozoa are associated with diarrhoeal illnesses in humans; however there are no recent studies on their epidemiology and geographical distribution in Australia. This study describes the epidemiology of enteric protozoa in the state of New South Wales and incorporates spatial analysis to describe their distribution. Design and methods Laboratory and clinical records from four public hospitals in Sydney for 910 patients, who tested positive for enteric protozoa over the period January 2007 - December 2010, were identified, examined and analysed. We selected 580 cases which had residence post code data available, enabling us to examine the geographic distribution of patients, and reviewed the clinical data of 252 patients to examine possible links between protozoa, demographic and clinical features. Results Frequently detected protozoa were Blastocystis spp. (57%), Giardia intestinalis (27%) and Dientamoeba fragilis (12%). The age distribution showed that the prevalence of protozoa decreased with age up to 24 years but increasing with age from 25 years onwards. The geographic provenance of the patients indicates that the majority of cases of Blastocystis (53.1%) are clustered in and around the Sydney City Business District, while pockets of giardiasis were identified in regional/rural areas. The distribution of cases suggests higher risk of protozoan infection may exist for some communities. Conclusions These findings provide useful information for policy makers to design and tailor interventions to target high risk communities. Follow-up investigation into the risk factors for giardiasis in regional/rural areas is needed. Significance for public health This research is significant since it provides the most recent epidemiological update on the common enteric protozoa affecting Australians. It reveals that enteric protozoa cause considerable disease burden in high risk city dwellers, and provides the evidence base for development of targeted

  18. Identification of Novel Pathogenicity Loci in Clostridium perfringens Strains That Cause Avian Necrotic Enteritis

    PubMed Central

    Parreira, Valeria R.; Marri, Pradeep R.; Rosey, Everett L.; Gong, Joshua; Songer, J. Glenn; Vedantam, Gayatri; Prescott, John F.

    2010-01-01

    Type A Clostridium perfringens causes poultry necrotic enteritis (NE), an enteric disease of considerable economic importance, yet can also exist as a member of the normal intestinal microbiota. A recently discovered pore-forming toxin, NetB, is associated with pathogenesis in most, but not all, NE isolates. This finding suggested that NE-causing strains may possess other virulence gene(s) not present in commensal type A isolates. We used high-throughput sequencing (HTS) technologies to generate draft genome sequences of seven unrelated C. perfringens poultry NE isolates and one isolate from a healthy bird, and identified additional novel NE-associated genes by comparison with nine publicly available reference genomes. Thirty-one open reading frames (ORFs) were unique to all NE strains and formed the basis for three highly conserved NE-associated loci that we designated NELoc-1 (42 kb), NELoc-2 (11.2 kb) and NELoc-3 (5.6 kb). The largest locus, NELoc-1, consisted of netB and 36 additional genes, including those predicted to encode two leukocidins, an internalin-like protein and a ricin-domain protein. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and Southern blotting revealed that the NE strains each carried 2 to 5 large plasmids, and that NELoc-1 and -3 were localized on distinct plasmids of sizes ∼85 and ∼70 kb, respectively. Sequencing of the regions flanking these loci revealed similarity to previously characterized conjugative plasmids of C. perfringens. These results provide significant insight into the pathogenetic basis of poultry NE and are the first to demonstrate that netB resides in a large, plasmid-encoded locus. Our findings strongly suggest that poultry NE is caused by several novel virulence factors, whose genes are clustered on discrete pathogenicity loci, some of which are plasmid-borne. PMID:20532244

  19. Severe fibrinonecrotic enteritis caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa in a captive monitor lizard (Varanus niloticus).

    PubMed

    Seixas, Rui; Pissarra, Hugo; Santos, José; Bernardino, Rui; Fernandes, Teresa; Correia, Jorge; Vilela, Cristina Lobo; Oliveira, Manuela

    2014-06-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an important pathogen that has been implicated in a number of serious conditions in humans and animals. Studies regarding the efficacy of antimicrobial drugs against virulent strains of P. aeruginosa in human and animal hosts have demonstrated that common therapeutic options are sometimes ineffective. In captive animals, in particular reptiles, literature on this topic is scarce. In this study, a 6-yr-old monitor lizard, Varanus niloticus, died suddenly without previous symptoms. Postmortem examination and bacteriologic analysis of necropsy samples revealed severe fibrinonecrotic enteritis caused by P. aeruginosa. The isolate presented a typical resistance profile, showing resistance to amoxycillin-clavulanic acid, ampicillin, cephotaxime, and sulphamethoxazole-trimethoprim. Virulence characterization demonstrated that the bacterium was able to express hemolysins, DNases, gelatinases, and lipases and had biofilm-forming ability. This study highlights the importance of surveillance for antimicrobial resistance and virulence traits in captive animals, which may present a challenge to practitioners.

  20. Outbreak of Infantile Gastro-enteritis Caused by Escherichia coli O114

    PubMed Central

    Jacobs, S. I.; Holzel, A.; Wolman, B.; Keen, J. H.; Miller, V.; Taylor, Joan; Gross, R. J.

    1970-01-01

    An outbreak of infantile gastro-enteritis occurred at Booth Hall Children's Hospital as part of a general incident in north-western England, caused by Esch. coli O114K90H2. The organism, which could not be identified with routinely used antisera, caused an unusually prolonged illness after an insidious onset, and was characterized by severe vomiting, together with the passage of very watery stools which became mucuslike and which had a distinctive smell. 29 children were affected and 20 required intravenous feeding for a mean period of 10 days. 7 children died late in the illness, but all were young and debilitated by other acquired or congenital anomalies. Sugar intolerance was prominent, and there was difficulty in returning the children to their routine formulae. Gentamicin and colistin sulphate may have had some effect in reducing the mortality caused by the illness. Liver function abnormality was common, suggesting that Esch. coli O114 might have produced a substance with widespread visceral effects. PMID:4991089

  1. Improvement in the detection of enteric protozoa from clinical stool samples using the automated urine sediment analyzer sediMAX(®) 2 compared to sediMAX(®) 1.

    PubMed

    Intra, J; Sala, M R; Falbo, R; Cappellini, F; Brambilla, P

    2017-01-01

    Detection of intestinal parasites from fecal samples is routinely performed by direct wet mount examination. This method requires skilled personnel, and it is time consuming. The aim of this work is to demonstrate the usefulness of the newer automated urinary sediment analyser sediMAX 2 for a fast detection of intestinal protozoa in stool samples. A total of 700 consecutively preserved samples consisting of 70 positives and 630 negatives were analyzed. SediMAX 2 takes digital images of each sediment sample, and analysis was conducted using a dilution of stool specimens, allowing determination of typical morphology. Compared to manual microscopy, sediMAX 2 showed sensitivity and specificity of 100 % in the detection of intestinal parasites, as also recently demonstrated for sediMAX 1. However, all clinically important human protozoa were detected using only 15 images for each specimen, compared to 30 images required in sediMAX 1 analysis. Moreover, changing manually the focus, it is possible to carry out a discrimination between morphologically identical Entamoeba complex members, including the pathogenic E. histolytica and the non-pathogenic E. dispar, E. moshkovskii and E. Bangladeshi, from the non-pathogenic Entamoeba coli based on the number of nuclei present in the cells. This study presents sediMAX 2 as an automatic aid to traditional microscopy.

  2. Newer diagnostic approaches to intestinal protozoa.

    PubMed

    van Lieshout, Lisette; Verweij, Jaco J

    2010-10-01

    To update the reader on the latest developments in the laboratory diagnosis of intestinal protozoa. Correct identification of a diarrhoea causing pathogens is essential for the choice of treatment in an individual patient as well as to map the aetiology of diarrhoea in a variety of patient populations. Classical diagnosis of diarrhoea causing protozoa by microscopic examination of a stool sample lacks both sensitivity and specificity. Alternative diagnostic platforms are discussed. Recent literature on the diagnosis of intestinal protozoa has focused mainly on nucleic acid-based assays, in particular the specific detection of parasite DNA in stool samples using real-time PCR. In addition, the trend has been moving from single pathogen detection to a multiplex approach, allowing simultaneous identification of multiple parasites. Different combinations of targets can be used within a routine diagnostic setting, depending on the patient population, such as children, immunocompromised individuals and those who have been travelling to tropical regions. Large-scale monitoring and evaluation of control strategies become feasible due to automation and high-throughput facilities. Improved technology also has become available for differentiating protozoa subspecies, which facilitates outbreak investigations and extensive research in molecular epidemiology.

  3. Gastric and enteric phytobezoars caused by ingestion of persimmon in equids.

    PubMed

    Banse, Heidi E; Gilliam, Lyndi L; House, Amanda M; McKenzie, Harold C; Johnson, Philip J; Lopes, Marco A F; Carmichael, Robert J; Groover, Erin S; Lacarrubba, Alison M; Breshears, Melanie A; Brosnahan, Margaret M; Funk, Rebecca; Holbrook, Todd C

    2011-10-15

    CASE DESCRIPTION-13 equids (10 horses, 2 donkeys, and 1 pony) were examined for signs of colic (n = 7), weight loss (6), anorexia (3), and diarrhea (2). Ten equids were evaluated in the fall (September to November). Seven equids had a history of persimmon ingestion. CLINICAL FINDINGS-A diagnosis of phytobezoar caused by persimmon ingestion was made for all equids. Eight equids had gastric persimmon phytobezoars; 5 had enteric persimmon phytobezoars. Gastroscopy or gastroduodenoscopy revealed evidence of persimmon ingestion in 8 of 10 equids in which these procedures were performed. TREATMENT AND OUTCOME-2 of 13 equids were euthanatized prior to treatment. Supportive care was instituted in 11 of 13 equids, including IV administration of fluids (n = 8) and treatment with antimicrobials (5), NSAIDs (5), and gastric acid suppressants (4). Persimmon phytobezoar-specific treatments included dietary modification to a pelleted feed (n = 8); oral or nasogastric administration of cola or diet cola (4), cellulase (2), or mineral oil (2); surgery (4); and intrapersimmon phytobezoar injections with acetylcysteine (1). Medical treatment in 5 of 7 equids resulted in resolution of gastric persimmon phytobezoars. Seven of 8 equids with gastric persimmon phytobezoars and 1 of 5 equids with enteric persimmon phytobezoars survived > 1 year after hospital discharge. CLINICAL RELEVANCE-Historical knowledge of persimmon ingestion in equids with gastrointestinal disease warrants gastroduodenoscopy for evaluation of the presence of persimmon phytobezoars. In equids with gastric persimmon phytobezoars, medical management (including administration of cola or diet cola and dietary modification to a pelleted feed) may allow for persimmon phytobezoar dissolution.

  4. Obliteration of the lymphatic trunks draining diaphragmatic lymph causes peritoneal fluid to enter the pleural cavity.

    PubMed

    Ohtani, Y; Ohtani, O

    1997-12-01

    Pathways of peritoneal fluids to the pleural cavity in the rat were investigated by light microscopy and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Intraperitoneally injected India ink was demonstrated to enter the subperitoneal lymphatics through lymphatic stomata, and to drain through the subpleural collecting lymphatics, into the parasternal, paravertebral and mediastinal lymphatic trunks as well as the thoracic duct. Five to 10 min after the intraperitoneal injection of India ink, the parasternal lymphatic trunk was ligated at the third intercostal space. Thirty minutes, 1 h, or 2 h after the ligation of either the right or the left trunk, India ink was macroscopically recognized only around the ligated trunk. When the right and left trunks were simultaneously ligated, India ink leaked around both trunks. Five hours after the ligation of both trunks, a massive amount of ink was located in the interstitium of the anterior thoracic wall. TEM revealed carbon particles passing through gaps of the lymphatic endothelial cells into the interstitial space, and partly reaching the mesothelial surface lining the anterior thoracic wall. Results show that obstruction or narrowing of the lymphatic trunks draining the diaphragmatic lymph causes a hydrothorax, indicating that this is at least one mechanism causing this during continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis and diseases with ascites.

  5. Putative Bronchopulmonary Flagellated Protozoa in Immunosuppressed Patients

    PubMed Central

    Kilimcioglu, Ali Ahmet; Havlucu, Yavuz; Çelik, Pınar; Özbilgin, Ahmet

    2014-01-01

    Flagellated protozoa that cause bronchopulmonary symptoms in humans are commonly neglected. These protozoal forms which were presumed to be “flagellated protozoa” have been previously identified in immunosuppressed patients in a number of studies, but have not been certainly classified so far. Since no human cases of bronchopulmonary flagellated protozoa were reported from Turkey, we aimed to investigate these putative protozoa in immunosuppressed patients who are particularly at risk of infectious diseases. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid samples of 110 immunosuppressed adult patients who were admitted to the Department of Chest Diseases, Hafsa Sultan Hospital of Celal Bayar University, Manisa, Turkey, were examined in terms of parasites by light microscopy. Flagellated protozoal forms were detected in nine (8.2%) of 110 cases. Metronidazole (500 mg b.i.d. for 30 days) was given to all positive cases and a second bronchoscopy was performed at the end of the treatment, which revealed no parasites. In conclusion, immunosuppressed patients with bronchopulmonary symptoms should attentively be examined with regard to flagellated protozoa which can easily be misidentified as epithelial cells. PMID:24804259

  6. [Morphological characteristics of haemorrhagic enteritis in dogs caused by parvo-like viruses (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    v d Gaag, I; van den Ingh, T S; van Dijk, J E

    1980-03-15

    Various outbreaks of parvo-like virus infection in dogs are reported. A form of haemorrhagic enteritis was observed, which was microscopically characterized by a hypo-regenerative villous atrophy of the small intestine, which bears a close resemblance to the typical lesion of feline panleucopenia. This pathomorphological feature may be regarded as typical of canine enteritis due to a parvo-like virus.

  7. Cardioviruses Are Genetically Diverse and Cause Common Enteric Infections in South Asian Children▿

    PubMed Central

    Blinkova, Olga; Kapoor, Amit; Victoria, Joseph; Jones, Morris; Wolfe, Nathan; Naeem, Asif; Shaukat, Shahzad; Sharif, Salmaan; Alam, Muhammad Masroor; Angez, Mehar; Zaidi, Sohail; Delwart, Eric L.

    2009-01-01

    Cardioviruses cause enteric infections in mice and rats which when disseminated have been associated with myocarditis, type 1 diabetes, encephalitis, and multiple sclerosis-like symptoms. Cardioviruses have also been detected at lower frequencies in other mammals. The Cardiovirus genus within the Picornaviridae family is currently made up of two viral species, Theilovirus and Encephalomyocarditis virus. Until recently, only a single strain of cardioviruses (Vilyuisk virus within the Theilovirus species) associated with a geographically restricted and prevalent encephalitis-like condition had been reported to occur in humans. A second theilovirus-related cardiovirus (Saffold virus [SAFV]) was reported in 2007 and subsequently found in respiratory secretions from children with respiratory problems and in stools of both healthy and diarrheic children. Using viral metagenomics, we identified RNA fragments related to SAFV in the stools of Pakistani and Afghani children with nonpolio acute flaccid paralysis (AFP). We sequenced three near-full-length genomes, showing the presence of divergent strains of SAFV and preliminary evidence of a distant recombination event between the ancestors of the Theiler-like viruses of rats and those of human SAFV. Further VP1 sequencing showed the presence of five new SAFV genotypes, doubling the reported genetic diversity of human and animal theiloviruses combined. Both AFP patients and healthy children in Pakistan were found to be excreting SAFV at high frequencies of 9 and 12%, respectively. Further studies are needed to examine the roles of these highly common and diverse SAFV genotypes in nonpolio AFP and other human diseases. PMID:19193786

  8. Cardioviruses are genetically diverse and cause common enteric infections in South Asian children.

    PubMed

    Blinkova, Olga; Kapoor, Amit; Victoria, Joseph; Jones, Morris; Wolfe, Nathan; Naeem, Asif; Shaukat, Shahzad; Sharif, Salmaan; Alam, Muhammad Masroor; Angez, Mehar; Zaidi, Sohail; Delwart, Eric L

    2009-05-01

    Cardioviruses cause enteric infections in mice and rats which when disseminated have been associated with myocarditis, type 1 diabetes, encephalitis, and multiple sclerosis-like symptoms. Cardioviruses have also been detected at lower frequencies in other mammals. The Cardiovirus genus within the Picornaviridae family is currently made up of two viral species, Theilovirus and Encephalomyocarditis virus. Until recently, only a single strain of cardioviruses (Vilyuisk virus within the Theilovirus species) associated with a geographically restricted and prevalent encephalitis-like condition had been reported to occur in humans. A second theilovirus-related cardiovirus (Saffold virus [SAFV]) was reported in 2007 and subsequently found in respiratory secretions from children with respiratory problems and in stools of both healthy and diarrheic children. Using viral metagenomics, we identified RNA fragments related to SAFV in the stools of Pakistani and Afghani children with nonpolio acute flaccid paralysis (AFP). We sequenced three near-full-length genomes, showing the presence of divergent strains of SAFV and preliminary evidence of a distant recombination event between the ancestors of the Theiler-like viruses of rats and those of human SAFV. Further VP1 sequencing showed the presence of five new SAFV genotypes, doubling the reported genetic diversity of human and animal theiloviruses combined. Both AFP patients and healthy children in Pakistan were found to be excreting SAFV at high frequencies of 9 and 12%, respectively. Further studies are needed to examine the roles of these highly common and diverse SAFV genotypes in nonpolio AFP and other human diseases.

  9. Factors stimulating migration of holotrich protozoa into the rumen.

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, M R; Drone, P E; Woodford, S T

    1985-01-01

    The effects of feeding and various reticular infusions on ruminal holotrich concentrations were studied in an attempt to identify possible factors stimulating their migration into the rumen. It was concluded that glucose entering the reticulo-rumen shortly after feeding could stimulate migration of holotrich protozoa. PMID:4004248

  10. Photomovements in Ciliated Protozoa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuhlmann, Hans-Werner

    Ciliates are unicellular, nonphotosynthetic organisms which show a number of light-induced responses. Orientation with respect to the direction of light, phototaxis, has been demonstrated in some species of ciliates. Most of these species bear conspicuous cell organelles such as subpellicular pigment granules, a colored stigma, a watchglass organelle, or a compound crystalline organelle. Several lines of evidence suggest that these kinds of organelles are prerequisites for phototactic orientation of the cells. Photoreceptor molecules presumedly mediating the photobehavior of two species have been identified. The ecological advantage of light-induced responses in ciliated protozoa is still debated. In some cases the organisms may utilize this behavior either to approach their potential prey, to escape their predators, to escape damaging light, or to meet a mating partner. Several species of ciliates display inverse phototactic behavior at different stages of their life cycle.

  11. Binding of Clostridium perfringens to collagen correlates with the ability to cause necrotic enteritis in chickens.

    PubMed

    Wade, B; Keyburn, A L; Seemann, T; Rood, J I; Moore, R J

    2015-11-18

    This study investigated the ability of Clostridium perfringens isolates derived from chickens to bind to collagen types I-V and gelatin. In total 21 strains from three distinct backgrounds were studied: (i) virulent strains isolated from birds suffering from necrotic enteritis, (ii) avirulent strains isolated from birds suffering from necrotic enteritis and (iii) strains isolated from healthy birds. All strains isolated from diseased birds had been assessed for virulence in a disease induction model. The virulent isolates all displayed collagen binding ability. However, most strains in the other two classes showed negligible binding to collagen. The prevalence of a previously described C. perfringens putative collagen adhesin-encoding gene was investigated by PCR screening. It was found that five of the strains carried the putative collagen adhesin-encoding gene and that all of these strains were virulent isolates. Based on these studies it is postulated that collagen adhesion may play a role in the pathogenesis of necrotic enteritis.

  12. Evolutionary genetic relationships of clones of Salmonella serovars that cause human typhoid and other enteric fevers.

    PubMed Central

    Selander, R K; Beltran, P; Smith, N H; Helmuth, R; Rubin, F A; Kopecko, D J; Ferris, K; Tall, B D; Cravioto, A; Musser, J M

    1990-01-01

    Multilocus enzyme electrophoresis was employed to measure chromosomal genotypic diversity and evolutionary relationships among 761 isolates of the serovars Salmonella typhi, S. paratyphi A, S. paratyphi B, S. paratyphi C, and S. sendai, which are human-adapted agents of enteric fever, and S. miami and S. java, which are serotypically similar to S. sendai and S. paratyphi B, respectively, but cause gastroenteritis in both humans and animals. To determine the phylogenetic positions of the clones of these forms within the context of the salmonellae of subspecies I, comparative data for 22 other common serovars were utilized. Except for S. paratyphi A and S. sendai, the analysis revealed no close phylogenetic relationships among clones of different human-adapted serovars, which implies convergence in host adaptation and virulence factors. Clones of S. miami are not allied with those of S. sendai or S. paratyphi A, being, instead, closely related to strains of S. panama. Clones of S. paratyphi B and S. java belong to a large phylogenetic complex that includes clones of S. typhimurium, S. heidelberg, S. saintpaul, and S. muenchen. Most strains of S. paratyphi B belong to a globally distributed clone that is highly polymorphic in biotype, bacteriophage type, and several other characters, whereas strains of S. java represent seven diverse lineages. The flagellar monophasic forms of S. java are genotypically more similar to clones of S. typhimurium than to other clones of S. java or S. paratyphi B. Clones of S. paratyphi C are related to those of S. choleraesuis. DNA probing with a segment of the viaB region specific for the Vi capsular antigen genes indicated that the frequent failure of isolates of S. paratyphi C to express Vi antigen is almost entirely attributable to regulatory processes rather than to an absence of the structural determinant genes themselves. Two clones of S. typhisuis are related to those of S. choleraesuis and S. paratyphi C, but a third clone is not

  13. Necrotizing enteritis as a cause of mortality in Laysan albatross, Diomedea immutabilis, chicks on Midway Atoll, Hawaii

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Work, T.M.; Smith, M.R.; Duncan, R.

    1998-01-01

    A necropsy survey of Laysan albatross, Diomedea immutabilis, chicks on Midway Atoll in June 1993, 1994, and 1995 revealed 54% (21/39), 67% (49/71), and 93% (15/16), respectively, to have enteritis as the most severe pathologic finding. The lesion was limited to the ileum, ceca, and large intestine. We were unable to attribute a single infectious etiology to this lesion. Many birds with enteritis also exhibited renal lesions similar to those encountered in chickens experimentally deprived of water. We propose that enteritis is a significant cause of mortality in Laysan albatross chicks on Midway and that it may be a sequela to dehydration. It is likely that the pathology of dehydration in Laysan albatross differs from that in chickens largely because of diet.

  14. Necrotizing enteritis as a cause of mortality in Laysan albatross, Diomedea immutabilis, chicks on Midway Atoll, Hawaii.

    PubMed

    Work, T M; Smith, M R; Duncan, R

    1998-01-01

    A necropsy survey of Laysan albatross, Diomedea immutabilis, chicks on Midway Atoll in June 1993, 1994, and 1995 revealed 54% (21/39), 67% (49/71), and 93% (15/16), respectively, to have enteritis as the most severe pathologic finding. The lesion was limited to the ileum, ceca, and large intestine. We were unable to attribute a single infectious etiology to this lesion. Many birds with enteritis also exhibited renal lesions similar to those encountered in chickens experimentally deprived of water. We propose that enteritis is a significant cause of mortality in Laysan albatross chicks on Midway and that it may be a sequela to dehydration. It is likely that the pathology of dehydration in Laysan albatross differs from that in chickens largely because of diet.

  15. Necrotizing enteritis as a cause of mortality in Laysan albatross, Diomedea immutabilis, chicks on Midway Atoll, Hawaii

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Work, T.M.; Smith, M.R.; Duncan, R.

    1998-01-01

    A necropsy survey of Laysan albatross, Diomedea immutabilis, chicks on Midway Atoll in June 1993, 1994, and 1995 revealed 54% (21/39), 67% (49/71), and 93% (15/16), respectively, to have enteritis as the most severe pathologic finding. The lesion was limited to the ileum, ceca, and large intestine. We were unable to attribute a single infectious etiology to this lesion. Many birds with enteritis also exhibited renal lesions similar to those encountered in chickens experimentally deprived of water. We propose that enteritis is a significant cause of mortality in Laysan albatross chicks on Midway and that it may be a sequela to dehydration. It is likely that the pathology of dehydration in Laysan albatross differs from that in chickens largely because of diet.

  16. Acute radiation enteritis caused by dose-dependent radiation exposure in dogs: experimental research.

    PubMed

    Xu, Wenda; Chen, Jiang; Xu, Liu; Li, Hongyu; Guo, Xiaozhong

    2014-12-01

    Accidental or intended radiation exposure in mass casualty settings presents a serious and on-going threat. The development of mitigating and treating agents requires appropriate animal models. Unfortunately, the majority of research on radiation enteritis in animals has lacked specific assessments and targeted therapy. Our study showed beagle dogs, treated by intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) for abdominal irradiation, were administered single X-ray doses of 8-30 Gy. The degree of intestinal tract injury for all of the animals after radiation exposure was evaluated with regard to clinical syndrome, endoscopic findings, histological features, and intestinal function. The range of single doses (8 Gy, 10-14 Gy, and 16-30 Gy) represented the degree of injury (mild, moderate, and severe, respectively). Acute radiation enteritis included clinical syndrome with fever, vomiting, diarrhea, hemafecia, and weight loss; typical endoscopic findings included edema, bleeding, mucosal abrasions, and ulcers; and intestinal biopsy results revealed mucosal necrosis, erosion, and loss, inflammatory cell infiltration, hemorrhage, and congestion. Changes in serum diamine oxides (DAOs) and d-xylose represented intestinal barrier function and absorption function, respectively, and correlated with the extent of damage (P < 0.05 and P < 0.05, respectively). We successfully developed a dog model of acute radiation enteritis, thus obtaining a relatively objective evaluation of intestinal tract injury based on clinical performance and laboratory examination. The method of assessment of the degree of intestinal tract injury after abdominal irradiation could be beneficial in the development of novel and effective therapeutic strategies for acute radiation enteritis.

  17. Immunity in urogenital protozoa.

    PubMed

    Malla, N; Goyal, K; Dhanda, R S; Yadav, M

    2014-09-01

    Innate and adaptive immunity play a significant role in urogenital infections. Innate immunity is provided by the epithelial cells and mucus lining along with acidic pH, which forms a strong physical barrier against the pathogens in female reproductive tract. Cells of innate immune system, antimicrobial peptides, cytokines, chemokines and adaptive immunity in the reproductive tract are evolved during infection, and a pro-inflammatory response is generated to fight against the invading pathogen Trichomonas vaginalis, a primary urogenital protozoa, the etiological agent of human trichomoniasis, a curable sexually transmitted infection. The involvement of the urogenital tract by other protozoal infections such as P. falciparum, Trypanosoma, Leishmania, Toxoplasma, Entamoeba histolytica and Acanthamoeba infection is rarely reported. Trichomonas induce pro-inflammatory and immunosuppressive responses in infected subjects. Multifactorial pathogenic mechanisms including parasite adherence, cysteine proteases, lipophosphoglycan, free radical, cytokine generation and Toll-like receptors appear to interplay with the induction of local and systemic immune responses that ultimately determine the outcome of the infection. However, the involvement of urogenital pathogen-specific immune mechanisms and effect of normal local resident flora on the outcome (symptomatic vs. asymptomatic) of infection are poorly understood. Moreover, immune interactions in trichomoniasis subjects co-infected with bacterial and viral pathogens need to be elucidated.

  18. Colonic Perforation Caused by Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Enteritis After Total Gastrectomy: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Furukawa, Kenei; Tsutsumi, Jun; Takayama, Sumio; Mashiko, Hiroshi; Shiba, Hiroaki; Yanaga, Katsuhiko

    2015-01-01

    A 68-year-old man underwent total gastrectomy and splenectomy for adenocarcinoma and low anterior resection for carcinoma in tubulo-villous adenoma of the rectum. Broad-spectrum antibiotics were administered for postoperative pancreatic fistula. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus enteritis occurred on the 50th postoperative day and cecal perforation followed. The patient underwent construction of cecostomy with peritoneal drainage, and vancomycin was administered orally and per cecostomy for 2 weeks. The patient recovered well and was discharged at 35 days after re-operation in good general condition. PMID:25785319

  19. Colonic Perforation Caused by Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Enteritis After Total Gastrectomy: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Furukawa, Kenei; Tsutsumi, Jun; Takayama, Sumio; Mashiko, Hiroshi; Shiba, Hiroaki; Yanaga, Katsuhiko

    2015-03-01

    A 68-year-old man underwent total gastrectomy and splenectomy for adenocarcinoma and low anterior resection for carcinoma in tubulo-villous adenoma of the rectum. Broad-spectrum antibiotics were administered for postoperative pancreatic fistula. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus enteritis occurred on the 50th postoperative day and cecal perforation followed. The patient underwent construction of cecostomy with peritoneal drainage, and vancomycin was administered orally and per cecostomy for 2 weeks. The patient recovered well and was discharged at 35 days after re-operation in good general condition.

  20. Galectin-3 causes enteric neuronal loss in mice after left sided permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion, a model of stroke

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Xiaowen; Boza-Serrano, Antonio; Turesson, Michelle Foldschak; Deierborg, Tomas; Ekblad, Eva; Voss, Ulrikke

    2016-01-01

    In addition to brain injury stroke patients often suffer gastrointestinal complications. Neuroimmune interactions involving galectin-3, released from microglia in the brain, mediates the post-stroke pro-inflammatory response. We investigated possible consequences of stroke on the enteric nervous system and the involvement of galectin-3. We show that permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion (pMCAO) induces loss of enteric neurons in ileum and colon in galectin-3+/+, but not in galectin-3−/−, mice. In vitro we show that serum from galectin-3+/+, but not from galectin-3−/−, mice subjected to pMCAO, caused loss of C57BL/6J myenteric neurons, while myenteric neurons derived from TLR4−/− mice were unaffected. Further purified galectin-3 (10−6 M) caused loss of cultured C57BL/6J myenteric neurons. Inhibitors of transforming growth factor β-activated kinase 1 (TAK1) or AMP activated kinase (AMPK) counteracted both the purified galectin-3 and the galectin-3+/+ pMCAO serum-induced loss in vitro. Combined we show that stroke (pMCAO) triggers central and peripheral galectin-3 release causing enteric neuronal loss through a TLR4 mediated mechanism involving TAK1 and AMPK. Galectin-3 is suggested a target for treatment of post-stroke complications. PMID:27612206

  1. Protein trafficking in kinetoplastid protozoa.

    PubMed Central

    Clayton, C; Häusler, T; Blattner, J

    1995-01-01

    The kinetoplastid protozoa infect hosts ranging from invertebrates to plants and mammals, causing diseases of medical and economic importance. They are the earliest-branching organisms in eucaryotic evolution to have either mitochondria or peroxisome-like microbodies. Investigation of their protein trafficking enables us to identify characteristics that have been conserved throughout eucaryotic evolution and also reveals how far variations, or alternative mechanisms, are possible. Protein trafficking in kinetoplastids is in many respects similar to that in higher eucaryotes, including mammals and yeasts. Differences in signal sequence specificities exist, however, for all subcellular locations so far examined in detail--microbodies, mitochondria, and endoplasmic reticulum--with signals being more degenerate, or shorter, than those of their higher eucaryotic counterparts. Some components of the normal array of trafficking mechanisms may be missing in most (if not all) kinetoplastids: examples are clathrin-coated vesicles, recycling receptors, and mannose 6-phosphate-mediated lysosomal targeting. Other aspects and structures are unique to the kinetoplastids or are as yet unexplained. Some of these peculiarities may eventually prove to be weak points that can be used as targets for chemotherapy; others may turn out to be much more widespread than currently suspected. PMID:7565409

  2. New strain of mouse hepatitis virus as the cause of lethal enteritis in infant mice.

    PubMed Central

    Hierholzer, J C; Broderson, J R; Murphy, F A

    1979-01-01

    A new strain of mouse hepatitis virus (MHV) was isolated from pooled gut suspensions from an epizootic of lethal enteritis in newborn mice. Negative-contrast electron microscopy showed an abundance of coronavirus particles in the intestinal contents and intestinal epithelium of moribund mice. We found no other virus in the epizootic. Dams seroconverted to MHV polyvalent antigen and to the agent isolated, but did not develop antibodies to other known mouse pathogens. Virus propagated in NCTC-1469 tissue culture produced enteric disease in suckling mice but not fatal diarrhea; the dams of these mice also developed antibodies to MHV and to the isolates. By complement fixation, single radial hemolysis, and quantal neutralization tests, we found the isolates antigenically most closely related to MHV-S, unilaterally related to MHV-JHM, and more distantly related to MHV-1, MHV-3, MHV-A59, and human coronavirus OC-43. We also studied cross-reactions among the murine and human coronaviruses in detail. Tissues of infected newborn mice were examined by light microscopy, thin-section electron microscopy, and frozen-section indirect immunofluorescence, revealing that viral antigen, virus particles, and pathological changes were limited to the intestinal tract. We have designated our isolates as MHV-S/CDC. Images PMID:222687

  3. Increase in minimum inhibitory concentration to quinolones and ceftriaxone in salmonellae causing enteric fever.

    PubMed

    Sekar, Uma; Srikanth, Padma; Kindo, Anupma Jyoti; Babu, V Praveen; Ramasubramanian, V

    2003-09-01

    Multidrug resistance among Salmonella typhi is well known. Reports of treatment failure in enteric fever with Ciprofloxacin made us undertake this study to determine the antibiotic susceptibility pattern of S. typhi and S. paratyphi A isolated from typhoid bacteremia cases, by disc diffusion and MIC by broth dilution method. A total of 50 strains were tested, 48 of Salmonella typhi and 2 of S. paratyphi A. The disc diffusion method was done using ampicillin, chloramphenicol, cotrimoxazole, tetracycline, ciprofloxacin, ofloxacin, cefuroxime and ceftriaxone as antibiotics. The MIC was performed using ciproloxacin, ofloxacin and ceftriaxone based on standard procedure. ACCOT resistance as determined by disc diffusion method was seen in 68% of isolates. All the strains remained susceptible to flouroquinolones cephalosporins and aminoglycosides. The MIC of ciprofloxacin, ofloxacin and ceftriaxone were in the recommended range of susceptibility as given by NCCLS, 14 (28%) strains had MIC of ciprofloxacin greater than 0.5 ug/ml with 4 strains having an MIC of 1.56 ug/ml; 25 (50%) strains had MIC of ofloxacin greater than 0.5 ug/ml and 20 (40%) strains had MIC of ceftriaxone greater than 0.5 ug/ml. The high levels of MIC of ciprofloxacin may account for treatment failure cases. The rising levels of MIC of ofloxacin and ceftriaxone in S. typhi and S. paratyphi is also of concern. We document here the emergence of high levels of MIC not only to ciprofloxacin, but also ofloxacin and ceftriaxone in S. typhi and S. paratyphi A. We recommend that MIC levels of ofloxacin and ceftriaxone should be monitored along with ciprofloxacin in treatment failure cases of enteric fever.

  4. 2013 European Guideline on the management of proctitis, proctocolitis and enteritis caused by sexually transmissible pathogens.

    PubMed

    de Vries, Henry J C; Zingoni, Adele; White, John A; Ross, Jonathan D C; Kreuter, Alexander

    2014-06-01

    Proctitis is defined as an inflammatory syndrome of the distal 10-12 cm of the anal canal, also called the rectum. Infectious proctitis can be sexually transmitted via genital-anal mucosal contact, but some also via mutual masturbation.N. gonorrhoeae,C. trachomatis(including lymphogranuloma venereum), Herpes Simplex Virus andT. pallidumare the most common sexually transmitted anorectal pathogens. Shigellosis can be transferred via oral-anal contact and may lead to proctocolitis or enteritis. Although most studies on these infections have concentrated on men who have sex with men (MSM), a significant proportion of women have anal intercourse and therefore may also be at risk. A presumptive clinical diagnosis of proctitis can be made when there are symptoms and signs, and a definitive diagnosis when the results of laboratory tests are available. The symptoms of proctitis include anorectal itching, pain, cramps (tenesmus) and discharge in and around the anal canal. Asymptomatic proctitis occurs frequently and can only be detected by laboratory tests. The majority of rectal chlamydia and gonococcal infections are asymptomatic. Therefore when there is a history of receptive anal contact, exclusion of anorectal infections is generally indicated as part of standard screening for sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Condom use does not guarantee protection from bacterial and protozoan STIs, which are often spread without penile penetration.

  5. The Protozoa, A Kingdom By Default?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blackwell, Will H.; Powell, Martha J.

    2001-01-01

    Changes in the concepts of kingdoms of organisms are substantial and Protozoa is loosely characterized. Presents a case explaining how Protozoa interface with other kingdoms of organisms now recognized. (Contains 55 references.) (ASK)

  6. The Protozoa, A Kingdom By Default?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blackwell, Will H.; Powell, Martha J.

    2001-01-01

    Changes in the concepts of kingdoms of organisms are substantial and Protozoa is loosely characterized. Presents a case explaining how Protozoa interface with other kingdoms of organisms now recognized. (Contains 55 references.) (ASK)

  7. Water-borne protozoa parasites: The Latin American perspective.

    PubMed

    Rosado-García, Félix Manuel; Guerrero-Flórez, Milena; Karanis, Gabriele; Hinojosa, María Del Carmen; Karanis, Panagiotis

    2017-07-01

    Health systems, sanitation and water access have certain limitations in nations of Latin America (LA): typical matters of developing countries. Water is often contaminated and therefore unhealthy for the consumers and users. Information on prevalence and detection of waterborne parasitic protozoa are limited or not available in LA. Only few reports have documented in this field during the last forty years and Brazil leads the list, including countries in South America and Mexico within Central America region and Caribbean islands. From 1979 to 2015, 16 outbreaks of waterborne-protozoa, were reported in Latin American countries. T. gondii and C. cayetanensis were the protozoa, which caused more outbreaks and Giardia spp. and Cryptosporidium spp. were the most frequently found protozoa in water samples. On the other hand, Latin America countries have not got a coherent methodology for detection of protozoa in water samples despite whole LA is highly vulnerable to extreme weather events related to waterborne-infections; although Brazil and Colombia have some implemented laws in their surveillance systems. It would be important to coordinate all surveillance systems in between all countries for early detection and measures against waterborne-protozoan and to establish effective and suitable diagnosis tools according to the country's economic strength and particular needs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  8. Electron Microscopy of Intracellular Protozoa

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-05-15

    1985. Invasion and early development of Sarcocystis muris ( Apicomplexa , Sarcocystidae) in tissue cultures. J. Protozool. 32:446-453. 6. Entzeroth, R...secondary parasitophorous vacuole of Sarcocystis muris (Protozoa, Apicomplexa ). Eur. J. Cell Biol. 41:182-188. 7. Ladda, R., M. Aikawa, and H. Sprinz. 1969

  9. Explore the World Using Protozoa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, O. Roger, Ed.; Druger, Marvin, Ed.

    This book is a joint publication of the National Science Teachers Association (NSTA) and the Society of Protozoologists and is the result of efforts to find a way in which protozoa research can be used to teach biology. This program puts cutting edge science into the hands of science teachers and enables students to experience a variety of…

  10. Explore the World Using Protozoa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, O. Roger, Ed.; Druger, Marvin, Ed.

    This book is a joint publication of the National Science Teachers Association (NSTA) and the Society of Protozoologists and is the result of efforts to find a way in which protozoa research can be used to teach biology. This program puts cutting edge science into the hands of science teachers and enables students to experience a variety of…

  11. Yersinia enterocolitica, a Neglected Cause of Human Enteric Infections in Côte d'Ivoire.

    PubMed

    Saraka, Daniel; Savin, Cyril; Kouassi, Stephane; Cissé, Bakary; Koffi, Eugène; Cabanel, Nicolas; Brémont, Sylvie; Faye-Kette, Hortense; Dosso, Mireille; Carniel, Elisabeth

    2017-01-01

    Enteropathogenic Yersinia circulate in the pig reservoir and are the third bacterial cause of human gastrointestinal infections in Europe. In West Africa, reports of human yersiniosis are rare. This study was conducted to determine whether pathogenic Yersinia are circulating in pig farms and are responsible for human infections in the Abidjan District. From June 2012 to December 2013, pig feces were collected monthly in 41 swine farms of the Abidjan district. Of the 781 samples collected, 19 Yersinia strains were isolated in 3 farms: 7 non-pathogenic Yersinia intermedia and 12 pathogenic Yersinia enterocolitica bioserotype 4/O:3. Farm animals other than pigs and wild animals were not found infected. Furthermore, 2 Y. enterocolitica 4/O:3 strains were isolated from 426 fecal samples of patients with digestive disorders. All 14 Y. enterocolitica strains shared the same PFGE and MLVA profile, indicating their close genetic relationship. However, while 6 of them displayed the usual phage type VIII, the other 8 had the highly infrequent phage type XI. Whole genome sequencing and SNP analysis of individual colonies revealed that phage type XI strains had unusually high rates of mutations. These strains displayed a hypermutator phenotype that was attributable to a large deletion in the mutS gene involved in DNA mismatch repair. This study demonstrates that pathogenic Y. enterocolitica circulate in the pig reservoir in Côte d'Ivoire and cause human infections with a prevalence comparable to that of many developed countries. The paucity of reports of yersiniosis in West Africa is most likely attributable to a lack of active detection rather than to an absence of the microorganism. The identification of hypermutator strains in pigs and humans is of concern as these strains can rapidly acquire selective advantages that may increase their fitness, pathogenicity or resistance to commonly used treatments.

  12. Yersinia enterocolitica, a Neglected Cause of Human Enteric Infections in Côte d’Ivoire

    PubMed Central

    Saraka, Daniel; Savin, Cyril; Kouassi, Stephane; Cissé, Bakary; Koffi, Eugène; Cabanel, Nicolas; Brémont, Sylvie; Faye-Kette, Hortense; Dosso, Mireille; Carniel, Elisabeth

    2017-01-01

    Background Enteropathogenic Yersinia circulate in the pig reservoir and are the third bacterial cause of human gastrointestinal infections in Europe. In West Africa, reports of human yersiniosis are rare. This study was conducted to determine whether pathogenic Yersinia are circulating in pig farms and are responsible for human infections in the Abidjan District. Methodology/Principal findings From June 2012 to December 2013, pig feces were collected monthly in 41 swine farms of the Abidjan district. Of the 781 samples collected, 19 Yersinia strains were isolated in 3 farms: 7 non-pathogenic Yersinia intermedia and 12 pathogenic Yersinia enterocolitica bioserotype 4/O:3. Farm animals other than pigs and wild animals were not found infected. Furthermore, 2 Y. enterocolitica 4/O:3 strains were isolated from 426 fecal samples of patients with digestive disorders. All 14 Y. enterocolitica strains shared the same PFGE and MLVA profile, indicating their close genetic relationship. However, while 6 of them displayed the usual phage type VIII, the other 8 had the highly infrequent phage type XI. Whole genome sequencing and SNP analysis of individual colonies revealed that phage type XI strains had unusually high rates of mutations. These strains displayed a hypermutator phenotype that was attributable to a large deletion in the mutS gene involved in DNA mismatch repair. Conclusions/Significance This study demonstrates that pathogenic Y. enterocolitica circulate in the pig reservoir in Côte d'Ivoire and cause human infections with a prevalence comparable to that of many developed countries. The paucity of reports of yersiniosis in West Africa is most likely attributable to a lack of active detection rather than to an absence of the microorganism. The identification of hypermutator strains in pigs and humans is of concern as these strains can rapidly acquire selective advantages that may increase their fitness, pathogenicity or resistance to commonly used treatments. PMID

  13. Niche metabolism in parasitic protozoa

    PubMed Central

    Ginger, Michael L

    2005-01-01

    Complete or partial genome sequences have recently become available for several medically and evolutionarily important parasitic protozoa. Through the application of bioinformatics complete metabolic repertoires for these parasites can be predicted. For experimentally intractable parasites insight provided by metabolic maps generated in silico has been startling. At its more extreme end, such bioinformatics reckoning facilitated the discovery in some parasites of mitochondria remodelled beyond previous recognition, and the identification of a non-photosynthetic chloroplast relic in malarial parasites. However, for experimentally tractable parasites, mapping of the general metabolic terrain is only a first step in understanding how the parasite modulates its streamlined, yet still often puzzlingly complex, metabolism in order to complete life cycles within host, vector, or environment. This review provides a comparative overview and discussion of metabolic strategies used by several different parasitic protozoa in order to subvert and survive host defences, and illustrates how genomic data contribute to the elucidation of parasite metabolism. PMID:16553311

  14. Niche metabolism in parasitic protozoa.

    PubMed

    Ginger, Michael L

    2006-01-29

    Complete or partial genome sequences have recently become available for several medically and evolutionarily important parasitic protozoa. Through the application of bioinformatics complete metabolic repertoires for these parasites can be predicted. For experimentally intractable parasites insight provided by metabolic maps generated in silico has been startling. At its more extreme end, such bioinformatics reckoning facilitated the discovery in some parasites of mitochondria remodelled beyond previous recognition, and the identification of a non-photosynthetic chloroplast relic in malarial parasites. However, for experimentally tractable parasites, mapping of the general metabolic terrain is only a first step in understanding how the parasite modulates its streamlined, yet still often puzzlingly complex, metabolism in order to complete life cycles within host, vector, or environment. This review provides a comparative overview and discussion of metabolic strategies used by several different parasitic protozoa in order to subvert and survive host defences, and illustrates how genomic data contribute to the elucidation of parasite metabolism.

  15. Coccidia and other Protozoa

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Pigs are important to the economy of the US. Control of infectious diseases is necessary for the success of swine industry. In the present book chapter the authors review current information on protozoan infections of pigs. The coccidium Cystoisospora suis causes diarrhea in newborn pigs. Public hea...

  16. Comparison of different methods of detection of enteric pathogenic protozoa.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, N H; Chowdhary, A

    2013-01-01

    The study was conducted to compare different methods of detection of pathogenic protozoan parasites in stool specimens of People Living with HIV/AIDS (PLHA). Stool specimens of 242 HIV sero-positive patients were examined using the wet mount technique, modified Ziehl-Neelsen's (ZN) staining, auto-fluorescence and auramine fluorescence staining. Patient specimens, 94 and 40 out of 242, were also subjected to Giardia antigen detection using an enzyme immunoassay and Cryptosporidium antigen detection by immuno-chromatography, respectively. For calculation of sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values, light microscopy of wet mounts and modified ZN stained smears for Giardia and Coccidia, respectively, were considered as gold standards. Sensitivity of auto-fluorescence, auramine-O staining and antigen detection techniques was found to be 100% as compared to the routine standards. The specificity of auto-fluorescence was 90.6% and 100% for Cyclospora and Isospora, respectively; that of auramine-O staining was 98.9% for Cryptosporidium, 99.30% for Cyclospora and 100% for Isospora; and that of antigen detection was 90.6% and 97.7% for Cryptosporidium and Giardia, respectively. In laboratories requiring screening of large number of stool specimens for detection of protozoan parasites, fluorescence microscopy and antigen detection can be useful techniques. Confirmation of positive results, however, needs to be done with the standard techniques.

  17. August Weismann embraces the protozoa.

    PubMed

    Churchill, Frederick B

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines the contents and institutional context of August Weismann's long essay on Amphimixis (1891). Therein he presented detailed discussions of his on-going studies of reduction division and parthenogenesis, but more to the point, he included an elaborate examination of Émile Maupas's two major publications in protozoology. To understand the relevance of this part to the other two, the author briefly reviews highpoints in earlier nineteenth century protozoology and concludes that only in the mid-1870s and 1880s did protozoa add an important dimension to heredity theory. Otto Bütschli and then Maupas provided Weismann with a deeper understanding of how conjugation and fertilization were related but not identical processes. This allowed him to integrate the two into a fuller understanding of evolution by natural selection.

  18. The role of carbohydrates in infection strategies of enteric pathogens.

    PubMed

    Kato, Kentaro; Ishiwa, Akiko

    2015-03-01

    Enteric pathogens cause considerable public health concerns worldwide including tropical regions. Here, we review the roles of carbohydrates in the infection strategies of various enteric pathogens including viruses, bacteria and protozoa, which infect the epithelial lining of the human and animal intestine. At host cell entry, enteric viruses, including norovirus, recognize mainly histo-blood group antigens. At the initial step of bacterial infections, carbohydrates also function as receptors for attachment. Here, we describe the function of carbohydrates in infection by Salmonella enterica and several bacterial species that produce a variety of fimbrial adhesions. During invasion by enteropathogenic protozoa, apicomplexan parasites utilize sialic acids or sulfated glycans. Carbohydrates serve as receptors for infection by these microbes; however, their usage of carbohydrates varies depending on the microbe. On the surface of the mucosal tissues of the gastrointestinal tract, various carbohydrate moieties are present and play a crucial role in infection, representing the site of infection or route of access for most microbes. During the infection and/or invasion process of the microbes, carbohydrates function as receptors for various microbes, but they can also function as a barrier to infection. One approach to develop effective prophylactic and therapeutic antimicrobial agents is to modify the drug structure. Another approach is to modify the mode of inhibition of infection depending on the individual pathogen by using and mimicking the interactions with carbohydrates. In addition, similarities in mode of infection may also be utilized. Our findings will be useful in the development of new drugs for the treatment of enteric pathogens.

  19. Equine grass sickness, but not botulism, causes autonomic and enteric neurodegeneration and increases soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment receptor protein expression within neuronal perikarya.

    PubMed

    McGorum, B C; Scholes, S; Milne, E M; Eaton, S L; Wishart, T M; Poxton, I R; Moss, S; Wernery, U; Davey, T; Harris, J B; Pirie, R S

    2016-11-01

    Equine grass sickness (EGS) is of unknown aetiology. Despite some evidence suggesting that it represents a toxico-infection with Clostridium botulinum types C and/or D, the effect of EGS on the functional targets of botulinum neurotoxins, namely the soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment receptor (SNARE) proteins, is unknown. Further, while it is commonly stated that, unlike EGS, equine botulism is not associated with autonomic and enteric neurodegeneration, this has not been definitively assessed. To determine: 1) whether botulism causes autonomic and enteric neurodegeneration; and 2) the effect of EGS on the expression of SNARE proteins within cranial cervical ganglion (CCG) and enteric neuronal perikarya. Descriptive study. Light microscopy was used to compare the morphology of neurons in haematoxylin-eosin stained sections of CCG and ileum from 6 EGS horses, 5 botulism horses and 6 control horses. Immunohistochemistry was used to compare the expression of synaptosomal-associated protein-25, synaptobrevin (Syb) and syntaxin within CCG neurons, and of Syb in enteric neurons, from horses with EGS, horses with botulism and control horses. The concentrations of these SNARE proteins in extracts of CCG from EGS and control horses were compared using quantitative fluorescent western blotting. EGS, but not botulism, was associated with autonomic and enteric neurodegeneration and with increased immunoreactivity for SNARE proteins within neuronal perikarya. Quantitative fluorescent western blotting confirmed increased concentrations of synaptosomal-associated protein-25, Syb and syntaxin within CCG extracts from EGS vs. control horses, with the increases in the latter 2 proteins being statistically significant. The occurrence of autonomic and enteric neurodegeneration, and increased expression of SNARE proteins within neuronal perikarya, in EGS but not botulism, suggests that EGS may not be caused by botulinum neurotoxins. Further investigation of the

  20. Campylobacter enteritis.

    PubMed Central

    Karmali, M A; Fleming, P C

    1979-01-01

    Campylobacter jejuni/coli has recently become recognized as a common bacterial cause of diarrhea. Infection can occur at any age. The usual incubation period of campylobacter enteritis is 2 to 5 days. Fever, diarrhea and abdominal pain are the most common clinical features. The stools frequently contain mucus and, a few days after the onset of symptoms, frank blood. Significant vomiting and dehydration are uncommon. A rapid presumptive laboratory diagnosis may be made during the acute phase of the illness by direct phase-contrast microscopy of stools. Isolation of the organism from stools requires culture in a selective medium containing antibiotics and incubation under reduced oxygen tension at 42 degrees C. The organism persists in the stools of untreated patients for up to 7 weeks following the onset of symptoms. Erythromycin may produce a rapid clinical and bacteriologic cure, and should be used to treat moderately to severely ill patients as well as patients with compromised host defences. The emergence of erythromycin-resistant strains requires close monitoring. The epidemiologic aspects of campylobacter enteritis will be fully understood only when methods become available for differentiating strains of C. jejuni/coli. The historical background and current knowledge of campylobacter enteritis are reviewed in this paper. Images FIG. 1 PMID:455209

  1. Protozoa in subsurface sediments from sites contaminated with aviation gasoline or jet fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Sinclair, J.L.; Kampbell, D.H.; Cook, M.L.; Wilson, J.T. )

    1993-02-01

    Fuel hydrocarbons are known to be readily biodegraded and protozoa may be associated with this process. The objective of this study is to determine whether protozoa are numerous enough in the contaminated areas of the subsurface to play a significant role in the microbial community. The results indicate that protozoa can become very numerous in the subsurface at fuel-contaminated sites with the greatest abundance of protozoa in the unsaturated zone, where fuel vapors mixed with atmospheric oxygen, and slightly beneath the floating fuel on the water table. In contrast, bacteria seemed to adapt to local conditions and showed less change in numbers in different parts of the profile than protozoa. Bioremediation of subsurface sediments is dependent on a sufficient hydraulic conductivity to permit pumping nutrients through the affected area. Bacteria have been known to cause large reductions in hydraulic conductivity. At the study area this reduction was not noted in spite of large concentrations of bacteria. The authors conclude that this may indicate a role for protozoa in maintaining hydraulic conductivity during biotreatment of readily degraded organic contaminants.

  2. Rickettsiae, protozoa, and opisthokonta/metazoa.

    PubMed

    Schmutzhard, Erich; Helbok, Raimund

    2014-01-01

    Rhizobiales (formerly named Rickettsiales) cause in rare instances meningitis and meningovasculitis, respectively. In case of history of exposure, infection by Rhizobiales needs to be considered since both diagnosis and therapy may be extremely difficult and pathogen-specific. The same applies to protozoa; in this chapter, Babesia species, free-living amoebae and Entamoeba histolytica infection, including severe meningitis and brain abscess, infection by Trypanosoma species (South American and African trypanosomiasis) are discussed with respect to history, epidemiology, clinical signs, and symptoms as well as differential diagnosis and therapy. Parasitic flatworms and roundworms, potentially able to invade the central nervous system, trematodes (flukes), cestodes (in particular, Cysticercus cellulosae), but also nematodes (in particular, Strongyloides spp. in the immunocompromised) are of worldwide importance. In contrast, filarial worms, Toxocara spp., Trichinella spp., Gnathostoma and Angiostrongylus spp. are seen only in certain geographically confined areas. Even more regionally confined are infestations of the central nervous system by metazoa, in particular, tongue worms (=arthropods) or larvae of flies (=maggots). The aim of this chapter is (1) to alert the neurologist to these infections, and (2) to enable the attending emergency neurologist to take a knowledgeable history, with an emphasis on epidemiology, clinical signs, and symptoms as well as therapeutic management possibilities. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Human cytochrome c enters murine J774 cells and causes G{sub 1} and G{sub 2}/M cell cycle arrest and induction of apoptosis

    SciTech Connect

    Hiraoka, Yoshinori; Granja, Ana Teresa; Fialho, Arsenio M.; Schlarb-Ridley, Beatrix G.; Das Gupta, Tapas K.; Chakrabarty, Ananda M.; Yamada, Tohru . E-mail: tohru@uic.edu

    2005-12-16

    Cytochrome c is well known as a carrier of electrons during respiration. Current evidence indicates that cytochrome c also functions as a major component of apoptosomes to induce apoptosis in eukaryotic cells as well as an antioxidant. More recently, a prokaryotic cytochrome c, cytochrome c {sub 551} from Pseudomonas aeruginosa, has been shown to enter in mammalian cells such as the murine macrophage-like J774 cells and causes inhibition of cell cycle progression. Much less is known about such functions by mammalian cytochromes c, particularly the human cytochrome c. We now report that similar to P. aeruginosa cytochrome c {sub 551}, the purified human cytochrome c protein can enter J774 cells and induce cell cycle arrest at the G{sub 1} to S phase, as well as at the G{sub 2}/M phase at higher concentrations. Unlike P. aeruginosa cytochrome c {sub 551} which had no effect on the induction of apoptosis, human cytochrome c induces significant apoptosis and cell death in J774 cells, presumably through inhibition of the cell cycle at the G{sub 2}/M phase. When incubated with human breast cancer MCF-7 and normal mammary epithelial cell line MCF-10A1 cells, human cytochrome c entered in both types of cells but induced cell death only in the normal MCF-10A1 cells. The ability of human cytochrome c to enter J774 cells was greatly reduced at 4 deg. C, suggesting energy requirement in the entry process.

  4. Blood protozoa of imported birds.

    PubMed

    Manwell, R D; Rossi, G S

    1975-02-01

    Large numbers of birds, until recently, were brought into the United States each year. Countries of origin were varied, and included those of Australasia, Africa, South America, and the Caribbean islands, as well as other places. With them of course come their parasites, some of which may be potential pathogens to domestic avifauna. In part for this reason, a survey was undertaken of blood parasites of birds from pet shops and importers. So far a total of 1234 birds belonging to 186 species has been examined. Several new species and subspecies of avian Plasmodium have been found in the course of this study, including P. octamerium Manwell, 1968 in a Pintail Whydah, Vidua macoura, from Africa; P paranucleophilum Manwell & Sessler, 1971 in a South American tanager, Tachyphonus sp; and P. nucleophilum toucani Manwell & Sessler 1971 in a Swainson's Toucan, Ramphastos s. swainsonii. Plasmodium huffi Muniz, Soares & Battista is undoubtedly a synonym pro parte for the last. Plasmodium tenue Laveran & Maruliaz, long thought to be a synonym of Plasmodium vaughani Novy & MacNeal, was rediscovered and found to be a valid species. Plasmodium nucleophilum, infrequently seen in the New World, occurred in many Asian and African birds, and especially in starlings. Infections with other species of Plasmodium were common. Haemoproteus was the commonest blood parasite; Leucocytozoon was very rare as was Atoxoplasma (Lankesterella). The 2 families of birds best represented were the Fringillidae and the Psittacidae, but no blood parasites were seen in the latter. It is clear that imported birds are often infected with blood protozoa, some of which are unknown from native birds.

  5. Enteric Duplication Cyst Leading to Volvulus: An Unusual Cause of Acute Intestinal Obstruction – A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Nyuwi, Kuotho T; Singh, Chabungbam Gyan; Sangtam, Ty Apila; Varte, Lalhruaitluanga

    2016-01-01

    Enteric Duplication Cysts (EDC) is a rare congenital malformation, usually found in mesenteric side of Gastrointestinal (GI) tract. Generally patients present with non-specific symptoms depending on size and location of the cyst in GI tract. EDC presenting as small bowel volvulus is a rare clinical entity. Herein, we are reporting a 16-year-old adolescent girl who presented to Emergency Department (ED) with the features of acute bowel obstruction with septicemia. Patient underwent exploratory laparotomy which revealed dilated, twisted, gangrenous bowel due to a cystic lesion adjacent to the mesenteric side. Resection of the cystic lesion along with the affected gangrenous segment of bowel with an end to end anastomosis performed. PMID:28208934

  6. Survival of Campylobacter jejuni in waterborne protozoa.

    PubMed

    Snelling, W J; McKenna, J P; Lecky, D M; Dooley, J S G

    2005-09-01

    The failure to reduce the Campylobacter contamination of intensively reared poultry may be partially due to Campylobacter resisting disinfection in water after their internalization by waterborne protozoa. Campylobacter jejuni and a variety of waterborne protozoa, including ciliates, flagellates, and alveolates, were detected in the drinking water of intensively reared poultry by a combination of culture and molecular techniques. An in vitro assay showed that C. jejuni remained viable when internalized by Tetrahymena pyriformis and Acanthamoeba castellanii for significantly longer (up to 36 h) than when they were in purely a planktonic state. The internalized Campylobacter were also significantly more resistant to disinfection than planktonic organisms. Collectively, our results strongly suggest that protozoa in broiler drinking water systems can delay the decline of Campylobacter viability and increase Campylobacter disinfection resistance, thus increasing the potential of Campylobacter to colonize broilers.

  7. Regulation of Gene Expression in Protozoa Parasites

    PubMed Central

    Gomez, Consuelo; Esther Ramirez, M.; Calixto-Galvez, Mercedes; Medel, Olivia; Rodríguez, Mario A.

    2010-01-01

    Infections with protozoa parasites are associated with high burdens of morbidity and mortality across the developing world. Despite extensive efforts to control the transmission of these parasites, the spread of populations resistant to drugs and the lack of effective vaccines against them contribute to their persistence as major public health problems. Parasites should perform a strict control on the expression of genes involved in their pathogenicity, differentiation, immune evasion, or drug resistance, and the comprehension of the mechanisms implicated in that control could help to develop novel therapeutic strategies. However, until now these mechanisms are poorly understood in protozoa. Recent investigations into gene expression in protozoa parasites suggest that they possess many of the canonical machineries employed by higher eukaryotes for the control of gene expression at transcriptional, posttranscriptional, and epigenetic levels, but they also contain exclusive mechanisms. Here, we review the current understanding about the regulation of gene expression in Plasmodium sp., Trypanosomatids, Entamoeba histolytica and Trichomonas vaginalis. PMID:20204171

  8. Survival of Campylobacter jejuni in Waterborne Protozoa

    PubMed Central

    Snelling, W. J.; McKenna, J. P.; Lecky, D. M.; Dooley, J. S. G.

    2005-01-01

    The failure to reduce the Campylobacter contamination of intensively reared poultry may be partially due to Campylobacter resisting disinfection in water after their internalization by waterborne protozoa. Campylobacter jejuni and a variety of waterborne protozoa, including ciliates, flagellates, and alveolates, were detected in the drinking water of intensively reared poultry by a combination of culture and molecular techniques. An in vitro assay showed that C. jejuni remained viable when internalized by Tetrahymena pyriformis and Acanthamoeba castellanii for significantly longer (up to 36 h) than when they were in purely a planktonic state. The internalized Campylobacter were also significantly more resistant to disinfection than planktonic organisms. Collectively, our results strongly suggest that protozoa in broiler drinking water systems can delay the decline of Campylobacter viability and increase Campylobacter disinfection resistance, thus increasing the potential of Campylobacter to colonize broilers. PMID:16151149

  9. Mobility of protozoa through narrow channels.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei; Shor, Leslie M; LeBoeuf, Eugene J; Wikswo, John P; Kosson, David S

    2005-08-01

    Microbes in the environment are profoundly affected by chemical and physical heterogeneities occurring on a spatial scale of millimeters to micrometers. Physical refuges are critical for maintaining stable bacterial populations in the presence of high predation pressure by protozoa. The effects of microscale heterogeneity, however, are difficult to replicate and observe using conventional experimental techniques. The objective of this research was to investigate the effect of spatial constraints on the mobility of six species of marine protozoa. Microfluidic devices were created with small channels similar in size to pore spaces in soil or sediment systems. Individuals from each species of protozoa tested were able to rapidly discover and move within these channels. The time required for locating the channel entrance from the source well increased with protozoan size and decreased with channel height. Protozoa of every species were able to pass constrictions with dimensions equal to or smaller than the individual's unconstrained cross-sectional area. Channel geometry was also an important factor affecting protozoan mobility. Linear rates of motion for various species of protozoa varied by channel size. In relatively wide channels, typical rates of motion were 300 to 500 microm s(-1) (or about 1 m per hour). As the channel dimensions decreased, however, motilities slowed more than an order of magnitude to 20 microm s(-1). Protozoa were consistently observed to exhibit several strategies for successfully traversing channel reductions. The empirical results and qualitative observations resulting from this research help define the physical limitations on protozoan grazing, a critical process affecting microbes in the environment.

  10. A cross-sectional analysis of clinical presentations of and risk factors for enteric protozoan Infections in an Active Duty Population during Operation Iraqi Freedom.

    PubMed

    Downs, John W; Putnam, Shannon D; Rockabrand, David M; El Okla, Gamal; Mostafa, Manal; Monteville, Marshal R; Antosek, Louis E; Herbst, James; Tribble, David R; Riddle, Mark S; Sanders, John W

    2015-01-01

    Infectious travelers' diarrhea (TD) is a well-appreciated problem among service members serving abroad, particularly where infrastructure is limited due to ongoing combat operations, and efforts at sanitation and hygiene may not be considered an immediate priority. Bacterial and viral causes of travelers' diarrhea are well-described among deployed service members, however, gastrointestinal protozoan infections among deployed service members are less well documented. This study's purpose was to identify potential risk factors for, and clinical presentations of, enteric protozoan infections in an active duty military population deployed to combat operations in the Southwest Asia. A cross-sectional study of enteric protozoan infections among US service members deployed in Al-Asad Air Base, Iraq in support of Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF) was conducted in summer 2004. Subjects were obtained through a randomized sector sampling scheme, and through presentations for care at the air base medical facilities. All study participants provided a stool sample, either diarrhea or solid, upon study entry and completed a questionnaire documenting demographic information, clinical symptoms of any prior diarrheal episodes, and health risk behaviors. Basic diagnostic microscopy for protozoa was conducted to include acid-fast and modified trichrome staining. Four hundred thirty-seven subjects were included in the analysis, and 75 (17.1 %) subjects were found to have enteric protozoan infections as identified by diagnostic stool microscopy. Blastocystis hominis (n = 36), Entamoeba coli (n = 25), Endolimax nana (n = 20), and Entamoeba histolytica (n = 5) were the predominant organisms isolated. Crude incidence of prior episodes of diarrhea was greater among subjects from whom enteric protozoa were isolated compared to those without (IRR 1.66, 95 % CI 1.47-1.87). Bivariate analysis of health risk and hygiene behaviors found increased odds for presence of Blastocystis

  11. Prevalence of Intestinal Protozoa among Saudi Patients with Chronic Renal Failure: A Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Hawash, Yousry A.; Dorgham, Laila Sh.; Amir, El-Amir M.; Sharaf, Osama F.

    2015-01-01

    It has been hypothesized that chronic renal failure (CRF) predisposes patients to infection with intestinal protozoa. We tested this hypothesis with a matched case-control study to determine the prevalence of these protozoa and their diarrhea associated symptoms among 50 patients with CRF (cases) from Taif, western Saudi Arabia. Fifty diarrheal patients without CRF were recruited in the study as controls. Participants were interviewed by a structured questionnaire and stool samples were collected. Samples were thoroughly examined with microscopy and three coproantigens detection kits. Enteric protozoa were detected in 21 cases and 14 controls. Blastocystis spp. were the most predominant parasite (16% in cases versus 8% in controls), followed by Giardia duodenalis (10% in cases versus 12% in controls) and Cryptosporidium spp. (10% in cases versus 6% in controls). Cyclospora cayetanensis was identified in two cases, while Entamoeba histolytica was described in one case and one control. Intestinal parasitism was positively associated with the male gender, urban residence, and travel history. Clinical symptoms of nausea/vomiting and abdominal pain were significantly varied between the parasitized cases and controls (P value ≤ 0.05). Given the results, we recommend screening all diarrheal feces for intestinal protozoa in the study's population, particularly those with CRF. PMID:26491455

  12. The Agr-Like Quorum Sensing System Is Required for Pathogenesis of Necrotic Enteritis Caused by Clostridium perfringens in Poultry.

    PubMed

    Yu, Qiang; Lepp, Dion; Mehdizadeh Gohari, Iman; Wu, Tao; Zhou, Hongzhuan; Yin, Xianhua; Yu, Hai; Prescott, John F; Nie, Shao-Ping; Xie, Ming-Yong; Gong, Joshua

    2017-06-01

    Clostridium perfringens encodes at least two different quorum sensing (QS) systems, the Agr-like and LuxS, and recent studies have highlighted their importance in the regulation of toxin production and virulence. The role of QS in the pathogenesis of necrotic enteritis (NE) in poultry and the regulation of NetB, the key toxin involved, has not yet been investigated. We have generated isogenic agrB-null and complemented strains from parent strain CP1 and demonstrated that the virulence of the agrB-null mutant was strongly attenuated in a chicken NE model system and restored by complementation. The production of NetB, a key NE-associated toxin, was dramatically reduced in the agrB mutant at both the transcriptional and protein levels, though not in a luxS mutant. Transwell assays confirmed that the Agr-like QS system controls NetB production through a diffusible signal. Global gene expression analysis of the agrB mutant identified additional genes modulated by Agr-like QS, including operons related to phospholipid metabolism and adherence, which may also play a role in NE pathogenesis. This study provides the first evidence that the Agr-like QS system is critical for NE pathogenesis and identifies a number of Agr-regulated genes, most notably netB, that are potentially involved in mediating its effects. The Agr-like QS system thus may serve as a target for developing novel interventions to prevent NE in chickens. © Crown copyright 2017.

  13. Protozoacidal Trojan-Horse: use of a ligand-lytic peptide for selective destruction of symbiotic protozoa within termite guts.

    PubMed

    Sethi, Amit; Delatte, Jennifer; Foil, Lane; Husseneder, Claudia

    2014-01-01

    For novel biotechnology-based termite control, we developed a cellulose bait containing freeze-dried genetically engineered yeast which expresses a protozoacidal lytic peptide attached to a protozoa-recognizing ligand. The yeast acts as a 'Trojan-Horse' that kills the cellulose-digesting protozoa in the termite gut, which leads to the death of termites, presumably due to inefficient cellulose digestion. The ligand targets the lytic peptide specifically to protozoa, thereby increasing its protozoacidal efficiency while protecting non-target organisms. After ingestion of the bait, the yeast propagates in the termite's gut and is spread throughout the termite colony via social interactions. This novel paratransgenesis-based strategy could be a good supplement for current termite control using fortified biological control agents in addition to chemical insecticides. Moreover, this ligand-lytic peptide system could be used for drug development to selectively target disease-causing protozoa in humans or other vertebrates.

  14. Protozoacidal Trojan-Horse: Use of a Ligand-Lytic Peptide for Selective Destruction of Symbiotic Protozoa within Termite Guts

    PubMed Central

    Sethi, Amit; Delatte, Jennifer; Foil, Lane; Husseneder, Claudia

    2014-01-01

    For novel biotechnology-based termite control, we developed a cellulose bait containing freeze-dried genetically engineered yeast which expresses a protozoacidal lytic peptide attached to a protozoa-recognizing ligand. The yeast acts as a ‘Trojan-Horse’ that kills the cellulose-digesting protozoa in the termite gut, which leads to the death of termites, presumably due to inefficient cellulose digestion. The ligand targets the lytic peptide specifically to protozoa, thereby increasing its protozoacidal efficiency while protecting non-target organisms. After ingestion of the bait, the yeast propagates in the termite's gut and is spread throughout the termite colony via social interactions. This novel paratransgenesis-based strategy could be a good supplement for current termite control using fortified biological control agents in addition to chemical insecticides. Moreover, this ligand-lytic peptide system could be used for drug development to selectively target disease-causing protozoa in humans or other vertebrates. PMID:25198727

  15. Double-stranded RNA made in C. elegans neurons can enter the germline and cause transgenerational gene silencing

    PubMed Central

    Devanapally, Sindhuja; Ravikumar, Snusha; Jose, Antony M.

    2015-01-01

    An animal that can transfer gene-regulatory information from somatic cells to germ cells may be able to communicate changes in the soma from one generation to the next. In the worm Caenorhabditis elegans, expression of double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) in neurons can result in the export of dsRNA-derived mobile RNAs to other distant cells. Here, we show that neuronal mobile RNAs can cause transgenerational silencing of a gene of matching sequence in germ cells. Consistent with neuronal mobile RNAs being forms of dsRNA, silencing of target genes that are expressed either in somatic cells or in the germline requires the dsRNA-selective importer SID-1. In contrast to silencing in somatic cells, which requires dsRNA expression in each generation, silencing in the germline is heritable after a single generation of exposure to neuronal mobile RNAs. Although initiation of inherited silencing within the germline requires SID-1, a primary Argonaute RDE-1, a secondary Argonaute HRDE-1, and an RNase D homolog MUT-7, maintenance of inherited silencing is independent of SID-1 and RDE-1, but requires HRDE-1 and MUT-7. Inherited silencing can persist for >25 generations in the absence of the ancestral source of neuronal dsRNA. Therefore, our results suggest that sequence-specific regulatory information in the form of dsRNA can be transferred from neurons to the germline to cause transgenerational silencing. PMID:25646479

  16. Protozoa interaction with aquatic invertebrate: interest for watercourses biomonitoring.

    PubMed

    Palos Ladeiro, M; Bigot, A; Aubert, D; Hohweyer, J; Favennec, L; Villena, I; Geffard, A

    2013-02-01

    Toxoplasma gondii, Cryptosporidium parvum, and Giardia duodenalis are human waterborne protozoa. These worldwide parasites had been detected in various watercourses as recreational, surface, drinking, river, and seawater. As of today, water protozoa detection was based on large water filtration and on sample concentration. Another tool like aquatic invertebrate parasitism could be used for sanitary and environmental biomonitoring. In fact, organisms like filter feeders could already filtrate and concentrate protozoa directly in their tissues in proportion to ambient concentration. So molluscan shellfish can be used as a bioindicator of protozoa contamination level in a site since they were sedentary. Nevertheless, only a few researches had focused on nonspecific parasitism like protozoa infection on aquatic invertebrates. Objectives of this review are twofold: Firstly, an overview of protozoa in worldwide water was presented. Secondly, current knowledge of protozoa parasitism on aquatic invertebrates was detailed and the lack of data of their biological impact was pointed out.

  17. Interactions between food-borne pathogens and protozoa isolated from lettuce and spinach.

    PubMed

    Gourabathini, Poornima; Brandl, Maria T; Redding, Katherine S; Gunderson, John H; Berk, Sharon G

    2008-04-01

    The survival of Salmonella enterica was recently shown to increase when the bacteria were sequestered in expelled food vacuoles (vesicles) of Tetrahymena. Because fresh produce is increasingly linked to outbreaks of enteric illness, the present investigation aimed to determine the prevalence of protozoa on spinach and lettuce and to examine their interactions with S. enterica, Escherichia coli O157:H7, and Listeria monocytogenes. Glaucoma sp., Colpoda steinii, and Acanthamoeba palestinensis were cultured from store-bought spinach and lettuce and used in our study. A strain of Tetrahymena pyriformis previously isolated from spinach and a soil-borne Tetrahymena sp. were also used. Washed protozoa were allowed to graze on green fluorescent protein- or red fluorescent protein-labeled enteric pathogens. Significant differences in interactions among the various protist-enteric pathogen combinations were observed. Vesicles were produced by Glaucoma with all of the bacterial strains, although L. monocytogenes resulted in the smallest number per ciliate. Vesicle production was observed also during grazing of Tetrahymena on E. coli O157:H7 and S. enterica but not during grazing on L. monocytogenes, in vitro and on leaves. All vesicles contained intact fluorescing bacteria. In contrast, C. steinii and the amoeba did not produce vesicles from any of the enteric pathogens, nor were pathogens trapped within their cysts. Studies of the fate of E. coli O157:H7 in expelled vesicles revealed that by 4 h after addition of spinach extract, the bacteria multiplied and escaped the vesicles. The presence of protozoa on leafy vegetables and their sequestration of enteric bacteria in vesicles indicate that they may play an important role in the ecology of human pathogens on produce.

  18. Causes of death after therapy for early stage Hodgkin's disease entered on EORTC protocols. EORTC Lymphoma Cooperative Group.

    PubMed

    Henry-Amar, M; Hayat, M; Meerwaldt, J H; Burgers, M; Carde, P; Somers, R; Noordijk, E M; Monconduit, M; Thomas, J; Cosset, J M

    1990-11-01

    The risk of dying from different causes after Hodgkin's disease (HD) therapy has been quantified from a series of 1,449 patients with early stages included in four successive clinical trials conducted by the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) Lymphoma Cooperative Group since 1963. Overall, 240 patients died and the 15-year survival rate was 69% whereas the expected rate was 95%. The standardized mortality ratio (SMR) technique was used to quantify excess deaths as a function of time since first therapy. At each interval, SMR was significantly increased, giving: 0-3 year, 8.86 (p less than 0.001); 4-6 year, 9.25 (p less than 0.001); 7-9 year, 7.08 (p less than 0.001); 10-12 year, 9.53 (p less than 0.001); 13-15 year, 4.37 (p less than 0.01); and 16+ years, 3.80 (p less than 0.05). While the proportion of deaths as a consequence of HD progression, treatment side-effect, and intercurrent disease decreased with time, that of second cancer and cardiac failure peaked during the 10-12 year post-treatment interval. After 15 years of follow-up, the risk of dying from causes other than HD continued to increase. These findings indicate that although probably cured from HD, patients are at higher risk for death than expected, a risk that might be a consequence of therapy.

  19. Vaccines for viral and bacterial pathogens causing acute gastroenteritis: Part I: Overview, vaccines for enteric viruses and Vibrio cholerae

    PubMed Central

    O’Ryan, Miguel; Vidal, Roberto; del Canto, Felipe; Salazar, Juan Carlos; Montero, David

    2015-01-01

    Efforts to develop vaccines for prevention of acute diarrhea have been going on for more than 40 y with partial success. The myriad of pathogens, more than 20, that have been identified as a cause of acute diarrhea throughout the years pose a significant challenge for selecting and further developing the most relevant vaccine candidates. Based on pathogen distribution as identified in epidemiological studies performed mostly in low-resource countries, rotavirus, Cryptosporidium, Shigella, diarrheogenic E. coli and V. cholerae are predominant, and thus the main targets for vaccine development and implementation. Vaccination against norovirus is most relevant in middle/high-income countries and possibly in resource-deprived countries, pending a more precise characterization of disease impact. Only a few licensed vaccines are currently available, of which rotavirus vaccines have been the most outstanding in demonstrating a significant impact in a short time period. This is a comprehensive review, divided into 2 articles, of nearly 50 vaccine candidates against the most relevant viral and bacterial pathogens that cause acute gastroenteritis. In order to facilitate reading, sections for each pathogen are organized as follows: i) a discussion of the main epidemiological and pathogenic features; and ii) a discussion of vaccines based on their stage of development, moving from current licensed vaccines to vaccines in advanced stage of development (in phase IIb or III trials) to vaccines in early stages of clinical development (in phase I/II) or preclinical development in animal models. In this first article we discuss rotavirus, norovirus and Vibrio cholerae. In the following article we will discuss Shigella, Salmonella (non-typhoidal), diarrheogenic E. coli (enterotoxigenic and enterohemorragic), and Campylobacter jejuni. PMID:25715048

  20. Sepsis From the Gut: The Enteric Habitat of Bacteria That Cause Late-Onset Neonatal Bloodstream Infections

    PubMed Central

    Carl, Mike A.; Ndao, I. Malick; Springman, A. Cody; Manning, Shannon D.; Johnson, James R.; Johnston, Brian D.; Burnham, Carey-Ann D.; Weinstock, Erica Sodergren; Weinstock, George M.; Wylie, Todd N.; Mitreva, Makedonka; Abubucker, Sahar; Zhou, Yanjiao; Stevens, Harold J.; Hall-Moore, Carla; Julian, Samuel; Shaikh, Nurmohammad; Warner, Barbara B.; Tarr, Phillip I.

    2014-01-01

    Background. Late-onset sepsis is a major problem in neonatology, but the habitat of the pathogens before bloodstream invasion occurs is not well established. Methods. We examined prospectively collected stools from premature infants with sepsis to find pathogens that subsequently invaded their bloodstreams, and sought the same organisms in stools of infants without sepsis. Culture-based techniques were used to isolate stool bacteria that provisionally matched the bloodstream organisms, which were then genome sequenced to confirm or refute commonality. Results. Of 11 children with late-onset neonatal bloodstream infections, 7 produced at least 1 stool that contained group B Streptococcus (GBS), Serratia marcescens, or Escherichia coli before their sepsis episode with provisionally matching organisms. Of 96 overlap comparison subjects without sepsis temporally associated with these cases, 4 were colonized with provisionally matching GBS or S. marcescens. Of 175 comparisons of stools from randomly selected infants without sepsis, 1 contained a GBS (this infant had also served as an overlap comparison subject and both specimens contained provisionally matching GBS). Genome sequencing confirmed common origin of provisionally matching fecal and blood isolates. The invasive E. coli were present in all presepticemic stools since birth, but gut colonization with GBS and S. marcescens occurred closer to time of bloodstream infection. Conclusions. The neonatal gut harbors sepsis-causing pathogens, but such organisms are not inevitable members of the normal microbiota. Surveillance microbiology, decolonization, and augmented hygiene might prevent dissemination of invasive bacteria between and within premature infants. PMID:24647013

  1. Enteral feedings.

    PubMed

    Chernoff, R

    1980-01-01

    The benefits, equipment used, commercially available sources, and the indications and techniques for administration of enteral nutrients are reviewed. In many malabsorption states, enteral feeding is preferable and parenteral nutrients are seldom indicated. Transitional enteral nutrient support usually is indicated after parenteral nutrient therapy. Enteral tube-feeding formulas should be matched to the patient's needs; formulas using blenderized natural foods or intact isolated nutrients are appropriate for patients with intact gastrointestinal tracts. Patients should be monitored for glucosuria and hyperglycemia, bloating, nausea, dehydration, and renal, hepatic and hematologic status. Formula dilution, and a reduced flow rate or use of continuous-drip feeding, will reduce the incidence of osmotic diarrhea. The effectiveness, low cost and low potential for serious complications make enteral feeding preferable to parenteral nutrient therapy for many patients.

  2. Kingdom protozoa and its 18 phyla.

    PubMed Central

    Cavalier-Smith, T

    1993-01-01

    The demarcation of protist kingdoms is reviewed, a complete revised classification down to the level of subclass is provided for the kingdoms Protozoa, Archezoa, and Chromista, and the phylogenetic basis of the revised classification is outlined. Removal of Archezoa because of their ancestral absence of mitochondria, peroxisomes, and Golgi dictyosomes makes the kingdom Protozoa much more homogeneous: they all either have mitochondria and peroxisomes or have secondarily lost them. Predominantly phagotrophic, Protozoa are distinguished from the mainly photosynthetic kingdom Chromista (Chlorarachniophyta, Cryptista, Heterokonta, and Haptophyta) by the absence of epiciliary retronemes (rigid thrust-reversing tubular ciliary hairs) and by the lack of two additional membranes outside their chloroplast envelopes. The kingdom Protozoa has two subkingdoms: Adictyozoa, without Golgi dictyosomes, containing only the phylum Percolozoa (flagellates and amoeboflagellates); and Dictyozoa, made up of 17 phyla with Golgi dictyosomes. Dictyozoa are divided into two branches: (i) Parabasalia, a single phylum with hydrogenosomes and 70S ribosomes but no mitochondria, Golgi dictyosomes associated with striated roots, and a kinetid of four or five cilia; and (ii) Bikonta (16 unicellular or plasmodial phyla with mitochondria and bikinetids and in which Golgi dictyosomes are not associated with striated ciliary roots), which are divided into two infrakingdoms: Euglenozoa (flagellates with discoid mitochondrial cristae and trans-splicing of miniexons for all nuclear genes) and Neozoa (15 phyla of more advanced protozoa with tubular or flat [usually nondiscoid] mitochondrial cristae and cis-spliced spliceosomal introns). Neozoa are divided into seven parvkingdoms: (i) Ciliomyxa (three predominantly ciliated phyla with tubular mitochondrial cristae but no cortical alveoli, i.e., Opalozoa [flagellates with tubular cristae], Mycetozoa [slime molds], and Choanozoa [choanoflagellates, with

  3. Contribution of enteric infection, altered intestinal barrier function, and maternal malnutrition to infant malnutrition in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Mondal, Dinesh; Minak, Juliana; Alam, Masud; Liu, Yue; Dai, Jing; Korpe, Poonum; Liu, Lei; Haque, Rashidul; Petri, William A

    2012-01-15

    Malnourished children are at increased risk for death due to diarrhea. Our goal was to determine the contribution of specific enteric infections to malnutrition-associated diarrhea and to determine the role of enteric infections in the development of malnutrition. Children from an urban slum in Bangladesh were followed for the first year of life by every-other-day home visits. Enteropathogens were identified in diarrheal and monthly surveillance stools; intestinal barrier function was measured by serum endocab antibodies; and nutritional status was measured by anthropometry. Diarrhea occurred 4.69 ± 0.19 times per child per year, with the most common infections caused by enteric protozoa (amebiasis, cryptosporidiosis, and giardiasis), rotavirus, astrovirus, and enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC). Malnutrition was present in 16.3% of children at birth and 42.4% at 12 months of age. Children malnourished at birth had increased Entamoeba histolytica, Cryptosporidium, and ETEC infections and more severe diarrhea. Children who became malnourished by 12 months of age were more likely to have prolonged diarrhea, intestinal barrier dysfunction, a mother without education, and low family expenditure. Prospective observation of infants in an urban slum demonstrated that diarrheal diseases were associated with the development of malnutrition that was in turn linked to intestinal barrier disruption and that diarrhea was more severe in already malnourished children. The enteric protozoa were unexpectedly important causes of diarrhea in this setting. This study demonstrates the complex interrelationship of malnutrition and diarrhea in infants in low-income settings and points to the potential for infectious disease interventions in the prevention and treatment of malnutrition.

  4. A prospective study of the importance of enteric fever as a cause of non-malarial febrile illness in patients admitted to Chittagong Medical College Hospital, Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Maude, Rapeephan R; Ghose, Aniruddha; Samad, Rasheda; de Jong, Hanna K; Fukushima, Masako; Wijedoru, Lalith; Hassan, Mahtab Uddin; Hossain, Md Amir; Karim, Md Rezaul; Sayeed, Abdullah Abu; van den Ende, Stannie; Pal, Sujat; Zahed, A S M; Rahman, Wahid; Karnain, Rifat; Islam, Rezina; Tran, Dung Thi Ngoc; Ha, Tuyen Thanh; Pham, Anh Hong; Campbell, James I; van Doorn, H Rogier; Maude, Richard J; van der Poll, Tom; Wiersinga, W Joost; Day, Nicholas P J; Baker, Stephen; Dondorp, Arjen M; Parry, Christopher M; Faiz, Md Abul

    2016-10-13

    Fever is a common cause of hospital admission in Bangladesh but causative agents, other than malaria, are not routinely investigated. Enteric fever is thought to be common. Adults and children admitted to Chittagong Medical College Hospital with a temperature of ≥38.0 °C were investigated using a blood smear for malaria, a blood culture, real-time PCR to detect Salmonella Typhi, S. Paratyphi A and other pathogens in blood and CSF and an NS1 antigen dengue ELISA. We enrolled 300 febrile patients with a negative malaria smear between January and June 2012: 156 children (aged ≤15 years) and 144 adults with a median (interquartile range) age of 13 (5-31) years and median (IQR) illness duration before admission of five (2-8) days. Clinical enteric fever was diagnosed in 52 patients (17.3 %), lower respiratory tract infection in 48 (16.0 %), non-specific febrile illness in 48 (16.0 %), a CNS infection in 37 patients (12.3 %), urinary sepsis in 23 patients (7.7 %), an upper respiratory tract infection in 21 patients (7.0 %), and diarrhea or dysentery in 21 patients (7.0 %). Malaria was still suspected in seven patients despite a negative microscopy test. S. Typhi was detected in blood by culture or PCR in 34 (11.3 %) of patients. Of note Rickettsia typhi and Orientia tsutsugamushi were detected by PCR in two and one patient respectively. Twenty-nine (9 %) patients died during their hospital admission (15/160 (9.4 %) of children and 14/144 (9.7 %) adults). Two of 52 (3.8 %) patients with enteric fever, 5/48 (10.4 %) patients with lower respiratory tract infections, and 12/37 (32.4 %) patients with CNS infection died. Enteric fever was confirmed in 11.3 % of patients admitted to this hospital in Bangladesh with non-malaria fever. Lower respiratory tract and CNS infections were also common. CNS infections in this location merit more detailed study due to the high mortality.

  5. The Role of Ciliate Protozoa in the Rumen

    PubMed Central

    Newbold, Charles J.; de la Fuente, Gabriel; Belanche, Alejandro; Ramos-Morales, Eva; McEwan, Neil R.

    2015-01-01

    First described in 1843, Rumen protozoa with their striking appearance were assumed to be important for the welfare of their host. However, despite contributing up to 50% of the bio-mass in the rumen, the role of protozoa in rumen microbial ecosystem remains unclear. Phylogenetic analysis of 18S rDNA libraries generated from the rumen of cattle, sheep, and goats has revealed an unexpected diversity of ciliated protozoa although variation in gene copy number between species makes it difficult to obtain absolute quantification. Despite repeated attempts it has proven impossible to maintain rumen protozoa in axenic culture. Thus it has been difficult to establish conclusively a role of ciliate protozoa in rumen fiber degradation. The development of techniques to clone and express ciliate genes in λ phage, together with bioinformatic indices to confirm the ciliate origin of the genes has allowed the isolation and characterization of fibrolytic genes from rumen protozoa. Elimination of the ciliate protozoa increases microbial protein supply by up to 30% and reduces methane production by up to 11%. Our recent findings suggest that holotrich protozoa play a disproportionate role in supporting methanogenesis whilst the small Entodinium are responsible for much of the bacterial protein turnover. As yet no method to control protozoa in the rumen that is safe and practically applicable has been developed, however a range of plant extract capable of controlling if not completely eliminating rumen protozoa have been described. PMID:26635774

  6. The Role of Ciliate Protozoa in the Rumen.

    PubMed

    Newbold, Charles J; de la Fuente, Gabriel; Belanche, Alejandro; Ramos-Morales, Eva; McEwan, Neil R

    2015-01-01

    First described in 1843, Rumen protozoa with their striking appearance were assumed to be important for the welfare of their host. However, despite contributing up to 50% of the bio-mass in the rumen, the role of protozoa in rumen microbial ecosystem remains unclear. Phylogenetic analysis of 18S rDNA libraries generated from the rumen of cattle, sheep, and goats has revealed an unexpected diversity of ciliated protozoa although variation in gene copy number between species makes it difficult to obtain absolute quantification. Despite repeated attempts it has proven impossible to maintain rumen protozoa in axenic culture. Thus it has been difficult to establish conclusively a role of ciliate protozoa in rumen fiber degradation. The development of techniques to clone and express ciliate genes in λ phage, together with bioinformatic indices to confirm the ciliate origin of the genes has allowed the isolation and characterization of fibrolytic genes from rumen protozoa. Elimination of the ciliate protozoa increases microbial protein supply by up to 30% and reduces methane production by up to 11%. Our recent findings suggest that holotrich protozoa play a disproportionate role in supporting methanogenesis whilst the small Entodinium are responsible for much of the bacterial protein turnover. As yet no method to control protozoa in the rumen that is safe and practically applicable has been developed, however a range of plant extract capable of controlling if not completely eliminating rumen protozoa have been described.

  7. Understanding drug resistance in human intestinal protozoa.

    PubMed

    El-Taweel, Hend Aly

    2015-05-01

    Infections with intestinal protozoa continue to be a major health problem in many areas of the world. The widespread use of a limited number of therapeutic agents for their management and control raises concerns about development of drug resistance. Generally, the use of any antimicrobial agent should be accompanied by meticulous monitoring of its efficacy and measures to minimize resistance formation. Evidence for the occurrence of drug resistance in different intestinal protozoa comes from case studies and clinical trials, sometimes with a limited number of patients. Large-scale field-based assessment of drug resistance and drug sensitivity testing of clinical isolates are needed. Furthermore, the association of drug resistance with certain geographic isolates or genotypes deserves consideration. Drug resistance has been triggered in vitro and has been linked to modification of pyruvate:ferredoxin oxidoreductase, nitroreductases, antioxidant defense, or cytoskeletal system. Further mechanistic studies will have important implications in the development of second generation therapeutic agents.

  8. Pollution tolerant protozoa in polluted wetland.

    PubMed

    Li, Yi-Di; Chen, Ying; Wang, Li; Yao, Lin; Pan, Xu-Ming; Lee, Duu-Jong

    2017-02-16

    This study for the first time confirmed that eight dominating protozoan species, Cryptomonas erosa, Euglena axyuris, Euglena caudate, Euglena gasterosteus, Euglena acus, Vorticella campanula, Vorticella convallaria and Epistylis lacustris, were the pollution tolerant species at chemical oxygen demand 54-104mg/L. These species cannot be used as indicator for clean water quality as commonly believed. The protozoa can be actively participating in the energy transfer chain between nano-planktonic and higher plants in polluted wetlands.

  9. Structural genomics of pathogenic protozoa: an overview.

    PubMed

    Fan, Erkang; Baker, David; Fields, Stanley; Gelb, Michael H; Buckner, Frederick S; Van Voorhis, Wesley C; Phizicky, Eric; Dumont, Mark; Mehlin, Christopher; Grayhack, Elizabeth; Sullivan, Mark; Verlinde, Christophe; Detitta, George; Meldrum, Deirdre R; Merritt, Ethan A; Earnest, Thomas; Soltis, Michael; Zucker, Frank; Myler, Peter J; Schoenfeld, Lori; Kim, David; Worthey, Liz; Lacount, Doug; Vignali, Marissa; Li, Jizhen; Mondal, Somnath; Massey, Archna; Carroll, Brian; Gulde, Stacey; Luft, Joseph; Desoto, Larry; Holl, Mark; Caruthers, Jonathan; Bosch, Jürgen; Robien, Mark; Arakaki, Tracy; Holmes, Margaret; Le Trong, Isolde; Hol, Wim G J

    2008-01-01

    The Structural Genomics of Pathogenic Protozoa (SGPP) Consortium aimed to determine crystal structures of proteins from trypanosomatid and malaria parasites in a high throughput manner. The pipeline of target selection, protein production, crystallization, and structure determination, is sketched. Special emphasis is given to a number of technology developments including domain prediction, the use of "co-crystallants," and capillary crystallization. "Fragment cocktail crystallography" for medical structural genomics is also described.

  10. Cryptogenia multifocal ulcerous stenosing enteritis: an entity on its own as a cause of abdominal pain, iron deficiency anemia and protein-losing enteropathy.

    PubMed

    Guisado Vasco, P; Fraile Rodríguez, G

    2014-01-01

    We studied a patient with edema secondary to protein losing enteropathy, and recurrent bouts of bloating and abdominal pain secondary to intestinal subocclusion episodes. After the clinical study, the patient was diagnosed of cryptogenic multifocal ulcerous stenosing enteritis (CMUSE), that is a rare disease, probably caused by mutations in the gene PLA2G4A, and characterized by multiple short stenosis of the small bowel with superficial ulcers, which do not exceed the submucosa layer. Inflammatory bowel disease (Chron's disease), intestinal tuberculosis and intestinal ulcers secondary to non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are the main differential diagnosis. To sum up, physicians should included CMUSE in the differential diagnosis of recurrent abdominal pain, iron deficiency anaemia, occult intestinal bleeding, edema and protein losing enteropathy. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  11. Enteric duplication cyst as a leading point for ileoileal intussusception in an adult: A rare cause of complete small intestinal obstruction.

    PubMed

    Al-Qahtani, Hamad Hadi

    2016-06-27

    Duplication of alimentary tract (DAT) presenting as an ileoileal intussusception is a very rare clinical entity. Herein, a case of an ileoileal intussusception due to DAT is presented. A 32-year-old woman was hospitalized due to diffuse, intermittent abdominal pain, vomiting and constipation for 3 d associated with abdominal distention. Plain abdominal X-ray revealed dilated small bowel. Abdominal computed tomography showed grossly dilated small bowel with "sausage" and "doughnut" signs of small bowel intussusception. She underwent laparotomy, with findings of ileoileal intussusception due to a cystic lesion adjacent to the mesenteric side. Resection of the cystic lesion along with the affected segment of intestine, with an end to end anastomosis was performed. The histopathology was consistent with enteric duplication cyst. This case highlights the DAT, although, an uncommon cause of adult ileoileal intussusception should be considered in the differential diagnosis of intussusception in adults, particularly when the leading point is a cystic lesion.

  12. Radiation enteritis

    MedlinePlus

    Radiation enteropathy; Radiation-induced small bowel injury; Post-radiation enteritis ... Radiation therapy uses high-powered x-rays, particles, or radioactive seeds to kill cancer cells. The therapy ...

  13. Rumen protozoa in South African sheep with a summary of the worldwide distribution of sheep protozoa.

    PubMed

    Booyse, Dirk; Dehority, Burk A

    2011-07-15

    Protozoa species were identified in rumen contents of four domestic sheep (Ovis aries) from South Africa. All animals were fed a forage diet which consisted of 50% lucerne and 50% teff hay. Ten new host records were identified, bringing the total number of species and forms observed in sheep in South Africa to 30. The occurrence and geographic distribution of ciliate protozoa in both domestic and wild sheep from around the world are summarised. It was found that 15 genera and 131 species occur in domestic sheep globally.

  14. Intestinal protozoa important to poultry.

    PubMed

    McDougald, L R

    1998-08-01

    Parasites of two groups are important in poultry, the coccidia and the mastiogophora (flagellates) (Table 1). Most of the Coccidia in poultry are in the genus Eimeria, but a few species of Isospora, Cryptosporidium, and Sarcosporidia are represented. The Eimeria are best known, with seven important species recognized in chickens and several others in turkeys. Diagnosis of coccidiosis is by recognition of classic signs and lesions, by gross examination, and can be aided by microscopic examination of feces and intestinal contents. Control of coccidiosis is by preventive use of anticoccidials and by immunization. Cryptosporidium are common in poultry but little is known of their importance, except for the occasional outbreak of respiratory cryptosporidiosis in turkey poults. Of the flagellates, Histomonas meleagridis is the best known. Infections in turkeys may cause near 100% mortality, but outbreaks in chickens are more often marked by morbidity and subsequent recovery. Recent outbreaks in broiler breeder pullets caused excessive losses from mortality (5 to 20%) culling, and overall poor flock performance. Histomonas organisms are carried by eggs of the cecal worm Heterakis gallinarum enabling them to survive for long periods in soil as a source of infection. In the U.S. there are no products available for treatment of blackhead. Preventive use of anthelminthics to destroy the cecal worm carrier show some promise in reducing exposure.

  15. Protozoa, Nematoda and Lumbricidae in the rhizosphere of Hordelymus europeaus (Poaceae): faunal interactions, response of microorganisms and effects on plant growth.

    PubMed

    Alphei, Jörn; Bonkowski, Michael; Scheu, Stefan

    1996-04-01

    Interactions among protozoa (mixed cultures of ciliates, flagellates and naked amoebae), bacteria-feeding nematodes (Pellioditis pellio Schneider) and the endogeic earthworm species Aporrectodea caliginosa (Savigny) were investigated in experimental chambers with soil from a beechwood (Fagus sylvatica L.) on limestone. Experimental chambers were planted with the grass Hordelymus europeaus L. (Poaceae) and three compartments separated by 45-μm mesh were established: rhizosphere, intermediate and non-rhizosphere. The experiment lasted for 16 weeks and the following parameters were measured at the end of the experiment: shoot and root mass of H. europaeus, carbon and nitrogen content in shoots and roots, density of ciliates, amoebae, flagellates and nematodes, microbial biomass (SIR), basal respiration, streptomycin sensitive respiration, ammonium and nitrate contents, phosphate content of soil compartments. In addition, leaching of nutrients (nitrogen and phosphorus) and leachate pH were measured at regular intervals in leachate obtained from suction cups in the experimental chambers. Protozoa stimulated the recovery of nitrifying bacteria following defaunation (by chloroform fumigation) and increased nitrogen losses as nitrate in leachate. In contrast, protozoa and nematodes reduced leaching of phosphate, an effect ascribed to stimulation of microbial growth early in the experiment. Earthworms strongly increased the amount of extractable mineral nitrogen whereas it was strongly reduced by protozoa and nematodes. Both protozoa and nematodes reduced the stimulatory effect of earthworms on nitrogen mineralization. Microbial biomass, basal respiration, and numbers of protozoa and nematodes increased in the vicinity of the root. Protozoa generally caused a decrease in microbial biomass whereas nematodes and earthworms reduced microbial biomass only in the absence of protozoa. None of the animals studied significantly affected basal respiration, but specific respiration

  16. Drug Targets and Mechanisms of Resistance in the Anaerobic Protozoa

    PubMed Central

    Upcroft, Peter; Upcroft, Jacqueline A.

    2001-01-01

    The anaerobic protozoa Giardia duodenalis, Trichomonas vaginalis, and Entamoeba histolytica infect up to a billion people each year. G. duodenalis and E. histolytica are primarily pathogens of the intestinal tract, although E. histolytica can form abscesses and invade other organs, where it can be fatal if left untreated. T. vaginalis infection is a sexually transmitted infection causing vaginitis and acute inflammatory disease of the genital mucosa. T. vaginalis has also been reported in the urinary tract, fallopian tubes, and pelvis and can cause pneumonia, bronchitis, and oral lesions. Respiratory infections can be acquired perinatally. T. vaginalis infections have been associated with preterm delivery, low birth weight, and increased mortality as well as predisposing to human immunodeficiency virus infection, AIDS, and cervical cancer. All three organisms lack mitochondria and are susceptible to the nitroimidazole metronidazole because of similar low-redox-potential anaerobic metabolic pathways. Resistance to metronidazole and other drugs has been observed clinically and in the laboratory. Laboratory studies have identified the enzyme that activates metronidazole, pyruvate:ferredoxin oxidoreductase, to its nitroso form and distinct mechanisms of decreasing drug susceptibility that are induced in each organism. Although the nitroimidazoles have been the drug family of choice for treating the anaerobic protozoa, G. duodenalis is less susceptible to other antiparasitic drugs, such as furazolidone, albendazole, and quinacrine. Resistance has been demonstrated for each agent, and the mechanism of resistance has been investigated. Metronidazole resistance in T. vaginalis is well documented, and the principal mechanisms have been defined. Bypass metabolism, such as alternative oxidoreductases, have been discovered in both organisms. Aerobic versus anaerobic resistance in T. vaginalis is discussed. Mechanisms of metronidazole resistance in E. histolytica have recently

  17. Prevalence, Risk Factors, and Outcomes of Irritable Bowel Syndrome After Infectious Enteritis: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Klem, Fabiane; Wadhwa, Akhilesh; Prokop, Larry J; Sundt, Wendy J; Farrugia, Gianrico; Camilleri, Michael; Singh, Siddharth; Grover, Madhusudan

    2017-04-01

    Foodborne illness affects 15% of the US population each year, and is a risk factor for irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). We evaluated risk of, risk factors for, and outcomes of IBS after infectious enteritis. We performed a systematic review of electronic databases from 1994 through August 31, 2015 to identify cohort studies of the prevalence of IBS 3 months or more after infectious enteritis. We used random-effects meta-analysis to calculate the summary point prevalence of IBS after infectious enteritis, as well as relative risk (compared with individuals without infectious enteritis) and host- and enteritis-related risk factors. We identified 45 studies, comprising 21,421 individuals with enteritis, followed for 3 months to 10 years for development of IBS. The pooled prevalence of IBS at 12 months after infectious enteritis was 10.1% (95% confidence interval [CI], 7.2-14.1) and at more than 12 months after infectious enteritis was 14.5% (95% CI, 7.7-25.5). Risk of IBS was 4.2-fold higher in patients who had infectious enteritis in the past 12 months than in those who had not (95% CI, 3.1-5.7); risk of IBS was 2.3-fold higher in individuals who had infectious enteritis more than 12 months ago than in individuals who had not (95% CI, 1.8-3.0). Of patients with enteritis caused by protozoa or parasites, 41.9% developed IBS, and of patients with enteritis caused by bacterial infection, 13.8% developed IBS. Risk of IBS was significantly increased in women (odds ratio [OR], 2.2; 95% CI, 1.6-3.1) and individuals with antibiotic exposure (OR, 1.7; 95% CI, 1.2-2.4), anxiety (OR, 2; 95% CI, 1.3-2.9), depression (OR, 1.5; 95% CI, 1.2-1.9), somatization (OR, 4.1; 95% CI, 2.7-6.0), neuroticism (OR, 3.3; 95% CI, 1.6-6.5), and clinical indicators of enteritis severity. There was a considerable level of heterogeneity among studies. In a systematic review and meta-analysis, we found >10% of patients with infectious enteritis develop IBS later; risk of IBS was 4-fold higher than in

  18. Enteric viruses

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Characteristic clinical signs associated with viral enteritis in young poultry include diarrhea, anorexia, litter eating, ruffled feathers, and poor growth. Intestines may have lesions; intestines are typically dilated and are filled with fluid and gaseous contents. The sequela to clinical disease...

  19. Radiation enteritis.

    PubMed

    Harb, Ali H; Abou Fadel, Carla; Sharara, Ala I

    2014-01-01

    Radiation enteritis continues to be a major health concern in recipients of radiation therapy. The incidence of radiation enteritis is expected to continue to rise during the coming years paralleling the unprecedented use of radiotherapy in pelvic cancers. Radiation enteritis can present as either an acute or chronic syndrome. The acute form presents within hours to days of radiation exposure and typically resolves within few weeks. The chronic form may present as early as 2 months or as long as 30 years after exposure. Risk factors can be divided into patient and treatment-related factors. Chronic radiation enteritis is characterized by progressive obliterative endarteritis with exaggerated submucosal fibrosis and can manifest by stricturing, formation of fistulae, local abscesses, perforation, and bleeding. In the right clinical context, diagnosis can be confirmed by cross-sectional imaging, flexible or video capsule endoscopy. Present treatment strategies are directed primarily towards symptom relief and management of emerging complications. Recently, however, there has been a shift towards rational drug design based on improved understanding of the molecular basis of disease in an effort to limit the fibrotic process and prevent organ damage.

  20. Ciliated Protozoa of the polluted Tees estuary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parker, James G.

    1981-03-01

    In a study of the ciliated Protozoa of Bran Sand, a sheltered beach in the Tees estuary, 20 putative species were identified. This beach was richer in species than the nearby North Gare beach. In experimental batch cultures, seawater from the estuary had an inhibitory effect upon growth of a strain of Uronema marinum Dujardin which was isolated from an unpolluted beach at Robin Hood's Bay. The tolerance to metals of a Tees strain of U. marinum was assessed in simple toxicity tests; lethal levels for this strain were found to be similar to those reported elsewhere for the Robin Hood's Bay strain.

  1. Ultrastructure of cyst differentiation in parasitic protozoa.

    PubMed

    Chávez-Munguía, Bibiana; Omaña-Molina, Maritza; González-Lázaro, Mónica; González-Robles, Arturo; Cedillo-Rivera, Roberto; Bonilla, Patricia; Martínez-Palomo, Adolfo

    2007-05-01

    Cysts represent a phase in the life cycle of biphasic parasitic protozoa that allow them to survive under adverse environmental conditions. Two events are required for the morphological differentiation from trophozoite to cyst and from cyst to trophozoite: the encystation and excystation processes. In this paper, we present a review of the ultrastructure of the encystation and excystation processes in Entamoeba invadens, Acanthamoeba castellanii, and Giardia lamblia. The comparative electron microscopical observations of these events here reported provide a morphological background to better understand recent advances in the biochemistry and molecular biology of the differentiation phenomena in these microorganisms.

  2. Natural cysteine protease inhibitors in protozoa: Fifteen years of the chagasin family.

    PubMed

    Costa, Tatiana F R; Lima, Ana Paula C A

    2016-03-01

    Chagasin-type inhibitors comprise natural inhibitors of papain-like cysteine proteases that are distributed among Protist, Bacteria and Archaea. Chagasin was identified in the pathogenic protozoa Trypanosoma cruzi as an approximately 11 kDa protein that is a tight-binding and highly thermostable inhibitor of papain, cysteine cathepsins and endogenous parasite cysteine proteases. It displays an Imunoglobulin-like fold with three exposed loops to one side of the molecule, where amino acid residues present in conserved motifs at the tips of each loop contact target proteases. Differently from cystatins, the loop 2 of chagasin enters the active-site cleft, making direct contact with the catalytic residues, while loops 4 and 6 embrace the enzyme from the sides. Orthologues of chagasin are named Inhibitors of Cysteine Peptidases (ICP), and share conserved overall tri-dimensional structure and mode of binding to proteases. ICPs are tentatively distributed in three families: in family I42 are grouped chagasin-type inhibitors that share conserved residues at the exposed loops; family I71 contains Plasmodium ICPs, which are large proteins having a chagasin-like domain at the C-terminus, with lower similarity to chagasin in the conserved motif at loop 2; family I81 contains Toxoplasma ICP. Recombinant ICPs tested so far can inactivate protozoa cathepsin-like proteases and their mammalian counterparts. Studies on their biological roles were carried out in a few species, mainly using transgenic protozoa, and the conclusions vary. However, in all cases, alterations in the levels of expression of chagasin/ICPs led to substantial changes in one or more steps of parasite biology, with higher incidence in influencing their interaction with the hosts. We will cover most of the findings on chagasin/ICP structural and functional properties and overview the current knowledge on their roles in protozoa.

  3. Intestinal protozoa in HIV-infected patients in Apulia, South Italy.

    PubMed Central

    Brandonisio, O.; Maggi, P.; Panaro, M. A.; Lisi, S.; Andriola, A.; Acquafredda, A.; Angarano, G.

    1999-01-01

    Protozoa are important enteric pathogens in patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. In this study the prevalence of intestinal protozoa in 154 HIV-infected patients, with or without diarrhoea, in our region (Apulia, South Italy) was evaluated between December 1993 and February 1998. In the majority of patients CD4+ T cell count was below 200/microl. The overall prevalence of intestinal protozoa was 43/154 (27.92%). Twenty-eight (43.08%) out of 65 patients with diarrhoea and 15 (16-85%) out of 89 non-diarrhoeic patients were parasitized. In particular, in the group of 65 patients with diarrhoea the following protozoa were identified: Cryptosporidium parvum in 14 (21.54%), Blastocystis hominis in 7 (10.77%), microsporidia in 6 (9.23%), Giardia lamblia in 4 (6.15%) and Isospora belli in 1 (1.54%). Three patients were Cryptosporidium parvum-microsporidia co-infected. In patients without intestinal symptoms, prevalence was 3/89 (3.37%) for Cryptosporidium parvum, 9/89 (10.11%) for Blastocystis hominis, 1/89 (1.12%) for microsporidia and 2/89 (2.25%) for Giardia lamblia. A significant (P<0.001) correlation was observed between protozoan infection and the presence of diarrhoea. In particular, Cryptosporidium parvum and microsporidia infections were significantly (P<0.001) and P = 0.046, respectively) associated with diarrhoeal illness. Moreover, the majority of cases of cryptosporidiosis were first diagnosed in the periods of heaviest rainfall. Therefore, drinking water contamination may be a possible source of human infection in our area. PMID:10694157

  4. Involvement of protozoa in anaerobic wastewater treatment process.

    PubMed

    Priya, M; Haridas, Ajit; Manilal, V B

    2007-12-01

    It is only very rarely recognised in literature that anaerobic reactors may contain protozoa in addition to various bacterial and archeal groups. The role of protozoa in anaerobic degradation was studied in anaerobic continuous stirred tank reactors (CSTR) and batch tests. Anaerobic protozoa, especially the ciliated protozoa, have direct influence on the performance of CSTR at all organic loading rates (1-2g CODl(-1)d(-1)) and retention times (5-10 days). The studies revealed that chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal is strongly correlated to ciliate density in CSTR fed with oleate (suspended COD) and acetate (soluble COD). There was no significant difference in COD removal between reactors fed suspended COD and those fed soluble COD. However, the diversity and number of ciliates is greater in CSTR fed with particulate feed. The mixed liquor suspended solids (MLSS) representing biomass was significantly lower (16-34%) in CSTR with protozoa. In batch tests, increased COD removal and methane production was observed in sludge having ciliates as compared with sludge without protozoa. Methane production increased linearly with number of ciliates (R(2)=0.96) in batch tests with protozoa. Direct utilization of COD by flagellates and ciliates was observed in bacteria-suppressed cultures. The technological importance of these results is that reactors with protozoa-rich sludge can enhance the rate of mineralization of complex wastewater, especially wastewater containing particulate COD.

  5. Idiopathic Focal Eosinophilic Enteritis (IFEE), an Emerging Cause of Abdominal Pain in Horses: The Effect of Age, Time and Geographical Location on Risk

    PubMed Central

    Archer, Debra C.; Costain, Deborah A.; Sherlock, Chris

    2014-01-01

    Background Idiopathic focal eosinophilic enteritis (IFEE) is an emerging cause of abdominal pain (colic) in horses that frequently requires surgical intervention to prevent death. The epidemiology of IFEE is poorly understood and it is difficult to diagnose pre-operatively. The aetiology of this condition and methods of possible prevention are currently unknown. The aims of this study were to investigate temporal and spatial heterogeneity in IFEE risk and to ascertain the effect of horse age on risk. Methodology/Principal Findings A retrospective, nested case-control study was undertaken using data from 85 IFEE cases and 848 randomly selected controls admitted to a UK equine hospital for exploratory laparotomy to investigate the cause of colic over a 10-year period. Generalised additive models (GAMs) were used to quantify temporal and age effects on the odds of IFEE and to provide mapped estimates of ‘residual’ risk over the study region. The relative risk of IFEE increased over the study period (p = 0.001) and a seasonal pattern was evident (p<0.01) with greatest risk of IFEE being identified between the months of July and November. IFEE risk decreased with increasing age (p<0.001) with younger (0–5 years old) horses being at greatest risk. The mapped surface estimate exhibited significantly atypical sub-regions (p<0.001) with increased IFEE risk in horses residing in the North-West of the study region. Conclusions/Significance IFEE was found to exhibit both spatial and temporal variation in risk and is more likely to occur in younger horses. This information may help to identify horses at increased risk of IFEE, provide clues about the aetiology of this condition and to identify areas that require further research. PMID:25463382

  6. [Bio-indicating function of soil protozoa to environmental pollution].

    PubMed

    Song, Xueying; Song, Yufang; Sun, Tieheng; Zhang, Wei; Zhou, Qixing

    2004-10-01

    Due to the abundant species and huge biomass, soil protozoa play an important role in soil ecosystem. As a bio-indicator, soil protozoa have many advantages over other soil animals. Studies on the community structures, quantities, and dynamic variations of biodiversity of soil protozoa could provide powerful means to evaluate natural environmental changes and to monitor the environmental pollution brought by anthropic activities. Based on the current study at home and abroad, this paper gave a review on the function of soil protozoa in ecosystems, their advantages as bio-indicator, and their responses to environmental factors, soil contaminants and the change of atmospheric CO2. The application prospect of soil protozoa in eco-toxicity diagnosis was also discussed.

  7. Anaerobic protozoa and their growth in biomethanation systems.

    PubMed

    Priya, M; Haridas, Ajit; Manilal, V B

    2008-04-01

    This study was to investigate growth of protozoa and its influence on biodegradation in anaerobic treatment systems. It was done by specifically controlling and monitoring growth of protozoa versus degradation in continuous stirred anaerobic reactors and batch anaerobic reactors. Occurrence of a diverse protozoa population such as the ciliates, Prorodon, Vorticella, Cyclidium, Spathidium, Loxodes, Metopus were observed in stable anaerobic systems and the flagellates, Rhynchomonas, Naeglaria, Amoeboflagellates, Tetramitus, Trepomonas and Bodo during increased VFA concentration and affected periods of biomethanation. The abundance of ciliates in the anaerobic system had significant correlation with the reduction of MLSS, increased rate of COD removal and higher methane production. The results of this study thus tend to relate increased anaerobic degradation with the abundance of protozoa, mainly ciliates, which indicate their possible involvement in the process. Present study also reveals that performance of anaerobic process can be assessed by monitoring the protozoa population in the system.

  8. Asymptomatic Effluent Protozoa Colonization in Peritoneal Dialysis Patients.

    PubMed

    Simões-Silva, Liliana; Correia, Inês; Barbosa, Joana; Santos-Araujo, Carla; Sousa, Maria João; Pestana, Manuel; Soares-Silva, Isabel; Sampaio-Maia, Benedita

    Currently, chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a global health problem. Considering the impaired immunity of CKD patients, the relevance of infection in peritoneal dialysis (PD), and the increased prevalence of parasites in CKD patients, protozoa colonization was evaluated in PD effluent from CKD patients undergoing PD. Overnight PD effluent was obtained from 49 asymptomatic stable PD patients. Protozoa analysis was performed microscopically by searching cysts and trophozoites in direct wet mount of PD effluent and after staining smears. Protozoa were found in PD effluent of 10.2% of evaluated PD patients, namely Blastocystis hominis, in 2 patients, and Entamoeba sp., Giardia sp., and Endolimax nana in the other 3 patients, respectively. None of these patients presented clinical signs or symptoms of peritonitis at the time of protozoa screening. Our results demonstrate that PD effluent may be susceptible to asymptomatic protozoa colonization. The clinical impact of this finding should be further investigated. Copyright © 2016 International Society for Peritoneal Dialysis.

  9. Detection of intestinal protozoa in the clinical laboratory.

    PubMed

    McHardy, Ian H; Wu, Max; Shimizu-Cohen, Robyn; Couturier, Marc Roger; Humphries, Romney M

    2014-03-01

    Despite recent advances in diagnostic technology, microscopic examination of stool specimens remains central to the diagnosis of most pathogenic intestinal protozoa. Microscopy is, however, labor-intensive and requires a skilled technologist. New, highly sensitive diagnostic methods have been developed for protozoa endemic to developed countries, including Giardia lamblia (syn. G. intestinalis/G. duodenalis) and Cryptosporidium spp., using technologies that, if expanded, could effectively complement or even replace microscopic approaches. To date, the scope of such novel technologies is limited and may not include common protozoa such as Dientamoeba fragilis, Entamoeba histolytica, or Cyclospora cayetanensis. This minireview describes canonical approaches for the detection of pathogenic intestinal protozoa, while highlighting recent developments and FDA-approved tools for clinical diagnosis of common intestinal protozoa.

  10. Detection of Intestinal Protozoa in the Clinical Laboratory

    PubMed Central

    McHardy, Ian H.; Wu, Max; Shimizu-Cohen, Robyn; Couturier, Marc Roger

    2014-01-01

    Despite recent advances in diagnostic technology, microscopic examination of stool specimens remains central to the diagnosis of most pathogenic intestinal protozoa. Microscopy is, however, labor-intensive and requires a skilled technologist. New, highly sensitive diagnostic methods have been developed for protozoa endemic to developed countries, including Giardia lamblia (syn. G. intestinalis/G. duodenalis) and Cryptosporidium spp., using technologies that, if expanded, could effectively complement or even replace microscopic approaches. To date, the scope of such novel technologies is limited and may not include common protozoa such as Dientamoeba fragilis, Entamoeba histolytica, or Cyclospora cayetanensis. This minireview describes canonical approaches for the detection of pathogenic intestinal protozoa, while highlighting recent developments and FDA-approved tools for clinical diagnosis of common intestinal protozoa. PMID:24197877

  11. Blood protozoa of free-living birds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Herman, C.M.; McDiarmid, Archibald

    1969-01-01

    Blood protozoa were first reported from wild birds in 1884. Since then numerous surveys throughout the world have demonstrated their presence in a wide variety of hosts and localities with continuing designations of new species. Taxonomic determinations include parasites in the genera Plasmodium, Haemoproteus, Leucocytozoon, Babesia, Lankesterella and Trypanosoma. Transmission of Plasmodium by mosquitoes was demonstrated with a bird parasite before these insects were proven as vectors of human malaria. All the genera under consideration require an insect vector to complete their life-cycles and susceptible vectors have been demonstrated. Most experimental work on the blood protozoa of birds has been carried on with captive birds. An extensive volume of research has been conducted on Plasmodium because of its close similarity to malaria in man. Field studies that would provide information on the epizootiology of occurrence of these parasites in wild populations have been very limited, mainly confined to single blood film surveys. Such data are inadequate to provide an understanding of true prevalence or incidence or of factual knowledge of their impact on the wild population. Mechanisms for procuring such information are available in some cases and can be developed to fit other situations. Isodiagnosis, inoculation of blood from wild birds into susceptible captive hosts, has revealed a prevalence of over 60 % for Plasmodium in situations where microscope examination of single peripheral blood preparations yielded less than 1 %. Culture of bone marrow collected by biopsy demonstrates high prevalence of trypanosomes even when none are evident from microscopic examination of blood. Often preparations of tissues collected at necropsy reveal Leucocytozoon and Lankesterella when examination of peripheral blood gave no indication of infection. Methods developed by bird ringers provide techniques for obtaining repeat examinations of free-living birds that can yield further

  12. Enteric diseases.

    PubMed

    William, D C

    1981-03-01

    This paper focuses on the growing incidence of the "new" sexually transmitted parasitic enteric diseases: amebiasis and giardiasis. Two major behavioral factors influence transmission of these diseases in the gay community: 1) oral-rectal and oral-genital sexual contact and 2) multiple sexual partners. Pathogenesis, clinical signs and symptoms and complications associated with these diseases are also discussed. Although many patients present with severe symptoms, approximately 50 percent of infected patients are asymptomatic. The diagnostic procedures include a fresh purged stool examination, nonpurged warm stool examinations, and/or cold stool specimens. The serologic tests (serum precipitin and hemagglutination) are of value only in severely symptomatic invasive disease. Different treatment regimens and their side effects are discussed. Drugs used in the treatment of the enteric diseases include diiodohydroxyquin, metronidazole, furamide, and paromomycin. Only 60 to 70 percent of patients with the disease are cured, and 30 to 40 percent of patients require multiple courses of therapy. Test-of-cure examinations, ideally consisting of one or two purged stool specimens, are necessary in follow-up management.

  13. Enteric Redmouth Disease

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Yersinia ruckeri, the causative agent of Enteric Redmouth Disease (ERM), is a disease of salmonid fish species that is endemic in areas of the world where salmonids are intensively cultured. The disease causes a chronic to acute hemorrhagic septicemia which can lead to high rates of mortality partic...

  14. Enteric Fever.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Praveen; Kumar, Ruchika

    2017-03-01

    Enteric fever is an important public-health problem in India. The clinical presentation of typhoid fever is very variable, ranging from fever with little other morbidities to marked toxemia and associated multisystem complications. Fever is present in majority of patients (>90 %) irrespective of their age group. Mortality is higher in younger children. Blood culture remains gold standard for diagnosis. Widal test has low sensitivity and specificity but may be used in second week to support the diagnosis. Emerging resistance to several antibiotics should be kept in mind when selecting antibiotics or revising the treatment. The key preventive strategies are safe water, safe food, personal hygiene, and appropriate sanitation. Vaccination is an additional effective tool for prevention.

  15. Exploring Leeuwenhoek's legacy: the abundance and diversity of protozoa.

    PubMed

    Finlay, B J; Esteban, G F

    2001-09-01

    Towards the end of the 17th century, Leeuwenhoek built "magnifying glasses" that enabled him to see and describe protozoa for the first time. Continued exploration of the natural history of protozoa during the past 300 years has progressed far beyond simply documenting morphospecies (global total probably <20,000). We now realize that protozoan 'biodiversity' is multi-faceted (e.g. sibling species, variant genotypes and syntrophic consortia). Realization of their extraordinary abundance has secured for protozoa the position of dominant phagotrophs and regenerators of nutrients within microbial food webs. And studies of protozoa in the natural environment have done much to effect a paradigm shift in our understanding of why specific microbes live where they do and how they got there in the first place. In particular, the hypothesis of ubiquitous dispersal of protozoan species does seem to be supported by the evidence provided by morphospecies, sibling species and even individual genotypes.

  16. Protozoa and digestive tract parameters of the impala.

    PubMed

    Booyse, Dirk; Dehority, Burk A

    2011-10-12

    Intestinal contents were collected from eight impala at three different localities during the winter hunting season (2005-2009), as well as from another 24 animals from a one-year trial at a game farm called Ditholo (2003-2004). Gas production, protozoa counts and several other physiological parameters were measured from both rumen and caecum or colon contents. Only higher ophryoscolecid and Isotrichidae species of protozoa were counted and identified. Ostracodinium gracile was present in all 32 impala. Eudiplodinium maggii was present in 31 animals and Eudiplodinium impalae and Epidinium (either ecaudatum or caudatum) in 30 animals. Dasytricha ruminantium was present in only 11 of the impala. Concentrations of protozoa were correlated with the season of sample collection and highly correlated with the animals living on the game farm. Gas production (mL/g of wet rumen ingesta) was weakly correlated with protozoa concentration but not with the season of collection.

  17. Intestinal protozoa infections among patients with ulcerative colitis: prevalence and impact on clinical disease course.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto-Furusho, Jesús K; Torijano-Carrera, Emma

    2010-01-01

    Epidemiological and microbiologic studies suggest that enteropathogenic microorganisms play a substantial role in the clinical initiation and relapses of inflammatory bowel disease. To explore the prevalence of intestinal protozoa in patients with ulcerative colitis (UC) and its impact on clinical disease course. A total of 215 patients with definitive diagnosis of UC were studied. Fresh feces samples taken from all UC patients were examined immediately using trichrome-staining methods. A total of 103 female and 112 male UC patients were analyzed. The mean age at diagnosis was 30.5 +/- 10.8 years. The prevalence of overall parasitic infections was 24% and distributed as follows: Blastocystis hominis in 22 patients (10%), Endolimax nana in 19 cases (9%), and Entamoebahistolytica in 11 cases (5%). A significantly increased frequency of protozoa infection was found in those patients with persistent activity and intermittent activity as compared to active than inactive group (p = 1 x 10(-7), OR 13.05, 95% CI 4.28-42.56, and p = 0.003, OR 1.42-14.47, respectively). Interestingly, this association remained significant when we compared the persistent activity group versus intermittent activity group (p = 0.003, OR 2.97, 95% CI 1.35-6.59). Subgroup analysis showed no association between protozoa infection (E. histolytica, B. hominis, and E. nana) and other clinical variables such as gender, extent of disease, extraintestinal complications, medical treatment and grade of disease activity. The prevalence of intestinal protozoa infections in Mexican UC patients was 24% and these microorganisms could be a contributing cause of persistent activity despite medical treatment in our population. 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  18. Aspects of cooling tower biocides and protozoa

    SciTech Connect

    Berk, S.G.; Ashburn, R.J.; Ting, R.S.

    1998-12-31

    Previous work has shown that certain cooling tower amoebae and ciliated protozoa are resistant to several cooling tower biocides, even at the manufacturer`s recommended dosages. For the present study, an Acunthumoeba species was isolated from a cooling tower in Australia. Suspensions of the trophozoites (feeding stages) were exposed to isothiazolones. Cysts were tested separately. The minimum lethal concentration (MLC) for trophozoites was between 31-62 ppm of the biocide product, which is slightly less than the MLC for an amoebae species from the United States; and cyst forms were twofold more resistant than those of the US species, with a MLC of 62,500 ppm. A ciliate and an amoeba species were also exposed to bromochlorodimethylhydantoin. The MLC for the ciliate species was 1 ppm of the biocide product, and the MLC was 30--40 ppm for the amoeba trophozoites. Since amoebae can expel vesicles containing live Legionella, experiments were conducted to determine whether exposure of Acunthamoebu polyphugu to biocides influenced release of such potentially infectious particles. Vesicle release was not inhibited by any of the three biocides: quaternary ammonium compounds (QACs), isothiazolones, and a thiocarbamate compound. These results suggest that amoebae from various sources are resistant to recommended levels of biocides, and the amoebae may continue to release potentially infectious vesicles in the presence of biocides.

  19. Fructooligosaccharides and fiber partially prevent the alterations in fecal microbiota and short-chain fatty acid concentrations caused by standard enteral formula in healthy humans.

    PubMed

    Whelan, Kevin; Judd, Patricia A; Preedy, Victor R; Simmering, Rainer; Jann, Alfred; Taylor, Moira A

    2005-08-01

    The intestinal microbiota are important during enteral tube feeding because they exert colonization resistance and produce SCFAs. However, the effect of the enteral formula composition on major bacterial groups of the microbiota has not been clearly defined. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of enteral formulas with and without prebiotic fructooligosaccharides (FOS) and fiber on the fecal microbiota and SCFAs. Healthy subjects (n = 10; 4 men, 6 women) consumed both a standard enteral formula and one containing FOS (5.1 g/L) and fiber (8.9 g/L) as a sole source of nutrition for 14 d in a randomized, double-blind, crossover trial with a 6-wk washout phase. Fecal samples were collected at the start and end of each formula phase, and were analyzed for major bacterial groups and SCFA concentrations using fluorescent in situ hybridization and GLC, respectively. Although there were reductions in total fecal bacteria due to both formula treatments, concentrations were higher after the FOS/fiber formula period compared with the standard formula period (11.2 +/- 0.2 vs. 11.0 +/- 0.2 log(10) cells/g, P = 0.005). The FOS/fiber formula increased bifidobacteria (P = 0.004) and reduced clostridia (P = 0.006). Compared with the standard formula, the FOS/fiber formula resulted in higher concentrations of total SCFA (332.4 +/- 133.8 vs. 220.1 +/- 124.5 micromol/g, P = 0.022), acetate (219.6 +/- 96.3 vs. 136.8 +/- 74.5 micromol/g, P = 0.034) and propionate (58.4 +/- 37.4 vs. 35.6 +/- 25.5 micromol/g, P = 0.02). This study demonstrates that standard enteral formula leads to adverse alterations to the fecal microbiota and SCFA concentrations in healthy subjects, and these alterations are partially prevented by fortification of the formula with FOS and fiber.

  20. Pre-Multidrug-Resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis Infection Causing Fatal Enteric Disease in a Dog from a Family with History of Human Tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, M G; Lima, M C F; Franco, M M J; Megid, J; Soares, L M; Machado, L H A; Miyata, M; Pavan, F R; Heinemann, M B; Souza Filho, A F; Lara, G H B; Sanches, O C; Sanches, C D C; Listoni, F J P; Paes, A C

    2017-10-01

    This report describes a fatal case of a pet dog with major enteric signs owned by a family that has experienced cases of pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) in the household. Clinical and epidemiological aspects, imaging data, microbiological, haematological and histopathological examinations were assessed to diagnosis of disease. gyrB-RFLP, spoligotyping and MIRU-VNTR allowed molecular detection of M. tuberculosis strain from S family. The resazurin microtiter assay indicated that all isolates were resistant to isoniazid, ethambutol, ciprofloxacin, ofloxacin, streptomycin and amikacin. The public health concerns related to canine tuberculosis and risk of the dissemination by pets of M. tuberculosis pre-multidrug-resistant (PMD) to isoniazid, ethambutol and other first-line drugs used in human therapy of TB are discussed. We believe this to be the first report of PMD M. tuberculosis infection in a dog presenting mainly enteric manifestation, confirmed as S lineage by molecular methods, owned by a family in which TB has spread in the household for generations. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  1. Repertoire of free-living protozoa in contact lens solutions.

    PubMed

    Bouchoucha, Ibtissem; Aziz, Aurore; Hoffart, Louis; Drancourt, Michel

    2016-10-29

    The repertoire of free-living protozoa in contact lens solutions is poorly known despite the fact that such protozoa may act as direct pathogens and may harbor intra-cellular pathogens. Between 2009 and 2014, the contact lens solutions collected from patients presenting at our Ophthalmology Department for clinically suspected keratitis, were cultured on non-nutrient agar examined by microscope for the presence of free-living protozoa. All protozoa were identified by 18S rRNA gene sequencing. A total of 20 of 233 (8.6 %) contact lens solution specimens collected from 16 patients were cultured. Acanthamoeba amoeba in 16 solutions (80 %) collected from 12 patients and Colpoda steini, Cercozoa sp., Protostelium sp. and a eukaryotic more closely related to Vermamoeba sp., were each isolated in one solution. Cercozoa sp., Colpoda sp., Protostelium sp. and Vermamoeba sp. are reported for the first time as contaminating contact lens solutions. The repertoire of protozoa in contact lens solutions is larger than previously known.

  2. Multiplexed Recombinase Polymerase Amplification Assay To Detect Intestinal Protozoa.

    PubMed

    Crannell, Zachary; Castellanos-Gonzalez, Alejandro; Nair, Gayatri; Mejia, Rojelio; White, A Clinton; Richards-Kortum, Rebecca

    2016-02-02

    This work describes a proof-of-concept multiplex recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA) assay with lateral flow readout that is capable of simultaneously detecting and differentiating DNA from any of the diarrhea-causing protozoa Giardia, Cryptosporidium, and Entamoeba. Together, these parasites contribute significantly to the global burden of diarrheal illness. Differential diagnosis of these parasites is traditionally accomplished via stool microscopy. However, microscopy is insensitive and can miss up to half of all cases. DNA-based diagnostics such as polymerase chain reaction (PCR) are far more sensitive; however, they rely on expensive thermal cycling equipment, limiting their availability to centralized reference laboratories. Isothermal DNA amplification platforms, such as the RPA platform used in this study, alleviate the need for thermal cycling equipment and have the potential to broaden access to more sensitive diagnostics. Until now, multiplex RPA assays have not been developed that are capable of simultaneously detecting and differentiating infections caused by different pathogens. We developed a multiplex RPA assay to detect the presence of DNA from Giardia, Cryptosporidium, and Entamoeba. The multiplex assay was characterized using synthetic DNA, where the limits-of-detection were calculated to be 403, 425, and 368 gene copies per reaction of the synthetic Giardia, Cryptosporidium, and Entamoeba targets, respectively (roughly 1.5 orders of magnitude higher than for the same targets in a singleplex RPA assay). The multiplex assay was also characterized using DNA extracted from live parasites spiked into stool samples where the limits-of-detection were calculated to be 444, 6, and 9 parasites per reaction for Giardia, Cryptosporidium, and Entamoeba parasites, respectively. This proof-of-concept assay may be reconfigured to detect a wide variety of targets by re-designing the primer and probe sequences.

  3. Preliminary study on applicability of microsatellite DNA primers from parasite protozoa Trypanosoma cruzi in free-living protozoa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Wenjing; Yu, Yuhe; Shen, Yunfen; Miao, Wei; Feng, Weisong

    2004-04-01

    In this paper, we took the lead in studying on specificity of the microsatellite DNA loci and applicability of microsatellite DNA primers in protozoa. In order to study characters of microsatellites in free-living protozoa, eight microsatellite loci primers developed from Trypanosoma cruzi (MCLE01, SCLE10, MCLE08, SCLE11, MCLF10, MCLG10, MCL03, MCL05) were employed to amplify microsatellite in four free-living protozoa, including Bodo designis, Euglena gracilis FACHB848, Paramecium bruzise and Tetrahymena thermophila BF1. In the amplification systems of P. bruzise, four loci (SCLE10, SCLE11, MCLF10, MCL03) were amplified successfully, and four amplification fragments were in proper size. In genome of E. gracilis FACHB848, five of eight primers brought five clear amplification bands. In B. designis, three (No.4, 5 and 7) of eight loci produced clear and sharp products without stutter bands, whereas no bands appeared in T. thermophila BF1. Further, eight 300 500 bp amplification fragments were cloned and sequenced. Nevertheless, all sequenced products did not contain corresponding microsatellite sequence, although Bodo is in the same order and has the nearest phylogenetic relation with Trypanosoma among these four species. Thus, the microsatellite DNA primers can not be applied among order or more far taxa, and the specificity of microsatellite DNA is very high in protozoa. The results of this study will contribute to our understanding of microsatellite DNA in protozoa.

  4. Calorific and carbon values of marine and freshwater Protozoa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finlay, B. J.; Uhlig, G.

    1981-12-01

    Calorific and carbon values were determined for a variety of marine and freshwater Protozoa ( Noctiluca miliaris, Euplotes sp., Eufolliculina sp. respectively Tetrahymena pyriformis, Paramecium caudatum), their food sources (Bacteria, Dunaliella primolecta, Ceratium hirundinella), and for Protozoa-dominated plankton samples. Most calorific values lie close to the centre of the range covering organisms in general. Low values in some marine samples probably resulted from the retention of bound water in the dried material. When all results were combined with data selected from the literature, the dependence of calorific value on carbon content was highly significant. This relationship is probably also adequately described by an energy-carbon regression through the variety of organic compounds commonly found in organisms. Calorific value expressed per unit carbon is shown to vary little in Protozoa (mean conversion factor 46 J [mg C]-1) or throughout the range of biological materials considered in this study (45 J [mg C]-1).

  5. Gut Protozoa: Friends or Foes of the Human Gut Microbiota?

    PubMed

    Chabé, Magali; Lokmer, Ana; Ségurel, Laure

    2017-09-01

    The importance of the gut microbiota for human health has sparked a strong interest in the study of the factors that shape its composition and diversity. Despite the growing evidence suggesting that helminths and protozoa significantly interact with gut bacteria, gut microbiome studies remain mostly focused on prokaryotes and on populations living in industrialized countries that typically have a low parasite burden. We argue that protozoa, like helminths, represent an important factor to take into account when studying the gut microbiome, and that their presence - especially considering their long coevolutionary history with humans - may be beneficial. From this perspective, we examine the relationship between the protozoa and their hosts, as well as their relevance for public health. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Amino acid composition of rumen bacteria and protozoa in cattle.

    PubMed

    Sok, M; Ouellet, D R; Firkins, J L; Pellerin, D; Lapierre, H

    2017-07-01

    Because microbial crude protein (MCP) constitutes more than 50% of the protein digested in cattle, its AA composition is needed to adequately estimate AA supply. Our objective was to update the AA contributions of the rumen microbial AA flowing to the duodenum using only studies from cattle, differentiating between fluid-associated bacteria (FAB), particle-associated bacteria (PAB), and protozoa, based on published literature (53, 16, and 18 treatment means were used for each type of microorganism, respectively). In addition, Cys and Met reported concentrations were retained only when an adequate protection of the sulfur groups was performed before the acid hydrolysis. The total AA (or true protein) fraction represented 82.4% of CP in bacteria. For 10 AA, including 4 essential AA, the AA composition differed between protozoa and bacteria. The most noticeable differences were a 45% lower Lys concentration and 40% higher Ala concentration in bacteria than in protozoa. Differences between FAB and PAB were less pronounced than differences between bacteria and protozoa. Assuming 33% FAB, 50% PAB, and 17% of protozoa in MCP duodenal flow, the updated concentrations of AA would decrease supply estimates of Met, Thr, and Val originating from MCP and increase those of Lys and Phe by 5 to 10% compared with those calculated using the FAB composition reported previously. Therefore, inclusion of the contribution of PAB and protozoa to the duodenal MCP flow is needed to adequately estimate AA supply from microbial origin when a factorial method is used to estimate duodenal AA flow. Furthermore, acknowledging the fact that hydrolysis of 1 kg of true microbial protein yields 1.16 kg of free AA substantially increases the estimates of AA supply from MCP. Copyright © 2017 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Studies on protozoa in ancient remains - A Review

    PubMed Central

    Frías, Liesbeth; Leles, Daniela; Araújo, Adauto

    2013-01-01

    Paleoparasitological research has made important contributions to the understanding of parasite evolution and ecology. Although parasitic protozoa exhibit a worldwide distribution, recovering these organisms from an archaeological context is still exceptional and relies on the availability and distribution of evidence, the ecology of infectious diseases and adequate detection techniques. Here, we present a review of the findings related to protozoa in ancient remains, with an emphasis on their geographical distribution in the past and the methodologies used for their retrieval. The development of more sensitive detection methods has increased the number of identified parasitic species, promising interesting insights from research in the future. PMID:23440107

  8. Treatment of enteric fever.

    PubMed

    Arjyal, Amit; Pandit, Anil

    2008-12-01

    Enteric fever is systemic illness caused by Salmonella Typhi and Salmonella Paratyphi A, B and C. It is believed to be a readily treatable illness by many clinicians in the developing world where it is endemic; however, with the emergence of drug resistance to fluoroquinolones, treatment is becoming increasingly difficult. While drugs such as cefixime, previously believed to be effective, have been proven otherwise, new agents such as gatifloxacin and azithromycin have proven to be promising. Re-emergence of chloramphenicol sensitive strains in previously resistant areas points towards the concept of antibiotic recycling, preserving the use of older antibiotics. Antibiotic recycling has been used successfully in hospital settings. However, its usefulness in community settings, where the main burden of enteric fever resides, is challenging to manage due to logistics and a lack of infrastructure. Nalidixic acid resistance used to be a marker for clinical response to flouroquinolones; however, recent studies highlight the importance of decreased ciprofloxacin susceptibility as a better marker. Enteric fever, as a public health problem, has been tackled by protection of food and water supplies in the industrialised countries of the world. Nonetheless, that goal seems too far-fetched in the developing world where there are hundreds of villages, towns and cities without adequate infrastructures. Perhaps the key to solving this problem is combining point-of-use-purification of water (by chlorination) with the treatment of illness in the community. Treatment of chronic carriers is also necessary in order to halt the cycles of transmission.

  9. Molecular and chemical dialogues in bacteria-protozoa interactions

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Soil-dwelling Pseudomonas fluorescens produce lipopeptide surfactants (LPs) with broad-spectrum antimicrobial activities. Recent studies suggested that LPs provide protection to P. fluorescens strain SS101 against grazing by the predatory protozoa Naegleria americana, both in vitro and in rhizospher...

  10. Detection of Protozoa in Surface and Finished Waters

    EPA Science Inventory

    Humans are known to be the host to approximately 1500 infectious agents, out of which 66 are protozoa and 287 are helminths. Therefore, from a global perspective helminths and protozoan parasites account for approximately one fourth of the total infectious diseases of humans. A s...

  11. Alternative mounting media for preservation of some protozoa.

    PubMed

    Criado-Fornelio, A; Heredero-Bermejo, I; Pérez-Serrano, J

    2014-10-01

    Protozoa resistant stages are disintegrated when mounted in toluene-based media. To overcome such problem, three toluene-free mountants were tested on preserve Acanthamoeba spp and gregarines. Two commercial glues based on cyanoacrylate or trimethoxysilane were suitable for preserving both cysts and trophozoites. Hoyer's medium showed good results for mounting gregarine oocysts.

  12. Detection of Protozoa in Surface and Finished Waters

    EPA Science Inventory

    Humans are known to be the host to approximately 1500 infectious agents, out of which 66 are protozoa and 287 are helminths. Therefore, from a global perspective helminths and protozoan parasites account for approximately one fourth of the total infectious diseases of humans. A s...

  13. Protozoa inhibition by different salts: Osmotic stress or ionic stress?

    PubMed

    Li, Changhao; Li, Jingya; Lan, Christopher Q; Liao, Dankui

    2017-06-08

    Cell density and morphology changes were tested to examine the effects of salts including NaHCO3 , NaCl, KHCO3 , and KCl at 160 mM on protozoa. It was demonstrated that ionic stress rather than osmotic stress led to protozoa cell death and NaHCO3 was shown to be the most effective inhibitor. Deformation of cells and cell shrinkage were observed when protozoan cells were exposed to polyethylene glycol (PEG) or any of the salts. However, while PEG treated cells could fully recover in both number and size, only a small portion of the salt-treated cells survive and cell size was 36-58% smaller than the regular. The disappearance of salt-treated protozoa cells was hypothetically attributed to disruption of the cytoplasmic membrane of these cells. It is further hypothesized that the PEG-treated protozoan cells carried out regulatory volume increase (RVI) after the osmotic shock but the RVI of salt-treated protozoa was hurdled to varied extents. © 2017 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 2017. © 2017 American Institute of Chemical Engineers.

  14. Animals of the Sea: Coelenterates, Protozoa, and Sponges.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Awkerman, Gary L.

    These three units are designed for use with standard science curricula. These publications, relating to animals of the sea, are: Protozoa, Sponges, and Coelenterates. Included are teacher guides, student activities, and demonstrations designed to impart ocean science understanding to high school students. Objectives to be attained from the unit on…

  15. Detection of some intestinal protozoa in commercial fresh juices.

    PubMed

    Mossallam, Shereen F

    2010-04-01

    Fresh fruit juices are popular, but not always safe. For assessing the likelihood of infection with newly emerging intestinal protozoa, commercial fresh orange, lemon, sugar cane, strawberry, and mango juices were screened by wet mounts, Weber's modified trichrome and modified Ziehl-Neelsen stains. Protozoa viability was done by fluorescein-diacetate/propidium-iodide staining, and infectivity was performed in Swiss albino mice. Results showed that 35.43% were contaminated with one or more of Cryptosporidia, Microsporidia, and Cyclospora, as well as Giardia spp. Strawberry was the most contaminated juice (54.28%), while orange was the slightest (22.86%). Cryptosporidia was the highest contaminant (61.29%), and Cyclospora was the least (14.52%). Microsporidia spp. was the most robust contaminant which retained its viability and infectivity in juices in which it was detected. Moderately acidic strawberry and mango juices and alkaline sugar cane juice pose a possible threat, due to harboring the highest viable and infectious protozoa. Regarding highly acidic juices, viability and infectivity decreased in lemon, yet was not still risk free. Orange juice was comparatively safe, as viability dramatically declined, while infectivity was completely abolished. Hence consumers, especially high risk group, are placed at hazard of contracting intestinal protozoa infections, especially through moderately acidic and alkaline juices.

  16. Sheep fed with banana leaf hay reduce ruminal protozoa population.

    PubMed

    Freitas, Cláudio Eduardo Silva; Duarte, Eduardo Robson; Alves, Dorismar David; Martinele, Isabel; D'Agosto, Marta; Cedrola, Franciane; de Moura Freitas, Angélica Alves; Dos Santos Soares, Franklin Delano; Beltran, Makenzi

    2017-04-01

    A ciliate protozoa suppression can reduce methane production increasing the energy efficiency utilization by ruminants. The physicochemical characteristics of rumen fluid and the profile of the rumen protozoa populations were evaluated for sheep fed banana leaf hay in replacement of the Cynodon dactylon cv. vaqueiro hay. A total of 30 male sheep were raised in intensive system during 15 days of adaptation and 63 days of experimental period. The animals were distributed in a completely randomized design that included six replicates of five treatments with replacement levels (0, 25, 50, 75, and 100%) of the grass vaquero for the banana leaf hay. Samples of fluid were collected directly from the rumen with sterile catheters. Color, odor, viscosity, and the methylene blue reduction potential (MBRP) were evaluated and pH estimated using a digital potentiometer. After decimal dilutions, counts of genus protozoa were performed in Sedgewick Rafter chambers. The averages of pH, MBRP, color, odor, and viscosity were not influenced by the inclusion of the banana leaf hay. However, the total number of protozoa and Entodinium spp. population significantly decreased at 75 and 100% inclusions of banana leaf hay as roughage.

  17. Survival of coliforms and bacterial pathogens within protozoa during chlorination.

    PubMed Central

    King, C H; Shotts, E B; Wooley, R E; Porter, K G

    1988-01-01

    The susceptibility of coliform bacteria and bacterial pathogens to free chlorine residuals was determined before and after incubation with amoebae and ciliate protozoa. Viability of bacteria was quantified to determine their resistance to free chlorine residuals when ingested by laboratory strains of Acanthamoeba castellanii and Tetrahymena pyriformis. Cocultures of bacteria and protozoa were incubated to facilitate ingestion of the bacteria and then were chlorinated, neutralized, and sonicated to release intracellular bacteria. Qualitative susceptibility of protozoan strains to free chlorine was also assessed. Protozoa were shown to survive and grow after exposure to levels of free chlorine residuals that killed free-living bacteria. Ingested coliforms Escherichia coli, Citrobacter freundii, Enterobacter agglomerans, Enterobacter cloacae, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Klebsiella oxytoca and bacterial pathogens Salmonella typhimurium, Yersinia enterocolitica, Shigella sonnei, Legionella gormanii, and Campylobacter jejuni had increased resistance to free chlorine residuals. Bacteria could be cultured from within treated protozoans well after the time required for 99% inactivation of free-living cells. All bacterial pathogens were greater than 50-fold more resistant to free chlorine when ingested by T. pyriformis. Escherichia coli ingested by a Cyclidium sp., a ciliate isolated from a drinking water reservoir, were also shown to be more resistant to free chlorine. The mechanism that increased resistance appeared to be survival within protozoan cells. This study indicates that bacteria can survive ingestion by protozoa. This bacterium-protozoan association provides bacteria with increased resistance to free chlorine residuals which can lead to persistence of bacteria in chlorine-treated water. We propose that resistance to digestion by predatory protozoa was an evolutionary precursor of pathogenicity in bacteria and that today it is a mechanism for survival of fastidious

  18. Enteric hepatitis viruses

    PubMed Central

    Tahaei, Seyed Mohammad Ebrahim; Zali, Mohammad Reza

    2012-01-01

    Hepatitis viruses are infectious agents that can infect liver and cause inflammation. The infection triggers immune response against infected cells that leads to the destruction of hepatic cells. This destruction has two consequences: leaking ALT and AST liver enzymes which increases during the course of disease and accumulation of bilirubin- a red pigmented compound released from dead red cells- which causes the yellow coloration of eyes and skin. These viruses transmit through diverse routes i.e. blood transfusion, sexual contacts and consuming water or food contaminated by feces. Enteric hepatitis viruses use the latter route for transmission; hence their outbreaks are more common in underdeveloped countries. There are currently two distinguished enteric hepatitis viruses, hepatitis A and hepatitis E. These viruses belong to different family of viruses and their epidemiological characteristics are different. These infections can be diagnosed by an ELISA for IgM antibody. A vaccine has been developed in last decade of twentieth century for hepatitis A virus, which is administered mostly in the developed world i.e. U.S and Japan. Treatment for these infections is mostly supportive; however, in the case of fulminant hepatitis the liver transplantation might be necessary. PMID:24834192

  19. Enteric hepatitis viruses.

    PubMed

    Tahaei, Seyed Mohammad Ebrahim; Mohebbi, Seyed Reza; Zali, Mohammad Reza

    2012-01-01

    Hepatitis viruses are infectious agents that can infect liver and cause inflammation. The infection triggers immune response against infected cells that leads to the destruction of hepatic cells. This destruction has two consequences: leaking ALT and AST liver enzymes which increases during the course of disease and accumulation of bilirubin- a red pigmented compound released from dead red cells- which causes the yellow coloration of eyes and skin. These viruses transmit through diverse routes i.e. blood transfusion, sexual contacts and consuming water or food contaminated by feces. Enteric hepatitis viruses use the latter route for transmission; hence their outbreaks are more common in underdeveloped countries. There are currently two distinguished enteric hepatitis viruses, hepatitis A and hepatitis E. These viruses belong to different family of viruses and their epidemiological characteristics are different. These infections can be diagnosed by an ELISA for IgM antibody. A vaccine has been developed in last decade of twentieth century for hepatitis A virus, which is administered mostly in the developed world i.e. U.S and Japan. Treatment for these infections is mostly supportive; however, in the case of fulminant hepatitis the liver transplantation might be necessary.

  20. Technical note: Protozoa-specific antibodies raised in sheep plasma bind to their target protozoa in the rumen.

    PubMed

    Williams, Y J; Rea, S M; Popovski, S; Skillman, L C; Wright, A-D G

    2014-12-01

    Binding of IgG antibodies to Entodinium spp. in the rumen of sheep (Ovis aries) was investigated by adding IgG, purified from plasma, directly into the rumen. Plasma IgG was sourced from sheep that had or had not been immunized with a vaccine containing whole fixed Entodinium spp. cells. Ruminal fluid was sampled approximately 2 h after each antibody dosing. Binding of protozoa by a specific antibody was detected using an indirect fluorescent antibody test. An antibody titer in the ruminal fluid was determined by ELISA, and the concentration of ruminal fluid ammonia-N and ruminal pH were also determined. Entodinium spp. and total protozoa from IgG-infused sheep were enumerated by microscopic counts. Two-hourly additions of IgG maintained a low antibody titer in the rumen for 12 h and the binding of the antibody to the rumen protozoa was demonstrated. Increased ammonia-N concentrations and altered ruminal fluid pH patterns indicated that additional fermentation of protein was occurring in the rumen after addition of IgG. No reduction in numbers of Entodinium spp. was observed (P>0.05). Although binding of antibodies to protozoa has been demonstrated in the rumen, it is unclear how much cell death occurred. On the balance of probability, it would appear that the antibody was degraded or partially degraded, and the impact of this on protozoal populations and the measurement of a specific titer is also unclear.

  1. The role of protozoa-driven selection in shaping human genetic variability.

    PubMed

    Pozzoli, Uberto; Fumagalli, Matteo; Cagliani, Rachele; Comi, Giacomo P; Bresolin, Nereo; Clerici, Mario; Sironi, Manuela

    2010-03-01

    Protozoa exert a strong selective pressure in humans. The selection signatures left by these pathogens can be exploited to identify genetic modulators of infection susceptibility. We show that protozoa diversity in different geographic locations is a good measure of protozoa-driven selective pressure; protozoa diversity captured selection signatures at known malaria resistance loci and identified several selected single nucleotide polymorphisms in immune and hemolytic anemia genes. A genome-wide search enabled us to identify 5180 variants mapping to 1145 genes that are subjected to protozoa-driven selective pressure. We provide a genome-wide estimate of protozoa-driven selective pressure and identify candidate susceptibility genes for protozoa-borne diseases. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Astute Clinician Report: A Novel 10 bp Frameshift Deletion in Exon 2 of ICOS Causes a Combined Immunodeficiency Associated with an Enteritis and Hepatitis.

    PubMed

    Robertson, Nic; Engelhardt, Karin R; Morgan, Neil V; Barge, Dawn; Cant, Andrew J; Hughes, Stephen M; Abinun, Mario; Xu, Yaobo; Koref, Mauro Santibanez; Arkwright, Peter D; Hambleton, Sophie

    2015-10-01

    ICOS encodes the Inducible T-cell Co-Stimulator (ICOS). Deficiency of this receptor in humans causes a common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) characterised by an absence of class-switched memory B cells and hypogammaglobulinemia. Three pathogenic mutations in ICOS have been described to date in a total of 13 cases. Here we report a novel homozygous 10 base pair frameshift deletion in exon 2 discovered by whole exome sequencing of two siblings from a family of Pakistani origin. Both patients presented in early childhood with diarrhea, colitis and transaminitis and one showed defective handling of human herpesvirus 6. Activated patient CD3(+)CD4(+) T lymphocytes demonstrated a complete absence of ICOS expression and, consistent with previous reports, we detected a reduction in circulating T follicular helper cells. Findings in this kindred emphasise the phenotypic variability of ICOS deficiency and, in particular, the variably impaired antiviral immunity that is a poorly understood facet of this rare disorder.

  3. Antibacterial activity of GUAVA, Psidium guajava Linnaeus, leaf extracts on diarrhea-causing enteric bacteria isolated from Seabob shrimp, Xiphopenaeus kroyeri (Heller).

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, Flávia A; Andrade Neto, Manoel; Bezerra, José N S; Macrae, Andrew; Sousa, Oscarina Viana de; Fonteles-Filho, Antonio A; Vieira, Regine H S F

    2008-01-01

    Guava leaf tea of Psidium guajava Linnaeus is commonly used as a medicine against gastroenteritis and child diarrhea by those who cannot afford or do not have access to antibiotics. This study screened the antimicrobial effect of essential oils and methanol, hexane, ethyl acetate extracts from guava leaves. The extracts were tested against diarrhea-causing bacteria: Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella spp. and Escherichia coli. Strains that were screened included isolates from seabob shrimp, Xiphopenaeus kroyeri (Heller) and laboratory-type strains. Of the bacteria tested, Staphylococcus aureus strains were most inhibited by the extracts. The methanol extract showed greatest bacterial inhibition. No statistically significant differences were observed between the tested extract concentrations and their effect. The essential oil extract showed inhibitory activity against S. aureus and Salmonella spp. The strains isolated from the shrimp showed some resistance to commercially available antibiotics. These data support the use of guava leaf-made medicines in diarrhea cases where access to commercial antibiotics is restricted. In conclusion, guava leaf extracts and essential oil are very active against S. aureus, thus making up important potential sources of new antimicrobial compounds.

  4. OCCURRENCE OF ENTERIC VIRUSES IN SURFACE WATERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Human enteric viruses cause a number of diseases when individuals are exposed to contaminated drinking & recreational waters. Vaccination against poliovirus has virtually eliminated poliomyelitis from the planet. Other members of enterovirus group cause numerous diseases. Hepatit...

  5. OCCURRENCE OF ENTERIC VIRUSES IN SURFACE WATERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Human enteric viruses cause a number of diseases when individuals are exposed to contaminated drinking & recreational waters. Vaccination against poliovirus has virtually eliminated poliomyelitis from the planet. Other members of enterovirus group cause numerous diseases. Hepatit...

  6. Identification of Putative Potassium Channel Homologues in Pathogenic Protozoa

    PubMed Central

    Prole, David L.; Marrion, Neil V.

    2012-01-01

    K+ channels play a vital homeostatic role in cells and abnormal activity of these channels can dramatically alter cell function and survival, suggesting that they might be attractive drug targets in pathogenic organisms. Pathogenic protozoa lead to diseases such as malaria, leishmaniasis, trypanosomiasis and dysentery that are responsible for millions of deaths each year worldwide. The genomes of many protozoan parasites have recently been sequenced, allowing rational design of targeted therapies. We analyzed the genomes of pathogenic protozoa and show the existence within them of genes encoding putative homologues of K+ channels. These protozoan K+ channel homologues represent novel targets for anti-parasitic drugs. Differences in the sequences and diversity of human and parasite proteins may allow pathogen-specific targeting of these K+ channel homologues. PMID:22363819

  7. Optical detection of parasitic protozoa in sol-gel matrices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Livage, Jacques; Barreau, J. Y.; Da Costa, J. M.; Desportes, I.

    1994-10-01

    Whole cell parasitic protozoa have been entrapped within sol-gel porous silica matrices. Stationary phase promastigote cells of Leishmania donovani infantum are mixed with a silica sol before gelation occurs. They remain trapped within the growing oxide network and their cellular organization appears to be well preserved. Moreover protozoa retain their antigenic properties in the porous gel. They are still able to detect parasite specific antibodies in serum samples from infected patients via an enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Antigen- antibody associations occurring in the gel are optically detected via the reactions of a peroxidase conjugate with ortho-phenylenediamine leading to the formation of a yellow coloration. A clear-cut difference in optical density is measured between positive and negative sera. Such an entrapment of antigenic species into porous sol-gel matrices avoids the main problems due to non specific binding and could be advantageously used in diagnostic kits.

  8. Stalked protozoa identification by image analysis and multivariable statistical techniques.

    PubMed

    Amaral, A L; Ginoris, Y P; Nicolau, A; Coelho, M A Z; Ferreira, E C

    2008-06-01

    Protozoa are considered good indicators of the treatment quality in activated sludge systems as they are sensitive to physical, chemical and operational processes. Therefore, it is possible to correlate the predominance of certain species or groups and several operational parameters of the plant. This work presents a semiautomatic image analysis procedure for the recognition of the stalked protozoa species most frequently found in wastewater treatment plants by determining the geometrical, morphological and signature data and subsequent processing by discriminant analysis and neural network techniques. Geometrical descriptors were found to be responsible for the best identification ability and the identification of the crucial Opercularia and Vorticella microstoma microorganisms provided some degree of confidence to establish their presence in wastewater treatment plants.

  9. Characteristics of Factors of Protozoa Blastocystis hominis Persistence.

    PubMed

    Potaturkina-Nesterova, N I; Il'ina, N A; Bugero, N V; Nesterov, A S

    2016-10-01

    Persistence activity manifested in the expression of anti-lysozyme, anti-lactoferrin, and antihistone factors promoting inactivation of natural anti-infection resistance factors in the body was revealed in Blastocystis hominis protozoa. Activities of these factors were ranged. The frequency of these factors in clinical isolates of blastocyst decreased in the following order: anti-lactoferrin activity (84.5±3.7%)→anti-lysozyme activity (64.8±5.7%)→anti-histone activity (48.1±2.3%). In healthy humans, the corresponding parameters were 7.3±1.3, 5.3±0.9, and 3.3±0.4%, respectively (p<0.05). It was shown that the studied activities in highly virulent blastocysts were higher than in groups of medium-, low-, and avirulent protozoa.

  10. [Clostridium difficile enteritis].

    PubMed

    Ramos Martínez, Antonio; Romero Pizarro, Yolanda; Martínez Arrieta, Félix; Balandín Moreno, Bárbara; Múñez Rubio, Elena; Cuiñas León, Karina; Sánchez Romero, Isabel; Cantos López de Ibargüen, Blanca; Asensio Vegas, Angel

    2011-10-01

    Clostridium difficile infection of the small intestine is infrequent. We present the first case of C. difficile enteritis (CDE) diagnosed in Spain and provide a review of the literature. A 30-year-old man underwent surgery for recurrence of a retroperitoneal germ cell tumor. Seven days later the patient developed vomiting, diarrhea and, finally, intestinal obstruction due to pseudomembranes caused by CDE. Only 57 cases of CDE have been reported in the literature. The mean age was 52±17 years with a range of 18 to 86 years. Twenty-nine patients (50%) had inflammatory bowel disease. Forty-seven (81%) had a history of colon or small intestine surgery. Mortality was higher in older patients and in those without inflammatory bowel disease. CDE is characterized by high severity and mortality. 2011 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  11. Biomarkers in canine parvovirus enteritis.

    PubMed

    Schoeman, J P; Goddard, A; Leisewitz, A L

    2013-07-01

    Canine parvovirus (CPV) enteritis has, since its emergence in 1978, remained a common and important cause of morbidity and mortality in young dogs. The continued incidence of parvoviral enteritis is partly due to the virus' capability to evolve into more virulent and resistant variants with significant local gastrointestinal and systemic inflammatory sequelae. This paper reviews current knowledge on historical-, signalment-, and clinical factors as well as several haematological-, biochemical- and endocrine parameters that can be used as diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers in CPV enteritis. These factors include season of presentation, purebred nature, bodyweight, vomiting, leukopaenia, lymphopaenia, thrombocytopaenia, hypercoagulability, hypercortisolaemia, hypothyroxinaemia, hypoalbuminaemia, elevated C-reactive protein and tumour necrosis factor, hypocholesterolaemia and hypocitrullinaemia. Factors contributing to the manifestations of CPV infection are multiple with elements of host, pathogen, secondary infections, underlying stressors and environment affecting severity and outcome. The availability of several prognosticators has made identification of patients at high risk of death and their subsequent targeted management more rewarding.

  12. Biodiversity of algae and protozoa in a natural waste stabilization pond: a field study.

    PubMed

    Tharavathi, N C; Hosetti, B B

    2003-04-01

    A field study was carried out on the biodiversity of protozoa and algae from a natural waste stabilization pond during November, 1996 to April, 1997. The raw waste and pond samples were analysed for physico-chemical and biological parameters. High dissolved oxygen (DO) coinciding with phytoplankton peak was recorded. The algae--Chlorella vulgaris, Scenedesmus acuminatus, Oscillatoria brevis and Nostoc piscinale and Protozoa--Paramecium caudatum, Acanthamoeba sp., Bodo saltans and Oikomonas termo were obvious as dominant species, whereas algae Ochromonas pyriformis and Synura uvella and protozoa, Didinium masutum and Stentor coerulus were noted as rare species. Totally 71 species of algae and 13 species of protozoa were identified.

  13. Selective grazing of methanotrophs by protozoa in a rice field soil.

    PubMed

    Murase, Jun; Frenzel, Peter

    2008-09-01

    Biological methane oxidation is a key process in the methane cycle of wetland ecosystems. The methanotrophic biomass may be grazed by protozoa, thus linking the methane cycle to the soil microbial food web. In the present study, the edibility of different methanotrophs for soil protozoa was compared. The number of methanotroph-feeding protozoa in a rice field soil was estimated by determining the most-probable number (MPN) using methanotrophs as food bacteria; naked amoebae and flagellates were the dominant protozoa. Among ten methanotrophic strains examined as a food source, seven yielded a number of protozoa comparable with the yield with Escherichia coli [10(4) MPN (g soil dry weight)(-1)], and three out of four Methylocystis spp. yielded significantly fewer numbers [10(2)-10(3) MPN (g soil dry weight)(-1)]. The lower edibility of the Methylocystis spp. was not explained either by their growth phase or by harmful effects on protozoa. Incubation of the soil under methane resulted in a higher number of protozoa actively grazing on methanotrophs, especially on the less-edible group. Protozoa isolated from the soil demonstrated a grazing preference on the different methanotrophs consistent with the results of MPN counts. The results indicate that selective grazing by protozoa may be a biological factor affecting the methanotrophic community in a wetland soil.

  14. Pediatric enteral nutrition.

    PubMed

    Axelrod, David; Kazmerski, Kimberly; Iyer, Kishore

    2006-01-01

    Common to all pediatric patients receiving enteral nutrition is the inability to consume calories orally. This is often secondary to issues of inadequate weight gain, inadequate growth, prolonged feeding times, weight loss, a decrease in weight/age or weight/height ratios, or a persistent triceps skinfold thickness <5% for age. Enteral nutrition requires enteral access. In the neonatal period the nasoenteric route is usually used. In pediatric patients requiring long-term enteral access, surgically, endoscopically, or radiologically placed percutaneous feeding tubes are common. Jejunal feeding tubes are used in pediatric patients with gastric feeding intolerance or persistent gastroesophageal reflux. Low-profile enteral access devices are preferred by most pediatric patients because of their cosmetic appearance. For most children, a standard pediatric polypeptide enteral formula is well tolerated. There are specialized pediatric enteral formulas available for patients with decreased intestinal length, altered intestinal absorptive capacity, or altered pancreatic function. Weaning patients from tube feeding to oral nutrition is the ultimate nutrition goal. A multidisciplinary approach to patients with short bowel syndrome will maximize the use of enteral nutrition while preserving parenteral nutrition for patients with true enteral nutrition therapy failure.

  15. Highly divergent mitochondrion-related organelles in anaerobic parasitic protozoa.

    PubMed

    Makiuchi, Takashi; Nozaki, Tomoyoshi

    2014-05-01

    The mitochondria have arisen as a consequence of endosymbiosis of an ancestral α-proteobacterium with a methane-producing archae. The main function of the canonical aerobic mitochondria include ATP generation via oxidative phosphorylation, heme and phospholipid synthesis, calcium homeostasis, programmed cell death, and the formation of iron-sulfur clusters. Under oxygen-restricted conditions, the mitochondrion has often undergone remarkable reductive alterations of its content and function, leading to the generation of mitochondrion-related organelles (MROs), such as mitosomes, hydrogenosomes, and mithochondrion-like organelles, which are found in a wide range of anaerobic/microaerophilic eukaryotes that include several medically important parasitic protists such as Entamoeba histolytica, Giardia intestinalis, Trichomonas vaginalis, Cryptosporidium parvum, Blastocystis hominis, and Encephalitozoon cuniculi, as well as free-living protists such as Sawyeria marylandensis, Neocallimastix patriciarum, and Mastigamoeba balamuthi. The transformation from canonical aerobic mitochondria to MROs apparently have occurred in independent lineages, and resulted in the diversity of their components and functions. Due to medical and veterinary importance of the MRO-possessing human- and animal-pathogenic protozoa, their genomic, transcriptomic, proteomic, and biochemical evidence has been accumulated. Detailed analyses of the constituents and functions of the MROs in such anaerobic pathogenic protozoa, which reside oxygen-deprived or oxygen-poor environments such as the mammalian intestine and the genital organs, should illuminate the current evolutionary status of the MROs in these organisms, and give insight to environmental constraints that drive the evolution of eukaryotes and their organelles. In this review, we summarize and discuss the diverse metabolic functions and protein transport systems of the MROs from anaerobic parasitic protozoa.

  16. Association between protozoa in sputum and asthma: a case-control study.

    PubMed

    van Woerden, Hugo C; Ratier-Cruz, Adriana; Aleshinloye, Olabode B; Martinez-Giron, Rafael; Gregory, Clive; Matthews, Ian P

    2011-06-01

    Atypical infectious agents have been proposed as potential contributors to asthma. A novel set of morphological and staining criteria permit the identification of flagellated protozoa in sputum. This case-control study was designed to use this novel method and to assess: (1) are protozoa more common in asthmatics than in non-asthmatics; (2) is the presence of protozoa associated with the use of steroid inhalers; and (3) is the presence of protozoa associated with living in damp housing? Induced sputum samples were collected from asthma patients and local non-atopic, non-smoking controls. Questionnaires assessed asthma severity and housing conditions. Sputum was examined for flagellated protozoa using a previously described staining technique. 96 participants were recruited for this study; 54 asthma patients and 42 controls, age range 21-62 years, 70% female participants. Limiting results to those who were clearly positive or negative for flagellated protozoa, 66.7% (20/30) of asthmatics and 30.8% (4/13) of controls had protozoa (p = 0.046). Among the asthma patients, prevalence of protozoa was not significantly different between those who had (10/18), and those who had not (10/12), used steroid inhaler in the preceding two weeks (p = 0.11). Similarly, the prevalence of protozoa was not significantly different between those who did (6/11) and those who did not (18/32), live in damp homes (p = 0.92). This case-control study demonstrates an association between flagellated protozoa in sputum and asthma. It is now necessary to confirm and characterise the protozoa using genetic techniques based on 18S ribosomal RNA. Once tis is established it would be worthwhile to determine if asthma symptoms improve when treated by anti-protozoal agents. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Fluorogenic Substrate Detection of Viable Intracellular and Extracellular Pathogenic Protozoa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, Peter R.; Pappas, Michael G.; Hansen, Brian D.

    1985-01-01

    Viable Leishmania promastigotes and amastigotes were detected by epifluorescence microscopy with fluorescein diacetate being used to mark living parasites and the nucleic acid-binding compound ethidium bromide to stain dead cells. This procedure is superior to other assays because it is faster and detects viable intracellular as well as extracellular Leishmania. Furthermore, destruction of intracellular pathogens by macrophages is more accurately determined with fluorescein diacetate than with other stains. The procedure may have applications in programs to develop drugs and vaccines against protozoa responsible for human and animal disease.

  18. [Trypanosomatid (Protozoa, Kinetoplastida) parasites of sloths (Mannmalia, Xenarthra)].

    PubMed

    Rotureau, B

    2006-07-01

    Worldwide famous for their slothfulness, sloths are xenarthran mammals living in the tropical forests of the New World. In these highly biodiverse habitats, sloths are implicated in long-term interactions with many organisms. They are especially involved in the parasitic cycles of various trypanosomatids including human parasites. This review describes the different species of the genera Leishmania, Endotrypanum and Trypanosoma that infect sloths. The improvement of the preventive method efficacy against synanthropozoonotic diseases due to several of these protozoa relies on studies on the ecology and biology of wild reservoir hosts such as sloths.

  19. Intestinal protozoa in wild boars (Sus scrofa) in western Iran.

    PubMed

    Solaymani-Mohammadi, S; Rezaian, M; Hooshyar, H; Mowlavi, G R; Babaei, Z; Anwar, M A

    2004-10-01

    A total of 12 gastrointestinal tracts of wild boars (Sus scrofa) from western Iran (Luristan) were examined for protozoan infection between September 2000 and November 2001. Of 12 boars examined, 67% harbored one or more species of the following protozoa: Balantidium coli (25%), Tritrichomonas suis (25%), Blastocystis sp. (25%), Entamoeba polecki (17%), Entamoeba suis (8%), Iodamoeba butschlii (17%), and Chilomastix mesnili (8%). Four of these protozoan species also are reported in humans, and persons living in rural areas where wild boars are abundant should take precaution to avoid infection.

  20. Infectious causes of chronic diarrhoea.

    PubMed

    Kaiser, Lisa; Surawicz, Christina M

    2012-10-01

    Infections are an uncommon cause of chronic diarrhoea. Parasites are most likely, including protozoa like giardia, cryptosporidia and cyclospora. Bacteria are unlikely to cause chronic diarrhoea in immunocompetent individuals with the possible exception of Yersinia, Plesiomonas and Aeromonas. Infectious diarrhoea can trigger other causes of chronic diarrhoea, including inflammatory bowel disease, irritable bowel syndrome and "Brainerd-type" diarrhoea. A thorough evaluation should detect most infections causing chronic diarrhoea.

  1. Enteric viruses of poultry

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Despite the economic importance of the poultry gut, very little is known about the complex gut microbial community. Enteric disease syndromes such as Runting-Stunting Syndrome (RSS) in broiler chickens and Poult Enteritis Complex (PEC) in young turkeys are difficult to characterize and reproduce in ...

  2. OCCURRENCE OF ENTERIC VIRUSES IN WATERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A number of different types of human enteric viruses cause waterborne outbreaks when individuals are exposed to contaminated drinking and recreational waters. Vaccination against poliovirus has virtually eliminated poliomyelitis from the planet, but other members of the enterovi...

  3. OCCURRENCE OF ENTERIC VIRUSES IN WATERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A number of different types of human enteric viruses cause waterborne outbreaks when individuals are exposed to contaminated drinking and recreational waters. Vaccination against poliovirus has virtually eliminated poliomyelitis from the planet, but other members of the enterovi...

  4. Phenolic Composition, Fermentation Profile, Protozoa Population and Methane Production from Sheanut (Butryospermum Parkii) Byproducts In vitro

    PubMed Central

    Bhatta, Raghavendra; Mani, Saravanan; Baruah, Luna; Sampath, K. T.

    2012-01-01

    Sheanut cake (SNC), expeller (SNE) and solvent extractions (SNSE) samples were evaluated to determine their suitability in animal feeding. The CP content was highest in SNSE (16.2%) followed by SNE (14.7%) and SNC (11.6%). However, metabolizable energy (ME, MJ/kg) was maximum in SNC (8.2) followed by SNE (7.9) and SNSE (7.0). The tannin phenol content was about 7.0 per cent and mostly in the form of hydrolyzable tannin (HT), whereas condensed tannin (CT) was less than one per cent. The in vitro gas production profiles indicated similar y max (maximum potential of gas production) among the 3 by-products. However, the rate of degradation (k) was maximum in SNC followed by SNE and SNSE. The t1/2 (time taken for reaching half asymptote) was lowest in SNC (14.4 h) followed by SNE (18.7 h) and SNSE (21.9 h). The increment in the in vitro gas volume (ml/200 mg DM) with PEG (polyethylene glycol)-6000 (as a tannin binder) addition was 12.0 in SNC, 9.6 in SNE and 11.0 in SNSE, respectively. The highest ratio of CH4 (ml) reduction per ml of the total gas, an indicator of the potential of tannin, was recorded in SNE (0.482) followed by SNC (0.301) and SNSE (0.261). There was significant (p<0.05) reduction in entodinia population and total protozoa population. Differential protozoa counts revealed that Entodinia populations increased to a greater extent than Holotricha when PEG was added. This is the first report on the antimethanogenic property of sheanut byproducts. It could be concluded that all the three forms of SN byproducts are medium source of protein and energy for ruminants. There is a great potential for SN by-products to be incorporated in ruminant feeding not only as a source of energy and protein, but also to protect the protein from rumen degradation and suppress enteric methanogenesis. PMID:25049494

  5. [Home enteral nutrition].

    PubMed

    Virgili, N; Vilarasau, M C

    1999-04-01

    Enteral nutrition in the home is applied to stabilized patients who do not require hospitalization or to chronically ill patients who can stay in their homes. However, ensuring the correct administration of this treatment requires a coordinated, expert multidisciplinary team. This article reviews the conditions for use of enteral nutrition in the home, the means of access, the nutritional formulas, the administrative technique, and the complications enteral nutrition in the home may present. Furthermore, the composition and characteristics of the multidisciplinary team which will be in charge of carrying out this treatment is discussed.

  6. Testing protozoacidal activity of ligand-lytic peptides against termite gut protozoa in vitro (protozoa culture) and in vivo (microinjection into termite hindgut).

    PubMed

    Husseneder, Claudia; Sethi, Amit; Foil, Lane; Delatte, Jennifer

    2010-12-29

    We are developing a novel approach to subterranean termite control that would lead to reduced reliance on the use of chemical pesticides. Subterranean termites are dependent on protozoa in the hindguts of workers to efficiently digest wood. Lytic peptides have been shown to kill a variety of protozoan parasites (Mutwiri et al. 2000) and also protozoa in the gut of the Formosan subterranean termite, Coptotermes formosanus (Husseneder and Collier 2009). Lytic peptides are part of the nonspecific immune system of eukaryotes, and destroy the membranes of microorganisms (Leuschner and Hansel 2004). Most lytic peptides are not likely to harm higher eukaryotes, because they do not affect the electrically neutral cholesterol-containing cell membranes of higher eukaryotes (Javadpour et al. 1996). Lytic peptide action can be targeted to specific cell types by the addition of a ligand. For example, Hansel et al. (2007) reported that lytic peptides conjugated with cancer cell membrane receptor ligands could be used to destroy breast cancer cells, while lytic peptides alone or conjugated with non-specific peptides were not effective. Lytic peptides also have been conjugated to human hormones that bind to receptors on tumor cells for targeted destruction of prostate and testicular cancer cells (Leuschner and Hansel 2004). In this article we present techniques used to demonstrate the protozoacidal activity of a lytic peptide (Hecate) coupled to a heptapeptide ligand that binds to the surface membrane of protozoa from the gut of the Formosan subterranean termite. These techniques include extirpation of the gut from termite workers, anaerobic culture of gut protozoa (Pseudotrichonympha grassii, Holomastigotoides hartmanni,Spirotrichonympha leidyi), microscopic confirmation that the ligand marked with a fluorescent dye binds to the termite gut protozoa and other free-living protozoa but not to bacteria or gut tissue. We also demonstrate that the same ligand coupled to a lytic

  7. Effects of graded levels of tannin-containing tropical tree leaves on in vitro rumen fermentation, total protozoa and methane production.

    PubMed

    Bhatta, R; Saravanan, M; Baruah, L; Prasad, C S

    2015-03-01

    This study was carried out to determine the effect of graded levels of tannin-containing tropical tree leaves, Autocarpus integrifolis, Azardirachta indica and Ficus bengalensis, on the in vitro rumen fermentation pattern, total protozoa and methane suppression in order to establish the optimum dose of these leaves for inclusion in the ruminant diets. The air-dried and ground samples of Au. integrifolis, Az. indica and Ficus bengalensis were subjected to in vitro incubation using 30 ml buffered rumen fluid at 0, 2.5, 5.0, 10.0, 15.0, 20.0, 25.0 and 30.0% (dry matter refers to moisture-free basis) of a total mixed ration (TMR: refers to mixture of roughage and concentrate containing cereals and oil cakes) devoid of tannin. The TMR for the experimental incubation was prepared by mixing 40 parts of ground Elusine coracana straw as roughage source with 60 parts of concentrate mixture. The leaves contained an average 130 g kg(-1) CP with 7·0 MJ of ME kg(-1) DM. The average neutral detergent fibre (NDF) content was <400 g kg(-1) DM. Highest total phenol (TP; g kg(-1) DM) was recorded in Az. indica (108) followed by F. bengalensis (103) and Au. integrifolis (76), and total tannin (TT) content also showed similar trend. However, condensed tannin (CT) was highest in F. bengalensis (260) followed by Au. integrifolis (186) and Az. indica (138). There was significant (P < 0.05) reduction in the NH3 concentration in the presence of all the leaves. Autocarpus integrifolis tannins did not cause inhibition of total volatile fatty acid (TVFA: refers to the concentration of volatile fatty acids, viz. acetic, butyric and propionic) concentration, whereas F. bengalensis and Az. indica tannins at higher level of incubation (>5.0%) reduced TVFA concentration. Protozoa (cells per mL) were similar at all levels of inclusion with Au. integrifolis, but reduced in case of F. bengalensis and Az. indica. As the level of tannin increased in the incubation medium, there was a linear reduction

  8. Canine viral enteritis. Recent developments.

    PubMed

    Pollock, R V; Carmichael, L

    1979-05-01

    Two apparently novel viral gastroenteritides of dogs were recognized in 1978: one caused by a parvo-like virus (CPV) and one by a corona-like virus (CCV). A rotavirus has also been tentatively associated with neonatal pup enteritis. Canine viral enteritis is characterized by a sudden onset of vomiting and diarrhea, rapid spread and high morbidity. Treatment is only supportive but must be initiated promptly. Infected animals should be isolated immediately; the extremely contagious nature of these diseases makes them difficult to contain. Feces from infected dogs appear to be the primary means of transmission. Sodium hypochlorite solutions (eg, Clorox) are recommended for disinfection. The development of effective vaccines is an immediate and pressing problem.

  9. Chronic radiation enteritis and malnutrition.

    PubMed

    Webb, Gwilym James; Brooke, Rachael; De Silva, Aminda Niroshan

    2013-07-01

    Radiation enteritis is defined as the loss of absorptive capacity of the intestine following irradiation, which is most commonly seen after radiotherapy for pelvic and abdominal malignancies. It is divided into acute and chronic forms and usually presents with diarrhea and malabsorption. Malnutrition is a common complication of chronic radiation enteritis (CRE). We reviewed the etiology, prevalence, symptoms, diagnosis and management of CRE and CRE with malnutrition in this article. Functional short bowel syndrome as a cause of malnutrition in CRE is also considered. The diagnostic work-up includes serum markers, endoscopy, cross-sectional imaging and the exclusion of alternative diagnoses such as recurrent malignancy. Management options of CRE include dietary manipulation, anti-motility agents, electrolyte correction, probiotics, parenteral nutrition, surgical resection and small bowel transplantation. Treatment may also be required for coexisting conditions including vitamin B12 deficiency, bile acid malabsorption and depression.

  10. Prevalence of Intestinal Protozoa Infections and Associated Risk Factors among Schoolchildren in Sanandaj City, Iran.

    PubMed

    Bahmani, Pegah; Maleki, Afshin; Sadeghi, Shahram; Shahmoradi, Behzad; Ghahremani, Esmaeil

    2017-01-01

    Intestinal parasites are still a serious public health problem in the world, especially in developing countries. This study aimed to assess the prevalence of intestinal protozoa infections and associated risk factors among schoolchildren in Sanandaj City, Iran. This cross-sectional study involving 400 schoolchildren was carried out in 2015. Each student was selected using systematic random sampling method. Questionnaire and observation were used to identify possible risk factors. Fresh stool samples were observed using formal-ether concentration method. Five species of intestinal protozoa were identified with an overall prevalence of 42.3%. No cases of helminthes infection were detected. The predominant protozoa were Blastocys hominis (21.3%) and Entamoeba coli (4.5%). Overall, 143 (35.9%) had single infections and 26 (6.4%) were infected with more than one intestinal protozoa, in which 23 (5.9%) had double intestinal protozoa infections and 3 (0.5%) had triple infections. A significant relationship was observed between intestinal protozoa infection with economic status, water resources for drinking uses, and the methods of washing vegetables (P<0.05). Education programs on students and their families should be implemented for the prevention and control of protozoa infections in the study area.

  11. Effects of altered temperature and precipitation on desert protozoa associated with biological soil crusts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Darby, B.J.; Housman, D.C.; Zaki, A.M.; Shamout, Y.; Adl, S.M.; Belnap, J.; Neher, D.A.

    2006-01-01

    Biological soil crusts are diverse assemblages of bacteria, cyanobacteria, algae, fungi, lichens, and mosses that cover much of arid land soils. The objective of this study was to quantify protozoa associated with biological soil crusts and test the response of protozoa to increased temperature and precipitation as is predicted by some global climate models. Protozoa were more abundant when associated with cyanobacteria/lichen crusts than with cyanobacteria crusts alone. Amoebae, flagellates, and ciliates originating from the Colorado Plateau desert (cool desert, primarily winter precipitation) declined 50-, 10-, and 100-fold, respectively, when moved in field mesocosms to the Chihuahuan Desert (hot desert, primarily summer rain). However, this was not observed in protozoa collected from the Chihuahuan Desert and moved to the Sonoran desert (hot desert, also summer rain, but warmer than Chihuahuan Desert). Protozoa in culture began to encyst at 37??C. Cysts survived the upper end of daily temperatures (37-55??C), and could be stimulated to excyst if temperatures were reduced to 15??C or lower. Results from this study suggest that cool desert protozoa are influenced negatively by increased summer precipitation during excessive summer temperatures, and that desert protozoa may be adapted to a specific desert's temperature and precipitation regime. ?? 2006 by the International Society of Protistologists.

  12. Clinical and immunological characteristics associated with the presence of protozoa in sputum smears.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Girón, Rafael; van Woerden, Hugo Cornelis

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study is to assess the relationship between protozoa in spontaneously expectorated sputum samples and a range of clinical and immunological variables. Clinical details including age, gender, smoking status, and use of oral or inhaled steroids were recorded for a cohort of 199 patients whose spontaneously expectorated sputum samples were submitted to a Cytology Laboratory in Spain between January 2005 and December 2006. Slides were scanned for protozoa under light microscopy and scanned for monocytes/small macrophages highlighted by immunocytochemistry (CD68 monoclonal antibody). One hundred ninety-one patients provided adequate sputum samples, of whom 70 had protozoa in their sputum. There was a strong relationship between the presence of protozoa and monocytes/small macrophages identified under light microscopy (P < 0.001). A binary logistic regression model also indicated a relationship between protozoa and both smoking status and steroid use. The diagnoses in those with protozoa included infection (including tuberculosis), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), lung fibrosis, asthma, chronic liver disease, immunosuppression, cancer, pancreatic or renal disease, heart failure, and AIDS. The identified association between protozoa and monocytes/small macrophages in sputum suggests an immune response and warrants further investigation to clarify whether or not these organisms have any pathological significance in this wide range of conditions. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Prevalence of protozoa species in drinking and environmental water sources in Sudan.

    PubMed

    Shanan, Salah; Abd, Hadi; Bayoumi, Magdi; Saeed, Amir; Sandström, Gunnar

    2015-01-01

    Protozoa are eukaryotic cells distributed worldwide in nature and are receiving increasing attention as reservoirs and potential vectors for the transmission of pathogenic bacteria. In the environment, on the other hand, many genera of the protozoa are human and animal pathogens. Only limited information is available on these organisms in developing countries and so far no information on their presence is available from Sudan. It is necessary to establish a molecular identification of species of the protozoa from drinking and environmental water. 600 water samples were collected from five states (Gadarif, Khartoum, Kordofan, Juba, and Wad Madani) in Sudan and analysed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and sequencing. 57 out of 600 water samples were PCR positive for protozoa. 38 out of the 57 positive samples were identified by sequencing to contain 66 protozoa species including 19 (28.8%) amoebae, 17 (25.7%) Apicomplexa, 25 (37.9%) ciliates, and 5 (7.6%) flagellates. This study utilized molecular methods identified species belonging to all phyla of protozoa and presented a fast and accurate molecular detection and identification of pathogenic as well as free-living protozoa in water uncovering hazards facing public health.

  14. Three-dimensional structures in the design of therapeutics targeting parasitic protozoa: reflections on the past, present and future

    PubMed Central

    Hol, Wim G. J.

    2015-01-01

    Parasitic protozoa cause a range of diseases which threaten billions of human beings. They are responsible for tremendous mortality and morbidity in the least-developed areas of the world. Presented here is an overview of the evolution over the last three to four decades of structure-guided design of inhibitors, leads and drug candidates aiming at targets from parasitic protozoa. Target selection is a crucial and multi-faceted aspect of structure-guided drug design. The major impact of advances in molecular biology, genome sequencing and high-throughput screening is touched upon. The most advanced crystallographic techniques, including XFEL, have already been applied to structure determinations of drug targets from parasitic protozoa. Even cryo-electron microscopy is contributing to our understanding of the mode of binding of inhibitors to parasite ribosomes. A number of projects have been selected to illustrate how structural information has assisted in arriving at promising compounds that are currently being evaluated by pharmacological, pharmacodynamic and safety tests to assess their suitability as pharmaceutical agents. Structure-guided approaches are also applied to incorporate properties into compounds such that they are less likely to become the victim of resistance mechanisms. A great increase in the number of novel antiparasitic compounds will be needed in the future. These should then be combined into various multi-compound therapeutics to circumvent the diverse resistance mechanisms that render single-compound, or even multi-compound, drugs ineffective. The future should also see (i) an increase in the number of projects with a tight integration of structural biology, medicinal chemistry, parasitology and pharmaceutical sciences; (ii) the education of more ‘medicinal structural biologists’ who are familiar with the properties that compounds need to have for a high probability of success in the later steps of the drug-development process; and (iii

  15. Three-dimensional structures in the design of therapeutics targeting parasitic protozoa: reflections on the past, present and future.

    PubMed

    Hol, Wim G J

    2015-05-01

    Parasitic protozoa cause a range of diseases which threaten billions of human beings. They are responsible for tremendous mortality and morbidity in the least-developed areas of the world. Presented here is an overview of the evolution over the last three to four decades of structure-guided design of inhibitors, leads and drug candidates aiming at targets from parasitic protozoa. Target selection is a crucial and multi-faceted aspect of structure-guided drug design. The major impact of advances in molecular biology, genome sequencing and high-throughput screening is touched upon. The most advanced crystallographic techniques, including XFEL, have already been applied to structure determinations of drug targets from parasitic protozoa. Even cryo-electron microscopy is contributing to our understanding of the mode of binding of inhibitors to parasite ribosomes. A number of projects have been selected to illustrate how structural information has assisted in arriving at promising compounds that are currently being evaluated by pharmacological, pharmacodynamic and safety tests to assess their suitability as pharmaceutical agents. Structure-guided approaches are also applied to incorporate properties into compounds such that they are less likely to become the victim of resistance mechanisms. A great increase in the number of novel antiparasitic compounds will be needed in the future. These should then be combined into various multi-compound therapeutics to circumvent the diverse resistance mechanisms that render single-compound, or even multi-compound, drugs ineffective. The future should also see (i) an increase in the number of projects with a tight integration of structural biology, medicinal chemistry, parasitology and pharmaceutical sciences; (ii) the education of more `medicinal structural biologists' who are familiar with the properties that compounds need to have for a high probability of success in the later steps of the drug-development process; and (iii) the

  16. Influence of rumen protozoa on methane emission in ruminants: a meta-analysis approach.

    PubMed

    Guyader, J; Eugène, M; Nozière, P; Morgavi, D P; Doreau, M; Martin, C

    2014-11-01

    A meta-analysis was conducted to evaluate the effects of protozoa concentration on methane emission from ruminants. A database was built from 59 publications reporting data from 76 in vivo experiments. The experiments included in the database recorded methane production and rumen protozoa concentration measured on the same groups of animals. Quantitative data such as diet chemical composition, rumen fermentation and microbial parameters, and qualitative information such as methane mitigation strategies were also collected. In the database, 31% of the experiments reported a concomitant reduction of both protozoa concentration and methane emission (g/kg dry matter intake). Nearly all of these experiments tested lipids as methane mitigation strategies. By contrast, 21% of the experiments reported a variation in methane emission without changes in protozoa numbers, indicating that methanogenesis is also regulated by other mechanisms not involving protozoa. Experiments that used chemical compounds as an antimethanogenic treatment belonged to this group. The relationship between methane emission and protozoa concentration was studied with a variance-covariance model, with experiment as a fixed effect. The experiments included in the analysis had a within-experiment variation of protozoa concentration higher than 5.3 log10 cells/ml corresponding to the average s.e.m. of the database for this variable. To detect potential interfering factors for the relationship, the influence of several qualitative and quantitative secondary factors was tested. This meta-analysis showed a significant linear relationship between methane emission and protozoa concentration: methane (g/kg dry matter intake)=-30.7+8.14×protozoa (log10 cells/ml) with 28 experiments (91 treatments), residual mean square error=1.94 and adjusted R 2=0.90. The proportion of butyrate in the rumen positively influenced the least square means of this relationship.

  17. Relative diversity and community structure analysis of rumen protozoa according to T-RFLP and microscopic methods.

    PubMed

    Tymensen, Lisa; Barkley, Cindy; McAllister, Tim A

    2012-01-01

    Protozoa are common inhabitants of the rumen where they play roles in host nutrition and methanogenesis. Knowledge of how changes in the composition of protozoa communities affect these processes is limited in part due to a lack of efficient methods for protozoa community analysis. In this study, a terminal-restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) assay targeting the 18S rRNA gene was developed for comparative analysis of rumen protozoa communities. Comparison of diversity and structure of protozoa communities from hay-fed versus silage/grain-fed cattle via T-RFLP analysis yielded similar overall results to microscopy analysis. According to both methods, Entodinium spp. were more abundant in the silage/grain-fed cattle and protozoa diversity (as calculated using the Shannon index) was higher for the hay-fed cattle due to greater species evenness. Type B protozoa were more prevalent in the hay-fed cattle, whereas Type A protozoa were more prevalent in the silage/grain-fed cattle. Analysis of similarity (ANOSIM) indicated that the protozoa communities from hay-fed and silage/grain-fed cattle were different, and multivariate analysis indicated that pen mates (i.e., cattle fed the same diet and housed together) tended to have similar protozoa communities types. In summary, we present a T-RFLP method for analyzing rumen protozoa communities which complements traditional microscopy approaches but has the advantage of being amenable to high-throughput. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. Transient Superdiffusion and Long-Range Correlations in the Motility Patterns of Trypanosomatid Flagellate Protozoa

    PubMed Central

    Alves, Luiz G. A.; Scariot, Débora B.; Guimarães, Renato R.; Nakamura, Celso V.; Mendes, Renio S.; Ribeiro, Haroldo V.

    2016-01-01

    We report on a diffusive analysis of the motion of flagellate protozoa species. These parasites are the etiological agents of neglected tropical diseases: leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania amazonensis and Leishmania braziliensis, African sleeping sickness caused by Trypanosoma brucei, and Chagas disease caused by Trypanosoma cruzi. By tracking the positions of these parasites and evaluating the variance related to the radial positions, we find that their motions are characterized by a short-time transient superdiffusive behavior. Also, the probability distributions of the radial positions are self-similar and can be approximated by a stretched Gaussian distribution. We further investigate the probability distributions of the radial velocities of individual trajectories. Among several candidates, we find that the generalized gamma distribution shows a good agreement with these distributions. The velocity time series have long-range correlations, displaying a strong persistent behavior (Hurst exponents close to one). The prevalence of “universal” patterns across all analyzed species indicates that similar mechanisms may be ruling the motion of these parasites, despite their differences in morphological traits. In addition, further analysis of these patterns could become a useful tool for investigating the activity of new candidate drugs against these and others neglected tropical diseases. PMID:27007779

  19. [Is not plague a "protonosis"? (the role of Protozoa in the epizootiology of plague)].

    PubMed

    Domaradskiĭ, I V

    1999-01-01

    The author expounds the idea that soil protozoa, whose vegetative forms and cysts can harbor the plague agent for fairly prolonged periods of time, can be a major player in the epizootiology of plague. It is also postulated that the symbiotic protozoa of the digestive tract of rodents and lagomorpha can also be a reservoir of the plague agent. If this is so, among apparent epizootic cycles in mammalians in wild plague foci one should look for Yersinia pestis in the protozoa from the burrows of their primary and secondary carriers. Because parasitism of bacteria in one-celled animals is essentially epizootic, plague epizootics are presumed to be a permanent process.

  20. Impact of transition from microscopy to molecular screening for detection of intestinal protozoa in Dutch patients.

    PubMed

    Svraka-Latifovic, S; Bouter, S; Naus, H; Bakker, L J; Timmerman, C P; Dorigo-Zetsma, J W

    2014-11-01

    Detection of intestinal protozoa by PCR methods has been described as being sensitive and specific, and as improving the diagnostic yield. Here we present the outcome of the transition from microscopy to molecular screening for detection of a select group of intestinal protozoa in faeces in our laboratory. Introduction of molecular screening for intestinal protozoa resulted in higher sensitivity, reduced hands-on-time, reduced time-to-results, leading to improved diagnostic efficiency. © 2014 The Authors Clinical Microbiology and Infection © 2014 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases.

  1. Modeling the distribution of ciliate protozoa in the reticulo-rumen using linear programming.

    PubMed

    Hook, S E; Dijkstra, J; Wright, A-D G; McBride, B W; France, J

    2012-01-01

    The flow of ciliate protozoa from the reticulo-rumen is significantly less than expected given the total density of rumen protozoa present. To maintain their numbers in the reticulo-rumen, protozoa can be selectively retained through association with feed particles and the rumen wall. Few mathematical models have been designed to model rumen protozoa in both the free-living and attached phases, and the data used in the models were acquired using classical techniques. It has therefore become necessary to provide an updated model that more accurately represents these microorganisms and incorporates the recent literature on distribution, sequestration, and generation times. This paper represents a novel approach to synthesizing experimental data on rumen microorganisms in a quantitative and structured manner. The development of a linear programming model of rumen protozoa in an approximate steady state will be described and applied to data from healthy ruminants consuming commonly fed diets. In the model, protozoa associated with the liquid phase and protozoa attached to particulate matter or sequestered against the rumen wall are distinguished. Growth, passage, death, and transfer of protozoa between both pools are represented. The results from the model application using the contrasting diets of increased forage content versus increased starch content indicate that the majority of rumen protozoa, 63 to 90%, are found in the attached phase, either attached to feed particles or sequestered on the rumen wall. A slightly greater proportion of protozoa are found in the attached phase in animals fed a hay diet compared with a starch diet. This suggests that experimental protocols that only sample protozoa from the rumen fluid could be significantly underestimating the size of the protozoal population of the rumen. Further data are required on the distribution of ciliate protozoa in the rumen of healthy animals to improve model development, but the model described herein

  2. Allergic enteritis in children

    PubMed Central

    Czerwionka-Szaflarska, Mieczysława; Gawryjołek, Julia

    2017-01-01

    The gastrointestinal form of food allergy is very common in children. The most frequently observed types are allergic proctitis and proctocolitis. In most cases the symptoms subside within the first 2 months of life. The babies seem healthy, and the only abnormality is a small amount of blood in stool. Symptoms can also include small intestine inflammation and colitis. Patients may present with irritability, abdominal pain, flatulence, colic, postprandial vomiting, chronic diarrhoea, and hindered physical development. The diagnosis of allergic enteritis is based on the clinical examination and the results of additional tests including an endoscopy of the lower digestive tract with histopathological assessment. Cow’s milk proteins are the most common nutrition proteins responsible for the development of the symptoms of allergic enteritis. The most essential method of treating allergic enteritis is the elimination diet. The symptoms should subside within 1–2 weeks from the beginning of the diet. PMID:28337229

  3. Pulmonary enteric adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Handa, Yoshinori; Kai, Yuichiro; Ikeda, Takuhiro; Mukaida, Hidenori; Egawa, Hiromi; Kaneko, Mayumi

    2016-12-01

    A 70-year-old man was referred to our department due to abnormal shadows on a chest radiograph. Computed tomography of the chest revealed a 3-cm nodule in the right middle lung lobe, and bronchoscopy revealed adenocarcinoma cells with EGFR mutations. A lung resection was performed. Histological analysis revealed tumors comprising tall columnar cells that were similar to an adenocarcinoma of the sigmoid colon that had been resected 13 years previously. Metastatic colorectal carcinoma was initially considered, but immunohistochemical staining indicated pulmonary enteric adenocarcinoma. Pulmonary enteric adenocarcinoma was first described in 1991, and about 30 cases have since been described in the English literature. However, its concept and etiology are not clear. It is important to distinguish pulmonary enteric adenocarcinoma from metastatic colorectal carcinoma because of obvious differences in therapeutic strategies and prognosis, especially with a past history of colorectal carcinoma. Immunohistochemical and gene mutation analyses seemed to be helpful.

  4. ENFit Enteral Nutrition Connectors.

    PubMed

    Guenter, Peggi; Lyman, Beth

    2016-12-01

    New enteral connectors are now available based on the development of standards using the International Organization of Standardization process to prevent misconnections between systems that should not connect. Enteral devices with the new patient access connectors, called ENFit, are being now introduced for the purpose of improving patient safety. Transitioning to these new connectors poses benefits and challenges for facilities or agencies implementing these new devices. Information from appropriate resources should be sought by clinicians who need to partner with their suppliers and clinical organizations to see how best to meet these challenges.

  5. Protozoa in subsurface sediments from sites contaminated with aviation gasoline or jet fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Sinclair, J.L.; Kampbell, D.H.; Cook, M.L.; Wilson, J.T.

    1993-01-01

    Numbers of protozoa in the subsurface of aviation gasoline and jet fuel spill areas at a Coast Guard base at Traverse City, Mich., were determined. Boreholes were drilled in an uncontaminated location, in contaminated but untreated parts of the fuel plumes, and in the aviation gasoline source area undergoing H2O2 biotreatment. Protozoa were found to occur in elevated numbers in the unsaturated zone, where fuel vapors mixed with atmospheric oxygen, and below the layer of floating fuel, where uncontaminated groundwater came into contact with fuel. Numbers of protozoa in some contaminated areas equalled or exceeded those found in surface soil. The abundance of protozoa in the biotreatment area was high enough that it would be expected to significantly reduce the bacterial community that was degrading the fuel.

  6. [Method for an absolute count of the number of parasitic protozoa in fish].

    PubMed

    Sous', S M

    1976-01-01

    A new technique is given of the absolute calculation of parasitic Protozoa in fishes. The mucus from the body and gills of fishes was mixed with such volume of water (V) that the drop of mixture (v) was clearly seen under themicroscope. The calculation of Protozoa was done in a sample from three drops of mixture covered with three slides (S). From 50 to 100 viewing fields were seen the them and an average number of Protozoa in one field was calculated. The total number of Protozoa in one fish (N) was equal to an average number of parasites in a viewing field (n) multiplied by the total number of viewing fields (m) which could be obtained at the examination of the whole mixture. The latter was calculated conventionally (see articles).

  7. Potential role of bacteria packaging by protozoa in the persistence and transmission of pathogenic bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Denoncourt, Alix M.; Paquet, Valérie E.; Charette, Steve J.

    2014-01-01

    Many pathogenic bacteria live in close association with protozoa. These unicellular eukaryotic microorganisms are ubiquitous in various environments. A number of protozoa such as amoebae and ciliates ingest pathogenic bacteria, package them usually in membrane structures, and then release them into the environment. Packaged bacteria are more resistant to various stresses and are more apt to survive than free bacteria. New evidence indicates that protozoa and not bacteria control the packaging process. It is possible that packaging is more common than suspected and may play a major role in the persistence and transmission of pathogenic bacteria. To confirm the role of packaging in the propagation of infections, it is vital that the molecular mechanisms governing the packaging of bacteria by protozoa be identified as well as elements related to the ecology of this process in order to determine whether packaging acts as a Trojan Horse. PMID:24904553

  8. Potential role of bacteria packaging by protozoa in the persistence and transmission of pathogenic bacteria.

    PubMed

    Denoncourt, Alix M; Paquet, Valérie E; Charette, Steve J

    2014-01-01

    Many pathogenic bacteria live in close association with protozoa. These unicellular eukaryotic microorganisms are ubiquitous in various environments. A number of protozoa such as amoebae and ciliates ingest pathogenic bacteria, package them usually in membrane structures, and then release them into the environment. Packaged bacteria are more resistant to various stresses and are more apt to survive than free bacteria. New evidence indicates that protozoa and not bacteria control the packaging process. It is possible that packaging is more common than suspected and may play a major role in the persistence and transmission of pathogenic bacteria. To confirm the role of packaging in the propagation of infections, it is vital that the molecular mechanisms governing the packaging of bacteria by protozoa be identified as well as elements related to the ecology of this process in order to determine whether packaging acts as a Trojan Horse.

  9. Multiplex PCR detection of waterborne intestinal protozoa: microsporidia, Cyclospora, and Cryptosporidium.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seung-Hyun; Joung, Migyo; Yoon, Sejoung; Choi, Kyoungjin; Park, Woo-Yoon; Yu, Jae-Ran

    2010-12-01

    Recently, emerging waterborne protozoa, such as microsporidia, Cyclospora, and Cryptosporidium, have become a challenge to human health worldwide. Rapid, simple, and economical detection methods for these major waterborne protozoa in environmental and clinical samples are necessary to control infection and improve public health. In the present study, we developed a multiplex PCR test that is able to detect all these 3 major waterborne protozoa at the same time. Detection limits of the multiplex PCR method ranged from 10(1) to 10(2) oocysts or spores. The primers for microsporidia or Cryptosporidium used in this study can detect both Enterocytozoon bieneusi and Encephalitozoon intestinalis, or both Cryptosporidium hominis and Cryptosporidium parvum, respectively. Restriction enzyme digestion of PCR products with BsaBI or BsiEI makes it possible to distinguish the 2 species of microsporidia or Cryptosporidium, respectively. This simple, rapid, and cost-effective multiplex PCR method will be useful for detecting outbreaks or sporadic cases of waterborne protozoa infections.

  10. Predicting enteric fever without bacteriological culture results.

    PubMed

    Ross, I N; Abraham, T

    1987-01-01

    We used Bayes' theorem to calculate the probability of enteric fever in 260 patients presenting with undiagnosed fever, without recourse to blood or stool culture results. These individuals were divided into 110 patients with enteric fever (63 culture positive, 47 culture negative) and 150 patients with other causes of fever. Comparison of the frequencies of occurrence of 19 clinical and laboratory events, said to be helpful in the diagnosis of enteric fever, in the two groups revealed that only 8 events were significantly more frequent in enteric fever. These were: a positive Widal test at a screening dilution of 1:40; a peak temperature greater than = 39 degrees C; previous treatment for the fever; a white blood cell count less than 9 X 10(6)/litre; a polymorphonuclear leucocyte count less than 3.5 X 10(6)/litre; splenomegaly; fever duration greater than 7 d; and hepatomegaly. When the probability of enteric fever was determined prospectively in 110 patients, using only 6 of these discriminating events, the probability of patients with a positive prediction having enteric fever (diagnostic specificity) was 0.80 (95% confidence interval: 0.68 to 0.91) and the probability of those with a negative prediction not having enteric fever (diagnostic sensitivity) was 0.92 (0.85 to 0.99). Using all 19 events did not alter the diagnostic specificity or diagnostic sensitivity. This study shows that a small number of clinical and laboratory features can objectively discriminate enteric fever from other causes of fever in the majority of patients. Calculating the probability of enteric fever can aid in diagnosis, when culturing for salmonella is either unavailable or is negative.

  11. Enteric bacteria mandibular osteomyelitis.

    PubMed

    Scolozzi, Paolo; Lombardi, Tommaso; Edney, Timothy; Jaques, Bertrand

    2005-06-01

    Osteomyelitis of the mandible is a relatively rare inflammatory disease that usually stems from the odontogenic polymicrobial flora of the oral cavity. We are reporting 2 unusual cases of mandibular osteomyelitis resulting from enteric bacteria infection. In one patient, abundant clinical evidence suggested a diagnosis of a chronic factitious disease, whereas in the second patient no obvious etiology was found.

  12. Enteral approaches in malabsorption.

    PubMed

    Avitzur, Yaron; Courtney-Martin, Glenda

    2016-04-01

    Enteral autonomy and freedom from parenteral nutrition dependency is the ultimate therapeutic goal in children with intestinal failure. This can be achieved following attainment of bowel adaptation in conditions such as short bowel syndrome. Enteral nutrition is a major therapeutic cornerstone in the management of children with intestinal failure. It promotes physiological development, bowel adaptation and enhances weaning from parenteral nutrition. The optimal method of delivery, type of nutrients, timing of initiation, promotion of feeds and transition to solid food in children with short bowel syndrome are debated. Lack of high quality human data hampers evidence based conclusions and impacts daily practices in the field. Clinical approaches and therapeutic decisions are regularly influenced by expert opinion and center practices. This review summarizes the physiological principles, medical evidence and practice recommendations on enteral nutrition approaches in short bowel syndrome and provides a practical framework for daily treatment of this unique group of patients. Oral and tube feeding, bolus and continuous feeding, type of nutrients, formulas, trace elements and solid food options are reviewed. Future collaborative multicenter, high quality clinical trials are needed to support enteral nutrition approaches in intestinal failure. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Entering a community dialogue.

    PubMed

    Britt, Teri; Player, Kathy; Parsons, Kathleen; Stover, Deanna

    2004-01-01

    Entering a new, unstructured community is facilitated when existing members embrace the thoughts, ideas, and experiences of new members. Watson's Caring Healing Model, including the caritas conscious and transpersonal caring components, provides a framework for understanding the experience of being a new community member (e.g., a "newbie") in the Global Nursing Exchange.

  14. Fibre and enteral nutrition.

    PubMed Central

    Silk, D B

    1989-01-01

    The recent launch of a number of fibre enriched polymeric diet in the United States and Europe has stimulated considerable interest in the topic of fibre and enteral nutrition, and several commercial concerns appear to be under considerable pressures from their consumers to produce similar products. As a means of identifying areas of potential application of fibre to enteral nutrition some of the recent knowledge gained about the physical properties of dietary fibre and the processes involved in the intestinal assimilation of fibre has been reviewed. Two areas of interest are identifiable. The first relates to the bulking properties of fibre and the application of this to the regulation of bowel function in enterally fed patients. It is clear from the clinical studies that have been reviewed that there remains a paucity of controlled data, and a great deal more research is needed before widespread use of fibre supplemented diets can be supported. Perhaps of greater interest academically is the potentially beneficial effects that appear to be exerted by the VFA's, liberated as a consequence of colonic bacterial fermentation of fibre, on morphology and function of ileal and colonic mucosa. Although there are a number of potential applications of fibre supplemented enteral diets in this area, more research is required before any firm recommendations can be made about recommending their use. The one exception concerns patients with the nutritionally inadequate short bowel syndrome. There does seem to be sufficient experimental evidence to suggest that clinical studies should be commenced using a pectin supplemented predigested 'elemental' diet in these patients. Overall therefore, one is forced to conclude that the increasing interest and use of fibre supplemented enteral diets is being driven more by market than scientific forces. Nevertheless, the promotion of these diets has already provided a powerful stimulus to the scientific community, and it remains entirely

  15. Intestinal endocrine cells in radiation enteritis

    SciTech Connect

    Pietroletti, R.; Blaauwgeers, J.L.; Taat, C.W.; Simi, M.; Brummelkamp, W.H.; Becker, A.E. )

    1989-08-01

    In this study, the intestinal endocrine cells were investigated in 13 surgical specimens affected by radiation enteritis. Endocrine cells were studied by means of Grimelius' silver staining and immunostaining for chromogranin, a general marker of endocrine cells. Positively stained cells were quantified by counting their number per unit length of muscularis mucosa. Results in radiation enteritis were compared with matched control specimens by using Student's t test. Chromogranin immunostaining showed a statistically significant increase of endocrine cells in radiation enteritis specimens compared with controls both in small and large intestine (ileum, 67.5 +/- 23.5 cells per unit length of muscularis mucosa in radiation enteritis versus 17.0 +/- 6.1 in controls; colon, 40.9 +/- 13.7 cells per unit length of muscularis mucosa in radiation enteritis versus 9.5 +/- 4.1 in controls--p less than 0.005 in both instances). Increase of endocrine cells was demonstrated also by Grimelius' staining; however, without reaching statistical significance. It is not clear whether or not the increase of endocrine cells in radiation enteritis reported in this study is caused by a hyperplastic response or by a sparing phenomenon. We should consider that increased endocrine cells, when abnormally secreting their products, may be involved in some of the clinical features of radiation enteropathy. In addition, as intestinal endocrine cells produce trophic substances to the intestine, their increase could be responsible for the raised risk of developing carcinoma of the intestine in long standing radiation enteritis.

  16. Enteral nutrition by tube.

    PubMed

    Armstrong, P J; Hand, M S; Frederick, G S

    1990-01-01

    When oral intake is unsatisfactory or contraindicated, maintenance of nutrition by tube feeding is an alternative to the parenteral route. A large volume of research data supports the decision to use the enteral route whenever possible. Entry of food into the alimentary tract is a stimulus to structural and functional maintenance of that tract. Enteral nutrition can be given via indwelling nasoesophageal, pharyngostomy, esophagostomy, percutaneous or surgical gastrostomy, or enterostomy tube. Use of an appropriate catheter, familiarity with the technique used, and careful patient selection and monitoring are important factors in successful tube feeding. Blenderized pet food diets should be fed whenever possible; commercially available liquid diets provide an alternative when tube caliber or patient factors preclude the use of blenderized foods.

  17. Protozoa Drive the Dynamics of Culturable Biocontrol Bacterial Communities.

    PubMed

    Müller, Maren Stella; Scheu, Stefan; Jousset, Alexandre

    2013-01-01

    Some soil bacteria protect plants against soil-borne diseases by producing toxic secondary metabolites. Such beneficial biocontrol bacteria can be used in agricultural systems as alternative to agrochemicals. The broad spectrum toxins responsible for plant protection also inhibit predation by protozoa and nematodes, the main consumers of bacteria in soil. Therefore, predation pressure may favour biocontrol bacteria and contribute to plant health. We analyzed the effect of Acanthamoeba castellanii on semi-natural soil bacterial communities in a microcosm experiment. We determined the frequency of culturable bacteria carrying genes responsible for the production of the antifungal compounds 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol (DAPG), pyrrolnitrin (PRN) and hydrogen cyanide (HCN) in presence and absence of A. castellanii. We then measured if amoebae affected soil suppressiveness in a bioassay with sugar beet seedlings confronted to the fungal pathogen Rhizoctonia solani. Amoebae increased the frequency of both DAPG and HCN positive bacteria in later plant growth phases (2 and 3 weeks), as well as the average number of biocontrol genes per bacterium. The abundance of DAPG positive bacteria correlated with disease suppression, suggesting that their promotion by amoebae may enhance soil health. However, the net effect of amoebae on soil suppressiveness was neutral to slightly negative, possibly because amoebae slow down the establishment of biocontrol bacteria on the recently emerged seedlings used in the assay. The results indicate that microfaunal predators foster biocontrol bacterial communities. Understanding interactions between biocontrol bacteria and their predators may thus help developing environmentally friendly management practices of agricultural systems.

  18. Protozoa Drive the Dynamics of Culturable Biocontrol Bacterial Communities

    PubMed Central

    Müller, Maren Stella; Scheu, Stefan; Jousset, Alexandre

    2013-01-01

    Some soil bacteria protect plants against soil-borne diseases by producing toxic secondary metabolites. Such beneficial biocontrol bacteria can be used in agricultural systems as alternative to agrochemicals. The broad spectrum toxins responsible for plant protection also inhibit predation by protozoa and nematodes, the main consumers of bacteria in soil. Therefore, predation pressure may favour biocontrol bacteria and contribute to plant health. We analyzed the effect of Acanthamoeba castellanii on semi-natural soil bacterial communities in a microcosm experiment. We determined the frequency of culturable bacteria carrying genes responsible for the production of the antifungal compounds 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol (DAPG), pyrrolnitrin (PRN) and hydrogen cyanide (HCN) in presence and absence of A. castellanii. We then measured if amoebae affected soil suppressiveness in a bioassay with sugar beet seedlings confronted to the fungal pathogen Rhizoctonia solani. Amoebae increased the frequency of both DAPG and HCN positive bacteria in later plant growth phases (2 and 3 weeks), as well as the average number of biocontrol genes per bacterium. The abundance of DAPG positive bacteria correlated with disease suppression, suggesting that their promotion by amoebae may enhance soil health. However, the net effect of amoebae on soil suppressiveness was neutral to slightly negative, possibly because amoebae slow down the establishment of biocontrol bacteria on the recently emerged seedlings used in the assay. The results indicate that microfaunal predators foster biocontrol bacterial communities. Understanding interactions between biocontrol bacteria and their predators may thus help developing environmentally friendly management practices of agricultural systems. PMID:23840423

  19. Comparison of disinfectants for biofilm, protozoa and Legionella control.

    PubMed

    Loret, J F; Robert, S; Thomas, V; Cooper, A J; McCoy, W F; Lévi, Y

    2005-12-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the efficiency of different disinfectants applicable to Legionella control in domestic water systems. A domestic water supply simulation unit that allowed simulation of real-world conditions was developed for this purpose. The system, consisting of seven identical rigs, was used to compare treatment efficiency under equivalent conditions of system design, materials, hydraulics, water quality, temperature and initial contamination. During the study, each of six loops received continuous application of one of the following disinfectants: chlorine, electro-chlorination, chlorine dioxide, monochloramine, ozone, or copper/silver. The seventh loop was used as a control and remained untreated. Performance evaluation of these disinfectants was based on their ability to reduce not only Legionella, but also protozoa and biofilms, which contribute to the establishment and dissemination of these bacteria in water systems, and their resistance to treatments. Regarding these criteria, chlorine dioxide and chlorine (as bleach or obtained by electro-chlorination) were the most effective treatments in this study. However, in comparison with chlorine, chlorine dioxide showed a longer residual activity in the system, which constituted an advantage in the perspective of an application to extensive pipework systems.

  20. Identification of protozoa in dairy lagoon wastewater that consume Escherichia coli O157:H7 preferentially.

    PubMed

    Ravva, Subbarao V; Sarreal, Chester Z; Mandrell, Robert E

    2010-12-20

    Escherichia coli O157:H7 (EcO157), an agent of life threatening hemolytic-uremic syndrome, resides in ruminants and is released in feces at numbers as high as 10 million cells/gram. EcO157 could survive in manure for as long as 21 months, but we observed a 90% decrease in cells of an outbreak strain of EcO157 within half a day in wastewater from dairy lagoons. Although chemical, environmental and biological factors may be responsible for this decrease, we observed an 11-fold increase in native protozoa when wastewater was re-inoculated with 2×10(7) cells of EcO157/mL. These protozoa engulfed the green fluorescent protein labeled EcO157 within 2 hours after inoculation, but expelled vacuoles filled with live EcO157 cells within 3 days into surrounding wastewater, whereas other protozoa retained the EcO157-filled vacuoles for 7 days. EcO157 was not detected by confocal microscopy either inside or outside protozoa after 7 days. Mixed cultures of protozoa enriched from wastewater consumed EcO157 preferentially as compared to native aerobic bacteria, but failed to eliminate them when EcO157 cells declined to 10(4)/mL. We isolated three protozoa from mixed cultures and typed them by 18S sequencing as Vorticella microstoma, Platyophyra sp. and Colpoda aspera. While all three protozoa internalized EcO157, only Platyophyra and Colpoda acted as predators. Similar to mixed cultures, these protozoa failed to eliminate EcO157 from PBS containing no other supplemental nutrients or prey. However, spiking PBS with cereal grass medium as nutrients induced predation of EcO157 by Platyophyra sp. after 3 days or enhanced predation by Colpoda after 5 days. Therefore, attempts to enrich protozoa to decrease EcO157 from dairy lagoons, may correspond to an increase in protozoa similar to Vorticella and possibly facilitate transport of bacterial pathogens to food crops grown in proximity.

  1. Identification of Protozoa in Dairy Lagoon Wastewater that Consume Escherichia coli O157:H7 Preferentially

    PubMed Central

    Ravva, Subbarao V.; Sarreal, Chester Z.; Mandrell, Robert E.

    2010-01-01

    Escherichia coli O157:H7 (EcO157), an agent of life threatening hemolytic-uremic syndrome, resides in ruminants and is released in feces at numbers as high as 10 million cells/gram. EcO157 could survive in manure for as long as 21 months, but we observed a 90% decrease in cells of an outbreak strain of EcO157 within half a day in wastewater from dairy lagoons. Although chemical, environmental and biological factors may be responsible for this decrease, we observed an 11-fold increase in native protozoa when wastewater was re-inoculated with 2×107 cells of EcO157/mL. These protozoa engulfed the green fluorescent protein labeled EcO157 within 2 hours after inoculation, but expelled vacuoles filled with live EcO157 cells within 3 days into surrounding wastewater, whereas other protozoa retained the EcO157-filled vacuoles for 7 days. EcO157 was not detected by confocal microscopy either inside or outside protozoa after 7 days. Mixed cultures of protozoa enriched from wastewater consumed EcO157 preferentially as compared to native aerobic bacteria, but failed to eliminate them when EcO157 cells declined to 104/mL. We isolated three protozoa from mixed cultures and typed them by 18S sequencing as Vorticella microstoma, Platyophyra sp. and Colpoda aspera. While all three protozoa internalized EcO157, only Platyophyra and Colpoda acted as predators. Similar to mixed cultures, these protozoa failed to eliminate EcO157 from PBS containing no other supplemental nutrients or prey. However, spiking PBS with cereal grass medium as nutrients induced predation of EcO157 by Platyophyra sp. after 3 days or enhanced predation by Colpoda after 5 days. Therefore, attempts to enrich protozoa to decrease EcO157 from dairy lagoons, may correspond to an increase in protozoa similar to Vorticella and possibly facilitate transport of bacterial pathogens to food crops grown in proximity. PMID:21187934

  2. Bioaugmentation Mitigates the Impact of Estrogen on Coliform-Grazing Protozoa in Slow Sand Filters.

    PubMed

    Haig, Sarah-Jane; Gauchotte-Lindsay, Caroline; Collins, Gavin; Quince, Christopher

    2016-03-15

    Exposure to endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs), such as estrogens, is a growing issue for human and animal health as they have been shown to cause reproductive and developmental abnormalities in wildlife and plants and have been linked to male infertility disorders in humans. Intensive farming and weather events, such as storms, flash flooding, and landslides, contribute estrogen to waterways used to supply drinking water. This paper explores the impact of estrogen exposure on the performance of slow sand filters (SSFs) used for water treatment. The feasibility and efficacy of SSF bioaugmentation with estrogen-degrading bacteria was also investigated, to determine whether removal of natural estrogens (estrone, estradiol, and estriol) and overall SSF performance for drinking water treatment could be improved. Strains for SSF augmentation were isolated from full-scale, municipal SSFs so as to optimize survival in the laboratory-scale SSFs used. Concentrations of the natural estrogens, determined by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS), revealed augmented SSFs reduced the overall estrogenic potency of the supplied water by 25% on average and removed significantly more estrone and estradiol than nonaugmented filters. A negative correlation was found between coliform removal and estrogen concentration in nonaugmented filters. This was due to the toxic inhibition of protozoa, indicating that high estrogen concentrations can have functional implications for SSFs (such as impairing coliform removal). Consequently, we suggest that high estrogen concentrations could impact significantly on water quality production and, in particular, on pathogen removal in biological water filters.

  3. Bioaugmentation Mitigates the Impact of Estrogen on Coliform-Grazing Protozoa in Slow Sand Filters

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Exposure to endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs), such as estrogens, is a growing issue for human and animal health as they have been shown to cause reproductive and developmental abnormalities in wildlife and plants and have been linked to male infertility disorders in humans. Intensive farming and weather events, such as storms, flash flooding, and landslides, contribute estrogen to waterways used to supply drinking water. This paper explores the impact of estrogen exposure on the performance of slow sand filters (SSFs) used for water treatment. The feasibility and efficacy of SSF bioaugmentation with estrogen-degrading bacteria was also investigated, to determine whether removal of natural estrogens (estrone, estradiol, and estriol) and overall SSF performance for drinking water treatment could be improved. Strains for SSF augmentation were isolated from full-scale, municipal SSFs so as to optimize survival in the laboratory-scale SSFs used. Concentrations of the natural estrogens, determined by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS), revealed augmented SSFs reduced the overall estrogenic potency of the supplied water by 25% on average and removed significantly more estrone and estradiol than nonaugmented filters. A negative correlation was found between coliform removal and estrogen concentration in nonaugmented filters. This was due to the toxic inhibition of protozoa, indicating that high estrogen concentrations can have functional implications for SSFs (such as impairing coliform removal). Consequently, we suggest that high estrogen concentrations could impact significantly on water quality production and, in particular, on pathogen removal in biological water filters. PMID:26895622

  4. Enteric diseases of homosexual men.

    PubMed

    Baker, R W; Peppercorn, M A

    1982-01-01

    Certain enteric ailments are particularly common among homosexual men. They are primarily infectious diseases and include not only such common venereal diseases as gonorrhea and syphilis but also infections not usually regarded as being sexually transmitted. Among the latter are shigellosis, salmonellosis, giardiasis, and amebiasis. Patients' symptoms are non-specific and seldom helpful in diagnosing particular diseases. The practitioner must be prepared to identify a number of infections with similar presentations that may occur singly or together in gay men. Gonorrhea is probably the most common bacterial infection in gay men. Carriage rates as high as 50% have been reported, and extra-genital carriage is common; this necessitates culturing the urethra, rectum, and pharynx. Procaine penicillin G is the treatment of choice for most patients; spectinomycin is probably the drug of choice in penicillin-sensitive patients. In contrast to other venereal diseases, syphilis may have a characteristic protoscopic presentation. Benzathine penicillin G is the treatment of choice for most patients. Lymphogranuloma venereum causes penile lesions and inguinal lymphadenitis in heterosexual men, whereas homosexual men are more prone to proctitis. The disease may mimic Crohn's disease. Recommended treatment includes tetracycline or sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim. Shigellosis usually presents as an acute diarrheal illness. Patients generally require only supportive treatment with fluids. Herpes simplex viral infection is difficult to diagnose and has several different presentations, including lumbosacral radiculomyelopathy. Symptomatic treatment with sitz baths, anesthetic ointment, and analgesics is recommended. Venereal warts are believed to be caused by the same virus that causes verrucous warts; they are usually found in the anal canal or around the anal orifice. They are commonly treated with 25% podophyllin solution. Parasitic infections include giardiasis, amebiasis, and

  5. Effect of nylon bag and protozoa on in vitro corn starch disappearance.

    PubMed

    van Zwieten, J T; van Vuuren, A M; Dijkstra, J

    2008-03-01

    An in vitro experiment was carried out to study whether the presence of protozoa in nylon bags can explain the underestimation of the in situ degradation of slowly degradable starch. Corn of a high (flint) and a low (dent) vitreousness variety was ground over a 3-mm screen, weighed in nylon bags with a pore size of 37 microm, and washed in cold water. Samples of washed cornstarch were incubated in 40-mL tubes with faunated and defaunated ruminal fluid. An additional amount of washed corn, in nylon bags, was inserted in each incubation tube. Incubations were carried out for 0, 2, 4, 6, 12, and 24 h, and starch residue in tube and nylon bag was determined. In general, starch disappearance from the nylon bag was less than from the tube, and was less with faunated than defaunated rumen fluid, but corn variety did not affect starch disappearance. When no protozoa were present, the disappearance of starch from the bags was higher after 6 and 12 h incubation compared with presence of protozoa. However, in the tubes, there was no difference in starch disappearance due to presence or absence of protozoa. Estimated lag time was higher in presence (4.6 h) then absence (3.6 h) of protozoa. It was concluded that the effect of presence or absence of protozoa on starch disappearance differs within or outside nylon bags. The reduced disappearance rate of starch inside the nylon bags in the presence of protozoa helps to explain the underestimation of starch degradation based on the in sacco procedure when compared with in vivo data upon incubation of slowly degradable starch sources.

  6. Accumulation of reserve carbohydrate by rumen protozoa and bacteria in competition for glucose.

    PubMed

    Denton, Bethany L; Diese, Leanne E; Firkins, Jeffrey L; Hackmann, Timothy J

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this study was to determine if rumen protozoa could form large amounts of reserve carbohydrate compared to the amounts formed by bacteria when competing for glucose in batch cultures. We separated large protozoa and small bacteria from rumen fluid by filtration and centrifugation, recombined equal protein masses of each group into one mixture, and subsequently harvested (reseparated) these groups at intervals after glucose dosing. This method allowed us to monitor reserve carbohydrate accumulation of protozoa and bacteria individually. When mixtures were dosed with a moderate concentration of glucose (4.62 or 5 mM) (n = 2 each), protozoa accumulated large amounts of reserve carbohydrate; 58.7% (standard error of the mean [SEM], 2.2%) glucose carbon was recovered from protozoal reserve carbohydrate at time of peak reserve carbohydrate concentrations. Only 1.7% (SEM, 2.2%) was recovered in bacterial reserve carbohydrate, which was less than that for protozoa (P < 0.001). When provided a high concentration of glucose (20 mM) (n = 4 each), 24.1% (SEM, 2.2%) of glucose carbon was recovered from protozoal reserve carbohydrate, which was still higher (P = 0.001) than the 5.0% (SEM, 2.2%) glucose carbon recovered from bacterial reserve carbohydrate. Our novel competition experiments directly demonstrate that mixed protozoa can sequester sugar away from bacteria by accumulating reserve carbohydrate, giving protozoa a competitive advantage and stabilizing fermentation in the rumen. Similar experiments could be used to investigate the importance of starch sequestration. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  7. Accumulation of Reserve Carbohydrate by Rumen Protozoa and Bacteria in Competition for Glucose

    PubMed Central

    Denton, Bethany L.; Diese, Leanne E.; Firkins, Jeffrey L.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine if rumen protozoa could form large amounts of reserve carbohydrate compared to the amounts formed by bacteria when competing for glucose in batch cultures. We separated large protozoa and small bacteria from rumen fluid by filtration and centrifugation, recombined equal protein masses of each group into one mixture, and subsequently harvested (reseparated) these groups at intervals after glucose dosing. This method allowed us to monitor reserve carbohydrate accumulation of protozoa and bacteria individually. When mixtures were dosed with a moderate concentration of glucose (4.62 or 5 mM) (n = 2 each), protozoa accumulated large amounts of reserve carbohydrate; 58.7% (standard error of the mean [SEM], 2.2%) glucose carbon was recovered from protozoal reserve carbohydrate at time of peak reserve carbohydrate concentrations. Only 1.7% (SEM, 2.2%) was recovered in bacterial reserve carbohydrate, which was less than that for protozoa (P < 0.001). When provided a high concentration of glucose (20 mM) (n = 4 each), 24.1% (SEM, 2.2%) of glucose carbon was recovered from protozoal reserve carbohydrate, which was still higher (P = 0.001) than the 5.0% (SEM, 2.2%) glucose carbon recovered from bacterial reserve carbohydrate. Our novel competition experiments directly demonstrate that mixed protozoa can sequester sugar away from bacteria by accumulating reserve carbohydrate, giving protozoa a competitive advantage and stabilizing fermentation in the rumen. Similar experiments could be used to investigate the importance of starch sequestration. PMID:25548053

  8. DNA evidence for global dispersal and probable endemicity of protozoa

    PubMed Central

    Bass, David; Richards, Thomas A; Matthai, Lena; Marsh, Victoria; Cavalier-Smith, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    Background It is much debated whether microbes are easily dispersed globally or whether they, like many macro-organisms, have historical biogeographies. The ubiquitous dispersal hypothesis states that microbes are so numerous and so easily dispersed worldwide that all should be globally distributed and found wherever growing conditions suit them. This has been broadly upheld for protists (microbial eukaryotes) by most morphological and some molecular analyses. However, morphology and most previously used evolutionary markers evolve too slowly to test this important hypothesis adequately. Results Here we use a fast-evolving marker (ITS1 rDNA) to map global diversity and distribution of three different clades of cercomonad Protozoa (Eocercomonas and Paracercomonas: phylum Cercozoa) by sequencing multiple environmental gene libraries constructed from 47–80 globally-dispersed samples per group. Even with this enhanced resolution, identical ITS sequences (ITS-types) were retrieved from widely separated sites and on all continents for several genotypes, implying relatively rapid global dispersal. Some identical ITS-types were even recovered from both marine and non-marine samples, habitats that generally harbour significantly different protist communities. Conversely, other ITS-types had either patchy or restricted distributions. Conclusion Our results strongly suggest that geographic dispersal in macro-organisms and microbes is not fundamentally different: some taxa show restricted and/or patchy distributions while others are clearly cosmopolitan. These results are concordant with the 'moderate endemicity model' of microbial biogeography. Rare or continentally endemic microbes may be ecologically significant and potentially of conservational concern. We also demonstrate that strains with identical 18S but different ITS1 rDNA sequences can differ significantly in terms of morphological and important physiological characteristics, providing strong additional support for

  9. [Prevalence and polyparasitism of intestinal protozoa and spatial distribution of Entamoeba histolytica, E. dispar and Giardia intestinalis from pupils in the rural zone of Man in Côte d'Ivoire].

    PubMed

    Ouattara, Mamadou; Silué, Kigbafori Dieudonné; N'Guéssan, Aya Nicaise; Yapi, Ahoua; Barbara, Matthys; Raso, Giovanna; Utzinger, Juerg; N'Goran, Eliezer

    2008-01-01

    Diseases caused by environmental contamination by micro-organisms, including intestinal helminths and protozoa, are prevalent in developing countries. According to some authors, their strong expansion in some zones of these countries is due primarily to favourable climatic conditions, combined with inadequate hygiene measures and cleaning and the generally low socio-economic level. Progress in disease control has resulted from new studies that improve our understanding of the epidemiology of helminthiases and from the availability of simple tools that are inexpensive and effective against these diseases (chemotherapy with albendazole and mebendazole). On the other hand, surprisingly few such studies have looked at intestinal protozoa, although the WHO reports that approximately 480 million individuals throughout the world are infested by amoebiasis caused by the protozoon Entamoeba histolytica and that 40,000-110,000 people die from it each year. Giardiasis, a cosmopolitan parasitosis, is due to another intestinal protozoon called Giardia intestinalis. To help develop a database on these parasites, we conducted a cross-sectional epidemiological survey in the Man region in western Côte d'Ivoire. Its objectives were to determine the prevalence of intestinal protozoa, to evaluate polyparasitism and to assess the spatial distribution of the pathogenic protozoal species, E. histolytica and G. intestinalis. Overall, 4466 stools samples taken from pupils aged 6 to 16 years of age at 57 different schools were analyzed under an optical microscope by the formol-ether stool concentration method, after preservation in sodium acetate-acetic acid-formalin (SAF). The most common protozoa species in this area were Endolimax nanus (83.8%) and E. coli (74.7%). The regional prevalence of G. intestinalis was 17.5% and of E. histolytica/E. dispar 11.3%. Both species were found in each of the 57 schools. The prevalence of E. histolytica/E. dispar exceeded 15% in six schools, and its

  10. [Enteral tube feeding].

    PubMed

    Haller, Alois

    2014-03-01

    Tube feeding is an integral part of medical therapies, and can be easily managed also in the outpatient setting. Tube feeding by the stomach or small intestine with nasogastral or nasojejunal tubes is common in clinical practice. Long-term nutrition is usually provided through a permanent tube, i. e. a percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG). Modern portable nutrition pumps are used to cover the patient's nutritional needs. Enteral nutrition is always indicated if patients can not or should not eat or if nutritional requirements cannot be covered within 3 days after an intervention, e. g. after abdominal surgery. Industrially produced tube feedings with defined substrate concentrations are being used; different compositions of nutrients, such as glutamine fish oil etc., are used dependent on the the condition of the patient. Enteral nutrition may be associated with complications of the tube, e. g. dislocation, malposition or obstruction, as well as the feeding itself, e. g.hyperglycaemia, electrolyte disturbances, refeeding syndrome diarrhea or aspiration). However, the benefit of tube feeding usually exceeds the potential harm substantially.

  11. Enteral nutrition - child - managing problems

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000164.htm Enteral nutrition - child - managing problems To use the sharing features ... trouble breathing, call 911. References Mcclave SA. Enteral nutrition. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman-Cecil ...

  12. Protozoa in Subsurface Sediments from Sites Contaminated with Aviation Gasoline or Jet Fuel

    PubMed Central

    Sinclair, James L.; Kampbell, Don H.; Cook, Mike L.; Wilson, John T.

    1993-01-01

    Numbers of protozoa in the subsurface of aviation gasoline and jet fuel spill areas at a Coast Guard base at Traverse City, Mich., were determined. Boreholes were drilled in an uncontaminated location, in contaminated but untreated parts of the fuel plumes, and in the aviation gasoline source area undergoing H2O2 biotreatment. Samples were taken from the unsaturated zone to depths slightly below the floating free product in the saturated zone. Protozoa were found to occur in elevated numbers in the unsaturated zone, where fuel vapors mixed with atmospheric oxygen, and below the layer of floating fuel, where uncontaminated groundwater came into contact with fuel. The same trends were noted in the biotreatment area, except that numbers of protozoa were higher. Numbers of protozoa in some contaminated areas equalled or exceeded those found in surface soil. The abundance of protozoa in the biotreatment area was high enough that it would be expected to significantly reduce the bacterial community that was degrading the fuel. Little reduction in hydraulic conductivity was observed, and no bacterial fouling of the aquifer was observed during biotreatment. PMID:16348871

  13. Preliminary studies on the role of protozoa in the food web of Donghu Lake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Sheng-Gui; Shen, Yun-Fen

    2000-09-01

    Plankton from Station I of Donghu Lake, an eutrophic lake, was divided into three groups (2 32 μm, 32 112 μm and >112 μm) by filtering the water sample through 2, 32, 112 μm pores. It was supposed that the 2 32 μm Protozoa (group 1) was fed on by the 32 112 μm Protozoa and small rotifers (group 2) and >112 μm large rotifers, cladocerans and copepods (group 3). The feeding rate of zooplankton in situ was estimated by counting the protozoan individuals and also by the14C-NaHCO3 method. The P/B ratio of the small Protozoa (group 1) was 2.9 for 6 h and 1.2 for 24 h. The feeding rate of the 32 112 μm zooplankton on small Protozoa (2 32 μm) was about 2/3 the total feeding rate of zooplankton, and that of >112 μm zooplankton on the 2 32 μm Protozoa was 1/3 of the total feeding rate. The lower the density of feeders, the higher were the feeding rates. The daily production of the 2 32 μm protozoans was 1.559 mg/L, which equaled to 25% of the daily food consumption of other zooplankton. Isotope experiments showed result similar to that from the above direct counting method.

  14. Oral Vaccine for Immunization against Enteric Disease.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    The oral vaccine can provide protection against both typhoid fever and at least one other enteric disease. A bivalent oral vaccine is described...against typhoid fever and bacillary dysentery caused by S. sonnei. The mutated galactose epimeraseless S. typhi strain such as S. typhi Ty21a strain can be utilized as a carrier strain for other protective antigens. (Patents).

  15. [Fiber and enteral nutrition].

    PubMed

    Gómez Candela, C; de Cos Blanco, A I; Iglesias Rosado, C

    2002-01-01

    Dietary fibre is a mixture of various substances and is essential for maintaining appropriate intestinal functionality and it is currently considered to be a necessary part of a healthy diet. Current recommendations for fibre consumption by adults range from 20 to 35 g/day. Enteral nutrition is an emerging therapeutic variation in both hospital and domestic settings. To a great extent, this development has been made possible thanks to the design of new formulas that adapt better and better to the clinicla conditions or our patients. The type of fibre used in these preparations varies greatly. Some have only one source of fibre while others use differnet combinations. There are currently 32 formulas available on the Spanish market, without counting the modules or specific preparations of individual types of fibre. Despite the enormous advances in the knowledge of the beneficial effects of fibre, the fact of the matter is that enteral nutrition that we routinely prescribe in normal clinical practice does not contain fibre. The are several explanations for this, perhaps the most plausible is that these formulas may lead to problems in their administration and tolerance. It is necessary to choose the correct calibre of catheter and define the best infusion method and timing. Another difficulty may be the gastrointestinal tolerance of the formulas containing fibre. No large-scale problems of intolerance have however been described in healthy volunteers nor in patients with acute or chronic pathologies, although it is of fundamental importance to monitor the rhythm of depositions in all patients with enteral nutrition (EN) and ensure proper intake of liquids, which would also be useful to prevent occlusion of the catheter. The theoretical benefits of EN with fibre with a view to maintaining or improving normal intestinal structure and function are very varied. Nonetheless, it has noit yet been possible to prove many of these effects in controlled clinical trials. At the

  16. Entering the Anthropocene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vince, Gaia

    2016-04-01

    There is growing evidence that we are now entering a new geological age defined by human influence on the planet, the Anthropocene. Millions of years from now, a stripe in the accumulated layers of rock on Earth's surface will reveal our human fingerprint just as we can see evidence of dinosaurs in rocks of the Jurassic, or the explosion of life that marks the Cambrian. There is now no part of the planet untouched by human influence. The realisation that we wield such planetary power requires a quite extraordinary shift in perception, fundamentally toppling the scientific, cultural and religious philosophies that define our place in the world. This session explores these issues and examines our new relationship with nature now that we so strongly influence the biosphere. And this session will look at what the impacts of our planetary changes mean for us, and how we might deal with the consequences of the Anthropocene we have created.

  17. [The occurrence of protozoa in the intestinal microflora of laboratory mice].

    PubMed

    Jalili, N A; Demes, P; Holková, R

    1989-01-01

    The intestinal content of 216 white SPF laboratory mice was examined for the presence of protozoa. 153 (70.8%) were found to be positive. The following protozoa species were determined: Trichomonas muris in 31.5%, Trichomonas sp. in 29.6%, Chilomastix becentourti in 18.5%, Octomitus intestinalis in 7.8%, Giardia muris in 6.9%, Spironucleus muris in 4.1%, and Entamoeba muris in 14.8%. The given species occurred in the mice either individually or, in the majority of cases, combined infections involving 2-5 species were recorded. Young mice transferred from the breeding station were but rarely colonized, and that only by a small number of protozoa. They contract infection from older animals in the animal room. (Tab. 3, Ref. 11.).

  18. Gastritis, Enteritis, and Colitis in Horses.

    PubMed

    Uzal, Francisco A; Diab, Santiago S

    2015-08-01

    The gastrointestinal system of horses is affected by a large variety of inflammatory infectious and noninfectious conditions. The most prevalent form of gastritis is associated with ulceration of the pars esophagea. Although the diagnostic techniques for alimentary diseases of horses have improved significantly over the past few years, difficulties still exist in establishing the causes of a significant number of enteric diseases in this species. This problem is compounded by several agents of enteric disease also being found in the intestine of clinically normal horses, which questions the validity of the mere detection of these agents in the intestine.

  19. Comparison digestibility and protozoa population of Khuzestan water buffalo and Holstein cow

    PubMed Central

    Jabari, Safora; Eslami, Moosa; Chaji, Morteza; Mohammadabadi, Tahereh; Bojarpour, Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    The major aim of this study was to compare the morphology and activity of rumen protozoa of Khuzestan water buffalo and Holstein cow using in vitro digestibility and gas production parameters of steam treated sugarcane pith. Rumen fluid obtained from two buffalo and cow steers fed the same diet, 30:70 concentrate: forage. To separate rumen protozoa, antibiotic solution and fungicides were added to rumen fluid. The results of present experiment indicated that the neutral detergent fiber (NDF; 7.8 vs. 1.69%) and acid detergent fiber (ADF; 6.24 vs. 3.24%) digestibility of steam treated sugarcane pith by rumen protozoal population of Khuzestan buffalo was higher than those of cow (p < 0.05). Also, digestibility of dry matter, NDF and ADF by whole buffalo micro-organisms was more than those in cow (p < 0.05). The results indicated that the potential of gas production of sugarcane pith by rumen protozoa in water buffalo was more than that of cow (p < 0.05). Total rumen ciliate protozoa numbers in water buffalo were significantly higher than those of cow (3.68 × 105 vs. 2.18 × 105 mL-1 of rumen content) (p < 0.05). The number of Diplodinium in buffalo was more than that of cow (41.27 vs. 35.7% of total rumen protozoa, respectively). Percentage of Entodinium, Epidinium, Ophryoscolex and Isotricha in cow was more than those of buffalo. Therefore, in the same diet, protozoa and total rumen micro-organisms of Khuzestan water buffalo have higher digestion activity compared to Holstein cow. PMID:25610581

  20. Comparison digestibility and protozoa population of Khuzestan water buffalo and Holstein cow.

    PubMed

    Jabari, Safora; Eslami, Moosa; Chaji, Morteza; Mohammadabadi, Tahereh; Bojarpour, Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    The major aim of this study was to compare the morphology and activity of rumen protozoa of Khuzestan water buffalo and Holstein cow using in vitro digestibility and gas production parameters of steam treated sugarcane pith. Rumen fluid obtained from two buffalo and cow steers fed the same diet, 30:70 concentrate: forage. To separate rumen protozoa, antibiotic solution and fungicides were added to rumen fluid. The results of present experiment indicated that the neutral detergent fiber (NDF; 7.8 vs. 1.69%) and acid detergent fiber (ADF; 6.24 vs. 3.24%) digestibility of steam treated sugarcane pith by rumen protozoal population of Khuzestan buffalo was higher than those of cow (p < 0.05). Also, digestibility of dry matter, NDF and ADF by whole buffalo micro-organisms was more than those in cow (p < 0.05). The results indicated that the potential of gas production of sugarcane pith by rumen protozoa in water buffalo was more than that of cow (p < 0.05). Total rumen ciliate protozoa numbers in water buffalo were significantly higher than those of cow (3.68 × 10(5) vs. 2.18 × 10(5) mL(-1) of rumen content) (p < 0.05). The number of Diplodinium in buffalo was more than that of cow (41.27 vs. 35.7% of total rumen protozoa, respectively). Percentage of Entodinium, Epidinium, Ophryoscolex and Isotricha in cow was more than those of buffalo. Therefore, in the same diet, protozoa and total rumen micro-organisms of Khuzestan water buffalo have higher digestion activity compared to Holstein cow.

  1. Comparisons of Salmonella conjugation and virulence gene hyperexpression mediated by rumen protozoa from domestic and exotic ruminants.

    PubMed

    Brewer, Matt T; Xiong, Nalee; Dier, Jeffery D; Anderson, Kristi L; Rasmussen, Mark A; Franklin, Sharon K; Carlson, Steve A

    2011-08-05

    Recent studies have identified a phenomenon in which ciliated protozoa engulf Salmonella and the intra-protozoal environment hyperactivates virulence gene expression and provides a venue for conjugal transfer of antibiotic resistance plasmids. The former observation is relegated to Salmonella bearing the SGI1 multiresistance integron while the latter phenomenon appears to be a more generalized event for recipient Salmonella. Our previous studies have assessed virulence gene hyperexpression only with protozoa from the bovine rumen while conjugal transfer has been demonstrated in rumen protozoa from cattle and goats. The present study examined virulence gene hyperexpression for Salmonella exposed to rumen protozoa obtained from cattle, sheep, goats, or two African ruminants (giraffe and bongo). Conjugal transfer was also assessed in these protozoa using Salmonella as the recipient. Virulence gene hyperexpression was only observed following exposure to the rumen protozoa from cattle and sheep while elevated virulence was also observed in these animals. Conjugal transfer events were, however, observed in all protozoa evaluated. It therefore appears that the protozoa-based hypervirulence is not universal to all ruminants while conjugal transfer is more ubiquitous. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Not plants or animals: a brief history of the origin of Kingdoms Protozoa, Protista and Protoctista.

    PubMed

    Scamardella, J M

    1999-12-01

    In the wake of Darwin's evolutionary ideas, mid-nineteenth century naturalists realized the shortcomings of the long established two-kingdom system of organismal classification. Placement in a natural scheme of Protozoa, Protophyta, Phytozoa and Bacteria, microorganisms that exhibited plant-like and animal-like characteristics but obviously differed in organization from larger plants and animals, challenged traditional classification. The attempts of naturalists to classify these organisms outside the constraints of the plant and animal kingdoms led to concepts of additional kingdoms (Protozoa, Protista, Protoctista, etc.) to accommodate the nature of these organisms as not true plants or animals.

  3. Toward a better understanding of enteric gliogenesis.

    PubMed

    Charrier, Baptiste; Pilon, Nicolas

    2017-01-01

    Most of gastrointestinal functions are controlled by the enteric nervous system (ENS), which contains a vast diversity of neurons and glial cells. In accordance with its key role, defective ENS formation is the cause of several diseases that affect quality of life and can even be life-threatening. Treatment of these diseases would greatly benefit from a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying ENS formation. In this regard, although several important discoveries have been made over the years, how the full spectrum of enteric neuronal and glial cell subtypes is generated from neural crest cells during development still remains enigmatic. Because they also have stem cell properties, such knowledge would be especially important for the enteric glial cell lineage. In a recent study, we identified the NR2F1 transcription factor as a new key regulator of enteric gliogenesis. Here we discuss our recent findings and briefly review what is already known about the mechanisms and signaling pathways involved in enteric gliogenesis, with an emphasis on Hedgehog and Notch signaling.

  4. Hypophosphatemia associated with enteral alimentation in cats.

    PubMed

    Justin, R B; Hohenhaus, A E

    1995-01-01

    Hypophosphatemia is uncommon in cats, but it has been reported in association with diabetes mellitus and hepatic lipidosis, where it can cause hemolysis, rhabdomyopathy, depression, seizures, and coma. The purpose of this article is to describe 9 cats that developed low serum phosphorus concentrations (< 2.5 mg/dL) subsequent to enteral alimentation. Serum biochemical analyses from more than 6,000 cats were reviewed. The medical records of all cats with hypophosphatemia were examined for history of enteral alimentation; diabetic cats were excluded from the study. Nine cats, ranging in age from 3 to 17 years, were identified. All cats had normal serum phosphorus concentrations before tube feeding began. Onset of hypophosphatemia occurred 12 to 72 hours after initiation of enteral alimentation, and the nadir for phosphorus concentrations ranged from 0.4 to 2.4 mg/dL. Hemolysis occurred in 6 of the 9 cats. Hypophosphatemia secondary to enteral alimentation is an uncommon clinical finding in cats. Cats with high alanine aminotransferase activity, hyperbilirubinemia, and weight loss should be closely monitored for hypophosphatemia during the first 72 hours of enteral alimentation.

  5. [Modular enteral nutrition in pediatrics].

    PubMed

    Murillo Sanchís, S; Prenafeta Ferré, M T; Sempere Luque, M D

    1991-01-01

    Modular Enteral Nutrition may be a substitute for Parenteral Nutrition in children with different pathologies. Study of 4 children with different pathologies selected from a group of 40 admitted to the Maternal-Childrens Hospital "Valle de Hebrón" in Barcelona, who received modular enteral nutrition. They were monitored on a daily basis by the Dietician Service. Modular enteral nutrition consists of modules of proteins, peptides, lipids, glucids and mineral salts-vitamins. 1.--Craneo-encephalic traumatisms with loss of consciousness, Feeding with a combination of parenteral nutrition and modular enteral nutrition for 7 days. In view of the tolerance and good results of the modular enteral nutrition, the parenteral nutrition was suspended and modular enteral nutrition alone used up to a total of 43 days. 2.--55% burns with 36 days of hyperproteic modular enteral nutrition together with normal feeding. A more rapid recovery was achieved with an increase in total proteins and albumin. 3.--Persistent diarrhoea with 31 days of modular enteral nutrition, 5 days on parenteral nutrition alone and 8 days on combined parenteral nutrition and modular enteral nutrition. In view of the tolerance and good results of the modular enteral nutrition, the parenteral nutrition was suspended. 4.--Mucoviscidosis with a total of 19 days on modular enteral nutrition, 12 of which were exclusively on modular enteral nutrition and 7 as a night supplement to normal feeding. We administered proteic intakes of up to 20% of the total calorific intake and in concentrations of up to 1.2 calories/ml of the final preparation, always with a good tolerance. Modular enteral nutrition can and should be used as a substitute for parenteral nutrition in children with different pathologies, thus preventing the complications inherent in parenteral nutrition.

  6. Postoperative bezoar ileus after early enteral feeding.

    PubMed

    Dedes, Konstantin J; Schiesser, Marc; Schäfer, Markus; Clavien, Pierre-Alain

    2006-01-01

    Postoperative enteral nutrition is a widely accepted route of application for nutrition formulas due to a low complication rate, a good acceptance by patients. and a favorable cost-effectiveness. We report three cases of bezoar ileus after early postoperative enteral nutrition, using a fine needle jejunostomy (FNJ) in two cases and a nasoduodenal tube in one case. A male patient who underwent gastric resection for a gastrointestinal stroma tumor and was nourished through an fine needle jejunostomy developed an acute abdomen on the seventh postoperative day. Surgical exploration revealed a mechanical ileus caused by denaturated nutrition formula distal to the catheter tip. The second case, a female patient, underwent gastric resection for a gastric cancer and on the fourth postoperative day developed acute onset of abdominal pain. Intraoperative findings were the same as described in the first case. The third case, a male patient with necrotizing cholecystitis, underwent open cholecystectomy. Postoperative enteral feeding was performed using a nasoduodenal tube. He developed a small bowel obstruction on the 17th postoperative day that was caused by an intraluminal bezoar. In conclusion, bezoar formation represents an underestimated complication of postoperative enteral feeding. Acute onset of abdominal pain and the development of small bowel obstruction are the main clinical symptoms of this severe complication. The pathogenesis of bezoar formation remains unclear.

  7. Microscopic enteritis: Bucharest consensus.

    PubMed

    Rostami, Kamran; Aldulaimi, David; Holmes, Geoffrey; Johnson, Matt W; Robert, Marie; Srivastava, Amitabh; Fléjou, Jean-François; Sanders, David S; Volta, Umberto; Derakhshan, Mohammad H; Going, James J; Becheanu, Gabriel; Catassi, Carlo; Danciu, Mihai; Materacki, Luke; Ghafarzadegan, Kamran; Ishaq, Sauid; Rostami-Nejad, Mohammad; Peña, A Salvador; Bassotti, Gabrio; Marsh, Michael N; Villanacci, Vincenzo

    2015-03-07

    Microscopic enteritis (ME) is an inflammatory condition of the small bowel that leads to gastrointestinal symptoms, nutrient and micronutrient deficiency. It is characterised by microscopic or sub-microscopic abnormalities such as microvillus changes and enterocytic alterations in the absence of definite macroscopic changes using standard modern endoscopy. This work recognises a need to characterize disorders with microscopic and submicroscopic features, currently regarded as functional or non-specific entities, to obtain further understanding of their clinical relevance. The consensus working party reviewed statements about the aetiology, diagnosis and symptoms associated with ME and proposes an algorithm for its investigation and treatment. Following the 5(th) International Course in Digestive Pathology in Bucharest in November 2012, an international group of 21 interested pathologists and gastroenterologists formed a working party with a view to formulating a consensus statement on ME. A five-step agreement scale (from strong agreement to strong disagreement) was used to score 21 statements, independently. There was strong agreement on all statements about ME histology (95%-100%). Statements concerning diagnosis achieved 85% to 100% agreement. A statement on the management of ME elicited agreement from the lowest rate (60%) up to 100%. The remaining two categories showed general agreement between experts on clinical presentation (75%-95%) and pathogenesis (80%-90%) of ME. There was strong agreement on the histological definition of ME. Weaker agreement on management indicates a need for further investigations, better definitions and clinical trials to produce quality guidelines for management. This ME consensus is a step toward greater recognition of a significant entity affecting symptomatic patients previously labelled as non-specific or functional enteropathy.

  8. Microscopic enteritis: Bucharest consensus

    PubMed Central

    Rostami, Kamran; Aldulaimi, David; Holmes, Geoffrey; Johnson, Matt W; Robert, Marie; Srivastava, Amitabh; Fléjou, Jean-François; Sanders, David S; Volta, Umberto; Derakhshan, Mohammad H; Going, James J; Becheanu, Gabriel; Catassi, Carlo; Danciu, Mihai; Materacki, Luke; Ghafarzadegan, Kamran; Ishaq, Sauid; Rostami-Nejad, Mohammad; Peña, A Salvador; Bassotti, Gabrio; Marsh, Michael N; Villanacci, Vincenzo

    2015-01-01

    Microscopic enteritis (ME) is an inflammatory condition of the small bowel that leads to gastrointestinal symptoms, nutrient and micronutrient deficiency. It is characterised by microscopic or sub-microscopic abnormalities such as microvillus changes and enterocytic alterations in the absence of definite macroscopic changes using standard modern endoscopy. This work recognises a need to characterize disorders with microscopic and submicroscopic features, currently regarded as functional or non-specific entities, to obtain further understanding of their clinical relevance. The consensus working party reviewed statements about the aetiology, diagnosis and symptoms associated with ME and proposes an algorithm for its investigation and treatment. Following the 5th International Course in Digestive Pathology in Bucharest in November 2012, an international group of 21 interested pathologists and gastroenterologists formed a working party with a view to formulating a consensus statement on ME. A five-step agreement scale (from strong agreement to strong disagreement) was used to score 21 statements, independently. There was strong agreement on all statements about ME histology (95%-100%). Statements concerning diagnosis achieved 85% to 100% agreement. A statement on the management of ME elicited agreement from the lowest rate (60%) up to 100%. The remaining two categories showed general agreement between experts on clinical presentation (75%-95%) and pathogenesis (80%-90%) of ME. There was strong agreement on the histological definition of ME. Weaker agreement on management indicates a need for further investigations, better definitions and clinical trials to produce quality guidelines for management. This ME consensus is a step toward greater recognition of a significant entity affecting symptomatic patients previously labelled as non-specific or functional enteropathy. PMID:25759526

  9. Viral enteritis of calves.

    PubMed

    Woode, G N; Bridger, J C

    1975-01-25

    Calf diarrhoea is an important cause of economic loss. The aetiology of the disease is considered with particular reference to the role of viruses. Although many microbial organisms have been associated with the disease, there is doubt concerning their true role as causative agents. Two viruses, neonatal calf diarrhoea reovirus-life agent and calf coronavirus, have been discovered recently which appear to play an important role in many cases of diarrhoea and the evidence for considering them to be primary causes of the disease is discussed.

  10. [Symptoms, diagnosis and treatment of radiation-induced enteritis].

    PubMed

    Sinkó, Dániel; Baranyai, Zsolt; Nemeskéri, Csaba; Teknos, Dániel; Jósa, Valéria; Hegedus, László; Mayer, Arpád

    2010-09-05

    The number of radiotherapy in the treatment of malignant diseases is increasing worldwide. During the radiotherapy of tumors in the minor pelvis and abdomen intestinal inflammation of different degree may occur even if special attention is paid. Irradiation to the minor pelvis causes in half of the cases radiation induced acute enteritis, whereas in 25% chronic enteritis and colitis will develop. Chronic enteritis following radiotherapy raises a number of diagnostic and therapeutic problems that can be solved only with cooperation of different specialties. Authors present a short review regarding therapeutical options of radiation induced enteritis.

  11. HIV, opiates, and enteric neuron dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Galligan, J J

    2015-04-01

    Human immune deficient virus (HIV) is an immunosuppressive virus that targets CD4(+) T-lymphocytes. HIV infections cause increased susceptibility to opportunistic infections and cancer. HIV infection can also alter central nervous system (CNS) function causing cognitive impairment. HIV does not infect neurons but it does infect astrocytes and microglia in the CNS. HIV can also infect enteric glia initiating an intestinal inflammatory response which causes enteric neural injury and gut dysfunction. Part of the inflammatory response is HIV induced production of proteins including, Transactivator of transcription (Tat) which contribute to neuronal injury after release from HIV infected glial cells. A risk factor for HIV infection is intravenous drug use with contaminated needles and chronic opiate use can exacerbate neural injury in the nervous system. While most research focuses on the actions of Tat and other HIV related proteins and opiates on the brain, recent data indicate that Tat can cause intestinal inflammation and disruption of enteric neuron function, including alteration of Na(+) channel activity and action potential generation. A paper published in this issue of Neurogastroenterology and Motility extends these findings by identifying an interaction between Tat and morphine on enteric neuron Na(+) channels and on intestinal motility in vivo using a Tat expressing transgenic mouse model. These new data show that Tat protein can enhance the inhibitory actions of morphine on action potential generation and propulsive motility. These findings are important to our understanding of how HIV causes diarrhea in infected patients and for the use of opioid drugs to treat HIV-induced diarrhea.

  12. Importance of passive diffusion in the uptake of polychlorinated biphenyls by phagotrophic protozoa

    SciTech Connect

    Kujawinski, E.B.; Farrington, J.W.; Moffett, J.W.

    2000-05-01

    Unicellular protozoan grazers represent a size class of organisms where a transition in the mechanism of chlorobiphenyl (CB) introduction, from diffusion through surface membranes to ingestion of contaminated prey, could occur. This study compares the relative importance of these two processes in the overall uptake of polychlorinated biphenyls by protists. Uptake rates and steady-state concentrations were compared in laboratory cultures of grazing and nongrazing protozoa. These experiments were conducted with a 10-{micro}m marine scuticociliate (Uronema sp.), bacterial prey (Halomonas halodurans), and a suite of 21 CB congeners spanning a range of aqueous solubilities. The dominant pathway of CB uptake by both grazing and nongrazing protozoa was diffusion. Organic-carbon-normalized CB concentrations (in the protozoan cell) were equivalent in grazing and nongrazing protozoa for all congeners studied. Rate constants for uptake into and loss from the protozoan cell were independently determined by using [3,3{prime}, 4,4{prime}-{sup 14}C]tetrachlorobiphenyl (IUPAC no. 77), 0.38 {+-} 0.03 min{sup {minus}1} and (1.1 {+-} 0.1) x 10{sup {minus}5} (g of organic carbon){minus}{sup {minus}1} min{sup {minus}1}, respectively. Magnitudes of the uptake and loss processes were calculated and compared by using a numerical model. The model result was consistent with data from the bioaccumulation experiment and supported the hypothesis that diffusive uptake is faster than ingestive uptake in phagotrophic unicellular protozoa.

  13. PROTOZOA IN SUBSURFACE SEDIMENTS FROM SITE CONTAMI- NATED WITH AVIATION GASOLINE OR JET FUEL

    EPA Science Inventory

    Numbers of protozoa in the subsurface of aviation gasoline and jet fuel spill areas at a Coast Guard base at Traverse City, Mich., were determined. Boreholes were drilled in an uncontaminated location, in contaminated but untreated parts of the fuel plumes, and in the aviation ga...

  14. PROTOZOA IN SUBSURFACE SEDIMENTS FROM SITE CONTAMI- NATED WITH AVIATION GASOLINE OR JET FUEL

    EPA Science Inventory

    Numbers of protozoa in the subsurface of aviation gasoline and jet fuel spill areas at a Coast Guard base at Traverse City, Mich., were determined. Boreholes were drilled in an uncontaminated location, in contaminated but untreated parts of the fuel plumes, and in the aviation ga...

  15. [Testaceans (Protozoa: Testacea) in quaternary permafrost sediments of Bykovsky Peninsula, arctic Yakutia].

    PubMed

    Bobrov, A A; Siegert, Ch; Schirrmeister, L; Andreev, A A

    2003-01-01

    The results of the first protozoological study in terms of paleoecology of long-term sediments and buried soils formed in the cryolite zone of northeastern Siberia are discussed. The data on testaceans (Protozoa: Testacea) inhabiting various sites of Bykovsky Peninsula, Laptev Sea coast near estuary of Lena, within the last 53,000 years (late Pleistocene and Holocene).

  16. Recognition of Protozoa and Metazoa using image analysis tools, discriminant analysis, neural networks and decision trees.

    PubMed

    Ginoris, Y P; Amaral, A L; Nicolau, A; Coelho, M A Z; Ferreira, E C

    2007-07-09

    Protozoa and metazoa are considered good indicators of the treatment quality in activated sludge systems due to the fact that these organisms are fairly sensitive to physical, chemical and operational processes. Therefore, it is possible to establish close relationships between the predominance of certain species or groups of species and several operational parameters of the plant, such as the biotic indices, namely the Sludge Biotic Index (SBI). This procedure requires the identification, classification and enumeration of the different species, which is usually achieved manually implying both time and expertise availability. Digital image analysis combined with multivariate statistical techniques has proved to be a useful tool to classify and quantify organisms in an automatic and not subjective way. This work presents a semi-automatic image analysis procedure for protozoa and metazoa recognition developed in Matlab language. The obtained morphological descriptors were analyzed using discriminant analysis, neural network and decision trees multivariable statistical techniques to identify and classify each protozoan or metazoan. The obtained procedure was quite adequate for distinguishing between the non-sessile protozoa classes and also for the metazoa classes, with high values for the overall species recognition with the exception of sessile protozoa. In terms of the wastewater conditions assessment the obtained results were found to be suitable for the prediction of these conditions. Finally, the discriminant analysis and neural networks results were found to be quite similar whereas the decision trees technique was less appropriate.

  17. Detection of zoonotic protozoa Toxoplasma gondii and Sarcocystis suihominis in wild boars from Spain

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Food safety regulations require the control of presence of protozoa in meats destined for human consumption. Wild boar (Sus scrofa) meat may constitute a source of zoonoses. A 23.8% (688/2881) seroprevalence of anti-Toxoplasma gondii antibodies, and 72.2% (662/910) Sarcocystis sarcocysts prevalence ...

  18. Proton Pump Inhibitor Use Is Associated With a Reduced Risk of Infection with Intestinal Protozoa.

    PubMed

    Sheele, Johnathan M

    2017-09-11

    Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) can kill some human protozoan parasites in cell culture better than the drug metronidazole. Clinical data showing an antiprotozoal effect for PPIs are lacking. The objective of the study is to determine if PPI use is associated with a reduced risk of having intestinal parasites. We obtained electronic medical record data for all persons who received a stool ova and parasite (O & P) examination at our tertiary care academic medical center in Cleveland, Ohio, between January 2000 and September 2014. We obtained the person's age, whether they were taking a PPI at the time of the O & P examination, and whether the pathology report indicated the presence of any parasites. χ(2) with Yates correction was used to determine if PPI use was associated with stool protozoa. Three intestinal protozoa were identified in 1199 patients taking a PPI (0.3%), and 551 intestinal parasites were identified in the 14,287 patients not taking a PPI (3.9%). There was a statistically significant lower likelihood of finding protozoa in the stool of a person taking a PPI compared with those not taking a PPI (P < .0001). Patients taking a PPI were statistically less likely to have an intestinal protozoa reported on stool O & P examination compared with those not taking a PPI. Copyright © 2017 Wilderness Medical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Exit Valor, Enter Veracity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, William Bud

    1979-01-01

    Focuses on what can be done when a program fails. What are the causes for failure? What elements must be considered in the decision process? What strategies can be employed to recycle resources into more productive activities? What alternatives are available to aid in program repair or rejuvenation? (Author)

  20. Occurrence and removal efficiency of parasitic protozoa in Swedish wastewater treatment plants.

    PubMed

    Berglund, Björn; Dienus, Olaf; Sokolova, Ekaterina; Berglind, Emma; Matussek, Andreas; Pettersson, Thomas; Lindgren, Per-Eric

    2017-11-15

    Giardia intestinalis, Cryptosporidium spp., Entamoeba histolytica and Dientamoeba fragilis are parasitic protozoa and causative agents of gastroenteritis in humans. G. intestinalis and Cryptosporidium spp. in particular are the most common protozoa associated with waterborne outbreaks in high-income countries. Surveillance of protozoan prevalence in wastewater and evaluation of wastewater treatment removal efficiencies of protozoan pathogens is therefore imperative for assessment of human health risk. In this study, influent and effluent wastewater samples from three wastewater treatment plants in Sweden were collected over nearly one year and assessed for prevalence of parasitic protozoa. Quantitative real-time PCR using primers specific for the selected protozoa Cryptosporidium spp., G. intestinalis, E. histolytica, Entamoeba dispar and D. fragilis was used for protozoan DNA detection and assessment of wastewater treatment removal efficiencies. Occurrence of G. intestinalis, E. dispar and D. fragilis DNA was assessed in both influent (44, 30 and 39 out of 51 samples respectively) and effluent wastewater (14, 9 and 33 out of 51 samples respectively) in all three wastewater treatment plants. Mean removal efficiencies of G. intestinalis, E. dispar and D. fragilis DNA quantities, based on all three wastewater treatment plants studied varied between 67 and 87%, 37-75% and 20-34% respectively. Neither E. histolytica nor Cryptosporidium spp. were detected in any samples. Overall, higher quantities of protozoan DNA were observed from February to June 2012. The high prevalence of protozoa in influent wastewater indicates the need for continued monitoring of these pathogens in wastewater-associated aquatic environments to minimise the potential risk for human infection. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Can fungal zoospores be the source of energy for the rumen protozoa Eudiplodinium maggii?

    PubMed

    Miltko, Renata; Bełżecki, Grzegorz; Kowalik, Barbara; Michałowski, Tadeusz

    2014-10-01

    Results of our earlier studies showed the ability of ciliates Eudiplodinium maggii to digest and metabolize commercial chitin. The natural source of this polysaccharide in the rumen are fungi. The objectives of present research were to determine the effect of fungal zoospores on the survival and population density of E. maggii to quantify the concentration of chitin in the cells of protozoa and to examine the ability of E. maggii, to ferment chitin of fungal zoospores. The cultivation experiment showed that the survival of protozoa was shorter than 4 days when the culture medium was composed of buffer solution and lyophilized fungal spores. An enrichment of this medium with wheat gluten prolonged the survival of ciliates up to 8 days. The supplementation of the last medium with meadow hay enabled the protozoa to survive for 28 days but a positive effect was observed only during the last 8 days of experiment. The chitin content was 0.27 ng and 0.21-0.35 ng per single zoospore and ciliate, respectively. An increase in the concentration of volatile fatty acids (VFA) was found when protozoa were incubated with zoospores. The production rate of VFA was 46.3 pM/protozoan per h whereas the endogenous production did not exceed 31 pM/protozoan per h. The molar proportion of acetic acid was 77.7% and these of butyric and propionic acids-12.2 and 11.0%, respectively. The obtained results make it evident that carbohydrates present in fungal zoospores were utilized by protozoa in energy yielding processes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Enteric virus and vibrio contamination of shellfish: intervention strategies

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    INTRODUCTION. Molluscan shellfish include oysters, clams, mussels, and cockles, which can cause illnesses from a variety of human pathogens. Enteric viruses, like norovirus and hepatitis A virus, are generally transmitted to shellfish through fecal contamination of shellfish harvesting areas, alth...

  3. Pediatric enteric neuropathies: diagnosis and current management.

    PubMed

    Westfal, Maggie L; Goldstein, Allan M

    2017-06-01

    Neurointestinal diseases are increasingly recognized as causes of significant gastrointestinal morbidity in children. This review highlights the most common pediatric enteric neuropathies and their diagnosis and management, emphasizing insights and discoveries from the most recent literature available. The embryologic and histopathologic causes of enteric neuropathies are varied. They range from congenital aganglionosis in Hirschsprung disease, to autoimmune-mediated loss of neuronal subtypes in esophageal achalasia and Chagas disease, to degenerative neuropathies in some cases of chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction and gastroparesis. Increased awareness of the clinical presentation and diagnostic evaluation of these conditions is essential as it allows for earlier initiation of treatment and improved outcomes. Most current therapies, which include medical management, neurostimulation, and operative intervention, aim to minimize the symptoms caused by these conditions. The evidence base for many of these treatments in children is poor, and multiinstitutional prospective studies are needed. An innovative therapy on the horizon involves using neuronal stem cell transplantation to treat the underlying disorder by replacing the missing or damaged neurons in these diseases. Although recent advances in basic and clinical neurogastroenterology have significantly improved our awareness and understanding of enteric neuropathies, the efficacy of current treatment approaches is limited. The development of novel therapies, including pharmacologic modulators of neurointestinal function, neurostimulation to enhance gut motility, and neuronal cell-based therapies, is essential to improve the long-term outcomes in children with these disorders.

  4. The phagotrophic origin of eukaryotes and phylogenetic classification of Protozoa.

    PubMed

    Cavalier-Smith, T

    2002-03-01

    ancestrally biciliate clade, named 'bikonts'. The apparently conflicting rRNA and protein trees can be reconciled with each other and this ultrastructural interpretation if long-branch distortions, some mechanistically explicable, are allowed for. Bikonts comprise two groups: corticoflagellates, with a younger anterior cilium, no centrosomal cone and ancestrally a semi-rigid cell cortex with a microtubular band on either side of the posterior mature centriole; and Rhizaria [a new infrakingdom comprising Cercozoa (now including Ascetosporea classis nov.), Retaria phylum nov., Heliozoa and Apusozoa phylum nov.], having a centrosomal cone or radiating microtubules and two microtubular roots and a soft surface, frequently with reticulopodia. Corticoflagellates comprise photokaryotes (Plantae and chromalveolates, both ancestrally with cortical alveoli) and Excavata (a new protozoan infrakingdom comprising Loukozoa, Discicristata and Archezoa, ancestrally with three microtubular roots). All basal eukaryotic radiations were of mitochondrial aerobes; hydrogenosomes evolved polyphyletically from mitochondria long afterwards, the persistence of their double envelope long after their genomes disappeared being a striking instance of membrane heredity. I discuss the relationship between the 13 protozoan phyla recognized here and revise higher protozoan classification by updating as subkingdoms Lankester's 1878 division of Protozoa into Corticata (Excavata, Alveolata; with prominent cortical microtubules and ancestrally localized cytostome--the Parabasalia probably secondarily internalized the cytoskeleton) and Gymnomyxa [infrakingdoms Sarcomastigota (Choanozoa, Amoebozoa) and Rhizaria; both ancestrally with a non-cortical cytoskeleton of radiating singlet microtubules and a relatively soft cell surface with diffused feeding]. As the eukaryote root almost certainly lies within Gymnomyxa, probably among the Sarcomastigota, Corticata are derived. Following the single symbiogenetic origin of

  5. Comparison of fermentation of diets of variable composition and microbial populations in the rumen of sheep and Rusitec fermenters. II. Protozoa population and diversity of bacterial communities.

    PubMed

    Martínez, M E; Ranilla, M J; Tejido, M L; Saro, C; Carro, M D

    2010-08-01

    Four ruminally and duodenally cannulated sheep and 8 Rusitec fermenters were used to determine the effects of dietary characteristics on microbial populations and bacterial diversity. The purpose of the study was to assess how closely fermenters can mimic the differences between diets found in vivo. The 4 experimental diets contained forage to concentrate (F:C) ratios of 70:30 (high forage; HF) or 30:70 (high concentrate; HC) with either alfalfa hay (A) or grass hay (G) as the forage. Total bacterial numbers were greater in the rumen of sheep fed HF diets compared with those fed HC diets, whereas the opposite was found in fermenters. The numbers of cellulolytic bacteria were not affected by F:C ratio in any fermentation system, but cellulolytic numbers were 2.7 and 1.8 times greater in sheep than in fermenters for HF and HC diets, respectively. Neither total bacterial nor cellulolytic numbers were affected by the type of forage in sheep or fermenters. Decreasing F:C ratio increased total protozoa and Entodiniae numbers in sheep by about 29 and 25%, respectively, but it had no effect in fermenters. Isotrichidae and Ophryoscolecinae numbers in sheep were not affected by changing F:C ratio, but both disappeared completely from fermenters fed HC diets. Total protozoa and Entodiniae numbers were greater in sheep fed A diets than in those fed G diets, whereas the opposite was found in fermenters. Results indicate that under the conditions of the present study, protozoa population in Rusitec fermenters was not representative of that in the rumen of sheep fed the same diets. In addition, protozoa numbers in fermenters were 121 and 226 times lower than those in the sheep rumen for HF and HC diets, respectively. The automated ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis of the 16S ribosomal DNA was used to analyze the diversity of liquid- and solid-associated bacteria in both systems. A total of 170 peaks were detected in the automated ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis

  6. Percutaneous approaches to enteral alimentation.

    PubMed

    Ponsky, J L; Gauderer, M W; Stellato, T A; Aszodi, A

    1985-01-01

    Feeding gastrostomy and jejunostomy provide effective access for long-term enteral nutrition. Traditional operative techniques for the performance of these procedures requires laparotomy and often, general anesthesia. This report describes our experience with two relatively new methods, percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy and percutaneous endoscopic jejunostomy. Results of percutaneous gastrostomy and jejunostomy to date in 323 cases include a morbidity of 5.9 percent and a 0.3 percent operative mortality. Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy and jejunostomy should become the procedures of choice for the establishment of enteral access in patients requiring long-term enteral alimentation.

  7. Pediatric Enteral Access Device Management.

    PubMed

    Abdelhadi, Ruba A; Rahe, Katina; Lyman, Beth

    2016-10-13

    Enteral nutrition (EN) support has proven to be a nutrition intervention that can provide full or partial calories to promote growth and development in infants and children. To supply these nutrients, an enteral access device is required, and the use of these devices is growing. Placement of the proper device for the patient need, along with appropriate care and monitoring, is required for individualized patient management. When complications arise, early identification and management can prevent more serious morbidity. Complication management requires a tiered approach starting with staff nurses and ending with a physician expert. In addition to this, each institution needs to have an approach that is coordinated among disciplines and departments to promote consistency of practice. The formation of an enteral access team is a conduit for clinical experts to provide education to families, patients, and healthcare professionals while serving as a platform to address product and practice issues. © 2016 American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition.

  8. PCR-based verification of positive rapid diagnostic tests for intestinal protozoa infections with variable test band intensity.

    PubMed

    Becker, Sören L; Müller, Ivan; Mertens, Pascal; Herrmann, Mathias; Zondie, Leyli; Beyleveld, Lindsey; Gerber, Markus; du Randt, Rosa; Pühse, Uwe; Walter, Cheryl; Utzinger, Jürg

    2017-10-01

    Stool-based rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) for pathogenic intestinal protozoa (e.g. Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia intestinalis) allow for prompt diagnosis and treatment in resource-constrained settings. Such RDTs can improve individual patient management and facilitate population-based screening programmes in areas without microbiological laboratories for confirmatory testing. However, RDTs are difficult to interpret in case of 'trace' results with faint test band intensities and little is known about whether such ambiguous results might indicate 'true' infections. In a longitudinal study conducted in poor neighbourhoods of Port Elizabeth, South Africa, a total of 1428 stool samples from two cohorts of schoolchildren were examined on the spot for Cryptosporidium spp. and G. intestinalis using an RDT (Crypto/Giardia DuoStrip; Coris BioConcept). Overall, 121 samples were positive for G. intestinalis and the RDT suggested presence of cryptosporidiosis in 22 samples. After a storage period of 9-10 months in cohort 1 and 2-3 months in cohort 2, samples were subjected to multiplex PCR (BD Max™ Enteric Parasite Panel, Becton Dickinson). Ninety-three percent (112/121) of RDT-positive samples for G. intestinalis were confirmed by PCR, with a correlation between RDT test band intensity and quantitative pathogen load present in the sample. For Cryptosporidium spp., all positive RDTs had faintly visible lines and these were negative on PCR. The performance of the BD Max™ PCR was nearly identical in both cohorts, despite the prolonged storage at disrupted cold chain conditions in cohort 1. The Crypto/Giardia DuoStrip warrants further validation in communities with a high incidence of diarrhoea. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Environmental enteric dysfunction: An overview

    PubMed Central

    Crane, Rosie J.; Jones, Kelsey D. J.; Berkley, James A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Environmental enteric dysfunction (EED) refers to an incompletely defined syndrome of inflammation, reduced absorptive capacity, and reduced barrier function in the small intestine. It is widespread among children and adults in low- and middle-income countries. Understanding of EED and its possible consequences for health is currently limited. Objective A narrative review of the current understanding of EED: epidemiology, pathogenesis, therapies, and relevance to child health. Methods Searches for key papers and ongoing trials were conducted using PUBMED 1966–June 2014; ClinicalTrials.gov; the WHO Clinical Trials Registry; the Cochrane Library; hand searches of the references of retrieved literature; discussions with experts; and personal experience from the field. Results EED is established during infancy and is associated with poor sanitation, certain gut infections, and micronutrient deficiencies. Helicobacter pylori infection, small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO), abnormal gut microbiota, undernutrition, and toxins may all play a role. EED is usually asymptomatic, but it is important due to its association with stunting. Diagnosis is frequently by the dual sugar absorption test, although other biomarkers are emerging. EED may partly explain the reduced efficacy of oral vaccines in low- and middle-income countries and the increased risk of serious infection seen in children with undernutrition. Conclusions Despite its potentially significant impacts, it is currently unclear exactly what causes EED and how it can be treated or prevented. Ongoing trials involve nutritional supplements, water and sanitation interventions, and immunomodulators. Further research is needed to better understand this condition, which is of likely crucial importance for child health and development in low- and middle-income settings. PMID:25902619

  10. Environmental enteric dysfunction: an overview.

    PubMed

    Crane, Rosie J; Jones, Kelsey D J; Berkley, James A

    2015-03-01

    Environmental enteric dysfunction (EED) refers to an incompletely defined syndrome of inflammation, reduced absorptive capacity, and reduced barrier function in the small intestine. It is widespread among children and adults in low- and middle-income countries. Understanding of EED and its possible consequences for health is currently limited. A narrative review of the current understanding of EED: epidemiology, pathogenesis, therapies, and relevance to child health. Searches for key papers and ongoing trials were conducted using PUBMED 1966-June 2014; ClinicalTrials.gov; the WHO Clinical Trials Registry; the Cochrane Library; hand searches of the references of retrieved literature; discussions with experts; and personal experience from the field. EED is established during infancy and is associated with poor sanitation, certain gut infections, and micronutrient deficiencies. Helicobacter pylori infection, small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO), abnormal gut microbiota, undernutrition, and toxins may all play a role. EED is usually asymptomatic, but it is important due to its association with stunting. Diagnosis is frequently by the dual sugar absorption test, although other biomarkers are emerging. EED may partly explain the reduced efficacy of oral vaccines in low- and middle-income countries and the increased risk of serious infection seen in children with undernutrition. Despite its potentially significant impacts, it is currently unclear exactly what causes EED and how it can be treated or prevented. Ongoing trials involve nutritional supplements, water and sanitation interventions, and immunomodulators. Further research is needed to better understand this condition, which is of likely crucial importance for child health and development in low- and middle-income settings.

  11. Rosetta enters hibernation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferri, Paolo; Accomazzo, Andrea; Hubault, Armelle; Lodiot, Sylvain; Pellon-Bailon, Jose-Luis; Porta, Roberto

    2012-10-01

    The International Rosetta Mission was launched on 2nd March 2004 on its 10 years journey to comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko. Rosetta will reach the comet in 2014, orbit it for about 1.5 years down to distances of a few kilometres and deliver the Lander Philae onto its surface. Following the fly-by of Asteroid (21-)Lutetia in 2010, Rosetta continued its travel towards the planned comet encounter in 2014. In this phase Rosetta became the solar-powered spacecraft that reached the largest Sun distances in history of spaceflight, up to an aphelion at 5.3 AU in October 2012. At distances above 4.5 AU the spacecraft's solar generator power is not sufficient to keep all spacecraft systems active. Therefore in June 2011 the spacecraft was spun up to provide gyroscopic stabilisation, and most of its on-board units, including those used for attitude control and communications, were switched off. Over this "hibernation" phase of about 2.5 years the spacecraft will keep a minimum of autonomy active to ensure maintenance of safe thermal conditions. After Lutetia fly-by, flight controllers had to tackle two anomalies that had significant impacts on the mission operations. A leak in the reaction control subsystem was confirmed and led to the re-definition of the operational strategy to perform the comet rendezvous manoeuvres planned for 2011 and 2014. Anomalous jumps detected in the estimated friction torque of two of the four reaction wheels used for attitude control forced the rapid adoption of measures to slow down the wheels degradation. This included in-flight re-lubrication activities and changes in the wheels operational speed regime. Once the troubleshooting of the two anomalies was completed, and the related operational scenarios were implemented, the first large (790 m/s) comet rendezvous manoeuvre was executed, split into several long burns in January and February 2011. The second burn was unexpectedly interrupted due to the anomalous behaviour of two thrusters, causing

  12. Enteric viral infections in lambs or kids.

    PubMed

    Martella, V; Decaro, N; Buonavoglia, C

    2015-12-14

    Diarrhoea in lambs and kids is often a complex, multi-factorial syndrome. Common infectious causes of diarrhoea in lambs and kids during the first month of life are of bacterial or parasite nature. However, despite appreciable improvements in management practices and prevention and treatment strategies over the last decades, diarrhoea is still a common and costly syndrome affecting newborn small ruminants. Recent advances in the diagnostics and metagenomic investigations of the enteric environment have allowed discovering a number of novel viruses, although their pathobiological properties remain largely unknown. Assessing more in depth the impact of these viruses on the health and productions of these livestock animals is necessary and requires the development of accurate diagnostic tools and updating of the diagnostic algorithms of enteric pathological conditions.

  13. Amoebae and other protozoa in material samples from moisture-damaged buildings.

    PubMed

    Yli-Pirilä, Terhi; Kusnetsov, Jaana; Haatainen, Susanna; Hänninen, Marja; Jalava, Pasi; Reiman, Marjut; Seuri, Markku; Hirvonen, Maija-Riitta; Nevalainen, Aino

    2004-11-01

    Mold growth in buildings has been shown to be associated with adverse health effects. The fungal and bacterial growth on moistened building materials has been studied, but little attention has been paid to the other organisms spawning in the damaged materials. We examined moist building materials for protozoa, concentrating on amoebae. Material samples (n = 124) from moisture-damaged buildings were analyzed for amoebae, fungi, and bacteria. Amoebae were detected in 22% of the samples, and they were found to favor cooccurrence with bacteria and the fungi Acremonium spp., Aspergillus versicolor, Chaetomium spp., and Trichoderma spp. In addition, 11 seriously damaged samples were screened for other protozoa. Ciliates and flagellates were found in almost every sample analyzed. Amoebae are known to host pathogenic bacteria, such as chlamydiae, legionellae, and mycobacteria and they may have a role in the complex of exposure that contributes to the health effects associated with moisture damage in buildings.

  14. What are the taxonomic and evolutionary relationships of the Protozoa to the Protista?

    PubMed

    Corliss, J O

    1981-01-01

    In order to consider the problems of protist-protozoan interrelationships in proper perspective, a new "packaging" of phyla within the great kingdom Protista is proposed. Although it is based largely on historical groupings and is admittedly "unnatural" (nor are taxonomic names proposed for my five supraphyletic groupings), the arrangement may clarify some long-persisting problems, especially with regard to mixed algal-protozoan groups and/or phylogenies. Some three dozen phyla are recognized as comprising the kingdom, with the number that might be considered as "protozoan" ranging from 10 to 25, depending on one's viewpoint. No taxon should have the formal name "Protozoa", "Phytoflagellate" and "zooflagellate" are also misleading categories. Taxonomic and evolutionary relationships of phyla containing protozoa (with small "p") are inextricably intermeshed with those of other protist phyla, and thus no unified protozoan super-group exists.

  15. Moderation of ruminal fermentation by ciliated protozoa in cattle fed a high-grain diet.

    PubMed Central

    Nagaraja, T G; Towne, G; Beharka, A A

    1992-01-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the influence of ciliated protozoa on ruminal fermentation in cattle fed high-grain diets. Six ruminally cannulated steers fed a corn-based grain diet (85% concentrate plus 15% alfalfa hay) at 12-h intervals were assigned randomly to two groups, ciliate free and faunated, in a crossover design. Defaunation was by ruminal emptying, omasal flushing, and treatment with sodium sulfosuccinate. Two to 3 weeks after defaunation, the ruminal contents of all steers were sampled before the morning feeding (0 h) and at 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, and 12 h after feeding to measure pH, analyze fermentation products, and monitor counts of ciliated protozoa and lactic acid-producing and -fermenting bacterial groups. Total numbers of ciliated protozoa in the faunated steers averaged 4.3 x 10(5)/g, and the protozoa consisted of nine genera. Ciliate-free steers had lower (P less than 0.01) ruminal pHs (pH 5.97) than faunated cattle (pH 6.45); however, the treatment-time interaction was not significant. Ruminal lactate and ammonia concentrations were similar in both groups. The total volatile fatty acid concentration was higher (P less than 0.05) in the ciliate-free steers than in the faunated steers and exhibited a treatment-time interaction (P less than 0.05). The acetate-to-propionate ratio was higher (P less than 0.05) in the faunated group than in the ciliate-free group and showed a treatment-time interaction (P less than 0.05). Total anaerobic bacterial counts were about fourfold higher in the ciliate-free group than in the faunated group.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1514789

  16. Macro, micro and nano domains in the membrane of parasitic protozoa.

    PubMed

    de Souza, Wanderley

    2007-09-01

    The structural organization of the plasma membrane of eukaryotic cells is briefly revised taking into consideration the organization of proteins and lipids and the concept of microdomains, lipid rafts and detergent resistant membranes. The biochemical data available concerning the presence of microdomains in parasitic protozoa is reviewed and emphasis is given on the identification of special domains recognized by morphological approaches, especially with the use of the freeze-fracture technique.

  17. Detection of protozoa in water samples by formalin/ether concentration method.

    PubMed

    Lora-Suarez, Fabiana; Rivera, Raul; Triviño-Valencia, Jessica; Gomez-Marin, Jorge E

    2016-09-01

    Methods to detect protozoa in water samples are expensive and laborious. We evaluated the formalin/ether concentration method to detect Giardia sp., Cryptosporidium sp. and Toxoplasma in water. In order to test the properties of the method, we spiked water samples with different amounts of each protozoa (0, 10 and 50 cysts or oocysts) in a volume of 10 L of water. Immunofluorescence assay was used for detection of Giardia and Cryptosporidium. Toxoplasma oocysts were identified by morphology. The mean percent of recovery in 10 repetitions of the entire method, in 10 samples spiked with ten parasites and read by three different observers, were for Cryptosporidium 71.3 ± 12, for Giardia 63 ± 10 and for Toxoplasma 91.6 ± 9 and the relative standard deviation of the method was of 17.5, 17.2 and 9.8, respectively. Intraobserver variation as measured by intraclass correlation coefficient, was fair for Toxoplasma, moderate for Cryptosporidium and almost perfect for Giardia. The method was then applied in 77 samples of raw and drinkable water in three different plant of water treatment. Cryptosporidium was found in 28 of 77 samples (36%) and Giardia in 31 of 77 samples (40%). Theses results identified significant differences in treatment process to reduce the presence of Giardia and Cryptosporidium. In conclusion, the formalin ether method to concentrate protozoa in water is a new alternative for low resources countries, where is urgently need to monitor and follow the presence of theses protozoa in drinkable water. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Enteric viruses of chickens and turkeys

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Although enteric disease in commercial poultry operations is common, and often unofficially reported and discussed by field veterinarians as “non-specific enteric disease”, three recognized enteric syndromes do exist in poultry: poult enteritis complex (PEC) and poult enteritis mortality syndrome (P...

  19. The effect of acid drinking water on rumen protozoa in the blesbok (Damaliscus dorcas phillipsi).

    PubMed

    Booyse, D G; Dehority, B A; Myburgh, J G

    2015-12-07

    Rumen contents were collected from ten adult female blesbok, five from a mine area with only acid drinking water available and five from a control group consuming normal, non-polluted drinking water. The mean concentration of total protozoa in the normal water group was almost double that in the acid drinking water group, 24.9 x 10(3) versus 14.7 x 10(3). Percent of Entodinium was higher and Diplodinium lower in those animals drinking the acid water. The number of different protozoa species present in animals from both locations was fairly similar. Diplodinium bubalidis, Ostracodinium gracile and Diplodinium consors were present in the highest percentage in the normal water group, 18.8, 18.4 and 17.7 %, respectively. The same three species, plus Entodinium dubardi, were also highest in the acid water group, O. gracile, 21.3 %; D. consors, 12.6 %; E. dubardi, 11.4 % and D. bubalidis, 10.3 %. Seventeen species of protozoa found in this study were a new host record for the blesbok, bringing the total number of species reported from the blesbok to 29.

  20. Identification and Analysis of Putative Homologues of Mechanosensitive Channels in Pathogenic Protozoa

    PubMed Central

    Prole, David L.; Taylor, Colin W.

    2013-01-01

    Mechanosensitive channels play important roles in the physiology of many organisms, and their dysfunction can affect cell survival. This suggests that they might be therapeutic targets in pathogenic organisms. Pathogenic protozoa lead to diseases such as malaria, dysentery, leishmaniasis and trypanosomiasis that are responsible for millions of deaths each year worldwide. We analyzed the genomes of pathogenic protozoa and show the existence within them of genes encoding putative homologues of mechanosensitive channels. Entamoeba histolytica, Leishmania spp., Trypanosoma cruzi and Trichomonas vaginalis have genes encoding homologues of Piezo channels, while most pathogenic protozoa have genes encoding homologues of mechanosensitive small-conductance (MscS) and K+-dependent (MscK) channels. In contrast, all parasites examined lack genes encoding mechanosensitive large-conductance (MscL), mini-conductance (MscM) and degenerin/epithelial Na+ (DEG/ENaC) channels. Multiple sequence alignments of evolutionarily distant protozoan, amoeban, plant, insect and vertebrate Piezo channel subunits define an absolutely conserved motif that may be involved in channel conductance or gating. MscS channels are not present in humans, and the sequences of protozoan and human homologues of Piezo channels differ substantially. This suggests the possibility for specific targeting of mechanosensitive channels of pathogens by therapeutic drugs. PMID:23785469

  1. Identification and analysis of putative homologues of mechanosensitive channels in pathogenic protozoa.

    PubMed

    Prole, David L; Taylor, Colin W

    2013-01-01

    Mechanosensitive channels play important roles in the physiology of many organisms, and their dysfunction can affect cell survival. This suggests that they might be therapeutic targets in pathogenic organisms. Pathogenic protozoa lead to diseases such as malaria, dysentery, leishmaniasis and trypanosomiasis that are responsible for millions of deaths each year worldwide. We analyzed the genomes of pathogenic protozoa and show the existence within them of genes encoding putative homologues of mechanosensitive channels. Entamoeba histolytica, Leishmania spp., Trypanosoma cruzi and Trichomonas vaginalis have genes encoding homologues of Piezo channels, while most pathogenic protozoa have genes encoding homologues of mechanosensitive small-conductance (MscS) and K(+)-dependent (MscK) channels. In contrast, all parasites examined lack genes encoding mechanosensitive large-conductance (MscL), mini-conductance (MscM) and degenerin/epithelial Na(+) (DEG/ENaC) channels. Multiple sequence alignments of evolutionarily distant protozoan, amoeban, plant, insect and vertebrate Piezo channel subunits define an absolutely conserved motif that may be involved in channel conductance or gating. MscS channels are not present in humans, and the sequences of protozoan and human homologues of Piezo channels differ substantially. This suggests the possibility for specific targeting of mechanosensitive channels of pathogens by therapeutic drugs.

  2. Protozoa in the diets of Neocalanus spp. in the oceanic subarctic Pacific Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gifford, Dian J.

    Copepod species of the genus Neocalanus dominate the zooplankton biomass of the oceanic subarctic Pacific Ocean. Neocalanus spp. populations in the subarctic Pacific environment are successful: they feed, accumulate lipid, and persist from year to year. Prior experimental observations derived from a variety of methods indicated that, although their functional morphology is such that they clear the small phytoplankton cells characteristic of the oceanic subarctic Pacific environment efficiently, Neocalanus spp. do not consume sufficient phytoplankton to meet even basic metabolic requirements in that environment. Hence, their success in the subarctic Pacific must depend on their ability to obtain nutrition from other sources. As part of the SUPER ( SUbarctic Pacific Ecosystem Research) program, experiments were performed to test the hypothesis that N. plumchrus and N. cristatus obtain a significant portion of their nutrition from planktonic Protozoa. The experiments demonstrate that Protozoa alone do not provide sufficient nutrition for N. cristatus to meet its basic metabolic needs. Protozoa constitute the major dietary component of N. plumchrus however, in agreement with the predictions of FROST'S (1987) model of the subarctic Pacific ecosystem. At a minimum this diet permits N. plumchrus to meet basic metabolic requirements. Copepod grazing activities appear to be sufficient to control protozoan stocks in the oceanic subarctic Pacific during late spring and early summer when Neocalanus spp. inhabit the upper water column.

  3. RNA-binding proteins related to stress response and differentiation in protozoa.

    PubMed

    Alves, Lysangela Ronalte; Goldenberg, Samuel

    2016-02-26

    RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) are key regulators of gene expression. There are several distinct families of RBPs and they are involved in the cellular response to environmental changes, cell differentiation and cell death. The RBPs can differentially combine with RNA molecules and form ribonucleoprotein (RNP) complexes, defining the function and fate of RNA molecules in the cell. RBPs display diverse domains that allow them to be categorized into distinct families. They play important roles in the cellular response to physiological stress, in cell differentiation, and, it is believed, in the cellular localization of certain mRNAs. In several protozoa, a physiological stress (nutritional, temperature or pH) triggers differentiation to a distinct developmental stage. Most of the RBPs characterized in protozoa arise from trypanosomatids. In these protozoa gene expression regulation is mostly post-transcriptional, which suggests that some RBPs might display regulatory functions distinct from those described for other eukaryotes. mRNA stability can be altered as a response to stress. Transcripts are sequestered to RNA granules that ultimately modulate their availability to the translation machinery, storage or degradation, depending on the associated proteins. These aggregates of mRNPs containing mRNAs that are not being translated colocalize in cytoplasmic foci, and their numbers and size vary according to cell conditions such as oxidative stress, nutritional status and treatment with drugs that inhibit translation.

  4. Influence of different anoxic time exposures on active biomass, protozoa and filamentous bacteria in activated sludge.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez-Perez, S; Fermoso, F G; Arnaiz, C

    Medium-sized wastewater treatment plants are considered too small to implement anaerobic digestion technologies and too large for extensive treatments. A promising option as a sewage sludge reduction method is the inclusion of anoxic time exposures. In the present study, three different anoxic time exposures of 12, 6 and 4 hours have been studied to reduce sewage sludge production. The best anoxic time exposure was observed under anoxic/oxic cycles of 6 hours, which reduced 29.63% of the biomass production compared with the oxic control conditions. The sludge under different anoxic time exposures, even with a lower active biomass concentration than the oxic control conditions, showed a much higher metabolic activity than the oxic control conditions. Microbiological results suggested that both protozoa density and abundance of filamentous bacteria decrease under anoxic time exposures compared to oxic control conditions. The anoxic time exposures 6/6 showed the highest reduction in both protozoa density, 37.5%, and abundance of filamentous bacteria, 41.1%, in comparison to the oxic control conditions. The groups of crawling ciliates, carnivorous ciliates and filamentous bacteria were highly influenced by the anoxic time exposures. Protozoa density and abundance of filamentous bacteria have been shown as promising bioindicators of biomass production reduction.

  5. Studies on the in vitro cultivation of ciliate protozoa from the kangaroo forestomach.

    PubMed

    Dehority, Burk A; Wright, André-Denis G

    2014-08-01

    The methods used for culturing rumen protozoa were found to be unsatisfactory for growth of ciliate protozoa from the kangaroo forestomach. Based on published measurements of physical parameters in the marsupial forestomach, several modifications were incorporated into the procedure, i.e., an increase in % hydrogen in the gas phase, adjustment of initial pH of the medium to 6.9-7.0 range, feed only forage as a substrate and incubate at a lower temperature (33-36 °C). Only incubation at the lower temperature increased survival time of the kangaroo protozoa. Two species of Bitricha were still viable after 28 d in culture. Cultures had to be terminated at that time. One of the species differed considerably in size and shape from previously described species and based on 18S rRNA data, may represent a new species of Bitricha. The second species, present in low numbers was identified as Bitricha oblata. In a separate trial, Macropodinium yalanbense survived for 11 d, at which time these cultures also had to be terminated. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  6. Meat-based enteral nutrition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Derevitskay, O. K.; Dydykin, A. S.

    2017-09-01

    Enteral nutrition is widely used in hospitals as a means of nutritional support and therapy for different diseases. Enteral nutrition must fulfil the energy needs of the body, be balanced by the nutrient composition and meet patient’s nutritional needs. Meat is a source of full-value animal protein, vitamins and minerals. On the basis of this research, recipes and technology for a meat-based enteral nutrition product were developed. The product is a ready-to-eat sterilised mixture in the form of a liquid homogeneous mass, which is of full value in terms of composition and enriched with vitamins and minerals, consists of particles with a size of not more than 0.3 mm and has the modified fat composition and rheological characteristics that are necessary for passage through enteral feeding tubes. The study presents experimental data on the content of the main macro- and micro-nutrients in the developed product. The new product is characterised by a balanced fatty acid composition, which plays an important role in correction of lipid metabolism disorders and protein-energy deficiency, and it is capable of satisfying patients’ daily requirements for vitamins and the main macro- and microelements when consuming 1500-2000 ml. Meat-based enteral nutrition can be used in diets as a standard mixture for effective correction of the energy and anabolic requirements of the body and support of the nutritional status of patients, including those with operated stomach syndrome.

  7. Anti-Hu antibodies activate enteric and sensory neurons

    PubMed Central

    Li, Qin; Michel, Klaus; Annahazi, Anita; Demir, Ihsan E.; Ceyhan, Güralp O.; Zeller, Florian; Komorowski, Lars; Stöcker, Winfried; Beyak, Michael J.; Grundy, David; Farrugia, Gianrico; De Giorgio, Roberto; Schemann, Michael

    2016-01-01

    IgG of type 1 anti-neuronal nuclear antibody (ANNA-1, anti-Hu) specificity is a serological marker of paraneoplastic neurological autoimmunity (including enteric/autonomic) usually related to small-cell lung carcinoma. We show here that IgG isolated from such sera and also affinity-purified anti-HuD label enteric neurons and cause an immediate spike discharge in enteric and visceral sensory neurons. Both labelling and activation of enteric neurons was prevented by preincubation with the HuD antigen. Activation of enteric neurons was inhibited by the nicotinic receptor antagonists hexamethonium and dihydro-β-erythroidine and reduced by the P2X antagonist pyridoxal phosphate-6-azo (benzene-2,4-disulfonic acid (PPADS) but not by the 5-HT3 antagonist tropisetron or the N-type Ca-channel blocker ω-Conotoxin GVIA. Ca++ imaging experiments confirmed activation of enteric neurons but not enteric glia. These findings demonstrate a direct excitatory action of ANNA-1, in particular anti-HuD, on visceral sensory and enteric neurons, which involves nicotinic and P2X receptors. The results provide evidence for a novel link between nerve activation and symptom generation in patients with antibody-mediated gut dysfunction. PMID:27905561

  8. Utilization of similar mechanisms by Legionella pneumophila to parasitize two evolutionarily distant host cells, mammalian macrophages and protozoa.

    PubMed Central

    Gao, L Y; Harb, O S; Abu Kwaik, Y

    1997-01-01

    aflagellar, 12 were highly intolerant to a hyperosmotic medium, and one failed to grow in a minimal medium. Our data indicated that similar mechanisms are utilized by L. pneumophila to replicate within two evolutionarily distant hosts. Although some mechanisms of attachment to both host cells were similar, other distinct mechanisms were utilized by L. pneumophila to attach to A. polyphaga. Our data supported the hypothesis that preadaptation of L. pneumophila to infection of protozoa may play a major role in its ability to replicate within mammalian cells and cause Legionnaires' disease. PMID:9353059

  9. Molecular characterization of intestinal protozoa in two poor communities in the State of São Paulo, Brazil.

    PubMed

    David, Érica Boarato; Guimarães, Semíramis; de Oliveira, Ana Paula; Goulart de Oliveira-Sequeira, Teresa Cristina; Nogueira Bittencourt, Gabriela; Moraes Nardi, Ana Rita; Martins Ribolla, Paulo Eduardo; Bueno Franco, Regina Maura; Branco, Nilson; Tosini, Fabio; Bella, Antonino; Pozio, Edoardo; Cacciò, Simone M

    2015-02-15

    Several species of protozoa cause acute or chronic gastroenteritis in humans, worldwide. The burden of disease is particularly high among children living in developing areas of the world, where transmission is favored by lower hygienic standards and scarce availability of safe water. However, asymptomatic infection and polyparasitism are also commonly observed in poor settings. Here, we investigated the prevalence of intestinal protozoa in two small fishing villages, Porto Said (PS) and Santa Maria da Serra (SM), situated along the river Tietê in the State of São Paolo, Brazil. The villages lack basic public infrastructure and services, such as roads, public water supply, electricity and public health services. Multiple fecal samples were collected from 88 individuals in PS and from 38 individuals in SM, who were asymptomatic at the time of sampling and had no recent history of diarrheal disease. To gain insights into potential transmission routes, 49 dog fecal samples (38 from PS and 11 from SM) and 28 river water samples were also collected. All samples were tested by microscopy and PCR was used to genotype Giardia duodenalis, Blastocystis sp., Dientamoeba fragilis and Cryptosporidium spp. By molecular methods, the most common human parasite was Blastocystis sp. (prevalence, 45% in PS and 71% in SM), followed by D. fragilis (13.6% in PS, and 18.4% in SM) and G. duodenalis (18.2% in PS and 7.9% in SM); Cryptosporidium spp. were not detected. Sequence analysis revealed large genetic variation among Blastocystis samples, with subtypes (STs) 1 and 3 being predominant, and with the notable absence of ST4. Among G. duodenalis samples, assemblages A and B were detected in humans, whereas assemblages A, C and D were found in dogs. Finally, all D. fragilis samples from humans were genotype 1. A single dog was found infected with Cryptosporidium canis. River water samples were negative for the investigated parasites. This study showed a high carriage of intestinal

  10. Spatio-temporal variability of periphytic protozoa related to environment in the Niyang River, Tibet, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Haiping; Ye, Shaowen; Yang, Xuefeng; Guo, Chuanbo; Zhang, Huijuan; Fan, Liqing; Zhang, Liangsong; Sovan, Lek; Li, Zhongjie

    2016-06-01

    The Niyang River, a main tributary of the Yarlung Zangbo River, is an important and typical plateau river ecosystem in Tibet, China. At present, few studies have focused on its aquatic living resources and river ecology. In this study, the composition, abundance, and diversity of periphytic protozoa were investigated across four seasons from 2008 to 2009 to better understand their spatio-temporal patterns and relationship to the environment. Our investigation shows that periphytic protozoa in the Niyang River contained 15 genera, belonged to Tubulinea, Alveolata, Discosea and Rhizaria, Alveolata possessed most genera, up to nine, with highest share in abundance, exceeding 50%, Difflugia and Glaucoma were dominant genera. Moreover, four diversity indices of periphytic protozoa, including species richness, total abundance, Shannon-Wiener diversity index and Pielou's evenness index, displayed a significant descending trend as the seasons continued, in the order of winter, spring, summer and autumn; with a significant difference existing between winter and summer (or autumn) for Shannon-Wiener diversity index and species richness (P<0.05). Four of these diversity indices also presented a V-shaped pattern between the upper middle course of the Niyang River and the confluence of the Niyang River and Yarlung Zangbo River, with the lowest value occurred in the middle course of the Niyang River. However, no significant variation was found through the Niyang River (P>0.05). In addition, canonical correlation analysis (CCA) shows that the densities of Difflugia, Glaucomais, Enchelydium, Cyphoderia, and Enchelys correlate with water temperature, alkalinity, hardness, pH, and dissolved oxygen, respectively. Lastly, the relationship between periphytic protozoa diversity and the environmental factors of the Niyang River can be predicted using classification and regression trees (CART) annalysis, which suggests that the total abundance and Shannon-Wiener diversity index would be

  11. Spatio-temporal variability of periphytic protozoa related to environment in the Niyang River, Tibet, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Haiping; Ye, Shaowen; Yang, Xuefeng; Guo, Chuanbo; Zhang, Huijuan; Fan, Liqing; Zhang, Liangsong; Sovan, Lek; Li, Zhongjie

    2017-05-01

    The Niyang River, a main tributary of the Yarlung Zangbo River, is an important and typical plateau river ecosystem in Tibet, China. At present, few studies have focused on its aquatic living resources and river ecology. In this study, the composition, abundance, and diversity of periphytic protozoa were investigated across four seasons from 2008 to 2009 to better understand their spatio-temporal patterns and relationship to the environment. Our investigation shows that periphytic protozoa in the Niyang River contained 15 genera, belonged to Tubulinea, Alveolata, Discosea and Rhizaria, Alveolata possessed most genera, up to nine, with highest share in abundance, exceeding 50%, Difflugia and Glaucoma were dominant genera. Moreover, four diversity indices of periphytic protozoa, including species richness, total abundance, Shannon-Wiener diversity index and Pielou's evenness index, displayed a significant descending trend as the seasons continued, in the order of winter, spring, summer and autumn; with a significant difference existing between winter and summer (or autumn) for Shannon-Wiener diversity index and species richness ( P<0.05). Four of these diversity indices also presented a V-shaped pattern between the upper middle course of the Niyang River and the confluence of the Niyang River and Yarlung Zangbo River, with the lowest value occurred in the middle course of the Niyang River. However, no significant variation was found through the Niyang River ( P>0.05). In addition, canonical correlation analysis (CCA) shows that the densities of Difflugia, Glaucomais, Enchelydium, Cyphoderia, and Enchelys correlate with water temperature, alkalinity, hardness, pH, and dissolved oxygen, respectively. Lastly, the relationship between periphytic protozoa diversity and the environmental factors of the Niyang River can be predicted using classification and regression trees (CART) annalysis, which suggests that the total abundance and Shannon-Wiener diversity index would be

  12. Enteric Neurobiology: Discoveries and Directions.

    PubMed

    Wood, Jackie D

    Discovery and documentation of noncholinergic-nonadrenergic neurotransmission in the enteric nervous system started a revolution in mechanisms of neural control of the digestive tract that continues into a twenty-first century era of translational gastroenterology, which is now firmly embedded in the term, neurogastroenterology. This chapter, on Enteric Neurobiology: Discoveries and Directions, tracks the step-by-step advances in enteric neuronal electrophysiology and synaptic behavior and progresses to the higher order functions of central pattern generators, hard wired synaptic circuits and libraries of neural programs in the brain-in-the-gut that underlie the several different patterns of motility and secretory behaviors that occur in the specialized, serially-connected compartments extending from the esophagus to the anus.

  13. Environmental Enteric Dysfunction in Children: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Syed, Sana; Ali, Asad; Duggan, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    Diarrheal diseases are a major cause of childhood death in resource-poor countries, killing about 760, 000 children under age 5 each year. While deaths due to diarrhea have declined dramatically, high rates of stunting and malnutrition have persisted. Environmental Enteric Dysfunction (EED) is a subclinical condition caused by constant fecal-oral contamination with resultant intestinal inflammation and villous blunting. These histological changes were first described in the 1960’s but the clinical impact of EED is only just being recognized in the context of failure of nutritional interventions and oral vaccines in resource-poor countries. We review the existing literature regarding the underlying causes of and potential interventions for EED and poor growth in children, highlighting the epidemiology, clinical and histologic classification of the entity, as well as discussing novel biomarkers and possible therapies. Future research priorities are also discussed. PMID:26974416

  14. Dientamoeba fragilis, One of the Neglected Intestinal Protozoa.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Lynne S

    2016-09-01

    Dientamoeba fragilis is a single-celled protozoan, closely related to the trichomonads. Reported worldwide as causing human gastrointestinal symptoms, D. fragilis is very common and is second only to Blastocystis spp. Dientamoebiasis equals or exceeds the incidence of giardiasis. This minireview includes diagnostic options, clinical relevance, therapy, an animal model, the confirmed cyst stage, and sequencing data. The development of a rodent model, fulfilling Koch's postulates, and the confirmation of a cyst stage have clarified transmission routes, including fecal-oral transmission. The prevalence of D. fragilis varies between 0% to over 82%; results depend on the geographic location, group studied, and diagnostic methods used.

  15. Dientamoeba fragilis, One of the Neglected Intestinal Protozoa

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Dientamoeba fragilis is a single-celled protozoan, closely related to the trichomonads. Reported worldwide as causing human gastrointestinal symptoms, D. fragilis is very common and is second only to Blastocystis spp. Dientamoebiasis equals or exceeds the incidence of giardiasis. This minireview includes diagnostic options, clinical relevance, therapy, an animal model, the confirmed cyst stage, and sequencing data. The development of a rodent model, fulfilling Koch's postulates, and the confirmation of a cyst stage have clarified transmission routes, including fecal-oral transmission. The prevalence of D. fragilis varies between 0% to over 82%; results depend on the geographic location, group studied, and diagnostic methods used. PMID:27053676

  16. Endovascular Management of Acute Enteric Bleeding from Pancreas Transplant

    SciTech Connect

    Semiz-Oysu, Aslihan; Cwikiel, Wojciech

    2007-04-15

    Arterioenteric fistula is a rare but serious complication of enteric drained pancreas transplant, which may lead to massive gastrointestinal bleeding. We present 3 patients with failed enteric drained pancreas transplants and massive gastrointestinal bleeding secondary to arterioenteric fistula. One patient was treated by embolization and the 2 others by stent graft placement. Bleeding was successfully controlled in all cases, at follow up of 5 days, 8 months, and 12 months, respectively. One patient died 24 days after embolization, of unknown causes.

  17. [Enteral nutrition in burn patients].

    PubMed

    Pereira, J L; Garrido, M; Gómez-Cía, T; Serrera, J L; Franco, A; Pumar, A; Relimpio, F; Astorga, R; García-Luna, P P

    1992-01-01

    Nutritional support plays an important role in the treatment of patients with burns. Due to the severe hypercatabolism that develops in these patients, oral support is insufficient in most cases, and this makes it essential to initiate artificial nutritional support (either enteral or parenteral). Enteral nutrition is more physiological than parenteral, and data exist which show that in patients with burns, enteral nutrition exercises a protective effect on the intestine and may even reduce the hypermetabolic response in these patients. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the effectiveness and tolerance of enteral nutritional support with a hypercaloric, hyperproteic diet with a high content of branched amino acids in the nutritional support of patients suffering from burns. The study included 12 patients (8 males and 4 females), admitted to the Burns Unit. Average age was 35 +/- 17 years (range: 21-85 years). The percentage of body surface affected by the burns was 10% in two cases, between 10-30% in three cases, between 30-50% in five cases and over 50% in two cases. Initiation of the enteral nutrition was between twenty-four hours and seven days after the burn. The patients were kept in the unit until they were discharged, and the average time spent in the unit was 31.5 days (range: 17-63 days). Total energetic requirements were calculated based on Harris-Benedict, with a variable aggression factor depending on the body surface burned, which varied from 2,000 and 4,000 cal day. Nitrogenous balance was determined on a daily basis, and plasmatic levels of total proteins, albumin and prealbumin on a weekly basis. There was a significant difference between the prealbumin values at the initiation and finalization of the enteral nutrition (9.6 +/- 2.24 mg/dl compared with 19.75 +/- 5.48 mg/dl; p < 0.001). The nitrogenous balance improved, changing from -5.4 in the second week to positive values by the fourth and fifth weeks of treatment. Tolerance to the enteral

  18. Indiscretion enteritis. A Rabelaisian syndrome.

    PubMed

    Robin, E D; Collins, J; Burke, C

    1986-12-01

    A 76-year-old man had small bowel obstruction and organic small bowel disease following a series of bizarre massive gustatory insults that involved food, medications, and mega-mineral-vitamin supplements. Intestinal obstruction required partial small bowel resection. The dietary indiscretions resulted in severe enteritis (indiscretion enteritis). The sequence has been termed a Rabelaisian syndrome after the great French writer and physician, Francois Rabelais, who vividly described bizarre gustatory habits. Gut injury may result from unwise oral intake of various foods and mineral supplements.

  19. [Viral hepatitis of enteric origin].

    PubMed

    Debord, T; Buisson, Y

    1998-01-01

    Hepatitis viruses of oral-fecal origin are responsible for a high morbidity and mortality throughout the world, even if they never result in chronic hepatitis. Two viruses, the virus of hepatitis A (VHA) and of hepatitis E (VHE) are at present the cause of severe viral hepatitis of enteric origin. Water is the principle vector in the spread of these viruses. However, the epidemiological aspects vary according to the pathogenic agent. VHA is excreted in a highly concentrated form in the feces for a relatively short period of time. Since it resists in an exterior environment, the virus remains infectious for a long time. VHE is excreted for a short period of time and in low concentrations. The viral particles are fragile in vitro and their variability in the environment is little known. The possible reservoir role of certain animals has been envisaged. Epidemics arise especially in countries suffering from poor hygiene and massive water pollution. Hepatitis A should no longer be considered a benign disease of childhood. The progress made in hygiene and economic development in industrialized countries have made contacts with this virus scarce, rendering the populations more receptive to it and epidemics more widespread. When the sickness occurs later in life, infection is more often symptomatic and can be serious, resulting sometimes long-term indisposition. Hepatitis E has a vast distribution throughout the world and manifests itself either in epidemic or endemic-sporadic form in many poor countries. In developed countries, it comes about mostly as a result of imported pathology, even if there exists a "substratum" of infection in these areas. The main clinical aspects, such as we were able to study them in 39 cases of military men from Tchad, Guyana and Somalia, are comparable to those of hepatitis A. The reasons for the particular gravity of symptoms in pregnant women are unknown. These affections have no specific treatment. In the field of prevention, vaccination

  20. Role of interferon in resistance and immunity to protozoa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sonnenfeld, G.; Degee, A. L. W.; Mansfield, J. M.; Newsome, A. L.; Arnold, R. R.

    1985-01-01

    Production of interferon (I) in response to protozoan infection, and the interferon-mediated inhibition of parasite replication were studied in order to determine if these effects may be related to immunologic-mediated resistance of the hosts. Two extracellular parasites-Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense and Naegleria fowlei were used. Upon infection with the trypanosome, only resistant strains of mice produced I. An early peak of alpha/beta I is followed by appearance of gamma I, which coincided with antibody production and a drop in parasitemia. In case of the amoeba, pretreatment of its suspension with alpha/beta I inhibits its replication in vitro, and appears to protect mice from the infection and the disease. It is proposed that production of interferon, with its regulatory effect on the immune responses, may play a major role in regulating the processes of protozoan-caused diseases.

  1. DNA damage and repair in Stylonychia lemnae (Ciliata, Protozoa)

    SciTech Connect

    Ammermann, D.

    1988-05-01

    Irradiation with X rays, UV irradiation after incorporation of bromodeoxyuridine (BU) into the DNA, and cis-platinum (cis-Pt) treatment each cause the loss of micronuclei of Stylonychia lemnae while the macronuclei are not severely affected. The abilities of both nuclei to repair DNA were investigated. Unscheduled DNA synthesis could not be demonstrated after X-ray irradiation, but it was found after treatment with BU/UV and cis-Pt in macro- and micronuclei. The extent of the repair process in the micro- and macronuclei was alike, as indicated by grain counts of (6-/sup 3/H)thymidine-treated cells. One reason for the different sensitivity of both nuclei to DNA-damaging treatment may be the different number of gene copies in the macro- and micronuclei.

  2. Role of interferon in resistance and immunity to protozoa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sonnenfeld, G.; Degee, A. L. W.; Mansfield, J. M.; Newsome, A. L.; Arnold, R. R.

    1985-01-01

    Production of interferon (I) in response to protozoan infection, and the interferon-mediated inhibition of parasite replication were studied in order to determine if these effects may be related to immunologic-mediated resistance of the hosts. Two extracellular parasites-Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense and Naegleria fowlei were used. Upon infection with the trypanosome, only resistant strains of mice produced I. An early peak of alpha/beta I is followed by appearance of gamma I, which coincided with antibody production and a drop in parasitemia. In case of the amoeba, pretreatment of its suspension with alpha/beta I inhibits its replication in vitro, and appears to protect mice from the infection and the disease. It is proposed that production of interferon, with its regulatory effect on the immune responses, may play a major role in regulating the processes of protozoan-caused diseases.

  3. Enteral Tube Feeding and Pneumonia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gray, David Sheridan; Kimmel, David

    2006-01-01

    To determine the effects of enteral tube feeding on the incidence of pneumonia, we performed a retrospective review of all clients at our institution who had gastrostomy or jejunostomy tubes placed over a 10-year period. Ninety-three subjects had a history of pneumonia before feeding tube insertion. Eighty had gastrostomy and 13, jejunostomy…

  4. Enteral Tube Feeding and Pneumonia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gray, David Sheridan; Kimmel, David

    2006-01-01

    To determine the effects of enteral tube feeding on the incidence of pneumonia, we performed a retrospective review of all clients at our institution who had gastrostomy or jejunostomy tubes placed over a 10-year period. Ninety-three subjects had a history of pneumonia before feeding tube insertion. Eighty had gastrostomy and 13, jejunostomy…

  5. Molecular and phylogenetic characterization of syntaxin genes from parasitic protozoa.

    PubMed

    Dacks, Joel B; Doolittle, W Ford

    2004-08-01

    Vesicular transport is an integral process in eukaryotic cells and the syntaxins, a member of the SNARE protein superfamily, are a critical piece of the vesicular transport machinery. We have obtained syntaxin homologues from diverse protozoan parasites (including Entamoeba, Giardia, Trichomonas and Trypanosoma), determined the paralogue affinity of the homologues by molecular phylogenetics and compared functionally critical amino acid sites identified in other syntaxins. Surprisingly, three sequences deviate at the signature glutamine residue position, conserved in all previously identified syntaxin homologues. It is known that, despite conserved structure and function of both the syntaxins and the proteins of the regulatory SM superfamily, the various syntaxin paralogues bind their respective SM partners at different regions of the syntaxin molecule. These sites of interactions have been identified down to the individual residues. The pattern of conservation at these residues, in our evolutionarily diverse sampling of syntaxin paralogues, is therefore used to gain further insight into the interaction of these proteins. Phylogenetic analysis confirms and extends previous conclusions that the syntaxin families are present in diverse eukaryotes and that the syntaxin sub-families diverged early in eukaryotic evolution. This result is expanded with the inclusion of new homologues for previously sampled taxa, newly sampled taxa, and newly sampled syntaxin sub-families. Because of their integral role in membrane trafficking, the syntaxin genes represent a valuable potential molecular marker for the experimental study of the endomembrane system of disease-causing protists.

  6. [Effects of adding straw carbon source to root knot nematode diseased soil on soil microbial biomass and protozoa abundance].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Si-Hui; Lian, Jian-Hong; Cao, Zhi-Ping; Zhao, Li

    2013-06-01

    A field experiment with successive planting of tomato was conducted to study the effects of adding different amounts of winter wheat straw (2.08 g x kg(-1), 1N; 4.16 g x kg(-1), 2N; and 8.32 g x kg(-1), 4N) to the soil seriously suffered from root knot nematode disease on the soil microbial biomass and protozoa abundance. Adding straw carbon source had significant effects on the contents of soil microbial biomass carbon (MBC) and microbial biomass nitrogen (MBN) and the abundance of soil protozoa, which all decreased in the order of 4N > 2N > 1N > CK. The community structure of soil protozoa also changed significantly under straw addition. In the treatments with straw addition, the average proportion of fagellate, amoeba, and ciliates accounted for 36.0%, 59.5%, and 4.5% of the total protozoa, respectively. Under the same adding amounts of wheat straw, there was an increase in the soil MBC and MBN contents, MBC/MBN ratio, and protozoa abundance with increasing cultivation period.

  7. Effects of Rumen Protozoa of Brahman Heifers and Nitrate on Fermentation and In vitro Methane Production.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, S H; Li, L; Hegarty, R S

    2016-06-01

    Two experiments were conducted assessing the effects of presence or absence of rumen protozoa and dietary nitrate addition on rumen fermentation characteristics and in vitro methane production in Brahman heifers. The first experiment assessed changes in rumen fermentation pattern and in vitro methane production post-refaunation and the second experiment investigated whether addition of nitrate to the incubation would give rise to methane mitigation additional to that contributed by defaunation. Ten Brahman heifers were progressively adapted to a diet containing 4.5% coconut oil distillate for 18 d and then all heifers were defaunated using sodium 1-(2-sulfonatooxyethoxy) dodecane (Empicol). After 15 d, the heifers were given a second dose of Empicol. Fifteen days after the second dosing, all heifers were allocated to defaunated or refaunated groups by stratified randomisation, and the experiment commenced (d 0). On d 0, an oral dose of rumen fluid collected from unrelated faunated cattle was used to inoculate 5 heifers and form a refaunated group so that the effects of re-establishment of protozoa on fermentation characteristics could be investigated. Samples of rumen fluid collected from each animal using oesophageal intubation before feeding on d 0, 7, 14, and 21 were incubated for in vitro methane production. On d 35, 2% nitrate (as NaNO3) was included in in vitro incubations to test for additivity of nitrate and absence of protozoa effects on fermentation and methane production. It was concluded that increasing protozoal numbers were associated with increased methane production in refaunated heifers 7, 14, and 21 d after refaunation. Methane production rate was significantly higher from refaunated heifers than from defaunated heifers 35 d after refaunation. Concentration and proportions of major volatile fatty acids, however, were not affected by protozoal treatments. There is scope for further reducing methane output through combining defaunation and dietary

  8. Effects of Rumen Protozoa of Brahman Heifers and Nitrate on Fermentation and In vitro Methane Production

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, S. H.; Li, L.; Hegarty, R. S.

    2016-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted assessing the effects of presence or absence of rumen protozoa and dietary nitrate addition on rumen fermentation characteristics and in vitro methane production in Brahman heifers. The first experiment assessed changes in rumen fermentation pattern and in vitro methane production post-refaunation and the second experiment investigated whether addition of nitrate to the incubation would give rise to methane mitigation additional to that contributed by defaunation. Ten Brahman heifers were progressively adapted to a diet containing 4.5% coconut oil distillate for 18 d and then all heifers were defaunated using sodium 1-(2-sulfonatooxyethoxy) dodecane (Empicol). After 15 d, the heifers were given a second dose of Empicol. Fifteen days after the second dosing, all heifers were allocated to defaunated or refaunated groups by stratified randomisation, and the experiment commenced (d 0). On d 0, an oral dose of rumen fluid collected from unrelated faunated cattle was used to inoculate 5 heifers and form a refaunated group so that the effects of re-establishment of protozoa on fermentation characteristics could be investigated. Samples of rumen fluid collected from each animal using oesophageal intubation before feeding on d 0, 7, 14, and 21 were incubated for in vitro methane production. On d 35, 2% nitrate (as NaNO3) was included in in vitro incubations to test for additivity of nitrate and absence of protozoa effects on fermentation and methane production. It was concluded that increasing protozoal numbers were associated with increased methane production in refaunated heifers 7, 14, and 21 d after refaunation. Methane production rate was significantly higher from refaunated heifers than from defaunated heifers 35 d after refaunation. Concentration and proportions of major volatile fatty acids, however, were not affected by protozoal treatments. There is scope for further reducing methane output through combining defaunation and dietary

  9. Ruminal bacteria and protozoa composition, digestibility, and amino acid profile determined by multiple hydrolysis times.

    PubMed

    Fessenden, S W; Hackmann, T J; Ross, D A; Foskolos, A; Van Amburgh, M E

    2017-09-01

    Microbial samples from 4 independent experiments in lactating dairy cattle were obtained and analyzed for nutrient composition, AA digestibility, and AA profile after multiple hydrolysis times ranging from 2 to 168 h. Similar bacterial and protozoal isolation techniques were used for all isolations. Omasal bacteria and protozoa samples were analyzed for AA digestibility using a new in vitro technique. Multiple time point hydrolysis and least squares nonlinear regression were used to determine the AA content of omasal bacteria and protozoa, and equivalency comparisons were made against single time point hydrolysis. Formalin was used in 1 experiment, which negatively affected AA digestibility and likely limited the complete release of AA during acid hydrolysis. The mean AA digestibility was 87.8 and 81.6% for non-formalin-treated bacteria and protozoa, respectively. Preservation of microbe samples in formalin likely decreased recovery of several individual AA. Results from the multiple time point hydrolysis indicated that Ile, Val, and Met hydrolyzed at a slower rate compared with other essential AA. Singe time point hydrolysis was found to be nonequivalent to multiple time point hydrolysis when considering biologically important changes in estimated microbial AA profiles. Several AA, including Met, Ile, and Val, were underpredicted using AA determination after a single 24-h hydrolysis. Models for predicting postruminal supply of AA might need to consider potential bias present in postruminal AA flow literature when AA determinations are performed after single time point hydrolysis and when using formalin as a preservative for microbial samples. Copyright © 2017 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Eukaryotic inhibitors or activators elicit responses to chemosensory compounds by ruminal isotrichid and entodiniomorphid protozoa.

    PubMed

    Diaz, H L; Barr, K N; Godden, K R; Plank, J E; Zapata, I; Schappacher, A N; Wick, M P; Firkins, J L

    2014-01-01

    Our objectives were to evaluate potential signaling pathways regulating rumen protozoal chemotaxis using eukaryotic inhibitors potentially coordinated with phagocytosis as assessed by fluorescent bead uptake kinetics. Wortmannin (inhibitor of phosphoinositide 3-kinase), insulin, genistein (purported inhibitor of a receptor tyrosine kinase), U73122 (inhibitor of phospholipase C), and sodium nitroprusside (Snp, nitric oxide generator, activating protein kinase G) were preincubated with mixed ruminal protozoa for 3h before assessing uptake of fluorescent beads and chemosensory behavior to glucose, peptides, and their combination; peptides were also combined with guanosine triphosphate (GTP; a chemorepellent). Entodiniomorphids were chemoattracted to both glucose and peptides, but chemoattraction to glucose was increased by Snp and wortmannin without effect on chemoattraction to peptides. Rate of fluorescent bead uptake by an Entodinium caudatum culture decreased when beads were added simultaneously with feeding and incubated with wortmannin (statistical interaction). Wortmannin also decreased the proportion of mixed entodiniomorphids consuming beads. Isotrichid protozoa exhibited greater chemotaxis to glucose but, compared with entodiniomorphids, were chemorepelled to peptides. Wortmannin increased chemotaxis by entodiniomorphids but decreased chemotaxis to glucose by isotrichids. Motility assays documented that Snp and wortmannin decreased net swimming speed (distance among 2 points per second) but not total swimming speed (including turns) by entodiniomorphids. Wortmannin decreased both net and total swimming behavior in isotrichids. Results mechanistically explain the isotrichid migratory ecology to rapidly take up newly ingested sugars and subsequent sedimentation back to the ventral reticulorumen. In contrast, entodiniomorphids apparently integrate cellular motility with feeding behavior to consume small particulates and thereby stay associated and pass with the

  11. Current and future perspectives on the chemotherapy of the parasitic protozoa Trichomonas vaginalis and Entamoeba histolytica.

    PubMed

    Moya, Ignace A; Su, Zhengding; Honek, John F

    2009-07-01

    Trichomonas vaginalis and Entamoeba histolytica are clinically important protozoa that affect humans. T. vaginalis produces sexually transmitted infections and E. histolytica is the causative agent of amebic dysentery. Metronidazole, a compound first used to treat T. vaginalis in 1959, is still the main drug used worldwide to treat these pathogens. It is essential to find new biochemical differences in these organisms that could be exploited to develop new antiprotozoal chemotherapeutics. Recent findings associated with T. vaginalis and E. histolytica biochemistry and host-pathogen interactions are surveyed. Knowledge concerning the biochemistry of these parasites is serving to form the foundation for the development of new approaches to control these important human pathogens.

  12. Long-term Spatial Distribution Patterns of Protozoa in Connected Microhabitats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taghon, G. L.; Tuorto, S. J.

    2016-02-01

    Studies of microbial ecosystems usually assume habitat homogeneity. Recent research, however, indicates that habitat structure varies at millimeter scales and that this patchiness affects abundance and behavior of microbes. In this study, two species of ciliated protozoa were maintained, together, for multiple generations in microfluidic devices consisting of arrays of interconnected microhabitats with differing resource availability. The species differed in their population dynamics and tendency to disperse among microhabitats. Both species coexisted for over 45 days, and their coexistence likely resulted from habitat selection at millimeter scales. We demonstrate that it is not only possible, but imperative, that detailed ecological phenomena of microbial systems be studied at the relevant spatial and temporal scales.

  13. Body-size spectra of biofilm-dwelling protozoa and their seasonal shift in coastal ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Lu; Xu, Guangjian; Wang, Zheng; Xu, Henglong

    2016-10-01

    Community-based assessment of protozoa is usually performed at a taxon-dependent resolution. As an inherent 'taxon-free' trait, however, body-size spectrum has proved to be a highly informative indicator to summarize the functional structure of a community in both community research and monitoring programs in aquatic ecosystems. To demonstrate the relationships between the taxon-free resolution of protozoan communities and water conditions, the body-size spectra of biofilm-dwelling protozoa and their seasonal shift and environmental drivers were explored based on an annual dataset collected monthly from coastal waters of the Yellow Sea, northern China. Body sizes were calculated in equivalent spherical diameter (ESD). Among a total of 8 body-size ranks, S2 (19-27μm), S3 (28-36μm), S4 (37-50μm) and S5 (53-71μm) were the top four levels in frequency of occurrence, while rank S1 (13-17μm), S2 and S4 were the dominant levels in abundance. These dominants showed a clear seasonal succession: S2/S4 (spring)→S2/S4 (summer)→S4 (autumn)→S2 (winter) in frequency of occurrence; S1 (spring)→S4 (summer)→S2 (autumn)→S1 (winter) in abundance. Bootstrapped average analysis showed a clear seasonal shift in body-size spectra of the protozoa during a 1-year cycle, and the best-matching analysis demonstrated that the temporal variations in frequency of occurrence and abundance were significantly correlated with water temperature, pH, dissolved oxygen (DO), alone or in combination with chemical oxygen demand (COD) and nutrients. Thus, the body-size spectra of biofilm-dwelling protozoa were seasonally shaped and might be used as a time and cost efficient bioindicator of water quality in marine ecosystems. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  14. [Enteral Nutritional Support in Gastrointestinal and Liver Diseases].

    PubMed

    Kim, Eun Ran

    2015-06-01

    Nutritional support is important because malnutrition is a major contributor to increased morbidity and mortality, decreased quality of life, increased length of hospital stay, and higher healthcare costs. Patients with gastrointestinal disease are at an increased risk of nutritional deterioration due to therapeutic dietary restriction, fasting for the diagnostic tests, loss of appetite due to anorexia or altered nutritional requirement caused by the disease itself. Therefore, it is important that gastroenterologists are aware of the nutritional status of patients and plan a treatment strategy considering patient's nutritional status. Enteral nutrition is preferred to parenteral nutrition as it is more physiologic, has fewer complications, help to prevent mucosal atrophy and maintain gut barrier function, which decrease intestinal bacterial translocation. Hence, enteral nutrition has been considered to be the most effective route for nutritional support. In this article, we will review enteral nutrition (oral nutritional supplements, enteral tube feeding) as a treatment for the patients with gastrointestinal, liver and pancreatic disease at risk of malnutrition.

  15. Strategies for design and application of enteric viral vaccines.

    PubMed

    Chattha, Kuldeep S; Roth, James A; Saif, Linda J

    2015-01-01

    Enteric viral infections in domestic animals cause significant economic losses. The recent emergence of virulent enteric coronaviruses [porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV)] in North America and Asia, for which no vaccines are available, remains a challenge for the global swine industry. Vaccination strategies against rotavirus and coronavirus (transmissible gastroenteritis virus) infections are reviewed. These vaccination principles are applicable against emerging enteric infections such as PEDV. Maternal vaccines to induce lactogenic immunity, and their transmission to suckling neonates via colostrum and milk, are critical for early passive protection. Subsequently, in weaned animals, oral vaccines incorporating novel mucosal adjuvants (e.g., vitamin A, probiotics) may provide active protection when maternal immunity wanes. Understanding intestinal and systemic immune responses to experimental rotavirus and transmissible gastroenteritis virus vaccines and infection in pigs provides a basis and model for the development of safe and effective vaccines for young animals and children against established and emerging enteric infections.

  16. Enteric viruses in molluscan shellfish.

    PubMed

    Gabrieli, Rosanna; Macaluso, Alessia; Lanni, Luigi; Saccares, Stefano; Di Giamberardino, Fabiola; Cencioni, Barbara; Petrinca, Anna Rita; Divizia, Maurizio

    2007-10-01

    One hundred and thirty-seven bivalves were collected for environmental monitoring and the market; all the samples were analysed by RT-PCR test. Bacteriological counts meeting the European Union shellfish criteria were reached by 69.5% of all the samples, whereas the overall positive values for enteric virus presence were: 25.5%, 18.2%, 8.0% and 2.1% for Rotavirus, Astrovirus, Enteroviruses, Norovirus, respectively. Mussels appear to be the most contaminated bivalves, with 64.8% of positive samples, 55.7% and 22.7% respectively for clams and oysters, whereas in the bivalves collected for human consumption 50.7% were enteric virus positive, as compared to 56.4% of the samples collected for growing-area classification. The overall positive sample was 54.0%.

  17. Enteral Nutrition in Critical Care

    PubMed Central

    Seron-Arbeloa, Carlos; Zamora-Elson, Monica; Labarta-Monzon, Lorenzo; Mallor-Bonet, Tomas

    2013-01-01

    There is a consensus that nutritional support, which must be provided to patients in intensive care, influences their clinical outcome. Malnutrition is associated in critically ill patients with impaired immune function and impaired ventilator drive, leading to prolonged ventilator dependence and increased infectious morbidity and mortality. Enteral nutrition is an active therapy that attenuates the metabolic response of the organism to stress and favorably modulates the immune system. It is less expensive than parenteral nutrition and is preferred in most cases because of less severe complications and better patient outcomes, including infections, and hospital cost and length of stay. The aim of this work was to perform a review of the use of enteral nutrition in critically ill patients. PMID:23390469

  18. Radiation enteritis and radiation scoliosis

    SciTech Connect

    Shah, M.; Eng, K.; Engler, G.L.

    1980-09-01

    Any patient with radiation scoliosis should be suspected of having a visceral lesion as well. Chronic radiation enteritis may be manifested by intestinal obstruction, fistulas, perforation, and hemorrhage. Intestinal obstruction is the most common complication, and must be differentiated from postoperative cast or from spinal-traction syndrome. Obstruction that does not respond promptly to conservative measures must be treated surgically. Irradiated bowel is ischemic, and necrosis with spontaneous perforation can only be avoided with early diagnosis and surgical intervention.

  19. Enteric Viral Surrogate Reduction by Chitosan.

    PubMed

    Davis, Robert; Zivanovic, Svetlana; Davidson, P Michael; D'Souza, Doris H

    2015-12-01

    Enteric viruses are a major problem in the food industry, especially as human noroviruses are the leading cause of nonbacterial gastroenteritis. Chitosan is known to be effective against some enteric viral surrogates, but more detailed studies are needed to determine the precise application variables. The main objective of this work was to determine the effect of increasing chitosan concentration (0.7-1.5% w/v) on the cultivable enteric viral surrogates, feline calicivirus (FCV-F9), murine norovirus (MNV-1), and bacteriophages (MS2 and phiX174) at 37 °C. Two chitosans (53 and 222 kDa) were dissolved in water (53 kDa) or 1% acetic acid (222 KDa) at 0.7-1.5%, and were then mixed with each virus to obtain a titer of ~5 log plaque-forming units (PFU)/mL. These mixtures were incubated for 3 h at 37 °C. Controls included untreated viruses in phosphate-buffered saline and viruses were enumerated by plaque assays. The 53 kDa chitosan at the concentrations tested reduced FCV-F9, MNV-1, MS2, and phi X174 by 2.6-2.9, 0.1-0.4, 2.6-2.8, and 0.7-0.9 log PFU/mL, respectively, while reduction by 222 kDa chitosan was 2.2-2.4, 0.8-1.0, 2.6-5.2, and 0.5-0.8 log PFU/mL, respectively. The 222 kDa chitosan at 1 and 0.7% w/v in acetic acid (pH 4.5) caused the greatest reductions of MS2 by 5.2 logs and 2.6 logs, respectively. Overall, chitosan treatments showed the greatest reduction of MS2, followed by FCV-F9, phi X174, and MNV-1. These two chitosans may contribute to the reduction of enteric viruses at the concentrations tested but would require use of other hurdles to eliminate food borne viruses.

  20. Enteric fever in India: current scenario and future directions.

    PubMed

    Divyashree, S; Nabarro, L E B; Veeraraghavan, B; Rupali, P

    2016-10-01

    Enteric fever is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in tropical areas worldwide. The Indian subcontinent bears the brunt of the disease, both in terms of absolute case numbers and drug-resistant strains. Recent phylogenetic studies suggest that the multidrug-resistant clade H58 originated in India and subsequently expanded through Asia and Africa. In Africa, it caused unrecognised outbreaks in areas previously considered free of the disease. In this study, we discuss the current status of enteric fever in India, the factors preventing its control and its future directions in this rapidly developing nation. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. An approach to analyzing environmental drivers to spatial variations in annual distribution of periphytic protozoa in coastal ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Xu, Guangjian; Xu, Henglong

    2016-03-15

    The environmental drivers to the spatial variation in annual distribution were studied based on an annual dataset of periphytic protozoa using multivariate approaches. Samples were monthly collected at four stations within a pollution gradient in coastal waters of the Yellow Sea, northern China during a 1-year period. The second-stage (2STAGE) analyses showed that the internal patterns of the annual distribution were changed along the pollution gradient in terms of abundance. The dominant species represented different succession dynamics among four sampling stations during a 1-year cycle. Best matching analysis demonstrated that the spatial variations in annual distribution of the protozoa were significantly correlated with ammonium nitrogen (NH4-N), alone or in combination with salinity and dissolved oxygen (DO). Based on the results, we suggest that the nutrients, salinity and DO may be the main drivers to shape the spatial variations in annual distribution of periphytic protozoa.

  2. Calcium Montmorillonite-based dietary supplement attenuates Necrotic Enteritis induced by Eimeria maxima and Clostridium perfringens in broilers

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    We provide the first description of Dietary Supplement of sorbent minerals attenuates Necrotic Enteritis Induced by Eimeria maxima and Clostridium perfringens in Broilers. Necrotic enteritis (NE) is a poultry disease caused by Clostridium perfringens and characterized by severe intestinal necrosis....

  3. DEVELOPMENT OF HOMOLOGOUS VIRAL INTERNAL CONTROLS FOR USE IN RT-PCR ASSAYS OF WATERBORNE ENTERIC VIRUSES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Enteric viruses often contaminate water sources causing frequent outbreaks of gastroenteritis. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assays are commonly used for detection of human enteric viruses in environmental and drinking water samples. RT-PCR provides ...

  4. DEVELOPMENT OF HOMOLOGOUS VIRAL INTERNAL CONTROLS FOR USE IN RT-PCR ASSAYS OF WATERBORNE ENTERIC VIRUSES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Enteric viruses often contaminate water sources causing frequent outbreaks of gastroenteritis. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assays are commonly used for detection of human enteric viruses in environmental and drinking water samples. RT-PCR provides ...

  5. Cyclophosphamide-associated enteritis: A rare association with severe enteritis

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Linda S; Cameron, Karla; Papaluca, Tim; Basnayake, Chamara; Jackett, Louise; McKelvie, Penelope; Goodman, David; Demediuk, Barbara; Bell, Sally J; Thompson, Alexander J

    2016-01-01

    Cyclophosphamide is a potent cytotoxic agent used in many clinical settings. The main risks of cyclophosphamide therapy include hematological disorders, infertility, hemorrhagic cystitis and malignancies. Gastrointestinal side effects reported to date are often non-specific and not severe. We present the first case of a fatal small bowel enteritis and pan-colitis which appears to be associated with cyclophosphamide. We aim to raise the readers’ awareness of this significant adverse event to facilitate clinical suspicion and early recognition in potential future cases. PMID:27818600

  6. Role of triamcinolone in radiation enteritis management

    PubMed Central

    Cetin, Eren; Ozturk, Aysen Sevgi; Orhun, Haluk; Ulger, Sukran

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the role of triamcinolone in the management of acute and chronic enteritis caused by pelvic radiotherapy. METHODS: Twenty-eight patients with rectum adenocarcinoma or endometrium adenocarcinoma were studied. We compared the results of 14 patients treated with injected triamcinolone acetonide (TA) with those of 14 patients who were not treated with TA. For the TA group, 40 mg of TA was injected intramuscularly on the 1st, 11th and 21st d of radiotherapy; the control group received no injections. All of the study participants had a median age of 65 years, had undergone postoperative radiotherapy and were evaluated weekly using Radiation Therapy Oncology Group and the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Acute Morbidity Score Criteria, and complete blood counts for every 10 d. RESULTS: Triamcinolone was found to effectively prevent and treat radiation-induced acute gastrointestinal (enteritis) and genitourinary (cystitis) side effects (P = 0.022 and P = 0.023). For the lower GI side effect follow up, 11 patients in the control group had Grade 2 toxicity and 3 patients had Grade 1 toxicity. In the TA group, 5 patients had Grade 2 toxicity and 9 patients had Grade 1 toxicity. For the genitourinary system side effect follow up, 4 patients had Grade 2 toxicity and 6 patients had Grade 1 toxicity. Additionally, 2 patients had Grade 2 toxicity and 2 patients had Grade 1 toxicity. The neutrophil counts did not differ between the TA group and the control group. There was no meaningful difference between age groups and primary cancers. At the 12th mo of follow up, there were no differences between groups for chronic side effects. CONCLUSION: Triamcinolone is a moderately potent steroid, that is inexpensive and has a good safety profile. It would be beneficial for reducing medical expenses related to treatment of radiation induced enteritis. PMID:24764671

  7. Occurrence of gastrointestinal protozoa in Didelphis albiventris (opossum) in the central region of Rio Grande do Sul state.

    PubMed

    Zanette, Régis A; da Silva, Aleksandro S; Lunardi, Fabiane; Santurio, Janio M; Monteiro, Silvia G

    2008-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the parasitism by gastrointestinal protozoa in Didelphis albiventris (opossum) in the central region of Rio Grande do Sul state. Fecal samples from six free living opossums were collected for research of parasites. Samples were analyzed by the centrifugal-flotation method with zinc sulfate and parasites were identified microscopically based on (oo)cyst size and morphology. Cysts of Giardia sp. and oocysts of Cryptosporidium sp. and Eimeria sp. were observed in four of the six opossums. All four infected marsupials showed mild infection by protozoa. This is the first report of Giardia sp. in D. albiventris.

  8. Study of the effect of presence or absence of protozoa on rumen fermentation and microbial protein contribution to the chyme.

    PubMed

    Belanche, A; Abecia, L; Holtrop, G; Guada, J A; Castrillo, C; de la Fuente, G; Balcells, J

    2011-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of presence or absence of protozoa on rumen fermentation and efficiency of microbial protein synthesis under different diets. Of 20 twin paired lambs, 1 lamb of each pair was isolated from the ewe within 24 h after birth and reared in a protozoa-free environment (n = 10), whereas their respective twin-siblings remained with the ewe (faunated, n = 10). When lambs reached 6 mo of age, 5 animals of each group were randomly allocated to 1 of 2 experimental diets consisting of either alfalfa hay as the sole diet, or 50:50 mixed with ground barley grain according to a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments. After 15 d of adaptation to the diet, the animals were euthanized and total rumen and abomasal contents were sampled to estimate rumen microbial synthesis using C(31) alkane as flow marker. Different ((15)N and purine bases) and a novel (recombinant DNA sequences) microbial markers, combined with several microbial reference extracts (rumen protozoa, liquid and solid associated bacteria) were evaluated. Absence of rumen protozoa modified the rumen fermentation pattern and decreased total tract OM and NDF digestibility in 2.0 and 5.1 percentage points, respectively. The effect of defaunation on microbial N flow was weak, however, and was dependent on the microbial marker and microbial reference extract considered. Faunated lambs fed with mixed diet showed the greatest rumen protozoal concentration and the least efficient microbial protein synthesis (29% less than the other treatments), whereas protozoa-free lambs fed with mixed diet presented the smallest ammonia concentration and 34% greater efficiency of N utilization than the other treatments. Although (15)N gave the most precise estimates of microbial synthesis, the use of recombinant DNA sequences represents an alternative that allows separate quantification of the bacteria and protozoa contributions. This marker showed that presence of protozoa decrease the

  9. Potential Use of Fosfomycin-Tromethamine for Treatment of Recurrent Campylobacter Species Enteritis

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez-Pardo, Dolors; Larrosa, María Nieves; Rodríguez-Garrido, Virginia; Sihuay-Diburga, Denisse; Almirante, Benito

    2016-01-01

    We report 2 cases of recurrent Campylobacter coli enteritis caused by macrolide- and fluoroquinolone-resistant strains in 2 patients with hypogammaglobulinemia, successfully treated with a prolonged course of fosfomycin-tromethamine with no side effects. Fosfomycin-tromethamine may be a feasible alternative therapy for recurrent enteritis caused by Campylobacter species resistant to first-line drugs. PMID:27161640

  10. Ability of select probiotics to reduce enteric Campylobacter colonization in broiler chickens

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Campylobacter is the leading cause of foodborne enteritis worldwide and is primarily caused by consumption/mishandling of contaminated poultry. Probiotic use in poultry has been an effective strategy in reducing many enteric pathogens, but has not demonstrated consistent reduction against Campylobac...

  11. Endosymbiosis in trypanosomatid protozoa: the bacterium division is controlled during the host cell cycle.

    PubMed

    Catta-Preta, Carolina M C; Brum, Felipe L; da Silva, Camila C; Zuma, Aline A; Elias, Maria C; de Souza, Wanderley; Schenkman, Sergio; Motta, Maria Cristina M

    2015-01-01

    Mutualism is defined as a beneficial relationship for the associated partners and usually assumes that the symbiont number is controlled. Some trypanosomatid protozoa co-evolve with a bacterial symbiont that divides in coordination with the host in a way that results in its equal distribution between daughter cells. The mechanism that controls this synchrony is largely unknown, and its comprehension might provide clues to understand how eukaryotic cells evolved when acquiring symbionts that later became organelles. Here, we approached this question by studying the effects of inhibitors that affect the host exclusively in two symbiont-bearing trypanosomatids, Strigomonas culicis and Angomonas deanei. We found that inhibiting host protein synthesis using cycloheximide or host DNA replication using aphidicolin did not affect the duplication of bacterial DNA. Although the bacteria had autonomy to duplicate their DNA when host protein synthesis was blocked by cycloheximide, they could not complete cytokinesis. Aphidicolin promoted the inhibition of the trypanosomatid cell cycle in the G1/S phase, leading to symbiont filamentation in S. culicis but not in A. deanei. Treatment with camptothecin blocked the host protozoa cell cycle in the G2 phase and induced the formation of filamentous symbionts in both species. Oryzalin, which affects host microtubule polymerization, blocked trypanosomatid mitosis and abrogated symbiont division. Our results indicate that host factors produced during the cell division cycle are essential for symbiont segregation and may control the bacterial cell number.

  12. [Prevalence of protozoa infections in synanthropic rodents in Valdivia City, Chile].

    PubMed

    Franjola, R; Soto, G; Montefusco, A

    1995-01-01

    In order to determine the prevalence of infection by blood and intestinal protozoa in 57 synanthropic rodents from Valdivia city, a study was carried out in the period march-september 1986. The group of rodents studied was constituted by 31 Mus musculus, 19 Rattus rattus and 7 Oryzomys longicaudattus, being 42 males and 15 females. Diagnostic forms of protozoa were found in 70.2% of the investigated animals. The presence of five species of enteroprotozoa and one species of hemoflagelate was detected. The number and the corresponding percentages of infected animals were the following: Giardia muris, 21 (36.8%), Hexamita muris, 22 (38.6%), Trichomonas muris, 27 (47.4%), Entamoeba muris 9 (15.8%), Eimeria sp. 15 (26.3%) and Trypanosoma lewisi 9 (15.8%). Not significant differences were observed when considering host or sex of the species found infected. Furthermore, the yielding of fecal examination considering direct examination, sugar solution flotation and SAFS were compared. The sugar solution flotation technique showed the highest percentage diagnosis of coccidia, whereas SAFS was more efficient for detecting G. muris and E. muris.

  13. The Prevalence of Canine Oral Protozoa and Their Association with Periodontal Disease.

    PubMed

    Patel, Niran; Colyer, Alison; Harris, Steve; Holcombe, Lucy; Andrew, Peter

    2017-05-01

    Periodontal disease is one of the most important health concerns for companion animals. Research into canine forms of periodontitis has focused on the identification and characterization of the bacterial communities present. However, other microorganisms are known to inhabit the oral cavity and could also influence the disease process. A novel, broad spectrum 18S PCR was developed and used, in conjunction with next-generation sequencing analyses to target the identification of protists. Trichomonas sp. and Entamoeba sp. were identified from 92 samples of canine plaque. The overall prevalence of trichomonads was 56.52% (52/92) and entamoebae was 4.34% (4/92). Next-generation sequencing of pooled healthy, gingivitis, early-stage periodontitis, and severe periodontitis samples revealed the proportion of trichomonad sequences to be 3.51% (health), 2.84% (gingivitis), 6.07% (early periodontitis), and 35.04% (severe periodontitis), respectively, and entamoebae to be 0.01% (health), 0.01% (gingivitis), 0.80% (early-stage periodontitis), and 7.91% (severe periodontitis) respectively. Both genera of protists were statistically associated with plaque from dogs with periodontal disease. These findings provide the first conclusive evidence for the presence of oral protozoa in dog plaque and suggest a possible role for protozoa in the periodontal disease process. © 2016 The Author(s) The Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of International Society of Protistologists.

  14. Removal of bacteria, protozoa and viruses through a multiple-barrier household water disinfection system.

    PubMed

    Espinosa-García, A C; Díaz-Ávalos, C; Solano-Ortiz, R; Tapia-Palacios, M A; Vázquez-Salvador, N; Espinosa-García, S; Sarmiento-Silva, R E; Mazari-Hiriart, M

    2014-03-01

    Municipal water disinfection systems in some areas are not always able to meet water consumer needs, such as ensuring distributed water quality, because household water management can be a contributing factor in water re-contamination. This fact is related to the storage options that are common in places where water is scarce or is distributed over limited time periods. The aim of this study is to assess the removal capacity of a multiple-barrier water disinfection device for protozoa, bacteria, and viruses. Water samples were taken from households in Mexico City and spiked with a known amount of protozoa (Giardia cyst, Cryptosporidium oocyst), bacteria (Escherichia coli), and viruses (rotavirus, adenovirus, F-specific ribonucleic acid (FRNA) coliphage). Each inoculated sample was processed through a multiple-barrier device. The efficiency of the multiple-barrier device to remove E. coli was close to 100%, and more than 87% of Cryptosporidium oocysts and more than 98% of Giardia cysts were removed. Close to 100% of coliphages were removed, 99.6% of the adenovirus was removed, and the rotavirus was almost totally removed. An effect of site by zone was detected; this observation is important because the water characteristics could indicate the efficiency of the multiple-barrier disinfection device.

  15. Real-time PCR detection of the effects of protozoa on rumen bacteria in cattle.

    PubMed

    Ozutsumi, Yuhei; Tajima, Kiyoshi; Takenaka, Akio; Itabashi, Hisao

    2006-02-01

    A real-time PCR approach was used in this study to clarify the populations of major bacterial species in the rumens of faunated and unfaunated cattle. The sensitivity of this novel real-time PCR assay was evaluated by using 10(1) to 10(8) plasmid copies of target bacteria. The numbers of plasmid copies of Ruminococcus albus, Ruminococcus flavefaciens, Prevotella ruminicola, and the CUR-E cluster were higher in the unfaunated than in the faunated rumens. The CUR-E cluster belongs to the Clostridium group. In contrast, Fibrobacter succinogenes was higher in the faunated than in the unfaunated rumens. Although it is well known that an absence of protozoa brings about an increase in the bacterial population, it was clarified here that an absence of protozoa exerted differential effects on the populations of cellulolytic bacteria in cattle rumens (i.e., F. succinogenes, R. albus, and R. flavefaciens). In addition, real-time PCR analysis suggested that the CUR-E cluster was more prevalent in the unfaunated rumens.

  16. Effect of solar disinfection on viability of intestinal protozoa in drinking water.

    PubMed

    Gaafar, Maha R

    2007-04-01

    The effect of solar disinfection on the viability of intestinal protozoa Giardia lamblia, Microsporidia sp., Cryptosporidium parvum, Cyclospora cyatenensis and Entamoeba histolytica in drinking water was studied as compared to chlorine disinfection. The protozoa were collected from stool samples, to infect to the distilled water. Chlorinated water samples were prepared at concentration of 4 ppm, and the parasites were incubated overnight at room temperature with the treated water. Sun treatment was applied for 2 exposures (6 & 24 hrs), in summer and winter. Sun treated water samples were put in tubes and exposed to sun. The 2 disinfection methods were tested in plastic and glass test tubes. Parasites viability was assessed by viability assay using trypan blue stain (0.4%), and bioassay infectivity tests in experimentally laboratory bred mice. Results proved that all parasites' viability was not affected by chlorine, following solar disinfection treatment, parasites became dark blue in colour and deformed by trypan blue stain. High parasites death was recorded for all parasites except Microsporidia sp. Bioassay infectivity test showed a statistically significant reduction in mean number of all parasites in intestinal sections compared to controls. The best results were tubes exposure to sun for 24 hrs in summer, where G. lamblia, C. parvum and C. cyatenensis were inactivated or absence in intestinal sections. No statistically significant difference was between the use of plastic and glass tubes, either in chlorine or sun treated parasites. So, solar disinfection proved a simple, cheap and effective means for improving water for human use, particularly in developing countries.

  17. Isolation of new Brazilian giant viruses from environmental samples using a panel of protozoa

    PubMed Central

    Dornas, Fábio P.; Khalil, Jacques Y. B.; Pagnier, Isabelle; Raoult, Didier; Abrahão, Jônatas; La Scola, Bernard

    2015-01-01

    The Megavirales are a newly described order capable of infecting different types of eukaryotic hosts. For the most part, the natural host is unknown. Several methods have been used to detect these viruses, with large discrepancies between molecular methods and co-cultures. To isolate giant viruses, we propose the use of different species of amoeba as a cellular support. The aim of this work was to isolate new Brazilian giant viruses by comparing the protozoa Acanthamoeba castellanii, A. polyphaga, A. griffini, and Vermamoeba vermiformis (VV) as a platform for cellular isolation using environmental samples. One hundred samples were collected from 3 different areas in September 2014 in the Pampulha lagoon of Belo Horizonte city, Minas Gerais, Brazil. PCR was used to identify the isolated viruses, along with hemacolor staining, labelling fluorescence and electron microscopy. A total of 69 viruses were isolated. The highest ratio of isolation was found in A. polyphaga (46.38%) and the lowest in VV (0%). Mimiviruses were the most frequently isolated. One Marseillevirus and one Pandoravirus were also isolated. With Brazilian environmental samples, we demonstrated the high rate of lineage A mimiviruses. This work demonstrates how these viruses survive and circulate in nature as well the differences between protozoa as a platform for cellular isolation. PMID:26500630

  18. Isolation of new Brazilian giant viruses from environmental samples using a panel of protozoa.

    PubMed

    Dornas, Fábio P; Khalil, Jacques Y B; Pagnier, Isabelle; Raoult, Didier; Abrahão, Jônatas; La Scola, Bernard

    2015-01-01

    The Megavirales are a newly described order capable of infecting different types of eukaryotic hosts. For the most part, the natural host is unknown. Several methods have been used to detect these viruses, with large discrepancies between molecular methods and co-cultures. To isolate giant viruses, we propose the use of different species of amoeba as a cellular support. The aim of this work was to isolate new Brazilian giant viruses by comparing the protozoa Acanthamoeba castellanii, A. polyphaga, A. griffini, and Vermamoeba vermiformis (VV) as a platform for cellular isolation using environmental samples. One hundred samples were collected from 3 different areas in September 2014 in the Pampulha lagoon of Belo Horizonte city, Minas Gerais, Brazil. PCR was used to identify the isolated viruses, along with hemacolor staining, labelling fluorescence and electron microscopy. A total of 69 viruses were isolated. The highest ratio of isolation was found in A. polyphaga (46.38%) and the lowest in VV (0%). Mimiviruses were the most frequently isolated. One Marseillevirus and one Pandoravirus were also isolated. With Brazilian environmental samples, we demonstrated the high rate of lineage A mimiviruses. This work demonstrates how these viruses survive and circulate in nature as well the differences between protozoa as a platform for cellular isolation.

  19. Heavy metals generate reactive oxygen species in terrestrial and aquatic ciliated protozoa.

    PubMed

    Rico, Daniel; Martín-González, Ana; Díaz, Silvia; de Lucas, Pilar; Gutiérrez, Juan-Carlos

    2009-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) induction by exposure to heavy metals (Cd, Cu or Zn) in diverse free-living ciliated protozoa (Tetrahymena sp. and three strains of Colpoda steinii, isolated from freshwater and soils with different level of metal pollution) has been evaluated. Using specific fluorophores, such as 2',7'-dichlorofluorescein diacetate, hydroethidine and dihydrorhodamine 123, and a fluorescence microscope with the program MetaMorph Imaging System 4.0, we have analyzed both the average fluorescence emission and the heterogeneous distribution of fluorescence in control and treated cells. This is the first time that these fluorophores are used to detect ROS production in ciliated protozoa. All metals generate ROS, mainly superoxide and peroxides, showing a remarkable inter- and intra-specific variations. Likewise, resistance against each metal was also very diverse. Cu and specially Cd, the most toxic heavy metal for these ciliates, are the best oxidative stress inducers. However, a correlation between fluorescence emission intensity and cellular metal sensitivity for each strain cannot be established. Results are discussed and compared with similar findings previously published in other unicellular and pluricellular organisms.

  20. Bioaccumulation of human waterborne protozoa by zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha): interest for water biomonitoring.

    PubMed

    Palos Ladeiro, M; Aubert, D; Villena, I; Geffard, A; Bigot, A

    2014-01-01

    Cryptosporidium parvum, Giardia duodenalis and Toxoplasma gondii are ubiquitous pathogens, which waterborne transmission has been largely demonstrated. Since they can be found in various watercourses, interactions with aquatic organisms are possible. Protozoan detection for watercourses biomonitoring is currently based on large water filtration. The zebra mussel, Dreissena polymorpha, is a choice biological model in ecotoxicological studies which are already in use to detect chemical contaminations in watercourses. In the present study, the zebra mussel was tested as a new tool for detecting water contamination by protozoa. In vivo exposures were conducted in laboratory experiments. Zebra mussel was exposed to various protozoan concentrations for one week. Detection of protozoa was realized by Taqman real time qPCR. Our experiments evidenced C. parvum, G. duodenalis and T. gondii oocyst bioaccumulation by mussels proportionally to ambient contamination, and significant T. gondii prevalence was observed in muscle tissue. To our knowledge, this is the first study that demonstrates T. gondii oocyst accumulation by zebra mussel. The results from this study highlight the capacity of zebra mussels to reveal ambient biological contamination, and thus to be used as a new effective tool in sanitary biomonitoring of water bodies.

  1. Technical note: A method for isolating glycogen granules from ruminal protozoa for further characterization.

    PubMed

    Hall, Mary Beth

    2016-03-01

    Evaluation of physical, chemical, and enzymatic hydrolysis characteristics of protozoal glycogen is best performed on a pure substrate to avoid interference from other cell components. A method for isolating protozoal glycogen granules without use of detergents or other potentially contaminating chemicals was developed. Rumen inoculum was incubated anerobically in vitro with glucose. Glycogen-laden protozoa produced in the fermentation, primarily isotrichids, were allowed to sediment in a separatory funnel and were dispensed. The protozoa were processed through repeated centrifugations and sonication to isolate glycogen granules largely free of feed and cellular debris. The final water-insoluble lyophilized product analyzed as 98.3% α-glucan with very rare starch granules and 1.9% protein. Observed losses of glycogen granules during the clean-up process indicate that this procedure should not be used for quantitative assessment of protozoal glycogen from fermentations. Further optimization of this procedure to enhance the amount of glycogen obtained per fermentation may be possible. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Detection of Pathogenic Protozoa in the Diagnostic Laboratory: Result Reproducibility, Specimen Pooling, and Competency Assessment▿

    PubMed Central

    Libman, M. D.; Gyorkos, T. W.; Kokoskin, E.; MacLean, J. D.

    2008-01-01

    Stool microscopy as performed in clinical parasitology laboratories is a complex procedure with subjective interpretation. Quality assurance (QA) programs often emphasize proficiency testing as an assessment tool. We describe a result reproducibility assessment tool, which can form part of a broader QA program, and which is based on the blinded resubmission of selected clinical samples, using concordance between the reports of the initial and resubmitted specimen as an indicator. Specimens preserved in sodium acetate-acetic acid-formalin can be stored for several months for use in such a program. The presence of multiple protozoa in one specimen does not affect concordance. Some dilution of specimens occurs in this process, and this may explain poor concordance when specimens with low protozoal concentrations are resubmitted. Evaluation of this tool in a large parasitology laboratory revealed concordance rates for pathogenic protozoa (Entamoeba histolytica/Entamoeba dispar, Giardia lamblia, and Dientamoeba fragilis) of about 80%, which may be considered for use as a benchmark value. We also used this tool to demonstrate that when pairs of specimens from one patient are pooled to create a single specimen, concordance between the results of the individual and pooled specimens is high. PMID:18448690

  3. Natural Intestinal Protozoa in Rodents (Rodentia: Gerbillinae, Murinae, Cricetinae) in Northwestern Iran

    PubMed Central

    MOHEBALI, Mehdi; ZAREI, Zabiholah; Khanaliha, Khadijeh; KIA, Eshrat Beigom; MOTAVALLI-HAGHI, Afsaneh; DAVOODI, Jaber; REZAEIAN, Tahereh; TARIGHI, Fathemeh; REZAEIAN, Mostafa

    2017-01-01

    Background: Majority of parasitic infections in rodents have zoonotic importance. This study aimed to determine the frequency and intensity of intestinal protozoa infections of rodents including Meriones persicus, Mus musculus and, Cricetulus migratorius. Methods: This survey was conducted in Meshkin Shahr district in northwestern Iran from Mar. to Dec. of 2014. Intestinal samples of 204 rodents including M. persicus (n=117), M. musculus (n=63) and C. migratorius (n=24) were parasitologically examined. Formalin-ether concentration method was done for all of rodents stool samples and observed with light microscope. All of suspected cases were stained with trichorome staining Method. Cultivation in dichromate potassium 2.5% was carried out for all of coccidian positive samples. Acid fast and aniline blue staining methods were used for detecting of coccidian oocysts and intestinal microsporidial spores, respectively. Results: About 121(59.3%) of the caught rodents were generally infected with intestinal protozoa. Entamoeba muris 14(6.9%), Trichomonas muris 55(27.0%), Chilomastix betencourtti 17 (8.3%), Giardia muris 19(9.3%), Eimeria spp. 46(22.5%), Isospora spp. 4(2%) and Cryptosporidium spp. 1(0.5%) were found from the collected rodents. Microsporidian spores were identified in 63 (31%) out of the 204 collected rodents using aniline blue staining method. Conclusion: Since some of the infections are zoonotic importance thus, control of rodents can be decreased new cases of the parasitic zoonoses in humans. PMID:28979348

  4. Detection of pathogenic protozoa in the diagnostic laboratory: result reproducibility, specimen pooling, and competency assessment.

    PubMed

    Libman, M D; Gyorkos, T W; Kokoskin, E; Maclean, J D

    2008-07-01

    Stool microscopy as performed in clinical parasitology laboratories is a complex procedure with subjective interpretation. Quality assurance (QA) programs often emphasize proficiency testing as an assessment tool. We describe a result reproducibility assessment tool, which can form part of a broader QA program, and which is based on the blinded resubmission of selected clinical samples, using concordance between the reports of the initial and resubmitted specimen as an indicator. Specimens preserved in sodium acetate-acetic acid-formalin can be stored for several months for use in such a program. The presence of multiple protozoa in one specimen does not affect concordance. Some dilution of specimens occurs in this process, and this may explain poor concordance when specimens with low protozoal concentrations are resubmitted. Evaluation of this tool in a large parasitology laboratory revealed concordance rates for pathogenic protozoa (Entamoeba histolytica/Entamoeba dispar, Giardia lamblia, and Dientamoeba fragilis) of about 80%, which may be considered for use as a benchmark value. We also used this tool to demonstrate that when pairs of specimens from one patient are pooled to create a single specimen, concordance between the results of the individual and pooled specimens is high.

  5. Correlating toxicities of organic compounds to select protozoa using the Abraham model.

    PubMed

    Bowen, Kaci R; Flanagan, Kelly B; Acree, William E; Abraham, Michael H

    2006-10-01

    The Abraham solvation parameter model is used to construct mathematical correlations for describing the nonspecific toxicity of organic compounds to three protozoas (Entosiphon sulcantum, Uronema parduczi and Chilomonas paramecium). The derived mathematical correlations describe the observed published toxicity data to within an overall average standard deviation of approximately 0.35 log units. The correlations can be used to estimate aquatic toxicities of organic chemicals to the three aquatic organisms studied, and to help in identifying compounds whose toxic mode of action might involve chemical specific reactivity, rather than nonpolar or polar narcosis. A principal component analysis of the correlation equations found in this work shows that no water-solvent system we have investigated is a good model for nonspecific aquatic toxicity towards the three protozoas. Furthermore, correlation equations for nonspecific aqueous toxicity towards various biological systems, that we have found in this work and in previous studies, cover such a wide range that no single water-solvent system could ever be a good model for all the biological systems.

  6. Endosymbiosis in trypanosomatid protozoa: the bacterium division is controlled during the host cell cycle

    PubMed Central

    Catta-Preta, Carolina M. C.; Brum, Felipe L.; da Silva, Camila C.; Zuma, Aline A.; Elias, Maria C.; de Souza, Wanderley; Schenkman, Sergio; Motta, Maria Cristina M.

    2015-01-01

    Mutualism is defined as a beneficial relationship for the associated partners and usually assumes that the symbiont number is controlled. Some trypanosomatid protozoa co-evolve with a bacterial symbiont that divides in coordination with the host in a way that results in its equal distribution between daughter cells. The mechanism that controls this synchrony is largely unknown, and its comprehension might provide clues to understand how eukaryotic cells evolved when acquiring symbionts that later became organelles. Here, we approached this question by studying the effects of inhibitors that affect the host exclusively in two symbiont-bearing trypanosomatids, Strigomonas culicis and Angomonas deanei. We found that inhibiting host protein synthesis using cycloheximide or host DNA replication using aphidicolin did not affect the duplication of bacterial DNA. Although the bacteria had autonomy to duplicate their DNA when host protein synthesis was blocked by cycloheximide, they could not complete cytokinesis. Aphidicolin promoted the inhibition of the trypanosomatid cell cycle in the G1/S phase, leading to symbiont filamentation in S. culicis but not in A. deanei. Treatment with camptothecin blocked the host protozoa cell cycle in the G2 phase and induced the formation of filamentous symbionts in both species. Oryzalin, which affects host microtubule polymerization, blocked trypanosomatid mitosis and abrogated symbiont division. Our results indicate that host factors produced during the cell division cycle are essential for symbiont segregation and may control the bacterial cell number. PMID:26082757

  7. [The experimental evaluation of the possibility of the penetration of enteric viruses from the surface into the pulp of contaminated fruits and vegetables].

    PubMed

    Sergevnin, V I; Ladeyshchikova, Yu I; Sarmometov, E V; Podgorunskaya, I L; Kudrevatykh, E V

    2014-01-01

    According to the results of complex microbiological examination of samples of vegetables, fruits and grapes there was established significant contamination of them with opportunistic bacteria, antigens of intestinal viruses and cysts of intestinal Protozoa, that confirms the epidemiological role of these products as factors in transmission of acute intestinal infections. There was revealed ribonucleic acid of enteric viruses in experimentally infected pulp from the surface of tomatoes and apples, that indicates to the possibility of penetration of these pathogens into the fruits and vegetables through intact (having no visible damages) surface.

  8. Enteric coating can lead to reduced antiplatelet effect of low-dose acetylsalicylic acid.

    PubMed

    Haastrup, Peter Fentz; Grønlykke, Thor; Jarbøl, Dorte Ejg

    2015-03-01

    Low-dose acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) is widely used as antithrombotic prophylaxis. Enteric-coated ASA has been developed to decrease the risk of gastrointestinal side effects. The consequences of enteric coating on pharmacokinetics and antiplatelet effect of ASA have not systematically been assessed. This MiniReview demonstrates that data from clinical trials indicate that enteric coating can reduce the antiplatelet effect of ASA compared to plain ASA. This is possibly due to decreased bioavailability of ASA caused by prolonged solvation and absorption of the enteric-coated formulations. Therefore, low-dose enteric-coated ASA might not be bioequivalent to plain ASA, entailing the risk of insufficient cardiovascular prophylaxis.

  9. The management of patients with enteric hyperoxaluria.

    PubMed

    Asplin, John R

    2016-02-01

    Enteric hyperoxaluria is a common occurrence in the setting of fat malabsorption, usually due to intestinal resection or intestinal bypass surgery. Enhanced intestinal absorption of dietary oxalate leads to elevated renal oxalate excretion, frequently in excess of 100 mg/d (1.14 mmol/d). Patients are at increased risk of urolithiasis and loss of kidney function from oxalate nephropathy. Fat malabsorption causes increased binding of diet calcium by free fatty acids, reducing the calcium available to precipitate diet oxalate. Delivery of unabsorbed bile salts and fatty acids to the colon increases colonic permeability, the site of oxalate hyper-absorption in enteric hyperoxaluria. The combination of soluble oxalate in the intestinal lumen and increased permeability of the colonic mucosa leads to hyperoxaluria. Dietary therapy consists of limiting oxalate and fat intake. The primary medical intervention is the use of oral oxalate binding agents such as calcium salts to reduce free intestinal oxalate levels. Bile acid sequestrants can be useful in patients with ileal resection and bile acid malabsorption. Oxalate degrading bacteria provided as probiotics are being investigated but as of yet, no definite benefit has been shown with currently available preparations. The current state of medical therapy and potential future directions will be summarized in this article.

  10. Glenn Enters his Mercury Capsule

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1962-01-01

    Astronaut John H. Glenn Jr. enters his Mercury capsule, 'Friendship 7' as he prepares for launch of the Mercury-Atlas rocket. On February 20, 1962 Glenn lifted off into space aboard his Mercury Atlas 6 (MA-6) rocket and became the first American to orbit the Earth. After orbiting the Earth 3 times, Friendship 7 landed in the Atlantic Ocean 4 hours, 55 minutes and 23 seconds later, just East of Grand Turk Island in the Bahamas. Glenn and his capsule were recovered by the Navy Destroyer Noa, 21 minutes after splashdown.

  11. Top-down effects of a lytic bacteriophage and protozoa on bacteria in aqueous and biofilm phases

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ji; Örmälä-Odegrip, Anni-Maria; Mappes, Johanna; Laakso, Jouni

    2014-01-01

    Lytic bacteriophages and protozoan predators are the major causes of bacterial mortality in natural microbial communities, which also makes them potential candidates for biological control of bacterial pathogens. However, little is known about the relative impact of bacteriophages and protozoa on the dynamics of bacterial biomass in aqueous and biofilm phases. Here, we studied the temporal and spatial dynamics of bacterial biomass in a microcosm experiment where opportunistic pathogenic bacteria Serratia marcescens was exposed to particle-feeding ciliates, surface-feeding amoebas, and lytic bacteriophages for 8 weeks, ca. 1300 generations. We found that ciliates were the most efficient enemy type in reducing bacterial biomass in the open water, but least efficient in reducing the biofilm biomass. Biofilm was rather resistant against bacterivores, but amoebae had a significant long-term negative effect on bacterial biomass both in the open-water phase and biofilm. Bacteriophages had only a minor long-term effect on bacterial biomass in open-water and biofilm phases. However, separate short-term experiments with the ancestral bacteriophages and bacteria revealed that bacteriophages crash the bacterial biomass dramatically in the open-water phase within the first 24 h. Thereafter, the bacteria evolve phage-resistance that largely prevents top-down effects. The combination of all three enemy types was most effective in reducing biofilm biomass, whereas in the open-water phase the ciliates dominated the trophic effects. Our results highlight the importance of enemy feeding mode on determining the spatial distribution and abundance of bacterial biomass. Moreover, the enemy type can be crucially important predictor of whether the rapid defense evolution can significantly affect top-down regulation of bacteria. PMID:25512841

  12. Diet supplementation with cinnamon oil, cinnamaldehyde, or monensin does not reduce enteric methane production of dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Benchaar, C

    2016-03-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of dietary addition of cinnamon oil (CIN), cinnamaldehyde (CDH), or monensin (MON) on enteric methane (CH4) emission in dairy cows. Eight multiparous lactating Holstein cows fitted with ruminal cannulas were used in a replicated 4×4 Latin square design (28-day periods). Cows were fed (ad libitum) a total mixed ration ((TMR); 60 : 40 forage : concentrate ratio, on a dry matter (DM) basis) not supplemented (CTL), or supplemented with CIN (50 mg/kg DM intake), CDH (50 mg/kg DM intake), or monensin (24 mg/kg of DM intake). Dry matter intake (DMI), nutrient digestibility, N retention, and milk performance were measured over 6 consecutive days. Ruminal degradability of the basal diet (with no additive) was assessed using in sacco incubations (0, 2, 4, 8, 16, 24, 48, 72 and 96 h). Ruminal fermentation characteristics (pH, volatile fatty acids (VFA), and ammonia (NH3)) and protozoa were determined over 2 days. Enteric CH4 emissions were measured over 6 consecutive days using the sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) tracer gas technique. Adding CIN, CDH or MON to the diet had no effects on DMI, N retention, in sacco ruminal degradation and nutrient digestibility of the diet. Ruminal fermentation characteristics and protozoa numbers were not modified by including the feed additives in the diet. Enteric CH4 emission and CH4 energy losses averaged 491 g/day and 6.59% of gross energy intake, respectively, and were not affected by adding CIN, CDH or MON to the diet. Results of this study indicate that CIN, CDH and MON are not viable CH4 mitigation strategies in dairy cows.

  13. American Society for Parenteral & Enteral Nutrition

    MedlinePlus

    ... Preliminary Program Now Available! View Now ASPEN Enteral Nutrition by the Numbers ASPEN’s new report is a ... large, complex Enteral Nutrition Market. Learn More Parenteral Nutrition: Back to the Basics Join us October 10 ...

  14. Epizootic necrotic enteritis in wild geese.

    PubMed

    Wobeser, G; Rainnie, D J

    1987-07-01

    Outbreaks of a disease characterized by severe necrotic enteritis occurred among Canada geese (Branta canadensis), lesser snow geese (Anser caerulescens), Ross' geese (A. rossi), and white-fronted geese (A. albifrons) on lakes in Saskatchewan and Manitoba during the autumn of 1983, 1984 and 1985. Ducks using the lakes were apparently not affected. Lesions in the geese closely resembled those described in enteritides in other species associated with the proliferation of Clostridium perfringens in the small intestine. Clostridium perfringens was present in large numbers in the affected areas of the intestine of the geese; other pathogens were not identified. It is hypothesized that an abrupt change in diet as geese begin to feed on grain disrupts the intestinal microflora, allowing C. perfringens to proliferate in the upper small intestine. Toxins produced by the bacteria then cause mucosal necrosis. Protease-inhibitory substances in some grains might also have a role in the disease.

  15. Hemorrhagic enteritis in captive American kestrels (Falco sparverius)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sileo, L.; Franson, J.C.; Graham, D.L.; Domermuth, C.H.; Rattner, B.A.; Pattee, O.H.

    1983-01-01

    Hemorrhagic enteritis and hepatitis of suspected adenovirus etiology were the apparent cause of death of nine captive American kestrels. Cloacal hemorrhage was the only prominent gross lesion: disseminated hepatocellular necrosis, and intranuclear inclusion bodies were evident microscopically. Electron microscopy revealed numerous adenovirus-like particles associated with the hepatic lesions. Attempts to serologically identify the agent were unsuccessful.

  16. IMMUNOGENOMIC APPROACHES TO STUDY HOST IMMUNITY TO ENTERIC PATHOGENS

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    With increasing consumer’s demands for safe poultry products, effective control of disease-causing pathogens is becoming a major challenge to the poultry industry. Many chicken pathogens enter the host through the gastrointestinal tract, and over the past few decades in-feed antibiotics and active ...

  17. Phylogeny of choanozoa, apusozoa, and other protozoa and early eukaryote megaevolution.

    PubMed

    Cavalier-Smith, Thomas; Chao, Ema E-Y

    2003-05-01

    The primary diversification of eukaryotes involved protozoa, especially zooflagellates-flagellate protozoa without plastids. Understanding the origins of the higher eukaryotic kingdoms (two purely heterotrophic, Animalia and Fungi, and two primarily photosynthetic, Plantae and Chromista) depends on clarifying evolutionary relationships among the phyla of the ancestral kingdom Protozoa. We therefore sequenced 18S rRNA genes from 10 strains from the protozoan phyla Choanozoa and Apusozoa. Eukaryote diversity is encompassed by three early-radiating, arguably monophyletic groups: Amoebozoa, opisthokonts, and bikonts. Our taxon-rich rRNA phylogeny for eukaryotes allowing for intersite rate variation strongly supports the opisthokont clade (animals, Choanozoa, Fungi). It agrees with the view that Choanozoa are sisters of or ancestral to animals and reveals a novel nonflagellate choanozoan lineage, Ministeriida, sister either to choanoflagellates, traditionally considered animal ancestors, or to animals. Maximum likelihood trees suggest that within animals Placozoa are derived from medusozoan Cnidaria (we therefore place Placozoa as a class within subphylum Medusozoa of the Cnidaria) and hexactinellid sponges evolved from demosponges. The bikont and amoebozoan radiations are both very ill resolved. Bikonts comprise the kingdoms Plantae and Chromista and three major protozoan groups: alveolates, excavates, and Rhizaria. Our analysis weakly suggests that Apusozoa, represented by Ancyromonas and the apusomonads ( Apusomonas and the highly diverse and much more ancient genus Amastigomonas, from which it evolved), are not closely related to other Rhizaria and may be the most divergent bikont lineages. Although Ancyromonas and apusomonads appear deeply divergent in 18S rRNA trees, the trees neither refute nor support the monophyly of Apusozoa. The bikont phylum Cercozoa weakly but consistently appears as sister to Retaria (Foraminifera; Radiolaria), together forming a hitherto

  18. Emergency Endovascular 'Bridge' Treatment for Iliac-Enteric Fistula

    SciTech Connect

    Franchin, Marco; Tozzi, Matteo; Piffaretti, Gabriele; Carrafiello, Gianpaolo; Castelli, Patrizio

    2011-10-15

    Aortic aneurysm has been reported to be the dominant cause of primary iliac-enteric fistula (IEF) in >70% of cases [1]; other less common causes of primary IEF include peptic ulcer, primary aortitis, pancreatic pseudocyst, or neoplastic erosion into an adjacent artery [2, 3]. We describe an unusual case of IEF managed with a staged approach using an endovascular stent-graft as a 'bridge' in the emergency setting to optimize the next elective definitive excision of the lesion.

  19. Enteral tube feeding for individuals with cystic fibrosis: Cystic Fibrosis Foundation evidence-informed guidelines.

    PubMed

    Schwarzenberg, Sarah Jane; Hempstead, Sarah E; McDonald, Catherine M; Powers, Scott W; Wooldridge, Jamie; Blair, Shaina; Freedman, Steven; Harrington, Elaine; Murphy, Peter J; Palmer, Lena; Schrader, Amy E; Shiel, Kyle; Sullivan, Jillian; Wallentine, Melissa; Marshall, Bruce C; Leonard, Amanda Radmer

    2016-11-01

    Nutrition is integral to the care of individuals with cystic fibrosis (CF). Better nutritional status is associated with improved pulmonary function. In some individuals with CF, enteral tube feeding can be useful in achieving optimal nutritional status. Current nutrition guidelines do not include detailed recommendations for enteral tube feeding. The Cystic Fibrosis Foundation convened an expert panel to develop enteral tube feeding recommendations based on a systematic review of the evidence and expert opinion. These guidelines address when to consider enteral tube feeding, assessment of confounding causes of poor nutrition in CF, preparation of the patient for placement of the enteral feeding tube, management of the tube after placement and education about enteral feeding. These recommendations are intended to guide the CF care team, individuals with CF, and their families through the enteral tube feeding process.

  20. Enteral Feeding Set Handling Techniques.

    PubMed

    Lyman, Beth; Williams, Maria; Sollazzo, Janet; Hayden, Ashley; Hensley, Pam; Dai, Hongying; Roberts, Cristine

    2017-04-01

    Enteral nutrition therapy is common practice in pediatric clinical settings. Often patients will receive a pump-assisted bolus feeding over 30 minutes several times per day using the same enteral feeding set (EFS). This study aims to determine the safest and most efficacious way to handle the EFS between feedings. Three EFS handling techniques were compared through simulation for bacterial growth, nursing time, and supply costs: (1) rinsing the EFS with sterile water after each feeding, (2) refrigerating the EFS between feedings, and (3) using a ready-to-hang (RTH) product maintained at room temperature. Cultures were obtained at baseline, hour 12, and hour 21 of the 24-hour cycle. A time-in-motion analysis was conducted and reported in average number of seconds to complete each procedure. Supply costs were inventoried for 1 month comparing the actual usage to our estimated usage. Of 1080 cultures obtained, the overall bacterial growth rate was 8.7%. The rinse and refrigeration techniques displayed similar bacterial growth (11.4% vs 10.3%, P = .63). The RTH technique displayed the least bacterial growth of any method (4.4%, P = .002). The time analysis in minutes showed the rinse method was the most time-consuming (44.8 ± 2.7) vs refrigeration (35.8 ± 2.6) and RTH (31.08 ± 0.6) ( P < .0001). All 3 EFS handling techniques displayed low bacterial growth. RTH was superior in bacterial growth, nursing time, and supply costs. Since not all pediatric formulas are available in RTH, we conclude that refrigerating the EFS between uses is the next most efficacious method for handling the EFS between bolus feeds.

  1. Enteral nutrition formulations for acute pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Poropat, Goran; Giljaca, Vanja; Hauser, Goran; Štimac, Davor

    2015-03-23

    all-cause mortality (RR 0.49, 95% CI 0.29 to 0.80). The effect of immunonutrition on other outcomes from a subset of the included trials was uncertain. Subgrouping trials by type of enteral nutrition did not explain any variation in effect. We found mainly very low-quality evidence for the effects of probiotics on the main outcomes. One eligible trial in this comparison reported a higher rate of serious adverse events leading to increased organ failure and mortality due to low numbers of events and low risk of bias. When we excluded this study as a post hoc sensitivity analysis, risks of mortality (RR 0.30, 95% CI 0.10 to 0.84), organ failure (RR 0.74, 95% CI 0.59 to 0.92) and local septic complications (RR 0.40, 95% CI 0.22 to 0.72) were lower with probiotics. In one trial assessing immunonutrition with probiotics and fibres, no deaths occurred, but hospital stay was shorter with immunonutrition (MD -5.20 days, 95% CI -8.73 to -1.67). No deaths were reported following semi-elemental enteral nutrition (EN), and the effect on length of hospital stay was small (MD 0.30 days, 95% CI -0.82 to 1.42). Fibre-enriched formulations reduced the number of other local complications (RR 0.52, 95% CI 0.32 to 0.87) and length of hospital stay (MD -9.28 days, 95% CI -13.21 to -5.35) but did not significantly affect all-cause mortality (RR 0.23, 95% CI 0.03 to 1.84) and other outcomes. Very low-quality evidence from the subgroup of trials comparing EN versus no intervention showed a decrease in all-cause mortality with EN (RR 0.50, 95% CI 0.29 to 0.86). We found evidence of low or very low quality for the effects of immunonutrition on efficacy and safety outcomes. The role of supplementation of enteral nutrition with potential immunomodulatory agents remains in question, and further research is required in this area. Studies assessing probiotics yielded inconsistent and almost contrary results, especially regarding safety and adverse events, and their findings do not support the

  2. Chemotaxis toward carbohydrates and peptides by mixed ruminal protozoa when fed, fasted, or incubated with polyunsaturated fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Diaz, H L; Karnati, S K R; Lyons, M A; Dehority, B A; Firkins, J L

    2014-01-01

    In contrast to the well-characterized chemotaxis and migratory behavior between the dorsal and ventral locations of the rumen by isotrichids, we hypothesized that chemotaxis toward soluble nutrients maintains entodiniomorphid protozoa in the particulate fraction. The objectives of these experiments were to compare the dose-responsive chemotaxis (1) toward different glucose concentrations when ruminal samples were harvested from fed versus fasted cows; (2) toward increasing concentrations of glucose compared with xylose when protozoa were harvested from a fed cow; (3) toward peptides of bacterial, protozoal, and soy origin; and (4) toward glucose when mixed ruminal protozoa were previously incubated for 0, 3, or 6h in the presence of emulsified polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA; Liposyn II, Hospira, Lake Forest, IL). In experiment 1, isotrichid protozoa decreased chemotaxis toward increasing glucose concentration when cows were fasted. Entodiniomorphids exhibited chemotaxis to similar concentrations of glucose as did isotrichids, but to a lesser magnitude of response. In experiment 2, xylose was chemotactic to both groups. Xylose might draw fibrolytic entodiniomorphid protozoa toward newly ingested feed. In contrast, even though isotrichids should not use xylose as an energy source, they were highly chemoattracted to xylose. In experiment 3, entodiniomorphids were not selectively chemoattracted toward bacterial or protozoal peptides compared with soy peptides. In experiment 4, despite isotrichid populations decreasing in abundance with increasing time of incubation in PUFA, chemotaxis to glucose remained unchanged. In contrast, entodiniomorphids recovered chemotaxis to glucose with increased time of PUFA incubation. Current results support isotrichid chemotaxis to sugars but also our hypothesis that a more moderate chemotaxis toward glucose and peptides explains how they swim in the fluid but pass from the rumen with the potentially digestible fraction of

  3. Phytocompounds for the control of human enteric viruses.

    PubMed

    D'Souza, Doris H

    2014-02-01

    Plant extracts and associated polyphenols are known for their varied health benefits that include antioxidant effects and antimicrobial properties. The increasing consumer demand for cost-effective and natural alternatives to chemically-synthesized antimicrobials and therapeutics that are also sustainable makes the field of phytochemical research rather intriguing and challenging. Human enteric viruses are increasingly recognized worldwide as significant causes of human disease in adults and children, alike. In the absence of available vaccines for the human noroviruses, plant extracts are gaining popularity for the prevention and treatment of viral diseases. Research on plant extracts (particularly polyphenols derived from fruits) for human enteric virus control will be briefly summarized in this article.

  4. Protozoa enhance foraging efficiency of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi for mineral nitrogen from organic matter in soil to the benefit of host plants.

    PubMed

    Koller, Robert; Rodriguez, Alia; Robin, Christophe; Scheu, Stefan; Bonkowski, Michael

    2013-07-01

    Dead organic matter (OM) is a major source of nitrogen (N) for plants. The majority of plants support N uptake by symbiosis with arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi. Mineralization of N is regulated by microfauna, in particular, protozoa grazing on bacteria. We hypothesized that AM fungi and protozoa interactively facilitate plant N nutrition from OM. In soil systems consisting of an OM patch and a root compartment, plant N uptake and consequences for plant carbon (C) allocation were investigated using stable isotopes. Protozoa mobilized N by consuming bacteria, and the mobilized N was translocated via AM fungi to the host plant. The presence of protozoa in both the OM and root compartment stimulated photosynthesis and the translocation of C from the host plant via AM fungi into the OM patch. This stimulated microbial activity in the OM patch, plant N uptake from OM and doubled plant growth. The results indicate that protozoa increase plant growth by both mobilization of N from OM and by protozoa-root interactions, resulting in increased C allocation to roots and into the rhizosphere, thereby increasing plant nutrient exploitation. Hence, mycorrhizal plants need to interact with protozoa to fully exploit N resources from OM. © 2013 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2013 New Phytologist Trust.

  5. Use of multiple functional traits of protozoa for bioassessment of marine pollution.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Xiaoxiao; Xu, Guangjian; Xu, Henglong

    2017-06-30

    Ecological parameters based on multiply functional traits have many advantages for monitoring programs by reducing "signal to noise" ratios of observed species data. To identify potential indicators for bioassessment of marine pollution in function space, the functional patterns of protozoan communities and relationships with environmental changes were studied in coastal waters of the Yellow Sea during a 1-year period. The results showed that: (1) the spatial variability in functional trait distributions of the protozoa was significantly associated with changes in environmental variables, especially chemical oxygen demand (COD) and nutrients on spatial scale; (2) the functional traits, especially food resources and feeding type, were significantly correlated with COD and nutrients; and (3) the functional diversity indices were generally related to nutrients or COD. Based on the results, we suggest that the functional traits and diversity indices of protozoan communities may be used as more effective indicators for bioassessment of marine pollution. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. A Case of Ciliate Protozoa Colpoda Spp. (Ciliata: Colpodidae) Detected In Human Urine

    PubMed Central

    Costache, C; Bursaşiu, S; Filipaş, C; Colosi, I

    2011-01-01

    In the urine of a patient with chronic prostatitis, renal microlithiasis and acute cystitis we found the ciliate protozoa Colpoda spp., both in vegetative and cystic form. The entry point was most likely the urinary tract. Keeping in mind that only four more cases of Colpoda spp. existent in human urine have already been described, and that in the case of our patient the ciliate was present at repeated examinations of his urine, we presumed that it is not only a spurious infection of the urogenital tract. It still remains to be analyzed whether this ciliate belongs to a species of Colpoda adapted to parasitism in homeothermae and whether it can be pathogenic for humans. PMID:22347320

  7. Fragment-based cocktail crystallography by the Medical Structural Genomics of Pathogenic Protozoa Consortium

    PubMed Central

    Verlinde, Christophe L.M.J.; Fan, Erkang; Shibata, Sayaka; Zhang, Zongsheng; Sun, Zhihua; Deng, Wei; Ross, Jennifer; Kim, Jessica; Xiao, Liren; Arakaki, Tracy L.; Bosch, Jürgen; Caruthers, Jonathan M.; Larson, Eric T.; LeTrong, Isolde; Napuli, Alberto; Kelly, Angela; Mueller, Natasha; Zucker, Frank; Van Voorhis, Wesley C.; Buckner, Frederick S.; Merritt, Ethan A.; Hol, Wim G.J.

    2010-01-01

    The history of fragment-based drug discovery, with an emphasis on crystallographic methods, is sketched, illuminating various contributions, including our own, which preceded the industrial development of the method. Subsequently, the creation of the BMSC fragment cocktails library is described. The BMSC collection currently comprises 68 cocktails of 10 compounds that are shape-wise diverse. The utility of these cocktails for initiating lead discovery in structure-based drug design has been explored by soaking numerous protein crystals obtained by our MSGPP (Medical Structural Genomics of Pathogenic Protozoa) consortium. Details of the fragment selection and cocktail design procedures, as well as examples of the successes obtained are given. The BMSC Fragment Cocktail recipes are available free of charge and are in use in over 20 academic labs. PMID:19929835

  8. Rethinking niche evolution: experiments with natural communities of Protozoa in pitcher plants.

    PubMed

    Miller, Thomas E; Moran, Emma R; terHorst, Casey P

    2014-08-01

    Classic niche theory predicts that competing species will evolve to use different resources and interact less, whereas recent niche-converge ideas predict that species evolve to use similar resources and interact more. Most data supporting niche evolution are based on observations of contemporary niche use, whereas experimental support is quite sparse. We followed the evolution of four species of Protozoa during succession in the water-filled leaves of the pitcher plant, Sarracenia purpurea, and found that evolution in multispecies systems follows a surprising pattern. Over several hundred generations, weak competitors evolved to be stronger, while strong competitors evolved to become weaker, which does not conform to expectations of either niche divergence or convergence. Evolution in this system appears to occur in response to characteristics of a suite of several competitors in the community, rather than pairwise interactions. Ecologists may need to rethink the roles of competition and evolution in structuring communities.

  9. The protozoa dinoflagellate Oxyrrhis marina contains selenoproteins and the relevant translation apparatus.

    PubMed

    Osaka, Takashi; Beika, Asa; Hattori, Asuka; Kohno, Yoshinori; Kato, Koichi H; Mizutani, Takaharu

    2003-01-03

    In the phylogenetic tree, selenoproteins and the corresponding translation machinery are found in Archaea, Eubacteria, and animals, but not in fungi and higher plants. As very little is known about Protozoa, we searched for the presence of selenoproteins in the primitive dinoflagellate Oxyrrhis marina, belonging to the Protoctista kingdom. Four selenoproteins could be obtained from O. marina cells cultured in the presence of 75Se. Using O. marina or bovine liver cytosolic extracts, we could serylate and selenylate in vitro total O. marina tRNAs. Moreover, the existence of a tRNA(Sec) could be deduced from in vivo experiments. Lastly, an anti-serum against the specialized mammalian translation elongation factor mSelB reacted with a protein of 48-kDa molecular mass. Altogether, our data showed that O. marina contains selenoproteins and suggests that the corresponding translation machinery is related to that found in animals.

  10. Cytochemical techniques and energy-filtering transmission electron microscopy applied to the study of parasitic protozoa

    PubMed Central

    Lins, Ulysses

    2001-01-01

    The study of parasitic protozoa plays a major role in cell biology, biochemistry and molecular biology. Numerous cytochemical techniques have been developed in order to unequivocally identify the nature of subcellular compartments. Enzyme and immuno-cytochemistry allow the detection of, respectively, enzymatic activity products and antigens in particular sites within the cell. Energy-filtering transmission electron microscopy permits the detection of specific elements within such compartments. These approaches are particularly useful for studies employing antimicrobial agents where cellular compartments may be destroyed or remarkably altered and thus hardly identified by standard methods of observation. In this regard cytochemical and spectroscopic techniques provide valuable data allowing the determination of the mechanisms of action of such compounds. PMID:12734583

  11. Uptake, localization and clearance of quantum dots in ciliated protozoa Tetrahymena thermophila.

    PubMed

    Mortimer, Monika; Kahru, Anne; Slaveykova, Vera I

    2014-07-01

    Protozoa as phagocytizing cells have been shown to integrate engineered nanoparticles (NPs), while the mechanism, dynamics and extent of such uptake are unclear. Here our fluorescence microscopy data showed that CdSe/ZnS quantum dots (QDs) with primary size of 12 nm were readily phagocytized into the food vacuoles of Tetrahymena thermophila in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Twenty hours after the exposure to QDs in sublethal concentration the clearance of the QDs from the cells was incomplete suggesting that phagocytosis of QDs into food vacuoles was not the only pathway of uptake by T. thermophila. This was further proven by the results that the inhibition of phagocytosis did not block the internalization of QDs into protozoans. This study provides a new insight into uptake and cellular trafficking of subtoxic concentrations of nanoparticles that may, due to prolonged retention times in the cells, pose risks by potentially becoming available to higher trophic levels.

  12. [Lysozyme-antilysozyme interactions in protozoa-bacteria communities (a model Tetrahymena-Escherichia community)].

    PubMed

    Bukharin, O V; Nemtseva, N V

    2001-01-01

    Lysozyme and antilysozyme activities present in a wide range of microorganisms determine the so-called lysozyme-antilysozyme system of hydrobionts, which greatly contribute to the formation of aquatic biocenoses. However, the mechanism of the functioning of this system in natural freshwater communities remains obscure. The experimental investigation of lysozyme-antilysozyme interactions in a model Tetrahymena--Escherichia community showed that the antilysozyme activity of Escherichia coli leads to incomplete phagocytosis, thus enhancing bacterial survival in a mixed culture with infusoria. The selection and reproduction of bacterial cells resistant to grazing by infusoria determine the character of host-parasite interactions and allow bacteria to survive. It was demonstrated that the antilysozyme activity of microorganisms, which is responsible for bacterial persistency in natural biocenoses, is involved in the maintenance of protozoa-bacteria communities in bodies of water.

  13. Detection of Zoonotic Protozoa Toxoplasma gondii and Sarcocystis suihominis in Wild Boars from Spain.

    PubMed

    Calero-Bernal, R; Pérez-Martín, J E; Reina, D; Serrano, F J; Frontera, E; Fuentes, I; Dubey, J P

    2016-08-01

    Food safety regulations require the control of the presence of protozoa in meats destined for human consumption. Wild boar (Sus scrofa) meat may constitute a source of zoonoses. A 23.8% (688/2881) seroprevalence of anti-Toxoplasma gondii antibodies and 72.2% (662/910) Sarcocystis sarcocysts prevalence were detected among wild boars hunted in Southwestern areas of Spain. Identity of Sarcocystis spp. was performed by RFLP-PCR and sequencing, detecting S. miescheriana (7/8) and the zoonotic S. suihominis (1/8). Risk assessment studies of these coccidian in meats destined to human consumption are needed. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  14. Rumen ciliate protozoa of domestic sheep (Ovis aries) and goat (Capra aegagrus hircus) in Kyrgyzstan.

    PubMed

    Gürelli, Gözde; Canbulat, Savaş; Aldayarov, Nurbek; Dehority, Burk A

    2016-03-01

    Species composition and concentration of rumen ciliate protozoa were investigated in the rumen contents of 14 domestic sheep and 1 goat living in Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan. This is the first report on rumen ciliates from ruminants living in Kyrgyzstan. In sheep 12 genera, 28 species and 12 morphotypes were detected, whereas in goat 8 genera, 12 species and 4 morphotypes were detected. The density of ciliates in sheep was (28.1 ± 20.0) × 10(4) cells mL(-1) and in goat was 37.0 × 10(4) cells mL(-1). Dasytricha ruminantium, Isotricha prostoma, Entodinium simulans and Ophryoscolex caudatus were major species (100%) in sheep, and for the first time, Diplodinium rangiferi was detected in a domestic goat. © FEMS 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Detection by PCR of pathogenic protozoa in raw and drinkable water samples in Colombia.

    PubMed

    Triviño-Valencia, Jessica; Lora, Fabiana; Zuluaga, Juan David; Gomez-Marin, Jorge E

    2016-05-01

    We evaluated the presence of DNA of Giardia, Toxoplasma, and Cryptosporidium by PCR, and of Giardia and Cryptosporidium genera by immunofluorescence antibody test (IFAT), in water samples, before, during, and after plant treatment for drinkable water. We applied this method in 38 samples of 10 l of water taken from each of the water treatment steps and in 8 samples taken at home (only for Toxoplasma PCR) in Quindio region in Colombia. There were 8 positive samples for Cryptosporidium parvum (21 %), 4 for Cryptosporidium hominis (10.5 %), 27 for Toxoplasma gondii (58.6 %), 2 for Giardia duodenalis assemblage A (5.2 %), and 5 for G. duodenalis assemblage B (13.1 %). By IFAT, 23 % were positive for Giardia and 21 % for Cryptosporidium. An almost perfect agreement was found between IFAT and combined results of PCR, by Kappa composite proportion analysis. PCR positive samples were significantly more frequent in untreated raw water for C. parvum (p = 0.02). High mean of fecal coliforms, high pH values, and low mean of chlorine residuals were strongly correlated with PCR positivity for G. duodenalis assemblage B. High pH value was correlated with PCR positivity for C. parvum. Phylogenetic analysis of DNA sequences was possible, showing water and human clinical sequences for Toxoplasma within the same phylogenetic group for B1 repeated sequence. PCR assay is complementary to IFAT assay for monitoring of protozoa in raw and drinkable water, enabling species identification and to look for phylogenetic analysis in protozoa from human and environmental sources.

  16. Legionella-protozoa-nematode interactions in aquatic biofilms and influence of Mip on Caenorhabditis elegans colonization.

    PubMed

    Rasch, Janine; Krüger, Stefanie; Fontvieille, Dominique; Ünal, Can M; Michel, Rolf; Labrosse, Aurélie; Steinert, Michael

    2016-09-01

    Legionella pneumophila, the causative agent of Legionnaireś disease, is naturally found in aquatic habitats. The intracellular life cycle within protozoa pre-adapted the "accidental" human pathogen to also infect human professional phagocytes like alveolar macrophages. Previous studies employing the model organism Caenorhabditis elegans suggest that also nematodes might serve as a natural host for L. pneumophila. Here, we report for the first time from a natural co-habitation of L. pneumophila and environmental nematode species within biofilms of a warm water spring. In addition, we identified the protozoan species Oxytricha bifaria, Stylonychia mytilus, Ciliophrya sp. which have never been described as potential interaction partners of L. pneumophila before. Modeling and dissection of the Legionella-protozoa-nematode interaction revealed that C. elegans ruptures Legionella-infected amoebal cells and by this means incorporate the pathogen. Further infection studies revealed that the macrophage infectivity potentiator (Mip) protein of L. pneumophila, which is known to bind collagen IV during human lung infection, promotes the colonization of the intestinal tract of L4 larvae of C. elegans and negatively influences the life span of the worms. The Mip-negative L. pneumophila mutant exhibited a 32-fold reduced colonization rate of the nematodes after 48h when compared to the wild-type strain. Taken together, these studies suggest that nematodes may serve as natural hosts for L. pneumophila, promote their persistence and dissemination in the environment, and co-evolutionarily pre-adapt the pathogen for interactions with extracellular constituents of human lung tissue. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  17. Statistics of gastro-enteritis mortality in Venezuela

    PubMed Central

    Curiel, Dario; de Ochoa, Elena

    1959-01-01

    Gastro-enteritis constituted the chief cause of death in Venezuela during the period 1950-54 in both urban and rural areas, being responsible for an annual death-rate of 166 per 100 000 inhabitants, but was a particularly acute problem in localities with under 5000 inhabitants, where only one in every three fatal cases received medical care before death. Although the disease is not a very important cause of neo-natal mortality, nearly 90% of gastro-enteritis deaths occur among children between 4 weeks and 5 years of age. There is some seasonal variation, with relatively low mortality values in the first and last four months of the year and an appreciable rise in the intermediary period. An analysis is made of all death certificates in 1953 on which death was attributed to a cause interpreted as being gastro-enteritis (totalling over 7000), and it is thought that, despite the variable terminology used, the same disease is in fact referred to in the great majority of certificates. The authors suggest measures for ensuring the comparability of gastro-enteritis statistics in the circumstances prevailing in Venezuela. PMID:13813338

  18. Pharmacokinetics of enteric-coated cysteamine bitartrate in healthy adults: a pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Gangoiti, Jon A; Fidler, Meredith; Cabrera, Betty L; Schneider, Jerry A; Barshop, Bruce A; Dohil, Ranjan

    2010-01-01

    AIMS Cysteamine bitartrate (Cystagon®) is the approved treatment for cystinosis. Poor compliance and patient outcome may occur because the drug needs to be taken every 6 h and in some patients causes gastrointestinal symptoms due to hypergastrinaemia. A formulation of cysteamine requiring twice daily ingestion would improve the quality of life for these patients. This study compares the pharmacokinetics and gastrin production following cysteamine bitartrate non-enteric-coated and cysteamine bitartrate enteric-coated in normal healthy subjects. METHODS Enteric-coated cysteamine was prepared. Following single doses of cysteamine bitartrate non-enteric-coated 450 mg and cysteamine bitartrate enteric-coated 450 mg and 900 mg, serial plasma cysteamine and gastrin concentrations were measured. Two subjects also received cysteamine bitartrate non-enteric-coated 900 mg. Gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms were recorded. RESULTS Six healthy adults (mean age 20.7 years, range 18–24 years; mean weight 59.3 kg) received drug. All post-dose gastrin concentrations were within the normal range (<100 pg ml–1). The tmax following cysteamine bitartrate non-enteric-coated (mean and SD is 75 ± 19 min) was shorter than cysteamine bitartrate enteric-coated (220 ± 74 min) (P = 0.001), but only the Cmax and AUC estimates following 900 mg cysteamine bitartrate enteric-coated were significantly greater than any of the other preparations or doses (P < 0.05). One patient had GI symptoms following both 900 mg cysteamine bitartrate non-enteric-coated and cysteamine bitartrate enteric-coated. CONCLUSION Although patient numbers were low, single high doses of cysteamine bitartrate enteric-coated were better tolerated than similar doses of cysteamine bitartrate non-enteric-coated in the healthy subjects and all had normal gastrin concentrations. The delayed tmax following cysteamine bitartrate enteric-coated suggested that the cysteamine was released enterically. PMID:20716238

  19. Intracellular activity of azithromycin against bacterial enteric pathogens.

    PubMed Central

    Rakita, R M; Jacques-Palaz, K; Murray, B E

    1994-01-01

    Azithromycin, a new azalide antibiotic, is active in vitro against a variety of enteric bacterial pathogens. Since it is concentrated inside human neutrophils and other cells, it might be particularly useful in the treatment of infections caused by enteropathogens that invade host tissues. The intracellular activity of azithromycin against several enteric pathogens that had been phagocytosed by neutrophils was determined. Azithromycin was effective in reducing the intracellular viabilities of almost all strains tested, including representative strains of Salmonella, Shigella, and enteroinvasive, enteropathogenic, enterotoxigenic, and enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli. Erythromycin was also effective in this model system, although azithromycin was generally more effective than erythromycin against strains of invasive enteric pathogens. Cefotaxime reduced intracellular bacterial viability to a lesser extent than either azithromycin or erythromycin. The presence of neutrophils did not significantly affect the activity of azithromycin in this system. Azithromycin may be a useful agent for the treatment of bacterial diarrhea, and clinical trials should be considered. PMID:7810998

  20. Predisposing factors and prevention of Clostridium perfringens-associated enteritis.

    PubMed

    Allaart, Janneke G; van Asten, Alphons J A M; Gröne, Andrea

    2013-09-01

    Clostridium perfringens is one of the major causes of intestinal disease in humans and animals. Its pathogenicity is contributed to by the production of a variety of toxins. In addition, predisposing environmental factors are important for the induction of C. perfringens-associated enteritis as shown by infection models. Environmental contamination, gastric and intestinal pH, intestinal microflora, nutrition, concurrent infections, and medical interventions may influence the intestinal colonization, growth, and toxin production by C. perfringens. Prevention of C. perfringens-associated enteritis may be mediated by the use of feed additives like probiotics, prebiotics, organic acids, essential oils, bacteriophages, lysozymes, bacteriocins, and antimicrobial peptides. Here we summarize and discuss published data on the influence of different environmental predisposing factors and preventive measures. Further research should focus on feed composition and feed additives in order to prevent C. perfringens-associated enteritis.

  1. Bioengineered probiotics, a strategic approach to control enteric infections.

    PubMed

    Amalaradjou, Mary Anne Roshni; Bhunia, Arun K

    2013-01-01

    Enteric infections account for high morbidity and mortality and are considered to be the fifth leading cause of death at all ages worldwide. Seventy percent of all enteric infections are foodborne. Thus significant efforts have been directed toward the detection, control and prevention of foodborne diseases. Many antimicrobials including antibiotics have been used for their control and prevention. However, probiotics offer a potential alternative intervention strategy owing to their general health beneficial properties and inhibitory effects against foodborne pathogens. Often, antimicrobial probiotic action is non-specific and non-discriminatory or may be ineffective. In such cases, bioengineered probiotics expressing foreign gene products to achieve specific function is highly desirable. In this review we summarize the strategic development of recombinant bioengineered probiotics to control enteric infections, and to examine how scientific advancements in the human microbiome and their immunomodulatory effects help develop such novel and safe bioengineered probiotics.

  2. Bioengineered probiotics, a strategic approach to control enteric infections

    PubMed Central

    Amalaradjou, Mary Anne Roshni; Bhunia, Arun K

    2013-01-01

    Enteric infections account for high morbidity and mortality and are considered to be the fifth leading cause of death at all ages worldwide. Seventy percent of all enteric infections are foodborne. Thus significant efforts have been directed toward the detection, control and prevention of foodborne diseases. Many antimicrobials including antibiotics have been used for their control and prevention. However, probiotics offer a potential alternative intervention strategy owing to their general health beneficial properties and inhibitory effects against foodborne pathogens. Often, antimicrobial probiotic action is non-specific and non-discriminatory or may be ineffective. In such cases, bioengineered probiotics expressing foreign gene products to achieve specific function is highly desirable. In this review we summarize the strategic development of recombinant bioengineered probiotics to control enteric infections, and to examine how scientific advancements in the human microbiome and their immunomodulatory effects help develop such novel and safe bioengineered probiotics. PMID:23327986

  3. Role of FODMAP content in enteral nutrition-associated diarrhea.

    PubMed

    Halmos, Emma P

    2013-12-01

    Gastrointestinal symptoms including diarrhea are common complications of enteral nutrition (EN); however, the cause is unclear. Mode of EN delivery that alters digestion and possibly absorption is suggested to contribute to the high incidence of diarrhea; however, enteral formula is frequently blamed. Most research has focused on fiber-supplemented EN, with a meta-analysis showing that fiber reduces the incidence of diarrhea in non-intensive care unit studies. Other hypotheses include formula osmolality and FODMAP (fermentable oligosaccharides, disaccharides, monosaccharides, and polyols) content. FODMAPs are poorly absorbed short-chain carbohydrates that exert an osmotic effect. Dietary FODMAPs have been shown to reduce gastrointestinal symptoms, including diarrhea, in those with irritable bowel syndrome and, given a high-enough dose, will induce a laxative effect in most people. As FODMAPs are commonly added to enteral formula and EN is frequently used as the main source of nutrition, it is reasonable to hypothesize that EN provides more FODMAPs than usual dietary intake and increases risk for developing diarrhea. This hypothesis was assessed through a retrospective study showing that the standard-use enteral formula Isosource 1.5 had a protective effect of developing diarrhea. The only characteristic unique to Isosource 1.5 was the lower FODMAP content as determined through methodologies previously validated for food analysis. Methodologies for application to enteral formulas are currently undergoing formal validation. Once confirmed for application in enteral formula, future directions include FODMAP analysis of specific ingredients to increase understanding of potential problems associated with enteral formula and a randomized, controlled trial investigating the role of formula FODMAP content. © 2013 Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology Foundation and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  4. Intravital Computer Morphometry on Protozoa: A Method for Monitoring of the Morphofunctional Disorders in Cells Exposed in the Cell Phone Communication Electromagnetic Field.

    PubMed

    Uskalova, D V; Igolkina, Yu V; Sarapultseva, E I

    2016-08-01

    Morphofunctional disorders in unicellular aquatic protozoa - Spirostomum ambiguum infusorians after 30-, 60-, and 360-min exposure in electromagnetic field at a radiation frequency of 1 GHz and energy flow density of 50 μW/cm(2) were analyzed by intravital computer morphometry. Significant disorders in morphometric values correlated with low mobility of the protozoa. The results suggested the use of intravital computer morphometry on the protozoa for early diagnosis of radiation-induced effects of the mobile communication electromagnetic field, for example, low mobility of spermatozoa.

  5. Entering China: an unconventional approach.

    PubMed

    Vanhonacker, W

    1997-01-01

    Conventional wisdom has it that the best way to do business in China is through an equity joint venture (EJV) with a well-connected Chinese partner. But pioneering companies are starting a trend toward a new way to enter that market: as a wholly foreign-owned enterprise, or WFOE. Increasingly, says the author, joint ventures do not offer foreign companies what they need to succeed in China. For example, many companies want to do business nationally, but the prospects for finding a Chinese partner with national scope are poor. Moreover, there are often conflicting perceptions between partners about how to operate an EJV: Chinese companies, for example, typically have a more immediate interest in profits than foreign investors do. By contrast, the author asserts, WFOEs are faster to set up and easier to manage; and they allow managers to expand operations more rapidly. That makes them the perfect solution, right? The answer is a qualified yes. First, foreign companies will still need sources of guanxi, or social and political connections. Second, managers must take steps to avoid trampling on China's cultural or economic sovereignty. Third and perhaps most important, foreign companies must be prepared to bring something of value to China-usually in the form of jobs or new technology that can help the country develop. Companies willing to make the effort, says the author, can reap the rewards of China's burgeoning marketplace.

  6. [Secondary aorto-enteric fistula].

    PubMed

    Giordanengo, F; Boneschi, M; Miani, S; Erba, M; Beretta, L

    1998-01-01

    Aortic graft fistula is a rare and life-threatening complication after aortic reconstruction. The incidence ranges from 0.5 to 4%, and even if the diagnosis and treatment is appropriate, the results of surgery are poor: mortality rate ranges from 14 to 70%. The optimal method of treatment is still controversial; prosthetic removal and extra-anatomic bypass has been advocated as the standard method, but more recently, because the high mortality rate associated with this procedure, some have prompted to recommend in situ aortic graft replacement as a more successful treatment. Personal experience with incidence (0.7%) outcome and mortality (57%) in 7 patients treated over a period of 6 years (1990-1996) is reported. Results from this group are compared with another group (6 patients) previously treated (1975-1982) for the same pathology. Our results after 10 years, show the same incidence (0.7 vs 0.6%) and an elevated and unchanged mortality (57 vs 66%). Better results in the management of aorto-enteric fistulas could be achieved with the removal of infected infrarenal aortic prosthetic grafts and in situ homografts replacement.

  7. Hormonal response to enteral feeding and the possible role of peptide YY in pathogenesis of enteral feeding-related diarrhoea.

    PubMed

    Bowling, T E; Silk, D B

    1996-12-01

    Diarrhoea is a common complication of enteral feeding. Previous studies have demonstrated a secretion of water and electrolytes in the ascending colon during intragastric but not intraduodenal enteral feeding. The cause of this secretion is likely to be neurohumoral in origin. This study was designed to examine the hormonal responses to enteral feeding. In vivo segmental colonic perfusion studies were undertaken. Before and at hourly intervals during these studies serum was taken for estimations of neurotensin (NT), pancreatic glucagon (PG), peptide YY (PYY) and vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP). During fasting there was a median ascending colonic absorption of water in all groups. During feeding there was a net secretion in the ascending colon in both gastric groups and in the high load duodenal group, but not in the low load duodenal group. During these studies the PYY levels remained unchanged from fasting in the low and high load gastric groups. In the low and high load duodenal groups the PYY levels increased. The NT levels increased only in the high load duodenal group. There were no other changes in NT or in PG or VIP levels either between fasting and feeding, or between the gastric and duodenal groups. PYY is known to stimulate intestinal absorption. The absence of a rise during intragastric feeding may be important in the underlying mechanisms of enteral feeding-induced colonic secretion and hence enteral feeding-related diarrhoea.

  8. Effect of bismuth citrate, lactose, and organic acid on necrotic enteritis in broilers

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Clostridium perfringens – associated necrotic enteritis causes significant losses and increased morbidity in poultry. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of bismuth citrate and acidifiers on the development of necrotic enteritis in broilers. The first study was a dose response t...

  9. Application and Preparation of Enteric Coating Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, M. M.; Wang, L.; Zhang, X. L.; Zhou, H. J.; Chen, X. Q.; Li, Y. T.; Yang, S. L.

    2017-02-01

    In this paper, polymethacrylate enteric coated materials based on the equal mass of methyl acrylic acid and ethyl acrylate as the main raw materials were synthesized through emulsion polymerization. Omeprazole Enteric-coated Capsules were prepared by the fluidized bed coating technology using above materials as enteric layer and in vitro enteric test was considered according to standard. The results showed that the material had good coverage in the surface of omeprazole isolated pellets, excellent acid resistance in artificial gastric acid environment, and reached the disintegration effect in the buffer solution of 20min. Moreover the drug release reached 88.2% and had excellent long-term storage.

  10. Endoscopic jejunal access for enteral feeding.

    PubMed

    Coates, N E; MacFadyen, B V

    1995-06-01

    Enteral (gut) alimentation appears to offer greater benefit for patients than calories delivered via a parenteral (intravenous) route. Enteral alimentation prevents mucosal atrophy, maintains normal gut flora, decreases bacterial translocation, and enhances enteral immunological competence. Reliable delivery into the jejunum without the placement of an operative feeding tube is difficult, however. We have been interested for some time in endoscopically placing a jejunal tube for enteral nutrition early (within 24 hours) after trauma resuscitation or operation. A simplified technique is described for the endoscopic placement of a jejunal feeding tube, with or without a concomitant percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy.

  11. [Enteric parasites and AIDS in Haiti: utility of detection and treatment of intestinal parasites in family members].

    PubMed

    Raccurt, C P; Pannier Stockman, C; Eyma, E; Verdier, R I; Totet, A; Pape, J W

    2006-10-01

    Intestinal parasites and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) are major health problems in Haiti. Both entities are known to interact strongly with cell-mediated immunity. The purpose of this study undertaken in Port-au-Prince, Haiti was to evaluate the risk of enteric parasite transmission between HIV-infected patients and family members. Routine examination of stool specimens for parasites was conducted in 90 HIV-infected undergoing treatment for intestinal disorders due mainly to Cryptosporidium sp. (62%) and 123 healthy family member volunteers. A stool sample preserved in 10% formalin solution was examined to detect protozoa (MIF, modified Ziehl-Neelsen stain, Uvibio fluorescence technique, Weber stain) and helminth ova (Bailenger technique). In addition to Cryptosporidium sp., 14 parasitic species were identified: 6 Rhizopoda, 3 Flagellata (including Giardia duodenalis), 1 Coccidia (Cyclospora cayetanensis), 3 Nematoda (mainly Ascaris lumbricoides) and 1 Cestoda (Hymenolepis nana). This is the first time that 5 protozoa, i.e., Blastocystis hominis, Entamoeba hartmanni, E. polecki, Chilomastix mesnili, and Enteromonas hominis, have been reported in Haiti. As expected, enteric parasites were less common in HIV-infected subjects undergoing medical treatment (11.1%) than in uninfected family members (41.5%) (p = 0.0000). Multiple intestinal parasitism (infection by 2 to 4 parasites) was observed in 19.5% of family members. The findings of this study indicate that detecting and treating intestinal parasites in subjects living in close contact with HIV-infected patients as well as informing family members of the importance of personal hygiene in Haiti are highly recommended measures to preserve the health of AIDS patients.

  12. [National registry of Home Enteral Nutrition in 2003].

    PubMed

    Planas, M; Lecha, M; García Luna, P P; Parés, R M; Chamorro, J; Martí, E; Bonada, A; Irles, J A; Boris, M A; Cardona, D; Zamarrón, I; Calañas, A J; Rodríguez, A; Camarero, E; Pérez de la Cruz, A; Mancha, A; De Luis Román, D; Cos, A; Luengo, L M; Jiménez, M; Bayo, P; Goenaga, M A

    2006-01-01

    patients were confined to bed or armchair, 19.7 % no or light discapacity degree was observed. We found a persistence of these treatment in our country. Neurological and neoplasic diseases were the more frequent diagnosis in patients analysed. The high prevalence of cancer patients could be the main cause of oral access for enteral nutrition. Change of enteral tube was the more frequent complication observed during this treatment.

  13. [Enteric-coated aspirin does not reduce the risk of gastrointestinal side effects].

    PubMed

    Haastrup, Peter; Jarbøl, Dorte Ejg

    2014-04-28

    Enteric-coated aspirin has been developed in order to decrease the risk of gastrointestinal side effects. When reviewing the existing literature on the effects of the coating on the incidence of gastrointestinal side effects we find that enteric-coated aspirin causes significantly less minor gastrointestinal lesions compared to plain aspirin evaluated by endoscopy after short-term treatment, but there seems to be no effect of enteric-coating on the incidence of dyspepsia or gastrointestinal bleeding of clinical relevance. In conclusion enteric-coated aspirin is not superior to plain aspirin.

  14. [New home enteral nutrition via jejunostomy using semi-solid enteral formula].

    PubMed

    Ogasawara, Mihoko; Makishima, Junko; Maruyama, Makishima Michio

    2014-12-01

    Home enteral nutrition via jejunostomy requires considerable time for infusion to the patients. A new method using semisolid enteral formula dramatically reduces the time of infusion. This method makes use of pectin and liquid enteral formula. The authors applied this method in two patients with total gastrectomy being given enteral nutrition at home. There were no complications such as diarrhea or abdominal pain. This new method of home enteral nutrition could enhance the patients' quality of life (QOL) by reducing the time of infusion of enteral nutrition.

  15. Evaluation of Statens Serum Institut Enteric Medium for Detection of Enteric Pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Blom, Marianne; Meyer, Aase; Gerner-Smidt, Peter; Gaarslev, Knud; Espersen, Frank

    1999-01-01

    The efficacy of the Statens Serum Institut (SSI) enteric medium for isolation and direct identification of enteric pathogens was evaluated. Six different biochemical reactions can be read by using the SSI enteric medium, allowing direct identification of a range of enteric pathogens. All 248 gram-negative bacterial species that were tested grew on the SSI enteric medium. Only 10 of 248 bacteria (4%) showed discrepant results in the biochemical reactions, and none of these were enteric pathogens. Forty-three of 47 enteric pathogens (92%) produced identical rates of semiquantitative growth on the SSI enteric medium and 5% blood agar, whereas three Vibrio spp. and one Aeromonas spp. showed reduced growth. Gram-positive bacteria did not grow on the SSI enteric medium. Most enteric pathogens had a detection limit of 50 bacteria per ml of feces, but higher numbers of Vibrio spp. and some Shigella spp. were required for detection. The growth rates of 125 enteric pathogens and 12 Yersinia spp. on the SSI enteric medium, xylose lysine deoxycholate (XLD), Hektoen enteric (HE), Salmonella-Shigella (SS), and cefsulodin-irgasan-novobiocin (CIN) agar were compared. Detection rates after application of 200 CFU were 99% for SSI enteric medium, 92% for XLD, 88% for HE, and 82% for SS agar. The 12 Yersinia spp. grew excellently on both the SSI enteric medium and CIN agar. We conclude that the performance of the SSI enteric medium compares favorably to those of other media tested. Its ability to detect Yersinia spp. may limit the number of media needed in the typical laboratory. The direct identification of enteric pathogens on the medium may also provide a more rapid diagnosis. PMID:10364603

  16. Enteric hyperoxaluria in chronic pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Demoulin, Nathalie; Issa, Zaina; Crott, Ralph; Morelle, Johann; Danse, Etienne; Wallemacq, Pierre; Jadoul, Michel; Deprez, Pierre H

    2017-05-01

    Chronic pancreatitis may lead to steatorrhea, enteric hyperoxaluria, and kidney damage. However, the prevalence and determinants of hyperoxaluria in chronic pancreatitis patients as well as its association with renal function decline have not been investigated.We performed an observational study. Urine oxalate to creatinine ratio was assessed on 2 independent random urine samples in consecutive adult patients with chronic pancreatitis followed at the outpatient clinic from March 1 to October 31, 2012. Baseline characteristics and annual estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) change during follow-up were compared between patients with hyper- and normo-oxaluria.A total of 48 patients with chronic pancreatitis were included. The etiology of the disease was toxic (52%), idiopathic (27%), obstructive (11%), autoimmune (6%), or genetic (4%). Hyperoxaluria (defined as urine oxalate to creatinine ratio >32 mg/g) was found in 23% of patients. Multivariate regression analysis identified clinical steatorrhea, high fecal acid steatocrit, and pancreatic atrophy as independent predictors of hyperoxaluria. Taken together, a combination of clinical steatorrhea, steatocrit level >31%, and pancreatic atrophy was associated with a positive predictive value of 100% for hyperoxaluria. On the contrary, none of the patients with a fecal elastase-1 level >100 μg/g had hyperoxaluria. Longitudinal evolution of eGFR was available in 71% of the patients, with a mean follow-up of 904 days. After adjustment for established determinants of renal function decline (gender, diabetes, bicarbonate level, baseline eGFR, and proteinuria), a urine oxalate to creatinine ratio >32 mg/g was associated with a higher risk of eGFR decline.Hyperoxaluria is highly prevalent in patients with chronic pancreatitis and associated with faster decline in renal function. A high urine oxalate to creatinine ratio in patients with chronic pancreatitis is best predicted by clinical steatorrhea, a high acid

  17. Enteric hyperoxaluria in chronic pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Demoulin, Nathalie; Issa, Zaina; Crott, Ralph; Morelle, Johann; Danse, Etienne; Wallemacq, Pierre; Jadoul, Michel; Deprez, Pierre H.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Chronic pancreatitis may lead to steatorrhea, enteric hyperoxaluria, and kidney damage. However, the prevalence and determinants of hyperoxaluria in chronic pancreatitis patients as well as its association with renal function decline have not been investigated. We performed an observational study. Urine oxalate to creatinine ratio was assessed on 2 independent random urine samples in consecutive adult patients with chronic pancreatitis followed at the outpatient clinic from March 1 to October 31, 2012. Baseline characteristics and annual estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) change during follow-up were compared between patients with hyper- and normo-oxaluria. A total of 48 patients with chronic pancreatitis were included. The etiology of the disease was toxic (52%), idiopathic (27%), obstructive (11%), autoimmune (6%), or genetic (4%). Hyperoxaluria (defined as urine oxalate to creatinine ratio >32 mg/g) was found in 23% of patients. Multivariate regression analysis identified clinical steatorrhea, high fecal acid steatocrit, and pancreatic atrophy as independent predictors of hyperoxaluria. Taken together, a combination of clinical steatorrhea, steatocrit level >31%, and pancreatic atrophy was associated with a positive predictive value of 100% for hyperoxaluria. On the contrary, none of the patients with a fecal elastase-1 level >100 μg/g had hyperoxaluria. Longitudinal evolution of eGFR was available in 71% of the patients, with a mean follow-up of 904 days. After adjustment for established determinants of renal function decline (gender, diabetes, bicarbonate level, baseline eGFR, and proteinuria), a urine oxalate to creatinine ratio >32 mg/g was associated with a higher risk of eGFR decline. Hyperoxaluria is highly prevalent in patients with chronic pancreatitis and associated with faster decline in renal function. A high urine oxalate to creatinine ratio in patients with chronic pancreatitis is best predicted by clinical steatorrhea, a

  18. Occurrence of organic chlorinated pesticides and their ecological effects on soil protozoa in the agricultural soils of North Western Beijing, China.

    PubMed

    Shi, Yajuan; Lu, Yonglong; Meng, Fanqiao; Guo, Feifan; Zheng, Xiaoqi

    2013-06-01

    The occurrence of ∑HCHs, ∑DDTs, protozoa abundance and their community structure in surface soils of orchards, vegetable lands, and barren lands in northern west outskirts of Beijing were detected in order to investigate the protozoa responses to low dose organic chlorinated Pesticides (OCPs) after long-term field-based exposure. Significant differences in total concentrations of HCHs and DDTs were found among the three general groups ranking in decreasing order of concentration from orchard>vegetable lands >barren lands. Ciliate was the rare group in surface soils of all the sampling groups. The abundance of flagellate, ciliate, and amoebae in vegetable soils were significantly higher than those in orchard soils. The abundance of all the taxa of protozoa was strongly negative correlated with the residue level of ∑HCHs and ∑DDTs (P<0.05) in agricultural soils. However, no negative correlation between the residue levels of OCPs and protozoa abundance was shown in both the orchard and the barren soils. This field study demonstrated a considerable long-term impact of the OCPs residue on the abundance of protozoa in soils, and that the abundance of soil protozoa was much more influenced by land use type in association with different soil properties.

  19. Prevalence of intestinal protozoa infection among school-aged children on Pemba Island, Tanzania, and effect of single-dose albendazole, nitazoxanide and albendazole-nitazoxanide.

    PubMed

    Speich, Benjamin; Marti, Hanspeter; Ame, Shaali M; Ali, Said M; Bogoch, Isaac I; Utzinger, Jürg; Albonico, Marco; Keiser, Jennifer

    2013-01-04

    Pathogenic intestinal protozoa infections are common in school-aged children in the developing world and they are frequently associated with malabsorption syndromes and gastrointestinal morbidity. Since diagnosis of these parasites is difficult, prevalence data on intestinal protozoa is scarce. We collected two stool samples from school-aged children on Pemba Island, Tanzania, as part of a randomized controlled trial before and 3 weeks after treatment with (i) single-dose albendazole (400 mg); (ii) single-dose nitazoxanide (1,000 mg); (iii) nitazoxanide-albendazole combination (1,000 mg-400 mg), with each drug given separately on two consecutive days; and (iv) placebo. Formalin-fixed stool samples were examined for the presence of intestinal protozoa using an ether-concentration method to determine the prevalence and estimate cure rates (CRs). Almost half (48.7%) of the children were diagnosed with at least one of the (potentially) pathogenic protozoa Giardia intestinalis, Entamoeba histolytica/E. dispar and Blastocystis hominis. Observed CRs were high for all treatment arms, including placebo. Nitazoxanide showed a significant effect compared to placebo against the non-pathogenic protozoon Entamoeba coli. Intestinal protozoa infections might be of substantial health relevance even in settings where they are not considered as a health problem. Examination of a single stool sample with the ether-concentration method lacks sensitivity for the diagnosis of intestinal protozoa, and hence, care is indicated when interpreting prevalence estimates and treatment effects.

  20. Prevalence of intestinal protozoa infection among school-aged children on Pemba Island, Tanzania, and effect of single-dose albendazole, nitazoxanide and albendazole-nitazoxanide

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Pathogenic intestinal protozoa infections are common in school-aged children in the developing world and they are frequently associated with malabsorption syndromes and gastrointestinal morbidity. Since diagnosis of these parasites is difficult, prevalence data on intestinal protozoa is scarce. Methods We collected two stool samples from school-aged children on Pemba Island, Tanzania, as part of a randomized controlled trial before and 3 weeks after treatment with (i) single-dose albendazole (400 mg); (ii) single-dose nitazoxanide (1,000 mg); (iii) nitazoxanide-albendazole combination (1,000 mg–400 mg), with each drug given separately on two consecutive days; and (iv) placebo. Formalin-fixed stool samples were examined for the presence of intestinal protozoa using an ether-concentration method to determine the prevalence and estimate cure rates (CRs). Results Almost half (48.7%) of the children were diagnosed with at least one of the (potentially) pathogenic protozoa Giardia intestinalis, Entamoeba histolytica/E. dispar and Blastocystis hominis. Observed CRs were high for all treatment arms, including placebo. Nitazoxanide showed a significant effect compared to placebo against the non-pathogenic protozoon Entamoeba coli. Conclusions Intestinal protozoa infections might be of substantial health relevance even in settings where they are not considered as a health problem. Examination of a single stool sample with the ether-concentration method lacks sensitivity for the diagnosis of intestinal protozoa, and hence, care is indicated when interpreting prevalence estimates and treatment effects. PMID:23289920

  1. Isolation of protozoa from water associated with a legionellosis outbreak and demonstration of intracellular multiplication of Legionella pneumophila

    SciTech Connect

    Barbaree, J.M.; Fields, B.S.; Feeley, J.C.; Gorman, G.W.; Martin, W.T.

    1986-02-01

    At the site of a legionellosis outbreak, amoebae and two ciliates, Tetrahymena sp. and Cyclidium sp., were isolated from cooling-tower water containing Legionella pneumophila. The Tetrahymena sp. and the amoebae repeatedly showed the ability to support intracellular multiplication of L. pneumophila. Both were isolated from cooling towers specifically implicated as the source for the spread of legionellosis. These protozoa may be reservoirs supporting the survival and multiplication of virulent legionellae in cooling-tower water.

  2. Nitrogen-deficient microalgae are rich in cell-surface mannose: potential implications for prey biorecognition by phagotrophic protozoa

    PubMed Central

    Martel, Claire M.

    2009-01-01

    Flow cytometry was used to quantify the abundance of mannose-linked glycoconjugates on microalgae precultured using low- or high-nitrate media. Nitrogen-deficient microalgae were richer in cell-surface mannose than nitrogen-sufficient. Findings are discussed in view of recent research which reveals mannose-specific ‘feeding receptors’ assist prey biorecognition by phagotrophic protozoa that ingest microalgae. PMID:24031323

  3. Effects of hygiene and defecation behavior on helminths and intestinal protozoa infections in Taabo, Côte d'Ivoire.

    PubMed

    Schmidlin, Thomas; Hürlimann, Eveline; Silué, Kigbafori D; Yapi, Richard B; Houngbedji, Clarisse; Kouadio, Bernadette A; Acka-Douabélé, Cinthia A; Kouassi, Dongo; Ouattara, Mamadou; Zouzou, Fabien; Bonfoh, Bassirou; N'Goran, Eliézer K; Utzinger, Jürg; Raso, Giovanna

    2013-01-01

    More than 1 billion people are currently infected with soil-transmitted helminths and schistosomes. The global strategy to control helminthiases is the regular administration of anthelmintic drugs to at-risk populations. However, rapid re-infection occurs in areas where hygiene, access to clean water, and sanitation are inadequate. In July 2011, inhabitants from two villages and seven hamlets of the Taabo health demographic surveillance system in south-central Côte d'Ivoire provided stool and urine samples. Kato-Katz and ether-concentration methods were used for the diagnosis of Schistosoma mansoni, soil-transmitted helminths (Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, and hookworm), and intestinal protozoa. Urine samples were subjected to a filtration method for the diagnosis of Schistosoma haematobium. A questionnaire was administered to households to obtain information on knowledge, attitude, practice, and beliefs in relation to hygiene, sanitation, and defecation behavior. Logistic regression models were employed to assess for associations between questionnaire data and parasitic infections. A total of 1,894 participants had complete data records. Parasitological examinations revealed prevalences of hookworm, S. haematobium, T. trichiura, S. mansoni, and A. lumbricoides of 33.5%, 7.0%, 1.6%, 1.3% and 0.8%, respectively. Giardia intestinalis and Entamoeba histolytica/E. dispar were detected in 15.0% and 14.4% of the participants, respectively. Only one out of five households reported the presence of a latrine, and hence, open defecation was common. Logistic regression analysis revealed that age, sex, socioeconomic status, hygiene, and defecation behavior are determinants for helminths and intestinal protozoa infections. We found that inadequate sanitation and hygiene behavior are associated with soil-transmitted helminths and intestinal protozoa infections in the Taabo area of south-central Côte d'Ivoire. Our data will serve as a benchmark to monitor the

  4. A Study of Intestinal Protozoa Including Non-Pathogenic Entamoeba histolytica from Patients in a Group of Mental Hospitals

    PubMed Central

    Sargeaunt, Peter G.; Williams, John E.

    1982-01-01

    Twenty-five per cent of 174 patients residing in three mental hospitals were found to be infected with protozoa. Seven per cent of the patients were infected with Entameba histolytica. Isoenzyme characterization of the E. histolytica grown in culture showed that there were no pathogenic zymodemes of this organism in any of the specimens tested. (Am J Public Health 1982;72:178-180.) ImagesFIGURE 1 PMID:6275721

  5. Development of a novel method for simultaneous concentration of viruses and protozoa from a single water sample.

    PubMed

    Haramoto, Eiji; Katayama, Hiroyuki; Asami, Mari; Akiba, Michihiro

    2012-06-01

    A novel method, electronegative membrane-vortex (EMV) method, was developed for simultaneous concentration of viruses and protozoa from a single water sample. Viruses and protozoa in a water sample were mixed with a cation solution and adsorbed on an electronegative membrane. Concentrated virus and protozoa samples were obtained as supernatant and pellet fractions, respectively, by vigorous vortex mixing of the membrane and centrifugation of the eluted material. The highest recovery efficiencies of model microbes from river water and tap water by this EMV method were obtained using a mixed cellulose ester membrane with a pore size of 0.45 μm (Millipore) as the electronegative membrane and MgCl(2) as the cation solution. The recovery was 27.7-86.5% for poliovirus, 25.7-68.3% for coliphage Qβ, 28.0-60.0% for Cryptosporidium oocysts, and 35.0-53.0% for Giardia cysts. The EMV method detected successfully indigenous viruses and protozoa in wastewater and river water samples from the Kofu basin, Japan, showing an overall positive rate of 100% (43/43) for human adenovirus, 79% (34/43) for norovirus GI, 65% (28/43) for norovirus GII, 23% (10/43) for Cryptosporidium oocysts, and 60% (26/43) for Giardia cysts. By direct DNA sequencing, a total of four genotypes (AI, AII, B, and G) of Giardia intestinalis were identified in the water samples, indicating that the river water was contaminated with feces from various mammals, including humans. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Vaccination against enteric septicaemia of catfish

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Edwardsiella ictaluri, the causative agent of enteric septicemia (ESC) of catfish, is one of the most economically important diseases of cultured channel catfish. In 2002, Wagner and coworkers reported that enteric septicemia of catfish (ESC) and columnaris (Flavobacterium columnaris) were the two m...

  7. Complications in pediatric enteral and vascular access.

    PubMed

    Farrelly, James S; Stitelman, David H

    2016-12-01

    Obtaining reliable enteral and vascular access constitutes a significant fraction of a pediatric surgeon׳s job. Multiple approaches are available. Given the complicated nature of this patient population multiple complications can also occur. This article discusses the various techniques and potential complications associated with short- and long-term enteral and vascular access. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Effect of ciliate protozoa on the activity of polysaccharide-degrading enzymes and fibre breakdown in the rumen ecosystem.

    PubMed

    Williams, A G; Withers, S E

    1991-02-01

    The effect of ciliate protozoa on the activity of polysaccharide-degrading enzymes in microbial populations from the digesta solids and liquor fractions of rumen contents was examined after the refaunation of ciliate-free sheep with an A-type rumen protozoal population. Although the culturable rumen bacterial population was reduced after refaunation the number of fibrolytic micro-organisms detected was higher; the xylanolytic bacterial population and numbers of fungal zoospores were increased after refaunation. The proportion of propionic acid was lower in the refaunated animals, whereas the concentration of ammonia and the acidic metabolites acetate, butyrate and valerate were all increased. The range of enzyme activities present in the digesta subpopulations were the same in defaunated and refaunated animals. The activities of the polysaccharide-degrading enzymes, however, were increased in the microbial populations associated with the digesta solids after refaunation, and at 16 h after feeding the activities were 4-8 times (beta-D-xylosidase 20 times) higher than the levels detected in the adherent population from defaunated sheep. The protozoa, either directly through their own enzymes or indirectly as a consequence of their effects on the population size and activity of the other fibrolytic micro-organisms present, have an important role in determining the level of activity of polysaccharide-degrading enzymes in the rumen ecosystem. Although the extent of ryegrass (Lolium perenne) hay digestion was similar after 24 h in the absence or presence of protozoa, the initial ruminal degradation was higher in refaunated sheep.

  9. Control of protozoa contamination and lipid accumulation in Neochloris oleoabundans culture: Effects of pH and dissolved inorganic carbon.

    PubMed

    Peng, Licheng; Lan, Christopher Q; Zhang, Zisheng; Sarch, Cody; Laporte, Matt

    2015-12-01

    Combined effects of pH (i.e., 7.5, 8.5, and 9.5) and bicarbonate (i.e., 0, 80 and 160mM NaHCO3) on lipid accumulation and on biological contaminant viability in a protozoa-contaminated culture of the freshwater microalga Neochloris oleoabundans were studied. Cultures grown in the media containing 160mM NaHCO3 at pH 9.5 obtained the highest biomass concentration (DCWmax=1.32g/L), lipid content (LC=327mg/g), which corresponded to a lipid productivity of 56mg/(L·d), and the culture was protozoa free one day after inoculation. Other cultures, 160mM NaHCO3 at pH 8.5 (DCWmax=1.32g/L, LC=223mg/g), and 80mM NaHCO3 at pH 9.5 (DCWmax=1.25g/L, LC=264mg/g) could delay protozoan growth, but not inhibit it completely. These results suggest 160mM NaHCO3 or slightly above at pH levels of 8.5-9.5 may be used in outdoor cultivation processes of freshwater N. oleoabundans to control protozoa contamination while maintain a high lipid content.

  10. The prevalence of protozoa in the gut of German cockroaches (Blattella germanica) with special reference to Lophomonas blattarum.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Girón, Rafael; Martínez-Torre, Cristina; van Woerden, Hugo Cornelis

    2017-10-07

    The German cockroach (Blattella germanica) is a common domestic pest, which produces allergens that have been associated with broncho-pulmonary disease. Various protozoan species have been identified in the intestine of this cockroach and it has been hypothesised that these protozoa, or their proteases, may contribute to the burden of cockroach-associated allergens and adjuvants present in domestic dust. The aim of this study was therefore to determine the prevalence of protozoan species in the intestine of Blattella germanica. German cockroaches were anesthetised and dissected and gut contents are used to produce wet slides for microscopy. Both, Giemsa and Papanicolaou stains were used to confirm correct identification of Lophomonas blattarum. Representatives of four genera of protozoa were identified in 110 cockroaches: Nyctoterus sp. was observed in 91.8% of cases, Gregarina sp. in 64.5%, Amoeba sp. in 25.4% and Lophomonas blattarum in 13.6%. Nyctoterus and Gregarina were statistically significantly more likely to be found in diseased cockroaches compared to Amoeba or Lophomonas. The prevalence of Lophomonas blattarum was similar to that in published studies of a different species of cockroach, Periplaneta americana. Further work is needed to assess the interplay between protozoa, cockroaches and broncho-pulmonary diseases.

  11. Pharmacokinetics of enteric-coated cysteamine bitartrate in healthy adults: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Gangoiti, Jon A; Fidler, Meredith; Cabrera, Betty L; Schneider, Jerry A; Barshop, Bruce A; Dohil, Ranjan

    2010-09-01

    Cysteamine bitartrate is taken lifelong, every 6 h and for the treatment of cystinosis. Recent studies using cysteamine for for other diseases such as neurodegenerative disorders adopt the same dosing regimen for cysteamine. Regular cysteamine bitartrate (Cystagon) may cause upper gastrointestinal symptoms in some patients. This is the only study that provides pharmacokinetic data for cysteamine delivered in an enteric-release preparation in normal subjects. EC-cysteamine is very well tolerated and does not cause increased gastrin concentrations, even at relatively high doses. EC-cysteamine at the higher dose results in better drug uptake as measured by Cmax and AUC and is more likely to be effective. Cysteamine bitartrate (Cystagon) is the approved treatment for cystinosis. Poor compliance and patient outcome may occur because the drug needs to be taken every 6 h and in some patients causes gastrointestinal symptoms due to hypergastrinaemia. A formulation of cysteamine requiring twice daily ingestion would improve the quality of life for these patients. This study compares the pharmacokinetics and gastrin production following cysteamine bitartrate non-enteric-coated and cysteamine bitartrate enteric-coated in normal healthy subjects. Enteric-coated cysteamine was prepared. Following single doses of cysteamine bitartrate non-enteric-coated 450 mg and cysteamine bitartrate enteric-coated 450 mg and 900 mg, serial plasma cysteamine and gastrin concentrations were measured. Two subjects also received cysteamine bitartrate non-enteric-coated 900 mg. Gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms were recorded. Six healthy adults (mean age 20.7 years, range 18-24 years; mean weight 59.3 kg) received drug. All post-dose gastrin concentrations were within the normal range (<100 pg ml(-1)). The tmax following cysteamine bitartrate non-enteric-coated (mean and SD is 75+/-19 min) was shorter than cysteamine bitartrate enteric-coated (220+/-74 min) (P=0.001), but only the Cmax and AUC

  12. Water quality indicators: bacteria, coliphages, enteric viruses.

    PubMed

    Lin, Johnson; Ganesh, Atheesha

    2013-12-01

    Water quality through the presence of pathogenic enteric microorganisms may affect human health. Coliform bacteria, Escherichia coli and coliphages are normally used as indicators of water quality. However, the presence of above-mentioned indicators do not always suggest the presence of human enteric viruses. It is important to study human enteric viruses in water. Human enteric viruses can tolerate fluctuating environmental conditions and survive in the environment for long periods of time becoming causal agents of diarrhoeal diseases. Therefore, the potential of human pathogenic viruses as significant indicators of water quality is emerging. Human Adenoviruses and other viruses have been proposed as suitable indices for the effective identification of such organisms of human origin contaminating water systems. This article reports on the recent developments in the management of water quality specifically focusing on human enteric viruses as indicators.

  13. Reduction in diarrhea incidence by soluble fiber in patients receiving total or supplemental enteral nutrition.

    PubMed

    Homann, H H; Kemen, M; Fuessenich, C; Senkal, M; Zumtobel, V

    1994-01-01

    Gastrointestinal side effects, particularly diarrhea, are still the main reasons for discontinuation of enteral nutrition. Although the causes of diarrhea are diverse, the enteral nutrition solution is frequently suspected of playing a leading role in causing diarrhea. Our randomized, prospective, double-blind trial with 100 patients assessed the effects of feeding a standard diet (Nutrodrip Standard) vs the same diet supplemented with 20 g of soluble fiber, containing partially hydrolyzed guar gum (Sunfiber), per 1000 mL. Thirty patients received total enteral nutrition postoperatively, and 70 patients received enteral supplementation. The patients receiving total enteral nutrition with soluble fiber had decreased diarrhea but increased flatulence. In none of these patients did enteral feeding have to be discontinued because of gastrointestinal side effects, whereas in four patients who were on a standard diet, enteral feeding had to be interrupted because of diarrhea (p < .05). Similar observations were made in patients receiving enteral supplementation. In both groups, the incidence of diarrhea decreased significantly with the soluble fiber diet compared with the standard diet (6 vs 15, p < .05). Enteral feeding with a formula supplemented with partially hydrolyzed guar gum reduces the incidence of diarrhea in patients receiving total enteral nutrition as well as in those receiving enteral supplementation, regardless of the cause of diarrhea. The increased hydrogen production and the significantly higher rate of flatulence are likely to result from fermentation of the soluble fiber in the colon, with concomitant production of short-chain fatty acids, which leads to increased absorption of short-chain fatty acids, sodium, and water by the colonocytes. This effect, together with the observed cholecystokinin-mediated decrease in colonic transit time with partially hydrolyzed guar gum, may explain the reduction in the incidence of diarrhea in this study.

  14. Environmental enteric dysfunction is associated with carnitine deficiency and altered fatty acid oxidation

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Environmental enteric dysfunction (EED), a condition characterized by small intestine inflammation and abnormal gut permeability, is widespread in children in developing countries and a major cause of growth failure. The pathophysiology of EED remains poorly understood. We measured serum metabolite...

  15. Syndromic diarrhea/Tricho-hepato-enteric syndrome.

    PubMed

    Fabre, Alexandre; Martinez-Vinson, Christine; Goulet, Olivier; Badens, Catherine

    2013-01-09

    Syndromic diarrhea/Tricho-hepato-enteric syndrome (SD/THE) is a rare and severe bowel disorder caused by mutation in SKIV2L or in TTC37, 2 genes encoding subunits of the putative human SKI complex. The estimated prevalence is 1/1,000,000 births and the transmission is autosomal recessive. The classical form is characterized by 5 clinical signs: intractable diarrhea of infancy beginning in the first month of life, usually leading to failure to thrive and requiring parenteral nutrition; facial dysmorphism characterised by prominent forehead and cheeks, broad nasal root and hypertelorism; hair abnormalities described as woolly and easily removable; immune disorders resulting from defective antibody production; intrauterine growth restriction. The aetiology is a defect in TTC37, a TPR containing protein, or in the RNA helicase SKIV2L, both constituting the putative human ski complex. The ski complex is a heterotetrameric cofactor of the cytoplasmic RNA exosome which ensures aberrants mRNAs decay. The diagnosis SD/THE is initially based on clinical findings and confirmed by direct sequencing of TTC37 and SKIV2L. Differential diagnosis with the other causes of intractable diarrhea is easily performed by pathologic investigations. During their clinical course, most of the children require parenteral nutrition and often immunoglobulin supplementation. With time, some of them can be weaned off parenteral nutrition and immunoglobulin supplementation. The prognosis depends on the management and is largely related to the occurrence of parenteral nutrition complications or infections. Even with optimal management, most of the children seem to experience failure to thrive and final short stature. Mild mental retardation is observed in half of the cases.

  16. Measurement and prediction of enteric methane emission.

    PubMed

    Sejian, Veerasamy; Lal, Rattan; Lakritz, Jeffrey; Ezeji, Thaddeus

    2011-01-01

    The greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from the agricultural sector account for about 25.5% of total global anthropogenic emission. While CO(2) receives the most attention as a factor relative to global warming, CH(4), N(2)O and chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) also cause significant radiative forcing. With the relative global warming potential of 25 compared with CO(2), CH(4) is one of the most important GHGs. This article reviews the prediction models, estimation methodology and strategies for reducing enteric CH(4) emissions. Emission of CH(4) in ruminants differs among developed and developing countries, depending on factors like animal species, breed, pH of rumen fluid, ratio of acetate:propionate, methanogen population, composition of diet and amount of concentrate fed. Among the ruminant animals, cattle contribute the most towards the greenhouse effect through methane emission followed by sheep, goats and buffalos, respectively. The estimated CH(4) emission rate per cattle, buffaloe, sheep and goat in developed countries are 150.7, 137, 21.9 and 13.7 (g/animal/day) respectively. However, the estimated rates in developing countries are significantly lower at 95.9 and 13.7 (g/animal/day) per cattle and sheep, respectively. There exists a strong interest in developing new and improving the existing CH(4) prediction models to identify mitigation strategies for reducing the overall CH(4) emissions. A synthesis of the available literature suggests that the mechanistic models are superior to empirical models in accurately predicting the CH(4) emission from dairy farms. The latest development in prediction model is the integrated farm system model which is a process-based whole-farm simulation technique. Several techniques are used to quantify enteric CH(4) emissions starting from whole animal chambers to sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) tracer techniques. The latest technology developed to estimate CH(4) more accurately is the micrometeorological mass difference technique. Because

  17. Measurement and prediction of enteric methane emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sejian, Veerasamy; Lal, Rattan; Lakritz, Jeffrey; Ezeji, Thaddeus

    2011-01-01

    The greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from the agricultural sector account for about 25.5% of total global anthropogenic emission. While CO2 receives the most attention as a factor relative to global warming, CH4, N2O and chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) also cause significant radiative forcing. With the relative global warming potential of 25 compared with CO2, CH4 is one of the most important GHGs. This article reviews the prediction models, estimation methodology and strategies for reducing enteric CH4 emissions. Emission of CH4 in ruminants differs among developed and developing countries, depending on factors like animal species, breed, pH of rumen fluid, ratio of acetate:propionate, methanogen population, composition of diet and amount of concentrate fed. Among the ruminant animals, cattle contribute the most towards the greenhouse effect through methane emission followed by sheep, goats and buffalos, respectively. The estimated CH4 emission rate per cattle, buffaloe, sheep and goat in developed countries are 150.7, 137, 21.9 and 13.7 (g/animal/day) respectively. However, the estimated rates in developing countries are significantly lower at 95.9 and 13.7 (g/animal/day) per cattle and sheep, respectively. There exists a strong interest in developing new and improving the existing CH4 prediction models to identify mitigation strategies for reducing the overall CH4 emissions. A synthesis of the available literature suggests that the mechanistic models are superior to empirical models in accurately predicting the CH4 emission from dairy farms. The latest development in prediction model is the integrated farm system model which is a process-based whole-farm simulation technique. Several techniques are used to quantify enteric CH4 emissions starting from whole animal chambers to sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) tracer techniques. The latest technology developed to estimate CH4 more accurately is the micrometeorological mass difference technique. Because the conditions under which

  18. Separation of Bacteria, Protozoa and Carbon Nanotubes by Density Gradient Centrifugation

    PubMed Central

    Mortimer, Monika; Petersen, Elijah J.; Buchholz, Bruce A.; Holden, Patricia A.

    2016-01-01

    Sustainable production and use of carbon nanotube (CNT)-enabled materials require efficient assessment of CNT environmental hazards, including the potential for CNT bioaccumulation and biomagnification in environmental receptors. Microbes, as abundant organisms responsible for nutrient cycling in soil and water, are important ecological receptors for studying the effects of CNTs. Quantification of CNT association with microbial cells requires efficient separation of CNT-associated cells from individually dispersed CNTs and CNT agglomerates. Here, we designed, optimized, and demonstrated procedures for separating bacteria (Pseudomonas aeruginosa) from unbound multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) and MWCNT agglomerates using sucrose density gradient centrifugation. We demonstrate separation of protozoa (Tetrahymena thermophila) from MWCNTs, bacterial agglomerates, and protozoan fecal pellets by centrifugation in an iodixanol solution. The presence of MWCNTs in the density gradients after centrifugation was determined by quantification of 14C-labeled MWCNTs; the recovery of microbes from the density gradient media was confirmed by optical microscopy. Protozoan intracellular contents of MWCNTs and of bacteria were also unaffected by the designed separation process. The optimized methods contribute to improved efficiency and accuracy in quantifying MWCNT association with bacteria and MWCNT accumulation in protozoan cells, thus supporting improved assessment of CNT bioaccumulation. PMID:27917301

  19. Comparing the responses of rumen ciliate protozoa and bacteria to excess carbohydrate.

    PubMed

    Teixeira, César R V; Lana, Rogério de Paula; Tao, Junyi; Hackmann, Timothy J

    2017-06-01

    When given excess carbohydrate, certain microbial species respond by storing energy (synthesizing reserve carbohydrate), but other species respond by dissipating the energy as heat (spilling energy). To determine the importance of these responses in the rumen microbial community, this study quantified the responses of mixed ciliate protozoa vs bacteria to glucose. We hypothesized that ciliates would direct more glucose to synthesis of reserve carbohydrate (and less to energy spilling) than would bacteria. Ciliates and bacteria were isolated from rumen fluid using filtration and centrifugation, resuspended in nitrogen-free buffer to limit growth, and dosed with 5 mM glucose. Compared with bacteria, ciliates consumed glucose >3-fold faster and synthesized reserve carbohydrate 4-fold faster. They incorporated 53% of glucose carbon into reserve carbohydrate-nearly double the value (27%) for bacteria. Energy spilling was not detected for ciliates, as all heat production (104%) was accounted by synthesis of reserve carbohydrate and endogenous metabolism. For bacteria, reserve carbohydrate and endogenous metabolism accounted for only 68% of heat production, and spilling was detected within 11 min of dosing glucose. These results suggest that ciliates alter the course of ruminal carbohydrate metabolism by outcompeting bacteria for excess carbohydrate, maximizing reserve carbohydrate synthesis, and minimizing energy spilling. © FEMS 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Litter quality as driving factor for plant nutrition via grazing of protozoa on soil microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Koller, Robert; Robin, Christophe; Bonkowski, Michael; Ruess, Liliane; Scheu, Stefan

    2013-08-01

    Plant residues provide a major source of nitrogen (N) for plant growth. Litter N mineralization varies with litter carbon-to-nitrogen (C-to-N) ratio and presence of bacterial-feeding fauna. We assessed the effect of amoebae, major bacterial feeders in soil, on mineralization of litter of low (high quality) and high C-to-N ratio (low quality) and evaluated consequences for plant growth. We used stable isotopes to determine plant N uptake from litter and plant C partitioning. Stable isotope probing of phospholipid fatty acids was used to follow incorporation of plant C into microorganisms. Amoebae increased plant N uptake independent of litter quality and thereby the biomass of shoots and roots by 33% and 66%, respectively. Plant allocation of total (13)C to roots in low (42%) exceeded that of high-quality litter treatments (26%). Amoebae increased plant allocation of (13)C to roots by 37%. Microbial community structure and incorporation of (13)C into PLFAs varied significantly with litter quality and in the low-quality litter treatment also with the presence of amoebae. Overall, the results suggest that in particular at low nutrient conditions, root-derived C fosters the mobilization of bacterial N by protozoa, thereby increasing plant growth when microorganisms and plants compete for nutrients.

  1. Diversity of bacteria, archaea and protozoa in a perchlorate treating bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Anupama, V N; Prajeesh, P V G; Anju, S; Priya, P; Krishnakumar, B

    2015-08-01

    A microbial consortium reducing high level of perchlorate was developed and in a fed batch bioreactor using acetate as substrate perchlorate was reduced at 0.25 g/g vss. day. Under stable performance, the microbial community structure of the reactor was analyzed through molecular and phenotypic methods. The diversity of bacteria and archaea were analyzed through whole cell Fluorescence In-Situ Hybridization (FISH) and PCR-Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (DGGE), whereas higher trophic community was analyzed phenotypically. FISH analysis revealed the presence of alpha, beta, gamma and delta proteobacteria in the sludge, dominated by beta proteobacteria (68.7%). DGGE analysis of bacteria revealed the presence of a single known perchlorate reducing bacterium-Dechloromonas, nitrate reducers like Thaeura and Azoarcus and a number of other genera so far not reported as perchlorate or nitrate reducing. The archaea community was represented by an acetoclastic methanogen, Methanosaeta harundinacea. We have also observed the presence of an acetate consuming flagellate, Polytomella sp. in significant number in the reactor. Archaea and protozoa community in perchlorate treating bioreactor is reported first time in this study and point out further the significance of non perchlorate reducing but acetate scavenging microbial groups in acetate fed perchlorate treating reactors. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  2. Deep Insight into the Phosphatomes of Parasitic Protozoa and a Web Resource ProtozPhosDB.

    PubMed

    Anwar, Tamanna; Gourinath, Samudrala

    2016-01-01

    Phosphorylation dynamically regulates the function of proteins by maintaining a balance between protein kinase and phosphatase activity. A comprehensive understanding of the role phosphatases in cellular signaling is lacking in case of protozoans of medical and veterinary importance worldwide. The drugs used to treat protozoal diseases have many undesired effects and the development of resistance, highlights the need for new effective and safer antiprotozoal agents. In the present study we have analyzed phosphatomes of 15 protozoans of medical significance. We identified ~2000 phosphatases, out of which 21% are uncharacterized proteins. A significant positive correlation between phosphatome and proteome size was observed except for E. histolytica, having highest density of phosphatases irrespective of its proteome size. A difference in the number of phosphatases among different genera shows the variation in the signaling pathways they are involved in. The phosphatome of parasites is dominated by ser/thr phosphatases contrary to the vertebrate host dominated by tyrosine phosphatases. Phosphatases were widely distributed throughout the cell suggesting physiological adaptation of the parasite to regulate its host. 20% to 45% phosphatome of different protozoa consists of ectophosphatases, i.e. crucial for the survival of parasites. A database and a webserver "ProtozPhosDB" can be used to explore the phosphatomes of protozoans of medical significance.

  3. A retrospective molecular study of select intestinal protozoa in healthy pet cats from Italy.

    PubMed

    Mancianti, Francesca; Nardoni, Simona; Mugnaini, Linda; Zambernardi, Lucia; Guerrini, Alessandro; Gazzola, Valentina; Papini, Roberto Amerigo

    2015-02-01

    The feline gut can harbour a number of protozoan parasites. Recent genetic studies have highlighted new epidemiological findings about species of Cryptosporidium, assemblages of Giardia duodenalis and Toxoplasma gondii. Furthermore, epidemiological studies suggest the occurrence of Tritrichomonas foetus in cats is on the increase worldwide. The prevalence of selected intestinal protozoa was determined by PCR using DNA previously extracted from the faeces of 146 privately owned healthy cats from Italy. Molecular genotyping on T gondii, G duodenalis and Cryptosporidium DNA was achieved. PCR assays were positive in 32 (22.9%) samples. Three animals (2.0%) were positive for T foetus and Cryptosporidium DNA, 15 specimens (10.3%) were positive for T gondii and 11 (7.5%) for G duodenalis. Co-infections were never observed. Results of the typing analysis allowed the identification of Cryptosporidium felis in all cases. The specimens positive for T gondii hinted at clonal genotype I (n = 7), genotype II (n = 1) and genotype III (n = 7). The G duodenalis isolates were referable to assemblages F (n = 9) and C (n = 2). In conclusion, the results obtained in this study add to the literature regarding the epidemiology of these parasites by confirming their presence in the faeces of healthy pet cats. © ISFM and AAFP 2014.

  4. Deep Insight into the Phosphatomes of Parasitic Protozoa and a Web Resource ProtozPhosDB

    PubMed Central

    Anwar, Tamanna; Gourinath, Samudrala

    2016-01-01

    Phosphorylation dynamically regulates the function of proteins by maintaining a balance between protein kinase and phosphatase activity. A comprehensive understanding of the role phosphatases in cellular signaling is lacking in case of protozoans of medical and veterinary importance worldwide. The drugs used to treat protozoal diseases have many undesired effects and the development of resistance, highlights the need for new effective and safer antiprotozoal agents. In the present study we have analyzed phosphatomes of 15 protozoans of medical significance. We identified ~2000 phosphatases, out of which 21% are uncharacterized proteins. A significant positive correlation between phosphatome and proteome size was observed except for E. histolytica, having highest density of phosphatases irrespective of its proteome size. A difference in the number of phosphatases among different genera shows the variation in the signaling pathways they are involved in. The phosphatome of parasites is dominated by ser/thr phosphatases contrary to the vertebrate host dominated by tyrosine phosphatases. Phosphatases were widely distributed throughout the cell suggesting physiological adaptation of the parasite to regulate its host. 20% to 45% phosphatome of different protozoa consists of ectophosphatases, i.e. crucial for the survival of parasites. A database and a webserver “ProtozPhosDB” can be used to explore the phosphatomes of protozoans of medical significance. PMID:27930683

  5. Kingdoms Protozoa and Chromista and the eozoan root of the eukaryotic tree.

    PubMed

    Cavalier-Smith, Thomas

    2010-06-23

    I discuss eukaryotic deep phylogeny and reclassify the basal eukaryotic kingdom Protozoa and derived kingdom Chromista in the light of multigene trees. I transfer the formerly protozoan Heliozoa and infrakingdoms Alveolata and Rhizaria into Chromista, which is sister to kingdom Plantae and arguably originated by synergistic double internal enslavement of green algal and red algal cells. I establish new subkingdoms (Harosa; Hacrobia) for the expanded Chromista. The protozoan phylum Euglenozoa differs immensely from other eukaryotes in its nuclear genome organization (trans-spliced multicistronic transcripts), mitochondrial DNA organization, cytochrome c-type biogenesis, cell structure and arguably primitive mitochondrial protein-import and nuclear DNA prereplication machineries. The bacteria-like absence of mitochondrial outer-membrane channel Tom40 and DNA replication origin-recognition complexes from trypanosomatid Euglenozoa roots the eukaryotic tree between Euglenozoa and all other eukaryotes (neokaryotes), or within Euglenozoa. Given their unique properties, I segregate Euglenozoa from infrakingdom Excavata (now comprising only phyla Percolozoa, Loukozoa, Metamonada), grouping infrakingdoms Euglenozoa and Excavata as the ancestral protozoan subkingdom Eozoa. I place phylum Apusozoa within the derived protozoan subkingdom Sarcomastigota. Clarifying early eukaryote evolution requires intensive study of properties distinguishing Euglenozoa from neokaryotes and Eozoa from neozoa (eukaryotes except Eozoa; ancestrally defined by haem lyase).

  6. Phylogeny and classification of Cercomonadida (Protozoa, Cercozoa): Cercomonas, Eocercomonas, Paracercomonas, and Cavernomonas gen. nov.

    PubMed

    Bass, David; Howe, Alexis T; Mylnikov, Alexandre P; Vickerman, Keith; Chao, Ema E; Edwards Smallbone, James; Snell, Jemma; Cabral, Charles; Cavalier-Smith, Thomas

    2009-11-01

    Cercomonads (=Cercomonadida) are biflagellate gliding bacterivorous protozoa, abundant and diverse in soil and freshwater. We establish 56 new species based on 165 cultures, differential interference contrast microscopy, and 18S and ITS2 rDNA sequencing, and a new genus Cavernomonas studied by scanning electron microscopy. We fundamentally revise the phylogeny and classification of cercomonad Cercozoa. We describe 40 Cercomonas species (35 novel), six Eocercomonas (five novel), two Cavernomonas, and 18 Paracercomonas species (14 novel). We obtained additional cercomonad clade A (Cercomonas, Eocercomonas, Cavernomonas) sequences from multiple environmental DNA libraries. The most commonly cultivated genotypes are not the commonest in environmental DNA, suggesting that cercomonad ecology is far more complex than implied by laboratory cultures. Cercomonads have never been isolated from saline environments, although some species can grow in semi-saline media in the laboratory, and environmental DNA libraries regularly detect them in coastal marine sediments. The first ultrastructural study of an anaerobic cercozoan, Paracercomonas anaerobica sp. nov., a highly divergent cercomonad, shows much simpler ciliary roots than in clade A cercomonads, a ciliary hub-lattice and axosome, and mitochondria with tubular cristae, consistent with it being only facultatively anaerobic. We also describe Agitata tremulans gen. et sp. nov., previously misidentified as Cercobodo (=Dimastigamoeba) agilis Moroff.

  7. Plant-like proteins in protozoa, metazoa and fungi imply universal plastid endosymbiosis.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Shu; Guo, Jian-Hua; Du, Jun-Bo; Lin, Hong-Hui

    2010-01-01

    In recent years, plant-like proteins in protozoa, metazoa and fungi have been identified. Analysis of them suggests that for millions of years universal plastid endosymbiosis and gene transfer occurred in ancestors of metazoa/fungi, and some transferred fragments have been reserved till now even in modern mammals. Most eukaryotes once contained plastids in the ancient era, and some of them lost plastids later. Functions of homologues in cyanobacterial genomes and eukaryotic genomes are in consensus, and are most involved in organic compound metabolism. With emergence of organelles and subcellular structures in the eukaryotic cell, the locations of these proteins diversified. Furthermore, some novel functions were adopted, especially in vertebrates. Analysis also implies that plastids acquired through a mechanism of secondary endosymbiosis may be preserved even until the multicellular era in simple animals. Phylogenetic trees of some proteins suggest that in ancient times the common ancestor of photosynthetic protist Euglena and parasite Trypanosoma once engulfed a green alga, and then it lost the plastid, but recently some euglenids engulfed algae again. Plastid endosymbiosis is a more general process than we originally thought, and may happen more than one time in one species.

  8. Inhibition of in vitro macrophage digestion capacity by infection with Leishmania donovani (Protozoa: Kinetoplastida).

    PubMed

    Kutish, G F; Janovy, J

    1981-08-01

    Promastigotes of Leishmania donovani transformed into amastigotes and survived in cultured macrophages. Promastigotes of Leptomonas costoris, a kinetoplastid parasite of water striders, transformed into amastigotes but did not survive in cultured macrophages. A significant difference in size between the two species of parasitic protozoa allowed development of a bioassay in which the in vitro digestion rate of L. costoris was taken as a measure of macrophage digestive capacity following preinfection with L. donovani. In a 12- to 24-hr period, macrophage cultures infected with the 2S strain of L. donovani retained 50% more L. costoris than did control macrophages infected with L. costoris alone. The 2S strain has been in culture since 1967 and has retained its infectivity for hamsters, although its virulence is attenuated. In similar experiments with promastigotes of the Khartoum strain of L. donovani, a strain but evidently has lots its infectivity for hamsters, no such suppression of macrophage ability to digest L. costoris was observed. The results suggests that infective strains of Leishmania donovani suppress macrophage function beyond the time at which initial lysosomal fusion with the parasitophorous vacoule occurs.

  9. Ciliated protozoa community of a combined UASB-activated sludge system in southeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Siqueira-Castro, Isabel Cristina Vidal; Greinert-Goulart, Juliane Araújo; Rossetto, Renato; Guimarães, José Roberto; Franco, Regina Maura Bueno

    2016-12-01

    The aims of the present study were (1) to evaluate the abundance and taxonomic composition of ciliated protozoa in the activated sludge of a full-scale combined anaerobic-aerobic system operating in a tropical country and (2) to study the relationship between the effluent quality, the physicochemical variables, and the ciliates present in the operating system. The total ciliate fauna of the activated sludge of the Piçarrão Wastewater Treatment Plant (Piçarrão WWTP) was composed of 36 morphospecies belonging to 33 genera. These included 21 species observed in the activated sludge samples on the day of collection and 15 species found in cultures. The activated sludge of the Piçarrão WWTP contained a diversified ciliate community composed mainly of indicator organisms. The most frequently occurring morphospecies were Aspidisca cicada, Vorticella spp., Gastronauta aloisi, Acineria uncinata, and Epistylis plicatilis complex. These results showed that satisfactory operating conditions prevailed at the Piçarrão WWTP. In the combined UASB-activated sludge system, the presence of Aspidisca cicada suggests the occurrence of denitrification in the process while the presence of Acineria uncinata and G. alosi indicates the removal of carbonaceous organic matter.

  10. Separation of Bacteria, Protozoa and Carbon Nanotubes by Density Gradient Centrifugation.

    PubMed

    Mortimer, Monika; Petersen, Elijah J; Buchholz, Bruce A; Holden, Patricia A

    2016-01-01

    Sustainable production and use of carbon nanotube (CNT)-enabled materials require efficient assessment of CNT environmental hazards, including the potential for CNT bioaccumulation and biomagnification in environmental receptors. Microbes, as abundant organisms responsible for nutrient cycling in soil and water, are important ecological receptors for studying the effects of CNTs. Quantification of CNT association with microbial cells requires efficient separation of CNT-associated cells from individually dispersed CNTs and CNT agglomerates. Here, we designed, optimized, and demonstrated procedures for separating bacteria (Pseudomonas aeruginosa) from unbound multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) and MWCNT agglomerates using sucrose density gradient centrifugation. We demonstrate separation of protozoa (Tetrahymena thermophila) from MWCNTs, bacterial agglomerates, and protozoan fecal pellets by centrifugation in an iodixanol solution. The presence of MWCNTs in the density gradients after centrifugation was determined by quantification of (14)C-labeled MWCNTs; the recovery of microbes from the density gradient media was confirmed by optical microscopy. Protozoan intracellular contents of MWCNTs and of bacteria were also unaffected by the designed separation process. The optimized methods contribute to improved efficiency and accuracy in quantifying MWCNT association with bacteria and MWCNT accumulation in protozoan cells, thus supporting improved assessment of CNT bioaccumulation.

  11. Separation of Bacteria, Protozoa and Carbon Nanotubes by Density Gradient Centrifugation.

    PubMed

    Mortimer, Monika; Petersen, Elijah J; Buchholz, Bruce A; Holden, Patricia A

    2016-10-12

    Sustainable production and use of carbon nanotube (CNT)-enabled materials require efficient assessment of CNT environmental hazards, including the potential for CNT bioaccumulation and biomagnification in environmental receptors. Microbes, as abundant organisms responsible for nutrient cycling in soil and water, are important ecological receptors for studying the effects of CNTs. Quantification of CNT association with microbial cells requires efficient separation of CNT-associated cells from individually dispersed CNTs and CNT agglomerates. Here, we designed, optimized, and demonstrated procedures for separating bacteria (Pseudomonas aeruginosa) from unbound multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) and MWCNT agglomerates using sucrose density gradient centrifugation. We demonstrate separation of protozoa (Tetrahymena thermophila) from MWCNTs, bacterial agglomerates, and protozoan fecal pellets by centrifugation in an iodixanol solution. The presence of MWCNTs in the density gradients after centrifugation was determined by quantification of (14)C-labeled MWCNTs; the recovery of microbes from the density gradient media was confirmed by optical microscopy. Protozoan intracellular contents of MWCNTs and of bacteria were also unaffected by the designed separation process. The optimized methods contribute to improved efficiency and accuracy in quantifying MWCNT association with bacteria and MWCNT accumulation in protozoan cells, thus supporting improved assessment of CNT bioaccumulation.

  12. Presence of parasitic protozoa and helminth in sewage and efficiency of sewage treatment in Tunisia.

    PubMed

    Ben Ayed, L; Schijven, J; Alouini, Z; Jemli, M; Sabbahi, S

    2009-08-01

    Helminth eggs and protozoan cysts were enumerated in raw and treated wastewater in Tunisia in order to determine their removal by wastewater treatment and to provide quantitative data for developing regulations for wastewater quality that are currently lacking. Raw and treated wastewater samples were collected from 17 plants in Tunisia during 2006-2007 and analyzed for parasites using the modified Bailenger method. Two groups of parasites, namely, Ascaris sp., Entamoeba coli, Enterobius vermicularis, and Taenia sp. (group 1) and Entamoeba histolytica/dispar, Giardia sp., and Taenia sp. (group 2) could statistically be distinguished according to their removal by wastewater treatment. Group 1 parasites were removed by 1.1 log(10) (92.4%) and group 2 parasites by 0.61 log(10) (76%). The ubiquitous presence of parasitic protozoa in Tunisian wastewater and ineffective wastewater treatment lead to their proliferation in surface waters with a high probability of exposure of human and animals to these parasites and consequent adverse health effects, as is apparent from epidemiologic data as well. This study provides a quantitative basis for risk assessment studies and development of mitigation strategies, such as improving wastewater treatment efficiency.

  13. Kingdoms Protozoa and Chromista and the eozoan root of the eukaryotic tree

    PubMed Central

    Cavalier-Smith, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    I discuss eukaryotic deep phylogeny and reclassify the basal eukaryotic kingdom Protozoa and derived kingdom Chromista in the light of multigene trees. I transfer the formerly protozoan Heliozoa and infrakingdoms Alveolata and Rhizaria into Chromista, which is sister to kingdom Plantae and arguably originated by synergistic double internal enslavement of green algal and red algal cells. I establish new subkingdoms (Harosa; Hacrobia) for the expanded Chromista. The protozoan phylum Euglenozoa differs immensely from other eukaryotes in its nuclear genome organization (trans-spliced multicistronic transcripts), mitochondrial DNA organization, cytochrome c-type biogenesis, cell structure and arguably primitive mitochondrial protein-import and nuclear DNA prereplication machineries. The bacteria-like absence of mitochondrial outer-membrane channel Tom40 and DNA replication origin-recognition complexes from trypanosomatid Euglenozoa roots the eukaryotic tree between Euglenozoa and all other eukaryotes (neokaryotes), or within Euglenozoa. Given their unique properties, I segregate Euglenozoa from infrakingdom Excavata (now comprising only phyla Percolozoa, Loukozoa, Metamonada), grouping infrakingdoms Euglenozoa and Excavata as the ancestral protozoan subkingdom Eozoa. I place phylum Apusozoa within the derived protozoan subkingdom Sarcomastigota. Clarifying early eukaryote evolution requires intensive study of properties distinguishing Euglenozoa from neokaryotes and Eozoa from neozoa (eukaryotes except Eozoa; ancestrally defined by haem lyase). PMID:20031978

  14. Protozoa ciliates community structure in urban streams and their environmental use as indicators.

    PubMed

    Debastiani, C; Meira, B R; Lansac-Tôha, F M; Velho, L F M; Lansac-Tôha, F A

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this work was to investigate the patterns of diversity and abundance of ciliates protozoa community in three tropical urban streams and verify which species can be considered bioindicators of water quality. In each stream, three regions (headwater, middle and mouth) were sampled in two years, in the rainy and dry seasons. The abiotic factors (dissolved oxygen, pH, temperature, turbidity, width, depth, flow and conductivity) and biotic factors (total coliforms, bacterioplankton, chlorophyll and flagellates) were analyzed using appropriate methods and ciliates were identified and counted through specialized literature. We identified 84 species distributed into 24 orders. Peniculida was the most representative order followed by Prorodontida. The RDA scores showed a spatial difference between streams. On the other hand, regarding the temporal variation, there was no separation of the sampled data. The Indval analysis showed ten species indicators, such as Coleps hirtus, Euplotes moebiusi and Tintinidium pusillum. The Cluster analysis per stream versus period showed a greater distinction of the streams in the dry season. On the other hand, a low similarity was observed between sections within the same stream. In summary, the results indicated that the ciliates can be used as important tools as bioindicators in lotic environments affected by different degrees of pollution, due to the fact that they have short life cycle, allowing the detection of impacts on a small time scale, as well as by having direct answers to environmental changes and high sensitivity to contaminants.

  15. Functional groups of marine ciliated protozoa and their relationships to water quality.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yong; Xu, Henglong; Hu, Xiaozhong; Warren, Alan; Song, Weibo

    2013-08-01

    Ciliated protozoa (ciliates) play important ecological roles in coastal waters, especially regarding their interaction with environmental parameters. In order to increase our knowledge and understanding on the functional structure of ciliate communities and their relationships to environmental conditions in marine ecosystems, a 12-month study was carried out in a semi-enclosed bay in northern China. Samples were collected biweekly at five sampling stations with differing levels of pollution/eutrophication, giving a total of 120 samples. Thirteen functional groups of ciliates (A-M) were defined based on their specific spatio-temporal distribution and relationships to physico-chemical parameters. Six of these groups (H-M) were the primary contributors to the ciliate communities in the polluted/eutrophic areas, whereas the other seven groups (A-G) dominated the communities in less polluted areas. Six groups (A, D, G, H, I and K) dominated during the warm seasons (summer and autumn), with the other seven (B, C, E, F, J, L and M) dominating in the cold seasons (spring and winter). Of these, groups B (mainly aloricate ciliates), I (aloricate ciliates) and L (mainly loricate tintinnids) were the primary contributors to the communities. It was also shown that aloricate ciliates and tintinnids represented different roles in structuring and functioning of the communities. The results suggest that the ciliate communities may be constructed by several functional groups in response to the environmental conditions. Thus, we conclude that these functional groups might be potentially useful bioindicators for bioassessment and conservation in marine habitats.

  16. Abundance, diversity and community composition of free-living protozoa on vegetable sprouts.

    PubMed

    Chavatte, N; Lambrecht, E; Van Damme, I; Sabbe, K; Houf, K

    2016-05-01

    Interactions with free-living protozoa (FLP) have been implicated in the persistence of pathogenic bacteria on food products. In order to assess the potential involvement of FLP in this contamination, detailed knowledge on their occurrence, abundance and diversity on food products is required. In the present study, enrichment and cultivation methods were used to inventory and quantify FLP on eight types of commercial vegetable sprouts (alfalfa, beetroot, cress, green pea, leek, mung bean, red cabbage and rosabi). In parallel, total aerobic bacteria and Escherichia coli counts were performed. The vegetable sprouts harbored diverse communities of FLP, with Tetrahymena (ciliate), Bodo saltans and cercomonads (flagellates), and Acanthamoeba and Vannella (amoebae) as the dominant taxa. Protozoan community composition and abundance significantly differed between the sprout types. Beetroot harbored the most abundant and diverse FLP communities, with many unique species such as Korotnevella sp., Vannella sp., Chilodonella sp., Podophrya sp. and Sphaerophrya sp. In contrast, mung bean sprouts were species-poor and had low FLP numbers. Sampling month and company had no significant influence, suggesting that seasonal and local factors are of minor importance. Likewise, no significant relationship between protozoan community composition and bacterial load was observed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Detection of intestinal protozoa in paediatric patients with gastrointestinal symptoms by multiplex real-time PCR.

    PubMed

    Maas, L; Dorigo-Zetsma, J W; de Groot, C J; Bouter, S; Plötz, F B; van Ewijk, B E

    2014-06-01

    The performance of a multiplex real-time PCR for the detection of Blastocystis, Dientamoeba fragilis, Giardia lamblia, Cryptosporidium species and Entamoeba species in faecal samples was evaluated in an observational prospective study. Paediatric patients (0-18 years) presenting with gastrointestinal symptoms and suspected of having enteroparasitic disease were included. A questionnaire on gastrointestinal symptoms and the chosen treatment was completed at the start of the study and after 6 weeks. Of 163 paediatric patients (mean age, 7.8 years), 114 (70%) had a PCR-positive faecal sample. D. fragilis was detected most frequently, in 101 patients, followed by Blastocystis in 49. In faecal samples of 47 patients, more than one protozoan was detected, mainly the combination of D. fragilis and Blastocystis. Reported gastrointestinal symptoms were abdominal pain (78%), nausea (30%), and altered bowel habits (28%). Eighty-nine of the PCR-positive patients were treated with antibiotics. A significant reduction in abdominal pain was observed both in treated and in untreated patients. This study demonstrated that multiplex real-time PCR detects a high percentage of intestinal protozoa in paediatric patients with gastrointestinal symptoms. However, interpretation and determination of the clinical relevance of a positive PCR result in this population are still difficult. © 2013 The Authors Clinical Microbiology and Infection © 2013 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases.

  18. The common mouse protozoa Tritrichomonas muris alters mucosal T cell homeostasis and colitis susceptibility.

    PubMed

    Escalante, Nichole K; Lemire, Paul; Cruz Tleugabulova, Mayra; Prescott, David; Mortha, Arthur; Streutker, Catherine J; Girardin, Stephen E; Philpott, Dana J; Mallevaey, Thierry

    2016-12-12

    The mammalian gastrointestinal tract hosts a diverse community of microbes including bacteria, fungi, protozoa, helminths, and viruses. Through coevolution, mammals and these microbes have developed a symbiosis that is sustained through the host's continuous sensing of microbial factors and the generation of a tolerant or pro-inflammatory response. While analyzing T cell-driven colitis in nonlittermate mouse strains, we serendipitously identified that a nongenetic transmissible factor dramatically increased disease susceptibility. We identified the protozoan Tritrichomonas muris as the disease-exacerbating element. Furthermore, experimental colonization with T. muris induced an elevated Th1 response in the cecum of naive wild-type mice and accelerated colitis in Rag1(-/-) mice after T cell transfer. Overall, we describe a novel cross-kingdom interaction within the murine gut that alters immune cell homeostasis and disease susceptibility. This example of unpredicted microbial priming of the immune response highlights the importance of studying trans-kingdom interactions and serves as a stark reminder of the importance of using littermate controls in all mouse research. © 2016 Escalante et al.

  19. Evaluation of enzyme immunoassay techniques for diagnosis of the most common intestinal protozoa in fecal samples.

    PubMed

    Gaafar, Maha R

    2011-08-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the antigen capture enzyme immunoassays (EIAs) Triage parasite panel and TechLab Entamoeba histolytica II in detecting Giardia intestinalis, Cryptosporidium sp, and Entamoeba histolytica in fecal samples in comparison to microscopy, and in differentiating Entamoeba histolytica from Entamoeba dispar. The Triage EIA was evaluated using 100 stool specimens that were tested by standard ova and parasite examination, including staining with both trichrome and modified acid-fast stains. Differentiation between E. histolytica and E. dispar was performed using TechLab. Microscopic examination revealed that 19% of the samples were positive for Giardia, 4% for Cryptosporidium, and 1% for E. histolytica/E. dispar, and other parasites were found in 5%. By Triage, 23% of the samples were infected with Giardia, 5% with Cryptosporidium, and 2% with E. histolytica/E. dispar. Triage showed a sensitivity of 100% and specificity of 91.5%. The TechLab assay was negative for both samples diagnosed as E. histolytica/E. dispar by Triage, which suggested that they were E. dispar. Both tests showed no cross-reactivity with other intestinal protozoa. These results indicate that antigen detection by EIA has the potential to become a valuable tool, capable of making stool diagnostics more effective. Copyright © 2011 International Society for Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Separation of Bacteria, Protozoa and Carbon Nanotubes by Density Gradient Centrifugation

    DOE PAGES

    Mortimer, Monika; Petersen, Elijah; Buchholz, Bruce; ...

    2016-10-12

    Sustainable production and use of carbon nanotube (CNT)-enabled materials require efficient assessment of CNT environmental hazards, including the potential for CNT bioaccumulation and biomagnification in environmental receptors. Microbes, as abundant organisms responsible for nutrient cycling in soil and water, are important ecological receptors for studying the effects of CNTs. Quantification of CNT association with microbial cells requires efficient separation of CNT-associated cells from individually dispersed CNTs and CNT agglomerates. Here in this paper, we designed, optimized, and demonstrated procedures for separating bacteria (Pseudomonas aeruginosa) from unbound multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) and MWCNT agglomerates using sucrose density gradient centrifugation. We demonstratemore » separation of protozoa (Tetrahymena thermophila) from MWCNTs, bacterial agglomerates, and protozoan fecal pellets by centrifugation in an iodixanol solution. The presence of MWCNTs in the density gradients after centrifugation was determined by quantification of 14C-labeled MWCNTs; the recovery of microbes from the density gradient media was confirmed by optical microscopy. Protozoan intracellular contents of MWCNTs and of bacteria were also unaffected by the designed separation process. Lastly, the optimized methods contribute to improved efficiency and accuracy in quantifying MWCNT association with bacteria and MWCNT accumulation in protozoan cells, thus supporting improved assessment of CNT bioaccumulation.« less

  1. Separation of Bacteria, Protozoa and Carbon Nanotubes by Density Gradient Centrifugation

    SciTech Connect

    Mortimer, Monika; Petersen, Elijah; Buchholz, Bruce; Holden, Patricia

    2016-10-12

    Sustainable production and use of carbon nanotube (CNT)-enabled materials require efficient assessment of CNT environmental hazards, including the potential for CNT bioaccumulation and biomagnification in environmental receptors. Microbes, as abundant organisms responsible for nutrient cycling in soil and water, are important ecological receptors for studying the effects of CNTs. Quantification of CNT association with microbial cells requires efficient separation of CNT-associated cells from individually dispersed CNTs and CNT agglomerates. Here in this paper, we designed, optimized, and demonstrated procedures for separating bacteria (Pseudomonas aeruginosa) from unbound multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) and MWCNT agglomerates using sucrose density gradient centrifugation. We demonstrate separation of protozoa (Tetrahymena thermophila) from MWCNTs, bacterial agglomerates, and protozoan fecal pellets by centrifugation in an iodixanol solution. The presence of MWCNTs in the density gradients after centrifugation was determined by quantification of 14C-labeled MWCNTs; the recovery of microbes from the density gradient media was confirmed by optical microscopy. Protozoan intracellular contents of MWCNTs and of bacteria were also unaffected by the designed separation process. Lastly, the optimized methods contribute to improved efficiency and accuracy in quantifying MWCNT association with bacteria and MWCNT accumulation in protozoan cells, thus supporting improved assessment of CNT bioaccumulation.

  2. Prevalence of pathogenic free-living amoeba and other protozoa in natural and communal piped tap water from Queen Elizabeth protected area, Uganda.

    PubMed

    Sente, Celsus; Erume, Joseph; Naigaga, Irene; Mulindwa, Julius; Ochwo, Sylvester; Magambo, Phillip Kimuda; Namara, Benigna Gabriela; Kato, Charles Drago; Sebyatika, George; Muwonge, Kevin; Ocaido, Michael

    2016-08-03

    found to be contaminated with pathogenic protozoa that could possibly be the cause of a number of silent morbidities and mortalities among rural households in QEPA. This implies that water used by communities in QEPA is of poor quality and predisposes them to a variety of protozoan infections including the FLA whose public health importance was never reported, thus necessitating adoption of proper water safety measures.

  3. [ENTERAL NUTRITION ON THE NUTRITIONAL STATUS OF CANCER].

    PubMed

    Escortell Sánchez, Raquel; Reig García-Galbis, Manuel

    2015-10-01

    to identify what effect causes enteral nutrition on nutritional status of cancer. a search was performed using the keywords "Cancer" AND "Enteral Nutrition" AND "Supplementation" in four document databases: Pubmed, EBSCO, ProQuest, and Web of Science. age of the sample, major than 18 years; submitted to surgery for cancer; that the intervention program was including diet and employment or not of nutritional Supplementation; clinical trials published between January 2004 and December 2014, in scientific journals indexed. we analyzed 660 articles, of which only 2% has been included. 58% of intervention programs are applied outside Spain; 84% of the interventions was carried out in a hospitable ambient; 58% of the sample is formed by adults older than 54 years; 33% of the interventions were multidisciplinary and its duration ranges between 1 and 4 years. we found just a few national interventions in cancer participants and there two types of interventions: by exclusive polymeric enteral formula or mixed with immunonutrition. enteral nutrition shows against the parenteral and its introduction at an early stage, it helps to improve nutritional status of the patient; polymeric formulas next immunonutrition, it helps to reduce the time of hospitalization; the analytical parameters are shown as a measurement pattern when assessing the improvement in nutritional status in cancer. It is recommended to increase the research in this field, especially in children. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  4. Effect of sanitation and water treatment on intestinal protozoa infection: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Speich, Benjamin; Croll, David; Fürst, Thomas; Utzinger, Jürg; Keiser, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    Pathogenic intestinal protozoa infections are responsible for substantial mortality and morbidity, particularly in settings where people lack improved sanitation and safe drinking water. We assessed the relation between access to, and use of, sanitation facilities and water treatment and infection with intestinal protozoa. We did a systematic review and searched PubMed, ISI Web of Science, and Embase from inception to June 30, 2014, without restrictions on language. All publications were examined by two independent reviewers and were included if they presented data at the individual level about access or use of sanitation facilities or water treatment, in combination with individual-level data on human intestinal protozoa infections. Meta-analyses using random effects models were used to calculate overall estimates. 54 studies were included and odds ratios (ORs) extracted or calculated from 2 × 2 contingency tables. The availability or use of sanitation facilities was associated with significantly lower odds of infection with Entamoeba histolytica or Entamoeba dispar (OR 0·56, 95% CI 0·42-0·74) and Giardia intestinalis (0·64, 0·51-0·81), but not for Blastocystis hominis (1·03, 0·87-1·23), and Cryptosporidium spp (0·68, 0·17-2·68). Water treatment was associated with significantly lower odds of B hominis (0·52, 0·34-0·78), E histolytica or E dispar (0·61, 0·38-0·99), G intestinalis (0·63, 0·50-0·80), and Cryptosporidium spp infections (0·83, 0·70-0·98). Availability and use of sanitation facilities and water treatment is associated with lower odds of intestinal protozoa infections. Interventions that focus on water and sanitation, coupled with hygiene behaviour, should be emphasised to sustain the control of intestinal protozoa infections. Swiss National Science Foundation (project numbers PBBSP3-146869 and P300P3-154634), Medicor Foundation, European Research Council (614739-A_HERO). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Enteral nutrition after bone marrow transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Papadopoulou, A; MacDonald, A; Williams, M; Darbyshire, P; Booth, I

    1997-01-01

    Accepted 16 April 1997
 Nutritional insult after bone marrow transplantation (BMT) is complex and its nutritional management challenging. Enteral nutrition is cheaper and easier to provide than parenteral nutrition, but its tolerance and effectiveness in reversing nutritional depletion after BMT is poorly defined. Nutritional status, wellbeing, and nutritional biochemistry were prospectively assessed in 21 children (mean age 7.5 years; 14 boys) who received nasogastric feeding after BMT (mean duration 17 days) and in eight children (mean age 8 years, four boys) who refused enteral nutrition and who received dietetic advice only.
 Enteral nutrition was stopped prematurely in eight patients. Greater changes in weight and mid upper arm circumference were observed in the enteral nutrition group, while positive correlations were found between the duration of feeds and increase in weight and in mid upper arm circumference. Vomiting and diarrhoea had a similar incidence in the two groups, while fever and positive blood cultures occurred more frequently in the dietetic advice group. Diarrhoea occurring during enteral nutrition was not associated with fat malabsorption, while carbohydrate malabsorption was associated with rotavirus infection only. Enteral feeding did not, however, affect bone marrow recovery, hospital stay, general wellbeing, or serum albumin concentrations. Hypomagnesaemia, hypophosphataemia, zinc and selenium deficiency were common in both groups. In conclusion, enteral nutrition, when tolerated, is effective in limiting nutritional insult after BMT. With existing regimens nutritional biochemistry should be closely monitored in order to provide supplements when required.

 PMID:9301351

  6. Home Enteral Nutrition: Updates, Trends, and Challenges.

    PubMed

    Martin, Karen; Gardner, Gabriela

    2017-04-01

    The true prevalence of home enteral nutrition (HEN) utilization is unclear and requires further study. HEN therapy has remained virtually unchanged for several decades. However, new trends in HEN are evolving; enteral nutrition is undergoing changes ranging from enteral feeding devices, ingredients used, practice innovations, and challenges with reimbursement. A 2006 Joint Commission call to action that reported 2 sentinel events related to misconnections set things into motion for the transition of enteral device connectors to become specific for enteral nutrition use, which will affect patients who receive HEN. Nutrition support clinicians are realizing that people fed enterally may also enjoy incorporating blended foods into their diets and may benefit from different nutrients and components (ie, phytonutrients, fiber, and prebiotics) present in natural foods, thereby resulting in the renaissance of food-based blenderized tube feedings. This article reviews HEN therapy data or the lack thereof, current practices, risks and benefits, future trends, and challenges with access devices, enteral feedings, and reimbursement. It also highlights areas where more research is needed, and it urges clinicians to get involved in legislative action or committees to facilitate improved processes and reimbursement for HEN.

  7. The role of wild canids and felids in spreading parasites to dogs and cats in Europe. Part I: Protozoa and tick-borne agents.

    PubMed

    Otranto, Domenico; Cantacessi, Cinzia; Pfeffer, Martin; Dantas-Torres, Filipe; Brianti, Emanuele; Deplazes, Peter; Genchi, Claudio; Guberti, Vittorio; Capelli, Gioia

    2015-09-30

    Over the last few decades, the world has witnessed radical changes in climate, landscape, and ecosystems. These events, together with other factors such as increasing illegal wildlife trade and changing human behaviour towards wildlife, are resulting into thinning boundaries between wild canids and felids and their domestic counterparts. As a consequence, the epidemiology of diseases caused by a number of infectious agents is undergoing profound readjustements, as pathogens adapt to new hosts and environments. Therefore, there is a risk for diseases of wildlife to spread to domestic carnivores and vice versa, and for zoonotic agents to emerge or re-emerge in human populations. Hence, the identification of the hazards arising from the co-habitation of these species is critical in order to plan and develop adequate control strategies against these pathogens. In the first of this two-part article, we review the role that wild canids and felids may play in the transmission of protozoa and arthropod-borne agents to dogs and cats in Europe, and provide an account of how current and future progress in our understanding of the ecology and epidemiology of parasites, as well as of host-parasite interactions, can assist efforts aimed at controlling parasite transmission. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Enteric spore-forming opportunistic parasites in HIV / AIDS.

    PubMed

    Chawla, Rohit; Ichhpujani, R L

    2011-01-01

    Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection causes progressive damage to both limbs of the immune system, which results in a plethora of opportunistic infections. Among the various opportunistic infections, gastrointestinal infections are very common in HIV / Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS). Opportunistic spore-forming protozoal parasites, namely, Cryptosporidium parvum, Isospora belli, Cyclospora cayetanensis, and Microsporidia, play a major role in causing chronic diarrhea, accompanied with weight loss, in patients with HIV / AIDS. The purpose of this review is to discuss the salient microbiological, clinical, and diagnostic aspects of important enteric spore-forming opportunistic parasites in HIV / AIDS.

  9. [Enteric nervous system and Parkinson's disease].

    PubMed

    Paillusson, S; Lebouvier, T; Pouclet, H; Coron, E; Bruley des Varannes, S; Damier, P; Neunlist, M; Derkinderen, P

    2012-06-01

    It has become increasingly evident over the last years that Parkinson's disease is a multicentric neurodegenerative disease that affects several neuronal structures outside the substantia nigra, among which is the enteric nervous system. The aims of the present article are to discuss the role of the enteric nervous system lesions in pathology spreading (Braak's hypothesis) and in the gastrointestinal dysfunction encountered in Parkinson's disease. Owing to its accessibility to biopsies, we further discuss the use of the enteric nervous system as an original source of biomarker in Parkinson's disease.

  10. [Therapy of radiation enteritis--current challenges].

    PubMed

    Baranyai, Zsolt; Sinkó, Dániel; Jósa, Valéria; Zaránd, Attila; Teknos, Dániel

    2011-07-10

    Radiation enteritis is one of the most feared complications after abdominal and pelvic radiation therapy. The incidence varies from 0.5 to 5%. It is not rare that the slowly progressing condition will be fatal. During a period of 13 years 24 patients were operated due to the complication of radiation enteritis. Despite different types of surgery repeated operation was required in 25% of cases and finally 4 patients died. Analyzing these cases predisposing factors and different therapeutic options of this condition are discussed. Treatment options of radiation induced enteritis are limited; however, targeted therapy significantly improves the outcome. Cooperation between oncologist, gastroenterologist and surgeon is required to establish adequate therapeutic plan.

  11. Voyager 1 Entering Interstellar Space Artist Concept

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-09-12

    This artist concept depicts NASA Voyager 1 spacecraft entering interstellar space. Interstellar space is dominated by the plasma, or ionized gas, that was ejected by the death of nearby giant stars millions of years ago.

  12. Pettit enters data in a laptop computer

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-03-13

    ISS030-E-142862 (13 March 2012) --- NASA astronaut Don Pettit, Expedition 30 flight engineer, enters data in a computer while working with Robonaut 2 humanoid robot in the Destiny laboratory of the International Space Station.

  13. Enteral Nutrition and Acute Pancreatitis: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Spanier, B. W. M.; Bruno, M. J.; Mathus-Vliegen, E. M. H.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction. In patients with acute pancreatitis (AP), nutritional support is required if normal food cannot be tolerated within several days. Enteral nutrition is preferred over parenteral nutrition. We reviewed the literature about enteral nutrition in AP. Methods. A MEDLINE search of the English language literature between 1999–2009. Results. Nasogastric tube feeding appears to be safe and well tolerated in the majority of patients with severe AP, rendering the concept of pancreatic rest less probable. Enteral nutrition has a beneficial influence on the outcome of AP and should probably be initiated as early as possible (within 48 hours). Supplementation of enteral formulas with glutamine or prebiotics and probiotics cannot routinely be recommended. Conclusions. Nutrition therapy in patients with AP emerged from supportive adjunctive therapy to a proactive primary intervention. Large multicentre studies are needed to confirm the safety and effectiveness of nasogastric feeding and to investigate the role of early nutrition support. PMID:20811543

  14. [Indications and practice of enteral nutrition].

    PubMed

    Hallay, Judit; Nagy, Dániel; Fülesdi, Béla

    2014-12-21

    Malnutrition in hospitalised patients has a significant and disadvantageous impact on treatment outcome. If possible, enteral nutrition with an energy/protein-balanced nutrient should be preferred depending on the patient's condition, type of illness and risk factors. The aim of the nutrition therapy is to increase the efficacy of treatment and shorten the length of hospital stay in order to ensure rapid rehabilitation. In the present review the authors summarize the most important clinical and practical aspects of enteral nutrition therapy.

  15. Correlates of protection for enteric vaccines.

    PubMed

    Holmgren, Jan; Parashar, Umesh D; Plotkin, Stanley; Louis, Jacques; Ng, Su-Peing; Desauziers, Eric; Picot, Valentina; Saadatian-Elahi, Mitra

    2017-06-08

    An immunological Correlate of Protection (CoP) is an immune response that is statistically interrelated with protection. Identification of CoPs for enteric vaccines would help design studies to improve vaccine performance of licensed vaccines in low income settings, and would facilitate the testing of future vaccines in development that might be more affordable. CoPs are lacking today for most existing and investigational enteric vaccines. In order to share the latest information on CoPs for enteric vaccines and to discuss novel approaches to correlate mucosal immune responses in humans with protection, the Foundation Mérieux organized an international conference of experts where potential CoPs for vaccines were examined using case-studies for both bacterial and viral enteric pathogens. Experts on the panel concluded that to date, all established enteric vaccine CoPs, such as those for hepatitis A, Vi typhoid and poliovirus vaccines, are based on serological immune responses even though these may poorly reflect the relevant gut immune responses or predict protective efficacy. Known CoPs for cholera, norovirus and rotavirus could be considered as acceptable for comparisons of similarly composed vaccines while more work is still needed to establish CoPs for the remaining enteric pathogens and their candidate vaccines. Novel approaches to correlate human mucosal immune responses with protection include the investigation of gut-originating antibody-secreting cells (ASCs), B memory cells and follicular helper T cells from samples of peripheral blood during their recirculation. Copyright © 2017.

  16. [Application of enteral nutrition in pediatric surgery].

    PubMed

    Li, Hui; Zhu, Huagang

    2015-07-01

    To explore the value and safety of the application of enteral nutrition in pediatric surgery. Clinical data of 56 children patients who could not undertake oral feeding or those who required enteral nutrition by nasojejunal tube over 7 days in our ward from June 2007 to May 2013 were retrospectively analyzed. Children younger than one year old received enteral nutritional formulation Ai Er Shu mainly composed of short peptides or amino acids, and children over one year received Small peptide or Nengquansu mainly composed of short peptide. Among these 56 children patients, primary disease was pancreatitis in 20 cases, lacerated wound in 10, duodenal perforation in 6, duodenal septum-shape stenosis in 9, annular pancreas in 6, and hepatoblastoma in 5. All the patients successfully completed the enteral nutrition therapy within 7-37 (18±9.9) days with good recovery. During the treatment, 5 cases (8.9%) developed diarrhea, 3 cases (5.4%) nausea and vomiting, 2 cases (3.6%) mild abdominal distension, 5 cases(8.9%) mild abdominal pain, and the symptoms were relieved after adjustment of nutrient solution concentration and infusion rate. After enteral nutrition for 10 days, the nutritional status of children was improved, and weight, blood red cell count, hemoglobin, serum albumin, prealbumin increased significantly (P<0.05). Application of enteral nutrition in pediatric surgery is safe and effective, which can improve the nutritional status of children and promote the recovery.

  17. Pathology Report: Presacral Noncommunicating Enteric Duplication Cyst.

    PubMed

    Seydafkan, Shabnam; Shibata, David; Sanchez, Julian; Tran, Nam D; Leon, Marino; Coppola, Domenico

    2016-04-01

    Gastrointestinal (GI) tract duplication cysts or enteric duplication cysts are rare congenital malformations sometimes found on the mesenteric aspect of segments of the alimentary tract. Enteric duplication cysts are lined by normal GI epithelium and may be classified as foregut, mid-gut, and hindgut cysts. Except in very rare cases of retroperitoneal enteric duplication cysts, these cysts communicate with the GI tract and share a common blood supply. Concurrent congenital malformations are not uncommon and malignant transformation within enteric duplication cysts has also been reported. We describe a case of a noncommunicating enteric duplication cyst in a 52-year-old woman. The patient presented with a presacral cystic mass requiring frequent drainage procedures that was primarily believed to be of neural origin. Upon resection, the lesion contained heterotopic tissue, including ciliated bronchial epithelium, squamous and transitional epithelia, and pancreatic and gastric tissue. Focal, low-grade intestinal adenoma was present, but malignancy was not detected in this case. To our knowledge, this is the sixth reported case of a noncommunicating enteric duplication cyst in the English medical literature.

  18. Detection and characterization of diverse coccidian protozoa shed by California sea lions.

    PubMed

    Girard, Yvette A; Johnson, Christine K; Fritz, Heather M; Shapiro, Karen; Packham, Andrea E; Melli, Ann C; Carlson-Bremer, Daphne; Gulland, Frances M; Rejmanek, Daniel; Conrad, Patricia A

    2016-04-01

    Tissue-cyst forming coccidia in the family Sarcocystidae are etiologic agents of protozoal encephalitis in marine mammals including the federally listed Southern sea otter (Enhydra lutris). California sea lions (Zalophus californianus), whose coastal habitat overlaps with sea otters, are definitive hosts for coccidian protozoa provisionally named Coccidia A, B and C. While Coccidia A and B have unknown clinical effects on aquatic wildlife hosts, Coccidia C is associated with severe protozoal disease in harbor seals (Phoca vitulina). In this study, we conducted surveillance for protozoal infection and fecal shedding in hospitalized and free-ranging California sea lions on the Pacific Coast and examined oocyst morphology and phenotypic characteristics of isolates via mouse bioassay and cell culture. Coccidia A and B were shed in similar frequency, particularly by yearlings. Oocysts shed by one free-ranging sea lion sampled at Año Nuevo State Park in California were previously unidentified in sea lions and were most similar to coccidia infecting Guadalupe fur seals (Arctocephalus townsendi) diagnosed with protozoal disease in Oregon (USA). Sporulated Coccidia A and B oocysts did not replicate in three strains of mice or in African green monkey kidney cells. However, cultivation experiments revealed that the inoculum of fecally-derived Coccidia A and B oocysts additionally contained organisms with genetic and antigenic similarity to Sarcocystis neurona; despite the absence of detectable free sporocysts in fecal samples by microscopic examination. In addition to the further characterization of Coccidia A and B in free-ranging and hospitalized sea lions, these results provide evidence of a new role for sea lions as putative mechanical vectors of S. neurona, or S. neurona-like species. Future work is needed to clarify the distribution, taxonomical status, and pathogenesis of these parasites in sea lions and other marine mammals that share their the near-shore marine

  19. Detection and characterization of diverse coccidian protozoa shed by California sea lions

    PubMed Central

    Girard, Yvette A.; Johnson, Christine K.; Fritz, Heather M.; Shapiro, Karen; Packham, Andrea E.; Melli, Ann C.; Carlson-Bremer, Daphne; Gulland, Frances M.; Rejmanek, Daniel; Conrad, Patricia A.

    2015-01-01

    Tissue-cyst forming coccidia in the family Sarcocystidae are etiologic agents of protozoal encephalitis in marine mammals including the federally listed Southern sea otter (Enhydra lutris). California sea lions (Zalophus californianus), whose coastal habitat overlaps with sea otters, are definitive hosts for coccidian protozoa provisionally named Coccidia A, B and C. While Coccidia A and B have unknown clinical effects on aquatic wildlife hosts, Coccidia C is associated with severe protozoal disease in harbor seals (Phoca vitulina). In this study, we conducted surveillance for protozoal infection and fecal shedding in hospitalized and free-ranging California sea lions on the Pacific Coast and examined oocyst morphology and phenotypic characteristics of isolates via mouse bioassay and cell culture. Coccidia A and B were shed in similar frequency, particularly by yearlings. Oocysts shed by one free-ranging sea lion sampled at Año Nuevo State Park in California were previously unidentified in sea lions and were most similar to coccidia infecting Guadalupe fur seals (Arctocephalus townsendi) diagnosed with protozoal disease in Oregon (USA). Sporulated Coccidia A and B oocysts did not replicate in three strains of mice or in African green monkey kidney cells. However, cultivation experiments revealed that the inoculum of fecally-derived Coccidia A and B oocysts additionally contained organisms with genetic and antigenic similarity to Sarcocystis neurona; despite the absence of detectable free sporocysts in fecal samples by microscopic examination. In addition to the further characterization of Coccidia A and B in free-ranging and hospitalized sea lions, these results provide evidence of a new role for sea lions as putative mechanical vectors of S. neurona, or S. neurona-like species. Future work is needed to clarify the distribution, taxonomical status, and pathogenesis of these parasites in sea lions and other marine mammals that share their the near-shore marine

  20. The Culture Collection of Algae and Protozoa (CCAP): a biological resource for protistan genomics.

    PubMed

    Gachon, Claire M M; Day, John G; Campbell, Christine N; Pröschold, Thomas; Saxon, Rachel J; Küpper, Frithjof C

    2007-12-30

    CCAP, the largest European protistan culture collection, is based at the Scottish Association for Marine Science near Oban, Scotland (http://www.ccap.ac.uk). The Collection comprises more than 2700 strains in the public domain, of which 1050 are marine algae, 1300 freshwater algae, and 350 protozoa. The primary mission of CCAP is to maintain and distribute defined cultures and their associated information to its customers. It also has a support and advisory function on all aspects of protistan science. In addition, it is involved in the training of students and researchers in algal identification and culture techniques. In light of the increasing number of fully sequenced protists, the CCAP is striving to provide targeted services and support to workers involved in all aspects of genomic research. At present, the Collection holds several hundred strains of genomic model taxa including: Acanthamoeba, Cafeteria, Cercomonas, Chlamydomonas, Chlorella, Cyanophora, Dictyostelium, Dunaliella, Ectocarpus, Emiliania, Euglena, Micromonas, Naegleria, Nephroselmis, Paramecium, Pavlova, Phaeodactylum, Porphyra, Pseudendoclonium, Pylaiella, Rhodomonas, Scenedesmus, Staurastrum, Tetrahymena, Thalassiosira, Volvox and Zygnema. These strains provide a defined representation of natural variation within model organisms, an increasingly useful resource for post-genomics approaches. Our aim over the next 2-5 years is to add value to the Collection by increasing the number of genome model species, and by offering an integrated, up-to-date, easy-to-use resource that would provide curated information on our strain holdings. In collaboration with other major Biological Resource Centres worldwide, we intend to build a hub providing access to both protistan cultures and their associated bioinformatics data.

  1. Population dynamics of marine ciliate Euplotes vannus (Protozoa, Ciliophora) in different artificial seawaters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Henglong; Zhu, Mingzhuang; Jiang, Yong; Gao, Shan; Min, Gi-Sik; Al-Rasheid, Khaled A. S.

    2011-01-01

    To study population dynamics of marine ciliates in different artificial seawaters (ASW), the population growth dynamics of a common marine ciliate Euplotes vannus were investigated using beef extract media and rice media for five types of ASW and natural seawater (NSW). The results show that: (1) the population growth rate was in the order of NSW>Flack ASW>Nakamula ASW>Schmadz ASW>Oshima ASW>Subow ASW and was considerably higher in rice media than in beef extract media (apart from Subow ASW); (2) the maximum density of E. vannus in stationary phase in each treatment was ranked as Flack ASW>Nakamula ASW>Schmadz ASW>NSW>Oshima ASW>Subow ASW, and was again higher in rice media than in beef extract media (except for Subow ASW); (3) the exponential and stationary phases were longer in rice media than in beef extract media; (4) strains of E. vannus that had been domesticated for >1 year in ASW grew significantly slower, with lower maximum density and longer stationary phase than those isolated and maintained in NSW. It was demonstrated that: (1) E. vannus may grow well in Flack, Nakamula and Schmads ASW compared with NSW (mainly in terms of growth rate); and (2) Oshima ASW is the preferred choice for stock cultures of E. vannus, but the ASWs Flack, Nakamula and Schmadz are preferred for mass culture. These findings suggest that these three ASWs are effective for the cultivation of marine protozoa for experimental studies on ecology, toxicology and molecular biology.

  2. Molecular detection of tick-borne bacteria and protozoa in cervids and wild boars from Portugal.

    PubMed

    Pereira, André; Parreira, Ricardo; Nunes, Mónica; Casadinho, Afonso; Vieira, Maria Luísa; Campino, Lenea; Maia, Carla

    2016-05-10

    Wildlife can act as reservoir of different tick-borne pathogens, such as bacteria, parasites and viruses. The aim of the present study was to assess the presence of tick-borne bacteria and protozoa with veterinary and zoonotic importance in cervids and wild boars from the Centre and South of Portugal. One hundred and forty one blood samples from free-ranging ungulates including 73 red deer (Cervus elaphus), 65 wild boars (Sus scrofa) and three fallow deer (Dama dama) were tested for the presence of Anaplasma marginale/A. ovis, A. phagocytophilum, Anaplasma/Ehrlichia spp., Babesia/Theileria spp., Borrelia burgdorferi (sensu lato) (s.l.), and Rickettsia spp. DNA by PCR. Anaplasma spp. DNA was detected in 33 (43.4 %) cervids (31 red deer and two fallow deer) and in two (3.1 %) wild boars while Theileria spp. were found in 34 (44.7 %) cervids (32 red deer and two fallow deer) and in three (4.6 %) wild boar blood samples. Sequence analysis of msp4 sequences identified A. marginale, A. ovis, while the analysis of rDNA sequence data disclosed the presence of A. platys and A. phagocytophilum and T. capreoli and Theileria sp. OT3. Anaplasma spp./Theileria spp. mixed infections were found in 17 cervids (22.4 %) and in two wild boars (3.1 %). All samples were negative for Babesia sp., B. burgdorferi (s.l.), Ehrlichia sp. or Rickettsia sp. This is the first detection of Anaplasma marginale, A. ovis, A. phagocytophilum, A. platys, Theileria capreoli and Theileria sp. OT3 in cervids and wild boars from Portugal. Further studies concerning the potential pathogenicity of the different species of  Anaplasma and Theileria infecting wild ungulates, the identification of their vector range, and their putative infectivity to domestic livestock and humans should be undertaken.

  3. Transport behavior of groundwater protozoa and protozoan-sized microspheres in sandy aquifer sediments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harvey, R.W.; Kinner, N.E.; Bunn, A.; MacDonald, D.; Metge, D.

    1995-01-01

    Transport behaviors of unidentified flagellated protozoa (flagellates) and flagellate-sized carboxylated microspheres in sandy, organically contaminated aquifer sediments were investigated in a small-scale (1 to 4-m travel distance) natural-gradient tracer test on Cape Cod and in flow-through columns packed with sieved (0.5-to 1.0-mm grain size) aquifer sediments. The minute (average in situ cell size, 2 to 3 ??m) flagellates, which are relatively abundant in the Cape Cod aquifer, were isolated from core samples, grown in a grass extract medium, labeled with hydroethidine (a vital eukaryotic stain), and coinjected into aquifer sediments along with bromide, a conservative tracer. The 2-??m flagellates appeared to be near the optimal size for transport, judging from flowthrough column experiments involving a polydispersed (0.7 to 6.2 ??m in diameter) suspension of carboxylated microspheres. However, immobilization within the aquifer sediments accounted for a log unit reduction over the first meter of travel compared with a log unit reduction over the first 10 m of travel for indigenous, free-living groundwater bacteria in earlier tests. High rates of flagellate immobilization in the presence of aquifer sediments also was observed in the laboratory. However, immobilization rates for the laboratory-grown flagellates (initially 4 to 5 ??m) injected into the aquifer were not constant and decreased noticeably with increasing time and distance of travel. The decrease in propensity for grain surfaces was accompanied by a decrease in cell size, as the flagellates presumably readapted to aquifer conditions. Retardation and apparent dispersion were generally at least twofold greater than those observed earlier for indigenous groundwater bacteria but were much closer to those observed for highly surface active carboxylated latex microspheres. Field and laboratory results suggest that 2- ??m carboxylated microspheres may be useful as analogs in investigating several abiotic

  4. Prevalence and predictors associated with intestinal infections by protozoa and helminths in southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Casavechia, Maria Teresinha Gomes; Lonardoni, Maria Valdrinez Campana; Venazzi, Eneide Aparecida Sabaini; Campanerut-Sá, Paula Aline Zanetti; da Costa Benalia, Hugo Rafael; Mattiello, Matheus Felipe; Menechini, Pedro Victor Lazaretti; Dos Santos, Carlos Aparecido; Teixeira, Jorge Juarez Vieira

    2016-06-01

    Approximately 2 billion people are infected with soil-transmitted helminths worldwide, mainly in tropical and subtropical areas. This research aimed to investigate the prevalence and predictors associated with parasitic infections in primary health care. A cross-sectional study was performed with a large random sample to identify the prevalence and predictors associated with parasitic infections in primary health care in Marialva, southern Brazil, from April 2011 to September 2013. Stool samples from 775 individuals were analyzed for the presence of protozoan cysts, helminth eggs, and larvae. The overall prevalence of intestinal parasites was 13.94 %, and the prevalence of protozoa and helminths was 15.1 and 2.9 %, respectively. The predictor variables that were associated with intestinal parasites were male gender odds ratio (OR) 1.60, 95 % confidence interval (CI 1.10-2.40) and the absence of a kitchen garden (OR 2.28, 95 % CI, 1.08-4.85). Positive associations were found between Giardia duodenalis and individuals aged ≤18 with high risk (OR 19.0, 95 % CI 2.16-167.52), between Endolimax nana and the absence of a kitchen garden (p < 0.01), and between Trichuris trichiura and the presence of a kitchen garden (p = 0.014). Polyparasitism was present in 27.27 % of infected individuals. Our findings confirmed a relatively low prevalence in primary care, compared to international standards, despite the rare publications in the area. As variables, male gender and the absence of a kitchen garden stood out as important predictors. It is highly relevant that the health conditions of the population comply with consistent standards.

  5. Identification of Enteric Viruses in Foods from Mexico City.

    PubMed

    Parada-Fabián, José Carlos; Juárez-García, Patricia; Natividad-Bonifacio, Iván; Vázquez-Salinas, Carlos; Quiñones-Ramírez, Elsa Irma

    2016-09-01

    Foodborne viruses are a common and, probably, the most under-recognized cause of outbreaks of gastroenteritis. Among the main foods involved in the transmission of human enteric viruses are mollusks, and fruits and vegetables irrigated with wastewater and/or washed with non-potable water or contaminated by contact with surfaces or hands of the infected personnel during its preparation. In this study, 134 food samples were analyzed for the detection of Norovirus, Rotavirus, and Hepatitis A virus (HAV) by amplification of conserved regions of these viruses. From the 134 analyzed samples, 14 were positive for HAV, 6 for Norovirus, and 11 for Rotavirus. This is the first report in Mexico where emphasis is given to the presence of HAV and Norovirus on perishable foods and food from fisheries, as well as Rotavirus on frozen vegetables, confirming the role of vegetables and bivalve mollusks as transmitting vehicles of enteric viruses.

  6. Interactions Between Foodborne Pathogens and Protozoa Isolated from Lettuce and Spinach

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The survival of Salmonella enterica was recently shown to increase when the bacteria were sequestered in expelled food vacuoles (vesicles) of Tetrahymena. Because fresh produce is increasingly linked to outbreaks of enteric illness, the present investigation aimed to determine the prevalence of prot...

  7. Genetically Engineered Yeast Expressing a Lytic Peptide from Bee Venom (Melittin) Kills Symbiotic Protozoa in the Gut of Formosan Subterranean Termites

    PubMed Central

    Husseneder, Claudia; Donaldson, Jennifer R.; Foil, Lane D.

    2016-01-01

    The Formosan subterranean termite, Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki, is a costly invasive urban pest in warm and humid regions around the world. Feeding workers of the Formosan subterranean termite genetically engineered yeast strains that express synthetic protozoacidal lytic peptides has been shown to kill the cellulose digesting termite gut protozoa, which results in death of the termite colony. In this study, we tested if Melittin, a natural lytic peptide from bee venom, could be delivered into the termite gut via genetically engineered yeast and if the expressed Melittin killed termites via lysis of symbiotic protozoa in the gut of termite workers and/or destruction of the gut tissue itself. Melittin expressing yeast did kill protozoa in the termite gut within 56 days of exposure. The expressed Melittin weakened the gut but did not add a synergistic effect to the protozoacidal action by gut necrosis. While Melittin could be applied for termite control via killing the cellulose-digesting protozoa in the termite gut, it is unlikely to be useful as a standalone product to control insects that do not rely on symbiotic protozoa for survival. PMID:26985663

  8. Effect of Peganum harmala or its beta-carboline alkaloids on certain antibiotic resistant strains of bacteria and protozoa from poultry.

    PubMed

    Arshad, Najma; Zitterl-Eglseer, Karin; Hasnain, Shahida; Hess, Michael

    2008-11-01

    In the present study the antimicrobial potential of various extracts from 12 medicinal plants has been investigated in vitro on multiple antibiotic resistant pathogens and some selected protozoa isolated from poultry. The initial examination was performed on E. coli (n = 10) using disc and agar well diffusion assays. Only two plants, Peganum harmala (seeds) and Eucalyptus globulus (leaves) showed positive responses. The active extracts were also investigated against an additional 19 bacteria and the clonal cultures of three protozoa (Histomonas meleagridis, Tetratrichomonas gallinarum and Blastocystis sp.). Only Peganum harmala was found to inhibit the growth of all bacteria and protozoa at 0.38-1.55 mg/mL and 0.63-1.65 mg/mL, respectively. To investigate the potential role of alkaloids in crude extracts of Peganum harmala, four known beta-carbolin alkaloids were quantified and their antimicrobial activity was compared using a microdilution assay. Harmaline was found to be in the highest concentration followed by harmine and harmalol, whereas harmane could not be detected. The activity of the pure alkaloids was in the order harmane > harmaline > harmalol > or = harmine for all bacteria, while for protozoa, it was different depending on the microorganism. It is concluded that Peganum harmala or its alkaloids could probably be used for the control of antibiotic resistant isolates of bacteria as well as protozoa.

  9. Genetically Engineered Yeast Expressing a Lytic Peptide from Bee Venom (Melittin) Kills Symbiotic Protozoa in the Gut of Formosan Subterranean Termites.

    PubMed

    Husseneder, Claudia; Donaldson, Jennifer R; Foil, Lane D

    2016-01-01

    The Formosan subterranean termite, Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki, is a costly invasive urban pest in warm and humid regions around the world. Feeding workers of the Formosan subterranean termite genetically engineered yeast strains that express synthetic protozoacidal lytic peptides has been shown to kill the cellulose digesting termite gut protozoa, which results in death of the termite colony. In this study, we tested if Melittin, a natural lytic peptide from bee venom, could be delivered into the termite gut via genetically engineered yeast and if the expressed Melittin killed termites via lysis of symbiotic protozoa in the gut of termite workers and/or destruction of the gut tissue itself. Melittin expressing yeast did kill protozoa in the termite gut within 56 days of exposure. The expressed Melittin weakened the gut but did not add a synergistic effect to the protozoacidal action by gut necrosis. While Melittin could be applied for termite control via killing the cellulose-digesting protozoa in the termite gut, it is unlikely to be useful as a standalone product to control insects that do not rely on symbiotic protozoa for survival.

  10. Effect of progressive inoculation of fauna-free sheep with holotrich protozoa and total-fauna on rumen fermentation, microbial diversity and methane emissions.

    PubMed

    Belanche, Alejandro; de la Fuente, Gabriel; Newbold, Charles J

    2015-03-01

    Rumen methanogenesis represents an energy waste for the ruminant and an important source of greenhouse gas; thus, integrated studies are needed to fully understand this process. Eight fauna-free sheep were used to investigate the effect of successive inoculation with holotrich protozoa then with total fauna on rumen methanogenesis. Holotrichs inoculation neither altered rumen fermentation rate nor diet digestibility, but increased concentrations of acetate (+15%), butyrate (+57%), anaerobic fungi (+0.82 log), methanogens (+0.41 log) and methanogenesis (+54%). Further inoculation with total fauna increased rumen concentrations of protozoa (+1.0 log), bacteria (+0.29 log), anaerobic fungi (+0.78 log), VFA (+8%), ammonia and fibre digestibility (+17%) without affecting levels of methanogens or methanogenesis. Rumen methanogens population was fairly stable in terms of structure and diversity, while the bacterial community was highly affected by the treatments. Inoculation with holotrich protozoa increased bacterial diversity. Further inoculation with total fauna lowered bacterial diversity but increased concentrations of certain propionate and lactate-producing bacteria, suggesting that alternative H2 sinks could be relevant. This experiment suggests that holotrich protozoa have a greater impact on rumen methanogenesis than entodiniomorphids. Thus, further research is warranted to understand the effect of holotrich protozoa on methane formation and evaluate their elimination from the rumen as a potential methane mitigation strategy. © Federation of European Microbiological Society 2014.

  11. Effect of progressive inoculation of fauna-free sheep with holotrich protozoa and total-fauna on rumen fermentation, microbial diversity and methane emissions

    PubMed Central

    Belanche, Alejandro; de la Fuente, Gabriel; Newbold, Charles J.

    2014-01-01

    Rumen methanogenesis represents an energy waste for the ruminant and an important source of greenhouse gas; thus, integrated studies are needed to fully understand this process. Eight fauna-free sheep were used to investigate the effect of successive inoculation with holotrich protozoa then with total fauna on rumen methanogenesis. Holotrichs inoculation neither altered rumen fermentation rate nor diet digestibility, but increased concentrations of acetate (+15%), butyrate (+57%), anaerobic fungi (+0.82 log), methanogens (+0.41 log) and methanogenesis (+54%). Further inoculation with total fauna increased rumen concentrations of protozoa (+1.0 log), bacteria (+0.29 log), anaerobic fungi (+0.78 log), VFA (+8%), ammonia and fibre digestibility (+17%) without affecting levels of methanogens or methanogenesis. Rumen methanogens population was fairly stable in terms of structure and diversity, while the bacterial community was highly affected by the treatments. Inoculation with holotrich protozoa increased bacterial diversity. Further inoculation with total fauna lowered bacterial diversity but increased concentrations of certain propionate and lactate-producing bacteria, suggesting that alternative H2 sinks could be relevant. This experiment suggests that holotrich protozoa have a greater impact on rumen methanogenesis than entodiniomorphids. Thus, further research is warranted to understand the effect of holotrich protozoa on methane formation and evaluate their elimination from the rumen as a potential methane mitigation strategy. PMID:25764558

  12. The potential of 3-nitrooxypropanol to lower enteric methane emissions from beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Romero-Perez, A; Okine, E K; McGinn, S M; Guan, L L; Oba, M; Duval, S M; Kindermann, M; Beauchemin, K A

    2014-10-01

    This study evaluated if 3-nitrooxypropanol reduces enteric methane (CH4) emissions when added to the diet of beef cattle. The effects of 3-nitrooxypropanol on related variables including diet digestibility, ruminal fermentation, and ruminal microorganisms were also investigated. Eight ruminally cannulated Angus heifers (549 ± 64.3 kg [mean BW ± SD]) were fed a high forage diet (backgrounding diet) supplemented with 4 levels of 3-nitrooxypropanol (0, 0.75, 2.25 and 4.50 mg/kg BW). The experiment was designed as a duplicated 4 × 4 Latin square with 2 groups of heifers and four 28-d periods. Methane emissions were measured during 3 consecutive days using metabolic chambers. Up to a 5.8% reduction in ad libitum DMI was observed when 2.5 mg/kg BW of 3-nitrooxypropanol was fed (P = 0.03). Increasing level of 3-nitrooxypropanol linearly (P < 0.001) reduced CH4, with 33% less CH4 (corrected for DMI) at the highest level of supplementation compared with the control. Feed energy lost as CH4 was also reduced when 3-nitrooxypropanol was supplemented (P < 0.001). Molar proportion of acetate was reduced (P < 0.001) and that for propionate increased (P < 0.001) with increasing dose of 3-nitrooxypropanol, which in turn led to a reduction in the acetate to propionate ratio (P < 0.001). Total copy numbers of 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes for bacteria, methanogens, and 18S rRNA genes for protozoa in ruminal contents were not affected by 3-nitrooxypropanol supplementation (P ≥ 0.31). There was no effect of 3-nitrooxypropanol on DM (P = 0.1) digestibility in the total tract. The use of 4.5 mg/kg BW of 3-nitrooxypropanol in beef cattle consuming a backgrounding diet was effective in reducing enteric CH4 emissions without negatively affecting diet digestibility.

  13. Rapid diagnostic tests for typhoid and paratyphoid (enteric) fever

    PubMed Central

    Wijedoru, Lalith; Mallett, Sue; Parry, Christopher M

    2017-01-01

    Background Differentiating both typhoid (Salmonella Typhi) and paratyphoid (Salmonella Paratyphi A) infection from other causes of fever in endemic areas is a diagnostic challenge. Although commercial point-of-care rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) for enteric fever are available as alternatives to the current reference standard test of blood or bone marrow culture, or to the widely used Widal Test, their diagnostic accuracy is unclear. If accurate, they could potentially replace blood culture as the World Health Organization (WHO)-recommended main diagnostic test for enteric fever. Objectives To assess the diagnostic accuracy of commercially available rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) and prototypes for detecting Salmonella Typhi or Paratyphi A infection in symptomatic persons living in endemic areas. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Infectious Diseases Group Specialized Register, MEDLINE, Embase, Science Citation Index, IndMED, African Index Medicus, LILACS, ClinicalTrials.gov, and the World Health Organization (WHO) International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) up to 4 March 2016. We manually searched WHO reports, and papers from international conferences on Salmonella infections. We also contacted test manufacturers to identify studies. Selection criteria We included diagnostic accuracy studies of enteric fever RDTs in patients with fever or with symptoms suggestive of enteric fever living in endemic areas. We classified the reference standard used as either Grade 1 (result from a blood culture and a bone marrow culture) or Grade 2 (result from blood culture and blood polymerase chain reaction, or from blood culture alone). Data collection and analysis Two review authors independently extracted the test result data. We used a modified QUADAS-2 extraction form to assess methodological quality. We performed a meta-analysis when there were sufficient studies for the test and heterogeneity was reasonable. Main results Thirty-seven studies met the inclusion

  14. Microscopic and Molecular Studies of the Diversity of Free-Living Protozoa in Meat-Cutting Plants▿

    PubMed Central

    Vaerewijck, Mario J. M.; Sabbe, Koen; Baré, Julie; Houf, Kurt

    2008-01-01

    The diversity of free-living protozoa in five meat-cutting plants was determined. Light microscopy after enrichment culturing was combined with sequencing of PCR-amplified, denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE)-separated 18S rRNA gene fragments, which was used as a fast screening method. The general results of the survey showed that a protozoan community of amoebae, ciliates, and flagellates was present in all of the plants. Protozoa were detected mainly in floor drains, in standing water on the floor, on soiled bars of cutting tables, on plastic pallets, and in out-of-use hot water knife sanitizers, but they were also detected on surfaces which come into direct contact with meat, such as conveyer belts, working surfaces of cutting tables, and needles of a meat tenderizer. After 7 days of incubation at refrigerator temperature, protozoa were detected in about one-half of the enrichment cultures. Based on microscopic observations, 61 morphospecies were found, and Bodo saltans, Bodo spp., Epistylis spp., Glaucoma scintillans, Petalomonas spp., Prodiscophrya collini, and Vannella sp. were the most frequently encountered identified organisms. Sequencing of DGGE bands resulted in identification of a total of 49 phylotypes, including representatives of the Amoebozoa, Chromalveolata, Excavata, Opisthokonta, and Rhizaria. Sequences of small heterotrophic flagellates were affiliated mainly with the Alveolata (Apicomplexa), Stramenopiles (Chrysophyceae), and Rhizaria (Cercozoa). This survey showed that there is high protozoan species richness in meat-cutting plants and that the species included species related to known hosts of food-borne pathogens. PMID:18641165

  15. Studies on the production of conjugated linoleic acid from linoleic and vaccenic acids by mixed rumen protozoa.

    PubMed

    Or-Rashid, Mamun M; AlZahal, Ousama; McBride, Brian W

    2008-12-01

    The present study was designed to investigate the capability of mixed rumen protozoa to synthesize conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) from linoleic (LA) and vaccenic acids (VA). Rumen contents were collected from fistulated cows. The protozoal fraction was separated and washed several times with MB9 buffer and then resuspended in autoclaved rumen fluid. The suspensions were anaerobically incubated up to 18 h at 38.5 degrees C with substrates in the presence (P-AB) or the absence of antibacterial-agents (P-No-AB). Neither P-AB nor P-No-AB suspensions were capable of producing CLA from VA (11t-18:1). Linoleic acid was catabolized by P-No-AB to a greater extent than P-AB. Different isomers of CLA were synthesized by P-AB from LA. The 9c11t-CLA was predominant. Thirty seven percent of the maximum accumulated 9c11t-CLA was found in the P-AB suspension as early as 0.1 h into the incubation period. Accumulation of 10t12c-CLA in P-AB suspension was approximately 10.0 times lower than that of 9c11t-CLA. There were no significant productions of VA, 10t-18:1, and 18:0 in P-AB compared with the control, indicating that rumen protozoa have no ability to biohydrogenate CLA isomers. On the other hand, the concentrations of 10t-18:1, VA, and 18:0 in P-No-AB were greater (P < 0.05) compared with those in P-AB, indicating the role of symbiotic bacteria associated with P-No-AB in biohydrogenating CLA isomers. We concluded that mixed rumen protozoa are capable of synthesizing CLA from LA through isomerization reactions. However, they are incapable of metabolizing CLA further. They are also incapable of vaccenic acid biohydrogenation and/or desaturation.

  16. Aspirin-induced gastric mucosal damage: prevention by enteric-coating and relation to prostaglandin synthesis.

    PubMed

    Hawthorne, A B; Mahida, Y R; Cole, A T; Hawkey, C J

    1991-07-01

    1. Gastric damage induced by low-dose aspirin and the protective effect of enteric-coating was assessed in healthy volunteers in a double-blind placebo-controlled cross-over trial using Latin square design. Each was administered placebo, plain aspirin 300 mg daily, plain aspirin 600 mg four times daily, enteric-coated aspirin 300 mg daily, or enteric-coated aspirin 600 mg four times daily for 5 days. Gastric damage was assessed endoscopically, and gastric mucosal bleeding measured. 2. Aspirin 300 mg daily and 600 mg four times daily caused significant increases in gastric injury compared with placebo. Gastric mucosal bleeding was significantly more with the high dose, with a trend towards increased gastric erosions, compared with the low dose. 3. Enteric-coating of aspirin eliminated the injury caused by low dose aspirin and substantially reduced that caused by the higher dose. 4. All dosages and formulations caused similar inhibition of gastric mucosal prostaglandin E2 synthesis. 5. Serum thromboxane levels were suppressed equally with plain and enteric-coated aspirin. 6. In this short-term study in healthy volunteers, gastric toxicity from aspirin was largely topical, independent of inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis, and could be virtually eliminated by the use of an enteric-coated preparation.

  17. Effects of Hygiene and Defecation Behavior on Helminths and Intestinal Protozoa Infections in Taabo, Côte d’Ivoire

    PubMed Central

    Schmidlin, Thomas; Hürlimann, Eveline; Silué, Kigbafori D.; Yapi, Richard B.; Houngbedji, Clarisse; Kouadio, Bernadette A.; Acka-Douabélé, Cinthia A.; Kouassi, Dongo; Ouattara, Mamadou; Zouzou, Fabien; Bonfoh, Bassirou; N’Goran, Eliézer K.; Utzinger, Jürg; Raso, Giovanna

    2013-01-01

    Background More than 1 billion people are currently infected with soil-transmitted helminths and schistosomes. The global strategy to control helminthiases is the regular administration of anthelmintic drugs to at-risk populations. However, rapid re-infection occurs in areas where hygiene, access to clean water, and sanitation are inadequate. Methodology In July 2011, inhabitants from two villages and seven hamlets of the Taabo health demographic surveillance system in south-central Côte d’Ivoire provided stool and urine samples. Kato-Katz and ether-concentration methods were used for the diagnosis of Schistosoma mansoni, soil-transmitted helminths (Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, and hookworm), and intestinal protozoa. Urine samples were subjected to a filtration method for the diagnosis of Schistosoma haematobium. A questionnaire was administered to households to obtain information on knowledge, attitude, practice, and beliefs in relation to hygiene, sanitation, and defecation behavior. Logistic regression models were employed to assess for associations between questionnaire data and parasitic infections. Principal Findings A total of 1,894 participants had complete data records. Parasitological examinations revealed prevalences of hookworm, S. haematobium, T. trichiura, S. mansoni, and A. lumbricoides of 33.5%, 7.0%, 1.6%, 1.3% and 0.8%, respectively. Giardia intestinalis and Entamoeba histolytica/E. dispar were detected in 15.0% and 14.4% of the participants, respectively. Only one out of five households reported the presence of a latrine, and hence, open defecation was common. Logistic regression analysis revealed that age, sex, socioeconomic status, hygiene, and defecation behavior are determinants for helminths and intestinal protozoa infections. Conclusions/Significance We found that inadequate sanitation and hygiene behavior are associated with soil-transmitted helminths and intestinal protozoa infections in the Taabo area of south-central C

  18. Clinical and pathological observations on natural infections of cryptosporidiosis and flagellate protozoa in leopard geckos (Eublepharis macularius).

    PubMed

    Taylor, M A; Geach, M R; Cooley, W A

    1999-12-11

    A group of adult leopard geckos (Eublepharis macularius) which had been losing weight for several months were found to be infected with Cryptosporidium species. Histological and electron microscopical investigations on the intestines of five of the lizards revealed the presence of large numbers of the developmental stages of Cryptosporidium species attached to the mucosal surface of the lower intestine, and large numbers of flagellate protozoa, suspected to be predominantly Trichomonas species, in the gut lumen. The clinical signs were attributed to the presence of one or both types of parasites.

  19. Prevalence and risk factors of helminths and intestinal protozoa infections among children from primary schools in western Tajikistan

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Intestinal parasitic infections represent a public health problem in Tajikistan, but epidemiological evidence is scarce. The present study aimed at assessing the extent of helminths and intestinal protozoa infections among children of 10 schools in four districts of Tajikistan, and to make recommendations for control. Methods A cross-sectional survey was carried out in early 2009. All children attending grades 2 and 3 (age: 7-11 years) from 10 randomly selected schools were invited to provide a stool sample and interviewed about sanitary situation and hygiene behaviour. A questionnaire pertaining to demographic and socioeconomic characteristics was addressed to the heads of households. On the spot, stool samples were subjected to duplicate Kato-Katz thick smear examination for helminth diagnosis. Additionally, 1-2 g of stool was fixed in sodium acetate-acetic acid-formalin, transferred to a specialised laboratory in Europe and examined for helminths and intestinal protozoa. The composite results from both methods served as diagnostic 'gold' standard. Results Out of 623 registered children, 602 participated in our survey. The overall prevalence of infection with helminths and pathogenic intestinal protozoa was 32.0% and 47.1%, respectively. There was pronounced spatial heterogeneity. The most common helminth species was Hymenolepis nana (25.8%), whereas the prevalences of Ascaris lumbricoides, hookworm and Enterobius vermicularis were below 5%. The prevalence of pathogenic intestinal protozoa, namely Giardia intestinalis and Entamoeba histolytica/E. dispar was 26.4% and 25.9%, respectively. Almost half of the households draw drinking water from unimproved sources, such as irrigation canals, rivers and unprotected wells. Sanitary facilities were pit latrines, mostly private, and a few shared with neighbours. The use of public tap/standpipe as a source of drinking water emerged as a protective factor for G. intestinalis infection. Protected spring water

  20. Molecular screening for bacteria and protozoa in great cormorants (Phalacrocorax carbo sinensis) nesting in Slovakia, central Europe.

    PubMed

    Víchová, Bronislava; Reiterová, Katarína; Špilovská, Silvia; Blaňarová, Lucia; Hurníková, Zuzana; Turčeková, Ĺudmila

    2016-09-01

    This study brings the data about the occurrence of bacterial and protozoan pathogens in 32 great cormorants (Phalacrocorax carbo sinensis), representing approximately 20% of the population nesting in the surroundings of water basin Liptovská Mara (northern part of Central Slovakia). A survey revealed the presence of tick-borne bacteria Anaplasma phagocytophilum (6.25%) and parasitic protozoa Toxoplasma gondii (3.1%). These data indicate an infectious status of the great cormorant population nesting in Slovakia; they might suggest a degree of environmental contamination by infectious agents and demonstrate the role of migratory seabirds in the circulation and dispersal of pathogens with zoonotic potential.

  1. Prevalence and risk factors of helminths and intestinal protozoa infections among children from primary schools in western Tajikistan.

    PubMed

    Matthys, Barbara; Bobieva, Mohion; Karimova, Gulzira; Mengliboeva, Zulfira; Jean-Richard, Vreni; Hoimnazarova, Malika; Kurbonova, Matluba; Lohourignon, Laurent K; Utzinger, Jürg; Wyss, Kaspar

    2011-10-07

    Intestinal parasitic infections represent a public health problem in Tajikistan, but epidemiological evidence is scarce. The present study aimed at assessing the extent of helminths and intestinal protozoa infections among children of 10 schools in four districts of Tajikistan, and to make recommendations for control. A cross-sectional survey was carried out in early 2009. All children attending grades 2 and 3 (age: 7-11 years) from 10 randomly selected schools were invited to provide a stool sample and interviewed about sanitary situation and hygiene behaviour. A questionnaire pertaining to demographic and socioeconomic characteristics was addressed to the heads of households. On the spot, stool samples were subjected to duplicate Kato-Katz thick smear examination for helminth diagnosis. Additionally, 1-2 g of stool was fixed in sodium acetate-acetic acid-formalin, transferred to a specialised laboratory in Europe and examined for helminths and intestinal protozoa. The composite results from both methods served as diagnostic 'gold' standard. Out of 623 registered children, 602 participated in our survey. The overall prevalence of infection with helminths and pathogenic intestinal protozoa was 32.0% and 47.1%, respectively. There was pronounced spatial heterogeneity. The most common helminth species was Hymenolepis nana (25.8%), whereas the prevalences of Ascaris lumbricoides, hookworm and Enterobius vermicularis were below 5%. The prevalence of pathogenic intestinal protozoa, namely Giardia intestinalis and Entamoeba histolytica/E. dispar was 26.4% and 25.9%, respectively. Almost half of the households draw drinking water from unimproved sources, such as irrigation canals, rivers and unprotected wells. Sanitary facilities were pit latrines, mostly private, and a few shared with neighbours. The use of public tap/standpipe as a source of drinking water emerged as a protective factor for G. intestinalis infection. Protected spring water reduced the risk of infection

  2. Acute extensive ischemic enteritis in a young man diagnosed with wireless capsule endoscopy: a case report.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Woo Seong; Song, Hyun Joo; Na, Soo Young; Boo, Sun Jin; Kim, Heung Up; Kim, Jinseok; Choi, Guk Myung

    2013-03-25

    Ischemic enteritis is caused by either the interruption or significant reduction of arterial inflow to the small intestine. Risk factors are old age, diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease. It is very rare in young patients. We experienced a 21-year-old man with recurrent acute ischemic enteritis who was diagnosed with capsule endoscopy. He had previously taken medications for pulmonary hypertension and obstruction of both carotid arteries, and about 20 months earlier, he had been admitted due to hematochezia. Two sessions of angiography did not reveal the cause of hematochezia. At that time, capsule endoscopy showed mucosal edema and erythema in the terminal ileum, suggesting healed ischemic enteritis. The patient was admitted again due to hematochezia. Abdominal computed tomography showed focal celiac trunk stenosis and diffuse wall thickening of the small intestine, suggesting ischemic enteritis. Capsule endoscopy showed multiple active ulcers and severe hemorrhage with exudate, extending from the proximal jejunum to the terminal ileum. Using capsule endoscopy, the patient was diagnosed with acute extensive ischemic enteritis. Because endoscopic images of ischemic enteritis have rarely been reported, we report a case of a 21-year-old man who was diagnosed acute extensive ischemic enteritis with capsule endoscopy.

  3. Molecular survey of enteric viruses in commercial chicken farms in Korea with a history of enteritis.

    PubMed

    Koo, B S; Lee, H R; Jeon, E O; Han, M S; Min, K C; Lee, S B; Mo, I P

    2013-11-01

    Several enteric viruses have increasingly received attention as potential causative agents of runting-stunting syndrome (RSS) in chickens. A molecular survey was performed to determine the presence of a broad range of enteric viruses, namely chicken astrovirus (CAstV), avian nephritis virus (ANV), chicken parvovirus (ChPV), infectious bronchitis virus (IBV), avian rotavirus (AvRV), avian reovirus (ARV), and fowl adenovirus (FAdV), in intestinal samples derived from 34 commercial chicken flocks that experienced enteritis outbreaks between 2010 and 2012. Using techniques such as PCR and reverse-transcription PCR, enteric viruses were identified in a total of 85.3% of investigated commercial chicken flocks in Korea. Furthermore, diverse combinations of 2 or more enteric viruses were simultaneously identified in 51.7% of chicken farms positive for enteric viruses. The rank order of positivity for enteric viruses was as follows: ANV (44.1%), CAstV (38.2%), ChPV (26.5%), IBV (20.6%), ARV (8.8%), AvRV (5.9%), and FAdV (2.9%). Additionally, other pathogens such as Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp., Eimeria spp., and FAdV were detected in 79% of chicken flocks positive for enteric viruses using PCR, bacterial isolation, and microscopic examination. The results of our study indicate the presence of several enteric viruses with various combinations in commercial chicken farms that experienced enteritis outbreaks. Experimental studies are required to further understand the roles of enteric viruses in RSS in commercial chickens.

  4. New options for pumps and tubes: progress in enteral feeding techniques and devices.

    PubMed

    Varella, L D; Young, R J

    1999-07-01

    In the past, blenderized tube feeds prepared in the hospital kitchen were delivered by bolus or gravity at intervals of 4-6 h. These methods lack consistent steady flow and many times are not a safe mode of delivery for those at risk of vomiting and aspiration, and cause more patient discomfort than nutritional benefit. More recently, enteral feeding administration techniques and devices have been developed for the delivery of commercially prepared enteral formulas designed for specific disease states. These technological advances have improved enteral feeding practices.

  5. Evaluation of an enteric coated aspirin preparation.

    PubMed

    Day, R O; Paull, P D; Champion, G D; Graham, G G

    1976-02-01

    The bioavailability and gastrointestinal site of release of enteric coated aspirin tablets ("Rhusal", G.P. Laboratories) were investigated following dosage with single tablets. A delay of one to more than eight hours was observed between dosage and the appearance of salicylate in plasma or saliva. This delay was decreased by pretreatment with metoclopramide. No aspirin or salicylate was detected in gastric aspirates. The mean urinary recovery of salicylate was equivalent to 92% of the administered dose. All these tests were consistent with the designed function of the enteric coating. The time course of concentrations of salicylate in saliva rather than in plasma was confirmed as a useful technique for the evaluation of different formulations of aspirin. The acceleration of gastric emptying by metoclopramide is a useful technique for the evaluation of enteric coated tablets.

  6. Modification of polyurethane to reduce occlusion of enteral feeding tubes

    SciTech Connect

    Gaither, Kari A.; Tarasevich, Barbara J.; Goheen, Steven C.

    2009-04-27

    Feeding tubes are used to supply nutritional formula to immobilized patients. The most common cause for failure of enteral feeding tubes is their occlusion. The purpose of this study was to examine whether occlusion of enteral feeding tubes could be minimized using an additive. An open, intermittent enteral feeding system was simulated in the laboratory and data was collected over a period ranging from 2 to 6 days. Feeding formula was cycled through a feeding tube in either the presence or absence of simulated gastric acid in an effort to generate a reproducible occlusion. Pressures in the tube were measured frequently throughout these cycles. We observed pressure spikes with each cycle, but never a complete occlusion. Pressure spikes formed only when simulated gastric acid was mixed with the feeding solution. Large amounts of feeding formula adsorbed onto polyurethane surfaces in the presence of gastric acid. The maximum pressure was reduced by about half from 2.0 psi to 0.8 psi when polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) was added. The addition of PVA to polyurethane also reduced the contact angle from 83° (untreated) to approximately 64° in the presence of PVA. Furthermore, when formula was added to polyurethane in the presence of PVA the thickness of the layer that remained on the surface was almost 10 times greater in controls than on PVA-treated surfaces. These results suggest that a treatment that increases the hydrophilicity of the feeding tube may help minimize clogging.

  7. Ipilimumab-Induced Enteritis without Colitis: A New Challenge

    PubMed Central

    Messmer, Marcus; Upreti, Sunita; Tarabishy, Yaman; Mazumder, Nikhilesh; Chowdhury, Reezwana; Yarchoan, Mark; Holdhoff, Matthias

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Ipilimumab is an immune checkpoint inhibitor targeting cytotoxic T-lymphocyte associated antigen 4 (CTLA4), approved to treat metastatic melanoma. It was the first therapy shown to prolong survival in a large, randomized clinical trial. However, immune-related adverse events are common and can be severe. Enterocolitis is a common adverse event with ipilimumab, but enteritis without colitis has not been previously described. Case Report An 83-year-old man presented to our hospital with grade 3 diarrhea for 5 days. One month prior, he had started treatment with ipilimumab for metastatic melanoma. On presentation, he was found to have severe electrolyte disturbances, including hyponatremia, hypokalemia, and acute kidney injury. Causes of infectious diarrhea were excluded, and he was treated with corticosteroids for presumed ipilimumab-associated enterocolitis. However, colonoscopy revealed normal mucosa, both grossly and on pathology of random biopsies. Steroids were weaned but his symptoms recurred. He then underwent upper endoscopy with enteroscopy. Biopsy of the duodenum was notable for acute inflammation, villous blunting, and other changes consistent with ipilimumab-associated injury. He was restarted on high-dose steroids and his symptoms resolved. Discussion Ipilimumab-induced enteritis is a serious and potentially life-threatening immune related adverse event that warrants prompt recognition and aggressive management. As in cases of ipilimumab-associated enterocolitis, steroids are an effective therapy. Enteritis without colitis should be suspected in patients on ipilimumab who present with severe diarrhea but have a normal colonoscopy. PMID:27920706

  8. Enteral tube feeding for cystic fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Morton, Alison; Wolfe, Susan

    2015-04-09

    Enteral tube feeding is routinely used in many cystic fibrosis centres when oral dietary and supplement intake has failed to achieve an adequate nutritional status. The use of this method of feeding is assessed on an individual basis taking into consideration the patients age and clinical status. To examine the evidence that in people with cystic fibrosis, supplemental enteral tube feeding improves nutritional status, respiratory function, and quality of life without significant adverse effects. We searched the Cochrane Cystic Fibrosis and Genetic Disorders Group Trials Register which comprises references identified from comprehensive electronic database searches and handsearches of relevant journals and abstract books of conference proceedings. We also contacted the companies that market enteral feeds and reviewed their databases.Date of the most recent search of the Group's Cystic Fibrosis Trials Register: 13 February 2015.Date of the most recent hand search of PubMed and conference abstract books: 13 February 2015. All randomised controlled trials comparing supplemental enteral tube feeding for one month or longer with no specific intervention in people with cystic fibrosis. The searches identified 38 trials; however, none were eligible for inclusion in this review. There are no trials included in this review. Supplemental enteral tube feeding is widely used throughout the world to improve nutritional status in people with cystic fibrosis. The methods mostly used, nasogastric or gastrostomy feeding, are expensive and may have a negative effect on self-esteem and body image. Reported use of enteral tube feeding suggests that it results in nutritional and respiratory improvement; but, efficacy has not been fully assessed by randomised controlled trials. It is acknowledged, however, that performing a randomised controlled trial would be difficult due to the ethics of withholding an intervention in a group of patients whose nutritional status necessitates it.

  9. Enteral tube feeding for cystic fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Conway, Steven; Morton, Alison; Wolfe, Susan

    2012-12-12

    Enteral tube feeding is routinely used in many cystic fibrosis centres when oral dietary and supplement intake has failed to achieve an adequate nutritional status. The use of this method of feeding is assessed on an individual basis taking into consideration the patients age and clinical status. To examine the evidence that in people with cystic fibrosis, supplemental enteral tube feeding improves nutritional status, respiratory function, and quality of life without significant adverse effects. We searched the Cochrane Cystic Fibrosis and Genetic Disorders Group Trials Register which comprises references identified from comprehensive electronic database searches and handsearches of relevant journals and abstract books of conference proceedings. We also contacted the companies that market enteral feeds and reviewed their databases.Date of the most recent search of the Group's Cystic Fibrosis Trials Register: 03 September 2012.Date of the most recent hand search of PubMed and conference abstract books: 15 June 2012. All randomised controlled trials comparing supplemental enteral tube feeding for one month or longer with no specific intervention in people with cystic fibrosis. Thirty-one trials were identified by the searches; however, none were eligible for inclusion in this review. There are no trials included in this review. Supplemental enteral tube feeding is widely used throughout the world to improve nutritional status in people with cystic fibrosis. The methods mostly used, nasogastric or gastrostomy feeding, are expensive and may have a negative effect on self-esteem and body image. Reported use of enteral tube feeding suggests that it results in nutritional and respiratory improvement; but, efficacy has not been fully assessed by randomised controlled trials. It is acknowledged, however, that performing a randomised controlled trial would be difficult due to the ethics of withholding an intervention in a group of patients whose nutritional status

  10. Gastric acid secretion and enteric infection in Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    Evans, Carlton A. W.; Gilman, Robert H.; Rabbani, G. H.; Salazar, Guillermo; Ali, Akbar

    2010-01-01

    In developing countries many enteric infections are caused by acid-sensitive pathogens. Failure of the gastric acid barrier to infection has been reported in cholera but gastric acid secretion has been little studied in other enteric infections. We therefore studied basal and stimulated gastric acid in 185 Bangladeshi men admitted to hospital for the treatment of enteric infection. Patients with dysentery (amoebiasis, n=24 and shigellosis, n= 19) and culture-negative diarrhoea (n=69) had similar mean gastric acid levels (basal, 3–5 mmol/h; stimulated, 11–17 mmol/h), which remained stable in those patients studied throughout 12 weeks of convalescence. In contrast, patients with secretory diarrhoea caused by cholera or enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) had low gastric acid levels (Pcaused by etec may, therefore, partly result from a reduction in gastric acid level which does not occur during dysentery. Factors which impair gastric acid secretion may predispose to diarrhoeal disease in developing countries. PMID:9509179

  11. Entamoeba histolytica infection and secreted proteins proteolytically damage enteric neurons.

    PubMed

    Lourenssen, Sandra; Houpt, Eric R; Chadee, Kris; Blennerhassett, Michael G

    2010-12-01

    The enteric protozoan parasite Entamoeba histolytica causes amebic colitis through disruption of the mucus layer, followed by binding to and destruction of epithelial cells. However, it is not known whether ameba infections or ameba components can directly affect the enteric nervous system. Analysis of mucosal innervations in the mouse model of cecal amebiasis showed that axon density was diminished to less than 25% of control. To determine whether amebas directly contributed to axon loss, we tested the effect of either E. histolytica secreted products (Eh-SEC) or soluble components (Eh-SOL) to an established coculture model of myenteric neurons, glia, and smooth muscle cells. Neuronal survival and axonal degeneration were measured after 48 h of exposure to graded doses of Eh-SEC or Eh-SOL (10 to 80 μg/ml). The addition of 80 μg of either component/ml decreased the neuron number by 30%, whereas the axon number was decreased by 50%. Cytotoxicity was specific to the neuronal population, since the glial and smooth muscle cell number remained similar to that of the control, and was completely abrogated by prior heat denaturation. Neuronal damage was partially prevented by the cysteine protease inhibitor E-64, showing that a heat-labile protease was involved. E. histolytica lysates derived from amebas deficient in the major secreted protease EhCP5 caused a neurotoxicity similar to that of wild-type amebas. We conclude that E. histolytica infection and ameba protease activity can cause selective damage to enteric neurons.

  12. Effect of plant secondary compounds on in vitro methane, ammonia production and ruminal protozoa population.

    PubMed

    Bhatta, R; Saravanan, M; Baruah, L; Sampath, K T; Prasad, C S

    2013-08-01

    accumulation of NH3 -N with added PEG. Our study unequivocally demonstrated that plants containing secondary metabolites such as Rauvolfia serpentine, Indigofera tinctoria and Withania somnifera have great potential to suppress methanogenesis with minimal adverse effect of feedstuff fermentation. It was established that methanogenesis was not essentially related to the density of protozoa population in vitro. The tannins contained in these plants could be of interest in the development of new additives in ruminant nutrition. © 2013 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  13. Nanomaterials' Influences on the Emergence of Life and Their Toxic Effects on Bacteria and Protozoa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mielke, Randall Edward

    This research investigates the unique properties of nanomaterials (NMs) with highly catalytic surfaces that make them ideal for the production of organic molecules but also confer toxic properties of some NMs. Iron-sulphide NMs were used in a hydrothermal reactor that released hydrogen sulphide and other metal ions in the effluent, as analyzed by inductively-coupled plasma (ICP) spectrometry. Using an environmental scanning electron microscope (ESEM), iron sulphide NM surfaces indicate severe weathering as a result of environmental conditions including high pressure (100 bar H2) and moderate temperatures (130°C). The effluent's chemical properties from the reactor experiment generated chimney structures from newly formed iron-sulphide NMs in a ferrous rich 'Hadean Ocean' solution. Using ESEM, we show that structural changes occur under different pHs, temperatures, and silicate concentrations. The presence of 5-mer peptides also shows distinct structural differences during the formation of iron-sulphide NM chimneys. Nano-titanium dioxide NMs (nTiO2) were used to show the toxicity of nTiO2 encrusted Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA) fed to Tetrahymena thermophila (TT) protozoa under aerobic conditions. The control TT showed limited toxicity when grown in the presence of nTiO2, and scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) revealed the initial accumulation of nTiO2 in food vacuoles (FVs) of control TT cells that were not observed in the TT grown with nTiO2-encrusted PA. After 22 h, very little nTiO2 is observed in the control TT FVs as compared with the TT grown with nTiO2-encrusted PA FVs which had about 30% of the FV filled with nTiO2. Toxicity to nTiO2 was observed as reduced growth yields for both the control and the PA fed TT, but also as a reduction in growth rate for TT grown with nTiO2-encrusted PA. To understand biological weathering of NMs, the use of STEM energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) was enhanced to analyze single nano-sized particles

  14. [Artificial nutrition in children (I): enteral access].

    PubMed

    Estevão-Costa, José

    2014-01-01

    Appropriate nutritional support is crucial in the therapeutic approach of multiple conditions, which justifies the frequent and increasing use of specific access routes for enteral and parenteral nutrition. This article reviews the relevant literature concerning indications, procedures, effectiveness and complications of enteral access routes in children. The decision between gastric and postpyloric access, and between nasogastric tube and gastrostomy is thoroughly discussed. Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy is the most commonly used technique when a long-term gastric access is required, given its efficacy and safety although the associated morbidity is not negligible;laparoscopic gastrostomy emerges as a potentially advantageous alternative.

  15. Investigating turkey enteric picornavirus and its association with enteric disease in poults

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Our previous research into the dynamic viral community in the turkey gastrointestinal tract revealed a number of novel enteric viruses. Of particular note in this previous metagenomic investigation was the observation of a number of novel avian enteric picornaviruses, in addition to numerous other ...

  16. Thermal inactivation of enteric viruses and bioaccumulation of enteric foodborne viruses in live oysters (Crassostrea virginica)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Human enteric viruses are one of the main causative agents of shellfish associated outbreaks. In this study, the kinetics of viral bioaccumulation in live oysters and the heat stability of the most predominant enteric viruses were determined in both tissue culture and in oyster tissues. A human nor...

  17. Bacteria and protozoa as integral components of the forest ecosystem--their role in creating a naturally varied soil fertility.

    PubMed

    Clarholm, Marianne

    2002-08-01

    The paper explores interactions between the two first organism groups to appear on earth, the bacteria and protozoa, and their interplay with the rest of the ecosystem focusing upon northern boreal forests. The microbial loop is suggested as a mechanism for local inputs of new N to the ecosystem. The possibility to couple short-term microbial processes with their long-term effects,--as registered in plants, soil and the atmosphere, via the abiotic variables--is explored. The latter are investigated in relation to the environments they create for the micro-organisms, and how this results in varying soil fertility. A chain of events is presented that relate high Ca concentration in the mineral soil and high water availability to increased nitrogen availability for plants via the micro-organisms. An example is given of the influence of these parameters directly upon protozoa along an extreme fertility gradient, and also indirect evidence from a Finnish field study of 30 sites with four fertility levels. Finally, there is a discussion about ways to convert knowledge gained in detailed studies of microbial interactions into forms useful when evaluating the present status of and effects of ameliorative management on ecosystems strongly affected by humans.

  18. Predation impact of ciliated and flagellated protozoa during a summer bloom of brown sulfur bacteria in a meromictic coastal lake.

    PubMed

    Saccà, Alessandro; Borrego, Carles M; Renda, Rossella; Triadó-Margarit, Xavier; Bruni, Vivia; Guglielmo, Letterio

    2009-10-01

    Anaerobic phagotrophic protozoa may play an important role in the carbon flux of chemically stratified environments, especially when phototrophic sulfur bacteria account for a high proportion of the primary production. To test this assumption, we investigated the vertical and temporal distribution of microbial heterotrophs and of autotrophic picoplankton throughout the water column of the meromictic coastal lake Faro (Sicily, Italy), in the summer of 2004, coinciding with a bloom of brown-colored green sulfur bacteria. We also assessed the grazing impact of ciliated and flagellated protozoa within the sulfur bacteria plate using a modification of the fluorescently labeled bacteria uptake approach, attempting to minimize the biases intrinsic to the technique and to preserve the in situ anoxic conditions. Significant correlations were observed between ciliate biomass and bacteriochlorophyll e concentration, and between heterotrophic nanoflagellate biomass and chlorophyll a concentration in the water column. The major predators of anaerobic picoplankton were pleuronematine ciliates and cryptomonad flagellates, with clearances of 26.6 and 9.5 nL per cell h(-1), respectively, and a cumulative impact on the picoplankton gross growth rate ranging between 36% and 72%. We concluded that protozoan grazing channels a large proportion of anaerobic picoplankton production to higher trophic levels without restraining photosynthetic bacteria productivity.

  19. Infection status of hospitalized diarrheal patients with gastrointestinal protozoa, bacteria, and viruses in the Republic of Korea.

    PubMed

    Cheun, Hyeng-Il; Cho, Shin-Hyeong; Lee, Jin-Hee; Lim, Yi-Young; Jeon, Ji-Hye; Yu, Jae-Ran; Kim, Tong-Soo; Lee, Won-Ja; Cho, Seung-Hak; Lee, Deog-Yong; Park, Mi-Seon; Jeong, Hye-Sook; Chen, Doo-Sung; Ji, Yeong-Mi; Kwon, Mi-Hwa

    2010-06-01

    To understand protozoan, viral, and bacterial infections in diarrheal patients, we analyzed positivity and mixed-infection status with 3 protozoans, 4 viruses, and 10 bacteria in hospitalized diarrheal patients during 2004-2006 in the Republic of Korea. A total of 76,652 stool samples were collected from 96 hospitals across the nation. The positivity for protozoa, viruses, and bacteria was 129, 1,759, and 1,797 per 10,000 persons, respectively. Especially, Cryptosporidium parvum was highly mixed-infected with rotavirus among pediatric diarrheal patients (29.5 per 100 C. parvum positive cases), and Entamoeba histolytica was mixed-infected with Clostridium perfringens (10.3 per 100 E. histolytica positive cases) in protozoan-diarrheal patients. Those infected with rotavirus and C. perfringens constituted relatively high proportions among mixed infection cases from January to April. The positivity for rotavirus among viral infection for those aged < or = 5 years was significantly higher, while C. perfringens among bacterial infection was higher for > or = 50 years. The information for association of viral and bacterial infections with enteropathogenic protozoa in diarrheal patients may contribute to improvement of care for diarrhea as well as development of control strategies for diarrheal diseases in Korea.

  20. The genealogic tree of mycobacteria reveals a long-standing sympatric life into free-living protozoa.

    PubMed

    Lamrabet, Otmane; Merhej, Vicky; Pontarotti, Pierre; Raoult, Didier; Drancourt, Michel

    2012-01-01

    Free-living protozoa allow horizontal gene transfer with and between the microorganisms that they host. They host mycobacteria for which the sources of transferred genes remain unknown. Using BLASTp, we searched within the genomes of 15 mycobacteria for homologous genes with 34 amoeba-resistant bacteria and the free-living protozoa Dictyostelium discoideum. Subsequent phylogenetic analysis of these sequences revealed that eight mycobacterial open-reading frames (ORFs) were probably acquired via horizontal transfer from beta- and gamma-Proteobacteria and from Firmicutes, but the transfer histories could not be reliably established in details. One further ORF encoding a pyridine nucleotide disulfide oxidore